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´╗┐Title: A Journey to Ohio in 1810 - As Recorded in the Journal of Margaret van Horn Dwight
Author: Dwight, Margaret van Horn
Language: English
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Transcriber's note


Minor punctuation errors have been changed without notice. Printer
errors have been changed and are listed at the end. All other
inconsistencies are as in the original.

Characters that could not be displayed directly in Latin-1 are
transcribed as follows:

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   YALE
    HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS

    I

    PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE
    DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
    FROM THE INCOME OF

    THE FREDERICK JOHN KINGSBURY
    MEMORIAL FUND



    A
    Journey to Ohio
    in 1810



    As Recorded in the Journal of
    MARGARET VAN HORN DWIGHT

    Edited with an Introduction by
    MAX FARRAND

    New Haven
    YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS



    COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS
    Printed in the United States of America

    First published, October, 1912
    Second printing, December, 1912
    Third printing, December, 1913
    Fourth printing, April, 1920
    Fifth printing, October, 1933

All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in
part, in any form (except by reviewers for the public press), without
written permission from the publishers.



INTRODUCTION


"If it be true that good wine needs no bush, 'tis true that a good play
needs no epilogue;" and Rosalind might well have added that a good story
needs no prologue. The present journal is complete in itself, and it is
such a perfect gem, that it seems a pity to mar its beauty by giving it
any but the simplest setting. There are many readers, however, with
enough human interest to wish to know who Rosalind really was, and to be
assured that she "married and lived happily ever after." That is the
reason for this introduction.

Margaret Van Horn Dwight was born on December 29, 1790. She was the
daughter of Doctor Maurice William Dwight, a brother of President
Timothy Dwight of Yale, and Margaret (DeWitt) Dwight. The death of her
father in 1796, and the subsequent marriage of her mother, was probably
the reason for Margaret Dwight being taken by her grandmother, Mary
Edwards Dwight, a daughter of Jonathan Edwards, who trained her as her
own child in her family in Northampton. The death of her grandmother,
February 7, 1807, was the occasion of her going to live in New Haven in
the family of her aunt, Elizabeth Dwight, who had married William Walton
Woolsey, and whose son was President Theodore Woolsey.

Three years later, in 1810, Margaret Dwight left New Haven to go to her
cousins in Warren, Ohio. It was doubtless there that she met Mr. Bell,
whom she married, December 17, 1811, a year after her arrival. William
Bell, Jr., was born in Ireland, February 11, 1781, and after 1815 he was
a wholesale merchant in Pittsburgh.

The family genealogy formally records that Margaret Dwight Bell became
the mother of thirteen children, that she died on October 9, 1834, and
that she was "a lady of remarkable sweetness and excellence, and
devotedly religious." Family tradition adds a personal touch in relating
that her home was a center of hospitality and that she herself was
active and very vivacious.

The journal of the rough wagon trip to Ohio in 1810 was evidently kept
by Margaret Dwight in fulfilment of a promise to her cousin, Elizabeth
Woolsey, to whom it was sent as soon as the journey was over. A good
many years later the journal was given to a son of the author, and the
original is now in the possession of a granddaughter, Miss Katharine
Reynolds Wishart of Waterford, Pennsylvania. It has been well cared for
and is in excellent condition, except that the first two pages are
missing. This is of less importance from the fact that two independent
copies had been made. The text of the journal here printed is taken from
the original manuscript, and is reproduced as accurately as
typographical devices permit.

                                           MAX FARRAND.



A JOURNEY TO OHIO



Milford Friday Eve. at Capt Pond's.


Shall I commence my journal, my dear Elizabeth, with a description of
the pain I felt at taking leave of all my friends, or shall I leave you
to imagine?--The afternoon has been spent by me in the most painful
reflections & in almost total silence by my companions- I have thought
of a thousand things unsaid, a thousand kindnesses unpaid with thanks
that I ought to have remembered more seasonably; and the neglect of
which causes me many uneasy feelings- my neglecting to take leave of
Sally, has had the same effect- I hope she did not feel hurt by it, for
it proceeded from no want of gratitude for her kindness to me. I did not
imagine parting with any friend could be so distressing as I found
leaving your Mama. I did not know till then, how much I loved her &
could I at that moment have retraced my steps! but it was too late to
repent-- Deacon Wolcott & his wife are very kind, obliging, people, &
Miss Wolcott is a very pleasant companion, I do not know what I should
do without her. We came on to Butler's this afternoon & I came
immediately down to Uncle Pond's & drank tea. Miss W. came with me &
both Uncle & Aunt invited her to stay and sleep with me, which she
accordingly did. Cousin Patty has been with me, to say good bye, to all
my friends, & to-morrow we proceed to Stamford.



Sat. night, D. Nash's Inn. Middlesex-


We had a cold, unsociable ride today, each one of us being occupied in
thinking of the friends we had left behind & of the distance, which was
every moment increasing, between them & us. Mrs W has left an aged
father in the last stages of consumption, that was a sufficient excuse
for silence on her part. Mr W. made several attempts to dispel & by kind
words & _phebeish_[A] looks but without success; he appears to be a very
fond husband. We stopt to _eat oats_ at a Tavern in Fairfield, West
Farms, an old Lady came into the room where Miss W. (whose name, by the
way, is Susan, not Hannah, Sally, or Abby) & we were sitting. "Well!
Gals where are you going?" "To New Connecticut" "You bant tho- To New
Connecticut? Why what a long journey! do you ever expect to get there?
How far is it?" "Near 600 miles" "Well Gals, you Gals & your husbands
with you?" "No Ma'am"- "Not got your husbands! Well I don't know- they
say there's wild Indians there!" The poor woman was then call'd out to
her daughter (the mistress of the house) who she told us has been ill
five months with a swelling & she had come that afternoon to see it
_launch'd_ by the Physicians who were then in the house-- She went out
but soon return'd & told us they were "cutting her poor child all to
pieces"- She did not know but she should as lieve see a wild Indian as
to see that scene over again-- I felt very sorry for the poor old Lady-
I could not help smiling at the comparison. The country we pass thro'
till we are beyond N. York, I need not describe to you, nor indeed could
I; for I am attended by a very unpleasant tho' not uncommon, companion-
one to whom I have bow'd in subjection ever since I left you-Pride-- It
has entirely prevented my seeing the country lest I should be known--
You will cry "for shame" & so did I but it did no good- I could neither
shame nor reason it away, & so I suppose it will attend me to the
mountains, then I am sure it will bid me adieu- "for you know the
proverb" 'pride dwelleth not among the mountains'- I don't certainly
know where this proverb is to be found, but Julia can tell you- for if I
mistake not it is on the next page to "There is nothing sweet" &c- I do
not find it so unpleasant riding in a waggon as I expected-nor am I very
much fatigued with it- but four weeks to ride all the time, is
fatigueing to think of- We came on to Nash's tavern where we found no
company excepting one gentleman who looks like a D^r Susannah (M^r
Nash's granddaughter) says he is a "particular bit" one who likes good
eating & a great deal of waiting upon, better than he likes to pay for
it- Here we stay over the Sabbath.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote A: For the description at the word _Phebeish_, the reader is
referred to Miss Julia.]



Sunday eve--


This morning Susannah came & invited us to attend meeting- we at first
refused but I afterwards chang'd my mind, & "took a notion" (as Susannah
told her friends to whom she did me the honour to introduce me) to go-
so taking an apple to eat on the road we set out for the church- It was
"situated on an eminence" but was a small old wooden building-The
minister; who I found was brother to M^r Fisher, Susannah told me was
not very well liked by some "he hadn't so good a gait to deliver his
sermons as some," but she believ'd he was a very serious good man- She
then gave me his history but I cannot spend time to give it to you- -
The sermon had nothing very striking in it but if I had time I would
write you the text heads &c just to let you see I remember it, though I
fear it has done me no good for I heard it like a stranger and did not
realize that I was interested in it _at_ all- I was entirely of
Susannah's opinion respecting the preacher, for I thought his "gait to
deliver" was better than his voice, for he has a most terrible _nasal
twang_--Before we got home at noon, I had found out the squire & half
the parish, Susannah's history & many other _interesting_ things which I
have almost forgotten--I saw 4 or 5 well dress'd good looking girls, &
as many young men answering the first part of the description, one of
whom was chorister- & another, from the resemblance he bears them, I
imagine must be brother to Miss Haines or the N York Sexton---- I went
all day to meeting & am now very tir'd, for our walk was a very long
one, I should think almost 2 miles each way which would make almost 4
miles for one poor sermon----



October 22- Monday- Cook's inn--County West Chester--


I never will go to New Connecticut with a _Deacon_ again, for we put up
at every byeplace in the country to _save expence_- It is very grating
to my pride to go into a tavern & furnish & cook my own provision- to
ride in a wagon &c &c- but that I can possibly get along with- but to be
oblig'd to pass the night in such a place as we are now in, just because
it is a little cheaper, is more than I am willing to do- I should even
rather drink clear rum out of the wooden bottle after the deacon has
drank & wip'd it over with his band, than to stay here another night--
The house is very small & very dirty- it serves for a tavern, a store, &
I should imagine hog's pen stable & every thing else- The air is so
impure I have scarcely been able to swallow since I enter'd the house-
The landlady is a fat, dirty, ugly looking creature, yet I must confess
very obliging- She has a very suspicious countenance & I am very afraid
of her- She seems to be master, as well as mistress & storekeeper, &
from the great noise she has been making directly under me for this half
hour, I suspect she has been "stoning the raisins & watering the rum"-
All the evening there has been a store full of noisy drunken fellows,
yet M^r Wolcott could not be persuaded to bring in but a small part of
the baggage, & has left it in the waggon before the door, as handy as
possible- Miss W's trunk is in the bar-room unlock'd the key being
broken today- it contains a bag of money of her father's, yet she could
not persuade him to bring it up stairs-- I feel so uneasy I cannot sleep
& had therefore rather write than not this hour- some one has just gone
below stairs after being as I suppos'd in bed this some time- for what
purpose I know not-unless to go to our trunks or waggon- the old woman,
(for it was her who went down,) tells me I must put out my candle so
good night---- Tuesday Morn--I went to bed last night with fear &
trembling, & feel truly glad to wake up & find myself alive & well- if
our property is all safe, we shall have double cause to be thankful--
The old woman kept walking about after I was in bed, & I then heard her
in close confab with her husband a long time-- Our room is just large
enough to contain a bed a chair & a very small stand- our bed has one
brown sheet & one pillow- the sheet however appear'd to be clean, which
was more than we got at Nash's- there we were all oblig'd to sleep in
the same room without curtains or any other screen- & our sheets there
were so dirty I felt afraid to sleep in them- We were not much in favor
at our first arrival there; but before we left them, they appear'd quite
to like us- & I don't know why they should not, for we were all very
clever, notwithstanding we rode in a waggon-- M^rs Nash said she should
reckon on't to see us again (Miss W & me) so I told her that in 3 years
she might expect to see me- She said I should never come back alone,
that I would certainly be married in a little while- but I am now more
than ever determin'd not to oblige myself to spend my days there, by
marrying should I even have an opport^y-- I am oblig'd to write every
way so you must not wonder at the badness of the writing- I am now in
bed & writing in my lap- Susan has gone to see if our baggage is in
order-- I hear the old woman's voice talking to the good deacon- & an "I
beg your pardon" comes out at every breath almost--Oh I cannot bear to
see her again she is such a disgusting object-- The men have been
swearing & laughing in the store under me this hour- & the air of my
room is so intolerable, that I must quit my writing to go in search of
some that is _breathable_- I don't know how far I shall be oblig'd to go
for it- but there is none very near I am certain-- Having a few moments
more to spare before we set out, with my book still in my lap, I hasten
to tell you we found everything perfectly safe, & I believe I wrong'd
them all by suspicions--The house by day light looks worse then ever-
every kind of thing in the room where they live- a chicken half pick'd
hangs over the door- & pots, kettles, dirty dishes, potatoe barrels- &
every thing else- & the old woman- it is beyond my power to describe
her- but she & her husband & both very kind & obliging- it is as much as
a body's life is worth to go near them-- The air has already had a
medicinal effect upon me-- I feel as if I had taken an emetic- & should
stay till night I most certainly should be oblig'd to take my bed, &
that would be certain death-- I did not think I could eat in the house-
but I did not dare refuse- the good deacon nor his wife did not mind it,
so I thought I must not-- The old creature sits by eating, & we are just
going to my great joy so good bye, good bye till to-night----



Tuesday Noon- Ferry House near State Prison-


It has been very cold & dusty riding to day-- We have met with no
adventure yet, of any kind-- We are now waiting at the ferry house to
cross the river as soon as wind & tide serve- The white waves foam
terribly how we shall get across I know not, but I am in great fear- If
we drown there will be an end of my journal----



Hobuck, Wednesday Morn-Buskirck's Inn--


After waiting 3 or 4 hours at the ferry house, we with great difficulty
cross'd the ferry & I, standing brac'd against one side of the boat
involuntarily endeavouring to balance it with my weight & groaning at
every fresh breeze as I watch'd the side which almost dipt in the water-
& the ferrymen swearing at every breath- M^r, M^{rs} & Miss Wolcott
viewing the city and vainly wishing they had improv'd the time of our
delay to take a nearer view---- At length we reach'd this shore almost
frozen- The Ferry is a mile & an half wide-- I was too fatigued to
write last night & soon after we came retired to bed- We were again
oblig'd all to sleep in one room & in dirty sheets- but pass'd the night
very comfortably--If good wishes have any influence, we shall reach our
journey's end in peace- for we obtain them from everyone-- The morning
is pleasant & we are soon to ride----M^{rs} Buskirck the landlady, I
should imagine is about 60 years of age & she sits by with a three year
old child in her lap- She wears a long ear'd cap & looks so old I
thought she must be Grandmother till I enquir'd--



Springfield-New Jersey- Pierson's Inn-Wed^y-PM 4 oclock-


"What is every body's business is no body's" for instance- it is
nobody's business where we are going, yet every body enquires- every
toll gatherer & child that sees us---- I am almost discouraged- we shall
never get to New Connecticut or any where else, at the rate we go on- We
went but eleven miles yesterday & 15 to day-- Our Waggon wants repairing
& we were oblig'd to put up for the night at about 3 oclock.---- I think
the country so far, much pleasanter than any part of Connecticut we
pass'd thro'-but the Turnpike roads are not half as good- The Deacon &
his family complain most bitterly of the gates & toll bridges- tho' the
former is very good-natur'd with his complaints-- Also the tavern
expenses are a great trouble- As I said before I will never go with a
Deacon again- for we go so slow & so cheap, that I am almost tir'd to
death. The horses walk, walk hour after hour while M^r W sits _reckoning
his expenses_ & forgetting to drive till some of us ask when we shall
get there?- then he remembers the longer we are on the road the more
_expensive_ it will be, & whips up his horses--and when Erastus the son,
drives, we go still slower for fear of hurting the horses-- Since I left
you I have conceived such an aversion for Doctors & the words, expense,
expensive, cheap & expect, that I do not desire ever to see the one (at
least to need them) or hear the others again, in my life-- I have just
found out that Elizabeth Town is but 5 miles off & have been to the
landlord to enquire if I cannot possibly get there & he encourages me a
little, I cannot write more till I am certain- Oh if I can but see my
brother! After a long crying spell, I once more take up my pen to tell
you I cannot go,- there is no chair or side saddle to be got, & I will,
by supposing him at New York, try to content myself- to describe my
disappointment would be impossible--it is such an agravation of my pain,
to know myself so near & then not see him-- I have the greater part of
the time till now, felt in better spirits than I expected-my journal has
been of use to me in that respect----I did not know but I should meet
with the same fate that a cousin of M^r Hall's did, who like me, was
journeying to a new, if not a western country- She was married on her
way & prevented from proceeding to her journey's end- There was a man to
day in Camptown where we stopt to eat, not oats but gingerbread, who
enquired, or rather _expected_ we were going to the Hio- we told him yes
& he at once concluded it was to get husbands- He said winter was coming
on & he wanted a wife & believ'd he must go there to get him one- I
concluded of course the next thing would be, a proposal to Miss W or me
to stay behind to save trouble for us both; but nothing would suit him
but a rich widow, so our hopes were soon at an end- Disappointment is
the lot of man & we may as well bear them with a good grace- this
thought restrain'd my tears at that time, but has not been able to
since-- What shall I do? My companions say they shall insist upon seeing
my journal & I certainly will not show it to them, so I told them I
would bring it with me the first time I came to Henshaw (the place where
they live) & read it to them; but I shall do my utmost to send it to you
before I go- that would be a sufficient excuse for not performing my
promise which must be conditional--I will not insist upon your reading
this thro' my dear Elizabeth & I suspect by this time you feel quite
willing to leave it unread further- I wish I could make it more
interesting-- I write just as I feel & think at the moment & I feel as
much in haste to write every thing that occurs, as if you could know it
the moment it was written- I must now leave you to write to my brother,
for if I cannot see him I will at least write him- I cannot bear the
idea of leaving the state without once more seeing him-- I hope next to
write you from 30 miles hence at least--Poor Susan feels worse to night
than me, & M^{rs} Wolcott to cheer us, tells us what we have yet to
expect- this you may be sure has the desir'd effect & raises our spirits
at once--



Friday morn- Chester N J.


We left Springfield yesterday about nine oclock & came on to Chester
about 22 miles from Spring^d----Patience & perseverance will get us to N
C in time-but I fear we shall winter on our way there, for instead of
four weeks, I fear we shall be four times four---- We found an excellent
tavern here compar'd with any we have yet found, & we had for the first
time clean sheets to sleep in- We pass'd thro' Morristown yesterday, &
3 small villages- one called Chatham I do not know the names of the
others-- It is very hilly in N Jersey, & what is very strange, we appear
almost always to be going up hill, but like the squirrel, never rise 2
inches higher- The hills look very handsomely at a little distance,- but
none of them are very high---- M^r & M^{rs} Wolcott, after telling us
every thing dreadful, they could think of, began encouraging us by
changing sides & relating the good as well as the bad- They are sure I
shall like Warren better than I expect & think I shall not regret going
in the least---- The weather yesterday was very pleasant, & is this
morning also- We wish to reach Easton to day, but I am sure we shall
not, for it is 32 miles distant- 5 or 600 hundred miles appears like a
short journey to me now- indeed I feel as if I could go almost any
distance- My courage & spirits & both very good--one week is already
gone of the 4-- I wish I could fly back to you a few minutes while we
are waiting----



Mansfield-N J-Sat-morn October 27-


We yesterday travell'd the worst road you can imagine- over mountains &
thro' vallies- We have not I believe, had 20 rods of level ground the
whole day- and the road some part of it so intolerably bad on every
account, so rocky & so gullied, as to be almost impassable- 15 miles
this side Morristown, we cross'd a mountain call'd Schyler or something
like it- We walk'd up it, & M^{rs} W told us it was a little like some
of the mountains only not half so bad--indeed every difficulty we meet
with is compar'd to something worse that we have yet to expect- We found
a house built in the heart of the mountain near some springs- in a
romantic place-Whether the springs are medicinal or not, I do not know-
but I suspect they are, & that the house is built for the accommodation
of those who go to them- for no human creature, I am sure, would wish to
live there- Opposite the house are stairs on the side of the mountain &
a small house resembling a bathing house, at the head of them-- Soon
after we cross'd the mountain, we took a wrong road, owing to the
neglect of those whose duty it is to erect guide boards, & to some
awkward directions given-- This gave us a great deal of trouble, for we
were oblig'd in order to get right again, to go across a field where the
stones were so large & so thick that we scarcely touch'd the ground the
whole distance- At last the road seem'd to end in a hogs pen, but we
found it possible to get round it, & once more found ourselves right
again- We met very few people, yet the road seem'd to have been a great
deal travelled- One young man came along & caus'd us some diversion, for
he eyed us very closely & then enter'd into conversation with M^r W who
was walking a little forward-He told him he should himself set out next
week for Pittsburg- & we expect to see him again before we get there--
Erastus enquir'd the road of him & he said we must go the same way he
did; so we follow'd on till we put up for the night; he walking his
horse all the way & looking back at the waggon-As soon as we came to the
inn he sat on his horse at the door till he saw us all quietly seated in
the house & then rode off- Which of us made a conquest I know not, but I
am sure one of us did----We have pass'd thro' but 2 towns in N J- but
several small villages- Dutch valley, between some high hills & the
Mountain- Batestown, where we stopt to _bait_-& some others- all too
small to deserve a name- At last we stopt at Mansfield at an Inn kept by
Philip fits (a little f). We found it kept by 2 young women, whom I
thought _amazoons_- for they swore & flew about "like _witches_" they
talk & laugh'd about their sparks &c &c till it made us laugh so as
almost to affront them- There was a young woman visiting them who
reminded me of Lady Di Spanker-for sprung from the ground to her horse
with as much agility as that Lady could have done-- They all took their
pipes before tea---- one of them appears to be very unhappy- I believe
she has a very cross husband if she is married- She has a baby & a
pretty one-- Their manners soften'd down after a while & they appear to
be obliging & good natur'd----



Pennsylvania- Saturday eve- 2 miles from Bethlehem- Hanover- Oct 27^{th}


Before I write you anything I will tell you where & how we are- We are
at a dutch tavern almost crazy- In one corner of the room are a set of
dutchmen talking singin & laughing in dutch so loud, that my brain is
almost turn'd- they one moment catch up a fiddle & I expect soon to be
pulled up to dance- I am so afraid of them I dare hardly stay in the
house one night; much less over the sabbath- I cannot write so good
night--



Sunday Morn-


I have hesitated a long time whether I ought to write or not, & have at
length concluded I may as well write as anything else, for I cannot read
or listen to Deacon W who is reading- for I am almost distracted. We
have determin'd (or rather M^r W has & we must do as he says) to spend
the Sabbath among these wicked wretches- It would not be against my
conscience to ride to day rather than stay here, for we can do no good &
get none- & how much harm they may do us I know not- but they look as if
they had sufficient inclination to do us evil--



Sunday eve- Sundown-


I can wait no longer to write you, for I have a great deal to say- I
should not have thought it possible to pass a Sabbath in our country
among such a dissolute vicious set of wretches as we are now among--I
believe at least 50 dutchmen have been here to day to smoke, drink,
swear, pitch cents, almost dance, laugh & talk dutch & stare at us- They
come in, in droves young & old- black & white- women & children- It is
dreadful to see so many people that you cannot speak to or understand--
They are all high dutch, but I hope not a true specimen of the
Pennsylvanians generally-- Just as we set down to tea, in came a dozen
or two of women, each with a child in her arms, & stood round the room-
I did not know but they had come in a body to claim me as one of their
kin, for they all resemble me- but as they said nothing to me, I
concluded they came to see us _Yankees_, as they would a learned pig--
The women dress in striped linsey woolsey petticoats & short gowns not 6
inches in length- they look very strangely- The men dress much better-
they put on their best cloaths on sunday, which I suppose is their only
holiday, & "keep it up" as they call it-- A stage came on from Bethlehem
& stopt here, with 2 girls & a well dress'd _fellow_ who sat between
them an arm round each-- They were probably going to the next town to a
dance or a frolic of some kind-for the driver, who was very familiar
with them, said he felt just right for a frolic-- I suspect more liquor
has been sold to day than all the week besides-- The children have been
calling us Yankees (which is the only english word they can speak) all
day long-Whether it was meant as a term of derision or not, I neither
know nor care- of this I am sure, they cannot feel more contempt for me
than I do for them;-tho' I most sincerely pity their ignorance & folly-
There seems to be no hope of their improvement as they will not attend
to any means- After saying so much about the people, I will describe our
yesterday's ride- but first I will describe our last nights lodging-
Susan & me ask'd to go to bed- & Mrs W spoke to M^r Riker the
landlord-(for no woman was visible)- So he took up a candle to light us
& we ask'd M^{rs} W to go up with us, for we did not dare go alone- when
we got into a room he went to the bed & open'd it for us, while we were
almost dying with laughter, & then stood waiting with the candle for us
to get into bed- but M^{rs} W- as soon as she could speak, told him she
would wait & bring down the candle & he then left us- I never laugh'd so
heartily in my life- Our bed to sleep on was straw, & then a feather bed
for covering- The pillows contain'd nearly a single handful of feathers,
& were cover'd with the most curious & dirty patchwork, I ever saw-We
had one bedquilt & one sheet- I did not undress at all, for I expected
dutchmen in every moment & you may suppose slept very comfortably in
that expectation----M^r & M^{rs} W, & another woman slept in the same
room- When the latter came to bed, the man came in & open'd her bed
also, after we were all in bed in the middle of the night, I was
awaken'd by the entrance of three dutchmen, who were in search of a bed-
I was almost frightened to death- but M^r W at length heard & stopt them
before they had quite reach'd our bed- Before we were dress'd the men
were at the door- which could not fasten, looking at us- I think _wild
Indians_ will be less terrible to me, than these creatures- Nothing
vexes me more than to see them set & look at us & talk in dutch and
laugh-- Now for our ride- After we left Mansfield, we cross'd the
longest hills, and the worst road, I ever saw- two or three times after
riding a little distance on turnpike, we found it fenced across & were
oblig'd to turn into a wood where it was almost impossible to proceed-
large trees were across, not the road for there was none, but the only
place we could possibly ride- It appear'd to me, we had come to an end
of the habitable part of the globe- but all these difficulties were at
last surmounted, & we reach'd the Delaware- The river where it is
cross'd, is much smaller than I suppos'd- The bridge over it is elegant
I think-- It is covered & has 16 windows each side-- As soon as we
pass'd the bridge, we enter'd Easton, the first town in Pennsylvania- It
is a small but pleasant town- the houses are chiefly small, & built of
stone- very near together- The meeting house, Bank, & I think, market,
are all of the same description- There are a few very handsome brick
houses, & some wooden buildings--From Easton, we came to Bethlehem,
which is 12 miles distant from it- M^r W. went a mile out of his way,
that we might see the town- It contains almost entirely dutch people--
The houses there are nearly all stone- but like Easton it contains some
pretty brick houses- It has not half as many stores as Easton---- The
meeting house is a curious building-it looks like a castle- I suppose it
is stone,- the outside is plaister'd- We left our waggon to view the
town- we did not know whether the building was a church or the moravian
school, so we enquir'd of 2 or 3 men who only answer'd in dutch- M^r &
M^{rs} W were purchasing bread, & Susan & I walk'd on to enquire- we
next saw a little boy on horseback, & he could only say "me cannot
english" but he I believe, spoke to another, for a very pretty boy came
near us & bow'd & expecting us to speak, which we soon did; & he pointed
out the school & explained the different buildings to us as well as he
was able; but we found it difficult to understand him, for he could but
just "english"- We felt very much oblig'd to him, though we neglected to
tell him so- He is the only polite dutchman small or great, we have yet
seen; & I am unwilling to suppose him a _dutchman_. The school buildings
are low, long stone houses- the stone houses are not at all handsome-
but rather ugly--Where we stopt to bait yesterday, we found another
waggon containing a widow Jackson, her 2 sons & a daughter in law- They
enquir'd where we were going & told us they were going to the same place
& immediately join'd our party- We were sorry as we did not wish an
addition to our party, & thought by not travvelling on sunday we should
lose their company, but rather than lose ours, they wait till
monday-They are very clever people apparently, & we may possibly be
benefited by them before we end our journey--We now find the benefit of
having our own provision- for I would not eat anything we could get
here.



Monday morn-October 29-


It rains & we shall have a dismal day I am afraid-M^r W's harness last
night was very much injur'd by being chew'd to pieces by a cow- I have
broken my parasol handle a little, but it will not much injure it-I have
a bad cold to day- which I know not how I have taken- I more than ever
wish to reach Warren--



Pennsylvania- Monday-eve- A Dutchman's inn- I dont know where. Palks
County-or some thing like it--


We have only pass'd thro' 2 small towns to day, Allenstown & Kluztown-
The former is about 3 miles from Hannover, where we spent the sabbath, &
6 from Bethlehem- Before we enter'd the town, we cross'd the Lehi in 2
places- It was not deep, & we forded it to save time & _expence_- It
runs I believe through Bethlehem or at the side of it & is a very small
river- Allentown is not a pleasant place-The houses are almost all
stone- It contains 2 small stone churches- We went into a store, where I
bought me a coarse tooth comb for 15 cents- I should never get
accustom'd to the Pensylvania currency- It diverts me to hear them talk
of their fippenny bits (as they pronounce it) & their eleven penny
bits-- Kluztown is but a few miles from Allentown-It has but one short
street which is very thickly built with Stone & log houses-- It is
rather a dirty street & not more pleasant than the others Stone is used
for everything in this state- The barns & houses are almost entirely
built of it- I imagine the dutch pride themselves on building good
barns, for a great many of than are very elegant- they are 3 & 4 stories
high, have windows & one or 2. I saw with blinds- They are larger &
handsomer than most of the houses- The dutch women are all out as we
pass, dressing flax, picking up apples &c &c-The dress of the women
grows worse & worse-We find them now with very short petticoats, no
short gown & barefoot-- The country is not pleasant, at least does not
appear so as we ride thro' it at all- I should think the land must be
good as we see large fields of grain very frequently- There does not
appear to be as much fruit as in N Y & N J--We saw immense quantities of
apples in each of those states, particularly N J- there would be
thousands of bushels at the cider presses, & still the trees would be
borne down with them-- The roads in this state are pretty good, where,
dame Nature has not undertaken to pave them- but she has so much other
business on hand that she has never learn'd to pave, & makes a wretched
hand at it- I wish she could be persuaded to leave it to Art for the
future; for we are very great sufferers for her work- It is quite
amusing to see the variety of paintings on the innkeeper's signs- I saw
one in N J with Tho^s Jeff'^{ns} head & shoulders & his name above it-
to day I saw Gen G Washington- his name underneath- Gen Putnam riding
down the steps at Horseneck- one sign was merely 3 little kegs hanging
down one after the other- They have the sun rising, setting, & at
Meridian, here a full moon, a new moon, the moon & 7 stars around her,
the Lion & Unicorn "fighting &c", & every thing else that a dutchman has
ever seen or heard of- I do not believe one of them has wit enough to
invent any thing, even for a sign----Several of these creatures sit by
Jabbering dutch so fast, that my brain is turn'd & my thoughts
distracted, & I wonder I have been able to write a word- If you find it
unintelligible you must not wonder or blame me- A dozen will talk at
once & it is really intolerable- I wish Uncle Porter was here-How can I
live among them 3 weeks? We have come about 24 miles to day- it rain'd a
very little this morning & the rest of the day has been quite pleasant
tho' somewhat cold- Tomorrow we pass thro' Reading--



Wednesday Oct^ber 31^st Highdleburg-Penn-


We pass'd through Reading yesterday which is one of the largest &
prettiest towns I have seen-We stopt about 2 hours in the town, & I
improved my time in walking about to see it- I went into the stores
enquiring for a scissor case- Almost every one could talk english- but I
believe the greatest part of them were dutch people- As soon as we left
Reading, we cross'd the Schuylkill- It was not deeper than the Lehi, &
we rode thro' it in our waggon. A bridge was begun over it, but the man
broke & was unable to finish it- It would have been an excellent one had
it been completed- It is now grown over with grass & serves as a walk
for the ladies---- We put up for the night at Leonard Shaver's tavern-He
is a dutchman, but has one of the most agreeable women for his wife I
have seen in this State-I was extremely tir'd when we stopt, & went
immediately to bed after tea- & for the first time for a long while,
undress'd me & had a comfortable nights rest- We are oblig'd to sleep
every & any way- at most of the inns now---- My companions were all
disturb'd by the waggoners who put up here & were all night in the room
below us, eating, drinking, talking, laughing & swearing- Poor M^r W-
was so disturb'd that he is not well this morning, & what is more
unpleasant to us, is not good natur'd, & M^rs W has been urging him this
half hour, to eat some breakfast- he would only answer "I shan't eat
any"-but at length swallow'd some in sullen silence- but is in a
different way preparing to ride-- If I were going to be married I would
give my _intended_, a gentle emetic, or some such thing to see how he
would bear being sick a little- for I could not coax a husband as I
would a child, only because he was a little sick & a great deal cross- I
trust I shall never have the trial- I am sure I should never bear it
with temper & patience. M^r W is I believe a very pious good man, but
not naturally pleasant temper'd- religion however, has corrected it in a
great degree, but not wholly overcome it- M^{rs} W- is an amiable sweet
temper'd woman, as I ever saw; the more I know her, the better I love
her- Susan is a charming girl-but Erastus is rather an obstinate boy- he
feels superiour to his father & every one else, in wisdom--M^{rs}
Jackson is a clever woman I believe, but I have a prejudice against her
which I cannot overcome- She is very inquisitive and very communicative-
She resembles Moll Lyman or rather crazy Moll of Northampton in her
looks- She has considerable property & feels it very sensibly- Her
youngest son is almost eighteen & has his wife with him, who is not
quite as old- They have been married 2 months, & are a most loving
couple- I cannot help thinking whenever I see them together, of "love I
Sophia?" &c-- Her name is Eliza & his, John-- The other son is a very
obliging but not a very polish'd young man- I like them all better than
at first----



Wednesday Eve- Miller's town- Penn- Oct-31^{st}


We have come 24 miles to day, & just begin to shorten the distance
between Pittsburgh & us, & to increase it between Phildelphy (as the
dutchmen call it,) & us- It has for a long time been 250 miles to
Pitts^g & 60 to Phil^{hia}- but is now 218 to one & more than 80 to the
other-- It began snowing this morning which rendered our ride more
unpleasant than before- M^r W has continued just as he was in the
morning- scarcely a word has been spoken by any of us- I never felt
more low spirited & discouraged in my life- We have pass'd through 2
little towns to day- Moyerstown & the other I don't know the name of- We
also pass'd thro Lebanon which appear'd to be a town of considerable
size & pleasant- we did not stop at all in it- The other towns were
merely one short dirty street- this town is one street only, but a
tolerably pretty one- There are a number of good houses in it- We have
once more got among people of our own nation & language- & they appear
very clever--



Harrisburg- P- Thursday- Eve-November-1^{st} 1810-


It has been snowing fast all the afternoon & we found it very difficult
travelling & were oblig'd to put up just in the edge of the town- It was
M^r W's intention to cross the Susquehannah which is the other side the
town- we shall not pass thro' it- We cross'd the Sweet Arrow, a little
river about 8 miles from the Susquehannah-- we cross'd it in our
waggon-M^r Jeremiah Rees is our landlord- his wife is sick with a fever
arising from the Hives at first- He has a sister who seems to take the
direction of the female part of the business- She is a strange creature-

Friday morn- I have been very much diverted at hearing some part of her
history which she told last night, after drinking a little too much I
suppose-She says she has property if she is not married- she had her
fortune told a short time since- & was told to think of a certain
gentleman living about 300 miles off- which she did, & thought so hard
that a drop of blood fell from her nose- She was telling M^{rs} Jackson
of this & ask'd how far she was going- being told about 300 miles- well
she said she really believ'd her oldest son was the young man she was to
have, for he looks just like the one she thought of- The young man will
be quite flatter'd no doubt---- We are all in tolerably good spirits
notwithstanding we are unable to proceed on our journey- It still
continues snowing, & we shall stay here till tomorrow morning & how much
longer I do not know---- There was a cockfighting in the house last
night & a great many of the "finest young men in the town" got so
intoxicated as to be unable to get home without assistance---- M. V. D.



Sunday eve- East pensboro' township- P-


We left M^r Rees' yesterday ten oclock- & after waiting some time at the
ferry house, cross'd the Susquehanna with considerable difficulty- The
river is a mile wide & so shallow that the boat would scrape across the
large stones so as almost to prevent it from proceeding- We only came 8
miles- the riding was awful- & the weather so cold that I thought I
should perish riding 4 miles- This will do well for us, 8 miles in 3
days- We were to have seen the mountains yesterday, but are 50 miles
from it-- I should like to have staid at M^r Rees' till we reach home if
it was possible, notwithstanding we had like to have all lost our
characters there- While we were at breakfast, the black wench miss'd
nearly 4 dollars of money, & very impudently accused us with taking it,
in rather an indirect manner-- I felt at first very angry, but anger
soon gave place to pity for the poor girls loss- It was money she had
been saving for a long time that she might get enough to buy her a
dress- but she left it about very carelessly in the closet where any one
might have taken it who was so disposed-- But had I been inclined to
steal, I could not have stolen from a poor black girl- I would rather
have given her as much- I never felt so queerly in my life- To be
suspected of theft was so new & unexpected to me, that I was wholly
unprepar'd for it-- We went to M^r Rees & begg'd him to take some method
to satisfy the girl we were innocent but we could not prevail on him to,
tho' we really wish'd it-He gave the girl a severe scolding & desir'd us
not to remember it against them, or to suffer ourselves to be made a
moment uneasy by it, & both himself and M^rs Rees were extremely sorry
any thing of the kind had happen'd- The girl continued crying & assuring
us her money had been safe all summer till then & nobody had been near
it but us- I, nor any of us had any doubt that the landlord's sister,
whom I before mention'd, had taken it- She had the day before 2 or 3
ninepences in her shoes, & when M^r W ventur'd to ask her if she had not
taken it to tease the wench, she swore by every thing she had not
touch'd it- She said it was fashionable for ladies to carry money in
their shoes- I suppose she had long been eyeing it, & thought then would
be a good opper^ty to take it but did not intend it should be
discover'd till we were gone & unable to defend ourselves from the
charge which she then meant to make against us-- She is so worthless a
character in every respect, that I am certain she could be guilty of
stealing upon occasion-- She was very fond of telling what ladies, like
_her_ & _me_, did & wore-- She is between 30 & 40 y^{rs} of age- It was
an honour I was not very tenacious of, to be rank'd with her
ladyship-The money was not found before we left there & I suppose the
poor girl feels as certain some one of us have it, as that she has lost
it- Should I ever return this way I would call & enquire about it- I
hope it will be found with Babby (for that is the creatures name)--

We put up for the Sabbath at a tavern where none but the servants deign
to look at us- When I am with such people, my proud spirit rises & I
feel superior to them all-- I believe no regard is paid to the sabbath
any where in this State- It is only made a holiday of-- So much swearing
as I have heard amongst the Pensylvanians both men & women I have never
heard before during my whole life- I feel afraid I shall become so
accustom'd to hearing it, as to feel no uneasiness at it. Harrisburgh is
a most dissipated place I am sure- & the small towns seem to partake of
the vice & dissipation of the great ones-- I believe M^{rs} Jackson has
cast her eyes on Susan or me for a daughter in law- for my part, though
I feel very well disposed toward the young man, I had not thought of
_making a bargain_ with him, but I have jolted off most of my high
notions, & perhaps I may be willing to descend from a judge to a
blacksmith- I shall not absolutely determine with respect to him till I
get to Warren & have time to look about me & compare him with the judges
Dobson & Stephenson- It is clever to have two or three strings to ones
bow-- But in spite of my prejudices, they are _very clever_-- Among my
list of _cast offs_, I would rank Dutchmen, a Pensylvania waggoner,
ditto gentlemen- for their prophanity- & a Slut- The words, Landlord &
lady, terrible,- get married,- get a husband-&c &c-- I do not find it as
easy to write a journal as I had hoped- for we are seldom favour'd with
any more than the barroom, & there is always as many men as the room
will hold besides our party, & there is nine of us- so you may judge
whether I find it difficult or not- I frequently begin a sentence &
forget how to finish it,- for the conversation grows so loud, that I am
oblig'd to listen to it & write between whiles- I sometimes get quite
discouraged & think I will not try again, but I take too much pleasure
in writing, to give it up willingly--



10 miles West of Carlisle- Penn-Monday Nov-5^{th}-


We came but a little peice as the Dutchmen say, to day, & are in a most
curious place to night- If possible I will describe it- It is a log hut
built across the road from the tavern, for _movers-_ that the landlord
need not be _bother'd_ with them-- Had it been possible for our horses
to have reached another inn we should not have staid with the cross old
dutch fellow-we have a good fire, a long dirty table, a few boards
nailed up for a closet, a dozen long boards in one side & as many
barrels in the other- 2 benches to sit on, two bottomless chairs, & a
floor containing dirt enough to plant potatoes-- The man says he has
been so bother'd with movers, that he has taken down his sign, for he
does not need his tavern to live-- If we had a mind to stay we might but
if we chose to go on he had no objection-- Cross old witch- I had rather
have walk'd 10 miles than stay, but the poor horses could not-- We are
going to sleep on the floor all in a room together in the old stile
without bothering the old Scamp, for any thing-Mrs Jackson has beds-- If
I did not feel provok'd with the wretch I should rest comfortably-

Tues- morn- The old man I believe feels a little asham'd of his
treatment of us & was going to make some apology, but concluded by
saying with a forced laugh, that if we ever came there again, he would
treat us just so- He may if has oppor^{ty}--



Tuesday night- Nov-6^{th}-


We have only counted 17 miles to day although the riding has been much
better than for several days past- We stopt in Shippenburgh at noon- The
town contains only one street a mile & a half in length & very thickly
built- The street is some part of it pleasant, & some part dirty-- I saw
in it a handsome young gentleman who was both a dutchman &
Pennsylvanian, yet in an hour & half I did not hear him make use of a
single oath or prophane word- It was a remarkable instance, the only one
I have known, & I could not but remark it- Prophanity is the
characteristic of a Pennsylvanian---- We are 4 miles from Strasburgh &
the mountains, & one of our horses is ill, owing to Erastus giving him
too many oats- Erastus is master rather than his father, & will do as he
pleases for all any one- He is a stubborn fellow, & so impudent to his
mother & sister, that I have no patience with him-- We are not as
bless'd as the Israelites were, for our shoes wax old & our cloaths wear
out-- I don't know that mine will last till I get there---- ---- ----
---- ---- ----

Wed- morn- Last night Susan & I went to bed early, as we slept ill the
night before- we expected to get good beds & were never so disappointed-
We were put in an old garret that had holes in the roof big enough to
crawl through- Our bed was on the floor, harder it appear'd to me, than
boards could be- & dirty as possible- a dirty feather bed our only
covering- After lying an hour or two, we complain'd to M^{rs} Wolcott
who applied to the landlady for a bedstead, but could only obtain leave
for us to sleep on one bed with another over us- I slept wretchedly &
feel very little like climbing a mountain--M^r & M^{rs} W could not
sleep at all & got up at about eleven oclock-- She had good beds in the
house or I would not have complained so much--



Jennyauter-P--Wednesday 2 oclock P M-between 2 brothers----


This morning we cross'd the first mountain call'd first brother, & are
in an inn between the first & second brother; the latter we are soon to
ascend-The first m-n is 3-1/2 miles over,- better road than we expected-
but bad enough to tire the horses almost to death- We met & were
overtaken by a number of people-- We all walk'd the whole distance over-
I did not stop at all to rest till I reach'd the top- I was then oblig'd
to wait for some of them to overtake me, as I had outwalk'd them all. It
is not a little fatiguing to walk up a long mountain I find--When we had
nearly reach'd the foot of it, we heard some music in the valey below, &
not one of us could imagine from what it proceeded; but soon found it
was from the bells of a waggoner- He had twelve bells on the collars of
his horses, (not sleigh bells) & they made a great variety of sounds
which were really musical at a distance-- We found at the tavern where
we are now, or rather they came after us, a M^r Beach, & his wife who
was confin'd nine days after she set out on her journey, with a little
son-It is just a fortnight since she was confin'd, & this morning she
ventur'd to set out on her journey again- They came from Morristown- N
J- & are going to some part of the Ohio, much farther than we are going.
M^{rs} B- appears to be a very pretty woman & quite a lady- Her father &
mother, a sister & 3 little children, set out with them, but were
oblig'd to leave them & go on, as soon as M^{rs} B was confin'd- I feel
afraid she will catch her death, tho' every care is taken to render her
journey safe & comfortable-- She & babe are both very well now--



Fannitsburg- Penn- M^cAllen's Inn-Wednesday night- Nov- 6^{th}-


We have over come 2 mountains to day- & are between the 2^d & 3^d
brothers- We walked over it-I have walked about 8 miles to day & feel as
much fatigued as I have almost ever been in my life- It was 4 _long_
miles over- We met a number of waggons on it- but no other travellers-
This is a very small but pretty place- The 3 first m-ns are very near
each other- the 4^{th} is 40 or 50 miles distant--They are higher than I
expected, & make a formidable appearance- It has been very smoky all
day- I am so tir'd I can neither think or write, so good night----

Thursday morn- We had a good nights rest, but I am so lame I can
scarcely walk this morning- I have a mountain to walk over,
notwithstanding-- M^r W's horses grow so dull that he expects to be
oblig'd to put up for a few days, & we are all almost discouraged--The
weather looks stormy & where we shall get to or what we shall do, I
cannot imagine--The Jacksons enquire about the road & the mountains &c
&c, of every one they see, & get such different & contradictory answers
from each one, that it perplexes & discourages us all- I wish they
would be contented to wait patiently till time & experience inform them
what they cannot find out any other way- M^r W says I have now an
oppor^{ty} to experience the truth of a text of scripture which says
"all men are liars"- I found that out long ago- & this journey confirms
the truth of it.



Peach Orchard, P- Thursday night-Phelps' Tavern--


I do not feel to night, my dear Elizabeth, as if I should ever see you
again- 3 mountains & more hundreds of miles part us; & tho' I cannot
give up the idea of returning, I cannot think of traversing this road
again- If I live to return I will wait till the new turnpike is
finished-- We cross'd the last brother this morning, & found the greater
part of it, better than the other two- but about 60 rods near the top it
was excessively steep-- We found a house at the foot of the steepest
part- A woman & her 2 sons live there & keep cakes & beer-- The woman
told us she had no husband at _present_--I suppose, she has one in
expectation--On the first mountain, I found some sweet Williams-- We
stopt at noon, at a dismal looking log hut tavern- The landlady (I hate
the word but I must use it,) talk'd about bigotry, bigotted notions,
liberty of conscience &c- She did not look as if she knew the meaning of
conscience, much less of bigotry-- All this afternoon we have been
walking over young mountains, distant relations of the 3 brothers, but
not half as clever- I was so lame & so tir'd that for an hour I did not
know but I must set down & die- I could not ride- the road was so bad,
it was worse than walking- I would not tell you all this, if you were to
receive this before it is all over---- It rain'd a very little all day,
but just at night it began to rain very fast, & I expected we should all
catch our death, walking thro' mud & mire, with no umbrella, or but one
that would not cover us all- We were wet thro before we reach'd this
dreadful place where we now are-- The Woman is cross & the Man sick----

Friday night- It rain'd all day yesterday, & such a shocking place as
this is, I never saw- A dozen Waggoners are here, some half drunk & no
place for us to stay in but our waggons or a little chamber with 3
squares of glass in it- with scarcely room to sit or stand--

Saturday morn---- I am now in despair, it continues raining faster than
ever- The house full of drunken prophane wretches, the old woman cross
as a witch- We have nothing to eat & can get nothing but some slapjacks
at a baker's some distance off, & so stormy we cannot get there----
M^{rs} Jackson frets all the time, I wish they would go on & leave us,
we should do as well again---- M^r Beach & his wife & child & the woman
who is with them, are here, & the house is full- M^{rs} Beach rode in
all the rain Thursday, but took no cold & bears it well as any one- It
rains most dreadfully & they say it is the clearing off shower- Oh, if
it only proves so---- "Oh had I the wings of a dove, how soon would I
meet you again"- We have never found the wretches indelicate till last
evening, but while we were at tea, they began talking & singing in a
most dreadful manner---- We are 4 miles from Sidling hill, the next
mountain, & a mile & a half from this, there is a creek which we must
cross, that is so rais'd by the rain, as to render it impossible to pass
it----

Saturday night- Our "clearing up shower" has lasted all day with
unabated violence,-- Just at sunset we had a pretty hard thunder shower,
& at dusk there was clear sky visible & the evening star shone bright as
possible, but now it is raining fast again--After giving an emetic I
would take a long journey with my _intended_, to try his patience----
mine is try'd sorely now- I wish you could just take a peep at me-my
frock is wet & dirty a quarter of a yard high, only walking about the
house- I have been in my chamber almost the whole day, but was oblig'd
to go down just at night to eat, & look at the sky- I was very much
frighten'd by a drunken waggoner, who came up to me as I stood by the
door waiting for a candle, he put his arm round my neck, & said
something which I was too frighten'd to hear- It is the first time the
least insult has been offer'd to any of us- One waggoner very civilly
offer'd to take Susan or me, on to Pitts^g in his waggon if we were not
like to get there till spring- It is not yet determin'd which shall go
with him-- One waggon in crossing the creek this afternoon, got turn'd
over & very much injur'd-- We have concluded the reason so few are
willing to return from the Western country, is not that the country is
so good, but because the journey is so bad-- M^r W. has gone to & from
there, 5 times, but thinks this will be the last time- Poor Susan groans
& sighs & now then sheds a few tears-I think I exceed her in patience &
fortitude----M^{rs} Wolcott is a woman of the most perfect equanimity I
ever saw- She is a woman of great feeling & tenderness, but has the most
perfect command over her feelings- She is not _own_ mother to these
children, but she is a very good one---- I have learn'd Elizabeth, to
eat raw _pork_ & drink whisky-dont you think I shall do for a new
country? I shall not know how to do either when I end my journey,
however- We have almost got out of the land of dutchmen, but the
waggoners are worse---- The people here talk curiously, they all reckon
instead of expect-- Youns is a word I have heard used several times, but
what it means I don't know, they use it so strangely-- M^r Rees used to
exclaim at any thing wonderful, "Only look at that now"-- "I reckon you
are going into the back countries" is now our usual salutation from
every one---- Susan is in bed for want of some employment & I will join
her, after telling you, it has really clear'd off now, & the moon is
shining in full splendor.- I hope to-morrows sun will deign to smile
upon us- It is long since we have seen it---- I expect to be oblig'd to
go thro' a process of fire & brimstone at my journeys end & shall feel
thankful, if that will remedy all the evils arising from dirty beds &c--
I find no necessity for even that yet, but I fear I shall soon----good
night----

Sunday 2 oclock P M- We left the Inn this morning in the hope of getting
a _little piece_ on our way, but have only reach'd the baker's, half a
mile from where we set out- The creek is so high we cannot cross it yet-
An old man & his wife live here, & appear to be very kind clever people,
& what is more than we have found before, they appear to regard the
Sabbath- They are Methodists- This is a small log hut, but clean &
comfortable- There are no waggoners here-- I shall be oblig'd to colour
my frock I believe, for it attracts the attention of those creatures so
much, that I dare not go in sight of them scarcely- I often think of the
2 lines your Mama repeated to us "In Silk, &c"



Sunday night.


About sunset, we left the baker's & came down to the Creek, but found it
was impossible to get over the waggon, & the road was so intolerable
between the place we had left & the creek, that we could not go back, &
what to do, it took a long time to determine; but at length M^r W
concluded we had better come over to a dirty tavern this side, & let
Erastus sleep in the wagon-- The stream runs so fast, that we did not
dare cross it alone, as there was nothing but a log to cross on; so the
waggoners & our own party, were oblig'd to lead & pilot us, over the
stream & thro' a most shocking place as I ever saw- The men were all
very civil- they are waiting

    this line is the shape of a Pensylvania waggon--

    with                            of us---- We fare
         their               the rest
               waggons, like

worse & worse, & still M^r W- & his wife, tell us this is nothing to
what will come- I do not fully believe them, for we cannot endure much
more & live--Susan & young M^{rs} Jackson have been quite unwell all
day-- I never felt in better health, & my spirits are pretty good,
considering all things-- We are not able to get beds here, & are to
sleep on the floor to night- There is another family here, with several
little children-- They say there has been a _heap_ of people moving this
fall;- I don't know exactly how many a heap is, or a _sight_ either,
which is another way of measuring people-- I would be _apt_ to think it
was a _terrible_ parcel, to use the language of the people round me----
I have such an enormous appetite the whole time, that I have been in
some fear of starving- for food of every kind, is very scarce with us-
Money will not procure it, & nothing else I am sure, will- for they love
money better than life, if possible-- 4 Sabbaths we have pass'd on the
road, & I suppose 2 or 3 more will pass before we get among people who
"remember the sabbath day to keep it holy"-- We find no books to read,
only at the bakers to day I found part of a bible, a methodist hymn book
& a small book containing an account of the progress of Methodism
throughout the country; in letters from Ministers & others----We left
M^r Beach & family, at the tavern we left to day-- I hope tomorrow to
write you from a comfortable place 6 or 8 miles at least from the next
mountain--

Monday morn- We have now I think met with as bad as can befal us--
Never, never did I pass such a night---- We could get no bed & for a
long time expected to be oblig'd to set up all night- but we could get
no room nor fire to stay by, & the landlady was so kind as to give up
her bed to us; so M^rs W & Susan went to bed there, while I went to bed
with M^rs Jackson in another room- I took off my frock & boots, & had
scarcely lain down, when one of the wretches came into the room & lay
down by me on the outside of the bed- I was frighten'd almost to death &
clung to M^{rs} Jackson who did not appear to mind it- & I lay for a
quarter of an hour crying, & scolding & trembling, begging of him to
leave me-At last, when persuaded I was in earnest, he begg'd of me not
to take it amiss, as he intended no harm & only wish'd to become
acquainted with me-- A good for nothing brute, I wonder what he suppos'd
I was- I don't know of any thought word or action of mine that could
give him reason to suppose I would authorise such abominable
insolence---- The man & his wife, who are here, & their family, John
Jackson & his wife, & M^{rs} Jackson, were all in the room-The moment he
left the room, I put on my frock & was going in to M^{rs} W & Susan, but
I could not get to them without going thro' the room where all the
waggoners were, & M^{rs} Jackson did not think it safe, so I got on
another part of the bed where none of them could come near me, & had
been there about 10 minutes when M^{rs} W & Susan came into the room
both crying, & as much frighten'd as I had been, for one of the
creatures had been into their room, & they could scarcely get him out-
M^r W- was in the waggon, & the landlord was so afraid of these wag^gs
that he did not dare stay in his own house, for they threaten'd to put
him into the creek, if he did not continue giving them liquor- I wish
they had put him in- a mean sneaking fellow!-- His poor wife was then
oblig'd to bear it all, & she was very much distress'd on our account-
She was not to blame for any thing that happen'd, for as long as her
husband suffer'd it, she could not prevent it-At last M^{rs} W- went to
bed with M^{rs} Jackson & me, & Susan lay down with John & his wife- We
lay but a few minutes, when one of them came into our room again
crawling on his hands & knees- M^{rs} W & I sprung & run out into the
mud in our stocking feet & were going to call M^r W.- but the creatures
came out to us & begg'd us not to, & pledg'd their honor (of which you
may suppose they possess'd a great share) that we should not be
disturb'd more- & tenderness for M^r W- who we knew would be sick to day
if depriv'd of rest, at length determin'd us to go back; but we did not
go to bed again till just morning, when some of us slept nearly or quite
an hour- which was every wink of sleep we could obtain during the whole
night- The fellows were all but one, very still afterwards- Indeed there
was but 2 who made any disturbance, & only one of those was very bad-
but one, was a complete child of the evil one- the vilest, worst, most
blasphemous wretch, that ever liv'd-- M^r W- came back to the house
before 2 oclock, & this morning, threaten'd them with a prosecution-
They are quite angry- they are in the employ of this man who is moving;
he is a merchant & they carry his goods to Pitts^g--



Nov^{br}-12^{th} Monday night- Nail Shop-on the 4^{th} Mountain


We have got 8-1/2 miles on our journey to day, & now it rains again-- If
I could describe to you our troubles from roads, waggoners & creeks, I
would,- but it is impossible-- The waggoners set out just before we did
& the bad one being foremost has taken all the pains in his power to
hinder our progress, by driving as slow as possible & stopping every
other moment- The road was too narrow to pass them, unless they would
turn out for us- all but one did, but he swore he would not- We came by
them as they stopp'd at noon, & put up to night at an inn on the
mountain, out of the direct road, where we should peaceably pass the
night- but the waggoners have follow'd us, & the house is full- They are
not in our room-- Our party now consists of M^{rs} Jackson's, M^r
Beach's & M^r W's familys-- The woman who is with M^r Beach, is such a
foolish old creature, that we are all out of patience with her----She is
aunt to them, I believe---- If I were to choose, I would never have
company on a long journey- such company at least- Our chairs here are
taken from us for the Waggoners---- Our road over the mountains, has not
even a good prospect to render it pleasant-- I have been repeating to
Susan all day, "Comfort damsel &c"- M^{rs} Jackson is scolding because
she has no chair to set on.- M^r W- tells her, "Fret not thyself because
of evil doers"---- There is another impassable creek a head, & a hundred
waggons waiting to cross it- Our prospect brightens fast-dont you think
so? good night--



Tuesday eve- Nov- 13^{th}- 4 miles east of Bedford- Penn-


We have at length escap'd the waggoners & Mr Beach- The former did not
trouble us last night at all in the night- When we went to bed they
watch'd us narrowly, & after we were in bed we heard them talking about
us, enquiring of each other where we slept &c- We were in the room with
M^r & M^{rs} Wolcott, directly over the room they were in, but still I
felt afraid of them- The worst one is quite mad, & says he intends if
possible, to give us more trouble than he has done already- The other is
quite asham'd of his conduct & I suspect would be willing to make any
amends in his power- He told this to M^{rs} Jackson who is much too
familiar with them, & I believe it was owing entirely to that, that they
conducted so- for the rest of us always avoid even the sight of them, as
much as possible; & much more any conversation with them-- We got up
very early indeed & set out before breakfast, because the horses could
have no hay, & we have got quite out of their reach--We cross'd a little
stream call'd the Juniaatta- I spell the names as they are pronounced,
but I do not spell them right, I am sure, nor can I find out how they
are spelt many of them- The river is long & narrow- It takes a winding
course thro' the mountains, & is a very pretty stream-- We rode some
distance on its banks, & the road been tolerable, it would have been
pleasant- I have said so much about the badness of the roads that you
will hardly believe me when I tell you we seen some of the worst to day
we have ever found- & some, as good as any in this state---- I should
not have suppos'd it possible for any thing to pass it- M^{rs} W said it
seem'd like going into the lower regions, but I had always an idea, that
road was smooth & easy- I am sure if it was as bad as that, it would
have fewer travellers-We went down however till we came to a lower
region-It was really awful-- We saw some men to day, mending the roads-
I did not think a Pennsylvanian ever touch'd a road or made a bridge,
for we are oblig'd to ride thro' every stream we come to-We have been
nearly 20 miles to day; & have been oblig'd to walk up hill, till we are
all very tir'd- I felt too much so to write, but I am unwilling to omit
it- We are now, comfortably & quietly seated, in a private house- I only
wish now, we could get rid of what company we have left- but that we
cannot do----



Wednesday night. A private house-10 miles w- of Bedford


We cross'd the Juniaatta again to day, with a great deal of trouble,
after waiting on its banks about 3 hours- It is astonishing how the last
week's rain, rais'd every stream & overflow'd every place-The like here,
has not been known for 30 years it is said-- A waggoner last week, with
4 horses, was drown'd crossing a creek- He was advis'd by those who were
by, not to venture- & answer'd "he would be damn'd to hell if he did not
cross it"- he made the attempt & in a few minutes was sent into
eternity, & probably to that awful place---- It has been raining very
fast this afternoon, & we put up at a little log hut, a few miles west
of Bedford- we came about 10 miles to day- The house is very small &
there is scarcely room to move-



Thursday night-- Allegany M^{tn} Nov- 16-


We have had a warm & pleasant day till towards night, when it began to
rain, as it has done every day for a fortnight- We are now at a tavern
half a mile from the top of the Allegany Mt-this Mountain is 14 miles
over- At the highest part of it is a most beautiful prospect of
mountains- 5 or 6 ridges one after the other-- We clamber'd up a high
rock near to the highest part, but found the prospect little better than
the one from the road- I wish I could describe it to you- We have had no
prospect of any consequence from any of the mountains before- I have
been quite disappointed at not seeing any--We found winter green berrys
in abundance on it-I pick'd a sprig of ivy from the top, which I will
send you- call it laurel & preserve it, as it came from the very
_backbone of America_, as they all tell us--We have walk'd a great deal
to day, & indeed we are oblig'd to every day, for the whole country
seems one continued m^{tn}- I thought we had reach'd the top of this,
for we began to descend a little; but we have half a mile more to ascend
yet---- This house is full of travvellers & wag'^{nrs} but all are very
peacable-There is a curiosity in the house- a young lady who has come
from N Connecticut _unmarried_-- after staying in Warren a year--a thing
I never before heard of, & had begun to think impossible. I feel quite
encouraged by it- & do not believe the place as dangerous as is
generally reported---- I find in every family a _Paggy_- every body is
dutch-- the children & girls, are all very much attracted by my little
black buttons, & the manner in which my frock is made-& the Wag'^{rs} by
the colour of it- There will be little of it left by the time I get to
Warren, for it is almost gone--



Friday night- Allegany M^{tn}--


After a comfortable nights rest, we set out on foot to reach the height
of the m^{tn}- It rain'd fast for a long time, & at length began
snowing- We found the roads bad past description,- worse than you can
possibly imagine- Large stones & deep mud holes every step of the way-
We were oblig'd to walk as much as we possibly could, as the horses
could scarcely stir the waggon the mud was so deep & the stones so
large---- It has grown so cold that I fear we shall all perish tomorrow-
We suffer'd with cold excessively, to day- From what I have seen and
heard, I think the State of Ohio will be well fill'd before
winter,-Waggons without number, every day go on- One went on containing
_forty_ people- We almost every day, see them with 18 or 20- one stopt
here to night with 21-- We are at a baker's, near a tavern which is
fill'd with movers & waggoners- It is a comfortable place, but rather
small- One old man has been in examining my writing, & giving his
opinion of it in dutch, to a young fellow who was with him- He said he
could not read a word of any thing-- He found fault with the ink, but
commended the straitness & facility with which I wrote- in english- I
was glad he had not on his specs---- We came but 10 miles to day, & are
yet on the Allegany- It is up hill almost all the way down the
mountains-- I do not know when we are down them for my part--_I'm
thinking_ as they say here, we shall be oblig'd to winter on it, for I
_reckon_ we shall be unable to proceed on our journey, on account of
roads, weather, &c-- We are on the old Pennsylvania road- the Glade road
is said to be ten times worse than this-That is utterly impossible- We
thought we should escape the waggoners this way; but find as many of
them as ever- they are a very great annoyance---- What would the old
man say hereto?-- I am very tir'd, so good night--



Saturday eve-2 miles from Laurel Hill-Penn-


We came but 9 or 10 miles to day, & are now near the 6^{th} Mountain- in
a tavern fill'd with half drunken noisy waggoners-- One of them lies
singing directly before the fire; proposing just now to call for a song
from the young ladies---- I can neither think nor write he makes so much
noise with his _love songs_; I am every moment expecting something
dreadful & dare not lay down my pen lest they should think me listening
to them- They are the very worst wretches that ever liv'd, I do
believe,--I am out of all patience with them- The whole world nor any
thing in it, would tempt me to stay in this State three months- I
dislike everything belonging to it--I am not so foolish as to suppose
there are no better people in it than those we have seen; but let them
be ever so good, I never desire to see any of them----We overtook an old
waggoner whose waggon had got set in the mud, & I never heard a creature
swear so- & whipt his horses till I thought they would die--I could not
but wonder at the patience and forbearance of the Almighty, whose awful
name was so blasphem'd-- We also overtook a young _Doctor_-who is going
with his father to Mad river in the state of Ohio---- He has been
studying physic in New Jersey,- but appears to be an uneducated man from
the language he makes use of----I believe both himself & his father are
very clever- I heard them reproving a swearer-- He dresses smart, & was
so polite as to assist us in getting over the mud-- Susan & I walk'd on
before the waggon as usual, & he overtook us and invited us into the
house & call'd for some brandy sling- we did not drink, which he
appear'd not to like very well, & has scarcely spoken to us since---- He
thinks himself a gentleman of the _first chop_, & takes the liberty of
coining words for himself- Speaking of the people in this state, he said
they were very ignorant & very _superstitionary_ --perhaps you have
heard the word before- I never did--

Sunday morn- We had good beds last night, contrary to my expectation,-
and we are going on our journey this morning- It is extremely cold &
very bad riding or walking- M^r W- has been so long detain'd by bad
weather & riding, that he thinks himself justifiable in riding on the
sabbath- I thought so some time ago--

Sunday noon- We are on the top of Laurel Hill, the 6^{th} mountain-- We
women & girls, have walk'd between 5 & 6 miles this morning-- We left
the waggons getting along very slowly, & came on to a house to warm us-
It is a log hut & full of children, as is every one we come to-- The
wind whistles about us, & it looks very much like snow---- One waggon
got set this morning, & hinder'd us this long time-- The young Doctor &
his father are still in company with us-- The former, who has got over
his pouting fit, leaves his father to drive,- while he walks on with the
ladies- he is not with us just now-- He has not conquer'd the antipathy
I bear a young physician-- or rather a _young Doctor_-- How little it
seems like the sabbath-- I would not write if I could do any thing
else-- but I can not even think good thoughts----



Sunday eve-- Nov-19^{th}-- Foot of Laurel Hill--Penn--


I wish my dear Elizabeth, you could be here for half an hour, & hear the
strangest man talk, that you or I ever saw in this world-- He is either
mad or a fool-- I don't know which, but he looking over me & telling me
I _can_ make a writer-- He is the most rating, ranting fellow-- I wish
you could hear him----I begin to think him mad-- His name is Smith-- He
& his wife are journeying either to New Orleans or the Ohio---- I never
was more diverted than to hear him (he is certainly crazy-- repeating a
prayer & a sermon & forty other things in a breath) talk about the
Dutchmen in Pennsylvania-- He & his wife came amongst them one evening &
stopt at several houses to get entertainment, but was sent on by each
one to the tavern-- He began by stating his religious tenets, & at
length after every body & thing was created, he says the _under Gods_
(of whom he supposes there were a great number) took some of the skum &
stir'd it up, & those fellows came out--or rather Hell boil'd over &
they were form'd of the skum----I believe he has been studying all his
life for hard words & pompous speeches, & he rattled them off at a
strange rate-- His language is very ungrammatical--but the Jacksons are
all in raptures with him--They cannot understand his language (nor
indeed could any one else) & therefore concluded he must be very
learned- Their observations are almost as diverting as his conversation-
I could make them believe in ten minutes, that I was a girl of great
larnin-if I were to say over Kermogenious- Heterogenious & a few such
words without any connection--no matter if I do but bring them in some
how-- We are over the 6^{th} mountain & at an Inn at the foot of it-
This m^{tn} is called worse than any of them- it is only about 6 miles
over- We have only come 8 to day, & I have not been in the waggon- The
horses once or twice got set, & cast &c- we have had a deal of bad
luck-- There is a great many travellers here-the house is full---- The
young D^r told me he was married, to day-- I like him rather better than
I did, before, & ventured to walk on a mile or two with him- He gave me
the history of his courtship &c-and some information respecting the part
of Ohio he is going to, that was quite interesting-- Susan chose to ride
down the hill, & I outwalk'd M^{rs} W, so we were quite alone till we
reach'd this house- M^{rs} Jackson & Eliza had gone on before us, and I
every moment expected to overtake them, but did not see them till we got
here-- I am very tir'd & have laughed myself into a headache; so I can
write no more to night.

Monday morn- Last night we were again cheated out of our beds, & oblig'd
to pass the night as we could, & that was most uncomfortably- I was
quite unwell with the headache, & had waited for a bed an hour & a half
longer than I felt able to set up; & when I found I could get none, I
had a long crying spell-- This morning I feel almost sick-- M^r W-is so
much afraid of making trouble, that he will wait till every body else is
served, & let them cheat him out of his eyes, & say nothing. Our party
here consists of English, Irish, German, & Americans-2 of the first- 4
of the second- 1 of the third- & a house full of the last-- This strange
man is an everlasting talker- He knows every body & every thing about
them- He has been repeating one of M^r Pierpont Edwards' speeches to me-
& one of M^r Hilhouse's-Not one second elapses between his words-He is a
very pompous fellow & takes great pains to display what he does know- He
has been a schoolmaster-& now I suspect is crazy & running away with a
girl he calls his wife- but who seems to be nobody---- It rain'd very
fast last night- & is more muddy than ever--



Monday night- a mile west of the mountains-


Rejoice with me my dear Elizabeth, that we are at length over all the
mountains, so call'd-- I do not suppose we shall be much better off than
we were before, as it respects roads- for I had just as lieve go over a
mountain, as to go over the same distance of any part of the road we
have had this fortnight or three weeks- But it sounds well to say we are
over the mountains-- We cross'd Chesnut Ridge, the 7th & last M^{tn}
this afternoon- It is 5 miles over--12 miles we have come to day--
There is a pretty prospect of hills as you come down the M^{tn}- One
house on the top of it-- We have taken a great deal of pains to get rid
of company to day, by going forward & staying behind- but it is an
_unpossibility_ (M^r Newington) I am more out of patience than ever-- We
came on to the 4^{th} tavern after we got down,- because we thought
those behind us, would stop sooner- M^{rs} Jackson & her tribe were with
us-but we thought all the rest were out of the reach of us- This is a
little hut, one window in front- but it is neat & comfortable inside, &
we were all quietly seated round the fire, congratulating ourselves on
our escape, when in came the young doctor- I thought we should all
scream out- M^{rs} Jackson told him she thought we had lost him- he said
he lik'd not to have found us- I wish with all my heart, they had got
fast in the mud a little while. The rattlebrain'd fellow is not here, to
talk us to death-- He pass'd us on the road, singing & screaming,
advising us to go back & learn hog latin- alias German- or dutch-- We
are now 41 miles from Pitt----



Nov^{br} 21^{st} Tuesday Night-A mile from Greensburg-Penn-


We have had better roads to day, but only came 10 miles-- Last night we
had good beds, but were oblig'd to sleep in the room with the D^r & his
father-M^r & M^{rs} W- of course, as we have determin'd not to sleep out
of their room again-- The landlord & his wife were extremely clever-
they gave us a great many apples & some cherry bounce- Such treatment,
after being refus'd even the privilege of getting any victuals,- as we
were the night before, was very welcome-- The landlord has been a
waggoner-"Only look at that now"-A clever waggoner! I cannot but think
his cleverness (is there such a word?) came after he gave up his
waggon---- After riding a little way, we overtook M^r Smith again, &
found he had been fighting with a waggoner, who began to insult him, by
calling him a damn'd Yankee-before they ended M^r S- whipt 3 of them- I
was glad they got whipt, for almost every one deserves it-- M^r S-
lamented we were not there to see the fun- He declar'd, or rather swore,
he would not leave us again, but would stand by and fight for all- He
lets his wife ride alone, & he walks on to talk to every one that will
listen to him-- As for the D^r, he is "nothing but a pester"- Susan & I
took a great deal of pains to go either before or behind to get rid of
his company, but it does no good, for he will either wait, or walk
faster- I had a great mind to ask him, if he expected to lose his wife
soon-We pass'd thro Greensburg, a pretty little town, situated on a high
hill- the other waggons had gone on, & were bating in the town- but M^r
W- did not stop, so the D^r follow'd on & left his father, & waited at
another place for us to bait- We were only able to come a mile farther,
as the horses fail'd-The rest of the company had gone on, expecting us
to follow- The D^r came in here with us & I thought intended to stay, by
his actions, but he at length walk'd on to join the rest of his
company-- We have escap'd hearing M^r S- talk, which I would not be
oblig'd to do for 9 pence an hour-

Wednesday morn- I have not spent so pleasant an evening this long time
as the last- Will you believe me, when I tell you we heard some
waggoners conversing upon religious subjects- instead of swearing &
cursing- One is an Irish waggoner, & appears to be sensible, well
inform'd man- & what is more, has read his bible- 2 clever waggoners! I
think I will never condemn a whole race again- I can now, even believe
it possible to find a clever Dutchman in Pennsylvania. I hope we shall
lose all our company this morning- but I expect they will wait for us-
This is a good tavern- We have had sun shine for 2 days past- The
weather, as it respects heat & cold, is very variable- but it invariably
rains every day--



Thursday Morn- Sewel's tavern-Versailes-township-


Yesterday morning, we did not set out till quite late, but had the good
fortune to overtake all our company within an hour or two, & were
oblig'd once more to put up with them- We had also, a considerable
addition to our party-- We were oblig'd to walk a great deal, & just at
night, I happen'd to be on before the waggon some distance & prevented
M^r W- from stopping at a private house, which we pass'd- I did not
think of his wishing it till M^{rs} J-mentioned it, I then set out to
return, but saw the waggon coming & sat down on a log- We did not reach
a tavern till some time after dark- & M^r W-got hurt & his waggon got
set-, & he feels unpleasantly towards me, & thinks me the whole cause of
his trouble-- The whole family feel & treat me differently this morning,
& I can not think myself to blame- for we are oblig'd to walk almost all
the time, & if we are behind the waggon M^r W- always is angry-- M^{rs}
W- Susan & I, were oblig'd to walk, till we found a house, & if the
young D^r had not been with us, I don't know but we should have pass'd
the night in the woods - but he was so good as to assist us - The
gentlemen all reach'd the tavern before us, & when M^r W- came & told
his trouble, they very kindly went back & assisted him-- There were but
two beds to be had, so M^r Smith gave up his place to me, & M^r & M^{rs}
W took the other-- The gentlemen were very noisy all night, as they
could not lie down-- I am much better pleas'd with M^r & M^{rs} Smith,
than I was before- He is a lawyer- & I believe knows more, than I at
first suspected-- He is a great talker, & has a story for everything- We
came 14 miles yesterday-- To day I am so dreadfully lame that every step
I take, almost brings tears- my feet are sore with walking-



Nov-24- Friday morn- Turtle Creek-Penn-


One misfortune follows another, and I fear we shall never reach our
journey's end-- Yesterday we came about 3 miles-- After coming down an
awful hill, we were oblig'd to cross a creek; but before we quite came
to it, the horses got mired, & we expected every moment one of them
would die-but Erastus held his head out of water, while M^r W-was
attempting to unharness them, & M^{rs} W- & Susan were on the bank,
calling for help-- I sat by, to see the horse breathe his last; but was
happily disappointed in my expectation-- No assistance could be got-
till M^r W- waded though the water, & then 2 men with 3 horses came
over-- We came to this Inn, & M^r W- thought it best to stay till this
morning- All our company have gone on- M^r Smith invited me to ride with
his wife, on to Pitts'^g- & I on some accounts, wish I had accepted his
invitation-indeed I could scarcely get beside it--

We found a gentleman (Doctor I presume by his looks-) here, who was very
sociable & staid an hour with us- He appear'd to be a man of good
information & considerable politeness-- We found the landlord very good
natur'd & obliging, & his wife directly the contrary-- We find the men
generally, much more so than their wives-- We are 12 miles from
Pitt----& here like to be- The landlord offers to keep Susan & me, till
spring, & let the old folks go on-- We got into the slough of Despond
yesterday-& are now at the foot of the hill Difficulty- which is half a
mile long- one waggon is already fast in the mud on it- & M^r W- is
afraid to attempt it himself--I think I will winter here----



Friday eve- 9 miles past Pitts'^g- Penn-


This morning we set out once more & proceeded 4 miles- It was snowing
very fast, & one of our horses was taken sick & could scarcely get that
little distance-M^r W- was oblig'd to whip it almost every step to keep
it from lying down-- We could not ride at all & stopt at the first
tavern we came to--We are afraid the horse will die & then what will
become of us?---- I am more than ever discouraged-

Sat-morn- Our horse is better & we are going to set out again----



Nov^{br} 26- Saturday night- 3-1/2 miles beyond Pittsburg-


Just as we were getting into the waggon this morning, M^r W- found he
had left his great coat 4 miles back, & went back on foot after it,
while we proceeded to Pitts- which we reach'd about noon-- M^r W- came
about an hour after---- After getting well warm, Susan & I were going
out to view the town, when M^r W- came & hurried us away, as he wished
to cross the river before night- From the little we did see of the town,
I was extremely disappointed at its appearance- It is not one half as
large as I suppos'd- but I am unable to give you any account of it, from
my own observation-- It is situated at the confluence of the 2 rivers,
the Alleghany, & Monongahela- The town suffer'd very much by the flood-
One house floated down the river- its inhabitants were in the upper part
of it calling for assistance-none could be render'd & what became of
them I did not learn- I believe it is not known- It was late before we
could cross the river (Alleghany) & we came on but 3 miles & a half to
a very good tavern- The man & his wife are both good natur'd--We found
the road to day, better than for a long time-- We left almost all the
stones when we cross'd the last mountain- & to day I believe we have
cross'd the last hills of any consequence- We are now- "on the banks of
the pleasant Ohio"----

Sunday eve- It has been all day & still is, raining another flood I
fear- All the men in the neighborhood came here to keep the sabbath by
drinking whiskey &c &c- but no swearing-- I sat reading very quietly &
one of them came & desir'd to look over me- I very much doubted whether
he could read, but he convinc'd me he could by his observations, which
were given with such a tobacco breath as almost suffocated me- He was
not more than half shaved, & could read without spelling more than half
the words- for he would read a page & half in an hour, nearly-- There is
a sweet little boy here about 3 years old- He has been writing with me
some time & talks so much to me that I am as slow writing as this man
was reading-- This is the 6th sabbath since I left you-- We have lost
our company--I quite want to see some of them again--



Wednesday Nov- 28- 7 miles from Greersburg-Penn-


I have had no opport^y of writing you for 3 days-before now- We set out
in the rain on Monday, & came on 13 miles- to a hut- with a sign up
call'd a tavern- & such a place!- I found the people belong'd to a very
ancient & noble family- They were first & second cousins to his _Satanic
Majesty_- I could but wonder that he should suffer them to lead so
laborious a life, for they are among his most faithful friends &
subjects-- Probably they are more useful to him in that station, by
increasing the number of his subjects-- Their dwelling resembles that of
their royal cousin- for it is very dark & gloomy & only lighted by a
great fire- No one who is once caught in it, ever wishes to be again--
The man is only related by marriage to his lordship----



Wednesday eve--


The house had only one room in it-- There was a number of travellers &
we got but one bed- that was straw or something harder- The pillow case
had been on 5 or 6 years I _reckon_, so I pin'd over my handkerchief- &
put night gown over my frock--We rose an hour before day break, got
breakfast & set out in the snow for another hut- We rode several miles
on the Northern bank of the Ohio- We saw a very large rock containing a
great many names-we added ours to the number-- The road was at the foot
of a very high hill or mountain, & so near the river, there was scarcely
room for a waggon- I rode in constant fear, for the bank down to the
river, was very high and steep-- We came on 12 miles, to Beaver town, on
Tuesday- We cross'd the big Beaver, a stream which empties into the
Ohio- It is generally, fordable, but is at present so rais'd by the
rain, that a flat is used-- We found a very good Inn at Beaver town; &
soon after supper, Judge Austin & a M^r Weatherby (Merchant-) of Warren,
came in--Not Dobson nor Stephenson)-- I felt as glad to see them & as
well acquainted with them in a few minutes, as if we had all our lives
been neighbors--The Judge, resembles D^r Goodsel in his looks:- but is
older & larger- M^r Weatherby looks like T. Devereaux--They both, told
me they were sorry M^r Edwards did not know I was on the road, that he
might have sent an horse after me-- They were on their way to Pitt^g but
Judge A, had some idea of returning immediately back to Warren, & they
had a mind to hire a horse & have me return with him, but M^r Wolcott
objected-- I can guess his reason for it, but I will not write it-- I
very much wish'd it, as I fear I shall be oblig'd to walk a good part of
the way- M^r W- says it would not hurt any of us to walk 9 miles every
day of our lives- I told him I should not like to walk it in stormy
weather, as we are now oblig'd to; but he said it would not hurt me if I
shouldn't-- I have already worn out my boots almost entirely, with
walking-- M^r W- is a very strange man- I don't know what to make of him
--I shall be so thankful to get thro'- & then if I am caught with a
Deacon of any name, again, I shall deserve to suffer-- We are within 40
miles of Warren, & to be unable to get there under 4 or 5 days, is
perfectly tantalizing-- We came 10-1/2 miles to day, & are at a very
comfortable Inn, just in the edge of Greersburg- We expected to get a
little further, to Hart's tavern quite in the town: & there I hop'd to
see judge Austin again, & I determin'd at any rate to accept his offer
of getting me a horse, & go directly on with him, for I do not intend to
walk 9 miles a day till we get there, if I can help it- even if it will
not hurt me-- I won't take the _good_ deacon's word for that. The horses
are really tir'd out & out, & every day by the time we get 4 miles they
will stop & it is extremely difficult to get them on at all- but it is
so _expensive_ hiring a horse to go on, that as long as the waggon
alone, can be drawn 3 or 4 miles a day, it will not be done--but I feel
provoked, as you will easily see, so I will write no more on this
subject---- I am so anxious to end my journey, that I have lost all
interest about the country I pass through-- it snows or rains every day,
constantly-- I think in good weather, the ride from Warren to Pitts^g
must be pleasant- If that were at present the case, my journal would be
as much more interesting, as my journey would be pleasanter-- I am quite
tir'd of both, but still so habituated to them, that I think it will
seem very strange for a few days after I end them, (if I _live_ after
that time) not to run out the waggon as soon as I have eaten my
breakfast--& not to have my journal in my work-bag to fill it up-- It is
very troublesome I assure you-- I fear it will be worn out before you
get it- it is already very dirty, & so badly written you will never read
half of it--



Thursday eve-


10 miles as usual has been our days ride-- I have not walk'd my 9
miles, but I walk'd as much as I could- We are in a comfortable house
before an excellent fire- It is snowing very fast--



Saturday- P M- WARREN- After so long a time--


Friday morning we set out early with the hope of getting to Youngstown
at night & to Warren to night, but 4 miles from Y----n, the horses were
so tir'd they would not stir, so we stopt at a private house for the
night, an hour before sun down-- We had been in the house but a little
time, when Susan look'd out & told me she thought there was some one
after me, & I soon saw M^r Edwards & 2 horses-- "I was never so happy I
think"-- I ran out to meet him- He came in & set a while, & just at dark
we started for Youngstown-- M^r Edwards insisted upon Susan's going with
us, so she rode behind him, and I rode the single horse-- We reach'd
_Cousin_ Joseph Woodbridge's about the middle of the eve-- They got us a
good supper & gave us a bed-- M^{rs} W- is a very pretty woman (I mean
pleasing)- They have 3 children, & appear to be very well off, (you
understand me) & happy-- They live in a very comfortable log house,
pleasantly situated-A cousin in this country, is not to be slighted I
assure you- I would give more for one in this country, than for 20 in
old Connecticut-- This morning M^{rs} Todd came over to see us, & urg'd
us to stay & spend the day with her-- But spite of her solicitations, we
set out for Warren soon after breakfast--My horse was extremely dull &
we did not get here till near 2 oclock-- Cousin Louisa was as happy to
see me as I could wish, & I think I shall be very happy & contented--
The town is pleasanter than I expected- The house better- & the children
as fine--Cousin has alter'd very little, in any way--I found a M^rs
Waldo here just going to Connecticut, & lest I should not have another
opport^y, I intend sending this by them, without even time to read it
over & correct it-- I _am_ asham'd of it My dear Elizabeth, & were it
not for my promise to you, I don't know that I should dare to send it--
I will write your Mama by mail, I have not time for a letter now--My
very best love to every body-- I have a great deal more to say, but no
more time than just to tell you, I am ever

                                           & most affect^{ly} Yours-

                                                       M V D----

                              Let no one see this but your own family--


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note


The following changes have been made to the text:


Page vi: "doutbless" changed to "doubtless".

Page 8: "to night" changed to "to-night".

Page 15: "the appear" changed to "they appear".

Page 19: "where we going" changed to "where we were going".

Page 53: "but is is an" changed to "but it is an".





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