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´╗┐Title: Blackboard Drawing
Author: Whitney, Frederick
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Blackboard Drawing" ***

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Libraries.)



  Blackboard Drawing

  A MONOGRAPH

  BY
  FREDERICK WHITNEY

  OF THE
  STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
  SALEM, MASSACHUSETTS


  SIXTH EDITION


  PUBLISHED BY
  Atkinson, Mentzer & Company
  Boston    New York    Chicago    Atlanta    Dallas



  Copyright, 1902-1903, by The Davis Press
  All Rights Reserved



Foreword


This monograph is a reprint of a series of articles first published in the
second volume of the magazine now known as _The School Arts Book_. The
articles attracted wide attention on account of their timeliness and their
illustrations. The plates were made from photographs of actual work upon
the blackboard by Mr. Whitney, and are undoubtedly the most attractive
blackboard drawings ever published. The demand for these articles has been
so great that the original editions have been exhausted. They are
republished in this form in the hope that they may influence yet more
strongly the increasing number of teachers who find the blackboard
indispensable in teaching.

HENRY TURNER BAILEY

September, 1903



BLACKBOARD DRAWING


None of the teachers who read "The School Arts Book" from month to month
doubt in the least the value of drawing in our schools, and there is no
need of the slightest argument in its favor. Even in the lowest grades the
teacher appreciates drawing as the natural expression of the thought and
experience of the child; a spontaneous activity, having its relation to
life, not a thing apart from life or an end in itself. Throughout the
grades the teacher should cultivate this spirit of freedom and interest,
remembering that drawing is a language to be used as naturally and freely
as one written or spoken.

Why should these suggestions not apply to the teacher as well as to the
child? Why should she not express herself, the interests of school life
and of the pupil in the same free, natural way?

Upon entering a schoolroom the teacher finds the blackboards bare and
dull. There is little in the line of decoration in the room and in order
to relieve this monotony she stencils a border, the picture of some great
hero or well-known author, draws with colored chalk the inevitable flags
crossed at right angles or puts upon the board some design which possibly
may or perhaps may not have relation to the needs of the children, their
life and activities, or the industries of the school.

When the drawing on the part of the child becomes the natural and free
expression of the activities and interests of every-day life, and the
teacher uses this graphic language in the same manner, the blackboards
will be found constantly in use and upon them an ever changing series of
drawings. These drawings should be illustrations of the geography,
history, literature, nature work or any other line demanding their aid.
Let them be drawings upon which a few moments of time are spent, a free
sketch illustrating the object or topic as a means of making the subject
use of chalk and eraser, to be kept upon the board indefinitely as a bit
of decoration.


[Illustration: Plate 1]

[Illustration: Plate 2]


Let me suggest the practice of the following strokes and later we will try
their application in various drawings recommended by teachers from several
schools. In these illustrations use about two-thirds of a stick of soft
blackboard crayon, using the large end and drawing with the side of the
chalk. This use of the crayon will produce any tone from white to neutral
gray.

No. 1. Place the chalk in a horizontal position and try a smooth even
stroke one or two feet in length.


[Illustration: Plate 3]


No. 2. A similar stroke in a graded scale letting the pressure become less
and less toward the lower end of the stroke.

No. 3. Reverse No. 2 hardly touching the board at first and increasing the
pressure toward the lower end.

If charcoal is used for the lower tones, a very satisfactory scale may be
produced as in the last illustration on Plate 1.

No. 4. Combine No. 2 and No. 3 in a single stroke. Try all these strokes
again and again in a vertical, horizontal, oblique, and curving direction
until each can be made in a second or two.


[Illustration: Plate 4]


No. 5. Place the chalk in a vertical position upon the board, draw
downward, gradually twisting the chalk to a horizontal position.

No. 6. Place the chalk horizontally and draw downward, twisting the chalk
to a vertical position.

No. 7. These spots are No. 5 and No. 6 combined. Try them with a short,
quick motion of the chalk.

No. 8. Combine two spots similar to the first at No. 7. The leaf in
outline requires several lines while the drawing representing the surface
was made with two strokes and one line for the midrib and stem. Try
several leaves of different shapes using the stroke suggested on this
plate. The pond lily is drawn with this same stroke reduced.

No. 9. Make a scale from left to right by pressure upon one end of the
chalk, while giving a vertical stroke. Try this in various directions. Use
two parallel strokes and with a bit of charcoal for accent try the trunk
of the birch tree.

No. 10. Use No. 4, Plate 1, in a series of lights and darks. This is made
by quick pressure at short intervals without removing the chalk from the
board. I have seen this used by science teachers to illustrate vibrations
or wave lengths; we shall use it later for pictorial purposes.

No. 11. Place the chalk upon the board in a horizontal position, move
rapidly back and forth, gradually shortening the stroke, and repeat this
exercise in various positions and directions.

No. 12. This drawing was made by the use of No. 11. Draw first a few lines
suggesting the growth of the fern, then add the strokes letting the fern
dictate the direction, accenting the lighter values by a stronger
pressure.

Draw the upper leaf on Plate 4 by the use of stroke No. 6, hardly touching
the board for the gray tones, then adding the white tones with a stronger
pressure upon the chalk.

Are we sure that we have not tried to make drawing an end rather than a
means? Let us remember that there must be a motive prompting the work, an
interest or experience back of the drawing which demands expression. In
the color work, design, and manual work, the influence of this thought has
already been felt. The object needed in the schoolroom or for the
individual use of the pupil is the object designed and made. With this new
motive, there comes a growing appreciation and interest on the part of the
child.

The blackboard drawing should be governed by the same spirit, the need of
the hour, just as surely as the child's work at his desk, and when the
teacher realizes this fact, he will never lack a subject for illustration.
For instance, in the fall the class may be studying trees, and drawing
will be found indispensable.

The children are studying some tree near at hand, comparing trees to
discover their points of likeness and difference, collecting pictures of
trees and mounting these to illustrate their description, and with this
study they are becoming more or less familiar with our common trees. If
the teacher should go to the blackboard to enforce a point in regard to
the general form of the tree, direction of branches or characteristic
details, he will find such sketches a great help. It is the teacher who
does such illustrative drawing who holds and interests his class.

Let us try a few simple applications of the practice previously suggested,
using the trees as our topic for illustration.

No. 13. Draw a gray, vertical line suggesting the characteristic line of
growth in the pine tree. Use the stroke given in No. 11 for the foliage.
To represent the foliage in a mass, simply shorten or lengthen the stroke
of the chalk, using a greater pressure here and there. With the side of
the chalk represent the trunk of the tree where visible and with the point
indicate branches.


[Illustration: Plate 5]


Certain laws govern blackboard work as well as object drawing on paper. A
sketch of the object as a whole must be made first and the massing of the
lights and shades must be done before detail is attempted. The general
outline may often be sketched with charcoal and corrected when the chalk
is used.


[Illustration: Plate 6]


No. 14. Try the poplar tree. Again the vertical line is characteristic.
Indicate this. Mass the foliage as before, using a vertical rather than a
horizontal stroke. Do not remove the chalk from the board until the mass
of foliage is represented and remember to give a light pressure for the
grays and a strong one for the whites.

It is not the greatest quantity of chalk which gives the best drawing any
more than the greatest quantity of pigment in our color work which gives
the best painting. Represent trunk and branches as in No. 13.


[Illustration: Plate 7]


No. 15. A bit of landscape indicated by a few strokes of chalk often
renders the drawing much more pleasing and at the same time suggests the
environment of the tree. The lines used here are those given in No. 1, No.
9 and No. 11, and are easily represented.


[Illustration: Plate 8]


No. 16. The willow is another interesting tree for study and is drawn in a
similar manner to those previously mentioned. The stroke of the chalk for
foliage is a curving one rather than horizontal as in the evergreen or
vertical as in the poplar.

No. 17. A suggestion of distance will frequently be found a good
background for a tree, building or other similar foreground. The distance
is treated in exactly the same manner as the foliage in many of the trees,
the side of the chalk giving a gray, uneven surface. In drawing the water
represent the reflections with vertical strokes and the ripples with
horizontal ones.


[Illustration: Plate 9]


No. 18. Make the hillside with two or three gray strokes of No. 1, the
clouds with a similar curving stroke, and the trees with charcoal, using
the same treatment as in the chalk drawings.


[Illustration: Plate 10]


No. 19. Experiment with a few vegetables, or fruit, using the strokes
which the illustrations will readily suggest. For the grapes use a short
piece of chalk and a quick, curving stroke, the point being used only in
accenting.

No. 20. The basket is represented by using No. 10, Plate 3, for the
surface and the point for the details. Experiment a while with the
handle, begin at the lower end at the left, draw upward, to the right and
downward.


[Illustration: Plate 11]


The tumbler is represented by using a few gray vertical strokes of the
chalk. Accent with chalk for high lights and a bit of charcoal for darks.

In the other objects on Plate 8 let the surface of the vegetable dictate
the direction of the stroke, keeping the work as simple as possible. See
with how few touches an effect can be obtained. A variety of illustrations
may be attempted, all of which have been suggested by grade teachers as
useful in many lines of school work.


[Illustration: Plate 12]

[Illustration: Plate 13]


An outline drawing upon the blackboard expresses much, and is often better
than any attempt at light and shade or variety in tone, yet there are
frequent occasions when the representation of solidity or of surface is
better obtained in illustrative work by the use of the side of the chalk
and charcoal. In such cases leave the blackboard for the middle values and
use the charcoal and chalk as in previous sketches.

For instance, make a drawing of the wigwam and canoe, adding some of the
tree sketches upon which we have previously worked or simply indicating a
few tree trunks.


[Illustration: Plate 14]


No. 21. Make a light sketch either with chalk or charcoal, indicating the
general form of the objects, or if one has a good idea of form, he may
make the drawing without outlining. A few oblique strokes handled in the
same manner as the gray tones given in No. 1 will produce the wigwam. The
details may be added with chalk or charcoal. A single horizontal stroke
curving a bit at either end gives the general form of the canoe. If a few
minor markings are given, the children will have no doubt of your intent
in the sketch. For the tree trunks use the stroke suggested by No. 9, and
for the water consult No. 17 and No. 18, Plate 7.

No. 22. The woodland appeals to all children and is frequently the topic
in history, geography, botany, literature, and nature study as well as
drawing. A few broad, gray strokes will give the sky. With a cloth, erase
tree tops for the distance and a few vertical lines for tree trunks. Use
the vertical strokes suggested in No. 9 for the light tones in the trees
and charcoal for the darks to produce the cylindrical effect. Mass the
foliage as in the trees previously drawn and add the necessary markings
for branches.

No. 23. A landscape with the old house in the foreground gives an
opportunity to put into practice many of the previous suggestions.

No. 24. This sketch was asked for as an illustration for the study of
colonial history. In both No. 23 and No. 24 the sky is drawn by the use of
the horizontal stroke and the clouds, trees, and distance erased with a
bit of soft cloth. The strokes used in the buildings and fence are evident
and need no interpretation.

Plate No. 12 shows two looms made by the children, and the beginning of
the rugs they are weaving from their own designs. The illustration is from
the blackboard drawing made by the teacher to show how the Indians made
and used a loom. This illustration has been used in history, geography,
and manual training.

Lessons in geography often require quick illustration. The school building
may not be well located for this study, or the teacher is not fortunate
enough to have a good series of pictures for the use of his class. In such
cases, or in any case, even when he has other material, blackboard
illustration will help the children. No. 25, No. 26, and No. 27, Plate 13,
suggests useful sketches.

Such topics as the clouds, the mountains, the plain, the valley, the
brook, the waterfall, the beach, the ocean, the cliff, and innumerable
others are easily and quickly illustrated in this manner. The teacher who
in a few moments can take advantage of this graphic language finds the
lessons a delight to himself and to the class.

Animal drawing is an extremely interesting lesson for the children, at the
same time a rather difficult one for many teachers. On Plate 14 will be
found a few drawings suggesting how few lines will indicate the general
outline and how few strokes of the side of the chalk will suggest the
surface.

There are special days, seasons, or occasions when blackboard drawings may
be used to advantage for illustration.

Thanksgiving stories are anticipated by the children, and Thanksgiving
pictures as well. These old, old scenes, ever new, appeal to us all
whether pupils or teachers. There are the settlement of New England, the
first Thanksgiving, the harvest time, the family gathering, and numerous
events which suggest illustration. In many schools there is the delightful
custom of remembering some unfortunate family. The children bring to the
school gifts of clothing, groceries, vegetables, etc., and assist the
teacher in packing these good things, and great is their joy in giving.


[Illustration: Plate 15]


Plate 15. This drawing will answer as an illustration of harvest time, or
perhaps the gift itself to be packed and sent away. Our lesson in object
drawing may be from these or similar objects. In this sketch a few
vertical strokes give the background and box, similar curving strokes the
barrel, and horizontal strokes the floor. The vegetables are drawn by
using the suggestions found in No. 9, Plate 3. The kernels of corn are
represented by the use of a very small piece of chalk and stroke No. 10,
and the husks by using No. 5, No. 6, and No. 7, Plate 2. The details are
added with the point of the chalk, and charcoal is used in the shadows.


[Illustration: Plate 16]


Christmas time of all seasons in the year is the one the children most
love, and there are innumerable stories and Christmas lessons for the
little ones. Let me give you a few verses I heard in the first grade and
the illustration used.

  Christmas-day was coming, Christmas-eve drew near;
  Fir-trees they were talking low, at midnight cold and clear,
  And this is what the fir-tree said, all in the pale moonlight,
  "Now which of us shall chosen be to grace the 'Holy Night'?"

  The tall trees and the goodly trees raised each a lofty head,
  In glad and secret confidence, tho' not a word they said,
  But one, the baby of the band, could not restrain a sigh:
  "You all will be approved," said he, "but oh, what chance have I?"

  "I am so small, so very small, no one will mark or know
  How thick and green my needles are, how true my branches grow;
  Few toys or candles could I hold, but heart and will are free,
  And in my heart of hearts I know I am a Christmas-tree."

The children told of the woodman who took his axe and started in search of
a tree for his baby at home; of the delight of the little tree at being
chosen, and of the joy of the little daughter when she saw it arrayed and
holding her Christmas gifts. The accompanying drawing will serve as an
illustration for this story or as a sketch of the forest in winter.

Plate 16. In this sketch use the strokes suggested for illustrations No.
13, Plate 5, and No. 22, Plate 10. Use the side of the chalk, hardly
touching the board and keeping the drawing very gray. Accent with a strong
pressure the parts representing snow.

This is but one suggestion. There is the inevitable Christmas tree with
the toys and gifts, Santa Claus bearing his bundle of gifts or going down
the chimney, and the fireplace with the stockings, all of which are
quickly drawn in the manner given in previous sketches.

Washington's birthday brings to mind the stories of his life, and pictures
may be found illustrating these incidents. One or two which all may see
and discuss will prove valuable.

Plate 17 will show a few drawings which have been used to advantage.

    A. Near Washington's Birthplace.
    B. Mt. Vernon.
    C. An old Stage Coach.

In these sketches the strokes used are evident.

Again, Patriots' Day and Memorial Day present many ideas in regard to
blackboard drawing and decoration. Some of these illustrations are
deplorable. I well remember one schoolroom which I visited and the
drawings which were upon the boards. On one side was a sketch of a pyramid
of cannon balls, next, several guns stacked, then two swords crossed at
right angles. On another side was a cannon, a wreath of some sort around
the stenciled portrait of a dead hero, a tombstone with an inscription,
and so on about the room, everything suggesting war, misery, bloodshed,
and death.

Can we not find something other than such illustrations, and bring to the
thought of the children love of home and country, and a reverence for
those who gave their lives for their protection?


[Illustration: Plate 17]


I have seen Plate 18 used in a schoolroom and feel sure it performed its
mission.


[Illustration: Plate 18]


Plate 19 will perhaps suggest its use. In these drawings the board is
slightly covered with either chalk or charcoal. In A about ten strokes of
the chalk and the charcoal outline finish the drawing of the lantern. B is
done almost entirely with charcoal, the chalk being used only in a few
gray tones and the touches of light in the distance. C is produced by
using the chalk in horizontal strokes and wiping out the trees with a
cloth. A few touches of charcoal will give the foliage, and the bridge is
added with simple strokes with the side of the chalk.


[Illustration: Plate 19]

[Illustration: Plate 20]


Plate 20. This was taken from a Kindergarten room in which the children
were celebrating Froebel's birthday. The drawings upon this plate were
made by the use of the simple strokes given or suggested in the plates
shown in the first part of this article.

There are other days of local interest which are celebrated in various
localities and the grade teacher will find that the use of illustrations
will appeal to the children, hold their interest and impress upon them a
central thought in the lesson.

Whether teaching drawing or some other study in the curriculum, the
teacher aims to make his work effective, and if he should once try
blackboard illustration, he will find it an invaluable aid towards making
clear or emphasizing important points.


[Illustration]





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