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Title: A History of Horncastle - from the earliest period to the present time
Author: Walter, James Conway
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcribed from the 1908 W. K. Morton & Sons edition by David Price,
email ccx074@pglaf.org

 [Picture: SEAL OF SIMON DE ISLIP.  Vicar of Horncastle, 1349; Archbishop
                        of Canterbury, 1349–1366]

We are indebted for the engraving of this seal to the courtesy of Miss G.
M. Bevan, author of _Portraits of the Archbishops of Canterbury_,
published by Messrs. Mowbray & Co., London.



                                    A
                          HISTORY OF HORNCASTLE,
                                 FROM THE
                   EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME.


                              _ILLUSTRATED_.

                                    BY
                           JAMES CONWAY WALTER,
                                AUTHOR OF
      _Records of Woodhall Spa and Neighbourhood_, _Parishes around
                               Horncastle_,
               _The Ayscoughs_, _The Coitani_, _&c._, _&c._

                               HORNCASTLE:
            W. K. MORTON & SONS, LTD., PRINTERS, HIGH STREET,
                                  1908.

              [Picture: Market Place and Stanhope Memorial]



PREFACE.


The following pages may truthfully be said to be the result of labours,
extending over many years, and of researches in directions too many to
tell.

Born within almost a mile of Horncastle, and only by a few months
escaping being born in it, since his father, on first coming to the
neighbourhood, resided for a time in Horncastle, {0} the author, from his
earliest years (except for periodical absences) has been connected with
the life, social or civil, of the place, probably more closely and more
continuously, than any other person living, in like circumstances.

The notes on which this compilation is based were begun more than 30
years ago.  While writing a volume of _Records of more than_ 30 _Parishes
around Horncastle_, published in 1904; and, before that, while describing
about as many more, in a volume, _Woodhall Spa and Neighbourhood_,
published in 1899, he had constantly in view the crowning of the series,
by the history of the old town, round which these sixty, or more,
parishes cluster; the haunt, if not quite the home, of his boyhood, and
familiarized to him by a life-long connection.

For this purpose sources of information have been tapped in every
possible direction; of public institutions, the official records, and
title deeds, where available, have been carefully consulted; especially
should be here mentioned various deeds and charters, which are quoted in
Chapter II, from the archives of Carlisle Cathedral, which have not
hitherto been brought before the public, but of which the author has been
allowed free use, through the courtesy of the librarian.  These are of
special value, from the long connection of the Manor of Horncastle with
the See of Carlisle.

In other cases the author has been allowed the privilege of more private
testimony; for instance, his old friend, the late Mr. John Overton (of a
highly respectable family, for generations connected with the town and
county), has most kindly given him the use of various family MS. notes,
bearing on parish and other matters.  Mr. Henry Sharp has freely assisted
him with most varied information, derived from long years of connection
with the town, in public or private capacity.  The late Mr. Henry
Boulton, ancestrally connected with various parts of the county, was
remarkable for a mind stored with memories of persons and things, in town
and neighbourhood, which he freely communicated to the author, who saw
much of him in his later years.  While, last but not least, the late Mr.
William Pacey, whether in his “Reminisences of Horncastle,” which he
contributed to the public newspapers, or in his personal conversations,
which the present writer enjoyed for many years, yielded up to him
treasure, collected by an indefatigable student of local lore, who
entered into such work _con amore_.

To all these the author would now fully, and gratefully, acknowledge his
indebtedness; but for them this work could not have been produced in
anything like its present fulness.  In some of the matters dealt with, as
for instance in the accounts of the Grammar School, as well as in other
portions, he may fairly say, in the language of “the pious Æneas”
(slightly modified), “quorum pars (ipse) fui,” (Æneid ii, 6); and in
these he has drawn not a few of the details from his own recollections.

In stringing these records together, of such varied character, and on
subjects so numerous, he cannot but be conscious that, in the endeavour
to give all possible information, and to omit nothing of real interest,
he may, on the other hand, have laid himself open to the charge of being
too diffuse, or even needlessly prolix.  Others not sharing his own
interest in the subjects treated of, may think that he has occasionally
“ridden his hobby too hard.”  If this should be the judgment of any of
his readers, he would crave their indulgence out of consideration for the
motive.

These are the days of historic “Pageants,” drawn from life, and with
living actors to illustrate them.  We have also our “Gossoping Guides,”
to enable the tourist to realize more fully the meaning of the scenes
which he visits.  From both of these the author “has taken his cue.”  He
had to cater for a variety of tastes; and while, for the general reader
he has cast his discriptions in a colloquial, or even at times in a
“gossoping,” form, he believes that the old town, with its “Bull Ring,”
its “Maypole Hill,” its “Fighting Cocks,” its “Julian Bower,” and other
old time memories, can still afford _pabulum_ for the more educated
student, or the special antiquary.

Like the composer of a Pageant play, his endeavour has been rather to
clothe the scenes, which he conjures up, with the flesh and blood of
quickened reality, than in the bare skin and bones of a dry-as-dust’s
rigid skeleton.  How far he has succeeded in this he leaves to others to
decide; for himself he can honestly say, that it has not been from lack
of care, enquiry, or labour, if he has fallen short of the ideal aimed
at.

                                  [Picture: Signature of J. Conway Walter]



CONTENTS.

                      CHAPTER I.                             PAGE

PART I—PREHISTORIC.  Horncastle—its infancy                     1

PART II—THE DIMLY HISTORIC PERIOD                               3

                     CHAPTER II.

RECORDS OF THE MANOR, &c., FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST            11

                     CHAPTER III.

ST. MARY’S CHURCH                                              33

                     CHAPTER IV.

THE CHURCH OF HOLY TRINITY                                     57

                      CHAPTER V.

NONCONFORMIST PLACES OF WORSHIP.

   The Wesleyans                                               64

   The Primitive Methodists                                    71

   The Independents                                            77

   The Baptist Chapel                                          84

   The New Jerusalem Church                                    86

                     CHAPTER VI.

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS—THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL                    91

                     CHAPTER VII.

WATSON’S FREE SCHOOL                                          108

THE LANCASTERIAN AND THE BELL SCHOOLS                         111

THE SCIENCE AND ART SCHOOL                                    112

                    CHAPTER VIII.

THE DISPENSARY                                                119

                     CHAPTER IX.

THE CANAL                                                     126

THE RAILWAY                                                   130

                      CHAPTER X.

WORKHOUSE OR UNION                                            133

THE COURT HOUSE                                               135

THE STANHOPE MEMORIAL                                         136

THE CLERICAL CLUB                                             137

THE MECHANICS’ INSTITUTE                                      139

THE CORN EXCHANGE                                             140

THE WHELPTON ALMHOUSES                                        142

THE DRILL HALL                                                145

                     CHAPTER XI.

HORNCASTLE WORTHIES, &c.                                      151

ODDITIES                                                      160

PUBLICHOUSES                                                  161

                      APPENDIX.

THIMBLEBY                                                     165

WEST ASHBY                                                    176

HIGH TOYNTON                                                  180

MAREHAM-ON-THE-HILL                                           183

LOW TOYNTON                                                   185

ROUGHTON                                                      188

HALTHAM                                                       190

MAREHAM-LE-FEN                                                192

MOORBY                                                        198

WOOD ENDERBY                                                  201

CONINGSBY                                                     203

WILKSBY                                                       207

LANGRIVILLE                                                   209

THORNTON-LE-FEN                                               210



ILLUSTRATIONS.

                                                                  PAGE

Mammoth Tooth                                                        5

Hammer Head                                                          7

North-east corner of the Castle Wall                                 9

Plan of Horncastle, 1819                                            15

Plan of Horncastle, 1908                                            23

St. Mary’s Church                                                   35

Brass of Sir Lionel Dymoke in St. Mary’s Church                     42

Ancient Scythes in St. Mary’s Church                                48

The Old Vicarage                                                    55

Holy Trinity Church                                                 59

Wesleyan Chapel                                                     65

Wesleyan Day Schools                                                69

Interior Congregational Chapel                                      79

The New Jerusalem Church                                            87

Rev. Thomas Lord                                                    90

The Grammar School                                                  93

Lord Clynton and Saye                                               97

Successive Head Masters of the Grammar School, from 1818           101
to 1907

The Seal of the Grammar School                                     105

The Market Place                                                   109

St. Mary’s Square                                                  113

Bridge Street                                                      117

High Street                                                        121

The Bull Ring                                                      123

The Canal                                                          127

On the Canal                                                       129

The Court House                                                    135

The Stanhope Memorial                                              137

Watermill Road during the Flood, Dec 31, 1900                      141

West Street during the Flood, Dec. 31, 1900                        143

Conging Street during the Flood, Dec. 31, 1900                     145

The Stanch                                                         147

Old Thatched Inn in the Bull Ring                                  163

St. Margaret’s Church, Thimbleby                                   171

The Manor House, West Ashby                                        177

All Saints’ Church, West Ashby                                     179

St. John the Baptist’s Church, High Toynton                        181

St. Peter’s Church, Low Toynton                                    187

St. Helen’s Church, Mareham-le-Fen                                 193

Wesleyan Chapel, Mareham-le-Fen                                    197

St. Michael’s Church, Coningsby                                    205

CHAPTER I.


PART I—PREHISTORIC.  HORNCASTLE—ITS INFANCY.


In dealing with what may be called “the dark ages” of local history, we
are often compelled to be content with little more than reasonable
conjecture.  Still, there are generally certain surviving data, in
place-names, natural features, and so forth, which enable those who can
detect them, and make use of them, to piece together something like a
connected outline of what we may take, with some degree of probability,
as an approximation to what have been actual facts, although lacking, at
the time, the chronicler to record them.

It is, however, by no means a mere exercise of the imagination, if we
assume that the site of the present Horncastle was at a distant period a
British settlement. {1a}  Dr. Brewer says, “nearly three-fourths of our
Roman towns were built on British sites,” (Introduction to _Beauties of
England_, p. 7), and in the case of Horncastle, although there is nothing
British in the name of the town itself, yet that people have undoubtedly
here left their traces behind them.  The late Dr. Isaac Taylor {1b} says,
“Rivers and mountains, as a rule, receive their names from the earliest
races, towns and villages from later colonists.”  The ideas of those
early occupants were necessarily limited.  The hill which formed their
stronghold against enemies, {1c} or which was the “high place” of their
religious rites, {1d} and the river which was so essential to their daily
existence, of these they felt the value, and therefore naturally
distinguished them by name before anything else.  Thus the remark of an
eloquent writer is generally true, who says “our mountains and rivers
still murmur the voices of races long extirpated.”  “There is hardly
(says Dr. Taylor {2a}) throughout the whole of England a river name which
is not Celtic,” _i.e._ British.

As the Briton here looked from the hill-side, down upon the valley
beneath him, two of the chief objects to catch his eye would be the
streams which watered it, and which there, as they do still, united their
forces.  They would then also, probably, form a larger feature in the
prospect than they do at the present day, for the local beds of gravel
deposit would seem to indicate that these streams were formerly of
considerably greater volume, watering a wider area, and probably having
ramifications which formed shoals and islands. {2b}  The particular names
by which the Briton designated the two main streams confirm this
supposition.  In the one coming from the more distant wolds, he saw a
stream bright and clear, meandering through the meadows which it
fertilized, and this he named the “Bain,” {2c} that word being Celtic for
“bright” or “clear,” a characteristic which still belongs to its waters,
as the brewers of Horncastle assure us.  In the other stream, which runs
a shorter and more rapid course, he saw a more turbid current, and to it
he gave the name “Waring,” {2d} which is the Celtic “garw” or “gerwin,”
meaning “rough.”  Each of these names, then, we may regard as what the
poet Horace calls “nomen præsente notâ productum,” {2e} they are as good
as coin stamped in the mint of a Cunobelin, or a Caradoc, bearing his
“image and superscription,” and after some 17 centuries of change, they
are in circulation still.  So long as Horncastle is watered by the Bain
and the Waring she will bear the brand of the British sway, once
paramount in her valley.

These river names, however, are not the only relics of the Britons found
in Horncastle.  Two British urns were unearthed about 50 years ago, where
is now the garden of the present vicarage, and another was found in the
parish of Thornton, about a mile from the town, when the railway was
being made in 1856.  The latter the present writer has seen, although it
is now unfortunately lost. {2f}

These Britons were a pastoral race, as Cæsar, their conqueror, tells us,
{2g} not cultivating much corn, but having large flocks and herds, living
on the milk and flesh of their live stock, and clad in the skins of
these, or of other animals taken in the chase.  The well-watered pastures
of the Bain valley would afford excellent grazing for their cattle, while
the extensive forests {2h} of the district around would provide them with
the recreations of the chase, which also helped to make them the skilled
warriors which the Romans found them to be. {3}  Much of these forests
remained even down to comparatively recent times, and very large trees
have been dug up, black with age, in fields within four or five miles of
Horncastle, within very recent years, which the present writer has seen.

Such were some of the earlier inhabitants of this locality, leaving their
undoubted traces behind them, but no “local habitation” with a name; for
that we are first indebted to the Romans, who, after finding the Briton a
foe not unworthy of his steel, ultimately subjugated him and found him
not an inapt pupil in Roman arts and civilization.  Of the aptitude of
the Briton to learn from his conquerors we have evidence in the fact,
mentioned by the Roman writer Eumenius, that when the Emperor Constantius
wished to rebuild the town Augustodunum (now Antun) in Gaul, about the
end of the 3rd century, he employed workmen chiefly from Britain, such
was the change effected in our “rude forefathers” in 250 years.

We may sum up our remarks on the Britons by saying that in them we have
ancestors of whom we have no occasion to be ashamed.  They had a
Christian church more than 300 years before St. Augustine visited our
shores.  They yet survive in the sturdy fisher folk of Brittany; in those
stout miners of Cornwall, who in the famed Botallack mine have bored
under the ocean bed, the name Cornwall itself being Welsh (_i.e._
British) for corner land; in the people who occupy the fastnesses of the
Welsh mountains, as well as in the Gaels of the Scottish Highlands and
the Erse of Ireland.  Their very speech is blended with our own.  Does
the country labourer go to the Horncastle tailor to buy coat and
breeches?  His British forefather, though clad chiefly in skins, called
his upper garment his “cotta,” his nether covering his “brages,” scotice
“breeks.”  Brewer, _Introduction to Beauties of England_, p. 42.



PART II—THE DIMLY HISTORIC PERIOD.


The headquarters of the Roman forces in our own part of Britain were at
York, where more than one Roman Emperor lived and died, but Lindum, now
Lincoln, was an important station.  About A.D. 71 Petillius Cerealis was
appointed governor of the province by the Emperor Vespasian, he was
succeeded by Julius Frontinus, both being able generals.  From A.D. 78 to
85 that admirable soldier and administrator, Julius Agricola, over-ran
the whole of the north as far as the Grampians, establishing forts in all
directions, and doubtless during these and the immediately succeeding
years, a network of such stations would be constructed in our own
country, connected by those splendid highways which the Romans carried,
by the forced labour of the natives, through the length and breadth of
their vast empire.

Coins of nearly all the Roman Emperors have been found at Horncastle; one
was brought to the present writer in the 1st year of the 20th century,
bearing the superscription of the Emperor Severus, who died at York A.D.,
211.


NOTE ON ANCIENT COINS FOUND AT HORNCASTLE.


The following list of Roman and other coins found at Horncastle, has been
supplied by the Rev. J. A. Penny, Vicar of Wispington, who has them in
his own possession.

Consular, denarius, silver.
Œs grave, or Roman as, heavy brass.
Augustus, quinarius (half denarius).  B.C. 27–A.D. 14.
Claudius, brass, of three different sizes.  A.D. 41–54.
Vespasian, denarius, silver.  A.D. 69–79.
Domitian, brass.  A.D. 81–96.
Nerva, brass.  A.D. 96–98.
Trajan, brass, of two sizes.  A.D. 98–117.
Hadrian, brass.  A.D. 117–138.
Antoninus Pius, denarius, silver.  A.D. 138–161.
Faustina I., his wife, brass.
Lucius Verus, brass.  A.D. 161–169.
Marcus Aurelius, brass.  A D. 161–180.
Faustina II., his wife, brass.
Caracalla, denarius, silver.  A.D. 211–217.
Julia Sæmias, mother of Emperor Heliogabalus, denarius, silver.  A.D.
218–222.
Gordian III., denarius, silver.  A.D. 238–244.
Philip I., brass.  A.D. 244–249.
Hostilian, denarius, silver.  A.D. 249–251.
Gallienus, brass.  A.D. 253–268.
Salomia, his wife, brass.
Victorinus, brass (Emperor in West).  A.D. 253–260.  (10 varieties).
Marius, brass (Emperor in West).  A.D. 267.
Claudius II. (or Gothicus), brass.  A.D. 268–270.
Tetricus I., brass (Emperor in Gaul).  A.D. 270–273.
Tetricus II., brass (Emperor in Gaul).  A.D. 270–274.
Probus, brass.  A.D. 276–282.
Diocletian, copper, a new kind of coin named a “follis.”  A.D. 284–305.
Maximian, copper, a “follis.”  A.D. 286–305.
Alectus, brass (Emperor in Britain).  A.D. 293–296.
Constantius Chlorus, brass.  A.D. 305–306.
Maxentius, copper, a “follis.”  A.D. 306–312.
Constantine the Great, brass.  A.D. 306–337.
Crispus, brass.  A.D. 326.
Magnentius, brass (Emperor in Gaul and Britain).  A.D. 350–353.
Constantine II., brass (struck in London).  A.D. 337–340.
Constans, brass.  A.D. 337–350.
Constantius II., brass.  A.D. 337–361.
Valens, brass.  A.D. 364–378.
Gratian, brass.  A.D. 375–383.
Theodosius I., brass.  A.D. 379–395.
Arcadius, brass (Emperor in East).  A.D. 395–408.
Honorius, brass (Emperor in West).  A.D. 395–423.
Byzantine coin, bronze, date not known exactly but later than Honorius,
so showing that the Romans held Horncastle against Saxon invaders.

 [Picture: Mammoth Tooth from gravel of River Bain, south of Horncastle.
   Weight 2-lbs 6-oz., length 5¼-in., breadth 6½-in., thickness 2-in.]

A Roman milestone was discovered in the Bail, at Lincoln, in 1891, {5a}
inscribed with the name of Marcus Piavonius Victorinus, who commanded in
Gaul and Britain, and which must have been set up during his period of
office, about A D. 267.  The site of this was the point of intersection
of the two main streets, which would be the centre of the Roman Forum at
Lindum, one of these streets leading to Horncastle; from Horncastle also
there branched off, as will be hereafter noted, several main Roman roads.

As Horncastle stands on the banks of the river Bain it has been taken by
Stukeley, the antiquarian, and by others following him, {5b} to have been
the Roman Banovallum or “Fort on the Bain,” mentioned by the Roman
geographer of Ravenna; {5c} although, however, most probably correct,
this is a mere conjecture.  On the road between Horncastle and Lincoln we
have the village of Baumber, also called Bamburgh, and this latter form
of the name might well mean a “burgh,” or fort, on the Bain, the river
running just below the village.  The two names, however, might well exist
at different periods.  It may be here mentioned that this form, Bamburg,
is found in _Harleian Charter_ 56, c. i, B.M., dated at Wodehalle,
December, 1328.

Tacitus, the Roman historian, {5e} tells us that the Romans “wore out the
bodies and hands of the Britons in opening out the forests, and paving or
fortifying the roads,” and we can well imagine that those skilled
generals would see the advantageous position for a stronghold in the
angle formed by the junction of the two rivers, and would employ the
subjugated Britons of the locality in constructing, it may be, at first
only a rude fort, protected on two sides by the streams and in the rear
by a “vallum,” or embankment, and that on the site thus secured and
already a native stronghold, they would, at a later period, erect the
“castrum,” of which massive fragments still remain, testifying to its
great strength.

These remains, indeed, in almost their whole course can be traced through
present-day gardens and back premises, shewing the four sides of an
irregular parallelogram.  Their dimensions, roughly speaking, are on the
north and south sides about 600-ft., by about 350-ft. at the eastern, and
300-ft. at the western end, their thickness being about 16-ft.  The
material employed was the Spilsby sandstone, obtainable within five
miles, cemented by course grouting poured into the interstices between
the massive blocks.  These walls inclose a portion of the High Street as
far eastward as the site of the present Corn Exchange, westward they
include the present manor house and form the boundary of the churchyard
in that direction.  On the north they run at the back of the houses on
that side of the Market Place, and on the south they extend from St.
Mary’s Square, past the Grammar School, and through sundry yards,
parallel with the branch of the canal, which is the old Waring river.
The masonry of these walls, as now seen, is very rude.  It is supposed
that, originally as built by the Romans, they had an external coating of
neat structure, but this has entirely disappeared, it is still, however,
to be seen in the wells, which are next to be described.

In a cellar, south of the High Street, at a baker’s shop, and close to
the eastern wall of the castle, is a Roman well; there is another close
to the north-east angle of the castle walls, in what is called Dog-kennel
Yard, and a third just within the western wall, near the present National
Schools.  Thus, although the two rivers were without the castle walls,
the Roman garrison was well supplied with water.

The Roman roads branching from the town were (1st) the “Ramper,” {6a} as
it is still called, running north-west, and connecting it with the Roman
station Lindum; from this, at Baumber, {6b} distant about 4 miles, a
branch running northwards led to the Roman Castrum, now Caistor; (2nd)
north-eastwards _via_ West Ashby, being the highway to Louth, the Roman
Luda; (3rd) eastwards, by High Toynton, Greetham, &c, to Waynflete, the
Roman Vain-ona; (4th) southward, by Dalderby, Haltham, &c., to Leeds
Gate, Chapel Hill, and there crossing the river Witham to Sleaford and
Ancaster, the Roman Causennæ, situated on the great Roman Ermin Street.
This also was continued to another Roman Castrum, now Castor, near
Peterborough; (5th) south-west, by Thornton, &c., to Tattershall, locally
supposed to have been the Roman Durobrivæ, and where traces of a Roman
camp still remain.

Besides these Roman _viæ_ and Roman coins, quite an abundance of Roman
pottery has from time to time been unearthed, and fragments are
continually being found in gardens in the town.  A collection of these,
probably cinerary urns, was preserved until quite recently in the library
of the Mechanics’ Institute, where the writer has frequently seen them,
{7a} they varied in height from 8 inches to 18 inches.  Unfortunately,
for lack of funds, that institution was broken up about 1890, the books
were stowed away in a room at the workhouse, a valuable collection, and
the urns were sold by the late Mr. Joseph Willson, who acted as sole
trustee.  Other Roman relics have been fragments of mortars of white
clay, found on the site of the present union, one bearing the word
“fecit,” though the maker’s name was lost.  Portions also of Samian ware
have been found, one stamped with a leopard and stag, another bearing
part of the potter’s name, ILIANI; with fragments of hand-mills, fibulæ,
&c. {7b}  The present writer has two jars, or bottles, of buff coloured
ware, of which about a dozen were dug up when the foundations of the
workhouse were being laid in 1838, they are probably Samian, a friend
having exactly similar vessels which she brought from Cyprus.  The writer
has in his possession the head of a porphyritic mallet which was found in
a garden in the south of the town a few years ago, it is probably Roman;
the handle, which would be of wood, had entirely disappeared; it is much
“pitted” through damp and age, is 6½ inches long and weighs 3-lb. 9-oz.

 [Picture: Hammer Head, found near the Wong, length 6⅝-in., width 3⅞-in.
  weight 3½-lb.; of porphyry from the Cheviot region, Neolithic period.
             The stone was probably part of a large boulder]

A discovery of further interesting Roman relics of another kind was made
in 1896.  The owner of a garden near Queen Street, in the south-eastern
part of the town, was digging up an apple tree when he came across a fine
bed of gravel.  Continuing the digging, in order to find the thickness of
this deposit, his spade struck against a hard substance, which proved to
be a lead coffin.  After this had been examined by others invited to
inspect it, without any satisfactory result, the present writer was
requested to conduct further investigation.  The coffin was found to be
5-ft. 2-in. in length, containing the skeleton, rather shorter, of a
female.  A few days later a second coffin was found, lying parallel to
the first, 5-ft. 7-in. in length, the bones of the skeleton within being
larger and evidently those of a male.  Subsequently fragments of decayed
wood and long iron nails and clamps were found, showing that the leaden
coffins had originally been enclosed in wooden cases.  Both these coffins
lay east and west.  A description was sent to a well-known antiquarian,
the late Mr. John Bellows of Gloucester, and he stated that if the lead
had an admixture of tin they were Roman, if no tin, post-Roman.  The lead
was afterwards analysed by Professor Church, of Kew, and by the
analytical chemist of Messrs. Kynoch & Co., of Birmingham, with the
result that there was found to be a percentage of 1.65 of tin to 97.08 of
lead and 1.3 of oxygen, “the metal slightly oxidised.”  It was thus
proved that the coffins were those of Romans, their “orientation”
implying that they were Christian.  It should be added that three similar
coffins were found in the year 1872, when the foundations were being laid
of the New Jerusalem Chapel in Croft Street, within some 100 yards of the
two already described; and further, as confirmatory of their being Roman,
a lead coffin was also found in the churchyard of Baumber, on the
restoration of the church there in 1892, this being close to the Roman
road (already mentioned) between the old Roman stations Banovallum and
Lindum.  Lead coffins have also been found in the Roman cemeteries at
Colchester, York, and at other places. {8}

As another interesting case of Roman relics found in Horncastle, I give
the following:—In 1894 I exhibited, at a meeting of our Archæological
Society, some small clay pipes which had recently been dug up along with
a copper coin of the Emperor Constantine, just within the western wall of
the old castle, near the present Manor House.  They were evidently very
old and of peculiar make, being short in stem with small bowl set at an
obtuse angle.  They were said at the time to be Roman, but since tobacco
was not introduced till the reign of Elizabeth that idea was rejected.
In the year 1904, however, a large quantity of fragments of similar clay
pipes were found in the ruins of the Roman fort of Aliso, near Halteren
on the river Lippe, in Western Germany, some of rude structure, some
decorated with figures and Roman characters.  They were lying at a depth
of 9 feet below the surface, and had evidently lain undisturbed since the
time of the Roman occupation.  From the marks upon them it was manifest
that they had been used, and it is now known from the statements of the
Roman historian Pliny, and the Greek Herodotus, that the use of narcotic
fumes was not unknown to the Romans, as well as to other ancient nations;
the material used was hemp seed and cypress grass.  In the Berlin
Ethnological Museum, also, vessels of clay are preserved, which are
supposed to have been used for a like purpose.  This discovery, then, at
Horncastle is very interesting as adding to our Roman remains, and we may
picture to ourselves the Roman sentinel taking his beat on the old castle
walls and solacing himself, after the manner of his countrymen, with his
pipe.  (An account of this later discovery is given in a German
scientific review for August, 1904, quoted _Standard_, August 12, 1904).

Of what may be called the close of this early historic period in
connection with Horncastle there is little more to be said.  The Roman
forces withdrew from Britain about A.D. 408.  The Britons harried by
their northern neighbours, the Picts and Scots, applied for assistance to
the Saxons, who, coming at first as friends, but led to stay by the
attractions of the country, gradually over-ran the land and themselves in
turn over-mastered the Britons, driving them into Wales and Cornwall.
The only matter of interest in connection with Horncastle, in this
struggle between Saxon and Briton, is that about the end of the 5th
century the Saxon King Horsa, with his brother Hengist, who had greatly
improved the fort at Horncastle, were defeated in a fight at Tetford by
the Britons under their leader Raengeires, and the British King caused
the walls to be nearly demolished and the place rendered defenceless.
(Leland’s _Collectanea_, vol i, pt. ii, p. 509).

   [Picture: North-east corner of the Castle Wall, in Dog-kennel Yard]

The Saxons in their turn, towards the close of the 8th century, were
harassed by marauding incursions of the Danes, {9} which continued,
though temporarily checked by Kings Egbert and Alfred, through many
years, both nations eventually settling side by side, until both alike in
the 11th century became subject to their Norman conquerors.  The traces
of these peoples are still apparent in Horncastle and its soke, since of
its 13 parish names, three, High Toynton, Low Toynton and Roughton have
the Saxon suffix “ton”; three, Mareham-on-the-Hill, Mareham-le-Fen and
Haltham terminate in the Saxon “ham,” and six, Thimbleby, West Ashby,
Wood Enderby, Moorby, Wilksby and Coningsby have the Danish suffix “by.”
The name of the town itself is Saxon, Horn-castle, or more anciently
Hyrne-ceastre, _i.e._ the castle in the corner, {10} or angle, formed by
the junction of the two rivers; that junction was, within comparatively
modern times, not where it is now, but some 200 yards eastward, on the
other side of the field called “The Holms,” where there is still a muddy
ditch.

So far our account of the town has been based mainly upon etymological
evidence, derived from river and place names, with a few scanty and
scattered records.  As we arrive at the Norman period we shall have to
deal with more direct documentary testimony, which may well form another
chapter.



CHAPTER II.
RECORDS OF THE MANOR, &c., FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST.


A recent historian {11a} has said “In the 13th century the northern
counties of England were so unsettled that there was little security
north of the Humber, and in 1250 the powerful Bishop of Carlisle found it
necessary to buy the manor of Horncastle (his own residence in the north,
Rose Castle, having been destroyed by marauders), and the Pope granted
him the Parish Church (of Horncastle) for his use;” {11b} but we can
carry our history back to a considerably earlier period than this.  As a
former Roman station, doubtless, and of even earlier origin than that,
Horncastle had become a place of some importance, and so, even before the
Norman conquest the manor was royal property, since _Domesday Book_
states that King Edward the Confessor bestowed it upon his Queen, Editha.
Edward died January 5, 1066, and his possessions naturally passed to his
successor, the Conqueror.  Its subsequent history for a few years we do
not know, but in the reign of Stephen the manor was held by Adelias, or
Adelidis, (Alice or Adelaide) de Cundi, daughter of William de Cheney
{11c} (a name still known in the county), who was Lord of Glentham and
Caenby, two parishes near Brigg.  She had a castle in this town, the site
of which is not now known, but it was probably a restoration in whole, or
in part, of the old fortress.  She took part against the King in his
quarrel with the Empress Maud, and her estates were confiscated by
Stephen, they were, however, subsequently restored to her on condition
that she should demolish her castle.

On her death the manor reverted to the crown and was granted by Henry II.
to a Fleming noble, Gerbald de Escald, who held it for one knight’s fee.
{12a}  He was succeeded by his grandson and heir, Gerard de Rhodes, {12b}
whose son, Ralph de Rhodes, sold it to Walter Mauclerk, {12c} Bishop of
Carlisle, and Treasurer of the Exchequer under Henry III.  In the reign
of Richard II. Roger la Scrope and Margaret his wife, with Robert Tibetot
and son, his wife, as descendants of Gerbald de Escald, {12d} put in a
claim for the manor and obtained letters patent, by which the episcopal
possessor was bound to do them homage, but this was only for a brief
period, and they then disappear from the scene.

The manor remained a possession of the bishops of Carlisle until the
reign of Edward VI., when, by licence of the King, it was sold by Bishop
Aldrich in 1547 to Edward, Lord Clinton. {12e}  In the reign of Mary he
was compelled to re-convey it to the see of Carlisle. {12f}  Queen
Elizabeth took a lease of it under the then possessing bishop, in which
she was succeeded by James I.  He assigned it to Sir Edward Clinton,
knt., but through neglect of enrolment this became void. {12g}  In the
reign of Charles II. the former charters were renewed, {12h} and the
bishops of Carlisle remained lords of the manor until 1856, when it was
transferred, with the patronage of some of the benefices within the soke,
to the Bishop of Lincoln.  Thus from the reign of Edward the Confessor to
that of Charles II., a period of about 600 years, broken by brief
intervals of alienation, Horncastle was connected with royalty.

The lease of the manor was held, under the bishops of Carlisle by Sir
Joseph Banks and his ancestors for nearly a century, the lease of Sir
Joseph himself being dated 21 March, 1803, and renewed 1 June, 1811.  He
died in 1820 and was succeeded by his relative the Honble. James Hamilton
Stanhope and, three years later, by James Banks Stanhope, Esq., then a
minor, who, at a later period (in 1885) transferred all his rights to his
cousin, the late Right Honble. Edward Stanhope, whose widow became lady
of the manor and at whose death, in 1907, the lordship reverted to the
Honble. Richard Stanhope, son of the present Earl Stanhope.  Mr. Banks
Stanhope died January 18th, 1904, aged 82, having been a generous
benefactor to Horncastle and the neighbourhood.

We have here given a very condensed account of the ownership of this
manor from the reign of Edward the Confessor to the present time, a
period of nearly 840 years.  Having had access to the episcopal archives
of Carlisle, so long connected with Horncastle, we are able to confirm
several of the above details from documents still existing, which we now
proceed to do.

It has been stated that the manor of Horncastle was conferred upon Queen
Editha by her husband, Edward the Confessor.  In confirmation of this we
find the following: In the reign of Charles I. the Vicar of Horncastle,
Thomas Gibson, presented a petition claiming tithe for certain mills
called “Hall Mills,” with a close adjoining called “Mill Holmes,” as
belonging to the glebe.  The tenant, William Davidson, resisted, arguing
that he had paid no tithes to the previous vicar, Robert Holingshed, that
the mills were erected before the conquest and were part of the jointure
of Queen Editha, as stated in _Domesday Book_, and were therefore part of
the manor, not of the vicar’s glebe.  The result is not recorded, but
doubtless the tenant was right. {13a}  The passage here quoted from
_Domesday Book_ is the following: “In Horncastre Queen Editha had 3
carucates of land, free of gelt.  This land is now 4 carucates.  The King
has there 2 carucates in demesne (_i.e._ as his manor), with 29 villeins
and 12 bordars, who have (among them) 3 carucates.  There are 2 mills
worth 26s. yearly, and 100 acres of meadow.  In King Edward’s time the
annual value was £20, now it is £44.” {13b}  These two mills and the
meadow were doubtless those in dispute between the vicar and tenant in
the reign of Charles I., the date of _Domesday_ being about 1085, or 540
years earlier.  They were plainly part of the royal manor and not at all
connected with the glebe.

All this, however, proves that the manor of Horncastle belonged to King
Edward the Confessor before the conquest, and 360 acres of it were
assigned to his consort, Queen Editha.  The expansion of the 3 carucates
into 4, mentioned in _Domesday Book_, was probably (as in many other
recorded cases) due to the reclamation of land hitherto waste in flood or
forest.

On the death of King Edward in 1066 the royal demesnes naturally passed
to his successor and kinsman, William the Conqueror, and in due course to
the successive Norman kings of his line.

The connection of Horncastle with the sovereign is shown in various ways.
Documents relating to the earlier kings are naturally rare, since for
many years law courts were hardly yet established, the royal power being
rather that of “might” than of “right.” {13c}  Even the sale, or
devising, of property could only be legally effected by the king’s
licence.  Among the Carlisle papers connected with Horncastle is one
which shows that a matter which in modern times would be settled by the
parish overseers, or more recently by the Urban Council, was to be
formerly carried out only by the royal sanction.  There is a Patent Roll
of the 13th year of King Richard II. (pt. 1, m. 3) entitled “Concerning
the paving of Horncastre,” and running as follows:—“The King to the
Bailiff and proved men of the vill of Horncastre, greeting.  Know, that
in aid of paving your said vill, of our special grace we have granted to
you, that from the day of the making of these presents to the end of 3
years, you may take, for things coming to the said vill for sale, the
customs underwritten.”  Then follows a long list of articles for sale, of
which we can only specify a few here, viz.: “For every horse load of
corn, ¼d., for every dole of wine, 2d.; for every pipe of ditto, 1s.; for
every hide, fresh, salt, or tanned, ¼d.; for 100 skins of roebucks (it
seems that there were wild deer in those days), hares, rabbits, foxes, or
squirrels, ½d.; for every horse load of cloth, ½d.; for every cloth of
worstede, called ‘coverlyt,’ value 40s., 1d.; for every 100 of linen web
of Aylesham, 1d.; for every chief of strong cendal (silk) 1d.; for 100
mullets, salt or dry, 1d.; for every cart of fish, 1d.; for every horse
load of sea fish, ¼d.; for every salmon, ¼d.; for every last of herrings
(12 barrels), 6d.; for every horse load of honey, 1d.; for every wey of
tallow (256 lbs.), 1d.; for every milstone, ½d.; for 1,000 turfs, ¼d.
For every other kind of merchandise not here specified, of value 5s. and
over, ¼d.; and the term of 3 years being ended, the said customs shall
cease.  Witness the King, at Westminster, 9 Nov., 1389.”

Truly the kingly government was a paternal one to take cognizance of such
petty local matters.  The “coggle” pavement of Horncastle is often
complained of, but at least it had the royal sanction.

A Roll of the 18th year of Edward III. (m 8), dated Westminster, 28 June,
1344, is directed “to his very dear and faithful John de Kirketon, Fitz
Hugh de Cressy,” (and others) assigning them “to choose and array 100 men
at arms in the County of Lincoln,” and (among others) “6 hoblers in the
vill of Horncastre, to be at Portsmouth, to set out with the King against
Philip VI., de Valesco (Valois).”  This was the beginning of the campaign
of Edward and his son the Black Prince, which terminated with the
glorious battle of Cressy and the capture of Calais.  “Hoblers” were a
sort of yeomanry who, by the terms of their tenure of land were bound to
keep a light “nag” for military service.

A Domestic State Paper of Queen Elizabeth (Vol. 51, No. 12, III) contains
the “Certificate of the town and soke of Horncastle to the artycles of
the Queen’s Majesty’s most Honorable Pryvye Councell,” dated 27 June,
1569, shewing what “soldiers were furnished and went forth under Captaine
Carsey.”  These were formerly the well-known local troops called
“trainbands.”  The paper contains, further, accounts of payments for
“towne common armour, jerkyns, swords, daggers, corslettes, 1 caline
(piece of ordnance), conduct money (_i.e._ hire money), pioneers,
victuals,” &c.  Accounts rendered by Thomas Hamerton, Arthur Patchytt,
Thomas Raythbeake (all formerly well known names in the town), and
others.

The head of the Carsey family was the owner of the Revesby Abbey Estate,
and as such was lesse of the manor of Horncastle under the Bishop of
Carlisle.  They sold their property, in 1575, to Thomas Cecil, son of
Lord Treasurer Burleigh.

There is another Carlisle document in connection with these trained bands
among the same Domestic State Papers of Queen Elizabeth (Vol. 199, No.
7), in which the Earl of Rutland writes to Anthony Thorold, sheriff, that
he has instructions “from the Lords of the Counsaile to put in strength
the power of the realme for the maritime counties,” and he asks him to
“choose captaines for the yet untrained companies, and to supply the
place of Mr. John Savile for Horncastle.”  N.B.—The Saviles owned Poolham
Hall in Edlington.  On this (State Papers, Eliz., Vol. 199, No. 72) the
Earl writes to Mr. Valentine Brown that he thinks him “meete to supply
the place for Horncastle,” dated London, 29 March, 1586–7.  Sir Valentine
Brown was of Croft and East Kirkby, and Treasurer of Ireland; he married
the daughter of Sir John Monson, ancestor of the present Lord Oxenbridge.

Among the Domestic State Papers of Charles I. (Vol. 376, No. 123), is a
petition from the inhabitants of Horncastle to Sir Anthony Irbie, Knt.,
sheriff of the county, complaining that the town was over-rated for the
payment of “ship-money,” and praying for a reduction of the same.  The
county was charged £8,000.  This rate, levied to maintain the navy,
created widespread dissatisfaction and eventually led to the revolution.
It was included among the grievances against which public protests were
made in 1641.  The five judges who pronounced in its favour were
imprisoned, and Hampden received a wound in a skirmish with Prince
Rupert, from which he died, June 24, 1643.  Petitions were also presented
to Sir Edward Hussey, sheriff, 1636–7, as given in Domestic State Papers,
Charles I., Vol. 345, No. 42.

                        [Picture: Horncastle map]

It has been already stated that in the reign of Stephen this manor was
held by Adelias, or Adelidis, de Cundi.  How this came about is not quite
clear, whether it was inherited from her father, William de Cheney, who
was probably among the Normans invited to immigrate by Edward the
Confessor, since it would seem that at the time of the conquest he was
already a large owner in the county, or from her husband, Robert de
Cundi, a Fleming, probably named from the town and fortress of Conde on
the frontier of France, situated on the Scheldt, in the department du
Nord.  There is, however, evidence to show that she had other possessions
of considerable value apparently in her own right in Nottinghamshire and
Kent, as well as Lincolnshire. {16a}  She is described by the old
chronicler, Geoffrey Gairmar, {16b} as a great patroness of learning and
literature.

The Cheneys, or Chesneys, were apparently of foreign extraction, as
implied by their appellation “de Casineto.”  They had considerable
influence at various periods, one of them being knighted, another made a
baron by Queen Elizabeth. {16c}  One, Robert de Cheney, was a powerful
Bishop of Lincoln (A.D. 1147–67) and built one of the finest castles in
England, the ruins of which still remain in the Palace grounds at
Lincoln. {16d}  The Cheney pedigree is given in _The Genealogist_ of
July, 1901.  They seem to have settled in Yorkshire and Cambridgeshire,
as well as in Lincolnshire.  Sir Thomas Cheney, K.G., was Lord Warden of
the Cinque Ports in the latter part of the 16th century.  The Cheneys
fell into decay towards the end of the 17th century, and at the beginning
of the 18th century we find them in trade at Boston.  About 1750 William
Garfit of Boston married Mary, daughter of Thomas Cheney, and the name,
as a Christian name, still survives in that family.  The Cheneys, we may
add, were among the ancestors of the Willoughbys, {16e} and the parish of
Cheneys, in Bucks., doubtless named after them, is now the property of
the Duke of Bedford.

The granddaughter of Adelias de Cundi, Agnes, {16f} married Walter, son
of Walter de Clifford of Clifford Castle, Hereford.  Walter Clifford is
named in the first great charter of Henry III. (A.D. 1216), along with
the great nobles Walter de Lacy, William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby,
William, Earl of Albemarle, and others.

William de Cheney, already mentioned as father of Adelias de Cundi, was
“Lord of Caenby and Glentham,” and Walter de Clifford also is mentioned
in the charters of Barlings Abbey as giving to that monastery lands in
Caenby and Glentham, along with the above Walter de Lacy.  The great
feature of the reign of Stephen was the large number of castles erected
by lords who were almost more powerful than their sovereign, and Adelias
built her castle at Horncastle, where she resided in great state until,
on her favouring the cause of the Empress Maud, daughter of the previous
king, Henry I. (whereas Stephen was only his nephew), her lands were
confiscated, and, as we have already seen, only restored on condition
that her castle was demolished. {17a}  This restoration was, however,
only for life and on her demise the manor reverted to the crown.

The manor was next granted by Henry II. to Gerbald de Escald, a Flemish
noble. {17b}  This is shewn by a record still preserved at Carlisle,
dated 1274–5.  In the reign of Edward I. an inquisition was made at
Lincoln, before 12 jurors of the soke of Horncastle, among the
Commissioners being John de Haltham, Anselm de Rugthon (Roughton), Thomas
de Camera (_i.e._ Chambers) of Horncastre, the King’s Justices and
others, when it was declared that “the Lord Henry III., the father of
King Edward who now is, once had the manor of Horncastre, and he
enfeoffed Gerbald de Escald, a knight of Flanders, thereof, for his
service, viz., by doing one knight’s fee for the Lord the King.”

Gerbald was succeeded by his grandson and heir, Gerard de Rhodes.  This
is shewn by a Carlisle document. {17c}  A dispute arose between Hugh, son
of Ralph (surname not given) and Gerard de Rhodes, concerning the manor
and soke of Horncastle, the advowson of the church, &c., which were
claimed by the said Hugh; but a compromise was effected, 400 marks being
paid to Hugh, and Gerard de Rhodes left in undisputed possession.

It has been thought probable that this Ralph, father of Hugh, was
Ranulph, Earl of Chester, who was lord of the manors of Revesby and
Hareby, and had other possessions in the neighbourhood.  He, it is
supposed, held the manor of Horncastle, as trustee, during the minority
of Gerard.  Gerard was, in due course, succeeded by his son and heir,
Ralph de Rhodes, in the reign of Henry III.  This again is proved by a
Feet of Fines, {17d} which records an “agreement made in the court of the
Lord King at Westminster (3 Feb., A.D. 1224–5), between Henry del Ortiay
and Sabina his wife on the one part, and the said Ralph de Rhodes on the
other part,” whereby the former acknowledge certain lands and
appurtenances in Horncastle and its soke to be the property of the said
Ralph, and he grants to them, as his tenants, certain lands; they, in
acknowledgement, “rendering him therefor, by the year, one pair of gilt
spurs at Easter for all service and exactions.”

We have now reached another stage in the tenure of this manor and find
ourselves once more at the point where the present chapter opened.
Hitherto the manor had been held “in capite” (or “in chief”) of the king
by lay lords, or, in the two cases of Queen Editha and Adelias de Condi,
by a lady; but in this reign Walter Mauclerk, the third Bishop of
Carlisle, purchased the manor from Ralph de Rhodes.  He was himself a
powerful Norman and held the office of Treasurer of the Exchequer (a
common combination of civil and ecclesiastical duties in those days), but
now he and his successors were bound “to do suit and service to Ralph and
his heirs.”  This purchase is proved by a Lincoln document called a “Plea
Quo Warranto,” which records a case argued before the Justices Itinerant,
in the reign of Edward I., when it was stated that Ralph de Rhodes
“enfeoffed Walter Mauclerk to hold the church, manor and appurtenances in
Horncastre, to him and his heirs, of the gift of the said Ralph.” {18a}
That the Bishop, although an ecclesiastic, was bound to do service to the
heirs of Ralph is shown by another document, {18b} in which John, son of
Gerard de Rhodes, a descendant of Ralph, makes a grant to certain parties
of “the homage and whole service of the Bishop of Carlisle, and his
successors, for the manor (&c.) of Horncastre, which Gerard, son of
Gerard my brother, granted to me.”  This is dated the 13th year of Edward
I., 1285, whereas the actual sale of the manor took place in the reign of
Henry III., A.D. 1230, and was confirmed by the king in the same year.
{18c}

We have called this another stage in the tenure of this manor and for
this reason, an ecclesiastic of high rank, with the authority of the Pope
of Rome at his back, was a more powerful subject than any lay baron, and
this influence soon shewed itself, for while the lay lords of the manor
had been content with doing their service to the king, and exacting
service from those holding under them, the Bishop of Carlisle, in the
first year of his tenure, obtained from the king three charters,
conferring on the town of Horncastle immunities and privileges, which had
the effect of raising the town from the status of little more than a
village to that of the general mart of the surrounding country.  The
first of these charters gave the bishop, as lord of the manor, the right
of free warren throughout the soke {18d}; the second gave him licence to
hold an annual fair two days before the feast of St. Barnabas (June 11),
to continue eight days; the third empowered him to hang felons.  An
additional charter was granted in the following year empowering the
bishop to hold a weekly market on Wednesday (die Mercurii), which was
afterwards changed to Saturday, on which day it is still held; also to
hold another fair on the eve of the Feast of St. Laurence (Aug. 10th), to
continue seven days. {18e}

We here quote a few words of the original Carlisle charter, as shewing
the style of such documents in those days: “Henry to all Bishops,
Bailiffs, Provosts, servants, &c., health.  Know that we, by the guidance
of God, and for the health of our soul, and of the souls of our ancestors
and descendants, have granted, and confirmed by this present charter, to
God, and the church of the blessed Mary of Carlisle, and to the Venerable
Father, Walter, Bishop of Carlisle,” &c.  It then goes on to specify,
among other privileges, that the bishop shall have “all chattells of
felons and fugitives, all amerciaments and fines from all men and tenants
of the manor and soke; that the bishop and his successors shall be quit
for ever to the king of all mercies, fines (&c.), that no constable of
the king shall have power of entry, but that the whole shall pertain to
the said bishop, except attachments touching pleas of the crown, and that
all chattells, &c., either in the king’s court, or any other, shall be
the bishop’s.”  Then follow cases in which chattells of Robert Mawe, a
fugitive, were demanded by the bishop, and £24 exacted from the township
of Horncastle in lieu thereof; also 40s. from William, son of Drogo de
Horncastre, for trespass, and other fines from Ralph Ascer, bailiff.
Robert de Kirkby, &c., &c.  The same document states that the bishop has
a gallows (furcæ) at Horncastle for hanging offenders within the soke;
and, in connection with this we may observe that in the south of the town
is still a point called “Hangman’s Corner.”

These extensive powers, however, would hardly seem (to use the words of
the charter) to have been “for the good of the souls” of the bishop or
his successors, since they rather had the effect of leading him to the
abuse of his rights.  Accordingly, in the reign of Edward III., a plea
was entered at Westminster, before the King’s Justices, {19a} by which
John, Bishop of Carlisle, was charged with resisting the authority of the
king in the matter of the patronage of the benefice of Horncastle.  That
benefice was usually in the gift of the bishop, but the rector, Simon de
Islip, had been appointed by the king Archbishop of Canterbury and, in
such circumstances, the crown by custom presents to the vacancy.  The
bishop resisted and proceeded to appoint his own nominee, but the
judgment of the court was against him.

A somewhat similar case occurred a few years later. {19b}  Thomas de
Appleby, the Bishop of Carlisle, and John de Rouseby, clerk, were
“summoned to answer to the Lord the King, that they permit him to appoint
to the church of Horncastre, vacant, and belonging to the king’s gift, by
reason of the bishopric of Carlisle being recently vacant.”  It was
argued that John de Kirkby, Bishop of Carlisle, had presented Simon de
Islip to that benefice, afterwards created Archbishop of Canterbury, and
that the temporalities (patronage, &c.) of the Bishopric of Carlisle
therefore (for that turn) came to the king by the death of John de
Kirkby, bishop.  The said bishop, Thomas de Appleby, and John de Rouseby
brought the case before the court, but they admitted the justice of the
king’s plea and judgment was given for the king.

We have said that although Walter Mauclerk, as Bishop of Carlisle, bought
this manor from Ralph de Rhodes, he and his successors were still bound
to “do suit and service” to Ralph and his heirs, and in the brief summary
with which this chapter opened we named Roger le Scrope and Margaret his
wife, with Robert Tibetot and Eva his wife, among those descendants of
Ralph de Rhodes.  We have fuller mention of them in documents which we
here quote.  In a Roll of the reign of Edward I., {19c} John, son of
Gerard de Rhodes, says “Know all, present and future, that I, John, son
of Gerard, have granted, and by this charter confirmed, to the Lord
Robert Tibetot and Eva his wife (among other things) the homage and whole
service of the Bishop of Carlisle, and his successors, for the manor of
Horncastre, with appurtenances, &c., which Gerard, son of Gerard my
brother, granted to me, &c., to have and to hold of the Lord the King . .
. rendering for them annually to me and my heirs £80 sterling.”  While in
another Roll {20a} of the reign of Richard II., the king states that
having inspected the above he confirms the grants, not only to the said
“Robert Tybetot and his wife Eve,” but also “to our very dear and
faithful Roger le Scrope and Margaret his wife,” recognizing them, it
would seem, as descendants of the earlier grantee, Gerbald de Escald,
from whom they all inherited.

Of these personages we may here say that both Tibetots and Le Scrope were
of high position and influence.  The name of Thebetot, or Tibetot, is
found in the Battle Abbey Roll, as given by the historians Stow and
Holinshed; {20b} with a slight variation of name, as Tibtofts, they were
Lords of Langer, Co. Notts., and afterwards Earls of Worcester. {20c}
According to the historian, Camden, John Tibtoft was Lord-Lieutenant of
Ireland under Henry VI., created by him Earl of Worcester, but executed
for treason. {20d}  His successor, John, was Lord Deputy under Edward IV.
{20e}  The last of the Tibetots, Robert, died without male issue; his
three daughters were under the guardianship of Richard le Scrope, who
married the eldest daughter, Margaret, to his son Roger.  This is the one
named above in connection with Horncastle.  The Tibetot property of
Langer, Notts., thus passed to the Le Scropes, and continued in that
family down to Emanuel, created Earl of Sunderland by Charles I., AD.
1628. {20f}  Castle Combe in Wiltshire was one of their residences, {20g}
but their chief seat was Bolton in Richmondshire. {20h}  William le
Scrope was created Earl of Wiltshire by Richard II., but beheaded when
that king was dethroned and murdered, in 1399. {20i}  Richard le Scrope
was Archbishop of York, but condemned by Henry IV. for treason. {20j}
The name Le Scrope also appears in the Battle Abbey Roll of the
Conqueror.  Thus in both Tibetots and Scropes Horncastle was connected
with families who played a considerable part in public life.

In the reign of Edward VI. there was a temporary change in the ownership
of this manor.  Among the Carlisle Papers is one {20k} by which that king
grants permission to Robert Aldrich, Bishop of Carlisle, to sell “to our
very dear and faithful councellor, Edward Fynes, K.G., Lord Clinton and
Saye, High Admiral of England, the lordship and soke of Horncastre, with
all rights, appurtenances, &c., to hold to himself, his heirs and assigns
for ever,” and that he, the said Edward, “can give and grant to the said
Robert, bishop, an annual rent of £28 6s. 8d.”  We have, however, in this
case an illustration of the instability even of royal decrees, in that on
the demise of that worthy prince, to whom the realm and Church of England
owe so much, his successor, Queen Mary, in the very next year, A.D. 1553,
cancelled this sale, and a document exists at Carlisle {21a} showing that
she “granted a licence,” probably in effect compulsory, to the same Lord
Clinton and Saye, “to alienate his lordship and soke of Horncastle and to
re-convey it to Robert Aldrich, Bishop of Carlisle.”

His Lordship would, however, appear to have continued to hold the manor
on lease under the bishop, and to have acted in a somewhat high-handed
manner to his spiritual superior, probably under the influence of the
change in religious sentiment between the reigns of “the bloody Mary,”
and her sister Elizabeth of glorious memory.  For again we find a
document {21b} of the reign of the latter, in which the Bishop of
Carlisle complains to Sir Francis Walsingham, the Queen’s Commissioner,
of a “book of Horncastle,” which the Earl of Lincoln (the new title of
Lord Clinton and Saye) had sent to him “to be sealed,” because (he says)
the earl, by the words of the grant, had taken from him “lands and tithes
of the yearly value of £28 6s. 8d.,” the exact sum, be it observed, above
specified as the rent to be paid by Lord Clinton and Saye to the bishop,
Robert Aldrich.  Of this, he asserts, “the see of Carlisle is seized and
the earl is not in legal possession by his lease now ‘in esse.’” {21c}
He wages his suit “the more boldly, because of the extraordinary charges
he has been at, from the lamentable scarcity in the country, the great
multitude of poor people, and other charges before he came had made him a
poor man, and yet he must go on with it . . . the number of them which
want food to keep their lives in their bodies is so pitiful.  If the Lord
Warden and he did not charge themselves a great number would die of
hunger, and some have done so,” dated Rose Castle, 26 May, 1578.

His lordship, however, did one good turn to the town of Horncastle in
founding the Grammar School, in the 13th year of the reign of Elizabeth,
A.D. 1571, although (as we shall show in our chapter on the school) this
was really not strictly a foundation but a re-establishment; as a grammar
school is known to have existed in the town more than two centuries
earlier.

We have one more record of Lord Clinton’s connection with the town, from
which it would appear that the Priory of Bullington, near Wragby, and
Kirkstead Abbey also had property in Horncastle.  A Carlisle document
{21d} shows that in the reign of Edward VI. Lord Clinton and Saye
received a grant of “lands, tenements and hereditaments in Horncastle,
late in the tenure of Alexander Rose and his assigns, and formerly of the
dissolved monastery of Bollington; also two tenements, one house, two
‘lez bark houses’ (Horncastle tanners would seem even then to have
flourished), one house called ‘le kylne howse,’ one ‘le garthing,’ 14
terrages of land in the fields of Thornton, with appurtenances lying in
Horncastle, &c., and once belonging to the monastery of Kyrkestead.”

As in other places the Clinton family seem to have been succeeded by the
Thymelbys, of these we have several records.  An Escheator’s Inquisition
of the reign of Henry VIII., {22a} taken by Roger Hilton, at Horncastle,
Oct. 5, 1512, shewed that “Richard Thymylby, Esquire, was seized of the
manor of Parish-fee, in Horncastre, held of the Bishop of Carlisle, as of
his soke of Horncastre, by fealty, and a rent of £7 by the year.”  He was
also “seized of one messuage, with appurtenances, in Horncastre, called
Fool-thyng, parcel of the said manor of Parish-fee.” {22b}  The said
Richard died 3 March, 3 Henry VIII. (A.D. 1512).  This was, however, by
no means the first of this family connected with Horncastle.  Deriving
their name from the parish of Thimbleby, in the soke of Horncastle, we
find the first mention of a Thymelby in that parish in a post mortem
Inquisition of the reign of Edward III., {22c} which shews that Nicholas
de Thymelby then held land in Thimbleby under the Bishop of Carlisle,
A.D. 1333; but nearly a century before that date a Lincoln document {22d}
mentions one Ivo, son of Odo de Thymelby, as holding under the Bishop in
Horncastle, in the reign of Henry III., A.D. 1248.

Further, in the reign of Edward I., as is shewn by a Harleian MS., in the
British Museum, {22e} Richard de Thymelby was Dean of Horncastle; Thomas,
son of the above Nicholas de Thymelby, presented to the benefice of
Ruckland in 1381, John de Thymelby presented to Tetford in 1388, and John
again to Somersby in 1394, {22f} and other members of the family
presented at later periods.  The family continued to advance in wealth
and position until in the reign of Edward VI. it was found by an
Inquisition {22g} that Matthew Thymelby, of Poolham (their chief
residence in this neighbourhood), owned the manor of Thymbleby, that of
Parish-fee in Horncastle and five others, with lands in eight other
parishes, and the advowsons of Ruckland, Farforth, Somersby and Tetford.
He married Anne, daughter of Sir Robert Hussey.  Other influential
marriages were those of John Thymelby, “Lord of Polum” (Poolham), to
Isabel, {22h} daughter of Sir John Fflete, Knt. (circa 1409); William
(probably) to Joan, daughter of Sir Walter Tailboys (circa 1432), {22i} a
connection of the Earl of Angus; Matthew’s widow marrying Sir Robert
Savile, Knt. {22j}

       [Picture: Plan of Horncastle, 1908—from the Ordnance Survey]

In connection with the marriage of William to Joan Tailboys we may
mention that the base, all that now remains, of the churchyard cross at
Tetford bears on its west side the Thimbleby arms “differenced” with
those of Tailboys, the north side having the Thimbleby arms pure and
simple. {24a}

Another important marriage was that of Richard Thimbleby (A.D. 1510) to
Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of Godfrey Hilton of Irnham Manor near
Grantham, through which alliance that property passed to the Thimblebys.
It had been granted to Ralph Paganel by the Conqueror, afterwards passed
to Sir Andrew Luterel, Knt., and later to Sir Geoffrey Hilton, Knt.
Richard Thimbleby built Irnham Hall; he was succeeded by his son and
heir, Sir John Thimbleby, who thus became the head of the family, which
has in later times become almost extinct.  This fine mansion, in the
Tudor style of architecture, standing in a deer park of more than 250
acres, was destroyed by fire, Nov. 12, 1887, being then owned by W.
Hervey Woodhouse, Esq., who bought it of Lord Clifford’s son. {24b}

Turning again to the Carlisle documents we find one of the reign of
Edward III., {24c} giving an agreement made in the King’s Court at
Westminster (20 Jan., 1353–4), “between Thomas, son of Nicholas de
Thymelby, plaintiff, and Henry Colvile, knt., and Margaret his wife,
deforciants,” whereby, among other property, the latter acknowledge that
certain “messuages, one mill, ten acres of land (_i.e._ arable), two
pastures, and £7 of rent, with appurtenances, in Horncastre, Thimilby,
and Bokeland (_i.e._ Woodhall), are of the right of the said Thomas; and
for this the said Thomas gives to the said Henry and Margaret 200 marks
of silver.”

Another document of the same reign, {24d} of date 1360–1, states that
Gilbert de Wilton, Bishop of Carlisle, “gives 60s. for the King’s licence
to remit to Thomas son of Nicholas de Thymelby, and John his younger
brother, the service of being Reeve (_i.e._ Bailiff) of the Bishop, and
other services, which are due from him to the said Bishop for lands and
tenements held of the said Bishop in Horncastre,” and elsewhere.  Another
document, {24e} dated a few years later, shews an agreement made at
Westminster, between Thomas Thymelby and his brother John, on the one
part, and Frederick de Semerton and Amice his wife, deforciants,
concerning four tofts, certain land, and £7 of rent, with appurtenances,
in Horncastre and contiguous parts, by which “the said Frederick and
Amice acknowledge these (properties) to be of the right of the said
Thomas and his brother,” and for this Thomas pays them 100 marks of
silver.  Two other Carlisle documents of considerably later date refer to
members of this same family of Thymelby, but are chiefly of value as
introducing to us a new name among Horncastle owners of land.

A Chancery Inquisition {24f} taken at Horncastle, 24 Sept., 1612, shews
that “John Kent, of Langton, was seized in his manor of Horncastell, with
the appurtenances, called Parish-fee, and certain messuages, cottages,
land and meadows in Horncastell (and elsewhere), lately purchased of
Robert Savile and Richard Thymelby,” and “held under the Bishop of
Carlisle by fealty,” . . . that “the said John Kent died 19 Sept., 1611,
and that William Kent, his son, is next heir.”

We have already seen that, about 60 years before, the widow of Matthew
Thymelby had married Sir Robert Savile; he belonged to an old and
influential family now represented by Lord Savile of Rufford Abbey,
Notts., and the Earl of Mexborough, Methley Park, Yorkshire.  By the
aforesaid marriage the bulk of the Thymelby property passed to the
Saviles, and like the Thymelbys they had their chief residence, in this
neighbourhood, at Poolham Hall, owning among many other possessions the
aforesaid sub-manor of Parish-fee in Horncastle, which, as we have seen,
was sold by their joint action to John Kent of Langton.  We have already
had mention of a John Savile who was apparently captain of the “trained
band” connected with Horncastle in the reign of Elizabeth, A.D. 1586 (see
p. 14); Gervase Holles mentions this John Savile as joint lord of
Somersby with Andrew Gedney, and lord of Tetford in the same reign.
(_Collectanea_, vol. iii, p. 770).

From another document {25a} it would seem that, some 10 or 11 years
later, Richard Thymelby and Robert Savile were involved in a more than
questionable transaction with regard to the property thus transferred.
Among the Carlisle papers is a Petition in Chancery, of which we here
give the text, slightly abridged, as it is remarkable, and fittingly
brings to a close our notices of the Thymelbys in connection with
Horncastle.

To the Right Honble. Sir Francis Bacon, Knt., Lord Chancellor of England.
Complainant sheweth, on the oath of your petitioner, Evan Reignolds, of
St. Catherine’s, Co. Middlesex, gent., and Joan his wife, that, whereas
Richard Thymelby, some time of Poleham, Co. Lincoln, Esq., deceased, was
seized of the manors of Poleham, Thimbleby, Horsington, Stixwold,
Buckland, Horncastle, Edlington (&c.), and tenements in Langton,
Blankney, Baumber, and in one pasture inclosed for 1000 sheep, called
Heirick (High-Rig, in Woodhall, near Poolham) pasture, &c., whereof
Robert Savile was seized for life, conveyed the same to his father-in-law
Robert Savile . . . the said Richard Thymelby, going up to London,
negotiated to sell the property to one Richard Gardiner, and for £2,300
engaged, at his desire, to convey all to John Wooton, the £2,300 was paid
to Richard Thymelby and bargain settled July 15, 6 Elizabeth (A.D. 1564).
{25b}  A dispute arose in the following year between Richard Thymelby and
Robert Savile, which was submitted to arbitrators (Feb. 15, 7 Elizabeth),
who ordered Richard Thymelby to pay Robert Savile £1,500, and Robert
Savile should then convey all to Richard Thymelby.  The £1,500 was paid
and afterwards the two “confederated to defraud the said Richard Gardiner
and conveyed the said manors to John Kent.”  The judgment of the court is
not given, but neither of the defendants, surely, cut a very creditable
figure, and Richard Thymelby, suitably, we must admit, passes from the
scene.

Of the Saviles we may here give a few more particulars.  Gervase Holles,
the antiquary, mentions in his _Collectanea_ (vol. iii, p. 770) John
Savile, Esq., as Lord of the Manor of Tetford, in this neighbourhood, in
the reign of Elizabeth, and as joint Lord of Somersby with Andrew Gedney,
Esq. (of the latter and his wife there is a very fine sepulchral monument
in the church of the adjoining parish of Bag Enderby).  The most
distinguished literary member of the family was Sir Henry Savile, a
learned mathematician, Fellow and Warden of Merton College, Oxford, and
Provost of Eton; a munificent patron of learning, founding Professorships
of Astronomy and Geography at his University; he wrote a _Treatise on
Roman Warfare_, but his great work was a translation of the writings of
St. Chrysostom, a monument of industry and learning; he was knighted by
James I., and his bust is carved in stone in the quadrangle of the
Bodleian Library at Oxford, among those of other benefactors.  Charles I.
conferred the Earldom of Sussex on Thomas, Lord Savile of Pontefract.
Several members of the family were Seneschals, or Stewards, of Wakefield.
George was created Marquis of Halifax, another was Baron of the
Exchequer.  The name is given in the Conqueror’s Roll of Battle Abbey
(A.D. 1066), Hollinshed’s version, as Sent Ville, in Stow’s version as
Sant Vile, while a Chancery Inquisition (of 18 Henry VII., No. 46,
_Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1895, p. 17) gives it as Say-vile, and
on the analogy of Nevill, formerly de Novâ-villâ, we may perhaps assume
that the original form was de Sanctâ-villâ (or “of the Holy City”); which
may well have been adopted by one who had made a pilgrimage to
Canterbury, Rome, or Jerusalem itself.

I should, however, add that a member of the family, Miss Elizabeth J.
Savile, who has herself dug to the roots of the genealogical tree, gives
a different version of their origin.  According to her they are descended
from the Dukes de Savelli, who again trace their lineage from the still
more ancient Sabella in Italy.  When John Savile, 2nd son of Sir John
Savile, travelled in Italy in the time of James I., the then Duke de
Savelli received him as a kinsman.  Of this family were the Popes
Honorius III. and Honorius IV.  A MS. Visitation in the British Museum
says “It is conceived, that this family came into England with Geoffrey
Plantagenet, rather than with the Conqueror, because there are two towns
of this name on the frontiers of Anjou, both of which were annexed to the
crown of England when the said Geoffrey married Maud, sole daughter and
heir of Henry I.”  This is said to have been taken from the Savile
pedigree in the keeping of Henry Savile of Bowlings, Esq., living in
1665.  The Saviles of Methley trace their descent, in the male line, from
this Sir John Savile of Savile Hall.  One branch, the Saviles of
Thornhill, are now represented in the female line by the Duke of
Devonshire, and the Savile Foljambes, one of whom is the present Lord
Hawkesbury.  The Saviles of Copley, now extinct, are represented by the
Duke of Norfolk, and a younger branch by the Earls of Mexborough.  The
opinion that they came from Anjou is generally accepted, the authorities
being _Yorkshire Pedigrees_, _British Museum Visitations_, Gregorovius,
uno frio, Panvinio, and other chroniclers.

We now proceed to notice the other persons, of more or less repute, who
were at various periods owners in Horncastle.  In the 3rd year of King
John we find Gerard de Camville paying fees for land in Horncastle by his
deputy, Hugo Fitz Richard, to the amount of £836, which was a large sum
in those days. {26a}  He was sheriff of the county, A.D. 1190, along with
Hugo. {26b}  The name, however, is more known for the celebrated defence
of Lincoln Castle by Nicholaia de Camville against the besieging forces
of King Stephen in 1191, and again in her old age against Henry III.,
assisted by Louis, Dauphin of France.  An ancestor of William de Camville
is named in the Battle Abbey Roll, among those Normans who came over with
the Conqueror.

William de Lizures and Eudo de Bavent are also named as paying similar
fees, though to smaller amounts.  The de Lizures were a powerful
Yorkshire family, who inter-married with the De Lacys of Pontefract
Castle and inherited some of their large estates. {27a}  Among these, one
was the neighbouring manor of Kirkby-on-Bain, which would seem to have
passed to the Lady Albreda Lizures; {27b} they probably derived their
name from the town of Lisieux, near Harfleur in Normandy.  We soon lose
sight of this family in England, and they seem to have migrated northward
and to have acquired lands in Scotland.  The name De Lizures is common in
Scottish Cartularies, for instance in the Cartulary of Kelso, p. 257
(_Notes & Queries_, series 2, vol. xii, p. 435).  In 1317 William and
Gregory de Lizures were Lords of Gorton, and held lands near Roslyn
Castle, Edinburgh (_Genealogie of the Saint Claires of Roslyn_, by Father
Augustin Hay, re-published Edinburgh, 1835), [_Notes & Queries_, 3rd
series, vol. i, p. 173].

The De Bavents were also a distinguished family, their connection with
Horncastle survives in the name of a field in the south of the parish, on
the Rye farm, which is called “Bavent’s Close.”  A few particulars of
this family may not be without interest.  The earliest named are Richard
de Bavent in 1160, {27c} and Eudo de Bavent in 1161, {27d} as holding the
manor of Mareham-le-Fen, in the extreme south of the Horncastle soke,
under Henry II., “by service of falconry.” {27e}  Eudo (about 1200) gave
“to God, the Cathedral, and Chapter of Lincoln,” his lands in the north
fen of Bilsby. {27f}  The family seem to have gradually increased their
possessions in this neighbourhood.  In 1290, under Edward I., we find
Jollan de Bavent holding lands in Billesby and Winceby, as well as
Mareham. {27g}  In 1319, under Edward II., Robert de Bavent holds his
land in Billesby of the King by the service of supplying “3 falcons for
the royal use,” {27h} and, under Edward III., certain trustees of Peter
de Bavent, by his will, transfer the manor of Mareham to the convent of
Revesby, to provide a monk who shall daily throughout the year say masses
“for the souls of the said Peter and Catherine, his wife, for ever.”
{27i}  Truly “L’ homme propose, et Dieu dispose,” for from this time
forward we hear little of the Bavents.  They may “call their lands after
their own names,” “Bavent’s Close” survives, but of the whilom owner we
can only say, in the words of Coleridge:

    The knight’s bones are dust,
       And his good sword rust,
    His soul is with
       The saints, we trust.

Another family of distinction connected with Horncastle was that of the
Angevines.  Among the Carlisle documents is one {27j} shewing that a
trial was held at Horncastle (A.D. 1489–90), in which Sir Robert Dymoke,
Knt., and William Angevin, Esq., recovered possession of 400 acres of
land, with tofts and appurtenances, in Horncastle and its soke, from John
Hodgisson and his wife, John Cracroft, Gervase Clifton (of Clifton) and
others.  This family probably acquired their name thus: William the
Conqueror brought to England from Normandy a body of troops called the
“Angevine auxiliaries” (from the province of Anjou), and their
descendants were granted lands in various parts of the kingdom.  One
family especially seems to have adopted this name, which was variously
spelt as Angevine, Aungelyne, Aungeby, &c.; they settled in various parts
of this county at an early period, and Horncastle being a royal manor
they naturally were located in this neighbourhood.  We find traces of
them at Whaplode in the south, Saltfleetby in the north, and
Theddlethorpe midway, in the 12th and 14th centuries. {28a}  Among
Lincoln records is the will of Robert Angevin, Gent., {28b} of Langton by
Horncastle, dated 25 April, 1545, in which he requests to be buried in
the Church of St. Margaret (then a much larger edifice than the present);
he leaves to his son land in Hameringham, and to his widow, for life, and
his four daughters, lands in Burnsall, Hebden, Conyseat and Norton, in
the County of York.  His brother, John Angevin, resided at West Ashby,
then a hamlet of Horncastle.  William Angevin, Gent., of Theddlethorpe
{28c} is named in the official list of Lincolnshire freeholders made in
1561, and the name also appears in the Visitation of 1562, but all traces
of the family disappear before the time of the commonwealth.

The same Carlisle document {28d} mentions Thomas Fitz-William as
concerned in the said dispute, as being a Horncastle proprietor; while,
further, another Carlisle document of the time of Henry VIII., shows that
Thomas Fitz-William, Esq., was seized of one capital messuage, 6 other
messuages, 4 tofts and 100 acres of land in Horncastle, held of the Prior
of Carlisle, and John Fitz-William was his heir. {28e}  The Fitz-Williams
again were a very ancient and distinguished family, the name is found in
the Battle Abbey Roll of William the Conqueror.  The family claim descent
from Sir William Fitz-Goderic, cousin of King Edward the Confessor.  His
son, Sir William Fitz-William, has been said (as the name might imply) to
have been really a natural son of William the Conqueror himself, {28f}
but the more generally accepted version is that Fitz-Goderic was his
father.  Sir William Fitz-William accompanied the Duke of Normandy to
England as Marshal of his army, and for his bravery at the battle of
Hastings the Conqueror gave him a scarf from his own arm.  A descendant,
in the reign of Elizabeth, was thrice Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; he was
also Governor of Fotheringhay Castle when the unfortunate Queen Mary of
Scotland was imprisoned there, and before she was beheaded she gave him a
portrait of herself, which is still preserved at Milton House, near
Peterborough, one of the seats of the Earls Fitz-William, who now
represent the family, Baron of Milton being their second title.  A Patent
of Edward IV. (A.D. 1461) {28g} shows that Richard Fitz-William had the
privilege granted to him by that King of “free warren” at Ulceby, near
Alford.

An Inquisition in the reign of Henry VII. {29a} (A.D. 1502) shows that
Thomas Fitz-William held the manors of Mavis Enderby, Maidenwell and
Mablethorpe.  The list of magistrates for the county in the reign of
Henry VIII. {29b} contains the name of George Fitz-William along with
Lionel Dymoke, Lord Willoughby, and others; while an Inquisition held
five years later {29c} shews that Thomas Fitz-William held the
aforementioned manor of Ulceby, by the “service of 1 falcon annually to
the King.”  Sir William Fitz-William in the same reign {29d} was Lord
High Admiral.  John Fitz-William is named in the Herald’s list of county
gentry in the 16th century as residing at Skidbrook, a hamlet of
Saltfleet Haven, {29e} and William Fitz-William, Esq., supplied “one
lance and two light horse” when the Spanish Armada was expected to invade
England, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. {29f}  William Fitz-William of
Mablethorpe {29g} married, in 1536, Elizabeth daughter of Sir Robert
Tyrwhitt, of Kettlethorpe, a member of a very old Lincolnshire family,
still owning property in this neighbourhood; and in 1644 Sir William
Wentworth, {29h} a scion of a younger branch, married Elizabeth, daughter
and co-heir of Thomas Savile, of Wakefield, whose family we have already
mentioned as connected with Horncastle.

In 1620 the head of the Fitz-William family was created an Irish Peer; in
1742 the 3rd Baron was made Baron Milton in the peerage of Great Britain;
and, 4 years later, Earl Fitz-William.  In 1782, on the death of his
uncle, the last Marquis of Rockingham, the Earl of that day succeeded to
the Yorkshire and Northamptonshire estates of the Wentworths, and in 1807
they took the name of Wentworth as an affix.  In the early part of the
19th century the name became again connected with Horncastle, when Earl
Fitz-William, grandfather of the present Earl, hunted the local pack of
foxhounds, which were kept in Horncastle, in what is still called
Dog-kennel Yard, at the back of St. Lawrence Street.  An old friend,
formerly practicing as a Doctor in Horncastle, but lately deceased, has
told the writer that he remembered seeing the Earl’s hounds breaking
cover from Whitehall Wood, in the parish of Martin.

There is one more Carlisle document deserving of quotation as it is of a
peculiar nature.  A Patent Roll of the reign of Elizabeth, {29i} A.D.
1577, records that a “pardon” was granted to “Sir Thomas Cecil, Knt., for
acquiring the manor of Langton (by Horncastle) with appurtenances, and 30
messuages, 20 cottages, 40 tofts, 4 dove-cotes, 40 gardens, 30 orchards,
1,400 acres of (cultivated) land, 100 acres of wood, 100 acres of furze
and heath, 200 acres of marsh, 40s. of rent, and common pasture, with
appurtenances, in Horncastle, Thimbleby, Martin, Thornton and Woodhall,
from Philip Tylney, Esq., by fine levied without licence.”  This was a
somewhat extensive acquisition.  We have already recorded a more than
questionable transaction in the transfer of land by Richard Thymelby and
Robert Savile, A.D. 1564, and this transaction of Sir Thomas Cecil, 13
years later, seems also to have been in some way irregular, since it
needed the royal “pardon.”

There is nothing to show who this Philip Tylney was, who acted on this
occasion as vendor, but Sir Thomas Cecil was the son of the great Lord
Treasurer Burghley, who was Secretary of State under Edward VI., and for
40 years guided the Councils of Queen Elizabeth.  Sir Thomas himself was
a high official under Elizabeth and King James I.; he was knighted in
1575, received the Order of the Garter in 1601; under James I. he was
made Privy Councillor, and having succeeded his father as Baron Burghley,
was created by James Earl of Exeter.  His brother Sir Robert also held
high office and was made in 1603 Baron Cecil, in 1604 Viscount
Cranbourne, in 1605 Earl of Salisbury.  Thomas Cecil died Feb. 7, 1622,
aged 80, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.  He married 1st Dorothy,
daughter of John Nevil, Lord Latimer, and 2nd, Frances, daughter of Lord
Chandos.  He was, doubtless, a man of large ideas and great ambition, his
royal mistress was herself Lady of the manor of Horncastle, and
Horncastle having thus been brought under his notice, he may have been
too grasping in compassing his purposes.  The Revesby Charters {30a} show
that he purchased that estate in 1575.

We may add that the Cecils were descended from an ancient family located
in Wales soon after the Norman Conquest, and acquired large possessions
in the reign of King Rufus; the 14th in descent was David Cecil of
Stamford, Sergeant at Arms to King Henry VIII., he was grandfather to the
1st Lord Burghley. {30b}  The present representatives of this old family
are the Marquis of Exeter of Burghley House, Stamford, and the Marquis of
Salisbury of Hatfield House, Herts.

We have now reached the end of a somewhat lengthy series of owners
formerly connected with Horncastle, its manor, and its soke, bringing us
down to the early part of the 17th century, and we think that few towns,
of its size, could show such a record of distinguished names.  The
information available as to more recent periods is more meagre.  The
Bishops of Carlisle continued to hold the manor down to the year 1856,
and various parties held leases of it under them, they themselves
residing here from time to time, {30c} until the episcopal palace was
demolished in 1770, when the present Manor House was erected on its site.

We have already stated that Queen Elizabeth leased the manor from the
Bishop of Carlisle of that date, she was succeeded in the lease by King
James I., who transferred it to Sir Henry Clinton, but owing to a legal
error in that transaction, it proved void.  One of the said Bishops in
the next reign was Dr. Robert Snowden, whose family were located in this
neighbourhood, his son being Vicar of Horncastle.  Abigail Snowden
married Edward, son of Sir Edward Dymoke, Knt., in 1654, and Jane Snowden
married Charles Dymoke, Esq., of Scrivelsby Court; the former belonged to
the, so called, Tetford branch of the Dymokes, who have of late years
also succeeded to the Scrivelsby property.  Bishop Robert Snowden granted
a lease of the Horncastle manor to his kinsman, Rutland Snowden, and his
assignees for three lives; but this would appear to have been afterwards
cancelled, owing to the “delinquency” of the first grantee. {31a}  The
name of this Rutland Snowden appears in the list of Lincolnshire Gentry
who were entitled to bear arms, at the Herald’s Visitation of 1634. {31b}

A break in the continuity of the sub-tenure of the manor here occurs, but
not of long duration.  The family of Banks are next found holding the
lease, under the said bishops; the most distinguished of them being Sir
Joseph Banks, the eminent naturalist, and patron of science in almost
every form; who visited Newfoundland in pursuit of his favourite study;
accompanied Captain Cook in his voyage to the South Seas; visited Iceland
with Dr. Solander, the pupil of Linnæus; made large natural history and
antiquarian collections; {31c} became President of the Royal Society; and
was largely instrumental in forming the schemes for the drainage and
inclosure of the fens; and other works of public utility.  His family
acquired the Revesby Abbey estates in 1714, and were closely connected
with Horncastle for more than a century, as he died in 1820.

One of his ancestors, also Joseph, was M.P. for Grimsby and Totnes;
another, also Joseph, had a daughter, Eleonora, who married the Honble.
Henry Grenville, and was mother of the Countess Stanhope.  Through this
last connection, on the demise of Sir Joseph, the leased manor passed, as
the nearest male relative, to Col. the Honble. James Hamilton Stanhope,
who served in the Peninsular War and at Waterloo.  He died three years
later, in 1823, and was succeeded by the late James Banks Stanhope, Esq.,
then a minor, and afterwards M.P. for North Lincolnshire; who, some years
ago, transferred all his manorial rights to the Right Honble. Edward
Stanhope, 2nd son of the 5th Earl Stanhope, and M.P. for the Horncastle
Division.  He died 22 December, 1898, and his widow, the Honble. Mrs.
Stanhope of Revesby Abbey, became Lady of the Manor; this, on her decease
in 1907 reverting to the family of the Earl Stanhope, of Chevening Park,
Sevenoaks, Kent, in the person of his son, the Honble. Richard Stanhope,
now residing at Revesby Abbey.

In 1856 the manoral rights of the Bishops of Carlisle were transferred to
the See of Lincoln, and the Bishop of Lincoln is now _ex officio_ Patron
of the Benefice.  The head of the Stanhope family is still the chief
owner of property in Horncastle; other owners being the Vicar with 92
acres, the representatives of the late Sigismund Trafford Southwell with
67 acres, representatives of the late W. B. Walter (now Majer Traves)
with 58 acres; while Coningtons, Clitherows, Rev. Richard Ward, and about
100 other proprietors hold smaller portions.  We have mentioned the
influence of Sir Joseph Banks in the drainage and enclosure of the fens,
and on the completion of that important work in Wildmore Fen, in 1813,
some 600 acres were added to the soke of Horncastle, about 80 acres being
assigned to the manor, while the glebe of the Vicar was increased so that
it now comprises 370 acres.

We conclude this chapter with another record of the past, which should
not be omitted.  It is somewhat remarkable that although Horncastle has
been connected with so many personages of distinction as proprietors, and
for about 600 years (as already shewn) with royalty itself, as an
appanage of the crown, it has only once been visited by royalty in
person.  History tells {32a} that “on Sep. 12, 1406, Henry IV. made a
royal procession” from this town (probably coming hither from Bolingbroke
Castle, his birthplace), “with a great and honourable company, to the
Abbey of Bardney, where the Abbot and monks came out, in ecclesiastical
state, to meet him,” and he was royally entertained by them.  We may
perhaps assume that as his father, John of Gaunt, had a palace at
Lincoln, {32b} he was on his way thither, where also his half brother,
Henry Beaufort, had been Bishop, but was promoted two years before this
to the See of Winchester.

The nearest approach to another royal visit was that of the Protector,
Oliver Cromwell, which however was of a private character.  Although
historians do not generally relate it, it is locally understood that,
after the Battle of Winceby, on Oct. 11, 1643, Cromwell personally came
to Horncastle to see that proper honours were paid, by the churchwarden,
Mr. Hamerton, to the body of Sir Ingram Hopton, slain on that eventful
day in single combat with Cromwell himself, who pronounced him to be “a
brave gentleman,” he having, indeed, first unhorsed Cromwell.  This visit
would seem to be further proved by the fact that a man, named John
Barber, died in Horncastle, aged 95, A.D. 1855 (or 1856), whose
grandfather remembered Cromwell, on that occasion, sleeping in the house
now called Cromwell House, in West Street (or rather an older house on
the same site); while in the parish register of West Barkwith there is an
entry of the burial of Nicholas Vickers, in 1719, with the additional
note that he “guided Cromwell over Market Rasen Moor,” in his journey
northward after the battle.  He may well, therefore, have taken
Horncastle on his way.



CHAPTER III.


Having, so far, dealt with the more or less conjectural, prehistoric
period of Horncastle’s existence in Chapter I, and with the Manor and its
ownership in Chapter II, we now proceed to give an account of the town’s
institutions, its buildings, and so forth.  Among these the Parish
Church, naturally, claims precedence.



ST.  MARY’S CHURCH.


This is probably not the original parish church.  There is no mention of
a church in _Domesday Book_, and although this is not quite conclusive
evidence, it is likely that no church existed at that date (circa 1085
A.D.); but in Testa de Nevill (temp. Richard I.) we find “Ecclesia de
Horncastre,” named with those of (West) Ashby, High Toynton, Mareham
(-on-the-Hill), and (Wood) Enderby, as being in the gift of the King;
{33a} while at an Inquisition post mortem, taken at Horncastle, 8 Richard
II., No. 99, {33b} the Jurors say that “the Lord King Edward (I.), son of
King Henry (III.), gave to Gilbert, Prior of the alien Priory of
Wyllesforth, and his successors, 2 messuages, and 6 oxgangs (90 acres) of
land, and the site of the Chapel of St. Laurence, with the appurtenances,
in Horncastre,” on condition that they find a fit chaplain to celebrate
mass in the said chapel three days in every week “for the souls of the
progenitors of the said King, and his successors, for ever.”  This chapel
probably stood near the street running northwards from the Market Place,
now called St. Lawrence Street, though, a few years ago, it was commonly
called “Pudding Lane.”  It is said to have formerly been a main street
and at the head of it stood the Market Cross.  Bodies have at various
times been found interred near this street, indicating the vicinity of a
place of worship, and, when a block of houses were removed in 1892, by
the Right Honble. E. Stanhope, Lord of the Manor, to enlarge the Market
Place, several fragments of Norman pillars were found, which, doubtless,
once belonged to the Norman Chapel of St. Lawrence. {34}

The date of St. Mary’s Church, as indicated by the oldest part of it, the
lower portion of the tower, is early in the 13th century.  “It is a good
example of a town church of the second class (as said the late Precentor
Venables, who was a good judge) in no way, indeed, rivalling such
churches as those of Boston, Louth, Spalding or Grantham; nay even many a
Lincolnshire village has a finer edifice, but the general effect, after
various improvements, is, to say the least, pleasing, and it has its
interesting features.  The plan of the church (he says) is normal; it
consists of nave, with north and south aisles; chancel, with south aisle
and north chantry, the modern vestry being eastward of this; a plain low
tower, crowned with wooden spirelet and covered with lead.  Taking these
in detail: the tower has two lancet windows in the lower part of the west
wall, above these a small debased window, and again, above this, a
two-light window of the Decorated style, similar windows on the north and
south sides, and at the top an embattled Perpendicular parapet.  The
tower opens on the nave with a lofty arch, having pilaster buttresses,
which terminate above the uppermost of two strings; the base is raised
above the nave by three steps, the font being on a projection of the
first step.  This lower portion of the tower is the oldest part of the
church, dating from the Early English period.  The chamber where the
bells are hung is, by the modern arrangement, above this lower
compartment, and is approached by a winding staircase built on the
outside of the southern wall, a slight disfigurement.”

There are six bells, with the following inscriptions:—

(1)  Lectum fuge.  Discute somnum.  G. S. T. W. H. Penn, Fusor, 1717.

(2)  In templo venerare Deum.  H. Penn nos fudit.  Cornucastri.

(3)  Supplicem Deus audit.  Daniel Hedderley cast me.  1727.

(4) Tho. Osborn fecit.  Downham, Norfolk. 1801.  Tho. Bryan and D. Brown,
Churchwardens.

(5)  Dum spiras, spera.  H. Penn, Fusor, 1717.  Tho. et Sam. Hamerton
Aeditivi.

(6)  Exeat e busto.  Auspice Christo.  Tho. Loddington, LL.D., Vicar H P.
1717.

Near the south Priest’s door, in the chancel, a bell, about 1 ft. in
height, stands on the floor, unused; this was the bell of a former clock
in the tower.  The “Pancake Bell” is rung on Shrove Tuesday, at 10 a.m.;
the Curfew at 8 p.m., from Oct. 11 to April 6, except Saturdays, at 7
p.m., and omitting from St. Thomas’s Day to Plough Monday.  The “Grammar
School Bell” used to be rung daily, Sundays excepted, at 7 a.m., but of
late years this has been discontinued, the Governors refusing to pay for
it.

The fabric of the nave is of the Decorated style, though modern in date,
with Perpendicular clerestory, having five three-light windows, on the
north and south sides.  The arcades are of four bays, with chamfered
equilateral arches, springing from shafted piers; the capitals of the two
central ones being ornamented with foliage of a decorated character; the
others being plain.  Each aisle has three three-light windows, of
decorated style, in the side wall, and a fourth at the west end; these
are modern, the north aisle having been re-built in 1820 and the south
aisle in 1821.  There are north and south porches.

The chancel arch is modern, the carving of its caps being very delicate.
On the north side the outline of the doorway, formerly leading to the
rood loft, is still visible, and below, on the west side of the chancel
wall, is a well-carved statue bracket of floriated character, which was
transferred from the chancel, and on the south side a still older one,
much plainer.

                       [Picture: St. Mary’s Church]

The east window of the chancel is said to be an enlarged copy of the east
window of the neighbouring Haltham Church.  It has five lights, with
flamboyant tracery above, and is filled with rich coloured glass, by
Heaton, Butler & Bayne; the subjects being, on the north side, above “The
Annunciation,” below “The Nativity;” 2nd light, above “The Adoration,”
below “The Flight into Egypt;” central light, above “The Crucifixion,”
below “The Entombment;” next light, on south, above “Women at the
Sepulchre;” below “Feed my Lambs;” southernmost light, above “The
Ascension,” below “Pentecost.”  In the upper tracery are “Censing Angels”
and “Instruments of the Passion.”  This window cost about £280 and is
dedicated to the memory of the late Vicar, Prebendary W. H. Milner, who
was largely instrumental in the restoration of the church, in 1861, and
died Oct. 3, 1868.  In that restoration the architect was the late Mr.
Ewan Christian, and the contractors for the work Messrs. Lea & Ashton of
Retford.  The cost of the restoration of the chancel was defrayed by J.
Banks Stanhope, Esq., as Lord of the Manor and Lay Rector, the rest being
done by subscriptions amounting to about £4,000.

The present organ was originally designed by Mr. John Tunstall, and built
by Messrs. Gray & Davidson, of London, at a cost of about £400.  As
re-constructed by Mr. Nicholson, of Lincoln, it contains 3 manuals, a
fine pedal organ with 45 stops, and more than 2,500 pipes.  It cost more
than £2,000, £1,350 of which was contributed by the late Henry James
Fielding, Esq., of Handel House, Horncastle.  At a later date a trumpet
was added, costing £120, the result being probably as fine an instrument
as any in the county.  For many years the organist was Mr. William
Wakelin, whose musical talent was universally acknowledged; on his
unfortunate sudden death, on March 1st, 1908, he was succeeded by Mr.
Hughes, recently Assistant Organist of Ely Cathedral.

Beneath the east window is a handsome carved Reredos of Caen stone,
somewhat heavy in style, having five panels, two on each side containing
figures of the four evangelists, the central subject being “The Agony in
the Garden.”  In this the figure of the Saviour is exquisitely designed;
below are the three sleeping disciples, while above are two ministering
angels, one holding a crown of thorns, the other the “cup of bitterness.”
The panels have richly crocketed canopies, the central one being
surmounted by a floriated cross.  They are filled with diaper work, and
the supporting pilasters are of various-coloured Irish marbles.  The
whole was designed by C. E. Giles, Esq., cousin of the late Vicar,
Prebendary Robert Giles.

In the jamb, south of the Communion Table, is a Piscina; in the north
wall a square aumbrey and a curious iron-barred opening, which was
probably a Hagioscope for the Chantry behind.  The present Vestry in the
north-east corner is modern, built on the site where there was formerly a
coalhouse, and, at a later date, a shed for the town fire-engine.

The Chancel has an arcade of three bays on the south side, filled with
good 14th century carved oak screen work, separating it from the
south-side chapel, said to have been anciently called “The Corpus Christi
Chapel,” and has two bays on the north, the easternmost being occupied by
the organ, separating it from St. Catherine’s Chantry; {36} the other
having similar screen work.  In the south wall of the chancel are a
Priest’s door and three four-light Perpendicular windows, with a fourth
in the east wall.  Gervase Holles states that he saw in this south-east
window figures of St. Ninian, with lock and chain, and of Saints
Crispinus and Crispinianus with their shoe-making tools. {37a}  It is
probable, therefore, that the old glass of the window was supplied by a
shoemaker’s guild.  The window is now filled with good coloured glass by
Heaton, Butler & Bayne, dedicated to the memory of the late Vicar, Rev.
Arthur Scrivenor, who died 27 August, 1882, aged 51 years.  It is of
peculiar design, the subjects being chosen to represent his life of
self-denying labour.  There are four lights with eight subjects taken
from St. Matthew’s Gospel, arranged in two tiers, as follows—(1) “Come ye
blessed of my Father;” (2) “I was an hungred and ye gave me meat;” (3) “I
was thirsty and ye gave me drink;” (4) “I was a stranger, and ye took me
in;” (5) “Naked, and ye clothed me;” (6) “I was sick, and ye visited me;”
(7) “I was in prison, and ye came unto me;” (8) “These shall go into life
eternal.”  There are eight compartments in the upper tracery, containing
the emblems of the four evangelists, and two angels, and the Alpha and
Omega.

In the north chancel wall are a Priest’s door, two five-light windows,
and one of three lights, with, at the east end, a two-light window, all
modern.  Here, externally, the parapet of St. Catherine’s Chantry is
embattled and enriched with panel work, and rises above the level of the
rest of the wall.  The clerestory of the chancel has six three-light
windows on the south side, and five on the north.  The easternmost on the
north was inserted and made larger than the others in 1861, and, at a
later date, was filled with good coloured glass by Heaton, Butler &
Bayne, as a public memorial “To the glory of God, and in memory of
Barnard James Boulton, M.D., who died March 15 1875.”  He was an active
member of the restoration committee in 1861.  The subjects are, in the
western light, “The cleansing of the leper” in the centre, “Letting down
the paralytic through the roof,” in the eastern light, “The healing of
blind Bartimæus.”

In the nave the second window from the west end of the south clerestory
is a memorial of the late Mr. W Rayson, builder, filled with good
coloured glass.  In the south aisle of the nave, the easternmost window
is a good specimen of coloured glass by Heaton, Butler & Bayne, erected
by public subscription in January, 1901, “To the glory of God, and in
grateful commemoration of the 18 years’ ministry of Canon E. F.
Quarrington,” who resigned the Vicarage in 1900.  The cost of this window
was about £80, the subject is “The Sermon on the Mount.”  The Saviour is
represented as addressing the people, grouped around Him, of all classes,
soldiers, Pharisees, disciples, travellers, young men, women, and
children, with the city in the background.  In the tracery above are
angels, with rich ruby wings, in attitudes of adoration.

The window next to this is filled with coloured glass, by Clayton & Bell,
to the memory of Mrs. Salome Fox.  In the upper tracery are the Alpha and
Omega, with the date of erection “Anno Dm’ni MDCCCXCVII.”  In the central
light below is the risen Saviour, seated on a throne, holding the emblem
of sovereignty, with the inscription over His shoulders “Because I live
ye shall live also.”  In each side light are three angels in adoration.
An inscription runs across the three lights, “I am he that liveth and was
dead, and, behold, I am alive for evermore.”  Beneath are three square
compartments, representing (1) three women, (2) three soldiers, (3) the
apostles SS. John and Peter at the sepulchre, with the inscription “Who
shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?” and again,
below all, “To the glory of God, and in loving memory of Salome Fox, who
died June 26, 1883, aged 65.”  This cost about £85.

The window at the west end of this aisle, by Heaton, Butler & Bayne, was
filled with coloured glass, by the late Mr. Henry Boulton, in memory of
his first wife, being partly paid for by a surplus of £40 remaining from
what was collected for the chancel east window, and the rest (about £40
more) by Mr. Boulton himself.  The subject is the Saviour’s baptism in
the Jordan.

In the north aisle of the nave, the easternmost window was erected in
1902, at a cost of £98, from a bequest of the late Mr. Charles Dee, as a
memorial of his friend the late Mr. Robert Clitherow.  The subject is
“The good Samaritan,” who, in the central light, is relieving the wounded
wayfarer; while, in the side lights, the Priest and Levite are
represented as passing him by.  In the two upper quatrefoils are angels
holding scrolls, with the inscriptions (1) “Let your light so shine
before men,” (2) “That they may see your good works.”  An inscription
runs across the three lights, “Blessed is he that provideth for the sick
and needy, the Lord shall deliver him in the time of trouble;” and, below
all, “To the glory of God, and in memory of Robert Clitherow, a truly
Christian gentleman, by his faithful servant.” {38}  The artists were
Messrs. Clayton & Bell.

The next window to this, also by Messrs. Clayton & Bell, is considered
the best specimen of coloured glass in the church.  It was erected by
public subscription, largely through the exertions of the late Mrs.
Terrot, then of Wispington Vicarage, near Horncastle, her husband, the
Rev. Charles Pratt Terrot, a clever artist and learned antiquary,
supplying the design.  It is inscribed “To the glory of God, and in
memory of Frederick Harwood, formerly churchwarden, who died March 12,
1874, aged 51 years.”  Mr. Harwood was an indefatigable church worker,
and died suddenly, after attending a Lent service, when he occupied his
usual seat, near this window.  It is of three lights, the subjects being
six, (1) the centre light illustrates “Charity;” a female figure above,
holding one child in her arms and leading others; while below is “Joseph
in Egypt, receiving his father, Jacob.”  (2) The west light illustrates
“Faith,” a female above, holding a cross and bible, and below “Abraham
offering his son Isaac.”  (3) The east light illustrates “Hope,” a female
above, leaning upon an anchor, and below “Daniel in the den of lions.”
The grouping of the subjects and arrangement of the canopies are
admirable.

The west window in the same aisle contains a handsome memorial, by
Preedy, of the late Vicar, Prebendary Robert Giles.  It is of three
lights, the subjects being from St. Peter’s life: (1) the south light
shewing “The net cast into the sea,” “Depart from me, &c.”; (2) the
central light, Peter’s commendation by the Saviour, “Thou art Peter,
&c.”; and (3) the north light, Peter’s release from prison, “Arise up
quickly, &c.”  The tabernacle and canopy work are good.  The cost of this
was about £140.  Mr. Giles succeeded Prebendary Milner, as Vicar, and
died 12 July, 1872.

The two lancet windows in the lower part of the west wall of the tower,
which were enlarged at the restoration, are filled with good coloured
glass.  They bear no inscriptions but are memorials of deceased younger
members of the families of the late Dr. B. J. Boulton, and of the late
Mr. Richard Nicholson.  The southern one represents “The Good Shepherd,”
carrying a lamb in his arms; the northern, “Suffer the little children to
come unto me,” shewing the Saviour receiving little children into his
arms.  Within the tower is also placed a List of Benefactors of the town;
also a frame containing the Decalogue, supported by two painted figures,
life-size, representing Aaron with his censer, and Moses with his rod; on
one side of this is the Lord’s Prayer, on the other the Apostles’ Creed.
{39a}

The roof of the nave, for some years hidden by a flat whitewashed
ceiling, is of Spanish chestnut, with finely carved figures of angels,
which support the intermediate principals.  In front of the tower arch
stands the Font, of caen stone, on octagonal base; the bowl has 8
elaborately carved panels, in three of which are engraved, on scrolls,
the words “One Lord,” “One Faith,” “One Baptism.” {39b}  The Pulpit, at
the north-east corner of the nave, is also of Caen stone, in similar
style, with four decorated panels, having, beneath the cornice, the
inscription “He that hath my word, let him speak my word faithfully;” the
book-rest is supported by the figure of an angel, with outspread wings.
The Reading Desk, on the opposite side, consists of open tracery work,
carved in modern oak.  The Lectern, an eagle of brass, was presented, in
1901, by the Misses Walter, in memory of their father, Mr. Joseph Walter,
for many years church warden. {39c}  The seats in the chancel have
handsomely carved poppy heads, and are placed east and west, instead of,
as formerly, north and south, facing west.

On the south side of the chancel arch, in the west face of the wall, is a
small stone, bearing the names of “Thomas Gibson, Vicar.  John Hamerton
and John Goake, Churchwardens, 1675.”  On the south wall of the chancel
south chapel is also an illuminated sheet of iron bearing the following
inscription to the same Vicar:—“Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Mr.
Thos. Gibson, A.M., 44 years Vicar of this parish.  He lived in such
times when Truth to the Church, and Loyalty to the King met with
punishment due to the worst of crimes.  He was by the rebellious powers
carried away prisoner four times from the garrison of Newark for a
dissenting teacher, afterwards sequestrated, and his family driven out,
by the Earl of Manchester.  He survived the Restoration, and was brought
back at the head of several hundreds of his friends, and made a
Prebendary in the Cathedral Church of Lincoln.  As his enemies never
forgave his zeal to the Church and Crown, so nothing but the height of
Christian charity could forgive the insults he met with from them.  He
died April 22, 1678.” {40a}  Above this is a shield, containing three
storks, proper, on an argent field; and with a stork, as crest.

On the north clerestory wall of the nave are tablets in memory of Jane,
wife of Thomas Taylor, to the east; in the centre to Thomas Taylor,
Surgeon, and Margaret his wife, to Mary Anne, wife of Thomas Hardy
Taylor; and to the west of these, to Anne, wife of Erasmus Middleton, to
Erasmus Middleton, and to their daughter, Grace, wife of James Weir, and
to James Weir, who died Dec. 15, 1822.  On the south clerestory wall,
westward, is a tablet to the memory of Thomas Bryan, Hannah his wife, and
their son Edward, all interred at Scrivelsby; another, to the east, is in
memory of Edward Harrison, M.D., his wife, and his brother, erected by
his nephew.

In the north aisle of the chancel is a modern, canvas, lozenge-shaped,
framed copy of an older memorial, formerly painted on the south wall, on
which are depicted the arms of Sir Ingram Hopton, with this
inscription:—“Here lieth the worthy and memorable Knight, Sir Ingram
Hopton, who paid his debt to nature, and duty to his King and country, in
the attempt of seizing the arch rebel (Cromwell) in the bloody skirmish
near Winceby, Oct. 6, 1643.” {40b}  The motto is Horatian (the first
lines from Odes iii., xiv., 14–16; the other two from Odes iv., ix.,
29–30).

             Nec tumultum,
    Nec mori per vim, metuit, tenente
       Cæsare terras.
    Paulum sepultæ distat inertiæ,
       Celata virtus.

Close to this, and above the arch leading into the nave, are a number of
scythes, some with straight wooden handles, attached to the wall, which
are said to have been used at the Winceby fight. {41a}

On the wall of the north aisle, nearest the archway into the chancel, on
a small slab of Purbeck marble, is a brass of Sir Lionel Dymoke, kneeling
on a cushion; on either side were formerly small shields displaying the
arms of Dymoke, Waterton, Marmyon, Hebden and Haydon; {41b} and on small
brasses were the figures of two sons and three daughters.  Parts of these
are now lost.  The figure of Sir Lionel is in the attitude of prayer,
from his left elbow issues a scroll with the inscription “S’cta Trinitas,
unus Deus, miserere nob.”  Beneath is another inscription, “In Honore
s’cte et individue trinitatis.  Orate pro a’i’a Leonis Dymoke, milit’ q’
obijt xvij die me’se Augusti, A° D’ni M° cccccxix.  Cuj’ a’i’e p’ piciet,
de.’  Amen.”  Below this monument, in the pavement, is a brass, now
mutilated, of the same Sir Lionel Dymoke, wrapped in a shroud, with two
scrolls issuing from the head, the lettering of which is now effaced.
Beneath is an inscription also now obliterated, but which Mr. Weir gives
as follows:—

    Leonis fossa nunc hæc Dymoke capit ossa.
    Miles erat Regis, cui parce Deus prece Matris,
    Es testis Christe, quod non jacet hic lapis iste,
    Corpus ut ornetur, sed spiritus ut memoretur.
    Hinc tu qui transis, senex, medius, puer, an sis,
    Pro me funde preces, quia sic mihi sit venie spes.

The actual suit of armour worn by this Sir Lionel Dymoke was formerly in
the church, since in the evidence taken after the “Lincolnshire Rising,”
in 1536, it was shewn that “one Philip Trotter, of Horncastle,” took it
from the church, and himself wore it, while carrying the standard at the
head of the insurgents (State Papers Domestic, Henry VIII., vol. xi, No.
967) {42a}

       [Picture: Brass of Sir Lionel Dymoke, in St. Mary’s Church]

In the Harleian MS. in the British Museum, among his “Lincolnshire Church
Notes,” Gervase Holles (circa 1640) mentions several other arms and
inscriptions, as then existing, which are now lost. {42b}

In the pavement of the former vestry, in the south chancel aisle, is a
slab with the inscription running round it, “Here lyethe the boyddes of
Thomas Raithbeck & Arne his wyf, ye founders of the Beid hous.  Departed
thys world, in ye fayth of Christ, ye last day of October, in ye yere of
our Lord, MDLXXV.”  In the pavement at the east end of the south aisle of
nave is a slab bearing the names of William Hamerton and his wife
Elizabeth, and westward of this another slab, in memory of “Sarah
Sellwood, wife of Henry Sellwood, Esq., {42c} who died Sep 30, 1816, aged
28 years.”  The late Poet Laureate, Alfred, afterwards Lord Tennyson,
married Mr. Sellwood’s daughter Emily Sarah, the marriage being
solemnised at Shiplake after the family had left Horncastle.  The
Laureate’s elder brother, Charles Tennyson, married another daughter,
Louisa, afterwards taking the additional name of Turner.  He held the
vicarage of Grasby near Caistor.

Other monuments are, on the wall of the south aisle, a tablet inscribed
“To the memory of Elizabeth Kelham, only surviving child of Richard
Kelham, Rector of Coningsby.  She was pious, virtuous, and charitable,
and died 26 Feb., 1780, aged 58.  Reader, imitate her example.  Erected
by Robert Kelham, her nephew, as a grateful acknowledgment of her regard
towards him.”  On the north wall of the chancel is a marble tablet in
memory of “George Heald, Armiger, e Consultis Domini Regis, in Curiâ
Cancellariâ.  Obiit 18 May, 1834.”  Inscriptions below are to his wife
and daughter.  Another tablet, of black marble, records the death of
Elizabeth, first wife of the Rev. John Fretwell, Curate, Dec. 4, 1784,
and of his son, Matthew Harold, Sept. 11, 1786. {44a}  Another tablet is
in memory of “Clement Madeley, DD., 42 years Vicar, who died Good-Friday,
1845, aged 73;” also of his wife Martha, who died 1807, and of his son
Houghton, who died 1838, erected by his daughter, M. A. Dymoke, {44b}
wife of Rev. John Dymoke, Champion.

In a glass covered case in the north aisle of the chancel are three
volumes of Foxe’s _Book of Martyrs_, 1632 edition, these were formerly
chained to a desk, and parts of the chains remain.  They were given by
Nicolas Shipley, gentleman, in 1696, who also presented a brass
chandelier of 24 sockets; he was among the benefactors to the poor of the
town.  The present glass case and desk on which the case rests, were
given by the late Vicar, the Rev. A. Scrivenor.  Along with these vols.
are “The History of the Old and New Testaments, gathered out of sacred
scripture and writings of the fathers, a translation from the work of the
Sieur de Royaumont, by several hands.  London, printed for R. Blome, I.
Sprint, John Nicholson and John Pero, 1701.”  There are some good old
engravings of “The Work of Creation,” “The Temptation and Fall of Man,”
“The Expulsion from Paradise,” “The Murder of Abel,” “Ishmael Banished,”
&c.  The first of these is dedicated to “Her sacred Majesty, Mary, by the
grace of God, Queen of England, Scotland, France, Ireland, &c., by Her
Majesty’s most obedient servant Richard Blome.”  The next is dedicated to
“Her sacred Majesty Katherine, Queen Dowager of England,” by the same;
another is dedicated to “Her Royal Highness Ann, Princess of Denmark;”
and other plates are dedicated to various Lincolnshire worthies, some of
these are rather damaged, and the fine old bible is imperfect.

Various old documents may here be quoted, which give items of interest
connected with this church.  In _Lincolnshire Wills_, 1st series, edited
by Canon A. R. Maddison, F.S.A., 1888, is that of James Burton of
Horncastle, of date 9 June, 1536, which mentions the lights burnt in the
church at that time before different shrines; these were in all 23, of
which 7 were in honour of the blessed virgin, one was called “The light
of our Lady of Grace,” another “Our Lady’s light at the font.”  Mention
is also made of a “St. Trunyan’s light;” this last saint is connected
with a well at Barton-on-Humber, but nothing further is known of him
under that name.  It has been suggested that it is a corruption of St.
Ninian (_Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. i, 149), and in connection with
this it is interesting to refer to the fact that Gervase Holles, whose
description of Horncastle windows we have already quoted, states that
there was a window to St. Ninian placed in the chancel south aisle, by
the Guild of Shoemakers.  Here, then, it is possible, the “St. Trunion’s”
or St. Ninian’s “light” may have been burned, as the emblem of some
whilom Horncastrian’s faith.

A Chancery Inquisition post mortem, 19 Richard II., No. 83 (11 Dec.,
1395), shows that Albinus de Enderby and others assigned a messuage, with
appurtenances, in Horncastle, to pay a chaplain to say daily masses in
the church of the blessed Mary, for the soul of Simon de Dowode, and
other faithful deceased.  Wood Enderby was at that time a chapelry
attached to Horncastle Church.

The right of sanctuary, enjoyed by felons, who sought refuge in a church,
was a very ancient institution, dating from Saxon times, and only
abolished by James I., in 1621, because the great number of churches in
the country rendered it so easy a matter for highwaymen, then very
numerous, to avail themselves of the privilege, that justice was too
often defeated and crime encouraged.  According to custom, if the
offender made confession before a coroner, within 40 days, and took the
prescribed oath at the church door, that he would quit the realm, his
life was spared.  A Close Roll, 13 Henry III., Aug. 22, 1229, states that
the King, at Windsor, commands the Sheriff of Lincolnshire (Radulphus
filius Reginaldi) to send two coroners to see that a robber who keeps
himself in the church at Horncastle abjures the kingdom, (_Lincs. Notes &
Queries_, vol. i, p. 49).  It is a somewhat curious coincidence, that a
similar document, of date 16 Henry III., Aug. 22, 1232, only three years
later, records a similar incident; and the malefactor is ordered to “make
the assize, and abjuration of the kingdom, according to the custom of the
land and according to the liberties granted to Walter, Bishop of
Carlisle,” (_Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. iv, p. 58).  We have the
explanation of this later instruction in a Memoranda Roll of 4 Ed. III.,
1330, which states that Henry III. granted, by charter dated 16th July,
in the 15th year of his reign, to Walter, Bishop of Carlisle, and his
successors, that they should claim “all chattels of felons and fugitives
within their manors,” the crown giving up all claim to the same in their
favour; and the case is added of Robert Mawe, a fugitive, whose chattels
were demanded by the Bishop, and £34 exacted on that account “from the
township of Horncastre.”

It is remarkable that the two cases, above quoted, should have occurred
at the same date, August 22.  An explanation of this has been suggested
in the fact that an old calendar shows that August 22 was a day sacred to
St. Zaccheus; and as that saint set the example of restoring four-fold
what he had unlawfully taken, that day may have been selected for the
robber to surrender his chattels in reparation of his offence.  A not
improbable explanation, however, may be found in the fact that the great
August fair, established by Royal Charter, closed on August 21st, and
unruly characters were often left, as dregs of such gatherings in the
place, murders even being not uncommon.  By charter of the same king the
Bishop of Carlisle had power to try felons at Horncastle, and a spot on
the eastern boundary of the parish is still known as “Hangman’s Corner,”
where those who were capitally convicted in his court were executed.

We give elsewhere a list of the Incumbents of St. Mary’s, but we may here
refer to probably the most distinguished of them all.  A Patent Roll, of
date 11 June, 1344 (18 Edward III.), states that Thomas, Bishop of
Lincoln (N.B.  This was Thomas Bec, consecrated July 7, 1342, died Feb.
1, 1346, buried in the north transept of the Cathedral), “by command of
the Most Holy Father, Pope Clement VI., reduces the taxation of the
church at Horncastle, with the chapels of Askeby (West Ashby), Upper
Tynton (High Toynton), Maring (Mareham-on-the-Hill), and Wod Enderby, to
the same church annexed, to the sum of 50 marks (£33 6s. 8d.), which were
previously taxed at the immoderate sum of £77 sterling.”  This is stated
to be done “of the sincere love with which we value our very dear clerk,
Master Simon de Islep, parson of the church aforesaid.”  This is also
confirmed to “his successors, parsons or rectors, of the said church.
Witness the King, at Westminster.”  The merits of this worthy, so valued
by the Holy Father, not long afterwards received further recognition,
since in 1350, only 6 years later, he was promoted to the highest dignity
in the land, next to the sovereign himself, as Archbishop of Canterbury.
{46}  An earlier Rector, John de Langton, had been made Bishop of
Chichester, A.D. 1305.  These are the only incumbents of Horncastle who
have attained the Episcopal Bench, (_Horncastle Register Book_, edited by
Canon J. Clare Hudson, 1892).

The promotion of the Rector, Simon de Islep, led to more than one
lawsuit.  The Bishop of Carlisle, being at that time heavily in debt, as
Lord of the manor, to which, as has already been stated, the advowson of
the church of St. Mary was attached, had in January, 1347–8 granted the
manor to Hugh de Bole, and others, on their annual payment of £129 19s.
2½d, for three years.  On the vacancy thus occurring the Bishop was
summoned to appear at Westminster, before Justice John de Stonor, and
others, to answer to William Widuking, of Saundeby, executor of the will
of the said Hugh de Bole, who claimed, as tenant of the manor, the right
to nominate to the vacant benefice.  The Bishop resisted this claim, and
the case was argued before the King’s Bench, in Hilary term, 1350, when
the Bishop was defeated, the claim of William Widuking being allowed.
(County Placita, Lincoln, No. 46.  Pleas at Westminster, 24 Ed. III.,
roll 104.)

Seventeen years later, on the death of John de Kirkby, Bishop of
Carlisle, who had presented Simon de Islep to Horncastle, the
temporalities of the bishopric for the time lapsed to the King; and
Thomas de Appleby, the succeeding Bishop, with John de Rouceby, clerk
(who afterwards became Rector of Horncastle), were summoned to answer to
the King, that the King be allowed, through the said lapse, to appoint to
the vacant Benefice of St. Mary.  The Bishop and John de Rouceby brought
the case before the court, but they admitted the justice of the King’s
plea, and judgment was given for the King.  (De Banco Roll, 41 Ed. III.,
in. 621.)  Apparently, as a compromise, the King appointed John de
Rouceby.  This John de Rouceby, while Rector of Horncastle, was murdered
on the high road to Lincoln in 1388, (_Horncastle Register Book_, p. 2).

We may here observe, that in the above documents, the Incumbent of St.
Mary’s Church is styled “Parson” or “Rector,” not, as he is at the
present day, “Vicar.”  On this change of status we are able to give the
following particulars.  Among the Bishop “Nicholson MSS.,” which are in
the custody of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, and consist of extracts
from the old “Bishops’ Registers,” it is stated (vol. iv, p. 349) that
Bishop Stern of Carlisle, under agreement with the Bishop of Lincoln (Dr.
Robert Sanderson) in 1660, appropriated the Rectorial appurtenances of
the Benefice of St. Mary to the See of Carlisle.  This, however, would
seem to be only a confirmation, or renewal, of what had been done long
before, since as far back as 1313, the Bishop of Carlisle petitioned the
Pope, to allow the church revenues of St. Mary, Horncastle, to be
appropriated to that See, which had been “wasted by war and other
calamities;” the Rector of the day only stipulating for a _pensio
congrua_ being reserved to him for his lifetime.  (Carlisle Episcopal
Registers, xix, p. 181 b).  This was repeated about 1334 (_Ibid._, p.
187, a.  Quoted _Horncastle Register Book_, p. 2).  The title Rector
accordingly disappears and from about 1400 only that of Vicar is used,
the Bishops of Carlisle themselves having become the “Rectors.”  Early in
the 19th century (21 March, 1803) the Bishop of Carlisle leased the
manor, with appurtenances, to Sir Joseph Banks, and his representatives
are now Lay Rectors.

The appointment of one of the early Rectors is a sample of the abuses
connected with Papal supremacy in those times.  Peter de Galicia was
nominated Rector in May, 1313, he was a foreigner and probably drew his
income without ever residing at Horncastle.  Having influence at the
Papal Curia, he negociated for the Bishop of Carlisle the transfer of the
Rectorial appurtenances of Horncastle to that See; only, as has been
stated, taking care that he had his own _pensio congrua_.  Becoming
dissatisfied with the benefice he ultimately exchanged it for the Rectory
of Caldbeck in the diocese of Carlisle.  These proceedings are given at
length in Bishop de Kirkby’s Register; his Italian name was Piero de
Galiciano.  He was succeeded in 1334 by Robert de Bramley, Rector of
Caldbeck.  (Carlisle Episcopal Registers, quoted _Lincs. Notes &
Queries_, vol. v, pp. 244–5).

Horncastle was one of the centres of disturbance at the time of the
“Lincolnshire Rising” (already referred to) or “Pilgrimage of Grace,” in
1536, and St. Mary’s Church was the main cause of the local agitation.
William Leche, brother of the parson of Belchford, was a ringleader in
the town.  The plundering of churches, by the King’s “visitors,” for the
“valor ecclesiasticus,” on the plea of regulating ceremonial, but more
really with a view to replenishing the royal coffers, was the great
grievance with the people.  Much evidence on the subject is found among
State Papers Domestic, vol. xi, 28 Henry VIII.  One witness, Edward
Richardson of Thimbleby, states that William Leche, on Tuesday, 2nd Oct.,
“stirred the people to rise to save the church jewels from the Bishop’s
officers,” who were acting by the King’s orders, the Bishop being the
King’s confessor.  Robert Sotheby of Horncastle, being sworn before Sir
Anthony Wyngffeld and Sir Arthur Hopton, says that “David Benet, a wever,
rang the comon bell,” to rouse the people.  The said Robert stated that
he and William Bywater, being churchwardens, were going to see the work
of the plumbers, and in the meantime the said Davy rang the common bell;
and that “William Leche was the first begynner and sterer of the whole
rysinge there.”  The mob marched about with a standard, carried by Philip
Trotter, clad in the armour of Lionel Dymoke, which he had taken from the
church of St. Mary.  The devices on the standard were “a plough,” to
encourage the husbandmen; the “challice and Host,” because the church
plate and jewellery were to have been taken away; the “wands” were to
encourage the people “to fight in Cristis cause;” the “horn” betokening
Horncastle.

About 100 persons marched to Scrivelsby, and threatened to drag out
Edward Dymoke, the sheriff, and other gentlemen.  The sheriff, Thomas
Dymoke, Robert Dighton, and one Saundon, afterwards went into the field,
and conversed with Leche, who said the Rising was because the Visitors
would take the church goods.  The mob took the old gentleman, Sir William
Saundon, and “harried him forth by the arms towards Horncastell, till
from hete and weryness he was almost overcum.”  A horse was brought for
him by one Salman of Baumbrough, but one of the rebels strake the horse
on the head, so that both horse and rider fell to the ground, and they
then said he must “go afote as they did.”  He was afterwards confined in
the “Moot Hall,” at Horncastle, and “they sware him, whether he woll, or
no.”  Many witnesses testified to the activity of Leche, in going to
private houses and inducing the men to join, and that the gentlemen only
joined from fear of violence.  Richard Mekylwhite of Horncastle was
accused by Thomas Lytellbury, that he was “a great procurer” (of men),
and was “one of the causers of George Wolsey’s death,” (a servant of the
late Cardinal Wolsey).

William Leche, with a great company, went to Bolingbroke, to take the
Bishop’s Chancellor, Dr. John Rayne, who was lying there, sick; he was
brought on horseback to Horncastle amid cries of “kill him! kill him!”
He begged Philip Trotter to save him, who said he would do what he could;
the Chancellor gave him xxs., but he in effect did the reverse of helping
him.  On reaching the outskirts of the town, “many parsons and vicars
among” the rebels cried “kill him!” whereat William Hutchinson and
William Balderstone, of Horncastle, “pulled him viantly of his horse,
kneling upon him, and with their staves slew him.”  The Vicar of Thornton
gave xvs. to the rebels.  The Vicar of Horncastle, at that time John
Haveringham, seems to have avoided being mixed up with this movement, as
many of his brethren were.  The whole affair barely lasted a week, and it
does not appear that the church plate suffered.  The King issued a
proclamation from Richmond, 2 December following, that he pardoned all
except the wretches in ward at Lincoln, T. Kendal the Vicar of Louth, and
William Leche of Horncastle.

For a final notice of old records connected with the church, we may
mention a matter of less importance, but one which we can hardly realise,
in these days of religious liberty, when everyone is “a law unto himself”
in matters of faith, and even largely in practice.  The parish book of
the adjoining Thimbleby, which is in the soke of Horncastle, shews that,
as late as the year 1820, the parish officials ordered all paupers, in
receipt of parish relief, to attend the church services, on pain of
forfeiting the aid granted; and cases are named where the payment was
stopped until the offender had given satisfaction.  The State Papers
Domestic of 1634 show that, at Horncastle, there was a like strictness.
Luke Burton of this town was fined 1s. for being “absent from divine
service,” and again a like sum as “absent from prayers.”  Even “a
stranger, a tobacco man,” was fined 1s. for the same offence; and 3s. 4d.
for “tippling in time of divine service.”  John Berry, butcher, was fined
1s. “for swearing.”  Simon Lawrence, for selling ale contrary to law, was
fined 20s.; the same “for permitting tippling, 20s.;” while for “selling
ale without a licence,” William Grantham and Margaret Wells were
“punished upon their bodies.”  (State Papers Domestic, vol. 272, No. 23,
Chas. I.)

             [Picture: Ancient Scythes in St. Mary’s Church]



RECTORS AND VICARS.


We here give a list of these as compiled by Canon J. Clare Hudson, in his
1st volume of the _Horncastle Parish Register Book_, 1892.

A.D.                                  RECTORS.

1236–7        Geoffrey de Leueknor by the Bishop of Carlisle
              (admitted on condition it be found the same church with
              the churches of [Wood] Enderby, and [High] Toynton and
              another, which Osbert the last rector held, be one
              benefice).

1239–40       (Delegates of the Pope in a dispute between G. parson
              of the church of Horncastre and Francis, parson of the
              church of [West] Askeby, concerning the church of
              Askeby, decide that G[eoffrey] and his successors, are
              to hold the church of Askeby, and pay to Francis
              annually for life 27 marks sterling, and the bishop
              confirms this ordinance)

1246          Adam de Kirkby.

12--          Ralph Tulgol.

1275          Hugh de Penna (otherwise Hugh de la Penne, Assize Roll,
              4 Ed. I.  _Lincs._ _Notes & Queries_, iv, p. 220).

1295          John de Langton.

1305          Gilbert de Haloughton.

1313          Peter de Galicia.

                                      VICARS.

1334          Robert de Bramley.

13--          William de Hugate.

1349          Simon de Islep, _resigned_ in 1349, on becoming
              Archbishop of Canterbury.

1357          William de Hugate, presented by Gilbert, Bishop of
              Carlisle, on exchange.

1369          John de Rouceby.

1388          William Stryckland.

1401          Thomas Carleton, Chaplain.

1445          Robert Somercotes.

14--          John Eston.

1492          John Ffalconer.

1517          Richard Denham.

1524          Barnard Towneley.

1531          Robert Jamys, Chaplain.

1535          John Havringham.

15--          Arthur Layton.

1538          Peter Wallensis.

1557          Henry Henshoo, or Henshaw.

1560          Clement Monke. {50}

1584          Francis Purefey.

1587          Richard Foster.

1593          John Jackson.

1595          Robert Hollinhedge.

1634          Thomas Gibson.

1678          John Tomlinson.

1678–9        Thomas Loddington.

1724          James Fowler.

1779          Joseph Robertson.

1802          Clement Madely.

1845          Thos. James Clarke.

1853          Wm. Holme Milner.

1868          Robert Giles.

1872          Arthur Scrivenor.

1882          Edwin Fowler Quarrington.

1900          Alfred Edgar Moore.

For some of the earlier details I am indebted to the Rev. W. O.
Massingberd.

The Parish Registers of Horncastle are of some interest.  They date from
1559, the year following the “Injunction” issued by Queen Elizabeth (the
3rd of its kind) ordering the regular keeping of such records; similar,
earlier, though less stringent, orders having been made in 1538, 1547 and
1552.  Besides the records of baptisms, marriages and burials, there are
occasional notes on peculiar passing events, which we may here notice.
One of these occurs in 1627, “Upon Monday, beinge the xxviijth day of
January was a great Tempest of Winde, the like hath not often been in any
age; like wise upon Friday the 4th of November 1636 in the night time
there happened a more fearful (wind than) before.

Mr. Weir, in his _History of Horncastle_, quotes a note (folio 42 b of
the Register): “On the vth daie of October one thousand six hundred and
three, in the ffirst yere of oure Sov’aigne Lord King James was holden in
Horncastell Church a solemnn fast from eight in the morning until fower a
clock in the after noone by five preachers, vidz. Mr. Hollinghedge, Vicar
of Horncastell, Mr. Turner of Edlington, Mr. Downes of Lusbye, Mr.
Philipe of Solmonbye, Mr. Tanzey of Hagworthingha’, occasioned by a
generall and most feareful plague yt yere in sundrie places of this land,
but especially upon the Cytie of London.  p’r me Clementem Whitelock.”
(Parish Clerk.)

We may observe that at this time there perished in London more than
30,000 persons; but the great plague, or “black death,” occurred 61 years
later (1664–5), which carried off from 70,000 to 100,000 persons.
Between these periods, and previously, various parishes in our
neighbourhood suffered from this visitation; for instance at Roughton,
which is in the soke of Horncastle, there were 43 burials, including
those of the Rector and two daughters, in the year 1631–2; while in the
adjoining parish of Haltham (also in the soke) although there was no
increase of mortality at that date, there had been 51 deaths in the year
1584; there being a note in the register for that year, “This yeare
plague in Haltham.”  The turn, however, for Horncastle came in the year
1631, when the register shows that between May 3 and Sep. 29, there were
no less than 176 deaths; in one case 7 in a family (Cocking), 5 in a
family (Halliday), in other cases 4 (Joanes), and again (Hutchinson) 4,
(Fawcitts) 4, (Cheesbrooke) 4, &c.  In August alone there were 86 deaths,
and not a single marriage through all these months, whereas the following
year there were only 25 deaths in the whole twelve months.  Truly
Horncastrians were, at that dread time, living with the sword of Damocles
hanging over them.  A note in the margin in this year is as follows,
“Oct. 5th, buryalls since July 23, 144; burialls since Easter 182.”

We have already given the history of the Vicar, Rev. Thos. Gibson, he is
referred to in the two following notes in the Register.  At the end of
folio 81a (1635) we find, after the signature of himself and
churchwardens, “Thomas Gibson, Clerk, Master of the free school of
Newcastel uppon Tine, one of the Chapleins of the Right Reverend Father
in God Barnabas, by Divine P’vidence Lo. Bpp. Carliel, presented by the
said Lo. Bpp., was inducted into this Vicarage of Horncastel April xiiij,
1634.”  At the end of folio 85a (1639) after similar signatures is this:
“The sd Mr. Thomas Gibson, being outed of Horncastle by Cromwell’s
Commissioners, removed to Nether Toynton, lived there one yeare, after
restored againe, taught some Gentlemen sonnes in his owne house, was
afterward called to ye scole at Newark, where he continued one yeare,
then was importuned to Sleeford, whether he went ye week after Easter
1650, continued there until May ye first 1661; then, the King being
returned, he returned to his Vicaridge, and was by Doctor Robert
Sanderson, Bishop of Linkcoln made Preban of Saint Mairie Crakepoule in
the Church of Linkcoln.”

It may be observed that the spelling in those times, the entries
doubtless being often made by the parish clerk, was rather phonetic than
orthographic.  Many names occur which still survive, but here spelt
variously, for instance Fawssett has been a name well known in Horncastle
in modern times in a good position, in town and county, here we find it
in generation after generation as Fawcet, Fawset, Faucitt, &c.  The name
Raithbeck is of continual occurrence, it is now probably represented by
Raithby.  Castledine occurs several times, being probably the phonetic
form of the modern Cheseltine.  The present name Chantry appears as
Chauntry.  Palfreyman, or Palfreman, occurs on several occasions, they
were of a respectable family in the county, William Palfreyman being
Mayor of Lincoln in 1534; Ralph Palfreyman, clerk, was presented to the
Benefice of Edlington, by his brother Anthony, merchant of the Staple,
Lincoln, in 1569.

In folio 69a (1628) is the entry “Tirwhitt Douglas, daughter unto Mr.
George Tirwhitt, christened Jan. 8.”  Her father George Tyrwhitt was a
scion of the old county family of the Tyrwhitts of Kettleby, Stainfield,
&c., by Faith, daughter of Nicholas Cressy of Fulsby, who married
Frances, daughter of Sir Henry Ayscough, of another very old county
family.  She was named Douglas, though a female, after her kinswoman,
Douglas, daughter of William, first Lord Howard of Effingham.  Her sister
married Sir Edward Dymoke of Scrivelsby.  She herself is mentioned among
the benefactors to the poor of Horncastle, as leaving a charge of 10s. on
a farm at Belchford, as an annual payment, on her death in 1703.

Another name of frequent occurrence, though now extinct, is that of
Hamerton.  John Hamerton (as already stated) is mentioned, with John
Goake, on a tablet inserted in the wall on the south side of the chancel
arch, as being churchwarden in the vicariate of Thomas Gibson, in 1675,
and throughout the early registers successive generations of this family
are recorded.  They may have been humble scions of the Hamertons, of
Hamerton, Yorkshire, a branch of whom were among the landed gentry near
the Scottish border; but at Horncastle they were engaged in trade.  John
Hamerton, christened Dec. 10, 1575, whose probable father, another John
Hamerton, was buried Sep. 3, 1584, married Feb. 2, 1613, Grace Broxholme,
whose father John Broxholme is described as “Gent” in 1611.  Thomas
Hamerton in 1603 was a draper, another Thomas Hamerton in 1613 was a
“yoman,” John in 1615 was a tanner, Thomas in 1606 and 1617 was a tanner,
Robert son of Thomas in 1619 was a tanner, William in 1620 was a glover.
In 1630, Thomas, buried Jan. 24, is designated “Mr.”  On June 16, 1633,
Katherine Hamerton is married “by Licence” to George Colimbell.  A rise
in status is indicated by the two latter entries, and accordingly, in the
records of the neighbouring parish of Edlington we find “Geo. Hamerton,
gent., and Sarah Hussey married July 21, 1699;” the Husseys being
probably connected with the county family, the head of which was Lord
Hussey of Sleaford.  The John Hamerton, churchwarden in 1675, was born
Jan. 22, 1636, son of John and Dorothy Hamerton.  The marriage of the
parents is not given in the register, the father therefore probably
married an “outener,” as they are provincially termed.  The interesting
point however in connection with this family is, that although they have
long ago been extinct, they have left their mark behind them still
surviving in the town.  Near the junction of East Street with South
Street there still exists at the back of the second shop, in the former
street (a repository for fancy needlework), a room lined with good oak
wainscoting, with finely carved mantelpiece, over which is an
inscription, richly carved in relief, with the letters “A° Di” to the
left, and to the right the date “1573;” while above, in the centre, are
the initials “J H” and “M H;” separated by a floriated cross and
encircled by a wreath.  This would doubtless be John Hamerton and his
wife Mary (or Margaret) Hamerton, the original builders of the house.
Two doors beyond is Hamerton Lane, and the title deeds, which the present
writer has inspected, show that the whole of this block of buildings now
forming five shops and two private residences, once formed one large
dwelling place, belonging to the Hamerton of that day, with a frontage in
East Street of more than 20 yards, and in South Street of 70 or 80 yards,
with extensive back premises and gardens attached.  The J.H. and M.H., of
whom we have here such interesting relics, were probably the grandfather
and grandmother of the John Hamerton of the time of the Commonwealth and
Charles II., and the extent of the buildings occupied by them show that
they were wealthy.

Tanning was at one time the chief trade of the town, there being within
the writer’s recollection several tan yards, now no longer existing.  The
Bain water was said to be specially suited for this purpose.  We have
seen that several of the Hamertons were tanners, and they had evidently
prospered in their calling.

One more name in the register deserves a brief notice, that of Snowden
(spelt there Snoden).  We have, at various dates, from 22 Oct. 1629,
onwards, the baptisms of the whole family of Mr. Rutland Snowden, and the
burials of some of them.  The Snowdens were originally a Notts. family,
of the smaller gentry class, but Robert Snowden, third son of Ralph
Snowden, of Mansfield Woodhouse, became Bishop of Carlisle, and, ex
officio, Lord of the Manor of Horncastle.  The Bishops of Carlisle had,
as has been already stated, a residence in Horncastle, near the present
Manor House, and the Bishop’s widow, Abigail, probably resided there.  In
her will, dated 15 April, 1651, and proved 7 May in the same year, she
mentions her sons Rutland and Scrope; there was also another son Ralph.
Rutland married on Xmas day, 1628, Frances, widow of George Townshend,
Esq., of Halstead Hall, Stixwould, and Lord of the Manor of Cranworth,
Norfolk, by whom he had a large family.  His granddaughter, Jane Snowden,
married Charles Dymoke, Esq., of Scrivelsby; she died childless and
founded and endowed the village school and almshouses at Hemingby.
Another granddaughter, Abigail, married Edward Dymoke, younger son of Sir
Edward Dymoke, of Scrivelsby, as shewn by the register there, on 18 July,
1654, and she thus became ancestress of the Tetford branch of the
Dymokes, now also of Scrivelsby.

Rutland Snowden, who graduated B.A. at Christ’s College, Cambridge,
1617–8, took his M.A. degree at St. John’s College, Oxford, 1623, and was
admitted a member of Gray’s Inn in the same year.  He was buried at
Horncastle, 1654 (_Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. iv, pp. 14–16).  That
was a period of national disturbance, and the people of Horncastle, with
the Winceby fight of 1643, were more or less drawn into the vortex.
Abigail Snowden, widow of Bishop Robert of Carlisle seems to have been
brought into much trouble, owing to her son, Rutland, having espoused the
Royalist cause.  Among Exchequer Bills and Answers (Chas. I., Lincoln,
No. 86) is a petition shewing that Francis, Bishop of Carlisle, leased to
Rutland Snowden and his assignees, for three lives, the manor, lands,
parsonage, and other premises at Horncastle, on payment of £120.
Subsequent proceedings would seem to imply that this lease was previously
granted to the said Abigail herself, as shewn by the following: “To the
Honourable the Commissioners for compounding with delinquents.  The
Humble Petition of Abigail Snowden, widow, sheweth that Richard Milborne,
late Bishop of Carlisle, did, 22 Sep., 1623, for valuable consideracions,
demise the manor and soke of Horncastle (parcel of ye lands of ye
Bishopricke) unto your petitonr, during the lives of Rutland Snoden,
Scroope Snoden, and George Snoden, and for the life of the longest of
them; that the said demise being allowed good unto her by the trustees .
. . yet hath bene, and is, sequestrated, for the delinquensie of the said
Rutland Snoden . . . the petitioner prayeth . . . that your petitioner
may have releife . . . as to you shall seem meet.  And yr petitioner will
praie, &c.  Abigail Snoden, 24 Nov., 1650.”  A note adds that the matter
was “Referred to Mr. Brereton, to examine and report.”

It was reported on by Peter Brereton, 31 Jan. following (Royalist
Composition Papers, 1st series, vol. 58, No. 515).  As this is a fair
sample of the treatment by the Parliamentary officials of Royalist
“delinquents” and their friends, we here give further particulars.

A similar petition was presented by “John Bysse, gent.” (given in
Royalist Composition Papers, 1st series, vol. 8, No. 167).  Further,
Abigail Snowden bequeathed her interest in the above lease to Thos.
Toking, who was of Bucknall and of Ludgate Hill, London.  Accordingly,
two years later, we have another attempt at recovery, as follows: “To the
Honourable Commissioners for compounding with Delinquents.  The humble
petition of Thomas Toking, of Co. Lincoln, gent., sheweth, that a lease
was made to him by Abigail Snowden, widow, deceased, of the manor, &c.,
&c., which had been sequestered many years, for the delinquency of
Rutland Snowden . . . and that he (T. Toking) has more to offer, for the
clearing of his title.  He prays therefore for a commission of enquiry.
21 Oct., 1652.”  Reply: “not sufficient proof.”

The said Thos. Toking again petitions, stating, that he is willing, to
avoid further trouble, to submit to “a reasonable composition.”  This is
again “referred to Mr. Brereton,” 7 Feb., 1653.  On 21 Sep., 1653, the
order was issued that “the Petitioner be admitted for compounding.”
Again “Referred to Mr. Brereton.”  The result, however, was that Mr.
Thomas Toking died before obtaining the “relief” petitioned for.

N.B.  Besides the “delinquency” of having “adhered to, and assisted, ye
forces against the Parliament,” it was charged against Rutland Snowden
that he had “more wives than one.”  He “rendered his estate in fee” at
Horncastle, in Nov., 1645, for which his fine, at one-tenth was £188
(Royalist Composition Papers, 1st series, fol. 113).  His son, a second
Rutland Snowden, was among the Benefactors of Horncastle, as he
bequeathed to the poor of the town, 1682, “one house of the yearly rent
of 26s.,” to be “paid in bread, 6d. every other Sunday;” a considerably
larger sum at that time than now.

We find the names of Rutland Snoden of Horncastle, and Scrope Snoden of
Boston, in the list of Lincolnshire Gentry, entitled to bear arms, made
by the Heralds, at their Visitation in 1634; along with other well known
names in the neighbourhood, such as Dymoke, Heneage, Laugton,
Massingberd, Tyrwhitt, &c. (_Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. i, p. 106).
The Snowden arms are said, in Yorke’s _Union of Honour_, to have been
“Azure a lion rampant, or.” (_Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. iv, p. 16).

                       [Picture: The Old Vicarage]

The Vicarage of St. Mary’s Church formerly stood at the north-east corner
of the churchyard, forming part of a block of small houses.  It was a
poor residence, but occupied until his death in 1845, by the Vicar,
Clement Madely, DD.  The whole block was, about that time, taken down,
the space being, later on, covered with the present substantial
buildings.  His successor, Rev. T. J. Clarke, rented a good house in
South Street, now occupied by Mrs. Howland.  Mr. Clarke was succeeded by
the Rev. W. Holme Milner, in 1853, and he built the present vicarage.

St. Mary’s Churchyard was closed, for burials, in 1848, when the
churchyard of Holy Trinity was consecrated.

We here give a list of the Church Plate, which is more than usually
valuable.

1.  Paten, silver, 15 oz. 2 dwt., given by Mrs. Hussey, 1718. ☼

2.  Paten lid, silver, 2 oz. 2 dwt., old, no date.

3.  Paten, pewter, no date.

4.  Chalice, silver gilt, 7 oz., old, no date.

5.  Chalice, silver gilt, 13 oz. 4 dwt.  In memoriam, J.H., 1879.

6.  Chalice, silver gilt, 13 oz. 2 dwt. *

7.  Flagon, silver, 59 oz., given by Susannah Lascells, 1741.

8.  Flagon, silver, 58 oz. 2 dwt., given by Susannah Lascelles, widow,
Christmas, 1743. ☼

9.  Alms basin, silver, 6 oz. 6 dwt., given by Thomas Hargreaves, Esq.,
1735.  T.M.H. on handle.

10.  Alms Basin, silver, 7 oz. 6 dwt., given by Clement Madely, vicar,
1835.

11.  Paten, silver gilt, 13 oz.  In Memoriam, J.H.  1879.

12.  Paten, silver. 4 oz. 2 dwt., no date. ☼

13.  Cruet with silver stopper, H.T.C.  1872.

Those marked with asterisk are used at Holy Trinity Church.

We cannot here omit our tribute to the energy, liberality, and taste of
the various parties connected with the restoration of St. Mary’s Church,
begun in 1859, and happily completed in April, 1861.  With a persevering
vicar, in Prebendary W. H. Milner, undaunted by difficulties, to head the
movement; a working committee, no less resolute, to support him (among
whom figured foremost the late Dr. J. B. Boulton and Mr. F. Harwood);
with an architect of cultivated taste and wide experience, in Mr. Ewan
Christian; and with the able contractors, Messrs. Lee & Ashton, to carry
out his designs; and with a body of subscribers, headed by the Lord of
the Manor, J. Banks Stanhope, Esq., all doing their best; the work was
bound to be a marked success, of which all might be proud.  St Mary’s now
probably approaches nearer to its original conception (if it does not,
indeed, surpass it) than it has ever done in recent times.  Erected, as
it first was, in an age marked by “zeal” for church construction, even if
sometimes “without knowledge;” stimulated, perhaps in an unwholesome
degree, by the prevalent superstition and mariolatry, we yet feel bound,
considering the noble structures which those builders have transmitted to
us, (as Prior the poet says) to be “To their virtues very kind, and to
their faults a little blind.”  But, as to the restoration in the present
instance, few, save the older ones among us, who remember the condition
into which the fabric had lapsed, can realise the great changes which
were effected, or the advantages secured to present worshippers.  The
space formerly wasted by a western vestibule, with its boarded partition,
and baize-covered doors, leading into nave and aisles, reducing by
several feet the length of sitting space; the basement of the tower shut
off, and occupied only by the bell ringers, who are now removed to the
chamber above; the chancel aisles unused for seats and partially blocked
up; the high square pews, rising in tiers westwards, roomy enough for
undisturbed slumber; above all, the heavy galleries, with pews, made by
faculty private property; all these arrangements so curtailed the
accommodation, that the congregation, at its best, could be little more
than half what it has been in recent years; while the _tout ensemble_,
not omitting the flat whitewashed ceiling, put up, it has been said, by a
kind lady, because the vicar, sensitive to cold, felt the draughts
through the fine wooden roof thus hidden above, had an effect the very
opposite of stimulating devotion, bad alike for minister and people.
Under the restored condition, with sixty additional seats provided in the
tower, the south chancel aisle also seated, and every available space
utilized, there is now ample accommodation for some 800 worshippers, and
on special occasions more than 1,200 have been seated (the late Mr. W.
Pacy counted about 1,250 passing out at the evening service at the
re-opening in April, 1861); while the services, and the surroundings, are
alike calculated to inspire feelings of reverence, with hearty
earnestness of worship; this is the result mainly due to the “decency and
order” effected through the care and self-denying efforts of the
restorers, for which all should be grateful.

We should here add that in the year 1892, it being found that decay had
occurred in the walls and other parts of the church, about £150 was
raised by subscription, and once more the fabric was put into a complete
state of repair.



CHAPTER IV.
THE CHURCH OF HOLY TRINITY


Was built in the years 1847 and 1848, as a Chapel of Ease to St. Mary’s
Church, in the vicariate of the Rev. T. J. Clarke, at a cost of about
£2,500; £500 having been bequeathed towards that purpose by his
predecessor, Dr. Clement Madely, and the rest being raised by public
subscriptions.  The foundation stone was laid April 6, in the former
year, by Sir Henry Dymoke, Bart., the Queen’s Champion.  The roof of the
nave was reared Oct. 12, and the cross on the east end of the chancel
erected Nov. 25, in the same year.  The church and churchyard were
consecrated by Dr. Kaye, Bishop of Lincoln, April 27, 1848; his Lordship
preaching at the opening service in the morning, and Dr. Percy, Bishop of
Carlisle (as Patron {57a} of the Benefice) in the afternoon.  The
architect was Mr. Stephen Lewin, of Boston (author of _Churches of the
Division of Holland_, 1843, &c) Mr. Hind, of Sleaford, being the
contractor for the work.

It was a condition of Dr. Madely’s bequest that the church should be
commenced within two years of his death, which occurred on Good Friday,
March 21, 1845.  This fortunately was just (but only just) effected {57b}
in time to secure the bequest.

When the churchyard of Holy Trinity was consecrated that of St. Mary’s
was closed, with the exception of some private vaults; both these burial
grounds being closed in 1888, when the public cemetery was opened; the
church part of which was consecrated on Nov. 7th, in that year, by the
Bishop of Lincoln, Dr. King.

The church is in the Early English style, consisting of nave, chancel,
north and south aisles, north porch, high open belfry with one bell, and
has sittings for 400 persons.  The materials of the structure are white
brick, with dressings of Ancaster stone.  It was considerably improved in
1887, and, more recently, in 1895.

The windows in the north and south aisles are plain small lancets, in
pairs; 5 pairs on the south side, and 4 pairs, with porch door, on the
north.  The north and south arcades have 5 bays, with narrow
perpendicular arches, except the easternmost, on both sides, which are
wider, with a view to future transepts; the octagonal columns of brick
have nicely carved stone capitals.  The clerestory windows above, 5 on
each side, are alternately quatrefoils and inverted triangles.  The roof
is of a very high pitch, slated externally, and internally of deeply
stained deal.  The principals of the chancel roof are ornamented with
deeply cut dog-tooth pattern.  The choir is rather narrow, and without
aisles.  At the east end of the north aisle is the vestry, the doorway
leading to it having a richly carved arch, supported by twin pilasters,
with carved capitals; the porch doorway has also a richly carved arch,
with dog-tooth moulding, and clusters of pillars below.

The east window in the chancel is of 3 lights, and is an enlarged copy of
the beautiful Early English east window of Kirkstead Abbey Chapel; with
triple columns between, and, on either side of the lights, having richly
carved capitals; the wall space above being also elaborately carved with
floriated pattern.  It was fitted with coloured glass, by an anonymous
donor, in memory of the Rev. T. J. Clarke, in whose vicariate, as has
been stated, the church was built.  The subjects are, running across and
in the centre, the Nativity, the Crucifixion, and Transfiguration; above
being the Resurrection, and Christ sitting in glory; and in the lower
row, our Lord as the Good Shepherd, the Man of sorrows and the Light of
the world.

In the chancel walls, north and south, are triple windows in the same
style, but with plain columns and white glass.  Below the east window is
a stone Reredos, having four panels with decorated arches on each side,
north and south; with a central canopy of 3 compartments, nicely carved,
and plain cross in the centre.  This was carved and designed by Messrs.
F. Bell & Son, of Horncastle.  The Reredos was due to a movement
originating with the Girls’ Club, then under the management of Miss Agnes
Armstrong; assisted by contributions from members of the choir, a
considerable sum of money being raised by them, for altar frontals and
other fittings in the chancel.  These, and other additions, were
dedicated by the late vicar, Prebendary E. F. Quarrington, on All Saints’
day, Nov. 1, 1895.

The Organ, on the north side of the choir, is a good instrument.  In the
early days of the church an old organ was transferred from St. Mary’s
Church and placed at the west end, but this was sold in 1869, and for
some years a harmonium was used in the choir.  The present instrument was
the work of Messrs. Foster & Andrews, of Hull, and has one manual, with
pedals.

The Pulpit, on the south of the lofty chancel arch, is of stone, having 5
panels with dog-tooth borders, illuminated in gold and various colours;
and having, within central circles, figures of SS. Matthew, Mark, Luke
and John, the fifth having the cross with the inscription “Feed my
sheep.”  The Reading Desk, on the north, is part of the chancel sedilia;
this, with the Lectern, slightly carved, in front of it, and all the
sittings, are of pitch pine, stained.

At the west end of the south aisle is a plain lancet window of one light.
The window corresponding to this, in the north aisle, has good coloured
glass, in memory of the late Hugh George, M.D., who died in 1895.  It has
two subjects (1) The healing of the lame man by SS. Peter and John, at
the beautiful gate of the temple, and (2) Luke, the beloved physician,
ministering to St. Paul, in prison at Rome.

The west window is of two lights, narrow lancets with circular window
above, having quatrefoil tracery.  These are filled with coloured glass,
given by the late Miss Lucy Babington of The Rookery, Horncastle, in
memory of her parents, brothers and sister.  The subject in the upper
“Rose” window is the Holy Dove descending; those in the window below are
(1) our Lord’s Baptism, (2) His commission to the disciples, “Go ye, and
baptize all nations;” (3) The baptism of a Jew (St. Paul), and (4) The
baptism of a Gentile (Cornelius). {59}

                      [Picture: Holy Trinity Church]

Below this window, and in keeping with the subjects above, stands the
Font, on a plain octagonal base.  The bowl is circular and larger than
that in St. Mary’s Church.  It is supported by 8 carved pilasters at the
angles, with a central one; rising from these are narrow arches with
dog-tooth moulding.

In the eastern part of the churchyard lie the remains of four successive
vicars of Horncastle, and the wife of a fifth.  A coffin-shaped stone,
adorned with a full-length floriated cross, has this inscription: “Thomas
James Clarke, M.A., Vicar of Horncastle, died 14th May, 1853.  Is any
among you afflicted, let him pray.”  This stone was put down by the Rev.
Edmund Huff, who was curate at the time of Mr. Clarke’s death, and
afterwards Rector of Little Cawthorpe near Louth.

An upright stone, the head forming an inverted overhanging arch,
ornamented with dog-tooth pattern (copied from a panel in the church
pulpit), has the inscription: “W. H. Milner, Vicar of Horncastle, died
October 3rd, 1868, aged 64.”  Within the arch is a Calvary Cross, on the
steps of which are these words “He that believeth in Me hath everlasting
life.”  On the base of the stone is a quotation from the Burial Service,
“Blessed are the dead, which die in the Lord, &c.”  Near this a massive
decorated cross bears the inscription: “Robert Giles, Vicar of
Horncastle, died July 12th, 1872.  Jesu, Mercy.”  This is an exact
reproduction of a granite cross in Willoughby churchyard, erected to the
memory of the late Archdeacon Giles, the vicar’s brother.

A grass grave, surrounded by a kerb, has resting upon it a full-length
plain Latin cross, along the arms of which is inscribed “Jesu Mercy.”
Surrounding the kerb is the inscription “Arthur Scrivenor, M.A., Vicar of
Horncastle, born January 13th, 1831, died August 27th, 1882.”  “Never
resting, never tiring, in the endless work of God;” the latter words
being a quotation from Dr. Mansel’s _Life of Bishop Wilberforce of Oxford
and Winchester_.

Very near the last tomb is the grave of the wife of the late Vicar of
Horncastle, Prebendary E. F. Quarrington, now Rector of Welby, near
Grantham; the plain slab bears the inscription “At rest, Nov. 25, 1888.”

The following biographical notes may not be without interest.  The Rev.
T. J. Clarke was a remarkable man; born in this neighbourhood, in a
humble rank of life (his widowed mother occupying a cottage in Woodhall,
where, to his honour, he frequently visited her, and supported her,
during his vicariate), he was apprenticed as a boy to a tradesman in
Leeds.  A lady upon whom he attended, as she made purchases in the shop,
noticed his intelligence; the result being that she sent him, at her own
expense, to be educated at a good school, and, in due time, assisted him
to enter at St. John’s College, Cambridge, where he took Double Honours,
and obtained a Fellowship.  He was afterwards appointed to the Vicarage
of Penrith, Cumberland, thus coming under the notice of the Bishop of
Carlisle, who, as Patron, presented him to the Vicarage of Horncastle, on
the death of Dr. Madely in 1845.  With Mr. Clarke’s arrival in Horncastle
it was felt that a new era in church life had begun.  He threw himself
with characteristic energy into every kind of work, and at one time had 3
curates.  To him was due the erection of Holy Trinity Church, and a great
multiplication of Church services.  The old vicarage, a poor house close
to St. Mary’s churchyard, was pulled down, and he rented the house in
South Street, with extensive gardens, which afterwards became the
residence of Major Armstrong and now occupied by Mrs. Howland.
Notwithstanding his heavy parochial work Mr. Clarke (as the present
writer can testify) kept up his classical and mathematical studies.  He
was also devoted to music, and a very skilful performer on the flute.
Although these were relaxations from his more serious parochial labours,
the amount of mental work involved eventually told upon his health, and
in the 8th year of his vicariate it became perceptible, even in his
pulpit utterances, that his mind was affected.  He had married a
Cumberland lady, but all her care and attention was unavailing; he
gradually collapsed into a condition of melancholy, scarcely roused by
anything except the music of his piano. {60}  The end inevitable was seen
to be approaching, but unfortunately Mr. Clarke by his own act
anticipated it.  Being accidently left alone for a few moments he took a
pistol, which he had concealed in a drawer, walked out into the garden
and shot himself, the overwrought brain rendering him no longer
accountable for his actions.

Of his successor, the Rev. Prebendary W. H. Milner, who, like Mr. Clarke,
had held preferment in the diocese of Carlisle, we have only to say that
he was an able man of business, carried on the work of the church with
great energy, and introduced many reforms.  He built the present
vicarage.  He was the last vicar nominated by the Bishop of Carlisle.  Of
the next two vicars it may be said that their tenure of office was all
too short, hard faithful labour cutting off the Rev. Robert Giles (as we
have before stated) in 1872, after a vicariate of only 4 years; while the
Rev. Arthur Scrivenor died, after 10 years work in the parish, in his
51st year, in 1882.  Canon E. Fowler Quarrington succeeded him, and held
the vicarage during 18 years, when he was transferred, in 1900, to the
Rectory of Welby, near Grantham.  The Rev. Prebendary Alfred Edgar Moore,
formerly Vicar of Messingham, near Brigg, began his vicariate in 1900,
being inducted into the benefice on August 24, in that year.

Horncastle, we may here add, has been well served by its Curates.
“Comparisons are (proverbially) odious,” we will not therefore refer to
any of these in recent years; but we may take three typical cases of men
whose memory is still green and redolent of good work.

In the latter years of the amiable vicar, Dr. Madely, he needed an active
assistant, and such was the Rev. William Spranger White, of Trinity
College, Cambridge, a member of a family of position, the head of which
was his uncle, Sir Thomas Wollaston White, of Wallingwells Park, Worksop,
High Sheriff 1839, and formerly of the 10th Hussars.  Mr. White possessed
independent means and was very generous.  He was of a most sympathetic
nature, and became greatly beloved by all classes.  He worked hard in the
parish from his ordination in 1833 to 1849. {61}  In that year he was
selected by the Marchioness of Lothian, to take charge of an Episcopalian
Church, which her Ladyship built and endowed at Jedburgh, Roxburghshire.
The church was opened with an octave of services, which were attended by
the great Doctor Hook of Leeds, who had recommended Mr. White to her
Ladyship.  The father of the present writer, and many leading clergymen
from this neighbourhood, and various parts of England and Scotland,
attended the opening services.  Mr. White remained there for some years,
and married the eldest daughter of Lord Chancellor Campbell, who resided
at Hartrigg House, near Jedburgh.  This marriage led to his subsequent
return to England, being appointed by the Lord Chancellor to the Rectory
of St. Just, near Land’s End, Cornwall; at a later date promoted to the
Vicarage of Chaddesley Corbett, near Kidderminster, Worcestershire; and
finally in 1859 to the Rectory of Potterhanworth, near Lincoln, of which
cathedral he was made an Honorary Canon, in recognition of his generous
gifts towards cathedral improvements.  Here he did excellent work until
his death in 1893. {62}

We next take two of the well chosen curates of the Vicar, T. J. Clarke,
who were contemporaries at Horncastle; Charles Dashwood Goldie of St.
John’s College, Cambridge, where he took Mathematical Honours in 1847,
was ordained as Curate of Horncastle in 1848.  An able preacher and
indefatigable worker in the parish, he at once made his mark, not only in
the town, but in the neighbourhood; he and his beautiful wife being
welcome guests in many a rectory and vicarage.  He was also a man of good
social position and private means, and occupied a good house with large
garden on the north side of West Street (then called Far Street),
belonging to the late Mrs. Conington, within some 120 yards of the
railway station, now occupied by Mr. Sills, and named “The Chestnuts.”
Mr. Goldie being curate at the time when Holy Trinity Church was built
presented the carved oak chairs within the communion rails.  After
leaving Horncastle he was appointed to the vicarage of St. Ives, in the
diocese of Ely.  The Goldies were an old Manx family; Col. Goldie, his
brother, of the Scotts Guards Regiment, being President of the House of
Keys, the local parliament.  Their residence in that island is “The
Nunnery,” near the town of Douglas, so called from the ruin close at hand
of an ancient priory, said to have been founded by St. Bridget in the
sixth century.  Mr. Goldies’ nephew is the present Sir George Dashwood
Tanbman Goldie, Privy Councillor, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S., &c, formerly of the
Royal Engineers, but latterly holding various Government appointments,
director of several expeditions in West Africa, having travelled in
Egypt, the Soudan, Algiers, Morocco, &c., and attended the Berlin
Conference in 1884, as an expert on questions connected with the Niger
country, where he founded the Royal Chartered Company of Nigeria.  His
latest honour (1905) is the Presidency of the Royal Geographical Society,
in succession to Sir Clements P. Markham, K.C.B., &c.

The Rev. Thomas Castle Southey (a relative of the poet) was Fellow of
Queen’s College, Oxford, where he took Classical and Mathematical Honours
in 1847.  He was ordained in the same year, and held the curacy of
Horncastle from that year till 1849.  He was an able and scholarly
preacher and persevering worker in the parish.  On leaving Horncastle he
became Incumbent of the Episcopal Church at Montrose, N.B., which he held
for six years, when he became Assistant Curate of St. Paul’s Church,
Brighton, under the Rev. Arthur Wagner; then Curate of the church of St.
Thomas the Martyr at Oxford; then Vicar of Wendron, Cornwall, and
afterwards of Newbold Pacey, near Leamington, in 1868.  After leaving
Horncastle he was invited by the Governors, as an able scholar, to
examine the Horncastle Grammar School, then a considerably larger school
than it has been in later years, with a large number of day boys, and
also boarders from London, many distant parts of the country, and even
from Jersey and the continent.

As this is the last chapter in which we shall deal with church matters,
we may here say that a Clerical Club, with valuable library and news
room, was established in the town in the year 1823.  At that time there
was a numerous community of country clergymen living in the town; a
dozen, or more, villages in the neighbourhood having no official
residence in their parishes; thus a Clerical Club became a convenient
institution for social intercourse, and valuable papers were often read
at their meetings.  This ceased to exist at the close of the 19th
century, when the books were transferred to the Diocesan Library at
Lincoln.  In order to enable these country incumbents to maintain a town
residence, they, in several cases, held a plurality of benefices, which
would hardly be allowed in the present day.  Even the Vicar of
Horncastle, Dr. Madely, also held the Vicarage of Stickford, distant more
than a dozen miles; another clergyman was Rector of Martin, Vicar of
Baumber, and Rector of Sotby, several miles apart; while a third held the
Perpetual Curacy of Wood Enderby, 4 or 5 miles to the south-east of the
town, with the Curacy of Wilksby adjoining, and the Chapelry of
Kirkstead, 5 or 6 miles to the west.  Further, to eke out the family
income, his daughter found employment of a somewhat novel kind in the
service of the late Queen Victoria.  Being in figure the exact size of
the Queen, her Majesty’s dresses were all tried on this lady by the royal
dressmaker; and, as a portion of her remuneration, the cast-off clothing
of the Queen became her perquisite.  On the occasion of the wedding of
one of her friends at Horncastle, the bride and her bridesmaids were all
attired in Queen’s dresses.

In connection with the church is the “Young Churchmen’s Union,” of which
the Vicar is President.  They have fortnightly meetings, in the Boys’
National School, at 8.15 p.m.  There is also a Church Lads’ Brigade, No.
1951, attached to the 1st Battalion, Lincoln Regiment, B 51.  This was
enrolled Oct. 1st, 1901.  The members are youths between the ages of 13
and 19; the present Lieutenant being H. W. Sharpe; Chaplain, the Vicar;
Assistant Chaplain and Correspondent, the Senior Curate.  Entrance fee
1/6, subscription 1d. per week.

The Church National Schools are good substantial buildings, erected at
various periods, the Girls’ School in 1812, the Infants’ in 1860, and the
Boys’ (at a cost of £1,000) in 1872; the total accommodation is for 300
children, the average attendance being about 250.  The schools were taken
over by the Lindsey County Council, on April 1st, 1903.



CHAPTER V.
NONCONFORMIST PLACES OF WORSHIP.


There are in Horncastle five Nonconformist religious communities, the
Wesleyan, Congregational, Primitive Methodist, Baptist, and New Church or
Swedenborgian, each now having substantially built chapels, resident
ministers, with Sunday, and, in one case, Day Schools. Through the
courtesy of the Rev. John Percy, late Head Minister of the Wesleyan
Society, we are enabled to give a fairly full account of its origin and
growth, down to the present 20th century.  As this is the most important
religious body in the town, next to the Church of England, although it is
not the oldest, we take the Wesleyans first.  As will be seen in the
following account, this Society arose from a very small beginning, but at
the present time, with perhaps the exception of the Baptists, it is the
most numerous and influential body among Nonconformists.  Although,
locally, rather fewer in numbers in recent years, than formerly, it is
generally growing, and in the year 1904, as published statistics show, it
acquired in the United Kingdom an addition of 10,705 full members, with
11,874 members on trial, and junior members 4,367; a total increase of
26,946.



THE WESLEYANS.


The founder of this Society was, as its name implies, John Wesley,
probably of the same stock as the great Duke of Wellington, whose family
name was variously written Wellesley, or Wesley. {64}  We take the
immediately following particulars mainly from the _History of England_,
by Henry Walter, B.D. and F.R.S., Fellow of St. John’s College,
Cambridge, Professor in the East India College, Hertford, Chaplain to the
Duke of Northumberland, &c., &c., himself a Lincolnshire man.

John and Charles Wesley were the second and third sons of Samuel Wesley,
Rector of Epworth, near Gainsborough; {65} John being born in 1703 (June
17), and Charles in 1708 (Dec. 18).  John was educated at the
Charterhouse, and Charles at Westminster School.  In due course they both
entered at Oxford University; John eventually being elected to a
Fellowship at Lincoln College, and Charles to a Studentship at
Christchurch.  In 1725 John was ordained deacon of the Church of England.
He left Oxford for a time to act as his father’s curate, Charles remained
as Tutor to his college.  He, with some of his undergraduate pupils,
formed a custom of meeting on certain evenings every week for scripture
study and devotion, they carefully observed the Church’s fasts and
festivals, and partook of the Holy Communion every Sunday.  From the
strict regularity of their lives the name was given to them, by those who
were laxer in conduct, of “Methodists.”

                        [Picture: Wesleyan Chapel]

In 1729 the Rector of Lincoln College summoned John Wesley to resume
residence at Oxford, and he became Tutor of the College.  In this
capacity he was careful to look after the souls, as well as the
intellectual training, of those under his influence.  The brothers began
missionary work in Oxford, about the year 1730, in which they were
assisted by a few other kindred spirits.  They visited the sick and
needy, with the permission of the parish clergy, as well as offenders
confined in the gaol.  This continued for some time, but gradually John
began to long for a wider field for his spiritual energies.  He had
gathered about him a small band of equally earnest associates, and they
went out to Georgia, North America, in 1735, to work among the English
settlers and North American Indians.  After two years John returned to
England, in 1737, and then began the work of his life.

It is said that he was a good deal influenced by the _De Imitatione
Christi_ of Thomas a Kempis (of which he published an abridged edition in
1777), {66a} also by Jeremy Taylor’s _Holy Living and Dying_; and he
imputed his own conversion to his study of Law’s _Serious Call_.  His
“first impression of genuine Christianity,” as he called it, was from the
Moravian sect, with whom he came in contact at Hirnuth in Saxony, which
he visited in 1738, after his return from America; but his complete
“conversion,” he was wont to say, occurred at a meeting of friends, in
Aldersgate Street, London, where one of them was reading Luther’s
_Preface to St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans_, the exact time being 8.45
p.m., May 24, 1738.

Though taking an independent course, and appointing only lay workers as
his agents, he regarded himself to the end of his days as an ordained
minister of the Church of England, and his society as still being a part
of it, and he urged all faithful Wesleyans to attend church service once
on Sunday, and to receive the Holy Communion at church, it being only
after his death that the society’s secession became complete. {66b}

The first Wesleyan congregation of about 50 members, some of them
Moravians, was formed in London, where they met in Fetter Lane, once a
week; the first meeting being on May 1st, 1738, and from that day the
society of “Methodists” may be regarded as having begun. {66c}  The birth
of the sect in Lincolnshire may be said to date from his visit to
Epworth, in 1742.

In 1743 he divided the whole county into two sections, or circuits, the
eastern and western.  Of the eastern Grimsby was the head; this included
Horncastle, and gradually comprised some 15 other subsidiary centres,
extending from Grimsby and Caistor in the north, to Holbeach in the
south.

His earliest recorded visit to Horncastle was in 1759, when he addressed
a large concourse of people in a yard, supposed to be that of the Queen’s
Head Inn, near the Market Place, on April 4th and 5th.  On July 18th,
1761, he again preached here, and on July 18th, 1774, he addressed, as
his journal states, “a wild unbroken herd.”  On July 6th, 1779, he says
“I took my usual stand in the Market Place, Horncastle, the wild men were
more quiet than usual, Mr. Brackenbury, J.P., of Raithby Hall, standing
near me.”  This Mr. Robert Carr Brackenbury remained his firm friend
through life; and we may here add that he granted to Wesley the use of
his hay loft at Raithby for religious services, further securing the use
of it in perpetuity, by his will, to the Wesleyan body, so that the
curious anomaly has occurred that, when the hall was bought in 1848, by
the Rev. Edward Rawnsley, the house became the residence of an Anglican
clergyman, yet bound to allow the loft over his stable to be used for
nonconformist worship.  In recent years the stable has been unused as
such and the loft made more comfortable, being furnished with seats,
pulpit, &c

Wesley, throughout his life, generally visited Horncastle every two
years, his death occurring on March 2nd, 1791.  There is in Westminster
Abbey a mural memorial of John and Charles Wesley, having within a
medallion, the bust-sized effigies of the two brothers, beneath which is
inscribed the saying of Wesley, “The best of all is God with us.”  Below
this, within a panel, is a representation of John Wesley, preaching from
his father’s tomb in Epworth churchyard.  Beneath are two more quotations
from his own words, “I look upon all the world as my parish,” and “God
buries His workmen, but carries on His work.”  At the head of the slab is
the inscription “John Wesley, M.A., born June 17th, 1703, died March 2nd,
1791.  Charles Wesley, M.A., born December 18th, 1708, died March 29th,
1788.”

The growth of the society was not rapid, and for some years was subject
to fluctuations.  In 1769 Grimsby had 56 members and Horncastle 42,
including such well-known local names as Rayson and Goe.  In 1774 Grimsby
had fallen to 32 members and Horncastle to about the same.  In 1780
Horncastle had only 31 members, but the numbers had increased in the
neighbourhood; Kirkby-on-Bain having nearly as many as Horncastle, viz.
29, Wood Enderby 10, Hemingby 7, and Thimbleby 18; there being evidently
a greater readiness to accept the new teaching among the simpler rural
population.

In 1786 Horncastle was made the head of a circuit to itself, and in that
year the first chapel in the town was built, the whole circuit then
numbering 620 members.  This chapel was near the site of the present
Baptist place of worship.  A few years later the opposing barrier among
the upper class seems in some degree to have given way, as, in 1792, we
find the name of Joseph Bass, a “physician,” as “leader.”  In 1800 there
was further growth in the country, Greetham having 21 and Fulletby 26;
among the latter occurring the still well-known names of Winn (Richard
and Elizabeth), 5 Riggalls, and 5 Braders.  By this time there were 6
circuits formed in Lincolnshire, and congregations at Newark and
Doncaster.

Although there was a chapel at Horncastle there was no minister’s
residence until after 1786.  At that date John Barritt rode over from
Lincoln to preach, and finding no Wesleyan minister’s house, he was taken
in and hospitably entertained by a Mr. Penistoun, who was “a great
Culamite.”  After staying the night with him he rode on next day to
Alford, for Sabbath duty.  On the death of John Wesley (1791) his mantle
fell, and indeed, had already fallen, in several cases, on shoulders
worthy of the commission which he conferred upon them.  The first
resident ministers were the Rev. Thomas Longley, Superintendent; the
above John Barritt was the second, and Richard Thoresby the third.

Hitherto it had not been a service free from difficulty, or even danger.
Itinerary ministers had to make their journeys on duty, often long and
wearying, on horseback, over bad country roads, even occasionally
incurring hardship and peril.  In 1743 Mr. John Nelson was sent by Wesley
to Grimsby, and his journals describe severe labour and even persecution.
Another pioneer, Thomas Mitchell, was thrown by a mob into a pool of
water, and, when drenched, was painted white from head to foot.  He was
afterwards thrown into a pond more than 12 feet deep, rescued and carried
to bed by friends, he was thrice dragged out of his bed because he would
not promise not to visit the place (Wrangle) again.  Wesley himself, in
his journal (May 10, 1757) says “I preached to a mixed congregation, some
serious, others drunk;” but on the other hand, in 1764, he preached, when
the chapel “though having its galleries, was too small.”

We have named John Barritt among the early Horncastle ministers.  He was
preaching on one occasion at Boston, when a band of roughs forced their
way into the chapel and interrupted the service, driving some of the
congregation away.  He had, however, a more serious experience, from
exposure to the roughness of the elements.  He was riding to Boston,
apparently by a somewhat circuitous route, and a violent storm arose at
sea.  When he was not far from the coast the sea bank gave way, the
country was inundated, vessels were even carried some distance inland,
Boston itself was deluged, and he might have been drowned, but that he
managed to reach some high ground, and arrived safely at Sibsey.

About this date, we are told, the progress of Wesleyanism excited the
jealousy of the clergy, not so tolerant as they are now, and a meeting
was held at the Bull Hotel, Horncastle, at which it was argued that the
“spread of Methodism was one of the causes of the awful irreligion”
prevalent, that the ministers were “raving enthusiasts, pretending to
divine impulse, and thus obtained sway over the ignorant.”

John Barritt was re-appointed to Horncastle in 1801, as Superintendent,
his colleagues being Thomas Rought, John Watson, and Squire Brackenbury
as supernumerary, the latter was also, about this time, appointed head of
the society in Spilsby. {68a}  J. Barritt was grandfather of Robert
Newton Barritt, who was very popular in Horncastle, 1882–1884.  Wesley’s
characteristic advice to him had been “When thou speakest of opinions, or
modes of worship, speak with coolness, but when thou speakest of
Repentance, Faith and Holiness, then, if thou hast any zeal, show it!”
and to these principles he was ever true.

Other ministers of note at different periods were George Shadford, a name
still surviving in the town; Charles Atmore, who wrote sundry Wesleyan
hymns; Thomas Jackson, a great scholar, twice elected President of the
National Conference; Digory Joll, grandfather of the present Mr. Watson
Joll (to whom the writer owes much of the information here utilized); and
to these we may add Benjamin Gregory, 1817; Robert Ramm and Robert
Bryant, 1830; {68b} Bryant was called a “son of thunder,” from his great
energy.

In 1835 Leonard Posnet was a popular minister, not only in the town but
in the country around, being much appreciated by the farmers from his
intimate acquaintance with their avocation.  He was followed (1838–1840)
by Joseph Kipling, grandfather of the now well-known Rudyard Kipling.
Joseph Clapham was a faithful minister from 1843 to 1845, and was
succeeded by (1845–1848) “Father” Crookes, “Preacher” Wood, and the
“saintly” Fowler, who was said to have made 900 converts.

Then followed Wright Shovelton, Martin Jubb, Peter Featherstone, Henry
Richardson, and others, among whom it would be invidious to make
distinctions.  We may add that a famous missionary of this sect was
Thomas Williams, son of John Williams, a cabinet maker of Horncastle, the
latter being an active member of the Wesleyan Sunday School Committee.
His first wife, mother of the missionary, was Miss Hollingshead, who,
with her mother, kept a girls’ school, near the Bow Bridge.  A _History
of the Fiji Mission_, issued in 1858, says “The good ship Triton sailed
from England, Sep. 14, 1839, carrying out the Rev. T. Williams, and his
wife, to Lakamba, Fiji.”  They arrived there July 6, 1840.  He there
built a mission house and chapel, where he laboured several years, the
mission growing in extent, until it was beyond his strength.  In June,
1852, Mr. Moore was appointed as a colleague to relieve him of some of
the work, but again his health broke down, and he was obliged to leave,
after 13 years’ hard labour, in July, 1853.  He went to Australia and
took various charges in that country, being chosen President of the
Mission at Ballarat in 1873.  He re-visited England in 1861, and again in
1881, returning to Ballarat, as a supernumerary, but still officiating.
The present writer well remembers the impression made by a lecture, given
by Rev. T. Williams, at the Bull Hotel, Horncastle.

                     [Picture: Wesleyan Day Schools]

Among the latest ministers of note has been the Rev. John Percy, who gave
up his charge as Superintendent in 1904, and was succeeded by the Rev. E.
Hayward, who left Horncastle on Thursday, Aug. 29, 1907, for work at
Bridlington; he was succeeded by Rev. John Turner, of Colchester, who was
6 years ago in Louth Circuit, {70a} the Rev. G. German Brown continuing
as assistant.  He was succeeded by the Rev. M. Philipson, B.A., coming,
with his wife, since deceased (March 14, 1906), from Stanley, near
Durham, where they were the recipients of valuable presents on their
departure.

In recent years no member of the society has been more valued than the
late octogenarian, Mr. John Rivett, J.P., who died Sept 4, 1906.  For
nearly 70 years he was a generous supporter of the cause; he represented
the district at no less than 13 Conferences, in various parts of the
country, and at the Leeds Conference, in 1882, he spoke for an hour and a
quarter in advocacy of its principles.  Mr. Henry Lunn, of Horncastle and
West Ashby, is also well known, as, for many years, an able local lay
preacher and practical man of business; he was a representative at
Conferences in London and at Burslem.

Of the buildings in Horncastle, connected with this society, we have
gathered the following details.  As already stated the first chapel was
erected in Cagthorpe about the year 1786.  It stood a few yards to the
north of the present Baptist place of worship, which is close to the
north-west corner of the Wong.  The early history of this first erection
is little known, but a letter written by Rev. T. Williams of Ballarat,
dated May 10, 1889, to the late Mr. W. Pacy, states that, after some
years, it was replaced by a larger building, of which the dimensions are
elsewhere given, as being length 54-ft., by width 36-ft., with 4 large
windows, having pointed heads, on the north side, and single windows on
the south and west; a small porch at the south-east corner, facing the
Baptist Chapel, giving entrance to the body and galleries; a door at the
south-west end for the use of the minister, opening near the pulpit,
which was at the west end; the eastern gable being the roadway boundary.
Of these “pointed” windows the Rev. T. Williams says, “the lancet
windows, with quarry panes, were a whim of Mr. Griggs Lunn and of my
father.  Of this building some remains are still visible, to the height
of about 3 feet, in the south wall of Mr. Scholey’s garden, about 50
yards to the north of the Baptist Chapel.  Towards its erection a number
of masons, joiners, and others, who could not afford subscriptions, gave
their labours gratuitously.  Two houses for ministers were also built
close by.

In 1836 a third chapel was begun, on a new site in Union Street (now
Queen Street), and was opened on Good Friday in the following year, the
interior fittings being transferred from the second building in
Cagthorpe.

In 1866 a movement was commenced, with a view to the erection of a still
larger chapel, and the present fine building was the result; opened in
1869, with accommodation for over 1,000 persons (1024), at a cost of
£5,876. {70b}  The Sunday School adjoining, with large class rooms and
infant school being built in 1875, at a further outlay of £2,578.  The
fittings of the chapel are of stained polished deal, the gallery front
and pulpit are white, picked out with gold, the latter standing upon 4
round-headed arches of light and graceful design.  A new organ was
erected soon after the opening of this chapel, at a cost of £300, and in
1883 the instrument was enlarged and improved.

In 1886 the Centenary of Wesleyanism was celebrated and the occasion was
marked by a strenuous effort to clear off the debt from the Horncastle
Circuit.  This effort was supplemented by “Ye olde Englyshe Fayre,
houlden in ye Exchange Hall, Nov. 20, 21 and 22, MDCCCLXXXVIII;” and at a
tea gathering on March 12, 1889, it was stated that the original debt
had, in the previous two years, been reduced to £60, and since then the
whole had been cleared off, the exact sum raised being £1,526 2s. 4d.;
while, as an evidence of the general prosperity of the Society, the
Chairman stated that in the last 24 years debts had, throughout the
country, been paid to the total amount of no less than £1,226,245. {71a}

In 1860 a former foundry show room, in Foundry Street, built by the late
Mr. Tupholme, was acquired through the generosity of Mr. J. Rivett, to be
used as a mixed day school; it had one large general room, four
classrooms, and two large yards, and afforded accommodation for more than
400 scholars.  The premises cost £450, but before the school was opened
some £1,300 had been spent in adapting them to educational purposes.
This has now been superceded by an even more commodious building in
Cagthorpe, on the south branch of the canal, at the corner near the Bow
Bridge, opposite St. Mary’s Square, at a cost of £2,500.  It has a very
large room for a mixed school, another for an infant school, with
classrooms and everything required, in accordance with the latest
conditions by Act of Parliament.  The foundation stone was laid June 22,
1904, and the school was formally opened Jan. 4, 1905.

A Young Men’s Institute was established in the beginning of 1889, by the
Rev. G. White, then Superintendent Minister, for which the classroom of
the Sunday School was to be available for their use, every evening except
Sunday, supplied with daily papers, magazines, &c.; classes also being
held for the consideration of important subjects and for mutual
improvement; these are still continued.  There is also a Wesley Guild,
which meets every Friday evening, in the band room, Queen Street, at 8
o’clock, during the winter months, and on the first Friday evening in the
month during the summer.  Marriages are celebrated in this chapel. {71b}



THE PRIMITIVE METHODISTS.


We have given an account of the rise and progress of Wesleyanism, but, as
that society eventually made a complete separation from the Church of
England, of which its founder remained through life an ordained minister
and communicant, so the seeds of disruption spread in itself.  At
different periods it threw out off-shoots, amounting in all to some eight
different daughter societies; such as those which are named “The Original
Connection,” “The New Connection,” “The Primitive Methodists,” &c.  Of
these the last alone is represented in Horncastle.  More than 50 years
ago {71c} the Primitives had, in this country, 2,871 places of worship,
with 369,216 sittings; with the exception of the “Original Connection,”
none of the other off-shoots had then as many as 100,000 sittings.

In Horncastle the first chapel, opened in 1821, was a small building,
situated on the left side of what is now Watermill Yard, to the north of
the town.  This proving too small for the growing congregation, a larger
structure, an oblong building, with front gable at the east end and a
gallery, was erected in 1837; the minister’s house being at the west end.
This was about half way up Watermill Road, on the north side, now a
stable, but still retaining a pointed window.  This building was of the
date of the superintendency of the Rev. John Butcher.  The residence was
found to be too damp to be comfortable, and a house was taken for him in
Prospect Street.  In the early days of this chapel Mary Crossley, a
Revivalist, occasionally preached here.  Possibly the services at this
time were rather too demonstrative, as they were not unfrequently
interrupted by roughs, and the sect acquired the name of “The Ranters.”
{72}  An amusing anecdote is related of Mr. Butcher; he was a somewhat
eccentric character, and in the discharge of his intinerant ministrations
he usually rode on a donkey, sometimes accompanied by her foal; and a
waggish passer-by on the road is said, on one occasion, to have saluted
them with the greeting “Good morning, ye three,” adding _sotto voce_,
“donkeys.”

After a few years this second chapel was found lacking in accommodation
and a third building, the present edifice, was erected in Prospect
Street, in the year 1853, with sittings for 380, at a cost of about
£1,100.  As this is a substantial structure, likely to last for many
years, we may here describe it.  It is of red brick, except the arch of
the western door, which has a band of white bricks; the bricks are larger
than usual, being 3¼ inches in thickness.  The entrance has a double door
opening into a lobby, at each end of which is a staircase, leading to the
north and south galleries.  There is a window on each side of the door,
three windows above, and over them, in the gable, a stone, with the
inscription “Primitive Methodist Chapel, 1853.”  At the east end of the
interior is a Rostrum, 12-ft. long, divided into two stages, the front
one being 8 inches above the floor, the second, behind it, about 4½-ft.
high, with access by steps at both ends.  The front of this platform has
slender piers, supported by lancet arches, with trefoils and quatrefoils
between, giving a graceful effect, and painted white, gold, and grey,
with a background chocolate in colour.  At the back of the rostrum are
eight arches in the pannelling.  This is said to have been a copy of the
arrangement in Bardney Chapel.  Over the rostrum is a recess in the east
wall, containing the harmonium, which cost 40 gs., and seats for the
choir.  The sittings in the body of the chapel are of stained and
varnished deal.  At the rear of the chapel, entered by doors at each side
of the rostrum, is a large room for the Sunday School, with two smaller
class rooms above it.  The erection of this building was due to the
exertions of the Rev. J. Haigh, who was appointed minister in 1850, and
as an exception to the usual custom, he was requested to continue his
ministry for four years.  We may add that, at the opening service of this
third chapel the ministers present were Rev. J. Haigh, as Superintendent;
Rev. T. Fletcher; Rev. R. Pinder, then at Coningsby; Rev. J. Garbutt,
Supernumerary, from West Ashby.  The Rev. T. Fletcher was appointed as
Second Minister in Horncastle, at that time, for two years; he became in
1872 Superintendent Minister for three years, and again 1884 for four
years, leaving for Market Rasen in 1888.  During the ministry of Rev. J.
Haigh in Horncastle, several chapels were built in the neighbourhood.

Horncastle was at first included in the Lincoln Circuit, but in 1837, at
the building of the second chapel it was constituted a separate circuit,
and when the third chapel was erected, in 1853, Coningsby was made a
branch of Horncastle.

The first preacher who visited Horncastle was a female, Jane Brown by
name, who is said to have walked from Lincoln to Horncastle on a Sunday
morning, giving an address in the Market Place in the afternoon, and in
the evening holding a service in a house, now forming part of the back
premises of the Red Lion Hotel.  The first local preachers were also
females, Mary Allen and Mary Clarke.  The first two female members were
Mary Elwin and Martha Belton.

Mr. Butcher having been the first resident minister, was succeeded by the
Rev. C. Smith, who worked here and in various other places during 50
years, and then retired to York as supernumerary.  The Rev. William Rose,
who had been Second Minister in 1850, was appointed Superintendent in
1875, and remained two years.  A few years later the Rev. J. Pickwell
(1888–90) was Superintendent, with Rev. W. Whitaker as Second Minister;
the former first joined the society as a scholar in 1849, being numbered
among the local members, he afterwards removed to Lincoln, and acted as
Itinerant Minister for 33 years before returning to Horncastle in 1888.
Mr. Pickwell was succeeded by Rev. William Kitson as Superintendent, with
Rev. R. H. Auty as Second Minister.  Mr. Kitson retained his post during
four years, when he left for Market Rasen.  Mr. Auty was followed, as
Second Minister, by Rev. John Bowness, and he, in turn, by Rev. Thomas
Stones.

In 1894 the Rev. John Featherstone succeeded to the ministry, with Rev.
W. J. Leadbetter as Second Minister, both these stayed to their second
year, Mr. Featherstone dying in 1896.  In that year the Rev. John Worsnop
was appointed, with Rev. A. W. Bagnall as Second Minister; the former
retained his post during five years; Mr. Bagnall two years, being
succeeded in 1898 by Rev. Walter Tunley, and he, in 1899, by the Rev.
George H. Howgate, who stayed two years.  In 1900 Rev. J. Worsnop retired
to Newcastle-on-Tyne, and died there in Dec., 1904.

In 1901 the Rev. Matthew H. Chapman became Superintendent Minister, with
Rev. J. A. Kershaw as Second, both remaining during two years.  In 1903
the Rev. Robert B. Hauley succeeded, with Rev. J. Cousin as assistant,
both remaining two years.  In 1905 (July) the former left for Kirkby
Stephen, Westmoreland, the latter for a circuit in Shropshire.  They were
followed by the Rev. E. Allport, from Skegness, as Superintendent, Sept.
1905; and Rev. E. J. Hancox from Doncaster.  In June of that year the
annual Conference was held at Scarborough.

We will now put together a few details of the origin of this society.
Hugh Bourne was born at Stoke-upon-Trent, April 3, 1772. {73}  Although
his family was said to be ancient, his ancestors having come to England
at the Norman Conquest, he belonged to a humble rank in life, living at
Ford Hays Farm.  He was in early life educated by his mother, a godly
woman, and while very young he learnt by heart the Te Deum, the Litany,
and much of the prayers of the Church of England.  He worked for his
father, and an uncle who was a millwright, but found time to study
hydrostatics, pneumatics, natural philosophy, as well as Hebrew, Greek
and Latin.  His mother’s influence had given him a serious bent of mind,
and he early acquired strong religious convictions.  His biographer says
of him “He tells, in child-like simplicity, how, when only four or five
years old, he pondered over thoughts of heaven and hell, the last
judgment, and other solemn subjects.  During the next 20 years his inner
life was one of hopes and fears, doubt and faith, conflict and victory.”

His mother, going to Burslem on business, borrowed of a Wesleyan friend,
some religious books, among them being Baxter’s _Call to the
Unconverted_, Allen’s _Alarm_, and a sermon by Wesley on _The Trinity_.
Her son Hugh naturally read these, and Wesley’s sermon made a great
impression upon him.  One Sunday morning he was sitting in his room,
reading Fletcher’s Letters on _The Spiritual Manifestation of the Son of
God_, when he declares that he was led “to believe with his heart unto
righteousness, and with his mouth to make confession unto salvation.”
This was in his 27th year, A.D. 1799.  He joined the Wesleyan society in
June of that year, the special occasion being a love feast at Burslem, to
which he was taken by an aged neighbour, a farmer near Bemersley, named
Birchenough, at whose house services were conducted, who offered him a
ticket which constituted him a member, and thus in his own words I was
“made a member without knowing it.”

As we shall presently see Hugh Bourne became one of the two originators
of the Primitive community, the other was his friend and neighbour
William Clowes, a sketch of his career was published some years ago, {74}
from which we cull the leading particulars.  He was born at Burslem 12th
March, 1780, his mother, a daughter of Aaron Wedgewood, being a near
relation of Josiah of that name, the inventor of the famous Wedgwood
pottery.  At ten years of age (1790) he began work in his uncle’s
pottery, which he continued for several years.  At that time dancing,
gambling and pugilism were the chief amusement of the factory men and
colliers of Staffordshire, and for some years he led a wild life of
dissipation, yet this was accompanied, at times, with a sense of
self-condemnation and spiritual consciousness.  “When I was ten years
old,” he says, “I remember being at a prayer meeting conducted by Nancy
Wood, of Burslem, in her father’s house, when, convinced of the sin of
disobedience to my parents, I wept bitterly.”  Conflicts between good and
evil continued to disturb him for several years.  When a young man, at a
dance in Burslem, he was so suddenly convicted of sin, that he abruptly
withdrew.  Shortly afterwards he married, but he and his wife quarralled
so violently that he left her, and went off, taking with him only his
mother’s prayer book.  After some wandering, without a penny in his
pocket, he returned and begged his wife to attend the Wesleyan Chapel
regularly with him, but she refused.  He then, prayer book in hand, took
an oath that he would serve God and avoid dissipation.  This oath,
however, was broken; but once more in the early hour of a cold January
morning he went forth, and seeing a faint light burning in a window, he
entered the house, to find a few humble methodists gathered for an early
prayer meeting.  There, he says, he knelt unnoticed, but there he “died
to sin, and was born of God.  This, I said, is what they call being
converted.  I was fully persuaded that I was justified by faith, and had
peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ.”  From that day, Jan.
20th, 1805, he began a new life.

The time now approaches when the two, Hugh Bourne and William Clowes
began the great work of their life.  At the beginning of the 19th century
Bourne, being much employed at Harriseahead, near Bemersley, was shocked
at the general lack of the means of grace, and he endeavoured in 1800 and
1801 to promote a revivalist movement.  Daniel Shubotham, a boxer,
poacher, and ringleader in wickedness, was brought, through Bourne’s
influence, to the Saviour, on Christmas day 1800, and with his natural
energy of character took up the cause.  Matthias Bailey, another of
Bourne’s old associates was also won over, and cottage prayer meetings
were begun among the colliers.  A meeting upon Mow Cop was proposed for a
day given to prayer.  At this time Lorenzo Dow, an American Wesleyan
visited the Black Country, as the coal district of Staffordshire was
called.  He spoke of the American camp meetings, himself preaching at
Congleton, when Hugh Bourne, with his brother James, was present; William
Clowes being also a hearer.  They bought books of Lorenzo Dow, which had
a marked effect on the future.  On May 31st, 1807, a camp meeting was
held on Mow Cop, a hill in the neighbourhood, Bourne and Clowes being
present.  Stands were erected and addresses given from four points.
Bourne organized two companies, who continued by turns praying all the
day; others giving accounts of their spiritual experiences, among whom
Clowes was prominent, and his words are “The glory that filled my soul on
that day exceeds my powers of description.”  Persons were present on this
occasion from Kilham in Yorkshire and other distant places, one, Dr. Paul
Johnson, a friend of Lorenzo Dow, coming from Ireland.

The movement had now taken definite form and substance.  Another camp
meeting followed at the same place on July 19, lasting three days; a
third on August 16th, at Brown Edge; a fourth on August 23rd, at
Norton-in-the-Moors.  At this time was held the Annual Wesleyan
Conference, at which handbills were issued denouncing this separate
movement.  For a brief moment Bourne, Clowes and Shubotham hesitated; but
the question was seriously considered at a meeting at the house of a
friend, Joseph Pointon, when it was “revealed” to Bourne that the camp
meetings “should not die, but live;” and from that moment he “believed
himself to be called of God” for the new work; and shortly his brother
James, James Nixon, Thomas Cotton, and others, gave themselves to the
cause.

For some years the labours of these men and their associates were chiefly
devoted to the pottery and colliery districts of Staffordshire, where a
remarkable change was brought about in the moral condition of the
hitherto almost brutalized people.  The area of work was then gradually
enlarged, extending throughout the whole country, and even, as we shall
presently see, beyond it.  The following are a few personal details of
Hugh Bourne’s subsequent career.

In 1808, on his way to Bemersley from Delamere Forest, an impression
forced itself upon him that he would shortly be expelled from the
Wesleyan connexion; on reaching home he found that a rumour to this
effect was being circulated, and in June of that year the formal sentence
of expulsion was carried out.  He continued to devote himself to the work
of evangelization, urging however all others to join whatever
denomination they were themselves most inclined for.

He preached his first sermon at Tunstall, on Nov. 12, 1810, in a kitchen
which had been licensed for preaching three years before.  It was not
plastered or ceiled, so that if not required at any future time, it might
be converted into a cottage, which took place in 1821, when a chapel was
erected.  At the Conference held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 1842, he was
most regretfully placed on the retired list, on account of his impaired
health, a yearly pension of £25 being assigned to him.  He was still,
however, to be at liberty to visit different parts of the connection; and
during the next ten years of his superannuation he kept up a very wide
correspondence on religious matters, and made a missionary visit to
America.  The last conference which he attended was at Yarmouth, in 1851.
For several years he had felt a premonition that the year 1852 would be
his last.  The last sermon which he preached was at Norton Green, on Feb.
22, 1852; and on Oct. 11, in that year, he surrendered his happy spirit
into the hands of God, who gave it, when “the weary wheels of life stood
still.”  His chief residence would appear to have been at Bemersley,
where it was long felt that they had lost in him “a man of great faith
and mighty prayer.”

We now pass over a period of several years.  Clowes received a call to
Hull.  He had crowded the work of a life-time into some 17 years, and his
health was now far from good.  At a meeting in December, 1827, he
exhibited such weakness as showed that he had done his best work.
However, he continued to reside in Hull and visited other places from
there, as his strength allowed.  It is certain that he visited
Horncastle, for an old lady, Mrs. Baildham, who died in May, 1900, having
been a member of the connection more than 70 years, frequently asserted
that she had heard both Clowes and his wife preach in, presumably, the
second chapel in Mill Lane.

At the Conference in 1842, 35 years after the first camp meeting on Mow
Cop, both Clowes and Bourne were present; but the assembly was saddened
to see the original founders, of what was now a thoroughly established
and wide-spread community, both shattered in health and broken by toil.
Nine years later Clowes said to a friend “I feel myself failing fast, I
am fully prepared.”  He spoke of the glories of heaven, and said “I shall
possess it all through the merits of Christ.”  His speech began to fail,
but he got downstairs, and once more led his class.  On the Saturday he
attended a committee meeting; on Sunday he was too weak to go to chapel;
on Monday there was further weakness; early on Tuesday slight paralysis;
and on March 2, 1851, he quietly passed to his rest, aged 71.  The people
of Hull were greatly moved, and many thousands lined the streets as the
funeral procession passed to the grave, at which the Rev. William Harland
briefly recited the story of the good man’s work.

Of the general progress of the connexion, we may say, that down, to 1870
it was simply a Home and Colonial body, but, in that year, the Norwich
branch sent out the missioners, Burnett and Roe, to the island of
Fernando Po, on the west coast of Africa.  This was in response to an
appeal from the Fernandians, who had been converted by a member of the
connexion, Ship Carpenter Hands, of the ship Elgiva, who, with his godly
Captain, Robinson, had in the course of trade visited that country.  The
same year also saw a mission established at Aliwal North, in the eastern
province of Cape Colony.

In 1884 the Primitive Methodists of Canada formed themselves into an
independent community, although with expressions of mutual good will on
both sides; their numbers at that time were 8223, with 99 travelling and
246 local ministers, and 237 chapels.

From the middle of the 19th century to its close was a period of great
expansion, a return in 1888 reporting the existence in Great Britain of
4,406 chapels, there having been in 1843 only 1278.  In 1864 Elmfield
College was opened at York, as a middle class school, one of their best;
John Petty being first Warden; in 1876 a college was opened at
Birmingham, named after the great founder, “Bourne College.”  At
Sunderland a Theological College was opened in 1868, the former Infirmary
building being bought; and here, from that date till 1881, Dr. William
Antliff, assisted, and afterwards, succeeded by Mr. T. Greenfield,
trained candidates for the ministry.  The college was afterwards
transferred to a new building at Alexandra Park, Manchester.

In 1889, at the 70th Annual Conference, held in Bradford, the membership
of the society numbered 194,347, with 1,038 itinerant and 16,229 local
preachers; 430,641 Sunday School scholars, 4,436 chapels and 1,465
smaller places of worship; the value of the connexion’s property being
estimated at over £3,218,320.

For these details I am largely indebted to the notes of the late Mr.
William Pacy, of the Wong, Horncastle, and to the courtesy of the Rev. R.
B. Hanley, Minister 1903–5.



THE INDEPENDENTS.


Next in size to the Wesleyan Chapel and its Sunday Schools, on the west
side of Queen Street, are the Chapel and Sunday Schools of the
Independent, or Congregational, community, which stand nearly opposite,
on the east side of the same street; the former being a handsome
substantial building of brick, enclosed by a high wall, and tall iron
rails and gate, to the precincts in front, at the north end.  Its
dimensions are 50-ft. by 36-ft., with schools behind, of the same solid
structure, as will be seen hereafter, erected at a later date.

Like the Baptists this society dates from the time of the Commonwealth,
or even earlier, though at first known by a different name.  They arose,
indeed, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.  The persecutions of
Protestants, under Queen Mary, drove many to take refuge in Germany and
in Geneva, where they became familiar with the worship of the sects
established there, which, as an unchecked reaction from the superstitious
and elaborate ceremonies of Roman Catholicism, took a more extreme form
than the carefully developed Reformation of the English Church allowed.
These persons, returning to England in the reign of Elizabeth, found, as
it seemed to them, too much Romish doctrine and practice still retained;
the Reformation, according to their ideas, had not gone far enough.

The Queen, as head of the English Church, was not disposed to listen to
their demands for further change, and they were themselves too much
divided to have the power to enforce them; dissension and disruption were
the consequence.  A chief mover in this process of disintegration was
one, Robert Brown, who founded a sect called the “Brownists.”  He was the
son of a Mr. Anthony Brown, of Tolethorpe near Stamford, in Rutlandshire,
whose father, a man of good position, had obtained the singular privilege
(granted only to others of noble birth) by a Charter of Henry VIII., of
wearing his cap in the presence of Royalty.  Robert Brown was educated at
Cambridge, graduating from Corpus Christi College, and became a
Schoolmaster in Southwark.  About 1580 he began to put forward opinions
condemnatory of the established church.  He held, as opposed to the
uniformity of worship by law established, that each minister, with his
congregation, were “a law unto themselves;” that each such small
community had a right to be independent of all others; that it was not
ordination which gave a minister authority to preach, but the fact that
he was the nominee of a congregation; that councils or synods might be
useful in giving advice, but that they could not enforce their decisions,
and had no punitory power of censure, or excommunication, against any who
chose to adopt an independent course.

Such opinions, put forward in somewhat intemperate language, aroused much
opposition and bitter feeling, which Brown was too impetuous to avoid, or
to mitigate.  He continued his teaching and presently formed a
congregation at Norwich, holding his views.

An Act of Parliament had been recently passed (23 Eliz., c. 2) which made
anyone guilty of felony who should write, or set forth, seditious matter;
and the Queen, as supreme head of the Church, regarded Brown’s action as
an interference with the Royal prerogative.  Severe measures were adopted
in order to restrain this new teaching.  Two preachers, Elias Thacker and
John Copping, who embraced and proclaimed these tenet, were tried at the
Bury Assizes in 1583, condemned, and shortly afterwards hanged.  Brown
was himself thrown into prison, but released through the intercession of
Lord Burghley, with whom he was connected.

He now left England, and, with a number of followers settled, by
permission of the state, at Middlebourg, in Zealand, where they formed a
congregation.  There, however, freed from all restraint, their principles
of independence carried them so far that differences arose among
themselves, which broke up the community.  Brown presently returned to
England, and for a time conformed to the Church, which he had so freely
abused, being allowed even to hold the Benefice of Thorpe Achurch, in
Northamptonshire.  But again and again his independence asserted itself,
and it is said that he incurred imprisonment no less than 32 times,
finally ending his days in Northampton jail.  While at Middlebourg he had
published, in 1582, a book entitled _A Treatise of Reformation_, of which
he sent many copies to England, and it was for distributing these, and
other of his pamphlets, that the two above-named offenders were executed.
{78}  (Collier’s _Ecclesiastical History_.)

The movement which Brown originated did not die with himself, and in 1593
a congregation of Brownists was formed in London, which numbered some
20,000 members.  A few years later their obnoxious tenets again provoked
persecution, and once more they had to take refuge on the continent.
Churches were established by them at Amsterdam and elsewhere, the
principal one being at Leyden, under the Rev. John Robinson, who
afterwards came to be regarded as the founder of Independency.  He was a
man of considerable attainments; of more genuine piety than the impetuous
Brown; and while equally with him, holding that each congregation was in
itself a perfect and independent church, under Christ, he would avoid all
bitter invective against other communities, who, with different
regulations, might still be regarded equally as churches.

Although the Brownists had no regularly ordained ministry; as newly
constituted under Robinson, there were a number of ministers elected by
the congregations, and no one was allowed to teach publicly until, after
due examination, he had been pronounced qualified for the work.  The
Independents differ chiefly from other religious societies, in that they
reject all creeds of fallible man, their test of orthodoxy being a
declaration that they accept the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and adhere to
the scriptures as the sole standard of faith and practice.

In 1616 a number of the society again returned to England under the
leadership of Henry Jacobs, who had served under Robinson, and once more
established a meeting house in London; while others, in charge of a Mr.
Brewster, who had been a lay Elder, also under Robinson, went out, in
1620, to North America, in the good ship Mayflower, and another vessel,
and founded a colony at Massachusetts.

Although, as has been already stated, under the influence of Robinson
sectarian bitterness was much modified, yet throughout the reigns of
James I. and Charles I., the Independents were in frequent conflict with
the Presbyterians; nor was there only sectarian strife, for both parties
had numerous supporters in Parliament, as well as partizans in the army.
Preaching Generals and praying Captains abounded; but Cromwell favoured
the Independents, as against Presbyterians, and this gradually paved the
way for toleration.

                [Picture: Interior Congregational Chapel]

At the “Savoy Conference” in London (so called because held at the palace
of that name), in 1658, the Independents published an epitome of their
faith, and henceforth, with occasional interruptions, they held on their
way; although it was not till 1831 that the “Congregational Union of
England and Wales” was finally and fully constituted.  They again
published, in 1833, a more definite “Declaration of Faith, Order, and
Discipline,” which continues still to be the charter of the community.

We have seen that in the early annals of this society the name of John
Robinson stood high in general estimation, but his was by no means the
only honoured name.  Among early members of mark was Dr. John Owen, of
Queen’s College, Oxford, a learned writer, and Chancellor of the
University in 1652; he became Chaplain to Protector Cromwell, as an
Independent.  The Rev. Isaac Watts, who had been tutor to the sons of Sir
John Hartop, became the popular minister of a Congregational Chapel, in
Mark Lane, London, in 1693.  Dr. Philip Doddridge was also a valued
member, as Minister at Norwich, Northampton, Kibworth near Market
Harborough, and other places.  From his candour and learning he held
friendly relations with the highest dignitaries of the established
church; he is chiefly known for his two great works, _The Rise and
Progress of Religion in the Soul_, and his _Family Expositor_.  To the
regret of many he died of consumption, at a comparatively early age, in
1751, at Lisbon, whither he had been ordered by his doctors for the
milder climate.  The friend and biographer of the last-named, Mr. John
Orton, was another esteemed member, who published several valuable works,
he died in 1783.

Another was Robert Hall, who ministered at Cambridge, Leicester and
Bristol, where he died in 1831.  He was a great writer and very eloquent
preacher.  Professedly he was a Baptist, but he frequently occupied
Independent platforms, and admitted that he had more feeling of
fellowship with an Independent than with a strict Baptist. {80a}  None of
these, however, was more highly esteemed than Dr. Isaac Taylor, of
Norwich and Colchester, author of several instructive works, and commonly
called “the glory of the Independents.”  He died in 1829.

By the year 1851 this community had grown to such dimensions that it had,
in England and Wales, 3,244 chapels, with a membership of 1,002,307.
{80b}

The connection of the Congregationalists with Horncastle is of
comparatively recent date, and the evidence on this subject is somewhat
conflicting.  Weir, in his _History of Horncastle_, published in 1820,
does not name them, in his list of Nonconformists, as existing here at
that time, but Saunders’ _History_, published in 1836, gives them with
the others.  Hence they would appear to have established themselves in
the town somewhere between those two dates; yet there exists a curious
small publication, entitled “The Confession of Faith of the Society of
his Majesty’s Protestant subjects (dissenting from the Church of England)
called Independents, in Horncastle, in the County of Lincoln, and places
adjacent, Framed in the year of Christ, 1781, by W. R. Lincoln, printed
by S. Simmons.” {80c}

The inference from these facts would seem to be, that, at that date,
1781, there was an Independent congregation in the town, probably small,
consisting of “W.R.” and his personal adherents; as the wording of the
confession is said {80d} to be very remarkable, and indeed unique, “W.R.”
was evidently rather of an eccentric turn of mind, which led him to
publish this authoritative statement of Faith.

The society, probably, in a few years became extinct, and it is not till
the year 1820 that we find any sign of their revival.  _The Church Book_
supplies the following details: In 1820 certain worshippers in the
Wesleyan Chapel of that day, finding their religions views not in accord
with general Wesleyan sentiment, decided to erect a chapel of their own;
and for this purpose they selected a site in East Street, at the north
west corner of Foundry Street, where now stands the house, 42, East
Street.  This building was opened for public worship on March 22, 1821;
the morning preacher being the Rev. B. Byron of Lincoln, the Rev. John
Pain, a Hoxton student, preaching in the afternoon, and the Rev. Thomas
Hayes of Boston, in the evening.

Mr. Pain officiated for a few weeks and then returned to Hoxton to
complete his education for the ministry.  He had, however, left a
pleasing impression behind him, and he was afterwards invited, in an
address signed by 130 of the townsfolk, to come and settle among them as
their first permanent minister.  He commenced his labours, in that
capacity, in July of the same year.  Under his ministry the congregation
rapidly increased, and the first chapel was soon found to be too small;
and in September of the same year a new site was purchased at the
north-east corner of Union Street, now Queen Street.  While this chapel
was being built (which is still their place of worship) they were allowed
by the Wesleyans to make use of their chapel, at stated times; some of
their services also being, for the time, held at the British Schools, on
the site of which the 1st Volunteer Drill Hall was afterwards erected,
now the carriage repository of Messrs. Danby & Cheseldine.

At the opening of this chapel, on March 28, 1822, the Rev. George
Waterbourne, of Dewsbury, preached in the morning, and the Rev. Joseph
Gilbert, of Hull, in the evening.  On Thursday, May 9th, following, seven
persons formally announced themselves to be a church on Independent
principles, viz., William Barton and his daughter Mary, John Jackson and
Elizabeth his wife, William Parker (Solicitor), Mary Ball and Rebecca
Brown.  The Rev. John Pain was duly ordained to the ministry on May 10,
those officiating on the occasion being the Rev. W. Harris, LL.D.,
Theological Tutor of the Hoxton Academy, the Rev. B. Byron of Lincoln,
and Rev. J. Gilbert of Hull.  In July of that year three members were
added to the church, in 1823 eight more were enrolled, in 1824 three
more, and in 1825 six joined.

During this year a vestry was built at the back of the chapel; in May of
the same year a Sunday School was commenced, which at the end of the year
numbered 60 scholars; and the congregation gradually grew, year by year,
until Mr. Pain died in 1844 (April 11).  He was much beloved, and had
brought into the fold about 150 members.  He was interred in the chapel
yard, a large stone on the west side marking his grave, while a tablet on
the south wall, at the east end of the interior of the chapel bears this
inscription, “Sacred to the memory of the Rev. John Pain, who was
ordained Pastor over this church and congregation, Anno Domini 1821.  As
a minister he was talented, zealous and useful, his chief desire being to
bring men unto God.  As a man he was amiable and affectionate, his
private life bearing testimony to the truth of those counsels he publicly
taught.  He departed this life April 11th, 1844, aged 44 years.”  The
inscription on the tombstone is a long one, in verse, to which is added
an epitaph to “Esther, Relict of the above,” who “died in London, Feb. 1,
1868, aged 64.  With Christ.”

Of all the ministers of this chapel Mr. Pain was probably the most
valued, and his memory is still cherished.  We may add that he was born
in Gloucester, a descendant, on his mother’s side, of the old and
honourable family of the D’Oyleys, whose seat is at Adderbury,
Oxfordshire.  His father was many years Pastor of the Independent Church
of Forest Green, Gloucestershire, his mother being daughter of a Church
of England clergyman.  An engraving of him is still preserved, framed, in
the vestry of the chapel.

Mr. Pain was succeeded in the ministry of the chapel by the Rev. J.
Kelsey in 1844; he died in Adelaide, South Australia; and from 1845 to
1848 the Rev. W C. Fisher held the post.  The Rev. Samuel Gladstone
succeeded him, and officiated from 1848 to 1853.  He afterwards went to
Sleaford.

The Rev. J. G. Roberts was Minister from 1853 to 1856.  He married a
daughter of the late Mr. T. Meredith; there being a tablet to the memory
of the latter, on the west side of the south wall of the chapel, with
this inscription, “In affectionate remembrance of Mr. Thomas Meredith,
who departed this life July 30, 1858, aged 66 years.  As for me I will
behold Thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied when I awake with
thy likeness.”

The Rev. Thomas Betty succeeded in 1857, and held office till 1863, when
his health broke down; his last entry in the books was written on Feb.
19, 1863, “God bless them all, church and congregation, Amen.”  He
returned and died at Knottingley, March 26, 1865.  During his ministry a
debt of £75 on the chapel was paid off, and in 1859 a minister’s house
was purchased for £250, and some £30 spent in repairs, the money being
raised by a bazaar.

The Rev. Thomas Lord followed in 1863, and ministered till 1866.  He
succeeded in paying off the debt on the British School, and on leaving
the town was presented with a handsome timepiece by the Committee of the
School.  He had as a youth attended the chapel of Dr. Doddridge (already
named) in Northampton, but left there in 1834.  His first pastorate had
been at Wollaston, from 1834 to 1845; then removing to Brigstock, where
he ministered from 1845 until his transfer to Horncastle in 1863. {82}

He was succeeded by the Rev. J. E. Whitehead, from 1867 to 1871.  During
his ministry several improvements were effected in the interior of the
chapel, including the erection of a commodious platform; oak furniture
and elegant fittings being added, and the seats of the choir re-arranged.

The Rev. W. Rose followed from 1872 to 1878.  He had been stationed at
Portsea, but visited Horncastle in July, 1872, to preach for Home
Missions, and was afterwards invited to undertake the ministry here.
Being a native of Boston, and having resided for some time in Spilsby, he
was glad to return to his native county, and commenced his ministry in
January, 1873.  During his pastorate the old seats in the body of the
chapel were removed, and modern open benches substituted.  In 1874 a plot
of land was offered by the late Mr. W. A. Rayson for new school premises.
Mr. Rose and the late Mr. J. E. Ward, as Treasurer and Secretary, took up
the matter, and the present schools were erected on the south of the
chapel.  On the ground floor is a spacious room, 39-ft. long by 24-ft.
wide; there is a vestry for the minister, an infant classroom, and a
kitchen with convenient arrangements for tea meetings; above are six
large classrooms for boys and girls.  These were opened April 29, 1875;
among the contributors being Mr. Samuel Morley of London, at one time
President of the Society, and Sir Titus Salt, who both, with Mr. W. A.
Rayson, gave £50 each.

After Mr. Rose’s retirement both he and Mrs. Rose still continued to take
a kindly interest in matters connected with the chapel.  She was a member
of a highly respectable family in the neighbourhood, being a daughter of
Mr. Searby of Wainfleet.  Her health, however, was latterly precarious,
and she died May 16, 1879, her husband dying Dec. 10, in the same year.
They were both interred at Spilsby.  Mr. Rose was highly esteemed among
all denominations; was on cordial terms of intimacy with the Rev. Arthur
Scrivenor, then Vicar of Horncastle; and, among other duties, he acted on
a committee at Woodhall Spa, in connection with a Cottage Hospital for
the poor, in which he took great interest, and which was carried on by
the writer of these pages, then Vicar of Woodhall Spa.

Mr. Rose was succeeded by the Rev. W. T. Poole, of Paulers’ Pury,
Northants; a former Scripture Reader at Reading, who ministered here from
1878 to 1880, when he was transferred to Bracknall, Berks.  He was
followed by a Nottingham student, the Rev. W. Archer, from 1881 to 1885.
Then came the Rev. J. H. Dingle, of Ruskington, near Sleaford, from 1885
to 1886, when he left for a charge at Patricroft, near Manchester.
During his pastorate a very successful Bazaar was held in November, 1886,
from the proceeds of which the manse was further improved, and the chapel
again renovated, with decorations from the designs of Mr. C. H. Stevens.

Then followed an interval of two years, during which the chapel was
served by students of the college at Nottingham.  In 1888 the Rev. G.
Luckett succeeded, coming from Long Sutton, and held office till Sept.,
1893, when he was transferred to Curry Rivell, Somerset.  An interval
here again occurred, during which Mr. J. T. Whitehead and other
Nottingham students took the duties, Mr. Whitehead afterwards accepting a
pastorate in Lancashire.

In January, 1894, the Rev. Sidney Benjamin Dixon began his ministry,
which he continued till December, 1897, when he was transferred to
Tetsworth, Oxfordshire.  For more than a year Nottingham students again
performed the duties; and in November, 1899, the Rev. John Pogson, B.D.,
entered on his ministry, which he continued until 1905, when he was
transferred to Whitworth, near Rochdale.  Early in 1907 (Feb. 13) the
Rev. J. H. Dingle, who had held the office in 1886, was re-appointed,
having served, as above, 12 years at Patricroft, and afterwards at
Newmarket and Sheffield.

There is one more tablet in the chapel, which we have not mentioned; it
is on the west wall, “In affectionate remembrance of Jane, the beloved
wife of William Wood, who died May 12, 1853, aged 48 years.  Precious in
the sight of the Lord is the death of His saints.”  Mr. Wood was a draper
in the High Street, and a pillar of the church; he afterwards removed to
Southampton, and died there.

We have only to add that there are a considerable number of tombstones,
with inscriptions, in the chapel yard, but burials ceased to take place
there by Act of Parliament in 1855.  Marriages are here solemnized.  The
Services are morning and evening on Sunday, with sermon in the evening of
Thursday.  A Young People’s Society of Christian Endeavour Meeting on
Tuesday at 8 p.m.  A Ladies’ Sewing Meeting on the first Wednesday of
every month, and choir practice on Friday evening at 8, there being a
good American organ.

For the above details I am largely indebted to the notes “On the Wong,”
of the late Mr. W. Pacey, supplemented by the _History of England_, in
seven volumes, of the Rev. H. Walter, B.D., F.R.S., Professor in the East
India College, Hertford, Chaplain to the Duke of Northumberland, &c., &c.



THE BAPTIST CHAPEL.


This is the oldest nonconformist building in Horncastle.  It is generally
supposed that there was a still earlier chapel, situated near what is
called the Bow Bridge, which spans the southern branch of the canal,
between Cagthorpe and St. Mary’s Square, but we have no definite proof of
this beyond a vague tradition.

The Baptist community date their origin from the time of the
Commonwealth.  The earliest person of note connected with this religious
body being John Bunyon, author of _The Pilgrim’s Progress_, {84a} who
espoused the cause of the Parliament against Charles I.  He first
preached in Bedford, where he was a tinker by trade, in the year 1655,
visiting various other parts of the country in succeeding years, until he
died, August 31st, 1688, and was buried in Bunhill Fields.

An old document shows that at a meeting held at Bedford, in the spring of
1655, over which he presided, it was decided to send one of the members,
“Mr. Brown to Horncastle, in Lincolnshire, to a few persons of the
belief, seeking help to guide them in forming a society.”  Before the
“Toleration Act” was passed in 1689, nonconformist places of worship were
not allowed to exist within five miles of a market town. {84b}  In
Asterby, about six miles from Horncastle, there is a Baptist chapel,
locally reputed {84c} to be the oldest in the kingdom.  At Coningsby is a
Baptist Chapel, with a school, dating from nearly the same period, with
an endowment of 26 acres of land.  The Baptists of Horncastle mostly, in
those days, worshipped at Asterby.  At Donington-on-Bain there is also a
very ancient chapel, where the Baptists of Louth worshipped.  The two
chapels of Asterby and Donington have a joint endowment of £20 a year,
and are now affiliated to Northgate Chapel in Louth.

The Foundation Deed of the Chapel in Horncastle is dated Sept. 19, 1767;
and the names of the founders are given as William Bromley, Vicars Keal,
Hamlet Dabney, William Taylor, William Storr, William Dawson, Thos.
Hollingshed, Charles Bonner, George Gunnis, James Coates, John Blow, and
William Tenant.

The Chapel was originally a structure of one story, having its entrance
in the centre of the north wall, and the pulpit opposite.  Until the
early part of the 19th century it had no baptistry, immersion being
performed in the water-mill pit, {84d} in the north of the town.

Considerable structural alterations were made in the year 1843, when the
walls were heightened and upper windows inserted; a gallery was erected
at the east end; the north door was bricked up, and the present entrance
at the east end opened; the pulpit being removed to the west end, facing
the door.  A further enlargement was made by a small vestry on the west
being added, thus providing sitting accommodation for 250 worshippers.

On the north side of the building is a graveyard, but only three
inscriptions are legible, they are “Mary Markwell, died March 28th, 1776,
aged 29.  Prepare to meet thy God.”  This was, doubtless, one of the
earliest interments.  The second is “In memory of Thomas Lamb, who
departed this life June 7th, 1811, aged 82.

    Here rests that lately animated clod,
    Who self despised, and glorified his God;
    And when that great decisive day shall come,
    He’ll rise triumphant from the silent tomb.

Also of Frances, his wife, who departed this life April 2nd, 1810, aged
79.  He was a watchmaker.  The third is as follows: “Sacred to the memory
of Eliza, daughter of William Parker, Solicitor, and Elizabeth, his wife,
who died 1st April, 1835, aged 20 years.  Them that sleep in Jesus will
God bring with Him.”  Mr. Parker occupied part of the premises now
forming the shop and residence of Mr. Bryant, shoemaker, in the High
Street.

There is little doubt that the house adjoining the chapel, on the north
west, was once the minister’s residence.  On the stairs leading to the
present rostrum there is still a doorway, which evidently led to the
house.  There is a stone tablet over this door, and in 1892 an exact copy
of this was made, and placed on the north wall.  The inscription reads
“John Hill, departed this life Oct. 16th, 1779, aged 48, Pastor of this
Church 13 years.”

There are some tablets on the wall within, but the Rev. F. Samuels, who
was Pastor when the Chapel was renovated, about 1882, unfortunately
allowed the inscriptions to be obliterated.

It is interesting to know that the Mint Lane Baptist Chapel, at Lincoln,
was founded in 1767, by worshippers at Horncastle. {85a}  Curiously it
was not till 1892 that the Horncastle Chapel was “registered” as a place
of worship, the omission being only then discovered, when application was
made for a licence to solemnize marriages.

In 1893 the Chapel was thoroughly restored, at a cost of £80; the
interior being modernised, the walls painted, the old high pews removed
and replaced by neat seats, the old box-shaped pulpit taken down, and a
rostrum and platform erected.  There is a good organ, with special seats
for the choir.

We may add that the Baptists are now a very numerous and influential
body.  At the Baptist World Conference, held at Exeter Hall, London, July
10 and following days, 1905, the first ever held as an united community,
Dr. Maclaren of Manchester presiding, a message was received from the
King and Queen, thanking for a loyal address from the Conference.  The
President also stated that he had informally received a greeting of good
will from the Established Church, as well as from the Free Churches.

On that occasion ministers and delegates attended from various parts of
Great Britain and the Colonies, from America, France, and other
countries.  A meeting was held under “The Reformer’s Tree,” in Hyde Park,
Miss Burroughs, a coloured lady, being on the platform, also Mr. Britto,
a coloured vocalist, and the singing being led by a coloured choir.  The
President, Dr. Clifford of London, stated that there were present 4,000
delegates, from all parts of the world, representing some seven millions
of Baptists, {85b} and 5,700,000 communicants; but besides these there
are 14 or 15 millions of “adherents” to the cause, so that the whole body
numbers over 20 millions.

The Rev. W. E. Pearson was appointed August, 1905, but left in Feb.,
1907, to pursue his studies at college.



THE NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH.


The Croft Street Chapel, or New Jerusalem Church, is both structurally
and intellectually, the most recent developement of Nonconformity in
Horncastle.  The founder of this community was a personality so
remarkable that it may be well here to give a brief sketch of him.

Emanuel Swedenborg, son of a Lutheran bishop, was born at Stockholm, in
1689.  During more than the first half of his life he was distinguished
as a hard worker in the field of science, and from his many clever
inventions, and valuable public services, he was ennobled by his
sovereign.  But in the year 1743, after a serious illness, accompanied by
brain fever, the result of excessive mental labour, he threw up all work
of this kind, declaring that he had received a “call” from the Lord, who
manifested Himself to him, by personal appearance, and commissioned him
to devote further life and strength to holier purposes.

Being a man of strong will, albeit, not improbably, with a touch (as was
thought by several) of mental aberration, the result of his illness, he
threw himself, with characteristic energy, into the work of religious
proselytism, in support of the special views with which he was now
inspired.  He became a kind of religious clairvoyant, living an ecstatic
existence in communion with angels and spirits.  He printed accounts of
various “Arcana,” as he termed them; visions granted to him of heaven and
hell; the state after death, the true worship of God, the inner spiritual
sense of the scriptures; and so forth.  He held spiritual intercourse
with the dwellers in other planets, conversing with Apostles, with
Luther, Calvin, Melancthon, &c.  “Things hidden since the days of Job (he
declared) were revealed to himself.”

Followers gradually gathered round him, inspired by his own enthusiasm.
He visited England frequently; and before his death, in London, A.D.
1772, he had established congregations in England, Ireland, Wales,
France, Holland, Sweden, Russia, and even in Turkey and America.  It is
said that several Anglican clergy adopted his views, though still
retaining charges in their own church.

The special tenets of the sect, which he founded, seem to have been,
that, while believing in one God, they held that He was the Christ; that
Christ always existed in human form, but not in human soul; and that in
His Person there was a real Trinity; that the bible was to be understood
in a spiritual sense, which was first revealed to Swedenborg.  Their
ritual, which was based on that of the Anglican Church, included a
splendid priesthood and an elaborate ceremonial.

Swedenborg’s very numerous writings included a number of mystic works,
especially connected with what he called the “Spiritual Influx,” which
was not limited to locality but pervaded everywhere.  Translations of all
his works have been issued by the Swedenborg Society, located at No. 1,
Bloomsbury Street, London, W.C., and at Horncastle they may be borrowed
from the New Church Free Library in Croft Street.  The Horncastle branch
has also its own monthly magazine, _The New Church Advocate_.

The following is a brief account of the Society’s origin and progress, in
Horncastle, from particulars furnished to the present writer, by the
esteemed minister, Rev. R. Mayes, in 1903 (the second year of his
ministry), and by Mr. Edwin Townell, who has been secretary for a quarter
of a century.  The Society was inaugurated on August 9, 1869, when
Messrs. Bogg, Moore, Hall, Cook, Austin, and Bellamy, met at the house of
Mr. E. J. Moore, 19, Queen Street; Mr. Moore being appointed Secretary
and Treasurer, Mr. Bogg and Mr. Hall Trustees, and Mr. Bogg nominated as
first Leader.  Mr. Cook offered the use of a room in his house, rent
free, and the first service was held on the following day, Sunday, the
10th of the same month.

As Mr. Bogg resided at Benniworth, nine miles from Horncastle, he could
not undertake a service every Sunday; and, at first there was only an
evening meeting, weather permitting.

                   [Picture: The New Jerusalem Church]

There was a good deal of opposition for a time, especially from the
Congregationalists, under their minister, Mr. J. E. Whitehead; this,
however, served rather to increase the general interest in the new
movement, and the evening congregations grew in numbers.  The first tea
meeting (which ultimately became an established monthly institution) was
held March 14, 1870, in a room in the alley named “Tinker’s Entry,” there
being then 14 members on the roll; when addresses were given by Mr. J. S.
Bogg, Chairman; and by Messrs. Cook, Moore, T. Wemyss Bogg, and others.

In May of the same year Mr. Richard Gunton, of the Lincolnshire New
Church Association, visited them, followed by Rev. John Hyde in October,
Mr. Gunton coming again in December of the same year.  We may here
observe that this connection with Mr. Richard Gunton became, as will be
hereafter shewn, a most valuable asset in the Society’s favour, in more
ways than one.  He took up his residence in London, first in Oseney
Crescent, Camden Road, N.W., and afterwards in Tufnell Park Road, N., but
he never lost his interest in the Horncastle branch; visiting the town
year after year, to preach or give lectures, in the Corn Exchange, on
behalf of the Society.  His last visit was in October, 1896; his death
occurring on the 5th of the December following, after (as was fitly
stated) “40 years of faithful service as Superintendent Missionary,” as
well as having been Treasurer of the New Church Conference.

In 1871 Mr. Moore left Horncastle, the room in Tinker’s Entry was given
up, and the meetings were held in the house of Mr. W. Hall, where a
library was also opened for the members.  Subsequently, with a view to
the erection of a suitable place of worship, Mr. Hall bought a piece of
land in Croft Street and presented it to the Society, the project being
also warmly supported by Mr. R. Gunton.  A subscription list was opened,
plans and estimates obtained, and the foundation stone of a fabric was
laid, Sep. 16, 1872.  The appeal for support concluded with these words:
“This will be the first house of worship constructed in the County of
Lincoln, for the worship of the Lord Jesus Christ as the only God.”  This
was signed by W. Hall, Treasurer, and Edwin Dawson, Secretary.

The Chapel was opened Jan. 29, 1873, being dedicated by the Rev. Dr.
Bayley, Minister of the Chapel in Argyle Square, London; who had given a
series of lectures in aid of the Society four years before (November,
1869) in the Corn Exchange; and, after the dedication, he again gave
addresses, which were continued by Revs. P. Ramage, R. Storry, C. H.
Wilkins, Mr. R. Gunton, and others, usually morning and evening.

We will now describe the Croft Street fabric, opened under these
favourable auspices.  It consists of a square oblong, standing north and
south, 40-ft. by 20-ft.; the architect was Mr. Gosling of London, the
builder Mr. Chas. Blyton of Horncastle, the material being red and white
brick.  There is accommodation for 150 persons; the cost of the structure
was £350.  The fittings, which had formerly belonged to a chapel in Cross
Street, Hatton Gardens, London, were presented by Mr. William Pickstone.
At the south end there is an apsidal recess with three lancet windows,
the central one having coloured glass, with the figure of the Good
Shepherd and an inscription at the bottom stating that it was “Presented
by J. W Fishleigh and Fanny his wife, in memoriam, Feb., 1901,” being in
memory of their only daughter, who died in London, the mother having been
brought up in this connection.

Within this apse there is a platform, with polished oak rail in front,
resting on carved pillars.  On this is a Reading Desk and Communion
Table.  The carpet and communion cushion were presented by the late Mr.
T. Tapling, carpet manufacturer, of London, who was a native of
Lincolnshire.  In the centre of the apse is a carved oak chair, having
the monogram I.H.S., which was given by Mr. C. Blyton.  In front,
standing on the Chapel floor, is a harmonium by Alexandre & Sons, of
Paris; it is a fine instrument, having four sets of vibrators and 14
stops.  It was obtained partly at the cost of the congregation, and
partly by a donation of the late Mr. John Jobson, from Mr. Thomas Gunton
(son of Mr. Richard Gunton of London), who resided at Bunnyfield House,
Hatfield Park, and was for many years private secretary to the late
Marquis of Salisbury.  The instrument originally cost £84.  Mr. William
Hall presided at this harmonium from the first.

We have mentioned Dr. Bayley of London as the earliest preacher in the
new chapel; there was no resident minister till 1902.  Mr. and Mrs. Hall
entertained during the whole of the first year (1873) the preachers above
named.  Others of note who followed were Mr. Layland of Nottingham,
Leader of the Society in 1876; followed, 1877–8, by Mr. J. R. Boyle; to
whom succeeded, 1878–9, Mr. W. A. Bates (afterwards of Brisbane,
Queensland, Australia); Mr. W. J. Adcock, 1879–80; Mr. A. E. Beilby,
1880–1; Mr. W. Hall, 1882; and Mr. William Robinson, October of that
year.  At various dates the preachers were Rev. R. Storey of Heywood near
Manchester, Rev. Mr. Wilkins of Nottingham, Mr. Skelton of London, Mr.
Pulsford of Leicester, Mr. Cameron of Edinburgh, Mr. Fairweather of
London, Mr. Ashby of Derby, Mr. Best of Hull, Rev. T. Prestland of
London, Rev. Joseph Deans in 1899, and Rev. J. R. Rendell, President of
the Conference; Rev. Lewis A. Slight of Northampton, 1900; Rev. J. T.
Freeth of Bolton, President, 1901.  From time to time preachers were sent
by the New Church Conference, and later by the East Midland and
Lincolnshire Association.

Three marriages were solemnized in the Chapel by Rev. L. A. Slight, viz.,
that of Miss Townell and Mr W. Chapman of Oundle, Dec. 11, 1900; Miss
Elizabeth Hall and Mr. Edwin White, both of Horncastle, May 21, 1901; and
Miss Florence Smith to Mr. Alfred Storton of London, July 9, 1901.

The Rev. Richard Mayes, the first resident Minister, came from Leicester,
first preached here Feb. 23, 1902, and entered on his ministry in October
of that year.  Other preachers during that interval were Mr. Fairweather
of Loughborough, Mr. L. A. Slight, Mr. Layland, Mr. W. Hall and Mr. H.
Deans.

A Sunday School was opened with the Chapel in 1873; this was, at a later
date, temporarily closed, but re-opened by Mr. Mayes.  Under him, ably
supported as he is by members the Townell and Blyth families, and others,
the services, which are short, bright, and musical, are being attended by
increasing numbers.  Mr. Edwin Townell is still Secretary, as he was in
1880; and with Mr. Mayes’ ministry Mr. H. Freeman succeeded Mr. W. Hall
as Treasurer.



THE REV. THOMAS LORD.


The subject of this notice, no longer holding a ministerial charge, is by
many years the doyen among Nonconformist preachers in Horncastle, being
the oldest Congregational Minister in England.  He completed his
hundredth year on April 22, 1908; on which occasion he received a
congratulatory telegram from His Majesty the King; while a public fund
was instituted for a presentation to be made to him in recognition of the
occasion, which he desired to be given in his name to the local
Institution of Nurses.

Mr. Lord was born at Olney, Bucks., in 1808; and began his ministry in
1834, as pastor of a chapel at Wollaston, Northants, which he held for
eleven years; thence removing to Brigstock, in the same county, where he
laboured during 17 years.  He subsequently held pastorates in Horncastle,
Deddington (Co. Oxford), and Great Bridge, Staffordshire.  He gave up
permanent charge in 1878, continuing, however, to assist other ministers
in that neighbourhood, until 1899, when, in consequence of failing
eyesight, he removed once more to Horncastle, taking up his abode with
his married daughter, Mrs. C. M. Hodgett, on the Wong (No. 7).

Mr. Lord has been an active worker in the temperance cause during more
than 70 years; a member of the Liberation Society since its formation; a
warm advocate of the Peace Society, of the United Kingdom Alliance; the
inaugural meeting of which he attended at Manchester.  He was one of the
founders of the Congregational Total Abstinence Association; and has
always been a warm supporter of the London Missionary Society.

Mr. Lord still preaches occasionally in Horncastle.  He has officiated
more than once recently in the Lincoln Mission Hall, and not unfrequently
occupies the pulpit at the Presbyterian Chapel, Kirkstead, to assist the
local minister, Rev. Robert Holden, who is his junior by some 16 years.
On Sunday, May 31, 1908, Mr. Lord preached at Alford, in the
Congregational Chapel; and on Sunday, June 7, 1908, at Boston, in the
Chapel of the United Methodists.

        [Picture: Rev. Thomas Lord, 100 years old, April 22, 1908]

Notwithstanding his age Mr. Lord’s voice is still clear, deep-toned, and
resonant; his manner is full of vigor, his language simple, yet eloquent
and earnest.  His step is firm and elastic.  In habit he is an early
riser.



CHAPTER VI.
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS.


Having dealt with the places of worship in the town, we now proceed to
give an account of its schools; and among these the Grammar School, from
its antiquity, as well as for other reasons, claims precedence.

This Institution, on its present foundation, dates from the reign of
Elizabeth, {91} one of whose special characteristics was her warm
interest in education, which led her to encourage her nobles, and more
wealthy subjects, to promote the cause.  The Reformation had given an
impetus towards emancipation from the ignorance which prevailed in Popish
times, when the monasteries were almost the only centres of
enlightenment—if so it could be called.

Henry VIII. did little or nothing towards relighting the torch, which had
been held up by the monks, whom he abolished.  His successor, Edward VI.,
founded a few grammar schools; among them being, in our own
neighbourhood, those at Spilsby, Louth, and Grantham.  During the brief
reign of the Popish Mary, the movement was again checked; but Elizabeth,
herself a cultivated scholar, rekindled the general interest in
educational progress.

The title deeds of the school are unfortunately lost, which would have
shewn to what extent it was then endowed, but documents exist belonging
to the school, which prove the conveyance of certain lands, by John Neale
of Horncastle, in the 17th year of Elizabeth (A.D. 1575); he being one of
the first 10 Governors appointed in accordance with the rules of the
foundation.

A useful little volume was published in 1894 by the late Dr. Robert
Jalland, then Senior Governor of the school, containing its history, from
the date of the Elizabethan foundation, gathered from various documents
and minute books, preserved in the office of the Clerk of the Governors;
from which we cull the following particulars:

In the 13th year of her reign (1571), by Letters Patent dated at
Westminster, June 25, Elizabeth granted to her “well-beloved and faithful
counsellor, and subject, Edward Fynes, Knight of the most noble Order of
the Garter, Lord Clinton and Saye, High Admiral of England,” that, at his
prayer, “a Grammar School should be established in the town of
Horncastle, for the good education of boys and youths, living there, and
about the neighbouring parts, habitants and comerants.” {92a}  This was
to be called “The Free Grammar School of Queen Elizabeth, in the Town and
Soke of Horncastle of the foundation of (the said) Edward, Lord Clynton,”
&c., {92b} “to continue for ever.”  It was to consist of “a Master and
Sub-Master, or Usher,” and the “lands, tenements, revenues, reversions,
and other hereditaments, for the support of the school, were granted,
assigned, and appointed,” for their better management, “to 10 discreet
and honest men, who (should) be styled Governors.”

The first Governors appointed were Clement Monk, clerk; John Smith,
clerk; John Sackeverill, gent.; Thomas Litter, gent.; Geo. Hargrave,
gent.; Thos. Raithbecke, yeoman; John Neale, yeoman; Thos. Hamerton,
yeoman; Willm. Ward, yeoman; Willm. Harrison, yeoman.  They were
constituted “a body corporate,” having a “common seal, to hold, to manage
the revenues of the school, and empowered to spend, and invest, the
income at their discretion,” to appoint the teachers, and successors in
the governing body, as vacancies should, by death, occur.

The property of the school, either from the original, or later, {92c}
endowments, consists of lands, tenements, ground and quit rents, in
Horncastle, or in the Wildmore Fen allotment of the same, land and
tenement in Hemingby, lands in Winthorpe, Huttoft, Sutton, and in
Thornton a payment of £12 a year in lieu of former land, {92d} with
certain moneys invested in Government Consols and Indian Stock.

The rental of the school property has varied at various periods.  At the
time of the civil war, when the neighbourhood was more or less in a state
of anarchy, there is no record, for some years, of the Governors having
even met to dispense payments; and the Head Master’s salary was only £10.
In 1735 it amounted to £42, and that of the Usher to £21; but in 1753
there was a reduction to £30 for the Head Master, and £15 to the Usher,
owing to money having to be “borrowed for the exigenceys of the school.”
In 1786 the income of the school rose to £529; the highest point which it
seems ever to have attained was £877, in 1854.  In that year the Head
Master’s stipend is not specified, but two years later it was £235, with
capitation fees amounting to £251 odd.

In 1780 the Head Master was the Rev. C. L’Oste; he was also Rector of
Langton by Horncastle, and a good scholar.  He published a translation,
in verse, of Grotius on _The Christian Religion_.  It was printed at the
Cambridge University Press, dedicated to the Bishop of Lincoln, with a
very distinguished list of subscribers. {93}  Differences arose between
him and the Governors, and in Sept., 1782, he was served with a notice to
quit, at the end of six months, for neglect of his duties.  He refused to
give up office, counsel’s opinion was taken by the Governors, Mr. L’Oste
pleaded in his own defence.  The Governors gave notice of a trial at the
assizes.  No result, however, is recorded, and Mr. L’Oste retained office
until his death in 1818.

                      [Picture: The Grammar School]

The year 1854 marked the close of the career of the most remarkable Head
Master who ever ruled the school.  The Rev. John Bainbridge Smith, D.D.,
had entered on his duties April 10, 1818, succeeding Mr. L’Oste.  Coming
to the post as an entirely unknown man, of comparatively humble origin,
but of great energy, he soon acquired a leading position in the town and
neighbourhood; becoming Rector of Martin, Rector of Sotby, and Vicar of
Baumber.  He was the author of several standard works on Divinity.  Under
him the school achieved such a reputation that, besides the day scholars,
he had a large number of boarders coming from Scotland, Ireland,
Devonshire, London, and even Jersey and France.  His end was
unfortunately as remarkable as his career.  Returning by train from
Lincoln he fell asleep, and being roused at Kirkstead by the porter
giving the name of the station, and the night being dark, he did not
perceive that the train was again in motion, and springing out of the
carriage, he fell a few yards beyond the platform and broke his neck.
The porter found him lying helpless, but alive, on the line.  He was
carefully conveyed to his residence at Horncastle, and lingered alive
several weeks, retaining his mental faculties, but having no sense of
feeling below his neck.  At length he recovered slight feeling in his
legs and feet, and probably tempted by this to make an effort to move, he
was found one morning dead in his bed.

The Duke of Newcastle, who owned property in Baumber (where, as we have
said, Dr. Smith was Incumbent), appointed him his private chaplain; and
the Doctor’s youngest daughter, Sarah Katherine, married the Rev. Henry
Fiennes Clinton, a near relative of the Duke, and a descendant of the
founder of the school, Lord Clinton and Saye.

The school building has not always occupied the site on which it now
stands.  As shewn in Stukeley’s plan of the town, printed in 1722, it
stood in the north-east corner of the school yard.  In 1772 that
structure was found to be in a ruinous condition, and the present
building was erected, being opened for use at Midsummer 1778.  A
classroom was added at the south end in 1855, and more recently another
small room put up at the north end.  The residence of the Head Master was
formerly a small low cottage, but it was considerably enlarged in the
early part of the 19th century, and in 1858 a new wing was added at the
north end.

In 1847 two “Clinton” Exhibitions were founded by the Governors, of £50 a
year, to be held for four years, by scholars going to the University.
For lack of such scholars this was granted to Clement Madely Smith,
youngest son of Dr. Smith, the Head Master, who studied for the medical
profession, in London.  No further appointment however was made, as in
1848 the Governors decided that they had no authority so to employ the
funds at their disposal.

On the death of Dr. Smith, in 1854, a new scheme of education, more
suited to the requirements of the time, was drawn up by a committee
appointed for that purpose, which received the sanction of the Charity
Commissioners, and was approved by the Master of the Rolls in the same
year.

The attendance at the school, however, gradually fell off, until, in the
year 1886, there were only 16 scholars; and further reforms were needed.
Since then changes in the system have, from time to time, been
introduced, to render the school more generally useful: the more recent
being the admission of female pupils in 1903, for whom was appointed a
resident lady teacher, Miss E. Gibson, who had matriculated, 1st class,
at London University.

Small Scholarships also, not exceeding six in number, were established
for needy pupils; and application was made to the Lindsey County Council,
for a grant of £80, in aid of scientific lectures, {94} under the
Technical Instruction Act of Parliament; so that a general middle-class
English education was provided, along with Latin, French, book-keeping,
and other technical subjects; an examination being held annually by some
one unconnected with the school, who should be approved of by the Charity
Commissioners.  The school has thus, under the tenure of the Head
Mastership by Dr. Madge, of late years, been considerably improved, and
the area of the subjects taught, widened; assisted as he has been by the
able Second Master, Mr. C. W. Gott, B.A., London, and Miss Gibson.  But
it has also been increasingly recognised that there was room for still
further development, if the institution was to take its proper position
among the endowed educational establishments of the county.  This,
however, is a subject to which we shall recur hereafter.

In 1855 a school Library was commenced, the Governors granting £10 for
the purchase of books; £20 being given in the following year, and this
has been further enlarged in later years, until the books now number
nearly 500.

In March, 1893, a Magazine entitled _Banovallum_ was established, to be
mainly carried on by the scholars, the Editor being J. G. Meanwell,
Sub-Editor J. R. Cowburn.  It was a monthly record of school work and
sports, with various other matters of interest.  It was intended also to
be a link of connection between “old boys” and new; and with this view
former pupils of the school were invited to contribute. {95a}  The
outside support, however, of such a publication was not sufficient to
render it a paying venture, and after an existence of rather more than
two years, it expired with the July No. of 1895.

Here we may fittingly introduce some personal reminiscences of the
school, and those connected with it, in its palmiest days, under the
regime of Dr. Smith, and first we may mention members of his own family.

Although, as before stated, himself of humble origin, {95b} he married
the daughter of a General Sandwith, a lady who was highly esteemed by all
who knew her.  She bore him three sons and three daughters, and
predeceased him.  His eldest son, Bainbridge, graduated at Cambridge
University, took Holy Orders, was at one time English Chaplain at Smyrna,
and succeeded his father in the Rectory of Sotby.  He married a daughter
of Judge Haliburton of Nova Scotia, the author of _Sam Slick_, _The
Watchmaker_ (1839) and other works, which were popular in their day.  The
eldest daughter, Frances, married a member of a then well-known
Horncastle family, the Rev. John Fawssett, a graduate of Cambridge, who
afterwards became in turn Rector of Minting and Vicar of Baumber with
Stourton.  A second son, Joseph Coltman, became a Solicitor in Hull, but
died early in life.  A second daughter, Isabella, married the Rev. W.
Affleck Peacock (named after his relative Sir Robert Affleck, of Dalham
Hall, Newmarket), Rector of Ulceby near Alford.  The youngest daughter,
as already stated, married the Rev. Henry Fiennes Clinton, Rector of
Cromwell, near Newark, a near relative of the Duke of Newcastle, to whom
he was appointed domestic Chaplain.  The third and youngest son, Clement
Madely, so named after his godfather, the esteemed former Vicar of
Horncastle, adopted the medical profession and went out to India, where
he became known as a keen sportsman among big game; a group of two tigers
shot by him, and stuffed by Ward the great taxidermist, being exhibited
in the Crystal Palace several years ago.

Of the scholars at the school, under Dr. Smith, we recall a few names, as
samples of the class of pupils whom he received.  There were three
Sandwiths, Humphrey, Godfrey, and Henry, who were his nephews on his
wife’s side.  Humphrey became a surgeon, and having a taste for foreign
travel, went out to Constantinople to practice there.  Having good
introductions he was kindly received by Sir Stratford Canning, the
English Ambassador, and making the acquaintance of Layard, he was invited
to travel with him to Mecca, Mosul, and Nineveh, at two of which places
excavations were conducted; as Hakim, or Doctor, he was visited by crowds
of Arabs, suffering from various ailments; and his quinine wrought
wonderful cures among them.  When at home he sometimes surprised his
friends by suddenly appearing among them dressed in Arab costume.  In
1855 he was at the famous siege of Kars, under General Fenwick Williams;
when a force of 15,000 English were shut in by an army of 50,000
Russians.  The English had three months’ provisions and three days’
ammunition; they suffered greatly from cholera, and after five months
surrendered, only when overcome by famine.  Humphrey wrote a history of
the siege.

Of Godfrey we remember little; Henry graduated at Cambridge, took Holy
Orders and became Vicar of Thorpe Salvin, near Worksop.  There were three
Inveraritys, Duncan, Henry, and William; the first of these went out to
India, and became a Judge in the Supreme Sudder Court.  Henry devoted
himself to yachting, and died early.  William held a commission in a
Highland Regiment of foot.  Roseville Brackenbury, whose father, a former
Peninsular officer, and member of an old Lincolnshire family, resided
temporarily at Horncastle, in order to place his son under Dr. Smith,
entered the East India Company’s service, in the Bengal Presidency.

There were three Buchanans, sons of an old Indian officer, Major
Buchanan, a Scotchman, but residing in Maida Vale, London.  These were
James, Alexander, and Robert.  James was a dashing, chivalrous,
high-spirited fellow, who took service in a Madras regiment of cavalry;
his brother “Alick” was of a different fibre, being chiefly remarkable
for the amount of treacle tarts which he could consume, at the shop of
the once well-known “Sally Dickinson;” the third brother, Robert, entered
the navy.

We may here mention, as evidence of the hard work which was done under
Dr. Smith’s system, a feat of memory performed by two brothers among the
senior boys, Thomas and Alfred Cammack, which the present writer well
remembers, as he was present as a small boy when it occurred.
“Repetition,” of one kind or another, was required of all boys; but these
two repeated to the Master from memory, the whole of the first book of
Milton’s _Paradise Lost_ (798 lines), Thomas with only three promptings,
and Alfred with five.  Another boy, Sidney Bousfield, did the same with
nine or ten promptings.  Thomas Cammack walked his hospital in London,
and eventually became a consulting physician of some eminence, residing
at Boston; Alfred died early.  Sydney Bousfield went out to India, and
died some years ago.

Two pupils, Holland and Forge, who came to study with the Doctor, of more
mature years than the ordinary scholars, were “crack shots,” and welcomed
at many of the shooting parties in the neighbourhood.  A third, Frank
Richardson, who was an ardent fox hunter, had his horse brought to the
door weekly, on the day when the meet was nearest, and was always among
the foremost in the field.  He was, further, a great athlete, and would
follow the hounds on foot, and not seldom be in at two deaths in the day,
several miles apart; of him, it is related, that he leapt the school-yard
wall, nearly 7-ft. high.  There were many more who were trained by the
Doctor to serve their generation worthily in various capacities, but let
these suffice as a sample of his influence.

The Under Masters whose services he enlisted were, further, not unworthy
of him.  We will name one or two.

The first Under Master of whom the present writer has any knowledge was
Thomas Myddelton.  He was by birth a gentleman, being connected with the
very old family of the Myddelton Biddulphs of Chirk Castle, North Wales,
who have now dropped the latter name, retaining only the Myddelton.
Thomas Myddelton’s father, John M. (then dead), had been Rector of
Bucknall, in this neighbourhood, 1804–34; his grandfather, also named
Thomas, having been Vicar of Melton Mowbray; he (John M.) having been an
Exhibitioner of St. Paul’s School, London, graduated B.A. at Sidney
Sussex College, Cambridge, 1782, and gained a Fellowship.

     [Picture: Lord Clinton and Saye, Founder of the Grammar School]

Thomas also graduated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.  While serving
as Under Master at the Grammar School he was ordained to the Curacy of
Bucknall, under his father’s successor, the Rev. John Fendall.  On the
occasion of his ordination he begged a whole holiday of Dr. Smith, and
treated the whole school to a day at Tattershall Castle; hiring carriages
to take them all, there being yet no railway; and he gave them a
substantial meal at the “Fortescue Arms” Hotel.  He was naturally very
popular with the boys of the school, although he was rather a strict
disciplinarian, and made them work hard.  He was commemorated in the
“Breaking up Song” of the school in the following lines:—

    Mr. Myddelton now comes in,
    With his nose above his chin; (two prominent features)
    With pleasant smile he waves his cane,
    As though to say, “I would fain refrain;
    It grieves me sore to give a thwack
    Upon the shrinking truant’s back.”

                                   (CHORUS)

    We’re breaking up, and going away,
       All for the sake of a holiday.
    Jack’s a dull boy without his play;
       So, Hurrah, again, for a holiday!

He remained at the Grammar School about two years, afterwards taking the
Curacy of Langton with Wildsworth, near Gainsborough.  He presently moved
to West Stockwith, holding the Curacy of Wildsworth with East Ferry.  He
never held a benefice; but, having some private means, he continued to
reside, in retirement, at West Stockwith, until his decease, about 1880.
He was buried at Misterton, the adjoining parish, where he had also taken
occasional duty.

After Mr. Myddelton the next Under Master was William Hutchinson.  He was
the son of the landlord of the principal inn in the neighbouring town of
Wragby, and had been educated at the small grammar school there.  He was
appointed about 1845.  He graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, as B.A.,
in 1848, keeping his terms there by permission, while acting as Usher at
Horncastle.  In that year he left Horncastle, and was elected Master of
Howden Grammar School in Yorkshire, where he was also appointed Curate in
1848, being ordained Deacon in 1848 and Priest in 1849.  While at
Horncastle he had married Miss Caroline Dixon, daughter of a corn
merchant; there were five daughters, all clever, the youngest being Miss
Annie Dixon, who became distinguished as a miniature painter, exhibiting
in the Royal Academy, and becoming a favourite of the late Queen
Victoria.  He held the Head Mastership at Howden for several years;
holding also the Perpetual Curacy of Laxton near Howden from 1850 to
1855, the Perpetual Curacy or Vicarage of Airmyn from 1855 to 1862, when
he was appointed Vicar of Howden, which benefice he held till his death
in 1903.

It was somewhat remarkable that he began professional life in Horncastle,
famed for its great horse fairs, and passed the rest of his life at
Howden, also noted for its great horse fair.  His wife is buried, with
two sisters, in the cemetery at Horncastle.

The next Under Master to be mentioned about this period was Francis
Grosvenor.  He was the son of a respectable tradesman in the town, and
had been educated at the Grammar School.  At first he was employed by Dr.
Smith as a supernumerary teacher of the junior boys, and became useful in
the temporary absences of Mr. Hutchinson, at Dublin University.  He was a
conscientious and dependable youth, thoughtful beyond his years, and was
much valued by the Head Master, who was a shrewd judge of character.  He
also graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, taking honours; and was
ordained Deacon in 1847, and Priest in 1848.  He remained as Second
Master for some years at the Grammar School, being much esteemed among
neighbouring clergy for his unostentatious manners and general worth.  He
frequently officiated in the Parish Church.  Eventually he went to
Chester, as Curate of St. John’s Church in that city, where he remained
many years, taking pupils.  There was probably a talismanic attraction in
the name of Grosvenor; Eaton Hall, the seat of Lord Grosvenor (now Duke
of Westminster) being in the immediate vicinity.  He was consequently
very successful in obtaining pupils; and made money, whereby he acquired
considerable house property there and elsewhere.  He was devoted to
archæological pursuits, and published a learned paper (of 16 pp.) on “The
early connection between the County Palatine of Chester and the
Principality of Wales,” which he read before the County Antiquarian
Society. {99a}  After many years’ residence in Chester, he retired on a
competency to Epsom, in Surrey, where his mother, brother and sister
resided with him; and where he acted as Chaplain to the Union, until his
decease, about 1880.

The last Assistant Master, under Dr. Smith, whom we may name was John
Burton, born of humble parents in Peterborough.  He was appointed about
1848, and served Dr. Smith faithfully about three years.  He was not,
however, a strong man, either physically or mentally.  His weakness of
character was shewn in an incident which might have had a tragic
termination.  Having formed an attachment for a young lady, living near
the schoolhouse, and being rejected, he declared that he would commit
suicide; and he fired off a pistol under her window at night, taking
care, however, not to wound himself.  On leaving the school he entered at
Jesus College, Cambridge, and graduated in 1853, dying soon afterwards.

On the appointment of the Rev. Samuel Lodge, to the Head Mastership in
1854, Thomas White, a graduate of St. John’s College, Cambridge, became
Under Master.  He had taken classical honours, and was an efficient
teacher, and rather strict disciplinarian.  He was the first Under Master
allowed to take private pupils as boarders.  He continued at his post six
years, taking Holy Orders, and in 1860 was presented by the Bishop of
Lincoln to the Vicarage of Scamblesby, which he held until his death in
1891.

It may be of interest if we here give some of the customs of the school
at this period, as samples of a state of things which is now past and
gone.  The morality of some of them might be questioned in these days of
advanced ideas on civilization, but, under the guidance of a man of Dr.
Smith’s mental calibre, their effect was the rearing of a generation of
manly youths, capable of much intellectual, as well as physical, activity
and endurance.

The Head Master was himself a remarkable instance of this.  Punctually at
7.30, without fail, he was every morning in his desk at the school, to
open proceedings with prayer, it being frequently a race between himself
and his boarder pupils, as to who should arrive first, his residence
being some quarter mile from the school.  When he closed the school, with
“abire licet,” {99b} in the afternoon, he as regularly went for his
“constitutional” walk.  Furious indeed must be the weather if Dr. Smith
was not to be seen on Langton Hill, summer and winter, rain or fair; if
the former he would brave the elements, wrapt in a large blue cloth
cloak, waterproof as his leather gaiters.  If the latter, he would often
saunter slowly, rapt in meditation, or composing verses, an occupation of
which he was very fond, leaving behind him at his death several vols. of
MS. poetry. {99c}

The school hours were from 7.30 to 9, before breakfast; 10 to 12.30
midday; afternoon 3 to 5; while the boarders at his own house worked with
the Assistant Master from 7 to 9; the day boys, in the town, preparing
exercises and repetition for the next morning, at their own homes.  It
was an amusement, for some of the more active, to get up some quarter of
an hour earlier than the others, and hurry down to St. Mary’s Church, to
help old Dawson, the sexton, to ring the Grammar School bell. {100a}  As
the Doctor was very active in his movements, any boarders who were late
in starting, could only reach the school in time, by running across the
fields between the two branches of the canal, called “The Holms.”  Woe
betide those who were late!

From the Doctor’s energy of character it would be expected that he would
encourage active healthy recreations.  The days of cricket were not yet,
{100b} although “single wicket” was sometimes practiced.  Nor was
football popular, as it is now.  The game was indeed played, but we had,
in those days, no Rugby rules, and the ball was composed of a common
bladder, with a leather cover made by the shoemaker.  In the school yard
the chief game was “Prisoner’s Base,” generally played by boarders
against day boys; in this swiftness of foot was specially valuable.
There was also a game named “Lasty,” in which one boy was selected to
stand at the upper end of the yard, while the rest gathered at the lower
end.  After a short interval, the one boy darted forward towards the
others, who all tried to avoid him; his object was to catch one of the
other boys, and when he succeeded in this, the boy whom he caught took up
the running to catch another, and this could go on for any length of
time.  There was another exciting game called “Lug and a Bite.”  In the
fruit season a day boarder, from the country, frequently brought his
pocket full of apples; he would throw an apple among the other boys, one
of whom would catch it, and run away biting it; the others would chase
him, and seize him by the lug (ear), when he would throw it away, and
another would catch it, and continue the process, he being, in his turn,
caught by the ear, and so on.  This afforded much amusement, and many
apples would in this way be consumed.  There were large slabs of stone
laid down in the yard, on which marbles were played with, and peg tops
were spun.  Hockey, or shinty, as it was commonly called, was also a
favourite game; but these amusements were chiefly confined to the sons of
tradesmen in the town.

Among the boarders archery was practised, and by some of them with a
skill almost rivalling that of Locksley in Sir Walter Scott’s novel of
_Ivanhoe_.  A carpenter in the town made for us bows of lancewood, and
arrows of poplar, tipped with spikes of iron.  With these we could not
only split our “willow wand” at 80 yards distant, but the more skilful
deemed an arrow hardly worth having until it had been baptized in the
blood of blackbird or pigeon, and some of the neighbouring pigeon cotes
suffered accordingly.  The writer was presented with a bow made of
bamboo, and arrows said to be poisoned, which a great traveller, then
residing in Horncastle, had brought from the South Sea Islands.  He lent
these to a brother archer, who by mistake shot another boy in the calf of
the leg.  Great alarm was the result, but the poison must have lost its
power, for no evil consequences ensued, except that the wounded party
almost frightened himself into a state of fever.

          [Picture: Successive Head Masters, from 1818 to 1907]

These, however, were among the less hardy of our sports.  The good old
Doctor’s great aim was to get us healthily engaged in the country.  With
this object he would say on a Monday morning to the bigger boys of the
two highest classes, “Now, lads, if you will translate this book of
Virgil, or Homer, or this Greek play, as quickly as you can, you shall
have the rest of the week to spend as you like.”  Put upon our mettle by
such a challenge the work would be completed, by us perhaps on the
Wednesday, and three days of varied enjoyment in country rambles would
follow.  In these days, when bird-nesting is forbidden as being “cruelty
to animals,” it may horrify some of our readers to learn that the Doctor
encouraged his pupils to collect eggs.  On our excursions in early summer
every hedge was carefully examined for many miles round, the tallest
trees were climbed, or, as it was then called “swarmed,” in search of the
eggs of hawk, carrion crow, woodpecker, &c.; those of the owl were found
in the thick fir plantations, or those of the jackdaw in old ruins; the
rarest specimens being presented to the Doctor himself, while commoner
kinds were hung in festoons from the ceiling of our study at his
residence.  The two chief holidays at this season were the Queen’s
Birthday, May 24th, and “Royal Oak Day,” May 29th.  On these two days the
boys were expected to decorate the school in the early hours of the
morning; a _sine qua non_ being, that, on the Doctor’s arrival at 7.30
a.m., he should find his desk so filled with floral and arboreal
adornments, that he could not enter it; whereat he would make the remark,
repeated annually, “Well, boys! you have shut me out of my desk, so we
must give up work for the day.”  He also, on these occasions, often
brought with him a daughter, and the two carefully looked into the
decorated desk, when they were rewarded by finding the nest and eggs of a
“feather-poke” (long-tailed tit), or some other rare bird, which he
always took home and preserved in his study, as a trophy till the
following year.  No questions were asked as to _how_ the decorations were
obtained, but in practice the process was as follows.  On the day before,
between school hours, certain of the younger boys were sent round the
town to beg flowers, and then, later on, followed what, as we should have
said, the present hypercritical generation would call, at the very least,
“dishonest pilfering.”  After retiring to rest, and when the final visit
of the Assistant Master had been made to the dormitories, all became
excitement; boots and caps had been carefully concealed under the beds.
The elder boys were quickly re-clothed, booted and bonneted; and we crept
down, by back stairs, to the kitchen, with the connivance of the cook and
housekeeper; those good souls also providing some refreshment for us, to
be taken either before we went out, or after we returned; and then,
stealthily emerging by the back door, we separated into small companies
of twos and threes; some re-visiting gardens in the town, and taking
without permission further flowers; others going into the country;
sometimes even taking a light cart from one yard and a pony or horse from
another, and then visiting gardens or parks in the neighbourhood, and
returning laden with branches of horse-chesnut flowers, pink may, &c.,
which were quietly conveyed to the school; and by the appointed hour the
work of decoration would be completed; and we, having returned to our
dormitories, refreshed through the cook’s kindness the inner man, and
washed the outer, were ready to greet the good Doctor and his daughter on
their arrival.  The only difference between the decorations on the 24th
and 29th was, that on the latter day oak leaves and acorns were a
distinguishing feature, some of the sprays having been gilded on the
previous day for presentation to the young lady.

There was another great day called the “Treasurer’s holiday.”  Once a
year the one of the Governors, who held that office, was entitled to ask
the Head Master to give us a whole holiday, which he was always pleased
to grant.  The custom was for one of the senior boys to call upon, or
write to, the Treasurer, usually after some period of extra hard
scholastic work, asking him to exercise this privilege.  The way in which
these holidays were spent varied.  Sometimes we had a “Paper Chase,” or
“Fox and Hounds.”  One boy was sent out as fox, sometimes accompanied by
another boy, both carrying in bags a supply of paper, torn into small
shreds, which formed the scent.  In this sport the Doctor sometimes
offered a reward of five shillings to the “fox” who should manage to
elude his pursuers until he had reached the bank of the river Witham, a
distance of about six miles, but increased to 10 or more miles by the
different ruses practised to escape capture; a similar reward being
offered to the “hound” who should effect his capture after a run of a
stipulated number of miles.

Sometimes we had a picnic to the Tower-on-the-Moor, going there on foot,
through “the Wilderness,” and other woods, and having our luncheon
brought to the Tower in the carrier’s cart, which passed daily on its way
to Kirkstead wharf.  This was usually a bird-nesting excursion.  More
than one of us accomplished the hazardous feat of climbing to the top of
the tower, whence a fine view could be obtained, on a favourable day,
across the Wash into Norfolk.  On one of these occasions we extended our
ramble to Kirkstead wharf, some adventurous spirits took forcible
possession of the ferry boat, and carried over women returning home, with
their marketings, free of charge.  The owner of the boat was, however,
compensated by our calling at his small hostel close by, and patronising
his lemonade, bread and cheese.  Sometimes the excursion was to
Tattershall Castle, and if this was in the winter we skated there in the
morning, along the canal, returning on our “runners” by moonlight; the
Doctor being himself a good skater, encouraged it in his boys.  On these
occasions we sometimes amused ourselves on the return journey by firing
pistols, to disturb the inhabitants of houses near the canal; when, if
anyone put his head out of a bedroom window, some one of us would shout,
“your money or your life;” the usual response being “Go along, ye
bulldogs,” the name by which we were commonly known throughout the
country side.

On one of these return journeys, while skating in single file, we
approached the third lock, and the boy in front forgetting that there
would be no ice for a few yards below the lock, because the water there
was kept in agitation by the stream always falling from the lock,
suddenly found himself floundering in an icy cold bath, while himself in
a state of great heat.  The shock, and the fact that he was cumbered by
his skates, made him almost helpless, and he would probably have been
drowned, but that a fine fellow (I give his name, Edward Sharpe, for he
has long ago put “off this mortal coil”), who was a great athlete,
plunged in, skates and all, regardless of the risk, and like a
Newfoundland dog, panting brought his friend to shore, with no worse
effects than the drenching to both.  And here I may say that one of the
accomplishments specially encouraged by the Doctor was that of swimming;
the very youngest were taught to swim by the Under Master, in a small
pool in the river Bain, called “Dead Man’s Hole,” about 100 yards from
the first lock of the canal.  After gaining proficiency we bathed in the
canal and lockpit itself.  The Doctor gave a reward of 5/- to any boy who
could dive across the canal, the same sum when he could swim 100 yards on
his back.

On one occasion a bully, among the bigger boys, threw a timid little
fellow into the lockpit when full, saying “Now, you’ll learn to swim, or
sink.”  The little fellow did sink, rose to the surface, and sank again;
and would certainly have been drowned, but a shout from other indignant
youngsters, looking helplessly on, brought the same Edward Sharpe to the
rescue (he was bathing below the lock, not aware of what was going on),
and he at once plunged into the lock, dived to the bottom (18 or 20
feet), and brought up the poor half-conscious boy, who would otherwise
have perished.

It may here be mentioned that the present writer once swam from the
junction of the two branches of the canal (close to the present bathing
place) to the first lock, then passed on and swam to the second, and so
continuing, swam to the third lock, his clothes being carried by a school
fellow who accompanied him; this being a distance of some two miles, for
this the Doctor rewarded him with 10/- and a whole holiday.  He also, it
may be added, as a reckless feat, when bathing, leapt stark naked across
the first lock; a performance which the slightest slip might have made
fatal.

Many are the anecdotes which could be here told of our adventures; as of
policemen or keepers eluded, or put off the scent, by various ruses, &c.,
&c., on our various marauding expeditions, but I will mention only two
more incidents.

From the same feelings of jealousy, doubtless, which produce the “Town
and Gown” antagonism at the University, there was much ill-feeling among
the lower class of boys in the town towards ourselves, and free fights
occasionally occurred between them and the hated “bull-dogs.”  At dusk
stones were thrown at us, which it was difficult to avoid in the then
badly lighted streets.  Sudden sorties were made from alleys, to take us
unawares, and send us sprawling on the coggles.  Especially in snowy
weather we were assailed with snowballs on our way from school to the
Doctor’s house, and although we stood shoulder to shoulder and made a
spirited resistance, it not uncommonly occurred that these missiles were
(doubtless purposely) made to contain a piece of ice, or even a sharp
flint.  In one of these skirmishes the writer himself was struck on the
temple, his eye only just escaping, by a snowball, which a comrade picked
up, on seeing that the wound was bleeding, and a fragment of glass was
found inside it; this, surely, an extreme illustration of the principle
that “all is lawful in war.”

One great event, of yearly re-occurrence, was our bonfire with fireworks,
on the 5th of November.  Pocket money was hoarded up several weeks
beforehand, to provide for the latter; some boys even made their own
squibs and crackers, and these were considerably larger and more
formidable than those which were bought.  The scene was usually a field
on Langton Hill, which belonged to the school.  Subscriptions were raised
to purchase 100 faggots, locally called “kids;” but here again our custom
would, in strictness, have been condemned, for, in addition to the
purchased fuel, for sometime beforehand, we had been searching the hedges
around, armed with axes, and so had got together probably as much to
which we had no right, as that which had been bought.  The bonfire was
thus doubled in size, and made a blaze which, on the hill, would be seen
for many a mile.  We had a whole holiday to give us time to pile up the
heap; and in the evening parents and many other friends crowded to the
field as spectators.  Sometimes a lighted balloon or two, of varied
colours, would be sent up, which were watched by the bright eyes of
sisters and cousins, until they were lost in the distance.

At length the conflagration was reduced to smouldering ashes, and all
retired; but on our way back to the school house there were often rough
doings, between the town boys and bull-dogs; free vent was given to
spite, and a broken or bruised head, or body, might be the result; but we
made no complaint; as loyal subjects we had done our duty in protesting
against all such underhand doings as “Gunpowder Plot;” and, after a
hearty supper, given by our kind Head Master, we enjoyed the rest, well
earned by the exertions and trials of the day.

We have now said enough of the school, its institutions and customs,
under a regime which has passed away, doubtless never to return; _tempora
mutantur_.

Of the modern school we may here say that it is now doing useful work,
although with a different class of pupils to those above referred to; and
in the near future, it is hoped, that further changes will give it a
still higher position in educational work.  Under Dr. A. G. Madge, who
retired and accepted church preferment in 1907, the school was made to
meet the requirements of the Oxford and Cambridge local examinations, the
London University Matriculation, and the South Kensington Science and Art
Departments.

In late years boys from the school have filled posts in various parts of
the world with credit.  A considerable number have obtained clerkships in
banks, or in the Civil Service; one boy, Richard Gordon Healey, passed
7th among more than a hundred candidates for the General Post Office
service, London, and is now in the excise service.  Another, Fairburn, is
Assistant Inspector of Police at Singapore.  Another, Isle, is a Civil
Engineer, and has taken the B.Sc. degree.  A summary of successes at the
school, kindly supplied to the writer by Dr. Madge, shows that in the
last seven years (1906) five boys have passed the London University
Matriculation, 19 the Cambridge local examination, 34 the South
Kensington examination, while four have qualified for the public Civil
Service; a creditable result for a town of the size of Horncastle.

                [Picture: The Seal of the Grammar School]

A recent change has been the admission of pupil teachers to classes
specially adapted to their requirements, and with this accession to the
numbers receiving instruction, there are now more pupils in the school,
male and female together, than at any period within the last 30 years.

The latest changes, in the direction of progress, have been as follows: A
new governing body has been created by the Board of Education, consisting
of 13 members; the Lord of the Manor, the Honble. R. Stanhope, being _ex
officio_ one of them; eight representative Governors holding office for
three years; two being appointed by the Lindsey County Council, three
(one of them a female) by the Urban Council, two by the Guardians, one by
the Justices of the Peace at the Lindsey Quarter Sessions.  There are
also four co-optative Governors (among them one female at least),
appointed by the Governors for five years.  It is further ordered that
the Head Master need not be in Holy Orders; under which rule has been
appointed the present Head Master, Mr. Arthur N. Worman, B.A., London,
late Assistant Master at King Edward VII. Grammar School, King’s Lynn,
who was selected by the Governors from 150 candidates for the post.



Addendum I.


It will have been observed that we have so far adopted the prevalent
nomenclature, and spoken of this school as an Elizabethan institution,
founded in 1571.  It must now be added that, venerable as that date of
origin would make it, it has a higher claim to our veneration still.
_Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona_.  There were grammar schools before that
date.  Edward VI. is said to have established several, in various parts
of the country, and we have already named two such in our own
neighbourhood, viz., those of Spilsby and Louth; but it is now known that
even these were, strictly speaking, revivals of still other institutions.
It is now known that not a few of the charities, or public institutions,
supposed to have been founded by Queen Elizabeth, were really of older
date, but revived, confirmed, or augmented, under her wise rule.  In a
published account of the old grammar school of Giggleswick, Yorkshire,
{106a} commonly reputed to be a foundation of Edward VI., is the
following statement, “a large number of schools bear the name of Ed. VI.,
who undoubtedly desired to strengthen the grammar school system.  His
good intentions were, however, frustrated by the Commissioners; and very
few of the so-called Edward VI. grammar schools had their origin in his
reign, being older foundations with a new name.” {106b}

It seems certain that Horncastle Grammar School is an analogous case.
Documents have recently been brought to light in the archives of the Dean
and Chapter of Lincoln, which prove that, acting for the Chancellor (who
was _ex officio_ “Magister Scholarum”), during a temporary vacancy of
that office, they appointed Masters to the grammar schools of Boston,
Partney, Horncastle, and elsewhere, in the year 1329; the Horncastle
Master, so appointed, being one John of Beverley.  This mode of
appointment being exceptional, was only to be valid for one year; but the
Chancellorship continuing vacant, the Masters were confirmed in their
positions by the Dean and Chapter, in the following year 1330, and again
in 1331; and so on, in successive years. {106c}

Now this mode of appointment being only in lieu of appointment by the
Chancellor, while his office was in abeyance, it follows that these
schools were in existence, as public institutions under the Chancellor,
before the dates named.  Although, therefore, we are unable to fix the
exact period of the school’s existence, it may be satisfactory for
Horncastrians to know that, in addition to the various interesting
associations which we have already given as connected with the school,
there is proof that before Shakespeare had composed one of his immortal
plays, before Spenser had written a line of his _Faerie Queen_, before
Bacon had even thought of his _Advancement of Learning_, there had
existed a “seat of learning” in the small provincial town of Horncastle,
which had then attained to the respectable age of more than two
centuries.

We have been accustomed to consider the foundation of William of Wykeham,
at Winchester, in 1373, as one at least of our very oldest, but
Horncastle Grammar School may even be of still earlier date than that.
The oldest school of all is King’s School, Canterbury, attributed to
Archbishop Theodore, A.D. 670, but which may probably be traced to St.
Augustine.  St. Peter’s School, York, is the next oldest.



Addendum II.


The Governors of the Grammar School are about to erect, in this year,
1908, new and more commodious premises for the school, in the grounds of
what is now called “The Chestnuts,” near the west end of West Street.



CHAPTER VII.
WATSON’S FREE SCHOOL.


Next in importance to the Grammar School, and prior to the existence of
the two well appointed National Schools, Church and Wesleyan, possibly
even of greater utility than at present, is Watson’s Free Infant School;
the founder of which placed it under the control of the Grammar School.

The title deeds of this Institution are in the keeping of Mr. H. Tweed,
Solicitor, who is Clerk to the Governors; and from these we gather the
following particulars of its history.  Richard Watson in the latter half
of the 18th century was a resident in, and a native of, Horncastle, being
the son of James Watson, who had made money by tanning, at that time a
staple business in the town.  Although engaged in trade he ranked with
the resident gentry, his sister, Frances, marrying James Conington, Esq.,
belonging to a family of good position, not only in the town, but in the
county; members of which have also distinguished themselves at the
Universities, the name still surviving.  She is referred to in an
Indenture of date 22nd Sept., 25 George III. (1785), as “Frances
Conington, of Boston, widow, formerly Frances Watson, spinster, surviving
sister and heir of Richard Watson, late of Horncastle, gent., deceased,
tanner, and his wife Elizabeth.”  By her marriage she had a son Francis
Conington, who as nephew of Richard Watson, was the sole executor of his
will and testament.  The principal deed has the following external
inscription: “Title deeds of the school, signed, sealed and delivered, by
Benjamin Handley (afterwards called “of New Sleaford”), {108a} in the
presence of Williom Swallow, {108b} supervisor, and Abraham Hanson, of
Horncastle.”

The following is the heading within, “Sealed and delivered by Frances
Conington, being first duly stamped, in the presence of Caleb Preston,
and Bowlin Kelsey of Boston.”  This is further confirmed, as follows:
“Sealed and delivered by Frances Conington, in the presence of William
Swallow, supervisor, and Abraham Hanson, of Horncastle.”

Then follows a “Release of lands in Lincolnshire to found a school (dated
22nd Sept., 1785), inrolled in His Majesty’s High Court of Chancery, the
8th day of March, in the year of our Lord 1786, being first duly stamped
according to the tenor of the statutes made for that purpose.”  (Signed)
Thomas Brigstock.

                       [Picture: The Market Place]

The seals attached to this are those of Frances Conington, James
Conington and Benjamin Handley.  There is a note in the margin that
“James Conington came before me this day, and acknowledged this to be his
deed, and prayed the same might be inrolled in His Majesty’s High Court
of Chancery.  Robert Chapman, Master in Chancery.”  Dated 6th March,
1786.

The actual terms of Richard Watson’s will are these: “I am very desirous
of establishing a small school within the town of Horncastle, wherein the
children of such poor persons, as the Governors of the Grammar School
shall think objects of charity, may be taught to read, knit, spin, and
plain needlework, or sewing.  I do therefore hereby earnestly request,
will, and direct, my nephew and executor, after my decease, by deed,
conveyance (&c.), to convey, and assure, to the said Governors, and their
successors, for ever, all the lands situate in Croft, and all those
messuages, cottages, or tenements, within the yards and pingle adjoining,
situate in Far Street (now called West Street), Horncastle; and also that
part of now inclosed arable, meadow, and pasture ground, lying in
Wigtoft, containing 6 acres, 28 perches, now in the occupation of my
cousin, William Watson, with appurtenances, upon the Trusts following,
viz.: (1) to keep the house (school) in good repair, and the residence
(2) for the maintenance of a proper master or mistress, to be from time
to time nominated by them, to teach such poor children, &c.”

It is then added that “the said Richard Watson dying on Sept. 30 (1784),
the said Frances and James Conington, desirous to fulfil his bequest,
agree to convey to the use of the said Governors, the said messuages,
&c.”  An Indenture is added, witnessing “that on payment by Benjamin
Handley of ten shillings to Frances and James Conington, they have
granted, sold, and released” the aforesaid property, and “appointed by
these presents from the day next before the date of the Indenture, all
the said messuages, &c., called by the name of the ‘ffoal thing,’ {110a}
and that plot commonly called ‘Backside,’ the closes in Croft abutting on
the highway, and lands near the old sea bank; and land called the ‘bridge
plot’ in Wigtoft (6 acres), assigned to Richard Watson, by the award of
the Commissioners appointed by Parliament, in the 12th year of His
Majesty, for enclosing common and open fields (No. 40 in award map), with
houses, barns, curtilages, and woods, to be held by the Governors of the
Grammar School, the reversions, rents, &c., to the use of John Thorold
(and the Governors), {110b} on trust, that the said Governors collect the
rents, &c., and apply them as shall be required, from time to time, for
poor children; and shall have power to erect a new school house, or
alter, enlarge, &c., and to mortgage, &c., in order to provide suitable
(premises), spinning wheels, &c., and to make rules for management, as
shall to their judgment seem needed, agreeing with the said Benjamin
Handley, and his heirs, &c., subject in all things to the Court of
Chancery at Westminster.”

The present status of the school is as follows: The original premises are
still in use, standing in a retired position, in “Watson’s Yard,” about
50 yards from West Street; they consist of school buildings, play yard,
and teacher’s residence.  In 1835 the school was enlarged and repaired.
In 1895 it was further improved by the removal of bedrooms above, when it
was opened up to the roof; at the same time a commodious classroom was
added at the east end.  Accommodation was thus provided for 120 children.
The increase in scholars necessitated an increase in the teaching staff,
and the Head Teacher, Mrs. Robert Marshall, who was appointed in 1885,
has, since these alterations, been assisted by an Under Mistress and two
Monitors.

The scholars are of both sexes, and between the ages of three years and
seven.  The school is conducted on Church of England principles, and
examined by both Diocesan and Government Inspectors; a Government Grant
being earned to supplement the funds of the Watson bequest.  The scholars
are taught reading, writing and arithmetic, with the various kindergarten
subjects.  The Secretary to the Charity, H. Tweed, Esq., Solicitor, of
Horncastle, pays half the rents to the Lincoln County Council, for
teachers’ salaries, and retains the other half for repairs and incidental
expenses.  All the other tenements in Watson’s Yard are the property of
the Charity.



THE LANCASTERIAN & THE BELL SCHOOLS.


Beside the endowed schools, already described, the Grammar School for the
middle and upper class, and Watson’s School for the children of the
poorer classes; there were two other schools before the present National
Schools came into existence, the history of which is of some interest.
Weir, in his _History of Horncastle_, says “a school, on the
Lancasterian, or British system, was established at a public meeting,
held in October, 1813; and, a few days later, a meeting was held at the
church, when it was resolved to establish a school on the plan of Dr.
Bell.  Both buildings were erected in 1814, supported by voluntary
contributions, each for about 200 children.” {111}

This needs some explanation.  Dr. Andrew Bell was an East Indian
Company’s Chaplain, stationed at Fort St. George, Madras, in 1789.  He
noticed, in the course of his duties, that in the native schools, beside
the regular paid teachers, the more advanced pupils were also employed to
instruct younger scholars; each pupil thus having a tutor, and each tutor
a pupil; a system by which both were enabled to learn faster, and led to
take more interest in their work, than would otherwise have been
generally possible.  Being an enthusiast in educational matters, he
resigned his chaplaincy, with its good stipend, to inaugurate, and
himself carry on, a school for the children of Europeans in the
Presidency, on the same principles.  The result was so satisfactory that
on his return to England, in 1797, he published an account of what he
called the “Madras, or Monitorial System,” and endeavoured to introduce
it in this country.  Little progress, however, was made for some time,
beyond the establishment of a charity school, on these lines, at St.
Botolph’s, Aldgate, London, and a school at Kendal, Co. Cumberland.

About the same date Joseph Lancaster, a young Quaker, set up a school for
poor children, before he was 19 years of age, in a room lent to him by
his father, in the Borough Road, Southwark, and in a very short time he
had nearly 100 under his charge.  He also adopted the monitorial method,
but, as a Quaker, omitting the Church teaching of the Bell schools.
Persevering in the work, he was received in audience by the King, George
III., who gave him encouragement.  He then travelled over the kingdom,
giving lectures on the new mode of instruction; which in consequence
spread with rapidity.  In 1798 he taught about 1,000 boys, between the
ages of 5 and 12 years, his sisters teaching some 200 girls.

Objections were made to the indefinite character of the religious
teaching of a Quaker, by Professor Marsh, and others, and the Bell
schools, with their Church instruction, had by the year 1818 become
numerous.  The services of Dr. Bell himself, in the cause of education
had been recognised, and rewarded by a Canonry of Westminster.  By the
year 1828 upwards of 200,000 children were being taught on his system,
and at his death, a few years later, he bequeathed £120,000 to carry on
the work which he had so much at heart. {112a}

These two systems, the Lancasterian or unsectarian schools, and the Bell
or church schools, continued to increase in number; there having been
established in 1805 “The Royal Lancasterian Institution,” otherwise
called “The British and Foreign School Society,” while the Bell system
was represented by “The Church of England National School Society.”

The first Lancasterian or British School founded in Horncastle, in 1814,
was located in premises adjoining the Wong, on the site afterwards
occupied by the first Volunteer Drill Hall.  It was afterwards
transferred to what is now called Dog-Kennel Yard, occupying a building
which had previously been a theatre, and which was partly fitted up with
sittings removed from St. Mary’s Church, giving accommodation for 200
children.  Neither in its internal structure, however, nor in its
situation in an out-of-the-way back yard, was the former theatre well
adapted for school purposes; and although the late Mr. Samuel Goe had in
1869 bequeathed a legacy to the school, which rendered it almost
independent of annual subscriptions, the establishment of a much more
commodious school by the Wesleyans, in Foundry Street in 1860, affected
it unfavourably, the number of scholars gradually decreased, and it was
finally closed in 1876. {112b}

The Bell, or Church School, also built in 1814, and accommodating about
200 scholars of both sexes, formed the nucleus of the present Church
National Schools.  These two schools, the Lancasterian or British, and
the Bell or Church School, are the only public elementary schools, named
in the _Gazetteers_ for many years, except the Watson Charity School,
already described.

Of the present Church National Schools, that for infants was erected in
1860, that for boys in 1872, at a cost of about £1,000, the original
building being now the girls’ school; the whole affording accommodation
for 300 children.  These were, a few years ago, taken over by the Lindsey
County Council (in 1893), and are now under both Diocesan and Government
Inspection. {112c}



THE SCIENCE & ART SCHOOL.


With the establishment of Technical Schools this country may be said to
have entered on a new era, in national education, which, in its
development, may lead to results, the importance of which can hardly yet
be realized.  The possibilities are almost unlimited.  A wide-spread
network has been created, which may bring even the humblest members of
our artisan families within its deneficial meshes, while also working at
intervals, as opportunities offer, in our remotest villages.

This great movement, curiously, originated from dissension in Parliament,
a remarkable illustration of the old adage, “’Tis an ill wind that blows
no one any good.”  In the year 1890 the Chancellor of the Exchequer, in
Lord Salisbury’s ministry, {113a} introduced what was called “The Local
Taxation (customs and excise) Bill,” {113b} intended to empower County
Councils to buy up the licences of superfluous public houses, and to
compensate the publicans by grants of money.  The funds for this purpose
were not to be a charge upon the local rates, but to be provided by an
increase of the duty on spirituous liquors.  Strange to say, this measure
was so persistently opposed by the temperance party, aided by others, who
for the moment acted with them, that the proposed use of the money, thus
raised, was at length abandoned, a considerable surplus, however, being
thus at the Chancellor’s disposal, after the reduction of several other
taxes, the remainder was handed over to the County Councils, to be
employed in the furtherance of technical education.  The money thus set
apart was called “the ear-marked money,” and the measure enacting it was,
somewhat unworthily, termed “The Whiskey Bill.”  Horncastle benefitted by
a sum being placed to the credit of the local authorities for the
establishment of a school of science and art; all such institutions in
the county being under the general direction of the organizing secretary,
Mr. S. Maudson Grant, residing in Lincoln.

                       [Picture: St. Mary’s Square]

At first classes were held in the Masonic Hall, Bank Street; and in 1891
an efficient teacher, Mr. Mallet, was engaged to give commercial
instruction in arithmetic, shorthand, &c., {114a} and he was very
successful in getting pupils.  In 1892 larger accommodation was required,
and two rooms were rented, over what is now the Bicycle Depot of Mr.
Sorfleet, at 14, East Street; and Mr. Switzer was engaged as teacher of
science and art, at a salary of £100 a year, being allowed further to
augment his income by taking private pupils in certain other subjects.
About the same time £100 was spent on models, and other requisites; and
by the close of 1892, Tetford, Wragby, and Woodhall Spa having been
included in a general scheme for the district, it was found that the
pupils attending the classes already numbered 219; of whom 76 were under
Mr. Mallet’s instruction, 101 under Mr. Switzer, including 39 school
teachers in the neighbourhood, attending on Saturdays; while 42 received
special instruction from a qualified teacher in dressmaking.  Operations
were also, in the same year, extended to rural parishes, a meeting being
held at Woodhall Spa, on Feb. 10, presided over by the Rev. T. Livesey,
County Councillor, when a district embracing 20 parishes was formed; Mr.
Livesey being _ex officio_ Chairman of Committees, Canon J. Clare Hudson,
Vicar of Thornton, appointed as acting Chairman, and the Rev. J. Conway
Walter, Rector of Langton, Hon. Secretary.

This was followed by other meetings at Horncastle, at which, in due
course, plans were matured for both town and country classes in various
subjects.  On the death of Mr. T. Livesey, in 1894, Mr. Robert Searby, of
Edlington, succeeded him as County Councillor, and took a great interest
in the school; the late Mr. W. Brown, of the Capital and Counties Bank,
was elected Chairman, and for several years he rendered most valuable
service to the schools, being followed, on his decease in 1901, by Mr. R.
W. Clitherow, Solicitor, who had previously acted as Treasurer.  So far
the whole scheme had been attended by the most marked success in all
departments.

In the year 1894 the numbers of pupils, and of the subjects taught, had
further increased; and it became necessary again to move into more
commodious premises.  The large building in Queen Street, which had been
erected by the late Mr. F. Stevens, of Gordon Villa, and was then
occupied by Miss Morris, as a school for young ladies, was rented, having
two large classrooms and a smaller one.

Among the teachers who followed was Miss Annie Foster, who succeeded Mr.
Switzer in July, 1895, and continued as head of the Institution for
nearly six years.  She was a most enthusiastic and energetic worker, and
under her the schools attained the highest point of success, both as
regards the number of pupils attending and the variety of subjects
taught.  The school at this time had attained to the highest degree of
efficiency which it is ever likely to reach.  Not only had Horncastle
pupils taken more prizes than those of any other technical school in the
Parts of Lindsey, but on the visit of the Government Inspector, Mr.
Minton, at the prize-giving in September, 1896, he stated that the school
occupied the third place in all England. {114b}

In the year 1899 again the Inspector, on his examination in October,
reported its state as being “very satisfactory,” and in that year grants
were earned of £140 from the County Council, £35 from South Kensington
Science and Art department, £50 from the Whitehall department, £12 from
fees for science and art teaching, £10 from the evening continuation
classes, a total of £247.  Miss Foster was assisted by Miss M. E. Edgar.
A former pupil, Mr. C. H. Stevens, a native of Horncastle, was also
appointed Assistant Master, until he was promoted to take charge of a
technical school at Folkestone.  Mr. A. Blades, of the London University,
Junior Master of the Grammar School, was for a time an Assistant.  At the
end of 1900 (Nov. 15) Miss Foster resigned, being promoted to the head
teachership of the Camden School of Art, in London.  Miss M. E. Edgar,
who had been assistant teacher for several years, was at this date
appointed Head Teacher, in the Science and Art department, Mr. C. W.
Gott, of the Grammar School, B.A. of London University, becoming Head
Master of the evening continuation school, and Mr. H. J. Haddock teacher
of shorthand.

It would not be possible, nor is it desirable, here to go into full
details as to all the work done; but as, in future years, it may be
interesting to have some record of the progress in the earlier days of
this Institution, and as the writer of these pages has been closely
connected with the school, from its first inception, a summary of the
more important particulars is here given.

In the spring of the year 1896, a course of public lectures, illustrated
by lantern views, was given by himself, descriptive of his own travels in
Egypt, which were attended by full audiences of junior pupils, and many
adults.  In 1897 he gave a similar series of lectures on his travels in
Palestine, and these proving equally popular, a third supplementary
course was given by him in 1898.

In 1898 illustrated lectures were also given by the Rev. J. A. Penny,
Vicar of Wispington, on “The Abbeys and Castles of England,” and as being
very instructive on the subject of architecture, these were largely
attended.  They were followed by a course, which proved very interesting,
given by Mr. R. W. Clitherow, the Treasurer, descriptive of a walking
tour made by himself, among the scenery of the English lakes.  He also
gave an instructive lecture on Canada.

In the spring of 1898 the Head Teacher, Miss Foster, gave a series of
lectures on “Physiography,” being an account, the result of most careful
study and practical investigation, of the various geological formations
and fossils of the earth, illustrated by specimens largely of her own
collecting. {115}  These were very instructive, and attended by a fairly
numerous class of pupils.

Other valuable courses of lectures were given during this early period of
the school’s existence.  In the autumn of 1896 Dr. R. McLay, of
Horncastle, was engaged by the Committee to give lectures in the Masonic
Hall, on “First Aid to the Injured,” under the St. John’s Ambulance
regulations.  The pupils, numbering 25, were afterwards examined by Dr.
G. M. Lowe, of Lincoln, when 23 of them passed as entitled to St. John’s
Ambulance Certificates.  So much interest was shewn in these lectures (to
which policemen were specially invited), that it was resolved, in the
following year (1897), that the services of Dr. McLay should be secured
for a repetition of them, with increased remuneration.  They were again
given in the autumn of that year (beginning Oct. 18), when 24 persons
attended, of whom 16 presented themselves for examination, which was
again held by Dr. Lowe, all of whom passed with credit, and gained
ambulance certificates.  We give these particulars as shewing the value
of the work done at this period.

Similarly valuable instruction has been given in later years, but, with
diminished funds available, and classes smaller, owing doubtless to the
exhaustion in some degree of the stream of candidates for instruction,
compared with its flush at the outset of the school’s existence, fewer
lectures on these extra subjects have been given; and instruction has
been confined to more ordinary, but not less useful, work, in drawing,
geometric and from models; modelling in clay, painting in water colours
and oils, book-keeping, arithmetic, shorthand, French, and so forth.

To show that the school has continued to do good work, we may state that
on January 25, 1906, a meeting was held for the annual prize giving, when
close upon 70 pupils, of both sexes (69), received rewards, several of
them for success in four or five different subjects.  For the year 1905–6
the school received a grant of £100 from the County Council, £25 from the
Horncastle Urban Council, and the fees of pupils paid about half the
expenses.

We now give a brief account of the more important of the work carried on
during the same period in the country parishes.  In March, 1892, the
first “pioneer” lecture was given at Woodhall Spa, on Horticulture, by
Mr. Horace Huntly, lately in charge of the Duke of Bedford’s gardens at
Woburn Abbey, Beds.  This was well attended, and the instruction given
was most useful, for the better cultivation of cottagers’ gardens.  This
was followed by a course of three lectures on the same subject, in March
of the succeeding year.  In April of the same year (1892), a series of
six lectures were given at Stixwould and Horsington, by Miss Kenealy, of
the National Health Society, on the subject of home nursing, and
treatment in cases of accident, fevers, &c.  These also proved so
instructive that she was engaged to repeat them in the summer of the
following year; and they were given in eight different parishes,
beginning with Langton on June 5th; the attendances being very large, in
one case 70 being present.

Mr. Robert Jalland, Surgeon, of Horncastle, also gave a lecture at
Kirkby-on-Bain, in April of the same year, on the subject: “How to secure
healthy homes,” which was very instructive and well attended, over 40
being present.  In the autumn of that year a series of five lectures on
Cookery were given by Mrs. Pierce, of the National Health Society, at
four centres, Roughton, Thimbleby, Horsington, and Minting, beginning on
Oct. 10th, and continued weekly.  These were considered so instructive
that the Secretary, having made notes of them, was requested to have 500
copies printed, for free distribution, which was done.

In January of 1893 lectures on butter-making, with practical
demonstrations, were given by Miss Carter, a professional teacher with
certificate of the B.D.F.A., in nine parishes, from Jan. 12th to 24th.
Lessons in sheep shearing were given in May, at eight centres, Roughton,
Kirkstead, Woodhall, Langton, Wispington, Stixwould, Bucknall, and
Thimbleby, the teachers being Mr. S. Leggett of Moorhouses, Boston, and
Mr. R. Sharpe of Horsington; prizes of £1 and 10/- being given to the
most proficient pupils.

In 1894 lessons were given in hedge plashing, on Mr. Gaunt’s farm at
Waddingworth, in November, the teacher being Mr. H. Butler of Greetham,
money prizes being given.  Lessons in under-draining were given on Mr.
Carter’s farm at Bucknall, in December, the teacher being Mr. W. Scott of
Hatton, money prizes being also given.

In 1895 lectures on poultry keeping were given in February, by Mr. E.
Brown, F.L.S., and Mr. F. Parton, at five centres; and they also visited
various farmyards in the neighbourhood to give practical advice; these
lessons were well attended.  Lessons in horse shoeing were given at
Horncastle, for the neighbourhood, by Mr. J. B Gresswell, M.R.V.C., of
Louth, in May and June, at which nine blacksmiths attended; certificates
of the National Association of Farriers being awarded.  Lessons on sheep
shearing were given at Thimbleby, Kirkstead, and Bucknall, in June, the
teacher being Mr. R. Sharpe of Horsington.  Dairy lessons on butter
making and stilton cheese production were given by Miss Carter, at
Woodhall Spa, Kirkby-on-Bain, Minting, and Reed’s Beck, in October and
November.  Lessons in under-draining were given on Mr. F. W. Scott’s
farm, at Bucknall, in December, the teacher being Mr. W. Scott of Hatton,
and money prizes given.  Two lectures on bee keeping were given at
Woodhall Spa, in November, 1895, by Mr. W. J. Banks of the Grammar
School, Wragby, which were well attended; the same gentleman also giving
a practical demonstration of the same, by request, at the Manor House,
Woodhall Spa, in August of the following year (1896).

                         [Picture: Bridge Street]

In 1896 Hedge Plashing lessons were given, in January, at Stixwould,
Bucknall, and Horsington, the teacher being Mr. W. Scott of Hatton.  The
Head Secretary, Mr. S. Maudson Grant, was present and said he was “much
pleased with the work done.”  Lessons in stack thatching were given, in
September, in the yards of Mr. H. N. Coates, of Langton, Mr. R. Roberts,
of Thimbleby, and Mr. S. Harrison, of Roughton, to ten candidates, the
teacher being Mr. Isaac Storey, of West Ashby.  These extended over four
days, and were pronounced by the General Secretary, Mr. S. Maudson Grant,
of Lincoln, to be “highly satisfactory.”  In November lessons in
under-draining were again given by Mr. W. Scott, of Hatton, on the farm
of Mr. Joseph Clifton, of Horsington, to two classes of candidates, those
over and those under 24 years of age, and were well attended.

In 1897 hedge plashing lessons were given in February, on the farm of Mr.
S. Harrison, of Roughton, also by Mr. W. Scott, on three days, to two
classes, over and under 24 years of age, being also well attended; prizes
of 25/-, 20/-, and 15/- being given to each class; and two extra prizes
of 7/6.

Poultry lectures were given, also in February, extending over six days,
at Mr. Bates Leedale’s farm, at Woodhall, and at Mr. W. H. Holmes’, of
Minting House, by Mr. W. Cook, the well-known chicken breeder, and
originator of the breed named “Orpingtons,” of Orpington House, St. Mary
Cray, Kent (since deceased).  These lectures created the greatest
interest; the audiences were crowded, at one lecture there being 127
present; and as he visited many farmyards to give advice, and several
farmers bought valuable chickens from him, his visit may be said to have
materially improved the breed of fowls in the neighbourhood.

In May of this year, 1897, it was decided at head-quarters to make a
change in the process of operations.  Hitherto instruction in the country
parishes had been provided through the Committee of the Science and Art
School, at Horncastle, but from this date each parish was to have its own
Technical Education Committee, elected annually, with the other parish
officials; and these were to apply direct to the Head Secretary, at
Lincoln, for such instruction as they might think desirable, parishes
uniting for this purpose if they chose to do so.  More money than
heretofore was now being expended on the Science and Art School in
Lincoln, and the grants for the country lessons were now greatly reduced.
Of this country instruction no record was henceforth kept at Horncastle,
and no detailed account can therefore be given here; the lessons have
been mainly confined to hedge plashing, ploughing, under-draining, and
such other practical subjects as suited the farmer, or agricultural
labourer.

In conclusion it may be said that although it is yet too early to
prophecy, it would seem that a great future lies before us in the
development of education.  Co-ordination of work between (as we have at
Horncastle) the endowed Infant School, the National Schools, Technical
Schools, and the “secondary” Grammar School, with higher-grade colleges,
should furnish a kind of educational ladder, by which the child of the
artizan, or rustic, may rise from the humblest position to the highest,
if he has the ability, and the will, to avail himself of the
opportunities thus placed within his reach.  It is hardly too much to say
that the result may well be, that in the keen rivalry of nations, which
characterizes the present age, England should thus be enabled to more
than hold her own in the struggle of industrial life.



CHAPTER VIII.
THE DISPENSARY


May well be said to be the most important charity in the town, not only
from the valuable services which it has, through many years, rendered to
the suffering poor, but because it was a pioneer institution of its kind;
while the area of its usefulness has probably been more extensive than
that of any similar charity in the county.

Dispensaries were established at Louth in the year 1803, at Lincoln in
1826, at Grantham in 1838, at Boston in 1852, at Market Rasen in 1857;
but Horncastle was in advance of the earliest of these by more than a
dozen years.  Further, the records of the charity shew, that, in the
early years of its existence, patients were here treated from places so
distant as Spilsby, Friskney, Wainfleet, Trusthorpe, Theddlethorpe,
Alford, Fotherby, Marsh Chapel, Saltfleetby, Boston, Lincoln, Sleaford,
Grantham, and even beyond the county, from Loughborough, Hull, and
Beverley.

This, it may be explained, was mainly due to the fact that it was
virtually the creation of a man who was, in many matters, in advance of
his time, that great public benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., of
Revesby Abbey, who held the Manor of Horncastle, and took the greatest
interest in the welfare of the town and neighbourhood.

At a preliminary meeting held at the Bull Inn, Horncastle, on Wednesday,
Oct., 28, 1789, it was resolved, apparently on his initiative, to
establish a dispensary; and this took formal shape on Dec. 3rd following,
when the governing body was elected, consisting of Sir Jos. Banks,
President, with Vice-Presidents the Honble. Lewis Dymoke, King’s
Champion, Thomas Coltman, Esq., William Elmhirst, Esq., Treasurer, and
Richard Clitherow, Gent., legal adviser; the Honorary Physicians being
Edmund Laycock, M.D., and Edward Harrison, M.D., with Mr. John Chislett
as Surgeon and Apothecary.

A code of rules was drawn up, which, with occasional revisions, to suit
changing circumstances, remain substantially the same to the present day.
A donation of 10 guineas constituted a life Governor, a legacy of the
like amount gave the trustee paying it the same privilege.  An annual
subscription of one guinea made the subscriber a Governor during the
year.  Church or chapel collections of two guineas secured governorship
for the year to the minister, and an additional Governor for each two
guineas so collected.  The officials were to be a President,
Vice-Presidents, and Treasurer, elected annually at a special meeting of
the Governors.  Other regulations, as to patients and their attendance,
numbered between 40 and 50.

The institution was to be open on Tuesdays and Saturdays from 11 a.m.
till noon, when the medical officers would prescribe for patients,
attending with a governor’s nomination.  Those unable to attend should be
visited at their homes.  As a small practical beginning the wooden
framework of a shop was bought at Wainfleet, for the small sum of 5/5;
and drugs were ordered from the firm of Wallis & Stockton, of York; and a
further supply obtained from Messrs. Skeen & Peale, of London.

The first building, which was used from 1789 till 1867, was No. 2 on the
south side of St. Mary’s Churchyard, being rented for the sum of five
guineas a year, until it was purchased in Feb., 1810, for the
institution, jointly by Dr. Harrison and the Rev. John Fretwell, {120a}
for £111 2s. 8d., the conveyance being effected by Mr. Clitherow at a
charge of £13 15s. 8d.  Improvements were made in this building, at a
cost of £13 5s., in 1812, and of £27 15s. 7d. in 1821.

Of the first physicians, Dr. Laycock resigned office in his first year,
on Sept. 29th, 1790; but Dr. Harrison continued his duties for many
years, only retiring on Oct. 11th, 1821, shortly before his death.
Although that gentleman carried on a private asylum, for patients
mentally affected, at his own residence in West Street, {120b} he took a
great interest in the Dispensary, and was indefatigable in his
attendances, often at his own inconvenience.  Moreover his pecuniary
assistance was not small; as, besides sharing in the purchase of the
premises in St. Mary’s Churchyard, the accounts shew that in 1820 he paid
£27, and in the following year £19 14s. 4d., for Dispensary expenses,
which sums were afterwards repaid to him by the Governors; and (as will
be shewn hereafter) he bequeathed at his death £100 to the funds.  A vote
of thanks was passed to him at the annual meeting of the Governors in
September of 1821, for a further gift of £21, with the expression of
their regret that his valuable services could no longer be given.
Associated with Dr. Harrison, in dispensary work, was Dr. Fawssett,
appointed on the resignation of Dr. Laycock, who loyally co-operated with
that gentleman for 33 years, and only survived him two years, dying on
Oct. 16th. 1823.

Since that time almost all the medical men of the town have, in their
turns, rendered useful service to the Dispensary.  It would be invidious
to single out any of these as being more capable, or more devoted to the
work, than others; but we may mention one exceptional case, which all
will recognize.  From an early period medical pupils were allowed to
visit the Dispensary, in order to study special cases, and the treatment
they received from qualified practitioners.  Among these was a young man,
Mr. E. P. Charlesworth, who virtually here received the early part of his
medical education.  He afterwards, for some years, practised in
Horncastle; and in Dec., 1807, a resolution of the Governors was passed,
conveying to him their warm thanks for his generosity in relieving poor
patients, often at his own expense, and for his readiness to receive
them, for consultation, at his own residence, and to make up drugs for
them at all hours.  He subsequently removed to Lincoln, and became a
noted physician, whose reputation extended considerably beyond the
county.  During 33 years he was one of the most active medical advisers
and patrons of the Lincoln Lunatic Asylum; and, after his death in 1853,
a statue of him, in white marble, was erected in the grounds of that
institution.

                          [Picture: High Street]

All these medical attendants at the Dispensary gave their services
gratuitously until, at a general meeting, held on April 23rd, 1878, a
resolution was passed, that henceforth the two doctors should each be
paid £30 a year, which has been the rule ever since.  At that date the
late Dr A. E. Boulton resigned, and Mr. Robert Jalland and Dr. Haddon
were the first to receive this well-merited remuneration, attending to
their duties in alternate months.

Scattered about the minute books of the institution are various notes, of
some interest, from which we here give a selection.  On Feb. 23rd, 1790,
the Rev. John Fretwell, “sensible of the distresses of the sick poor,
gave one and a half guineas from the communion money, to be laid out in
salop sago and Bowen’s sago powder, to be distributed at the discretion
of the faculty.”  Nov. 27th, 1790, cases of small pox having occurred in
the town, it was resolved to inoculate all poor persons, free of charge;
and thereafter many names are given of those who underwent the operation.
With this we may compare the following entry as indicating the progress
of medical science during 12 years.  June 8th, 1802, an epidemic of small
pox having occurred, and “inoculation becoming general, the Governors
recommend vaccination.”  A statement was printed for circulation, that in
100,000 cases of vaccination, not one death had ensued; that it was now
practised in all parts of the world, and favourably received, and that
the National Institution of France had pronounced it to be the greatest
discovery of the last century. {122}

Feb. 4th, 1792, has an entry, in no way bearing upon dispensary work, but
interesting as a memento of an old mode of conveyance.  The proprietors
of the sedan chair asked permission for it to be kept at the Dispensary,
for which they were willing to pay one guinea annually; and this was
agreed to at the next meeting of the Governors.  This chair was let out
to convey ladies to evening parties in the town.  It was borne by two
men, and was in use within living memory, as late as “in the sixties.”

April 21st, 1792.  A gift of apparatus for the recovery of drowned
persons, with a drag, was received from the Royal Humane Society of
London.  A water bed was afterwards purchased, which was let out for a
small fee to poor patients, temporarily bed-ridden.

On Nov. 28th, 1809, at a special meeting of the Governors, the usefulness
of the Dispensary was further extended by the appointment of a midwife,
to attend upon poor women in labor, both in town and country, being paid
from the funds of the charity, a fee of 3/6 for each case; and from the
year 1810 to 1829, inclusive, Mrs. Elizabeth Southwell is mentioned, from
time to time, as acting in that capacity.  In the years 1829, 30 and 31,
owing to the increase in the number of patients, special appeals were
made to the landowners of the district for increased support.

In July, 1834, a resolution was passed that doctors attending patients at
the Dispensary, might introduce pupils, to study cases under their
treatment; and, in one case, a lady applied for permission to attend a
course of instruction, in order that she might be enabled to assist her
husband in making up medicines.  From 1840 to 1894 drugs were supplied by
Messrs. Herring & Co., of London, but since that they have been supplied
by local chemists, who are subscribers.

In the autumn of 1840 there was an epidemic of scarlatina, and of the 237
patients on the books, 50 were suffering from that complaint.  In
consequence of the additional work thus caused, the salary of the
dispenser was raised from £40 to £60 a year.

Again, with regard to a new source of income, among early notices we find
the following: that on Sept. 29th, 1790, the first anniversary of the
Dispensary’s formation, a sermon was preached, on its behalf, at a
service in the parish church, by the Rev. John Dymoke, Rector of
Scrivelsby, and Chaplain to his grace the Duke of St. Albans.  This
became an annual observance, and has continued so ever since, the
preachers being selected with special care, and often from a considerable
distance.  For instance, at the following anniversary, in 1791, the Rev.
Everard Duckworth, LL.D., Prebendary of Canterbury, was invited to
preach, and he being unable to undertake that office, the Rev. Peter
Bulmer, Vicar of Thorpe, officiated in his stead.  Among other preachers
named we find the Rev. Basil Beridge, well-known for his works of
charity, Rector of Algarkirk, near Boston; the Rev. W. Goodenough,
Archdeacon of Carlisle; the Rev. E. R. Mantell, Vicar of Louth, and other
prominent clergy of the county.

How widely the institution was appreciated is shewn by the number of
leading persons who gave it their patronage.  Sir Joseph Banks was its
warmest supporter, through life, regularly attending the committee
meetings, either as a Governor or President, until his decease, June 19,
1820; and his example brought to the meetings members of the Chaplin,
Massingberd, and Heneage families, Lord Yarborough, and others, at no
small inconvenience, from considerable distances.

                         [Picture: The Bull Ring]

Among other Presidents have been the widowed Lady Banks; Lord Yarborough,
on several occasions; the Honble. and Rev. John Dymoke; to whom succeeded
the Honble. Henry, afterwards Sir Henry Dymoke, Bart.; Lord Worsley; the
Right Honble. E. Stanhope, M.P.; J. Banks Stanhope, Esq.  After the death
of Mr. Stanhope, Jan. 18th, 1904, it was resolved, at a special meeting
of the Governors, Jan. 28th, that the Secretary should record, among the
minutes, their regret at his death, and their high appreciation of his
long and generous support.  The chairman was requested to send a copy of
this to the Honble. Mrs. Stanhope; and at a meeting held on March 31st,
following, a very kind letter in reply was read from Mrs. Stanhope,
promising her support in the future, in lieu of that of the deceased
gentleman.  The chairman was again requested to convey to her the thanks
of the Governors, and Mrs. Stanhope was elected and continued to be
President until her death, October 25th, 1907.

Among Vice-Presidents have been two Earls Fortescue (father and son);
Lord Worsley: Sir Joseph Hawley, Bart.; J. Hassard Short, Esq.; Earl
Manvers; C. H. Massingberd Mundy, Esq.; General Sir E. Brackenbury,
Knight of Hanover; J. Lewis Ffytche, Esq.; Capt. Dallas York, Lord
Willoughby d’Eresby; Sir H. M. Hawley, Bart.

For many years a ball was given in aid of the funds, in the Assembly
Room, Bull Hotel, Horncastle, which (with the exception perhaps of the
“stuff” ball at Lincoln) was the most fashionably attended of any such
gathering in the county.  Among the stewards of this ball we find the
names of G. M. Alington, Esq., of Swinhope Hall; Joseph Livesey, Esq.,
Stourton Hall; C. Waldo Sibthorpe, Esq., Canwick Hall; G. F. W.
Sibthorpe, Esq.; Col. Sibthorpe, M.P.; the Right Honble. C. T.
d’Egremont, M.P.; E. Heneage, Esq., M.P.; Capt. Mansell, of Well Hall; G.
B. Langton, Esq., of Langton Hall; J. Banks Stanhope, M.P.; Sir Montague
Cholmondly, Bart.; Sir Charles H. J. Anderson, of Lea, Bart.; Sir William
Ingilby, Bart., Ripley Castle, Yorks; Lord Yarborough; H. Handley, M.P.,
Sleaford; Lord Amelius Beauclerk; Capt. Boucherett, North Willingham
Hall; Honble. Capt. Monson; Capt. Lionel Dymoke.

Among the lady patronesses were Lady Worsley, the Duchess of St. Albans,
Lady Mary Christopher, Mrs. G. W. Sibthorpe, Lady Anderson, Mrs. Livesey,
Lady Nelthorpe, Lady Dymoke, Lady Albinia Pye.

These balls were discontinued, to the general regret, and to the loss of
the dispensary, after the year 1871; and to make up for the loss Mr. J.
Banks Stanhope in that year presented the institution with a cheque for
£20.

We close this list of officials, with a brief account of the dispensers,
on whom the efficiency of the institution largely depended.  They were
usually qualified chemists, or surgeons and apothecaries; and generally
also acted as secretaries.  The first of these we have already named, Mr.
John Chislett, to him succeeded Mr. Lewis Bilton, secretary and
compositor, 1793–1799; L. Barton, compositor, 1799–1801; G. Lunn,
compositor, 1801–1807; John Lenton, compositor, 1807–1809; William
Morley, compositor, 1809–1810; Thomas Taylor, surgeon apothecary,
compositor, 1811–1826; Thomas Snaith, Surgeon, 1826–1834; William Ward,
surgeon and apothecary, 1834–1839; W. Shepherd, 1839–1840 (ad interim);
Francis Macarthur, {124} dispenser, 1840–1865; William Caunt, dispenser,
1865–75; William Betts, Chemist and Druggist, 1875, Lady-day; elected
secretary Nov. 2nd, 1882; his services have extended over a longer period
than those of any previous dispenser.

On the death of the Champion, Sir Henry Dymoke, Bart., April 28th, 1865,
the Governors resolved to erect a new dispensary, as a memorial of his
long connection with the charity.  Circulars were issued inviting
subscriptions, and, among other donors, Robert Vyner, Esq., of Gautby
Hall, gave £200; the site of 52, North Street, was purchased, and the
present building was erected in 1866.  In 1867 the old house in the
churchyard was sold for £142 11s. 4d., and the new premises were occupied
in the autumn of that year.  It was built from the designs of Messrs.
Bellamy & Hardy, Architects, of Lincoln, the contractor for the work
being Mr. Robert Carter, Builder, of North Street, Horncastle.  The
original contract was for £765, but the ultimate cost, with furniture,
lawyer’s expenses, &c., amounted to £1,026 10s. 11d.  It is subject to a
ground rent of £1 to the Stanhope estate.

Of late years the support, by subscriptions, has on several occasions
been inadequate.  In January, 1899, there being a deficit of £70, the
late Mr. J. Banks Stanhope gave the Governors a cheque for that amount.
In the year 1905, there being again a serious deficit, application was
made to the trustees of the Hurstcroft and Snowden charity, and they
contributed £20 on condition that 25 poor children should receive medical
treatment free of charge.  A further sum of £53 14s. remaining as a
surplus, in the hands of the Soup Kitchen Committee, was also given to
the funds.  Canon Quarrington, formerly Vicar of Horncastle, also
contributed £20; and other donations made up a relief fund of £106 (see
Report for the year).  The debt was thus wiped out, but death having
carried off many former subscribers, increased support will be needed in
the future.

Legacies have been bequeathed to the institution by various persons, at
different times, as follows: Dr. Harrison, by will dated Feb. 5th, 1820,
left £100; the late H. J. Fielding, Esq., who died Aug. 10th, 1879, left
by will £100; in 1884 the late Mr. T. Garfit bequeathed £100; ten £10
shares in the railway were bequeathed by Mrs. Fox Marshall in 1897; £100
was bequeathed by Mr. J. W. Hart, of Tetford, in 1900; Mr. John Bancroft
left £50 in 1905; £357 were invested in Consols and £200 in railway
shares, in 1899; a portion of this was sold in 1902, and £300 were
invested in the Corn Exchange; the Dispensary premises were also insured
for £800, instead of £600, in the County Fire Office, in 1902.

It will thus be seen that although the operations of the institution no
longer embrace the extended area of the early years of its existence, it
is still doing a most valuable work in the alleviation of suffering among
the poor and needy, in both town and country for many miles round, and is
thoroughly deserving of the increased support, which is required, to
continue its efficiency.  We trust that this will be recognized by the
land owners and others, and that such assistance will be forthcoming.



CHAPTER IX.
THE CANAL.


The Horncastle Canal, connecting for commerce the town with the river
Witham, and so with Lincoln, Boston, and the sea, though now a derelict,
was formerly of much value.  Its history is here given from its earliest
inception.

Horncastle having been for some centuries the chief market of an
important agricultural district, an association was formed towards the
close of the 18th century, with the title “The Company of Proprietors of
Horncastle Navigation, in the County of Lincoln.”  This was, in the year
1792, incorporated by an Act of Parliament, which gave a list of the
names of the original members, and secured to them, and to their
successors, perpetual possession of the same, and a common seal.  The
canal was to be 11 miles long, extending from the junction of the two
rivers, Bain and Waring, which traverse the town and meet at the point
where now stands the public swimming bath, to the Witham at Tattershall;
and passing through the parishes of Thornton, Martin, Dalderby, Roughton,
Haltham, Kirkby, Coningsby, and Tattershall.

The company had at first a capital of £15,000 in £50 shares, no member
being allowed to hold less than one share or more than 20.  The surveyors
for the undertaking were Messrs. Robert Stickney and Samuel Dickinson.

When about two-thirds of the work was completed this capital was
exhausted; and in the year 1800 a second Act of Parliament was obtained,
which authorised the raising of a supplementary sum of £20,000 in shares
of £50; additional members being enrolled, and mortgages raised on the
tolls.  The whole profits of the concern, for several years, were
absorbed in paying off the debt thus contracted, so that no dividend
accrued for the shareholders until the year 1813.  The channel, from
Horncastle to Dalderby, was an entirely new cut, the rest being the river
Bain deepened and straightened in its course.  It was adapted for the
passage of vessels of 50 tons burden; and in the whole length of 11 miles
there was a fall of 84 feet.

The original rate of charges was 2/- per ton for the whole length of the
canal, 1/9 to the seventh lock, and 1/3 to the fourth lock; vessels laden
with lime, manure, or material for roads, were granted free passage.
{127}  By the second Act of Parliament, in 1800, the charges were raised
to 3/3 per ton for the whole length of the canal, 2/7 to the seventh
lock, and 1/6 to the fourth lock; lime, manure, and road material being
exempted, as before.

                           [Picture: The Canal]

The whole structure was completed in the autumn of 1802, and the canal
was formally opened on Friday, Sept. 17th of that year.  The occasion was
observed as a general holiday by the towns-folk.  At one o’clock the
boats the Betsy of Horncastle, and the Martha of Dalderby, the property
of Messrs. Gilliat & Wilson, and the British Queen, owned by Mr. Boyers,
were hauled into the two basins of the canal, elaborately decorated with
colours, amid the cheers of spectators, who are said to have numbered
more than 2,000.  The vessels having been brought to, several salutes
were fired, and a band of music, on the pleasure boat of Mr. Lane, played
“God save the King,” “Rule Britannia,” “Hearts of Oak,” &c.  Having
traversed some distance on the canal the company afterwards landed at the
wharfs on the two branches, and a large number of the shareholders
partook of a festive repast at the Greyhound Inn, East Street, near the
south basin.  The navvies and other workmen who had been employed in the
construction of the canal, were also regaled on the boats, and afterwards
feasted at the Greyhound.

In following years an excursion was made annually by the Directors,
conveyed down the canal, in a fine barge, which was their own property,
named “The Lady Banks,” in order to inspect its condition; and this was
followed by a public dinner at the Bull Hotel, which continued to be an
established institution during the period of the canal’s prosperity.

The shares quickly rose considerably in value; a great number of barges
came to the town, and it was no uncommon occurrence to see the whole
distance from the South bridge to the Bow bridge packed closely with
heavily laden vessels, carrying coals, grain, or other merchandise.  In
1836 it was computed that about 30,000 quarters of wheat, and 3,000 packs
of wool, passed through the canal annually; and in 1850 the profits of
the traffic amounted to about £2,000 a year.

Consequent on the opening of the railway in August, 1855, the canal, as a
means of goods conveyance, gradually became disused, until, of late
years, it has become worse than a mere derelict, since it forms an
obstruction to the free passage of the water brought down by the two
rivers, and after heavy rain it has led to temporary inundations of the
town, to the great inconvenience of those residing near it, as well as
interfering, as might in some circumstances be serious, with the sanitary
arrangements.

A few years ago an attempt was made to restore the canal traffic, but the
railway monopoly had become too thoroughly established, and the project
failed; yet the competition, could it have been maintained, might have
had a salutary effect upon the cost of railway conveyance, to the
advantage of the general public.

Our canals, it should be remembered, are a time-honoured institution; the
Lincolnshire Cardyke and Fossdyke date from the period of the Roman
occupation of this country.  The Magna Charta of the early 13th century
took cognizance, not only of the roads, called “The King’s Highway,” but
also of inland navigation, under the term “Haut streames de le Roy.”  The
latter half of the 18th century was remarkable for great achievements as
regards internal waterways, notably in the Bridgewater Canal, and the
Grand Junction Canal of London; and to this period, as we have seen, the
Horncastle Canal belongs.

In this twentieth century, again, notwithstanding the great railway
facilities, there is a wide-spread movement in favour of extended water
traffic, headed by the very successful Suez Canal; with a prospect of the
sister channel of Panama.  Berlin is said to owe its prosperity largely
to its well-organized system, connecting the rivers Oder, Elbe, Spree,
&c., which have an annual traffic of some million and half tons.  Our own
Manchester Ship Canal is another instance; the most recent case being
fresh developments of the Aire and Calder Navigation, in South Yorkshire.
The canals, too, which have been recently constructed in India, are
yielding, by the latest reports, {128} a handsome revenue to the
Government, as well as greatly benefiting the native population.

It is acknowledged that a more general use of waterways, throughout the
kingdom for the cheaper transport of our heavier and more bulky produce,
would be a national boon; and a Royal Commission was engaged in
considering the subject of the acquisition of all canals as Government
property. {129a}

It is now being more and more recognised that, on the establishment of
railways, everyone jumped too hastily to the conclusion that the days of
canals were over; whereas, in truth, there is still a large field,
probably an increasing field, for the cheaper traffic in heavy goods,
which canals can provide for.  The Belgian town of Bruges, though
situated several miles inland, is now to be converted into a port by the
government of that country, through the creation of a canal, which is
expected to increase the prosperity of that city.  Similarly it is
suggested that our own town of Nottingham could be made a great inland
port, if water carriage were provided; and Sir John Turney, before the
Royal Commission, has recently (July, 1907) stated that the trade of that
town might thus be greatly increased.  These, be it remembered, are not
isolated cases.

                         [Picture: On the Canal]

As to our own local interests, we may reasonably regret that, after so
much money being invested in the Horncastle Canal, and the serious losses
incurred by so many investors, no further effort should be made to
utilize it.  The trade of Horncastle is not so satisfactory but that we
might welcome every adjunct, which could in any way contribute to its
furtherance; while, even from an æsthetic point of view, it were
desirable that, with the present dilapidated locks, and the banks in some
places broken, the channel, which is in parts little more than a shallow
bed of mud, befouled by garbage and carrion, or choked by a matted growth
of weeds, should be superceded by a flow of water, pure and emitting no
pestiferous exhalations.



THE RAILWAY.


In few things has there been more remarkable evolution, or we might even
say, revolution, than in our methods of locomotion.  In these days of
historic pageants we might well conceive of a series of scenes passing
before us, shewing the means adopted at different periods, or under
different conditions, in this respect.  The war-chariot of Queen
Boadicea, charging the legions of Cæsar, or (in our own neighbourhood)
that of the British warrior Raengeires, routing his Saxon foes, at
Tetford, with their wheels of solid wood and other massive carpentry,
would form a, then inconceivable, contrast to the future taximeter cab,
to be evolved in this 20th century.

The lumbering “wain” of the Saxon churl, though still surviving in the
name of a constellation, befitted only an age little advanced beyond
barbarism.

The primitive “shout” (Dutch “schuyt”), or “dug-out” boat, hollowed by
Celtic flint-axe from the bole of a mighty oak, and slowly propelled by
the almost wild Girvian, through the tangle of fen morass, had but a
remote connection with the steam packet which, within living memory,
plied on the neighbouring Witham, between Boston and Lincoln.  Although
the speed of the latter was so slow, that (as a friend of the writer has
done) a pedestrian, travelling by road, could reach either of those
places, from our town of Horncastle, in less time than it took to go by
carrier’s van to Kirkstead wharf, and thence by the said steamer.

While, again, both these would provoke only a smile of contempt in the
voyager who now crosses the atlantic, at a rate of 20 knots or more in
the hour.  Then, again, compare with these the cyclist, who now flashes
past us with the speed of lightning; or the motorist, who vanishes from
our sight, almost before the dust he has raised is blown away.

Another humbler mode of progress, again, was a familiar sight in our
boyhood, when the farmer’s wife jogged contentedly to market, seated on a
pillion, behind her husband, and carrying her butter, eggs, or chickens,
in roomy market baskets by her side.  Even the gig, to carry two, of the
better bucolic class, has now become obsolete, as the train pours out, at
the station, its living stream of market folk, male and female, within a
few minutes of leaving their own doors several miles away.

As to our country roads we are, it is true, well supplied with them, but
a pageant view of the past, such as we have here conceived, would reveal
to us our British forefathers, toiling, in wearied gangs, under Roman
task-masters, at the forced labour of road making; by which the town’s
markets and chartered fairs were to be accessible, from all directions,
for generations yet unborn.  In our present iron ways, we might well
suppose that we have attained the highest evolutionary stage in
expeditious traffic; but who, indeed, shall venture to gainsay, that as a
sequel to our wireless telegraphy, we may one day eschew the mundane
altogether, and become a race of aeronauts.

The Great Northern loop line, connecting Boston and Lincoln with
Peterborough and Grantham, and so with the further north and south, was
opened in October, 1848.  At that date, except the “Navigation” for heavy
goods, such as corn, coal, &c., there were only coaches, once a day, for
public conveyance to Boston, Lincoln, Market Rasen, and Louth.  But
through the enterprise of Mr. Samuel Sketchley, of Horncastle, Solicitor,
of the old firm of Selwood and Conington, an Act of Parliament was, not
without difficulty, obtained, July 10th, 1854, for the construction of a
branch line, running from Kirkstead to Horncastle; the importance of this
event being recognised by a joyous peal of the parish church bells being
rung, and crowds parading the streets, at 10 o’clock at night, at which
hour the news arrived.  The next day the rejoicings were continued, the
bells of St. Mary’s Church being again rung, while the tower of the
church was adorned with a tricolour flag, bearing the inscription “God
speed the railway,” and crowds again passed through the streets, headed
by the town band and a large tricolour standard.

The construction of the line was begun in April of the following year,
1855; the contractors being Messrs. Smith & Knight.  The original capital
of the company was £48,000, in £10 shares, but the ultimate cost was
about £60,000.  The G.N.R. Company undertook the working, paying half the
receipts to the shareholders; and as, for the distance (about 7½ miles),
the expenditure was, compared with that of many such undertakings, small,
so, as an investment, the enterprise proved a profitable one, few lines
yielding so good a return for the outlay; the £10 shares still (in 1907)
sell at nearly half as much again (£14 17s. 3d., July, 1907).

A brief account may well here be given of the opening ceremony of this
important event in the town’s history, condensed from the public journals
of the day.  The line was examined by the Government Inspector, Colonel
Wynn, and a few days later Mr. Seymour Clarke, the G.N.R. manager, stated
that it could not be in a more efficient condition.  The opening ceremony
was fixed for Aug. 12th, 1855.  At an early hour the town was crowded
with visitors and shops were closed.  At 7 a.m. 2,500 lbs. of beef were
distributed among the poorer people.  Peals of bells were rung, the
Horncastle and Spilsby bands added their music of popular airs.  The
streets and station were profusely decorated, under the direction of Mr.
Crowder, florist, Mr. John Osborne, parish clerk, Mr. Archbould, head
gardener to Sir H. Dymoke, Mr. Nelson from Stourton Hall, and a local
committee.  Flags displayed the arms of the town, those of Sir H. Dymoke,
Mr. J. Banks Stanhope, the Bishop of Carlisle, then lord of the manor,
the Rose of England, and the Union Jack.  About noon a procession was
formed in the Bull Ring, to meet the Directors of the G.N.R., by Mr. F.
Harwood, master of the ceremonies, in the following order:



    Navvy bearing bronzed pickaxe and shovel.

                     Banner.

              Navvies, four abreast.

                     Banner.

  Two navvies, bearing silver-gilt wheelbarrow.

                     Banners.

              Horncastle Brass Band.



Contractor.       Engineer.

Secretary.        Solicitor.

Auditor.          Auditor.



Banners.       Directors, two abreast.                   Banners.

               Churchwarden, Dr. B. J. Boulton.

               The Vicar, Rev. W. H. Milner.

Banners.       Shareholders and their friends, four      Banners.
               abreast.

               Spilsby Brass Band.

               Parish Clerk, Mr. J. C. Osborne, in his
               robes, preceded by his Standard Bearer.

Banner.        Members of the various Clubs, with        Banner.
               Banners.

Banner.        1,000 School Children, 4 abreast.         Banner.

               The Public.

The procession marched from the Bull Ring to the Railway Station, where
the elders of the party on the platform, and the children, with their
banners, ranged on the opposite side, awaited the arrival of the train
bringing the G.N.R. Directors, and as it drew up the bands played “See
the Conquering Hero comes.”

The procession, augmented by the directors, then re-formed, and marched
through the town; in the Bull Ring the National Anthem was sung.  A large
marquee was erected in the grounds of Mr. R. C Armstrong (now Mrs.
Howland’s garden), adjoining South Street, in which the contractors,
Messrs. Smith & Knight, provided for the directors and shareholders, and
other guests, in all over 200, a splendid dinner, served in excellent
style, by Messrs. Wilson and Serpell, of the Bull Hotel.  The Honble. Sir
H. Dymoke presided, as Chairman of the Horncastle and Kirkstead Railway
Co.; being supported on his right by Mr. Hussey Packe and Mr. C. Chaplin,
Directors of the G.N.R., Major Amcotts and Sir M. J. Cholmeley, and on
his left by J. Banks Stanhope, Esq., M.P., Director of the Horncastle
Railway, and Rev. W. H. Milner, Vicar.  Congratulatory speeches were
made, and the day closed with a fine display of fireworks.

Opened under such favourable auspices, and supplying a felt need, the
railway has continued to be a success; improvements have been made, from
time to time, in the stations at Horncastle and Woodhall Spa.  The line
continues to be a single one, but it is sufficient for the local
requirements, and the shares, as before mentioned, at the present time
(1907) find a ready sale at an advance of about 50 per cent. on their
original price.  We might add that if the railway could be continued to
Spilsby, and then connected with the different lines running to the
Skegness, Mablethorpe and other health resorts on the coast, its utility,
and doubtless its paying value, would be largely increased, as it would
shorten the distance by many miles.



CHAPTER X.
WORKHOUSE OR UNION.


We now notice the chief of those public institutions, and the buildings
connected therewith, which have been established in the town, within more
recent times, for its welfare, or its adornment; in order to bring its
corporate efficiency into more complete accord with the advanced
requirements of what may be called modern municipal life.  Among these
the foremost place, from its general importance, is naturally due to the
Union, or Workhouse; and here it is necessary to make some preliminary
remarks.

The workhouse, or union, for a large district is a comparatively recent
creation.  “The poor” we have had “always with” us, but they have not
always been dealt with as they now are.  By statute 23 Edward III.
(1349), it was enacted that “none should give alms to a beggar who was
able to work.”  By common law the really deserving poor were to be
assisted “by parsons and parishioners, so that none should die for
default of sustenance.”  By Act, 15 Richard II. (1392), impropriators
(_i.e._ laymen holding church property) were bound to contribute a
certain yearly sum to the poor of the parish, but no compulsory law was
passed till 27 Henry VIII. (1536).  The present poor law system dates
from 43 Eliz. (1601); successive amendment acts being passed from 1836 to
1847, and again in 1861; and a further relief act in 1862.

At first parishes regulated their own methods and amounts of relief.  For
a long period, indeed, the labouring class were subject to strict legal
rules, both as to service, and in their individual movements.  It was
quite an innovation when, in 23 Henry VI. (1445), a servant was permitted
to change masters after giving due notice; and when moving, or, as it is
locally called, “flitting,” from one parish to another, for employment,
he had to produce a certificate of settlement from his last abode.  In
such matters the overseers were paramount, until their powers were
transferred to the newly constituted guardians of the poor, by Act of
Parliament, in 1839. {133}

The “workhouse” preceded the “union,” which latter term was adopted when
parishes, throughout a large district, were _united_ for the purposes of
poor relief. {134a}  In some cases a country parish had its own
workhouse.  For instance, old parish books of Thimbleby, {134b} show that
in 1819 £20 was spent upon the village workhouse, which was insured for
£200.

Among some old churchwardens’ records, in the possession of Mr. John
Overton, of Horncastle (members of whose family have frequently held that
office), it is mentioned that early in the 18th century a “public oven”
was erected in the town to enable the poor to cook their meals, or to
bake the “black bread,” then in common use, {134c} more conveniently than
they could at home. {134d}  At a later date (1780) a spinning school was
established by public rate, to help the poor to earn a livelihood by a
home industry. {134e}

An important advance was made in poor relief, in 1735, when, as the same
records state, “on April 17 a committee was appointed, {134f} in
Horncastle, to build a workhouse,” and on May 7th in the following year a
brief note gives the cost of the building as being £175 13s. 4d.  This
was situated on the east side of St. Mary’s Square, separated by a few
yards from the Grammar School, the site being now (1908) occupied by a
common lodging house.  It continued to be the public workhouse for over
100 years; and that the poor, who needed relief, were generally expected
to enter as inmates, is shewn by another brief note, in the same records,
to the following effect: “May 2nd, 1781.  Out payments discontinued,
except in sickness.”

It was not till 1838 that the present workhouse, in Foundry Street, was
built, from the designs of Mr.—afterwards Sir—Gilbert Scott, being one of
his earliest undertakings {134g}  It is a commodious structure, capable
of accommodating 260 inmates; and, with grounds attached, covers an area
of between four and five acres.  It is now known as “The Union,” and the
union district embraces 69 parishes, represented by 76 guardians, to
whom, as already stated, the former duties of the overseers were
transferred in 1839.

The Rev. Canon A. E. Moore is the present Chaplain.



THE COURT HOUSE.


The majesty of the law has not always been so worthily domiciled in
Horncastle as during the last forty years.  In Stukeley’s map of the
town, dated 1722, the Sessions House is placed at the south-east corner
of the “Mercat Place,” where there now (1908) stands a small refreshment
house.  The cells for prisoners probably formed the basement of this
building, as there is no known record of their being confined elsewhere,
until the year 1821, when what was called the “Round House” was built, at
the north-east corner of the Market Place, opposite the present Lord
Nelson Inn.  This was a small circular building, having two cells, with a
colonnade running round it, which formed a shelter for market women
selling butter, eggs, &c.  The foundations of this structure were so
shallow that it is on record that a prisoner, in the course of one night,
scratched a passage under the wall and effected his escape. {135}  This
prison was demolished in 1853, when the present police station was built,
facing the Wong, at a cost of £500, having four cells, for 12 prisoners,
and a residence for a superintendent and constable.

                        [Picture: The Court House]

Some years later fresh premises were rented for the magistrates, on the
south side of the High Street, adjoining the George Hotel, now extinct,
though then a leading establishment.  That site is now occupied by the
Lincoln and Lindsey Bank.

In 1843 the magistrates’ office was transferred to what is now 19, Bull
Ring, part of the shop of Messrs. Robinson, Drapers.  All these premises
proving inadequate for their purpose, the present Court House was built
in 1865, on the site of the former parish stocks, the site, a slight
rising ground, being called “Stocks’ Hill,” at a cost of £3,000.  The
architect was Mr. C. Reeves, of London, the builder Mr. Huddleston, of
Lincoln.  The furniture was supplied by Messrs. Pike & Wright, of
Horncastle; gas fittings by Mr. Murrell, of Chelsea.

In this handsome building, of white brick, there is accommodation for
many branches of public, local and county business.  As a possession the
Court House is the property of the Board of Works, in London, the county
authorities paying to them a rent of £10, for the use of it by the
magistrates.



THE STANHOPE MEMORIAL.


This handsome structure was erected under the following circumstances.
The Right Honble. Edward Stanhope, who had represented the Horncastle
Division in Parliament, with much distinction, from the year 1874, died
rather suddenly, as the result of hard work, in his official capacity, on
Dec. 22, 1893, to the great grief of the entire constituency; when it was
universally felt that his services merited some public recognition.
Various meetings were held, and at length, on Jan. 22nd, 1897, at a
gathering in the Masonic Hall, a committee was appointed to carry out the
scheme.  The design of the Memorial was intrusted to the architect, Mr.
E. H. Lingen Barker, of Hereford, Messrs. Walter & Hensman, of
Horncastle, being the contractors for the work.

The ceremony of inauguration was performed by J. Banks Stanhope, Esq.,
formerly M.P. for the Division, on Feb. 2nd, 1899, in the presence of the
Earl and Countess Stanhope, and other distinguished persons on the
platform, and a vast crowd from the neighbourhood filling the entire
Market Place.  This was followed by a public luncheon in the Corn
Exchange.

The site chosen was the centre of the Market Place, as that, along with
the market dues, had been made over to the town as a free gift, by the
Right Honble. gentleman, as Lord of the Manor.  The following is the
official description of the monument, as published at the time of its
erection.  The structure is 31-ft. 6-in. in height.  It stands on a
massive foundation of concrete; with three tiers of Yorkshire stone
steps, each 15-in. wide, running round the base leading up to the
monument proper, their shape being octagonal.  With the exception of two
strings of Dumfries’ red stone, the lower part is of Monk’s Park stone.
Above this is a moulded string course, and on each face are shafts of
Aberdeen red granite, with moulded caps and bases.  The panels are filled
with diaper work; and in each alternate panel are arms of the Stanhope
family, and the arms of the town, with an inscription to the memory of
the Right Honble. E. Stanhope, and a medallion, with bust, in relief, of
the same.  These panels are surmounted by moulded and carved cinquefoil
panels, surmounted by carved finials.  Above these, again, are eight
columns of polished granite, supporting the superstructure, and these
also have eight trefoil dormers, simpler than those below, each finished
with a finial of gun metal.  Above these are eight gun metal columns,
having trefoiled heads, with foliated finials and moulded cornice; and on
these rests the spirette, constructed of oak and covered with lead, with
eight other dormers, which complete the whole.  The total cost was £552
12s. 3d., raised by subscriptions, a small balance being handed over to
the public Dispensary.



THE CLERICAL CLUB.


The Clerical Club was founded in 1822; a room was rented on the premises
of Mr. James Babington, Bookseller, in the High Street (now occupied by
Mr. J. S. Balding, Butcher), where the members met for discussion, and
gradually established a good library.

                     [Picture: The Stanhope Memorial]

The first members enrolled were the Rev. the Hon. the King’s Champion,
John Dymoke, Rector of Scrivelsby; the Revs. J. B. Smith, Head Master of
the Grammar School; C. N. L’Oste, Rector of Claxby; Francis Rockliffe,
Rector of Fulletby; Robert Spranger, D.D., Rector of Low Toynton (and of
Grosvenor Street, Grosvenor Square, London); John Mounsey, Rector of
Gautby; Thomas Roe, Rector of Kirkby-on-Bain; E. Brackenbury, Rector of
Aswardby; W. Dodson, Rector of Well; F. Swan, Rector of Sausthorpe; and
others holding benefices scattered over a wide area, but several of them
living in Horncastle.

The Club was formally opened in the following year, when several more
members were added; the Honble. John Dymoke being elected President, Dr.
Clement Madeley, Vicar of Horncastle, Vice-President, with Dr. J. B.
Smith as Secretary, in which capacity he did valuable service, in
increasing the membership and adding to the efficiency of the
institution, which flourished for many years.

In later times, especially on the lamented death of Dr. Smith, and the
creation of circulating libraries, such as that of Messrs. Mudie, in
London, the numbers of subscribers fell off considerably.  The books were
transferred to various quarters; at first to the house of the late Mr.
John Osborne, parish clerk, himself no mean scholar and student,
afterwards to the residence of the head master of the Grammar School,
where they remained for some years, under successive masters, still
available for members of the club.

On June 8th, 1892, Canon Quarrington, Vicar of Horncastle, Revs. J. C.
Hudson, Vicar of Thornton, and J. Conway Walter, Rector of Langton, were
appointed a sub-committee, with instructions to find a permanent club
room, or to give the books to the Lincoln Diocesan Library.  In September
of that year Dr. Madge, Head Master, offered to keep the books, to act as
Librarian, and admit members to them two or three days a week in his
house.

In January, 1893, the present writer was commissioned with Dr. Madge, to
examine the books, when there was found to be 799 in good condition, 69
missing.  The Secretary of the Lincoln Diocesan Library was communicated
with, and at a meeting of the committee of that library, held on Feb. 24,
1893, the offer of the books was accepted, and they were in due course
transferred to that institution.

On May 17th, 1894, the Rev. J. Conway Walter, with three others, was
commissioned to obtain a supply of books from a circulating library at
Lincoln.  Eventually Mudie’s library was established at the shop of Mr.
H. Willson, Bookseller, Horncastle; Mr. W. K. Morton opened a
subscription library, and Messrs. W. H. Smith opened a book stall at the
station.  These three still continue: the original Clerical Club books
being still available, with others, at the library in the Chapter House
of Lincoln Cathedral.

There was at one time a _Literary Society_ in Horncastle, which used to
meet at the Bull Hotel, in a small room, now the bar, beneath the large
ball room, on a level with the street.  Among the most active members of
this was John Brown, the late, so-called, Horncastle “Poet Laureate,”
whose poems were published in 1890, by the Rev. J. Conway Walter, in a
volume entitled _Literæ Laureatæ_, dedicated to Lord Tennyson.  Another
prominent member was the late Mr. Thomas Baker, who was an amateur actor
and clever ventriloquist, as well as a great cricketer.  In his early
years he was engaged by the father of Sir Evelyn Wood to teach the
village boys cricket in Essex.  His bowling was of the old roundhand
style; in which he bowled to Fuller Pilch, the greatest batsman of his
day; and also to Dr. W. G. Grace, now of the Crystal Palace; and, many
years ago, in a match against a crack 11, including three University
players and one professional, he bowled them all out for 11 runs.  He
also bowled out the captain of the All England Eleven with his first
ball.  He died Feb. 12th, 1903, aged 88.



THE MECHANICS’ INSTITUTE.


Mechanics’ Institutes were first established in the earlier half of the
19th century.  The first known was that founded in London by the famous
Dr. Birkbeck in 1823; another being opened in the same year in Glasgow;
after which they became general.  As Horncastle was in advance of other
towns in the county in its valuable Dispensary (see p. 119), so it would
seem to have preceded other towns, with the exception of Lincoln, in
catering for the growing taste for literature.  The Mechanics’ Institute
was founded in the year 1834.  It was first located in Union Street, now
called Queen Street, and soon received the support of all classes.  The
building, which consisted of one large room, was situated on the west
side of the street, on the site where now stands the private residence,
No. 18.

Soon after the erection of the Corn Exchange, in 1856, the Mechanics’
Institute was transferred to that building; two upper rooms being
occupied, as library and reading room; the former premises in Queen
Street being sold to the late Mr. Joseph Parish, who used them for sales,
public meetings, dances, and so forth, until in 1866 he erected on the
site a private residence for himself.

After some years the introduction of the above named branch of the
popular London Library of Messrs. Mudie & Co., at the shop of Mr. Hugh
Willson, Bookseller, in the Bull Ring, followed by the subscription
library of Mr. W. K. Morton, in the High Street, and that of Messrs. W.
H. Smith & Sons, at the Railway Station, reduced the numbers of the
subscribers to “The Mechanics,” and it was removed to smaller premises in
Bank Street; and eventually this same cause led to the Institute being
closed.  On January 14th, 1886, a meeting was held in the library to
determine its future, the result being that the Secretary, Mr. W. Betts,
and the members of the committee resigned, Jan. 21st, and the books, &c.,
were removed to a small chamber at the Gas House, in Foundry Street,
another small room there being used as a temporary reading room.  These
were closed about the year 1894, the books remaining stowed away.  About
the year 1899 an effort was made by the late W. Brown, of the Capital and
Counties’ Bank, to get the books transferred to the Technical School in
Queen Street, of the committee of which he was chairman; with the object
that they might be once more rendered available for public use; but this
project fell through.

In 1905 the library was finally broken up by the late Mr. Joseph Willson,
the last survivor of the Managing Committee, who sold the less valuable
among the books by auction in Lincoln, the rest being divided between the
permanent subscription library of Mr. W. K. Morton, Bookseller, High
Street, and that of the Grammar School.

It is much to be regretted that a valuable collection of books thus
ceased to be public property.  A catalogue of the library, published by
Mr. W. Johnson, Bookseller, High Street, in 1865, shows that the number
of volumes was at that date 1,468, with annual additions; while in 1879 a
bequest was made by the late Henry James Fielding, Esq., of Handel House,
South Street, of about 230 volumes of standard works, bringing the total
up to about 1,750 volumes.  (Classified List, published by W. K. Morton,
1879.)

The first librarian was Mrs. Wood, assisted by her daughter (afterwards
Mrs. Panton).  She was succeeded by Miss South, who was followed by Miss
Stephenson, and she was succeeded by Mrs. W. Johnson.

The late Mr. Henry Nicholson acted as secretary, and for several years
took a great interest in all that concerned the Institute, until his
prolonged serious illness, which ended fatally in June, 1900.  Mr. C.
Hensman was treasurer while the library was at the Corn Exchange,
resigning when it was removed to Banks Street.  During the same period
the late Mr. Berridge, Master of the Union, acted as Secretary, and was
succeeded by Mr. W. Betts, of the Dispensary, who only held that post two
years, before the Institute was closed.

There were in the library, besides the books, a quantity of weapons of
war from the South Sea Islands, some cases of objects of natural history;
valuable sepia paintings by the late Rev. C. P. Terrot, of Wispington, an
almost unrivalled artist in his own line; and several fine Roman vases
exhumed in the town; all these were disposed of by Mr. Joseph Willson,
only surviving trustee, now deceased.



THE CORN EXCHANGE.


The Corn Exchange is a spacious and lofty building of brick, with stone
facings, capable of holding 500 persons, situated on the south side of
the High Street, and standing on what was formerly the eastern wall of
the old Roman castle; a well of pure water, still in use, under the
adjoining house, having been just within the wall of that fortress.  It
was opened on July 5th, 1856.  From the terms of the original deed of
settlement of the company we may give the following items.

The Indenture, dated July 18th, 1855, was registered the 31st of the same
month; the agreement being, on the first part, between Thomas Armstrong,
Merchant; Henry Turner, Land Agent; George Wright, Merchant; Henry
Nicholson, Draper; William Preston Carlton, Chemist; and others, all of
Horncastle; with certain residents in the neighbourhood on the second
part; and Frederick W. Tweed, of Horncastle, Gentleman, as trustee to
give effect to the covenant, on the third part.  The said parties agree
to form themselves a Joint Stock Company, within the meaning of the Act 7
and 8 Victoria, c. 110, to provide a building for the purposes, according
to these presents, viz., a Corn Exchange, which can also be used for
concerts, exhibitions, and other public objects, on such terms as the
committee may think fit.

The capital of the company to be £3,000, in 600 shares of £5 each; annual
meetings of shareholders to be held on May 2nd; any five, or more, owning
25 shares, may require the directors to convene an extraordinary meeting.
The capital may be increased by additional shares of £5, not exceeding
300; money may be borrowed on mortgage, not exceeding at any one time
£1,500. {140}  One-third of the original directors to retire in May,
1856, being eligible for re-election.  In May, 1857, one-half of the
remaining original directors to retire; and similarly in succeeding years
one-third to retire in rotation, according to seniority.  Any director to
forfeit office on ceasing to hold five shares; anyone intending to apply
for directorate, to give at least 10 days’ notice.  Directors to meet at
least once every three months; any two directors may require the
secretary to convene a meeting, at any time, for any desirable special
object.

The Court of Directors to apply to the Privy Council (Board of Trade) for
permission to purchase, or rent, land or buildings, as may seem to be
needed; or to let, or lease, buildings, offices, &c., as they may think
fit; or to make mortgages, conveyances, &c., for the purposes of the
company.  A reserve fund (by clause 67) to be established, by setting
apart one per cent of the profits in any year; the accumulation to be
employed for the benefit of the company, as may seem to them desirable.
Shares to be sold (by clause 68) for the benefit of the company, by a
vote of a majority at a general meeting.  No sum beyond £400, at any one
time, to be negotiated by promissory note or bill of exchange.

        [Picture: Watermill Road during the Flood, Dec., 31, 1900]

That a report be presented, and dividend declared, at an annual meeting,
on March 25th, with seven days’ notice to each shareholder.  A common
seal to be kept in a place of safety, and affixed to all legal documents,
by the secretary, in the presence of three directors.  Henry Nicholson,
Draper, to be the first auditor, paid as committee of directors decide.
Samuel Sketchley to be the first solicitor; and the Lincoln and Lindsey
Bank the company’s bank.  Thomas Armstrong, Timothy Collinson, and Robert
Edwin Kemp to be the first trustees of the company.

The books may be inspected by any shareholder, between 10 a.m. and 4
p.m., in the presence of the secretary, or other person nominated in
accordance with Act 7 and 8 Victoria, c. 110.  By clause 89 it was
provided that, in case of the company being wound up, the chairman should
declare the company to be dissolved with all convenient speed; all
property to be sold, and converted into ready money, to meet all claims;
a final distribution of assets to be made; no sale by private contract to
any shareholder being allowed.  This deed was signed, sealed, and
delivered by the said F. W. Tweed, and witnessed by J. S. Cropper,
Horncastle, July 18th, 1855.

On Nov. 6th, 1889, a meeting was held to consider whether the company
should be wound up; but it was decided to continue it, and of late years
the financial position of the company has improved; the report for 1906
shews total receipts for the past year, £145 13s. 1d.; expenditure £87
2s. 10d.; leaving balance £58 10s. 3d.; allowing a dividend of £1 10s.
per cent., the sum of £6 0s. 3d. being still in hand.  Offices on the
same premises are rented by Mr. Reuben Roberts, Corn Merchant.



THE WHELPTON ALMSHOUSES.


The Whelpton Almshouses are situated in Queen Street, on its east side,
being six small residences, for the reception of deserving poor persons,
natives of the town.  They were established in the year 1861, under the
following circumstances.

The late Mr. Geo. Whelpton was a shoemaker, occupying a small shop, one
of several then standing in the Market Place, on or near the site of the
present Stanhope Memorial; {142a} the whole of these being cleared away
when the late Honble. Edward Stanhope presented that piece of ground to
the town, for the enlargement of the Market Place.  He resided in a small
house in Stonewell Row, but afterwards removed into better premises in
Queen Street.  While living in Stonewell Row he purchased some furniture
cheap, at an auction, and in a drawer of one of the articles purchased he
found a recipe, said to have been written by a Boston doctor, for the
medicine eventually to become known universally as “Whelpton’s Pills” (a
powerful stomachic, for kidney diseases, &c.), and from the sale of which
he and other members of his family realised large fortunes. {142b}  His
wife had been for some time in a bad state of health, and after she had
consulted various doctors without deriving any benefit from their
treatment, he decided to try for her the prescription which had thus
accidentally come into his possession.  The result was so satisfactory
that other sufferers applied to him for the pills, which for a time he
freely gave to his neighbours; ultimately, however, these applications
became so numerous that he was obliged to make a charge.

As he began to realise a considerable income from this source, he gave up
the shoemaking business, and left Horncastle; his first move being to
Derby, {142c} where he occupied a residence known as “St. Anne’s House,”
afterwards moving to London, where he, at first, lived in Crane Court,
Fleet Street, which still continues to be the depot of the pill business.
He subsequently moved to a better part of the metropolis, taking up his
residence at 1, Albert Road, Regent’s Park, where he remained for several
years, until he finally settled in Warrior Square, Hastings.

While residing in London his wife {143a} had another illness, from which
she eventually died, in 1859; and feeling her loss very acutely he
decided, after a time, to erect the almshouses to her memory. {143b}

          [Picture: West Street during the Flood, Dec. 31, 1900]

Among the documents preserved in connection with this charity, is the
original letter of George Whelpton, dated March 18, 1861, giving
instructions that the building of the almshouses should be immediately
taken in hand.  The Indenture itself is dated March 21st, 1861, and among
its terms are the following: “This agreement is between Richard
Clitherow, of Horncastle, Gentleman, surviving trustee and executor of
the will of Samuel Curtis Lomas, late of Blencogo, Co. Cumberland,
Surgeon, of the first part; George Whelpton, of No. 1, Albert Road,
Regent’s Park, Middlesex, of the second part; and William Thompson
Whelpton, of No. 69, Gloucester Crescent, Regent’s Park, Middlesex,
Gent., and Rev. Henry Robert Whelpton, of Upton Park, Slough, Bucks., on
the third part.”  In accordance with this agreement certain lands
comprising, with others, the future site of the almshouses, situated on
the east side of what was then called Union Street, the property of the
said Samuel Curtis Lomas, were acquired through the said Mr. Richard
Clitherow, for Mr. G. Whelpton, for the purposes of the charity, with the
above relatives as co-trustees.  The sum of £1,000 was also conveyed as
endowment of the charity, to the trustees.

It was provided by the agreement that the inmates of the houses should be
selected from persons who were fit and deserving subjects of the charity,
indigent, but of good character, not recipients of parish relief, and not
under 45 years of age; and that any, becoming guilty of immorality,
should forfeit their privileges.  The power of selection of inmates was
vested in the trustees, assisted by the vicar and churchwardens of the
parish; a clause being added, that, in case of the trustees being
incompetent, by reason of infancy or idiocy, the vicar and churchwardens
should select.  The weekly allowance to the inmates was to be 3s. 6d.

The agreement to this effect was signed, sealed, and delivered, by the
said George Whelpton, in the presence of Richard Clitherow, Solicitor,
and Charles Dee, Solicitor, both of Horncastle.  It was further signed by
George Whelpton and William Thompson Whelpton, in the presence of Robert
Cunliffe, Solicitor, of 43, Chancery Lane, London; and by Henry Robert
Whelpton, in the presence of John Adams Cree, Clerk in Holy Orders, of
Upton Park, Slough, Bucks.  Appended is a receipt, signed by Richard
Clitherow, and witnessed by Charles Dee, shewing that, at the date of the
Indenture, the sum of £101 5s. was paid by George Whelpton for the
purchase of the site of the almshouses.

This agreement was examined on Feb. 7th, 1888, in the Court of Justice,
London, before Mr. Justice Chitty, on an enquiry being made as to the
estate of William Thompson Whelpton, deceased, at the instance of the
Rev. Henry Robert Whelpton, and Stephen Whelpton; when the Court declared
that the direction in the will of the testator, as to the endowment of
the charity, was a “valid charitable bequest of £1,000,” and the money
“invested in three per cents.  Consols, for the following purposes”: (1)
for the repair of the alms-houses; (2) to pay each occupant 3s. 6d. per
week; (3) in case of there being any surplus, to pay them so much more as
the trustees should think fit.  A clause was added, empowering the
Charity Commissioners, from time to time, to order any part of the income
to be applied to special purposes, as they might think desirable.

We may add that while residing at Hastings, Mr. George Whelpton secured
two acres of land, at Eastbourne, from the Duke of Devonshire, the owner
of the whole town, as he is also of Buxton; and at a cost of about
£20,000, erected and endowed the church and vicarage of St. Saviour’s,
which was held by his youngest son, Henry Robert, who graduated at St.
John’s College, Cambridge, and was afterwards made Canon of Chichester.
This benefice is private property, and is now held by his son, Henry
Urling Whelpton, of Pembroke College, Cambridge.

The head of the Whelpton family may now be considered to be the Rev.
George Whelpton, at one time residing in France, but now of Trinity
House, Abington, Berks.  The original George Whelpton died in 1903.

For these details the present writer is indebted to several members of
the Whelpton family, with some of whom he was a fellow pupil at the
Horncastle Grammar School.



THE DRILL HALL.


The present building is not the first structure erected in connection
with the Volunteers, any more than the present Volunteers themselves are
the first institution of the kind formed in Horncastle.  In the early
years of the 19th century, when there was a general feeling abroad that
one great project, nurtured in the ambitious mind of the first Napoleon,
was an invasion of England, volunteers were organized throughout the
country, with a view to self-defence.  As an instance of this, in the
town of Pontefract a corps was formed, of which the Earl of Mexborough
was Colonel Commandant, and George Pyemont, Esq., of Tanshelf House,
Pontefract (grandfather of the present writer), was Major; {145} the
records of which are preserved, among other public documents, in
Pontefract Castle.

        [Picture: Conging Street during the flood, Dec. 31, 1900]

Similarly, a corps was raised in Horncastle at the same period, of which
we have somewhat curious evidence in the following.  There exists a small
pamphlet, which the writer has recently (July, 1908) perused, entitled
“An address delivered to the Horncastle Volunteers, on Feb. 26, 1804, by
their chaplain, in consequence of the resignation of some of the members.
Published by desire of the corps.  Printed by James Weir, Horncastle,
1804.”  In this address he expresses his great regret that so many
volunteers are resigning “after putting the country to the expense of
supplying them with clothing and arms, having also pledged themselves to
the country’s defence, and received in return exemption from militia
service,” this too at a time when (as he says) “we are in danger of being
reduced to a French province.”  “No resignations (he continues) have
taken place in London, in Boston, or in Spilsby.”  He reminds them that
they (the Horncastrians) had been “among the first in the county to offer
their services,” and he urges them still to “maintain their character”
for loyalty.

In consequence of this appeal a public meeting was called together, at
which was formed a “Court of Enquiry,” consisting of “9 members, 3
elected from the officers of the corps, and 6 from the non-commissioned
officers and privates, to whom all proposals of resignation should be
submitted.”  In subsequent pages regulations are added as to keeping
their weapons in proper condition, orders as to loading their guns, &c.,
which are described as “firelocks” with “flints.”  This we may regard as
an interesting item of past local history, evidencing the spirit in which
the first Horncastle Volunteers were formed.

The modern volunteer movement originated in the year 1859, under somewhat
similar circumstances to the earlier movement.  Notwithstanding our
ultimate victory in the Crimean war, it was felt that our blunders had
been most serious, and our military organization far from complete.  War,
as a science, was assuming new forms; steam was giving to navigation an
independence of wind and tide, which might lead to invasion unawares.
The state of our defences was considered most unsatisfactory.  France was
our ally, but the Emperor Napoleon III. only ruled by popular suffrage,
and the memories of Waterloo still affected the sentiments of his people
towards England.  The facility with which England might be invaded was a
subject of discussion in parliament in the course of the session of that
year.  Lord Palmerston held the view that France could, within a few
hours, bring together an army, which could land on our shores and march
upon London, before we were awake to the danger.  It was our duty to be
ready for defence against any such surprise, and it was said that “our
friend” Napoleon would himself welcome such preparedness on our part, as
giving him the best arguments with his own subjects against any such
enterprise.

Strengthened by such reasoning, the Earl of Ripon, Under Secretary for
War, announced that volunteer corps would be enrolled throughout the
country.  The government plans were published on the first of July, were
warmly accepted by all parties, and a circular was issued, dated July
13th, to all the Lieutenants of counties, urging immediate action; and
forthwith the “nation of shopkeepers” were, as by magic, transformed into
an armed camp.  So rapid was the progress that by June of the following
year the cry was “Ready, aye! ready;” and on the 23rd of that month the
Queen held a review in Hyde Park, at which some 20,000 volunteers passed
before her.  We are told, as a curious incident, that at that review
there was present as a newly enrolled private, a Mr. Tower, of Wealdhall,
Essex, who had also been present, as a private, at a review held under
the former system in 1803. {146}

The loyal town of Horncastle was not behindhand; a public meeting was
held in the Bull Hotel, on Aug. 10th, 1859, for the purpose of organizing
a Rifle Corps, for the district, at which the Deputy Lieutenant attended.
Among those present were Major Smart, of Tumby, J. Wadham Floyer, of
Martin Hall, H. F. Conington, Clarence House, Horncastle, Dr. B. J.
Boulton, Dr. W. Ward, Messrs. W. S. Clitherow, R. C. Armstrong, E.
Babington, F. Gilliat, F. W. Tweed, J. R. Banks, and most of the chief
tradesmen and residents in town and neighbourhood.

                          [Picture: The Stanch]

The Muster Roll, which is still preserved, of the corps then formed, and
designated the “G Company of the 1st Battalion of the Lincolnshire
Regiment of Volunteers,” has at its head the name of Henry Francis
Conington, as Captain, March 9th, 1860, with Richard W. Clitherow and
Robert Jalland, as officers under him, at the same date; then follows a
long list of non-commissioned officers and privates, numbering, in the
course of a few years, more than 2,000 names.  Captain Conington,
promoted Major in 1870, was succeeded in due course, on his going abroad,
by Captain, afterwards Major, Robert Clifton Armstrong, who had begun
service as Sergeant, and then Lieutenant; having under him, as
Lieutenants, Messrs. W. Jeffery and W. S. Clitherow, who were succeeded
by Richard W. Clitherow and Robert C. Isle; with Dr. Hugh George as
surgeon.

Mr. Arthur Ellwood, of Mareham-le-Fen, who had joined the corps in 1865,
succeeded to the command in 1891, with Dr. Keogh, of Coningsby, and F. S.
Dymoke, Esq., as Lieutenants, Dr. Hugh George still acting as Surgeon;
Ellwood was promoted as Captain in 1891, succeeded to the Colonelcy of
the head-quarters staff in 1894, and is now Hon. Colonel of the
Battalion, entitled to wear the regimental uniform.

In 1894 Mr. H. Tweed succeeded to the command as Captain, with Messrs. T.
Levett and Granville Sharpe acting as Lieutenants (Mr. F. W. S. Heywood,
of Holbeach Hall, being temporarily attached).  In 1899 Granville Sharpe
succeeded to the command, but his health failing, he resigned after a
year’s service.  He was succeeded in 1900 by Dr. J. W. Jessop as Captain,
who had joined in 1895, and was in 1906 promoted Major of the Battalion;
A. A. Ellwood becoming Lieutenant.  Dr. Herbert A. Howes, who had joined
in 1900, succeeded in 1906 to the command, which he still holds, 1908.

Senior officers in command of the Battalion have been Col. Amcotts
(deceased), Col. Seddon (deceased), Col. Preston (deceased), Col. J. G.
Williams of Lincoln, and at present Col. J. Ruston of Lincoln.  Clergy
who have served as Chaplains have been Revs. S. Lodge; C. Reginald
Blathwayt, Vicar of West Ashby; A. Scrivenor, Vicar of Horncastle; H.
Benwell; and at the present time (1908) Paul O. Ashby, Incumbent of
Revesby.

Among those who have done good service in the corps, we should mention
the first Drill Sergeant Beeton, who had previously served in the 22nd
Regiment of the Line (the Old Cheshire), and afterwards in the South
Lincolnshire Militia, as Colour Sergeant.  He drilled the corps during
about 20 years; dying in Horncastle, after about 40 years service.  He
was followed by Sergt. Major Bartlett; then by Sergeant Doggett, who had
been Colour Sergeant in the 1st Royal Sussex, and previously to that in
the 2nd Battalion of the North Staffordshire Regiment (the old 98th).  He
still resides in Horncastle.  In later years the post has been held by
Sergeants Towne, Ashley and Bamber.

As to the buildings connected with the volunteers, their history is
briefly this: In the early years of the corps’ existence drill was
carried on in the Corn Exchange.  After a time the building adjoining the
north-east corner of the Wong, which had been a British School, was
secured; and this, after structural renovation, was used for several
years as the head-quarters.  It is now in the occupation of Messrs. Danby
and Cheseldine, Coach Builders; as in 1901 a new site was obtained at the
south-east corner of the Wong, and here on the 13th day of June in that
year the foundation stone of the present Drill Hall was laid, with much
ceremony, by the Earl of Yarborough, supported by other public
functionaries.  We here give, in full, the official programme of the
proceedings, which may be worthy of preservation, in memory of this
important occasion.

                       PROGRAMME OF THE CEREMONIAL
                            TO BE OBSERVED IN
                       LAYING THE FOUNDATION STONE
                                  OF THE
             NEW VOLUNTEER DRILL HALL, THE WONG, HORNCASTLE,
                 On Thursday, the 13th day of June, 1901.

                      THE STONE WILL BE LAID BY THE
      RIGHT WORSHIPFUL THE PROVINCIAL GRAND MASTER OF LINCOLNSHIRE,
            THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF YARBOROUGH, P.C., D.L.,
       Past Grand Warden of England, R.W. Provincial Grand Master;
                             ASSISTED BY THE
 WORSHIPFUL THE DEPUTY PROVINCIAL GRAND MASTER, BRO. W. H. SISSONS, D.L.,
                                  J.P.,
               And Officers of the Provincial Grand Lodge.

                               CEREMONIAL.

   The Members of the Provincial Grand Lodge and Visiting Brethren will
                             assemble at the
             Wesleyan Schoolroom, Horncastle, at 12 o’clock.

 A Procession will be formed at 12–15 precisely, in the following order:
                      Two Tylers, with drawn Swords.
                            Visiting Brethren.
  The Lodges of the Province, according to their numbers, Juniors going
                                  first.
 The W. Masters of the Olive Union and Shakspeare Lodges, with Trowel and
                                  Gavel.

 Prov. Grand Steward.    Cornucopiæ with Corn    Prov. Grand Steward.
                              and Salt,
                         borne by Masters of
                                Lodges

 Prov. Grand Steward.    Ewers with Wine and     Prov. Grand Steward.
                                 Oil,
                         borne by Masters of
                               Lodges.

                        Past Provincial Grand
                              Officers.

 The Provincial Grand Superintendent of Works, with the Plate bearing the
                  inscription for the Foundation Stone.
                        Provincial Grand Officer.
                  Provincial Grand Deacons, with Wands.
   Acting Provincial Grand Treasurer, with Phial containing Coins to be
                         deposited in the Stone.
     The Corinthian Light, borne by the Master of the Franklin Lodge.
 The Column of the Junior Provincial Grand Warden, borne by the Master of
                            the Witham Lodge.
           The Junior Provincial Grand Warden, with Plumb Rule.
         The Doric Light, borne by the Master of the Doric Lodge.
 The Column of the Senior Provincial Grand Warden, borne by the Master of
                         the Pelham Pillar Lodge.
The Senior Provincial Grand Warden, with the Level.  The Provincial Grand
             Chaplains, bearing the Volume of the Sacred Law.
       The Provincial Grand Secretary, with Book of Constitutions.
  The Provincial Grand Standard Bearers, with Banner of Provincial Grand
                                  Lodge.
                      Provincial Grand Sword Bearer.
           The W. Deputy Provincial Grand Master, with Square.
      The Ionic Light, borne by the Master of the Yarborough Lodge.

 Prov. Grand Steward     The R.W.  Provincial    Prov. Grand Steward.
                            Grand Master.

                   Provincial Grand Tyler, with Sword.

On arrival at the site, the Brethren will divide right and left, allowing
   the R.W P.G.M. preceded by the Sword Bearers followed by the Acting
  Officers, to pass to their positions, and the brethren will then file
                        round the Acting Officers.
 The W.M. of the Olive Union Lodge will then request the Provincial Grand
                   Master to lay the Foundation Stone.
   The Deputy Provincial Grand Master will deliver the Ancient Opening
                                 Address.

                                  HYMN—

                       Hail!  Eternal! by whose aid
                      All created things were made,
                    Heaven and earth Thy vast design,
                        Hear us, Architect Divine!

                       May our work, begun in thee,
                        Ever blest with ORDER be;
                     And may we, when labours cease,
                        Part in HARMONY and PEACE.

                         By Thy glorious Majesty—
                      By the TRUST we place in Thee—
                      By the badge and Mystic sign—
                Hear us, Architect Divine!  So mote it be.

             The Provincial Grand Chaplin will offer Prayer.

        The Architect will then present the Plans for Inspection.

 The Acting Provincial Grand Treasurer will then deposit the Coins, &c.,
                       in the cavity of the stone.

  The Provincial Grand Secretary will read aloud the inscription on the
                          Stone and Plate, which
                     will then be placed in position.

The W. Master, 1304, will then present the Trowel to the P.G.M., who will
                            adjust the cement,
     and the upper stone will be lowered, with three distinct stops.

   The R.W. the P.G.M. will now prove the just position and form of the
  stone by the Plumb Rule, Level, and Square, which will be successively
   handed to him by the P.G. Junior Warden, the P.G. Senior Warden, and
Deputy Provincial Grand Master.  Being satisfied in these particulars, he
will give the stone three knocks with the Mallet, which will be delivered
               to him by the Grand Superintendent of Works.

  The Cornucopiæ, containing the Corn and Salt, and the Ewers, with the
 Wine and Oil, will next be handed to the R.W. the P.G.M., who will strew
  the Corn and Salt, and pour the Wine and Oil over the stone, with the
                          accustomed ceremonies.

                     Invocation by the P.G. Chaplain.

 The R.W. the P.G.M. having inspected the Plan of the intended building,
 will deliver the same to the Architect, together with the several tools
   used in proving the position of the stone, and desire him to proceed
  without loss of time to the completion of the Work, in conformity with
                                the Plan.

                  The following Hymn will then be sung:—

                    God of Light! whose love unceasing
                      Doth to all Thy works extend,
                    Crown our Order with Thy blessing.
                       Build—sustain us to the end.

                      Humbly now we bow before Thee,
                      Grateful for Thine aid Divine;
                       Everlasting power and glory,
                Mighty Architect, be Thine.  So mote it be

   The Procession will return in inverse order to the P.G. Lodge Room.

This hall is a spacious and lofty building, well adapted for its purpose,
and also (as it is frequently used) for theatricals, and other
entertainments; having a permanent stage, dressing rooms, lavatories,
&c., with a commodious kitchen attached, and every convenience for
cooking, &c.  The cost of the whole was about £2,000, raised by public
subscriptions.



CHAPTER XI.
HORNCASTLE WORTHIES, &c.


MISS ANNIE DIXON.


Miss Annie Dixon, the artist, was a native of Horncastle of whom the town
may well be proud.  She was the eldest daughter of a corn chandler,
living on the Spilsby Road, now called East Street; he had two sons and
five daughters.  We know nothing of the sons, but Miss Annie early
developed great taste in water-colour painting; and among her early
productions was a miniature of a near relative of the present writer,
done in 1855.  Another of Miss H. A. Palmer, eldest daughter of Captain
Moffat Palmer, of Horncastle, and widow of the late George Storer, Esq.,
of Thoroton Hall, Notts., late M.P. for S. Notts., was done about the
same time.  She afterwards removed to London, and became the first
miniature painter of her day; was a frequent exhibitor in the Royal
Academy, and a favourite with Queen Victoria and the Royal family, of
most of whom she painted miniatures.  She died unmarried Feb 15th, 1901,
aged 83, and was buried in the Horncastle cemetery.

Another daughter, Leonora, married a Mr. F. Stapleforth, of Holbeach.
Two other sisters, Fanny and Emily, unmarried, carried on a ladies’
school at Spalding; and another, Charlotte, married a former Under Master
of the Horncastle Grammar School, Rev. W. Hutchinson, who in 1862 was
appointed by the Lord Chancellor Vicar of Howden, in Yorkshire.  Of these
Emily, died unmarried, May 28th, 1903, aged 80, and was also buried in
the cemetery; as well as Charlotte (Mrs. Hutchinson), who died Oct. 19th,
in the same year, aged 73.  Their graves are situated to the east of the
chapel.



LORD ALLERTON.


Lord Allerton, formerly Mr. William Lawnes Jackson, is a member of a
Horncastle family.  A near relative was a well-known object, a few years
ago, in our streets as a cripple, going about on a donkey, lying flat on
a large saddle or “pad,” his only means of locomotion.  Lord Allerton’s
father, William Jackson, left Horncastle for Leeds, somewhere in the
“thirties,” or the “forties,” going it is said, with only half a
sovereign in his pocket, given by an aunt, and a spare shirt given by an
uncle.  At Leeds he found employment in the tanyard of a Mr. Robert
Barker, where he presently became foreman.  He afterwards returned to
Horncastle and worked in the tanyard of the late Mr. Hawling; but went
back to Leeds and commenced tanning on his own account, at Meanwood near
Leeds, and afterwards on a still larger scale at Buslingthorpe.  He
speedily began to prosper, and in due course was succeeded by his son;
who made a large fortune in the same business.  He became a magistrate of
Leeds, and was elected to the Mayoralty in 1895.  He represented North
Leeds in Parliament for many years, as a conservative, being first
elected in April, 1880, and re-elected five times, with ever increasing
majorities.  He was for many years a Director and Chairman of G.N.R.
Company, and held other public offices.  In 1896 he succeeded Mr. A. J.
Balfour, under Lord Salisbury’s administration, as Chief Secretary for
Ireland, being also, for several years, Financial Secretary of the
Treasury; and was raised to the peerage in June, 1902.  He was born in
1840, married in 1860, Grace, the only daughter of George Tempest, Esq.
He owns, as his country seat, Allerton Hall, Chapel Allerton, Leeds, and
27, Cadogan Square, as his town residence.  His uncle, Mr. John Green,
still lives in Horncastle, on the Edlington Road.



EDWARD GILLIAT.


Edward Gilliat was the eldest son of the late Mr. George Gilliat, of the
Manor House (now called “Banovallum”), by his second wife.  He was
educated partly at the Grammar School, being afterwards a pupil of Canon
Sanderson, at Seaford, Sussex.  He entered at Pembroke College, Oxford,
where he obtained a scholarship in 1861.  In 1862 he took a 1st class in
Classical Moderations, and 1st Literæ Humaniores, 1864.  In 1867 he was
_Proxime accessit_ for the Latin essay.  He was appointed Assistant
Master at Westminster School, Sept., 1867, holding the post to Dec.,
1870.  He was ordained deacon in 1870 and priest in 1871, by the Bishop
of London.  In Sep. 1871, he was appointed Assistant Master at Harrow,
where he remained till 1900.  He has been a voluminous writer, publishing
his first work, _Asylum Christi_, 3 vols., in 1875; _On the Wolds_, 1879;
_Under the Downs_, 1882; _Forest Outlaws_, 1886; _John Standish_, 1889;
_In Lincoln Green_, 1893; _Wolf Head_, 1898; _The King’s Reeve_, 1899;
_Romance of Modern Sieges_, 1907; and _God save King Alfred_, in the same
year.  He also published, for the S.P.C.K., _Dorothy Dymoke_, and
_Champion of the Right_.  He has now retired from scholastic work and
resides at St. Catherine’s Hill, Worcester.



FREDERICK GROSVENOR.


We have already in our notice of the Grammar School (p. 98) given an
account of the Rev. Francis Grosvenor, son of an ironmonger in the town;
there was also another son, Frederick, educated under Dr. J. Bainbridge
Smith, at the school, who graduated at Oxford, and was ordained deacon in
1860, and priest in 1861.  He held a curacy at Basford, Notts, 1860–62;
was travelling Chaplain to the Bishop of Brisbane, 1862–65; Curate of
Holy Trinity, Westminster, 1866–67; of St. Mary’s, Hulme, Manchester,
1867–69; of St. Gabriel’s, Canning Town, London, 1869–73; at Dudley,
1874–76; and at Hornsea, near Hull, 1876–85; when he, like his brother
Francis, retired to Epsom, and succeeded him as Chaplain to the Union
there, until his decease.



WILLIAM BARTON CAPARN.


Mr. John Caparn, Chemist, having a shop in the High Street (now occupied
by Mr. Herbert Carlton), had a son, William Barton Caparn, who graduated
at Brazenose College, Oxford, taking honours, in 1843.  He was ordained
deacon in 1843, and priest in 1845, in the diocese of Ripon.  He became
Vicar of East and West Torrington, near Wragby, in 1846, which he held
till 1859.  He held the benefice, as Vicar, of Drayton, Somersetshire,
from 1866 to 1875.  Having private means, he gave up that benefice, and
became Curate of Angersleigh, in the same county, 1877–79; which he then
gave up, and undertook the Chaplaincy of the Taunton Union, and local
hospital.  These he resigned after a few years, and resided at Taunfield
House, Taunton, until his death, April 10th, 1892.  He published various
minor works; the first being a small volume on _Epitaphs_, later
productions were _Meditations to be used in Church before Divine
Service_; _Councils and warnings before and after Confirmation_, &c.

George Gilliat, Esq., late of The Wharf, Horncastle, married, as his
first wife, Miss Caparn, a sister.  Miss Helen Caparn, another sister,
married Mr. William Sharples, Surgeon, a partner of the late Mr. T.
Snaith, of Horncastle, and one of the first doctors at Woodhall Spa.  Mr.
Sharples left Horncastle for Wisbech, being appointed by the trustees
first resident physician at the hospital founded in that town by Miss
Trafford Southwell.  Losing an only daughter while there, the shock was
so great, that he resigned the post, and removed to Taunton, and took up
there the practice of a deceased brother, which he carried on until his
death, Feb. 8th, 1897.  At Horncastle he resided for some years in the
old vicarage, south of the churchyard, afterwards moving to the house
next the “Fighting Cocks” Inn, called “Westholme House.”  For some years
he was a very popular Secretary to the Southwold Hunt.



W. H. BENSON BROWN.


Among more recent natives of Horncastle, who have distinguished
themselves, is the son of the late Mr. Robert Brown, of the Market Place.
He graduated at University College, Durham, as Licentiate in Theology,
1887, and was ordained deacon in 1890, priest in 1891, holding the curacy
of North Ormsby, near Middlesborough; and was appointed Rector of
Bucknall, near Horncastle, in 1898, by the patron his father-in-law, the
late Mr. James Dunham, Merchant, of Horncastle.  He was appointed
Inspector of Schools, 1899.  Mr. Benson Brown is an energetic worker, has
restored his church, adding a carved reredos of oak, a handsome lectern,
and filling the east window with good stained glass.  He has also
introduced various reforms and improvements in the parish.



WILLIAM HENEAGE SHARP.


Another native of Horncastle, who has already done credit to the town is
the son of Mr. Henry Sharp, Saddler, in the Bull Ring; of a very old
firm, established in 1760, and doing an European business.  William
Heneage Sharp was educated at the local Grammar School, 1885–9, where he
gained the first scholarship granted by the Governors, under the reformed
system.  He then went to the college at Framlingham, Suffolk, 1889–90, a
county institution founded as a memorial of the late Prince Consort, and
there gained several prizes.  He then became a Junior Master in a private
school at Devizes; and during his stay there took the 2nd and 4th prizes
at the College of Preceptors.  He next accepted a Mastership at John
Ellis’s endowed school in South London (Gospel Oak).  After which he
studied at King’s College, London, 1899–1901, where he gained the Jelf
prize for Dogmatic Theology, the Senior Wordsworth prize for Latin, and
the Barry Divinity Prize.  He was also appointed Precentor, and
afterwards Dean, of the college, being senior student of his year, and
taking a first-class in the final examination.  He was ordained by the
Bishop of London, in St. Paul’s Cathedral, in 1901, being appointed
“Gospellor” on the occasion.  He was Curate of Staines, Middlesex,
1901–3, removing afterwards to St. John the Evangelist, Holborn, 1903–8;
and was then appointed Theological Tutor and Sub-Warden at the College of
the Resurrection, Mirfield, in the Diocese of Ripon.



ALFRED H. HEALEY.


A youth of Horncastle who has distinguished himself, though chiefly in
another line, is Alfred H. Healey, son of the late Mr. Alfred Healey,
Brewer and Merchant, of Horncastle, Branston and Lincoln.  He was
appointed to a Mastership of Ardingly College, Sussex, but removed to
Alnwick College more recently.  A member of a family remarkable for their
ability; a brother, though still young, being high up in the Civil
Service; he is specially distinguished as an athlete.  Among his
performances are the following:

Olympic Games, at Athens, 1906, 2nd in 110 metres hurdle race.

English Championship, 120 yards hurdle race, at Manchester, 1907, 2nd.

Northern Counties’ 100 yards Championship, hurdle race, Darlington, 1905,
2nd.

Northern Counties’ Champion, 100 yards, at Batley, 1907, 1st.

Northern Counties’ Champion, 120 yards, at Batley, 1907, 1st.

Northern Counties’ Champion, 220 yards, at Darlington, 1907, 1st.

Northern Counties’ Champion, long jump, at Darlington, 1907, 1st.

A record, no one before having won more than two events.  His “bests”
have been: 100 yards in 10 seconds; 120 yards (hurdles) 16 and
three-fifth seconds; 220 yards (hurdles) 23 seconds; high jump, 5-ft.
8-in.; long jump, 22-ft. 4-in.  He was also selected to represent England
in the foot races at the Franco-British Exhibition, at Shepherd’s Bush,
1908.



WILLIAM MARWOOD.


Horncastle had, for some years, the dubious honour of being the home of
the public hangman.  William Marwood was born at Goulceby, about six
miles from Horncastle, and afterwards lived some years in Old
Bolingbroke, coming to Horncastle about 1860; where he was a shoemaker,
having a small shop in Church Street, now occupied by Mr. Joseph Borrill,
of the same trade.  Before being himself appointed hangman he assisted
his predecessor in that office, Calcraft, and succeeded him in 1872;
continuing the duties until his death, Sept. 4th, 1883; when he in turn
was succeeded by Bartholomew Binns.  He was rather short in stature, with
large square head and large hands, indicative of firmness of character.
His first official act was to hang a man named Francis Horry, at Lincoln,
who murdered his wife at Boston, in 1872; his last was to hang a man,
James Burton, at Durham, who murdered his young wife, aged only 18, from
jealousy.  On this occasion the man fainted on the scaffold, and got
entangled with the rope under his arm, and Marwood had to lift him in his
arms to get him disentangled, and then drop the unconscious man down—a
painful scene. {155}  This was only about a fortnight before his own
death.  Among his last executions was that of Charles Peace, a notorious
burglar, who shot a man at Banner Cross, near Sheffield.  In May, 1882,
he went to Dublin to execute the perpetrators of the Phœnix Park murders,
three Fenians, who shot Lord E. Cavendish, and his secretary, Mr. Burke.
In his last illness, which was short, it was suspected that his health
had been in some way injured through Fenian agency, and a post mortem
examination was held by order of the Home Secretary, but a verdict was
returned of “natural death.”  Mr. Henry Sharp, Saddler, of the Bull Ring,
was one of the jury on this occasion.

Marwood’s wife was, for some years, ignorant of her husband’s official
occupation, as he generally accounted for his absence by saying that he
had to go away to settle some legal question.  Visiting the
slaughter-house of a neighbouring butcher, he observed to him that he
could “do” for men as the butcher did for cattle, because the men whom he
had to deal with were themselves “beasts.”

Some of Marwood’s official paraphernalia are still preserved at the
Portland Arms Inn, Portland Street, Lincoln, where he generally stayed at
an execution.  The late Mr. Charles Chicken, who resided in Foundry
Street, Horncastle, had a rope 1¼-in. thick, given him by Marwood, with
which he had hanged six or seven criminals.  Other ropes used by him are
in Madam Tussaud’s exhibition, in Baker Street, London, where there is
also a bust of himself.  He used to exhibit his ropes to foreign
horse-dealers, who attended the great August Fair at Horncastle, at a
charge of 6d. each.  There was recently a portrait of Marwood, in
crayons, in a barber’s shop, 29, Bridge Street, drawn by J. S. Lill,
postman, but this has now disappeared.  Marwood’s favourite dog, Nero,
and other effects were sold by auction, after his death in 1883, by Mr.
W. B. Parish.

                                * * * * *

Other Horncastrians whose lives, or circumstances, were more or less
exceptional, may be here also briefly noticed.



HENRY TURNER.


Mr. Henry Turner, about the middle of the 19th century, was a corn and
coal merchant, and also land agent for Sir Henry Dymoke, Bart., of
Scrivelsby Court.  He occupied the house at the corner of South Street,
next the water side, then a private residence, but now the shop of Mr. F.
Stuchbery, Ironmonger.  He married the widow of Arthur Thistlewood, a
native of Horsington, noted, in his later years, as the leader of the
“Cato Street Conspiracy,” which proposed to assassinate the ministers of
the government, in London, when attending a dinner at Lord Harrowby’s
residence, in February, 1820.  The plot was discovered and frustrated,
and Thistlewood, with others of his guilty confreres, was executed on May
1st in that year.  Mrs. Turner was the daughter of a butcher, named
Wilkinson, whose shop was situated in the High Street, where is now the
shop of Mr. Uriah Spratt.



MARTIN BROWN.


Mr. Martin Brown, grandfather of Mr. W. H. Brown, Plumber and Glazier, of
Church Lane, was in the early part of the 19th century captured by the
press gang in Horncastle, and made to serve in H.M.S. Mars, in the war
with Napoleon.  In one contest his ship was lashed to a French
man-of-war, to fight it out, and his captain was killed.  He survived to
tell the story till 90 years of age, with scarcely a day’s illness, until
his death, Nov. 9th, 1866.  He lies buried in Holy Trinity churchyard,
his wife, who predeceased him by several years, being buried in St.
Mary’s churchyard, on the south-east side.



CAPTAIN SHEPHERD.


Captain Shepherd, an old naval officer, lived many years, and died, in
Union Street, now called Queen Street.  He had had many voyages and
experiences, which he was fond of recounting to his many friends.  He had
brought home many trophies and curiosities; among other things he gave an
Indian bow, made of sugar cane, and poisoned arrows, to the present
writer, when a boy.



MISS FRANKLIN.


In the next house to Captain Shepherd resided Miss Franklin, sister of
the great arctic navigator, Sir John Franklin.  Much interest was taken
in Horncastle in the fate of Sir John, when absent on his last polar
voyage, and considerable sums were raised, more than once, among the
residents in the town, to assist Lady Franklin in sending out vessels in
search of her husband, under the command of Captain Leopold MacClintock
and others.  We have mentioned elsewhere that a public dinner was given
to Sir John, at the Bull Hotel, just before he sailed for the last time
to the north.

In connection with this it may be added that the son of another great
arctic explorer, Sir John Ross, used to visit friends in Horncastle, and
is still remembered.  Sir John Ross sailed in search of Sir John Franklin
in 1848, but was unsuccessful.



EDMUND KEANE.


Edmund Keane, the Tragedian visited Horncastle with his company, in the
first half of the 19th century, and acted in a large building, which is
now the warehouse of Mr. Herbert Carlton, Chemist.  The mother of Mr.
Henry Sharp, Saddler, and the late Mr. Henry Boulton, of St. Mary’s
Square, among others, witnessed these performances.  In connection with
this, it may be added, that Mr. Charles Keane, Actor, son of the above,
sent two nieces to be educated at a ladies’ school, kept by Mrs.
Nicholson, Bank Street, Horncastle, and on their leaving he made her a
present of a valuable pianoforte.



AMBROSE LANGLEY.


About 30 years ago Robert Langley kept an inn in South Street, called the
“Coach and Horses,” on the premises now occupied by Mr. Crowson, Grocer.
His son, Ambrose Langley, became a noted footballer, in Horncastle and
neighbourhood.  He afterwards left the town and joined the Grimsby Town
Football Club; subsequently he went to Middlesborough, Yorkshire, playing
for the Ironopolis Football Club.  He afterwards joined the Sheffield
Wednesday Football Club, which team he was with eight years, being
captain three years; playing in the final for the English Cup, for that
team, when they beat Wolverhampton Wanderers by two goals to one, in
1896.  Leaving Sheffield Wednesday he became manager of the Hull City
Football Club, which position he now (season 1907–8) holds.



CAPTAIN SURGEON SMITH.


Captain Surgeon Smith, son of a draper, Mr. Walker Smith, who occupied,
about 25 years ago, the shop near the Post Office, on the south side of
the High Street, now occupied by Mr. Redmore, enlisted as a private in
the Army Hospital Corps; and, afterwards, passing all examinations with
credit, he rose from the ranks to become medical officer in the corps; an
exceptional instance of such promotion.



HENRY ALLENBY.


Henry Allenby, son of a fellmonger, Mr. Richard Allenby, residing near
the Wong, and having a tanyard on the Lincoln Road, became an assistant
chemist at St. Albans.  Afterwards coming under notice, in a chemist’s
shop in London, he was selected to accompany the Duke of Edinburgh in his
tour round the world, in H.M.S. Galatea, as dispenser to the expedition.
This was in 1866; and in this capacity he visited India, Japan, China,
Australia, &c.



JOHN SCHOFIELD.


Mr. Robert Schofield, Landlord (in the middle of the last century) of the
Saracen’s Head Inn, Bridge Street, Horncastle, had a son, John, who left
Horncastle for London, and became a member of the Stock Exchange, where,
from small beginnings, he became so successful in business, that he
eventually married a daughter of Bishop Blomfield, of London.



MISS ROBINSON.


The Rev. W. Robinson, Vicar of Wood Enderby and Wilkesby, in the middle
of the 19th century, like several other clergy, who at that time had no
country residences, lived in Horncastle.  His daughter, happening to be
of the same size and figure as Queen Victoria, was for several years
engaged in the Queen’s service, as a living model, on whom were “tried”
all dresses intended for the Queen.  In return for this she received, as
a perquisite, her Majesty’s cast-off dresses, from the sale of which she
realised an acceptable income.  It is said that, through her, on the
marriage of a lady friend, the dresses of both bride and bridesmaids were
all royal attire.  It was generally understood that this appointment was
due to the representations, in her favour, of Miss Annie Dixon, the
artist (herself a native of Horncastle, mentioned elsewhere), who was at
that time a _grata persona_ with the royal family.



JOHN CUSSONS.


Mr. John Cussons, son of the late Mr. John Cussons, Baker, in the Bull
Ring, and nephew of the late Mr. David Cussons, Printer and Bookseller,
High Street, Horncastle, ran away before his apprenticeship had expired,
and went to America, settling in the Confederate States.  He there
espoused the Confederate cause against the Federals, and took a leading
part in the civil war, commanding Confederate forces in several important
engagements.  Since that time he has visited Horncastle, and has
published a history of his military operations.  He now resides on his
own property, at Forest Lodge, Glen Allen, Virginia.  His last
publication, in 1908, is _Jack Sterry_, _the Jessie Scout_.  He is also
the author of _A Glance at Current History_, _The Passage of the
Thoroughfare Gap_, _Some Modern Pillars of State_, _Principles of
Cryptiography_, _Assimilating the Indian_, &c.



HENRY ALLISON.


Henry Allison, son of Mr. Allison, Miller, formerly residing in West
Street, married a daughter of Mr. David Cussons, and leaving the town
about 1848, settled in Hull, where he established a large business as
paper manufacturer.  He was elected Mayor of Hull; and died some years
ago, leaving a widow, who resides in a large mansion, which he built on
the outskirts of the town, Marlborough House, Anlaby Road.  The business,
with several branches, is still carried on by members of his family.



JOHN BROWN.


John Brown, the “Poet Laureate” of Horncastle, has already been
mentioned; he is chiefly known by the volume _Literæ Laureatœ_, published
in 1890, dedicated to Lord Tennyson, by permission, and containing most
of his poetical productions.  These are remarkable for his knowledge of
Lincolnshire dialect and local folk-lore.  The volume was published,
after his death, on behalf of his widow.

He was born in the first workhouse, adjoining St. Mary’s churchyard, his
parents being in charge of that institution.  Being first apprenticed to
a cabinet maker, Mr. J. Williams, when only just “in his teens,” he ran
away to Hull, and took service on a vessel, the Margaret, bound for
Cronstadt.  His first voyage, however, was sufficient to disgust him with
marine life.  When about 15 he found employment with a theatrical scene
painter from London, who settled in Horncastle.  He afterwards went to
London to learn his trade as a house decorator.  He married in 1833 a
Miss Gainsborough, of Alford.  In 1838 he went to Lincoln, and for some
years carried on his trade there.  In 1848 he returned to Horncastle, and
still carrying on his trade, became a member of a literary coterie, who
used to hold meetings in the coffee room of the Bull Hotel.  In 1860 he
bought a house on the Louth Road, which he opened as the Globe Inn, and
which became the resort of his literary friends.  Literature, however,
did not conduce to business.  In 1872 his health failing, and his savings
having evaporated, he was granted a residence in the Whelpton Almshouses,
where he continued to employ his pen, in comfort, until his death in
1890. {159}



THOMAS BAKER.


The late Mr. Thomas Baker has already been referred to, but is worthy of
a fuller account.  He was not a native of Horncastle, but lived in the
town more than 60 years, and became so identified with its interests, in
many ways, that he may well be regarded as one of its “worthies.”  Born
in 1814, at Braintree, in Essex, he was the son of a veterinary surgeon
in that town, his family having previously there owned the once
well-known coaching house, named The Horn Inn; although earlier members
of his family had occupied a higher position; one of them, named
Thorowgood, having founded the Grammar School at Oxford.

Before coming to Horncastle, in 1841, Mr. Baker was known on more than
one county cricket ground, and had distinguished himself on the
University ground at Cambridge, “Parker’s Piece.”  On coming to
Horncastle he immediately made his mark in cricket as a round-hand
bowler; and the leading young men of the neighbourhood became his pupils.
One of his feats was, in a match between an 11 of All England and 22
gentlemen of the county; when he bowled out, with his first ball,
Iddison, Captain of the All England team.  The great matches in which he
took part for many years were too many to tell.  Among other things he
had the distinction of being employed by Sir Evelyn Wood to train a
village club in his parish.

Besides his cricketing skill he was remarkable for his ventriloquial
powers; and the story was told, that, while sitting in conversation with
two strangers, at the Bull Hotel, he threw his voice under the table.
The two sprang up to catch the supposed eavesdropper, when he at once
calmed them by throwing his voice in another direction, and then letting
them into the secret.  He was also, in his way, a fair actor; and, with
the late Mr. John Brown, the Horncastle Laureate, and others, he helped
to amuse considerable audiences, in town and neighbourhood.  In comedy he
could take all the parts himself, rapidly changing his dress, and at one
moment adopting the high falsetto tones of an old crone, and the next
moment speaking in the deeper accents of a strong man.  It is greatly to
his credit that, only having for many years a small shop, famed chiefly
for his two specialites, “bull eyes” and “Grantham ginger-bread,” he
brought up a large family, who have taken good positions in various parts
of the country.  He was a staunch conservative and churchman.

In his later years he was often visited by strangers, who were
entertained by his fund of anecdote and cricketing reminiscences.  Among
these we may name the novelist, Miss Marie Corelli, who, while staying at
Woodhall Spa, sought his acquaintance, as being one of the “characters”
of the neighbourhood, and to his delight she gave him her autograph.  Mr.
J. J. Hissey, the author of _A Driving Tour in Lincolnshire_, also
visited him at his house in Horncastle, and says of him “although wearing
a shabby garb, he struck me with his perfect self-possession, and
superior manners. . . .  I have met many characters, but Mr. Baker struck
me as being the most remarkable.”  He died Feb. 12th, 1903, aged 88; and
in his last illness letters poured in upon him from old friends and
pupils, expressing their sympathy and their pleasant recollections of his
company.



ODDITIES.


To these “worthies” of the town we here add two or three of its
“oddities.”  About 1844 Billy Boulton, who kept an inn in Millstone
Street, now called North Street, named the Tom Cat, was noted for his
great strength; for a wager he dragged a “dung cart” on the turnpike
road, from Lincoln, to his own yard in Horncastle, a distance of over 21
miles.  It is said, however, that he suffered from rupture for the rest
of his life, as a consequence of the great and continued exertion
involved in this feat.  The inn is now named The Cricketers’ Arms, but it
may be noticed that the figure of a cat is still engraven on a pane of
the front window.

The same man bought the wife of a man named Rogers, a boatman, who put
her up for auction, standing on a tub, with a halter round her neck, in
the public street; the price paid being £20.  She had a son and daughter
by Boulton, who both lived to be married, but died early.  In after
years, having lost her (so called) husband, Boulton, she removed to
Lincoln, and there meeting her former husband, Rogers, she became
reconciled to him, and both again lived together, as man and wife, until
death. {160}

A man, known as Aty Rushton (short for Horatio), who lived in Horncastle,
on the West Ashby Road, about the same period, and let out horses on
hire, being in Lincoln, laid a wager that he would set off from Lincoln,
above hill, just after the moon rose, and ride to Horncastle, 21 miles,
before the moon should rise there; which would be later, the town being
in a hollow, with a steep hill in the west to hide the moon for some
time; while Lincoln is on a hill, with a view to the west over low
county, where the moon would be seen earlier.  He rode a swift animal of
his own. and strained all its powers in the effort.  Unfortunately there
was then a toll bar on the Lincoln road about a mile from Horncastle,
where he found the gate closed, and was delayed two or three minutes
before the keeper could pass him through.  He pressed on with all speed,
galloping through the town, shouting in his excitement “Now me! now
moon!”; but as he dashed into his own yard, he saw the moon shining in a
bucket of water, standing by the stable door.  The delay at the toll-bar
had lost him his wager.

A son of the above, Thomas Rushton, was a great fisherman, and not always
particular where he followed his sport.  Walking in the night to a
certain lake in a park, about 6 miles from Horncastle, he fished it and
landed two or three brace of good trout, and then about eight o’clock in
the morning, he called at the hall, and sold them to the squire for his
breakfast.  He used to tell this anecdote to his confidants, with his
well-known chuckle of satisfaction, as a satisfactory stroke of business.
Many other stories of his performances with “the angle” could be also
related, but this may suffice.

The following relates not to a native of Horncastle, but to one whom we
may call an “intruder,” although he was to play his part (not a very
creditable one) in the town.  We avoid, for obvious reasons, giving names
and dates.  There had occurred a number of petty thefts, which made,
those who possessed anything of value, uneasy about their treasures, lest
their turn for spoliation might come next.  The police arrangements for
the town were still of a very primitive character, and quite inadequate
for due protection of the householder.  The days of the “bobby” and
“peeler” were not yet, at least in country districts; although Sir Robert
Peel had done away with the old watchman, and established the present
police system in the metropolis; and some other of our larger towns had
followed suit.  But in Horncastle the constable, by way of setting a
thief to catch a thief, had, it was said, himself in his earlier years
been a great smuggler, while in his age he was a spindle-shanked old man,
whom a boy could knock down.  Roused by the insecurity of property, the
authorities decided to import a London detective, disguised in plain
clothes.  He came, and for a while marauders, among whom the secret soon
leaked out, carefully stayed their hands.  After a time, however,
robberies began to recur; especially a corner shop near “the far bridge,”
was the scene of considerable pilfering.  The detective was called in to
investigate.  He took up the matter, but did not succeed in making any
arrests.

It was noticed by someone that a brass button was missing from the sort
of gamekeeper’s velveteen coat which he wore; and, strange to say, a
button of the exact kind was found behind the counter of the shop where
the thefts occurred.  No public action was taken in the matter, but it
came to be strongly suspected that the professional thief-taker had
himself been guilty of thieving.  Other suspicious circumstances
occurred, but he was a clever man, and nothing was brought home against
him.  It was believed, however, that something of the truth had become
known at head quarters, as his appointment was a few months later
cancelled, and he was not appointed elsewhere.  He continued to reside in
Horncastle and, having no employment, he accepted the post of water
bailiff to the local angling association, which he filled for some time,
until he eventually disappeared from the scene of his labours, which were
thought by not a few to be somewhat “fishy” in the unfavourable sense of
being at least questionable in their nature.

He had not left the town very long when it became known that certain
parties had received from him some of the goods which had disappeared
from the grocer’s shop, which had been robbed.  Sundry hams were found
concealed in a hay loft, and it was generally believed that the robbery
of an inn in the town, not far from the shop in question, as well as
other thefts in the country around, had been perpetrated by him.



PUBLICHOUSES


One of the remarkable features of Horncastle is the number of its
publichouses, and these were far more numerous formerly than at the
present day.  This was, of course, mainly due to the great number of
dealers who attended the horse fairs, not only from all parts of England
and Ireland, but from most countries on the continent; especially the
great August fair, which formerly lasted no less than three weeks.  The
present facilities for rapid travel, by rail, and quicker means of
communication, which now enable dealers to hear of horses for sale, and
to visit them in their owners stables, before they are brought to the
fair, has altered all this, and the fairs now last only a few days at the
most.

These publichouses had also generally attached to them large yards, and
extensive stabling (as may still be seen), where the best horses were
shewn and tried, without appearing in the streets.  In consequence of the
reduced need for such accommodation many of these publichouses have
disappeared.  Among the names of those which have been lost, are the
Royal Oak, the Peal of Bells, Cock and Breeches, Chequers, Hammer and
Pincers, Dolphin, Pack Horse, Woolpack, Fox and Goose, Marquis of Granby,
Blue Bell, Horseshoes, Axe and Cleaver, Three Maids’ Heads, Queen’s Head,
the George, and others which are only traditionally remembered. {162}

Several of these were almost contiguous.  For instance, on the west side
of the market, on the site of No. 1, now (1908) occupied by Mr. R. W.
Clitherow, formerly stood a good-sized publichouse, which was destroyed
by fire.  Being rebuilt, it became the private residence of Mr. H.
Sellwood, Solicitor, father-in-law of the late Poet Laureate, Lord
Tennyson.  Separated from this, northward, by only two houses, was the
Black Horse Inn, still existing, and next to this, on what is now part of
the shop of Messrs. Lunn and Dodson, was the Peal of Bells, and not more
than half-a-dozen yards distant, on the opposite side of the street, was
the very old Saracen’s Head, still existing.

On the north side of the Market Place, next to what is now Mr. Cammack’s
cycle depot, was the Queen’s Head Inn, now gone; and at the north-east
corner of the Market Place, one door removed from St. Lawrence Street,
was the Nelson Inn, still existing; while at the south-east corner stood
the large George Inn, no longer existing; and near the churchyard, under
the same roof with the old vicarage, was a much patronized dram shop,
kept by a Mrs. Clayton, long since removed.

Of some of these we are able to give particulars, not without interest.
The Cock and Breeches was kept by Roland Oliver, a breeches maker, whose
daughter migrated to London, and, as Mrs. Hibbert, kept an inn, the
Elephant, in Fenchurch Street, City.  At the Queen’s Head were, early
last century, barracks for volunteers or soldiers, with their drill
sergeants; who performed their drill and practiced with “Brown Bess” in a
chalk pit, on the west side of the Edlington Road, now disused, but still
represented by a deep depression in the field below the footpath to
Thimbleby, and at the back of the gardens of Mr. Frank Heane, of the
Garth House, and other adjoining residents.

At this same inn, the Queen’s Head, some 20 years or more ago, on
removing the bricks of the kitchen floor, the workmen found a skeleton,
probably that of a man who had been murdered for his money at the August
fair, and in connection with this, it was remembered that a farmer living
at Stourton, who used to frequent this inn, had some years before
attended the fair, but never returned home, nor could enquiring friends
find any trace of him.

The Nelson Hotel, on the same side of the Market Place, was formerly kept
by an old man named Vesey, who was said to have been, in his earlier
years, a great smuggler on the coast, but coming to Horncastle, he
reformed, and was appointed constable.  The sign of this inn is a
portrait of the great hero of Trafalgar and the Nile, originally well
painted by the artist, Northouse, but it has recently been repainted in
the worst style, and almost “improved” out of recognition.

The George stood on the sites now occupied by the Post Office, and the
adjoining shop of Messrs. Salter, Shoemakers, the original archway of the
inn yard still remaining between them.  This was formerly one of the
principle inns of the town, equal in size to the Bull and the Red Lion;
and from it, before the railway line was opened to Horncastle, the
landlord, Mr. Hackford, ran a coach, to meet the train at Kirkstead.  An
incident, in connection with the George may here be mentioned, which is
not likely to occur again.  A wealthy lady, Miss Heald (who had also a
house in London, where the writer, as a boy, visited her), occupied in
those days the old hall (now demolished) in Edlington Park.  She was of
the family of Chancellor Heald, to whose memory there is a marble tablet,
on the north wall of the chancel of St. Mary’s Church.  She had a nephew,
who was an officer in the fashionable regiment of the Guards.  He became
enamoured of the once famous courtesan, Lola Montez, who had been
mistress to the King of Bavaria, attracted by her beauty, it was said, as
she drove, and he rode, along Rotten Row, the resort of fashion, in Hyde
Park, London.  She wished to make the most of the opportunity to regain a
respectable position, and pressed her attentions of the young officer too
persistently.  She was a woman of daring and reckless temperament; and
his love and admiration gradually, on closer acquaintance, gave way to
fear.  At length he did all he could to avoid her, which roused her
bitter resentment, and at length he became in daily terror of her
revengeful nature.  Coming down from London to Horncastle, to collect his
rents, he put up at the George, and was there found, by a friend who
called upon him, sitting at his luncheon, but with a brace of pistols
lying on the table, fully expecting that she would follow him, and force
him into matrimony.  It is said that she ended her days in an American
prison, after perpetrating a murder in a railway carriage.

               [Picture: Old Thatched Inn in the Bull Ring]

Another inn worthy of mention here is the Fighting Cocks.  Here this once
fashionable but cruel sport used to be practised, until it was made
illegal by Act of Parliament, in 1849, and it is said to have been
clandestinely continued for some time longer, although a penalty of £5
was imposed.  An old man working on the premises in 1902 could remember
the last fight.  The “pit” was in the present garden, at the rear of the
inn yard.

In the Fighting Cocks yard were formerly the kennels of the South Wold
hounds, and the writer can well remember going frequently, as a boy,
while he attended the Grammar School, to see them fed, as well as
occasionally being mounted by the whips on one of the horses of the hunt,
when, after the hunting season, they went out for exercise.  Mr. “Jack”
Musters, the whilom rival of Byron for the hand of Miss Chaworth, was at
that time Master.

In the yard of this inn there still remain two large scythe blades
affixed to the wall of an outhouse.  The history of these is that they
were formerly on the front of the inn, facing the street, because was
annually held, on August 21st, what was called the Scythe Fair, when the
county blacksmiths gathered to purchase scythes, to supply the Irish, and
other reapers, for the coming harvest.  This was discontinued when the
machinery for reaping came into use.

The Three Maids’ Inn was situated in the High Street, on part of the site
now occupied by the Corn Exchange, and was demolished when that building
was erected.  A small inn, on the east side of North Street, now called
the Cricketer’s Arms, was formerly named the Tom Cat, because here was
sold the strong old gin of the well-known distillers, Swagne and Borde,
whose trademark was a cat.  Hence gin took its name of “Old Tom.”  There
is still the figure of a cat engraven on the front window, with the words
“Unrivalled Tom” beneath it.

Opposite the Bull, the leading hotel in the town, replete with all modern
requirements, stands the King’s Head, an old “public,” still remarkable
for its low thatched roof; the reason for which is said to be, that by
the forms of the will of a former owner, it was bequeathed to his
successor, with the condition attached, that it should continue to be
thatched: a condition which the advance of civilization may, in a few
years’ time, make it difficult to fulfil.

And here we may make the concluding remark that 100 years ago most of the
houses in Horncastle were thatched.  It is on record (Overton MS.) that
the first slated house in the town was built for a Mr. Storr, a gardener,
in what is now the back passage from the Bow Bridge to the Wong, near the
Baptist Chapel.  This was afterwards occupied (1790–1800) by Mrs. L’Oste,
widow of a former Rector of Langton.  The next house to be slated was
that of Mr. Titus Overton, lately the residence of Mr. John Overton,
Grocer.



APPENDIX.


THIMBLEBY.


This parish is contiguous to Horncastle, but the village and church are
distant about 1¼ miles from the town, in a north-westerly direction.
Letters arrive at 8.30 a.m., from Horncastle, where are the nearest money
order and telegraph office and railway station.

As to the name Thimbleby, given in _Domesday Book_ as Stimbelbi, it
doubtless meant originally the Bye (scotice “Byre”), or farmstead, of a
thane, or owner, in pre-Norman times named stimel. {165}  In the survey
made by the Conqueror, A.D. 1085, there are two mentions of this parish,
(1) It is included among the 1,442 lordships, or manors, of which King
William took possession on his own behalf, ejecting the previous owners;
none of whom, in this instance, are named.  Under him it was occupied by
22 soc-men, or free tenants, and 18 villeins, or bondsmen, who cultivated
4½ carucates (540 acres), with 240 acres of meadow.  This, however, did
not comprise the whole parish, for (2) another mention gives Thimbleby
among the lands granted by the Conqueror to Odo, Bishop of Baieux, who
was half brother to King William, on his mother’s side, and was created
by him Earl of Kent.  His brother was Earl of Moretaine, and his sister
Adeliza was Countess of Albermarle.  He had been consecrated Bishop of
Baieux before William’s conquest of England, in 1049.  He was
subsequently made Count Palatine and Justiciary of England.  The old
historian, Ordericus Vitalis, says “he was reputed to be the wisest man
in England, and ‘totius Angliæ Vice-comes sub Rege, et . . . Regi
secundus’”; and this was hardly an exaggeration, since he was granted by
William 76 manors in Lincolnshire, besides 363 in other counties.  But we
have observed in several other instances how insecure was the tenure of
property in those unsettled times, when might was deemed right, and this
ambitious Prelate was no exception.  He aspired to the Papacy, the
highest ecclesiastical office in Christendom, and was about to start for
Rome, with the view of securing it through his wealth, when he was
arrested and imprisoned by his royal kinsman, and his estates
confiscated.

The portion of Thimbleby granted to this Odo comprised 250 acres of
cultivated land, with 12 acres of meadow and 30 acres of underwood.  This
was worked for him by three free tenants and five bondmen. {166a}  On the
attainder of Odo, this land passed again into the King’s hands, to be
bestowed doubtless upon some other favourite follower.  Accordingly we
find that, shortly after this, the powerful Flemish noble, Drogo de
Bevere, who had distinguished himself greatly at the battle of Hastings,
along with many other manors in Lincolnshire, held that of Thimbleby.  He
was, by Royal Charter, Lord of all Holderness, and took his title de
Bevere from Beverley, the chief town in that division.  As is also
related elsewhere, {166b} the Conqueror gave him his niece in marriage;
but, being of a violent temperament, Drogo got rid of her by poison, and
then, having thus incurred the anger of William, he fled the country.
His estates, in turn, were probably confiscated, for we find that a few
years later Stephen, Earl of Ambemarle, {166c} had five carucates (_i.e._
600 acres) of land between Thimbleby, Langton and Coningsby.

This noble was distinguished for his piety, as well as his other great
qualities.  The chronicler describes him as “præclarus comes, et eximius
monasteriorum fundator,” an illustrious earl and distinguished founder of
monasteries.  Among other such institutions he founded, on the feast of
St. Hilary, A.D. 1139, the Priory of Thornton, in North Lincolnshire.
This Stephen also received the lordship of Holderness, which had been
held by Drogo.  He was succeeded by his son William, who was surnamed
Crassus, or “The Gross,” from his unwieldy frame.  His
great-granddaughter, Avelin, succeeding to the property in her turn,
married Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, surnamed Gibbosus, or humpback.  But
they had no issue, and so, as the “Book of Meux Abbey” says, “for want of
heirs the Earldom of Albemarle and the Honour of Holderness were seized
(once again) into the King’s hands.”  What became of the demesne of
Thimbleby is not specified; but we find from the survey, already quoted,
that in the same century Walter de Gaunt, son of Gilbert de Gaunt, {166d}
held Thimbleby and other neighbouring parishes 24 carucates, or in all
2,880 acres of land.  We have traced elsewhere {166e} the descent of the
Willoughby family from the Gaunts, and about 100 years later (circa 1213,
Survey, as before) William de Willoughby succeeded to these estates,
including the demesne of Thimbleby.  He was ancestor of the present Earl
of Ancaster, and Lord Willoughby de Eresby, who now represents this
division in Parliament.  How long the estates, in whole or in part,
remained with the Willoughbys is not clear; but we have evidence of their
connection with Thimbleby nearly 100 years later, in a document dated
1302, {167a} concerning a dispute as to lands in Thimbleby, Langton,
Woodhall, and several other parishes, between John de Bec and Robert
Wylgherby, the two families being related; in which the said Robert
surrenders to the said John all property in dispute, for his lifetime, on
condition that, after his decease, the whole shall revert to the said
John Willoughby, and his heirs, for ever. {167b}

From this time we find other names connected with the parish.  Indeed
prior to this, in a charter of Bardney Abbey, dated “at the Chapter of
the Convent, on Sunday next after the Ascension of our Lord” (22nd May)
1281; we have among the witnesses, along with others belonging to
Edlington, Wispington, and Baumber, “Master Bartholomew of Thimbleby,”
and John Crayck of the same, the former being probably the Rector. {167c}
This charter refers to certain lands and tenements, the gift to the abbey
of “Walter, son of Gilbert, de Bolingbrog,” _i.e._ Walter, the son of
Gilbert de Gaunt, already named.  In another Bardney charter, dated four
years later (30th Sept., 1285), we find again the same Thimbleby
witnesses, with Alured of Woodhall, and others. {167d}

Three years later than this, in an official inquiry, held at Lincoln, as
to certain knights’ fees, which belonged to Elyas de Rabayn and his wife
Matilda (12th Nov., 1288), the jurors declare that “Robert de Rothwell
holds in Thymelby and Horncastre,” certain “rents of assize, to be paid
at the Feast of St. Michael, the Nativity of the Lord, Easter, and St.
Botulph” (June 17), amounting to 12s.

A more interesting record is the following.  We may premise that the
Norman noble, St. Quintin (so named from a town of France, in the
department of Aisne, the Augusta Veromanduorum of the Romans), came over
among the followers of William the Conqueror, and his name appears in the
famous “Battle Roll” of 1066.  A Final Concord, of date A.D. 1293, states
that on the Quindene of the purification of the Blessed Mary (_i.e._ the
5th day after), a dispute having arisen between Herbert de St. Quintin on
the one part, and Ascelina de Waterville and Matilda de Diva on the other
part, the two latter being tenants of 3½ carucates of land (_i.e._ 420
acres) in Thymeleby; it was settled that the said Ascelina and Matilda
should acknowledge the said land to be the right of Herbert; and for this
Herbert granted them, as his tenants, all the said lands, except six
oxgangs (_i.e._ 90 acres) which were occupied in separate parcels, by
Baldrick, Hogge, Alfsi, Godric, Walfric, and others; and for this the
said Ascelina and Matilda gave him, in acknowledgment, 40 marks.

A few years after this date it would appear that the Bishop of Carlisle
exercised a kind of ecclesiastical lordship over this parish.  Thimbleby
was in the soke of Horncastle, and Ralph de Rhodes, the former Lord of
the demesne of Horncastle, with its appurtenances, West Ashby, High
Toynton, &c., had granted these (by charter confirmed by Henry III., A.D.
1230) to Walter Mauclerk, Bishop of Carlisle, and his successors.

Accordingly in an old document of the early 14th century, we find that
John de Halghton, Bishop of Carlisle, gave consent for William de Foletby
to convey certain lands in Thimelby, Langton, and Horncastle, to the
Abbot and Convent of Kirkstead, to provide two monks, to celebrate daily
services for the souls of the faithful deceased.  The witnesses were
Richard de Wodehall, William de Polam (Poolham), and others.  “Dated at
Horncastre, on this day of St. Barnabas, 5 Ed. II., 11 June, A.D. 1312”
{168a}  This shows a connection with the monastery of Kirkstead, to which
we shall refer hereafter.

We next come to a record of special interest, of rather later date.  The
family of Thimbleby, Thymelby, Thimoldby, &c., doubtless took their name
from this parish, at a period lost in hoar antiquity.  They acquired in
course of time extensive property in various parts of the county.  The
chief branch of the family resided at Irnham Park, near Grantham, which
was acquired (about 1510) by Richard Thimbleby, through his marriage with
the heiress of Godfrey Hilton, whose ancestor, Sir Geoffrey Hilton,
Knight, had obtained it by marriage with the heiress of the Luterels, a
very ancient family, several members of which were summoned to Parliament
as Barons, in the 12th century.

The earlier members of the Thimbleby family are called, expressly, Thomas
de Thymelby, Nicholas de Thymbylby, and so forth, shewing their
connection with this parish.  The family name of Thimelby still survives
in the neighbourhood of Spilsby.

The first mention of a Thimbleby, as an owner in Thimbleby, occurs in a
Post Mortem Inquisition, held at Holtham (Haltham), on Friday next after
the Feast of St. Matthew (Sept. 21), A.D. 1333; where the jurors say that
Nicholas de Thymelby held, with certain other lands in the neighbourhood,
two messuages and four acres of land in Thymelby, of the Bishop of
Carlisle, and that the said Nicholas died on the Feast of the
Purification (Feb. 2nd); and that his son Thomas, aged 19, was heir.
{168b}

Then follow a grant of land and other privileges, by the Bishop of
Carlisle, in Horncastle and Upper Toynton, to Thomas, son of Nicholas de
Thymelby.  Thomas presented to the Benefice of Ruckland in 1381.  His son
John married Joan, daughter of Sir Walter Taillebois; whose mother was
daughter and heir of Gilbert Burdon (or Barradon), whose wife was sister
and heir of Gilbert Umfraville, Earl of Angus.  Thus the family kept
growing in importance. {168c}

Our last mention of this family, in connection with Thimbleby, shows a
still greater expansion.  An Inquisition taken 12th August, 4 Ed. VI.
(1550), after the death of Matthew Thimbleby, of Polam, Esq., shows that
he married Anne, daughter of Sir John Hussey, and that he was seised of
six manors besides that of Thimelby; also of lands in eight other
parishes, with the advowsons of the churches of Tetforde, Farrafford,
Ruckland, and Somersby. {168d}  His widow married Sir Robert Savile, Knt.

Soon after the first mention of a Thymelby of Thimbleby, we find another
family of some note connected with this parish.  In an agreement made at
“Langton near Horncaster, 8 August, A.D. 1370, Peter Skynner of Ely, and
Alice his wife, for some consideration not named, surrender to William de
Atherby and his heirs, all their rights in certain lands and tenements in
Woodhall, Langton, Thymelby, Horncastre, Thornton,” &c. {169a}  These
lands had evidently been held by the said Peter Skynner and his wife.

The Skynners were a family of wealth and position.  In 1315 Robert and
Richard Skynner held the manor of Pinchbeck, near Spalding. {169b}  They
were also land owners in Hareby and Bolingbroke.  Henry Skynner, by will,
dated 29th May, 1612, leaves to his daughter Judith, all his copyhold in
Harebie, to his brother, Sir Vincent Skynner, Knight, lands in Hareby and
other places, with the advowson of the Benefice.  Sir Vincent Skynner was
Lord of the Manor of Thornton Curtis; he was in 1604 appointed by the
crown Keeper of East Kirkby Park, as part of the Royal manor, or
“Honour,” of Bolingbroke.  His son William married a daughter of Sir
Edward Coke, Knight, and was buried at Thornton Curtis, August 17th, A.D.
1626.

We find mention of another owner of land in Thimbleby, in the 15th
century, whose apparent love of pelf would seem to have tempted him to
defraud the king of his dues.  A certain Thomas Knyght, of the City of
Lincoln, Esquire, died in the 10th year of the reign of Henry VII. (A D
1495), seized of lands and tenements “in Thembleby,” and other places.
At the Inquisition then held, the jurors found that he had alienated
certain parts of the property, “the Royal license therefor not being
obtained, to the prejudice and deception of the lord the King,” and the
property passed to his son and heir William, who took possession, with “a
like evasion of dues, to the King’s prejudice.”  What penalty was imposed
is not stated; but it was a somewhat remarkable coincidence, that, as
shewn in another Inquisition made the following year (A.D. 1496), certain
witnesses deposed that on the 20th day of June, A.D. 1476 (_i.e._ 19
years before his decease), the said Thomas Knyght, and his servants,
about the middle of the night “broke and dug the soil of the parlour of
his house, and found £1,000, and more, of the coinage of the Treasury . .
. there placed and hidden,” which as “tresour-trove, by reason of the
prerogative of the lord the King, ought to come to his use, &c.”  This
has all a very suspicious look, Knyght would not have ordered this search
for the money if he had not himself known of its being there.  It looks
like a previous attempt at concealment, in some way to defraud the
revenue, which Knyght himself afterwards felt was a failure, and that it
was safer to exhume the hoard himself, rather than that public officials
should do it.  Altogether it would seem that “Thomas Knyght, of the City
of Lincoln, Esquire,” was somewhat of a sordid character, and not a
proprietor for Thimbleby to be proud of.

We now proceed to records more ecclesiastical.  We have already noted
that, with the consent of the Bishop of Carlisle, William de Foletby, in
the 14th century conveyed lands in Thimbleby to the Abbot of Kirkstead.
This would seem to imply a previous connection of this parish with that
monastery, to attract the Thimbleby proprietor to it.  Accordingly we
find that, among the various properties of the Abbey, granted by Hugh
Brito, its founder (A.D. 1139), and other benefactors, were 90 acres of
land in Thimbleby, with the advowson of the Benefice.  In those days
there was only a very limited number of resident clergy in the country
parishes, {170a} the churches being served largely by the monks of the
monasteries.  In some cases these were “itinerant clerks,” in other cases
there was a “grange,” or dependency, of the monastery in the parish,
having a “cell,” or “hermitage,” for a priest.

Thimbleby was not among the number of parishes which had a church before
the conquest, as Edlington and several other neighbouring parishes had;
but there is no doubt that a church was erected here soon after that
period, which, like the neighbouring Woodhall, was connected with
Kirkstead, and here, as at Woodhall, there are traces of a moated
enclosure eastward of the church, which doubtless was the site of the
grange.

The Abbot of Kirkstead exercised the powers of a superior lord here in a
somewhat arbitrary fashion; it being complained against him before Royal
Commissioners as early as the reign of Edward I., that he had erected
here “furcœ,” or a gallows, on which various criminals had been executed;
and that he had appropriated to himself the assize of bread and beer
here, and at Horncastle. {170b}  But “blessed are the peacemakers,” and
the abbots, with wholesome influence, were able, when occasion served, to
produce harmony out of discordant elements; as the following records show
(quoted from Final Concords): “In three weeks from the day of the
Nativity of the Blessed Mary, 10 Henry III. (28th Sept., A.D. 1226),” a
dispute arising between Reginald, Rector of Thymelby, and Peter, son of
John, tenant of a certain messuage and toft in Thymelby.  Peter was
induced to give up his claim, in favour of Reginald and his successors;
and for this the said Reginald gave him one mark, in recognition of the
concession.  Which agreement was made in the presence of Henry, Abbot of
Kirkstead, who himself gave to the church of Thymelby all right which he
had in rent, which he was wont to receive; not however without an
equivalent, which—being wise in his generation—he was careful to secure;
for Reginald, in return, gave him a certain sum “to buy a rent in another
place.”

The worldly wisdom of the same abbot appears again in the following
Concord: On the morrow of St. Michael, 10 Henry III. (30th Sept. A.D.
1226); a dispute between Sarah, the wife of Alan de Tymelby, and Henry,
Abbot of Kirkstead, about a certain meadow in Tymelby, was happily
settled (it being to the soul’s peril to incur an abbot’s anathema!) by
the said Sarah giving up all claim to the meadow in favour of the said
Abbot, and his successors; in recognition of which he gave her one mark.

A gap now occurs in our history, which can only be filled in, for a time,
by conjecture.  On the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII., the
possessions of Kirkstead Abbey were granted by him to Charles Brandon,
Duke of Suffolk; on whose death without issue, they reverted to the
sovereign, and were re-granted to the Earl of Lincoln, of the Fiennes
Clinton family, subsequently Dukes of Newcastle.  The Abbey lands in
Thimbleby are not, so far as we know, specially named in this grant, and
therefore we are unable to say positively whether that family acquired
property in Thimbleby or not; but they had undoubtedly property in
Horncastle and neighbourhood.  For instance the manor of Baumber remained
in their hands, and Baumber Church continued to be the family burial
place, until the 3rd Duke of Newcastle, late in the 18th century, sold
that estate to T. Livesey, Esq.

A few years later, however, we have official evidence that the manor and
advowson of Thimbleby were vested in the sovereign.  By a deed (a copy of
which is in the Rector’s possession) dated 10th April, 7 Edward VI. (A.D.
1553), of the Court of Augmentations, a toft and messuage in Thimbleby
were granted by the King to John Welcome; also “the lordship and manor of
Thimblebye, with all its rights, &c., lately belonging to the monastery
of Kirkstead;” also “the advowson and right of patronage of the Rectory
and Church of Thymmelbie, aforesaid.”  In the next reign, of Mary, the
benefice was presented, by the Queen herself, to William Brantinghame,
being admitted on her nomination 19th Sept., 1554. {171a}

A deed of that reign, dated 6th Feb., 1 and 2 Philip and Mary (1554),
grants certain lands belonging to the manor of Thimblebie, to Anthony
Kyme, for 21 years, at 10s. per annum

               [Picture: St. Margaret’s Church, Thimbleby]

Next, in the reign of Elizabeth, a deed dated 9th March, 4 Elizabeth
(1562), grants certain tofts and lands to John Porter, for 21 years, at a
rent of 18s. per annum; and finally, by deed dated June 30th, 1564,
Elizabeth in consideration of the sum of £609 5s. 2d., confirms the above
grants and leases to William Conyers and William Haber, both of the
Middle Temple, the patronage of the Rectory, “to be held with the manor
of Est Grenwich, in the countie of Kent, free of all duty or military
service.”

After a further hiatus in the parish history, we find another link in the
records.  The former property of the Thimblebys, of Poolham, and
elsewhere, had been sold to a member of the Bolles family, in 1600; and
Mr. Weir {171b} tells us that in the reign of Charles II. the manor of
Thimbleby belonged to Sir Robert Bolles, of Scampton.  From Liber Regis
we find that Sir John Bolles presented to the benefice of Thimbleby in
1697, and doubtless was Lord of the Manor.  This Sir John sold his
property, and according to the antiquarian, Browne Willis (Ecton’s
Thesaurus), in the reign of Queen Anne, the patronage of the benefice
belonged to “Mr. Kercheval”

In 1719 and 1725 John Hockin, Clerk, presented.

In 1720 the manor and advowson were bought by John Hotchkin, Esq., of
Tixover; and a Thimbleby record, preserved with the registers, shows that
the Hotchkins have presented from about that time till recently.  In 1767
(Sept. 10th), Allen Corrance was admitted on the cession of John
Kercheval, by Thomas Hotchkin, Esq., of Alexton, Co. Leicester.  In 1778
William Holmes, M.A., was admitted to the rectory by John Hotchkin, Esq.,
of South Luffenham, on the death of Allen Corrance.  In 1831 (Sept. 21st)
Robert Charles Herbert Hotchkin, B.A., was instituted at the rectory, on
the death of William Holmes, on the nomination of Thomas Hotchkin, Esq.,
of Tixover.  The late T. J. Stafford Hotchkin, Esq., of Woodhall Manor,
sold his property in Thimbleby and some other parishes in 1872; and the
advowson of this benefice, then in his gift, was subsequently sold to the
father of the present Rector, the Rev. C. A. Potter.

There is another name on record, connected with Thimbleby, which we have
not yet mentioned.  Among a list of the gentry of Lincolnshire, made on
the Royal Herald’s Visitation of the County, in 1634, which is still
preserved at the Heralds’ office, is the name of “Robert Frieston, of
Thimbleby.”  What position he held, or whether he was a land owner, in
the parish, is not stated, but he ranked with Thomas Cressy (of a very
old family), of Kirkby-on-Bain; the Dymokes of Scrivelsby, Haltham, and
Kime; Heneage of Hainton, &c. {172a}

There is a smaller manor in this parish called the Hall-garth, the
residence attached to which is a picturesque old thatched mansion, with
an old-time garden, enclosed within high and thick hedges of yew, trimmed
in Dutch fashion.  It has also a large “stew,” or fish-pond, from which,
doubtless, in Roman Catholic times, the owners drew their supply of carp
and tench, for the numerous fast-days then observed.  Old title deeds
show that this was at one time crown property. {172b}  At a later date it
was owned by a family named Boulton, who also held land in Stixwould,
where there is still the slab of a Boulton tomb in the pavement of the
aisle of the church.

A slab, on the south side of Thimbleby Church, bears the inscription:
“Here lyeth the body of Michael, the son of Mr. Michael and Elizabeth
Boulton, buried the 7th of Septemr, 1692, ætatis suæ 7.  His mother the
28th of May, Anno Dom. 1725, ætat suæ 61.”  The Register has the
following entries, “1725, Mrs. Boulton, ye wife of Mr. Mich. Boulton,
buried May 28th.”  “1738, Michael Boulton buried May 8th.”  The last
entry connected with this family is that of “Michael, son of Michael and
Mary Boulton,” who was baptized in 1726 and buried in 1767.

These were the ancestors of the late Mr. Henry Boulton, of St. Mary’s
Square, Horncastle.  Michael Boulton, in 1719, left 40s. a year, from the
Hall estate, at Bransby near Stow, for the education of poor children at
Thimbleby; leaving also a bequest for the poor at Bransby.

At the beginning of the 19th century this manor was held jointly by
Richard Elmhirst, Esq., of Usselby, and Mr. Thomas Kemp, the latter of
whom resided at the Old Hall. {173a}  There is a field at the west end of
the village, now the property of H. N. Coates, Esq., traversed by mounds
and ditches, which was formerly divided into three separate plots,
belonging to Elmhirst, Kemp, and Hotchkin.  The Kemps were of an old
stock.  In the Thimbleby Registers the first mention of them is in 1723,
{173b} but their name implies a much greater antiquity.  One theory has
been that they were a Huguenot family, who came over to England at the
time of the French massacre of Protestants, on St. Bartholomew’s day,
1572.  Those refugees, in their enforced poverty, prosecuted various
kinds of useful industries; and the Kemps, it is suggested, acquired
their name from being kempsters, or comb makers.

But it is probable that the name had a much earlier origin.  Kemp (Saxon
Cempa) meant a soldier {173c} being connected with the Norman-French and
modern English “Champion;” and although we might look back with pride to
forefathers who suffered for their religion, it is pleasanter, if only in
imagination, to regard them as having been a race of doughty warriors,
sufficiently distinguished to win a name by their deeds. {173d}

Mr. Thomas Kemp, in the first half of the 19th century, was a wealthy
bachelor, and added to the Hall-garth estate by the purchase, from time
to time, of adjacent property.  He lived in some style, with two maiden
sisters to keep house for him.  By his will the land at Thimbleby passed
into the possession of his great nephew, Robert Edwin Kemp; another
nephew, Samuel Harrison Kemp, inheriting most of the personal estate.
But alas! liveried servants, crests and arms, and other emblems of wealth
have become things of the past; for when this Robert died the property
passed to his son, Thomas Kemp, in whose hands the patrimony speedily
evaporated; and other members of the family are now dispersed, “their
places knowing them no more,” save as a lingering memory, which will soon
be gone.

The interesting old hall and the manor were then bought by Reuben
Roberts, Esq., of Linden House, Horncastle, who resides there in the
summer.  He also owns other land in the parish.  Other owners are E.
Hassard, Esq., of Edlington Park; H. N. Coates, Esq., of Langton Manor;
the trustees of the late Mr. Samuel Goe, and several smaller proprietors.
Mrs. Tebbutt, of Horncastle, a relict of an old Thimbleby family, whose
name appears frequently in the parish books, is now Lady of the Manor.

Some 200 yards east of the church and on the south side of the main road
is a large field, the property of Mr. Henry N. Coates of Langton, which
is known as “The Butts.”  It has some fine trees, apparently the remains
of an extensive avenue, which have been more numerous even within living
memory.  It has been sometimes called “The Park Close,” but the title
“The Butts” is interesting, as probably indicating that it was formerly
the site on which (in the words of a rhymer, it may be said):

    England’s archers of old,
    Village wights true and bold,
    Unerring in hand and in eye,
    Learned skill in their craft
    With yew-bow and shaft,
    Wand to splinter, or pierce the bull’s-eye.

    And while the youth gay,
    Rough rivals, essay
    To rive and riddle each butt,
    Sage sires stand by,
    And coy maidens cry,
    To welcome the winning shot.

    Full many such scene
    Has been witnessed, I ween,
    In that whilome time-honoured spot,
    ’Neath the wide-spreading shade
    Of the green wood glade
    Which is still named the “Thimbleby Butt.”

In this “Butts” field rises a spring, which is the source of a small
runnel, called “Daubeny’s Beck.”  This bearing westward, for some
distance forms the boundary between the parishes of Thimbleby and
Langton, then flowing through Woodhall falls into the “Monk’s Beck,” at
Poolham.  The name “Daubeny” is doubtless a corruption of D’ Albini.  The
D’ Albinis held the Barony, and built the castle of Belvoir, and had
other large possessions in this county and elsewhere; the name is not
uncommon as a field name, &c.  There is a field in Langton called
“Daubeny’s (_i.e._ D’ Albini’s) Walk.”

In the grounds of Mr. W. A. Crowder, further to the east, near the
Lincoln “Ramper,” as the highway is locally called, there was found, a
few years ago, a so-called “Roman” tomb, somewhat rudely constructed of
blocks of Spilsby sandstone.  Within it was a human skeleton, with bones
of a dog, a sword, and the head of a spear.  In connection with this, we
may also mention, that in the Rectory grounds there is an ancient well,
of great depth, lined also with Spilsby sandstone, and said to be Roman;
which in the immediate proximity of the Cornucastrum, or Roman fort of
Banovallum, would not seem to be at all improbable.

An old parish book of Thimbleby, recently shown to the writer, proves the
care which was taken by the parish officials, before the present poor law
system was established, to secure the comfort and maintenance of poorer
parishioners.

At a parish meeting, Nov. 1st, 1819, Thomas Kemp, Churchwarden, in the
chair, it was ordered that John Sharp’s daughter was to have a gown and
pettycoat, worsted for two pairs of stockings, and one blue apron.  Four
boys were to have two smocks each, and eight old people a strike of coals
each per week.  At another meeting Margaret Day was to have worsted for
two pairs of socks for her two boys, herself to spin it; and one pair of
shoes for her daughter.  Robert Kemp, and his son Richard, in order to
find them work were to be paid 2s. per day, to “gether” stones for the
parish.

Again, Maria Day’s shoes were to be mended; Mary Atkin to have a pair of
blankets, and her chamber window put in and thatched.  Benj. Benton one
pair of shoes, Willm. Adkin a waistcoat.  Mary King’s family four shirts,
two pairs of shoes, three frocks, three petticoats, and three dabs
(_i.e._ pinafores).  A pair of breeches for George Skipworth; Willm.
Skipworth to have a spade.

Again, Mr. Thos. Kemp was “to be allowed £20 for the use of the
poor-house, to be insured for £200 by the parish, and, when given up to
be left in the same state.”

At a meeting on 7th August, 1820, Robert Dixon in the chair, it was
ordered that all paupers receiving assistance should regularly attend
Divine Service, and on their non-attendance the assistance should be
stopped.  Mary Todd was to receive her money (which had been stopped)
having given satisfaction to the vestry for not attending the church.
Mary Hobbins’ boy to be put to school.  “To get the Lord’s Prayer, and
the ‘I believe,’ put in the church at the parish expense.”

At a meeting held 27th August, 1830, Thomas Kemp in the chair, it was
agreed that £75 be borrowed of Mr. Thos. Kemp, to pay Mrs. Farmer’s
expenses to America, to be repaid by the parish, 30s. weekly, with legal
interest.  Church rates are now among the “has beens,” but in 1843 a rate
was passed of “1d. in the pound for the support of the church, and 10d.
in the pound for the highway repairs.”

In the churchyard, along the south side of the church, are a group of
gravestones of the Kemp family.  Eastward are several of the Marshall
family, formerly numerous here, and in the neighbourhood, holding a
respectable position, but now extinct. {175}  There are also a number of
tombs of the Todd family, respectable small farmers, resident in the
parish, from the first notice of a burial, June 24th, 1738, down to
recent years.  The Tebbuts and Dixons were also resident, as tenants or
small owners, for many years.

Among the marriage registers, which date from 1695, is the following
note: “March 23, 1779, a marriage was attempted to be solemnized; but the
intended bridegroom, to the great surprise of the congregation assembled,
remaining away, the ceremony, &c. . . .”  The rest is illegible.

We have now to speak of the church.  The present edifice stands on the
site of a former 14th century church, which, judging by the remains that
have been found, must have been of much larger dimensions, and consisted
of nave, two aisles, chancel, and bell tower; the total breadth having
been 52-ft.  Several fragments of stained glass have, at various times,
been found in digging graves, showing that this early church, like
several others in the neighbourhood, had good coloured windows.  This was
taken down in 1744, and from the materials remaining a small fabric was
erected in its place, consisting of nave and apsed chancel, with no
pretensions whatever to architectural beauty.  This (as has been
generally the case with badly constructed edifices of that period) became
also, in turn, so decayed that the present Rector, on entering on the
benefice, decided to rebuild the church once more; and in 1879 the
present structure was completed at a cost of over £1,000, in the best
early Decorated style.

It consists of nave, chancel, organ chamber on the south, and an
octagonal bell turret, designed by the late Mr. James Fowler, the
Architect, and containing one small modern bell, graven with the date and
initials of W. Carey, Churchwarden in 1744, {176a} who demolished the old
church.  The nave has three two-light windows, of the decorated style, in
the north and south walls; there is a square-headed two-light window in
the organ chamber; the chancel has a single-light window in the north and
south walls, with a good east window of three lights, trefoiled, and with
a triangle of trefoils above.  In the north wall is a credence recess,
and in the south wall are two stone sedilia.  The tiles within the
chancel rails are copied from ancient tiles, which were found some years
ago, at Revesby Abbey.  In the west front, over the door, is a large
two-light window, and above it a clock, the only village church clock in
the neighbourhood, by Smith of Derby.  Within the west doorway, let into
the north wall of the tower basement, is a fragment of an old battlement,
having a shield in the centre, probably a relic from the original church.
The font is modern, having a plain octagonal bowl, shaft, and pediment.
The roof is of pitch pine, the timbers being supported by plain corbels.
The lectern, chancel stalls, and communion table are of good modern oak

Used as a stile in the south fence of the churchyard is a large slab, on
which, above ground, is the matrix of a former brass, representing one
figure, with a broad transverse bar for an inscription, and connecting it
with other figures, which are now below the ground. {176b}

The church plate includes an interesting paten, presented to the church
in 1837, by the mother of the late Rector, but bearing hall-marks of
1727–8, with the letter M and a five-pointed star below.  The chalice is
still more interesting, as it bears an old Lincoln hall-mark, of date
about 1570; there are only eight other known examples of this period in
the county.

The rectory is a commodious house, built in 1839, doubtless on the site
of the former monastic grange; it stands in an extensive garden,
embowered among trees of goodly growth.  A fine oil painting at the
present time adorns the entrance hall.  It is reputed to be by
Spagnoletto, and was formerly in the monastery of St. Jerome, in Lisbon.
Its size is 5-ft. by 4-ft., the subject being St. Jerome translating the
Vulgate scriptures.



WEST ASHBY.


This parish, like High Toynton, Mareham-on-the-Hill and Wood Enderby, was
formerly a hamlet of Horncastle, of which it adjoins the northern
boundary.  We find them all coupled together in an extract from the Testa
de Nevill [folio 348 (556), quoted _Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. iii, p.
215] as follows: “The church of Horncastre, and of Askeby, and of Upper
Thinton, and of Meringes, and of Hinderby, are of the gift of the Lord,”
_i.e._ the Lord of the Manor.  In _Domesday Book_ it is called Aschebi.
Queen Editha, wife of Edward the Confessor, who owned various lands in
this neighbourhood, was Lady of this Manor, as well as that of
Horncastle.  She held here six carucates of land (or about 720 acres),
besides which there were 45 soc-men, 5 villeins, and 13 bordars, with
eight carucates (or about 960 acres), and 500 acres of meadow and
pasture.  (_Domesday_, “Soke of Horncastle.”)

                  [Picture: The Manor House, West Ashby]

_Domesday_ also mentions that the Saxon thane, Chetelburn, who had
property in Coningsby, Keal, Candlesby, Friskney, and other places in the
county, had at Ashby “a mill worth 12s. yearly,” a very considerable sum
in those days.  The manor was afterwards held by the Conqueror himself
(_Domesday_, “Property of the King”); and it would seem, although there
is no direct evidence of it, that he bestowed the manor on one of his
chief favourites, Ranulph de Paganall, who received from his sovereign
extensive grants in the counties of Somerset, Devon, York, Northampton,
and Lincoln, {177} including all the lands formerly held by the Saxon
Merleswain, in this county and elsewhere.  Ranulph Paganall founded (A.D.
1089) the Priory of the Holy Trinity in York, said to have been built on
the site of a former Roman heathen temple; one of his family, Helias
Pagnall, being subsequently Prior of this institution, and Canon of
Selby.  When the present Church of the Holy Trinity was restored in 1904,
among other ancient monuments, was found the slab of the tomb of Ralph
Ranulph, which is still preserved in the church, along with sculptures
commemorative of St. Benedict, St. Martin of Tours, Prior Helias, and
others. {178a}

Ranulph, by charter of that date, endowed the abbey with two-thirds of
the tithes of Ashby; which was further confirmed by charters of 1100,
1125, and 1179.  This Ranulph Paganall was Sheriff of Yorkshire.  The
last known representative of his family was William Paganall, summoned to
Parliament as a Baron in the reign of Edward III.  Dugdale states {178b}
that the Priory of the Holy Trinity was made, by its founder, a
dependency or cell of the greater monastery (marmonstier) of the above,
St. Martin in Touraine; and by the Inquisition, taken at York, 34 Ed. I.,
it was found that he claimed no portion of the temporalities of the
Priory, beyond the right to place an official there, during the vacancy
of the priorate, as temporary custodian.  The name Paganall became in
later times softened into Paynell; they were at one time Lords of
Bampton.

At a later period the manor of Ashby, probably with that of Horncastle,
belonged to Gerard de Rhodes and his descendant, Ralph; since in a
Charter Roll of 14 Henry III. (pt. i, M. 12), we find that King’s
confirmation of a grant, made by the said Ralph, to Walter, Bishop of
Carlisle, of “the manor of Horncastle, with the soke, and the advowsons
of the churches, and all other things pertaining to the same in all
places,” evidently including the churches of the hamlets as well as that
of the town.  Among the witnesses to this are Gervase, Archdeacon of
Carlisle; and Henry de Capella; the latter name being noticeable because,
as will be seen below, Ashby was called “Capella.” {178c}

The Abbey of Kirkstead had a grange in Ashby, which after the dissolution
of the monasteries, was granted in the 5th year of Edward VI., to William
Cecil, Lord Burghley, Lord High Treasurer of England; this is now part of
the Ashby Thorpe estate. {178d}  In 1820 this was the property of Mr.
Joseph Rinder.  It is now partly owned by the Booth family, and partly by
the Smedley trustees.

The parish is still divided into Far Thorpe, Church Thorpe, and Middle
Thorpe.  Far Thorpe included the farms held by the late Mr. Griffin and
Mr. Addison.  Mr. Wattam’s house, which is moated, was the old Midthorpe
Hall.  As being a hamlet of Horncastle, the benefice was formerly called
Ashby “Capella,” or the Ashby Chapelry; and like Horncastle, Wood
Enderby, High Toynton, and Mareham is given in “Liber Regis” as in the
patronage of the Bishop of Carlisle.  Until recently it was a perpetual
curacy, in value about £50 a year; but about 30 years ago, on the
enfranchisement of certain episcopal lands, the Ecclesiastical
Commissioners endowed it to the extent of £300 a year, and built a
substantial vicarage.  The patronage is now with the Lord Chancellor by
exchange with Kirk Oswald, Cumberland.

The church, All Saints, is of considerable size, being one of the largest
village churches in the neighbourhood, mainly in the Perpendicular style,
and substantially built, consisting of tower, nave, and chancel, the two
latter of the same elevation throughout.  The tower has three old bells,
and a peal of eight tubular bells.  Gervase Holles gives the inscriptions
on the bells as being:

1.  Sit nomen Domini benedictum.

2.  Intonat e cælis vox campana Michaelis.

3.  Sum rosa pulsata Mundi Maria vocata.

One of these was, some years ago, re-cast; and now bears the inscription
“voco ad templum, date 1759.”

The main features of the church are as follows: the porch arch is
semi-circular, Norman, the west window in the tower is unusually high,
12-ft. by 4-ft. in width, of three lights.  The north aisle has four
bays.  The nave, in the south wall, has two three-light windows, the
western one perpendicular and having pointed arch, the eastern square
headed.  In the north wall there is a three-light debased decorated
window.  In the west wall of the north aisle is a two-light window of
coloured glass, in memory of Augustus Elmhirst; and in its eastern wall
is a three-light memorial window to his sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Jane Ruck
Keene.  In the south wall of the chancel are two late four-centre
two-light windows; and in the north wall a three-light flamboyant window.
Gervase Holles mentions a north chancel window having “sa. a crosse
between 4 cinquefoyles arg. . . .,” {179} but this has disappeared.  The
east window is modern, with three lights.  A new window was erected, in
1907, in the north aisle (corresponding to a window inserted in 1905, in
memory of General and Mrs. Elmhirst), by Mr. H. R. Elmhirst, to the
memory of his late wife, Lilian Frances, nee Hatfeild; the artists were
Powell and Sons; the subject Faith, Hope and Love represented by three
figures.

                [Picture: All Saints’ Church, West Ashby]

The communion table has a very handsome cover, with red frontal,
elaborately embroidered with old Roman work.  A carved wooden reredos has
recently been presented by Col. and Mrs. Stack.  On a tablet on the north
wall is an elaborate inscription, in memory of Lieutenant Richard
Calthrop, who was killed at the siege of Algiers; erected by his mother
and 10 surviving brothers and sisters; who are said to have lived to the
remarkable average age of 85 years.  There are various tablets
commemorative of the families of Rockliffe, Drewry, Pierce and Elmhirst.
There is a north door, as well as south, to the nave.  The font is a
plain octagonal one, perpendicular in style.

The church was restored and reseated in 1873; the tower being renovated
in memory of Mrs. Barnard, otherwise known as “Claribel,” a well-known
musical composer, connected with the Elmhirst family.  It is lofty and
massive, surmounted by four high pinnacles and large gurgoyles at the
angles.

The register dates from 1561. {180a}  The communion plate consists of a
cup, with inscription “Ashby Chappell, 1758;” a paten presented by
“Elizabeth Pierce, Christmas Day, 1841,” and flagon, given by the same,
in 1859.  She was the wife of the Vicar of that day, the Rev. W. M.
Pierce, and an authoress.  In the churchyard are the tombstones of John
Thistlewood and his wife; he was brother of the Cato Street conspirator,
and died at Louth, having formerly resided at Ashby and Wispington.

The late William Elmhirst, Esq., bought the lands here formerly belonging
to the Bishops of Carlisle, and erected a handsome and substantial
residence, in well-wooded grounds; which in later years passed by
purchase to the Booth family, by whom it, and the estates attached, are
now owned.  It is at present occupied by Dr. and Mrs. Newstead.  The
Elmhirsts are at present represented by H. R. Elmhirst, Esq., son of the
late General Charles Elmhirst, C.B., who resides at The Grove.



HIGH TOYNTON.


High Toynton is situated about 1½ miles from Horncastle, in an easterly
direction, on the road to Partney and Spilsby.  It would seem to have
been formerly, like West Ashby, an appendage to the Manor of Horncastle.
The old record {180b} says (as already quoted under West Ashby) “The
church of Horncastre, and of Askeby, and of Upper Thinton, and of
Maringes (Mareham), and of Hinderby, are of the gift of the lord,” _i.e._
the Lord of the Manor.  As thus not being a separate manor, it is barely
more than mentioned in _Domesday Book_, where it is called Todintune, and
Tedingtone.  Queen Editha, wife of Edward the Confessor, would be Lady of
the Manor; but William the Conqueror took possession and held lands here,
in demesne, with tenants and dependants.

That the manor afterwards, along with that of Horncastle, became the
property of Gerard de Rhodes, is shewn by the following peculiar
circumstances.  In a Feet of Fines, at Lincoln, 9 Henry III., No. 52, it
is recorded that an agreement was arranged in the King’s Court at
Westminster, (3 Feb., A.D. 1224–5), between Henry del Ortiay and Sabina
his wife, plaintiffs, and Ralph de Rhodes, a descendant of Gerard,
defendant, whereby certain lands in Upper Tynton, Mareham, and other
places, were recognized by the plaintiffs as the property of Ralph de
Rhodes; they receiving, in lieu thereof, 100½ acres of land, and 11 acres
of meadow, with appurtenances, all in Upper Tynton.  These lands are
further specified by name, as 24 acres next Graham (_i.e._ Greetham), 12
acres in culture called “Hethoten acre” (_i.e._ Heath of ten acres), 9
acres of land in “Pesewang” (_i.e._ Peas-field), 5½ acres in “Sex acre,”
7 acres in Leir-mewang (or low mead-field), 4 acres in culture of Lange
landes, 6 acres in Whetewang (_i.e._ wheat-field), and 10 acres in
Kruncewang (_qy._ crown’s-field?); and further plots not specially named.
The peculiar feature however of their tenure was, that they and their
heirs were “to have and to hold the said lands for ever . . . rendering
therefor by the year one pair of gilt spurs, or 6d., at Easter, for all
service and exaction.”

          [Picture: St. John the Baptist’s Church, High Toynton]

A Pipe Roll (14 Henry III., Lincoln) states that “Walter, Bishop of
Carlisle, holds certain lands hereditarily of the aforesaid Ralph de
Rhodes;” and in a Chancery Inquisition post mortem, 34 Edward III., 2nd
Nrs., No. 29 (1360), mention is made of “Thomas, son of Nicholas de
Thymelby, and John his younger brother, and their heirs,” as tenants of
the Manor of Horncastle, “and of lands in Over Tynton,” which they “hold
of the said Bishop.”  These were scions of the wealthy family of the
Thimblebyies, Lords of Poolham, and other estates.  One of them married a
daughter and co-heir of Sir William Fflete, Knt.; another married a
daughter of Sir Walter Tailboys; this Sir Walter being the son of Henry
Tailboys and his wife, Alianora, daughter and heir of Gilbert Burdon and
his wife, Elizabeth, sister and heir of Gilbert Umfraville, Earl of
Angus.

By a Close Roll, 20 Henry VII. (part 2 [No. 367] No. 33), it appears that
Sir Thomas Dymmok, Knight, had recently purchased lands in Over Tynton,
Nether Tynton, Maring next Horncastle, and other parishes; which he
granted to his son Leo, and his heirs for ever.

Further, by a Chancery Inquisition post mortem, 24 Henry VII., No. 61, it
is found that Humphrey Conyngesby, Sergeant at Law, and others instituted
a suit on behalf of William Stavely, and others, by which he recovered to
them the Manor of (apparently Upper) Taunton, the advowson of the church
of Nether Taunton, about 2,700 acres of various land, and the rent of 4½
quarters of salt in Over Taunton, Nether Taunton, Tetford, and other
parishes.

The Manor, with that of Horncastle, continued for a long period in the
hands of the Bishops of Carlisle; who were patrons of the benefice until
the creation of a bishopric of Manchester, in 1848, when their patronage
in this neighbourhood was transferred to that See.  The Manor, however,
with that of Horncastle, had previously passed to Sir Joseph Banks, and
came eventually to his successors, the Stanhopes.  The benefice, until
late years, was a very poor one, being a perpetual curacy, annexed to
Mareham-on-the-Hill; their joint annual value being £160, without a
residence.  But when the episcopal property (the Bishop being Rector) was
transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, they, with the aid of
Queen Anne’s Bounty, raised the joint benefices to £300 a year; and in
1869 erected a good residence at Toynton, now occupied by the Vicar, the
Rev. W. Shaw.

The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was formerly a very mean
structure, dating from the 18th century (1772), in the worst of styles,
with wooden-framed windows, of large square panes of glass, and having a
flat whitewashed ceiling.  The timbers of this had become so decayed that
a former curate-in-charge, mounting to the false roof, to examine them,
fell through, among the square pews below.  This incident led, not too
soon, to the rebuilding of the fabric, at a cost of more than £1,200 in
1872, on the site of the previous building, as also of an original 13th
century edifice.  The present church is a substantial and neat structure
in the early English style, thoroughly well kept, and with several
pleasing features.  It consists of nave, chancel, and porch, with tower
and low spire.  The nave has, in the north wall, two single-light narrow
pointed windows, and at its eastern end a two-light window, having a
quatrefoil above.  In the south wall there is one single-light and one
two-light window, corresponding to the above; the porch, taking place of
a window at its western end.

The two-light window in the north wall has coloured glass, with various
devices, one being a small copy of the famous Descent from the Cross, by
Rubens, in Antwerp Cathedral; another the Royal Arms, with the initials
V.R. below, and date 1848.  The corresponding two-light window in the
south wall has coloured glass “In memory of Eliza, wife of the Rev. T.
Snead Hughes, late Vicar, she died March 9, 1872, aged 57.”  The subjects
in the two lights are the Ascension of our Lord, and the three women at
the sepulchre, with an angel pointing upward.  In the west wall of the
nave are two pointed windows beneath a cusped circlet, all filled with
coloured glass; the lower subjects being John the Baptist preaching in
the wilderness, and the baptism of our Lord by John in the Jordan; the
upper subject is the angel appearing to Zachariah; all three having
reference to the patron saint of the church.  An inscription states that
these are a memorial to the late Mark Harrison and his wife Ann, erected
by their family.

The font is of stone, octagonal, having four different kinds of crosses
on the alternate faces, a circular shaft ending in octagon, and on
octagonal pediment.  Within the south porch, over the outer and inner
doorways are old fragments of massive zigzag pattern, all that remains of
a whilom Norman structure.  The modern doorway arch, externally, has a
dog-tooth moulding, with floriated finials.  The tower, over the porch,
is square below, octagonal above, with small lancet windows in each face,
and is surmounted by a low spire; it contains one bell.  The roof and
sittings are of pitchpine.

The chancel arch is of massive stone, plain, and of wide span.  In the
east wall of the chancel are three narrow windows, the central higher
than the other two; they have good coloured glass by Clayton and Bell.
Beneath is a handsome reredos of Caen stone, erected in memory of the
late Mr. Thomas Terrot Taylor.  It has one large central device, the
Agnus Dei within a circle, and on each side four divisions, containing a
dove with olive leaf, Fleur de Lys, ears of corn, a passion flower, vine
leaves and grapes, a crown, a rose, and a conventional flower.  On each
side are memorial tablets of the Ball family.  In the south wall is a
brass tablet in memory of Mr. Taylor, and a small pointed window.  In the
north wall is a doorway leading to the vestry.  Within the vestry,
lighted by a similar small pointed window, are three more Ball tablets,
and a priest’s door.  In the centre of the nave floor, close to the
chancel step, is a large slab “In memory of the Rev. William Robinson, 22
years Incumbent, who died May 8, 1830, aged 56.”  The register only dates
from 1715, and contains no entries of special interest.

In a List of Institutions to Benefices, preserved at Lincoln, it is shewn
that in 1562, on the resignation of the then Vicar, one John Howsone,
Michael West, Clerk, was appointed to this vicarage, along with that of
Nether Toynton, by Richard Bertie, Esq., the ancestor of the present Earl
of Ancaster.  This was probably by some private arrangement with the
Bishop of Carlisle, as the Berties (as the Willoughbys are now) were
patrons of Low Toynton, but not of Upper, or High, Toynton.  He was
instituted to the two benefices on July 9th of that year.



MAREHAM-ON-THE-HILL.


Of this parish, ecclesiastically annexed to High Toynton, little can be
said.  The name was anciently written Maringes, {183a} or Marun {183b};
the former probably from the low “marish,” or marsh, “ings,” _i.e._
meadows, the suffix being the Saxon “ham,” a homestead.  It lies about
two miles south-east from Horncastle, connected with High Toynton by
footpath, and bridle road, across the fields barely a mile in length, but
for carriages a detour of more than double that distance has to be made.

This parish, like High Toynton and West Ashby, is in the soke of
Horncastle.  In _Domesday Book_ it is stated that the manor comprised 3
carucates, or about 360 acres of land, with 21 soc-men and 11 bordars,
{183c} who had four carucates, or about 480 acres; there were further 60
acres of meadow, and, what no longer exists, 300 acres of underwood;
which was a very large proportion, considering that in Scrivelsby, now a
well wooded estate, closely adjoining, there were at that time only six
acres of underwood.

Sir Lionel Dymoke, a scion of the Scrivelsby family, once resided in this
parish.  His will, dated 15th April, 1512, is a good specimen of the
orthography of the period.  The following are portions of it: “I leon
Dymoke of maryng of the hill in the Countie of lincolne knyght being of
good and hoole mynde make and ordigne my testament and Last will in forme
following | First I bequeathe my soule to almyghty god and to the blessid
virgine his mother seint Mary and to all the holy Company of heven | And
forasmoch as no man is certeine of the houre of dethe nor what place he
shall die in and nothyng so certeine as dethe | and for as moch as I by
the kyngℓ pleasure shall goo in hys warrys in the parties by yonde the
see | Therefore my body to be buryed where it shall please almyghty god |
Also that I will that my Executours for the helth of my soule in as hasty
tyme as they may after my deceas paye or do to be paid all and singler my
detts . . .  Also I bequethe and gyve to the Church warke of Maryng of al
halowes vjs viijd and to the highe aulter there for tythes and oblacions
forgoten xxd and to seint Jamys gild of maryng xxd . . .  Also I gyve and
bequethe to the Convent of the black Freris of Boston for a trentall
{184a} to be song for me and all Christen Soules xs,” &c., &c.  On 17th
August, 1519 (when he was apparently on his death bed), witnesses certify
that he added a codicil to be annexed, “saying these words in his mother
tongue.  I will that Sr John Heron knyght have my landes in nethertynton
whether I lyve or dye . . . and if my wif or myne executōs thynk there be
any thyng expressed in my wille oute of goode ordre I will it be reformed
by Anne my wif as she and they thynke most pleasure to god profytt for my
soule.” {184b}

As to the owners of the demesne nothing further is told us; but since in
Testa de Nevill, already quoted, it is stated that “the churches of
Horncastre, Askeby, Upper Thinton, Maringes, &c., are of the gift of the
Lord.”  Gerard de Rhodes was, doubtless, at one time, the common Lord of
all those manors, as well as his descendant Ralph de Rhodes.  Mr. Weir
states that the manor at a later period belonged to Edward Marsh,
Esquire, of Hundle House, in the county of Lincoln; by a descendant of
whom it was sold to William Hudson, Esquire, of Gray’s Inn.  In 1659 it
was sold to one Duncombe, of whom it was purchased in 1688 by Sir Edmund
Turnor, of Stoke Rochford, Knight; in whose family it still continues.
Other proprietors are Richard Ward, Esq., and Dr. Parkinson.

In _Domesday Book_ there is mention of “a church and priest,” the latter,
therefore, being doubtless resident in the parish; although for many
years there has been no residence for an incumbent.  In 1830 the benefice
was held, with High Toynton, by the Rev. E. R. H. G. Palmer, a relative
of Viscount Halifax, who resided in Horncastle; in 1863 by the Rev. Isaac
Hall, who did the same; and it was not till 1869 that a residence was
erected at High Toynton for the united benefices.

Of the church, All Saints, we can only say that it stands in a good
position, on high ground; that its walls are substantial, but that its
style is of the meanest; it having been rebuilt in the early part of the
19th century (1813); and beyond a piscina, now in the north wall, it has
no features of interest; having wooden-framed windows, square painted
pews, walls whitewashed within and without, and a flat ceiling.  It
greatly needs renovation, being now almost a solitary representative, in
the neighbourhood, of that very worst period of architectural decadence.
With fairly good sandstone in the present walls, and probably more in the
foundations of an earlier church, to be exhumed, and an abundance _in
situ_ not far away, restoration, or even re-erection, might be effected,
at a moderate outlay.

The one bell hangs in a shabby bell turret.  While repairs were being
carried out in 1813 two nobles of Edward IV., two angels of Henry VII.,
and several silver coins of different reigns, contained in a leathern
purse, were found concealed in the wall. {185a}



LOW TOYNTON.


Low Toynton lies about a mile from Horncastle to the north-east.  It is
approached through rich meadows, watered by the river Waring. {185b}  The
Rector is the Rev. J. W. Bayldon, M.A., of Sidney Sussex College,
Cambridge.  Overseers, G. E. Read and W. Scholey.  Letters _via_
Horncastle arrive at 8.30.

The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is a small structure with no
pretention to architectural beauty, and almost entirely covered with ivy.
It was rebuilt in 1811, a period when architectural taste was at its
lowest ebb, and barbarisms in stone, brick, and mortar were very
generally perpetrated.  It was re-seated in 1863, during the incumbency
of the Rev. E. M. Chapman.  It consists of chancel, nave, vestry, and
open belfry containing one bell.  The chancel arch is the only remnant of
a former Norman structure.  The font is apparently a 14th century one,
almost a replica of that in Huttoft Church, which is engraved in _Lincs.
Notes & Queries_, vol. iii, p. 225.  The bowl is octagonal, its faces
filled with figures representing the Holy Trinity, the virgin and child,
and the 12 apostles.  The bowl is joined to the shaft by angelic figures
round the lower part of it.  The octagonal shaft has figures of St. Paul,
Mary Magdalen, a bishop with chalice, another with scourge, and other
subjects much mutilated, at the base are the winged lion, ox, man, and
eagle, emblematical of the evangelists.  The walls of the church are
relieved by some coloured designs, and borders of ecclesiastical
patterns, running round the windows, &c., originally executed by that
genuine artist the late Rev. C. P. Terrot, Vicar of Wispington.  These
decorations have been recently (1898) renewed by Mr. C. Hensman, of
Horncastle, when the church was thoroughly repaired, both inside and out;
new panelling placed in the nave, and a new window in the vestry; and in
the following year (1899) a new harmonium was purchased from Messrs.
Chappell and Co., London.

The east window is filled with modern coloured glass, the subjects being
the Transfiguration, the Crucifixion, and the Ascension.  On the sill of
the east window are placed, over the communion table, two handsomely
carved old oak candlesticks, presented by the Rev. C. P. Terrot.  On the
north wall of the nave there is a small oval brass tablet, which was
found in 1888, face downwards in the vestry floor.  It bears the
following inscription: “Here lyeth the body of Edward Rolleston, Esquir,
who departed this life the 23rd of July, in the thirtey-fourth year of
his age; interr’d underneath this place the 4th of August, A.D. 1687.”
As 12 days elapsed between death and burial it is probable that he died
abroad.  The manor and whole parish, except the glebe, still belongs to
the Rolleston family; the benefice being in the patronage of the Earl of
Ancaster.

In the floor of the chancel are two memorial slabs, one of the Rev. R.
Spranger, D.C.L., late Rector of Low Toynton and Creeton, who enlarged
the rectory house, and was a munificent benefactor to the neighbourhood.
Among other good deeds he built the bridge over the river Waring, on the
road from Low Toynton to Horncastle. {186}  He was a member of a family
of some distinction; had a residence in London, as well as his rectory
here; he was popularly said to drive the handsomest pair of horses in
London; and there exists a portrait in oil of an ancestor, Chancellor
Spranger, in one of the great galleries in Florence.  Dr. Spranger was an
intimate friend of J. Keble, the author of _The Christian Year_, and his
son the Rev. Robert J. Spranger, Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, spent
the greater part of his life in Mr. Keble’s parish, Hursley, Hants, as a
voluntary assistant in his clerical work.

The companion slab marks the last resting place of another rector, the
Rev. J. Hutchinson, who died in 1788.  His history is singular.  Although
well educated, he enlisted as a private in the army for foreign service;
a commission however was subsequently obtained for him by his friends.
He presently became attached to a lady who refused to marry a soldier.
He then determined to take holy orders.  Chance threw him in the way of a
party of gentlemen at Manchester, one of them being the agent of Lord
Willoughby.  The latter stated that he had it in power, at that moment,
to bestow a benefice, and that he would give it to anyone who could solve
for him a particular problem.  Mr. Hutchinson succeeded in doing this,
and was eventually appointed Rector of Low Toynton.  He held it, however,
only 18 months, dying at an early age.  Whether he married the lady is
not stated.

In the List of Institutions to Benefices, preserved at Lincoln, it is
recorded that in 1562 Michael West, Clerk, was appointed Rector of Nether
Toynton and Vicar of Upper Toynton, by Richard Bertie, Esq., ancestor of
the Earl of Ancaster.  This must have been by some private arrangement
with the Bishop of Carlisle, who was patron of High Toynton; the Berties
(as the Willoughbies are now) being only patrons of Low Toynton.  From
Liber Regis we learn that the Earl of Lindsey appointed to the benefice
in 1692, the Duke of Ancaster in 1778, Sir Peter Burrell and Lady
Willoughby d’ Eresby in 1783.

The register dates from 1585.  Under date 1717, Feb. 2nd, occurs the
following entry: “Robert Willy, of Upper Toynton, did penance in the
parish church of Lower Toynton, for the heinous and great sin of
adultery.”  A note in the baptismal register states that on July 18th,
1818, Bishop George (Tomline) confirmed at Horncastle 683 candidates,
among them being five from Low Toynton.  Confirmations were not held so
frequently then as they now are.  In this parish Mr. Thomas Gibson, Vicar
of Horncastle, when turned out of his preferment by the Puritans, lived
for some “two years but poorly, teaching a few pupils.”

Little is known of the early history of this parish or of its
proprietors.  In a Chancery Inquisition post mortem, 11 Henry VII., No.
123, taken at Partney, after the death of Isabella, wife of Richard
Sapcote, Knight, the said Isabella is declared by the jurors to have died
seized of the Manor of Nether Toynton, and of the advowson; and Joan,
wife of William Nevill, of Rolleston, Notts., and others are declared to
be daughters and heirs of the said Isabella; she herself being kinswoman
and heir of William Plesington, son of Henry Plesington, Knight. {187a}

In a list of Lincolnshire names contained in the visitation of 1665–6, by
William Dugdale, Esq., are Agnes Goodrick, daughter of Robert Goodrick,
of Toynton, and Bridget and Elizabeth Rolston, daughters of Edward
Rolston, of Toynton. {187b}

                [Picture: St. Peter’s Church, Low Toynton]

By a Chancery Inquisition of 38 Henry VIII. (1546), it was found that
Thomas Dymoke, Esq., was seized of land in Over Toynton, Nether Toynton,
Maring-upon the-Hill, and other parishes; and by an Inquisition of 36
Elizabeth, it was found that Robert Dymock, Esq., was seized of the
Manors of ffuletby and Belchforde, and lands in Horncastle, Nether
Tointon and Upper Tointon, and several other parishes.  He died without
issue 13th Sept., 1594, and his only sister, Anne, widow of Charles
Bolle, of Haugh, succeeded to his property in Nether Toynton and
elsewhere; and thus the connection of the Dymokes with Low Toynton
ceased. {187c}

There is rather a curious feature in the following record.  By a Chancery
Inquisition post mortem, 24 Henry VII., No. 61, it is found that Humphrey
Conyngsby, Sergeant at Law, and others, instituted a suit on behalf of
William Stavely, and others, by which he recovered to them, among other
properties, “the advowson of Nether Taunton, and the rent of 4½ quarters
of salt, in Nether Taunton, Over Taunton, and other parishes.”

We now find another ancient name connected with this parish.  The
Newcomens (originally Le Newcomen, or the newcomer) of Saltfleetby, were
one of our oldest Lincolnshire families.  They are named in Yorke’s
“Union of Honour,” and their pedigrees given in four Lincolnshire
Visitations.  The number of branches into which the race spread is
remarkable. {188a}  Andrew Newcomen lived in the time of Richard I.,
resident at Saltfleetby, where the headquarters of the family continued
for many generations.  Robert Newcomen (1304) married Alice, daughter of
Sir William Somercotes, Knight.  His son, also Robert, married Margaret,
daughter of Sir William Hardingshall, Knight.  Another Robert (1452)
married Joane, daughter of Robert Craycroft, of Craycroft Hall.  A
daughter Katharine, of Brian Newcomen, married (1559) George Bolle, of
Haugh, a family already mentioned as, a few years later, connected with
Low Toynton.  In 1540 we find Richard Newcomen residing at Nether
Toynton.  By his will, dated 3rd Sept., 1540, he requests that he may be
buried in the church of St. Peter, Nether Toynton.  He appoints the right
worshipful Edward Dymoke, supervisor.  His grandson, Samuel Newcomen, of
Nether Toynton, married Frances, daughter of Thomas Massingberd, of
Braytoft Hall, M.P. for Calais (1552).  This branch of the family seems
to have died out in the person of Thomas Newcomen (1592); {188b} but
other branches spread over the neighbourhood, and were established at Bag
Enderby, East Kirkby, Withern, and other places, and flourished
throughout the 17th century.  Another Newcomen early in the 18th century
married a daughter of Sir Robert Barkham, Bart.

A renewal of connection with Low Toynton was made when the widow of
Nicholas Newcomen married, circa 1700, the Honble. Charles Bertie, son of
Robert, 4th Earl of Lindsey, patron of the benefice of Nether Toynton.
Arthur Bocher, Esq., of Low Toynton, was in the Lincolnshire Rebellion of
1536, being brother-in-law of Thomas Moygne, one of the leaders in the
movement.

Thus the parish of Low Toynton has had residents, proprietors, and
rectors, to whom its present inhabitants may look back with some degree
of pride and pleasure, although “their place now knoweth them no more.”



ROUGHTON.


This village stands on the west bank of the river Bain, about 4 miles to
the south of Horncastle.  It is bounded on the north by Thornton and
Martin, on the east by Haltham and Dalderby, on the south by
Kirkby-on-Bain, and on the west by Kirkstead, Kirkby, and Woodhall.  The
area is 1020 acres, rateable value £945, population 137, entirely
agricultural.  The soil is loam, on kimeridge clay, with “Bain terrace”
gravel deposits.

The nearest railway stations are at Horncastle and Woodhall Spa, each
about four miles distant.  There is an award and map of Haltham and
Roughton in the parish, and a copy at the County Council office, Lincoln.
Three roads meet in the middle of the village, one from Horncastle, one
to Woodhall Spa and Kirkstead, one to Kirkby-on-Bain, Coningsby and
Tattershall.

Sir Henry Hawley, Bart., of Tumby Lawn, in the adjoining parish of
Kirkby, is Lord of the Manor, but Lady Hartwell (daughter of the late Sir
Henry Dymoke, the King’s Champion), and the executors of the Clinton
family (now Clinton Baker) and the Rector own most of the soil; there
being a few small proprietors.  Roughton Hall, the property of Lady
Hartwell, is occupied by F. G. Hayward, Esq.

The register dates from 1564.  Peculiar entries are those of 43 burials
for the years 1631–2, including those of the Rector and his two
daughters, who died within a few days of each other; this was from the
visitation called “The Plague,” or the “Black Death.”  For some years
before 1657 only civil marriages were valid in law, and Judge Filkin is
named in the register as marrying the Rector of Roughton, John Barcroft,
to Ann Coulen.  In 1707 Mary Would is named as overseer of the parish, it
being very unusual at that period for women to hold office.  Another
entry, in the overseer’s book, needs an explanation.  “Simon Grant, for 1
day’s work of bages, 2s. 6d.;” and again, “Simon flint, for 1 day’s work
of bages, 2s. 6d.”  “Bage” was the turf, cut for burning; in this case
being cut from the “church moor,” for the church fire.  It was severe
labour, often producing rupture of the labourer’s body, hence the high
pay.

There is a charity named the “Chamerlayne Dole,” of 10s., given yearly to
the poor, left by Martha Chamerlayn in 1702.  It is a charge upon a
cottage and garden owned by Mr. T. Jackson, of Horncastle.

The National School was established about 1860, in a building erected in
1834 as a Wesleyan Chapel.  It was enlarged in 1872 and 1879.  It is
supported by a voluntary rate.

The Church, St. Margaret’s, is of no architectural beauty, being built of
brick and sandstone.  It consists of nave and chancel, with castellated
tower, having one bell, also castellated parapets at the north and south
corners of the east chancel wall.  The font is Norman, circular, with
circular pediment, having an old oak octagonal cover, cupola shaped,
plain except slight carving round the rim.  The fabric was newly roofed
in 1870, when it was fitted with good open benches, the chancel paved
with encaustic tiles, and the windows partly filled with stained glass;
there are fragments of a former carved rood screen, the pulpit being of
plain old oak.

In the chancel is a lengthy inscription, commemorative of Norreys Fynes;
Esq., of Whitehall, in the adjoining parish of Martin.  He was grandson
of Sir Henry Clinton, eldest son of Henry, Earl of Lincoln, by his second
wife, daughter of Sir Richard Morrison, and mother of Francis, Lord
Norreys, afterwards Earl of Berkshire.  He was a non-juror.  He died
January 10th, 1735–6, aged 74.  There is a murial tablet to the memory of
the Rev. Arthur Rockliffe, who died in 1798; another to Charles
Pilkington, Esq., who died in 1798, and Abigail, his wife, who died in
1817.

The benefice is a discharged rectory, united to that of Haltham in 1741,
and now held by the Rev. H. Spurrier, the patron being his son the Rev.
H. C. M. Spurrier.  The two benefices together are valued at £450 a year.
There is a good rectory house.  The church plate is modern.  The village
feast was discontinued about 50 years ago.

Peculiar field names are the Low Ings, Bottom Slabs, Carr Bottom, Church
Moor, Honey Hole, Wong, Well-syke, Long Sand, Madam Clay, Sewer Close.
{190a}

As to the early history of Roughton, _Domesday Book_ gives it among the
possessions of William the Conqueror, and also as belonging to Robert
Despenser, his powerful steward, who probably held it under the king.  A
Chancery Inquisition post mortem, 22 Richard II., No. 13, A.D. 1399,
shows that Ralph de Cromwell, jointly with his wife Matilda, held the
adjoining Manor of Tumby, with appurtenances in Roughton and elsewhere.
While another Inquisition of 13 Henry VII., No. 34, shows that the said
Matilda died, “seised in fee tail of the same lands.” {190b}

In the reign of Elizabeth a family of Eastwoods resided here, since the
name of Andrew Eastwood, of Roughton, appears in the list (published by
T. C. Noble) of those gentry who contributed £25 to the Armada Fund.
Other documents shew that at different periods the hall has been occupied
by members of various county families, as Fynes (already named),
Wichcote, Heneage, Dymoke, Pilkington, and Beaumont.

The register has the following entries, probably written by an illiterate
parish clerk, “An the wife of Will. Hennag, was buered ye 9 of Feberery,
1729.”  “Madame Elizabeth fines was buered May ye 29, 1730.”

Gervase Holles gives the following arms as existing in the church in his
day.

              _Fenestra Australis Cancelli_.

G. 3 lyons passant gardant, or . . .               England

Verry a fesse G. fretty, or . . .                  Marmyon

Argent, a plaine crosse B. . . .

Or, a lyon rampant purpure. . . .                     Lacy

Chequy or and G., a chiefe ermyne . . .          Tateshall

                     _In Campanili_.

Arg. a sword sheathed proper, a buckler appt., with
girdle wrapped, hilte pomel, and neuf or. . . {190c}

HALTHAM.


This village is distant from Horncastle between four and five miles in a
southerly direction, lying on the east side of the river Bain.  It is
bounded on the north by Dalderby and Scrivelsby, on the south by Kirkby
and its hamlet of Fulsby, on the east by Scrivelsby, Wood Enderby and
Wilksby, and on the west by Roughton.  The area is 2380 acres, rateable
value £1198.  The soil is loam, with kimeridge clay below, and gravel
deposits.  Population 121, mainly agricultural.

The main roads lead to Dalderby, Scrivelsby, and Horncastle, to Kirkby,
Mareham-le-Fen, Coningsby, and Tattershall, and to Wood Enderby, Wilksby,
and Revesby.  The nearest railway station is at Horncastle.

The Lord of the Manor was formerly the Champion Dymoke of Scrivelsby
Court, but the late Rev. John Dymoke sold his estate in this parish, and
the manor is now the property of Sir H. M. Hawley, Bart., of Tumby Lawn,
in the adjoining parish of Kirkby; W. H. Trafford, Esq., owning the
remainder, except 150 acres of glebe.

The benefice was united to that of Roughton in 1741, the two being now of
the yearly value of £450, and held by the Rev. H. Spurrier.  The patron
is the rector’s eldest son, the Rev. H. C. M. Spurrier.  There is an
award and map of Haltham and Roughton, of date 1775.  A village feast is
held on St. Benedict’s Day (March 21), he being the patron saint of the
church.

There are some peculiar field names; as the Far, Middle, and Near
Redlands, arable; the Top and Lower Brock-holes (brock meaning a badger),
arable; the Black Sands, pasture; the Top and Low Malingars, arable; the
East, West, and South High Rimes, arable; the Pingle, meadow; the Croft,
pasture; the Oaks, pasture; Wood Close Meadow, the Old Cow Pasture.

The register dates from 1561, and contains an entry for the year 1684:
“This yeare plague in Haltham.” {191}  There is a charity, the interest
of £5, left by John Dymoke, Esq., of Haltham, who in 1634 is named among
the Heralds’ List of Gentry, for yearly distribution by the overseers
among the poor.  The children attend the school at Roughton.

The church is one of the most interesting in the neighbourhood.  The
chancel was restored and an open roof put up in 1881, at a cost of £250.
The nave was restored in 1891, at a cost of £300.  The sanctuary was
paved with Minton tiles by the late Lady Dymoke.  The most remarkable
feature is a semi-circular tympanum over the door in the south porch,
which is of early Norman, or possibly Saxon date.  It has sculptured on
it in somewhat rude fashion a Maltese cross within a circle, a second
circle running through the limbs of the cross, a square with
three-quarter circles at its corners, and semicircles midway of each
side, which form the extremities of another cross, and between the limbs
are roundels.  Below is a figure resembling a fish, also four rows of
triangles, and other complicated devices.  The east window is a very fine
flamboyant one, of date about 1350.  Some of the sittings have very old
rudely-carved poppy heads of oak.  There are very fine carved oak
canopies over two long pews in the north aisle, for the Champion Dymokes
and their servants.  There is a piscina with two fronts in the south wall
of the chancel, and a series of three stone sedilia, in the north wall is
an aumbrey.  There is an incised slab to one of the Dymokes.  The tower
has three bells, and the bell chamber is closed by ancient boarding, on
which are the ten commandments in old characters, and very curious Royal
Arms of Charles I.  The church plate consists of pewter paten, silver
flagon and chalice, with date 1764, given by Mr. John Dickinson.

In the village there is an old hostel, partly of the Tudor style, with
pointed gable ends, projecting upper storey, and constructed externally
of brick and woodwork.

As to the early history of this parish little is definitely known.
According to _Domesday Book_ it was among the possessions of the
Conqueror, and his steward, Robert Dispenser, held it under him.
Probably like other parishes in the soke of Horncastle, the manor was
held by Gerbald d’ Escald, his grandson Gerard de Rhodes, his son Ralph
de Rhodes, sold by him to the Bishop of Carlisle, &c.  Of the ownership
of Ralph de Rhodes we have evidence in a Feet of Fines, Lincoln, 9 Henry
III., No. 52, containing an agreement between Henry del Ortiary and
Sabina his wife, on the one hand, and Ralph de Rhodes, on the other hand,
in which the former parties recognise the right of the said Ralph to
certain lands in Haltham, Wood Enderby, Moorby, and other parishes in the
soke. {192a}

Of other families of distinction once connected with this parish we have
indications in the arms which Gervase Holles found in the church windows
in his time (circa 1630, temp. Chas. I.), which we give here.

                       _In Fenestris Cancelli_.

Verry a fesse G. fretty, d’or . . .                            Marmyon

G. a cross sarcely, arg.  . . .                                   Beke

Sa. 2 lyons passant, arg. crowned, or . . .                     Dymoke

Or, a lyon rampant, double queue, sa . . .                      Welles

Sa. 3 flowres de lize betw. 6 crosse crosslets,
fitchy, arg. . . .

G. 3 bars ermyne . . .                                        Kirketon

Barry of 6, or and sa. . . .

                         _Fenestræ Boreales_.

B. a lyon’s head erased betw. 6 crosses, botony,               Touthby
arg. . . .

Arg. 2 bars G. a border, sa. . . .

Dymoke, each lyon charged sur l’ espale with an                 Dymoke
annulet . . .

Ermyne on a bend G. a cinquefoil, or . . .

G. crosse crucilly fitchy, a lyon rampant, arg . .            La Warre
.

Or, a lyon rampant, double queue, sa. . . .                     Welles

                        _Fenestræ Australes_.

G. 3 water-bougets, arg. . . .                                     Ros

Or on fesse G. 3 plates . . .                             Huntingfield

Quarterly or and G. a border sa. bezanty . . .                Rochfort

Rochfort with a garbe in the 2nd quarter, arg. . .            Rochfort
.

Rochfort with an annulet in the 2nd quarter, arg.             Rochfort
. . .

Or, a manche G. . . .                                         Hastings

G. a bend ermyne . . .                                              Ry

Rochfort with an eagle displayed in the 2nd                   Rochfort
quarter, arg. . . .

Arg. fretty of 6 pieces G. a canton ermyne . . .

                    _In Fenestra Borealis Navis_.

G. crosse crucilly fitchy, a lyon rampant, arg. .             La Warre
. .

Arg. on a bend, G. 3 gryphons heads erased, or . .
.

                           _In Campanili_.

Joh’es Staines W. Jo. {192b}

MAREHAM-LE-FEN.


Mareham-le-Fen lies about six miles south from Horncastle, and five miles
eastward of Tattershall station, with a population of more than 800.
Letters _via_ Boston arrive by mail cart at 7.30 a.m.  This is the seat
of a considerable industry, carried on by Mr. Titus Kime, as a grower of
greatly improved varities of potatoes, agricultural seed, and, latterly
on a large scale, of bulbs of different kinds, in which he seems likely
to compete with the Dutch trade.

The church, which is dedicated to St. Helen, is a fine structure of
oolite stone, probably one of the largest in the neighbourhood, except
the collegiate church of Tattershall.  It consists of tower, nave, north
and south aisles, south porch and chancel.  The body of the church was
restored in 1873, and re-opened on June 13th of that year, at a cost of
more than £2,000, by J. Banks Stanhope, Esq., Lord of the Manor; the then
rector, the Rev. W. Sharpe restoring the chancel, and the parishioners
and other friends the tower.  The latter consists of three tiers, having
a small square window in the south and north walls below, with a
two-light floriated window on the west.  In the tier above are two-light
windows on all four faces.  At the summit it has battlements and four
tall pinnacles.  There are three bells, the date of the largest being
1627.  The body of the church is also battlemented, and has pinnacles,
the westernmost of these having the figures, within a niche, of St.
George and the dragon.

The south porch has an early English doorway within, the outer one being
modern.  In the moulding above the inner doorway is a curiously crowned
head, probably representing the Empress Helena, the patron saint; other
curious devices running down the moulding on each side.  To the right of
the inner doorway are initials M.S., date 1681.  The font has a large
octagonal bowl, with heads at the angles, and elaborate trefoil devices
on the faces; the shaft is plain, octagonal, the pediment a stone cross.

              [Picture: St. Helen’s Church, Mareham-Le-Fen]

Both aisles have four lofty bays, with early English columns.  In the
north aisle is one three-light perpendicular trefoiled window, in its
western wall; in the north wall, on each side of the north door, is a
three-light perpendicular window, with mullions interlacing; and to the
east a four-light round-headed trefoiled window.  Over the north door is
a tablet, with a Latin inscription, commemorative of the Rev. H.
Sheppard, a former rector, who died 24th Jan., 1764, aged 62.  Beneath it
is a cherub with outspread wings.  In the wall, east of the north door,
is a tablet bearing the inscription: “This church was relighted in memory
of Francis Thorpe, who lost his life, by an accident, while working in
the church near this spot, 22nd Sept., 1892.”  The south aisle, at the
west end, has a three-light broad interlaced window.  In the south wall,
west of the porch, is a low doorway, now filled in, with step at its
base, probably formerly leading to a parvis, or priest’s chamber.  East
of the porch are two round-headed three-light trefoiled perpendicular
windows.  In the chancel the east window, of coloured glass, is lofty,
with three lights, and six trefoils above.  The subjects are divided into
upper and lower rows; the upper are the Ascension in the centre, with the
Resurrection to the left, and to the right the disciples grouped round
the virgin; the lower are the Crucifixion in the centre, Christ bearing
His cross to the left, and the entombment to the right.  This window was
by Lavers, Barrand and Westlake; it was given in memory of the late Mr.
Joseph Corbett, by his son, C. J. Corbett, Architect, of Imber Court,
Surrey.

The reredos has three compartments; the central device is a cross, with
rays of glory, and the monogram I.H.S.; on the right and left are doubly
pointed, crocheted, arches; the device in the northernmost being a crown
of thorns, with the three nails, surrounded by a circle; next to it three
interlaced circles; on the south side interlaced triangles, and a plain
cross.  The east wall, up to the height of the reredos, is faced with
alabaster.

In the south wall of the chancel is a wide stone seat, and above it a
two-light trefoiled window.  In the north chancel wall is a trefoiled
credence table.  There is a tablet to the memory of William Goodenough,
formerly rector, Archdeacon of Carlisle (the benefice formerly being in
the patronage of the Bishops of Carlisle), who died 13th Dec., 1854; and
commemorating his wife Mary Anne, daughter of Dr. Samuel Goodenough,
Bishop of Carlisle; she dying 3rd Jan., 1847, aged 75.  The memorial was
erected by their only surviving child, Mrs. Hawkins.

The choir sittings are of carved modern oak; the pulpit is also of the
same, on a stone base, and the lectern.  The chancel arch is lofty, the
modern side columns having richly carved capitals.  Some of the stones of
the original arch were found built into the chimney of a cottage near at
hand.  The sittings in the nave, and the roof timbers, are of pitch pine.
The base of the tower forms a roomy vestry.

In the churchyard is the lower part of the shaft of a cross, standing on
an octagonal base.  Opposite the east end of the south aisle is a
tombstone in memory of James Roberts, “who sailed round the world in
company with Sir Joseph Banks, in the years 1768–71, on board H.M.S. the
Endeavour, Lieut. James Cook, Commander,” attending him “also on other
voyages.” {194a}  The tomb of Archdeacon Goodenough is on the north-east
side of the church.  Within a few feet of the south buttress of the tower
is a fragment of an old tombstone, shewing part of a foliated cross on
both sides, and the monogram I.H.S., in old characters, probably Saxon;
Mareham being one of the 222 parishes in the county which had a church in
Saxon times {194b}

Gervase Holles (temp. Chas. I.) gives the following arms and
inscriptions, as existing in the church in his time.  In the east window:

Empaled       Arg’ a crosse sa.

              Arg. on a crosse G. a bezant.

              Arg, a crosse sa.

Empaled       Quarterly arg. and G., on the 1st and 4th quarters a
              popinjay vert. membred and beked G.

In the western window on the left of the tower:

    Orate pro a’ia Joh’is Tott, Agnet, et Helene, uxorum ejus, &
    specialiter pro Andrea Tott, Artium Baccalaureo, qui istam fenestram
    lapidari, necnon vitreari fecit.

Over the buttress, on the east side:

    Quarterly Ufford and Beke . . .                     Willoughby

       3 crosses portate . . .

       2 chevrons between 3 roses . . .

       A crosse . . .

       A lyon passant . . .

    “Domus mea domus orationis vocabitur, 1591.”
    {195a}

The register dates from 1558.  An entry records that on 22nd Nov., 1685,
a “Briefe was read and published, for Saresden in Oxfordshire, for loss
valued at £1,449.  Granted June 14th, 1686.”  Another entry, under date
23rd Nov., 1685, is as follows: “Thomas Eresby of Revvesby maketh oath yt
Theodosie, his daughter, who was buried in the churchyard upon Sunday
last, was wound and wrapped up in woollen only, according to the late Act
of Parliament, in yt case made.”  In explanation of this it may be stated
that in 1677 British and Irish woollens were prohibited in France, which
injured the woollen trade very much; and in the next year (1678) in order
to encourage the trade at home, it was enacted by 29 Charles II., c. 3,
that all persons, except those who died of the plague, should be buried
in wool, under a penalty of £5. {195b}  Another entry states that a
collection was made, the amount not known, to afford relief, after the
great fire in London, Sept., 1666.

The rectory, adjoining the church, stands in a large, well wooded garden.
It is a good substantial residence, rebuilt by Archdeacon Goodenough in
1818–19, and much improved in 1855.  In the entrance hall are two old
prints of the church and rectory before their restoration, dated 1785.
They were presented to the late rector, Rev. W. Sharpe, by Alfred
Cobbett, Esq., and they are preserved as heirlooms by the rectors for the
time being.  The Rev. F. J. Williamson is the present rector, late of
Lydgate.  The Bishop of Manchester is patron of the benefice; the
patronage of this, and several other benefices in this neighbourhood,
formerly held by the Bishops of Carlisle, being transferred to the See of
Manchester some years after its creation, in 1848.

The national school, built in 1840, is endowed with nearly an acre of
land, given by Archdeacon Goodenough; it was considerably enlarged by J.
Banks Stanhope, Esq., in 1877.  Some of the inhabitants are entitled to
the benefits of the almshouses at Revesby.  There is a navigable drain
from the Witham, passing near the village, affording communication with
New Bolingbroke and Boston.  A former part of the parish is now included
in the district of Wildmoor Fen.

In Liber Regis this parish is named “Marrow, alias Marym, alias Mareham
in le Fen.”  It is called in _Domesday Book_ Meringe (or the sea-ing,
_i.e._ sea-meadow).  Another form was Marum; the Revesby Charters, Nos.
47 and 48, mention a piece of land, near the boundary of Marum, called
“Mare Furlong,” and the grass (Psamma arenaria) which now grows on the
sea banks is commonly called Marrum grass.  All these names probably
refer to the marish (Latin, mariscum), or marsh, character of the
locality, caused by its proximity to the sea (le mer), which then came
much nearer than it does now, and frequently flooded the land.

The manor was given by the Conqueror to the powerful Norman, Robert
Despenser, who, as his name implies, was the King’s High Steward.  He was
the ancestor of the Despensers, Earls of Gloucester, and he held 15
manors in Lincolnshire alone, besides 17 in Leicestershire, and several
in other counties.  Much of the land of this parish was at a later period
given to Revesby Abbey, and at the dissolution of the monasteries some of
this was granted by Henry VIII, to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk.
{196a}  In later times it became, by purchase, the property of Mr. Joseph
Banks, M.P. for Grimsby, born in 1681, and eventually came to his
distinguished descendant, Sir Joseph Banks; and on his death some of the
Mareham land passed to the ancestors of the present Sir Henry M. Hawley.
Other proprietors are now Major Gape, Messrs. J. R. Chapman, Joseph Lake,
and other smaller owners.

Among the Lincolnshire gentry called upon (with the Massingberds,
Heneages, and many others) to furnish “launces and light horse,” in the
16th century, when the Spanish armada was expected, was one “John May of
Mairing,” who failed to present himself at the muster in 1584, but in
1586 supplied “one light horse.” {196b}

In Notes on Low Toynton mention is made of the old family of Newcomen,
originally “of Salaby,” _i.e._ Saltfleetby, where many generations of
them were buried, from the time of Richard I.  They married into
influential and titled families, in various parts of the county.  Charles
Newcomen lived at Hagnaby in 1634, and bought land in Revesby.  A
Newcomen lived in Mareham in the 17th century.  They were connected, by
marriage, with the family of Sir Joseph Banks, as Mr. Banks, grandfather
of Sir Joseph, had a house in Lincoln, the adjoining one being occupied
by Newcomen Wallis, Esq., and Mr. Banks married Catherine the widow of
Mr. Wallis (see the Banks monument in Revesby church, north aisle), whose
mother was daughter and co-heir of Nicholas Newcomen, Esq. {196c}

We here give a few old records in connection with this parish in the
past.  The Court Roll of Mareham-le-Fen (preserved among the documents of
the Listers of Burwell) for 2 Elizabeth, shows that, at that date (A.D.
1559), Thomas Glenham, Esq. (variously written Glemham), had the Manor of
Mareham.  In the 23rd Elizabeth it is recorded that Charles Glenham,
Esq., by his lawful attorney, Francis Colby, of Glenham Parva, Esq.,
granted leases for seven years to divers tenants in Mareham.  Thomas
owned also the Manors of Calceby, Belchford, Oxcomb, and Burwell; these
he sold to Sir Matthew Lister, afterwards of Burwell.  He married Amye,
daughter of Sir Henry Parker. {196d}

In a suit, instituted 29th May, 1239, between William de Bavent,
plaintiff, and Walter, Bishop of Carlisle, defendant, regarding the
advowson of the church of “Merum,” the said William “quit claimed” all
his right to the said advowson, to the bishop and his heirs for ever; and
in return for this the bishop gave him 10 marks.  In the old record,
Testa de Nevill, folio 556 (circa 1326), Walter de Bavent held certain
lands in Marum, “by service of falconry,” _i.e._ by providing yearly, in
lieu of rent, one “gay goss-hawk,” or more, for the use of the Lord of
the Manor. {196e}

Robert de Weston, Rector of Marum, by his will, dated 3rd March, 1389,
requested that he might be buried in Marum Church.  He bequeathed to the
Mendicant Friars of Boston 6s. 8d. “to remember me in their masses,” to
Lady Margaret Hawteyn, Nun of Ormsby, 10s.; to Trinity College,
Cambridge, a book called “Johannes in Collectario,” to every fellow there
2s., and every scholar 1s.  Among other bequests are to Mgr. Eudo la
Zouch “12 cocliaria nova de argento” (_i.e._ 12 new spoons of silver); to
“John Geune my clerk a missal of the new use of sarum”, and “masses for
souls of Walter ffelsted, William Stel, and James de Medringham.
Executors, Eudo la Zouch, John ffoston my chaplin, &c., the residue of my
goods to be sold, as quickly as possible, communi pretio, so that the
purchasers may be bound to pray for my soul.”

William Leych, parson of Mareham, by will dated 11th Aug, 1556, requests
that he may be buried “in the quire of St. Helen.”  “To my brother Robert
Leych 12 silver spoons, to Sir John Richardson 6 great books, containing
the holle course of the bybyll, and a repetorii, and a concordance”; to
Sir John Morland “Opera Chrisostomi & Sancti Thomas, & Haymo super
epistolas sauli”; to Mr. Lancelot Sawkeld “Deane of Carlyle 20s., praying
him to cause a dirige and masses to be said for me . . . I make Mr.
Arthur Dymok and Mr. Robert Dymok supervisors.”

                [Picture: Wesleyan Chapel, Mareham-le-Fen]

Henry Ayscough, of Blyborough, by will dated 19 Oct., 1611, left lands in
Mareham-le-Fen, and the Manor of Tumby, and other lands, to his
grandsons.  In connection with this we may mention that the late Sir
Henry James Hawley married, as his first wife, Elizabeth Askew, a
descendant of the same family.  The Ayscoughs (or Askews) were a
distinguished Lincolnshire and Yorkshire family, and have still numerous
representatives. {198a}

Here is another record of the same family.  By will, dated 15th April,
1612, Walter Ayscoughe, of Mareham-le-Fen, left to his wife Bridget £20
annuity, and other property, for her life; then to his sons Henry and
Walter, and two daughters Margaret and Elizabeth; also 12d. to the same;
and 5s. to Nicholas Cressey, gent, supervisor, witness Clynton Ayscoughe;
proved at Horncastle, 2nd May, 1613.  To this family belonged Anne Askew
the martyr, who was the younger daughter of Sir William Ayscough, Bart.,
of Stallingborough.  Their property eventually came to the late Ascoghe
Boucherett, of South Willingham.

Next we find one of the old family of Newcomen, already referred to,
“Edward Newcomen of Mareham-le-Fenne, by will, proved at Horncastle, 1st
July, 1614,” leaving to his daughters, Elizabeth and Mary, £10 each, the
same to his son Robert, and the residue to his wife; the personality
being £120 3s. 8d., a vastly larger sum in those days than now.

Another will is that of Annie Elie, widow, of Mareham-le-Fen, dated 13th
July, 1616, in which she desires “to be buried in the church,” so that
she was probably some one of importance.  She leaves everything to her
son-in-law John Wymberley, and her daughter Susan Wymberley. {198b}

Among the deeds and charters of Revesby Abbey, privately printed by the
Right Hon. E. Stanhope a few years ago, No. 24 gives, among the witnesses
to a deed of gift, the name of Eda, wife of Richard, Priest of Mareham
(temp. Henry II., or Richard I).  Hence it is evident that celibacy was
not strictly enforced on the clergy at that period. {198c}  Among the
witnesses to other deeds are Robert, Priest of Marum, and Richard, Priest
of Marum, A.D. 1172.  The deed of gift of certain lands to Revesby Abbey
(No. 29), by a certain John, is stamped with a round seal, having an
equestrian figure, and the legend Sigillum Johannis de Maringe.  By
another deed William, son of John of Maring, gives certain lands; the
seal bearing a lion and dog, or fox “contourné regardant,” {198d} the
legend of this is Sigill. Will. de Marige.

With these records and associations with the past, the parish of Mareham
may surely be said to have a history on which its people may well look
back with interest and satisfaction.



MOORBY.


Moorby lies about 4½ miles from Horncastle, and about 1½ miles beyond
Scrivelsby, in a south-easterly direction.  Letters _via_ Boston arrive
at 9.30.

The registers date from 1561, but contain no entries of any particular
interest.  The church, dedicated to All Saints, has undergone several
transformations.  This was one of the 222 parishes which possessed a
church before the Norman conquest, and it still contains a fragment (to
be noticed later on) which is apparently of Saxon origin.  Both Weir in
his History (1828), and Saunders (1834) agree in stating that in the
early part of the 19th century the church was “totally destitute of
interest.”  _The Gazetteer_ of 1863 describes it vaguely as a “Gothic
structure.”  It was rebuilt in 1864, from designs by Mr. James Fowler,
Architect, of Louth, at a cost of £1,100, defrayed by J. Banks Stanhope,
Esq., Lord of the Manor; and was further repaired in 1891, by public
subscription.  It consists of nave, chancel, vestry, north porch, and
small square tower at the north-west angle, with low spire containing one
bell.  It is built chiefly of brick with facings of Ancaster stone.

In the north wall of the nave are a couple of two-light windows, in the
Perpendicular style; in the south wall are three two-light windows; all
these having bands of red and black brick alternately.  In the west wall
are two single-light lancet windows, with an ox-eye window above.  In the
chancel there is a small lancet window in the north wall, and a square
aumbrey.  The east end has a three-light plain lancet window; beneath
which is a stone reredos, having three compartments filled with encaustic
tiles, having, as their designs, in the centre a cross in gilt, and Alpha
and Omega, within ox-eyes, on either side.  In the south wall in front of
the vestry is a lancet-shaped doorway, and, west of it, an arcade of two
lancet apertures, supported by four columns of serpentine.  Within the
vestry is a two-light lancet window; and let into the eastern wall is a
small slab, having four grotesque figures, one blowing a kind of bagpipe,
the others dancing.  This is said to have been a portion of a “minstrel
pillar,” it is apparently Saxon, and is probably a relic from the
original fabric.  The chancel arch is of red and black bricks, in
alternate bands, the capitals nicely carved in stone, supported by small
serpentine columns.  The pulpit is of Caen stone, having a cross within a
circle on the front panel, and one serpentine column.  The chancel choir
stalls are of good modern oak; the sittings in the nave and the roof
being of pitch pine.

The font is the most remarkable feature of the church.  It has a large
square bowl; the device on the east side is a skeleton being drawn from
the tomb by two angels, doubtless emblematic of the “death unto sin and
new birth unto righteousness,” accomplished in baptism.  On the north
face is the virgin and child, with the sun and moon in the corners above.
On the south side is a figure in long vestment, apparently sitting on an
altar, much defaced.  On the west are six figures, much defaced, in the
attitude of prayer.  At the four angles are quatrefoiled niches, having
at their bases, alternately, a crowned head and a mitre.  This may have
been of the 14th century.  The shaft is square and modern, with columns
at the angles.

The communion plate is modern, except the paten, which bears the
inscription “Matthew Sympson, M.A., instituted Rector of Moorby, Feb. 28,
1705, collated Prebendary of Lincoln, June 25, 1718, Rector of Wenington,
May 29, 1728.”  The present Rector is the Rev. R. C. Oake, late Vicar of
Broughton, Manchester.  The rectory of Moorby is consolidated with the
vicarage of Wood Enderby.

By deed dated Nov. 24th, 1855, the guardians of the poor, by consent of
the ratepayers, gave certain land in Moorby for the site of a parish
school to the minister, churchwardens, and overseers, and their
successors; and more recently a school district has been formed for the
parishes of Moorby, Wood Enderby, Claxby, and Wilksby; the school, which
was built in 1855, being enlarged in 1872, to provide the accommodation
required by this union.

Moorby was one of the “thousand four hundred and forty-two manors” which
William the Conqueror took as his own portion, when he divided the lands
of England among his Norman followers.  Being in the Soke of Horncastle,
it was doubtless granted, along with that manor, and those of West Ashby,
High Toynton, and several others, to Adelias or Alice de Cundi, daughter
of William de Cheney, Lord of Caenby ann Glentham, and wife of Roger de
Cundi.  As she took part against King Stephen, in favour of the Empress
Maud, he took the property from her; but eventually restored it to her,
on condition that she should demolish her castle at Horncastle; this
however was only for life, the estates again reverting to the crown.
Henry II. made a grant of them to Gerbald le Escald, a Fleming noble, who
was succeeded by his grandson and heir, Gerard de Rhodes.  His son, Ralph
de Rhodes, in the reign of Henry III., sold the manors to Walter
Mauclerke, Bishop of Carlisle, and until recently the patronage of Moorby
benefice belonged to the Bishops of Carlisle.  After the creation of the
See of Manchester, the patronage, with that of High Toynton,
Mareham-le-Fen, &c., was transferred to the Bishops of Manchester.

_Domesday Book_, describing the soke of the Manor of Horncastle, says “In
Morebi there are 3 carucates of land (or about 360 acres).  There are 6
soc-men, and 10 bordars, who have 4 carucates (or 480 acres).  There is a
church and a priest (evidently a resident; of whom, according to Sir
Henry Ellis, there were only 130 in the country), and 240 acres of meadow
and 6 acres of underwood.”  In the old record, Testa de Nevill (circa
1326–1328), the benefice of “Morby” is said to be “of the gift of the
lord the king,” _i.e._ Edward II. or III.  The original charters of Henry
III., granting these manors to the Bishops of Carlisle, were confirmed by
Henry VI.; but in course of time they passed to the Brandons, and to
various other proprietors, until the ancestor of Sir Joseph Banks became
lessee of the Manor of Horncastle, and also acquired the Manor of Moorby;
to which James Banks Stanhope, Esq., and the late Right Hon. Edward
Stanhope succeeded; although T. Elsey, the Artindale family, and the
trustees of Bardney school, own portions of the parish.

In the year 1554 (Aug. 6th) Thomas Bewley, Clerk, was admitted to this
benefice by Robert, Bishop of Carlisle, it being “vacant by deprivation.”
This was the 2nd year of the reign of Queen Mary, of ill memory.
Doubtless the offence of the ejected predecessor was that he was married,
which was contrary to the papistic ideas, revived in that brief reign.
Numbers of beneficed clergy were deprived at that time for this offence.

A few old records of some interest are preserved connected with Moorby,
of which we give two or three samples here.  First we have a family of
the name of Moreby, of whom more than one mention is made.  Roger Moreby,
by will dated Saturday after the Feast of St. Botolph, 1394, commends his
soul to St. Mary and all the saints; he requests that his body may be
buried in Croyland parish church; he leaves 40s. to be given to the poor
on the day of his burial, and money to provide torches and wax for the
church, and the altars of St. Katharine, St. John the Baptist, and Holy
Trinity; he bequeaths £10 of silver to his wife, and other items.  Again,
by will dated the Feast of St. Thomas the apostle, 1368, Gervase de
Wylleford bequeaths 100s. to John Moreby his cousin.

The family of Ayscough, formerly so widely represented in the county,
were connected with Moorby.  By will, dated 16th Nov., 1601, Henry
Ascoughe, Gent., desires to be buried in the parish church of “Morebie,”
leaving to his sister “Elizabeth Aiscoughe (his) hereditaments in Morebie
for life, then to go to his brother Matthew.”  His sister is also to have
lands which he had leased to Sir Henry Glenham, Knight. {201a}  He
further leaves to her, as executrix, “£10 to be good and to my poor
sister Margarette.”  To his brother Simon he bequeaths “the best
apparrell of my bodie, with riding furniture, and my baie gelding,
rapier, dagger, and pistol,” and further bequests.  The testator was son
of Christopher Ayscough, of Bliborough, and married, apparently without
issue, Margaret, daughter of Symon Battell, of Denham, Suffolk.

Like the not very distant Wildmore Fen, in which it now has a modern
allotment of 14 acres of glebe land.  The name of Moorby tells of its
condition at the time when it acquired that designation, which means the
“by,” _i.e._ “byre,” or farmstead on the moor. {201b}  The moorland has
now entirely disappeared under the plough, and only young plantations
represent its former wild, woodland character.



WOOD ENDERBY.


Wood Enderby lies about four miles south by east from Horncastle.
Letters _via_ Boston arrive at 10.30 a.m.

The church, dedicated to St. Benedict, consists of nave, north aisle, and
chancel, a low tower, with graceful broach spire, containing one bell,
and small vestry.  It is built of a warm-tinted green sandstone, with
free stone dressings; the style of its architecture is a combination of
the early English and Decorated periods.  It was almost entirely rebuilt
in 1860, at a cost of about £1,000.  The south door, which is in the
tower, has an Early English arch of five mouldings.  There is a plain
trefoiled window above in the tower; the lower part of the spire having
two lancet windows, with a circle above them, and a small single-light
window on each side, half way up.  In the west wall of the tower is a
three-light window, with two trefoils and a quatrefoil above.  This is
filled with coloured glass, having the texts “I am the way, the truth,
and the life,” “Where two or three are gathered together in My name,
there am I in the midst of them,” and “No man cometh unto the Father but
by Me.”  There are similar windows, but without coloured glass, in all
four faces of the tower.  At the north-west angle of the tower is a
staircase turret.  Within the south door, against the west wall, is an
old stone coffin, with broken lid, ornamented with an incised floriated
cross; this was discovered at the time of the restoration.

The arcade of the north aisle is of three bays, being part of the old
church, in Early English style, with plain arches, supported on one
octagonal pier and one shafted pier, with dog-tooth ornament, the former
having foliage on the capital.  In the north wall of the nave are three
square-headed windows of three lights, with trefoils above, the glass
being plain, except a border of red, purple, and yellow.  In the south
wall are three two-light windows, with trefoil and circle above; the
glass being modern, with various coloured scripture texts.

The sittings are of deal, with plain poppy-heads.  The pulpit is of
modern oak, of five panels, each panel being divided into two trefoiled
arched partitions; the central panel having a trefoil above, and below it
a square piece of carved old oak, representing Elijah blessing the cruse
of oil for the widow of Zarephath.  The vestry, at the east end of the
north aisle, has one small trefoiled window.  The tower and the spire
were added at the restoration.  The chancel has a decorated east window
of three lights, with three quatrefoils above.  It is filled with modern
coloured glass, the subjects being, in the centre the Saviour risen from
the tomb, on the left an angel seated at the tomb, and on the right the
Magdalen.  There is an inscription, “Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not,
for I am not yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brethren, and say
unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and
your God.  John xx, 17.”

The north and south chancel walls have each one two-light trefoiled
window, with quatrefoil above; plain glass, except the coloured band.  In
the south wall is a curious square projecting Norman piscina, with fluted
basin, and fluted sides.  In the north wall is an arched sepulchral
recess.  The chancel arch is plain Early English.  The roof, like the
sittings, is of pitch pine.  The font has a plain octagonal large bowl of
Barnack stone, its upper rim being modern, the shaft plain quadrilateral,
with plain square columns at the angles; base and pediment octagonal.

The register dates from 1561.  It begins with the note “The Register
booke of Woodenderbye, containing herein ye names of all such as have
been married, burried, and christened, from Michaelmas 1561, to
Michaelmas 1562.”  The first five or six entries are illegible, and the
others contain nothing of special interest.  The benefice, a vicarage, is
consolidated with the rectory of Moorby, and is now held by the Rev. R.
C. Oake.

As the name of Moorby indicated the character of the locality in former
times, when that name was first acquired, so Wood Enderby means the
“bye,” _i.e._ “byre,” or farmstead “at the end of the wood,” as it
borders on what was once the forest tract of “Tumby Chase”; Haltham wood,
near at hand, being a relic of that former wild region. {202}

W. H. Trafford, Esq., is Lord of the Manor.  The Hon. Mr. Stanhope owns a
large part of the land; and portions belong to the Rev. G. Ward, and
other smaller owners.  The late Miss Trafford Southwell founded an infant
school in the village; the older children attending the Moorby school.
The poor parishioners receive 6d. each at Christmas, left by an unknown
donor, out of the farm now owned by Rev. G. Ward, of Mavis Enderby.

The ancient history of Wood Enderby is much the same as that of Moorby.
It was one of the minor demesnes, within the Soke of Horncastle, and
attached to that manor; as were also West Ashby, High Toynton,
Mareham-on-the-Hill, and other parishes.  It would thus also be among the
estates of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and when his main line
became extinct, and the property was divided among collateral branches,
Wood Enderby, with Wilksby and Revesby, fell to the share of Mr. John
Carsey, or Kersey; his wife, the daughter of Sir Thomas Lovell, Knight,
being grand-daughter of Margaret, sister and co-heir of the Duke of
Suffolk.  He owned the property from 1552 to 1575, and he and his son
Francis jointly sold it to Thomas Cecil, Lord Treasurer Burleigh.  He
held it from 1575 to 1598, when it passed in succession to the 1st and
2nd Earls of Exeter, and to Elizabeth, Lady Howard, wife of the Earl of
Berkshire, in 1640, and so in 1658 to Henry Howard; in 1663 to his cousin
Craven Howard, who built the former residence at Revesby; and, after his
death, the property was sold by the daughters of Henry Howard to the
Banks family; whence the manor has descended to the present proprietors
of Revesby.

The manor, like that of Moorby and other parishes already named, would at
one time belong to the Bishops of Carlisle, and they were till recently
patrons of the benefice; the patronage, within late years, being
transferred to the Bishops of Manchester, after the creation of that See
in 1848.

At an earlier date, being an appendage to the Manor of Horncastle, this
demesne would be owned at one period by Gerard and Ralph de Rhodes; and
this is shewn by the following records among the Final Concords, date 3rd
Feb., 1224–5, whereby an agreement was arrived at between Henry del
Ortiay and Sabina his wife, on the one part, and Ralph de Rhodes on the
other part, as to certain lands in Moorby, Enderby, Horncastle, and other
parishes, that the said Henry and Sabina should recognise the said lands
as belonging to the said Ralph; he, on his part, granting to them other
lands there, specially designated, they rendering to him “therefor by the
year, one pair of gilt spurs, at Easter, for all service and exaction.”
{203a}  This agreement was settled “at the court of the Lord the King at
Westminster on the morrow of the purification of the blessed Mary, in the
9th year of King Henry III. {203b}

In the old records, Testa de Nevill (circa 1326–28), it is stated that
“the churches of Horncastre, Askeby (West Ashby), Upper Thinton (High
Toynton), of Meringes (Mareham-on-the-Hill), and of Hinderby (Wood
Enderby), are of the gift of the lord; and Osbert, the parson, holds them
of King Richard.”

In _Domesday Book_ it is stated that at the time of the Conqueror, there
were “400 acres of wood pasturage” in the parish, a sufficient reason for
its designation.  Like Moorby, it was among the manors seized by the
Conqueror, for his portion of the plunder taken from our Saxon
forefathers.  In Saxon times the Thane, Siward, had land here; which was
given by the Conqueror to his steward, Robert Despenser, brother of the
Earl Montgomery. {203c}



CONINGSBY.


This is a large village, about 8 miles from Horncastle, in a southerly
direction.  It is bounded on the north by Tattershall Thorpe, on the west
by Tattershall, on the south by Wildmore, and on the east by Tumby and
Mareham-le-Fen.  Its area is 3,442 acres, including the hamlet of
Hawthorn Hill; rateable value £5,160; population 1,192.  Apart from a
limited number of shops and three inns, the people are engaged mainly in
agriculture.  The soil is mostly a light sand, with a subsoil of gravel
deposits and clay.  The nearest railway station is at Tattershall,
distant about 1½ miles.

The owners of over 50 acres are Lord Willoughby de Eresby, M.P., Lord of
the Manor; Sir H. M. Hawley, Bart., J.P.; F. Sherwin; J. Rodgers; J.
Burcham Rogers, J.P.; Mrs. Evison; the rector, Rev. Canon A. Wright,
M.A., J.P., Rural Dean and Canon of Lincoln.  Smaller owners, about 50.
The only gentleman’s seat now existing is the hall, the residence of J.
B. Rogers, Esq., J.P.

The old custom of ringing the pancake bell on Shrove Tuesday is still
kept up.  The annual feast is held in the week after St. Michael’s Day,
the patron saint.  The “Ignitegium,” or curfew, was rung within the last
35 years, but has been discontinued, the parish being now lighted by gas.

There are a few field names, indicating the former “woodland and waste”
{204} character of the locality.  The Ings, or meadows, so common
throughout the district; Oatlands; Scrub Hill, scrub being an old
Lincolnshire word for a small wood; Reedham, referring to the morass;
Toothill, probably a “look-out” over the waste; Langworth, probably a
corruption of lang-wath, the long ford; Troy Wood, may be British,
corresponding to the Welsh caertroi, a labyrinth or fort of mounds.  The
hamlets are Dogdyke, a corruption of Dock-dyke (the sea having once
extended to these parts); Hawthorn Hill, Scrub Hill.  There is an
enclosure award in the possession of the clerk of the Parish Council.

The parish register dates from 1561.  The church plate is modern, chalice
and paten dated 1870; the flagon is older and more massive, but has no
date.  The Earl of Ancaster is patron of the benefice, a rectory, with
good house, enlarged about 30 years ago, and 500 acres of glebe.

The National School was built by subscription and government grant in
1836, at a cost of about £230, exclusive of the site, which was given by
the late Sir Gilbert Heathcote.  It was enlarged in 1875 at cost of £300.
The master has £3 per annum, left by the Rev. R. Kelham in 1719, also the
dividend of £100 3½ per cent. reduced consols, bought by the bequest of
the Rev. Mr. Boawre, Rector, in 1784.

The charities are Banks, _viz._ £2 a year from land in Haltham, for bread
for the poor; Metham’s, for poor widows, from houses and land in Wisbech,
left by Geo. Metham in 1685; Lawrence’s, for coats for poor men, from
land in Leake, left by Robt. Lawrence in 1721.

The Horncastle canal traverses the parish, but is now a derelict.

There was formerly a castle in this parish, the residence of a family of
the name of Coningsby, but no traces of it remain, unless it be in an
ancient dovecote, placed among some fine trees to the east of the
village.

The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a large, and originally a fine,
church, consisting of nave, with north and south aisles, an apsidal
modern chancel, and a massive western tower.  This latter is of
Perpendicular date, very plain, but of excellent ashlar work; it has a
clock and six bells.  The ground stage has open arches to the north and
south, with a groined roof above, and a thoroughfare through it.  In the
eastern wall of the south porch is a stoup, which was formerly open, both
within the porch and outside it.  Over the porch is a parvis or priest’s
chamber.  Outside the church, near the top of the wall of a cupola-shaped
finial of the rood loft turret is an old sun dial.  The interior of the
nave has a massive heavy roof of beams somewhat rudely cut, with traces
of former colouring.

The four western bays of the arcade are Early English, with low arches,
the easternmost bay seems to have been added at a later date, the arch
higher and wider.  The moulding between two of the north arches
terminates in a head, on each side of which an evil spirit is whispering.
Another terminal is the head of a woman wearing the “branks,” or “scold’s
bridle.”  On the south side of the chancel arch is a rood loft staircase
turret, of which both the lower and upper door remain.

At the restoration in 1872 the clerestory windows were spoilt by being
reduced in height; externally their original design remains.  In the
centre of the nave are two large sepulchral slabs, once bearing brasses,
which are now gone, representing two civilians and their wives.  The
apsidal chancel is quite out of keeping with the rest of the fabric.
There are some remains of the old carved oak screen, and south of the
communion table is an Early English capital, with piscina behind it.

                [Picture: St. Michaels Church, Coningsby]

The Notes on Churches, by Gervase Holles, shew that in his time (circa
1630) the windows of this church abounded in coloured glass, of which not
a vestige remains.  He gives, among the devices, the arms of Marmyon,
Dymoke, Hillary, Welles, Hattecliffe, Umfraville, Willoughby, Ros,
Tateshale, Bernake, Crumwell, Huntingfield, Rochfort, Beke, Boucher,
Waterton, Hebden, Deyncourt, France and England, &c. {205}

Among the rectors of this parish have been two poets, one the laureate of
his day (1718), the Rev. Laurence Eusden, who died 1730.  The other, John
Dyer, was born 1700, appointed to the benefice in 1752, by Sir John
Heathcote, was the author of _Grongar Hill_, _The Fleece_, and _The Ruins
of Rome_; he was honoured with a sonnet by Wordsworth.

A congregation of Baptists was formed here under the Commonwealth, with
an endowment for a minister.  The society still exists, their present
chapel being erected in 1862; they have also a day school, built by Mr.
John Overy in 1845.  The Wesleyans have a chapel, built in 1825, and
others at Hawthorn Hill, Haven Bank, Moorside, and Meer Booth.  The
Primitive Methodists have a chapel, built in 1854, and others at Reedham
Corner and Scrub Hill.

Of the early history of this parish we have scattered notices in various
documents.  In _Domesday Book_ we find that Sortibrand, son of Ulf the
Saxon, who was one of the lagmen of Lincoln, held a Berewick in
Coningsby.  Land here is mentioned among the Conqueror’s possessions.
The powerful favourite of the Conqueror, Robert Despenser, laid claim to
a fishery and lands in Coningsby; and the juryman of the wapentake of
Horncastle decided that his claim was good, because Achi, his Saxon
predecessor, had held the same in the time of Edward the Confessor.  From
the same source we find that two other powerful Normans held land here,
_viz._ Hugo d’ Abrincis, surnamed “Lupus,” or “The Wolf,” from his fierce
character; and Drogo de Bruere, who had the Conqueror’s niece to wife.

As with other parishes in this soke, we find from a Feet of Fines, 9
Henry III., No. 52, that Ralph de Rhodes then held lands here.
Subsequently the Marmyons, Dymokes, and Taillebois, all connected in the
blazonry of the former memorial windows (as before mentioned), held
property in the parish. {206a}  By a Chancery Inquisition post mortem,
taken 31st May, 10 Henry VII., No. 72 (A.D. 1495), it was found that
Robert Taillebois, Knt., with John Gygour, Warden of the college of
Tateshale, was seized of the manor; while, further, in a Feet of Fines,
19 Henry VII. (1503), John Mordaunt is acknowledged by Sir Edward
Poynings, Sir Thomas Fynes, and others, to be the owner of lands in
Coningsby, and elsewhere in the soke.  He held at least four other
manors, and lands in many other parishes.  Also a Feet of Fines, 21 Henry
VII. (1505), it was agreed before Humphrey Coningsby, Sergeant at Law,
Sir Giles Daubeney, and others, that the Bishop of Winchester held
certain property here.

The Dymokes were patrons of the benefice; Sir Charles Dymoke presenting
in 1682, after which the patronage passed to the Heathcote family (Liber
Regis and Ecton’s Thesaurus).  But an earlier connection with the Dymokes
is shewn by a tombstone commemorative of “Anna, daughter of Thomas
Dymoke, and his wife Margaret, que obijt . . .  Ao Dni 1462.”

In connection with the Humphrey Coningsby, named above, we have already
mentioned that a castellated residence in this parish belonged to a
family of that name.  This Humphrey was Judge of the King’s Bench, and
bought Hampton Court, co. Hereford, of Sir Thomas Cornwall, about 1510;
where was preserved a painting of the old mansion at Coningsby. {206b}
Thomas Coningsby was knighted by Elizabeth in 1591.  Sir Fitz-William
Coningsby was Sheriff of the county, 1627; and for his loyalty to Charles
I. his estates were confiscated by the Puritans.  His son was rewarded
with a peerage by Charles II.; and saved the life of King William at the
battle of the Boyne; but his two sons dying early, and he having no
further issue, the title became extinct.

In the List of Gentry of Lincolnshire, made at the Herald’s Visitation in
1634, we find the name of Clinton Whichcote, of Coningsby, a member of an
old county family, still occupying a good position. {207a}



WILKSBY.


Wilksby lies about halfway between the parishes of Wood Enderby and
Moorby, at a distance of about five miles from Horncastle, in a
south-easterly direction.  Letters from Boston _via_ Revesby, arrive
about 10.30 a.m.

The ancient history of this parish is much the same as that of the
adjoining parish of Moorby on the east, and Wood Enderby on the west.  It
is called in _Domesday Book_ Wilchesbi, and Wilgesbi.  At the date of
that survey (1086) there were four soc-men and five bordars, who had one
carucate (or 120 acres) of land, and 20 acres of woodland; while the lord
of the manor had one carucate in demesne, and five villeins, with two
oxen in another carucate; with 20 acres of meadow and 40 acres of
underwood; so that, like the neighbouring Moor-by and Wood Ender-by, this
parish also was largely of a forest character.

In this parish there was also “a Berewick of 1½ carucates” (or 180
acres); a Berewick meaning an outlying farm (from “bere” barley, and
“wick” a village) belonging to another manor.

The parish was one of the estates taken by the Conqueror for himself,
probably then forming part of the great Tumby Chase.  He afterwards
granted the manor to his steward, Robert Despenser, a powerful Norman
noble, the ancestor of the Earls of Gloucester, brother of the Earl
Montgomery, and of Urso de Abetot, hereditary sheriff of Worcestershire.
He held 15 manors in Lincolnshire, and 17 in Leicestershire, beside
others elsewhere.

Being in the Soke of Horncastle, it would be connected with that manor,
as were so many other neighbouring parishes; and doubtless by a similar
process, to the cases of Moorby and Wood Enderby, it belonged
successively to the Brandons, Dukes of Suffolk; the Cecils, Earls of
Exeter; the Howards, Earls of Berkshire; and finally, by purchase, passed
to the Banks family, and through them to the Stanhopes.

Among the Assize Rolls (No. 319, m. 9 d) is a plea, made at Hertford,
10th May, 1247, in which “Joan de Leweline (with another) offered herself
against Silvester, Bishop of Karlisle,” in a suit concerning “£20 of rent
in Enderby, Moreby, Wilkesby and Cuningby, and the advowson of the church
Moreby,” in which the bishop failed to appear.  But in a Feet of Fines,
Lincoln, 32 Henry III., No. 131, an agreement was made (21st July, A.D.
1248) by which the said Joan de Lewelyn (and others) did homage to the
bishop, for these lands in Enderby, “Welkeby,” &c., and the advowson of
“Moresby,” the bishop in turn granting to them “the homage and whole
service of Ivo, son of Odo de Tymelby”; and they holding the land, &c.,
“in chief of the aforesaid bishop; and doing therefor the fourth part of
the service of one knight.” {207b}

In another document, a Final Concord, dated 27th May, 1240, between Alan
de Dauderby and Alice de Lysurs, it was agreed that Alice should “acquit
him of the service which Robert de Theleby exacts . . . of half a
knight’s fee, for which she is mesne.”  She further agrees that Alan and
his heirs shall hold certain tenements of Alice and her heirs; to wit, 12
oxgangs and 80 acres of land, two messuages, with a rent of 12s. 8d., and
two parts of a mill in Theleby, Wilkeby, Burton; and a meadow called
Utemyng, for the service a fourth part of a knight’s fee; and for this
Alan gave her 10 marks.

The former of these records shews that, like the other parishes connected
with the Manor of Horncastle, the Bishops of Carlisle were at one period
patrons of the benefice (and probably owners of the manor) of Wilkesby;
but, while in the case of several other parishes, this patronage
continues (only transferred to the Bishops of Manchester) to the present
day, the patronage of Wilksby passed to others.  According to Liber Regis
in 1711 and 1720 Lewis Dymoke presented to the benefice.  In 1764, by
some arrangement, George Willows, Gent., presented; but again, in 1833,
it was in the patronage of the Hon. the Champion, H. Dymoke, who
appointed to the rectory a relative, the Rev. J. Bradshaw Tyrwhitt, one
of a very old, knightly, Lincolnshire family, the Tyrwhitts of
Stainfield, Kettleby, &c.  A tablet to his memory is erected in the
church at Scrivelsby. {208a}  The patronage was subsequently acquired by
J. Banks Stanhope, Esq., and is annexed to the chaplaincy of Revesby,
which has no permanent endowment.

Among the List of Gentry of Lincolnshire, made at the Herald’s Visitation
in 1634, and preserved at the Heralds’ College, along with the Dymocks of
Scrivelsby, Haltham, Kyme and Lincoln, is Paganell Hartgrave of Wilksby.
{208b}

The church, dedicated to All Saints, is a mean structure, erected in the
18th century, of brick and Spilsby sandstone, standing on the site of an
earlier church, of which nothing seems to remain except the font.  It
consists of nave and chancel, both on a very small scale, and a wooden
bell-turret, with one small bell.  The north and west walls are of
sandstone, the former covered with a thick coating of tar to keep out the
moisture; the east wall has alternate layers of brick and sandstone.
Some improvements have been made in recent years, much needed to make it
even a decent place of worship.  The two two-light trefoiled windows in
the south wall of the nave have been framed in stone instead of wood, and
filled with green glass.  The east window of the chancel has wooden
mullions interlaced, and it has been adorned with paper representations
of, in the centre the Ascension, to the left the Saviour holding an
infant in his arms, to the right the child Jesus sitting among the
doctors in the temple.

The roof of the chancel is apsidal, externally, as well as the nave,
covered with modern house tiles.  Internally the nave has a flat ceiling
of deal boards.  The pulpit and seats are painted wainscot; there is a
small modern oak reading desk, and a lectern to match it.  The chancel
arch is a plain semicircle, but on its eastern side has a pointed Early
English arch.  The chancel rails are of modern oak, slightly carved; and
there is a deal credence table.  The 14th century font has a massive
octagonal bowl, with large trefoils in each face, and grotesquely carved
heads at the angles; the shaft being plain octagonal.  The improvements
were made in 1896, at the cost of the late Mrs. Stanhope.

The register dates from 1562.  In recent years the incumbency of Claxby
Pluckacre, where the church had gone to ruins, has been annexed to the
rectory of Wilksby, the joint value of the two being about £300 a year.
They are held by the Rev. P. O. Ashby, Chaplain of Revesby.



LANGRIVILLE & THORNTON-LE-FEN.


These are modern accretions to the Soke of Horncastle, made in the early
years of the 19th century.  They are distant southward from Horncastle
about 13 miles; situated in a tract of land called Wildmore Fen, lying
about midway between Coningsby to the north, and Boston to the south.  At
various periods inundated by the sea, this continued, to the end of the
18th century, more or less a region of morass; available in the summer
for grazing, but generally during the winter under water; when all cattle
had to be removed for safety to the lands under cultivation at the
homesteads of the farmers; and if by chance the farmer was behindhand in
removing them, and the floods became frozen, it was a common thing for
his cattle, while slipping about on the ice, to be split up, or, as it
was locally termed, “screeved,” and so become helpless, and fit only for
slaughter. {209}

An Act of Parliament was passed in 1787 or 1788, and commissioners were
appointed, for the drainage of this and adjoining similar tracts; but
little was done until 1800, when the able engineer, Mr. John Rennie,
submitted his plans for the drainage to the commissioners.  His first
report, dated April 7th, 1800, estimated the cost of draining Wildmore
Fen alone at £29,702; the total outlay, for that and adjoining fens,
being put at nearly £215,000.  By 1812 these operations were completed;
and in that year an Act was passed making these lands parochial, and
assigning the two portions above named to the Soke of Horncastle.



LANGRIVILLE.


Langriville, so called because it is near Langrick (or Long Creek) on the
Witham, has an area of 2,514 acres, including Langrick Ferry; rateable
value £3,300.  The population is entirely engaged in agriculture.  The
nearest railway station is at Langrick, in the parish.

It consists of the southern portion of Wildmore Fen, which at the
enclosure was allotted to the Earl of Stamford and Warrington, in lieu of
his manorial rights over Armtree and Wildmore; with other lands sold by
the Drainage Commissioners, early in the 19th century.  The Earl’s
estates afterwards passed, by purchase, to the late J. Fretwell Bramley
and others.  The present Lord of the Manor is Lord Malcolm, of
Poltallock; and he, the Rector of Coningsby, the executors of Lady Ingram
Watkin, J. Linton, Esq., of Stirtcoe, Buckden, Herts., Harrison Hayter,
Esq., W. Goodenough Hayter, Esq., Mr. Jonathan Fox, of Boston, E.
Harrison, Esq., and Mr. William Pepper are the largest land owners.

A small brick church was erected in 1831, consisting of nave, chancel and
bell turret; and repaired and improved in 1885, by the Ecclesiastical
Commissioners.  The Bishop of Lincoln is patron; and the Rev. W.
Fitz-Harry Curtis is the incumbent, who has here a residence, with an
income of £320 a year.

The Wesleyans have a chapel at Langrick Ferry, also in Armtree Road.  By
an order in council, dated 26th August, 1881, Langriville and
Thornton-le-Fen were united, under the title of “The Consolidated
Chapelry of Wildmore.”  There is a church at each place.  At the time of
the enclosure fen allotments were assigned to various of the older
parishes, and these are many of them now included in this modern
district, comprising parts of Fishtoft Fen, of Coningsby, of Kirkstead,
Scrivelsby, Woodhall, Dalderby, and Martin.  The entire area is now
10,500 acres, and population 1,470.

The National School, erected in 1857, is at Gipsy Bridge, now under a
School Board.



THORNTON-LE-FEN.


Thornton-le-Fen adjoins Langriville, lying to the east of it, about three
miles from Langrick railway station.  The area was originally about 1,425
acres, including Bunkers Hill, part of Gipsy Bridge, and other scattered
farms, which were sold by the Drainage Commissioners early in the 19th
century, when it was made, by Act of Parliament, a parochial township.
Rateable value £1,979.  It has its name from the former chief
proprietors, the Thornton family; but the chief land owners now are Lord
Malcolm of Poltalloch, the Pepper, Ireland, Creasey, Ward, and Wilcock
families.  The soil is clay, and very fertile.

The church, which was built on the Fen Chapel Estates in 1816, is a small
brick building, containing 200 sittings; the benefice, valued at £100 a
year, is in the gift of the Bishop of Lincoln, and by order in council,
dated 26th August, 1881, was consolidated with the chapelry of
Langriville; the two being of the united yearly value of £320, and held
by the Rev. W. Fitz-Harry Curtis, who resides at the latter place.

A good school and master’s house were erected in 1880, by the School
Board of Wildmore Fen, at a cost of about £1,200, to accommodate 168
children.  The Wesleyans have a chapel at New York and Bunkers’ Hill.
The Primitive Methodists have also a chapel.

The Ecclesiastical Commissioners, to whom the Fen Chapel Estates were
transferred in 1876, pay £120 a year for a curate, who now is the Rev.
Harold E. Curtis.  The total area is now 10,500 acres, and population
1,470.

                                * * * * *

NOTE.—Other parishes have once been in the Soke of Horncastle, which no
longer belong to it.  _Domesday Book_ gives Scrivelsby, “Langton and
(its) Thorpe” (from which I write; “Thorpe” being doubtless the outlying
district recently known as Langton St. Andrew), and also Edlington.  How
these became separated is not known.  As suggested by the author of
_Scrivelsby_, _the home of the Champions_, Scrivelsby, as a barony of the
Marmyon and Dymoke families, would probably be separated by payment of a
fine; such powerful families preferring not to be sub-ordinated to
another manor.  Several Dymokes, however, were buried at Horncastle,
where are their monuments.



INDEX.


A


Abrincis, Hugo de, “The Wolf,” 206.

Accident, remarkable, of Dr. J. B. Smith, 94.

Adelias de Cundi, 1, 16, 17, 200.

Albemarle, Earl of, 166.

Aldrich, Bishop of Carlisle, 30 and note.

Allison, Henry, wealthy, in Hull, 158.

Allenby, Henry, Chemist to H.M.S., 157.

Allerton, Lord, Horncastrian, 152.

Ancaster, Earl of, 204.

Angevine, family of, 27, 28.

Angus, Earl of, 168, 181.

Arms of Charles I., 191.
,, temp. Charles I., 192.
,, of Marmyon, Dymoke, Umfraville, Willoughby, &c., in Coningsby Church,
205.

Ashby, West, 176–180.
,, Church described, 181, 182.

Ayscough, Clynton, 198.
,, Elizabeth, 201.
,, Henry, 201.
,, Walter, 198.
,, William, 197.



B


Babington, Miss, window to, 59.

Bage, _i.e._ sod, 189.

Baieux, Bishop of, 165, 166.

Bain, river name, meaning of, 2.

Baker, Thomas, cricketer, ventriloquist, &c., 159.

Banks, Sir Joseph, 31, 181, 194 and note, 196, 209.

Baptists, sect of, 84–86.
,, Chapel, 84.

Barkham, Sir Robert, 187.

Barracks at Queen’s Head Inn, 162.

Bavent, Eudo de, 27, 196.
,, Close, field name, 27.

Beaumont, family of, 190.

Bell and Lancastrian Schools, 111, 112.

Berewick in Coningsby, held by Sortibrand, 206.
,, in Wilksby, 207.

Bertie, Hon. Charles, 187.
,, Richard, 182, 186.

Bevere, Drogo de, 166.

Bishop of Carlisle, 12, 30 and note.

“Black Death” at Horncastle, 51, 189.

Bocher, Arthur, Esq., 188.

Bolle, Charles, 187.
,, George, 187.

Bolles, Sir Robert, 171.

Boucherett, Ascoghe, 198.

Boulton, Dr. Barnard, window to, 37.
,, Henry, window to first wife, 38.
,, “Billy,” anecdote of, 160.

Bourne, The Venerable Hugh, 73–76.
,, College, 77.

Brackenbury, Mr. Carr, Wesley’s friend, 66, 68, and note.

“Branks,” or “scold’s bridle,” 205.

Brandon, Charles, Duke of Suffolk, 196, 200, 202, 207.

British words still used, 3.

Britons, Cæsar’s description of, 2, 3 and notes.
,, good workmen, 3.

Britons, Tacitus account of, 5.

Brown, Rev. Benson, 153.
,, John, “Laureate,” 158, 159.
,, Martin, and press gang, 156.

Brownists, sect of, 78.

Bunyon, John, 84.

“Butts,” field name, meaning of, 174.



C


Calthrop Lieut. Richard, window to, 180.

Camville, Gerard de, 26.

Canal, Horncastle, history of, 126–129.
,, opening ceremony, 127–128.

Canals recognised by Magna Charta, 128.

Caparn, Rev. W. B., 153.

Capella, Henry de, 178.

Carlisle, Bishops of, 46, 167, 168, 181, 196, 200, 203, 207.

Carsey (or Kersey), John, 202.

Catherine, St., altar of, 200.
,, ,, chantry of, 36, 37.

Cecil, Sir Thomas, 29, 30, 203.

Chamerlayn dole, 189.

Chapel, St. Laurence’s, 33, 34.

Charles I., arms of, 191.

Charters of markets and fairs, 18.

Chattels of felons granted to bishop, 19, 45.

Cheney, family of, 16, 17.

Church, St. Mary’s, 33–45.
,, not original, 33.
,, plate, 55, 56.
,, restored, 56.
,, Holy Trinity, 57–59.
,, ,, architect of, 57.
,, Lads’ Brigade, 63.
,, Schools, National, 63.
,, service, absence from, fined, 48.

Clarke, Rev. T. J., Vicar, account, 60.

Claribel, Mrs. Barnard, 180.

Clerical Club, 63, 137, 138.

Clinton, Lord, and family, 12, 20, 21, 92 and note, 188.

Clinton, Lord, engraving of, 97.
,, Sir Edward, 12.

Clitherow, Mr. Robert, window to, 38.

Clowes, William, 75, 76.

Cock and Breeches Inn, 162.

Cock-fighting, 164.

Coins found at Mareham-on-the-Hill, 184.

Coningsby, 203–207.
,, Church, 204–7.
,, land owners of, 204.
,, Rector of, Poet Laureate, 205, 206.
,, Sir Fitz-William, Sheriff, 206.
,, ,, at battle of the Boyne saved the king’s life, 206.

Coningsby, mansion of, 206.

Conyngsby, Humphrey 187, 206.

Constable, an old smuggler, 162.

Coppuldyke, Thomas and wife, guild of, 42 and note.

Corn Exchange, 140–142.

Court House, account of, 135, 136.

Craycroft of Craycroft, 187.

Cressey, Nicholas, gent., 198.

Crispus and Crispinianus, window, 37 and note, 42 and note.

Cromwell visits Horncastle, 32.

Cromwell, Ralph de, 190.

Cussons, John, Confederate General, &c., 158.



D


Danish Conquerors, 10.

Despenser, Robert, 191, 195, 205, 206, 207.

Despensers, Earls of Gloucester, 195.

Destructive storms at Horncastle, 51.

Dispensary, history of, 119–125.
,, balls, 124.
,, dispensers, 124.
,, legacies, 125.
,, present building, 124, 125.
,, presidents, 123, 124.
,, sermons, 122, 123.
,, vice-presidents, 124.

Dixon, Miss Annie, artist, 151.

Dogdyke, _i.e._ Dock-dyke, 204.

Dole, Chamerlayn, at Roughton, 188.

Drill Hall, 148–150.

Drogo de Bruere, 206.

Dymoke, Edward, 188.
,, John, of Haltham, 191.
,, John, Rev., 190.
,, Lionel, curious will of, 183–184.
,, Robert, 187.
,, Sir Henry, 189.
,, Sir Lionel, monument to, 41.
,, ,, engraving, 42.
,, Thomas, 187.

Dymokes, 205, 206, 208, 210.



E


Eastwood, family of, 190.

Editha, Queen, 180.

Elmhirst, General Charles, window to, 179.
,, William, Esq., 180.

Enderby, Wood, 201–203.

Escald, Gerald de, 11, 17, 200.

Eusden, Rev. Laurence, Poet Laureate, Rector of Coningsby, 205.



F


Fast, solemn, at Horncastle, 51.

Felons, right to try, of Bishop of Carlisle, 45.

Fighting Cocks Inn, 164.
,, foxhounds kept at, 164.
,, scythe fair at, 164.

Fitz-William, family of, 28, 29.

Forests, extensive, 2, 3 and note, 18 and note, 202 and note, 207.

Fox, Mrs. Salome, window to, 38.

Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, in church, 44.

Franklin, Sir John, 156.

Freshville, Peter, Frances, daughter of, 42 and note.

Fynes, Norreys, Esq., 189.
,, Thomas, 206.



G


Gairmaro, Geoffrey, chronicler, 16 and note.

Gallows of Bishop of Carlisle, 19.
,, at Thimbleby, of Abbot, 170.

Gaunt, Walter, 166 and note, 167.

George, Dr. Hugh, window to, 59.
,, Inn, 162.
,, ,, incident at, 163.

Gibson, Thomas, Vicar, 39, 40 and note, 51, 52.

Giles, Prebendary, window to, 39.

Gilliat, Rev. Edward, author, &c., 152.

Glenham family, 196, 201.

Goldie, Rev. C. D., Curate, account of, 62.

Goodrich, Robert, 187.

Grace, Pilgrimage of, 47, 48.

Grammar School, history of, 91–107.
,, distinctions of old boys, 105.
,, distinguished boys, 95, 96.
,, games and customs, 99–104.
,, Governors, 92.
,, Madge, Dr., late Master, 105.
,, Masters, former under, 97–99.
,, modern, 105.
,, new buildings, future, 107.
,, origin of, early, 91, 92, 106.
,, property of, 92.
,, White, Rev. T., 99.
,, Worman, Mr. A. N., 105.

Grosvenor, Rev. Francis, 98, 99.
,, F., 152, 153.



H


Hallgarth, interesting old house in Thimbleby, 172.

Haltham, 190–192.
,, church, interesting, 191.

Hamerton, John, Churchwarden, 39.
,, family, 52, 53.

Hangman’s Corner, 19, 46.

Hardingshall, Sir William, 187.

Hartgrave, Paganell, of Wilksby, 208.

Hartwell, Lady, 188.

Harwood, Mr. F., window to, 38.

Hawley, Sir Henry M., 189.

Heald, George, Chancellor, 163.
,, and Lola Montez, incident, 163.

Healey, A. H., athlete, 154.

Heathcote, Sir Gilbert, 204.
,, Sir John, 205.

Heneage family, 190.

Henry IV., visits Horncastle, 32.

“Hoblers” for the army, 14.

Holles, Gervase, description of church windows, 42 and note.

Holles, Gervase, wife buried at Horncastle, 37 and note.

Holme, _i.e._ island, Danish, 2.

Hopton, Sir Ingram, 40, 41.

Horncastle, British settlement, 1.
,, Manor, owners of, 11, 12, 13, 17, 20, 22, 24.
,, market tolls, 13, 14.
,, Benefice, King appoints to, 46.
,, Rector murdered, 46.
,, Rector changed to Vicar, 47.
,, Peter de Galicia appointed to, 47.
,, Rectors and Vicars, list of, 50, 51.
,, rectory house, former, 55.

Hotchkin, family of, connected with Thimbleby, 172.

Hounds kept at Fighting Cocks, 164.



I


Independents, sect of and chapel, 77–83.

Islep, Simon de, Rector, 19, 46.



J


“Jack” Musters kept hounds at Fighting Cocks, 164.



K


Keane, Charles, and Horncastle, 156.
,, Edmund, 156.

Kemp family and Thimbleby, 173, 175.
,, meaning of name, 173 and note.

Kent, John, owner of Horncastle Manor, 24.

King’s Head Inn, thatched, 164.

Kirkstead, Thimbleby belonged to Abbot of, 169, 170.
,, Abbot of, arbitrary action of, 170.

Knyght, questionable action of, 169.



L


Lancastrian and Bell Schools, 111, 112.

Langley, Ambrose, footballer, 157.

Langton, John de, Rector of Horncastle, Bishop of Chichester, 46.

Langrick, meaning of, 209.

Langriville, 209.
,, Church, 209, 210.
,, School, 210.

Langworth, meaning of, 204.

Leweline, Joan de, 207.

Leych, William, curious will of, 197.

Lincolnshire Rising, 47, 48, 187.
,, William Leche, “begynner” of, 47.

Lindsey, Earl of, 187.

Literary Society, 138.

Lizures, William de, 26, 27.

Lodge, Canon S., lectern given by, 39 and note.
,, ,, Master of Grammar School, 99.

Lola Montez, incident, 163.

Lord, Rev. Thomas, centenarian, 82, 89–90.

L’Oste, Rev. S., Rector of Langton, 93.

Lovell, Sir Thomas, Knt., 202.

Lysurs, Alice de, 207.



M


Madely, Dr. Clement, tablet to, in St. Mary’s, 44 and note.

Malcolm, Lord, of Poltallock, Lord of Langriville Manor, 209, 210.

Malingars, field name, 191.

Mareham-le-Fen, 192–198.
,, church described, 192–194.

Mareham-on-the-Hill, 183, 184.
,, Church, 184.

Marwood, hangman, 154, 155.

Massingbird, Thomas, 187.

Mechanics’ Institute, 139, 140.

Milner, Canon, W. H., Vicar, 61.

Moorby, 198–200.
,, church described, 198.
,, communion plate, 199.
,, minstrel column, 199.

Mordaunt, John, owner in Coningsby, 206.

Moyne, Thomas, rebel, 188.

Murder at Queen’s Head Inn, 162.

Musters, “Jack,” kept hounds, 164.



N


Newcomen, family, 187, 190, 198.

New Jerusalem, sect of, 86–89.
,, Chapel, 88.
,, first resident minister, 89.

Ninian, St., in window of St. Mary’s, 37, 42 and note.

Nonconformist places of worship, 64–90.

Norman Conquerors, 11, 13.



O


Oddities of Horncastle, 160, 161.

Organ, fine, of parish church, 36.

Ortiay, Henry del, tenure by spurs, 180, 181, 203.

Ouseley, Sir F. Gore, of Wesley family, 64 and note.

Oven, public, 134 and note.

Overseer, a woman appointed, 188.



P


Paganell, Ranulph de, 177.

Palfreyman, of Horncastle, 52.

Palmer, Rev. E. R. H. G., 184.

Pancake bell, 34.

Paynell, 178.

Penance done in church, 186.

Pilgrimage of Grace, 47, 48.

Pingle, field name, 191.

Plague, 188, 191.

Plesington, Henry, Knt., 187.

Primitive Methodists, sect of, 71, 77.
,, chapel described, 72.

Publichouses, 161–164.
,, now gone, 162, 163, 164.



Q


Quarrington, Canon E. F., late Vicar, window to, 37.

Queen’s Head Inn, murder at, 162.



R


Raengeires, British leader, 9.

Railway, 130–132.
,, opening ceremony of, 131, 132.

Ravennas, Geographer, 5 and note.

Rayne, Bishop’s Chancellor, slain, 48.

Rennie, Mr. John, Engineer, 209.

Rhodes, Gerard de, 184, 203.
,, Ralph de, 12, 17, 18, 19, 180, 184, 191, 192, 200, 203, 206.

Rinder, Mr. Joseph, 178.

River names, celtic, 1.

Rivett, Mr. John, 70.

Robber taking refuge in church, 45.

Robinson, Miss, and Queen’s dresses, 157, 158.
,, Rev. John, 78–80.

Rolleston, Edward, Esq., 186.
,, family, 186.

Rolston, Edward, 187.

Roman coffins, 7, 8.
,, coins, 4.
,, commanders, 3, 5.
,, milestone, 5.
,, pipes, 8.
,, pottery, 6, 7, 134 and note.
,, roads, 5, 6.
,, tomb at Thimbleby, 174.
,, urns, 6.
,, walls, 6.
,, wells, 6.

Rose, Rev. W., 82, 83.

Ross, Sir John, 156.

Round House, the (prison), 135.

Roughton, 188.
,, church described, 188.
,, plague at, 188.

Rushton, “Aty,” 160.
,, Thomas, fisherman, 160.



S


Salt, a property, 182.

Sanctuary in church, right of, 45.

Sapcote, Sir Richard, 186.

Savile, 22, 25, 26.

Saxon conquerors, 9.
,, minstrel pillar, 199.

Schofield, John, marries bishop’s daughter, 157.

Science and Art School, 112.
,, great efficiency of, 114.
,, lectures on special subjects, 115–118.
,, origin of, 112.
,, teachers of, 114, 115.

Scrope family, 20.

Scott, Sir Gilbert, at Horncastle, 134.

Scythes in church, probable history of, 41 and note.
,, engraving of, 48.

Scythe fair, 164.

Sessions House, former, 135.

Sewer, common for drain, 190 and note.

Sharp, Rev. W. Heneage, 154.

Shepherd, Capt., “old salt,” 156.

Ship-money, complaint of, temp. Charles I, 14.

Skynner, family of, 169.

Slated house, first in Horncastle, 164.

Smith, Captain, Surgeon, 157.
,, Dr. J. Bainbridge of Grammar School, 93, 95, 99, 101.

Snowden, Bishop of Carlisle, 30.
,, Rutland, “delinquent,” 54.
,, ,, benefactor to Horncastle, 54.
,, ,, among Lincolnshire gentry, 55.

Socmen, bordars, and villeins, 183 and note.

Somercotes, Sir William, 187.

Southey, Rev. T. C., Curate, 62.

Southwell, Miss Trafford, 202.

Spinning School, 134 and note.

Spranger, Dr. R., 186.
,, Chancellor, 186.

Spurrier, Rev. H., 189.
,, H. C. M., 189.

Spurs, tenure by, 181, 203.

Stanhope family, 31.
,, J. Banks, Esq., 192.
,, Memorial, 136, 137.

Swedenborg, Emanuel, 86.



T


Tailboys, Sir Walter, 181.

Taillebois, family of, 206.

Tanning formerly chief trade of Horncastle, 53.

Tennyson, A., and brother married in Horncastle, 44, 162.

Thatched publichouse, by will, 164.

Theft from St. Mary’s Church, 42 and note, 47, 48.

Theleby, 208.

Thief to catch thieves, 161.

Thimbleby, 165–176.
,, church described, 175, 176.
,, engraving of, 171.

Thornton-le-Fen, 210.
,, Church, 210.
,, School, 210.

Thornton family, 210.

Three Maids’ Inn, 164.

Thymelby family, 24, 25, 168, 181.

Tibetot, Robert, 12, 19, 20.

Tom Cat Inn, 164.

Toynton, High, 180–184.
,, ,, Church, 181, 182.
,, Low, 184–188.
,, ,, Church, 184–186.
,, ,, ,, engraving of, 185.

Trafford, W. H., Esq., 191, 202.

Train-bands, arms of, 14.

Trinity Church Horncastle, 57–60.
,, engraving of, 59.

Trunyan’s, light of, our Lady’s light, &c., 44, 45.

Tumby Chase, 202.

Turner and Cato Street Conspiracy, 155, 156.
,, Sir Edmund, 184.

Tymelby, Ivo de, 207.

Tyrwhitt, Douglas, a lady, 52.
,, old county family, 29, 208.



U


Umfraville, Earl of Angus, 168, 181.

Union, the, or workhouse, 133–135.

Union, early laws concerning paupers, 133, 134.



V


Volunteers, history of, 145–148.
,, Drill Hall, 148–150.
,, practiced on Edlington Road, 162.



W


Walter, Rev. H., B.D., _History of England_, 64.

Waring, river name, meaning “rough,” 2.

Watson’s Free School, 108–111.
,, property of, 110.
,, Governors, original, 110 and note.

Well-syke, field and wood name, 190 and note.

Wesley, John, 65–67.
,, Charles, 65.

Wesleyan, sect of, 64–71.
,, Chapel, 70.
,, ,, engraving of, 65.
,, circuits, 66.
,, centenary, 71.

Whelpton Almshouses, 142–144.

Whichcote, Clinton, of Coningsby, 207.

Wildmore Fen added to Horncastle, 209.

Wilksby, 207.
,, Church, 208.

Williams, Thomas, missionary, 69, 70.

Willoughby, William de, and family, 167.
,, de Eresby, Lord, 204.

Winchester, Bishop of, held land in Coningsby, 206.

Wood Enderby, 201–203.
,, Church, 201, 202.

Workhouse, before Union, 134.
,, village, 134.



Y


Young Churchmen’s Union, 63.



Z


Zouch, Eudo la, bequest to, 197.

                                * * * * *



    Printed by W. K. Morton & Sons, Ltd., 27, High Street, Horncastle.



Footnotes:


{0}  His father, for about 12 months, occupied the house in North Street,
of late years known as the “Red House,” distinguished, it is said, as
being the only house in the town having a front door of mahogany.

{1a}  Mr. Jeans, in his _Handbook for Lincolnshire_, p. 142, says “the
Roman station (here) probably utilized an existing British settlement.”

{1b}  _Words and Places_, p. 13, note.  Ed. 1873.

{1c}  There are probably traces of British hill-forts in the
neighbourhood, as on Hoe hill, near Holbeck, distant 4 miles, also
probably at Somersby, Ormsby, and several other places.

{1d}  In the name of the near village of Edlington we have probably a
trace of the mystic Druid, _i.e._ British, deity Eideleg, while in
Horsington we may have the Druid sacred animal.  Olivers’ _Religious
Houses_, Appendix, p. 167.

{2a}  _Words and Places_, p. 130.

{2b}  The meadow which now lies in the angle formed by the junction of
the Bain and Waring at Horncastle is still called “The Holms,” which is
Danish for “islands.”

{2c}  The name Bain, slightly varied, is not uncommon.  There is the
Bannon, or Ban-avon (“avon” also meaning “river”), in Pembrokeshire; the
Ban in Co. Wexford, Bana in Co. Down, Banney (_i.e._ Ban-ea, “ea” also
meaning water) in Yorkshire, Bain in Herefordshire; Banavie (avon) is a
place on the brightly running river Lochy in Argyleshire; and, as meaning
“white,” a fair-haired boy or girl is called in Gaelic “Bhana.”

{2d}  The name Waring (G commonly representing the modern W) is found in
the Yarrow, and Garry in Scotland, the Geirw, a rough mountain stream, at
Pont-y-glyn, in North Wales, and in the Garonne in France.

{2e}  _Ars Poetica_, l 59.

{2f}  An account of this urn is given by the late Bishop Trollope, with
an engraving of it, in the _Architectural Society’s Journal_, vol. iv, p.
200.

{2g}  _De Bella Gallico_, bk. v, ch. 12–14.

{2h}  Some idea of the extent of these forests, even in later times, may
be formed from the account given by De la Prime (_Philosophical
Transactions_, No. 75, p. 980) who says “round about the skirts of the
wolds are found infinite millions of the roots and bodies of trees of
great size.”  Pliney tells us that the Britons had “powerful mastiffs”
for hunting the wild boar, and Manwood in an old _Treatise on Forest
Laws_ (circa 1680) states (p. 60) that the finest mastiffs were bred in
Lincolnshire.  Fuller, in his _Worthies of England_ (p. 150) mentions
that a Dutchman (circa 1660) coming to England for sport, spent a whole
season in pursuit of wild game “in Lincolniensi montium tractu,” by which
doubtless were intended the wolds.  A writer in the _Archæological
Journal_ (June, 1846) says “the whole country of the Coritani (_i.e._
Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, &c.) was then, and long after, a dense
forest.”  The name “Coritani,” or more properly Coitani, is the Roman
adaptation of the British “Coed,” a wood, which still survives in Wales
in such place-names as “Coed Coch,” the red wood, “Bettws y Coed,” the
chapel in the wood, &c.  This was their distinguishing characteristic to
the Roman, they were wood-men.

{3}  To the skill and bravery in war of the Britons Cæsar bears
testimony.  He says, “They drive their chariots in all directions,
throwing their spears, and by the fear of their horses and the noise of
their wheels they disturb the ranks of their enemies; when they have
forced their way among the troops they leap down and fight on foot.  By
constant practice they acquire such skill that they can stop, turn, and
guide their horses when at full speed and in the most difficult ground.
They can run along the chariot pole, sit on the collar and return with
rapidity into the chariot, by which novel mode (he says) his men were
much disturbed.”  (“Novitate pugnæ perturbati.”)  _De Bella Gallico_,
lib. iv, c, 33, 34.

{5a}  An account of this milestone is given by the late Precentor
Venables, in his _Walks through the Streets of Lincoln_, two Lectures,
published by J. W. Ruddock, 253, High Street, Lincoln.

{5b}  Stukeley, _Itinerarium curiosum_, p. 28; Weir’s _History of
Horncastle_, p. 4, ed. 1820; Saunders’ _History_, vol. ii, p. 90, ed.
1834; Bishop Trollope, _Architectural Society’s Journal_, vol. iv, p.
199, &c.

{5c}  Ravennas, whose personal name is not known (that term merely
meaning a native of Ravenna), was an anonymous geographer, who wrote a
_Chorography of Britian_, as well as of several other countries, about
A.D. 650.  These were confessedly compilations from older authorities,
and were, two centuries later, revised by Guido of Ravenna, and doubtless
by others at a later period still, since the work, in its existent form
describes the Saxons and Danes, as well, in Britain.  As Gallio, also of
Ravenna, was the last Roman general in command in these parts, it has
been suggested that he was virtually the original author (Horsley’s
_Britannia_, 1732, chap. iv., p. 489; also _The Dawn of Modern
Geography_, by C. Raymond Beazley, M.A., F.R.G.S., 1897, J. Murray).
Messrs. Pinder and Parthey published an edition of _Ravennas_, _or the
Ravennese Geographer_, as did also Dr. Gale.

{5e}  _Life of Agricola_ c. xxxi.

{6a}  This is a thoroughly provincial word for highway or turnpike.  It
is of course a corruption of “Rampart,” a fortified passage.  In the
marsh districts the main roads are called “rampires.”  See Brogden’s
_Provincial Words_.

{6b}  The name Baumber, again, also written Bam-burgh, means a “burgh,”
or fortress on the Bain, which runs through that parish.

{7a}  These urns are fully described with an engraving of them in vol.
iv, pt. ii, of the _Architectural Society’s Journal_, by the late Bishop
Dr. E. Trollope.

{7b}  _Architect. S. Journal_, iv, ii, p. 201.

{8}  Gough, _Sepulchral Monuments_, Introduction, p. 59, says “coffins of
lead and wood are believed to have been used by the Romans in Britain.”

{9}  The first Danish incursions into England were in A.D. 786 and 787,
specially in Lincolnshire in 838.  In 869 was fought the decisive battle
of Threckingham in this county, which made the Danes paramount.  The name
Threckingham is said to be derived from the fact that 3 kings were slain
in this battle, but we believe this to be an error, and that the place
was the residence, the “ham” of the Threcginghas.

{10}  The prefix “Horn” is also found in Holbeach Hurn, an angular
headland on the south coast of Lincolnshire.  In the monkish Latin of old
title deeds, we also find the patronymic Hurne, Hearne, &c., represented
by its equivalent “de angulo,” _i.e._ “of the corner.”

{11a}  Dr. Mansell Creighton, late Bishop of London.  _Essays_, edited by
Louisa Creighton, 1904, pp. 278–9.

{11b}  The palace of the Bishop was on the site of the present Manor
House.

{11c}  Dugdale, vol. ii, p. 336.  _Monast. Angl._, vol. ii, p. 646.

{12a}  Hundred Rolls, Lincoln, No. 14, m. 1.

{12b}  Hundred Rolls, Lincoln, No 14, m. 1, 3 Edward I., 1274–5.

{12c}  This sale was confirmed by the King, as shewn by a Charter Roll,
14 Henry III., pt. i, m. 12 3 Ed. I., 1274–5.

{12d}  Patent Roll, 14 Richard II., pt. i, m. 3.  A.D. 1390.

{12e}  Patent Roll, 6 Edward VI., pt. iii, m. 1.

{12f}  Patent Roll, 1 Mary, pt. 8, m 2, (44) 28 Nov., 1553.

{12g}  Memoirs of Sir Henry Fynes Clinton.  _Annual Register_, 1772, p.
2.

{12h}  Coram Rege Roll, Portsmouth, April 20, 14 Chas. II.

{13a}  Exchequer Bills and Answers, 11 Charles V., Lincoln, No. 185.

{13b}  The carucate varied in different parts of the country, in
Lincolnshire it was 120 acres.  Gelt was a land tax, first imposed by the
Danes in the reign of Ethelred, about A.D. 991, being 2s. on the
carucate.  Villeins and bordars were under-tenants of two different
classes, bordars being superior to villeins.  (Introd. _Domesday Book_,
by C. Gowen Smith, 1870).

{13c}  Barristers are said to have been first appointed by Edward I.,
A.D. 1291.

{16a}  Among the Lincoln Cathedral Charters is an imperfect one, which
mentions her “Castle of Tornegat (can this be a corruption for
Horncastle?), her land at Wicham in Chent (Kent?), at Carlton and Torleby
(Thurlby) in Lincolnshire,” _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1901, p.
22.  There is a notice of her in the _Dictionary of National Biography_,
vol. I.

{16b}  This Geoffrey Gairmar is himself rather an interesting figure in
local history.  He is mentioned in the Rolls Series, 91, i, ii (Ed. Hardy
and Martin, 1888–9), as the author of _L’estorie des Engles_, a rhyming
chronicle, based chiefly on the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_, and Geoffrey of
Monmouth (between A.D. 1135 and 1147).  He undertook his work at the
request of Custance, wife of Ralph Fitz Gilbert; the latter held the
manor of Scampton near Lincoln, and Geoffrey was probably a Norman who
lived in that parish.  He quotes _The Book of Washingborough_ and _The
Lay of Haveloc the Dane_, relating to Grimsby.  He does not directly
mention Horncastle, but shews acquaintance with the neighbourhood by
celebrating the burial of King Ethelred at Bardney.

{16c}  Camden’s _Britannia_, pp. 45, 288, 529.

{16d}  _History of Lincoln_, 1816, p. 138.

{16e}  Camden, p. 88.  A Lincoln Chancery Inquisition (Oct. 31, 1503)
shows that on the death of Anne, daughter and heir of Edmund Cheney,
owning the manors of Tothill, Gayton, Riston, and Theddlethorpe, Robert
Willoughby, Lord Broke, was declared to be her kinsman and heir.

{16f}  Dugdale, vol. ii, p. 336.  D. Mon, ii, p. 646.  (_Architectural
Society’s Journal_, 1895, p. 23).

{17a}  Dugdale _Baronage_, p. 39.

{17b}  Hundred Rolls, Lincoln, No 14, m. 1, 3 Ed. I., A.D., 1274–5.  A
Pipe Roll also, 1 Richard I., A.D. 1189–90, mentions “Gerbod de Escalt as
paying a tale of £80 in Horncastre.”

{17c}  Feet of Fines, Lincoln, 37 Henry III., No. 36 (3 Nov. 1252), and
ditto, No. 38, same date.  Gerard de Rhodes is also named in a
Chancellor’s Roll, 3 John, A.D. 1201–1, as paying certain fees for
Horncastle.  He is also named in the document above quoted (Hundred
Rolls, Lincoln, 14, m. 1) as succeeding to the manor on the demise of
Gerbald de Escald.

{17d}  Feet of Fines, 9 Henry III., No. 52, Lincoln.

{18a}  Quo Warranto Roll, 9 Ed. I., 15 June, 1281, quoted _Lincolnshire
Notes & Queries_, vol. v, p. 216.

{18b}  Coram Rege Roll, 13 Ed. I., m. 10, 12 May, 1285.  _Lincs. Notes &
Queries_, pp. 219–20.

{18c}  The transfer of the manor to the bishop is further proved by a
Carlisle document, a chancery inquisition post mortem, dated Dec. 11,
1395, which states that a certain John Amery, owner of a messuage in the
parish “by fealty and the service of 16d. of rent, by the year, holds of
the Bishop of Carlisle, and the said Bishop holds of the King.”

{18d}  The bishops of those days were sportsmen.  It is recorded of a
Bishop of Ely that he rode to the Cathedral “with hawk on wrist,” and
left it in the cloister while doing “God’s service.”  There it was stolen
and he solemnly excommunicated the thief.  Aukenleck MS., temp. Ed. II.,
British Museum.  The extensive woods in the soke of Horncastle abounded
in game, as we have already shown by the tolls charged on roebuck, hares,
&c., brought into the town.  The punishment for killing a wild boar,
without the king’s licence, was the loss of both eyes.  These feræ naturæ
became extinct about A.D. 1620.

{18e}  These and other privileges granted to the Bishop are first
specified in a Cartulary Roll, 14–15 Henry III.; they are renewed in a
Memoranda Roll of 4 Ed. III.; again in the 25th year of Henry VI., and
further in a Roll attested by Charles II., in his court at Westminster,
Feb. 26, 1676.  The August Fair was, in late years, altered by the Urban
Council to begin on the 2nd Monday in the month, and to end on the
following Thursday, it really however begins on the previous Thursday.

{19a}  Roll 104, Hilary Term, 24 Ed. III. (1350).  County Placita,
Lincoln, No. 46.

{19b}  De Banco Roll, Michaelmas, 41 Ed. III., m. 621, Aug. 3, 1368,
Lincoln.

{19c}  Coram Rege Roll, Trinity, 13 Ed. I., m. 10, Westminster, 12 May,
1285.  Given in _Lincolnshire Notes & Queries_, vol. v., p. 220.

{20a}  Patent Roll, 14 Richard II., pt. 2, m. 47, 8 Dec., 1390.  _Lincs.
Notes & Queries_, vol. v., p. 221.

{20b}  Fuller’s _Church History of Britain_, vol. i, pp. 240, 242.

{20c}  Camden’s _Britannia_, p. 484.

{20d}  Camden’s _Britannia_, p. 522.

{20e}  _Ibid_, p. 978.  The name of Tibetot may possibly still survive in
the family of Tibbot, who till quite recently held the manor of Thimbleby
in the soke of Horncastle.

{20f}  _Ibidem_, p. 489.

{20g}  _Ibidem_, p. 88.

{20h}  _Ibidem_, p. 760.  This castle was built by Richard, Baron le
Scrope, Chancellor of England under Richard II.

{20i}  _Ibidem_, p. 99.

{20j}  _Ibidem_, p. 722.

{20k}  Patent Roll 6 Ed. VI., pt. 3, m. 1, 21 Nov., 1552, witnessed by
the king at Westminster.

{21a}  Patent Roll, 1 Mary, pt. 8, m. 2 (44), 28 Nov., 1553.

{21b}  Historical MS. Commission.  Calendar of MS. of the most Honble.
the Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., &c., p. 179.

{21c}  This Earl of Lincoln would seem to have been of a particularly hot
temperament.  I have mentioned in another volume (_Records of Woodhall
Spa_, pp. 14.0, &c.) several of his actions of gross violence against the
Saviles of Poolham Hall, in this neighbourhood, about the same date
(1578).  I will merely state here that he, with a party of followers,
attacked Sir Robert Savile, when on a hunting excursion, seized several
of his hounds and hanged them, as Sir Robert says, “upon my own tree
within my own ground.”  He forced his way into the parlour at Poolham and
challenged Sir Robert to fight “six to six” of their dependents.  After
an entertainment at Horncastle his followers, at his instigation, got
hold of an unfortunate tailor, “drew their swords and sore wounded him,”
saying he should “have that and more, for his master’s sake,” Sir Robert
Savile’s son.  One Robert Fullshaw, of Waddingworth, prayed the justices
for protection against his “horrible outrages,” and it was said that his
conduct “savoured of insanity.”  (_Illustrations of English History_ by
Lodge.  Lansdown MS., Brit. Mus., 27, art. 41.)

{21d}  Patent Roll, 6 Ed. VI., pt. i, m. 11.  Date 8 Dec., 1554.

{22a}  Esch. Inquis. post mortem, 3–4 Henry VIII., No. 14.

{22b}  It does not appear where this “Parish-fee” was situated, doubtless
it was subordinate to the main manor of Horncastle, such “fees” were
generally named after the owners once “enfeoffed” of them, as we have at
Spalding Ayscough-fee Hall, once owned by the Ayscoughs, Beaumont-fee at
Lincoln, owned by the Beaumonts, Panell-fee by the Paganels, Nevill-fee
by the Nevills in Middle Rasen, &c.  _Architectural Society’s Journal_,
1895, p. 19.  There is a family named Parish at Horncastle but they are a
modern importation.

{22c}  Inquis. post mortem, 6 Edward III., held at Haltham, Sep. 21,
1333.

{22d}  Feet of Fines, Lincoln, 32 Henry III., 21 July, A.D. 1248.
_Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. iv. p. 120.  This is repeated in a Final
Concord of the same date between Silvester, Bishop of Carlisle, and other
parties.  _Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. vii., p. 114.

{22e}  Cottonian Charter, v., 61, quoted _Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol.
iii, p. 245.

{22f}  _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1896, pp. 254–257.

{22g}  Court of Wards Inquis. post mortem, 3, 4 and 5 Ed. VI., vol. v.,
p. 91.  _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1896, p. 258.

{22h}  Chancery Inquis. post mortem, 20 Henry VI., No. 25.
_Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1899, p. 257.

{22i}  _Ibidem_.

{22j}  _Ibidem_, p. 258.

{24a}  _Lincs. Notes & Queues_, vols. i., p. 183, and ii., p. 219.

{24b}  _Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. i, p. 47.

{24c}  Feet of Fines, Lincoln, 27 Edward III., No. 158.

{24d}  Originalia Roll, 34 Edward III., m. 35, A.D. 1360–1.

{24e}  Feet of Fines, Lincoln, 41 Edward III., No. 94.

{24f}  Inquis. post mortem, 10 James I., pt. i., No. 11.

{25a}  Chancery B. and A., James I., R., r, 10, 1, 8 October, 1623.

{25b}  These details are all taken from Camden’s _Britannia_, Gibson’s
Edition, 1695.

{26a}  Chancellor’s Roll, A.D. 1201–2.

{26b}  _Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. iii., pp. 244–5.

{27a}  _Ibidem_.

{27b}  Camden’s _Britannia_, p. 712.

{27c}  Pipe Roll, 1160–1.

{27d}  Pipe Roll, 1161–2.

{27e}  Testa de Nevill, folio 348.  He also held the advowson of Mareham,
which was transferred to the Bishop of Carlisle, as Lord of Horncastle,
in 1239 (Final Concords, p. 304) by his successor, William de Bavent.

{27f}  Cathedral Charters (Calcewaith), folio 106 (a), quoted
_Architectural Society’s Journal_, No. xxvii, p. 14.

{27g}  Chancery Inquisition post mortem, 18 Ed. I., No. 34.

{27h}  Chancery Inquisition post mortem, 12 Ed. II., No. 22.

{27i}  Chancery Inquisition post mortem, 44 Ed. III., No. 32.  These
trustees were John Amery of Horncastle; Simon, Parson of Wilksby; John of
Claxby Pluckacre; and others.

{27j}  De Banco Roll, 5 Henry VII., Hilary, M., A.D. 1490.

{28a}  _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1894, p. 190.  _Lincs. Notes &
Queries_, vol. iii., p. 204, vol. vii., p. 3.

{28b}  Maddison’s _Wills_, 1st series, p. 360, No. 96.

{28c}  Lansdown MS., British Museum, 54, 62, &c., quoted in _Old
Lincolnshire_, vol. i., p. 118.  In All Saint’s Church at Theddlethorpe
is a fine brass of an Angevin and his wife of the 16th century.

{28d}  De Banco Roll, 5 Henry VII., Hilary, M., A.D. 1490.

{28e}  Chancery Inquisition post mortem, taken at Alford, April 28, 14
Henry VIII., A.D. 1522.

{28f}  Bridge’s _History of Northamptonshire_, quoted _Architectural
Society’s Journal_, 1879, p. 45, note.

{28g}  Patent I Ed. IV., pt. 2, m. 59, quoted _Old Lincolnshire_, vol.
i., p. 124.

{29a}  Chancery Inquisition, 18 Henry VII., No. 34., taken at East Rasen,
26 Oct., 1502.

{29b}  Commission of Peace, 13 July, 1510, quoted _Lincs. Notes &
Queries_, Jan. 1896, p. 15.

{29c}  Inquisition post mortem, 6 Henry VIII., 20 Jan., A.D. 1515.  _Old
Lincolnshire_, vol. i, p. 221.

{29d}  Circa A.D. 1536.  _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1895, p. 14.

{29e}  _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1894, p. 192.

{29f}  _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1894, p. 215.

{29g}  _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1894, p. 221.

{29h}  _Architectural Society’s Journal_, 1879.  _Pedigree of
Fitz-Williams_, p. 44, &c.  A Douglas Tyrwhitt of this family, daughter
of George Tyrwhitt, Esq., in 1703 left a dole of 10/-, charged on land at
Belchford, to the poor of Horncastle.

{29i}  Patent Roll, 19 Elizabeth, pt. iv, m. 13, 2 May, 1577.

{30a}  Privately printed, from Burghley Papers, by Right Hon. Edward
Stanhope of Revesby Abbey, 1892.

{30b}  Works of Thomas Becon, Parker Society, p. 480, note.

{30c}  Bishop Aldrich died at Horncastle in March, 1555, he was a
distinguished graduate of King’s College, Cambridge, Provost of Eton, a
correspondent of the great Dutch scholar Erasmus; afterwards made
Archdeacon of Colchester, Canon of Windsor, Registrar of the Order of the
Garter, and consecrated to the See of Carlisle 18 July, 1537.

{31a}  Exchequer Bills and Answers, Chas. I., Lincoln, No. 36.  Among the
charges brought against Rutland Snowden (as already stated elsewhere) one
was, that, besides having aided the forces of the Parliament, he had more
than one wife.  The Snowden Arms are given in “Yorks. Union of Honour,”
_Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. iv., p. 16.

{31b}  _Lincs. Notes & Queries_, vol. i., p. 106.

{31c}  The valuable collections of Sir Joseph Banks are still carefully
preserved at Revesby Abbey, and form in themselves almost a museum.

{32a}  Leland’s _Collectanea_, 66, p. 300.

{32b}  The stables of John of Gaunt’s House still exist adjoining the
High Street.

{33a}  Quoted Weir’s _History of Horncastle_, note p. 29, ed. 1820.

{33b}  On Saturday, next the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, 21
Jan., 1384–5, held by John de Feriby, Escheator of the King, in the
County of Lincoln.

{34}  Most of these fragments were removed by Mr. Stanhope to Revesby
Abbey.  Two of them are preserved in the garden of Langton Rectory, near
Horncastle.

{36}  The origin of this Chantry is shewn by the following documents:—In
the archives of Carlisle Cathedral is a copy, in Latin, of a Privy Seal
State Paper, Domestic, vol. i, 5039, of date 5 May, 6 Henry VIII. (A.D.
1514), slightly imperfect, but running thus: “The King to all . . .
greeting.  Know that we, of our special grace . . . by these presents do
grant . . . for us, our heirs and successors . . . to the devout woman,
the Lady Margaret Copuldyke, widow, and Richard Clarke, tanner, of
Horncastle, that they found a fraternity, or guild, to the honour of St.
Katharine, and for the extending of divine teaching, in the Parish Church
of the blessed Virgin of Horncastell, and mortain licence to acquire land
of the annual value of 25 marks” (£16 15s. 4d.).  Another document, a
Chantry Certificate, Lincoln, No. 33 (55), Ed. VI. (1552), states that
“the Guild of St. Katharine, in Horncastell, was founded by _Joan_
Copuldyke, widow, and others, with the intention that one Chaplain for
ever, should celebrate divine services in the church, for the souls of
the founder, and others; the profits of the land and possessions are
received by the Alderman of the Guild.”  They are described as “worth
yearly £13 8s. 8d., with fees, wages, rents and other reprises, £7 15s.
3d.  The clear value, reprises deducted, yearly, £5 13s. 10d.,” with
“goods, chattels and ornaments worth £1 10s.”  It is to be observed that
Gervase Holles says, that at the time of his visit, she was named
“Margaret,” in a window then existing in the church.  A Patent Roll, 3
Ed. VI., pt. 5, m. 4, gives various lands and tenements, with which this
chantry was endowed, in Horncastle, Spilsby, Thornton and Roughton,
occupied by about 100 tenants; and states that all these were granted “by
the King to Robert Carr, gent., of Sleaford, and John Almond, their heirs
and assigns.”  Witness, the King, at Westminster, 15 July, 1549.  This is
further confirmed by an Inquisition post mortem, 5 Eliz., pt. 1, No. 67.
[This was ‘in return for a payment by them of £1,238 11s. 10d.’]  Among
the signatories to a declaration of the Royal supremacy (Lincoln Chapter
Housebook, B. 3, 14, p. 39) are the names of Robt. James, Vicar of
Horncastle Michel Whithed, Curate of Horncastle Hugh Doddington,
“Cantuarista” of Horncastle (probably Chaplain of this Chantry).  It was
also served by Robert Geffrey in 1552.  Chantry Certificates, Lincoln 33
(55).

{37a}  Harleian MS. No. 6829, p. 241.  In a window in the north aisle was
the inscription “Orate pro ái’â Thomæ Coppuldike armig., et D’næ
Margaretæ, Consortis suæ, fundatoria gildæ cantar . . . fenestram fieri
fecit.  Ano D’ni 1526.”  In the eastern window of the south aisle was the
inscription “Orate pro benefactoribus artis sutorum, qui istim fenestram
fieri fecerunt. sc’æ Nemanæ cum sera et catena.  Item S’ci Crispinus et
Crispinianus cum instrumentis calceariis.”  Here it is distinctly stated
that a Guild of Shoemakers gave the window, and that Crispinus and
Crispinianus the patron saints of shoemakers, were there represented.  A
note in the same MS. states that Frances, wife of Gervase Holles, died at
Horncastle and was buried there.  (These passages are quoted in Weir’s
_History of Horncastle_, pp. 30, 31, note, edition of 1820).

{38}  Mr. Dee had formerly been a Clerk in Mr. Clitherow’s office, as
Solicitor.

{39a}  This was formerly the altar-piece below the east window of the
chancel, before the present reredos was placed there, and dedicated at
the Harvest Festival, 22 Sept., 1870.

{39b}  It may here be stated, that the former font was quite as good as
the present one, octagonal in form, and of perpendicular design, in
harmony with older portions of the church.  It was, however, discarded at
the restoration, and, for some time, hidden away among rubbish, but
eventually presented to the restored church of the neighbouring parish of
Belchford.  The bowl of the present font is too small to answer the
requirements of the Rubric, and is not in keeping with the architecture
of the church.

{39c}  A Lectern, consisting of a large eagle, of cast iron, bronzed, on
the model of one in St. Margaret’s Church, Lynn, was presented by the
late Prebendary Samuel Lodge, Rector of Scrivelsby.  This is still
preserved in the south chancel chapel.

{40a}  Walker in his _Sufferings of the Clergy_ (1714) gives an account
of Thomas Gibson, which we here abridge.  Born at Keswick (in the diocese
of Carlisle), he went to Queen’s College, Oxford, was appointed Master of
the Free School at Carlisle, there promoted to the similar post at
Newcastle, and finally preferred by the Bishop of Carlisle to the
Vicarage of Horncastle in 1634.  In consequence of a sermon preached by
him, at the Election for Convocation, he was seized, in 1643, and carried
as a prisoner to Hull.  Being released after four month’s detention, and
returning to Horncastle, he was charged with teaching “ormanism”
(arminianism), and committed to the “County Jail” at Lincoln, a
Presbyterian minister being appointed in his stead at Horncastle.  In
1644 Colonel King, the Governor of Boston under the Parliament, ordered a
party of horse to seize him (apparently having been released from
Lincoln) and to plunder his house, but an old pupil, Lieut. Col. John
Lillburn, interceded for him with his superior officer, Col. King, and
the order was revoked.  In the subsequent absence, however, of Lillburn
in London, the order was repeated, and Mr. Gibson was made prisoner, his
house plundered, and his saddle horse, draught horses, and oxen carried
off.  He was imprisoned at Boston, Lincoln and “Tattors-Hall Castle,”
where he had “very ill-usage for 17 weeks.”  He was sequestrated from his
benefice and an “intruder,” named Obadiah How, put in charge.  He was now
accused of defending episcopacy, “refusing the covenant,” &c.  He retired
to a “mean house,” about a mile from Horncastle, supposed to be at
“Nether (Low) Toynton,” where he and his family “lived but poorly for two
years, teaching a few pupils.”  He was then appointed Master of the Free
School at Newark, two years later removed to the school at Sleaford,
being presented by Lady Carr.  There he lived until the Restoration, and
then resumed his Vicarage at Horncastle, until he died in 1678, aged 84.
“He was a grave and venerable person (says Walker), of a sober and
regular conversation, and so studious of peace, that when any differences
arose in his parish, he never rested till he had composed them.  He had
likewise so well principled his parish that, of 250 families in it, he
left but one of them Dissenters at his death.”  (Walker’s _Sufferings of
the Clergy_, pt. ii, p. 252, Ed. 1714).

{40b}  There is an error in the date, which should be Oct. 11.  Further,
the term “arch rebel” is inappropriate, as Cromwell was, at that time,
only a Colonel, far from having attained his later distinction; the term
“skirmish” is also inadequate, as the Winceby battle was a decisive
engagement, with important consequences.

{41a}  The origin of these scythes has of late years been a _vexata
questio_.  It has been suggested that they are not, as generally
supposed, relics of the Parliamentary War, but of the earlier so-called
“Pilgrimage of Grace,” or “Lincolnshire Rising,” a movement intended as a
protest against certain abuses attending the Reformation, in the reign of
Henry VIII.  The evidence, however, gathered from various directions,
would seem to be strongly corroborative of the old and more general
opinion.  History shows that, for many years, about the period of the
Commonwealth, scythes were among the commonest, rude weapons of war.  The
artist Edgar Bundy, in his painting “The morning of Edgemoor,” recently
(1905) purchased for the National Gallery by the Chantry Trustees,
represents a soldier armed with a straight wooden-handled scythe.  The
battle of Edgemoor was fought Oct. 23, 1642, one year before that of
Winceby.  We have also contemporary testimony in the _Memoirs of the
Verney Family_ (vol. i, pp. 109–118 and 315), members of which took part
in the civil war of that period, that King Charles’ forces consisted
largely of untrained peasants, “ill-fed and clothed . . . having neither
colours, nor halberts . . . many only rude pikes . . . few a musket.”  To
such the scythes used in their farm labour would be handy weapons in
emergency.  As a parallel to these cases Sir Walter Scott, in his preface
to _Rob Roy_, states that “many of the followers of MacGregor, at the
battle of Prestonpans (Sep. 21, 1745), were armed with scythe blades, set
straight upon their handles, for want of guns and swords.”  It is not
without interest to note, that about 60 years ago there were exhumed, on
the farm above Langton Hill, in Horncastle, the remains of 6 bodies,
lying buried in a row, with scythe blades beside them.  It is known that
skirmishes between Royalists and Roundheads took place in this locality,
and it can hardly be doubted that these also were relics of the Winceby
fight.  The then tenant of the farm, Mr. Dobson (as the writer has been
informed by his granddaughter, Mrs. H. Boulton of St. Mary’s Square,
Horncastle), carted these remains to the town and they were re-buried in
the south side of St. Mary’s Churchyard, while the scythes were added to
those already in the church.  An incident, which further confirms their
connection with the Winceby fight, is that the present writer has in his
possession a pair of spurs, which were found on the field of Winceby,
remarkable for the long spikes of their rowels; and he himself once found
the rowel of a spur, with similarly long spikes, within a few yards of
where the bodies were discovered; and in the year 1905 he also examined
several bones, pronounced by a doctor to be human, which were found near
the same spot, while workmen were digging for the foundations of a house
since erected there.  On the other hand, as against the theory of the
scythes having been used in the earlier “Pilgrimage of Grace,” we are
distinctly told that the mobs concerned in that movement were deprived of
all weapons before they could use them.  In the Lincoln Chapter House
books (c. i, 20, f 193) is a letter from Richard Cromwell, dated Oct. 29,
1586, which says that he, and Admiral Sir John Russell, went to Louth,
where “all the harness and weapons were seized, and conveyed to Lincoln,”
and that for the same purpose Mr. Bryan had been sent to Horncastle, and
Mr. Brown to Market Rasen.  On the whole, therefore, the preponderance of
evidence is strongly in favour of the connection of all these scythes
with the neighbouring Battle of Winceby—the original tradition.

{41b}  Weir, in his _History of Horncastle_ gives the quarterings of
these shields as follows:—

(1)  Sable, 2 lions passant in pale, ducally crowned, or, Dymoke impaling
Barry of 6 ermines, and gules, 3 crescents, sable, Waterton; a crescent
for difference.

(2)  Dymoke impaling Vairè, on a fess, gules frettè, or.  Marmyon, in
chief, ermine, 5 fusils in fess, Hebden, a crescent for difference.

(3)  Argent, a sword erect, azure, hilt and pomel gules.

(4)  Dymoke impaling quarterly, gules and argent, a cross engrailed.
Countercharged, Haydon, a crescent for difference.

{42a}  The only other theft from the church of which we have record, was
when the vestry was broken into in December, 1812, and the money
collected for parish purposes was stolen.  A reward of £50 was offered
for information of the thief, but without result.  (MS. notes by Mr. T.
Overton in possession of Mr. John Overton, of Horncastle.)

{42b}  Details of these are given by Holles as follows:—

                                            _In fenestra Insulæ Borealis_.

    “Orate pro a’ia Thomæ Coppuldike Armig. & D’næ Margaretæ Consortis suæ fundatoris Gildæ Cantar . . . Fenestram
    fieri fecit Ano Dni 1526.”

                                      _In superiori fenestra Borealis Cancelli_.

    ‘Gules a lion passant guardant.  Arg. . . .

    Sable, 3 flowres de lize betw: 6 crosses botony fitchy Arg. . . .

    Gules, a cross sarcelly Arg.” . . .                                                                           Bec.

                                      _In fenestra Orientali Insulæ Australis_.

    “Orate pro benefactoribus artis sutorum, qui istam fenestram fieri fecerunt stæ Ninianæ cum cera et catena.  Item
    sti Crispinus et Crispianus cum instrumentis calceariis.”  (N.B.  The feminine is an error of Holles, as St.
    Ninian was a man.  Collier’s _History_, vol. i. p. 100).

                                            _Fenestra Borealis superior_.

Empaled         Sa, 2 lions passant arg. crowned or.                                                            Dymoke

                Or, a lion rampant double queue sa.                                                             Welles

Empaled





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