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´╗┐Title: Luther's Small Catechism - Explained in Questions and Answers
Author: Sverdrup, H. U.
Language: English
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  LUTHER'S
  SMALL CATECHISM

  _Explained in Questions and Answers_

  BY
  H. U. Sverdrup,
  Late Pastor in the Church of Norway.

  ABRIDGED

  Translated from the Norwegian
  By H. A. URSETH

  THIRD EDITION

  MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.
  THE FREE CHURCH BOOK CONCERN
  1906.



  COPYRIGHTED BY
  THE FREE CHURCH BOOK CONCERN
  1900.



PREFACE.


In 1897 the present publishers issued in Norwegian an Explanation of
Luther's Small Catechism by Pastor H. U. Sverdrup, being an abridged
edition of a larger work by the same author, based on Dr.
Pontoppidan's Explanation of the Catechism. Some alterations were made
in the answers to questions 244-252. The present work is a translation
of this abridged and slightly altered edition.

A literal translation has been avoided rather than sought; an attempt
has been made to render the original in the simplest and strongest
English, and to avoid words and expressions with which the young are
little familiar.

In the catechism proper the Standard English Catechism Version has
been followed when it did not interfere with the plan stated above.
But departures have been made reluctantly and only when simplicity and
clearness seemed to be gained thereby. It is not thought that these
few changes will cause any disturbance.

Scripture quotations have been added somewhat freely from the larger
edition.

As the needs of our English speaking young people have been constantly
borne in mind during the preparation of this translation, it is hoped
that the book may not fail to carry some blessing to them.

    October, 1900.

                                                 _The Translator._



LUTHER'S SMALL CATECHISM.



PART ONE.

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.


THE FIRST COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt have no other gods before me.=

     _That is_,

We should fear, love, and trust in God above all things.


THE SECOND COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the
Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not curse, swear, conjure, lie, or
deceive by His name, but call upon His name in every time of need, and
worship Him with prayer, praise, and thanksgiving.


THE THIRD COMMANDMENT.

=Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not despise or neglect His Word, but
deem it holy and gladly hear and learn it.


THE FOURTH COMMANDMENT.

=Honor thy father and thy mother, that it may be well with thee, and
thou mayest live long on the earth.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not despise or give offense to our
parents or superiors; but honor, serve, obey, love, and esteem them.


THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not kill.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not hurt or harm our neighbor in his
body, but help and befriend him in all bodily distress.


THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not commit adultery.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and live a chaste and pure life, in words
and deeds, husband and wife loving and honoring each other.


THE SEVENTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not steal.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not take our neighbor's money or
property, nor get it by unfair dealing or other dishonesty, but help
him to improve and protect his property and living.


THE EIGHTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not tell lies about our neighbor, nor
betray, slander, or defame him; but excuse him, speak well of him, and
look upon all his acts as well-meant.


THE NINTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not by deceit or craft seek to gain
our neighbor's inheritance or home, nor try to get it though we seem
to have some right thereto, but help him to keep his own.


THE TENTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his man-servant, nor
his maid-servant, nor his cattle, nor anything that is his.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not estrange, force, or entice away
from our neighbor, his wife, servants, or cattle, but urge them to
stay and do their duty.

     _What does God say of all his commandments?_

=I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the
fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them
that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me,
and keep my commandments.=

     _That is_,

God threatens to punish all who transgress these commandments; we
should therefore fear His wrath, and do nothing against them.

On the other hand He promises grace and every blessing to all who keep
these commandments; we should therefore love Him and trust in Him, and
gladly do according to His commandments.



PART TWO.

THE THREE ARTICLES OF THE CREED.


THE FIRST ARTICLE.

CONCERNING CREATION.

=I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth.=

     _That is_,

I believe that God has made me and all other creatures; that He has
given me body and soul, eyes, ears, and all other members, my reason,
and all my senses.

I also believe that He preserves all He has made, and that He daily
provides me with all I need, giving me clothing and food, home and
family, and every good thing.

I further believe that He protects me from all danger, and keeps me
from all evil; not because I have deserved it, but because He is a
loving and merciful Father.

For all these blessings it is my duty to serve Him thankfully and
obediently all the days of my life.

All this is certainly true.


THE SECOND ARTICLE.

CONCERNING REDEMPTION.

=I believe in Jesus Christ His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived
by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary; suffered under Pontius
Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into hell; the
third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and
sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from whence He
shall come to judge the quick and the dead.=

     _That is_,

I believe that Jesus Christ is true God, begotten of the Father from
eternity; I also believe that He is true man, born of the Virgin Mary;
that He is my Lord, who has redeemed me, a lost and condemned sinner;
who has freed me from sin, from death, and from the power of Satan,
not with gold or silver but with His holy and precious blood and His
innocent death.

All this He has done that I might be His own, and that I might serve
Him in righteousness, innocence, and happiness, and live and reign
with Him in His kingdom forever, even as He arose from the dead, lives
and reigns through all eternity.

All this is certainly true.


THE THIRD ARTICLE.

CONCERNING SANCTIFICATION.

=I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy Christian church, the communion
of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and
life everlasting. Amen.=

     _That is_,

I believe that I cannot through my own strength believe in Jesus
Christ my Lord, or come to Him. This is the work of the Holy Spirit
alone, who has called me through the gospel, enlightened me with His
gifts, and sanctified and preserved me in the true faith;

Even as he calls, gathers, enlightens, and sanctifies the whole
Christian church on earth, and preserves it in fellowship with Jesus
Christ in the one true faith.

In this Christian church He daily forgives me and all believers all
our sins, and He will raise up me and all the dead on the last day,
and will give me and all believers everlasting life.

All this is certainly true.



PART THREE.

THE LORD'S PRAYER.


=Our Father who art in heaven.=

     _That is_,

God would hereby tenderly invite us to believe that He is truly our
Father, and we are truly His children, so that we may ask of Him with
all cheerfulness and confidence, as dear children ask of their dear
father.


THE FIRST PETITION.

=Hallowed be Thy name.=

     _That is_,

The name of God is indeed holy in itself; but we pray in this petition
that it may be hallowed also among us.

This is done when the Word of God is rightly taught, and when we as
the children of God live holy lives in obedience to the Word. This
grant us, heavenly Father.


THE SECOND PETITION.

=Thy kingdom come.=

     _That is_,

The kingdom of God comes indeed of itself, without our prayer, but we
pray in this petition that it may come also to us.

This is done when our heavenly Father gives us His Holy Spirit, so
that by His grace we believe the Word of God, and live holy and
Christ-like lives here in time, and in heaven forever.


THE THIRD PETITION.

=Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven.=

     _That is_,

The good and gracious will of God is done indeed without our prayer;
but we pray in this petition that it may be done also among us.

This is done when God brings to nothing all evil plans and purposes of
the devil, the world, and our own flesh, that would hinder the
hallowing of His name and the coming of His kingdom.

On the other hand, it is the good and gracious will of God to strengthen
us and keep us steadfast in His Word and in faith, until death.


THE FOURTH PETITION.

=Give us this day our daily bread.=

     _That is_,

God gives daily bread indeed without our prayer even to the wicked;
but we pray in this petition that He would help us to appreciate His
benefits, that we may receive our daily bread with thanksgiving.

By daily bread is meant all those things which are needed for our
support and well-being in life, as food and clothing, home and property,
happy family relations, a good government, favorable weather, peace and
health, faithful friends, good neighbors, and the like.


THE FIFTH PETITION.

=And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass
against us.=

     _That is_,

We pray in this petition that our Father in heaven would not look upon
our sins, nor, on account of them, deny our prayer, for we are not
worthy of anything we ask, neither have we deserved it; but we pray
that He would give it to us out of His mercy; for we sin every day,
and deserve nothing but punishment.

And we on our part will heartily forgive those who have sinned against
us, and return good for evil.


THE SIXTH PETITION.

=And lead us not into temptation.=

     _That is_,

God indeed tempts no one, but we pray in this petition that He would
guard and keep us from the devil, the world, and our own flesh, that
we fall not, through their deceit, into unbelief, despair, or other
sins; but we pray that although we be thus tempted, we may overcome
the temptation, and remain victorious.


THE SEVENTH PETITION.

=But deliver us from evil.=

     _That is_,

We pray in this petition, in general, that our Father in heaven would
deliver us from all evil, affecting body and soul, property and honor,
and at last grant us a blessed end, and graciously take us from this
world of sorrow to Himself in heaven.

     _What are the closing words of the Lord's Prayer?_

=For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and
ever. Amen.=

     _That is_,

We should remember that God is able to answer our prayer, and that the
glory belongs to Him alone, when we get according to our prayer.

     _Why is the word "Amen" added?_

It is added in order that I may be fully assured that these petitions
are acceptable to our Father in heaven, and are heard by Him.



PART FOUR.

THE SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM.


     _What is Baptism?_

Baptism is not water alone, but it is water comprehended in God's
command, and united with His Word.

     _What is God's command concerning Baptism?_

It is given in the words of Christ in the last chapter of Matthew:

="Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."=

     _What benefit do we have from Baptism?_

Baptism works the forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the
devil, and gives everlasting life to all who believe what the Word and
promises of God declare.

     _What is God's promise concerning Baptism?_

It is given in the words of Christ in the sixteenth chapter of Mark:

="He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that
believeth not shall be condemned."=

     _How can water do such great things?_

It is not water indeed that does it, but the Word of God, which is in
and with the water, and faith which trusts this Word of God in the
water.

For without the Word of God, the water is water alone, and no Baptism.
But with the Word of God it is a Baptism, that is, a gracious water of
life and a washing of regeneration in the Holy Ghost; as Paul says in
the third chapter of the epistle to Titus:

"According to His mercy He saved us, by the washing of regeneration,
and renewing of the Holy Ghost; which He shed on us abundantly through
Jesus Christ our Savior; that being justified by His grace, we should
be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life."

     _What does the baptizing with water signify?_

It signifies that the old man in us should, by daily sorrow and
repentance, be drowned and die, with all sins and evil desires; and
again a new man daily appear more and more, who shall live before God
in righteousness and purity forever.



PART FIVE.

THE SACRAMENT OF THE LORD'S SUPPER.


     _What is the Lord's Supper?_

It is the true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, under bread and
wine, instituted by Christ Himself for Christians to eat and to drink.

     _Repeat the Words of Institution._

="Our Lord Jesus Christ, in the night in which He was betrayed, took
bread, and when He had given thanks, He brake it and gave it to His
disciples, saying, Take, eat; this is my body, which is given for you;
this do in remembrance of me.=

="After the same manner, also, when He had supped, He took the cup,
and when He had given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all
of it; this cup is the New Testament in my blood, which is shed for
you, and for many, for the remission of sins; this do, as oft as ye
drink it, in remembrance of me."=

     _What benefit do we have from the Lord's Supper?_

It is shown by these words: "Given and shed for you, for the remission
of sins;" namely, that in the sacrament forgiveness of sins, life, and
salvation are given us through these words. For where there is
forgiveness of sins, there is also life and salvation.

     _How can bodily eating and drinking do such great things?_

It is not the eating and drinking, indeed, that does it, but the words
which stand here: "Given and shed for you, for the remission of sins."
These words, together with the bodily eating and drinking, are the
chief thing in the sacrament; and He that believes these words, has
what they say and mean, namely, the forgiveness of sins.

     _Who, then, receive this sacrament worthily?_

Fasting and bodily preparation are indeed a good outward practise;

But he alone is truly worthy and well prepared, who believes these
words: "Given and shed for you, for the remission of sins."

But he who believes not these words is unworthy and unprepared. The
words, "=for you=" require truly believing hearts.



INTRODUCTION.


     _1. What is God's will concerning man?_

God willeth that all men should be saved, and come to the knowledge of
the truth. 1 Tim. 2:4.

     _2. Where does God show us how we may be saved?_

In the holy Scriptures, also called the Bible.

     _3. Who wrote the Bible?_

The holy prophets, evangelists, and apostles wrote the Bible.

     _4. But how can their word be the Word of God?_

The Spirit of God revealed to them what to speak and write.

     =2 Pet. 1:21. [R. V.] Men spoke from God, being moved by the Holy
     Ghost.=

     =2 Tim. 3:16. All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and
     is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for
     instruction in righteousness.=

     _5. What must we do to experience personally that their word is
     the Word of God?_

We must obey the Word and receive it into our hearts.

     =John 7:17. If any man will do his will, he shall know of the
     doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself.=

     _6. Is the Bible then the only safe rule of our faith and duty?_

Yes; the Bible alone contains full information of the will of God
concerning our salvation.

     _7. How do we rightly use the Word of God?_

We must first look to God for the light of His Spirit, and then read
with devotion and an earnest purpose to live according to the Word.

     =1 Cor. 2:14. [R. V.] The natural man receiveth not the things of
     the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him; and he
     cannot know them, because they are spiritually judged.=

     _8. Who should read the Bible?_

It is the will of God that all should use His Word and love it as a
dear gift.

     _9. What is the substance of all the books of the Bible?_

The great truth that Jesus is the way to salvation for all who believe.

     =John 20:31. But these are written, that ye might believe that
     Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might
     have life through his name.=

     _10. How is the Bible divided in regard to its teaching?_

It is divided into Law and Gospel.

     _11. What is the Law?_

The Law is the divine Word which tells us what we must do.

     _12. What is the Gospel?_

The Gospel is the glad tidings of the grace of God in Jesus Christ our
Savior.



PART ONE.

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS, OR THE LAW.


     _13. How has God given His law to us?_

1. In the creation God wrote His Law in the heart of man.
(Conscience.) Rom. 2:15.

2. At Mount Sinai He gave His Law in the Ten Commandments, written on
two tables of stone. Ex. 20:1-17.

     _14. Does this Law demand outward observance only?_

No; it demands the whole man, and the willing obedience of heart and
mind.

     =Luk. 10:27. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,
     and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all
     thy mind.=

     _15. Can we be saved through the Law?_

No; since the fall in sin no man can perfectly keep the Law.

     =Rom. 8:7. The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not
     subject to the law of God, neither indeed can it be.=

     _16. Of what benefit, then, is the Law?_

1. It points out to us our sins and the wrath of God toward sin.

     =Rom. 3:20. [R. V.] Through the law cometh the knowledge of sin.=

2. It makes us anxious to seek Christ.

     =Gal. 3:24. The law was our schoolmaster to bring us to Christ.=

3. It points out to the believer what fruits his faith must bear.

     =Ps. 119:105. Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto
     my path.=

     _17. What is the substance of the law?_

Love to God, ourselves, and our neighbor. Matt. 22:37-40.

     =Rom. 13:10. [R. V.] Love is the fulfilment of the law.=

     =1 Tim. 1:5. [R. V.] But the end of the charge is love out of a
     pure heart and a good conscience and faith unfeigned.=


THE FIRST TABLE OF THE LAW.

     _18. What is the substance of the first table?_

Love of God.

     =Luk 10:27. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,
     and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind.=

THE FIRST COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt have no other gods before me.=

     _That is_,

We should fear, love, and trust in God above all things.

     _19. What does the first commandment forbid?_

It forbids the worship of strange gods, or idols.

     =Matt. 4:10. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only
     shalt thou serve.=

     _20. What is meant by an idol?_

Anything that man worships, fears, loves, and trusts in instead of the
one true God.

     _21. Who practice idolatry openly?_

They who worship the created things instead of the Creator, and pray
to the sun, the moon, stars, images, angels, or saints.

     =Rom. 1:25. They changed the truth of God into a lie, and
     worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is
     blessed forever.=

     _22. Who practice idolatry secretly?_

They who turn their _love_, _fear_, and _trust_ from the living God,
that they may secretly cling to something else than Him.

     _23. Whom do all idolaters really serve?_

They serve the devil who is the father of lies, and the lord of all
impenitent and hardened sinners.

     =1 John 3:8. [R. V.] He that doeth sin is of the devil.=

     =2 Cor. 4:4. [R. V.] The god of this world hath blinded the minds
     of the unbelieving.=

     _24. What does God require of us in the first commandment?_

We should fear, love, and trust in God above all things.

     _25. Upon what does God then really look?_

Upon the attitude of our hearts toward Him.

     =Prov. 23:26. My son, give me thine heart.=

     =Prov. 4:23. Keep thy heart with all diligence; for out of it are
     the issues of life.=

     _26. When do we fear God?_

We fear God when we think so highly of Him, that we are afraid of
offending Him by any wrongdoing.

     =Ps. 33:8. Let all the earth fear the Lord!=

     _27. Of how many kinds is the fear of God?_

Of two kinds: slavish fear and child-like fear.

     _28. What is meant by slavish fear?_

When we fear God because we are afraid of punishment.

     _29. What is meant by child-like fear?_

When we love God so dearly that we wish to do nothing that is against
His will.

     =Gen. 39:9. How then can I do this great wickedness, and sin
     against God?=

     =1 John 4:18. Perfect love casteth out fear.=

     _30. Who fear God in this manner?_

God's children only.

     =Rom. 8:15. [R. V.] Ye received not the spirit of bondage again
     unto fear; but ye received the spirit of adoption, whereby we
     cry, Abba, Father.=

     _31. When do we love God?_

We love God when He is dearer to us than all else, so that we have no
true joy except in Him, and gladly submit to His will in all things.

     =Ps. 18:1. I will love Thee, O Lord, my strength.=

     =Ps. 73:25, 26. Whom have I in heaven but Thee? and there is none
     upon earth that I desire beside Thee. My flesh and my heart
     faileth: but God is the strength of my heart, and my portion
     forever.=

     _32. Can we love God and the world at the same time?_

By no means.

     =Matt. 6:24. No man can serve two masters: for either he will
     hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one
     and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.=

     =1 John. 2:15. Love not the world, neither the things that are in
     the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is
     not in him.=

     _33. Why must we love God?_

We must love God because of His goodness toward us.

     =Matt. 19:17. There is none good but one, that is God.=

     =1 John 4:19. We love him, because He first loved us.=

     _34. Whereby is it seen that we love God?_

By a holy life.

     =John 14:21. He that hath my commandments and keepeth them, he it
     is that loveth me.=

     _35. When do we trust in God above all things?_

We trust in God above all things when we have confidence in Him as in
a loving father, and when we look to Him for every blessing, and put
all our affairs into His hands.

     =1 Pet. 5:7. Casting all your anxiety upon him, because he careth
     for you.=

     =Ps. 37:5. Commit thy way unto the Lord; trust also in Him; and
     He shall bring it to pass.=

     _36. Why must we trust in God alone?_

Because He is our almighty and faithful Friend.

     _37. Name some virtues that follow upon true fear, love, and
     trust in God._

Humility, patience, and self-denial.

     =1 Pet. 5:5, 6. God resisteth the proud and giveth grace to the
     humble. Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God,
     that He may exalt you in due time.=

     =Job 1:21. The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed
     be the name of the Lord!=

     =Matt. 26:39. Not as I will, but as Thou wilt.=

THE SECOND COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the
Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not curse, swear, conjure, lie, or
deceive by His name, but call upon His name in every time of need, and
worship Him with prayer, praise, and thanksgiving.

     _38. What is meant by the "name" of God?_

1. The usual names given to Him in the Bible.

2. His nature and attributes and all that by which He is especially
known, such as His Word, sacraments, and works.

     _39. When is the name of God taken in vain?_

When it is used in a thoughtless and mocking manner and without
devotion and reverence.

     _40. How is this done?_

1. When we use God's name or Word in jesting or as a by-word.

2. When we find fault with anything God has done.

3. When we use the name of God in cursing, swearing, conjuring, lying,
or deceiving.

     _41. What is it to curse by the name of God?_

It is to call down evil upon ourselves, our neighbor, or any other
created thing, by the name of God.

     _42. What is it to swear by the name of God?_

It is to bear witness to anything by the holy name of God.

     _43. Are we never permitted to swear?_

Yes; when the proper authorities demand it in God's stead.

     _44. Why is it a great sin to commit perjury?_

Because the perjurer shows open disregard for God and the salvation of
his own soul, and frankly calls down the judgment of God upon himself.

     _45. Are cursing and swearing sinful when the name of God is not
     used?_

Yes, indeed; for whatever we curse or swear by, we really do so by God
who is the Lord of all things.

     =Matt. 5:34-37. Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is
     God's throne:=

     =Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem;
     for it is the city of the great King.=

     =Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not
     make one hair white or black.=

     =But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for
     whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.=

     _46. Are cursing and swearing sinful when they have become a
     habit?_

Most certainly; for a sinful habit proves that sin is our master.

     _47. What is it to conjure by the name of God?_

It is trying to cure diseases, or to practice any other kind of
superstition, by the name of God or a passage from the Bible.

     _48. How do we lie and deceive by the name of God?_

By perjury, false teaching, and hypocrisy.

     =Matt. 15:9. In vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines
     the commandments of men.=

     =Titus 1:16. They profess that they know God; but by their works
     they deny Him.=

     _49. What must he expect who takes the name of God in vain?_

Great punishment, both in time and eternity; for the Lord will not
hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain.

     _50. How do we use the name of God properly?_

When we sincerely call upon the name of God in every time of need, and
worship Him with prayer, praise, and thanksgiving.

THE THIRD COMMANDMENT.

=Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not despise or neglect His Word, but
deem it holy and gladly hear and learn it.

     _51. Which day is the day of rest among Christians?_

Sunday, the first day of the week, on which Christ arose from the dead.

     _52. How should we keep the day of rest holy?_

1. We must rest from our daily labor, that the time may be used for
our instruction in the fear of the Lord.

2. We must earnestly hear and study the Word of God, both in our homes
and in church.

     =Luke 11:28. Blessed are they that hear the Word of God, and keep
     it.=

     =James 1:27. Pure religion and undefiled before God and the
     Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their
     affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.=

     _53. Has the Lord appointed these resting-days to be used only in
     reading and studying the Word of God?_

No; He has appointed such days also for the needed rest of mind and
body.

     _54. How do we misuse the day of rest?_

1. When we neglect and despise the Word of God.

     =Eccl. 5:1. Keep thy foot when thou goest to the house of God.=

2. When we do work or take part in amusements that either are actually
sinful or turn our minds away from God.

     _55. Is no work permitted on Sunday?_

Yes; any work of necessity that cannot be delayed, and any loving
kindness we may show our neighbor who is in need. Luk. 14:1-6.


THE SECOND TABLE OF THE LAW.

     _56. What is the substance of the second table?_

Love to ourselves and our neighbor.

     =Matt. 22:39. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.=

     _57. May we love ourselves?_

Yes, for God has made us, but we must beware of selfishness.

     _58. What should a man care for most of all?_

For his soul, the immortal part of himself.

     =Matt. 16:26. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the
     whole world, and lose his own soul?=

     _59. What does the second table teach us about our relation to
     our neighbor?_

We must feel and act toward him, as we would have him feel and act
toward us.

     =Matt. 7:12. All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to
     you, do ye even so to them.=

     =1 John 3:18. Let us not love in word, neither with the tongue:
     but in deed and truth.=

     _60. Who is our neighbor?_

Every human being is our neighbor. Read Luke 10:29-37.

     _61. Must we love also our enemies?_

Yes; for even our enemy is our neighbor.

     =Matt. 5:44, 45. Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do
     good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully
     use you, and persecute you;=

     =That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven.=

THE FOURTH COMMANDMENT.

=Honor thy father and thy mother, that it may be well with thee, and
thou mayest live long on the earth.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not despise or give offense to our
parents or superiors; but honor, serve, obey, love, and esteem them.

     _62. Why must we honor father and mother?_

Because God has placed them over us to care for us.

     =Lev. 19:3. Ye shall fear every man his mother and his father: I
     am the Lord your God.=

     _63. How are children to show that they honor father and mother?_

By respectful, loving, and willing obedience and by good behavior to
their parents, both in their presence and in their absence.

     =Prov. 1:8. My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and
     forsake not the law of thy mother.=

     =Eph. 6:1. Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is
     right.=

     _64. Whom must we honor and obey besides our parents?_

All those whom God has placed over us, such as guardians, employers,
teachers, and the government.

     _65. Must we obey parents and superiors when they ask us to do
     what is sinful?_

No; we ought to obey God rather than men. Acts 5:29.

     _66. What is the duty of parents toward their children?_

They must love them, pray for them, bring them up in the fear of the
Lord, and in everything seek their temporal and spiritual good.

     =Prov. 13:24. He that spareth his rod hateth his son: but he that
     loveth him chasteneth him betimes.=

     =Eph. 6:4.=

     _67. What is God's promise to those who honor father and mother?_

It shall be well with them, and they shall live long on the earth.

     _68. Is this promise yet effective?_

Yes; in this sense, that special blessings rest upon obedient
children, and upon every nation honoring father and mother.

     _69. Has God given us also a land?_

Yes; He has given us our native land, that we may love it and help it
to prosper.

     _70. What does the fourth commandment forbid?_

To despise and give offense to father and mother.

     =Prov. 17:25. A foolish son is a grief to his father, and
     bitterness to her that bare him.=

     _71. What does he bring upon himself who transgresses this
     commandment?_

Condemnation and punishment from God.

     =Deut. 27:16. Cursed be he that setteth light by his father or
     his mother.=

THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not kill.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not hurt or harm our neighbor in his
body, but help and befriend him in all bodily distress.

     _72. How is this commandment transgressed?_

1. By taking our neighbor's life, or by doing him any bodily harm.

     =Gen. 9:6. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be
     shed: for in the image of God made he man.=

2. By hatred, anger, abusive words, and all offensive behavior toward
our neighbor.

     =1 John 3:15. Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and ye
     know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him.=

     =Eph. 4:31. Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamor,
     and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice.=

     _73. Can we kill also our neighbor's soul?_

Yes; when we cause him to sin, either by purposely leading him astray,
or by bad example, thus helping to destroy his soul.

     =Rom. 16:18. By good words and fair speeches they deceive the
     hearts of the simple.=

     =Matt. 18:7. Woe to that man by whom the offense cometh.=

     _74. May we take our own life?_

No; God has given us life, and He alone has the right to take it.

     _75. What does God require of us in the fifth commandment?_

That we help our neighbor in all bodily distress, and associate with
him in love and gentleness.

     =Luke 10:33-35.=

     =Eph. 4:32. And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted,
     forgiving one another, even as God for Christ's sake hath
     forgiven you.=

     =Matt. 25:35, 36. I was hungry, and ye gave me meat: I was
     thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me
     in;=

     =Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was
     in prison, and ye came unto me.=

THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not commit adultery.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and live a chaste and pure life, in words
and deeds, husband and wife loving and honoring each other.

     _76. How is this commandment transgressed?_

1. When husband and wife are unfaithful to each other.

     =Heb. 13:4. [R. V.] Let marriage be had in honor among all.=

2. By all impure thoughts, desires, words, and acts, in married as
well as in unmarried persons.

     =Eph. 5:3. But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness,
     let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints.=

     _77. Who has instituted marriage?_

God Himself instituted it in Paradise.

     =Gen. 2:21-24, 1:27-28. Matt. 19:4-6.=

     _78. How do unfaithful husbands and wives treat this holy
     institution?_

They despise it, and thus bring down upon themselves the judgment of
God.

     =Heb. 13:4. Whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.=

     _79. Repeat some passages from Scripture in which impurity is
     forbidden?_

Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor adulterers, nor effeminate,
nor abusers of themselves with mankind, shall inherit the kingdom of
God. 1 Cor. 6:9, 10.

Jesus says: I say unto you, that whosoever looketh on a woman to lust
after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. Matt.
5:28.

Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth! Eph. 4:29.

     _80. Why is this sin so fearful?_

Because it affects both soul and body more than any other sin.

     _81. How can we be kept pure?_

We must watch and pray, and avoid everything that awakens impure
desires.

     =Matt. 26:41. Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation.=

     _82. What things awaken impure desires?_

Gluttony and drunkenness, immoral and exciting amusements, bad
company, the reading of improper books, and everything that excites
carnal and impure thoughts.

     _83. Are not gluttony and drunkenness alone dangerous sins?_

Yes, indeed; they are a shameful abuse of God's gifts, by which we
ruin soul and body and shut ourselves out from the kingdom of God.

     =Luk. 21:34. And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your
     hearts be overcharged with gluttony, and drunkenness, and cares
     of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares.=

     _84. What does God require of us in the sixth commandment?_

We must live a chaste and pure life, whether we are married or
unmarried, husband and wife loving and honoring each other.

THE SEVENTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not steal.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not take our neighbor's money or
property, nor get it by unfair dealing or other dishonesty, but help
him to improve and protect his property and living.

     _85. What is it to steal?_

To steal is to take from our neighbor even the smallest part of his
property against his will.

     _86. How is stealing done?_

In a coarse or in an artful manner.

     _87. Who steal in a coarse manner?_

Those who, without any right or permission whatever, take their
neighbor's money or property.

     =Eph. 4:28. Let him that stole steal no more.=

     _88. Who steal in an artful manner?_

Those who take or withhold the property of others by any kind of fraud.

     _89. Is it wrong to be a partner with a thief?_

Yes; the partner of a thief is no better than the thief.

     =Prov. 29:24. Whoso is partner with a thief hateth his own soul.=

     _90. What judgment does the Word of God pass upon thieves and
     robbers?_

They shall not inherit the kingdom of God.

     =1 Cor. 6:10. Neither thieves nor extortioners shall inherit the
     kingdom of God.=

     _91. May we not do with our property what we please?_

No; we are but keepers of God's gifts, and we must once give an
account of how we have used them.

     =Luke 16:2; Matt. 25:14-30.=

     _92. What does God require of us in the seventh commandment?_

We must be honest and unselfish in all our dealings, and help our
neighbor to improve and protect his property and living.

     =1 John 3:17. [R. V.] But whoso hath the world's goods, and
     beholdeth his brother in need, and shutteth up his compassion
     from him, how doth the love of God abide in him?=

     =James 2:13. For he shall have judgment without mercy that hath
     showed no mercy.=

THE EIGHTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not tell lies about our neighbor, nor
betray, slander, or defame him; but excuse him, speak well of him, and
look upon all his acts as well-meant.

     _93. What is "false witness"?_

All untruthful speaking about our neighbor, in or out of court.

     _94. How does one bear false witness in court?_

When a witness swears to a lie, and when a judge decides wrong to be
right, and right to be wrong.

     _95. How do we bear false witness out of court?_

When we tell lies about our neighbor and slander or defame him in our
conversation.

     =Eph. 4:25. Wherefore, putting away lying, speak every man truth
     with his neighbor.=

     _96. Do we sin when we speak truthfully of our neighbor's
     faults?_

Yes; when we do so with an unloving heart, either because we wish to
hurt our neighbor, or thoughtlessly and in gossiping.

     =Matt. 12:36. Every idle word that man shall speak, they shall
     give account thereof in the day of judgment.=

     _97. What does God require of us in the eighth commandment?_

We must always be truthful, excuse, and speak well of our neighbor, as
far as truth permits, and look upon all his acts as well-meant.

     =1 Cor. 13:5-7. Love thinketh no evil; rejoiceth not in iniquity,
     but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all
     things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.=

THE NINTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not by deceit or craft seek to gain
our neighbor's inheritance or home, nor try to get it though we seem
to have some right thereto, but help him to keep his own.

THE TENTH COMMANDMENT.

=Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his man-servant, nor
his maid-servant, nor his cattle, nor anything that is his.=

     _That is_,

We should fear and love God, and not estrange, force, or entice away
from our neighbor, his wife, servants, or cattle, but urge them to
stay and do their duty.

     _98. What do the ninth and tenth commandments forbid?_

All sinful desire to get what belongs to our neighbor.

     _99. What does God require of us in the ninth and tenth
     commandments?_

We must heartily wish our neighbor all good, rejoice in his success,
and help him to keep what he owns.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _100. What, then, does God require of us in His holy Law?_

Perfect purity and holiness in all our thoughts and desires, words and
acts.

     =James 2:10. Whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend
     in one point, he is guilty of all.=

     =Matt 5:48. Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is
     in heaven is perfect.=

     _101. What does God say of all his commandment?_

=I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the
fathers upon the children unto the= =third and fourth generation of
them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love
me, and keep my commandments.=

     _That is_,

God threatens to punish all who transgress these commandments; we
should therefore fear His wrath, and do nothing against them.

On the other hand He promises grace and every blessing to all who keep
these commandments; we should therefore love Him and trust in Him, and
gladly do according to His commandments.

     _102. Of what does God remind us by these words?_

He reminds us of the fact that He is a just God, who in His holy wrath
punishes every sin.

     _103. What is sin?_

Sin is any thought or feeling, word or act, which is contrary to God's
holy Law.

     _104. What is meant by original sin?_

Original sin is the inborn wickedness, deep corruption, and evil
disposition, of the human heart.

     =Ps. 51:5. Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my
     mother conceive me.=

     =Rom. 5:12. By one man sin entered into the world, and death by
     sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.=

     _105. What is actual sin?_

Actual sin is all evil thoughts and desires, words and acts, springing
from original sin.

     _106. Is neglecting to do good as sinful as doing wrong?_

Yes, indeed; to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him
it is sin.

James 4:17.

     _107. Do the children of God always live according to the will of
     their heavenly Father?_

They hate sin, and heartily strive to keep the law of God; but it is
their experience that they sin every day, and that the new life within
them is weak.

     =Ps. 19:12. Who can understand his errors? cleanse thou me from
     secret faults?=

     =Rom. 7:19. The good that I would I do not: but the evil which I
     would not, that I do.=

     _108. How do the children of God feel and act when they find that
     they have sinned?_

They are deeply grieved, they ask their heavenly Father to forgive
them, and earnestly strive to put off sin.

     _109. What do the children of the world think of sin?_

They love sin, and do not ask to be forgiven.

     _110. How does God threaten those who transgress His commandments?_

He will visit, that is, punish, their wickedness.

     _111. How does God punish sin?_

In soul and body; now and forever.

     =Gal. 3:10. Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things
     which are written in the book of the law to do them.=

     _112. What does God promise all who keep His commandments?_

He will have mercy upon them in a thousand generations.

     _113. What is here understood by mercy?_

Every blessing for soul and body, now and forever.

     =1 Tim. 4:8. Godliness is profitable unto all things, having
     promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come.=

       *       *       *       *       *

     _114. What way of salvation does the Law then point out to us?_

It says, Keep the commandments and you shall be saved.

     =Luke 10:28. This do, and thou shalt live.=

     _115. Can any man, then, keep God's commandments so perfectly
     that he thereby is justified and saved_?

No; every man is a sinner, and he lacks that perfect love which is the
fulfillment of the law.

     =Rom. 10:3. For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and
     going about to establish their own righteousness, have not
     submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.=

     _116. But does the Word of God point out a way to us in which a
     sinner may be justified and saved?_

Yes; in the blessed Gospel.

     =Rom. 1:16. I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is
     the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth.=

     _117. What parts of the catechism treat about the gospel?_

The four last parts.



PART TWO.

THE THREE ARTICLES OF THE CREED.


     _118. Of what do the three articles treat?_

Of the nature, will, and works of the triune God.

     _119. How do you know there is a God?_

1. From the world's creation, its preservation and government.

     =Rom. 1:19, 20. That which may be known of God is manifest in
     them; for God hath showed it unto them.=

     =For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world
     are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made,
     even his eternal power and divinity; so that they are without
     excuse.=

2. From my conscience, which is troubled when I do evil and rejoices
when I do good.

     =Rom. 2:15. They (the Gentiles) show the law written in their
     hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts
     the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another.=

3. From the holy Scriptures wherein He still more clearly reveals
Himself.

     =John 1:18. No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten
     Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.=

     _120. What is God?_

God is a spirit, who is eternal and almighty; all-knowing and
everywhere present; wise, good, and merciful; holy, true, and just.

     =John 4:24. God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must
     worship him in spirit and in truth.=

     =Ps. 90:2. Before the mountains were brought forth, or even thou
     hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to
     everlasting thou art God.=

     =Luke 1:37. With God nothing shall be impossible.=

     =1 John 3:20. God knoweth all things.=

     =Ps. 139:7. Whither shall I go from thy spirit! or thither shall
     I flee from thy presence?=

     =Ps. 104:24. O Lord, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom hast
     thou made them all.=

     =1 John 4:16. God is love.=

     =Ps. 106:1. O give thanks unto the Lord; for he is good: for his
     mercy endureth forever.=

     =Ps. 103:13. Like as a father pitieth his children, so the Lord
     pitieth them that fear him.=

     =Isa. 6:3. Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts: all the earth
     is full of his glory.=

     =Num. 23:19. God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the
     son of man, that he should repent; hath he said, and shall he not
     do it? Or hath he spoken, and shall he not make it good?=

     =Rom. 2:6. God will render to every man according to his deeds.=

     _121. Are there more Gods than one?_

No; there is but one God, and there is none else besides Him.

     =Deut. 6:4. Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord.=

     _122. How many persons are there in the Godhead?_

Three; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. These three are
perfectly alike in character, and equal in greatness.

     =Matt. 28:19. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing
     them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
     Ghost.=


THE FIRST ARTICLE.

CONCERNING CREATION.

=I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth.=

     _That is_,

I believe that God has made me and all other creatures; that He has
given me body and soul, eyes, ears, and all other members, my reason,
and all my senses.

I also believe that He preserves all He has made, and that He daily
provides me with all I need; giving me clothing and food, home and
family, and every good thing.

I further believe that He protects me from all danger, and keeps me
from all evil; not because I have deserved it, but because He is a
loving and merciful Father.

For all these blessings it is my duty to serve Him thankfully and
obediently all the days of my life.

All this is certainly true.

     _123. What do you mean when you say, "I believe in God the
     Father"?_

I believe that God is the Father of Jesus Christ, and my Father; and I
surrender myself to Him, trusting with all my heart in His grace and
love.

     _124. Why do we call God the Maker of heaven and earth?_

Because He has made heaven and earth to come forth by His almighty Word.

     =Ps. 33:9. He spoke, and it was done; he commanded, and it stood
     fast.=

     _125. Does God yet care for what He has made?_

Yes; by His watchful care He preserves and governs all things.

     _126. How does God preserve all things?_

He lets all things continue as long as He thinks well, and He cares
like a father for all His creatures.

     =Gen. 8:22. While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and
     cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night, shall
     not cease.=

     =Acts 17:25. He giveth to all life, and breath, and all things.=

     =Ps. 104:27. These wait all upon thee; that thou mayest give them
     their meat in due season.=

     _127. For whom does God care most?_

For man; and especially for His believing children.

     =Matt. 6:26, 27, 28, 30. Behold the fowls of the air: for they
     sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your
     heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?=

     =Which of you by taking thought, can add one cubit to his stature?=

     =And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the
     field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin.=

     =Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day
     is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more
     clothe you, O ye of little faith?=

     _128. How does God govern men with regard to their sins?_

He suffers them to sin, sets limits to their sinning, and so guides
the result that everything will be for their good who love Him.

     =Gen. 50:20. [R. V.] Ye meant evil against me; but God meant it
     for good.=

     _129. Do we always understand the ways of God's providence?_

No; His ways are often hidden from our eyes; but even then they are
the kindest and best.

     =Isa. 55:8, 9. For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are
     your ways my ways, saith the Lord.=

     =For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways
     higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.=

     _130. In whose care may you therefore safely leave yourself?_

In God's care, who protects me from all danger, and keeps me from all
evil.

     =1 Pet. 5:7. Casting all your care upon him: for he careth for
     you.=

     _131. Have you deserved all this?_

Not in the least; He does all this, not because I have deserved it,
but because He is a loving and merciful Father.

     =Gen. 32:10. I am not worthy of the least of all the mercies, and
     of all the truth, which thou hast showed unto thy servant.=

     _132. What do you owe God for all his goodness?_

It is my duty to serve Him thankfully and obediently all the days of
my life.

     =Ps. 103:2. Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his
     benefits.=

     _133. Which are the most excellent of the heavenly creatures?_

The holy angels.

     _134. What is the work of the holy angels?_

They praise God, and serve him, especially by ministering to His
children.

     =Heb. 1:14. Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to
     minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation.=

     _135. Are there not also evil angels?_

Yes; there are evil angels who have fallen away from God through pride
and disobedience, and are forever excluded from fellowship with Him.
The devil is their king.

     _136. Which is the most excellent of the earthly creatures?_

Man, to whom God gave power to rule over the earth.

     _137. What was the character of man as he was made by God?_

Adam and Eve were innocent, without sin, and like God.

     =Gen. 1:27. [R. V.] God made man in his own image, in the image
     of God made he him: male and female made he them.=

     _138. In what did the image of God in man consist?_

In true wisdom, righteousness and holiness, peace and joy.

     =Eph. 4:24. Put on the new man, which after God is created in
     righteousness and holiness.=

     _139. What benefit did the human body have from the image of God?_

Perfect health, immortality, and a life free from care in Paradise.

     _140. Did our first parents remain innocent and without sin?_

No; they sinned and lost the image of God, and thus sin and death
entered into the world.

     =Gen. 2:17. In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely
     die.=

     =Rom. 6:23. The wages of sin is death.=

     _141. In what did their sin consist?_

It consisted especially in the unbelief of their hearts and in their
selfishness and disobedience.

     _142. Who led them astray?_

They permitted the devil to lead them astray.

     =Gen. 3:1-5.=

     =John 8:44. The devil was a murderer from the beginning, and
     abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. For he
     is a liar, and the father of it.=

     _143. How has sin injured the human soul?_

1. It has darkened the understanding.

     =See 1 Cor. 2:14.=

2. It has made the will incapable of what is good, and desirous of all
that is evil.

     =Rom. 8:7. The carnal mind is enmity against God.=

3. It has disturbed the peace and joy of conscience.

     =Gen. 3:8, 10.=

     _144. How has sin injured the human body?_

Sin has made the body a tool of every evil passion, and has brought
upon it disease, distress, countless pains, and finally death.

     =Job 14:1, 2. Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and
     full of trouble.=

     =He cometh forth like a flower, and is cut down: he fleeth also
     as a shadow, and continueth not.=

     _145. Have all men become sinners through the fall of our first
     parents?_

Yes; sin and death have spread from our first parents to the whole
human race.

     =Rom. 5:18. By the offence of one judgment came upon all men to
     condemnation.=

     _146. Will God, then, leave all men to perish?_

No; God has in love sent His Son Jesus Christ to save man.

     =John 3:16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only
     begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish,
     but have everlasting life.=

     _147. When was this Savior first promised to the world?_

Immediately after the fall.

     =Gen. 3:15. The seed of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head.=

     _148. When was Christ sent to the world?_

In the fulness of time; that is, the time appointed and prepared by
God Himself.

     =Gal. 4:4. [R. V.] When the fulness of the time was come, God
     sent forth his Son born of a woman.=


THE SECOND ARTICLE.

CONCERNING REDEMPTION.

=I believe in Jesus Christ His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived
by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary; suffered under Pontius
Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into hell; the
third day He rose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and
sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from whence He
shall come to judge the quick and the dead.=

     _That is_,

I believe that Jesus Christ is true God, begotten of the Father from
eternity; I also believe that He is true man, born of the Virgin Mary;
that He is my Lord, who has redeemed me, a lost and condemned sinner;
who has freed me from sin, from death, and from the power of Satan,
not with gold or silver, but with His holy and precious blood and His
innocent death.

All this He has done that I might be His own, and that I might serve
Him in righteousness, innocence, and happiness, and live and reign
with Him in His kingdom forever, even as He arose from the dead, lives
and reigns through all eternity.

All this is certainly true.

     _149. What do you mean when you say "I believe in Jesus Christ?"_

Trusting in Jesus Christ with all my heart, I surrender myself to Him
as my only Savior from sin, and death, and the power of Satan.

     =Acts 4:12. Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is
     none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be
     saved.=

     _150. Who is Jesus Christ?_

The Son of God and the Son of Mary, true God and true man.

     _151. How does Christ have divine nature?_

He is begotten of the Father from eternity.

     _152. How does Christ have human nature?_

He is conceived by the Holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin Mary.

     _153. What does the Bible say about Christ being true God?_

The Bible calls Him the only begotten Son of God, and one with the
Father.

The Bible also expressly calls Him God.

     =John 10:30. I and my Father are one.=

     =John 5:23. All men should honor the Son, even as they honor the
     Father. He that honoreth not the Son honoreth not the Father
     which hath sent Him.=

     =1 John 5:20. This is the true God, and eternal life.=

     =John 1:1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with
     God, and the Word was God.=

     =John 3:16.=

     _154. What does the Bible say about Christ being both God and man?_

It says, The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us. John 1:14.

And,

When the fulness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a
woman. [R. V.] Gal. 4:4.

     _155. Why must the Son of God become true man?_

In order that He might suffer and die for us.

     _156. Why must our Savior be true God?_

In order that His death and His blood might have everlasting power to
atone for sin.

     _157. Is Jesus conceived and born with sin?_

No; He is conceived by the Holy Ghost and therefore without sin.

     =Luke 1:35. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of
     the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing
     which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.=

     _158. What does the name Jesus signify?_

A Savior.

     =Matt. 1:21. Thou shalt call His name Jesus: for He shall save
     His people from their sins.=

     _159. What does the name Christ signify?_

The same as Messiah; that is, the Anointed or the Consecrated.

     _160. How was Jesus anointed?_

He was anointed with the Holy Ghost and with power. Acts 10:38.

     _161. For what offices was Jesus anointed and consecrated?_

The offices of High Priest, Prophet, and King.

     _162. What is Christ's work as High Priest?_

He offered up Himself a sacrifice for our sins, and ever prays for us.

     =Heb. 7:26, 27. [R. V.] For such a high priest became us,--who
     needeth not daily as those high priests, to offer up sacrifices,
     first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people: for
     this He did once for all, when he offered up himself.=

     =Rom. 8:34. Jesus Christ, who also maketh intercession for us.=

     _163. What is Christ's work as Prophet?_

He teaches us the will of God concerning our salvation.

     =Luke 24: 19. Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in
     deed and word before God and all the people.=

     _164. What is Christ's work as King?_

He governs and keeps His children, and defends them against their
enemies.

     =Luke 1:33. And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever;
     and of his kingdom there shall be no end.=

     =Rev. 17:14. He is the Lord of lords, and the King of kings.=

     _165. How are the believers named after Christ?_

They are called Christians; meaning, "the anointed".

     =1 John 2:20. Ye have an anointing from the Holy One, and ye know
     all things.=

     _166. With what means has Christ redeemed us?_

He has paid for our sins with His holy and precious blood and His
innocent death, and He has fulfilled the law in our stead with His
holy life and His perfect obedience.

     =1 Pet. 1:18, 19. [R. V.] Ye know that ye were not redeemed with
     corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain manner of
     life; but with precious blood, as of a lamb without blemish and
     without spot, even the blood of Christ.=

     _167. Whom has Christ redeemed?_

He has redeemed me, a lost and condemned sinner.

     _168. Has not Christ redeemed all mankind?_

Yes, He has; He gave Himself a ransom for all. 1 Tim. 2:6.

     =1 John 2:2. He is the propitiation for our sins; and not for
     ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.=

     _169. But are not many, thus redeemed, yet lost?_

Yes, indeed; many reject Him because of their unbelief and love of sin.

     =2 Pet. 2:1. Denying the Lord who bought them.=

     =John 3:18. He that believeth not is condemned already, because
     he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.=

     _170. Who get a share in the redemption of Christ?_

Those who repent their sins and believe in Him.

     _171. What benefit does the believer have from the redemption of
     Christ?_

By this redemption he is freed from sin, from death, and from the
power of Satan.

     _172. In what way is the believer freed from sin by the
     redemption of Christ?_

1. The guilt and punishment of sin are removed from him.

     =Col. 1:14. We have redemption through His blood, even the
     forgiveness of sins.=

2. Sin rules over him no longer.

     =Rom. 6:14. Sin shall not have dominion over you.=

3. When he dies, sin is entirely rooted out from him.

     _173. In what way is the believer freed from death by the
     redemption of Christ?_

Spiritual death has lost its power over him, temporal death is but an
entrance into perfect life, and eternal death he no longer fears.

     =John 11:25, 26. Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection and
     the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall
     he live; and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die.=

     _174. In what way is the believer freed from the power of Satan
     by the redemption of Christ?_

Satan has no power over the believer, unless the believer yield
himself into his service.

     =Heb. 2:14. [R. V.] Since then the children are sharers in flesh
     and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same;
     that through death he might bring to nought him that had the
     power of death, that is, the devil.=

     _175. For what purpose has Christ redeemed you?_

He has redeemed me in order that I might be His own, live with Him in
His kingdom, and serve Him in righteousness, innocence, and happiness.

     =1 Cor. 6:20. [R. V.] Ye are not your own, for ye were bought
     with a price; glorify God therefore in your body.=

     =Titus 2:14. [R. V.] He gave himself for us, that he might redeem
     us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a people for his
     own possession, zealous of good works.=

     _176. What did Christ do in order to become our Savior and
     Redeemer?_

He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of
the cross. Phil. 2:8.

     _177. How many steps do you notice in the humiliation of Christ?_

Five: the birth in poverty; the suffering; the crucifixion; the death;
the burial.

     _178. Why did Christ begin His life on earth with the birth in
     poverty?_

He began His life in poverty to show that His kingdom is not of this
world, and that we might be made rich through His poverty.

     _179. When was the suffering of Christ greatest?_

In the night before His death, and on Good Friday, when He was
delivered into the hands of His enemies, and was bound, beaten,
scourged, crowned with thorns, and finally nailed to the cross.

     _180. Did Christ suffer bodily pain only?_

No; His greatest suffering was a fearful anguish of soul on account of
our sins.

     _181. When in particular did he suffer this anguish?_

In the garden, when His sweat was as drops of blood and He said, "My
soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death"; and on the cross, when He
cried, "My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me?"

     =Isa. 53:4, 5. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our
     sorrows:

     But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our
     iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with
     his stripes we are healed.=

     _182. How did Christ act through all this suffering?_

He was patient as a lamb that is lead to the slaughter. Isa. 53:7.

     _183. What did Christ accomplish for us by His death on the cross?_

By His death He has paid the wages of sin, which is death.

     =Rom. 5:10. When we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by
     the death of his Son.=

     _184. What comfort do we have from the burial of Christ?_

He has buried our sins, hallowed our graves, and taken away their
horror.

     _185. How should we look upon the life and suffering of Christ in
     His humiliation?_

We should look upon His life and His suffering as an atonement for our
sins, and as an example to the believer of holiness in life and
patience in suffering.

     =1 Pet. 2:21. Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example,
     that ye should follow His steps.=

     _186. Did Christ remain in humiliation and death?_

No; God exalted Him and gave Him a name which is above every name.
Phil. 2:9.

     _187. How many steps do you notice in the exaltation of Christ?_

Five: His descent into hell; His resurrection; His ascension; His
session at the right hand of the Father; His coming to judge the quick
and the dead.

     _188. What did Christ accomplish when he descended into hell?_

He made known the victory which He had won over the devil, and
preached to the spirits in prison. 1 Pet. 3:18, 19.

     _189. What benefit do we have from the resurrection of Christ?_

1. The resurrection assures us that Christ is the Son of God, and that
He has conquered death and fully satisfied for our sins.

     =Rom. 1:4. Declared to be the Son of God by the resurrection from
     the dead.=

     =1 Cor. 15:14. If Christ be not risen, then is our preaching
     vain, and your faith is also vain.=

2. The resurrection gives us power to arise from spiritual death, and
to live a new and holy life.

     =Rom. 6:4. As Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the
     Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.=

3. The resurrection assures us that our bodies shall arise in glory on
the last day.

     _190. What command did Christ give His disciples before His
     ascension?_

He commanded them to go out into the whole world and preach the gospel
to all nations. [Missions.]

     =Matt. 28:19; Mark. 16:15.=

     _191. What is meant by the ascension of Christ?_

He left the earth, so that He is no longer visibly present, and He
entered into His Father's glory to prepare a place for us in the
heavenly mansions.

     =John 14:2. In my Father's house are many mansions; I go to
     prepare a place for you.=

     _192. What does the ascension of Christ teach us?_

It teaches us to be heavenly-minded, and to have a desire to depart
and be with Christ.

     =Col. 3:1. If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things
     which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God.=

     _193. What does Christ's session on the right hand of the Father
     signify?_

It signifies that He shares also as true man in the power and glory of
God, and rules over all things.

     =1 Pet. 3:22. [R. V.] He is on the right hand of God, having gone
     into heaven; angels and authorities and powers being made subject
     to Him.=

     _194. What benefit do we have from Christ's session on the right
     hand of the Father?_

He protects His kingdom from its enemies, prays for us, and sends us
His Holy Spirit.

     _195. Is Christ no longer present on earth?_

Yes; He is present in a real, though invisible, manner.

     =Matt. 28:20. And lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of
     the world.=

     _196. When will He again come to earth in a visible manner?_

On the last day, when He comes to judge the quick and the dead.

     =Luke 21:27. And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a
     cloud with power and great glory.=

     =2 Cor. 5:10. We must all appear before the judgment seat of
     Christ; that every one may receive the things done in the body,
     according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.=

     _197. By what rule will Christ judge us?_

He will judge us by His Word.

     =John 12:48. The Word that I have spoken, the same shall judge
     him in the last day.=

     _198. Is it sufficient that you know all these things about
     Christ and hold them to be true?_

No; the Holy Spirit must teach me to know Christ in a true and living
faith.


THE THIRD ARTICLE.

CONCERNING SANCTIFICATION.

=I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy Christian church, the communion
of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and
life everlasting. Amen.=

     _That is_,

I believe that I cannot through my own strength believe in Jesus
Christ my Lord, or come to Him. This is the work of the Holy Spirit
alone, who has called me through the gospel, enlightened me with His
gifts, and sanctified and preserved me in the true faith;

Even as He calls, gathers, enlightens, and sanctifies the whole
Christian church on earth, and preserves it in fellowship with Jesus
Christ in the one true faith.

In this Christian church He daily forgives me and all believers all
our sins, and He will raise up me and all the dead on the last day,
and will give me and all believers everlasting life.

All this is certainly true.

     _199. What do you mean when you say, "I believe in the Holy
     Ghost"?_

I trust with all my heart in the Holy Ghost as my guide and my
sanctifier, who gives me strength to believe in Jesus and to live
according to His will.

     =1 Cor. 12:3. No man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the
     Holy Ghost.=

     _200. Who is the Holy Ghost?_

The Holy Ghost is true God together with the Father and the Son.

     =1 Cor. 2:10. The Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep
     things of God.=

     =1 Cor. 3:16. Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that
     the Spirit of God dwelleth in you.=

     _201. What is the work of the Holy Spirit?_

To call, enlighten, sanctify, and preserve.

     _202. How does the Holy Spirit call us?_

The Holy Spirit calls us by awakening in our hearts a deep sense of
sin, and by inviting us to accept the grace of God in Christ.

     =Eph. 5:14. Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead,
     and Christ shall give thee light.=

     _203. By what means does the Holy Spirit call us?_

By the Word of God; using the law to awaken our hearts, and the gospel
to invite us to Christ.

     =Rom. 3:20. By the law is the knowledge of sin.=

     =2 Thess. 2:14. He called you by our gospel, to the obtaining of
     the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.=

     =Matt. 22:1-14.=

     _204. What means does God use to make us heed the call of the
     Holy Spirit?_

To this end He often uses suffering, often blessings, often the
example of others, and such other means as may lead us to reflect.

     _205. Do all obey the call of the Holy Spirit?_

No; many resist the Holy Spirit, and will not repent and come to
Christ.

     =Acts 7:51. Ye do always resist the Holy Ghost.=

     =Isa. 65:2. I have spread out my hands all the day to a
     rebellious people.=

     _206. When does a person harden his heart?_

A person hardens his heart when he persistently despises and opposes
the voice of the Holy Spirit in his conscience.

     _207. Who obey the call of the Holy Spirit?_

They who repent their sins and believe the Gospel.

     =Mark. 1:15. The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at
     hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel.=

     _208. What is it to repent?_

He who truly repents, feels his sins with shame and sorrow, he freely
confesses his sins to God, and earnestly seeks the grace of God in
Christ.

     =Isa. 55:7. Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous
     man his thoughts: and let him return unto the Lord, and He will
     have mercy upon him; and to our God, for He will abundantly
     pardon.=

     =2 Cor. 7:10. [R. V.] Godly sorrow worketh repentance unto
     salvation, a repentance which bringeth no regret: but the sorrow
     of the world worketh death.=

     =Ps. 32:5. I acknowledged my sin unto thee; and thou forgavest
     the iniquity of my sin.=

     _209. How do we learn that the grace of God is found in Christ?_

We learn this through the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit.

     _210. What is meant by the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit?_

Through the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit our knowledge of the
Gospel truths becomes a living and saving knowledge to our hearts.

     =John 14:26. But the Comforter, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father
     will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring
     all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.=

     =John 16:13. When he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide
     you into all truth.=

     _211. Of what nature is our knowledge of these truths before the
     Holy Spirit has enlightened our hearts?_

It is a dead knowledge only, which does not lead to repentance and
faith, but leaves us in our sins.

     _212. What is the true and living faith in Jesus Christ?_

This is faith, that a repentant sinner lays hold of Christ as his only
Savior from sin, and death, and the power of Satan;

That he takes refuge with Christ and His righteousness, and builds
thereon with the confidence of his whole heart.

     _213. Can only a repentant sinner have this faith in Christ?_

Yes; the faith which lays hold of Christ and His righteousness, can be
wrought in that heart only which bitterly feels the pain and misery of
living in sin.

     =Matt. 9:12. They that be whole need not a physician, but they
     that are sick.=

     _214. Is the true and living faith always and in all persons
     equally strong?_

No; it is often very weak and scarcely able to avail itself of the
grace of God.

     =Mark 9:24. Lord, I believe; help thou my unbelief.=

     _215. Whereby may we know whether this weak faith is true and
     living?_

The true and living faith is known by an earnest hatred of sin, and an
eager longing for grace.

     _216. Does God accept this weak faith?_

Yes, indeed; only it be true and sincere.

     =Isa. 42:3. A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking
     flax shall he not quench.=

     _217. What benefit do we have from the true and living faith in
     Jesus Christ?_

By faith we are justified, born anew, sanctified, and finally saved
forever.

     _218. What is Justification?_

Justification is the gracious act of God whereby He for Christ's sake
acquits a repentant and believing sinner of his sin and guilt, and
looks upon him, in Christ, as though he had never sinned.

     =2 Cor. 5:21. For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no
     sin that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.=

     =Rom. 3:24. (They are) justified freely by his grace through the
     redemption that is in Christ Jesus.=

     _219. What, then, does the believer receive through
     justification?_

He receives the forgiveness of sins, and is adopted as a child of God.

     =Eph. 1:7. In whom we have redemption through his blood, the
     forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace.=

     =Gal. 3:26. For ye are the children of God by faith in Christ
     Jesus.=

     =Acts 10:43. To him give all the prophets witness, that through
     his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of
     sins.=

     _220. What moves God to forgive sin so freely?_

His everlasting love and mercy alone.

     _221. For whose sake does God forgive us our sins?_

For Christ's sake, who has satisfied for the sins of the whole world
by His death on the cross.

     =John 1:29. Behold the lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of
     the world.=

     _222. To what does the forgiveness of sins necessarily lead?_

The forgiveness of sins leads to the full enjoyment of the blessed
rights which belong to a child of God; it also gives free access to
the Father's fellowship and blessing, and to the glorious inheritance
of eternal life.

     =Ps. 32:1, 2. Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven,
     whose sin is covered.=

     =Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity, and
     in whose spirit there is no guile.=

     =Rom. 8:17. And if [we are] children, then heirs; heirs of God,
     and joint-heirs with Christ.=

     _223. What is the New Birth?_

The New Birth is the gracious work of the Holy Spirit whereby He,
through His indwelling in our hearts, renews the image of God in us,
and thus creates a new spiritual man.

     =2 Cor. 5:17. If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old
     things have passed away; behold, all things are new.=

     =John 1:12, 13. But as many as received him, to them gave he power
     to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:=

     =Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor
     of the will of man, but of God.=

     _224. What change is wrought in us in the New Birth?_

We get a new heart or a new spiritual life; namely,

    In the understanding, a new spiritual light;
    In the conscience, real peace and joy;
    In the will, a holy desire and a steadfast purpose.

     =Ezek. 36:26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit
     will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out
     of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh.=

     =Eph. 4:24. Put on the new man, which after God is created in
     righteousness and true holiness.=

     =Gal. 5:22. The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace.=

     _225. In what does this new life really consist?_

In consists in love to God who first loved us.

     _226. By what means is the New Birth accomplished?_

In little children it is accomplished by water and the Spirit in
baptism; but in those who have fallen from the grace of their baptism,
also by the Word of God.

     =John 3:5. Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee,
     Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter
     into the kingdom of God.=

     =1 Peter 1:23. Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of
     incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth
     forever.=

     _227. Is the New Birth necessary to our salvation?_

Yes, indeed; except a man be born anew, he cannot see the kingdom of
God. John 3: 3. [R. V.]

     =John 3:6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that
     which is born of the Spirit, is spirit.=

     _228. What does the Holy Spirit further work in the believer?_

He sanctifies and preserves him.

     _229. What is Sanctification?_

Sanctification is the gracious work of the Holy Spirit whereby He day
by day renews the believer more and more after the image of God.

     _230. How is the daily renewal accomplished?_

The old man, or sin, is put away more and more, and the new man, or
the new spiritual life, appears more and more in all our conduct.

     =Eph. 4:22-24. [R. V.] Put away, as concerning your former manner
     of life, the old man, which waxeth corrupt after the lusts of
     deceit;=

     =And be ye renewed in the spirit of your mind,=

     =And put on the new man, which after God hath been created in
     righteousness and holiness of truth.=

     _231. How does this new conduct appear in the daily life of a
     Christian?_

A Christian denies himself, strives against the devil, the world, and
his own flesh; he grows in love toward God and man, and seeks to do
the will of God in all things.

     =Matt. 16:24. If any man will come after me, let him deny
     himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.=

     =1 Cor. 16:13. Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, quit you like
     men, be strong.=

     =1 Tim. 6:12. Fight the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal
     life, whereunto thou art also called, and hast professed a good
     profession before many witnesses.=

     _232. Is the believer, then, justified and saved by his own good
     works?_

No; our best works avail nothing to this end: we must build our hope
of salvation on Christ alone and His righteousness.

     =Luk. 17:10. When ye shall have done all these things which are
     commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done
     that which was our duty to do.=

     _233. What is the work of Preservation done by the Holy Spirit?_

Preservation is the gracious work of the Holy Spirit whereby He keeps
us, through all temptations, in the true and living faith in Jesus,
until the end.

     =Phil. 1:6. [R. V.] He which began a good work in you will
     perfect it until the day of Jesus Christ.=

     _234. By what means does the Holy Spirit sanctify and preserve
     the believer?_

By the Word of God and the Lord's Supper.

     _235. How does the Holy Spirit preserve the believer?_

He teaches and guides, corrects and comforts him.

     _236. What are they called whom the Holy Spirit thus sanctifies
     and preserves in faith?_

They are called the children of God; the Elect of God; Holy and
Beloved; Members of the Body of Christ. In a body they make up the
holy Christian church.

     _237. What is the holy Christian church?_

The holy Christian Church is the congregation of saints or true
believers, where the Word of God is preached and the sacraments are
administered according to the ordinance of God.

     _238. Why is the church called holy?_

The church is called holy because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit,
who performs His sanctifying work in all its members. For this reason
the church is called holy, in spite of its sins and shortcomings.

     =1 Peter 2:9. Ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a
     holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should show forth the
     praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his
     marvellous light.=

     _239. Why is the church called universal?_

The church is called universal because its object is to gather all
nations, and because it includes all true believers of all times and
all places.

     _240. What is the state of the church on earth?_

The church of God on earth is militant.

     _241. Who are the enemies of the church?_

The enemies of the church are the devil, the world, and our own flesh.
Its last enemy is death.

     _242. What will be the state of the church in heaven?_

It will be triumphant, because all its enemies are conquered.

     =Rev. 7:9, 10. After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude,
     which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and
     people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the
     Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands;=

     =And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which
     sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.=

     _243. Is the holy Christian church found in this place?_

Yes; in the congregation, which in the Scriptures is called "the body
of Jesus Christ", and "the house of God."

     =Eph. 1:22, 23. 1 Tim. 3:15.=

     _244. Are all the members of the organized body, called a
     congregation, true Christians?_

No; in this organized body both hypocrites and true Christians are
found.

     =Matt. 13:24-30; 47-50.=

     _245. Who are hypocrites?_

Hypocrites are they who indeed make outward confession of Christ, but
who inwardly and in their conduct deny Him.

     =2 Tim. 3:5. Having a form of godliness, but denying the power
     thereof.=

     _246. Should not the congregation remove these hypocrites from
     its midst?_

Yes; the congregation should expel the openly ungodly and unbelieving;
but it cannot judge concerning the secret thoughts of the heart.

     =1 Cor. 5:13. Therefore put away from among yourselves that
     wicked person.=

     =Matt. 18:15-17.=

     _247. Who, then, are true Christians and the real members of the
     congregation?_

They who believe in Christ with all their heart, and confess Him both
in word and deed.

     =Rom. 10:10. For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness:
     and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.=

     _248. What is the intimate fellowship called in which all true
     Christians live with one another?_

The Communion of Saints.

     =Eph. 4:4-6. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are
     called in one hope of your calling;=

     =One Lord, one faith, one baptism,=

     =One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all,
     and in you all.=

     _249. What precious gift does the Holy Spirit bestow upon us in
     this Christian church?_

In this Christian church He daily forgives me and all believers all
our sins.

     _250. But does a sanctified person need the forgiveness of sins
     every day?_

Yes; because sanctification is never perfected in this life, and sin
cleaves to a Christian as long as he is in the world.

     _251. Whom has God given power to declare the forgiveness of sins?_

The congregation, through its ministers. [Absolution.]

     =Matt. 18:18. Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on
     earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on
     earth shall be loosed in heaven.=

     _252. What is required that a Christian may receive the
     forgiveness of sins every day?_

That he repents every day, or that he daily feels his sins with deep
shame and sorrow, confesses his sins to God, and earnestly seeks the
grace of God in Christ.

     _253. To whom should a repentant Christian confess his sins?_

First of all to God; then, if he feels the need of it, to his pastor;
finally to his neighbor, if he feels that he has wronged him in any way.

     =Jas. 5:16. Confess your faults one to another, and pray one for
     another, that ye may be healed.=

     =1 John 1:9. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to
     forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.=

     _254. What does the daily forgiveness of sins work in the
     Christian?_

The daily renewal, or that he day by day becomes more and more
thankful to God, and increases in child-like obedience and
faithfulness.

     _255. What becomes of the soul of the believer when he dies?_

His soul goes home to God, where it rests from all strife and sorrow,
in blessed fellowship with Him, until the resurrection of the body.

     =Luke 23:43. Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me
     in paradise.=

     =Rev. 14:13. Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord.=

     _256. What is the resurrection of the body?_

On the last day, when the Lord Jesus returns to earth, the bodies of
the dead shall be made alive and shall be reunited with their souls.

     =John 5:28, 29. The hour is coming, in which all that are in the
     graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have
     done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done
     evil, unto the resurrection of judgment.=

     _257. What change shall then take place in the bodies of the
     believers?_

Their bodies shall arise glorified and incorruptible, like unto the
body of the risen Lord Jesus Christ.

     =1 Cor. 15:42, 43. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in
     incorruption:=

     =It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory: it is sown in
     weakness; it is raised in power.=

     _258. Where do all the risen go after the day of judgment?_

The chosen enter into life everlasting; the condemned, into eternal
death.

     =Matt. 25:46. These shall go away into everlasting punishment;
     but the righteous into eternal life.=

     _259. What is life everlasting?_

Life everlasting is the blessed state in which the chosen are free
from all evil, and live forever in fellowship with their God and
Savior, praising God in the company of the holy angels, in everlasting
peace and joy.

     =Matt. 25:34. Then shall the King say unto them on his right
     hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared
     for you from the foundation of the world.=

     _260. What is eternal death?_

Eternal death is a dreadful state of separation from God, and
everlasting anguish and suffering in hell.

     =Matt. 25:41. Then shall he also say unto them on the left hand,
     Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for
     the devil and his angels.=

     _261. Who are thus condemned?_

All who continue in impenitence and unbelief until death.

     =John 3:36. He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life:
     and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the
     wrath of God abideth on him.=

     _262. Who, on the other hand, obtain life everlasting?_

All who continue steadfast in faith until death.

     =Rev. 2:10. [R. V.] Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give
     thee the crown of life.=

     _263. Why do you end your confession of faith with the word Amen?_

Because I know that what I here confess is certainly true.

     _264. What must you do that you may continue steadfast in faith
     and also increase therein?_

I will pray God every day graciously to help and strengthen me.



PART THREE.

THE LORD'S PRAYER.


     _265. What is prayer?_

Prayer is the child-like communion of our hearts with God, in which we
tell Him all our needs, and earnestly seek some gift from Him.

     _266. Who should pray?_

All should pray; even little children.

     _267. But can all pray in this manner?_

No, not the impenitent; their hearts are not right with God, and they
do not seek Him earnestly.

     _268. In whose name must we pray?_

We must pray in the name of Jesus.

     =John 16:23. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall
     ask the Father in my name, he will give it you.=

     _269. What is meant by praying in the name of Jesus?_

To pray in the name of Jesus is to ask on the strength of what He has
done for us, and His intercession with the Father.

     _270. How should we pray?_

We should pray humbly, confidently as a child, and reverently.

     _271. When should we pray?_

The attitude of our hearts should be one of constant prayer, and our
communion with God should not be confined to certain times and places,
but we should speak with Him whenever we feel the need of it.

     =1 Thess. 5:17. Pray without ceasing.=

     =Eph. 6: 18. Praying always with all prayer and supplication in
     the Spirit.=

     _272. For whom should we pray?_

We should pray not only for ourselves, but also for others,--even our
enemies.

     =1 Tim. 2:1-3. Matt. 5:44.=

     _273. For what should we pray?_

First of all we should pray for the spiritual gifts necessary to our
salvation; but we may also pray for other gifts, both spiritual and
temporal.

     =Matt. 6:33. Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his
     righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.=

     =1 Cor. 12:31. Covet earnestly the best gifts.=

     _274. What must we always remember when we pray for things not
     necessary to our salvation?_

We must always remember that God alone knows whether such a prayer
answered would truly benefit us.

When asking such gifts we should always add, "Lord, if Thou wilt".

     =Matt. 26:39. Not as I will, but as thou wilt.=

     _275. Who teaches us to pray well?_

The Holy Spirit, who is also called the Spirit of prayer.

     =Rom. 8:26. We know not what we should pray for as we ought: but
     the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which
     cannot be uttered.=

     _276. Which is the most perfect prayer?_

The most perfect prayer is the Lord's Prayer, which Christ taught His
own disciples.

     _277. Repeat this prayer._

Our Father, who art in heaven; hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come;
Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven; give us this day our
daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who
trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation; but deliver us
from evil; for Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for
ever and ever. Amen.

     _278. Why would God have us speak to Him as "Our Father"?_

God would hereby tenderly invite us to believe that He is truly our
Father, and we are truly His children, so that we may ask of Him with
all cheerfulness and confidence, as dear children ask of their dear
father.

     _279. Who alone can confidently call God Father?_

God's children alone can call God their Father.

     _280. Why would God have us say "our Father" and not only "my
     Father"?_

Because He would have us pray with one another and for one another, in
spiritual fellowship.

     _281. What is the importance of the words "who art in heaven"?_

By these words we are reminded of the exalted love and power of our
heavenly Father, far above that of any earthly father.

     =Matt. 7:11. If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts
     unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in
     heaven give good things to them that ask him?=


THE FIRST PETITION.

=Hallowed be Thy name.=

     _That is_,

The name of God is indeed holy in itself; but we pray in this petition
that it may be hallowed also among us.

This is done when the Word of God is rightly taught, and when we as
the children of God live holy lives in obedience to the Word. This
grant us, heavenly Father!

But he that teaches and lives otherwise than the Word of God teaches,
profanes the name of God among us. From this preserve us, heavenly
Father!

     _282. What do you pray for in the first petition?_

I pray that the name of God may be hallowed among us.

     =Ps. 72:19. Blessed be his glorious name forever: and let the
     whole earth be filled with his glory.=

     _283. When is the name of God hallowed among us?_

When the Word of God is rightly taught and is received into our hearts.

     _284. When do we hallow the name of God among our fellow men?_

We hallow the name of God when we freely confess it before men in
accordance with the Word, and when we as God's children live holy
lives in obedience to the Word.

     =Matt. 5:16. Let your light so shine before men, that they may
     see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.=

     =Matt. 10:32. Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men,
     him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven.=

     _285. Who profanes the name of God?_

He that teaches and lives otherwise than the Word of God teaches,
profanes the name of God.

     =Rom. 2:24. [R. V.] The name of God is blasphemed among the
     Gentiles because of you.=


THE SECOND PETITION.

=Thy kingdom come.=

     _That is_,

The kingdom of God comes indeed of itself, without our prayer, but we
pray in this petition that it may come also to us.

This is done when our heavenly Father gives us His Holy Spirit, so
that by His grace we believe the Word of God, and live holy and
Christ-like lives here in time, and in heaven forever.

     _286. What do you pray for in the second petition?_

I pray that the kingdom of God may come.

     _287. What is meant, in a particular sense, by the kingdom of God
     which you pray for in this petition?_

1. The kingdom of grace, in which Christ makes every believer a
partaker of righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit; and

2. The kingdom of glory in heaven, where the chosen live with Christ
in perfect happiness.

     _288. What is meant by saying that the kingdom of God comes to us?_

It means that we become partakers in it.

     _289. When does the kingdom of God come to us?_

The kingdom of God comes to us when our heavenly Father gives us His
Holy Spirit, so that by His grace we believe the Word of God.

     _290. What does the Holy Spirit work in them who thus by faith
     have become partakers in the kingdom of God?_

They live holy and Christ-like lives here in time, and in heaven
forever.


THE THIRD PETITION.

=Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven.=

     _That is_,

The good and gracious will of God is done indeed without our prayer;
but we pray in this petition that it may be done also among us.

This is done when God brings to nothing all evil plans and purposes of
the devil, the world, and our own flesh, that would hinder the
hallowing of His name and the coming of His kingdom.

On the other hand, it is the good and gracious will of God to strengthen
us and keep us steadfast in His Word and in faith, until death.

     _291. What do you pray for in the third petition?_

I pray that the will of God may be done among us on earth, as it is in
heaven.

     _292. What is the will of God?_

It is the will of God that all His rational creatures should praise
Him forever in perfect holiness and happiness.

     _293. Where is the will of God done in this manner?_

In heaven, where the holy angels praise God in undisturbed peace and
joy.

     =Ps. 103:20, 21. Bless the Lord, ye his angels, that excel in
     strength, that do his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of
     his word.=

     =Bless ye the Lord, all ye his hosts; ye ministers of his, that
     do his pleasure.=

     _294. When is the will of God done among us, as it is in heaven?_

When God brings to nothing all evil plans and purposes that would
hinder the hallowing of His name and the coming of His kingdom, and
when God strengthens us and keeps us steadfast in His Word and in
faith, until death.

     _295. Who seek to prevent the will of God from being done among
     us?_

The devil, the world, and our own flesh.

     _296. Who, on the other hand, will help us to do the will of God?_

God, who is merciful and faithful, will Himself help us to do His will.

     =1 Thess. 5:24. Faithful is he that calleth you, who also will do
     it.=


THE FOURTH PETITION.

=Give us this day our daily bread.=

     _That is_,

God gives daily bread indeed without our prayer even to the wicked;
but we pray in this petition that He would help us to appreciate His
benefits, that we may receive our daily bread with thanksgiving.

By daily bread is meant all those things which are needed for our
support and well-being in life, as food and clothing, home and property,
happy family relations, a good government, favorable weather, peace and
health, faithful friends, good neighbors, and the like.

     _297. What do you pray for in the fourth petition?_

I pray God to give me daily bread.

     _298. What is meant by daily bread?_

By daily bread is meant all those things which are needed for our
support and well-being in life, as food and clothing, home and
property, etc.

     _299. Of what does the word "daily" remind you?_

I must be content with that which God gives me.

     =Prov. 30:8. Give me neither poverty nor riches: feed me with
     food convenient for me.=

     =1 Tim. 6:6. Godliness with contentment is great gain.=

     _300. Why are the words "this day" added?_

They are added that I should not be anxious for the morrow, but let
each day bear its own burdens.

     =Matt. 6:34.=

     _301. Does God give daily bread to those only who pray for it?_

No; He gives daily bread also to the wicked, but they receive it
without thanksgiving, and miss His blessing.

     =Matt. 5:45. He maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the
     good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.=

     _302. How should the children of God receive their daily bread?_

They should ask God to bless their daily bread, and return Him thanks
for it.

     =Prov. 10: 22. The blessing of the Lord maketh rich.=

     _303. Need we not work for our daily bread when we pray for it
     every day?_

Yes; God wants us to be diligent, each in our calling, trusting in His
help.

     =Gen. 3:19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread.=

     =2 Thess. 3: 10. If any would not work, neither should he eat.=


THE FIFTH PETITION.

=And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass
against us.=

     _That is_,

We pray in this petition that our Father in heaven would not look upon
our sins, nor, on account of them, deny our prayer; for we are not
worthy of anything we ask, neither have we deserved it; but we pray
that He would give it to us out of His mercy; for we sin every day,
and deserve nothing but punishment.

And we on our part will heartily forgive those who have sinned against
us, and return good for evil.

     _304. What do you pray for in the fifth petition?_

I pray God to forgive us our trespasses.

     _305. What is implied by the word "trespasses"?_

Thereby is implied our guilt or debt to God, which we have brought
upon ourselves by our sins.

     _306. Can we feel assured that God will forgive us this debt?_

Yes; Jesus Christ has paid for all our sins.

     _307. Why must the believer ask the forgiveness of sins every day?_

Because he sins every day, and is always in need of forgiveness.

     _308. What do we confess to God in this petition?_

We confess that we are not worthy of the least of that which we ask,
neither have we deserved it; but we pray that He would give it to us
out of His mercy.

     _309. What do we promise God in this petition, while asking His
     forgiveness?_

We promise to forgive those who trespass against us, and return good
for evil.

     =Luke 6:37. Condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive,
     and ye shall be forgiven.=

     =Matt. 18:23-35.=


THE SIXTH PETITION.

=And lead us not into temptation.=

     _That is_,

God indeed tempts no one, but we pray in this petition that He would
guard and keep us from the devil, the world, and our own flesh, that
we fall not, through their deceit, into unbelief, despair, or other
sins; but we pray that although we be thus tempted, we may overcome
the temptation, and remain victorious.

     _310. What do you pray for in this petition?_

I pray God not to lead us into temptation.

     _311. What is meant by temptation?_

By temptation is meant opportunities that invite to sin.

     _312. Does God give us such opportunities in order that we may
     sin?_

By no means; God, who is holy and loving, does not tempt any one to sin.

     =James 1:13. Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of
     God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any
     man.=

     _313. Why then does God permit us to be tempted?_

God permits us to be tempted in order to try us, and in order that it
may be seen whether we have true faith, love, and patience.

     =Read Gen. 22:1-19.=

     _314. Who, on the other hand, tempt us to sin?_

The devil, the world, and our own flesh, tempt us to sin.

     _315. How does the devil tempt us?_

The devil tempts us by putting evil thoughts into our minds.

     _316. How does the world tempt us?_

The world tempts us by threats, attractive invitations, and bad example.

     =Prov. 1:10. My son if sinners entice thee, consent thou not.=

     _317. How does our flesh tempt us?_

Our own flesh tempts by its evil desires.

     =James 1:14. Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his
     own lust, and enticed.=

     _318. Can we ever be free from temptations in this world?_

No; the conditions of this present life are such that temptations must
follow, and we need them for our bringing up in the kingdom of God.

     =Matt. 18:7. It must needs be that offences come.=

     _319. What, then, do we mean when we ask God not to lead us into
     temptation?_

We pray that when He finds it good for us to be tempted, He will guard
and keep us, so that we may in the end be victorious.

     =1 Cor. 10:13. God is faithful who will not suffer you to be
     tempted above that ye are able.=

     _320. What are our weapons against temptation?_

We must use the Word of God, watch and pray, and take care not to
invite temptation.

     =Matt. 26:41. Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation.=

     =Eph. 6:13. Take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be
     able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to
     stand.=


THE SEVENTH PETITION.

=But deliver us from evil.=

     _That is_,

We pray in this petition, in general, that our Father in heaven would
deliver us from all evil, affecting body and soul, property and honor,
and at last grant us a blessed end, and graciously take us from this
world of sorrow to Himself in heaven.

     _321. What do you pray for in the seventh petition?_

I pray God to deliver us from evil.

     _322. From what evil do you pray God to deliver us in this
     petition?_

I pray God to deliver us from all sin that still clings to us, and
from all the destructive effects of sin upon soul and body, property
and honor.

     _323. Can we expect to be entirely free from all evil while in
     this world?_

No, we cannot; but we pray God in this petition to deliver us more and
more from all evil, and at last grant us a blessed end, and graciously
take us from this world of sorrow to Himself in heaven.

     =Phil. 1:23. I have a desire to depart, and to be with Christ;
     which is far better.=

     _324. What are the closing words of the Lord's Prayer?_

=For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and
ever. Amen.=

     _325. Of what do these words remind us?_

We should remember that God is able to answer our prayer, and that the
glory belongs to Him alone, when we get according to our prayer.

     _326. What is the meaning of the word "Amen"?_

Its meaning is, Surely; so be it.

     _327. Why is this word added?_

It is added in order that I may be fully assured that these petitions
are acceptable to our Father in heaven, and are heard by Him.

     _328. How can I feel assured of this?_

God Himself has commanded us to pray, and has added this promise to
hear us: Amen, Amen; that is, Surely; so be it.

     _329. Does this promise hold good only when we use the Lord's
     Prayer?_

No; God hears every prayer offered up according to His will.

     =Matt. 7:7. Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall
     find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.=

     _330. Does God always answer our prayer as we desire?_

No; He often answers our prayer by giving us something else and
something better than we ask or think.

     =Eph. 3:20. God is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that
     we ask or think.=

     _331. Does God answer our prayer at once?_

Sometimes; but He often delays His answer in order to strengthen our
faith and our hope.

     _332. In speaking with God, should we only ask for the good
     things which we like to get?_

No; we must also return Him thanks for the blessings which we have
received.

     =Eph. 5: 20. Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the
     Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.=



THE SACRAMENTS.


     _333. What is a sacrament?_

A sacrament is a holy ordinance made by God Himself, in which He gives
and confirms His invisible grace through outward and visible means.

     _334. Which are the sacraments of the Christian church?_

They are Baptism and the Lord's Supper.



PART FOUR.

THE SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM.


     _335. What is Baptism?_

Baptism is not water alone, but it is water comprehended in God's
command, and united with His Word.

     _336. What is God's command concerning Baptism?_

It is given in the words of Christ in the last chapter of Matthew:

"=All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore,
and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe all things
whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even
unto the end of the world.="

     _337. In whose name then are you baptized?_

I am baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the
Holy Ghost.

     _338. Explain this further._

In Baptism I have entered into fellowship with the triune God, the
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; I have become His own, and have
been made heir of all His gracious gifts.

     _339. Is the baptism of little children in agreement with
     Christ's command?_

Yes; Christ Himself has said: "Suffer the little children to come unto
me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God."

     =Mark 10:14. John 3:5.=

     _340. Who should administer Baptism?_

Baptism should be administered by the minister of the church, but when
necessary it may be administered by any Christian.

     _341. What benefit do we have from Baptism?_

Baptism works the forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the
devil, and gives everlasting life to all who believe what the Word and
promise of God declare.

     _342. What is God's promise concerning Baptism?_

It is given in the words of Christ in the sixteenth chapter of Mark:

"=He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that
believeth not shall be condemned.="

     _343. How does Baptism save us from sin, death, and the devil?_

In Baptism we come into fellowship with Christ, and are made partakers
in His redemption.

     =Gal. 3:27. As many of you as have been baptized into Christ have
     put on Christ.=

     =Rom. 6:3, 4.=

     _344. How can water do such great things?_

It is not water indeed that does it, but the Word of God, which is in
and with the water, and faith which trusts this Word of God in the
water.

For without the Word of God, the water is water alone, and no Baptism.
But with the Word of God it is a Baptism, that is, a gracious water
of life and a washing of regeneration in the Holy Ghost.

     =Titus 3:5-7. According to His mercy He saved us, by the washing
     of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;=

     =Which He shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior;=

     =That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs
     according to the hope of eternal life.=

     _345. Why is Baptism called the "washing of regeneration"?_

Because the Holy Spirit in Baptism cleanses us from sin, and gives us
a new spiritual life.

     =1 Pet. 3:21. Baptism is not the putting away of the filth of the
     flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God, by the
     resurrection of Jesus Christ.=

     _346. Is not Baptism also called a covenant?_

Yes; Baptism is a covenant; in Baptism God gives us a new life and His
grace, and we promise Him to renounce the devil, and all His works,
and all his ways, and to believe in the Father, the Son, and the Holy
Spirit.

     _347. Who enjoy the blessings that God promises in Baptism?_

All who remain in the covenant of their Baptism.

     _348. When does he who was baptized as a child confirm the
     covenant of his Baptism?_

At his confirmation, when he renews the covenant of his Baptism in the
midst of the assembled congregation, having first been instructed in
God's Word.

     _349. Is it possible to remain in the covenant of Baptism?_

Yes; by the grace of God it is possible.

     =Phil. 4:13. I can do all things through Christ which
     strengtheneth me.=

     _350. What must we do to remain in the grace of our Baptism?_

We must watch and pray, and make diligent use of the Word of God and
the Lord's Supper.

     _351. In what ways may we break the covenant of our Baptism?_

1. When we little by little forget our covenant, resist the Holy
Spirit, and neglect prayer, so that we become more and more
worldly-minded.

2. When we fall in coarse and open sins.

     _352. Will not God again receive us when we have broken the
     covenant of our Baptism?_

Yes; God has not broken His part of the covenant, and when we again
turn to Him, He is always glad to receive us.

     =Luke 15:20. He arose, and came to his father. But when he was
     yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and
     ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him.=

     _353. How does a repentant sinner get courage to return to God?_

He gets courage from considering the tender Gospel invitation of
Christ, and from seeking God in prayer.

     =Matt. 11:28. Come unto me, all that labor and are heavy laden,
     and I will give you rest.=

     _354. Does not also he who remains true to the covenant of his
     Baptism need repentance?_

Yes; he needs daily repentance and daily renewal. =See 250.=

     _355. What does the baptizing with water signify?_

It signifies that the old man in us should, by daily sorrow and
repentance, be drowned and die, with all sins and evil desires; and
again a new man daily appear more and more, who shall live before God
in righteousness and purity forever.

     _356. What is meant by saying that the old man in us should die,
     and the new man appear more and more?_

Sin should be rooted out from us through daily sorrow and repentance,
and our love to God and man should grow up within us more and more, so
that it may appear in all our conduct that we have the mind of Christ.

     =Rom. 6:4. We are buried with Christ by baptism into death: that
     like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the
     Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.=

     _357. What are the duties of sponsors?_

They should pray for the child whose baptism they have witnessed, they
should remember the covenant of their own Baptism, and afterwards, as
far as possible, see that the child is brought up in the fear of God.



PART FIVE.

THE SACRAMENT OF THE LORD'S SUPPER.


     _358. What is the Lord's Supper?_

It is the true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, under bread and
wine, instituted by Christ Himself for Christians to eat and to drink.

     _359. Repeat the Words of Institution._

"=Our Lord Jesus Christ, in the night in which He was betrayed, took
bread, and when He had given thanks, He brake it and gave it to his
disciples, saying, Take, eat; this is my body, which is given for you;
this do in remembrance of me.=

"=After the same manner, also, when He had supped, He took the cup,
and when He had given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all
of it; this cup is the New Testament in my blood, which is shed for
you, and for many, for the remission of sins; this do, as oft as ye
drink it, in remembrance of me.="

     _360. When did Jesus institute the Lord's Supper?_

In the night in which He was betrayed to death; it is therefore called
the Lord's Supper.

     _361. Is it important to note the time when Jesus instituted the
     Lord's Supper?_

Yes; for it shows the loving care of our Savior, who just before His
suffering and death thought more of us than of Himself.

     _362. What do we receive in the Lord's Supper?_

In and with the bread and the wine we receive the body and blood of
Christ, which He gave up in death for us.

     _363. How do you know this?_

Christ says concerning the bread: "Take, eat; this is my body."

Concerning the wine He says: "Drink ye all of it; this cup is the New
Testament in my blood."

     _364. What is meant by "New Testament" in this connection?_

Thereby is meant the new covenant which God has made and sealed with
the blood of Jesus.

     =1 Cor. 10:16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the
     communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it
     not the communion of the body of Christ?=

     _365. What, therefore, makes the bread and the wine a sacrament
     of the body and blood of Christ?_

God's own Word which is added to the bread and the wine; for as Luther
says, "Bread and wine alone are but bread and wine; but being united
with the Word of God, they are truly the body and blood of Christ.
For as the mouth of Christ speaks, so it is; He can neither lie nor
deceive."

     _366. For whom is the Lord's Supper intended?_

The Lord's Supper is intended for true Christians, who are of age and
understanding to prove themselves.

     =1 Cor. 11: 28. [R. V.] Let a man prove himself, and so let him
     eat of the bread, and drink of the cup.=

     _367. What benefit do we have from the Lord's Supper?_

It is shown by these words: "Given and shed for you, for the remission
of sins;" namely, that in the sacrament forgiveness of sins, life, and
salvation are given us through these words. For where there is
forgiveness of sins, there is also life and salvation.

     _368. But does not the believer have the forgiveness of sins
     before he partakes of the Lord's Supper?_

Yes; the believer has the forgiveness of sins through Baptism and the
Word.

     _369. How, then, can the forgiveness of sins in a particular
     sense be connected with this sacrament?_

Because in the Lord's Supper we receive the body and blood of Christ,
which were offered up for us, as a sure pledge of the forgiveness of
sins.

     _370. In what way does the believer get life and salvation
     through this sacrament?_

Through this sacrament the believer is brought into spiritual
fellowship with his Lord and Savior, who imparts Himself to him and
thus preserves and strengthens him in faith, hope, and love unto
eternal life.

     =John 6: 56. He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood,
     dwelleth in me, and I in him.=

     _371. Does not the sacrament of the Lord's Supper also bring
     about a more intimate fellowship between believers?_

Yes; believers are united in a closer fellowship through partaking in
common of the Lord Jesus and eternal life in Him.

     =1 Cor. 10:17. For we being many are one bread, and one body: for
     we are all partakers of that one bread.=

     _372. How can bodily eating and drinking do such great things?_

It is not the eating and drinking, indeed, that does it, but the words
which stand here: "Given and shed for you, for the remission of sins."
These words, together with the bodily eating and drinking, are the
chief thing in the sacrament; and He that believes these words, has
what they say and mean, namely, the forgiveness of sins.

     _373. Is it of little importance how we receive the Lord's Supper?_

By no means; we must be prepared when we go to partake of these
gifts. It is much worse to go to the Lord's Supper unprepared and
unworthily than not to go at all.

     _374. Who, then, receive this sacrament worthily?_

Fasting and bodily preparation are indeed a good outward practise;

But he alone is truly worthy and well prepared, who believes these
words: "Given and shed for you, for the remission of sins."

But he who believes not these words is unworthy and unprepared. The
words, "=for you=" require truly believing hearts.

     _375. Who, then, is rightly prepared to partake of the Lord's
     Supper?_

He who believes these words: "Given and shed for you, for the
remission of sins."

     _376. What is meant by "believing" these words?_

Thereby is meant that we heartily feel our sin and unworthiness before
God, but also that we confidently accept for ourselves the grace of
our Lord Jesus Christ.

     _377. Who partake of the Lord's Supper unworthily?_

They who do not feel nor repent their sins, and who do not from their
heart believe in Jesus.

     =1 Cor. 11:29. He that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and
     drinketh judgment to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.=

     _378. Why do such unconverted persons partake of the Lord's
     Supper?_

They do so either from custom or habit, or because they are ashamed to
neglect the Lord's Supper, or again because they mean to please God by
this outward obedience.

     _379. Should such persons be admitted to the Lord's Supper?_

No.

     =Matt 7:6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither
     cast ye your pearls before swine.=

     _380. What must we do in order that we may not partake of the
     Lord's Supper unworthily?_

We must prayerfully search our own hearts as in the presence of God,
whether we repent our sins and believe in Jesus Christ, and whether we
have an honest purpose to abstain from even our bosom sins.

     =1 Cor. 11:28.=

     _381. How often should we partake of the Lord's Supper?_

Christ has not told us how often we should partake, but He has said,
"This do, as often as ye drink it, in remembrance of me".

     _382. What should move us to partake of the Lord's Supper often?_

First of all, the command and promise of our Lord and Savior; then,
our own great need, which is the reason for our Father's tender
invitation and promise of grace.

     _383. What are the common causes for the neglect of the Lord's
     Supper?_

Spiritual dullness and indifference, a worldly mind, pride, and
disregard for God's grace and ordinance.

     _384. Should the feeling of our own unworthiness keep us away
     from the Lord's Supper?_

No; the more we feel our own unworthiness, and the more we sincerely
long for God's forgiveness, the more worthy are we to receive His grace.

     =Matt. 5:3. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the
     kingdom of heaven.=

     =1 Pet. 5:5. God giveth grace to the humble.=

     _385. What must we do when we receive the Lord's Supper?_

We must remember our Savior and His death.

     =Luke 22:19. This do in remembrance of me.=

     _386. How should we remember Christ's death?_

We should earnestly fix our mind upon the suffering and death of
Christ, so that we may be strengthened in faith and in love to Him,
who loved us unto death.

     =1 Cor. 11:26. As often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup,
     ye do show the Lord's death till He come.=

     _387. What should be our conduct when we have received the Lord's
     Supper?_

We should quietly think of the great love which God has shown us, and
heartily thank Him for it; not only for a few days, but always, keep
near to Jesus, show His death in word and act, and in a sanctified life
prove that the body and blood of Christ have power to cleanse from sin.

     =1 Pet. 2:24. Who his own self bore our sins in his own body on
     the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto
     rigtheousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.=

     _388. Is he who thus believes and lives in fellowship with Christ
     sure to be saved?_

Yes; when he continues steadfast in faith until death.

     =Matt. 24:13. He that shall endure unto the end, the same shall
     be saved.=

     =Rev. 2:10. Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a
     crown of life.=



Transcriber's Note


    * Obvious punctuation and spelling errors repaired.

    * Text enclosed between equal signs was in bold face in the
      original (=bold=).





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