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Title: 出師表
Author: Zhuge, Liang, 181-234
Language: Chinese
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "出師表" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Title: Chu Shi Biao

Author: Liang Zhu Ge


出師表 / 諸葛亮

前出師表

臣亮言:先帝創業未半而中道崩殂。今天下三分,益州疲弊,此誠危急存亡之秋
也。然侍衞之臣,不懈於內;忠志之士,忘身於外者;蓋追先帝之殊遇,欲報之
於陛下也。誠宜開張聖聽,以光先帝遺德,恢宏志士之氣;不宜妄自菲薄,引喻
失義,以塞忠諫之路也。

宮中、府中,俱為一體,陟罰臧否,不宜異同。若有作姦犯科,及為忠善者,宜
付有司,論其刑賞,以昭陛下平明之治;不宜偏私,使內外異法也。

侍中、侍郎郭攸之、費褘、董允等,此皆良實,志慮忠純,是以先帝簡拔以遺陛
下。愚以為宮中之事,事無大小,悉以咨之,然後施行,必能裨補闕漏,有所廣
益。將軍向寵,性行淑均,曉暢軍事,試用於昔日,先帝稱之曰能,是以衆議舉
寵為督。愚以為營中之事,悉以咨之,必能使行陣和睦,優劣得所也。

親賢臣,遠小人,此先漢所以興隆也;親小人,遠賢臣,此後漢所以傾頹也。先
帝在時,每與臣論此事,未嘗不歎息痛恨於桓、靈也。侍中尚書、長史、參軍,
此悉貞良死節之臣也,願陛下親之、信之,則漢室之隆,可計日而待也。

臣本布衣,躬耕於南陽,苟全性命於亂世,不求聞達於諸侯。先帝不以臣卑鄙,
猥自枉屈,三顧臣於草廬之中,諮臣以當世之事。由是感激,遂許先帝以驅馳。
後值傾覆,受任於敗軍之際,奉命於危難之間,爾來二十有一年矣。先帝知臣謹
慎,故臨崩寄臣以大事也。受命以來,夙夜憂探,恐託付不效,以傷先帝之明,
故五月渡瀘,深入不毛。今南方已定,兵甲已足,當獎率三軍,北定中原。庶竭
駑鈍,攘除姦凶,興復漢室,還於舊都。此臣所以報先帝,而忠陛下之職分也。

至於斟酌損益,進盡忠言,則攸之、褘、允之任也。願陛下託臣以討賊興復之效
;不效,則治臣之罪,以告先帝之靈。若無興德之言,則責攸之、褘、允之慢,
以彰其咎。陛下亦宜自課,以咨諏善道,察納雅言,深追先帝遺詔,臣不勝受恩
感激。今當遠離,臨表涕泣,不知所云。

後出師表

先帝慮漢、賊不兩立,王業不偏安,故托臣以討賊也。以先帝之明,量臣之才,
故知臣伐賊,才弱敵強也。然不伐賊,王業亦亡。惟坐而待亡,孰與伐之?是故
托臣而弗疑也。臣受命之日,寢不安席,食不甘味;思惟北征,宜先入南:故五
月渡瀘,深入不毛,並日而食。臣非不自惜也:願王業不可偏安於蜀都,故冒危
難以奉先帝之遺意。而議者謂為非計。今賊適疲於西,又務於東,兵法「乘勞」
:此進趨之時也。謹陳其事如左:

高帝明並日月,謀臣淵深,然涉險被創,危然後安;今陛下未及高帝,謀臣不如
良、平,而欲以長策取勝,坐定天下:此臣之未解一也。劉繇、王朗,各據州郡
,論安言計,動引聖人,群疑滿腹,眾難塞胸;今歲不戰,明年不征,使孫策坐
大,遂並江東:此臣之未解二也。曹操智計,殊絶於人,其用兵也,仿怫孫、吳
,然困於南陽,險於烏巢,危於祁連,逼於黎陽,幾敗北山,殆死潼關,然後偽
定一時耳;況臣才弱,而欲以不危而定之:此臣之未解三也。曹操五攻昌霸不下
,四越巢湖不成,任用李服而李服圖之,委任夏侯而夏侯敗亡,先帝每稱操為能
,猶有此失;況臣弩下,何能必勝:此臣之未解四也。自臣到漢中,中間期年耳
,然喪趙雲、陽群、馬玉、閻芝、丁立、白壽、劉合、鄧銅等,及驅長屯將七十
餘人,突將無前,叢叟、青羌,散騎武騎一千餘人,此皆數十年之內,所糾合四
方之精銳,非一州之所有;若復數年,則損三分之二也。--當何以圖敵:此臣之
未解五也。今民窮兵疲,而事不可息;事不可息,則與住行,勞費正等;而不及
今圖之,欲以一州之地,與賊持久:此臣之未解六也。

夫難平者,事也。昔先帝敗軍於楚,當此時,曹操拊手,謂天下已定。然後先帝
東連吳、越,西取巴、蜀,舉兵北征,夏侯授首:此操之失計,而漢事將成也。
然後吳更違盟,關羽毀敗,秭歸蹉跌,曹丕稱帝:凡事如是,難可逆見。臣鞠躬
盡瘁,死而後已;至於成敗利鈍,非臣之明所能逆睹也。





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