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Title: A Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ - Based on the Broadus Harmony in the Revised Version
Author: Robertson, Archibald Thomas
Language: English
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[Frontispiece: PALESTINE in the TIME OF CHRIST]



A HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS FOR STUDENTS OF THE LIFE OF CHRIST

_Based on the Broadus Harmony in the Revised Version_


BY

A. T. ROBERTSON, M.A., D.D., LL.D., LITT.D.

CHAIR OF NEW TESTAMENT INTERPRETATION, SOUTHERN BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL
SEMINARY, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY



"_Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me._"



HARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS

NEW YORK AND LONDON



COPYRIGHT, 1922,

BY HARPER & BROTHERS

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



TO

ELIZA S. BROADUS

ELDEST DAUGHTER OF JOHN A. BROADUS

AN ELECT LADY BELOVED IN MANY LANDS



PREFACE


It is now just thirty years since one day his young assistant
suggested to Dr. John A. Broadus that he prepare a harmony of the
Gospels that should depart from the old plan of following the feasts
as the turning points in the life of Jesus. He acted on the hint and
led the way that all modern harmonies have followed. The book has gone
through a dozen large editions and has become the standard harmony for
many thousands of students all over the world. Broadus was concerned
to bring out "the inner movements of the history, towards that
long-delayed, but foreseen and inevitable collision, in which, beyond
all other instances, the wrath of man was made to praise God." This he
succeeded in doing with marvelous power.

A generation has passed by and it is meet that the work of Broadus
should be reviewed in the light of modern synoptic criticism and
research into every phase of the life of Christ. So I have made a new
analysis that preserves Broadus's real purpose, but with new sections
and new notes. The notes at the end of the old volume, written by me
for the first edition, have been thoroughly revised and brought up to
date. The Old Testament passages referred to in the Gospels are given
in the text. The Gospel of Mark appears in the first column, then
Matthew, Luke, and John. It is now known that Matthew and Luke made
use of Mark for the framework of their Gospels. This change simplifies
amazingly the unfolding of the narrative.

There is still dispute concerning the historical worth of the Gospel
of John, but the Johannine authorship is not disproved. It still holds
the field in my opinion. Dr. C. F. Burney's theory of an Aramaic
original is already giving a new turn to Johannine criticism.

A harmony of the Gospels cannot meet every phase of modern criticism.
The data are given, as free from bias as circumstances allow, so that
all students can use the book and interpret the facts according to
their various theories. Numerous historical items call for notes of
various kinds that throw light on the passage in question. No effort
is made to reconcile all the divergent statements of various details
in the different Gospels. The differences challenge the student's
interest as much as the correspondences and are natural marks of
individual work. The notes and appendices at the end of the volume are
meant for students who wish help for historical study of the life of
Christ. A harmony cannot give all the aid that one needs, but it is
the one essential book for the serious study of the life of Jesus.
Students in colleges, theological seminaries, Young Men's Christian
Association and Young Women's Christian Association classes, Sunday
School teachers and pupils, preachers, all who read the Gospels
intelligently must have a modern harmony of the Gospels. One who has
never read a harmony will be amazed at the flood of light that flashes
from the parallel and progressive records of the life of Jesus Christ.

Broadus began teaching the life of Jesus in 1859 and kept it up till
his death in 1895. I began like work in 1888 and have kept on without
a break till now. I count it one of the crowning mercies of my life
that I have led so many successive classes of young ministers and
young women (some five thousand in all) through the study of Christ's
life. If only one can pass on to others in all their freshness and
power the teachings of Jesus, he cannot fail. There was a time when
men hung in wonder upon the words of Jesus, listening with awe and
rapture as he spoke. The Figure of Christ fills the world today as
never before. Back to Christ the world has come, the Christ of Faith
and of Experience, the Jesus of History, the Man of Galilee, the Hope
of Today, the Jesus Christ of the Four Gospels, in the full blaze of
modern critical and historical study.

A. T. ROBERTSON.

_Louisville, Kentucky_.



CONTENTS

                                                                  PAGE
PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  vii

CHIEF DIVISIONS OF THE HARMONY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   xi

ANALYTICAL OUTLINE OF THE HARMONY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

TABLE FOR FINDING ANY PASSAGE IN THE HARMONY  . . . . . . . . . xxxiii

THE HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1

EXPLANATORY NOTES ON POINTS OF SPECIAL DIFFICULTY IN THE HARMONY   253
   1. About Harmonies of the Gospels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  253
   2. Synoptic Criticism  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  255
   3. The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel . . . . . . . . . . . .  256
   4. The Jesus of History  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  258
   5. The Two Genealogies of Christ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  259
   6. The Probable Time of the Saviour's Birth  . . . . . . . . .  262
   7. The Feast of John 5:1, and the Duration of Our Lord's
        Ministry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  267
   8. The Four Lists of the Twelve Apostles . . . . . . . . . . .  271
   9. The Sermon on the Mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  273
  10. The Combination of Luke and John  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  276
  11. Did Christ Eat the Passover?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  279
  12. The Hour of the Crucifixion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  284
  13. The Time of the Resurrection of Christ  . . . . . . . . . .  287
  14. The Length of Our Lord's Stay in the Tomb . . . . . . . . .  289

A LIST OF THE PARABLES OF JESUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  292

A LIST OF THE MIRACLES OF JESUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  294

LIST OF OLD TESTAMENT QUOTATIONS IN THE GOSPELS . . . . . . . . .  295

A LIST OF SOME UNCANONICAL SAYINGS OF JESUS . . . . . . . . . . .  302

SIMILAR INCIDENTS AND CHIEF REPEATED SAYINGS  . . . . . . . . . .  304



CHIEF DIVISIONS OF THE HARMONY


PART I: THE SOURCES OF THE GOSPELS
     § 1

PART II: THE PRE-EXISTENT STATE OF CHRIST AND HIS INCARNATION
     § 2

PART III: THE TWO GENEALOGIES IN MATTHEW AND LUKE
     § 3

PART IV: THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST AND OF JESUS
     §§ 4-19. (Probably B.C. 7 to A.D. 7)

PART V: THE BEGINNING OF THE BAPTIST'S MINISTRY
     §§ 20-23. (Probably A.D. 25)

PART VI: THE BEGINNING OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC MINISTRY
     §§ 24-36. (In all parts of Palestine. Probably A.D. 26 and 27)

PART VII: THE GREAT GALLILEAN MINISTRY
     §§ 37-71. (Probably A.D. 27 to 29)

PART VIII: THE SPECIAL TRAINING OF THE TWELVE IN DISTRICTS AROUND
        GALILEE
     §§ 72-95. (Probably Passover in A.D. 29 to Tabernacles in
        A.D. 29)

PART IX: THE LATER JUDEAN MINISTRY
     §§ 96-111. (Probably Tabernacles to Dedication in A.D. 29)

PART X: THE LATER PEREAN MINISTRY
     §§ 112-127. (Probably Dedication in A.D. 29 to Last Journey in
        A.D. 30)

PART XI: THE LAST PUBLIC MINISTRY IN JERUSALEM
     §§ 128a-138. (Friday before the Passover to Tuesday of Passion
        Week, A.D. 30 or 29)

PART XII: IN THE SHADOW WITH JESUS
     §§ 139-152. (Tuesday afternoon to Thursday night of Passion Week,
        A.D. 30 or 29)

PART XIII: THE ARREST, TRIAL, CRUCIFIXION, AND BURIAL OF JESUS
     §§ 153-168. (Early Friday morning to Saturday of Passion Week,
        A.D. 30 or 29)

PART XIV: THE RESURRECTION, APPEARANCES, AND ASCENSION OF CHRIST
     §§ 169-184. (Forty days from Sunday of Passion Week, A.D. 30 or
        29)



ANALYTICAL OUTLINE OF THE HARMONY


PART I: THE SOURCES OF THE GOSPELS
     § 1: IN THE DEDICATION LUKE EXPLAINS HIS METHOD OF RESEARCH
          Luke 1:1-4.

PART II: THE PRE-EXISTENT STATE OF CHRIST AND HIS INCARNATION
     § 2: IN HIS INTRODUCTION JOHN PICTURES CHRIST AS THE WORD (LOGOS)
          John 1:1-18.

PART III: THE TWO GENEALOGIES IN MATTHEW AND LUKE
     § 3: APPARENTLY JOSEPH'S GENEALOGY IN MATTHEW AND MARY'S IN LUKE
          Matt. 1:1-17; Luke 3:23-38.

PART IV: THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST AND OF JESUS
    SECTIONS 4-19
     § 4: THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE BIRTH OF THE BAPTIST TO ZACHARIAS
          Luke 1:5-25.
     § 5: THE ANNUNCIATION TO THE VIRGIN MARY OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS
          Luke 1:26-38.
     § 6: THE SONG OF ELIZABETH TO MARY UPON HER VISIT
          Luke 1:39-45.
     § 7: THE MAGNIFICAT OF MARY
          Luke 1:46-56.
     § 8: THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST AND HIS DESERT LIFE
          Luke 1:57-80.
     § 9: THE ANNUNCIATION TO JOSEPH OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS
          Matt. 1:18-25.
    § 10: THE BIRTH OF JESUS
          Luke 2:1-7.
    § 11: THE PRAISE OF THE ANGELS AND THE HOMAGE OF THE SHEPHERDS
          Luke 2:8-20.
    § 12: THE CIRCUMCISION OF JESUS
          Luke 2:21.
    § 13: THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE WITH THE HOMAGE OF SIMEON AND
            ANNA
          Luke 2:22-38.
    § 14: MAGI VISIT THE NEW-BORN KING OF THE JEWS
          Matt. 2:1-12.
    § 15: THE CHILD JESUS CARRIED TO EGYPT, AND THE CHILDREN AT
            BETHLEHEM SLAIN
          Matt. 2:13-18.
    § 16: THE CHILD BROUGHT FROM EGYPT TO NAZARETH
          Matt. 2:19-23; Luke 2:39.
    § 17: THE CHILDHOOD OF JESUS AT NAZARETH
          Luke 2:40.
    § 18: THE VISIT OF THE BOY JESUS TO JERUSALEM WHEN TWELVE YEARS OLD
          Luke 2:41-50.
    § 19: THE EIGHTEEN YEARS AT NAZARETH
          Luke 2:51-52.

PART V: THE BEGINNING OF THE BAPTIST'S MINISTRY
    SECTIONS 20-23
    § 20: THE TIME OF THE BEGINNING
          Mark 1:1; Luke 3:1-2.
    § 21: THE MESSAGE AND THE MESSENGER
          Mark 1:2-6; Matt. 3:1-6; Luke 3:3-6.
    § 22: A SPECIMEN OF JOHN'S PREACHING
          Matt. 3:7-10; Luke 3:7-14.
    § 23: THE FORERUNNER'S PICTURE OF THE MESSIAH BEFORE SEEING HIM
          Mark 1:7-8; Matt. 3:11-12; Luke 3:15-18.

PART VI: THE BEGINNING OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC MINISTRY
    SECTIONS 24-36
    § 24: JESUS BAPTIZED BY JOHN IN THE JORDAN
          Mark 1:9-11; Matt. 3:13-17; Luke 3:21-23.
    § 25: THE THREE TEMPTATIONS OF JESUS
          Mark 1:12-13; Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13.
    § 26: THE TESTIMONY OF THE BAPTIST TO THE COMMITTEE OF THE SANHEDRIN
          John 1:19-28.
    § 27: JOHN'S IDENTIFICATION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH
          John 1:29-34.
    § 28: JESUS MAKES HIS FIRST DISCIPLES
          John 1:35-51.
    § 29: JESUS WORKS HIS FIRST MIRACLE
          John 2:1-11.
    § 30: JESUS MAKES A FIRST SOJOURN AT CAPERNAUM, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS
            KINDRED AND HIS EARLY DISCIPLES
          John 2:12.
    § 31: THE FIRST CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE AT THE PASSOVER
          John 2:13-22.
    § 32: THE INTERVIEW OF NICODEMUS WITH JESUS
          John 2:23-3:21.
    § 33: THE PARALLEL MINISTRY OF JESUS AND JOHN WITH JOHN'S LOYALTY
            TO JESUS
          John 3:22-36.
    § 34: CHRIST'S REASONS FOR LEAVING JUDEA
          Mark 1:14; Matt. 4:12; Luke 3:19-20; 4:14; John 4:1-4.
    § 35: JESUS IN SAMARIA AT JACOB'S WELL AND IN SYCHAR
          John 4:5-42.
    § 36: THE ARRIVAL OF JESUS IN GALILEE
          John 4:43-45.

PART VII: THE GREAT GALILEAN MINISTRY
    SECTIONS 37-71
          _Eight Groups in the Period_
          (1) The Rejection at Nazareth and the New Home in Capernaum
              Sections 37-43.
          (2) The First Tour of Galilee with the Four Fishermen and the
                Call of Matthew (Levi) on the Return with the Growing
                Fame of Jesus
              Sections 44-48.
          (3) The Sabbath Controversy in Jerusalem and in Galilee
              Sections 49-51.
          (4) The Choice of the Twelve and the Sermon on the Mount
              Sections 52-54.
          (5) The Spread of Christ's Influence and the Inquiry from John
                in Prison
              Sections 55-59.
          (6) The Second Tour of Galilee (now with the Twelve) and the
                Intense Hostility of the Pharisees
              Sections 60-63.
          (7) The First Great Group of Parables with the Visit to Gerasa
                (Khersa) and to Nazareth (final one)
              Sections 64-69.
          (8) The Third Tour of Galilee (following the Twelve) and the
                Effect on Herod Antipas
              Sections 70-71.
    § 37: GENERAL ACCOUNT OF HIS TEACHING IN GALILEE
          Mark 1:14-15; Matt. 4:17; Luke 4:14-15.
    § 38: THE HEALING AT CANA OF THE SON OF A COURTIER OF CAPERNAUM
          John 4:46-54.
    § 39: THE FIRST REJECTION AT NAZARETH
          Luke 4:16-31.
    § 40: THE NEW HOME IN CAPERNAUM
          Matt. 4:13-16.
    § 41: JESUS FINDS FOUR FISHERS OF MEN IN FOUR FISHERMEN
          Mark 1:16-20; Matt. 4:18-22; Luke 5:1-11.
    § 42: THE EXCITEMENT IN THE SYNAGOGUE BECAUSE OF THE TEACHING OF
            JESUS AND THE HEALING OF A DEMONIAC ON THE SABBATH
          Mark 1:21-28; Luke 4:31-37.
    § 43: HE HEALS PETER'S MOTHER-IN-LAW AND MANY OTHERS
          Mark 1:29-34; Matt. 8:14-17; Luke 4:38-41.
    § 44: THE FIRST TOUR OF GALILEE WITH THE FOUR FISHERMEN
          Mark 1:35-39; Matt. 4:23-25; Luke 4:42-44.
    § 45: A LEPER HEALED AND MUCH POPULAR EXCITEMENT
          Mark 1:40-45; Matt. 8:2-4; Luke 5:12-16.
    § 46: THRONGED IN CAPERNAUM, HE HEALS A PARALYTIC LOWERED THROUGH
            THE ROOF OF PETER'S HOUSE
          Mark 2:1-12; Matt. 9:1-8; Luke 5:17-26.
    § 47: THE CALL OF MATTHEW (LEVI) AND HIS RECEPTION IN HONOR OF JESUS
          Mark 2:13-17; Matt. 9:9-13; Luke 5:27-32.
    § 48: JESUS IN THREE PARABLES DEFENDS HIS DISCIPLES FOR FEASTING
            INSTEAD OF FASTING
          Mark 2:18-22; Matt. 9:14-17; Luke 5:33-39.
    § 49: AT A FEAST IN JERUSALEM (POSSIBLY THE PASSOVER) JESUS HEALS A
            LAME MAN ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS THIS ACTION TO THE
            PHARISEES IN A GREAT DISCOURSE
          John 5:1-47.
    § 50: ANOTHER SABBATH CONTROVERSY WITH THE PHARISEES WHEN THE
            DISCIPLES PLUCK EARS OF GRAIN IN THE FIELDS
          Mark 2:23-28; Matt. 12:1-8; Luke 6:1-5.
    § 51: A THIRD SABBATH CONTROVERSY WITH THE PHARISEES OVER THE
            HEALING OF A MAN WITH A WITHERED HAND IN A SYNAGOGUE
          Mark 3:1-6; Matt. 12:9-14; Luke 6:6-11.
    § 52: JESUS TEACHES AND HEALS GREAT MULTITUDES BY THE SEA OF GALILEE
          Mark 3:7-12; Matt. 12:15-21.
    § 53: AFTER A NIGHT OF PRAYER JESUS SELECTS TWELVE APOSTLES
          Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16.
    § 54: THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. PRIVILEGES AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE
            MESSIANIC REIGN, CHRIST'S STANDARD OF RIGHTEOUSNESS
          Matt. 5-7; Luke 6:17-49.
            The Place and the Audience
                Matt. 5:1-2; Luke 6:17-19.
            (1) The Introduction: The Beatitudes and the Woes.
                  Privileges of the Messiah's Subjects
                Matt. 5:3-12; Luke 6:20-26.
            (2) The Theme of the Sermon: Christ's Standard of
                  Righteousness in Contrast with that of the Scribes and
                  Pharisees
                Matt. 5:13-20.
            (3) Christ's Ethical Teaching Superior to that of the
                  Scribes (both the Old Testament and the Oral Law) in
                  Six Items or Illustrations (Murder, Adultery,
                  Divorce, Oaths, Retaliations, Love of Enemies)
                Matt. 5:21-48; Luke 6:27-30, 32-36.
            (4) The Practice of Real Righteousness unlike the
                  Ostentatious Hypocrisy of the Pharisees as in
                  Almsgiving, Prayer, Fasting
                Matt. 6:1-18.
            (5) Single-hearted Devotion to God as Opposed to Worldly
                  Aims and Anxieties
                Matt. 6:19-34.
            (6) Captious Criticism, or Judging Others
                Matt. 7:1-6; Luke 6:37-42.
            (7) Prayer and the Golden Rule
                Matt. 7:7-12; Luke 6:31.
            (8) The Conclusion of the Sermon. The Lesson of Personal
                  Righteousness Driven Home by Powerful Parables
                Matt. 7:13-8:1; Luke 6:43-49.
    § 55: JESUS HEALS A CENTURION'S SERVANT AT CAPERNAUM
          Matt. 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10.
    § 56: HE RAISES A WIDOW'S SON AT NAIN
          Luke 7:11-17.
    § 57: THE MESSAGE FROM THE BAPTIST AND THE EULOGY OF JESUS
          Matt. 11:2-19; Luke 7:18-35.
    § 58: WOES UPON THE CITIES OF OPPORTUNITY. THE CLAIMS OF CHRIST AS
            THE TEACHER ABOUT THE FATHER
          Matt. 11:20-30.
    § 59: THE ANOINTING OF CHRIST'S FEET BY A SINFUL WOMAN IN THE HOUSE
            OF SIMON A PHARISEE. THE PARABLE OF THE TWO DEBTORS
          Luke 7:36-50.
    § 60: THE SECOND TOUR OF GALILEE
          Luke 8:1-3.
    § 61: BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION OF LEAGUE WITH BEELZEBUB
          Mark 3:19-30; Matt. 12:22-37.
    § 62: SCRIBES AND PHARISEES DEMAND A SIGN
          Matt. 12:38-45.
    § 63: CHRIST'S MOTHER AND BRETHREN SEEK TO TAKE HIM HOME
          Mark 3:31-35; Matt. 12:46-50; Luke 8:19-21.
    § 64: THE FIRST GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES
          Mark 4:1-34; Matt. 13:1-53; Luke 8:4-18.
          _Introduction to the Group_
              Mark 4:1-2; Matt. 13:1-3; Luke 8:4.
          _1: To the Crowds by the Sea_
                (a) Parable of the Sower
                    Mark 4:3-25; Matt. 13:3-23; Luke 8:5-18.
                (b) Parable of the Seed Growing of Itself
                    Mark 4:26-29.
                (c) Parable of the Tares
                    Matt. 13:24-30.
                (d) Parable of the Mustard Seed
                    Mark 4:30-32; Matt. 13:31-32.
                (e) Parable of the Leaven and Many Such Parables
                    Mark 4:33-34; Matt. 13:33-35.
          _2. To the Disciples in the House_
                (a) Explanation of the Parable of the Tares
                    Matt. 13:36-43.
                (b) The Parable of the Hid Treasure
                    Matt. 13:44.
                (c) The Parable of the Pearl of Great Price
                    Matt. 13:45-46.
                (d) The Parable of the Net
                    Matt. 13:47-50.
                (e) The Parable of the Householder
                    Matt. 13:51-53.
    § 65: IN CROSSING THE LAKE, JESUS STILLS THE TEMPEST
          Mark 4:35-41; Matt. 8:18, 23-27; Luke 8:22-25.
    § 66: BEYOND THE LAKE JESUS HEALS THE GERASENE DEMONIAC
          Mark 5:1-20; Matt. 8:28-34; Luke 8:26-39.
    § 67: THE RETURN AND THE HEALING OF JAIRUS' DAUGHTER AND OF THE
            WOMAN WHO ONLY TOUCHED CHRIST'S GARMENT
          Mark 5:21-43; Matt. 9:18-26; Luke 8:40-56.
    § 68: HE HEALS TWO BLIND MEN AND A DUMB DEMONIAC, A BLASPHEMOUS
            ACCUSATION
          Matt. 9:27-34.
    § 69: THE LAST VISIT TO NAZARETH
          Mark 6:1-6; Matt. 13:54-58.
    § 70: THE THIRD TOUR OF GALILEE AFTER INSTRUCTING THE TWELVE AND
            SENDING THEM FORTH BY TWOS
          Mark 6:6-13; Matt. 9:35-11:1; Luke 9:1-6.
    § 71: THE GUILTY FEARS OF HEROD ANTIPAS IN TIBERIAS ABOUT JESUS
            BECAUSE HE HAD BEHEADED THE BAPTIST IN MACHÆRUS
          Mark 6:14-29; Matt. 14:1-12; Luke 9:7-9.

PART VIII: THE SPECIAL TRAINING OF THE TWELVE IN DISTRICTS AROUND
               GALILEE
    SECTIONS 72-95
    § 72: THE FIRST RETIREMENT. THE TWELVE RETURN, AND JESUS RETIRES
            WITH THEM BEYOND THE LAKE TO REST. FEEDING OF THE FIVE
            THOUSAND
          Mark 6:30-44; Matt. 14:13-21; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-13.
    § 73: THE PREVENTION OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PURPOSE TO PROCLAIM JESUS
            KING (A POLITICAL MESSIAH)
          Mark 6:45-46; Matt. 14:22-23; John 6:14-15.
    § 74: THE PERIL TO THE TWELVE IN THE STORM AT SEA AND CHRIST'S
            COMING TO THEM ON THE WATER IN THE DARKNESS
          Mark 6:47-52; Matt. 14:24-33; John 6:16-21.
    § 75: THE RECEPTION AT GENNESARET
          Mark 6:53-56; Matt. 14:34-36.
    § 76: THE COLLAPSE OF THE GALILEAN CAMPAIGN BECAUSE JESUS WILL NOT
            CONFORM TO POPULAR MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS
          John 6:22-71.
    § 77: PHARISEES FROM JERUSALEM REPROACH JESUS FOR ALLOWING HIS
            DISCIPLES TO DISREGARD THEIR TRADITIONS ABOUT CEREMONIAL
            DEFILEMENT OF THE HANDS. A PUZZLING PARABLE IN REPLY
          Mark 7:1-23; Matt. 15:1-20; John 7:1.
    § 78: THE SECOND WITHDRAWAL TO THE REGION OF TYRE AND SIDON AND THE
            HEALING OF THE DAUGHTER OF A SYRO-PHOENICIAN WOMAN
          Mark 7:24-30; Matt. 15:21-28.
    § 79: THE THIRD WITHDRAWAL NORTH THROUGH PHOENICIA AND EAST TOWARDS
            HERMON AND SOUTH INTO DECAPOLIS (KEEPING OUT OF THE
            TERRITORY OF HEROD ANTIPAS) WITH THE HEALING OF THE DEAF AND
            DUMB MAN AND THE FEEDING OF THE FOUR THOUSAND
          Mark 7:31-8:9; Matt. 15:29-38.
    § 80: THE BRIEF VISIT TO MAGADAN (DALMANUTHA) IN GALILEE AND THE
            SHARP ATTACK BY THE PHARISEES AND SADDUCEES. (NOTE THEIR
            APPEARANCE NOW AGAINST JESUS)
          Mark 8:10-12; Matt. 15:39-16:4.
    § 81: THE FOURTH RETIREMENT TO BETHSAIDA JULIAS IN THE TETRARCHY OF
            HEROD PHILIP WITH SHARP REBUKE OF THE DULNESS OF THE
            DISCIPLES ON THE WAY ACROSS AND THE HEALING OF A BLIND MAN
            IN BETHSAIDA
          Mark 8:13-26; Matt. 16:5-12.
    § 82: NEAR CÆSAREA PHILIPPI JESUS TESTS THE FAITH OF THE TWELVE IN
            HIS MESSIAHSHIP
          Mark 8:27-30; Matt. 16:13-20; Luke 9:18-21.
    § 83: JESUS DISTINCTLY FORETELLS THAT HE, THE MESSIAH, WILL BE
            REJECTED AND KILLED AND WILL RISE THE THIRD DAY
          Mark 8:31-37; Matt. 16:21-26; Luke 9:22-25.
    § 84: THE COMING OF THE SON OF MAN IN THAT GENERATION
          Mark 8:38-9:1; Matt. 16:27-28; Luke 9:26-27.
    § 85: THE TRANSFIGURATION OF JESUS ON A MOUNTAIN (PROBABLY HERMON)
            NEAR CÆSAREA PHILIPPI
          Mark 9:2-8; Matt. 17:1-8; Luke 9:28-36.
    § 86: THE PUZZLE OF THE THREE DISCIPLES ABOUT THE RESURRECTION AND
            ABOUT ELIJAH ON THEIR WAY DOWN THE MOUNTAIN
          Mark 9:9-13; Matt. 17:9-13; Luke 9:36.
    § 87: THE DEMONIAC BOY, WHOM THE DISCIPLES COULD NOT HEAL
          Mark 9:14-29; Matt. 17:14-20; Luke 9:37-43.
    § 88: RETURNING PRIVATELY THROUGH GALILEE, HE AGAIN FORETELLS HIS
            DEATH AND RESURRECTION
          Mark 9:30-32; Matt. 17:22-23; Luke 9:43-45.
    § 89: JESUS, THE MESSIAH, PAYS THE HALF-SHEKEL FOR THE TEMPLE
          Matt. 17:24-27.
    § 90: THE TWELVE CONTEND AS TO WHO SHALL BE THE GREATEST UNDER THE
            MESSIAH'S REIGN. HIS SUBJECTS MUST BE CHILDLIKE
          Mark 9:33-37; Matt. 18:1-5; Luke 9:46-48.
    § 91: THE MISTAKEN ZEAL OF THE APOSTLE JOHN REBUKED BY JESUS IN
            PERTINENT PARABLES
          Mark 9:38-50; Matt. 18:6-14; Luke 9:49-50.
    § 92: RIGHT TREATMENT OF A BROTHER WHO HAS SINNED AGAINST ONE, AND
            DUTY OF PATIENTLY FORGIVING A BROTHER (PARABLE OF THE
            UNMERCIFUL SERVANT)
          Matt. 18:15-35.
    § 93: THE MESSIAH'S FOLLOWERS MUST GIVE UP EVERYTHING FOR HIS
            SERVICE
          Matt. 8:19-22; Luke 9:57-62.
    § 94: THE UNBELIEVING BROTHERS OF JESUS COUNSEL HIM TO EXHIBIT
            HIMSELF IN JUDEA, AND HE REJECTS THE ADVICE
          John 7:2-9.
    § 95: HE GOES PRIVATELY TO JERUSALEM THROUGH SAMARIA
          Luke 9:51-56; John 7:10.

PART IX: THE LATER JUDEAN MINISTRY
    SECTIONS 96-111
    § 96: THE COMING OF JESUS TO THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES CREATES
            INTENSE EXCITEMENT CONCERNING THE MESSIAHSHIP
          John 7:11-52.
    § 97: STORY OF AN ADULTEROUS WOMAN BROUGHT TO JESUS FOR JUDGMENT
          John 7:53-8:11.
    § 98: AFTER THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES IN THE TEMPLE JESUS ANGERS THE
            PHARISEES BY CLAIMING TO BE THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD
          John 8:12-20.
    § 99: THE PHARISEES ATTEMPT TO STONE JESUS WHEN HE EXPOSES THEIR
            SINFULNESS
          John 8:21-59.
   § 100: JESUS HEALS A MAN BORN BLIND WHO OUTWITS THE PHARISEES. THE
            RULERS FORBID THE RECOGNITION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH. THE
            CONVERSION OF THE HEALED MAN
          John 9:1-41.
   § 101: IN THE PARABLE (ALLEGORY) OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD JESUS DRAWS THE
            PICTURE OF THE HOSTILE PHARISEES AND INTIMATES THAT HE IS
            GOING TO DIE FOR HIS FLOCK AND COME TO LIFE AGAIN
          John 10:1-21.
   § 102: THE MISSION OF THE SEVENTY. CHRIST'S JOY IN THEIR WORK ON
            THEIR RETURN
          Luke 10:1-24.
   § 103: JESUS ANSWERS A LAWYER'S QUESTION AS TO ETERNAL LIFE, GIVING
            THE PARABLE OF THE GOOD SAMARITAN
          Luke 10:25-37.
   § 104: JESUS THE GUEST OF MARTHA AND MARY
          Luke 10:38-42.
   § 105: JESUS AGAIN GIVES A MODEL OF PRAYER (COMP. § 54) AND
            ENCOURAGES HIS DISCIPLES TO PRAY. PARABLE OF THE IMPORTUNATE
            FRIEND
          Luke 11:1-13.
   § 106: BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION OF LEAGUE WITH BEELZEBUB
          Luke 11:14-36.
   § 107: WHILE BREAKFASTING WITH A PHARISEE, JESUS SEVERELY DENOUNCES
            THE PHARISEES AND LAWYERS AND EXCITES THEIR ENMITY
          Luke 11:37-54.
   § 108: HE SPEAKS TO HIS DISCIPLES AND A VAST THRONG ABOUT HYPOCRISY,
            COVETOUSNESS (PARABLE OF THE RICH FOOL), WORLDLY ANXIETIES,
            WATCHFULNESS (PARABLE OF THE WAITING SERVANTS AND OF THE
            WISE STEWARD), AND HIS OWN APPROACHING PASSION
          Luke 12.
   § 109: ALL MUST REPENT OR PERISH. (TWO CURRENT TRAGEDIES); PARABLE OF
            THE BARREN FIG TREE
          Luke 13:1-9.
   § 110: JESUS HEALS A CRIPPLED WOMAN ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS
            HIMSELF AGAINST THE RULER OF THE SYNAGOGUE. (CF. §§ 49-51
            AND 114.) REPETITION OF THE PARABLES OF THE MUSTARD SEED AND
            OF THE LEAVEN
          Luke 13:10-21.
   § 111: AT THE FEAST OF DEDICATION JESUS WILL NOT YET OPENLY SAY THAT
            HE IS THE MESSIAH. THE JEWS TRY TO STONE HIM
          John 10:22-39.

PART X: THE LATER PEREAN MINISTRY
    SECTIONS 112-127
   § 112: THE WITHDRAWAL FROM JERUSALEM TO BETHANY BEYOND JORDAN
          John 10:40-42.
   § 113: TEACHING IN PEREA, ON A JOURNEY TOWARD JERUSALEM, WARNED
            AGAINST HEROD ANTIPAS
          Luke 13:22-35.
   § 114: WHILE DINING (BREAKFASTING) WITH A CHIEF PHARISEE, HE AGAIN
            HEALS ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS HIMSELF (COMP. §§ 49 TO 51
            AND 110) THREE PARABLES SUGGESTED BY THE OCCASION
          Luke 14:1-24.
   § 115: GREAT CROWDS FOLLOW HIM, AND HE WARNS THEM TO COUNT THE COST
            OF DISCIPLESHIP TO HIM (COMP. §§ 70 AND 83)
          Luke 14:25-35.
   § 116: THE PHARISEES AND THE SCRIBES MURMUR AGAINST JESUS FOR
            RECEIVING SINNERS. HE DEFENDS HIMSELF BY THREE GREAT
            PARABLES (THE LOST SHEEP, THE LOST COIN, THE LOST SON)
          Luke 15:1-32.
   § 117: THREE PARABLES ON STEWARDSHIP (TO THE DISCIPLES, THE PARABLE
            OF THE UNJUST STEWARD; TO THE PHARISEES, THE PARABLE OF THE
            RICH MAN AND LAZARUS; TO THE DISCIPLES, THE PARABLE OF THE
            UNPROFITABLE SERVANTS)
          Luke 16:1-17:10.
   § 118: JESUS RAISES LAZARUS FROM THE DEAD
          John 11:1-44.
   § 119: THE EFFECT OF THE RAISING OF LAZARUS (ON THE PEOPLE, ON THE
            SANHEDRIN, ON THE MOVEMENTS OF JESUS)
          John 11:45-54.
   § 120: JESUS STARTS ON THE LAST JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM BY WAY OF
            SAMARIA AND GALILEE
          Luke 17:11-37.
   § 121: TWO PARABLES ON PRAYER (THE IMPORTUNATE WIDOW, THE PHARISEE
            AND THE PUBLICAN)
          Luke 18:1-14.
   § 122: GOING FROM GALILEE THROUGH PEREA, HE TEACHES CONCERNING
            DIVORCE
          Mark 10:1-12; Matt. 19:1-12.
   § 123: CHRIST AND CHILDREN AND THE FAILURE OF THE DISCIPLES TO
            UNDERSTAND THE ATTITUDE OF JESUS
          Mark 10:13-16; Matt. 19:13-15; Luke 18:15-17.
   § 124: THE RICH YOUNG RULER, THE PERILS OF RICHES, AND AMAZEMENT OF
            THE DISCIPLES. THE REWARDS OF FORSAKING ALL TO FOLLOW THE
            MESSIAH WILL BE GREAT, BUT WILL BE SOVEREIGN (PARABLE OF THE
            LABORERS IN THE VINEYARD)
          Mark 10:17-31; Matt. 19:16-20:16; Luke 18:18-30.
   § 125: JESUS AGAIN FORETELLS TO THE DISCIPLES HIS DEATH AND
            RESURRECTION (COMP. §§ 83, 85, 86, 88), AND REBUKES THE
            SELFISH AMBITION OF JAMES AND JOHN
          Mark 10:32-45; Matt. 20:17-28; Luke 18:31-34.
   § 126: BLIND BARTIMÆUS AND HIS COMPANION HEALED
          Mark 10:46-52; Matt. 20:29-34; Luke 18:35-43.
   § 127: JESUS VISITS ZACCHÆUS, AND SPEAKS THE PARABLE OF THE POUNDS,
            AND SETS OUT FOR JERUSALEM
          Luke 19:1-28.

PART XI: THE LAST PUBLIC MINISTRY IN JERUSALEM
    SECTIONS 128-138
  § 128a: JESUS ARRIVES AT BETHANY NEAR JERUSALEM
          John 11:55-12:1, 9-11.
  § 128b: HIS TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM AS THE MESSIAH
          Mark 11:1-11; Matt. 21:1-11, 14-17; Luke 19:29-44; John
            12:12-19.
   § 129: THE BARREN FIG TREE CURSED, AND THE SECOND CLEANSING OF THE
            TEMPLE (COMP. § 31)
          Mark 11:12-18; Matt. 21:18-19, 12-13; Luke 19:45-48.
   § 130: THE DESIRE OF SOME GREEKS TO SEE JESUS PUZZLES THE DISCIPLES
            AND LEADS JESUS IN AGITATION OF SOUL TO INTERPRET LIFE AND
            DEATH AS SACRIFICE AND TO SHOW HOW BY BEING "LIFTED UP" HE
            WILL DRAW ALL MEN TO HIM
          John 12:20-50.
   § 131: THE BARREN FIG TREE FOUND TO HAVE WITHERED
          Mark 11:19-25; Matt. 21:19-22; Luke 21:37-38.
   § 132: THE RULERS (SANHEDRIN) FORMALLY CHALLENGE THE AUTHORITY OF
            JESUS AS AN ACCREDITED TEACHER (RABBI)
          Mark 11:27-12:12; Matt. 21:23-22:14; Luke 20:1-19.
   § 133: THE PHARISEES AND THE HERODIANS TRY TO ENSNARE JESUS ABOUT
            PAYING TRIBUTE TO CÆSAR
          Mark 12:13-17; Matt. 22:15-22; Luke 20:20-26.
   § 134: THE SADDUCEES ASK HIM A PUZZLING QUESTION ABOUT THE
            RESURRECTION
          Mark 12:18-27; Matt. 22:23-33; Luke 20:27-40.
   § 135: THE PHARISEES REJOICE OVER THE ROUT OF THE SADDUCEES AND A
            PHARISAIC LAWYER ASKS JESUS A LEGAL QUESTION
          Mark 12:28-34; Matt. 22:34-40.
   § 136: JESUS, TO THE JOY OF THE MULTITUDE, SILENCES HIS ENEMIES BY
            THE PERTINENT QUESTION OF THE MESSIAH'S DESCENT FROM DAVID
            AND LORDSHIP OVER DAVID
          Mark 12:35-37; Matt. 22:41-46; Luke 20:41-44.
   § 137: IN HIS LAST PUBLIC DISCOURSE, JESUS SOLEMNLY DENOUNCES THE
            SCRIBES AND PHARISEES (COMP. § 107)
          Mark 12:38-40; Matt. 23:1-39; Luke 20:45-47.
   § 138: JESUS CLOSELY OBSERVES THE CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE TEMPLE, AND
            COMMENDS THE POOR WIDOW'S GIFT
          Mark 12:41-44; Luke 21:1-4.

PART XII: IN THE SHADOW WITH JESUS
    SECTIONS 139-152
   § 139: SITTING ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES, JESUS SPEAKS TO HIS DISCIPLES
            ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, AND HIS OWN SECOND
            COMING IN APOCALYPTIC LANGUAGE. THE GREAT ESCHATOLOGICAL
            DISCOURSE
          Mark 13:1-37; Matt. 24, 25; Luke 21:5-36.
   § 140: JESUS PREDICTS HIS CRUCIFIXION TWO DAYS HENCE (JEWISH FRIDAY)
          Mark 14:1-2; Matt. 26:1-5; Luke 22:1-2.
   § 141: AT THE FEAST IN THE HOUSE OF SIMON THE LEPER MARY OF BETHANY
            ANOINTS JESUS FOR HIS BURIAL
          Mark 14:3-9; Matt. 26:6-13; John 12:2-8.
   § 142: JUDAS, STUNG BY THE REBUKE OF JESUS AT THE FEAST, BARGAINS
            WITH THE RULERS TO BETRAY JESUS
          Mark 14:10-11; Matt. 26:14-16; Luke 22:3-6.
   § 143: THE PREPARATION FOR THE PASCHAL MEAL AT THE HOME OF A FRIEND
            (POSSIBLY THAT OF JOHN MARK'S FATHER AND MOTHER)
          Mark 14:12-16; Matt. 26:17-19; Luke 22:7-13.
   § 144: JESUS PARTAKES OF THE PASCHAL MEAL WITH THE TWELVE APOSTLES
            AND REBUKES THEIR JEALOUSY
          Mark 14:17; Matt. 26:20; Luke 22:14-16, 24-30.
   § 145: DURING THE PASCHAL MEAL, JESUS WASHES THE FEET OF HIS
            DISCIPLES
          John 13:1-20.
   § 146: AT THE PASCHAL MEAL JESUS POINTS OUT JUDAS AS THE BETRAYER
          Mark 14:18-21; Matt. 26:21-25; Luke 22:21-23; John 13:21-30.
   § 147: AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF JUDAS JESUS WARNS THE DISCIPLES (PETER
            IN PARTICULAR) AGAINST DESERTION, WHILE ALL PROTEST THEIR
            LOYALTY
          Mark 14:27-31; Matt. 26:31-35; Luke 22:31-38; John 13:31-38.
   § 148: JESUS INSTITUTES THE MEMORIAL OF EATING BREAD AND DRINKING
            WINE
          Mark 14:22-25; Matt. 26:26-29; Luke 22:17-20; 1 Cor. 11:23-26.
   § 149: THE FAREWELL DISCOURSE TO HIS DISCIPLES IN THE UPPER ROOM
          John 14.
   § 150: THE DISCOURSE ON THE WAY TO GETHSEMANE
          John 15, 16.
   § 151: CHRIST'S INTERCESSORY PRAYER
          John 17.
   § 152: GOING FORTH TO GETHSEMANE, JESUS SUFFERS LONG IN AGONY
          Mark 14:26, 32-42; Matt. 26:30, 36-46; Luke 22:39-46;
            John 18:1.

PART XIII: THE ARREST, TRIAL, CRUCIFIXION, AND BURIAL OF JESUS
    SECTIONS 153-168
   § 153: JESUS IS BETRAYED, ARRESTED, AND FORSAKEN
          Mark 14:43-52; Matt. 26:47-56; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12.
   § 154: JESUS FIRST EXAMINED BY ANNAS, THE EX-HIGH PRIEST
          John 18:12-14, 19-23.
   § 155: JESUS HURRIEDLY TRIED AND CONDEMNED BY CAIAPHAS AND THE
            SANHEDRIN, WHO MOCK AND BUFFET HIM
          Mark 14:53, 55-65; Matt. 26:57, 59-68; Luke 22:54, 63-65;
            John 18:24.
   § 156: PETER THRICE DENIES HIS LORD
          Mark 14:54, 66-72; Matt. 26:58, 69-75; Luke 22:54-62;
            John 18:15-18, 25-27.
   § 157: AFTER DAWN, JESUS IS FORMALLY CONDEMNED BY THE SANHEDRIN
          Mark 15:1; Matt. 27:1; Luke 22:66-71.
   § 158: REMORSE AND SUICIDE OF JUDAS THE BETRAYER
          Matt. 27:3-10; Acts 1:18-19.
   § 159: JESUS BEFORE PILATE THE FIRST TIME
          Mark 15:1-5; Matt. 27:2, 11-14; Luke 23:1-5; John 18:28-38.
   § 160: JESUS BEFORE HEROD ANTIPAS THE TETRARCH
          Luke 23:6-12.
   § 161: JESUS THE SECOND TIME BEFORE PILATE
          Mark 15:6-15; Matt. 27:15-26; Luke 23:13-25; John 18:39-19:16.
   § 162: THE ROMAN SOLDIERS MOCK JESUS
          Mark 15:16-19; Matt. 27:27-30.
   § 163: JESUS ON THE WAY TO THE CROSS (VIA DOLOROSA) ON GOLGOTHA
          Mark 15:20-23; Matt. 27:31-34; Luke 23:26-33; John 19:16-17.
   § 164: THE FIRST THREE HOURS ON THE CROSS
          Mark 15:24-32; Matt. 27:35-44; Luke 23:33-43; John 19:18-27.
   § 165: THE THREE HOURS OF DARKNESS FROM NOON TO THREE P.M.
          Mark 15:33-37; Matt. 27:45-50; Luke 23:44-46; John 19:28-30.
   § 166: THE PHENOMENA ACCOMPANYING THE DEATH OF CHRIST
          Mark 15:38-41; Matt. 27:51-56; Luke 23:45, 47-49.
   § 167: THE BURIAL OF THE BODY OF JESUS IN THE TOMB OF JOSEPH OF
            ARIMATHEA AFTER PROOF OF HIS DEATH
          Mark 15:42-46; Matt. 27:57-60; Luke 23:50-54; John 19:31-42.
   § 168: THE WATCH OF THE WOMEN BY THE TOMB OF JESUS
          Mark 15:47; Matt. 27:61-66; Luke 23:55-56.

PART XIV: THE RESURRECTION, APPEARANCES, AND ASCENSION OF CHRIST
    SECTIONS 169-184
   § 169: THE VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE TOMB OF JESUS
          Mark 16:1; Matt. 28:1.
   § 170: THE EARTHQUAKE, THE ROLLING AWAY OF THE STONE BY AN ANGEL, AND
            THE FRIGHT OF THE ROMAN WATCHERS
          Matt. 28:2-4.
   § 171: THE VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE TOMB OF JESUS ABOUT SUNRISE
            SUNDAY MORNING AND THE MESSAGE OF THE ANGELS ABOUT THE EMPTY
            TOMB
          Mark 16:2-8; Matt. 28:5-8; Luke 24:1-8; John 20:1.
   § 172: MARY MAGDALENE AND THE OTHER WOMEN REPORT TO THE APOSTLES, AND
            PETER AND JOHN VISIT THE EMPTY TOMB
          Luke 24:9-12; John 20:2-10.
   § 173: THE APPEARANCE OF JESUS TO MARY MAGDALENE AND THE MESSAGE TO
            THE DISCIPLES
          Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18.
   § 174: THE APPEARANCE OF JESUS TO THE OTHER WOMEN
          Matt. 28:9-10.
   § 175: SOME OF THE GUARD REPORT TO THE JEWISH RULERS
          Matt. 28:11-15.
   § 176: THE APPEARANCE TO TWO DISCIPLES (CLEOPAS AND ANOTHER) ON THE
            WAY TO EMMAUS
          Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-32.
   § 177: THE REPORT OF THE TWO DISCIPLES AND THE NEWS OF THE APPEARANCE
            TO SIMON PETER
          Luke 24:33-35; 1 Cor. 15:5.
   § 178: THE APPEARANCE TO THE ASTONISHED DISCIPLES (THOMAS ABSENT)
            WITH A COMMISSION AND THEIR FAILURE TO CONVINCE THOMAS
          Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25.
   § 179: THE APPEARANCE TO THE DISCIPLES THE NEXT SUNDAY NIGHT AND THE
            CONVINCING OF THOMAS
          John 20:26-31; 1 Cor. 15:5.
   § 180: THE APPEARANCE TO SEVEN DISCIPLES BESIDE THE SEA OF GALILEE.
            THE MIRACULOUS DRAUGHT OF FISHES
          John 21.
   § 181: THE APPEARANCE TO ABOUT FIVE HUNDRED ON AN APPOINTED MOUNTAIN
            IN GALILEE, AND A COMMISSION GIVEN
          Mark 16:15-18; Matt. 28:16-20; 1 Cor. 15:6.
   § 182: THE APPEARANCE TO JAMES THE BROTHER OF JESUS
          1 Cor. 15:7.
   § 183: THE APPEARANCE TO THE DISCIPLES WITH ANOTHER COMMISSION
          Luke 24:44-49; Acts 1:3-8.
   § 184: THE LAST APPEARANCE AND THE ASCENSION
          Mark 16:19-20; Luke 24:50-53; Acts 1:9-12.



TABLE FOR FINDING ANY PASSAGE IN THE HARMONY


  MARK

  ------+---------+---------++-------+-----------+--------
  Chap. |  Verse  | Section || Chap. |  Verse    | Section
  ------+---------+---------++-------+-----------+--------
    1   |   1     |    20   ||   9   |  33-37    |    90
    1   |   2-6   |    21   ||   9   |  38-50    |    91
    1   |   7-8   |    23   ||  10   |   1-12    |   122
    1   |   9-11  |    24   ||  10   |  13-16    |   123
    1   |  12-13  |    25   ||  10   |  17-31    |   124
    1   |  14     |    34   ||  10   |  32-45    |   125
    1   |  14-15  |    37   ||  10   |  46-52    |   126
    1   |  16-20  |    41   ||  11   |   1-11    |   128b
    1   |  21-28  |    42   ||  11   |  12-18    |   129
    1   |  29-34  |    43   ||  11   |  19-25    |   131
    1   |  35-39  |    44   ||  11   |  27-12:12 |   132
    1   |  40-45  |    45   ||  12   |  13-17    |   133
    2   |   1-12  |    46   ||  12   |  18-27    |   134
    2   |  13-17  |    47   ||  12   |  28-34    |   135
    2   |  18-22  |    48   ||  12   |  35-37    |   136
    2   |  23-28  |    50   ||  12   |  38-40    |   137
    3   |   1-6   |    51   ||  12   |  41-44    |   138
    3   |   7-12  |    52   ||  13   |   1-37    |   139
    3   |  13-19  |    53   ||  14   |   1-2     |   140
    3   |  19-30  |    61   ||  14   |   3-9     |   141
    3   |  31-35  |    63   ||  14   |  10-11    |   142
    4   |   1-2   |    64   ||  14   |  12-16    |   143
    4   |   3-25  |    64   ||  14   |  17       |   144
    4   |  26-29  |    64   ||  14   |  18-21    |   146
    4   |  30-32  |    64   ||  14   |  27-31    |   147
    4   |  33-34  |    64   ||  14   |  22-25    |   148
    4   |  35-41  |    65   ||  14   | 26, 32-42 |   152
    5   |   1-20  |    66   ||  14   |  43-52    |   153
    5   |  21-43  |    67   ||  14   | 53, 55-65 |   155
    6   |   1-6   |    69   ||  14   | 54, 66-72 |   156
    6   |   6-13  |    70   ||  15   |   1       |   157
    6   |  14-29  |    71   ||  15   |   1-5     |   159
    6   |  30-44  |    72   ||  15   |   6-15    |   161
    6   |  45-46  |    73   ||  15   |  16-19    |   162
    6   |  47-52  |    74   ||  15   |  20-23    |   163
    6   |  53-56  |    75   ||  15   |  24-32    |   164
    7   |   1-23  |    77   ||  15   |  33-37    |   165
    7   |  24-30  |    78   ||  15   |  38-41    |   166
    7   |  31-8:9 |    79   ||  15   |  42-46    |   167
    8   |  10-12  |    80   ||  15   |  47       |   168
    8   |  13-26  |    81   ||  16   |   1       |   169
    8   |  27-30  |    82   ||  16   |   2-8     |   171
    8   |  31-37  |    83   ||  16   |   9-11    |   173
    8   |  38-9:1 |    84   ||  16   |  12-13    |   176
    9   |   2-8   |    85   ||  16   |  14       |   178
    9   |   9-13  |    86   ||  16   |  15-18    |   181
    9   |  14-29  |    87   ||  16   |  19-20    |   184
    9   |  30-32  |    88   ||       |           |
  ------+---------+---------++-------+-----------+--------


  MATTHEW

  ------+-----------+---------++--------+--------------+--------
  Chap. |   Verse   | Section ||  Chap. |    Verse     | Section
  ------+-----------+---------++--------+--------------+--------
    1   |    1-17   |     3   ||   15   |     1-20     |    77
    1   |   18-25   |     9   ||   15   |    21-28     |    78
    2   |    1-12   |    14   ||   15   |    29-38     |    79
    2   |   13-18   |    15   ||   15   |    39-16:4   |    80
    2   |   19-23   |    16   ||   16   |     5-12     |    81
    3   |    1-6    |    21   ||   16   |    13-20     |    82
    3   |    7-10   |    22   ||   16   |    21-26     |    83
    3   |   11-12   |    23   ||   16   |    27-28     |    84
    3   |   13-17   |    24   ||   17   |     1-8      |    85
    4   |    1-11   |    25   ||   17   |     9-13     |    86
    4   |   12      |    34   ||   17   |    14-20     |    87
    4   |   13-16   |    40   ||   17   |    22-23     |    88
    4   |   17      |    37   ||   17   |    24-27     |    89
    4   |   18-22   |    41   ||   18   |     1-5      |    90
    4   |   23-25   |    44   ||   18   |     6-14     |    91
    5   |    1-2    |    54   ||   18   |    15-35     |    92
    5   |    3-12   |    54   ||   19   |     1-12     |   122
    5   |   13-20   |    54   ||   19   |    13-15     |   123
    5   |   21-48   |    54   ||   19   |    16-20:16  |   124
    6   |    1-18   |    54   ||   20   |    17-28     |   125
    6   |   19-34   |    54   ||   20   |    29-34     |   126
    7   |    1-6    |    54   ||   21   |  1-11, 14-17 |   128b
    7   |    7-12   |    54   ||   21   | 18-19, 12-13 |   129
    7   |   13-8:1  |    54   ||   21   |    19-22     |   131
    8   |    2-4    |    45   ||   21   |    23-22:14  |   132
    8   |    5-13   |    55   ||   22   |    15-22     |   133
    8   |   14-17   |    43   ||   22   |    23-33     |   134
    8   | 18, 23-27 |    65   ||   22   |    34-40     |   135
    8   |   19-22   |    93   ||   22   |    41-46     |   136
    8   |   28-34   |    66   ||   23   |     1-39     |   137
    9   |    1-8    |    46   || 24, 25 |     ...      |   139
    9   |    9-13   |    47   ||   26   |     1-5      |   140
    9   |   14-17   |    48   ||   26   |     6-13     |   141
    9   |   18-26   |    67   ||   26   |    14-16     |   142
    9   |   27-34   |    68   ||   26   |    17-19     |   143
    9   |   35-11:1 |    70   ||   26   |    20        |   144
   11   |    2-19   |    57   ||   26   |    21-25     |   146
   11   |   20-30   |    58   ||   26   |    31-35     |   147
   12   |    1-8    |    50   ||   26   |    26-29     |   148
   12   |    9-14   |    51   ||   26   |   30, 36-46  |   152
   12   |   15-21   |    52   ||   26   |    47-56     |   153
   12   |   22-37   |    61   ||   26   |   57, 59-68  |   155
   12   |   38-45   |    62   ||   26   |   58, 69-75  |   156
   12   |   46-50   |    63   ||   27   |     1        |   157
   13   |    1-3    |    64   ||   27   |     3-10     |   158
   13   |    3-23   |    64   ||   27   |    2, 11-14  |   159
   13   |   24-30   |    64   ||   27   |    15-26     |   161
   13   |   31-32   |    64   ||   27   |    27-30     |   162
   13   |   33-35   |    64   ||   27   |    31-34     |   163
   13   |   36-43   |    64   ||   27   |    35-44     |   164
   13   |   44      |    64   ||   27   |    45-50     |   165
   13   |   45-46   |    64   ||   27   |    51-56     |   166
   13   |   47-50   |    64   ||   27   |    57-60     |   167
   13   |   51-53   |    64   ||   27   |    61-66     |   168
   13   |   54-58   |    69   ||   28   |     1        |   169
   14   |    1-12   |    71   ||   28   |     2-4      |   170
   14   |   13-21   |    72   ||   28   |     5-8      |   171
   14   |   22-23   |    73   ||   28   |     9-10     |   174
   14   |   24-33   |    74   ||   28   |    11-15     |   175
   14   |   34-36   |    75   ||   28   |    16-20     |   181
  ------+-----------+---------++--------+--------------+--------


  LUKE

  ------+---------+---------++-------+--------------+--------
  Chap. |  Verse  | Section || Chap. |    Verse     | Section
  ------+---------+---------++-------+--------------+--------
    1   |   1-4   |     1   ||   9   |    49-50     |    91
    1   |   5-25  |     4   ||   9   |    51-56     |    95
    1   |  26-38  |     5   ||   9   |    57-62     |    93
    1   |  39-45  |     6   ||  10   |     1-24     |   102
    1   |  46-56  |     7   ||  10   |    25-37     |   103
    1   |  57-80  |     8   ||  10   |    38-42     |   104
    2   |   1-7   |    10   ||  11   |     1-13     |   105
    2   |   8-20  |    11   ||  11   |    14-36     |   106
    2   |  21     |    12   ||  11   |    37-54     |   107
    2   |  22-38  |    13   ||  12   |     1-59     |   108
    2   |  39     |    16   ||  13   |     1-9      |   109
    2   |  40     |    17   ||  13   |    10-21     |   110
    2   |  41-50  |    18   ||  13   |    22-35     |   113
    2   |  51-52  |    19   ||  14   |     1-24     |   114
    3   |   1-2   |    20   ||  14   |    25-35     |   115
    3   |   3-6   |    21   ||  15   |     1-32     |   116
    3   |   7-14  |    22   ||  16   |     1-17:10  |   117
    3   |  15-18  |    23   ||  17   |    11-37     |   120
    3   |  19-20  |    34   ||  18   |     1-14     |   121
    3   |  21-23  |    24   ||  18   |    15-17     |   123
    3   |  23-38  |     3   ||  18   |    18-30     |   124
    4   |   1-13  |    25   ||  18   |    31-34     |   125
    4   |  14     |    34   ||  18   |    35-43     |   126
    4   |  14-15  |    37   ||  19   |     1-28     |   127
    4   |  16-31  |    39   ||  19   |    29-44     |   128b
    4   |  31-37  |    42   ||  19   |    45-48     |   129
    4   |  38-41  |    43   ||  21   |    37-38     |   131
    4   |  42-44  |    44   ||  20   |     1-19     |   132
    5   |   1-11  |    41   ||  20   |    20-26     |   133
    5   |  12-16  |    45   ||  20   |    27-40     |   134
    5   |  17-26  |    46   ||  20   |    41-44     |   136
    5   |  27-32  |    47   ||  20   |    45-47     |   137
    5   |  33-39  |    48   ||  21   |     1-4      |   138
    6   |   1-5   |    50   ||  21   |     5-36     |   139
    6   |   6-11  |    51   ||  22   |     1-2      |   140
    6   |  12-16  |    53   ||  22   |     3-6      |   142
    6   |  17-19  |    54   ||  22   |     7-13     |   143
    6   |  20-26  |    54   ||  22   | 14-16, 24-30 |   144
    6   |  27-36  |    54   ||  22   |    21-23     |   146
    6   |  37-42  |    54   ||  22   |    31-38     |   147
    6   |  43-49  |    54   ||  22   |    17-20     |   148
    7   |   1-10  |    55   ||  22   |    39-46     |   152
    7   |  11-17  |    56   ||  22   |    47-53     |   153
    7   |  18-35  |    57   ||  22   |    54, 63-65 |   155
    7   |  36-50  |    59   ||  22   |    54-62     |   156
    8   |   1-3   |    60   ||  22   |    66-71     |   157
    8   |   4     |    64   ||  23   |     1-5      |   159
    8   |   5-18  |    64   ||  23   |     6-12     |   160
    8   |  19-21  |    63   ||  23   |    13-25     |   161
    8   |  22-25  |    65   ||  23   |    26-33     |   163
    8   |  26-39  |    66   ||  23   |    33-43     |   164
    8   |  40-56  |    67   ||  23   |    44-46     |   165
    9   |   1-6   |    70   ||  23   |    45, 47-49 |   166
    9   |   7-9   |    71   ||  23   |    50-54     |   167
    9   |  10-17  |    72   ||  23   |    55-56     |   168
    9   |  18-21  |    82   ||  24   |     1-8      |   171
    9   |  22-25  |    83   ||  24   |     9-12     |   172
    9   |  26-27  |    84   ||  24   |    13-32     |   176
    9   |  28-36  |    85   ||  24   |    33-35     |   177
    9   |  36     |    86   ||  24   |    36-43     |   178
    9   |  37-43  |    87   ||  24   |    44-49     |   183
    9   |  43-45  |    88   ||  24   |    50-53     |   184
    9   |  46-48  |    90   ||       |              |
  ------+---------+---------++-------+--------------+--------


  JOHN

  ------+----------+---------++--------+---------------+--------
  Chap. |  Verse   | Section ||  Chap. |    Verse      | Section
  ------+----------+---------++--------+---------------+--------
    1   |   1-18   |     2   ||   11   |     1-44      |   118
    1   |  19-28   |    26   ||   11   |    45-54      |   119
    1   |  29-34   |    27   ||   11   | 55-12:1, 9-11 |   128a
    1   |  35-51   |    28   ||   12   |    12-19      |   128b
    2   |   1-11   |    29   ||   12   |    20-50      |   130
    2   |  12      |    30   ||   12   |     2-8       |   141
    2   |  13-22   |    31   ||   13   |     1-20      |   145
    2   |  23-3:21 |    32   ||   13   |    21-30      |   146
    3   |  22-36   |    33   ||   13   |    31-38      |   147
    4   |   1-4    |    34   ||   14   |     ...       |   149
    4   |   5-42   |    35   || 15, 16 |     ...       |   150
    4   |  43-45   |    36   ||   17   |     ...       |   151
    4   |  46-54   |    38   ||   18   |     1         |   152
    5   |   1-47   |    49   ||   18   |     2-12      |   153
    6   |   1-13   |    72   ||   18   | 12-14, 19-23  |   154
    6   |  14-15   |    73   ||   18   |    24         |   155
    6   |  16-21   |    74   ||   18   | 15-18, 25-27  |   156
    6   |  22-71   |    76   ||   18   |    28-38      |   159
    7   |   1      |    77   ||   18   |    39-19:16   |   161
    7   |   2-9    |    94   ||   19   |    16-17      |   163
    7   |  10      |    95   ||   19   |    18-27      |   164
    7   |  11-52   |    96   ||   19   |    28-30      |   165
    7   |  53-8:11 |    97   ||   19   |    31-42      |   167
    8   |  12-20   |    98   ||   20   |     1         |   171
    8   |  21-59   |    99   ||   20   |     2-10      |   172
    9   |   1-41   |   100   ||   20   |    11-18      |   173
   10   |   1-21   |   101   ||   20   |    19-25      |   178
   10   |  22-39   |   111   ||   20   |    26-31      |   179
   10   |  40-42   |   112   ||   21   |     ...       |   180
  ------+----------+---------++--------+---------------+--------

NOTE:--The verses that are omitted in the Canterbury Revision do not
appear in this Harmony. They are Mark 7:16; 9:44, 46; 11:26; 15:28;
Matthew 17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Luke 17:36; 23:17; John 5:4.

In addition to the Gospels use is made of

    Acts 1:3-8 in § 183.
    Acts 1:9-12 in § 184.
    Acts 1:18-19 in § 158.
    1 Cor. 11:23-26 in § 148.
    1 Cor. 15:5 in § 177.
    1 Cor. 15:5 in § 179.
    1 Cor. 15:6 in § 181.
    1 Cor. 15:7 in § 182.



A HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS FOR STUDENTS OF THE LIFE OF CHRIST



PART I

THE SOURCES OF THE GOSPELS


§ 1. IN THE DEDICATION LUKE EXPLAINS HIS METHOD OF RESEARCH[a]


  Luke 1:1-4

   1   Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to draw up a narrative
     concerning those matters which have been [1]fulfilled among us,
   2 even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were
   3 eyewitnesses and ministers of the word, it seemed good to me also,
     having traced the course of all things accurately from the first,
   4 to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus;[b] that
     thou mightest know the certainty concerning the [2]things
     [3]wherein thou wast instructed.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _fully establish_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _words_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _which thou wast taught by word of mouth_.]

[Footnote a: Luke is the first critic of the life of Christ whose
criticism has been preserved to us. Others had drawn up narratives of
certain portions of Christ's work. Others still had been eyewitnesses of
the ministry of Jesus and gave Luke their oral testimony. Luke sifted it
all with care and produced an orderly and reasonably full narrative of
the earthly ministry of Jesus. We cannot reproduce all the sources that
Luke had at his command, but it is clear that he followed in the main our
Gospel of Mark, as any one can see for himself by comparing the two
Gospels in this Harmony. Both Matthew and Luke made use of Mark. But they
had other sources also. See note 2 on Synoptic Criticism at the close of
the Harmony. See also Chapter IV, "Luke's Method of Research" in my _Luke
the Historian in the Light of Research_.]

[Footnote b: Luke alone follows the method of ancient historians in
dedicating his Gospel, as also the Acts (1:1), to a patron who probably
met the expense of publication. So Luke as a Gentile Christian writes an
historical introduction in literary (_Koiné_) Greek after the fashion of
Thucydides and Plutarch. Mark had no formal introduction. Matthew's
introduction is genealogical because he is writing for Jewish readers to
prove that Jesus is the Messiah of Jewish hope. John, writing last of
all, has a theological introduction to meet the Gnostic and philosophical
misconceptions concerning the Person of Christ. Thus he pictures Christ
as the Eternal Logos, with God in his pre-incarnate state, who became
flesh and thus revealed the Father to men.]



PART II

THE PRE-EXISTENT STATE OF CHRIST AND HIS INCARNATION


§ 2. IN HIS INTRODUCTION JOHN PICTURES CHRIST AS THE WORD (LOGOS)


  John 1:1-18

   1   In the beginning was the Word,[a] and the Word was with God, and
   2 the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All
   3 things were made [1]by him; and without him [2]was not anything
   4 made that hath been made. In him was life; and the life was the
   5 light of men. And the light shineth in the darkness; and the
   6 darkness [3]apprehended it not. There came a man, sent from God,
   7 whose name was John. The same came for witness, that he might bear
   8 witness of the light, that all might believe through him. He was
     not the light, but _came_ that he might bear witness of the light.
   9 [4]There was the true light, _even the light_ which lighteth
  10 [5]every man, coming into the world. He was in the world, and the
  11 world was made [1]by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto
  12 [6]his own, and they that were his own received him not. But as
     many as received him, to them gave he the right to become children
  13 of God, _even_ to them that believe on his name: which were
     [7]born, not of [8]blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the
  14 will of man, but of God. And the Word[a] became flesh, and [9]dwelt
     among us (and we beheld his glory, glory as of [10]the only
  15 begotten from the Father), full of grace and truth. John beareth
     witness of him, and crieth, saying, [11]This was he of whom I said,
     He that cometh after me is become before me: for he was [12]before
  16 me. For of his fulness we all received, and grace for grace. For
  17 the law was given [1]by Moses; grace and truth came [1]by Jesus
  18 Christ. No man hath seen God at any time; [13]the only begotten
     Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared _him_.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _was not anything made. That which hath been made
     was life in him; and the life &c._]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _overcame_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _The true light, which lighteth every man, was
     coming_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _every man as he cometh_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _his own things_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _begotten_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _bloods_.]

     [Footnote 9: Gr. _tabernacled_.]

     [Footnote 10: Or, _an only begotten from a father_.]

     [Footnote 11: Some ancient authorities read _this was he that
     said_.]

     [Footnote 12: Gr. _first in regard of me_.]

     [Footnote 13: Many very ancient authorities read _God only
     begotten_.]

[Footnote a: The Fourth Gospel makes no further use of the term Logos
(Word) for Christ. No other Gospel employs the term, but in 1 John 1:1 we
find "the Word of life" in this sense and in Rev. 19:14 we have: "and his
name is called the Word of God." The Greek word has a double sense
(reason and speech) and John seems to have both ideas in mind (1:18).
Christ is the Idea of God and the Expression of God. The Stoics followed
Plato in the philosophical use of Logos. Philo took it up and made it
familiar to Jewish readers who were already used to the Hebrew _Mêmra_
(Word) in a personal sense. But John carried the term further than any of
his predecessors and placed it on a par with Messiah, Son of God, Son of
Man, and other phrases that portray aspects of the Person of Christ. John
writes his Gospel to prove the deity of Jesus (John 20:31) against
Gnostics (Cerinthian) who denied it, as he wrote his First Epistle (1
John 1:1-4) to prove the humanity of Jesus against Docetic Gnostics who
disclaimed it. See note 3 at end of Harmony.]



PART III

THE TWO GENEALOGIES IN MATTHEW AND LUKE


§ 3. APPARENTLY JOSEPH'S GENEALOGY IN MATTHEW AND MARY'S IN LUKE[a]


  Matt. 1:1-17. (_Cf._ 1 Chron.    |Luke 3:23-38. (_Cf._ 1 Chron. 1:1-4,
  1:34; 2:1-25; 3:1-19.)           |24-28; 2:1-15; 3:17; Ruth 4:18-22.)
                                   |
   1   [1]The book of the          |     Being the son (as was supposed)
     [2]generation of Jesus Christ,|   of Joseph, the _son_ of Heli,
     the son of David, the son of  |24 the _son_ of Matthat, the _son_
     Abraham.                      |   of Levi, the _son_ of Melchi, the
   2   Abraham begat Isaac; and    |   _son_ of Jannai, the _son_ of
     Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob  |25 Joseph, the _son_ of Mattathias,
     begat Judah and his brethren; |   the _son_ of Amos, the _son_ of
   3 and Judah begat Perez and     |   Nahum, the _son_ of Esli, the
     Zerah of Tamar; and Perez     |26 _son_ of Naggai, the _son_ of
     begat Hezron; and Hezron begat|   Maath, the _son_ of Mattathias,
   4 [3]Ram; and [3]Ram begat      |   the _son_ of Semein, the _son_ of
     Amminadab; and Amminadab begat|27 Josech, the _son_ of Joda, the
     Nahshon; and Nahshon begat    |   _son_ of Joanan, the _son_ of
   5 Salmon; and Salmon begat Boaz |   Rhesa, the _son_ of Zerubbabel,
     of Rahab; and Boaz begat Obed |   the _son_ of [7]Shealtiel, the
     of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse;|28 _son_ of Neri, the _son_ of
   6 and Jesse begat David the     |   Melchi, the _son_ of Addi, the
     king.                         |   _son_ of Cosam, the _son_ of
       And David begat Solomon of  |29 Elmadam, the _son_ of Er, the
     her _that had been the wife_  |   _son_ of Jesus, the _son_ of
   7 of Uriah; and Solomon begat   |   Eliezer, the _son_ of Jorim, the
     Rehoboam; and Rehoboam begat  |   _son_ of Matthat, the _son_ of
     Abijah; and Abijah begat      |30 Levi, the _son_ of Symeon, the
   8 [4]Asa; and [4]Asa begat      |   _son_ of Judas, the _son_ of
     Jehoshaphat; and Jehoshaphat  |   Joseph, the _son_ of Jonam, the
     begat Joram; and Joram begat  |31 _son_ of Eliakim, the _son_ of
   9 Uzziah; and Uzziah begat      |   Melea, the _son_ of Menna, the
     Jotham; and Jotham begat Ahaz;|   _son_ of Mattatha, the _son_ of
  10 and Ahaz begat Hezekiah; and  |32 Nathan, the _son_ of David, the
     Hezekiah begat Manasseh; and  |   _son_ of Jesse, the _son_ of
     Manasseh begat [5]Amon; and   |   Obed, the _son_ of Boaz, the
  11 [5]Amon begat Josiah; and     |   _son_ of [8]Salmon, the _son_ of
     Josiah begat Jechoniah and his|33 Nahshon, the _son_ of Amminadab,
     brethren, at the time of the  |   [9]the _son_ of [10]Arni, the
     [6]carrying away to Bablyon.  |   _son_ of Hezron, the _son_ of
  12   And after the [6]carrying   |34 Perez, the _son_ of Judah, the
     away to Babylon, Jechoniah    |   _son_ of Jacob, the _son_ of
     begat [7]Shealtiel; and       |   Isaac, the _son_ of Abraham, the
     [7]Shealtiel begat Zerubbabel;|   _son_ of Terah, the _son_ of
  13 and Zerubbabel begat Abiud;   |35 Nahor, the _son_ of Serug, the
     and Abiud begat Eliakim; and  |   _son_ of Reu, the _son_ of Peleg,
  14 Eliakim begat Azor; and Azor  |   the _son_ of Eber, the _son_ of
     begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat  |36 Shelah, the _son_ of Cainan, the
     Achim; and Achim begat Eliud; |   _son_ of Arphaxad, the _son_ of
  15 and Eliud begat Eleazar; and  |   Shem, the _son_ of Noah, the
     Eleazar begat Matthan; and    |37 _son_ of Lamech, the _son_ of
  16 Matthan begat Jacob; and Jacob|   Methuselah, the _son_ of Enoch,
     begat Joseph the husband of   |   the _son_ of Jared, the _son_ of
     Mary, of whom was born[b]     |   Mahalaleel, the _son_ of Cainan,
     Jesus, who is called Christ.  |38 the _son_ of Enos, the _son_ of
  17   So all the generations from |   Seth, the _son_ of Adam, the
     Abraham unto David are        |   _son_ of God.
     fourteen generations; and from|
     David unto the [6]carrying    |
     away to Babylon fourteen      |
     generations; and from the     |
     [6]carrying away to Babylon   |
     unto the Christ fourteen      |
     generations.[c]               |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _The genealogy of Jesus Christ_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _birth_: as in ver. 18.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _Aram_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _Asaph_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _Amos_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _removal to Babylon_.]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _Salathiel_.]

     [Footnote 8: Some ancient authorities write _Sala_.]

     [Footnote 9: Many ancient authorities insert _the son of Admin_;
     and one writes _Admin_ for _Amminadab_.]

     [Footnote 10: Some ancient authorities write _Aram_.]

[Footnote a: This view is not accepted by all scholars, though it is
found as early as Eusebius (_Hist. Eccl._ i, 7). See note 5 at end of
Harmony.]

[Footnote b: The Sinaitic Syriac, against all the early Greek
manuscripts, reads in Matt. 1:16: "But Joseph, to whom the Virgin Mary
was betrothed, begat Jesus." This ancient Ebionitic text is followed by
Von Soden in his _Griechisches Neues Testament_ and by Moffatt in his
_New Translation of the New Testament_, but it is difficult to believe it
genuine, for in Matt. 1:18-22 the writer pictures Joseph as on the point
of putting Mary away privily. The two reports in the Sinaitic Syriac
flatly contradict each other. Those who accept it say that the writer of
the Virgin Birth view in 1:18-20 overlooked 1:16 (certainly a serious
oversight). It is easier to think that an Ebionitic scribe in copying
altered 1:16, but passed by 1:18-20. The Ebionites denied the deity of
Jesus. Both Matthew and Luke (1:26-38) give the Virgin Birth of Jesus,
but they preserve separate traditions on the subject.]

[Footnote c: Observe that Matthew's three divisions of the genealogy
represent three great periods in the history of Israel. See note 5 at end
of Harmony for discussion of the differences between the genealogies in
Matthew and in Luke.]



PART IV

THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST AND OF JESUS

Probably B.C. 7 to A.D. 7

_§§ 4-19. These sections include the annunciations, the birth, infancy,
and childhood of both John and Jesus._


§ 4. THE ANNUNCIATION[a] OF THE BIRTH OF THE BAPTIST TO ZACHARIAS

Jerusalem, in the Temple. Probably B.C. 7


  Luke 1:5-25[b]

   5   There was in the days of Herod, king of Judea, a certain priest
     named Zacharias, of the course of Abijah: and he had a wife of the
   6 daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth. And they were both
     righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and
   7 ordinances of the Lord blameless. And they had no child, because
     that Elisabeth was barren, and they both were _now_ [1]well
     stricken in years.
   8   Now it came to pass, while he executed the priest's office before
   9 God in the order of his course, according to the custom of the
     priest's office, his lot was to enter into the [2]temple of the
  10 Lord and burn incense. And the whole multitude of the people were
  11 praying without at the hour of incense. And there appeared unto
     him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar
  12 of incense. And Zacharias was troubled when he saw _him_, and fear
  13 fell upon him. But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias:
     because thy supplication is heard, and thy wife Elisabeth shall
  14 bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John. And thou shalt
  15 have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. For he
     shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and he shall drink no
     wine nor [3]strong drink [_see Num. 6:3; Judg. 13:4-6; 1 Sam.
     1:11_]; and he shall be filled with the [4]Holy Ghost, even from
  16 his mother's womb. And many of the children of Israel shall he
  17 turn unto the Lord their God. And he shall [5]go before his face
     in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the
     fathers to the children [_see Mal. 3:1; 4:5-6_], and the
     disobedient _to walk_ in the wisdom of the just; to make ready for
  18 the Lord a people prepared _for him_. And Zacharias said unto the
     angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife
  19 [6]well stricken in years. And the angel answering said unto him,
     I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God [_see Dan. 8:16;
     9:21_]; and I was sent to speak unto thee, and to bring thee these
  20 good tidings. And behold, thou shalt be silent and not able to
     speak, until the day that these things shall come to pass, because
     thou believedst not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their
  21 season. And the people were waiting for Zacharias, and they
  22 marvelled [7]while he tarried in the [2]temple. And when he came
     out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had
     seen a vision in the [2]temple: and he continued making signs unto
  23 them, and remained dumb. And it came to pass, when the days of his
     ministration were fulfilled, he departed unto his house.
  24   And after these days Elisabeth his wife conceived; and she hid
  25 herself five months, saying, Thus hath the Lord done unto me in
     the days wherein he looked upon _me_, to take away my reproach
     among men.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _advanced in their days_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _sanctuary_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _sikera_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Holy Spirit_: and so throughout all the
     Gospels.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities read _come nigh before his
     face_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _advanced in her days_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _at his tarrying_.]

[Footnote a: There are three annunciations: (1) to Zacharias § 4, (2) to
Mary § 5, (3) to Joseph § 9. Luke gives the first two and Matthew the
third. The Angel Gabriel is named by Luke (1:19, 26), but Matthew simply
has "an angel of the Lord" (1:20).]

[Footnote b: It is certain that Luke tells the infancy stories from the
standpoint of Mary while Matthew writes from the standpoint of Joseph.
Matthew gives the public account while Luke tells the private story from
Mary herself (Ramsay, _Was Christ Born at Bethlehem?_ p. 79). Luke could
have seen Mary, if still alive, or could have obtained it from one of
Mary's circle either orally or in manuscript form. Some scholars even
suggest "Gospel of Mary" and even, "Gospel of the Baptist" as a written
source for Luke in 1:5-2:52. Sanday (_The Life of Christ in Recent
Research_, p. 166) says: "These two chapters--whatever the date at which
they were first committed to writing--are essentially the most archaic
thing in the whole New Testament." Certainly Luke reveals the use of
Aramaic or Hebrew sources by the sudden changes in his style from 1:1-4.
Luke, if familiar with the current account as seen in Matthew, apparently
felt that he owed it to Mary to record her story of her great
experience.]



§ 5. THE ANNUNCIATION TO THE VIRGIN MARY OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS

Nazareth. Probably B.C. 7 or 6


  Luke 1:26-38

  26   Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a
  27 city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man
     whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's
  28 name was Mary. And he came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that
  29 art [1]highly favoured, the Lord _is_ with thee.[2] But she was
     greatly troubled at the saying, and cast in her mind what manner
  30 of salutation this might be. And the angel said unto her, Fear
  31 not, Mary: for thou hast found [3]favour with God. And behold,
     thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt
  32 call his name JESUS [_see Isa. 7:14_]. He shall be great, and
     shall be called the Son of the Most High: and the Lord God shall
     give unto him the throne of his father David [_see 2 Sam.
  33 7:12-17_]: and he shall reign over the house of Jacob [4]for ever;
  34 and of his kingdom there shall be no end. And Mary said unto the
  35 angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? And the angel
     answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee,
     and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee: wherefore
     also [5]that which [6]is to be born [7]shall be called holy [_see
  36 Ex. 13:12_], the Son of God. And behold, Elisabeth thy kinswoman,
     she also hath conceived a son in her old age: and this is the
  37 sixth month with her that [8]was called barren. For no word from
  38 God shall be void of power [_see Gen. 18:14_]. And Mary said,
     Behold, the [9]handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to
     thy word. And the angel departed from her.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _endued with grace_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities add _blessed_ art _thou among
     women_. (See ver. 42.)]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _grace_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _unto the ages_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _the holy thing which is to be born shall be
     called the son of God_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _is begotten_.]

     [Footnote 7: Some ancient authorities insert _of thee_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _is_.]

     [Footnote 9: Gr. _bondmaid_.]



§ 6. THE SONG[a] OF ELISABETH TO MARY UPON HER VISIT

Hill Country of Judea


  Luke 1:39-45

  39   And Mary arose in these days and went into the hill country with
  40 haste, into a city of Judah; and entered into the house of
  41 Zacharias and saluted Elisabeth. And it came to pass, when
     Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her
  42 womb; and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost; and she lifted
     up her voice with a loud cry, and said, Blessed _art_ thou among
  43 women, and blessed _is_ the fruit of thy womb. And whence is this
  44 to me, that the mother of my Lord should come unto me? For behold,
     when the voice of thy salutation came into mine ears, the babe
  45 leaped in my womb for joy. And blessed _is_ she that [1]believed;
     for there shall be a fulfilment of the things which have been
     spoken to her from the Lord.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _believed that there shall be_.]

[Footnote a: This hymn or psalm springs from the omen to Elisabeth.]



§ 7. THE MAGNIFICAT OF MARY

Hill Country of Judea


  Luke 1:46-56

  46                                       And Mary said,
       My soul doth magnify the Lord [_see 1 Sam. 2:1-10_],
  47   And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.
  48   For he hath looked upon the low estate of his [1]handmaiden:
       For behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me
         blessed [_see 1 Sam 1:11_].
  49   For he that is mighty hath done to me great things;
       And holy is his name [_see 1 Sam. 2:2_].
  50   And his mercy is unto generations and generations
       On them that fear him [_see Ps. 103:17_].
  51   He hath shewed strength with his arm;
       He hath scattered the proud [2]in the imagination of their heart
         [_see 1 Sam. 2:4; Ps. 89:10_].
  52   He hath put down princes from _their_ thrones,
       And hath exalted them of low degree [_see Job 5:11; 12:19_].
  53   The hungry he hath filled with good things;
       And the rich he hath sent empty away [_see Ps. 107:9_].
  54   He hath holpen Israel his servant,
       That he might remember mercy [_see Isa. 41:8-9_]
  55   (As he spake unto our fathers)
       Toward Abraham and his seed for ever [_see Gen. 17:7; Mic.
         7:20_].
  56   And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned unto her
     house.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _bondmaiden_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _by_.]



§ 8. THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST, AND HIS DESERT LIFE

Hill Country of Judea. B.C. 7 or 6


  Luke 1:57-80

  57   Now Elisabeth's time was fulfilled that she should be delivered;
  58 and she brought forth a son. And her neighbours and her kinsfolk
     heard that the Lord had magnified his mercy toward her; and they
  59 rejoiced with her. And it came to pass on the eighth day, that they
     came to circumcise the child; and they would have called him
  60 Zacharias, after the name of his father. And his mother answered
  61 and said, Not so; but he shall be called John. And they said unto
  62 her, There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. And
  63 they made signs to his father, what he would have him called. And
     he asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, saying, His name is John.
  64 And they marvelled all. And his mouth was opened immediately, and
  65 his tongue _loosed_, and he spake, blessing God. And fear came on
     all that dwelt round about them: and all these sayings were noised
  66 abroad throughout all the hill country of Judea. And all that heard
     them laid them up in their heart, saying, What then shall this
     child be? For the hand of the Lord was with him.
  67   And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and
     prophesied, saying,
  68   Blessed _be_ the Lord, the God of Israel;
       For he hath visited and wrought redemption for his people [_see
         Ps. 72:18; 111:9_],
  69   And hath raised up a horn of salvation for us
       In the house of his servant David [_see 1 Sam. 2:10; Ps. 18:3_]
  70   (As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets which have been
         since the world began),
  71   Salvation from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us
         [_see Ps. 106:10_];
  72   To shew mercy towards our fathers,
       And to remember his holy covenant;
  73   The oath which he sware unto Abraham our father [_see Gen. 17:7;
         Lev. 26:42; Ps. 105:8; Mic. 7:20_],
  74   To grant unto us that we being delivered out of the hand of our
         enemies
       Should serve him without fear,
  75   In holiness and righteousness before him all our days.
  76   Yea and thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Most
         High:
       For thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to make ready his
         ways [_see Mal. 3:1_];
  77   To give knowledge of salvation unto his people
       In the remission of their sins,
  78   Because of the [1]tender mercy of our God,
       [2]Whereby the dayspring from on high [3]shall visit us [_see
         Mal. 4:2_],
  79   To shine upon them that sit in darkness and the shadow of death;
       To guide our feet into the way of peace [_see Isa. 8:22; 9:2_].
  80   And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the
     deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel.[a]

     [Footnote 1: Or, _heart of mercy_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Wherein_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities read _hath visited us_.]

[Footnote a: Dwell on this summary statement as to John's retired life in
the wild regions of Judea, whence he will come forth thirty years later.]



§ 9. THE ANNUNCIATION TO JOSEPH OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS

Nazareth


  Matt. 1:18-25

  18   Now the [1]birth [2]of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When his
     mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came
  19 together she was found with child of the [3]Holy Ghost. And Joseph
     her husband, being a righteous man, and not willing to make her a
  20 public example, was minded to put her away privily. But when he
     thought on these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared
     unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not
     to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is [4]conceived in
  21 her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a son; and
     thou shalt call his name JESUS; for it is he that shall save his
  22 people from their sins. Now all this is come to pass, that it
     might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the
     prophet, saying,
  23   Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a
         son [_see Isa. 7:14_],
       And they shall call his name [5]Immanuel;
  24 which is, being interpreted, God with us. And Joseph arose from
     his sleep, and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and
  25 took unto him his wife; and knew her not till she had brought
     forth a son: and he called his name JESUS.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _generation_: as in ver. 1 in § 3.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _of the Christ_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _Holy Spirit_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _begotten_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _Emmanuel_.]



§ 10. THE BIRTH OF JESUS

Bethlehem. Probably B.C. 6 or 5


  Luke 2:1-7

   1   Now it came to pass in those days, there went out a decree from
   2 Cæsar Augustus, that all the [1]world should be enrolled. This was
   3 the first enrolment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. And
   4 all went to enrol themselves, every one to his own city.[a] And
     Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth,
     into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem,
   5 because he was of the house and family of David; to enrol himself
   6 with Mary, who was betrothed to him, being great with child. And
     it came to pass, while they were there, the days were fulfilled
   7 that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her firstborn
     son; and she wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a
     manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _inhabited earth_.]

[Footnote a: Observe how the ruler of the civilized world is
unconsciously bringing it about that the Messiah, the son of David, shall
be born at Bethlehem, though his mother's home was Nazareth. All the
previous history of Rome and of Israel gathers about this manger. As to
Quirinius, and as to the probable time of the Saviour's birth, see note 6
at the end of the book. The vindication of Luke's historical statements
in these verses is one of the triumphs of modern research, as is shown in
that note.]



§ 11. THE PRAISE OF THE ANGELS AND THE HOMAGE OF THE SHEPHERDS

Near Bethlehem


  Luke 2:8-20

   8   And there were shepherds in the same country abiding in the
   9 field, and keeping [1]watch by night over their flock. And an angel
     of the Lord stood by them, and the glory of the Lord shone round
  10 about them: and they were sore afraid. And the angel said unto
     them, Be not afraid; for behold, I bring you good tidings of great
  11 joy which shall be to all the people: for there is born to you
     this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is [2]Christ the
  12 Lord. And this _is_ the sign unto you; Ye shall find a babe
     wrapped in swaddling clothes, and lying in a manger. And suddenly
  13 there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host
     praising[a] God, and saying,
  14   Glory to God in the highest,
       And on earth [3]peace among [4]men in whom he is well pleased.
  15   And it came to pass, when the angels went away from them into
     heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto
     Bethlehem, and see this [5]thing that is come to pass, which the
  16 Lord hath made known unto us. And they came with haste, and found
  17 both Mary and Joseph, and the babe lying in the manger. And when
     they saw it, they made known concerning the saying which was
  18 spoken to them about this child. And all that heard it wondered at
  19 the things which were spoken unto them by the shepherds. But Mary
  20 kept all these [6]sayings, pondering them in her heart. And the
     shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things
     that they had heard and seen, even as it was spoken unto them.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _night-watches_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Anointed Lord_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities read _peace, good pleasure
     among men_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _men of good pleasure_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _saying_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _things_.]

[Footnote a: The Gloria in Excelsis.]



§ 12. THE CIRCUMCISION OF JESUS

Bethlehem


  Luke 2:21

  21   And when eight days were fulfilled for circumcising him [_see
     Gen. 17:12; Lev. 12:3_], his name was called JESUS, which was so
     called by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.



§ 13. THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE WITH THE HOMAGE OF SIMEON AND ANNA

Jerusalem


  Luke 2:22-38

  22   And when the days of their purification according to the law of
     Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present
  23 him to the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every
     male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord)
  24 [_see Ex. 13:2, 12, 15; Lev. 12:1-8_], and to offer a sacrifice
     according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of
  25 turtledoves, or two young pigeons. And behold, there was a man in
     Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and
     devout, looking for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Spirit
  26 was upon him. And it had been revealed unto him by the Holy
     Spirit, that he should not see death, before he had seen the
  27 Lord's Christ. And he came in the Spirit into the temple: and when
     the parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might do
  28 concerning him after the custom of the law, then he received him
     into his arms, and blessed God, and said,[a]
  29   Now lettest thou thy [1]servant depart, O [2]Lord,
       According to thy word, in peace;
  30   For mine eyes have seen thy salvation [_see Isa. 52:10_],
  31   Which thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples;
  32   A light for [3]revelation to the Gentiles,
       And the glory of thy people Israel [_see Isa. 42:6; 49:6_].
  33 And his father and his mother were marvelling at the things which
  34 were spoken concerning him; and Simeon blessed them, and said unto
     Mary his mother, Behold, this _child_ is set for the falling and
     rising up of many in Israel; and for a sign which is spoken
  35 against; yea and a sword shall pierce through thine own soul; that
  36 thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed. And there was one
     Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher
     (she was [4]of a great age, having lived with a husband seven
  37 years from her virginity, and she had been a widow even for
     fourscore and four years), which departed not from the temple,
  38 worshipping with fastings and supplications night and day. And
     coming up at that very hour she gave thanks unto God, and spake of
     him to all them that were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _Master_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _the unveiling of the Gentiles_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _advanced in many days_.]

[Footnote a: The four New Testament psalms, given by Luke, breathe the
atmosphere of Old Testament piety, quite in contrast to the formalism of
the Pharisees and yet thoroughly Jewish in background and Christian in
sentiment. But it is primitive Christian feeling. Section 7 gives the
Magnificat of Mary in response to the song of Elisabeth in § 6. In § 8 we
have the _Benedictus_ of Zacharias and in § 13 The _Nunc Dimittis_ of
Simeon.]



§ 14. MAGI VISIT THE NEW-BORN KING OF THE JEWS

Jerusalem and Bethlehem


  Matt. 2:1-12

   1   Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of
     Herod the king, behold, [1]wise men from the east [_see Num.
   2 24:17_] came to Jerusalem, saying, [2]Where is he that is born King
     of the Jews? for we saw his star in the east, and are come to
   3 worship him. And when Herod the king heard it, he was troubled, and
   4 all Jerusalem with him. And gathering together all the chief
     priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the
   5 Christ should be born. And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of
     Judea: for thus it is written [3]by the prophet,
   6   And thou Bethlehem, land of Judah,
       Art in no wise least among the princes of Judah:
       For out of thee shall come forth a governor [_see Mic. 5:1-2_],
       Which shall be shepherd of my people Israel.
   7 Then Herod privily called the [1]wise men, and learned of them
   8 carefully [4]what time the star appeared. And he sent them to
     Bethlehem, and said, Go and search out carefully concerning the
     young child; and when ye have found _him_, bring me word, that I
   9 also may come and worship him. And they, having heard the king,
     went their way; and lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went
     before them, till it came and stood over where the young child
  10 was. And when they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding
  11 great joy. And they came into the house and saw the young child
     with Mary his mother; and they fell down and worshipped him; and
     opening their treasures they offered unto him gifts, gold and
  12 frankincense and myrrh. And being warned _of God_ in a dream that
     they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own
     country another way.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _Magi_. Compare Esther 1:13; Dan. 2:12.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Where is the King of the Jews that is born?_]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _the time of the star that appeared_.]



§ 15. THE CHILD JESUS CARRIED TO EGYPT, AND THE CHILDREN AT BETHLEHEM
SLAIN

Probably B.C. 5


  Matt. 2:13-18

  13   Now when they were departed, behold, an angel of the Lord
     appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise and take the young
     child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until
     I tell thee: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.
  14 And he arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and
  15 departed into Egypt; and was there until the death of Herod: that
     it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the
     prophet, saying, Out of Egypt did I call my son [_see Hos. 11:1_].
  16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the [1]wise men, was
     exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the male children
     that were in Bethlehem, and in all the borders thereof, from two
     years old and under, according to the time which he had carefully
  17 learned of the [1]wise men. Then was fulfilled that which was
     spoken [2]by Jeremiah the prophet, saying [_see Jer. 31:15_],
  18   A voice was heard in Ramah,
       Weeping and great mourning,
       Rachel weeping for her children;
       And she would not be comforted, because they are not.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _Magi_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _through_.]



§ 16. THE CHILD BROUGHT FROM EGYPT TO NAZARETH

Probably B.C. 4


  Matt. 2:19-23                                 |Luke 2:39
                                                |
  19   But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel|
     of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph |
  20 in Egypt, saying, Arise and take the young |39   And when they
     child and his mother, and go into the land |   had accomplished
     of Israel: for they are dead that sought   |   all things that were
  21 the young child's life. And he arose and   |   according to the law
     took the young child and his mother, and   |   of the Lord, they
  22 came into the land of Israel. But when he  |   returned into
     heard that Archelaus was reigning over     |   Galilee, to their
     Judea in the room of his father Herod, he  |   own city Nazareth.
     was afraid to go thither; and being warned |
     _of God_ in a dream, he withdrew into the  |
  23 parts of Galilee, and came and dwelt in a  |
     city called Nazareth: that it might be     |
     fulfilled which was spoken [1]by the       |
     prophets,[a] that he should be called a    |
     Nazarene.                                  |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _through_.]

[Footnote a: _Cf._ Isa. 11:1 where the Messiah is called _Netzer_, a
Branch, though Nazareth is not mentioned in the Old Testament.]



§ 17. THE CHILDHOOD OF JESUS AT NAZARETH

Probably B.C. 4 to A.D. 7


  Luke 2:40

  40   And the child grew, and waxed strong, [1]filled with wisdom: and
     the grace of God was upon him.[a]

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _becoming full of wisdom_.]

[Footnote a: This simple statement of Luke tells more in one sentence
than all the apocryphal Gospels of the Infancy, with their silly legends
about the miraculous prowess of the child Jesus.]



§ 18. THE VISIT OF THE BOY JESUS TO JERUSALEM WHEN TWELVE YEARS OLD

Probably A.D. 7 or 8


  Luke 2:41-50

  41   And his parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the
  42 passover [_see Ex. 23:14-17; Deut. 16:1-8_]. And when he was
  43 twelve years old, they went up after the custom of the feast; and
     when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy
     Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and his parents knew it not;
  44 but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's journey;
  45 and they sought for him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance: and
     when they found him not, they returned to Jerusalem, seeking for
  46 him. And it came to pass, after three days they found him in the
     temple, sitting in the midst of the [1]doctors, both hearing them,
  47 and asking them questions: and all that heard him were amazed at
  48 his understanding and his answers. And when they saw him, they
     were astonished: and his mother said unto him, [2]Son, why hast
     thou thus dealt with us? behold, thy father and I sought thee
  49 sorrowing. And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me?
  50 wist ye not that I must be [3]in my Father's house? And they
     understood not the saying which he spake unto them.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _teachers_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _Child_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _about my Father's business_.]



§ 19. THE EIGHTEEN YEARS[a] AT NAZARETH

Probably A.D. 7 to A.D. 26 (or 6 to 25)


  Luke 2:51-52

  51   And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth; and he was
     subject unto them: and his mother kept all _these_ [1]sayings in
     her heart.
  52   And Jesus advanced in wisdom and [2]stature, and in [3]favour
     with God and men [_see 1 Sam. 2:26_].

     [Footnote 1: Or, _things_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _age_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _grace_.]

[Footnote a: After the return to Nazareth, we know nothing of Jesus' life
at that place beyond the general statements of Luke 2:52, with the
knowledge and dispositions indicated in the narrative of § 18 and the
fact that he was a carpenter, until he comes forth to be baptized by
John, his forerunner. The social and political conditions of this period
in Galilee are described by Edersheim, D. Smith, and other writers on the
Life of Jesus, and briefly stated in Broadus's Commentary on Matthew, p.
30 f. Dwell on the general statement of Luke 2:52. Other passages throw
light on the life in Nazareth as to habits of worship (Luke 4:16), the
family group of brothers and sisters (Mark 6:3 = Matt. 13:55 f.), work as
carpenter (_ibid._). A helpful book on this obscure period is Ramsay's
_The Education of Christ_.]



PART V

THE BEGINNING OF THE BAPTIST'S MINISTRY

Probably six months and in A.D. 25. In the Wilderness of Judea and beside
the Jordan, §§ 20-23


§ 20. THE TIME OF THE BEGINNING


  Mark 1:1                 |Luke 3:1-2
                           |
   1   The beginning of    | 1   Now in the fifteenth [a]year of the
     the gospel of Jesus   |   reign of Tiberius Cæsar, Pontius Pilate
     Christ, [1]the Son    |   being governor of Judea, and Herod being
     God.                  |   tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother
                           |   Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituræa
                           |   and Trachonitis, and Lysanias[b] tetrarch
                           | 2 Abilene, in the highpriesthood of Annas
                           |   and Caiaphas, the word of God came unto
                           |   John the son of Zacharias in the
                           |   wilderness.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit _the son of God_.]

[Footnote a: See note 6 at end of Harmony.]

[Footnote b: See note 6. Luke follows the custom of ancient historians in
dating events by the names of the rulers. As the son of a priest John was
probably thirty years old when he came forth.]



§ 21. THE MESSAGE AND THE MESSENGER


  Mark 1:2-6             |Matt. 3:1-6            |Luke 3:3-6
                         |                       |
   2   Even as it is     | 1   And in those days | 3   And he came into
     written [1]in Isaiah|   cometh John the     |   all the region
     the prophet,        |   Baptist, preaching  |   round about Jordan,
       Behold, I send my |   in the wilderness of|   preaching the
         messenger before| 2 Judea, saying,[a]   |   baptism of
         thy face [_see  |   Repent ye; for the  |   repentance unto
         Mal. 3:1_],     |   kingdom of heaven is|   remission of sins;
       Who shall prepare | 3 at hand. For this is| 4 as it is written
         thy way;        |   he that was spoken  |   in the book of the
   3   The voice of one  |   of [2]by Isaiah the |   words of Isaiah the
         crying in the   |   prophet, saying,    |   prophet,
         wilderness [_see|     The voice of one  |     The voice of one
         Isa. 40:3_],    |       crying in the   |       crying in the
       Make ye ready the |       wilderness,     |       wilderness,
         way of the Lord,|     Make ye ready the |     Make ye ready the
       Make his paths    |       way of the Lord,|       way of the
         straight;       |     Make his paths    |       Lord,
   4 John came, who      |       straight.       |     Make his paths
     baptized in the     | 4 Now John himself had|       straight.
     wilderness and      |   his raiment of      | 5   Every valley
     preached the baptism|   camel's hair, and a |       shall be
     of repentance unto  |   leathern girdle     |       filled,
     remission of sins.  |   about his loins; and|     And every
     And there went out  |   his food was locusts|       mountain and
     unto him all the    | 5 and wild honey. Then|       hill shall be
     country of Judea,   |   went out unto him   |       brought low;
     and all they of     |   Jerusalem, and all  |     And the crooked
     Jerusalem; and they |   Judea, and all the  |       shall become
     were baptized of him|   region round about  |       straight,
     in the river Jordan,| 6 Jordan; and they    |     And the rough
     confessing their    |   were baptized of him|       ways smooth;
     sins. And John was  |   in the river Jordan,| 6   And all flesh
     clothed with camel's|   confessing their    |       shall see the
     hair, and _had_ a   |   sins.               |       salvation of
     leathern girdle     |                       |       God [_see Isa.
     about his loins, and|                       |       40:4-5_].
     did eat locusts and |                       |
     wild honey.         |                       |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _in the prophets_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _through_.]

[Footnote a: See Mark 1:15 (= Matt. 4:17); Matt. 10:7; Acts 2:38.]



§ 22. A SPECIMEN[a] OF JOHN'S PREACHING


  Matt. 3:7-10                   |Luke 3:7-14
                                 |
   7 But when he saw many of the | 7   He said therefore to the
     Pharisees and Sadducees     |   multitudes that went out to be
     coming to his baptism, he   |   baptized of him, Ye offspring of
     said unto them, Ye offspring|   vipers, who warned you to flee from
     of vipers, who warned you to| 8 the wrath to come? Bring forth
     flee from the wrath to come?|   therefore fruits worthy of
   8 Bring forth therefore fruit |   [1]repentance, and begin not to say
   9 worthy of [1]repentance: and|   within yourselves, We have Abraham
     think not to say within     |   to our father: for I say unto you,
     yourselves, We have Abraham |   that God is able of these stones to
     to our father: for I say    |   raise up children unto Abraham.
     unto you, that God is able  | 9 And even now is the axe also laid
     of these stones to raise up |   unto the root of the trees: every
  10 children unto Abraham. And  |   tree therefore that bringeth not
     even now is the axe laid    |   forth good fruit is hewn down, and
     unto the root of the trees: |10 cast into the fire. And the
     every tree therefore that   |   multitudes asked him, saying, What
     bringeth not forth good     |11 then must we do? And he answered
     fruit is hewn down, and cast|   and said unto them, He that hath
     into the fire.              |   two coats, let him impart to him
                                 |   that hath none; and he that hath
  12 food, let him do likewise. And there came also [2]publicans to be
  13 baptized, and they said unto him, [3]Master, what must we do? And
  14 he said unto them, Extort no more than that which is appointed
     you. And [4]soldiers also asked him, saying, And we, what must we
     do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither [5]exact
     _anything_ wrongfully; and be content with your wages.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _your repentance_.]

     [Footnote 2: That is, _collectors or renters of Roman taxes_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _soldiers on service_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _accuse_ any one.]

[Footnote a: Here we see Matthew and Luke preserving a non-Markan
section, as so frequently hereafter, an example of the so-called Logia
(Discourses).]



§ 23. THE FORERUNNER'S PICTURE OF THE MESSIAH BEFORE SEEING HIM


  Mark 1:7-8             |Matt. 3:11-12          |Luke 3:15-18
                         |                       |
   7 And he preached,    |11 I indeed baptize    |15   And as the
     saying, There cometh|   you [1]with water   |   people were in
     after me he that is |   unto repentance: but|   expectation, and
     mightier than I, the|   he that cometh after|   all men reasoned
     latchet of whose    |   me is mightier than |   in their hearts
     shoes I am not      |   I, whose shoes I am |   concerning John,
     [2]worthy to stoop  |   not [2]worthy to    |   whether haply he
   8 down and unloose. I |   bear: he shall      |   were the Christ;
     baptized you [1]with|   baptize you [1]with |16 John answered,
     water; but he shall |   the [3]Holy Ghost   |   saying unto them
     baptize you [1]with |12 and _with _fire:    |   all, I indeed
     the [3]Holy Ghost.  |   whose fan is in his |   baptize you with
                         |   hand, and he will   |   water; but there
                         |   throughly cleanse   |   cometh he that is
                         |   his threshing-floor;|   mightier than I,
                         |   and he will gather  |   the latchet of
                         |   his wheat into the  |   whose shoes I am
                         |   garner, but the     |   not [2]worthy to
                         |   chaff he will burn  |   unloose: he shall
                         |   up with unquenchable|   baptize you [1]with
                         |   fire.               |   the [3]Holy Ghost
                         |                       |   and _with_ fire:
  17 whose fan is in his hand, throughly to cleanse his threshing-floor,
     and to gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn
     up with unquenchable fire.
  18   With many other exhortations therefore preached he [4]good
     tidings unto the people.[a]

     [Footnote 1: Or, _in_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _sufficient_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _Holy Spirit_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _the gospel_.]

[Footnote a: One can easily put together all that we are told of John the
Baptist in John 1:6-15 and in Sections 4, 6, 8, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26,
27, 28, 33, 34, 49, 57, 71, 86, 132. See also Acts 1:5, 22; 10:37; 13:24;
18:25; 19:1-7. For a full discussion of the Baptist see my _John the
Loyal_. These months of John's ministry prepared the way for the
Messiah.]



PART VI

THE BEGINNING OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC MINISTRY

THE YEAR OF OBSCURITY[a]

Probably Part of A.D. 26 and 27

_In all parts of the Holy Land (the first Perean Ministry, the first
Galilean Ministry, the first Judean Ministry, the first Samaritan
Ministry). §§ 24-36. This early ministry includes the baptism, the
temptation, John's witness to Jesus, the first disciples, the first
miracle and work in Galilee, the first work in Judea, the arrest of John,
the work in Samaria, and the return to Galilee._

[Footnote a: The precise duration of this early ministry cannot be
determined. Our Lord's baptism must have been at least two months
_before_ the Passover, and may have been some weeks or months earlier.
Then the highly successful ministry in Judea _after_ the Passover must
have lasted several months (John 3:22; 4:1-3). If the "yet four months"
in John 4:35 be understood to be not a common saying as to the usual
interval between seedtime and harvest, but a statement that it was _then_
just four months before harvest, that would make the Judean ministry
extend eight months after the Passover. But this interpretation is upon
the whole improbable, and we can only say that the opening ministry
lasted several months. The time occupied makes very little difference for
our understanding the events and discourses. All of the incidents during
this period after the temptation are given in John's Gospel. But for the
Fourth Gospel we should not know that Jesus did not plunge at once into
the great Galilean Ministry.]



§ 24. JESUS BAPTIZED BY JOHN IN THE JORDAN

Bethany beyond Jordan. Probably A.D. 26


  Mark 1:9-11            |Matt. 3:13-17          |Luke 3:21-23
                         |                       |
   9   And it came to    |13   Then cometh Jesus |
     pass in those days, |   from Galilee to the |
     that Jesus came from|   [a]Jordan unto John,|
     Nazareth of Galilee,|   to be baptized of   |
     and was baptized of |14 him. But John would |
     John [4]in the      |   have hindered him,  |
     Jordan.             |   saying, I have need |
                         |   to be baptized of   |
                         |   thee, and comest    |
                         |15 thou to me? But     |
                         |   Jesus answering said|
                         |   unto him, Suffer    |
                         |   [1]_it_ now: for    |
                         |   thus it becometh us |
                         |   to fulfil all       |
                         |   righteousness. Then |21   Now it came to
  10 And straightway     |   he suffereth him.   |   pass, when all the
     coming up out of the|16 And Jesus, when he  |   people were
     water, he saw the   |   was baptized, went  |   baptized, that,
     heavens rent        |   up straightway from |   Jesus also having
                         |   the water: and lo,  |   been baptized, and
                         |   the heavens were    |   praying, the
                         |   opened [2]unto him, |22 heaven was opened,
                         |   and he saw the      |   and the Holy Ghost
     asunder, and the    |   Spirit of God       |   [b]descended in a
     Spirit as a dove    |   descending as a     |   bodily form, as a
     descending upon him:|   dove, and coming    |   dove, upon him
  11 and a voice came out|17 upon him; and lo, a |   [_see John
     of the heavens, Thou|   voice out of the    |   1:32-34_], and a
     art my beloved Son, |   heavens, saying,    |   voice came out of
     in thee I am well   |   [3]This is my       |   heaven, Thou art
     pleased [_see Ps.   |   beloved Son, in whom|   my beloved Son; in
     2:7; Isa. 42:1_].   |   I am well pleased.  |   thee [c]I am well
                         |                       |23 pleased. And Jesus
                         |                       |   himself, when he
                         |                       |   began _to teach_,
                         |                       |   was about thirty
                         |                       |   years of age.

     [Footnote 1: Or, me.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities omit _unto him_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _This is my son; my beloved in whom I am well
     pleased._]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _into_.]

[Footnote a: The Gospel of the Hebrews (one of the apocryphal gospels) is
quoted by Jerome (_adv. Pelag._ iii, 2) as having the following: "Behold,
the Lord's mother and His brethren were saying to Him, John the Baptist
baptizes unto the remission of sins; let us go and be baptized by him.
But he said unto them, What sin have I done, that I should go and be
baptized by him? unless perchance this very thing which I have said is an
ignorance."]

[Footnote b: The Gospel of John does not describe the baptism of Jesus,
but refers to the event in a way that shows knowledge of the Synoptic
Gospels.]

[Footnote c: Codex Bezae (D) reads in Luke: "Thou art my beloved son,
to-day have I begotten thee." The Gospel of the Ebionites has: "Thou art
my beloved son, in thee I am well pleased, to-day I have begotten thee."

See § 85 for similar language at the Transfiguration.]



§ 25. THE THREE TEMPTATIONS[a] OF JESUS

The Wilderness of Judea. Probably A.D. 26


  Mark 1:12-13       |Matt. 4:1-11            |Luke 4:1-13
                     |                        |
  12   And           | 1   Then was Jesus led | 1   And Jesus, full of
     straightway the |   up of the Spirit into|   the Holy Spirit,
     Spirit driveth  |   the wilderness to be |   returned from the
     him forth into  |   tempted of the devil.|   Jordan, and was led
     the wilderness. | 2 And when he had      | 2 [3]by the Spirit in
  13 And he was in   |   fasted forty days and|   the wilderness during
     the wilderness  |   forty nights, he     |   forty days, being
     forty days      |   afterward hungered.  |   tempted of the devil
     tempted of      | 3 And the tempter came |   [_see Heb. 4:15_].
     Satan; and he   |   and said unto him, If|   And he did eat
     was with the    |   thou art the Son of  |   nothing in those
     wild beasts;    |   God, command that    |   days: and when they
                     |   these stones become  |   were completed, he
                     | 4 [1]bread. But he     | 3 hungered. And the
                     |   answered and said, It|   devil said unto him,
                     |   is written [_see     |   If thou art the Son
                     |   Deut. 8:3_], Man     |   of God, command this
                     |   shall not live by    |   stone that it become
                     |   bread alone, but by  | 4 [4]bread. And Jesus
                     |   every word that      |   answered unto him, It
                     |   proceedeth out of the|   is written [_see
                     | 5 mouth of God. Then   |   Deut. 8:3_], Man
                     |   the devil taketh him |   shall not live by
                     |   into the holy city;  | 5 bread alone. And he
                     |   and he set him on the|   led him up, and
                     |   [2]pinnacle of the   |   shewed him all the
                     | 6 temple, and saith    |   kingdoms of [5]the
                     |   unto him, If thou art|   world in a moment of
                     |   the Son of God, cast | 6 time. And the devil
                     |   thyself down: for it |   said unto him, To
                     |   is written [_see Ps. |   thee will I give all
                     |   91:11-12_],          |   this authority, and
                     |     He shall give his  |   the glory of them:
                     |       angels charge    |   for it hath been
                     |       concerning thee: |   delivered unto me;
                     |     And on their hands |   and to whomsoever I
                     |       they shall bear  | 7 will I give it. If
                     |       thee up,         |   thou therefore wilt
                     |     Lest haply thou    |   worship before me, it
                     |       dash thy foot    |   shall all be thine.
                     |       against a stone. | 8 And Jesus answered
                     | 7 Jesus said unto him, |   and said unto him, It
                     |   Again it is written  |   is written [_see
                     |   [_see Deut. 6:16_],  |   Deut. 6:13_], Thou
                     |   Thou shalt not tempt |   shalt worship the
                     |   the Lord thy God.    |   Lord thy God, and him
                     | 8 Again, the devil     |   only shalt thou
                     |   taketh him unto an   | 9 serve. And he led him
                     |   exceeding high       |   to Jerusalem, and set
                     |   mountain, and sheweth|   him on the [2]pinnacle
                     |   him all the kingdoms |   of the temple, and
                     |   of the world, and the|   said unto him, If
                     | 9 glory of them; and he|   thou art the Son of
                     |   said unto him, All   |   God, cast thyself
                     |   these things will I  |10 down from hence: for
                     |   give thee, if thou   |   it is written [_see
                     |   wilt fall down and   |   Ps. 91:11-12_],
                     |10 worship me. Then     |     He shall give his
                     |   saith Jesus unto him,|       angels charge
                     |   Get thee hence,      |       concerning thee,
                     |   Satan: for it is     |       to guard thee:
                     |   written [_see Deut.  |11   And on their hands
                     |   6:13_], Thou shalt   |       they shall bear
                     |   worship the Lord thy |       thee up,
                     |   God, and him only    |     Lest haply thou
                     |   shalt thou serve.    |       dash thy foot
                     |                        |       against a stone.
                     |                        |12 And Jesus answering
                     |                        |   said unto him, It is
                     |                        |   said [_Deut. 6:16_],
                     |                        |   Thou shalt not tempt
                     |                        |   the Lord thy God.
                     |11 Then the devil       |13   And when the devil
                     |   leaveth him; and     |   had completed every
     and the angels  |   behold angels came   |   temptation, he
     ministered unto |   and ministered unto  |   departed from him
     him.            |   him.                 |   [6]for a season.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _loaves_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _wing_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _in_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _a loaf_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _the inhabited earth_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _until_.]

[Footnote a: Mark gives only a summary account while the Logia (the
oldest known record) tells the temptations in detail. This early document
reveals the Messianic consciousness of Jesus as distinctly as it appears
in the Gospel of John. The record of the baptism in § 24 and of the
temptation in § 25 goes back to the two oldest strata of the Gospel
sources (Mark or the Memoirs of Peter and the Logia of Matthew) and shows
that Jesus enters upon his Messianic work knowing that he had his
Father's approval and the power of the Holy Spirit upon him.]



§ 26. THE TESTIMONY OF THE BAPTIST TO THE COMMITTEE OF THE SANHEDRIN

At Bethany beyond Jordan


  John 1:19-28

  19   And this is the witness of John, when the Jews sent unto him from
  20 Jerusalem priests and Levites to ask him, Who art thou? And he
     confessed, and denied not; and he confessed, I am not the Christ.
  21 And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elijah? And he saith, I am
  22 not. Art thou the prophet? And he answered, No. They said
     therefore unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to
  23 them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? He said, I am the
     voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the
  24 Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet [_see Isa. 40:3_]. [1]And they
  25 had been sent from the Pharisees.[a] And they asked him, and said
     unto him, Why then baptizest thou, if thou art not the Christ,
  26 neither Elijah, neither the prophet? John answered them, saying, I
     baptize [2]with water: in the midst of you standeth one whom ye
  27 know not, _even_ he that cometh after me, the latchet of whose
  28 shoe I am not worthy to unloose. These things were done in
     [3]Bethany beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _And_ certain _had been sent from among the
     Pharisees_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _in_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities read _Bethabarah_, some
     _Betharabah_.]

[Footnote a: In 1:19 the priests and Levites are Sadducees. The idea
seems to be that the Pharisees had the Sadducees sent on this embassy
(_cf._ § 22). Later Jesus will say that John was Elijah that was to come;
some will even take Jesus to be Elijah.]



§ 27. JOHN'S IDENTIFICATION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH

At Bethany beyond the Jordan


  John 1:29-34

  29   On the morrow he seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold,
     the Lamb of God, which [1]taketh away the sin of the world [_see
  30 Isa. 53:7_]! This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man
  31 which is become before me: for he was [2]before me. And I knew him
     not; but that he should be made manifest to Israel, for this cause
  32 came I baptizing [3]with water. And John bare witness, saying, I
     have beheld the Spirit descending as a dove out of heaven; and it
  33 abode upon him. And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize
     [3]with water, he said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt see the
     Spirit descending, and abiding upon him, the same is he that
  34 baptizeth [3]with the Holy Spirit. And I have seen, and have borne
     witness that this is the son of God.[a]

     [Footnote 1: Or, _beareth the sin._]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _first in regard of me_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _in_.]

[Footnote a: Put together the Baptist's testimonies to Jesus in sections
21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 33, 57. Add John 1:6-15. Note also the four
testimonies of Jesus to John, sections 49, 57, 86, 132. Observe the four
successive days here in John 1:19, 29, 35, 43, and the third day from the
last in John 2:1, making a week that is covered in detail (_cf._ the
Passion Week at the close). We have other glimpses of special days in the
ministry, as the Busy Day of the blasphemous accusation and the parables
(Matt. 12 and 13). In John 1:39 the very hour is preserved, probably
Roman time (ten in the morning), as John writes long after the
destruction of Jerusalem and outside of Palestine and uses the Roman
reckoning (midnight to midnight) in John 20:19. But see note 11 at end of
Harmony for Ramsay's objections to this view.]



§ 28. JESUS MAKES HIS FIRST[a] DISCIPLES

At Bethany beyond the Jordan


  John 1:35-51

  35   Again on the morrow John was standing, and two of his disciples;
  36 and he looked upon Jesus as he walked, and saith, Behold, the Lamb
  37 of God [_see Isa. 53:7_]! And the two disciples heard him speak,
  38 and they followed Jesus. And Jesus turned, and beheld them
     following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? And they said unto
     him, Rabbi (which is to say, being interpreted, [1]Master), where
  39 abidest thou? He saith unto them, Come, and ye shall see. They
     came therefore and saw where he abode; and they abode with him
  40 that day: it was about the tenth hour. One of the two that heard
     John _speak_, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.
  41 He findeth first his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We
     have found the Messiah (which is, being interpreted, [2]Christ).
  42 He brought him unto Jesus. Jesus looked upon him, and said, thou
     art Simon the son of [3]John: thou shalt be called Cephas (which
     is by interpretation, [4]Peter).
  43   On the morrow he was minded to go forth into Galilee, and he
  44 findeth Philip: and Jesus saith unto him, Follow me. Now Philip
  45 was from Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Peter. Philip
     findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom
     Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth,
  46 the son of Joseph. And Nathanael said unto him, Can any good thing
  47 come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, Come and see. Jesus
     saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, Behold, an
  48 Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile! Nathanael saith unto him,
     Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before
     Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee.
  49 Nathanael answered him, Rabbi, thou art the son of God; thou art
  50 King of Israel[b] [_see 2 Sam. 7:14; Ps. 2:7_]. Jesus answered and
     said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee underneath the
     fig tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than
  51 these. And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye
     shall see the heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and
     descending upon the Son of man[c] [_see Gen. 28:12_].

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 2: That is, _Anointed_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _Joanes_: called in Matt. 16:17, _Jonah_.]

     [Footnote 4: That is, _Rock_ or _Stone_.]

[Footnote a: Notice here a series of First Things; first testimony of
John, first disciples, first miracle, first residence at Capernaum, first
passover during his ministry, first extended discourse.]

[Footnote b: Notice that these first disciples at once believed that
Jesus was the Messiah (ver. 41, 45, 49). Compare the confession of Jesus
(§ 35) to the Woman at Jacob's well and the confessions of Peter in Matt.
14:33; John 6:69; Matt. 16:16 (§§ 74, 76, 82).]

[Footnote c: _Cf._ the close of the temptation in the wilderness and the
experience in the Garden of Gethsemane.]



§ 29. JESUS WORKS HIS FIRST MIRACLE

At Cana in Galilee


  John 2:1-11

   1   And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and
   2 the mother of Jesus was there: and Jesus also was bidden, and his
   3 disciples, to the marriage. And when the wine failed, the mother
   4 of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine. And Jesus saith unto
     her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet
   5 come. His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto
   6 you, do it. Now there were six waterpots of stone set there after
     the Jews' manner of purifying, containing two or three firkins
   7 apiece. Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And
   8 they filled them up to the brim. And he saith unto them, Draw out
     now, and bear unto the [1]ruler of the feast. And they bare it.
   9 And when the ruler of the feast tasted the water [2]now become
     wine, and knew not whence it was (but the servants which had drawn
     the water knew), the ruler of the feast calleth the bridegroom,
  10 and saith unto him, Every man setteth on first the good wine; and
     when _men_ have drunk freely, _then_ that which is worse: thou
  11 hast kept the good wine until now. This beginning of his signs did
     Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested his glory; and his
     disciples believed on him.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _steward_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _that it had become_.]



§ 30. JESUS MAKES A FIRST SOJOURN AT CAPERNAUM, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS
KINDRED AND HIS EARLY DISCIPLES

(Later Capernaum will become his home)


  John 2:12

  12   After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and
     _his_ brethren, and his disciples: and there they abode not many
     days.



§ 31. THE FIRST[a] CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE AT THE PASSOVER

Jerusalem.[b] Probably A.D. 27


  John 2:13-22

  13   And the passover[c] of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to
  14 Jerusalem. And he found in the temple those that sold oxen and
  15 sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: and he made a
     scourge of cords, and cast all out of the temple, both the sheep
     and the oxen; and he poured out the changers' money, and overthrew
  16 their tables; and to them that sold the doves he said, Take these
     things hence; make not my Father's house a house of merchandise.
  17 His disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine
  18 house shall eat me up [_see Ps. 69:9_]. The Jews therefore
     answered and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing
  19 thou doest these things? Jesus answered and said unto them,
  20 Destroy this [1]temple, and in three days I will raise it up. The
     Jews therefore said, Forty and six years was this [1]temple in
  21 building, and wilt thou raise it up in three days? But he spake of
  22 the [1]temple of his body. When therefore he was raised from the
     dead, his disciples remembered that he spake this; and they
     believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _sanctuary_.]

[Footnote a: Many scholars consider this the same incident as that in the
Synoptic Gospels and placed by them in Passion Week (§ 129) probably on
Monday. It is urged that Jesus would not have repeated such an act and
hence one must follow either the order of John or of the Synoptics. But
there is no inherent difficulty in the repetition of such an act when one
reflects on the natural indignation of Jesus at the desecration of the
temple on his visit during his ministry and considers that Jesus may have
wished to make one last protest at the close of his ministry. Certainty,
of course, is not possible in such an argument one way or the other.]

[Footnote b: Observe the successive _scenes_ of this early
ministry--beside the Jordan, on the eastern side, at Cana of Galilee, at
Capernaum, at Jerusalem, in Judea, in Samaria.]

[Footnote c: This is the first of the passovers in John's Gospel (2:13;
6:4; 13:1). There may have been another.]



§ 32. THE INTERVIEW OF NICODEMUS WITH JESUS

At Jerusalem during the Passover


  John 2:23 to 3:21

  23   Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, during the feast,
  24 many believed on his name, beholding his signs which he did. But
  25 Jesus did not trust himself unto them, for that he knew all men,
     and because he needed not that any one should bear witness
     concerning [1]man; for he himself knew what was in man.
   1   Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus,[a] a ruler
   2 of the Jews: the same came unto him by night, and said to him,
     Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man
   3 can do these signs that thou doest, except God be with him. Jesus
     answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee,
     Except a man be born [2]anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
   4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old?
     can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
   5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be
     born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of
   6 God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is
   7 born of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye
   8 must be born [2]anew. [3]The wind bloweth where it listeth, and
     thou hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh,
     and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
   9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?
  10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou the teacher of Israel,
  11 and understandest not these things? Verily, verily, I say unto
     thee, We speak that we do know, and bear witness of that we have
  12 seen; and ye receive not our witness. If I told you earthly
     things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you
  13 heavenly things? And no man hath ascended into heaven, but he that
     descended out of heaven, _even_ the Son of man, [4]which is in
  14 heaven. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness [_see
  15 Num. 21:8-9_], even so must the Son of man be lifted up: that
     whosoever [5]believeth may in him have eternal life.
  16   For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son,
     that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have
  17 eternal life. For God sent not the Son into the world to judge the
  18 world; but that the world should be saved through him. He that
     believeth on him is not judged: he that believeth not has been
     judged already, because he hath not believed on the name of the
  19 only begotten Son of God. And this is the judgment, that the light
     is come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the
  20 light; for their works were evil. For every one that [6]doeth ill
     hateth the light, and cometh not to the light, lest his works
  21 should be [7]reproved. But he that doeth the truth cometh to the
     light, that his works may be made manifest, [8]that they have been
     wrought in God.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a man; for ... the man_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _from above_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _The Spirit breatheth_.]

     [Footnote 4: Many ancient authorities omit _which is in heaven_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _believeth in him may have_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _practiseth_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _convicted_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _because_.]

[Footnote a: Nicodemus appears as an exception to the statement of 2:24,
as one whom Jesus did trust, and who amid all difficulties of temperament
and station proved not unworthy of the trust.]



§ 33. THE PARALLEL MINISTRY OF JESUS AND JOHN WITH JOHN'S LOYALTY TO
JESUS[a]


  John 3:22-36

  22   After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of
  23 Judea; and there he tarried with them, and baptized. And John also
     was baptizing in Ænon near to Salim, because there [1]was much
  24 water there: and they came, and were baptized. For John was not
  25 yet cast into prison. There arose therefore a questioning on the
  26 part of John's disciples with a Jew about purifying. And they came
     unto John, and said to him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond
     Jordan, to whom thou hast borne witness, behold, the same
  27 baptizeth, and all men come to him. John answered and said, A man
  28 can receive nothing, except it have been given him from heaven. Ye
     yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but,
  29 that I am sent before him. He that hath the bride is the
     bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and
     heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice:
  30 this my joy therefore is fulfilled. He must increase, but I must
     decrease.
  31   He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth
     is of the earth, and of the earth he speaketh: [2]he that cometh
  32 from heaven is above all. What he hath seen and heard, of that he
  33 beareth witness; and no man receiveth his witness. He that hath
     received his witness hath set his seal to _this_, that God is
  34 true. For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for he
  35 giveth not the Spirit by measure. The Father loveth the Son, and
  36 hath given all things into his hand. He that believeth on the Son
     hath eternal life; but he that [3]obeyeth not the Son shall not
     see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _were many waters_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _he that cometh from
     heaven beareth witness of what he hath seen and heard_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _believeth not_.]

[Footnote a: Jesus gained his first disciples from John at Bethany beyond
Jordan and many in Jerusalem. Now he is surpassing John. On John's
loyalty to Jesus see my _John the Loyal_.]



§ 34. CHRIST'S REASONS FOR LEAVING JUDEA


  John 4:1-4

   1   When therefore the Lord knew how that the Pharisees had heard
   2 that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John
   3 (although Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples), he left
   4 Judea, and departed again into Galilee. And he must needs pass
     through Samaria.


  Luke 3:19, 20

  19   But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his
     brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done,
  20 added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison.[a]


  Mark 1:14              |Matt. 4:12             |Luke 4:14
                         |                       |
  14   Now after that    |12   Now when he heard |14   And Jesus
     John was delivered  |   that John was       |   returned in the
     up, Jesus came into |   delivered up, he    |   power of the Spirit
     Galilee.            |   withdrew into       |   into Galilee.
                         |   Galilee.            |

[Footnote a: The place of John's imprisonment was Machærus, east of the
Dead Sea. See Josephus. _War_, Ch. VII, vi. In _Antiquities_, Ch. XVIII,
v, 2 Josephus gives the public and political reason for John's
imprisonment because of Herod's fear of a revolution. He "feared lest the
great influences John had over the people might put it into his power and
inclination to raise a rebellion."]



§ 35. JESUS IN SAMARIA.[a]

At Jacob's Well and in Sychar


  John 4:5-42

   5   So he cometh to a city of Samaria, called Sychar, near to the
   6 parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph: and Jacob's
     [1]well was there [_see Josh. 24:32_]. Jesus therefore, being
     wearied with his journey, sat [2]thus by the [1]well. It was about
   7 the sixth hour. There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water:
   8 Jesus saith unto her, Give me to drink. For his disciples were
   9 gone away into the city to buy food. The Samaritan woman therefore
     saith unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of
     me, which am a Samaritan woman? ([3]For Jews have no dealings with
  10 Samaritans.) Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the
     gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink;
     thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee
  11 living water. The woman saith unto him, [4]Sir, thou hast nothing
     to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou
  12 that living water? Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which
     gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his sons, and his
  13 cattle? Jesus answered and said unto her, Every one that drinketh
  14 of this water shall thirst again: but whosoever drinketh of the
     water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that
     I shall give him shall become in him a well of water springing up
  15 unto eternal life. The woman saith unto him, [4]Sir, give me this
     water, that I thirst not, neither come all the way hither to draw.
  16 Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy husband, and come hither. The
  17 woman answered and said unto him, I have no husband. Jesus saith
  18 unto her, Thou saidst well, I have no husband: for thou hast had
     five husbands; and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband: this
  19 hast thou said truly. The woman saith unto him, [4]Sir, I perceive
  20 that thou art a prophet. Our fathers worshipped in this mountain;
     and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to
  21 worship. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh,
     when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, shall ye worship
  22 the Father. Ye worship that which ye know not: we worship that
  23 which we know: for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour
     cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the
     Father in spirit and truth: [5]for such doth the Father seek to be
  24 his worshippers. [6]God is a Spirit: and they that worship him
  25 must worship in spirit and truth. The woman saith unto him, I know
     that Messiah cometh (which is called Christ): when he is come, he
  26 will declare unto us all things. Jesus saith unto her, I that
     speak unto thee am _he_.
  27   And upon this came his disciples; and they marvelled that he was
     speaking with a woman; yet no man said, What seekest thou? or, Why
  28 speakest thou with her? So the woman left her waterpot, and went
  29 away into the city, and saith to the men, Come, see a man, which
  30 told me all things that _ever_ I did: can this be the Christ? They
  31 went out of the city, and were coming to him. In the mean while
  32 the disciples prayed him, saying, Rabbi, eat. But he said to them,
  33 I have meat to eat that ye know not. The disciples therefore said
  34 one to another, Hath any man brought him _aught_ to eat? Jesus
     saith unto them, My meat is to do the will of him that sent me,
  35 and to accomplish his work. Say not ye, There are yet four months,
     and _then_ cometh the harvest? behold, I say unto you, Lift up
     your eyes, and look on the fields, that they are [7]white already
  36 unto harvest. He that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit
     unto life eternal; that he that soweth and he that reapeth may
  37 rejoice together. For herein is the saying true, One soweth, and
  38 another reapeth. I sent you to reap that whereon ye have not
     laboured: others have laboured, and ye are entered into their
     labour.
  39   And from that city many of the Samaritans believed on him
     [a]because of the word of the woman, who testified, He told me all
  40 things that _ever_ I did. So when the Samaritans came unto him,
     they besought him to abide with them: and he abode there two days.
  41 And many more believed because of his word; and they said to the
  42 woman, Now we believe, not because of thy speaking: for we have
     heard for ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Saviour of
     the world.[b]

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _spring_: and so in ver. 14; but not in ver. 11,
     12.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _as he was_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities omit _For Jews have no
     dealings with Samaritans._]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Lord_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _for such the Father also seeketh_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _God is spirit_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _white unto harvest. Already he that reapeth
     &c._]

[Footnote a: Notice that John also had recently been preaching to
Samaritans (§ 33) and compare hereafter Philip's work in the city of
Samaria (Acts 8:5 ff.)]

[Footnote b: In this early ministry Jesus allowed himself to be regarded
as the Messiah by his first disciples (§ 28), and personally declared
that he was the Messiah to the woman at the well (§ 35) (John 4:26),
which many other Samaritans also personally believed (John 4:39, 42). He
never declared this to the Jewish rulers at Jerusalem till the very end
(§ 155), doubtless because such an avowal would lead them to kill him,
and so must not be made till his work in teaching the people and training
his disciples should be completed. Compare what he says later to Peter in
Matt. 16:17-20 (§ 82). At the baptism and the temptation of Jesus it was
clear that Jesus knew that he was the Son of God, the Messiah, and was so
regarded by the Baptist. Events in Judea and Galilee change the early
policy of Jesus and lead to silence on his part in the use of the word
Messiah, though many of the people know that he makes Messianic claims
and the rulers in Jerusalem come to suspect him and to fear him. See my
volume on _The Pharisees and Jesus_.]



§ 36. THE ARRIVAL OF JESUS IN GALILEE


  John 4:43-45

  43   And after the two days he went forth from thence into Galilee.
  44 For Jesus himself testified, that a prophet hath no honour in his
  45 own country [_see Luke 4:24; Mark 6:4; Matt. 13:57_]. So when he
     came into Galilee, the Galileans received him, having seen all the
     things that he did in Jerusalem at the feast: for they also went
     unto the feast.



PART VII

THE GREAT GALILEAN MINISTRY

Probably[a] Autumn of A.D. 27 to Spring of 29

(Apparently about a year and a half)

_§§ 37-71. Great fulness of detail in Mark for this period and condensed
report in Luke while Matthew is chiefly topical in this portion. Mark's
Gospel plunges at once into the Great Galilean Ministry (cf. Peter's
summary of Christ's life in Acts 10:36-43 to the household of Cornelius).
The mass of material makes clear grouping difficult, but there is
progress[b] in the development of events._

    1. The Rejection at Nazareth and the New Home in Capernaum, §§
         37-43.

    2. The First Tour of Galilee with the Four Fishermen and the Call
         of Matthew (Levi) on the Return with the Growing Fame of
         Jesus, §§ 44-48.

    3. The Sabbath Controversy in Jerusalem and in Galilee, §§ 49-51.

    4. The Choice of the Twelve and the Sermon on the Mount, §§ 52-54.

    5. The Spread of Christ's Influence and the Inquiry from John in
         Prison, §§ 55-59.

    6. The Second Tour of Galilee (now with the Twelve) and the Intense
         Hostility of the Pharisees, §§ 60-63.

    7. The First Great Group of Parables with the Visit to Gerasa
        (Khersa) and to Nazareth (final one), §§ 64-69.

    8. The Third Tour of Galilee (Following the Twelve) and the Effect
         on Herod Antipas, §§ 70-71.

[Footnote a: We cannot confidently determine the length of the ministry
in Galilee. We are not sure whether it _began_ in summer or late autumn
(see footnote 7 in Explanatory Notes at end of Harmony). If the feast of
John 5:1 was a passover or there is an unknown passover, the Galilean
ministry lasted at least sixteen months, for it _ended_ when another
passover was near (John 6:4). Otherwise we should not certainly know that
it lasted more than some six or eight months. About the two subsequent
periods of our Lord's ministry we shall find no room to question that
each lasted six months; but _here_ we have to admit much uncertainty as
to the time. After all, a determination of the time employed would be a
matter of very little importance to our study of this period. But the
immense amount of material in this period argues for a length of over a
year.]

[Footnote b: Throughout this great ministry in Galilee, and the periods
that will follow after, the reader ought to trace carefully the
_progress_ of the history along several lines: (1) the Saviour's
progressive self-manifestation; (2) the gradual training of the Twelve
who are to carry on his teaching and work after his death; (3) the
deepening and spreading hostility of the Jewish influential classes and
official rulers. By constantly observing these parallel lines of
progress, it will be seen that the history and teachings of our Lord
exhibit a vital growth, moving on to an end by him foreseen (Luke 12:50),
when the hostility of the rulers will culminate as he before the
Sanhedrin avows himself to be the Messiah, and the Twelve will be almost
prepared to succeed him.]



§ 37. GENERAL ACCOUNT OF HIS TEACHING IN GALILEE


  Mark 1:14-15           |Matt. 4:17             |Luke 4:14-15
                         |                       |
  14   [Now after that   |17   From that time    |14   [And Jesus
     John was delivered  |   began Jesus to      |   returned in the
     up, Jesus came into |   preach, and to say, |   power of [_see
     Galilee], preaching |   Repent ye; for the  |   John 4:3, 43_] the
     the gospel of God,  |   kingdom of heaven is|   Spirit into
  15 and saying, The time|   at hand.            |   Galilee]: and a
     is fulfilled, and   |                       |   fame went out
     the kingdom of God  |                       |   concerning him
     is at hand: repent  |                       |   through all the
     ye, and believe in  |                       |   region round
     the gospel.         |                       |15 about. And he
                         |                       |   taught in their
                         |                       |   synagogues, being
                         |                       |   glorified of all.



_In sections 38-43 (the Rejection at Nazareth and the New Home in
Capernaum) Jesus revisits Cana and Nazareth, recalls the four fishermen
by the Sea of Galilee, and begins his ministry of teaching and healing in
Capernaum._



§ 38. THE HEALING AT CANA OF THE SON OF A COURTIER OF CAPERNAUM


  John 4:46-54

  46   He came therefore again unto Cana of Galilee, where he made the
     water wine. And there was a certain [1]nobleman, whose son was
  47 sick at Capernaum. When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judea
     into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought _him_ that he would
     come down, and heal his son; for he was at the point of death.
  48 Jesus therefore said unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye
  49 will in no wise believe. The [1]nobleman saith unto him. [2]Sir,
  50 come down ere my child die. Jesus saith unto him, Go thy way; thy
     son liveth. The man believed the word that Jesus spake unto him,
  51 and he went his way. And as he was now going down, his [3]servants
  52 met him, saying, that his son lived. So he inquired of them the
     hour when he began to amend. They said therefore unto him,
  53 Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him. So the father
     knew that _it was_ at that hour in which Jesus said unto him, Thy
  54 son liveth: and himself believed, and his whole house. This is
     again the second sign that Jesus did, having come out of Judea
     into Galilee.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _king's officer_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Lord_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _bondservants_.]



§ 39. THE FIRST REJECTION AT NAZARETH


  Luke 4:16-31

  16   And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and he
     entered, as his custom was, into the synagogue on the sabbath day,
  17 and stood up to read. And there was delivered unto him [1]the book
     of the prophet Isaiah. And he opened the [2]book, and found the
     place where it was written,
  18   The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
       [3]Because he anointed me to preach [4]good tidings to the poor:
       He hath sent me to proclaim release to the captives,
       And recovering of sight to the blind,
       To set at liberty them that are bruised,
  19   To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord [_see Isa. 58:6;
         61:1-2_].
  20 And he closed the [2]book, and gave it back to the attendant, and
     sat down: and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on
  21 him. And he began to say unto them, To-day hath this scripture
  22 been fulfilled in your ears. And all bare him witness, and
     wondered at the words of grace which proceeded out of his mouth:
  23 and they said, Is not this Joseph's son? And he said unto them,
     Doubtless ye will say unto me this parable, Physician, heal
     thyself [_see John 6:42; 7:15_]: whatsoever we have heard done at
  24 Capernaum, do also here in thine own country. And he said, Verily
     I say unto you, No prophet is acceptable in his own country [_see
  25 John 4:44_]. But of a truth I say unto you, There were many widows
     in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three
     years and six months, when there came a great famine over all the
  26 land [_see 1 Kings 17:1; 18:1-2_]; and unto none of them was
     Elijah sent, but only to [5]Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, unto
  27 a woman that was a widow [_see 1 Kings 17:8-9_]. And there were
     many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet; and none
     of them was cleansed, but only Naaman the Syrian [_see 2 Kings
  28 5:1-14_]. And they were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as
  29 they heard these things; and they rose up, and cast him forth out
     of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their
  30 city was built, that they might throw him down headlong. But he
  31 passing through the midst of them went his way. And he came down
     to Capernaum, a city of Galilee.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a roll_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _roll_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _Wherefore_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _the gospel_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _Sarepta_.]



§ 40. THE NEW HOME IN CAPERNAUM


  Matt. 4:13-16

  13 And leaving Nazareth,[a] he came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is
  14 by the sea, in the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali: that it might
     be fulfilled which was spoken [1]by Isaiah the prophet [_see Isa.
     8:23; 9:1-2_], saying,
  15   The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali,
       [2]Toward the sea, beyond Jordan,
       Galilee of the [3]Gentiles,
  16   The people which sat in darkness
       Saw a great light,
       And to them which sat in the region and shadow of death,
       To them did light spring up.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _The way of the sea_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _nations_: and so elsewhere.]

[Footnote a: Nazareth was never the Saviour's residence during his public
ministry. After the wedding at Cana he lived a short time at _Capernaum_,
and henceforth that city will be his abode, till he leaves Galilee six
months before the crucifixion--most of the time, however, being actually
spent in several journeys throughout Galilee, together with a trip to
Jerusalem, and retirement to districts around Galilee.]



§ 41. JESUS FINDS FOUR FISHERS OF MEN IN FOUR FISHERMEN[a]

By the Sea of Galilee, near Capernaum


  Mark 1:16-20         |Matt. 4:18-22        |Luke 5:1-11
                       |                     |
  16   And passing     |18   And walking by  | 1   Now it came to pass,
     along by the sea  |   the sea of        |   while the multitude
     of Galilee, he saw|   Galilee, he saw   |   pressed upon him and
     Simon and Andrew  |   two brethren,     |   heard the word of God,
     the brother of    |   Simon who is      |   that he was standing
     Simon casting a   |   called Peter, and |   by the lake of
     net in the sea:   |   Andrew his        | 2 Gennesaret; and he saw
     for they were     |   brother, casting a|   two boats standing by
  17 fishers. And Jesus|   net into the sea; |   the lake: but the
     said unto them,   |   for they were     |   fishermen had gone out
     Come ye after me, |19 fishers. And he   |   of them, and were
     and I will make   |   saith unto them,  |   washing their nets.
     you to become     |   Come ye after me, | 3 And he entered into
     fishers of men.   |   and I will make   |   one of the boats,
  18 And straightway   |   you fishers of    |   which was Simon's and
     they left the     |20 men. And they     |   asked him to put out a
     nets, and followed|   straightway left  |   little from the land.
  19 him. And going on |   the nets, and     |   And he sat down and
     a little further, |21 followed him. And |   taught the multitudes
     he saw James the  |   going on from     | 4 out of the boat. And
     _son_ of Zebedee, |   thence he saw     |   when he had left
     and John his      |   other two         |   speaking, he said unto
     brother, who also |   brethren, [1]James|   Simon, Put out into
     were in the boat  |   the _son_ of      |   the deep, and let down
     mending the nets. |   Zebedee, and John |   your nets for a
  20 And straightway he|   his brother, in   | 5 draught. And Simon
     called them: and  |   the boat with     |   answered and said,
     they left their   |   Zebedee their     |   Master, we toiled all
     father Zebedee in |   father, mending   |   night, and took
     the boat with the |   their nets; and he|   nothing: but at thy
     hired servants,   |22 called them. And  |   word I will let down
     and went after    |   they straightway  | 6 the nets. And when
     him.              |   left the boat and |   they had this done,
                       |   their father, and |   they inclosed a great
                       |   followed him.[a]  |   multitude of fishes;
                       |                     |   and their nets were
   7 breaking; and they beckoned unto their partners in the other boat,
     that they should come and help them. And they came, and filled both
   8 the boats, so that they began to sink. But Simon Peter, when he saw
     it, fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, Depart from me; for I am a
   9 sinful man, O Lord. For he was amazed, and all that were with him,
  10 at the draught of the fishes which they had taken; and so were also
     James and John, sons of Zebedee, which were partners with Simon.
     And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not; from henceforth thou shalt
  11 [2]catch men. And when they had brought their boats to land, they
     left all, and followed him.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Jacob_: and so elsewhere.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _take alive_.]

[Footnote a: Three of these two pairs of brothers (Andrew and Peter, John
and James) had already become disciples of Jesus at Bethany beyond Jordan
(James probably soon afterwards), but now they leave their prosperous
fish business and follow Jesus continuously as many business men since
have given up a lucrative business for the ministry. They, along with
Philip and Nathaniel, had been with Jesus in the early ministry (the year
of obscurity).]



§ 42. THE EXCITEMENT IN THE SYNAGOGUE BECAUSE OF THE TEACHING OF JESUS
AND THE HEALING OF A DEMONIAC ON THE SABBATH


  Mark 1:21-28                     |Luke 4:31-37
                                   |
  21   And they go into Capernaum; |31   [And he came down to Capernaum,
     and straightway on the sabbath|   a city of Galilee.] And he was
     day he entered into the       |   teaching them on the sabbath
  22 synagogue and taught. And they|32 day: and they were astonished at
     were astonished at his        |   his teaching; for his word was
     teaching: for he taught them  |33 with authority. And in the
     as having authority, and not  |   synagogue there was a man, which
  23 as the scribes. And           |   had a spirit of an unclean
     straightway there was in their|   [3]devil; and he cried out with
     synagogue a man with an       |34 a loud voice, [4]Ah! what have
  24 unclean spirit; and he cried  |   we to do with thee, thou Jesus
     out, saying, What have we to  |   of Nazareth? art thou come to
     do with thee, thou Jesus of   |   destroy us? I know thee who thou
     Nazareth? art thou come to    |   art [_see Ps. 16:10_], the Holy
     destroy us? I know thee who   |   One of God.
     thou art, the Holy One of God.|35 And Jesus rebuked him, saying,
  25 And Jesus rebuked [1]him,     |   Hold thy peace, and come out of
     saying, Hold thy peace, and   |   him. And when the [3]devil had
  26 come out of him. And the      |   thrown him down in the midst, he
     unclean spirit, [2]tearing him|   came out of him, having done him
     and crying with a loud voice, |36 no hurt. And amazement came upon
  27 came out of him. And they were|   all, and they spake together,
     all amazed, insomuch that they|   one with another, saying, What
     questioned among themselves,  |   is [5]this word? for with
     saying, What is this? a new   |   authority and power he
     teaching! with authority he   |   commandeth the unclean spirits,
     commandeth even the unclean   |37 and they come out. And there
     spirits, and they obey him.   |   went forth a rumour concerning
  28 And the report of him went out|   him into every place of the
     straightway everywhere into   |   region round about.
     all the region of Galilee     |
     round about.                  |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _it_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _convulsing_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Let alone_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _this word, that with authority ... come out?_]



§ 43. HE HEALS PETER'S MOTHER-IN-LAW AND MANY OTHERS

At Capernaum, in Peter's Home


  Mark 1:29-34            |Matt. 8:14-17        |Luke 4:38-41
                          |                     |
  29   And straightway    |                     |
     [3]when they were    |                     |38   And he rose up
     come out of the      |                     |   from the synagogue,
     synagogue, they came |                     |   and entered into the
     into the house of    |                     |   house of Simon. And
     Simon and Andrew,    |14   And when Jesus  |   Simon's wife's
     with James and John. |   was come into     |   mother was holden
  30 Now Simon's wife's   |   Peter's house, he |   with a great fever;
     mother lay sick of a |   saw his wife's    |   and they besought
     fever; and           |   mother lying sick |39 him for her. And he
     straightway they tell|15 of a fever. And he|   stood over her, and
  31 him of her: and he   |   touched her hand, |   rebuked the fever;
     came and took her by |   and the fever left|   and it left her:
     the hand, and raised |   her; and she      |   and immediately she
     her up; and the fever|   arose, and        |   rose up and
     left her, and she    |   ministered unto   |   ministered unto
     ministered unto them.|   him.              |   them.
  32   And at even, when  |16   And when even   |40   And when the sun
     the sun did set, they|   was come, they    |   was setting, all
     brought unto him all |   brought unto him  |   they that had any
     that were sick, and  |   many [1]possessed |   sick with divers
     them that were       |   with devils: and  |   diseases brought
     [1]possessed with    |   he cast out the   |   them unto him; and
  33 devils. And all the  |   spirits with a    |   he laid his hands
     city was gathered    |   word, and healed  |   on every one of
     together at the door.|   all that were     |   them, and healed
  34 And he healed many   |17 sick: that it     |41 them. And [4]devils
     that were sick with  |   might be fulfilled|   also came out from
     divers diseases, and |   which was spoken  |   many, crying out,
     cast out many        |   [2]by Isaiah the  |   and saying, Thou
     [4]devils; and he    |   prophet [_see Isa.|   art the Son of God.
     suffered not the     |   53:4_], saying,   |   And rebuking them,
     [4]devils to speak,  |   Himself took our  |   he suffered them
     because they knew    |   infirmities, and  |   not to speak,
     him.[5]              |   bare our diseases.|   because they knew
                          |                     |   that he was the
                          |                     |   Christ.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _demoniacs_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities read _when he was come out
     of the synagogue, he came &c._]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 5: Many ancient authorities add _to be Christ_. See Luke
     4:41.]



_In sections 44-52 Jesus makes his first tour of Galilee with the Four
Fishermen whom he has now called to follow him continuously. On the
return to Capernaum Matthew is called and various miracles arouse the
enthusiasm of the multitudes and the hostility of the Pharisees to
Christ's teachings._



§ 44. THE FIRST TOUR OF GALILEE WITH THE FOUR FISHERMEN


  Mark 1:35-39           |Matt. 4:23-25          |Luke 4:42-44
                         |                       |
  35   And in the        |                       |42   And when it was
     morning, a great    |                       |   day, he came out
     while before day, he|                       |   and went into a
     rose up and went    |                       |   desert place: and
     out, and departed   |                       |   the multitudes
     into a desert place,|                       |   sought after him,
  36 and there prayed.   |                       |   and came unto him,
     And Simon and they  |                       |   and would have
     that were with him  |                       |   stayed him, that
     followed after him; |                       |   he should not go
  37 and they found him, |                       |43 from them. But he
     and say unto him,   |                       |   said unto them, I
     All are seeking     |                       |   must preach the
  38 thee. And he saith  |                       |   [5]good tidings of
     unto them, Let us go|                       |   the kingdom of God
     elsewhere into the  |                       |   to the other
     next towns, that I  |                       |   cities also: for
     may preach there    |                       |   therefore was I
     also; for to this   |                       |   sent.
     end came I forth.   |                       |
  39 And he went into    |23   And [1]Jesus went |44   And he was
     their synagogues    |   about in all        |   preaching in the
     throughout all      |   Galilee,[a] teaching|   synagogues of
     Galilee, preaching  |   in their synagogues,|   [6]Galilee.
     and casting out     |   and preaching the   |
     [4]devils.          |   [2]gospel of the    |
                         |   kingdom, and healing|
                         |   all manner of       |
                         |   disease and all     |
                         |   manner of sickness  |
                         |   among the people.   |
                         |24 And the report of   |
                         |   him went forth into |
                         |   all Syria: and they |
                         |   brought unto him all|
                         |   that were sick,     |
                         |   holden with divers  |
                         |   diseases and        |
                         |   torments,           |
                         |   [3]possessed with   |
                         |   devils, and         |
                         |   epileptic, and      |
                         |   palsied; and he     |
                         |25 healed them. And    |
                         |   there followed him  |
                         |   great multitudes    |
                         |   from Galilee and    |
                         |   Decapolis and       |
                         |   Jerusalem and Judea |
                         |   and _from_ beyond   |
                         |   Jordan.             |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _he_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _good tidings_: and so elsewhere.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _demoniacs_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _gospel_.]

     [Footnote 6: Very many ancient authorities read _Judea_.]

[Footnote a: This journey about all Galilee included a _great mass_ of
teaching and healing (dwell on Matt. 4:23-25), of which only a few
specimens are recorded, and these apparently occurred at Capernaum, his
headquarters. The journey given by Luke only (8:1-3) is probably distinct
from this, and if so it would be a _second_, while that of Luke 9:1-6 (=
Mark 6:6-13 = Matt. 9:35-11:1), which is quite certainly distinct, would
then be a _third_ journey about Galilee. The reader ought to expand his
imagination and take in these extended labors.]



§ 45. A LEPER HEALED, AND MUCH POPULAR EXCITEMENT


  Mark 1:40-45            |Matt. 8:2-4           |Luke 5:12-16
                          |                      |
  40   And there cometh to| 2 And behold, there  |12   And it came to
     him a leper,         |   came to him a leper|   pass, while he was
     beseeching him,      |   and worshipped him,|   in one of the
     [1]and kneeling down |   saying, Lord, if   |   cities, behold, a
     to him, and saying   |   thou wilt, thou    |   man full of
     unto him, If thou    |   canst make me      |   leprosy: and when
     wilt, thou canst make|   clean.             |   he saw Jesus, he
  41 me clean. And being  |                      |   fell on his face,
     moved with           |                      |   and besought him,
     compassion, he       |                      |   saying, Lord, if
     stretched forth his  | 3 And he stretched   |   thou wilt, thou
     hand, and touched    |   forth his hand,    |   canst make me
     him, and saith unto  |   and touched him,   |13 clean. And he
     him, I will; be thou |   saying, I will; be |   stretched forth
  42 made clean. And      |   thou made clean.   |   his hand, and
     straightway the      |   And straightway    |   touched him,
     leprosy departed from|   his leprosy was    |   saying, I will; be
     him, and he was made |   cleansed.          |   thou made clean.
  43 clean. And he        |                      |   And straightway
     [2]strictly charged  |                      |   the leprosy
     him, and straightway |                      |   departed from him.
  44 sent him out, and    | 4          And Jesus |14 And he charged him
     saith unto him, See  |   saith unto him, See|   to tell no man:
     thou say nothing to  |   thou tell no man;  |   but go thy way,
     any man: but go thy  |   but go thy way,    |   and shew thyself
     way, shew thyself to |   shew thyself to the|   to the priest, and
     the priest, and offer|   priest, and offer  |   offer for thy
     for thy cleansing the|   the gift that Moses|   cleansing,
     things which Moses   |   commanded, for a   |   according as Moses
     commanded, for a     |   testimony unto     |   commanded, for a
     testimony unto them. |   them.              |   testimony unto
                          |                      |   them [_see Lev.
                          |                      |   13:49; 14:2-32_].
  45 But he went out, and |                      |15 But so much the
     began to publish it  |                      |   more went abroad
     much, and to spread  |                      |   the report
     abroad the [3]matter,|                      |   concerning him:
     insomuch that        |                      |   and great
     [4]Jesus could no    |                      |   multitudes came
     more openly enter    |                      |   together to hear,
     into [5]a city, but  |                      |   and to be healed
     was without in desert|                      |   of their
     places: and they came|                      |16 infirmities. But
     to him from every    |                      |   he withdrew
     quarter.             |                      |   himself in the
                          |                      |   deserts, and
                          |                      |   prayed.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit _and kneeling down to
      him_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _sternly_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _word_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _he_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _the city_.]



§ 46. THRONGED IN CAPERNAUM, HE HEALS A PARALYTIC LOWERED THROUGH THE
ROOF OF PETER'S HOUSE


  Mark 2:1-12            |Matt. 9:1-8            |Luke 5:17-26
                         |                       |
   1   And when he       | 1   And he entered    |17   And it came to
     entered again into  |   into a boat, and    |   pass on one of
     Capernaum after some|   crossed over, and   |   those days, that
     days, it  was noised|   came into his own   |   he was teaching;
     that he was [4]in   |   city.               |   and there were
   2 the house. And many |                       |   Pharisees and
     were gathered       |                       |   doctors of the law
     together, so that   |                       |   sitting by, which
     there was no longer |                       |   were come out of
     room _for them_, no,|                       |   every village of
     not even about the  |                       |   Galilee and Judea
     door: and he spake  |                       |   and Jerusalem: and
     the word unto them. |                       |   the power of the
   3 And they come,      |                       |   Lord was with him
     bringing unto him a | 2 And behold, they    |18 [6]to heal. And
     man sick of the     |   brought to him a man|   behold, men bring
     palsy, borne of     |   sick of the palsy,  |   on a bed a man
   4 four. And when they |   lying on a bed:     |   that was palsied:
     could not [5]come   |                       |   and they sought to
     nigh unto him for   |                       |   bring him in, and
     the crowd, they     |                       |   to lay him before
     uncovered the roof  |                       |19 him. And not
     where he was: and   |                       |   finding by what
     when they had broken|                       |   _way_ they might
     it up, they let down|                       |   bring him in
     the bed whereon the |                       |   because of the
     sick of the palsy   |                       |   multitude, they
     lay.                |                       |   went up to the
                         |                       |   housetop, and let
                         |                       |   him down through
                         |                       |   the tiles with his
                         |                       |   couch into the
   5          And Jesus  |                   and |   midst before
     seeing their faith  |   Jesus seeing their  |20 Jesus. And seeing
     saith unto the sick |   faith said unto the |   their faith, he
     of the palsy,       |   sick of the palsy,  |   said, Man, thy
     [1]Son, thy sins are|   [1]Son, be of good  |   sins are forgiven
   6 forgiven. But there |   cheer; thy sins are |21 thee. And the
     were certain of the | 3 forgiven. And       |   scribes and the
     scribes sitting     |   behold, certain of  |   Pharisees began to
     there, and reasoning|   the scribes said    |   reason, saying,
   7 in their hearts, Why|   within themselves,  |   Who is this that
     doth this man thus  |   This man            |   speaketh
     speak? he           |   blasphemeth.        |   blasphemies? Who
     blasphemeth: who can|                       |   can forgive sins,
     forgive sins but    |                       |   but God alone?
   8 one, _even_ God? And|                       |22                But
     straightway Jesus,  | 4              And    |   Jesus perceiving
     perceiving in his   |   Jesus [2]knowing    |   their reasonings,
     spirit that they so |   their thoughts said,|   answered and said
     reasoned within     |                       |   unto them, [7]What
     themselves, saith   |                       |   reason ye in your
     unto them, Why      |                       |   hearts?
     reason ye these     |                       |
     things in your      |   Wherefore think ye  |
   9 hearts? Whether is  |   evil in your hearts?|23          Whether is
     easier, to say to   | 5 For whether is      |   easier, to say, Thy
     the sick of the     |   easier, to say, Thy |   sins are forgiven
     palsy, Thy sins are |   sins are forgiven;  |   thee; or to say,
     forgiven; or to say,|   or to say, Arise,   |   Arise and walk?
     Arise, and take up  |   and walk?           |
     thy bed, and walk?  |                       |
  10 But that ye may know| 6       But that ye   |24 But that ye may
     that the Son of man |   may know that the   |   know that the Son
     hath [3]power on    |   Son of man hath     |   of man hath
     earth to forgive    |   [3]power on earth to|   [3]power on earth
     sins (he saith to   |   forgive sins (then  |   to forgive sins
     the sick of the     |   saith he to the sick|   (he said unto him
  11 palsy),[a] I say    |   of the palsy),      |   that was palsied),
     unto thee, Arise,   |   Arise, and take up  |   I say unto thee,
     take up thy bed, and|   thy bed, and go unto|   Arise, and take up
     go unto thy house.  |   thy house.          |   thy couch, and go
                         |                       |   unto thy house.
  12 And he arose, and   | 7            And he   |25 And immediately he
     straightway took up |   arose, and departed |   rose up before
     the bed, and went   |   to his house.       |   them, and took up
     forth before them   |                       |   that whereon he
     all; insomuch that  |                       |   lay, and departed
     they were all       |                       |   to his house,
     amazed, and         |                       |   glorifying God.
     glorified God,      |                       |26 And amazement took
     saying, We never saw| 8               But   |   hold on all, and
     it on this fashion. |   when the multitudes |   they glorified
                         |   saw it, they were   |   God; and they were
                         |   afraid, and         |   filled with fear,
                         |   glorified God, which|   saying, We have
                         |   had given such      |   seen strange
                         |   [3]power unto men.  |   things to-day.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _Child_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities read _seeing_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _authority_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _at home_.]

     [Footnote 5: Many ancient authorities read _bring him unto him_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _that he should heal_. Many ancient authorities
     read _that_ he _should heal them_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _Why_.]

[Footnote a: Note the parenthetic explanation of the writers in the
middle of the saying of Jesus. It is proof that each of the Gospels had
the same written source here or rather, as we know otherwise, that
Matthew and Luke had Mark before them.]



§ 47. THE CALL OF MATTHEW (LEVI) AND HIS RECEPTION IN HONOR OF JESUS

Capernaum


  Mark 2:13-17           |Matt. 9:9-13           |Luke 5:27-32
                         |                       |
  13   And he went forth |                       |27   And after these
     again by the sea    |                       |   things he went
     side; and all the   |                       |   forth, and beheld
     multitude resorted  |                       |   a publican, named
     unto him, and he    |                       |   Levi, sitting at
  14 taught them. And as | 9   And as Jesus      |   the place of toll,
     he passed by, he saw|   passed by from      |   and said unto him,
     Levi the _son_ of   |   thence, he saw a    |   Follow me.
     Alphæus sitting at  |   man, called Matthew,|
     the place of toll,  |   sitting at the place|
     and he saith unto   |   of toll: and he     |
     him, Follow me. And |   saith unto him,     |28            And he
     he arose and        |   Follow me. And he   |   forsook all, and
     followed him.       |   arose, and followed |   rose up and
                         |   him.                |   followed him.
  15              And it |10   And it came to    |29               And
     came to pass, that  |   pass, as he [1]sat  |   Levi made him a
     he was sitting at   |   at meat in the      |   great feast in his
     meat in his house,  |   house, behold, many |   house: and there
     and many            |   publicans and       |   was a great
     [4]publicans and    |   sinners came and sat|   multitude of
     sinners sat down    |   down with Jesus and |   publicans and of
     with Jesus and his  |   his disciples.      |   others that were
     disciples: for there|                       |   sitting at meat
     were many, and they |                       |   with them.
  16 followed him. And   |11                And  |30            And
     the scribes [5]of   |   when the Pharisees  |   [8]the Pharisees
     the Pharisees, when |   saw it, they said   |   and their scribes
     they saw that he was|   unto his disciples, |   murmured against
     eating with the     |   Why eateth your     |   his disciples,
     sinners and         |   [2]Master with the  |   saying, Why do ye
     publicans, said unto|   publicans and       |   eat and drink with
     his disciples, [6]He|   sinners?            |   the publicans and
     eateth [7]and       |                       |   sinners?
     drinketh with       |                       |
     publicans and       |                       |
  17 sinners. And when   |12         But when he |31          And Jesus
     Jesus heard it, he  |   heard it, he said,  |   answering said
     saith unto them,    |   They that are       |   unto them, They
     They that are       |   [3]whole have no    |   that are [3]whole
     [3]whole have no    |   need of a physician,|   have no need of a
     need of a physician,|   but they that are   |   physician; but
     but they that are   |13 sick. But go ye and |   they that are
     sick: I came not to |   learn what _this_   |32 sick. I am not
     call the righteous, |   meaneth,[a] I desire|   come to call the
     but sinners.        |   mercy, and not      |   righteous but
                         |   sacrifice: for I    |   sinners to
                         |   came not to call the|   repentance.
                         |   righteous, but      |
                         |   sinners.            |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _reclined_: and so always.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _strong_.]

     [Footnote 4: That is, _collectors or renters of Roman taxes_: and
     so elsewhere.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities read _and the Pharisees_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, How is it _that he eateth ... sinners?_]

     [Footnote 7: Some ancient authorities omit _and drinketh_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _the Pharisees and the scribes among them_.]

[Footnote a: Hos. 6:6.]



§ 48. JESUS IN THREE PARABLES DEFENDS HIS DISCIPLES FOR FEASTING[a]
INSTEAD OF FASTING


  Mark 2:18-22           |Matt. 9:14-17          |Luke 5:33-39
                         |                       |
  18   And John's        |14   Then come to him  |33   And they said
     disciples and the   |   the disciples of    |   unto him, The
     Pharisees were      |   John, saying, Why do|   disciples of John
     fasting: and they   |   we and the Pharisees|   fast often, and
     come and say unto   |   fast [1]oft, but thy|   make supplications;
     him, Why do John's  |   disciples fast not? |   likewise also the
     disciples and the   |                       |   _disciples_ of the
     disciples of the    |                       |   Pharisees; but
     Pharisees fast, but |                       |   thine eat and
     thy disciples fast  |                       |34 drink. And Jesus
  19 not? And Jesus said |15 And Jesus said unto |   said unto them,
     unto them, Can the  |   them, Can the sons  |   Can ye make the
     sons of the         |   of the bride-chamber|   sons of the
     bride-chamber fast, |   mourn, as long as   |   bride-chamber fast
     while the           |   the bridegroom is   |   while the
     bridegroom is with  |   with them?          |   bridegroom is
     them? as long as    |                       |   with them?
     they have the       |                       |
     bridegroom with     |                       |
     them, they cannot   |                       |
  20 fast. But the days  |              but the  |35           But the
     will come, when the |   days will come, when|   days will come;
     bridegroom shall be |   the bridegroom      |   and when the
     taken away from     |   shall be taken away |   bridegroom shall
     them, and then they |   from them, and then |   be taken away from
     will fast in that   |   will they fast.     |   them, then will
     day.                |                       |   they fast in those
                         |                       |   days.
                         |                       |36   And he spake also
                         |                       |   a parable[b] unto
  21     No man seweth a |16                 And |   them; No man
     piece of undressed  |   no man putteth a    |   rendeth a piece
     cloth on an old     |   piece of undressed  |   from a new garment
     garment: else that  |   cloth upon an old   |   and putteth it
     which should fill it|   garment; for that   |   upon an old
     up taketh from it,  |   which should fill it|   garment; else he
     the new from the    |   up taketh from the  |   will rend the new,
     old, and a worse    |   garment, and a worse|   and also the piece
  22 rent is made. And no|   rent is made.       |   from the new will
     man putteth new wine|17 Neither do _men_ put|   not agree with the
     into old            |   new wine into old   |37 old. And no man
     [2]wine-skins: else |   [2]wine-skins: else |   putteth new wine
     the wine will burst |   the skins burst, and|   into old
     the skins, and the  |   the wine is spilled,|   [2]wine-skins;
     wine perisheth, and |   and the skins       |   else the new wine
     the skins: but _they|   perish: but they put|   will burst the
     put_ new wine into  |   new wine into fresh |   skins, and itself
     fresh wine-skins.   |   wine-skins, and both|   will be spilled,
                         |   are preserved.      |   and the skins will
                         |                       |38 perish. But new
                         |                       |   wine must be put
                         |                       |   into fresh
                         |                       |39 wine-skins. And no
                         |                       |   man having drunk
                         |                       |   old _wine_
                         |                       |   desireth new: for
                         |                       |   he saith, The old
                         |                       |   is [3]good.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit _oft_.]

     [Footnote 2: That is, _skins used as bottles_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities read _better_.]

[Footnote a: It was probably the presence of the disciples of Christ at
Matthew's feast on one of the Jewish fast days that occasioned the
complaint of John's disciples and the Pharisees. It is sad to see
disciples of John aligned with the Pharisees against Jesus.]

[Footnote b: Note the use of the term parable in Luke. There are three
parables (the sons of the bride-chamber, the new patch on an old garment,
the new wine in old wine-skins) here together. A few isolated ones have
already occurred as in John 2:19.]



_In sections 49 to 51 we see the Pharisees attacking Jesus both in
Jerusalem and in Galilee with great hostility and with the purpose of
killing him because of violation of the Pharisaic regulations about the
Sabbath. Jesus defends himself and his disciples by various arguments and
personal claims._



§ 49. AT A FEAST IN JERUSALEM (POSSIBLY THE PASSOVER) JESUS HEALS A LAME
MAN ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS THIS ACTION TO THE PHARISEES IN A GREAT
DISCOURSE


  John 5:1-47

   1   After these things there was [1]a feast[a] of the Jews; and Jesus
     went up to Jerusalem.[b]
   2   Now there is in Jerusalem by the sheep _gate_ a pool, which is
   3 called in Hebrew [2]Bethesda, having five porches. In these lay a
   5 multitude of them that were sick, blind, halt, withered[3]. And a
     certain man was there, which had been thirty and eight years in
   6 his infirmity. When Jesus saw him lying, and knew that he had been
     now a long time _in that case_, he saith unto him, Wouldst thou be
   7 made whole? The sick man answered him, [4]Sir, I have no man, when
     the water is troubled, to put me into the pool: but while I am
   8 coming, another steppeth down before me. Jesus saith unto him,
   9 Arise, take up thy bed, and walk. And straightway the man was made
     whole, and took up his bed and walked.
  10   Now it was the sabbath on that day. So the Jews said unto him
     that was cured, It is the sabbath, and it is not lawful for thee to
  11 take up thy bed [_see Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14_]. But he answered
     them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take up thy
  12 bed, and walk. They asked him, Who is the man that said unto thee,
  13 Take up _thy bed_, and walk? But he that was healed wist not who
     it was: for Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitude being in
  14 the place. Afterward Jesus findeth him in the temple, and said
     unto him, Behold, thou art made whole: sin no more, lest a worse
  15 thing befall thee. The man went away, and told the Jews that it
  16 was Jesus which had made him whole. And for this cause did the
     Jews persecute Jesus, because he did these things on the sabbath.
  17 But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh even until now, and I
  18 work. For this cause therefore the Jews sought the more to kill
     him, because he not only brake the sabbath, but also called God
     his own Father, making himself equal with God.
  19   Jesus therefore answered and said unto them,
       Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of
     himself, but what he seeth the Father doing: for what things soever
  20 he doeth, these the Son also doeth in like manner. For the Father
     loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth: and
  21 greater works than these will he shew him, that ye may marvel. For
     as the Father raiseth the dead and quickeneth them, even so the
  22 Son also quickeneth whom he will. For neither doth the Father
  23 judge any man, but he hath given all judgement unto the Son; that
     all may honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that
     honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which sent him.
  24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and
     believeth him that sent me, hath eternal life, and cometh not into
  25 judgement, but hath passed out of death into life. Verily, verily,
     I say unto you, The hour cometh, and now is, when the dead shall
     hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live.
  26 For as the Father hath life in himself, even so gave he to the Son
  27 also to have life in himself: and he gave him authority to execute
  28 judgement, because he is [5]the Son of man. Marvel not at this:
     for the hour cometh, in which all that are in the tombs shall hear
  29 his voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto
     the resurrection of life; and they that have [6]done ill, unto the
     resurrection of judgement.
  30   I can of myself do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgement
     is righteous; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of
  31 him that sent me. If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not
  32 true. It is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that
  33 the witness which he witnesseth of me is true. Ye have sent unto
  34 John, and he hath borne witness unto the truth. But the witness
     which I receive is not from man: howbeit I say these things, that
  35 ye may be saved. He was the lamp that burneth and shineth: and ye
  36 were willing to rejoice for a season in his light. But the witness
     which I have is greater than _that of_ John: for the works which
     the Father hath given me to accomplish, the very works that I do,
  37 bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me. And the Father
     which sent me, he hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard
  38 his voice at any time, nor seen his form. And ye have not his word
  39 abiding in you: for whom he sent, him ye believe not. [7]Ye search
     the scriptures, because ye think that in them ye have eternal
  40 life; and these are they which bear witness of me; and ye will not
  41 come to me, that ye may have life. I receive not glory from men.
  42 But I know you, that ye have not the love of God in yourselves. I
  43 am come in my Father's name, and ye receive me not: if another
  44 shall come in his own name, him ye will receive. How can ye
     believe, which receive glory one of another, and the glory that
  45 _cometh_ from [8]the only God ye seek not? Think not that I will
     accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, _even_
  46 Moses, on whom ye have set your hope. For if ye believed Moses, ye
  47 would believe me; for he wrote of me. But if ye believe not his
     writings, how shall ye believe my words?[c]

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _the feast_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _Bethsaida_, others
     _Bethzatha_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities insert, wholly or in part,
     _waiting for the moving of the water: 4 for an angel of the Lord
     went down at certain seasons into the pool, and troubled the
     water: whosoever then first after the troubling of the water
     stepped in was made whole, with whatsoever disease he was
     holden._]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Lord_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _a son of man_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _practised_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _Search the scriptures_.]

     [Footnote 8: Some ancient authorities read _the only one_.]

[Footnote a: This feast of John 5:1 was _most probably_ a Passover (see
note at end of volume, note 7). If so, we should know that our Lord's
public ministry lasted three years and a fraction, and that the great
ministry in Galilee lasted some 18 to 20 months. Otherwise, we should
know of only two years and a fraction for the former, and 6 to 8 months
for the latter; as John gives three passovers beyond question (John 2:13;
6:4; 12:1), and our Lord's ministry began some time before the first of
these. If the feast of 5:1 was not a passover, it is quite impossible to
determine what other feast it was. While one would be glad to settle
these questions, if it were possible, yet it really does not matter as
regards understanding our Lord's _recorded_ history and teachings during
the great ministry in Galilee, the only point of difference being that if
this feast was a Passover (or if there is an unmentioned Passover) we
should conceive of the three journeys about Galilee as occupying a longer
time, and including more extensive _unrecorded_ labors in preaching and
healing.]

[Footnote b: It is to be noted that John's Gospel gives the Jerusalem
Ministry of Jesus almost entirely except Galilee in ch. 2, Samaria and
Galilee in ch. 4, Galilee in ch. 6 and again in ch. 21. It seems clear
that John wrote with full knowledge of the Synoptic Gospels and
supplements them at certain points. Both Luke and John were thus critics
of the Gospel records.]

[Footnote c: Observe that here more than a year before the crucifixion,
and probably two years (_i.e._ if the feast of 5:1 was a passover or if
an unnamed passover is granted), the hostility of the Jews _at Jerusalem_
(comp. John 4:1) has reached the point of a desire to kill him, as a
sabbath breaker and a blasphemer (5:16-18). So we shall find him staying
away from Jerusalem at the passover of John 6:4, and until the
Tabernacles six months before the crucifixion (John 7:1-10). Meantime,
the hostility will go on increasing in other parts of the country (Mark
3:6, etc.).--Notice also that in this discourse at Jerusalem our Lord
repeatedly declares himself in a high sense the Son of God, and the
appointed judge of mankind (ver. 27), and says that Moses wrote
concerning him (ver. 46). All this indicated that he was the Messiah, but
he did not here expressly assert it as he did in Samaria (John 4:26).
That would have precipitated the collision, for to claim to be the
Messiah would in the view of the Jewish rulers involve _political_
consequences. Comp. John 11:48.]



§ 50. ANOTHER SABBATH CONTROVERSY WITH THE PHARISEES WHEN THE DISCIPLES
PLUCK EARS OF GRAIN IN THE FIELDS

Probably in Galilee on the Way Back from Jerusalem[a]


  Mark 2:23-28           |Matt. 12:1-8           |Luke 6:1-5
                         |                       |
  23   And it came to    | 1   At that season    | 1   Now it came to
     pass, that he was   |   Jesus went on the   |   pass on a
     going on the sabbath|   sabbath day through |   [5]sabbath, that
     day through the     |   the cornfields; and |   he was going
     cornfields; and his |   his disciples were  |   through the
     disciples [3]began, |   an hungred, and     |   cornfields [_see
     as they went, to    |   began to pluck ears |   Deut. 23:25_]; and
     pluck the ears of   |   of corn, and to eat.|   his disciples
  24 corn. And the       | 2 But the Pharisees,  |   plucked the ears
     Pharisees said unto |   when they saw it,   |   of corn, and did
     him, Behold, why do |   said unto him,      |   eat, rubbing them
     they on the sabbath |   Behold, thy         |   in their hands.
     day that which is   |   disciples do that   | 2 But certain of the
     not lawful?         |   which it is not     |   Pharisees said,
                         |   lawful to do upon   |   Why do ye that
  25             And he  | 3 the sabbath. But he |   which is not
     said unto them, Did |   said unto them, Have|   lawful to do on
     ye never read what  |   ye not read what    |   the sabbath day
     David did, when he  |   David did, when he  |   [_see John 5:10;
     had need, and was an|   was an hungred, and |   Ex. 20:10; Deut.
     hungred, he, and    |   they that were with | 3 5:14_]? And Jesus
     they that were with | 4 him; how he entered |   answering them
  26 him? How he entered |   into the house of   |   said, Have ye not
     into the house of   |   God, and [1]did eat |   read even this,
     God [4]when Abiathar|   the shewbread, which|   what David did,
     was high priest, and|   it was not lawful   |   when he was an
     did eat the         |   for him to eat,     |   hungred, he, and
     shewbread, which is |   neither for them    |   they that were
     not lawful to eat,  |   that were with him, |   with him [_see
     save for the        |   but only for the    |   Lev. 24:9; 1 Sam.
     priests, and gave   | 5 priests? Or have ye | 4 21:1-6_]; how he
     also to them that   |   not read in the law,|   entered into the
     were with him?      |   how that on the     |   house of God, and
                         |   sabbath day the     |   did take and eat
                         |   priests in the      |   the shewbread, and
                         |   temple profane the  |   gave also to them
                         |   sabbath [_see Num.  |   that were with
                         |   28:9-10_], and are  |   him; which it is
                         | 6 guiltless? But I    |   not lawful to eat
                         |   say unto you, that  |   save for the
                         |   [2]one greater than |   priests alone?
                         |   the temple is here. |
                         | 7 But if ye had known |
                         |   what this meaneth   |
  27                And  |   [_see Hos. 6:6_], I |
     he said unto them,  |   desire mercy, and   |
     The sabbath was made|   not sacrifice, ye   |
     for man, and not man|   would not have      | 5               And
  28 for the sabbath: so |   condemned the       |   he said unto them,
     that the Son of man | 8 guiltless. For the  |   The Son of man is
     is lord even of the |   Son of man is lord  |   lord of the
     sabbath.[b]         |   of the sabbath.     |   sabbath.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _they did eat_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _a greater thing_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _began to make_ their _way plucking_.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities read _in the days of
     Abiathar the high priest_.]

     [Footnote 5: Many ancient authorities insert _second-first_.]

[Footnote a: Because in Mark 3:7 Jesus withdraws to the Sea of Galilee.]

[Footnote b: Note the five arguments made by Jesus in defence of the
conduct of the disciples on the Sabbath (the historical appeal in the
conduct of David, the appeal to the law about the temple service, the
voice of prophecy, the purpose of God in the Sabbath, and the lordship of
the Messiah over the Sabbath). Jesus had already (John 5:17) argued that
he was equal to the Father and hence had the right to do certain things
(acts of mercy) on the Sabbath.]



§ 51. A THIRD[a] SABBATH CONTROVERSY WITH THE PHARISEES OVER THE HEALING
OF A MAN WITH A WITHERED HAND IN A SYNAGOGUE

In Galilee


  Mark 3:1-6             |Matt. 12:9-14          |Luke 6:6-11
                         |                       |
   1   And he entered    | 9   And he departed   | 6   And it came to
     again into the      |   thence, and went    |   pass on another
     synagogue; and there|   into their          |   sabbath, that he
     was a man there     |10 synagogue: and      |   entered into the
     which had his hand  |   behold, a man having|   synagogue and
     withered.           |   a withered hand.    |   taught: and there
                         |                       |   was a man there,
   2   And they watched  |                   And |   and his right hand
     him, whether he     |   they asked him,     | 7 was withered. And
     would heal him on   |   saying, Is it lawful|   the scribes and
     the sabbath day;    |   to heal on the      |   the Pharisees
     that they might     |   sabbath day? that   |   watched him,
     accuse him.         |   they might accuse   |   whether he would
   3             And he  |11 him. And he said    |   heal on the
     saith unto the man  |   unto them, What man |   sabbath; that they
     that had his hand   |   shall there be of   |   might find how to
     withered, [1]Stand  |   you, that shall have| 8 accuse him. But he
   4 forth. And he saith |   one sheep, and if   |   knew their
     unto them, Is it    |   this fall into a pit|   thoughts; and he
     lawful on the       |   on the sabbath day, |   said to the man
     sabbath day to do   |   will he not lay hold|   that had his hand
     good, or to do harm?|   on it, and lift it  |   withered, Rise up,
     to save a life, or  |12 out? How much then  |   and stand forth in
     to kill? But they   |   is a man of more    |   the midst. And he
     held their peace.   |   value than a sheep! |   arose and stood
   5 And when he had     |   Wherefore it is     | 9 forth. And Jesus
     looked round about  |   lawful to do good on|   said unto them, I
     on them with anger, |   the sabbath day.    |   ask you, Is it
     being grieved at the|                       |   lawful on the
     hardening of their  |                       |   sabbath to do
     heart, he saith     |                       |   good, or to do
     unto the man,       |                       |   harm? to save a
                         |                       |   life, or to
                         |                       |10 destroy it? And he
                         |                       |   looked round about
                         |13 Then saith he to the|   on them all, and
     Stretch forth thy   |   man, Stretch forth  |   said unto him,
     hand. And he        |   thy hand. And he    |   Stretch forth thy
     stretched it forth: |   stretched it forth; |   hand. And he did
     and his hand was    |   and it was restored |   _so_: and his hand
   6 restored. And the   |   whole, as the other.|11 was restored. But
     Pharisees went out, |14 But the Pharisees   |   they were filled
     and straightway with|   went out, and took  |   with [2]madness;
     the Herodians took  |   counsel against him,|   and communed one
     counsel against him,|   how they might      |   with another what
     how they might      |   destroy him.        |   they might do to
     destroy him.[b]     |                       |   Jesus.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _Arise into the midst_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _foolishness_.]

[Footnote a: On three other later occasions controversies arise with the
Pharisees concerning Sabbath observance (John 9:1-34; Luke 13:10-21;
14:1-24). In John 7:20-24 Jesus refers to the miracle in John 5 and adds
another argument (circumcision on the Sabbath) for his conduct on the
Sabbath.]

[Footnote b: Here at some point near the sea of Galilee, there is already
a plot to kill him, as some had wished to do in Jerusalem (comp. on §
49).]



_In sections 52 to 54 we see Christ choosing the Twelve Apostles and
delivering the Sermon on the Mount to them and to the multitudes._



§ 52. JESUS TEACHES AND HEALS GREAT MULTITUDES BY THE SEA OF GALILEE


  Mark 3:7-12                       |Matt. 12:15-21
                                    |
   7   And Jesus with his disciples |15   And Jesus perceiving _it_
     withdrew to the sea: and a     |   withdrew from thence: and many
     great multitude from Galilee   |   followed him;
   8 followed: and from Judea, and  |
     from Jerusalem, and from       |
     Idumæa, and beyond Jordan, and |
     about Tyre and Sidon,[a] a     |
     great multitude, hearing       |
     [2]what great things he did,   |
   9 came unto him. And he spake to |
     his disciples, that a little   |
     boat should wait on him because|
     of the crowd, lest they should |
  10 throng him: for he had healed  |   and he healed them all,
     many; insomuch that as many as |
     had [3]plagues [4]pressed upon |
     him that they might touch him. |
  11 And the unclean spirits,       |
     whensoever they beheld him,    |
     fell down before him, and      |
     cried, saying, Thou art the Son|
  12 of God. And he charged them    |
     much that they should not make |16           and charged them that
     him known.                     |   they should not make him known:
                                    |17 that it might be fulfilled
                                    |   which was spoken [1]by
                                    |   Isaiah[b] the prophet, saying,
              |18   Behold, my servant whom I have chosen;
              |     My beloved in whom my soul is well pleased:
              |     I will put my Spirit upon him,
              |     And he shall declare judgement to the Gentiles.
              |19   He shall not strive, nor cry aloud;
              |     Neither shall any one hear his voice in the streets.
              |20   A bruised reed shall he not break,
              |     And smoking flax shall he not quench,
              |     Till he send forth judgement unto victory.
              |21   And in his name shall the Gentiles hope.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _all the things that he did_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _scourges_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _fell_.]

[Footnote a: Note the wide territory from which the crowds now come, from
Idumea in the south to Phoenicia in the north and from Perea in the
east.]

[Footnote b: Isaiah 42:1-4.]



§ 53. AFTER A NIGHT OF PRAYER, JESUS SELECTS TWELVE APOSTLES


  Mark 3:13-19                      |Luke 6:12-16
                                    |
  13   And he goeth up into the     |12   And it came to pass in these
     mountain, and calleth unto him |   days, that he went out into the
     whom he himself would: and they|   mountain to pray; and he
  14 went unto him. And he appointed|   continued all night in prayer
     twelve[1], that they might be  |13 to God. And when it was day,
     with him, and that he might    |   he called his disciples: and he
  15 send them forth to preach, and |   chose from them twelve, whom
     to have authority to cast out  |   also he names apostles;[a]
  16 [2]devils; [3]and Simon he     |14 Simon, whom he also named
  17 surnamed Peter; and James the  |   Peter, and Andrew his brother,
     _son_ of Zebedee, and John the |   and James and John, and Philip
     brother of James; and them he  |   and Bartholomew,
     surnamed Boanerges, which is,  |
  18 Sons of thunder: and Andrew,   |
     and Philip, and Bartholomew,   |15                  and Matthew
     and Matthew, and Thomas, and   |   and Thomas, and James _the son_
     James the _son_ of Alphæus, and|   of Alphæus, and Simon which was
     Thaddæus, and Simon the        |16 called the Zealot, and Judas,
  19 [4]Cananæan, and Judas         |   _the [5]son_ of James, and
     Iscariot, which also betrayed  |   Judas Iscariot, which was the
     him.                           |   traitor.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities add _whom also he named
     apostles_. See Luke 6:13.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities insert _and he appointed
     twelve_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Zealot_. See Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, brother. See Jude 1.]

[Footnote a: Matthew postpones giving the names of the Twelve till they
are sent out to preach in Galilee (Matt. 10:1-4. § 70). There is a fourth
list in Acts 1:13. See the four compared in note at the end of this
volume, note 8.]



§ 54. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. PRIVILEGES AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE
MESSIANIC REIGN. CHRIST'S STANDARD OF RIGHTEOUSNESS

_Matthew, chapters 5-7. Luke 6:17-49._[a]

A level place on a mountain, not far from Capernaum

[Footnote a: There is little doubt that the discourses given by Matthew
and Luke are the same, Matthew locating it on "the mountain," and Luke
"on a level place," which might easily be a level spot on a mountain.
(See note at end of this book, note 9.) Observe that they begin and end
alike, and pursue the same general order. Luke omits various matters of
special interest to Matthew's Jewish readers (_e.g._ Matt. 5:17-42), and
other matters that he himself will give elsewhere (_e.g._ Luke 11:1-4;
12:22-31); while Luke has a few sentences (as ver. 24-26, 38-40), which
are not given by Matthew.]


_The Place and the Audience_


  Matt. 5:1-2                       |Luke 6:17-19
                                    |
   1   And seeing the multitudes, he|17   And he came down with them,
     went up into the mountain: and |   and stood on a level place, and
     when he had sat down, his      |   a great multitude of his
   2 disciples came unto him: and he|   disciples, and a great number
     opened his mouth and taught    |   of the people from all Judea
     them, saying,                  |   and Jerusalem, and the sea
                                    |   coast of Tyre and Sidon, which
                                    |   came to hear him, and to be
                                    |18 healed of their diseases; and
                                    |   they that were troubled with
                                    |   unclean spirits were healed.
                                    |19 And all the multitude sought to
                                    |   touch him: for power came forth
                                    |   from him, and healed _them_
                                    |   all.


_1. The Introduction: The Beatitudes and the Woes. Privileges of the
Messiah's Subjects_


  Matt. 5:3-12                      |Luke 6:20-26
                                    |
   3   Blessed are the poor in      |20   And he lifted up his eyes on
     spirit: for theirs is the      |   his disciples, and said,
   4 kingdom of heaven. [1]Blessed  |   Blessed _are_ ye poor: for
     are they that mourn [_see Isa. |   yours is the kingdom of God.
     61:3_]: for they shall be      |21 Blessed _are_ ye that hunger
   5 comforted. Blessed are the     |   now: for ye shall be filled.
     meek: for they shall inherit   |   Blessed _are_ ye that weep now:
     the earth [_see Ps. 37:11_].   |22 for ye shall laugh. Blessed are
   6 Blessed are they that hunger   |   ye, when men shall hate you,
     and thirst after righteousness:|   and when they shall separate
     for they shall be filled [_see |   you _from their company_, and
   7 Ps. 55_]. Blessed are the      |   reproach you, and cast out your
     merciful: for they shall obtain|   name as evil, for the Son of
     mercy [_see Ps. 18:25; Prov.   |23 man's sake. Rejoice in that
   8 11:17_]. Blessed are the pure  |   day, and leap _for joy_: for
     in heart: for they shall see   |   behold, your reward is great in
   9 God [_see Ps. 24:3-5_]. Blessed|   heaven: for in the same manner
     are the peacemakers: for they  |   did their fathers unto the
     shall be called sons of God.   |24 prophets. But woe unto you that
  10 Blessed are they that have been|   are rich! for ye have received
     persecuted for righteousness'  |25 your consolation. Woe unto you,
     sake: for theirs is the kingdom|   ye that are full now! for ye
  11 of heaven. Blessed are ye when |   shall hunger. Woe _unto you_,
     _men_ shall reproach you, and  |   ye that laugh now! for ye shall
     persecute you, and say all     |26 mourn and weep. Woe _unto you_,
     manner of evil against you     |   when all men shall speak well
  12 falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, |   of you! for in the same manner
     and be exceeding glad: for     |   did their fathers to the false
     great is your reward in heaven:|   prophets.
     for so persecuted they the     |
     prophets which were before you.|

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities transpose verses 4 and 5.]


_2. The Theme of the Sermon: Christ's Standard of Righteousness in
Contrast with that of the Scribes and Pharisees_


  Matt. 5:13-20

  13   Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost its
     savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for
     nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under foot of men [_see
  14 Mark 9:50; Jesus often repeated his sayings_]. Ye are the light of
  15 the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hid. Neither do _men_
     light a lamp, and put it under the bushel, but on the stand; and
     it shineth unto all that are in the house [_see Mark 4:21; Luke
  16 8:16_]. Even so let your light shine before men, that they may see
     your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
  17   Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets: I came
  18 not to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till
     heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise
  19 pass away from the law, till all things be accomplished. Whosoever
     therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall
     teach men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven: but
     whosoever shall do and teach them, he shall be called great in the
  20 kingdom of heaven. For I say unto you, that except your
     righteousness shall exceed _the righteousness_ of the scribes and
     Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven.


_3. Christ's Ethical Teaching Superior to that of the Scribes (both the
Old Testament and the Oral Law) in Six Items or Illustrations (Murder,
Adultery, Divorce, Oaths, Retaliation, Love of Enemies)_


  Matt. 5:21-48

  21   Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt
     not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the
  22 judgement [_see Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17_]: but I say unto you, that
     every one who is angry with his brother[1] shall be in danger of
     the judgement; and whosoever shall say to his brother, [2]Raca,
     shall be in danger of the council; and whosoever shall say, [3]Thou
  23 fool, shall be in danger [4]of the [5]hell of fire. If therefore
     thou art offering thy gift at the altar, and there rememberest
  24 that thy brother hath aught against thee, leave there thy gift
     before the altar, and go thy way, first be reconciled to thy
  25 brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Agree with thine
     adversary quickly, whiles thou art with him in the way; lest haply
     the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge [6]deliver
  26 thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily I say
     unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou have
     paid the last farthing.
  27   Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt not commit adultery
  28 [_see Ex. 20:14; Deut. 5:18_]: but I say unto you, that every one
     that looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery
  29 with her already in his heart. And if thy right eye causeth thee
     to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is
     profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not
  30 thy whole body be cast into [7]hell. And if thy right hand causeth
     thee to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is
     profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not
  31 thy whole body go into [7]hell. It was said also, Whosoever shall
     put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement [_see
  32 Deut. 24:1_]: but I say unto you, that every one that putteth away
     his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, maketh her an
     adulteress: and whosoever shall marry her when she is put away
     committeth adultery.[a]
  33   Again, ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou
     shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine
     oaths [_see Lev. 19:12; Num. 30:2; Ex. 20:7; Deut. 5:11; 23:21_]:
  34 but I say unto you, Swear not at all [_see Matt. 26:63-64_];
  35 neither by the heaven, for it is the throne of God; nor by the
     earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor [8]by Jerusalem,
  36 for it is the city of the great King [_see Isa. 66:1_]. Neither
     shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair
  37 white or black [_see Ps. 48:2_]. [9]But let your speech be, Yea,
     yea; Nay, nay: and whatsoever is more than these is of [10]the
     evil _one_.
  38   Ye have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth
  39 for a tooth [_see Ex. 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21_]: but I say
     unto you, Resist not [11]him that is evil: but whosoever smiteth
     thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also [_see John
  40 18:23_]. And if any man would go to law with thee, and take away
  41 the coat, let him have thy cloke also. And whosoever shall
  42 [12]compel thee to go one mile, go with him twain. Give to him that
     asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou
     away.
  43   Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour
     [_see Lev. 19:18; Deut. 23:6; 25:19_], and hate thine enemy:

                                    |Luke 6:27-30, 32-36
                                    |
  44 but I say unto you [_see Luke  |27 But I say unto you which hear,
     23:34_], Love your enemies, and|   Love your enemies, do good to
     pray for them that persecute   |28 them that hate you, bless them
  45 you; that ye may be sons of    |   that curse you, pray for them
     your Father which is in heaven:|29 that despitefully use you. To
     for he maketh his sun to rise  |   him that smiteth thee on the
     on the evil and the good, and  |   _one_ cheek offer also the
     sendeth rain on the just and   |   other; and from him that taketh
     the unjust.                    |   away thy cloke withhold not thy
                                    |30 coat also. Give to every one
                                    |   that asketh thee; and of him
                                    |   that taketh away thy goods ask
  46             For if ye love them|32 them not again. And if ye love
     that love you, what reward have|   them that love you, what thank
     ye? do not even the            |   have ye? for even sinners love
  47 [13]publicans the same? And if |33 those that love them. And if ye
     ye salute your brethren only,  |   do good to them that do good to
     what do ye more _than others_? |   you, what thank have ye? for
     do not even the Gentiles the   |34 even sinners do the same. And
  48 same? Ye therefore shall be    |   if ye lend to them of whom ye
     perfect, as your heavenly      |   hope to receive, what thank
     Father is perfect.             |   have ye? even sinners lend to
                                    |   sinners, to receive again as
                                    |35 much. But love your enemies,
                                    |   and do _them_ good, and lend,
                                    |   [14]never despairing; and your
                                    |   reward shall be great, and ye
                                    |   shall be sons of the Most High:
                                    |   for he is kind toward the
                                    |36 unthankful and evil. Be ye
                                    |   merciful, even as your Father
                                    |   is merciful.

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities insert _without cause_.]

     [Footnote 2: An expression of contempt.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _Moreh_, a Hebrew expression of condemnation.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _unto_ or _into_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _Gehenna of fire_.]

     [Footnote 6: Some ancient authorities omit _deliver thee_.]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _Gehenna_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _toward_.]

     [Footnote 9: Some ancient authorities read _But your speech shall
     be_.]

     [Footnote 10: Or, _evil_: as in ver. 39; 6:13.]

     [Footnote 11: Or, _evil_.]

     [Footnote 12: Gr. _impress_.]

     [Footnote 13: That is, _collectors or renters of Roman taxes_:
     and so elsewhere.]

     [Footnote 14: Some ancient authorities read _despairing of no
     man_.]

[Footnote a: See further Mark 9:43-47; 10:11-12; Matt. 18:8-9; 19:9.]


_4. The Practice of Real Righteousness unlike the Ostentatious Hypocrisy
of the Pharisees, as in Almsgiving, Prayer, Fasting_


  Matt. 6:1-18

   1   Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men, to be
     seen of them: else ye have no reward with your Father which is in
     heaven.
   2   When therefore thou doest alms, sound not a trumpet before thee,
     as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that
     they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have
   3 received their reward. But when thou doest alms, let not thy left
   4 hand know what thy right hand doeth: that thine alms may be in
     secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret shall recompense
     thee.
   5   And when ye pray, ye shall not be as the hypocrites: for they
     love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the
     streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They
   6 have received their reward. But thou, when thou prayest, enter
     into thine inner chamber, and having shut thy door, pray to thy
     Father which is in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret
   7 shall recompense thee. And in praying use not vain repetitions, as
     the Gentiles do: for they think that they shall be heard for their
   8 much speaking. Be not therefore like unto them: for [1]your Father
   9 knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him. After this
     manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed
  10 by thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so
  11 on earth. Give us this day [2]our daily bread. And forgive us our
  12 debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And bring us not into
  13 temptation, but deliver us from [3]the evil _one_.[4] For if ye
  14 forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also
  15 forgive you. But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither
     will your Father forgive your trespasses.
  16   Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad
     countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen
     of men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have received their
  17 reward. But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy
  18 face; that thou be not seen of men to fast, but of thy Father
     which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall
     recompense thee.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _God your Father_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _our bread for the coming day_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _evil_.]

     [Footnote 4: Many authorities, some ancient, but with variations,
     add _For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for
     ever. Amen._]


_5. Single-hearted Devotion to God, as Opposed to Worldly Aims and
Anxieties_


  Matt. 6:19-34

  19   Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon the earth, where moth
     and rust doth consume, and where thieves [1]break through and
  20 steal: but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither
     moth nor rust doth consume, and where thieves do not [1]break
  21 through nor steal: for where thy treasure is, there will thy heart
  22 be also. The lamp of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be
  23 single, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be
     evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the
  24 light that is in thee be darkness, how great is the darkness! No
     man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and
     love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the
  25 other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. Therefore I say unto you,
     Be not anxious for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall
     drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the
  26 life more than the food, and the body than the raiment? Behold
     the birds of the heaven, that they sow not, neither do they reap,
     nor gather into barns; and your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are
  27 not ye of much more value than they? And which of you by being
  28 anxious can add one cubit unto his [2]stature? And why are ye
     anxious concerning raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how
  29 they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: yet I say unto
     you, that even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one
  30 of these. But if God doth so clothe the grass of the field, which
     to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, _shall he_ not
  31 much more _clothe_ you, O ye of little faith? Be not therefore
     anxious, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or,
  32 Wherewithal shall we be clothed? For after all these things do the
     Gentiles seek; for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need
  33 of all these things. But seek ye first his kingdom, and his
  34 righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. Be
     not therefore anxious for the morrow: for the morrow will be
     anxious for itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _dig through_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _age_.]


_6. Captious Criticism, or Judging Others_


  Matt. 7:1-6                       |Luke 6:37-42
                                    |
   1   Judge not, that ye be not    |37 And judge not, and ye shall not
   2 judged. For with what judgement|   be judged: and condemn not, and
     ye judge, ye shall be judged:  |   ye shall not be condemned:
     and with what measure ye mete, |   release, and ye shall be
     it shall be measured unto you. |38 released: give, and it shall be
                                    |   given unto you; good measure,
                                    |   pressed down, shaken together,
                                    |   running over, shall they give
                                    |   into your bosom. For with what
                                    |   measure ye mete it shall be
                                    |   measured to you again.
                                    |39   And he spake also a parable
                                    |   unto them, Can the blind guide
                                    |   the blind? shall they not both
                                    |40 fall into a pit? The disciple
                                    |   is not above his [1]master: but
                                    |   every one when he is perfected
                                    |41 shall be as his [1]master. And
   3 And why beholdest thou the     |   why beholdest thou the mote
     mote that is in thy brother's  |   that is in thy brother's eye,
     eye, but considerest not the   |   but considerest not the beam
     beam that is in thine own eye? |42 that is in thine own eye? Or
   4 Or how wilt thou say to thy    |   how canst thou say to thy
     brother, Let me cast out the   |   brother, Brother, let me cast
     mote out of thine eye; and lo, |   out the mote that is in thine
     the beam is in thine own eye?  |   eye, when thou thyself
   5 Thou hypocrite, cast out first |   beholdest not the beam that is
     the beam out of thine own eye; |   in thine own eye? Thou
     and then shalt thou see clearly|   hypocrite, cast out first the
     to cast out the mote out of thy|   beam out of thine own eye, and
     brother's eye.                 |   then shalt thou see clearly to
   6   Give not that which is holy  |   cast out the mote that is in
     unto the dogs, neither cast    |   thy brother's eye.
     your pearls before the swine,  |
     lest haply they trample them   |
     under their feet, and turn and |
     rend you.                      |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _teacher_.]


_7. Prayer, and the Golden Rule_


  Matt. 7:7-12

   7   Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock,
   8 and it shall be opened unto you: for every one that asketh
     receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh
   9 it shall be opened. Or what man is there of you, who, if his son
  10 shall ask him for a loaf, will give him a stone; or if he shall
  11 ask for a fish, will give him a serpent? If ye then, being evil,
     know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall
     your Father which is in heaven |
     give good things to them that  |
  12 ask him? All things therefore  |Luke 6:31
     whatsoever ye would that men   |
     should do unto you, even so do |31   And as ye would that men
     ye also unto them: for this is |   should do to you, do ye also to
     the law and the prophets.      |   them likewise.


_8. The Conclusion of the Sermon. The Lesson of Personal Righteousness
Driven Home by Powerful Parables_


  Matt. 7:13 to 8:1

  13   Enter ye in by the narrow gate: for wide [1]is the gate, and
     broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many be they
  14 that enter in thereby. [2]For narrow is the gate, and straitened
     the way, that leadeth unto life, and few be they that find it.
  15   Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing,
  16 but inwardly are ravening wolves. By their fruits ye shall know
  17 them. Do _men_ gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even
     so every good tree bringeth    |
     forth good fruit: but the      |Luke 6:43-49
     corrupt tree bringeth forth    |
  18 evil fruit. A good tree cannot |43   For there is no good tree that
     bring forth evil fruit, neither|   bringeth forth corrupt fruit;
     can a corrupt tree bring forth |   nor again a corrupt tree that
  19 good fruit. Every tree that    |44 bringeth forth good fruit. For
     bringeth not forth good fruit  |   each tree is known by its own
     is hewn down, and cast into the|   fruit. For of thorns men do not
  20 fire. Therefore by their fruits|   gather figs, nor of a bramble
  21 ye shall know them. Not every  |45 bush gather they grapes. The
     one that saith unto me, Lord,  |   good man out of the good
     Lord, shall enter the kingdom  |   treasure of his heart bringeth
     of heaven; but he that doeth   |   forth that which is good; and
     the will of my Father which is |   the evil _man_ out of the evil
  22 in heaven. Many will say to me |   _treasure_ bringeth forth that
     in that day, Lord, Lord, did we|   which is evil: for out of the
     not prophesy by thy name, and  |   abundance of the heart his mouth
     by thy name cast out [3]devils,|   speaketh.
     and by thy name do many        |46   And why call ye me, Lord,
  23 [4]mighty works? And then will |   Lord, and do not the things
     I profess unto them, I never   |   which I say?
     knew you: depart from me, ye   |
  24 that work iniquity. Every one  |47   Every one that cometh unto me,
     therefore which heareth these  |   and heareth my words, and doeth
     words of mine, and doeth them, |   them, I will shew you to whom
     shall be likened unto a wise   |48 he is like: he is like a man
     man, which built his house upon|   building a house, who digged
  25 the rock: and the rain         |   and went deep, and laid a
     descended, and the floods came,|   foundation upon a rock: and
     and the winds blew, and beat   |   when a flood arose, the stream
     upon that house; and it fell   |   brake against that house, and
     not: for it was founded upon   |   could not shake it: [5]because
  26 the rock. And every one that   |49 it had been well builded. But
     heareth these words of mine,   |   he that heareth, and doeth not,
     and doeth them not, shall be   |   is like a man that built a
     likened unto a foolish man,    |   house upon the earth without a
     which built his house upon the |   foundation; against which the
  27 sand: and the rain descended,  |   stream brake, and straightway
     and the floods came, and the   |   it fell in; and the ruin of
     winds blew, and smote upon that|   that house was great.
     house; and it fell: and great  |
     was the fall thereof.          |
  28   And it came to pass, when Jesus ended these words, the multitudes
  29 were astonished at his teaching: for he taught them as _one_
     having authority, and not as their scribes.
   1   And when he was come down from the mountain, great multitudes
     followed him.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit _is the gate_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities read _How narrow is the
     gate, &c._]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _powers_.]

     [Footnote 5: Many ancient authorities read _for it had been
     founded upon the rock:_ as in Matt. 7:25.]



_In sections 55 to 58 we see the rapid spread of Christ's influence and
the inquiry from the Baptist in prison._[a]

[Footnote a: Here we have only Matthew and Luke, a block from the Logia
of Matthew.]



§ 55. JESUS HEALS A CENTURION'S SERVANT AT CAPERNAUM


  Matt. 8:5-13                      |Luke 7:1-10
                                    |
   5   And when he was entered into | 1   After he had ended all his
     Capernaum, there came unto him |   sayings in the ears of the
     a centurion,                   |   people, he entered into
                                    |   Capernaum.
                                    | 2   And a certain centurion's
                                    |   [5]servant, who was [8]dear
                                    |   unto him, was sick and at the
                                    | 3 point of death. And when he
                                    |   heard concerning Jesus, he sent
                                    |   unto him elders of the Jews,
                   beseeching him,  |   asking him that he would come
   6 and saying, Lord, my [1]servant| 4 and save his [5]servant. And
     lieth in the house sick of the |   they, when they came to Jesus,
     palsy, grievously tormented.   |   besought him earnestly, saying,
                                    |   He is worthy that thou shouldest
                                    | 5 do this for him: for he loveth
                                    |   our nation, and himself built
   7 And he saith unto him, I will  | 6 us our synagogue. And Jesus
     come and heal him.             |   went with them. And when he was
                                    |   now not far from the house, the
                                    |   centurion sent friends to him,
   8 And the centurion answered     |   saying unto him, Lord, trouble
     and said, Lord, I am not       |   not thyself: for I am not
     [2]worthy that thou shouldest  |   [2]worthy that thou shouldest
     come under my roof: but only   | 7 come under my roof: wherefore
     say [3]the word, and my        |   neither thought I myself worthy
     [1]servant shall be healed.    |   to come unto thee: but say
                                    |   [3]the word, and my [1]servant
                                    | 8 shall be healed. For I also am
   9 For I also am a man [4]under   |   a man set under authority,
     authority, having under myself |   having under myself soldiers:
     soldiers: and I say to this    |   and I say to this one, Go, and
     one, Go, and he goeth; and to  |   he goeth; and to another, Come,
     another, Come, and he cometh;  |   and he cometh; and to my
     and to my [5]servant, Do this, |   [5]servant, Do this, and he
  10 and he doeth it. And when Jesus| 9 doeth it. And when Jesus heard
     heard it, he marvelled, and    |   these things, he marvelled at
     said to them that followed,    |   him, and turned and said unto
     Verily I say unto you, [6]I    |   the multitude that followed
     have not found so great faith, |   him, I say unto you, I have not
  11 no, not in Israel. And I say   |   found so great faith, no, not
     unto you, that many shall come |   in Israel.
     from the east and the west, and|
     shall [7]sit down with Abraham,|
     and Isaac, and Jacob, in the   |
     kingdom of heaven [_see Ps.    |
  12 107:3; Isa. 49:12_]: but the   |
     sons of the kingdom shall be   |
     cast forth into the outer      |
     darkness: there shall be       |
     weeping and gnashing of teeth. |
  13 And Jesus said unto the        |
     centurion, Go thy way; as thou |
     hast believed _so_ be it done  |10           And they that were
     unto thee. And the [1]servant  |   sent, returning to the house,
     was healed in that hour.       |   found the [5]servant whole.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _boy_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _sufficient_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _with a word_.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities insert _set_: as in Luke
     7:8.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 6: Many ancient authorities read _With no man in Israel
     have I found so great faith_.]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _recline_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _precious to him_; or, _honourable with him_.]



§ 56. HE RAISES A WIDOW'S SON AT NAIN


  Luke 7:11-17

  11   And it came to pass [1]soon afterwards, that he went to a city
     called Nain; and his disciples went with him, and a great
  12 multitude. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold,
     there was carried out one that was dead, the only son of his
     mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with
  13 her. And when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said
  14 unto her, Weep not. And he came nigh and touched the bier: and the
     bearers stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee,
  15 Arise. And he that was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he
  16 gave him to his mother. And fear took hold on all: and they
     glorified God, saying, A great prophet is arisen among us: and,
  17 God hath visited his people. And this report went forth concerning
     him in the whole of Judea, and the region round about.

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _on the next day_.]



§ 57. THE MESSAGE[a] FROM THE BAPTIST AND THE EULOGY OF JESUS

Galilee


  Matt. 11:2-19                     |Luke 7:18-35
                                    |
   2   Now when John heard in the   |18   And the disciples of John told
     prison[b] the works of the     |19 him of all these things. And
     Christ, he sent by his         |   John calling unto him [10]two
   3 disciples, and said unto him,  |   of his disciples sent them to
     Art thou he that cometh, or    |   the Lord, saying, Art thou he
   4 look we for another?           |   that cometh, or look we for
                                    |20 another? And when the men were
                                    |   come unto him, they said, John
                                    |   the Baptist hath sent us unto
                                    |   thee, saying, Art thou he that
                                    |   cometh, or look we for another?
                                    |21 In that hour he cured many of
                                    |   diseases and [11]plagues and
                                    |   evil spirits; and on many that
                          And Jesus |   were blind he bestowed sight.
     answered and said unto them, Go|22 And he answered and said unto
     your way and tell John the     |   them, Go your way, and tell
     things which ye do hear and    |   John what things ye have seen
   5 see: the blind receive their   |   and heard [_see Isa. 29:18-19;
     sight, and the lame walk, the  |   35:5-6; 61:1_]; the blind
     lepers are cleansed, and the   |   receive their sight, the lame
     deaf hear, and the dead are    |   walk, the lepers are cleansed,
     raised up, and the poor have   |   and the deaf hear, the dead are
     [1]good tidings preached to    |   raised up, the poor have
   6 them. And blessed is he,       |   [1]good tidings preached to
     whosoever shall find none      |23 them. And blessed is he,
     occasion of stumbling in me.   |   whosoever shall find none
                                    |   occasion of stumbling in me.
   7   And as these went their way, |24   And when the messengers of
     Jesus began to say unto the    |   John were departed, he began to
     multitudes concerning John,    |   say unto the multitudes
     What went ye out into the      |   concerning John, What went ye
     wilderness to behold? a reed   |   out into the wilderness to
   8 shaken with the wind? But what |   behold? a reed shaken with the
     went ye out for to see? a man  |25 wind? But what went ye out to
     clothed in soft _raiment_?     |   see? a man clothed in soft
     Behold, they that wear soft    |   raiment? Behold, they which are
     _raiment_ are in kings' houses.|   gorgeously apparelled, and live
   9 [2]But wherefore went ye out?  |   delicately, are in kings'
     to see a prophet? Yea, I say   |26 courts. But what went ye out to
     unto you, and much more than a |   see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto
  10 prophet. This is he, of whom it|   you, and much more than a
     is written,                    |27 prophet. This is he of whom it
       Behold, I send my messenger  |   is written,
         before thy face,           |     Behold, I send my messenger
       Who shall prepare thy way    |       before thy face,
         before thee.               |     Who shall prepare thy way
  11 Verily I say unto you, Among   |       before thee [_see Mal.
     them that are born of women    |       3:1_].
     there hath not arisen a greater|28 I say unto you, Among them that
     than John the Baptist: yet he  |   are born of women there is none
     that is [3]but little in the   |   greater than John: yet he that
     kingdom of heaven is greater   |   is [3]but little in the kingdom
  12 than he. And from the days of  |   of God is greater than he.
     John the Baptist until now the |
     kingdom of heaven suffereth    |
     violence, and men of violence  |
     take it by force [_see Luke    |
  13 16:17_]. For all the prophets  |
     and the law prophesied until   |
  14 John. And if ye are willing to |
     receive [4]it, this is Elijah, |
     which is to come [_see Mal.    |
  15 4:5_]. He that hath ears [5]to |
     hear, let him hear.            |
                                    |29                            And
                                    |   all the people when they heard,
                                    |   and the publicans, justified
                                    |   God, [12]being baptized with
                                    |30 the baptism of John. But the
                                    |   Pharisees and the lawyers
                                    |   rejected for themselves the
                                    |   counsel of God, [13]being not
                                    |31 baptized of him. Whereunto then
  16 But whereunto shall I liken    |   shall I liken the men of this
     this generation? It is like[c] |   generation, and to what are
     unto children sitting in the   |32 they like? They are like unto
     marketplaces, which call unto  |   children that sit in the
  17 their fellows, and say, We     |   marketplace, and call one to
     piped unto you, and ye did not |   another; which say, We piped
     dance; we wailed, and ye did   |   unto you, and ye did not dance;
  18 not [6]mourn.                  |   we wailed, and ye did not weep.
                   For John came    |33 For John the Baptist is come
     neither eating nor drinking,   |   eating no bread nor drinking
     and they say, He hath a        |   wine; and ye say, He hath a
  19 [7]devil. The Son of man came  |34 [7]devil. The Son of man is
     eating and drinking, and they  |   come eating and drinking; and
     say, Behold, a gluttonous man, |   ye say, Behold, a gluttonous
     and a winebibber, a friend of  |   man, and a winebibber, a friend
     publicans and sinners! And     |35 of publicans and sinners! And
     wisdom [8]is justified by her  |   wisdom [8]is justified of all
     [9]works.                      |   her children.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _the gospel_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities read _But what went ye out
     to see? a prophet?_]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _lesser_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, him.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities omit _to hear_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _beat the breast_.]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _was_.]

     [Footnote 9: Many ancient authorities read _children_: as in Luke
     7:35.]

     [Footnote 10: Gr. _certain two_.]

     [Footnote 11: Gr. _scourges_.]

     [Footnote 12: Or, _having been_.]

     [Footnote 13: Or, _not having been_.]

[Footnote a: Observe that his fame as having raised the dead, and as
being "a great prophet," spread widely, and reaching John, led to his
message of inquiry (connect Luke 7:17 and 18).]

[Footnote b: John's prison was at Machærus, east of the Dead Sea. Jesus
was somewhere in Galilee, probably near Nain, which was in the southern
part of Galilee.]

[Footnote c: Parable of the Children Playing in the Market Place.]



§ 58. WOES UPON THE CITIES OF OPPORTUNITY. THE CLAIMS OF CHRIST AS THE
TEACHER ABOUT THE FATHER.

Galilee


  Matt. 11:20-30

  20   Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his [1]mighty
  21 works were done, because they repented not. Woe unto thee,
     Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the [1]mighty works had
     been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would
  22 have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. Howbeit I say unto
     you, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of
  23 judgement, than for you [_see Isa. 14:13-15_]. And thou,
     Capernaum, shalt thou be exalted unto heaven? thou shalt [2]go
     down unto Hades: for if the [1]mighty works had been done in Sodom
     which were done in thee, it would have remained until this day.
  24 Howbeit I say unto you, that it shall be more tolerable for the
     land of Sodom in the day of judgement, than for thee [_see Gen.
     19:24_].
  25   At that season Jesus answered and said, I [3]thank thee, O Father
     [_see John 3:35; 17:2_], Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst
     hide these things from the wise and understanding, and didst
  26 reveal them unto babes: yea, Father, [4]for so it was
  27 well-pleasing in thy sight. All things have been delivered unto me
     of my Father: and no one knoweth the Son, save the Father; neither
     doth any know the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the
  28 Son willeth to reveal _him_. Come unto me, all ye that labour and
  29 are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke[a] upon
     you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye
  30 shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my
     burden is light [_see Jer. 6:16; Sirach 51:23_].

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _powers_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities read _be brought down_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _praise_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _that_.]

[Footnote a: Rabbinical figure for going to school. Jesus thus definitely
pictures himself as the expert on God in a Johannean passage (_cf._ Luke
10:21-24). He conceives himself as the Teacher who alone is able to
interpret the Father.]



§ 59. THE ANOINTING[a] OF CHRIST'S FEET BY A SINFUL WOMAN IN THE HOUSE OF
SIMON A PHARISEE. THE PARABLE OF THE TWO DEBTORS

Galilee


  Luke 7:36-50

  36   And one of the Pharisees desired him that he would eat with him.
     And he entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat down to meat.
  37 And behold, a woman which was in the city, a sinner; and when she
     knew that he was sitting at meat in the Pharisee's house, she
  38 brought [1]an alabaster cruse of ointment, and standing behind at
     his feet, weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and
     wiped them with the hair of her head, and [2]kissed his feet, and
  39 anointed them with the ointment. Now when the Pharisee which had
     bidden him saw it, he spake within himself, saying, This man, if
     he were [3]a prophet, would have perceived who and what manner of
  40 woman this is which toucheth him, that she is a sinner. And Jesus
     answering said unto him, Simon, I have somewhat to say unto thee.
  41 And he saith, [4]Master, say on. A certain lender had two debtors:
  42 the one owed five hundred [5]pence, and the other fifty. When they
     had not _wherewith_ to pay, he forgave them both. Which of them
  43 therefore will love him most? Simon answered and said, He, I
     suppose, to whom he forgave the most. And he said unto him, Thou
  44 hast rightly judged. And turning to the woman, he said unto Simon,
     Seest thou this woman? I entered into thine house, thou gavest me
     no water for my feet: but she hath wetted my feet with her tears,
  45 and wiped them with her hair. Thou gavest me no kiss: but she,
  46 since the time I came in, hath not ceased to [6]kiss my feet. My
     head with oil thou didst not anoint: but she hath anointed my feet
  47 with ointment. Wherefore I say unto thee, Her sins, which are
     many, are forgiven; for she loved much: but to whom little is
  48 forgiven, _the same_ loveth little. And he said unto her, Thy sins
  49 are forgiven. And they that sat at meat with him began to say
  50 [7]within themselves, Who is this that even forgiveth sins? And he
     said unto the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a flask_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _kissed much_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities read _the prophet_. See John
     1:21, 25.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 5: The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about
     seventeen cents.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _kiss much_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _among_.]

[Footnote a: This anointing in Galilee must be distinct from the
anointing at Bethany, near Jerusalem, more than a year later. This sinful
and penitent woman is represented by a very late tradition as being Mary
Magdalene, and hence all the popular uses of the term Magdalen. But that
notion has no historical support whatever, and it becomes violently
improbable when we find that in the very next paragraph Luke introduces
Mary Magdalene as a new figure in the history. Some men even identify
Mary of Bethany with this woman that was a sinner and also with Mary
Magdalene, a medley of medieval mysticism.]



_In sections 60 to 63 Jesus makes a second (three in all) tour of
Galilee, this time with all the Twelve. Intense hostility of the
Pharisees is aroused by the work. They make the blasphemous accusation
that Jesus is in league with Satan. Even the kindred of Jesus fear that
he is beside himself because of the excitement and the charges._



§ 60. THE SECOND TOUR OF GALILEE


  Luke 8:1-3

   1   And it came to pass soon afterwards, that he went about through
     cities and villages, preaching and bringing the [1]good tidings of
   2 the kingdom of God, and with him the twelve, and certain women
     which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary that
   3 was called Magdalene, from whom seven [2]devils had gone out, and
     Joanna the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many
     others, which ministered unto [3]them of their substance.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _gospel_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities read _him_.]



_Notice that the events of §§ 61-66 all occurred on the same day, called
the Busy Day._[a]

[Footnote a: This "Busy Day" is just one of many such days in the
Master's Ministry. See, for instance, the last day of his public ministry
in the temple in Jerusalem. Observe Jesus in the _forenoon_ teaching a
crowded audience (Mark 3:19), some of whom insult and blaspheme him, and
others demand a sign, and at length his mother and brethren try to carry
him off as insane (comp. Mark 3:21); in the _afternoon_ giving a group of
most remarkable parables, several of which he interprets; towards night
crossing the Lake in a boat, so tired and worn that he sleeps soundly
amid the alarming storm; then healing the Gadarene demoniacs, and
returning by boat, apparently the same evening. What a day of toil and
trial.]



§ 61. BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION OF LEAGUE WITH BEELZEBUB

Galilee


  Mark 3:19-30                      |Matt. 12:22-37
                                    |
  19   And he cometh into a house.  |
  20 And the multitude cometh       |
     together again, so that they   |
     could not so much as eat bread.|
  21 And when his friends heard it, |
     they went out to lay hold on   |
     him: for they said, He is      |
     beside himself.                |
                                    |22   Then was brought unto him
                                    |   [1]one possessed with a devil,
  22 And the scribes which came     |   blind and dumb: and he healed
     down from Jerusalem said, He   |   him, insomuch that the dumb man
     hath Beelzebub, and, [3]By the |23 spake and saw. And all the
     prince of the [2]devils casteth|   multitudes were amazed, and
  23 he out the [2]devils. And he   |   said, Is this the son of David?
     called them unto him, and said |24 But when the Pharisees heard
     unto them in parables, How can |   it, they said, This man doth
  24 Satan cast out Satan? And if a |   cast out [2]devils, but [3]by
     kingdom be divided against     |   Beelzebub the prince of the
     itself, that kingdom cannot    |   [2]devils [_see John 7:20;
  25 stand. And if a house be       |25 8:48, 52; 10:20_].[a] And
     divided against itself, that   |   knowing their thoughts he said
     house will not be able to      |   unto them, Every kingdom
  26 stand. And if Satan hath risen |   divided against itself is
     up against himself, and is     |   brought to desolation; and
     divided, he cannot stand, but  |   every city or house divided
     hath an end.                   |   against itself shall not stand:
                                    |26 and if Satan casteth out Satan,
                                    |   he is divided against himself;
                                    |   how then shall his kingdom
                                    |27 stand? And if I [3]by Beelzebub
                                    |   cast out [2]devils, [3]by whom
                                    |   do your sons cast them out?
  27              But no one can    |   therefore shall they be your
     enter into the house of the    |28 judges. But if I [3]by the
     strong _man_, and spoil his    |   Spirit of God cast out
     goods, except he first bind the|   [2]devils, then is the kingdom
     strong _man_; and then he will |29 of God come upon you. Or how
  28 spoil his house.               |   can one enter into the house of
                                    |   the strong _man_, and spoil his
                                    |   goods, except he first bind the
                                    |   strong _man_? and then he will
                      Verily I say  |30 spoil his house. He that is not
     unto you, All their sins shall |   with me is against me; and he
     be forgiven unto the sons of   |   that gathereth not with me
     men, and their blasphemies     |31 scattereth. Therefore I say
     wherewith soever they shall    |   unto you, Every sin and
  29 blaspheme: but whosoever shall |   blasphemy shall be forgiven
     blaspheme against the Holy     |   [4]unto men; but the blasphemy
     Spirit hath never forgiveness, |   against the Spirit shall not be
     but is guilty of an eternal    |32 forgiven. And whosoever shall
  30 sin: because they said, He hath|   speak a word against the Son of
     an unclean spirit.             |   man, it shall be forgiven him;
                                    |   but whosoever shall speak
                                    |   against the Holy Spirit, it
                                    |   shall not be forgiven him,
  33 neither in this [5]world, nor in that which is to come. Either make
     the tree good, and its fruit good; or make the tree corrupt, and
  34 its fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by its fruit. Ye offspring
     of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of
  35 the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. The good man out of
     his good treasure bringeth forth good things: and the evil man
  36 out of his evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. And I say unto
     you, that every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give
  37 account thereof in the day of judgement. For by thy words thou
     shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a demoniac_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _in_.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities read _unto you men_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _age_.]

[Footnote a: Luke (11:14-36) gives another blasphemous accusation later
in Judea. Matthew (9:27-34) also has another blasphemous accusation. Note
Christ's use of parables in replying to the accusations.]



§ 62. SCRIBES AND PHARISEES DEMAND A SIGN

Same day. Galilee


  Matt. 12:38-45

  38   Then certain of the scribes and Pharisees answered him, saying,
  39 [1]Master, we would see a sign from thee. But he answered and said
     unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign;
     and there shall no sign be given to it but the sign of Jonah the
  40 prophet: for as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly
     of the [2]whale; so shall the Son of man be three days and three
     nights in the heart of the earth [_see Jonah 1:17; 2:1-2; 3:5;
  41 4:3; 1 Kings 10:1-10_]. The men of Nineveh shall stand up in the
     judgement with this generation, and shall condemn it: for they
     repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, [3]a greater than
  42 Jonah is here. The queen of the south shall rise up in the
     judgement with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came
     from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and
  43 behold, [3]a greater than Solomon is here. But the unclean spirit,
     when [4]he is gone out of the man, passeth through waterless
  44 places, seeking rest, and findeth it not. Then [4]he saith, I will
     return into my house whence I came out; and when [4]he is come,
  45 [4]he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. Then goeth [4]he,
     and taketh with [5]himself seven other spirits more evil than
     [5]himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state
     of that man becometh worse than the first. Even so shall it be
     also unto this evil generation.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _sea-monster_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _more than_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _it_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _itself_.]



§ 63. CHRIST'S MOTHER AND BRETHREN SEEK TO TAKE HIM HOME

Same day. Galilee


  Mark 3:31-35           |Matt. 12:46-50         |Luke 8:19-21
                         |                       |
                         |46   While he was yet  |
  31   And there come his|   speaking to the     |19   And there came to
     mother and his      |   multitudes, behold, |   him his mother and
     brethren; and,      |   his mother and his  |   brethren, and they
     standing without,   |   brethren stood      |   could not come at
     they sent unto him, |   without, seeking to |   him for the crowd.
  32 calling him. And a  |47 speak to him. [1]And|20 And it was told
     multitude was       |   one said unto him,  |   him, Thy mother
     sitting about him;  |   Behold, thy mother  |   and thy brethren
     and they say unto   |   and thy brethren    |   stand without,
     him, Behold, thy    |   stand without,      |   desiring to see
     mother and thy      |   seeking to speak to |21 thee.
     brethren without    |   thee.               |
  33 seek for thee. And  |48         But he      |          But he
     he answereth them,  |   answered and said   |   answered and said
     and saith, Who is my|   unto him that told  |   unto them,
     mother and my       |   him, Who is my      |
  34 brethren? And       |   mother? and who are |
     looking round on    |49 my brethren? And he |
     them which sat round|   stretched forth his |
     about him, he saith,|   hand towards his    |
                         |   disciples, and said,|
     Behold, my mother   |   Behold, my mother   |                 My
  35 and my brethren! For|50 and my brethren! For|   mother and my
     whosoever shall do  |   whosoever shall do  |   brethren are these
     the will of God, the|   the will of my      |   which hear the
     same is my brother, |   Father which is in  |   word of God, and
     and sister, and     |   heaven, he is my    |   do it [_see John
     mother.             |   brother, and sister,|   15:14_].
                         |   and mother.         |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit ver. 47.]



_In §§ 64 to 69 we have the first great group of Parables with the visit
to Gerasa and the return to Nazareth._



§ 64. THE FIRST GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES[a]

Same day. Beside the Sea of Galilee. Introduction to the Group


  Mark 4:1, 2            |Matt. 13:1-3           |Luke 8:4
                         |                       |
   1   And again he began| 1   On that day went  |
     to teach by the sea |   Jesus out of the    |
     side. And there is  |   house, and sat by   | 8 And when a great
     gathered unto him a | 2 the sea side. And   |   multitude came
     very great          |   there were gathered |   together, and they
     multitude, so that  |   unto him great      |   of every city
     he entered a boat,  |   multitudes, so that |   resorted unto him,
     and sat in the sea; |   he entered into a   |
     and all the         |   boat, and sat; and  |
     multitude were by   |   all the multitude   |
     the sea on the land.|   stood on the beach. |
   2 And he taught them  | 3 And he spake to them|
     many things in      |   many things in      |   he spake by a
     parables, and said  |   parables, saying,   |   parable:
     unto them in his    |                       |
     teaching, Hearken:  |                       |

[Footnote a: We have met various _separate_ parables heretofore, but here
is a _group_ of at least ten. Two other great groups will occur
hereafter, one group given in Luke only, and the last group during the
last week of our Lord's public ministry.]


_1. To the Crowds by the Sea_


  (a) Parable of the Sower

  Mark 4:3-25            |Matt. 13:3-23          |Luke 8:5-18
                         |                       |
   3   Behold, the sower | 3   Behold, the sower | 5   The sower went
     went forth to sow:  |   went forth to sow;  |   forth to sow his
   4 and it came to pass,| 4 and as he sowed,    |   seed: and as he
     as he sowed, some   |   some _seeds_ fell by|   sowed, some fell by
     _seed_ fell by the  |   the way side, and   |   the way side; and
     way side, and the   |   the birds came and  |   it was trodden
     birds came and      | 5 devoured them: and  |   under foot, and
   5 devoured it. And    |   others fell upon the|   the birds of the
     other fell on the   |   rocky places, where |   heaven devoured
     rocky _ground_,     |   they had not much   | 6 it. And other fell
     where it had not    |   earth: and          |   on the rock; and
     much earth; and     |   straightway they    |   as soon as it
     straightway it      |   sprang up, because  |   grew, it withered
     sprang up, because  |   they had no deepness|   away, because it
     it had no deepness  | 6 of earth: and when  |   had no moisture.
   6 of earth: and when  |   the sun was risen,  |
     the sun was risen,  |   they were scorched; |
     it was scorched; and|   and because they had| 7 And other fell
     because it had no   |   no root, they       |   amidst the thorns;
     root, it withered   | 7 withered away. And  |   and the thorns
   7 away. And other fell|   others fell upon the|   grew with it, and
     among the thorns,   |   thorns; and the     | 8 choked it. And
     and the thorns grew |   thorns grew up, and |   other fell into
     up, and choked it,  | 8 choked them: and    |   the good ground,
     and it yielded no   |   others fell upon the|   and grew, and
   8 fruit. And others   |   good ground, and    |   brought forth
     fell into the good  |   yielded fruit, some |   fruit a
     ground, and yielded |   a hundredfold, some |   hundredfold. As he
     fruit, growing up   |   sixty, some thirty. |   said these things,
     and increasing; and |                       |   he cried,
     brought forth,      |                       |
     thirtyfold, and     |                       |
     sixtyfold, and a    |                       |
   9 hundredfold. And he |                       |
     said, Who hath ears | 9 He that hath        |             He that
     to hear, let him    |   ears[1], let him    |   hath ears to hear,
     hear.               |   hear.               |   let him hear.
  10   And when he was   |10   And the disciples |
     alone, they that    |   came, and said unto | 9   And his disciples
     were about him with |   him, Why speakest   |   asked him what
     the twelve asked of |   thou unto them in   |   this parable might
     him the parables.   |11 parables? And he    |10 be. And he said,
  11 And he said unto    |   answered and said   |   Unto you it is
     them, Unto you is   |   unto them, Unto you |   given to know the
     given the mystery of|   it is given to know |   mysteries of the
     the kingdom of God: |   the mysteries of the|   kingdom of God:
     but unto them that  |   kingdom of heaven,  |   but to the rest in
     are without, all    |   but to them it is   |
     things are done in  |12 not given. For      |
  12 parables: that      |   whosoever hath, to  |
                         |   him shall be given, |
                         |   and he shall have   |
                         |   abundance: but      |
                         |   whosoever hath not, |
                         |   from him shall be   |
                         |   taken away even that|
                         |   which he hath.      |
                         |13 Therefore speak I to|
                         |   them in parables;   |   parables; that
     seeing they may see,|   because seeing they |   seeing they may
     and not perceive;   |   see not, and hearing|   not see, and
     and hearing they may|   they hear not,      |   hearing they may
     hear, and not       |   neither do they     |   not understand.
     understand; lest    |14 understand. And unto|11 Now the parable is
     haply they should   |   them is fulfilled   |   this: The seed is
     turn again, and it  |   the prophecy of     |   the word of God.
     should be           |   Isaiah, which saith,|12 And those by the
     forgiven[a] them.   |     By hearing ye     |   way side are they
  13 And he saith unto   |       shall hear, and |   that have heard;
     them, Know ye not   |       shall in no wise|   then cometh the
     this parable? and   |       understand;     |   devil, and taketh
     how shall ye know   |     And seeing ye     |   away the word from
     all the parables?   |       shall see, and  |   their heart, that
  14 The sower soweth the|       shall in no wise|   they may not
  15 word. And these are |       perceive:       |   believe and be
     they by the way     |15   For this people's |   saved.
     side, where the word|       heart is waxed  |
     is sown; and when   |       gross,          |
     they have heard,    |     And their ears are|
     straightway cometh  |       dull of hearing,|
     Satan, and taketh   |     And their eyes they have closed;
     away the word which |     Lest haply they should perceive with
     hath been sown in   |       their eyes,
  16 them. And these in  |     And hear with their ears,
     like manner are they|     And understand with their heart,
     that are sown upon  |     And should turn again,
                         |     And I should heal them [_see Isa.
                         |       6:9-10_].
  16 But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they
  17 hear. For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous
     men desired to see the things which ye see, and saw them not; and
  18 to hear the things which ye hear, and heard them not. Hear then ye
  19 the parable of the sower. When any one heareth the word of the
     kingdom, and understandeth it not, _then_ cometh the evil _one_,
     and snatcheth away that which hath been sown in his heart. This is
                         |   he that was sown by |
                         |20 the way side. And   |
                         |   he that was sown    |13         And those
     the rocky _places_, |   upon the rocky      |   on the rock _are_
     who, when they have |   places, this is he  |   they which, when
     heard the word,     |   that heareth the    |   they have heard,
                         |   word, and           |   receive the word
     straightway receive |   straightway with joy|   with joy; and
  17 it with joy; and    |21 receiveth it; yet   |   these have no
     they have no root in|   hath he not root in |   root, which for a
     themselves, but     |   himself, but        |   while believe, and
     endure for a while; |   endureth for a      |   in time of
     then, when          |   while; and when     |   temptation fall
     tribulation or      |   tribulation or      |   away.
     persecution ariseth |   persecution ariseth |
     because of the word,|   because of the word,|
     straightway they    |   straightway he      |
  18 stumble. And others |22 stumbleth. And he   |14       And that
     are they that are   |   that was sown among |   which fell among
     sown among the      |   the thorns, this is |   the thorns, these
     thorns; these are   |   he that heareth the |   are they that have
     they that have heard|                       |
  19 the word, and the   |                       |
     cares of the        |   word; and the care  |   heard, and as they
     [2]world, and the   |   of the [2]world, and|   go on their way
     deceitfulness of    |   the deceitfulness of|   they are choked
     riches, and the     |   riches,             |   with cares and
     lusts of other      |                       |   riches and
     things entering in, |                       |   pleasures of
     choke the word, and |           choke the   |   _this_ life, and
     it becometh         |   word, and he        |   bring no fruit to
  20 unfruitful. And     |   becometh unfruitful.|   perfection.
     those are they that |23 And he that was sown|15             And
     were sown upon the  |   upon the good       |   that in the good
     good ground; such as|   ground, this is he  |   ground, these are
     hear the word, and  |   that heareth the    |   such as in an
     accept it,          |   word, and           |   honest and good
                         |   understandeth it;   |   heart, having
                and bear |   who verily beareth  |   heard the word,
     fruit, thirtyfold,  |   fruit, and bringeth |   hold it fast, and
     and sixtyfold, and a|   forth, some a       |   bring forth fruit
     hundredfold.        |   hundredfold, some   |   with patience.
                         |   sixty, some thirty. |

  21   And he said unto them, Is the |16   And no man, when he hath
     lamp[b] brought to be put under |   lighted a lamp, covereth it
     the bushel, or under the bed,   |   with a vessel, or putteth it
     _and_ not to be put on the      |   under a bed; but putteth it on
  22 stand? For there is nothing hid,|   a stand, that they which enter
     save that it should be          |17 in may see the light. For
     manifested; neither was         |   nothing is hid, that shall not
     _anything_ made secret, but that|   be made manifest; nor
  23 it should come to light. If any |   _anything_ secret, that shall
     man hath ears to hear, let him  |   not be known and come to light.
  24 hear. And he said unto them,    |
     Take heed what ye hear: with    |18 Take heed therefore how ye
     what measure ye mete it shall be|   hear: for whosoever hath, to
     measured unto you: and more     |   him shall be given; and
  25 shall be given unto you. For he |   whosoever hath not, from him
     that hath, to him shall be      |   shall be taken away even that
     given: and he that hath not,    |   which he [3]thinketh he hath.
     from him shall be taken away    |
     even that which he hath.        |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities add here, and in ver. 43,
     _to hear_: as in Mark 4:9; Luke 8:8.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _age_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _seemeth to have_.]

[Footnote a: Observe that Jesus spoke these words just after the
blasphemous accusation and on the same day (Matt. 13:1).]

[Footnote b: Note here another brief parable of the lamp to enforce the
lesson of the parable of the Sower. Preachers to-day sometimes tell one
story to illustrate another.]


  (b) Parable of the Seed Growing of Itself

  Mark 4:26-29

  26   And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast
  27 seed upon the earth; and should sleep and rise night and day, and
  28 the seed should spring up and grow, he knoweth not how. The earth
     [1]beareth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, then
  29 the full corn in the ear. But when the fruit [2]is ripe,
     straightway he [3]putteth forth the sickle, because the harvest is
     come [_see Joel 3:13_].

     [Footnote 1: Or, _yieldeth_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _alloweth_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _sendeth forth_.]


  (c) Parable of the Tares

  Matt. 13:24-30

  24   Another parable set he before them, saying, The kingdom of heaven
  25 is likened unto a man that sowed good seed in his field: but while
     men slept, his enemy came and sowed [1]tares also among the wheat,
  26 and went away. But when the blade sprang up, and brought forth
  27 fruit, then appeared the tares also. And the [2]servants of the
     householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst thou not sow good
  28 seed in thy field? whence then hath it tares? And he said unto
     them, [3]An enemy hath done this. And the [2]servants say unto
  29 him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? But he saith,
     Nay; lest haply while ye gather up the tares, ye root up the wheat
  30 with them. Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the
     time of the harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather up first the
     tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat
     into my barn.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _darnel_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _A man_ that is _an enemy_.]


  (d) Parable of the Mustard Seed

  Mark 4:30-32                      |Matt. 13:31-32
                                    |
  30 And he said, How shall we liken|31   Another parable set he before
     the kingdom of God? or in what |   them, saying, The kingdom of
     parable shall we set it forth? |   heaven is like unto a grain of
     [1]It is like a grain of       |   mustard seed, which a man took,
     mustard seed, which, when it is|   and sowed in his field: which
     sown upon the earth, though it |   indeed is less than all seeds;
     be less than all the seeds that|   but when it is grown, it is
     are upon the earth, yet when it|   greater than the herbs, and
     is sown, groweth up, and       |   becometh a tree [_see Dan.
     becometh greater than all the  |   4:12, 21_], so that the birds
     herbs, and putteth out great   |   of the heaven come and lodge in
     branches; so that the birds of |   the branches thereof.
     the heaven can lodge under the |
     shadow thereof.                |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _As unto_.]


  (e) Parable of the Leaven and many such Parables

  Mark 4:33-34                      |Matt. 13:33-35
                                    |
                                    |33   Another parable spake he unto
                                    |   them; The kingdom of heaven is
                                    |   like unto leaven, which a woman
                                    |   took, and hid in three
                                    |   [1]measures of meal, till it
                                    |   was all leavened.
  33   And with many[a] such        |34   All these things spake Jesus
     parables spake he the word unto|   in parables unto the multitudes;
     them, as they were able to hear|   and without[a] a parable spake
  34 it: and without a parable spake|35 he nothing unto them: that it
     he not unto them: but privately|   might be fulfilled which was
     to his disciples he expounded  |   spoken [2]by the prophet,
     all things.                    |   saying,
                                    |     I will open my mouth in
                                    |       parables;
                                    |     I will utter things hidden
                                    |       from the foundation [3]of
                                    |       the world [_see Ps. 78:2_].

     [Footnote 1: The word in the Greek denotes the Hebrew seah, a
     measure containing nearly a peck and a half.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities omit _of the world_.]

[Footnote a: Note the expression. Matthew gives nine in Chapter 13 and
Mark another. There may have been still others on this day.]


_2. To the Disciples in the House_


  (a) Explanation of the Parable of the Tares

  Matt. 13:36-43

  36   Then he left the multitudes, and went into the house: and his
     disciples came unto him, saying, Explain unto us the parable of
  37 the tares of the field. And he answered and said, He that soweth
  38 the good seed is the Son of man; and the field is the world; and
     the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom; and the tares
  39 are the sons of the evil _one_; and the enemy that sowed them is
     the devil: and the harvest is [1]the end of the world; and the
  40 reapers are angels. As therefore the tares are gathered up and
  41 burned with fire; so shall it be in [1]the end of the world. The
     Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out
     of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and them that do
  42 iniquity, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there
  43 shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then shall the
     righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father
     [_see Dan. 12:3_]. He that hath ears, let him hear.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _the consummation of the age_.]


  (b) The Parable of the Hid Treasure

  Matt. 13:44

  44   The kingdom of heaven is like unto a treasure hidden in the
     field; which a man found, and hid; and [1]in his joy he goeth and
     selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _for joy thereof_.]


  (c) The Parable of the Pearl of Great Price

  Matt. 13:45-46

  45   Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a
  46 merchant seeking goodly pearls: and having found one pearl of great
     price, he went and sold all that he had, and bought it.


  (d) The Parable of the Net

  Matt. 13:47-50

  47   Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a [1]net, that was cast
  48 into the sea, and gathered of every kind: which, when it was
     filled, they drew up on the beach; and they sat down, and gathered
  49 the good into vessels, but the bad they cast away. So shall it be
     in [2]the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever
  50 the wicked from among the righteous, and shall cast them into the
     furnace of fire: there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _dragnet_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _consummation of the age_.]


  (e) The Parable of the Householder

  Matt. 13:51-53

  51   Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea. And
  52 he said unto them, Therefore every scribe who hath been made a
     disciple to the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a
     householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new
     and old.
  53   And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished these parables,[a] he
     departed thence.

[Footnote a: Eight of these ten parables go in pairs (the sower and the
seed growing of itself, the tares and the net, the mustard seed and the
leaven, the hid treasure and the pearl of great price). But nothing can
be made out of the number of the parables spoken on this day. We do not
even know what the number was. Jesus had spoken various shorter and more
or less isolated parables before this occasion. An immediate occasion for
the use of so many and such extended parables at this point was the
hostility of the Pharisees and the need of special instruction for the
disciples who were taught by Jesus how to interpret parables, though they
had much difficulty later in applying the instruction about the parabolic
teaching.]



§ 65. IN CROSSING THE LAKE, JESUS STILLS THE TEMPEST

Same day. Sea of Galilee


  Mark 4:35-41           |Matt. 8:18, 23-27      |Luke 8:22-25
                         |                       |
  35   And on that day,  |18   Now when Jesus saw|
     when even was come, |   great multitudes    |
     he saith unto them, |   about him, he gave  |
     Let us go over unto |   commandment to      |
     the other side.     |   depart unto the     |22   Now it came to
                         |   other side.         |   pass on one of
  36 And leaving the     |23 And when he was     |   those days, that
     multitude, they take|   entered into a boat,|   he entered into a
     him with them, even |   his disciples       |   boat, himself and
     as he was, in the   |   followed him.       |   his disciples; and
     boat. And other     |                       |   he said unto them,
     boats were with him.|                       |   Let us go over to
                         |                       |   the other side of
                         |                       |   the lake: and they
                         |                       |   launched forth.
                         |                       |23 But as they sailed
                         |                       |   he fell asleep:
  37 And there ariseth a |24               And   |   and there came
     great storm of wind,|   behold, there arose |   down a storm of
     and the waves beat  |   a great tempest in  |   wind on the lake;
     into the boat,      |   the sea, insomuch   |   and they were
     insomuch that the   |   that the boat was   |   filling _with
     boat was now        |   covered with the    |   water_, and were
  38 filling. And he     |   waves: but he was   |   in jeopardy.
     himself was in the  |25 asleep. And they    |
     stern, asleep on the|   came to him, and    |
     cushion: and they   |   awoke him, saying,  |24              And
     awake him, and say  |   Save, Lord; we      |   they came to him,
     unto him, Master,   |   perish.             |   and awoke him,
     carest thou not that|                       |   saying, Master,
  39 we perish? And he   |26        And he saith |   master, we perish.
     awoke, and rebuked  |   unto them, Why are  |   And he awoke, and
     the wind, and said  |   ye fearful, O ye of |   rebuked the wind
     unto the sea, Peace,|   little faith? Then  |   and the raging of
     be still. And the   |   he arose, and       |   the water: and
     wind ceased, and    |   rebuked the winds   |   they ceased, and
     there was a great   |   and the sea; and    |   there was a calm.
  40 calm. And he said   |   there was a great   |
     unto them, Why are  |   calm.               |25 And he said unto
     ye fearful? have ye |                       |   them, Where is
     not yet faith?      |                       |   your faith?
                         |                       |                 And
  41                And  |27       And the men   |   being afraid they
     they feared         |   marvelled, saying,  |   marvelled, saying
     exceedingly, and    |   What manner of man  |   one to another,
     said one to another,|   is this, that even  |   Who then is this,
     Who then is this,   |   the winds and the   |   that he commandeth
     that even the wind  |   sea obey him?       |   even the winds and
     and the sea obey    |                       |   the water, and
     him?                |                       |   they obey him?



§ 66. BEYOND THE LAKE JESUS HEALS THE GERASENE[a] DEMONIAC[b]

Gerasa (Khersa). Same day


  Mark 5:1-20            |Matt. 8:28-34          |Luke 8:26-39
                         |                       |
   1   And they came to  |28   And when he was   |26   And they arrived
     the other side of   |   come to the other   |   at the country of
     the sea, into the   |   side into the       |   the [4]Gerasenes,
     country of the      |   country of the      |   which is over
   2 Gerasenes. And when |   Gadarenes, there met|   against Galilee.
     he was come out of  |   him two [1]possessed|27 And when he was
     the boat,           |   with devils, coming |   come forth upon
     straightway there   |   forth out of the    |   the land, there
     met him out of the  |   tombs, exceeding    |   met him a certain
     tombs a man with an |   fierce, so that no  |   man out of the
   3 unclean spirit, who |   man could pass by   |   city, who had
     had his dwelling in |29 that way.           |   [2]devils; and for
     the tombs: and no   |                       |   a long time he had
     man could any more  |                       |   worn no clothes,
     bind him, no, not   |                       |   and abode not in
     with a chain;       |                       |   _any_  house, but
   4 because that he had |                       |   in the tombs.
     been often bound    |                       |
     with fetters and    |                       |
     chains, and the     |                       |
     chains had been rent|                       |
     asunder by him, and |                       |
     the fetters broken  |                       |
     in pieces: and no   |                       |
     man had strength to |                       |
   5 tame him. And       |                       |
     always, night and   |                       |
     day, in the tombs   |                       |
     and in the          |                       |
     mountains, he was   |                       |
     crying out, and     |                       |
     cutting himself with|                       |
   6 stones. And when he |                       |28               And
     saw Jesus from afar,|                       |   when he saw Jesus,
     he ran and          |                       |   he cried out, and
   7 worshipped him; and |                  And  |   fell down before
     crying out with a   |   behold, they cried  |   him, and with a
     loud voice, he      |   out, saying, What   |   loud voice said,
     saith, What have I  |   have we to do with  |   What have I to do
     to do with thee,    |   thee, thou Son of   |   with thee, Jesus,
     Jesus, thou Son of  |   God? art thou come  |   thou Son of the
     the Most High God? I|   hither to torment us|   Most High God? I
     adjure thee by God, |   before the time?    |   beseech thee,
   8 torment me not. For |                       |   torment me not.
     he said unto him,   |                       |29 For he commanded
     Come forth, thou    |                       |   the unclean spirit
     unclean spirit, out |                       |   to come out of the
     of the man.         |                       |   man. For
                         |                       |   [5]oftentimes it
                         |                       |   had seized him:
                         |                       |   and he was kept
                         |                       |   under guard, and
                         |                       |   bound with chains
                         |                       |   and fetters; and
                         |                       |   breaking the bands
                         |                       |   asunder, he was
                         |                       |   driven of the
                         |                       |   [6]devil into the
                         |                       |30 deserts. And Jesus
   9             And he  |                       |   asked him, What is
     asked him, What is  |                       |   thy name? And he
     thy name? And he    |                       |   said, Legion; for
     saith unto him, My  |                       |   many [2]devils
     name is Legion; for |                       |   were entered into
  10 we are many. And he |                       |31 him. And they
     besought him much   |                       |   intreated him that
     that he would not   |                       |   he would not
     send them away out  |                       |   command them to
     of the country.     |                       |   depart into the
  11                 Now |30                 Now |32 abyss. Now there
     there was there on  |   there was afar off  |   was there a herd
     the mountain side a |   from them a herd of |   of many swine
     great herd of swine |   many swine feeding. |   feeding on the
  12 feeding. And they   |31 And the [2]devils   |   mountain: and they
     besought him,       |   besought him,       |   intreated him that
     saying, Send us into|   saying, If thou cast|   he would give them
     the swine, that we  |   us out, send us away|   leave to enter
     may enter into them.|   into the herd of    |   into them. And he
  13 And he gave them    |32 swine. And he said  |   gave them leave.
     leave. And the      |   unto them, Go. And  |33 And the [2]devils
     unclean spirits came|   they came out, and  |   came out from the
     out, and entered    |   went into the swine:|   man, and entered
     into the swine: and |   and behold, the     |   into the swine:
     the herd rushed down|   whole herd rushed   |   and the herd
     the steep into the  |   down the steep into |   rushed down the
     sea, _in number_    |   the sea, and        |   steep into the
     about two thousand; |   perished in the     |   lake, and were
     and they were choked|   waters.             |34 choked. And when
     in the sea.         |                       |   they that fed them
                         |                       |   saw what had come
                         |                       |   to pass, they
                         |33         And they    |   fled, and told it
  14             And they|   that fed them fled, |   in the city and in
     that fed them fled, |   and went away into  |35 the country. And
     and told it in the  |   the city, and told  |   they went out to
     city, and in the    |   everything, and what|   see what had come
     country. And they   |   was befallen to them|   to pass; and they
     came to see what it |   that were           |   came to Jesus, and
     was that had come to|   [1]possessed with   |   found the man,
  15 pass. And they come |34 devils. And behold, |   from whom the
     to Jesus, and behold|   all the city came   |   [2]devils were
     [3]him that was     |   out to meet Jesus:  |   gone out, sitting,
     possessed with      |                       |   clothed and in his
     devils sitting,     |                       |   right mind, at the
     clothed and in his  |                       |   feet of Jesus: and
     right mind, _even_  |                       |   they were afraid.
     him that had the    |                       |
     legion: and they    |                       |
  16 were afraid. And    |                       |36 And they that saw
     they that saw it    |                       |   it told them how
     declared unto them  |                       |   he that was
     how it befell [3]him|                       |   possessed with
     that was possessed  |                       |   [2]devils was
     with devils, and    |                       |37 [7]made whole. And
     concerning the      |                       |   all the people of
  17 swine. And they     |   and when they saw   |   the country of the
     began to beseech him|   him, they besought  |   [4]Gerasenes round
     to depart from their|   _him_ that he would |   about asked him to
  18 borders. And as he  |   depart from their   |   depart from them;
     was entering into   |   borders.            |   for they were
     the boat, he that   |                       |   holden with great
     had been possessed with         |   fear: and he entered into a
     [2]devils besought him that he  |38 boat, and returned. But the man
  19 might be with him. And he       |   from whom the [2]devils were
     suffered him not, but saith unto|   gone out prayed him that he
     him, Go to thy house unto thy   |   might be with him: but he sent
     friends, and tell them how great|39 him away, saying, Return to thy
     things the Lord hath done for   |   house, and declare how great
     thee, and _how_ he had mercy on |   things God hath done for thee.
  20 thee. And he went his way, and  |   And he went his way, publishing
     began to publish in Decapolis   |   throughout the whole city how
     how great things Jesus had done |   great things Jesus had done for
     for him: and all men did        |   him.
     marvel.[c]                      |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _demoniacs_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _the demoniac_.]

     [Footnote 4: Many ancient authorities read _Gergesenes_; others
     _Gadarenes_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _of a long time_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _saved_.]

[Footnote a: The long famous instance of "discrepancy" as to the _place_
in this narrative has been cleared up in recent years by the decision of
textual critics that the correct text in Luke is Gerasenes, as well as in
Mark, and by Dr. Thomson's discovery of a ruin on the lake shore, named
Khersa (Gerasa). If this village was included (a very natural
supposition) in the district belonging to the city of Gadara, some miles
south-eastward, then the locality could be described as either in the
country of the Gadarenes, or in the country of the Gerasenes.]

[Footnote b: Matthew mentions two demoniacs, Mark and Luke describe one,
who was probably the prominent and leading one.]

[Footnote c: Note in Mark the numerous vivid details and fulness of
narrative.]



§ 67. THE RETURN AND THE HEALING OF JAIRUS' DAUGHTER AND OF THE WOMAN WHO
ONLY TOUCHED CHRIST'S GARMENT

Probably Capernaum


  Mark 5:21-43           |Matt. 9:18-26          |Luke 8:40-56
                         |                       |
  21   And when Jesus had|                       |40   And as Jesus
     crossed over again  |                       |   returned, the
     in the boat unto the|                       |   multitude welcomed
     other side, a great |                       |   him; for they were
     multitude was       |                       |   all waiting for
     gathered unto him:  |                       |   him.
     and he was by the   |                       |
     sea.                |                       |
  22   And there cometh  |                       |
     one of the rulers of|                       |
     the synagogue,      |18   While he spake    |41   And behold, there
     Jairus by name; and |   these things unto   |   came a man named
     seeing him, he      |   them,[a] behold,    |   Jairus, and he was
  23 falleth at his feet,|   there came [1]a     |   a ruler of the
     and beseecheth him  |   ruler, and          |   synagogue: and he
     much, saying, My    |   worshipped him,     |   fell down at
     little daughter is  |   saying, My daughter |   Jesus' feet, and
     at the point of     |   is even now dead:   |   besought him to
     death: _I pray      |   but come and lay thy|   come into his
     thee_, that thou    |   hand upon her, and  |42 house; for he had
     come and lay thy    |19 she shall live. And |   an only daughter,
     hands on her, that  |   Jesus arose, and    |   about twelve years
     she may be [2]made  |   followed him, and   |   of age, and she
  24 whole, and live. And|   _so did_ his        |   lay a dying. But
     he went with him;   |   disciples.          |   as he went the
     and a great         |                       |   multitudes
     multitude followed  |                       |   thronged him.
     him, and they       |                       |
     thronged him.       |                       |
  25   And a woman, which|21            And      |43   And a woman
     had an issue of     |   behold, a woman, who|   having an issue of
     blood twelve years, |   had an issue of     |   blood twelve years,
  26 and had suffered    |   blood twelve years, |   which [8]had spent
     many things of many |   came behind him, and|   all her living
     physicians, and had |   touched the border  |   upon physicians,
     spent all that she  |22 of his garment: for |   and could not be
     had, and was nothing|   she said within     |   healed of any,
     bettered, but rather|   herself, If I do but|44 came behind him,
  27 grew worse, having  |   touch his garment, I|   and touched the
     heard the things    |   shall be [2]made    |   border of his
     concerning Jesus,   |   whole.              |   garment: and
     came in the crowd   |                       |   immediately the
     behind, and touched |                       |   issue of her blood
  28 his garment. For she|                       |   stanched.
     said, If I touch but|                       |
     his garments, I     |                       |
     shall be [2]made    |                       |
  29 whole. And          |                       |
     straightway the     |                       |
     fountain of her     |                       |
     blood was dried up; |                       |
     and she felt in her |                       |
     body that she was   |                       |
     healed of her       |                       |
  30 [5]plague. And      |                       |
     straightway Jesus,  |                       |
     perceiving in       |                       |
     himself that the    |                       |
     power _proceeding_  |                       |
     from him had gone   |                       |
     forth, turned him   |                       |
     about in the crowd, |                       |45           And
     and said, Who       |                       |   Jesus said, Who is
     touched my garments?|                       |   it that touched
  31 And his disciples   |                       |   me? And when all
     said unto him, Thou |                       |   denied, Peter
     seest the multitude |                       |   said, [9]and they
     thronging thee, and |                       |   that were with
     sayest thou, Who    |                       |   him, Master, the
  32 touched me? And he  |                       |   multitudes press
     looked round about  |                       |   thee and crush
     to see her that had |                       |46 _thee_. But Jesus
  33 done this thing. But|                       |   said, Some one did
     the woman fearing   |                       |   touch me: for I
     and trembling,      |                       |   perceived that
     knowing what had    |                       |   power had gone
     been done to her,   |                       |47 forth from me. And
     came and fell down  |                       |   when the woman saw
     before him, and told|                       |   that she was not
     him all the truth.  |                       |   hid, she came
                         |                       |   trembling, and
                         |                       |   falling down
                         |23        But Jesus    |   before him
  34 And he said unto    |   turning and seeing  |   declared in the
     her, Daughter, thy  |   her said, Daughter, |   presence of all
     faith hath [3]made  |   be of good cheer;   |   the people for
     thee whole; go in   |   thy faith hath      |   what cause she
     peace, and be whole |   [3]made thee whole. |   touched him, and
     of thy [5]plague.   |   And the woman was   |   how she was healed
                         |   [2]made whole from  |48 immediately. And
                         |   that hour.          |   he said unto her,
                         |                       |   Daughter, thy
                         |                       |   faith hath [3]made
                         |                       |   thee whole; go in
                         |                       |   peace.
  35   While he yet      |                       |49   While he yet
     spake, they come    |                       |   spake, there
     from the ruler of   |                       |   cometh one from
     the synagogue's     |                       |   the ruler of the
     _house_, saying, Thy|                       |   synagogue's
     daughter is dead:   |                       |   _house_, saying,
     why troublest thou  |                       |   Thy daughter is
     the [6]Master any   |                       |   dead; trouble not
  36 further? But Jesus, |                       |50 the [6]Master. But
     [7]not heeding the  |                       |   Jesus hearing it,
     word spoken, saith  |                       |   answered him, Fear
     unto the ruler of   |                       |   not: only believe,
     the synagogue, Fear |                       |   and she shall be
     not, only believe.  |                       |51 [2]made whole. And
  37 And he suffered no  |                       |   when he came to
     man to follow with  |                       |   the house, he
     him, save Peter, and|                       |   suffered not any
     James, and John the |                       |   man to enter in
     brother of James.   |                       |   with him, save
  38 And they come to the|24            And when |   Peter, and John,
     house of the ruler  |   Jesus came into the |   and James, and the
     of the synagogue;   |   ruler's house, and  |   father of the
     and he beholdeth a  |   saw the             |   maiden and her
     tumult, and _many_  |   flute-players, and  |52 mother. And all
     weeping and wailing |   the crowd making a  |   were weeping, and
  39 greatly. And when he|25 tumult, he said,    |   bewailing her: but
     was entered in, he  |   Give place: for the |   he said, Weep not;
     saith unto them, Why|   damsel is not dead, |   for she is not
     make ye a tumult,   |   but sleepeth. And   |   dead, but
     and weep? the child |   they laughed him to |53 sleepeth. And they
     is not dead, but    |   scorn. But when the |   laughed him to
  40 sleepeth. And they  |                       |   scorn, knowing
     laughed him to      |                       |   that she was dead.
     scorn. But he,      |26        But when the |
     having put them all |   crowd was put forth,|
     forth, taketh the   |                       |
     father of the child |                       |
     and her mother and  |                       |
     them that were with |                       |
     him, and goeth in   |                       |
     where the child was.|   he entered in, and  |
  41 And taking the child|   took her by the     |54 But he, taking her
     by the hand, he     |   hand;               |   by the hand,
     saith unto her,     |                       |
     Talitha cumi; which |                       |
     is, being           |                       |   called, saying,
     interpreted, Damsel,|                       |55 Maiden, arise. And
     I say unto thee,    |                       |   her spirit
  42 Arise. And          |                       |   returned, and she
     straightway the     |         and the damsel|   rose up
     damsel rose up, and |   arose.              |   immediately: and
     walked; for she was |                       |
     twelve years old.   |                       |
     And they were amazed|                       |
     straightway with a  |                       |   he commanded that
  43 great amazement. And|27        And [4]the   |   _something_ be
     he charged them much|   fame hereof went    |   given her to eat.
     that no man should  |   forth into all that |56 And her parents
     know this: and he   |   land.               |   were amazed: but he
     commanded that      |                       |   charged them to
     _something_ should  |                       |   tell no man what
     be given her to eat.|                       |   had been done.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _one ruler_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _saved_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or _saved thee_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _this fame_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _scourge_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _overhearing_.]

     [Footnote 8: Some ancient authorities omit _had spent all her
     living upon physicians, and_.]

     [Footnote 9: Some ancient authorities omit _and they that were
     with him_.]

[Footnote a: Broadus felt that the language in Matt. 9:18 compelled him
to place 9:18 after 9:17. I do not think so, for "while he spake" may be
merely an introductory phrase for a new paragraph. It is best to follow
Mark's order, as Luke does, for Matthew is not chronological in this part
of his Gospel.]



§ 68. HE HEALS TWO BLIND MEN, AND A DUMB DEMONIAC. A BLASPHEMOUS
ACCUSATION


  Matt. 9:27-34

  27   And as Jesus passed by from thence, two blind men followed him,
  28 crying out, and saying, Have mercy on us, thou son of David. And
     when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and
     Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They
  29 say unto him, Yea, Lord. Then touched he their eyes, saying,
  30 According to your faith be it done unto you. And their eyes were
     opened. And Jesus [1]strictly charged them, saying, See that no
  31 man know it. But they went forth, and spread abroad his fame in
     all that land.
  32   And as they went forth, behold, there was brought to him a dumb
  33 man possessed with a [2]devil. And when the [2]devil was cast out,
     the dumb man spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was
  34 never so seen in Israel. But the Pharisees said, [3]By the prince
     of the [4]devils casteth he out [4]devils.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _sternly_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _In_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _demons_.]



§ 69. THE LAST[a] VISIT TO NAZARETH


  Mark 6:1-6                        |Matt. 13:54-58
                                    |
   1   And he went out from thence; |
     and he cometh into his own     |
     country; and his disciples     |
   2 follow him. And when the       |
     sabbath was come, he began to  |54   And coming into his own
     teach in the synagogue: and    |   country he taught them in their
     [3]many hearing him were       |   synagogue, insomuch that they
     astonished, saying, Whence hath|   were astonished, and said,
     this man these things? and,    |   Whence hath this man this
     What is the wisdom that is     |   wisdom, and these [1]mighty
     given unto this man, and _what |55 works? Is not this the
     mean_ such [1]mighty works     |   carpenter's son? is not his
   3 wrought by his hands? Is not   |   mother called Mary? and his
     this the carpenter, the son of |   brethren, James, and Joseph,
     Mary, and brother of James, and|56 and Simon, and Judas? And his
     Joses, and Judas, and Simon?   |   sisters, are they not all with
     and are not his sisters here   |   us? Whence then hath this man
     with us? And they were         |57 all these things? And they were
   4 [2]offended in him. And Jesus  |   [2]offended in him. But Jesus
     said unto them, A prophet is   |   said unto them, A prophet is
     not without honour, save in his|   not without honour, save in his
     own country, and among his own |   own country, and in his own
   5 kin, and in his own house. And |58 house. And he did not many
     he could there do no [4]mighty |  [1]mighty works there because
     work, save that he laid his    |   of their unbelief.
     hands upon a few sick folk, and|
   6 healed them. And he marvelled  |
     because of their unbelief.     |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _powers_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _caused to stumble_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities insert _the_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _power_.]

[Footnote a: There is no sufficient occasion to identify this visit to
Nazareth with that described by Luke. That was at the very beginning of
the great ministry in Galilee, and this is near its close. The details
are quite different. It is perfectly natural that after a long interval
he should give the Nazarenes another opportunity to hear his teaching,
and to witness miracles, which he would not work for them when demanded,
but now voluntarily works in a few cases, so far as their now _wonderful_
unbelief left it appropriate.]



_In Sections 70 to 71 we have the Third Tour of Galilee (Jesus following
the Twelve) and the effect on Herod Antipas._



§ 70. THE THIRD TOUR OF GALILEE AFTER INSTRUCTING THE TWELVE AND SENDING
THEM FORTH BY TWOS


  Mark 6:6-13            |Matt. 9:35 to 11:1
                         |
   6   And he went round |35   And Jesus went about all the cities and
     about the villages  |   the villages,[a] teaching in their
     teaching.           |   synagogues, and preaching the gospel of
                         |   the kingdom, and healing all manner of
  36 disease and all manner of sickness. But when he saw the
     multitudes, he was moved with compassion for them, because they
     were distressed and scattered, as sheep not having a shepherd
  37 [_see Num. 27:17; Ezek. 34:5_]. Then saith he unto his disciples,
  38 The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few. Pray ye
                         |   therefore the Lord  |
                         |   of the harvest, that|
                         |   he send forth       |
                         |   labourers into his  |Luke 9:1-6
                         |   harvest.            |
   7   And he called unto| 1   And he called unto| 1   And he called the
     him the twelve, and |   him his twelve      |   twelve together,
     began to send them  |   disciples, and gave |   and gave them
     forth by two and    |   them authority over |   power and
     two; and he gave    |   unclean spirits, to |   authority over all
     them authority over |   cast them out, and  |   [3]devils, and to
     the unclean spirits;|   to heal all manner  | 2 cure diseases. And
   8 and he charged them |   of disease and all  |   he sent them forth
                         |   manner of sickness. |   to preach the
                         |                       |   kingdom of God,
   2   Now the names of the twelve apostles are  |   and to heal
     these: The first, Simon, who is called      | 3 [19]the sick. And
     Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the    |   he said unto them,
   3 _son_ of Zebedee, and John his brother;     |
     Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew|
     the publican; James the _son_ of Alphæus,   |
   4 and Thaddæus; Simon the [1]Cananæan, and    |
     Judas Iscariot, who also [2]betrayed him.   |
   5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, and charged  |
     them, saying, Go not into _any_ way of the  |
     Gentiles, and enter not into any city of the|
   6 Samaritans: but go rather to the lost sheep |
   7 of the house of Israel. And as ye go,       |
     preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at |
                         | 8 hand. Heal the sick,|
                         |   raise the dead,     |
                         |   cleanse the lepers, |
     that they should    |   cast out [3]devils: |
     take nothing for    |   freely ye received, |   Take nothing for
     _their_ journey,    | 9 freely give. Get you|   your journey,
     save a staff only;  |   no gold, nor silver,|   neither staff, nor
     no bread, no wallet,|   nor brass in your   |   wallet, nor bread,
     no [17]money in     |10 [4]purses; no wallet|   nor money; neither
   9 their [18]purse; but|   for _your_ journey, |   have two coats.
     _to go_ shod with   |   neither two coats,  |
     sandals: and, _said |   nor shoes, nor      |
     he_, put not on two |   staff: for the      |
     coats.              |   labourer is worthy  |
                         |   of his food. And    |
  10        And he said  |11 into whatsoever city| 4 And into whatsoever
     unto them,          |   or village ye shall |   house ye enter,
     Wheresoever ye enter|   enter, search out   |   there abide, and
     into a house, there |   who in it is worthy;| 5 thence depart. And
     abide till ye depart|   and there abide till|
  11 thence. And         |12 ye go forth. And as |
     whatsoever place    |   ye enter into the   |
                         |   house, salute it.   |
                         |13 And if the house be |
                         |   worthy, let your    |
                         |   peace come upon it: |
                         |   but if it be not    |
                         |   worthy, let your    |
                         |   peace return to you.|
     shall not receive   |14 And whosoever shall |   as many as receive
     you, and they hear  |   not receive you, nor|   you not, when ye
     you not, as ye go   |   hear your words, as |   depart from that
     forth thence, shake |   ye go forth out of  |   city, shake off
     off the dust that is|   that house or that  |   the dust from your
     under your feet for |   city, shake off the |   feet for a
     a testimony unto    |   dust of your feet.  |   testimony against
     them.               |15 Verily I say unto   |   them.
                         |   you, It shall be    |
                         |   more tolerable for  |
                         |   the land of Sodom   |
                         |   and Gomorrah in the |
                         |   day of judgement,   |
                         |   than for that city. |
  16   Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye
  17 therefore wise as serpents, and [5]harmless as doves. But beware
     of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their
  18 synagogues they will scourge you; yea and before governors and
     kings shall ye be brought for my sake, for a testimony to them and
  19 to the Gentiles. But when they deliver you up, be not anxious how
     or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that hour
  20 what ye shall speak. For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit
  21 of your Father that speaketh in you. And brother shall deliver up
     brother to death, and the father his child: and children shall
  22 rise up against parents, and [6]cause them to be put to death. And
     ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that
  23 endureth to the end, the same shall be saved. But when they
     persecute you in this city, flee into the next: for verily I say
     unto you, Ye shall not have gone through the cities of Israel,
     till the Son of man be come.
  24   A disciple is not above his [7]master, nor a [8]servant above his
  25 lord. It is enough for the disciple that he be as his [7]master,
     and the [8]servant as his lord. If they have called the master of
     the house [9]Beelzebub, how much more _shall they call_ them of
  26 his household! Fear them not therefore: for there is nothing
     covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid, that shall not be
  27 known. What I tell you in the darkness, speak ye in the light: and
  28 what ye hear in the ear, proclaim upon the housetops. And be not
     afraid of them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the
     soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and
  29 body in [10]hell. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and
  30 not one of them shall fall on the ground without your Father: but
  31 the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not therefore;
  32 ye are of more value than many sparrows. Every one therefore who
     shall confess [11]me before men, [12]him will I also confess
  33 before my Father which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny me
     before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in
     heaven.
  34   Think not that I came to [13]send peace on the earth: I came not
  35 to [13]send peace, but a sword. For I came to set a man at
     variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother,
  36 and the daughter in law against her mother in law: and a man's
  37 foes _shall be_ they of his own household [_see Micah 7:6_]. He
     that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and
     he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me.
  38 And he that doth not take his cross and follow after me, is not
  39 worthy of me. He that [14]findeth his [15]life shall lose it; and
     he that [16]loseth his [15]life for my sake shall find it [_see
     John 12:25_].
  40   He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me
  41 receiveth him that sent me [_see John 13:20_]. He that receiveth a
     prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet's reward;
     and he that receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous
  42 man shall receive a righteous man's reward. And whosoever shall
     give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of cold water
     only, in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall in
     no wise lose his reward.
                         |                       |
  12   And they went out,| 1   And it came to    | 6   And they
     and preached that   |   pass, when Jesus had|   departed, and went
     _men_ should repent.|   made an end of      |   throughout the
     And they cast out   |   commanding his      |   villages,
     many [3]devils, and |   twelve disciples, he|   preaching the
     anointed with oil   |   departed thence to  |   gospel, and healing
     many that were sick,|   teach and preach in |   everywhere.
     and healed them.    |   their cities.       |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Zealot_. See Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _delivered him up_: and so always.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _girdles_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _simple_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _put them to death_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _teacher_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 9: Gr. _Beelzebul_: and so elsewhere.]

     [Footnote 10: Gr. _Gehenna_.]

     [Footnote 11: Gr. _in me_.]

     [Footnote 12: Gr. _in him_.]

     [Footnote 13: Gr. _cast_.]

     [Footnote 14: Or, _found_.]

     [Footnote 15: Or, _soul_.]

     [Footnote 16: Or, _lost_.]

     [Footnote 17: Gr. _brass_.]

     [Footnote 18: Gr. _girdle_.]

     [Footnote 19: Some ancient authorities omit _the sick_.]

[Footnote a: This is certainly a _second_, and probably a _third_ journey
about Galilee. Dwell on Matt. 9:35 and 11:1 (end of this section), and
try to realize the extent of the Saviour's work in teaching and healing.
He "crowded into three short years actions and labours of love that might
have adorned a century." (Ro. Hall.)]



§ 71. THE GUILTY FEARS OF HEROD ANTIPAS IN TIBERIAS ABOUT JESUS BECAUSE
HE HAD BEHEADED THE BAPTIST IN MACHÆRUS


  Mark 6:14-29           |Matt. 14:1-12          |Luke 9:7-9
                         |                       |
  14   And king Herod    | 1   At that season    | 7   Now Herod the
     heard[a] _thereof_; |   Herod the tetrarch  |   tetrarch heard of
     for his name had    |   heard the report    |   all that was done:
     become known: and   |   concerning Jesus,   |   and he was much
     [1]he said, John    | 2 and said unto his   |   perplexed, because
     [2]the Baptist is   |   servants, This is   |   that it was said
     risen from the dead,|   John the Baptist; he|   by some, that John
     and therefore do    |   is risen from the   |   was risen from the
     these powers work in|   dead; and therefore | 8 dead; and by some,
  15 him. But others     |   do these powers work|   that Elijah had
     said, It is Elijah. |   in him.             |   appeared; and by
     And others said, _It|                       |   others, that one
     is_ a prophet,      |                       |   of the old prophets
     _even_ as one of the|                       |   was risen again.
  16 prophets. But Herod,|                       | 9 And Herod said,
     when he heard       |                       |   John I beheaded:
     _thereof_, said,    |                       |   but who is this,
     John, whom I        |                       |   about whom I hear
     beheaded, he is     |                       |   such things? And he
  17 risen. For Herod    |                       |   sought to see him.
     himself had sent    | 3 For Herod had laid  |
     forth and laid hold |   hold on John, and   |
     upon John, and bound|   bound him, and put  |
     him in prison for   |   him in prison for   |
     the sake of         |   the sake of         |
     Herodias, his       |   Herodias, his       |
     brother Philip's    |   brother Philip's    |
     wife: for he had    |   wife.               |
  18 married her. For    |                       |
     John said unto      | 4       For John said |
     Herod,[b] It is not |   unto him, It is not |
     lawful for thee to  |   lawful for thee to  |
     have thy brother's  | 5 have her. And when  |
     wife [_see Lev.     |   he would have put   |
  19 18:16; 20:21_]. And |   him to death, he    |
     Herodias set herself|   feared the          |
     against him, and    |   multitude, because  |
     desired to kill him;|   they counted him as |
     and she could not;  |   a prophet.          |
  20 for Herod feared    |                       |
     John, knowing that  |                       |
     he was a righteous  |                       |
     man and a holy, and |                       |
     kept him safe. And  |                       |
     when he heard him,  |                       |
     he [3]was much      |                       |
     perplexed; and he   |                       |
     heard him gladly.   |                       |
  21   And when a        |                       |
     convenient day was  |                       |
     come, that Herod on |                       |
     his birthday made a |                       |
     supper to his lords,|                       |
     and the [4]high     |                       |
     captains, and the   |                       |
     chief men of        |                       |
  22 Galilee; and when   | 6 But when Herod's    |
     [5]the daughter of  |   birthday came, the  |
     Herodias herself    |   daughter of Herodias|
     came in and danced, |   danced in the midst,|
     [6]she pleased Herod|   and pleased Herod.  |
     and them that sat at|                       |
     meat with him; and  |                       |
     the king said unto  |                       |
     the damsel, Ask of  |                       |
     me whatsoever thou  | 7 Whereupon he        |
     wilt, and I will    |   promised with an    |
  23 give it thee. And he|   oath to give her    |
     sware unto her,     |   whatsoever she      |
     Whatsoever thou     | 8 should ask. And she,|
     shalt ask of me, I  |   being put forward by|
     will give it thee,  |   her mother, saith,  |
     unto the half of my |                       |
  24 kingdom. And she    |                       |
     went out, and said  |                       |
     unto her mother,    |                       |
     What shall I ask?   |                       |
     And she said, The   |                       |
     head of John [2]the |                       |
  25 Baptist. And she    |                       |
     came in straightway |                       |
     with haste unto the |                       |
     king, and asked,    |                       |
     saying, I will that |                       |
     thou forthwith give |                       |
     me in a charger the |   Give me here in a   |
     head of John [2]the | 9 charger the head of |
  26 Baptist. And the    |   John the Baptist.   |
     king was exceeding  |   And the king was    |
     sorry; but for the  |   grieved; but for the|
     sake of his oaths,  |   sake of his oaths,  |
     and of them that sat|   and of them which   |
     at meat, he would   |   sat at meat with    |
  27 not reject her. And |   him, he commanded it|
     straightway the king|10 to be given; and he |
     sent forth a soldier|   sent, and beheaded  |
     of his guard, and   |   John in the prison. |
     commanded to bring  |11 And his head was    |
     his head: and he    |   brought in a        |
     went and beheaded   |   charger, and given  |
     him in the prison,  |   to the damsel: and  |
  28 and brought his head|   she brought it to   |
     in a charger, and   |                       |
     gave it to the      |                       |
     damsel; and the     |                       |
     damsel gave it to   |                       |
     her mother. And when|12 her mother. And his |
     his disciples heard |   disciples came, and |
     _thereof_, they came|   took up the corpse, |
     and took up his     |   and buried him; and |
     corpse, and laid it |   they went and told  |
     in a tomb.          |   Jesus.              |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _they_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _the Baptizer_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities read _did many things_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _military tribunes_. Gr. _chiliarchs_.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities read _his daughter
     Herodias_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _it_.]

[Footnote a: Mark's connection shows that Herod Antipas was impressed by
the account of miracles which the disciples had wrought, as well as by
those of Jesus himself.]

[Footnote b: Josephus (_Antiquities_, Book XVIII, v., 2) says of John
that Herod "thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any
mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by
sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it should be too
late." Josephus in no wise controverts the picture in Mark where Herodias
appears as the one who prods Antipas to put John out of the way to
satisfy her resentment against him for his rebuke of her adulterous
marriage. Josephus merely presents the public and political aspects of
the imprisonment and death of John.]



PART VIII

THE SPECIAL TRAINING OF THE TWELVE IN DISTRICTS AROUND GALILEE

Probably Passover in A.D. 29[a] to near Tabernacles in A.D. 29 or a year
earlier (six months from spring to autumn). Just a year from the
beginning of this Period till the Crucifixion. Emphasis now on the King
of the Kingdom (the Person of the Messiah).

_§§ 72-95. Four separate withdrawals[b] from Galilee are given, in §§ 72,
78, 79, 81. Notice that in every case he keeps out of Herod's territory,
and in every case he goes to the mountains._

[Footnote a: If the ministry of Jesus was three and a half years in
length. If there were only three passovers in the ministry, then the year
would be A.D. 28. This period begins just before a passover (John 6:4).]

[Footnote b: There are five reasons for the withdrawals from Galilee. He
withdraws from the jealousy of Herod Antipas (§ 71), from the fanaticism
of would-be followers in Galilee (John 6:15), and the hostility of the
Jewish rulers; and leaving the hot shores of the Lake of Galilee, he
spent the summer in mountain districts around, resting, and _instructing
the Twelve_.]



§ 72. THE FIRST RETIREMENT. THE TWELVE RETURN, AND JESUS RETIRES WITH
THEM BEYOND THE LAKE TO REST. FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND


  Mark 6:30-44     |Matt. 14:13-21  |Luke 9:10-17     |John 6:1-13
                   |                |                 |
  30   And the     |                |10   And the     |
     apostles      |                |   apostles, when|
     gather        |                |   they were     |
     themselves    |                |   returned,     |
     together unto |                |   declared unto |
     Jesus; and    |                |   him what      |
     they told him |                |   things they   |
     all things,   |                |   had done.     |
     whatsoever    |                |                 |
     they had done,|                |                 |
     and whatsoever|                |                 |
     they had      |                |                 |
  31 taught. And he|                |                 |
     saith unto    |                |                 |
     them, Come ye |                |                 |
     yourselves    |                |                 |
     apart into a  |                |                 |
     desert place, |                |                 |
     and rest a    |                |                 |
     while. For    |                |                 |
     there were    |                |                 |
     many coming   |                |                 | 1   After these
     and going, and|                |                 |   things Jesus
     they had no   |13   Now when   |                 |   went away to
     leisure so    |   Jesus heard  |     And he took |   the other
     much as to    |   _it_, he     |   them, and     |   side of the
  32 eat. And they |   withdrew from|   withdrew apart|   sea of
     went away in  |   thence in a  |   to a city     |   Galilee,
     the boat to a |   boat, to a   |   called        |   which is _the
     desert place  |   desert place |   Bethsaida.[a] |   sea_ of
  33 apart. And    |   apart: and   |                 | 2 Tiberias. And
     _the people_  |   when the     |11 But the       |   a great
     saw them      |   multitudes   |   multitudes    |   multitude
     going, and    |   heard        |   perceiving it |   followed him,
     many knew     |   _thereof_,   |   followed him: |   because they
     _them_, and   |   they followed|   and he        |   beheld the
     they ran there|   him [1]on    |   welcomed them,|   signs which
     together [1]on|   foot from the|   and spake to  |   he did on
     foot from all |14 cities. And  |   them of the   |   them that
     the cities,   |   he came      |   kingdom of    |   were sick.
     and outwent   |   forth, and   |   God, and them | 3 And Jesus
  34 them. And he  |   saw a great  |   that had need |   went up into
     came forth and|   multitude,   |   of healing he |   the
     saw a great   |   and he had   |   healed.       |   mountain,
     multitude, and|   compassion on|                 |   and there he
     he had        |   them, and    |                 |   sat with his
     compassion on |   healed their |                 |   disciples.
     them, because |   sick.        |                 |
     they were as  |                |                 |
     sheep not     |                |                 |
     having a      |                |                 |
     shepherd: and |                |                 |
     he began to   |                |                 |
     teach them    |15       And    |12         And   | 4 Now the
     many things.  |   when even was|   the day began |   passover, the
  35 And when the  |   come, the    |   to wear away; |   feast of the
     day was now   |   disciples    |   and the twelve|   Jews was at
     far spent, his|   came to him, |   came, and said| 5 hand. Jesus
     disciples came|   saying, The  |   unto him, Send|   therefore
     unto him, and |   place is     |   the multitude |   lifting up
     said, The     |   desert, and  |   away, that    |   his eyes, and
     place is      |   the time is  |   they may go   |   seeing that a
     desert, and   |   already past;|   into the      |   great
     the day is now|   send the     |   villages and  |   multitude
     far spent:    |   multitudes   |   country round |   cometh unto
  36 send them     |   away, that   |   about, and    |   him, saith
     away, that    |   they may go  |   lodge, and get|   unto Philip,
     they may go   |   into the     |   victuals: for |   Whence are we
     into the      |   villages, and|   we are here in|   to buy
     country and   |   buy          |   a desert      |   [4]bread, that
     villages round|   themselves   |   place.        |   these may eat?
     about, and buy|   food.        |                 |
     themselves    |                |                 |
     somewhat to   |                |                 |
  37 eat. But he   |16       But    |                 | 6          And
     answered and  |   Jesus said   |13        But he |   this he said
     said unto     |   unto them,   |   said unto     |   to prove him:
     them, Give ye |   They have no |   them, Give ye |   for he
     them to eat.  |   need to go   |   them to eat.  |   himself knew
     And they say  |   away; give ye|                 |   what he would
     unto him,     |   them to eat. |                 | 7 do. Philip
     Shall we go   |                |                 |   answered him,
     and buy two   |                |                 |   Two hundred
     hundred       |                |                 |   [3]pennyworth
     [3]pennyworth |                |                 |   of [4]bread
     of bread, and |                |                 |   is not
     give them to  |                |                 |   sufficient
  38 eat? And he   |                |                 |   for them,
     saith unto    |                |                 |   that every
     them,         |                |                 |   one may take
                   |                |                 | 8 a little. One
          How many |17 And they say |   And they said,|   of his
     loaves have   |   unto him, We |   We have no    |   disciples,
     ye? go _and_  |   have here but|   more than five|   Andrew, Simon
     see. And when |   five loaves, |   loaves and two|   Peter's
     they knew,    |   and two      |   fishes; except|   brother,
     they say,     |18 fishes. And  |   we should go  |   saith unto
     Five, and two |   he said,     |   and buy food  | 9 him, There is
  39 fishes. And he|   Bring them   |   for all this  |   a lad here,
     commanded them|   hither to me.|14 people. For   |   which hath
     that all      |19 And he       |   they were     |   five barley
     should [2]sit |   commanded the|   about five    |   loaves, and
     down by       |   multitudes to|   thousand men. |   two fishes:
     companies upon|   [2]sit down  |   And he said   |   but what are
     the green     |   on the grass;|   unto his      |   these among
  40 grass. And    |                |   disciples,    |   so many?
     they sat down |                |   Make them     |10 Jesus said,
     in ranks, by  |                |   [2]sit down in|   Make the
     hundreds, and |                |   companies,    |   people sit
     by fifties.   |                |   about fifty   |   down.
                   |                |15 each. And they|         Now
                   |                |   did so, and   |   there was
                   |                |   made them all |   much grass in
                   |                |   [2]sit down.  |   the place. So
  41 And he took   |   and he took  |16 And he took   |   the men sat
     the five      |   the five     |   the five      |   down, in
     loaves and the|   loaves, and  |   loaves and the|   number about
     two fishes,   |   the two      |   two fishes,   |   five
     and looking up|   fishes, and  |   and looking up|   thousand.
     to heaven, he |   looking up to|   to heaven, he |11 Jesus
     blessed, and  |   heaven, he   |   blessed them, |   therefore
     brake the     |   blessed, and |   and brake; and|   took the
     loaves; and he|   brake and    |   gave to the   |   loaves; and
     gave to the   |   gave the     |   disciples to  |   having given
     disciples to  |   loaves to the|   set before the|   thanks,
     set before    |   disciples,   |   multitude.    |   distributed
     them; and the |   and the      |                 |   to them that
     two fishes    |   disciples to |                 |   were set
     divided he    |   the          |                 |   down;
     among them    |   multitudes.  |17           And |   likewise also
  42 all. And they |20 And they did |   they did eat, |   of the fishes
     did all eat,  |   all eat, and |   and were all  |   as much as
     and were      |   were filled: |   filled: and   |   they would.
  43 filled. And   |   and they took|   there was     |12 And when they
     they took up  |   up that which|   taken up that |   were filled,
     broken pieces,|   remained over|   which remained|   he saith unto
     twelve        |   of the broken|   over to them  |   his
     basketfuls,   |   pieces,      |   of broken     |   disciples,
     and also of   |   twelve       |   pieces, twelve|   Gather up the
     the fishes.   |   baskets full.|   baskets.      |   broken pieces
  44 And they that |21 And they that|                 |   which remain
     ate the loaves|   did eat were |                 |   over, that
     were five     |   about five   |                 |   nothing be
     thousand men. |   thousand men,|                 |13 lost. So they
                   |   beside women |                 |   gathered them
                   |   and children.|                 |   up, and
                   |                |                 |   filled twelve
                   |                |                 |   baskets with
                   |                |                 |   broken pieces
                   |                |                 |   from the five
                   |                |                 |   barley
                   |                |                 |   loaves, which
                   |                |                 |   remained over
                   |                |                 |   unto them
                   |                |                 |   that had
                   |                |                 |   eaten.[b]

     [Footnote 1: Or, _by land_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _recline_.]

     [Footnote 3: The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about
     seventeen cents.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _loaves_.]

[Footnote a: The Bethsaida of Luke 9:10 was evidently the eastern
Bethsaida, which the Tetrarch Philip had named Bethsaida Julias, while
that of Mark 6:45 was the western Bethsaida, near Capernaum. The
territory belonging to Bethsaida Julias would naturally extend some
distance down the lake.]

[Footnote b: Note that here for the first time John runs parallel with
all the synoptic gospels. All four report this incident. See Passion
Week.]



§ 73. THE PREVENTION OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PURPOSE TO PROCLAIM JESUS KING
(A POLITICAL MESSIAH)


  Mark 6:45-46           |Matt. 14:22-23         |John 6:14-15
                         |                       |
  45   And straightway he|22   And straightway he|14   When therefore
     constrained his     |   constrained the     |   the people saw the
     disciples to enter  |   disciples to enter  |   [1]sign which he
     into the boat, and  |   into the boat, and  |   did, they said,
     to go before _him_  |   to go before him    |   This is of a truth
     unto the other side |   unto the other side,|   the prophet that
     to Bethsaida, while |   till he should send |   cometh into the
     he himself sendeth  |   the multitudes away.|   world [_see Deut.
     the multitude away. |23 And after he had    |   18:15_].
  46 And after he had    |   sent the multitudes |15   Jesus therefore
     taken leave of them,|   away, he went up    |   perceiving that
     he departed into the|   into the mountain   |   they were about to
     mountain to pray.   |   apart to pray: and  |   come and take him
                         |   when even was come, |   by force, to make
                         |   he was there alone. |   him king, withdrew
                         |                       |   again into the
                         |                       |   mountain himself
                         |                       |   alone.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _signs_.]



§ 74. THE PERIL TO THE TWELVE IN THE STORM AT SEA AND CHRIST'S COMING TO
THEM ON THE WATER IN THE DARKNESS


  Mark 6:47-52           |Matt. 14:24-33         |John 6:16-21
                         |                       |
  47 And when even was   |24 But the boat [1]was |16   And when evening
     come, the boat was  |   now in the midst of |   came, his
     in the midst of the |   the sea, distressed |   disciples went
     sea, and he alone on|   by the waves; for   |   down unto the sea;
  48 the land. And seeing|   the wind was        |17 and they entered
     them distressed in  |   contrary.           |   into a boat, and
     rowing, for the wind|                       |   were going over
     was contrary unto   |                       |   the sea unto
     them, about the     |25           And in the|   Capernaum. And it
     fourth watch of the |   fourth watch of the |   was now dark, and
     night he cometh unto|   night he came unto  |   Jesus had not yet
     them, walking on the|   them, walking upon  |18 come to them. And
     sea; and he would   |   the sea.            |   the sea was rising
     have passed by them:|                       |   by reason of a
  49 but they, when they |26          And when   |   great wind that
     saw him walking on  |   the disciples saw   |19 blew. When
     the sea, supposed   |   him walking on the  |   therefore they had
     that it was an      |   sea, they were      |   rowed about five
     apparition, and     |   troubled, saying, It|   and twenty or
  50 cried out: for they |   is an apparition;   |   thirty furlongs,
     all saw him, and    |   and they cried out  |   they behold Jesus
     were troubled.      |   for fear.           |   walking on the
                         |                       |   sea, and drawing
                    But  |27           But       |   nigh unto the
     he straightway spake|   straightway Jesus   |   boat: and they
     with them, and saith|   spake unto them,    |20 were afraid. But
     unto them, Be of    |   saying, Be of good  |   he saith unto
     good cheer: it is I;|   cheer; it is I; be  |   them, It is I; be
  51 be not afraid.      |28 not afraid. And     |   not afraid.
                         |   Peter answered him  |
                         |   and said, Lord, if  |
                         |   it be thou, bid me  |
                         |   come unto thee upon |
                         |29 the waters. And he  |
                         |   said, Come. And     |
                         |   Peter went down from|
                         |   the boat, and walked|
                         |   upon the waters,    |
                         |   [2]to come to Jesus.|
                         |30 But when he saw the |
                         |   [3]wind, he was     |
                         |   afraid; and         |
                         |   beginning to sink,  |
                         |   he cried out,       |
                         |   saying, Lord, save  |
                         |31 me. And immediately |
                         |   Jesus stretched     |
                         |   forth his hand, and |
                         |   took hold of him,   |
                         |   and saith unto him, |
                         |   O thou of little    |
                         |   faith, wherefore    |
                    And  |   didst thou doubt?   |
     he went up unto them|32 And when they were  |21              They
     into the boat; and  |   gone up into the    |   were willing
     the wind ceased: and|   boat, the wind      |   therefore to
     they were sore      |33 ceased. And they    |   receive him into
     amazed in           |   that were in the    |   the boat: and
  52 themselves; for they|   boat worshipped him,|   straightway the
     understood not      |   saying, Of a truth  |   boat was at the
     concerning the      |   thou art the Son of |   land whither they
     loaves, but their   |   God.                |   were going.
     heart was hardened. |                       |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _was many furlongs
     distant from the land_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _and came_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities add _strong_.]



§ 75. THE RECEPTION AT GENNESARET


  Mark 6:53-56                      |Matt. 14:34-36
                                    |
  53   And when they had [1]crossed |34   And when they had crossed
     over, they came to the land    |   over, they came to the land,
     unto Gennesaret, and moored to |   unto Gennesaret.
  54 the shore. And when they were  |
     come out of the boat,          |
     straightway _the people_ knew  |
  55 him, and ran about that whole  |
     region, and began to carry     |
     about on their beds those that |
     were sick, where they heard he |
  56 was. And wheresoever[a] he     |35             And when the men of
     entered, into villages, or into|   that place knew him, they sent
     cities, or into the country,   |   unto all that region round
     they laid the sick in the      |   about, and brought unto him all
     marketplaces, and besought him |36 that were sick; and they
     that they might touch if it    |   besought him that they might
     were but the border of his     |   only touch the border of his
     garment: and as many as touched|   garment: and as many as touched
     [2]him were made whole.        |   were made whole.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _crossed over to the land, they came unto
     Gennesaret_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _it_.]

[Footnote a: This general characterization applies to the Galilean work
as a whole in Part VII rather than to the precise time at this juncture.
But one must allow his imagination to enlarge upon the scope of Christ's
work.]



§ 76. THE COLLAPSE OF THE GALILEAN CAMPAIGN BECAUSE JESUS WILL NOT
CONFORM TO POPULAR MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS

_The next day in the Synagogue in Capernaum. The same crowd that had
eaten the Loaves and the Fishes leave Christ in disgust on learning that
He is the Bread of Life and not a Political Messiah._


  John 6:22-71

  22   On the morrow the multitude which stood on the other side of the
     sea saw that there was none other [1]boat there, save one, and
     that Jesus entered not with his disciples into the boat, but
  23 _that_ his disciples went away alone (howbeit there came [2]boats
     from Tiberias nigh unto the place where they ate the bread after
  24 the Lord had given thanks): when the multitude therefore saw that
     Jesus was not there, neither his disciples, they themselves got
  25 into the [2]boats, and came to Capernaum, seeking Jesus. And when
     they found him on the other side of the sea, they said unto him,
  26 Rabbi, when camest thou hither? Jesus answered them and said,
     Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw
  27 signs, but because ye ate of the loaves, and were filled. Work not
     for the meat which perisheth, but for the meat which abideth unto
     eternal life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him
  28 the Father, _even_ God, hath sealed. They said therefore unto him,
  29 What must we do, that we may work the works of God? Jesus answered
     and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on
  30 him whom [3]he hath sent. They said therefore unto him, What then
     doest thou for a sign, that we may see, and believe thee? what
  31 workest thou? Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it
     is written, He gave them bread out of heaven to eat [_see Ex.
  32 16:4, 15; Ps. 78:24; Neh. 9:15_]. Jesus therefore said unto them,
     Verily, verily, I say unto you, It was not Moses that gave you the
     bread out of heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread out
  33 of heaven. For the bread of God is that which cometh down out of
  34 heaven, and giveth life unto the world. They said therefore unto
  35 him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. Jesus said unto them, I am
     the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall not hunger, and he
  36 that believeth on me shall never thirst. But I said unto you, that
  37 ye have seen me, and yet believe not. All that which the Father
     giveth me shall come unto me; and him that cometh to me I will in
  38 no wise cast out. For I am come down from heaven, not to do mine
  39 own will, but the will of him that sent me. And this is the will
     of him that sent me, that of all that which he hath given me I
  40 should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. For
     this is the will of my Father, that every one that beholdeth the
     Son, and believeth on him, should have eternal life; and [4]I will
     raise him up at the last day.
  41   The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, I am
  42 the bread which came down out of heaven. And they said, Is not
     this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know?
  43 how doth he now say, I am come down out of heaven? Jesus answered
  44 and said unto them, Murmur not among yourselves. No man can come
     to me, except the Father which sent me draw him: and I will raise
  45 him up in the last day. It is written in the prophets [_see Isa.
     54:13_], And they shall all be taught of God. Every one that hath
  46 heard from the Father, and hath learned, cometh unto me. Not that
     any man hath seen the Father, save he which is from God, he hath
  47 seen the Father. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth
  48 hath eternal life. I am the bread of life. Your fathers did eat
  49 the manna in the wilderness, and they died. This is the bread
  50 which cometh down out of heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and
  51 not die. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven: if
     any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: yea and the
     bread which I will give is my flesh, for the life of the world.
  52   The Jews therefore strove one with another, saying, How can this
  53 man give us his flesh to eat? Jesus therefore said unto them,
     Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son
  54 of man and drink his blood, ye have not life in yourselves. He
     that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath eternal life; and
  55 I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is [5]meat
  56 indeed, and my blood is [6]drink indeed. He that eateth my flesh
  57 and drinketh my blood abideth in me, and I in him. As the living
     Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he that
  58 eateth me, he also shall live because of me. This is the bread
     which came down out of heaven: not as the fathers did eat, and
  59 died: he that eateth this bread shall live for ever. These things
     said he in [7]the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.
  60   Many therefore of his disciples, when they heard _this_, said,
  61 This is a hard saying; who can hear [8]it? But Jesus knowing in
     himself that his disciples murmured at this, said unto them, Doth
  62 this cause you to stumble? _What_ then if ye should behold the Son
  63 of man ascending where he was before? It is the spirit that
     quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I have
  64 spoken unto you are spirit, and are life. But there are some of
     you that believe not. For Jesus knew from the beginning who they
  65 were that believed not, and who it was that should betray him. And
     he said, For this cause have I said unto you, that no man can come
     unto me, except it be given unto him of the Father.
  66   Upon this many of his disciples went back, and walked no more
  67 with him. Jesus said therefore unto the twelve, Would ye also go
  68 away? Simon Peter answered him, Lord, to whom shall we go? thou
  69 [9]hast the words of eternal life. And we have believed and know
  70 that thou art the Holy One of God. Jesus answered them, Did not I
  71 choose you the twelve, and one of you is a devil? Now he spake of
     Judas _the son_ of Simon Iscariot, for he it was that should betray
     him, _being_ one of the twelve.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _little boat_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _little boats_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _he sent_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _that I should raise him up_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _true meat_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _true drink_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _a synagogue_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _him_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _hast words_.]



§ 77. PHARISEES FROM JERUSALEM REPROACH JESUS FOR ALLOWING HIS DISCIPLES
TO DISREGARD THEIR TRADITIONS ABOUT CEREMONIAL DEFILEMENT OF THE HANDS. A
PUZZLING PARABLE IN REPLY

Probably in Capernaum


  Mark 7:1-23                       |Matt. 15:1-20   |John 7:1
                                    |                |
   1   And there are gathered       | 1   Then there | 1   And after
     together unto him the          |   come to Jesus|   these things
     Pharisees, and certain of the  |   from         |   Jesus walked
     scribes, which had come from   |   Jerusalem    |   in Galilee:
   2 Jerusalem, and had seen that   |   Pharisees and|   for he would
     some of his disciples ate their|   scribes,     |   not walk in
     bread with [6]defiled, that is,|   saying,      |   Judea, because
   3 unwashen, hands. For the       |                |   the Jews
     Pharisees, and all the Jews,   |                |   sought to kill
     except they wash their hands   |                |   him.
     [7]diligently, eat not, holding|                |
     the tradition of the elders:   |                |
   4 and _when they come_ from the  |                |
     marketplace, except they       |                |
     [8]wash themselves, they eat   |                |
     not: and many other things     |                |
     there be, which they have      |                |
     received to hold, [9]washings  |                |
   5 of cups, and pots, and brasen  |                |
     vessels.[10] And the Pharisees |                |
     and the scribes ask him, Why   | 2 Why do thy disciples transgress
     walk not thy disciples         |   the tradition of the elders? for
     according to the tradition of  |   they wash not their hands when
     the elders, but eat their bread| 3 they eat bread. And he answered
   6 with [6]defiled hands? And he  | 7 and said unto them, Ye
     said unto them, Well did Isaiah|   hypocrites, well did Isaiah
     prophesy of you hypocrites, as |   prophesy of you, saying [_see
     it is written,                 |   Isa. 29:13_],
       This people honoureth me with| 8   This people honoureth me with
         their lips,                |       their lips;
       But their heart is far from  |     But their heart is far from
         me.                        |       me.
   7   But in vain do they worship  | 9   But in vain do they worship
         me,                        |       me,
       Teaching _as their_ doctrines|     Teaching _as their_ doctrines
         the precepts of men.       |       the precepts of men.
   8 Ye leave the commandment of    | 3 Why do ye also transgress the
     God, and hold fast the         |   commandment of God because of
   9 tradition of men. And he said  |   your tradition?
     unto them, Full well do ye     |
     reject the commandment of God, |
     that ye may keep your          |
  10 tradition. For Moses [_see Ex. |
     20:12; Deut. 5:16_] said,      | 4                 For God said,
     Honour thy father and thy      |   Honour thy father and thy
     mother; and, He that speaketh  |   mother: and, He that speaketh
     evil of father or mother, let  |   evil of father or mother, let
  11 him [1]die the death: but ye   | 5 him [1]die the death. But ye
     say, If a man shall say to his |   say, Whosoever shall say to his
     father or his mother, That     |   father or his mother, That
     wherewith thou mightest have   |   wherewith thou mightest have
     been profited by me is Corban, |   been profited by me is given
     that is to say, Given _to God_ |   _to God_; he shall not honour
     [_see Ex. 21:17; Lev. 20:9_];  | 6 his father[2]. And ye have made
  12 ye no longer suffer him to do  |
     aught for his father or his    |
  13 mother; making void the word of|   void the [3]word of God because
     God by your tradition, which ye|   of your tradition.
     have delivered: and many such  |
  14 like things ye do. And he      |10                    And he
     called to him the multitude    |   called to him the multitude,
     again, and said unto them, Hear|   and said unto them, Hear, and
     me all of you, and understand: |11 understand: Not that which
  15 there is nothing from without  |
     the man, that going into him   |   entereth into the mouth
     can defile him: but the things |   defileth the man; but that
     which proceed out of the man   |   which proceedeth out of the
     are those that defile the      |   mouth, this defileth the man.
  17 man.[11] And when he was       |
     entered into the house from the|
     multitude, his disciples asked |
     of him the parable.            |12 Then came the disciples, and
                                    |   said unto him, Knowest thou
                                    |   that the Pharisees were
                                    |   [4]offended, when they heard
                                    |13 this saying? But he answered
                                    |   and said, Every [5]plant which
                                    |   my heavenly Father planted not,
                                    |14 shall be rooted up. Let them
                                    |   alone: they are blind guides.
                                    |   And if the blind guide the
                                    |   blind, both shall fall into a
                                    |15 pit. And Peter answered and
  18                     And he     |   said unto him, Declare unto us
     saith unto them, Are ye so     |16 the parable. And he said, Are
     without understanding also?    |   ye also even yet without
     Perceive ye not, that          |17 understanding? Perceive ye not,
     whatsoever from without goeth  |   that whatsoever goeth into the
     into the man, _it_ cannot      |
  19 defile him; because it goeth   |
     not into his heart, but into   |   mouth passeth into the belly,
     his belly, and goeth out into  |   and is cast out into the
     the draught? _This he said_,   |   draught?
  20 making all meats clean. And he |
     said, That which proceedeth out|18          But the things which
     of the man, that defileth the  |   proceed out of the mouth come
  21 man. For from within, out of   |   forth out of the heart; and
     the heart of men, [12]evil     |19 they defile the man. For out of
     thoughts proceed, fornications,|   the heart come forth evil
     thefts, murders, adulteries,   |   thoughts, murders, adulteries,
  22 covetings, wickednesses,       |   fornications, thefts, false
     deceit, lasciviousness, an evil|   witness, railings:
     eye, railing, pride,           |
  23 foolishness: all these evil    |20                    these are
     things proceed from within, and|   the things which defile the
     defile the man.                |   man: but to eat with unwashen
                                    |   hands defileth not the man.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _surely die_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities add _or his mother_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities read _law_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _caused to stumble_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _planting_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _common_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _up to the elbow_. Gr. _with the fist_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _baptize_. Some ancient authorities read
     _sprinkle themselves_.]

     [Footnote 9: Gr. _baptizings_.]

     [Footnote 10: Many ancient authorities add _and couches_.]

     [Footnote 11: Many ancient authorities insert ver. 16 _If any man
     hath ears to hear, let him hear._]

     [Footnote 12: Gr. _thoughts that are evil_.]



§ 78. THE SECOND WITHDRAWAL TO THE REGION OF TYRE AND SIDON AND THE
HEALING OF THE DAUGHTER OF A SYRO-PHOENICIAN WOMAN


  Mark 7:24-30                      |Matt. 15:21-28
                                    |
  24   And from thence he arose, and|21   And Jesus went out thence, and
     went away into the borders of  |   withdrew into the parts of Tyre
     Tyre [3]and Sidon. And he      |   and Sidon.[a]
     entered into a house, and would|22               And behold, a
     have no man know it: and he    |   Canaanitish woman came out from
  25 could not be hid. But          |   those borders, and cried,
     straightway a woman, whose     |   saying, Have mercy on me, O
     little daughter had an unclean |   Lord, thou son of David; my
     spirit, having heard of him,   |   daughter is grievously vexed
     came and fell down at his feet.|23 with a [1]devil. But he
  26 Now the woman was a [4]Greek, a|   answered her not a word. And
     Syrophoenician by race. And she|   his disciples came and besought
     besought him that he would cast|   him, saying, Send her away; for
     forth the [1]devil out of her  |24 she crieth after us. But he
     daughter.                      |   answered and said, I was not
                                    |   sent but unto the lost sheep of
                                    |25 the house of Israel. But she
                                    |   came and worshipped him,
  27          And he said unto her, |26 saying, Lord, help me. And he
     Let the children first be      |   answered and said, It is not
     filled: for it is not meet to  |   meet to take the children's
     take the children's [2]bread   |   [2]bread and cast it to the
  28 and cast it to the dogs. But   |
     she answered and saith unto    |
     him, Yea, Lord: even the dogs  |27 dogs. But she said, Yea, Lord:
     under the table eat of the     |   for even the dogs eat of the
  29 children's crumbs. And he said |   crumbs which fall from their
     unto her, For this saying go   |28 masters' table. Then Jesus
     thy way; the [1]devil is gone  |   answered and said unto her, O
  30 out of thy daughter. And she   |   woman, great is thy faith: be
     went away unto her house, and  |   it done unto thee even as thou
     found the child laid upon the  |   wilt. And her daughter was
     bed, and the [1]devil gone out.|   healed from that hour.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _loaf_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities omit _and Sidon_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Gentile_.]

[Footnote a: It used to be questioned whether he actually left the land
of Israel. Matthew's expression ought to have settled the question, and
the corrected text of Mark 7:31 leaves no doubt.]



§ 79. THE THIRD WITHDRAWAL NORTH THROUGH PHOENICIA AND EAST TOWARDS
HERMON AND SOUTH INTO DECAPOLIS (KEEPING OUT OF THE TERRITORY OF HEROD
ANTIPAS) WITH THE HEALING OF THE DEAF AND DUMB MAN AND THE FEEDING OF THE
FOUR THOUSAND


  Mark 7:31-8:9                     |Matt. 15:29-38
                                    |
  31   And again he went out from   |29   And Jesus departed thence, and
     the borders of Tyre, and came  |   came nigh unto the sea of
     through Sidon unto the sea of  |   Galilee; and he went up into
     Galilee, through the midst of  |   the mountain, and sat there.
     the borders of Decapolis.[a]   |
  32 And they bring unto him one    |
     that was deaf, and had an      |
     impediment in his speech; and  |
     they beseech him to lay his    |
  33 hand upon him. And he took him |
     aside from the multitude       |
     privately, and put his fingers |
     into his ears, and he spat, and|
  34 touched his tongue; and looking|
     up to heaven, he sighed, and   |
     saith unto him, Ephphatha, that|
  35 is, Be opened. And his ears    |
     were opened, and the bond of   |
     his tongue was loosed, and he  |
  36 spake plain. And he charged    |30 And there came unto him great
     them that they should tell no  |   multitudes, having with them
     man: but the more he charged   |   the lame, blind, dumb, maimed,
     them, so much the more a great |   and many others, and they cast
  37 deal they published it. And    |   them down at his feet; and he
     they were beyond measure       |31 healed them: insomuch that the
     astonished, saying, He hath    |   multitude wondered, when they
     done all things well: he maketh|   saw the dumb speaking, the
     even the deaf to hear, and the |   maimed whole, and the lame
     dumb to speak.                 |   walking, and the blind seeing:
   1   In those days, when there was|   and they glorified the God of
     again[b] a great multitude, and|   Israel.
     they had nothing to eat, he    |
     called unto him his disciples, |32   And Jesus called unto him his
   2 and saith unto them, I have    |   disciples, and said, I have
     compassion on the multitude,   |   compassion on the multitude,
     because they continue with me  |   because they continue with me
     now three days, and have       |   now three days and have nothing
   3 nothing to eat: and if I send  |   to eat: and I would not send
     them away fasting to their     |   them away fasting, lest haply
     home, they will faint in the   |   they faint in the way.
     way; and some of them are come |33                        And the
   4 from far. And his disciples    |   disciples say unto him, Whence
     answered him, Whence shall one |   should we have so many loaves
     be able to fill these men with |   in a desert place, as to fill
     [1]bread here in a desert      |34 so great a multitude? And Jesus
   5 place? And he asked them, How  |   saith unto them, How many
     many loaves have ye? And they  |   loaves have ye? And they said,
   6 said, Seven. And he commandeth |   Seven, and a few small fishes.
     the multitude to sit down on   |35 And he commanded the multitude
     the ground: and he took the    |36 to sit down on the ground; and
     seven loaves, and having given |   he took the seven loaves and
     thanks, he brake, and gave to  |   the fishes; and he gave thanks
     his disciples, to set before   |   and brake, and gave to the
     them; and they set them before |   disciples, and the disciples to
   7 the multitude. And they had a  |   multitudes.
     few small fishes: and having   |
     blessed them, he commanded to  |
   8 set these also before them. And|37             And they did all
     they did eat, and were filled: |   eat, and were filled: and they
     and they took up, of broken    |   took up that which remained
     pieces that remained over,     |   over of the broken pieces, seven
   9 seven baskets. And they were   |38 baskets full. And they that did
     about four thousand: and he    |   eat were four thousand men,
     sent them away.                |   beside women and children.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _loaves_.]

[Footnote a: Observe how carefully he keeps away from the territory ruled
by Herod Antipas. The tetrarch Philip, who governed the districts east of
the Lake of Galilee and of the upper Jordan, was a better man than
Antipas, and moreover had no cause to feel uneasy about Jesus.]

[Footnote b: It is to be noted that Mark and Matthew give the feeding of
the five thousand and of the four thousand. Mark and Matthew likewise
report Jesus as referring to both incidents (Mark 8:19-20 = Matt.
16:9-10). Hence, it is hard to think of a mere confusion in the use of
the data. There is no real reason why both incidents could not be true.]



§ 80. THE BRIEF VISIT TO MAGADAN (DALMANUTHA) IN GALILEE AND THE SHARP
ATTACK BY THE PHARISEES AND THE SADDUCEES (NOTE THEIR APPEARANCE NOW
AGAINST JESUS)


  Mark 8:10-12                      |Matt. 15:39-16:4
                                    |
  10 And straightway he entered into|39 And he sent away the
     the boat with his disciples,   |   multitudes, and entered into
     and came into the parts of     |   the boat, and came into the
     Dalmanutha.                    |   borders of Magadan.[a]
  11   And the Pharisees came forth,| 1   And the Pharisees and
     began to question with him,    |   Sadducees came, and tempting
     seeking of him a sign from     |   him[b] asked him to shew them a
     heaven, tempting him.          | 2 sign from heaven. But he
                                    |   answered and said unto them,
                                    |   [1]When it is evening, ye say,
                                    |   _It will be_ fair weather: for
                                    | 3 the heaven is red. And in the
                                    |   morning, _It will be_ foul
                                    |   weather to-day: for the heaven
                                    |   is red and lowring. Ye know how
  12                       And he   |   to discern the face of the
     sighed deeply in his spirit,   |   heaven; but ye cannot _discern_
     and saith, Why doth this       | 4 the signs of the times. An evil
     generation seek a sign? verily |   and adulterous generation
     I say unto you, There shall no |   seeketh after a sign; and there
     sign be given unto this        |   shall no sign be given unto it,
     generation.                    |   but the sign of Jonah [_see
                                    |   Jonah 3:4_]. And he left them,
                                    |   and departed.

     [Footnote 1: The following words, to the end of ver. 3, are
     omitted by some of the most ancient and other important
     authorities.]

[Footnote a: The situation of Magadan was unknown to some early students
or copyists, as it is to us, and so they changed it to the familiar
Magdala, found in our common texts.]

[Footnote b: The moment he returns to Galilee the Jewish leaders begin to
attack him.]



§ 81. THE FOURTH RETIREMENT TO BETHSAIDA JULIAS IN THE TETRARCHY OF HEROD
PHILIP WITH SHARP REBUKE OF THE DULNESS OF THE DISCIPLES ON THE WAY
ACROSS AND THE HEALING OF A BLIND MAN IN BETHSAIDA


  Mark 8:13-26                      |Matt. 16:5-12
                                    |
  13                         And    |
     he left them, and again        |
     entering into _the boat_       |
     departed to the other side.    |
  14   And they forgot to take      | 5   And the disciples came to the
     bread; and they had not in the |   other side and forgot to take
     boat with them more than one   | 6 [1]bread. And Jesus said unto
  15 loaf. And he charged them,     |   them, Take heed and beware of
     saying, Take heed, beware of   |   the leaven of the Pharisees and
     the leaven of the Pharisees and| 7 Sadducees. And they reasoned
  16 the leaven of Herod. And they  |   among themselves, saying, [2]We
     reasoned one with another,     | 8 took no [1]bread. And Jesus
  17 [4]saying. [5]We have no bread.|   perceiving it said, O ye of
     And Jesus perceiving it saith  |   little faith, why reason ye
     unto them, Why reason ye,      |   among yourselves, because ye
     because ye have no bread? do ye| 9 have no [1]bread? Do ye not yet
     not yet perceive, neither      |   perceive, neither remember the
     understand? have ye your heart |   five loaves of the five
  18 hardened? Having eyes, see ye  |   thousand, and how many
     not? and having ears, hear ye  |10 [3]baskets ye took up? Neither
     not? and do ye not remember    |   the seven loaves of the four
  19 [_see Jer. 5:21; Ezek. 12:2_]? |   thousand, and how many
     When I brake the five loaves   |11 [3]baskets ye took up? How is
     among the five thousand, how   |   it that ye do not perceive that
     many [6]baskets full of broken |   I spake not to you concerning
     pieces took ye up? They say    |   [1]bread? But beware of the
  20 unto him, Twelve. And when the |   leaven of the Pharisees and
     seven among the four thousand, |12 Sadducees. Then understood they
     how many [6]basketfuls of      |   how that he bade them not
     broken pieces took ye up? And  |   beware of the leaven of
  21 they say unto him, Seven. And  |   [1]bread, but of the teaching
     he said unto them, Do ye not   |   of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
     yet understand?
  22   And they come unto Bethsaida.[a] And they bring to him a blind
  23 man, and beseech him to touch him. And he took hold of the blind
     man by the hand, and brought him out of the village; and when he
     had spit on his eyes, and laid his hands upon him, he asked him,
  24 Seest thou aught? And he looked up, and said, I see men; for I
  25 behold _them_ as trees, walking. Then again he laid his hands upon
     his eyes; and he looked stedfastly, and was restored, and saw all
  26 things clearly. And he sent him away to his home, saying, Do not
     even enter into the village.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _loaves_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, It is _because we took no bread_.]

     [Footnote 3: _Basket_ in ver. 9 and 10 represents different Greek
     words.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities read _because they had no
     bread_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, It is _because we have no bread_.]

     [Footnote 6: _Basket_ in ver. 19 and 20 represents different Greek
     words.]

[Footnote a: Jesus goes on to the region of Cæsarea Philippi on Mount
Hermon, where no hostility had been aroused, and he could quietly
instruct the Twelve. He probably remained in that vicinity several
months, as this whole period of retirement lasted six months. He was near
Bethsaida Julias in the First Retirement and now he stops here again on
his way to Cæsarea Philippi. Each of the four retirements is into heathen
territory (Ituræa twice, Phoenicia, Decapolis), where Greek influence
prevails, and where the Greek language is dominant.]



§ 82. NEAR CÆSAREA PHILIPPI JESUS TESTS THE FAITH OF THE TWELVE IN HIS
MESSIAHSHIP


  Mark 8:27-30           |Matt. 16:13-20         |Luke 9:18-21
                         |                       |
  27   And Jesus went    |13   Now when Jesus    |18   And it came to
     forth, and his      |   came into the parts |   pass, as he was
     disciples, into the |   of Cæsarea Philippi,|   praying alone, the
     villages of Cæsarea |   he asked his        |   disciples were
     Philippi: and in the|   disciples, saying,  |   with him: and he
     way he asked his    |   Who do men say      |   asked them,
     disciples, saying   |   [1]that the Son of  |   saying, Who do the
     unto them, Who do   |14 man is? And they    |   multitudes say
     men say that I am?  |   said, Some _say_    |19 that I am? And
  28 And they told him,  |   John the Baptist;   |   they answering
     saying, John the    |   some, Elijah: and   |   said, John the
     Baptist: and others,|   others, Jeremiah, or|   Baptist; but
     Elijah: but others, |   one of the prophets.|   others _say_,
     One of the prophets.|15 He saith unto them, |   Elijah; and
  29 And he asked them,  |   But who say ye that |   others, that one
     But who say ye that |16 I am? And Simon     |   of the old
     I am? Peter         |   Peter answered and  |   prophets is risen
     answereth and saith |   said, Thou art the  |20 again. And he said
     unto him, Thou art  |   Christ,[a] the Son  |   unto them, But who
     the Christ.         |   of the living God.  |   say ye that I am?
                         |17 And Jesus answered  |   And Peter
                         |   and said unto him,  |   answering said,
                         |   Blessed art thou,   |   The Christ of God.
                         |   Simon Bar-Jonah: for|
                         |   flesh and blood hath|
                         |   not revealed it unto|
                         |   thee, but my Father |
                         |   which is in heaven. |
                         |18 And I also say unto |
                         |   thee, that thou art |
                         |   [2]Peter, and upon  |
                         |   this [3]rock I will |
                         |   build[b] my church  |
                         |   [_see Ps. 89:4, 26, |
                         |   38, 48_]; and the   |
                         |   gates of Hades shall|
                         |   not prevail against |
                         |19 it. I will give unto|
                         |   thee the keys of the|
                         |   kingdom of heaven:  |
                         |   and whatsoever thou |
                         |   shalt bind on earth |
                         |   shall be bound in   |
                         |   heaven: and         |
                         |   whatsoever thou     |
                         |   shalt loose on earth|
                         |   shall be loosed in  |
                         |20 heaven. Then charged|21 But he charged
  30             And he  |   he the disciples    |   them, and
     charged them that   |   that they should    |   commanded _them_
     they should tell no |   tell no man that he |   to tell this to no
     man of him.         |   was the Christ.     |   man;


     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _that I the Son of man
     am_. See Mark 8:27; Luke 9:18.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _Petros_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _petra_.]

[Footnote a: Some understand ver. 16f. as showing that they had never
before believed him to be the Messiah, and so hold that the other Gospels
here utterly conflict with John, who represents the first disciples (§§
28, 35) as believing Jesus to be the Messiah. But it is easy to suppose
that their early faith in his Messiahship was shaken by his continued
failure to gather armies and set up the expected temporal kingdom, and
while still believing him to have a divine mission they had questioned
whether he was the Messiah, as John the Baptist did in prison (§ 57).
Observe that in Matthew and Luke he long before this time distinctively
_implied_ that he was the Messiah, in response to the Forerunner's
inquiries (§ 57). Besides, at the Baptism and the Temptation, the
Synoptic Gospels represent Jesus as the Son of God.]

[Footnote b: It is interesting to note that the imagery employed by Jesus
here all appears in Ps. 89, a Messianic Psalm built on 2 Sam. 7. Thus
note "build" in Ps. 89:4, "rock" in 89:26, "anointed" in 89:38, "the
power of Sheol" in 89:48, and the Psalm discusses the perpetuity of the
Davidic throne (Kingdom). Jesus applies this imagery to the spiritual
Kingdom that He is building.]



§ 83. JESUS DISTINCTLY FORETELLS THAT HE, THE MESSIAH, WILL BE REJECTED
AND KILLED, AND WILL RISE THE THIRD DAY


  Mark 8:31-37           |Matt. 16:21-26         |Luke 9:22-25
                         |                       |
                         |21   From that time    |
  31   And he began to   |   began [1]Jesus to   |
     teach them, that the|   shew unto his       |
     Son of man must     |   disciples, how that |22 saying, The Son of
     suffer many things, |   he must go unto     |   man must suffer
     and be rejected by  |   Jerusalem, and      |   many things, and
     the elders, and the |   suffer many things  |   be rejected of the
     chief priests, and  |   of the elders and   |   elders and chief
     the scribes, and be |   chief priests and   |   priests and
     killed, and after   |   scribes, and be     |   scribes, and be
     three days rise     |   killed, and the     |   killed, and the
  32 again. And he spake |   third day be raised |   third day be
     the saying openly.  |   up.                 |   raised up.
     And Peter took him, |22     And Peter took  |
     and began to rebuke |   him, and began to   |
  33 him. But he turning |   rebuke him, saying, |
     about, and seeing   |   [2]Be it far from   |
     his disciples,      |   thee, Lord: this    |
     rebuked Peter, and  |   shall never be unto |
     saith, Get thee     |23 thee. But he turned,|
     behind me, Satan:   |   and said unto Peter,|
     for thou mindest not|   Get thee behind me, |
     the things of God,  |   Satan: thou art a   |
     but the things of   |   stumbling-block unto|
  34 men. And he called  |   me: for thou mindest|
     unto him the        |   not the things of   |
     multitude with his  |   God, but the things |
     disciples, and said |24 of men. Then said   |23            And he
                         |   Jesus unto his      |   said unto all, If
     unto them, If any   |   disciples, If any   |   any man would come
     man would come after|   man would come after|   after me, let him
     me, let him deny    |   me, let him deny    |   deny himself, and
     himself, and take up|   himself, and take up|   take up his cross
     his cross, and      |   his cross, and      |   daily, and follow
  35 follow me. For      |25 follow me. For      |24 me. For whosoever
     whosoever would save|   whosoever would save|   would save his
     his [3]life shall   |   his [3]life shall   |   [3]life shall lose
     lose it; and        |   lose it: and        |   it; but whosoever
     whosoever shall lose|   whosoever shall lose|   shall lose his
     his [3]life for my  |   his [3]life for my  |   [3]life for my
     sake and the        |   sake shall find it. |   sake, the same
     gospel's shall save |                       |25 shall save it. For
  36 it. For what doth it|26 For what shall a man|   what is a man
     profit a man, to    |   be profited, if he  |   profited, if he
     gain the whole      |   shall gain the whole|   gain the whole
     world, and forfeit  |   world, and forfeit  |   world, and lose or
  37 his [3]life? For    |   his [3]life? or what|   forfeit his own
     what should a man   |   shall a man give in |   self?
     give in exchange for|   exchange for his    |
     his [3]life?        |   [3]life?            |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _Jesus Christ_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, God _have mercy on thee_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _soul_.]



§ 84. THE COMING OF THE SON OF MAN IN THAT GENERATION


  Mark 8:38-9:1          |Matt. 16:27-28         |Luke 9:26-27
                         |                       |
  38   For whosoever     |                       |26   For whosoever
     shall be ashamed of |                       |   shall be ashamed
     me and of my words  |                       |   of me and of my
     in this adulterous  |27 For the Son of man  |   words, of him
     and sinful          |   shall come in the   |   shall the Son of
     generation, the Son |   glory of his Father |   man be ashamed,
     of man also shall be|   with his angels;    |   when he cometh in
     ashamed of him, when|   and then shall      |   his own glory, and
     he cometh in the    |   he render unto every|   _the glory_ of the
     glory of his Father |   man according to    |   Father, and of the
     with the holy       |   his [1]deeds [_see  |   holy angels.
   1 angels. And he said |   Ps. 62:12; Prov.    |27              But I
     unto them, Verily I |28 24:12_]. Verily I   |   tell you of a
     say unto you, There |   say unto you, There |   truth, There be
     be some here of them|   be some of them that|   some of them that
     that stand _by_,    |   stand here, which   |   stand here, which
     which shall in no   |   shall in no wise    |   shall in no wise
     wise taste of death,|   taste of death, till|   taste of death,
     till they see the   |   they see the Son of |   till they see the
     kingdom of God come |   man coming in his   |   kingdom of God.
     with power.         |   kingdom.            |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _doing_.]



§ 85. THE TRANSFIGURATION OF JESUS ON A MOUNTAIN (PROBABLY HERMON[a])
NEAR CÆESAREA PHILIPPI


  Mark 9:2-8             |Matt. 17:1-8           |Luke 9:28-36
                         |                       |
   2   And after six days| 1   And after six days|28   And it came to
     Jesus taketh with   |   Jesus taketh with   |   pass about eight
     him Peter, and      |   him Peter, and      |   days after these
     James, and John, and|   James, and John his |   sayings, he took
     bringeth them up    |   brother, and        |   with him Peter and
     into a high mountain|   bringeth them up    |   John and James,
     apart by themselves:|   into a high mountain|   and went up into
     and he was          | 2 apart: and he was   |   the mountain to
     transfigured before |   transfigured before |29 pray. And as he
   3 them: and his       |   them: and his face  |   was praying, the
     garments became     |   did shine as the    |   fashion of his
     glistering,         |   sun, and his        |   countenance was
     exceeding white; so |   garments became     |   altered, and his
     as no fuller on     |   white as the light. |   raiment _became_
     earth can whiten    | 3 And behold, there   |   white _and_
   4 them. And there     |   appeared unto them  |30 dazzling. And
     appeared unto them  |   Moses and Elijah    |   behold, there
     Elijah with Moses:  |   talking with him.   |   talked with him
     and they were       |                       |   two men, which
     talking with Jesus. |                       |   were Moses and
                         |                       |31 Elijah; who
                         |                       |   appeared in glory,
                         |                       |   and spake of his
                         |                       |   [2]decease which
                         |                       |   he was about to
                         |                       |   accomplish at
                         |                       |32 Jerusalem. Now
                         |                       |   Peter and they
                         |                       |   that were with
                         |                       |   him, were heavy
                         |                       |   with sleep: but
                         |                       |   [3]when they were
                         |                       |   fully awake, they
                         |                       |   saw his glory, and
   5   And Peter         | 4   And Peter         |   the two men that
     answereth and saith |   answered, and said  |   stood with him.
     to Jesus, Rabbi, it |   unto Jesus, Lord, it|33 And it came to
     is good for us to   |   is good for us to be|   pass, as they were
     be here: and let us |   here: if thou wilt, |   parting from him,
     make three          |   I will make three   |   Peter said unto
     [1]tabernacles,[b]  |   [1]tabernacles; one |   Jesus, Master, it
     one for thee, and   |   for thee, and one   |   is good for us to
     one for Moses, and  |   for Moses, and one  |   be here: and let
   6 one for Elijah. For |   for Elijah.         |   us make three
     he wist not what to | 5   While he was yet  |   [1]tabernacles;
     answer; for they    |   speaking, behold, a |   one for thee, and
     became sore afraid. |   bright cloud        |   one for Moses, and
   7 And there came a    |   overshadowed them:  |   one for Elijah:
     cloud overshadowing |   and behold, a voice |   not knowing what
     them: and there came|   out of the cloud,   |34 he said. And while
     a voice out of the  |   saying, This is my  |   he said these
     cloud, This is my   |   beloved Son, in whom|   things, there came
     beloved Son: hear ye|   I am well pleased;  |   a cloud, and
     him [_see Deut.     | 6 hear ye him. And    |   overshadowed them:
     18:15; Isa. 42:1;   |   when the disciples  |   and they feared as
     Ps. 2:7_].[c]       |   heard it, they fell |   they entered into
                         |   on their face, and  |35 the cloud. And a
                         |   were sore afraid.   |   voice came out of
                         | 7 And Jesus came and  |   the cloud, saying,
                         |   touched them and    |   This is [4]my Son,
   8               And   |   said, Arise, and be |   my chosen: hear ye
     suddenly looking    | 8 not afraid. And     |   him.
     round about, they   |   lifting up their    |36   And when the
     saw no one any more,|   eyes, they saw no   |   voice [5]came,
     save Jesus only with|   one, save Jesus     |   Jesus was found
     themselves.         |   only.               |   alone.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _booths_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _departure_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _having remained awake_.]

     [Footnote 4: Many ancient authorities read _my beloved Son_. See
     Matt. 17:5; Mark 9:7.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _was past_.]

[Footnote a: The tradition which places the Transfiguration on Mount
Tabor is beyond question false.]

[Footnote b: Probably not long before the feast of tabernacles (near end
of September) and Peter may have meant that they celebrate the feast on
the mountains instead of going to Jerusalem.]

[Footnote c: See § 24 for similar language at the Baptism of Jesus.]



§ 86. THE PUZZLE OF THE THREE DISCIPLES ABOUT THE RESURRECTION AND ABOUT
ELIJAH ON THEIR WAY DOWN THE MOUNTAIN


  Mark 9:9-13            |Matt. 17:9-13          |Luke 9:36
                         |                       |
   9   And as they were  | 9   And as they were  |
     coming down from the|   coming down from the|
     mountain, he charged|   mountain, Jesus     |
     them that they      |   commanded them,     |36       And they held
     should tell no man  |   saying, Tell the    |   their peace, and
     what things they had|   vision to no man,   |   told no man in
     seen, save when the |   until the Son of man|   those days any of
     Son of man should   |   be risen from the   |   the things which
     have risen again    |10 dead. And his       |   they had seen.
  10 from the dead. And  |   disciples asked him,|
     they kept the       |   saying, Why then say|
     saying, questioning |   the scribes that    |
     among themselves    |   Elijah must first   |
     what the rising     |   come [_see Mal.     |
     again from the dead |11 4:5-6_]? And he     |
  11 should mean. And    |   answered and said,  |
     they asked him,     |   Elijah indeed       |
     saying, [1]The      |   cometh, and shall   |
     scribes say that    |   restore all things: |
     Elijah must first   |12 but I say unto you, |
  12 come. And he said   |   that Elijah is come |
     unto them, Elijah   |   already,[a] and they|
     indeed cometh first,|   knew him not, but   |
     and restoreth all   |   did unto him        |
     things: and how is  |   whatsoever they     |
     it written of the   |   listed [_see 1 Kings|
     Son of man, that he |   19:2, 10_]. Even so |
     should suffer many  |   shall the Son of man|
     things and be set at|   also suffer of them.|
  13 nought? But I say   |13 Then understood the |
     unto you, that      |   disciples that he   |
     Elijah is come, and |   spake unto them of  |
     they have also done |   John the Baptist.   |
     unto him whatsoever |                       |
     they listed, even as|                       |
     it is written of    |                       |
     him.                |                       |

     [Footnote 1: Or, How is it _that the scribes say ... come?_]

[Footnote a: The Baptist's disclaimer about being Elijah (John 1:21)
means only that he was not Elijah in person come back to earth according
to popular expectation.]



§ 87. THE DEMONIAC BOY, WHOM THE DISCIPLES COULD NOT HEAL

In the region of Cæsarea Philippi


  Mark 9:14-29           |Matt. 17:14-20         |Luke 9:37-43
                         |                       |
  14   And when they came|                       |
     to the disciples,   |                       |
     they saw a great    |                       |
     multitude about     |                       |
     them, and scribes   |                       |
     questioning with    |                       |
  15 them. And           |                       |37   And it came to
     straightway all the |                       |   pass, on the next
     multitude, when they|                       |   day, when they
     saw him, were       |                       |   were come down
     greatly amazed, and |                       |   from the mountain,
     running to him      |14   And when they     |   a great multitude
  16 saluted him. And he |   were come to the    |   met him.
     asked them, What    |   multitude, there    |
     question ye with    |   came to him a man,  |38           And
  17 them? And one of the|   kneeling to him, and|   behold, a man from
     multitude answered  |15 saying, Lord, have  |   the multitude
     him, [3]Master, I   |   mercy on my son: for|   cried, saying,
     brought unto thee my|   he is epileptic, and|   [3]Master, I
     son, which hath a   |   suffereth           |   beseech thee to
  18 dumb spirit; and    |   grievously: for     |   look upon my son;
     wheresoever it      |   oft-times he falleth|   for he is mine
     taketh him, it      |   into the fire, and  |39 only child: and
     [4]dasheth him down:|   oft-times into the  |   behold, a spirit
     and he foameth, and |16 water. And I brought|   taketh him, and he
     grindeth his teeth, |   him to thy          |   suddenly crieth
     and pineth away: and|   disciples, and they |   out; and it
     I spake to thy      |   could not cure him. |   [9]teareth him that
     disciples that they |                       |   he foameth, and it
     should cast it out; |                       |   hardly departeth
     and they were not   |                       |   from him, bruising
  19 able. And he        |17 And Jesus answered  |40 him sorely. And I
     answereth them and  |   and said, O         |   besought thy
     saith, O faithless  |   faithless and       |   disciples to cast
     generation, how long|   perverse generation,|   it out; and they
     shall I be with you?|   how long shall I be |41 could not. And
     how long shall I    |   with you? how long  |   Jesus answered and
     bear with you? bring|   shall I bear with   |   said, O faithless
  20 him unto me. And    |   you? bring him      |   and perverse
     they brought him    |   hither to me.       |   generation, how
     unto him: and when  |                       |   long shall I be
     he saw him,         |                       |   with you, and bear
     straightway the     |                       |   with you? bring
     spirit [5]tare him  |                       |42 hither thy son. And
     grievously; and he  |                       |   as he was yet a
     fell on the ground, |                       |   coming, the
     and wallowed        |                       |   [1]devil
  21 foaming. And he     |                       |   [10]dashed him
     asked his father,   |                       |   down, and [5]tare
     How long time is it |                       |   _him_ grievously.
     since this hath come|                       |
     unto him? And he    |                       |
     said, From a child. |                       |
  22 And oft-times it    |                       |
     hath cast him both  |                       |
     into the fire and   |                       |
     into the waters, to |                       |
     destroy him: but if |                       |
     thou canst do       |                       |
     anything, have      |                       |
     compassion on us,   |                       |
  23 and help us. And    |                       |
     Jesus said unto him,|                       |
     If thou canst! All  |                       |
     things are possible |                       |
     to him that         |                       |
     believeth.          |                       |
  24 Straightway the     |                       |
     father of the child |                       |
     cried out, and      |                       |
     said[6], I believe; |                       |
     help thou mine      |                       |
  25 unbelief. And when  |                       |
     Jesus saw that a    |                       |
     multitude came      |                       |
     running together, he|                       |
     rebuked the unclean |18 And Jesus rebuked   |   But Jesus rebuked
     spirit, saying unto |   him; and the        |   the unclean
     him, Thou dumb and  |   [1]devil went out   |   spirit, and healed
     deaf spirit, I      |   from him: and the   |   the boy, and gave
     command thee, come  |   boy was cured from  |   him back to his
     out of him, and     |   that hour.          |43 father. And they
     enter no more into  |                       |   were all
  26 him. And having     |                       |   astonished at the
     cried out, and      |                       |   majesty of God.
     [5]torn him much, he|                       |
     came out: and _the  |                       |
     child_ became as one|                       |
     dead; insomuch that |                       |
     the more part said, |                       |
  27 He is dead. But     |                       |
     Jesus took him by   |                       |
     the hand, and raised|                       |
     him up; and he      |                       |
  28 arose. And when he  |                       |
     was come into the   |19           Then came |
     house, his disciples|   the disciples to    |
     asked him privately,|   Jesus apart, and    |
     [7]_saying_, We     |   said, Why could not |
     could not cast it   |20 we cast it out? And |
  29 out. And he said    |   he saith unto them, |
     unto them, This kind|   Because of your     |
     can come out by     |   little faith: for   |
     nothing, save by    |   verily I say unto   |
     prayer.[8]          |   you, If ye have     |
                         |   faith as a grain of |
                         |   mustard seed, ye    |
                         |   shall say unto this |
                         |   mountain, Remove    |
                         |   hence to yonder     |
                         |   place; and it shall |
                         |   remove; and nothing |
                         |   shall be impossible |
                         |   unto you.[2]        |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many authorities, some ancient, insert ver. 21 _But
     this kind goeth not out save by prayer and fasting._ See Mark
     9:29.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _rendeth him_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _convulsed_.]

     [Footnote 6: Many ancient authorities add _with tears_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, How is it _that we could not cast it out?_]

     [Footnote 8: Many ancient authorities add _and fasting_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _convulseth_.]

     [Footnote 10: Or, _rent him_.]



§ 88. RETURNING PRIVATELY THROUGH GALILEE, HE AGAIN FORETELLS HIS DEATH
AND RESURRECTION


  Mark 9:30-32           |Matt. 17:22-23         |Luke 9:43-45
                         |                       |
  30   And they went     |                       |43   But while all
     forth from thence,  |                       |   were marvelling at
     and passed through  |                       |   all the things
     Galilee; and he     |                       |   which he did, he
     would not that any  |                       |   said unto his
     man should know it. |22   And while they    |44 disciples, Let
  31 For he taught his   |   [1]abode in Galilee,|   these words sink
     disciples, and said |   Jesus said unto     |   into your ears:
     unto them, The Son  |   them, The Son of man|   for the Son of man
     of man is delivered |   shall be delivered  |   shall be delivered
     up into the hands of|   up into the hands of|   up into the hands
     men, and they shall |23 men; and they shall |   of men.
     kill him; and when  |   kill him, and the   |
     he is killed, after |   third day he shall  |
     three days he shall |   be raised up. And   |
  32 rise again. But they|   they were exceeding |45         But they
     understood not the  |   sorry.              |   understood not
     saying,             |                       |   this saying, and
                         |                       |   it was concealed
                         |                       |   from them, that
                         |                       |   they should not
                         |                       |   perceive it: and
             and were    |                       |   they were afraid
     afraid to ask him.  |                       |   to ask him about
                         |                       |   this saying.
                         |                       |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _were gathering
     themselves together_.]



_The season of retirement from Galilee is now ended (§§ 72-88). The
remaining events at this time (§§ 89-95) probably occupied only a few
days._



§ 89. JESUS, THE MESSIAH, PAYS THE HALF-SHEKEL FOR THE TEMPLE

Capernaum


  Matt. 17:24-27

  24   And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received the
     [1]half-shekel came to Peter, and said, Doth not your [2]master
  25 pay the [1]half-shekel [_see Ex. 30:11-15_]? He saith, Yea. And
     when he came into the house, Jesus spake first to him, saying,
     What thinkest thou, Simon? the kings of the earth, from whom do
     they receive toll or tribute? from their sons, or from strangers?
  26 And when he said, From strangers, Jesus said unto him, Therefore
  27 the sons are free. But, lest we cause them to stumble, go thou to
     the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh
     up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a
     [3]shekel: that take, and give unto them for me and thee.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _didrachma_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _teacher_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _stater_.]



§ 90. THE TWELVE CONTEND AS TO WHO SHALL BE THE GREATEST UNDER THE
MESSIAH'S REIGN. HIS SUBJECTS MUST BE CHILDLIKE

Capernaum


  Mark 9:33-37           |Matt. 18:1-5           |Luke 9:46-48
                         |                       |
  33   And they came to  | 1   In that hour came |46   And there arose
     Capernaum: and when |   the disciples unto  |   a reasoning among
     he was in the house |   Jesus, saying, Who  |   them, which of
     he asked them, What |   then is [1]greatest |   them should be
     were ye reasoning in|   in the kingdom of   |   [1]greatest.
  34 the way? But they   |   heaven?             |
     held their peace:   |                       |
     for they had        |                       |
     disputed one with   |                       |
     another in the way, |                       |
     who _was_ the       | 2         And he      |47              But
  35 [1]greatest. And he |   called to him a     |   when Jesus saw the
     sat down, and called|   little child, and   |   reasoning of their
     the twelve; and he  |   set him in the midst|   heart, he took a
     saith unto them, If | 3 of them, and said,  |   little child, and
     any man would be    |   Verily I say unto   |   set him by his
     first, he shall be  |   you, Except ye turn,|48 side, and said
     last of all, and    |   and become as little|   unto them,
  36 minister of all. And|   children, ye shall  |
     he took a little    |   in no wise enter    |
     child, and set him  |   into the kingdom of |
     in the midst of     | 4 heaven. Whosoever   |
     them: and taking him|   therefore shall     |
     in his arms, he said|   humble himself as   |
     unto them,          |   this little child,  |
                         |   the same is the     |
                         |   [1]greatest in the  |
                         |   kingdom of heaven.  |
  37 Whosoever shall     | 5 And whoso shall     |   Whosoever shall
     receive one of such |   receive one such    |   receive this
     little children in  |   little child in my  |   little child in my
     my name, receiveth  |   name receiveth me:  |   name receiveth me:
     me: and whosoever   |                       |   and whosoever
     receiveth me,       |                       |   shall receive me
     receiveth not me,   |                       |   receiveth him that
     but him that sent   |                       |   sent me: for he
     me.                 |                       |   that is [2]least
                         |                       |   among you all, the
                         |                       |   same is great.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _greater_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _lesser_.]



§ 91. THE MISTAKEN ZEAL OF THE APOSTLE JOHN REBUKED BY JESUS IN PERTINENT
PARABLES

  Capernaum


  Mark 9:38-50           |Matt. 18:6-14          |Luke 9:49-50
                         |                       |
  38   John said unto    |                       |49   And John answered
     him, [7]Master, we  |                       |   and said, Master,
     saw one casting out |                       |   we saw one casting
     [8]devils in thy    |                       |   out [8]devils in
     name: and we forbade|                       |   thy name; and we
     him, because he     |                       |   forbade him,
  39 followed not us. But|                       |   because he
     Jesus said, Forbid  |                       |   followeth not with
     him not: for there  |                       |50 us. But Jesus said
     is no man which     |                       |   unto him, Forbid
     shall do a [9]mighty|                       |   _him_ not: for he
     work in my name, and|                       |   that is not
     be able quickly to  |                       |   against you is for
     speak evil of me.   |                       |   you.
  40 For he that is not  |
     against us is for   |
  41 us. For whosoever   |
     shall give you a cup|
     of water to drink,  |
     [10]because ye are  |
     Christ's, verily I  |
     say unto you, he shall in no   |
  42 wise lose his reward. And      |
     whosoever shall cause one of   | 6     but whoso shall cause one of
     these little ones that believe |   these little ones which believe
     [11]on me to stumble, it were  |   on me to stumble, it is
     better for him if [2]a great   |   profitable for him that [2]a
     millstone were hanged about his|   great millstone should be
     neck, and he were cast into the|   hanged about his neck, and
     sea.                           |   _that_ he should be sunk in the
                                    | 7 depth of the sea. Woe unto the
                                    |   world because of occasions of
                                    |   stumbling! for it must needs be
                                    |   that the occasions come; but
                                    |   woe to that man through whom
                                    | 8 the occasion cometh! And if thy
  43      And if thy hand cause thee|   hand or thy foot causeth thee
     to stumble, cut it off: it is  |   to stumble, cut it off, and
     good for thee to enter into    |   cast it from thee: it is good
     life maimed, rather than having|   for thee to enter into life
     thy two hands to go into       |   maimed or halt, rather than
     [12]hell, into the unquenchable|   having two hands or two feet to
  45 fire.[13] And if thy foot cause|   be cast into the eternal fire.
     thee to stumble, cut it off: it|
     is good for thee to enter into |
     life halt, rather than having  |
     thy two feet to be cast into   |
  47 [12]hell. And if thine eye     | 9 And if thine eye causeth thee
     cause thee to stumble, cast it |   to stumble, pluck it out, and
     out: it is good for thee to    |   cast it from thee: it is good
     enter into the kingdom of God  |   for thee to enter life with one
     with one eye, rather than      |   eye, rather than having two
     having two eyes to be cast into|   eyes to be cast into the
  48 [12]hell; where their worm     |   [3]hell of fire.
     dieth not, and the fire is not |10   See that ye despise not one of
     quenched [_see Isa. 66:24_].   |   these little ones; for I say
  49 For every one shall be salted  |   unto you, that in heaven their
     with fire[14] [_see Lev.       |   angels do always behold the
  50 2:13_]. Salt is good: but if   |   face of my Father which is in
     the salt have lost its         |12 heaven.[4] How think ye? if any
     saltness, wherewith will ye    |   man have a hundred sheep,[a]
     season it? Have salt in        |   and one of them be gone astray,
     yourselves, and be at peace one|   doth he not leave the ninety
     with another.                  |   and nine, and go unto the
                                    |   mountains, and seek that which
  13 goeth astray? And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you,
     he rejoiceth over it more than over the ninety and nine which have
  14 not gone astray. Even so it is not [5]the will of [6]your Father
     which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _greater_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _a millstone turned by an ass_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _Gehenna of fire_.]

     [Footnote 4: Many authorities, some ancient, insert ver. 11 _For
     the Son of man came to save that which was lost._ See Luke 19:10.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _a thing willed before your father_.]

     [Footnote 6: Some ancient authorities read _my_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 9: Gr. _power_.]

     [Footnote 10: Gr. _in name that ye are_.]

     [Footnote 11: Many ancient authorities omit _on me_.]

     [Footnote 12: Gr. _Gehenna_.]

     [Footnote 13: Ver. 44 and 46 (which are identical with ver. 48)
     are omitted by the best ancient authorities.]

     [Footnote 14: Many ancient authorities add _and every sacrifice
     shall be salted with salt_. See Lev. 2:13.]

     [Footnote 15: Gr. _lesser_.]

[Footnote a: Parable of the Lost Sheep.]



§ 92. RIGHT TREATMENT OF A BROTHER WHO HAS SINNED AGAINST ONE, AND DUTY
OF PATIENTLY FORGIVING A BROTHER (PARABLE OF THE UNMERCIFUL SERVANT)


  Matt. 18:15-35

  15   And if thy brother sin [1]against thee, go, shew him his fault
     between thee and him alone: if he hear thee, thou hast gained thy
  16 brother. But if he hear _thee_ not, take with thee one or two
     more, that at the mouth of two witnesses or three every word may
  17 be established [_see Deut. 19:15_]. And if he refuse to hear them,
     tell it unto the [2]church: and if he refuse to hear the [2]church
  18 also, let him be unto thee as the Gentile and the publican. Verily
     I say unto you, What things soever ye shall bind on earth shall be
     bound in heaven: and what things soever ye shall loose on earth
  19 shall be loosed in heaven. Again I say unto you, that if two of
     you shall agree on earth as touching anything that they shall ask,
  20 it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. For
     where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in
     the midst of them.
  21   Then came Peter, and said to him, Lord, how oft shall my brother
  22 sin against me, and I forgive him? until seven times? Jesus saith
     unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times; but, Until
  23 [3]seventy times seven. Therefore is the kingdom of heaven
     likened[a] unto a certain king, which would make a reckoning with
  24 his [4]servants. And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought
  25 unto him, which owed him ten thousand [5]talents. But forasmuch as
     he had not _wherewith_ to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold,
     and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be
  26 made. The [6]servant therefore fell down and worshipped him,
  27 saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. And
     the lord of that [6]servant, being moved with compassion, released
  28 him, and forgave him the [7]debt. But that [6]servant went out, and
     found one of his fellow-servants, which owed him a hundred
     [8]pence: and he laid hold on him, and took _him_ by the throat,
  29 saying, Pay what thou owest. So his fellow-servant fell down and
     besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee.
  30 And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he
  31 should pay that which was due. So when his fellow-servants saw
     what was done, they were exceeding sorry, and came and told unto
  32 their lord all that was done. Then his lord called him unto him,
     and saith unto him, Thou wicked [6]servant, I forgave thee all
  33 that debt, because thou besoughtest me: shouldest not thou also
     have had mercy on thy fellow-servant, even as I had mercy on
  34 thee?[b] And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the
  35 tormentors, till he should pay all that was due. So shall also my
     heavenly Father do unto you, if ye forgive not every one his
     brother from your hearts.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit _against thee_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _congregation_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _seventy times and seven_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 5: This talent was probably worth about $1200.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _loan_.]

     [Footnote 8: The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about
     seventeen cents.]

[Footnote a: Parable of the Unforgiving Servant.]

[Footnote b: The king forgave the servant $1,200,000; the servant refused
to forgive $17. We might say in round numbers, a million, and ten
dollars.]



§ 93. THE MESSIAH'S FOLLOWERS MUST GIVE UP EVERYTHING FOR HIS SERVICE


  Matt. 8:19-22                     |Luke 9:57-62
                                    |
  19   And there came [1]a scribe,  |57   And as they went in the way, a
     and said unto him, [2]Master, I|   certain man said unto him, I
     will follow thee whithersoever |   will follow thee whithersoever
  20 thou goest. And Jesus saith    |58 thou goest. And Jesus said unto
     unto him, The foxes have holes,|   him, The foxes have holes, and
     and the birds of the heaven    |   the birds of the heaven _have_
     _have_ [3]nests; but the Son of|   [3]nests; but the Son of man
     man hath not where to lay his  |   hath not where to lay his head.
  21 head. And another of the       |59 And he said unto another,
     disciples saith unto him, Lord,|   Follow me. But he said, Lord,
     suffer me first to go and bury |   suffer me first to go and bury
  22 my father. But Jesus saith unto|60 my father. But he said unto
     him, Follow me; and leave the  |   him, Leave the dead to bury
     dead to bury their own dead.   |   their own dead; but go thou and
                                    |   publish abroad the kingdom of
                                    |61 God. And another also said, I
                                    |   will follow thee, Lord; but
                                    |   first suffer me to bid farewell
                                    |   to them that are at my house.
                                    |62 But Jesus said unto him, No man,
                                    |   having put his hand to the
                                    |   plough, and looking back, is fit
                                    |   for the kingdom of God.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _one scribe_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _lodging-places_.]



§ 94. THE UNBELIEVING BROTHERS OF JESUS COUNSEL HIM TO EXHIBIT HIMSELF IN
JUDEA, AND HE REJECTS THE ADVICE


  John 7:2-9

   2   Now the feast of the Jews, the feast of tabernacles, was at hand.
   3 His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into
     Judea, that thy disciples also may behold thy works which thou
   4 doest. For no man doeth anything in secret, [1]and himself seeketh
     to be known openly. If thou doest these things, manifest thyself
   5 to the world. For even his brethren did not believe on him. Jesus
   6 therefore saith unto them, My time is not yet come; but your time
   7 is alway ready. The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth,
   8 because I testify of it, that its works are evil. Go ye up unto
     the feast: I go not up [2]yet unto this feast; because my time is
   9 not yet fulfilled. And having said these things unto them, he
     abode _still_ in Galilee.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _and seeketh it to be
     known openly_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities omit _yet_.]



§ 95. HE GOES PRIVATELY TO JERUSALEM THROUGH SAMARIA


  Luke 9:51-56                      |John 7:10
                                    |
  51   And it came to pass, when    |10   But when his brethren were
     the days [1]were well-nigh come|   gone up unto the feast, then
     that he should be received up, |   went he also up, not publicly,
     he stedfastly set his face to  |   but as it were in secret.
  52 go to Jerusalem,[a] and sent   |
     messengers before his face: and they went, and entered into a
  53 village of the Samaritans, to make ready for him. And they did not
     receive him, because his face was _as though he were_ going to
  54 Jerusalem. And when his disciples James and John saw _this_, they
     said, Lord, wilt thou that we bid fire to come down from heaven,
  55 and consume them[2] [_see 2 Kings 1:10-12_]? But he turned, and
  56 rebuked them[3]. And they went to another village.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _were being fulfilled_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities add, _even as Elijah did_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities add, _and said, Ye know not
     what manner of spirit ye are of._ Some, but fewer, add also _For
     the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives, but to save_
     them.]

[Footnote a: See note 10 at end of Harmony for the combination of Luke
and John and the three journeyings in Luke toward Jerusalem.]



PART IX

THE LATER JUDEAN MINISTRY

(Probably Tabernacles to Dedication, about three months, in A.D. 29 or 28
if Ministry only two and a half years in length)


_This ministry is given only by John and Luke. John gives the Jerusalem
ministry and Luke that in the country of Judea. §§ 96-111._



§ 96. THE COMING OF JESUS TO THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES CREATES INTENSE
EXCITEMENT CONCERNING THE MESSIAHSHIP

_The attempt of the rulers (the Jews, the chief priests, and Pharisees)
to arrest him. Division of sentiment in the Galilean multitude at the
feast. Impressions of the Jerusalem populace and the Roman officers and
of Nicodemus._


  John 7:11-52

  11   The Jews therefore sought him at the feast, and said, Where is
  12 he? And there was much murmuring among the multitudes concerning
     him: some said, He is a good man; others said, Not so, but he
  13 leadeth the multitude astray. Howbeit no man spake openly of him
     for fear of the Jews.
  14   But when it was now the midst of the feast Jesus went up into the
  15 temple, and taught. The Jews therefore marvelled, saying, How
  16 knoweth this man letters, having never learned? Jesus therefore
     answered them, and said, My teaching is not mine, but his that
  17 sent me. If any man willeth to do his will, he shall know of the
     teaching, whether it be of God, or _whether_ I speak from myself.
  18 He that speaketh from himself seeketh his own glory: but he that
     seeketh the glory of him that sent him, the same is true, and no
  19 unrighteousness is in him. Did not Moses give you the law, and
  20 _yet_ none of you doeth the law? Why seek ye to kill me? The
     multitude answered, Thou hast a [1]devil: who seeketh to kill
  21 thee? Jesus answered and said unto them, I did one work, and ye
  22 all [2]marvel. For this cause hath Moses given you circumcision
     (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers); and on the sabbath
  23 ye circumcise a man [_see Gen. 17:9-14; Lev. 12:1-3_]. If a man
     receiveth circumcision on the sabbath, that the law of Moses may
     not be broken; are ye wroth with me, because I made a man every
  24 whit whole on the sabbath? Judge not according to appearance, but
     judge righteous judgement.
  25   Some therefore of them of Jerusalem said, Is not this he whom
  26 they seek to kill? And lo, he speaketh openly, and they say nothing
     unto him. Can it be that the rulers indeed know that this is the
  27 Christ? Howbeit we know this man whence he is: but when the Christ
  28 cometh, no one knoweth whence he is. Jesus therefore cried in the
     temple, teaching and saying, Ye both know me, and know whence I
     am; and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom
  29 ye know not. I know him; because I am from him, and he sent me.
  30 They sought therefore to take him: and no man laid his hand on
  31 him, because his hour was not yet come. But of the multitude many
     believed on him; and they said, When the Christ shall come, will
  32 he do more signs than those which this man hath done? The
     Pharisees heard the multitude murmuring these things concerning
     him; and the chief priests and the Pharisees sent officers to take
  33 him. Jesus therefore said, Yet a little while am I with you, and I
  34 go unto him that sent me. Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me:
  35 and where I am, ye cannot come. The Jews therefore said among
     themselves, Whither will this man go that we shall not find him?
     will he go unto the Dispersion [3]among the Greeks, and teach the
  36 Greeks? What is this word that he said, Ye shall seek me, and
     shall not find me: and where I am, ye cannot come?
  37   Now on the last day, the great _day_ of the feast, Jesus stood
     and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and
  38 drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of
  39 his belly shall flow rivers of living water. But this spake he of
     the Spirit, which they that believed on him were to receive: [4]for
     the Spirit was not yet _given_; because Jesus was not yet
  40 glorified. _Some_ of the multitude therefore, when they heard
  41 these words, said, This is of a truth the prophet. Others said,
     This is the Christ. But some said, What, doth the Christ come out
  42 of Galilee? Hath not the scripture said that the Christ cometh of
     the seed of David, and from Bethlehem [_see 2 Sam. 7:12, 17;
  43 Mic. 5:2_], the village where David was? So there arose a division
  44 in the multitude because of him. And some of them would have taken
     him; but no man laid hands on him.
  45   The officers therefore came to the chief priests[a] and
  46 Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why did ye not bring him? The
  47 officers answered, Never man so spake. The Pharisees therefore
  48 answered them, Are ye also led astray? Hath any of the rulers
  49 believed on him, or of the Pharisees? But this multitude which
  50 knoweth not the law are accursed. Nicodemus saith unto them (he
  51 that came to him before, being one of them), Doth our law judge a
  52 man, except it first hear from himself and know what he doeth? They
     answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and
     [5]see that out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _marvel because of this. Moses hath given you
     circumcision._]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _of_.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities read _for the Holy Spirit
     was not yet given_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _see: for out of Galilee etc._]

[Footnote a: The Sanhedrin included both Sadducees (chief priests) and
Pharisees. Nicodemus was a member of the Sanhedrin and a Pharisee. Now
both parties in the Sanhedrin were united against Jesus and the purpose
was to bring Jesus before the Sanhedrin for trial.]



§ 97. STORY OF AN ADULTERESS BROUGHT TO JESUS FOR JUDGMENT


  John 7:53 to 8:11[a]

  53, 1 [1][And they went every man unto his own house: but Jesus went
   2 unto the mount of Olives. And early in the morning he came again
     into the temple, and all the people came unto him; and he sat
   3 down, and taught them. And the scribes and the Pharisees bring a
   4 woman taken in adultery; and having set her in the midst, they say
     unto him, [2]Master, this woman hath been taken in adultery, in
   5 the very act. Now in the law Moses commanded us to stone such
     [_see Lev. 20:10; Deut. 22:22-24_]: what then sayest thou of her?
   6 And this they said, [3]tempting him, that they might have
     _whereof_ to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his
   7 finger wrote on the ground. But when they continued asking him, he
     lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin
   8 among you, let him first cast a stone at her. And again he stooped
   9 down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. And they, when they
     heard it, went out one by one, beginning from the eldest, _even_
     unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman, where she
  10 was, in the midst. And Jesus lifted up himself, and said unto her,
  11 Woman, where are they? did no man condemn thee? And she said, No
     man, Lord. And Jesus said, Neither do I condemn thee: go thy way;
     from henceforth sin no more.]

     [Footnote 1: Most of the ancient authorities omit John 7:53-8:11.
     Those which contain it vary much from each other.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _trying_.]

[Footnote a: This paragraph can no longer be considered a part of the
Gospel of John, but it is in all probability a true story of Jesus, very
likely drawn by early students from the collection of Papias, published
about A.D. 140. See Hovey on John (American Comm. on N. T.). Observe that
without it § 98 goes right on after § 96.]



§ 98. AFTER THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES IN THE TEMPLE JESUS ANGERS THE
PHARISEES BY CLAIMING TO BE THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD


  John 8:12-20

  12   Again therefore Jesus spake unto them, saying, I am the light of
     the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in the darkness,
  13 but shall have the light of life. The Pharisees therefore said
     unto him, Thou bearest witness of thyself; thy witness is not
  14 true. Jesus answered and said unto them, Even if I bear witness of
     myself, my witness is true; for I know whence I came, and whither
  15 I go; but ye know not whence I come, or whither I go. Ye judge
  16 after the flesh; I judge no man. Yea and if I judge, my judgement
     is true; for I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me.
  17 Yea and in your law it is written, that the witness of two men is
  18 true [_see Deut. 17:6; 19:15_]. I am he that beareth witness of
  19 myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me. They
     said therefore unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, Ye
     know neither me, nor my Father: if ye knew me, ye would know my
  20 Father also. These words spake he in the treasury, as he taught in
     the temple: and no man took him; because his hour was not yet
     come.



§ 99. THE PHARISEES ATTEMPT TO STONE JESUS WHEN HE EXPOSES THEIR
SINFULNESS

Jerusalem, probably in the Temple


  John 8:21-59

  21   He said therefore again unto them, I go away, and ye shall seek
  22 me, and shall die in your sin: whither I go, ye cannot come. The
     Jews therefore said, Will he kill himself, that he saith, Whither
  23 I go, ye cannot come? And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath;
  24 I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world. I
     said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: for
     except ye believe that [1]I am _he_, ye shall die in your sins.
  25 They said therefore unto him, Who art thou? Jesus said unto them,
     [2]Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning.
  26 I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you: howbeit
     he that sent me is true; and the things which I heard from him,
  27 these speak I [3]unto the world. They perceived not that he spake
  28 to them of the Father. Jesus therefore said, When ye have lifted
     up the Son of man, then shall ye know that [4]I am _he_, and _that_
     I do nothing of myself, but as the Father taught me, I speak these
  29 things. And he that sent me is with me; he hath not left me alone;
  30 for I do always the things that are pleasing to him. As he spake
     these things, many believed on him.
  31   Jesus therefore said to those Jews which had believed him, If ye
  32 abide in my word, _then_ are ye truly my disciples; and ye shall
  33 know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. They answered
     unto him, We be Abraham's seed, and have never yet been in bondage
  34 to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free? Jesus answered
     them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Every one that committeth
  35 sin is the bondservant of sin. And the bondservant abideth not in
  36 the house for ever: the son abideth for ever. If therefore the Son
  37 shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. I know that ye are
     Abraham's seed; yet ye seek to kill me, because my word [5]hath
  38 not free course in you. I speak the things which I have seen with
     [6]_my_ Father: and ye also do the things which ye heard from
  39 _your_ father. They answered and said unto him, Our Father is
     Abraham. Jesus saith unto them, If ye [7]were Abraham's children,
  40 [8]ye would do the works of Abraham. But now ye seek to kill me, a
     man that hath told you the truth, which I heard from God: this did
  41 not Abraham. Ye do the works of your father. They said unto him,
     We were not born of fornication; we have one Father, _even_ God.
  42 Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me:
     for I came forth and am come from God; for neither have I come of
  43 myself, but he sent me. Why do ye not [9]understand my speech?
  44 _Even_ because ye cannot hear my word. Ye are of _your_ father
     the devil, and the lusts of your father it is your will to do. He
     was a murderer from the beginning, and [10]stood not in the truth,
     because there is no truth in him. [11]When he speaketh a lie, he
  45 speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father thereof. But
  46 because I say the truth, ye believe me not. Which of you
  47 convicteth me of sin? If I say truth, why do ye not believe me? He
     that is of God heareth the words of God: for this cause ye hear
  48 _them_ not, because ye are not of God. The Jews answered and said
     unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a
  49 [12]devil? Jesus answered, I have not a [12]devil; but I honour my
  50 Father, and ye dishonour me. But I seek not mine own glory: there
  51 is one that seeketh and judgeth. Verily, verily, I say unto you,
  52 If a man keep my word, he shall never see death. The Jews said
     unto him, Now we know that thou hast a [12]devil. Abraham is dead,
     and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my word, he shall
  53 never taste of death. Art thou greater than our father Abraham,
     which is dead? and the prophets are dead: whom makest thou
  54 thyself? Jesus answered, If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing:
     it is my Father that glorifieth me; of whom ye say, that he is
  55 your God; and ye have not known him: but I know him; and if I
     should say, I know him not, I shall be like unto you, a liar: but
  56 I know him, and keep his word. Your father Abraham rejoiced [13]to
  57 see my day; and he saw it, and was glad. The Jews therefore said
     unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen
  58 Abraham? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you,
  59 Before Abraham [14]was, I am. They took up stones therefore to
     cast at him: but Jesus [15]hid himself, and went out of the
     temple[16].

     [Footnote 1: Or, _I am_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, How is it _that I even speak to you at all?_]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _into_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _I am_. Or _I am_ he: _and I do_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _hath no place in you_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _the Father: do ye also therefore the things
     which ye heard from the Father._]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _are_.]

     [Footnote 8: Some ancient authorities read _ye do the works of
     Abraham_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _know_.]

     [Footnote 10: Some ancient authorities read _standeth_.]

     [Footnote 11: Or, _When_ one _speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his
     own: for his father also is a liar._]

     [Footnote 12: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 13: Or, _that he should see_.]

     [Footnote 14: Gr. _was born_.]

     [Footnote 15: Or, _was hidden, and went etc._]

     [Footnote 16: Many ancient authorities add _and going through the
     midst of them went his way, and so passed by._]



§ 100. JESUS HEALS A MAN BORN BLIND WHO OUTWITS THE PHARISEES. THE RULERS
FORBID THE RECOGNITION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH. THE CONVERSION OF THE
HEALED MAN

Jerusalem


  John 9:1-41

  1, 2   And as he passed by, he saw a man blind from his birth. And his
     disciples asked him, saying, Rabbi, who did sin, this man, or his
   3 parents, that he should be born blind? Jesus answered, Neither did
     this man sin, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be
   4 made manifest in him. We must work the works of him that sent me,
   5 while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work. When I am
   6 in the world, I am the light of the world. When he had thus
     spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, [1]and
   7 anointed his eyes with the clay, and said unto him, Go, wash in
     the pool of Siloam (which is by interpretation, Sent). He went
   8 away therefore, and washed, and came seeing. The neighbours
     therefore, and they which saw him aforetime, that he was a beggar,
   9 said, Is not this he that sat and begged? Others said, It is he:
  10 others said, No, but he is like him. He said, I am _he_. They said
  11 therefore unto him, How then were thine eyes opened? He answered,
     The man that is called Jesus made clay, and anointed mine eyes,
     and said unto me, Go to Siloam, and wash: so I went away and
  12 washed, and I received sight. And they said unto him, Where is he?
     He saith, I know not.
  13, 14   They bring to the Pharisees him that aforetime was blind. Now
     it was the sabbath on the day when Jesus made the clay, and opened
  15 his eyes. Again therefore the Pharisees also asked him how he
     received his sight. And he said unto them, He put clay upon mine
  16 eyes, and I washed, and do see. Some therefore of the Pharisees
     said, This man is not from God, because he keepeth not the
     sabbath. But others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such
  17 signs? And there was a division among them. They say therefore
     unto the blind man again, What sayest thou of him, in that he
  18 opened thine eyes? And he said, He is a prophet. The Jews
     therefore did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind,
     and had received his sight, until they called the parents of him
  19 that had received his sight, and asked them, saying, Is this your
  20 son, who ye say was born blind? how then doth he now see? His
     parents answered and said, We know that this is our son, and that
  21 he was born blind: but how he now seeth, we know not; or who
     opened his eyes, we know not: ask him; he is of age; he shall
  22 speak for himself. These things said his parents, because they
     feared the Jews: for the Jews had agreed already, that if any man
     should confess him _to be_ Christ, he should be put out of the
  23 synagogue. Therefore said his parents, He is of age; ask him. So
  24 they called the second time the man that was blind, and said unto
  25 him, Give glory to God: we know that this man is a sinner. He
     therefore answered, Whether he be a sinner, I know not: one thing
  26 I know, that, whereas I was blind, now I see. They said therefore
  27 unto him, What did he to thee? how opened he thine eyes? He
     answered them, I told you even now, and ye did not hear: wherefore
  28 would ye hear it again? would ye also become his disciples? And
     they reviled him, and said, Thou art his disciple; but we are
  29 disciples of Moses. We know that God hath spoken unto Moses: but
  30 as for this man, we know not whence he is. The man answered and
     said unto them, Why, herein is the marvel, that ye know not whence
  31 he is, and _yet_ he opened mine eyes. We know that God heareth not
     sinners: but if any man be a worshipper of God, and do his will,
  32 him he heareth. Since the world began it was never heard that any
  33 one opened the eyes of a man born blind. If this man were not from
  34 God, he could do nothing. They answered and said unto him, Thou
     wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they
     cast him out.
  35   Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and finding him, he said,
  36 Dost thou believe on [2]the Son of God? He answered and said, And
  37 who is he, Lord, that I may believe on him? Jesus said unto him,
  38 Thou hast both seen him, and he it is that speaketh with thee. And
  39 he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him. And Jesus said,
     For judgement came I into this world, that they which see not may
  40 see; and that they which see may become blind. Those of the
     Pharisees which were with him heard these things, and said unto
  41 him, Are we also blind? Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye
     would have no sin: but now ye say, We see: your sin remaineth.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _and with the clay thereof anointed_ his _eyes_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities read _the Son of man_.]



§ 101. IN THE PARABLE (ALLEGORY) OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD JESUS DRAWS THE
PICTURE OF THE HOSTILE PHARISEES AND INTIMATES THAT HE IS GOING TO DIE
FOR HIS FLOCK AND COME TO LIFE AGAIN

Jerusalem


  John 10:1-21

   1   Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door
     into the fold of the sheep, but climbeth up some other way, the
   2 same is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in by the door
   3 is [1]the shepherd of the sheep. To him the porter openeth; and
     the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name,
   4 and leadeth them out. When he hath put forth all his own, he goeth
     before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice.
   5 And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him: for
   6 they know not the voice of strangers. This [2]parable spake Jesus
     unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he
     spake unto them.
   7   Jesus therefore said unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto
   8 you, I am the door of the sheep. All that came before me are
   9 thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them. I am the
     door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go
  10 in and go out, and shall find pasture. The thief cometh not, but
     that he may steal, and kill, and destroy: I came that they may
  11 have life, and may [3]have _it_ abundantly. I am the good
  12 shepherd: the good shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep. He
     that is a hireling, and not a shepherd, whose own the sheep are
     not, beholdeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth,
  13 and the wolf snatcheth them, and scattereth _them_: _he fleeth_
  14 because he is a hireling, and careth not for the sheep. I am the
  15 good shepherd; and I know mine own, and mine own know me, even as
     the Father knoweth me, and I know the Father; and I lay down my
  16 life for the sheep. And other sheep I have, which are not of this
     fold [_see Ezek. 34:23; 37:24_]: them also I must [4]bring, and
     they shall hear my voice; and [5]they shall become one flock, one
  17 shepherd. Therefore doth the Father love me, because I lay down my
  18 life, that I may take it again. No one [6]taketh it away from me,
     but I lay it down of myself. I have [7]power to lay it down, and I
     have [7]power to take it again. This commandment received I from
     my Father.
  19   There arose a division again among the Jews because of these
  20 words. And many of them said, He hath a [8]devil, and is mad; why
  21 hear ye him? Others said, These are not the sayings of one
     possessed with a [8]devil. Can a [8]devil open the eyes of the
     blind?

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a shepherd_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _proverb_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _have abundance_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _lead_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _there shall be one flock_.]

     [Footnote 6: Some ancient authorities read _took it away_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _right_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _demon_.]



_In §§102-110 we have matters given by Luke only, which probably occurred
in Judea. Several of them are similar to events and discourses of the
ministry in Galilee, given by Matthew and Mark._[a]

[Footnote a: Observe that here, as in previous portions of the history,
we possess only a few specimens from what must have been the great mass
of our Lord's doings and sayings.]



§ 102. MISSION OF THE SEVENTY. CHRIST'S JOY IN THEIR WORK ON THEIR RETURN

(Compare Mission of the Twelve in § 70.)

Probably in Judea


  Luke 10:1-24

   1   Now after these things the Lord appointed seventy[1] others, and
     sent them two and two before his face into every city and place,
   2 whither he himself was about to come. And he said unto them, The
     harvest is plenteous, but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore
     the Lord of the harvest, that he send forth labourers into his
   3 harvest. Go your ways: behold, I send you forth as lambs in the
   4 midst of wolves. Carry no purse, no wallet, no shoes: and salute
   5 no man on the way. And into whatsoever house ye shall [2]enter,
   6 first say, Peace _be_ to this house. And if a son of peace be
     there, your peace shall rest upon [3]him: but if not, it shall
   7 turn to you again. And in that same house remain, eating and
     drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of
   8 his hire. Go not from house to house. And into whatsoever city ye
     enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before
   9 you: and heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The
  10 kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. But into whatsoever city ye
     shall enter, and they receive you not, go out into the streets
  11 thereof and say, Even the dust from your city, that cleaveth to
     our feet, we do wipe off against you: howbeit know this, that the
  12 kingdom of God is come nigh. I say unto you, It shall be more
     tolerable in that day for Sodom, than for that city [_see Gen.
  13 19:24_]. Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if
     the [4]mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which were
     done in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in
  14 sackcloth and ashes. Howbeit it shall be more tolerable for Tyre
  15 and Sidon in the judgement, than for you. And thou, Capernaum,
     shalt thou be exalted unto heaven? thou shalt be brought down unto
  16 Hades [_see Isa. 14:13-15_]. He that heareth you heareth me; and
     he that rejecteth you rejecteth me; and he that rejecteth me
     rejecteth him that sent me.
  17   And the seventy returned with joy, saying, Lord, even the
  18 [5]devils are subject unto us in thy name. And he said unto them,
  19 I beheld Satan fallen as lightning from heaven. Behold, I have
     given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and over
     all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall in any wise hurt
  20 you. Howbeit in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject
     unto you; but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.
  21   In that same hour he rejoiced [6]in the Holy Spirit, and said, I
     [7]thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst
     hide these things from the wise and understanding, and didst
     reveal them unto babes: yea, Father; [8]for so it was
  22 well-pleasing in thy sight. All things have been delivered unto me
     of my Father: and no one knoweth who the Son is, save the Father;
     and who the Father is, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son
  23 willeth to reveal _him_. And turning to the disciples, he said
     privately, Blessed _are_ the eyes which see the things that ye see:
  24 for I say unto you, that many prophets and kings desired to see
     the things which ye see, and saw them not; and to hear the things
     which ye hear, and heard them not.

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities add _and two_: and so in
     verse 17.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _enter first, say_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _it_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _powers_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _by_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _praise_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _that_.]



§ 103. JESUS ANSWERS A LAWYER'S QUESTION AS TO ETERNAL LIFE, GIVING THE
PARABLE OF THE GOOD SAMARITAN

Probably in Judea


  Luke 10:25-37

  25   And behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tempted him, saying,
  26 [1]Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? And he said
  27 unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? And he
     answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God [2]with all thy
     heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with
     all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself [_see Deut. 6:5; Lev.
  28 19:18_]. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do,
  29 and thou shalt live [_see Lev. 18:5_]. But he, desiring to justify
  30 himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour? Jesus made
     answer and said, A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to
     Jericho; and he fell among robbers, which both stripped him and
  31 beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. And by chance a
     certain priest was going down that way: and when he saw him, he
  32 passed by on the other side. And in like manner a Levite also,
     when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other
  33 side. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was:
  34 and when he saw him, he was moved with compassion, and came to
     him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on _them_ oil and wine; and
     he set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took
  35 care of him. And on the morrow he took out two [3]pence, and gave
     them to the host, and said, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou
  36 spendest more, I, when I come back again, will repay thee. Which
     of these three, thinkest thou, proved neighbour unto him that fell
  37 among the robbers? And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. And
     Jesus said unto him, Go, and do thou likewise.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _from_.]

     [Footnote 3: The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about
     seventeen cents.]



§ 104. JESUS THE GUEST OF MARTHA AND MARY

Bethany, near Jerusalem[a]


  Luke 10:38-42

  38   Now as they went on their way, he entered into a certain village:
  39 and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. And
     she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at the Lord's feet,
  40 and heard his word. But Martha was [1]cumbered about much serving;
     and she came up to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my
     sister did leave me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she
  41 help me. But the Lord answered and said unto her, [2]Martha,
  42 Martha, thou art anxious and troubled about many things: [3]but
     one thing is needful: for Mary hath chosen the good part, which
     shall not be taken away from her.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _distracted_.]

     [Footnote 2: A few ancient authorities read, _Martha, Martha, thou
     art troubled: Mary hath chosen etc._]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities read _but few things are
     needful, or one_.]

[Footnote a: There was another Bethany beyond Jordan (John 1:28, § 26).
We shall see Jesus in Bethany near Jerusalem again (John 12:1-8). It was
his Jerusalem home in the early days of Passion Week.]



§ 105. JESUS AGAIN GIVES A MODEL OF PRAYER (COMP. § 54), AND ENCOURAGES
HIS DISCIPLES TO PRAY. PARABLE OF THE IMPORTUNATE FRIEND

Probably in Judea


  Luke 11:1-13

   1   And it came to pass, as he was praying in a certain place, that
     when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us
   2 to pray, even as John also taught his disciples. And he said unto
     them, When ye pray, say, [1]Father, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy
   3 kingdom come.[2] Give us day by day [3]our daily bread. And
   4 forgive us our sins; for we ourselves also forgive every one that
     is indebted to us. And bring us not into temptation[4].[a]
   5   And he said unto them, Which of you shall have a friend, and
     shall go unto him at midnight, and say to him, Friend, lend me
   6 three loaves; for a friend of mine is come to me from a journey,
   7 and I have nothing to set before him; and he from within shall
     answer and say, Trouble me not: the door is now shut, and my
   8 children are with me in bed; I cannot rise and give thee? I say
     unto you, Though he will not rise and give him, because he is his
     friend, yet because of his importunity he will arise and give him
   9 [5]as many as he needeth. And I say unto you, Ask, and it shall be
     given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened
  10 unto you. For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh
  11 findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. And of which
     of you that is a father shall his son ask [6]a loaf, and he give
  12 him a stone? or a fish, and he for a fish give him a serpent? Or
  13 _if_ he shall ask an egg, will he give him a scorpion? If ye then,
     being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how
     much more shall _your_ heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to
     them that ask him?

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _Our Father, which art
     in heaven._ See Matt. 6:9.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities add _Thy will be done, as in
     heaven, so on earth._ See Matt. 6:10.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _our bread for the coming day_.]

     [Footnote 4: Many ancient authorities add _but deliver us from the
     evil_ one (or, _from evil_). See Matt. 6:13.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _whatsoever things_.]

     [Footnote 6: Some ancient authorities omit _a loaf, and he give
     him a stone? or_.]

[Footnote a: The language here is different from that in Matt. 6 (§ 54),
but the ideas are the same. Evidently the disciples were slow to learn
Christ's teaching about prayer.]



§ 106. BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION OF LEAGUE WITH BEELZEBUB

(Compare § 61)[a]

Probably in Judea


  Luke 11:14-36

  14   And he was casting out a [1]devil _which was_ dumb. And it came
     to pass, when the [1]devil was gone out, the dumb man spake; and
  15 the multitudes marvelled. But some of them said, [2]By Beelzebub
  16 the prince of the [3]devils casteth he out [3]devils. And others,
  17 tempting _him_, sought of him a sign from heaven. But he, knowing
     their thoughts, said unto them, Every kingdom divided against
     itself is brought to desolation; [4]and a house _divided_ against a
  18 house falleth. And if Satan also is divided against himself, how
     shall his kingdom stand? because ye say that I cast out [3]devils
  19 [2]by Beelzebub. And if I [2]by Beelzebub cast out [3]devils, by
     whom do your sons cast them out? therefore shall they be your
  20 judges. But if I by the finger of God cast out [3]devils, then is
  21 the kingdom of God come upon you. When the strong _man_ fully
  22 armed guardeth his own court, his goods are in peace: but when a
     stronger than he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh
     from him his whole armour wherein he trusted, and divideth his
  23 spoils. He that is not with me is against me; and he that
  24 gathereth not with me scattereth. The unclean spirit when [5]he is
     gone out of the man, passeth through waterless places, seeking
     rest; and finding none, [5]he saith, I will turn back unto my
  25 house whence I came out. And when [5]he is come, [5]he findeth it
  26 swept and garnished. Then goeth [5]he, and taketh _to him_ seven
     other spirits more evil than [6]himself; and they enter in and
     dwell there: and the last state of that man becometh worse than
     the first.
  27   And it came to pass, as he said these things, a certain woman out
     of the multitude lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed
     is the womb that bare thee, and the breasts which thou didst suck.
  28 But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of
     God, and keep it.
  29   And when the multitudes were gathering together unto him, he
     began to say, This generation is an evil generation: it seeketh
     after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it but the sign
  30 of Jonah [_see Jonah 3:1-4_]. For even as Jonah became a sign unto
     the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation.
  31 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgement with the men
     of this generation, and shall condemn them: for she came from the
     ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon [_see 1 Kings
  32 10:1-3_]; and behold, [7]a greater than Solomon is here. The men
     of Nineveh shall stand up in the judgement with this generation,
     and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah
     [_see Jonah 3:5-10_]; and behold, [7]a greater than Jonah is here.
  33   No man, when he hath lighted a lamp, putteth it in a cellar,
     neither under the bushel, but on the stand, that they which enter
  34 in may see the light. The lamp of thy body is thine eye: when
     thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light; but
  35 when it is evil, thy body also is full of darkness. Look therefore
  36 whether the light that is in thee be not darkness. If therefore
     thy whole body be full of light, having no part dark, it shall be
     wholly full of light, as when the lamp with its bright shining
     doth give thee light.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _demon_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _in_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _and house falleth upon house_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _it_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _itself_.]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _more than_.]

[Footnote a: It is perfectly natural that the blasphemous accusation made
in Galilee (§ 61), and probably more than once (§ 68, Matt. 9:34), should
be repeated a year or so afterward in Judea or Perea, and that Jesus
should make substantially the same argument in reply. This sort of thing
occurs to every travelling religious teacher. Our Lord does not here give
the solemn warning that such an accusation is really blaspheming against
the Holy Spirit, and is unpardonable. (See Luke 12:10.) And the
subsequent occurrences are quite different in the two cases. In § 64 he
afterwards goes out by the lake-side and gives the great group of
parables, presently explaining some of them to the disciples in a house,
and then crosses the lake to Gerasa, etc. Here in § 107 he breakfasts
with a Pharisee, and utters such solemn woes against the Pharisees as are
found only in the closing months of his ministry, and then gives to vast
multitudes a series of instructions wholly unlike the great group of
parables. So it is quite unsuitable to identify this occurrence with that
of § 61.]



§ 107. WHILE BREAKFASTING WITH A PHARISEE, JESUS SEVERELY DENOUNCES THE
PHARISEES AND LAWYERS, AND EXCITES THEIR ENMITY

Probably in Judea


  Luke 11:37-54

  37   Now as he spake, a Pharisee asketh him to [1]dine with him: and
  38 he went in, and sat down to meat. And when the Pharisee saw it, he
  39 marvelled that he had not washed before [1]dinner. And the Lord
     said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup
     and of the platter; but your inward part is full of extortion and
  40 wickedness. Ye foolish ones, did not he that made the outside make
  41 the inside also? Howbeit give for alms those things which [2]are
     within; and behold, all things are clean unto you.
  42   But woe unto you Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and every
     herb, and pass over judgement and the love of God [_see Lev.
     27:30; Mic. 6:8_]: but these ought ye to have done, and not to
  43 leave the other undone. Woe unto you Pharisees! for ye love the
     chief seats in the synagogues, and the salutations in the
  44 marketplaces. Woe unto you! for ye are as the tombs which appear
     not, and the men that walk over _them_ know it not.
  45   And one of the lawyers answering saith unto him, [3]Master, in
  46 saying this thou reproachest us also. And he said, Woe unto you
     lawyers also! for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne,
     and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers.
  47 Woe unto you! for ye build the tombs of the prophets, and your
  48 fathers killed them. So ye are witnesses and consent unto the
     works of your fathers: for they killed them, and ye build _their
  49 tombs_. Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send unto
     them prophets and apostles; and _some_ of them they shall kill and
  50 persecute; that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from
     the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation;
  51 from the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zachariah [_see Gen. 4:8;
     2 Chron. 24:20-21_], who perished between the altar and the
     [4]sanctuary: yea, I say unto you, it shall be required of this
  52 generation. Woe unto you lawyers! for ye took away the key of
     knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were
     entering in ye hindered.
  53   And when he was come out from thence, the scribes and the
     Pharisees began to [5]press upon _him_ vehemently, and to provoke
  54 him to speak of [6]many things; laying wait for him, to catch
     something out of his mouth.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _breakfast_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _ye can_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _house_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _set themselves vehemently against_ him.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _more_.]



§ 108. HE SPEAKS TO HIS DISCIPLES AND A VAST THRONG, ABOUT HYPOCRISY,
COVETOUSNESS (PARABLE OF THE RICH FOOL), WORLDLY ANXIETIES, WATCHFULNESS
(PARABLE OF THE WAITING SERVANTS, AND OF THE WISE STEWARD), AND HIS OWN
APPROACHING PASSION[a]

Probably in Judea


  Luke 12

   1   In the mean time, when [1]the many thousands of the multitude
     were gathered together, insomuch that they trode one upon another,
     he began to [2]say unto his disciples first of all, Beware ye of
   2 the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. But there is
     nothing covered up, that shall not be revealed: and hid, that shall
   3 not be known. Wherefore whatsoever ye have said in the darkness
     shall be heard in the light; and what ye have spoken in the ear in
   4 the inner chambers shall be proclaimed upon the housetops. And I
     say unto you my friends, Be not afraid of them which kill the body,
   5 and after that have no more that they can do. But I will warn you
     whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath
   6 [3]power to cast into [4]hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him. Are
     not five sparrows sold for two farthings? and not one of them is
   7 forgotten in the sight of God. But the very hairs of your head are
     all numbered. Fear not: ye are of more value than many sparrows.
   8 And I say unto you, Every one who shall confess [5]me before men,
     [6]him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God:
   9 but he that denieth me in the presence of men shall be denied in
  10 the presence of the angels of God. And every one who shall speak a
     word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but unto
     him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit it shall not be
  11 forgiven. And when they bring you before the synagogues, and the
     rulers, and the authorities, be not anxious how or what ye shall
  12 answer, or what ye shall say: for the Holy Spirit shall teach you
     in that very hour what ye ought to say.
  13   And one out of the multitude said unto him, [7]Master, bid my
  14 brother divide the inheritance with me. But he said unto him, Man,
  15 who made me a judge or a divider over you? And he said unto them,
     Take heed, and keep yourselves from all covetousness: [8]for a
     man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he
  16 possesseth. And he spake a parable unto them, saying, The ground
  17 of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully: and he reasoned
     within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have not where
  18 to bestow my fruits? And he said, This will I do: I will pull down
     my barns, and build greater; and there will I bestow all my corn
  19 and my goods. And I will say to my [9]soul, [9]Soul, thou hast
     much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, be
  20 merry. But God said unto him, Thou foolish one, this night [10]is
     thy [9]soul required of thee; and the things which thou hast
  21 prepared, whose shall they be? So is he that layeth up treasure
     for himself, and is not rich toward God.
  22   And he said unto his disciples, Therefore I say unto you, Be not
     anxious for _your_ [11]life, what ye shall eat; nor yet for your
  23 body, what ye shall put on. For the [11]life is more than the
  24 food, and the body than the raiment. Consider the ravens, that
     they sow not, neither reap; which have no store-chamber nor barn;
     and God feedeth them: of how much more value are ye than the
  25 birds! And which of you by being anxious can add a cubit unto his
  26 [12]stature? If then ye are not able to do even that which is
  27 least, why are ye anxious concerning the rest? Consider the
     lilies, how they grow: they toil not, neither do they spin; yet I
     say unto you, Even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like
  28 one of these. But if God doth so clothe the grass in the field,
     which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven; how much
  29 more _shall he clothe_ you, O ye of little faith? And seek not ye
     what ye shall eat, and what ye shall drink, neither be ye of
  30 doubtful mind. For all these things do the nations of the world
     seek after: but your Father knoweth that ye have need of these
  31 things. Howbeit seek ye [13]his kingdom, and these things shall be
  32 added unto you. Fear not, little flock; for it is your Father's
  33 good pleasure to give you the kingdom. Sell that ye have, and give
     alms; make for yourselves purses which wax not old, a treasure in
     the heavens that faileth not, where no thief draweth near, neither
  34 moth destroyeth. For where your treasure is, there will your heart
     be also.
  35,36   Let your loins be girded about, and your lamps burning; and be
     ye yourselves like unto men looking for their lord, when he shall
     return from the marriage feast; that, when he cometh and knocketh,
  37 they may straightway open unto him. Blessed are those
     [14]servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching:
     verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them
  38 sit down to meat, and shall come and serve them. And if he shall
     come in the second watch, and if in the third, and find _them_ so,
  39 blessed are those _servants_. [15]But know this, that if the
     master of the house had known in what hour the thief was coming,
     he would have watched, and not have left his house to be
  40 [16]broken through. Be ye also ready: for in an hour that ye think
     not the Son of man cometh.
  41   And Peter said, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even
  42 unto all? And the Lord said, Who then is [17]the faithful and wise
     steward, whom his lord shall set over his household, to give them
  43 their portion of food in due season? Blessed is that [18]servant,
  44 whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Of a truth I say
  45 unto you, that he will set him over all that he hath. But if that
     [18]servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;
     and shall begin to beat the menservants and the maidservants, and
  46 to eat and drink, and to be drunken; the lord of that [18]servant
     shall come in a day when he expecteth not, and in an hour when he
     knoweth not, and shall [19]cut him asunder, and appoint his
  47 portion with the unfaithful. And that [18]servant, which knew his
     lord's will, and made not ready, nor did according to his will,
  48 shall be beaten with many _stripes_; but he that knew not, and did
     things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few _stripes_. And
     to whomsoever much is given, of him shall much be required: and to
     whom they commit much, of him will they ask the more.
  49   I came to cast fire upon the earth; and what will I, if it is
  50 already kindled? But I have a baptism to be baptized with; and how
  51 am I straitened till it be accomplished! Think ye that I am come
     to give peace in the earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division:
  52 for there shall be from henceforth five in one house divided,
  53 three against two, and two against three [_see Mic. 7:6_]. They
     shall be divided, father against son, and son against father;
     mother against daughter, and daughter against her mother; mother
     in law against her daughter in law, and daughter in law against
     her mother in law.
  54   And he said to the multitudes also, When ye see a cloud rising in
     the west, straightway ye say, There cometh a shower; and so it
  55 cometh to pass. And when _ye see_ a south wind blowing, ye say,
  56 There will be a [20]scorching heat; and it cometh to pass. Ye
     hypocrites, ye know how to [21]interpret the face of the earth and
     the heaven; but how is it that ye know not how to [21]interpret
  57 this time? And why even of yourselves judge ye not what is right?
  58 For as thou art going with thine adversary before the magistrate,
     on the way give diligence to be quit of him; lest haply he hale
     thee unto the judge, and the judge shall deliver thee to the
  59 [22]officer, and the [22]officer shall cast thee into prison. I
     say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou
     have paid the very last mite.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _the myriads of_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _say unto his disciples, First of all beware
     ye_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _authority_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _Gehenna_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _in me_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _in him_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _for not in a man's abundance consisteth his
     life, from the things which he possesseth_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _life_.]

     [Footnote 10: Gr. _they require thy soul_.]

     [Footnote 11: Or, _soul_.]

     [Footnote 12: Or, _age_.]

     [Footnote 13: Many ancient authorities read _the kingdom of God_.]

     [Footnote 14: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 15: Or, _But this ye know_.]

     [Footnote 16: Or, _digged through_.]

     [Footnote 17: Or, _the faithful steward, the wise_ man _whom
     etc._]

     [Footnote 18: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 19: Or, _severely scourge him_.]

     [Footnote 20: Or, _hot wind_.]

     [Footnote 21: Gr. _prove_.]

     [Footnote 22: Gr. _exactor_.]

[Footnote a: Here we have a series of discourses to the disciples (1-12),
to one of the crowd (13-21), to the disciples (22-40), to Peter (41-53),
to the multitudes (54-59). The constant interruption is typical of the
teaching of Jesus. This address, as often, repeats some of Christ's
favorite sayings.

Besides the Parable of the Rich Fool (12:16-21) note those of the Waiting
Servants (37-40) and of the Wise Steward (42-48).]



§ 109. ALL MUST REPENT OR PERISH (TWO CURRENT TRAGEDIES); PARABLE OF THE
BARREN FIG TREE

Probably in Judea


  Luke 13:1-9

   1   Now there were some present at that very season which told him of
     the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their
   2 sacrifices. And he answered and said unto them, Think ye that
     these Galileans were sinners above all the Galileans, because they
   3 have suffered these things? I tell you, Nay: but, except ye
   4 repent, ye shall all in like manner perish. Or those eighteen,
     upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and killed them, think ye that
     they were [1]offenders above all the men that dwell in Jerusalem?
   5 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise
     perish.
   6   And he spake this parable; A certain man had a fig tree
     planted in his vineyard; and he came seeking fruit thereon, and
   7 found none. And he said unto the vinedresser, Behold, these three
     years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it
   8 down; why doth it also cumber the ground? And he answering saith
     unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig
   9 about it, and dung it: and if it bear fruit thenceforth, _well_;
     but if not, thou shalt cut it down.

    [Footnote 1: Gr. _debtors_.]



§ 110. JESUS HEALS A CRIPPLED WOMAN ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS HIMSELF
AGAINST THE RULER OF THE SYNAGOGUE (COMP. §§ 49 TO 51 AND 114).
REPETITION OF THE PARABLES OF THE MUSTARD SEED AND OF THE LEAVEN


  Luke 13:10-21

  10   And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath day.
  11 And behold, a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen
     years; and she was bowed together, and could in no wise lift
  12 herself up. And when Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to
  13 her, Woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity. And he laid his
     hands upon her: and immediately she was made straight, and
  14 glorified God. And the ruler of the synagogue, being moved with
     indignation because Jesus had healed on the sabbath [_see Ex.
     20:8-11; Deut. 5:12-15_], answered and said to the multitude,
     There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore
  15 come and be healed, and not on the day of the sabbath. But the
     Lord answered him, and said, Ye hypocrites, doth not each one of
     you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the [1]stall, and
  16 lead him away to watering? And ought not this woman, being a
     daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound, lo, _these_ eighteen
     years, to have been loosed from this bond on the day of the
  17 sabbath? And as he said these things, all his adversaries were put
     to shame: and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious
     things that were done by him.
  18   He said therefore, Unto what is the kingdom of God like? and
  19 whereunto shall I liken it? It is like unto a grain of mustard
     seed, which a man took, and cast into his own garden; and it grew,
     and became a tree; and the birds of the heaven lodged in the
  20 branches thereof [_see Dan. 4:10-12; 20-22_]. And again he said,
  21 Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God? It is like unto
     leaven, which a woman took and hid in three [2]measures of meal,
     till it was all leavened.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _manger_.]

     [Footnote 2: The word in the Gr. denotes the Hebrew seah, a
     measure containing nearly a peck and a half (cf. in Matt. 13:33).]



_Here again the Gospel of John takes us up, and carries us to Jerusalem,
and then to Perea._



§ 111. AT THE FEAST OF DEDICATION, JESUS WILL NOT YET OPENLY SAY THAT HE
IS THE MESSIAH. THE JEWS TRY TO STONE HIM

Jerusalem


  John 10:22-39

  22   [1]And it was the feast of the dedication at Jerusalem:[a] it was
  23 winter; and Jesus was walking in the temple in Solomon's porch.
  24 The Jews therefore came round about him, and said unto him, How
     long dost thou hold us in suspense? If thou art the Christ, tell
  25 us plainly. Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believe not:
     the works that I do in my Father's name, these bear witness of me.
  26 But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep. My sheep hear
  27 my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: and I give unto
  28 them eternal life; and they shall never perish, and no one shall
  29 snatch them out of my hand. [2]My Father, which hath given _them_
     unto me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch
  30 [3]_them_ out of the Father's hand. I and the Father are one. The
  31 Jews took up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, Many
  32 good works have I shewed you from the Father; for which of those
  33 works do ye stone me? The Jews answered him, For a good work we
     stone thee not, but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a
  34 man, makest thyself God. Jesus answered them, Is it not written in
  35 your law, I said, Ye are gods [_see Ps. 82:6_]? If he called them
     gods, unto whom the word of God came (and the scripture cannot be
  36 broken), say ye of him, whom the Father [4]sanctified and sent
     into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am _the_ Son
  37 of God? If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not. But if
  38 I do them, though you believe not me, believe the works: that ye
     may know and understand that the Father is in me, and I in the
  39 Father. They sought again to take him: and he went forth out of
     their hand.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _At that time was the
     feast_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _That which my Father
     hath given unto me_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _aught_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _consecrated_.]

[Footnote a: Some scholars think that the events in John 9 and 10:1-21
belong to the time of the feast of dedication rather than soon after
tabernacles. But the language of John 10:24 seems to call for an
interval.]



PART X

THE LATER PEREAN MINISTRY

_Probably Dedication in A.D. 29 to Last Journey in A.D. 30 (about three
and a half months), §§ 112-127._



§ 112. THE WITHDRAWAL FROM JERUSALEM TO BETHANY BEYOND JORDAN

Perea


  John 10:40-42

  40   And he went away again beyond Jordan into the place where John
  41 was at the first baptizing; and there he abode. And many came unto
     him; and they said, John indeed did no sign: but all things
  42 whatsoever John spake of this man were true. And many believed on
     him there.



§ 113. TEACHING IN PEREA, ON A JOURNEY[a] TOWARD JERUSALEM. WARNED
AGAINST HEROD ANTIPAS


  Luke 13:22-35

  22   And he went on his way through cities and villages, teaching, and
  23 journeying on unto Jerusalem.[b] And one said unto him, Lord, are
  24 they few that be saved? And he said unto them, Strive to enter in
     by the narrow door: for many, I say unto you, shall seek to enter
  25 in, and shall not be [1]able. When once the master of the house is
     risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand
     without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, open to us; and
  26 he shall answer and say to you, I know you not whence ye are; then
     shall ye begin to say, We did eat and drink in thy presence, and
  27 thou didst teach in our streets; and he shall say, I tell you, I
     know not whence ye are; depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity
  28 [_see Ps. 6:8_]. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth,
     when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the
     prophets, in the kingdom of God, and yourselves cast forth
  29 without. And they shall come from the east and west, and from the
     north and south, and shall [2]sit down in the kingdom of God [_see
  30 Ps. 107:3; Isa. 49:12_]. And behold, there are last which shall be
     first, and there are first which shall be last.
  31   In that very hour there came certain Pharisees, saying to him,
  32 Get thee out, and go hence: for Herod would fain kill thee. And he
     said unto them, Go and say to that fox, Behold, I cast out
     [3]devils and perform cures to-day and to-morrow, and the third
  33 _day_ I am perfected. Howbeit I must go on my way to-day and
     to-morrow and the _day_ following: for it cannot be that a prophet
  34 perish out of Jerusalem. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killeth the
     prophets, and stoneth them that are sent unto her! how often would
     I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen _gathereth_
  35 her own brood under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your
     house is left unto you _desolate_: and I say unto you, Ye shall
     not see me, until ye shall say, Blessed _is_ he that cometh in the
     name of the Lord [_see Ps. 118:26; Jer. 12:7; 22:5_].

     [Footnote 1: Or, _able, when once_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _recline_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _demons_.]

[Footnote a: See note 10 at end of Harmony for the combination of Luke
and John. After the Feast of the Dedication Jesus retired beyond Jordan
(John 10:40), whence he goes to the raising of Lazarus (John 11:17). Luke
seems to give incidents that belong to this journey.]

[Footnote b: The period of three to four months from the Dedication to
the final Passover is divided by another visit to Jerusalem. We cannot
tell how many weeks preceded this event. All along here we have only a
few specimens of the Saviour's teaching and works.]



§ 114. WHILE DINING (BREAKFASTING) WITH A CHIEF PHARISEE, HE AGAIN HEALS
ON THE SABBATH, AND DEFENDS HIMSELF (COMP. §§ 49 TO 51 AND 110). THREE
PARABLES SUGGESTED BY THE OCCASION

Probably in Perea


  Luke 14:1-24

   1   And it came to pass, when he went into the house of one of the
     rulers of the Pharisees on a sabbath to eat bread, that they were
   2 watching him. And behold, there was before him a certain man which
   3 had the dropsy. And Jesus answering spake unto the lawyers and
     Pharisees, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath, or not?
   4 But they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and
   5 let him go. And he said unto them, Which of you shall have [1]an
     ass or an ox fallen into a well, and will not straightway draw him
   6 up on a sabbath day? And they could not answer again unto these
     things.
   7   And he spake a parable unto those which were bidden, when he
   8 marked how they chose out the chief seats; saying unto them, When
     thou art bidden of any man to a marriage feast, [2]sit not down in
     the chief seat; lest haply a more honourable man than thou be
   9 bidden of him, and he that bade thee and him shall come and say to
     thee, Give this man place; and then thou shalt begin with shame to
  10 take the lowest place. But when thou art bidden, go and sit down
     in the lowest place; that when he that hath bidden thee cometh, he
     may say to thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have glory
     in the presence of all that sit at meat with thee. For every one
  11 that exalteth himself shall be humbled; and he that humbleth
     himself shall be exalted.
  12   And he said to him also that had bidden him, When thou makest a
     dinner or a supper,[a] call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, nor
     thy kinsmen, nor rich neighbours; lest haply they also bid thee
  13 again, and a recompense be made thee. But when thou makest a
  14 feast, bid the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind: and thou
     shalt be blessed; because they have not _wherewith_ to recompense
     thee: for thou shalt be recompensed in the resurrection of the
     just.
  15   And when one of them that sat at meat with him heard these
     things, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the
  16 kingdom of God. But he said unto him, A certain man made a great
  17 supper; and he bade many: and he sent forth his [3]servant at
     supper time to say to them that were bidden, Come; for _all_
  18 things are now ready. And they all with one _consent_ began to
     make excuse. The first said unto him, I have bought a field, and I
  19 must needs go out and see it: I pray thee have me excused. And
     another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove
  20 them: I pray thee have me excused. And another said, I have
  21 married a wife, and therefore I cannot come. And the [3]servant
     came, and told his lord these things. Then the master of the house
     being angry said to his [3]servant, Go out quickly into the
     streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor and
  22 maimed and blind and lame. And the [3]servant said, Lord, what
  23 thou didst command is done, and yet there is room. And the lord
     said unto the [3]servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and
  24 constrain _them_ to come in, that my house may be filled. For I
     say unto you, that none of those men which were bidden shall taste
     of my supper.

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _a son_. See ch.
     13:15.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _recline not_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _bondservant_.]

[Footnote a: More exactly, "a breakfast or a dinner." The two principal
meals of the Jews answered to the present English breakfast (in the
forenoon and often near noon), and dinner (at or after dark); and so in
our cities. In the time of King James, as in many of our country homes
now, the meal towards noon answered to dinner, and the night meal to
supper. Hence a certain confusion in the older and more recent English
versions. In verses 16, 17 the right word would be dinner, according to
city usage, and so elsewhere.]



§ 115. GREAT CROWDS FOLLOW HIM, AND HE WARNS THEM TO COUNT THE COST OF
DISCIPLESHIP TO HIM (COMP. §§ 70 and 83)

Probably in Perea


  Luke 14:25-35

  25   Now there went with him great multitudes: and he turned, and said
  26 unto them, If any man cometh unto me, and hateth not his own
     father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and
     sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple.
  27 Whosoever doth not bear his own cross, and come after me, cannot
  28 be my disciple. For which of you, desiring to build a tower, doth
     not first sit down and count the cost, whether he have _wherewith_
  29 to complete it? Lest haply, when he hath laid a foundation, and is
  30 not able to finish, all that behold begin to mock him, saying,
  31 This man began to build, and was not able to finish. Or what king,
     as he goeth to encounter another king in war, will not sit down
     first and take counsel whether he is able with ten thousand to
  32 meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand? Or else,
     while the other is yet a great way off, he sendeth an ambassage,
  33 and asketh conditions of peace. So therefore whosoever he be of
     you that renounceth not all that he hath, he cannot be my
  34 disciple. Salt therefore is good: but if even the salt have lost
  35 its savour, wherewith shall it be seasoned? It is fit neither for
     the land nor for the dunghill: _men_ cast it out. He that hath
     ears to hear, let him hear.



§ 116. THE PHARISEES AND THE SCRIBES MURMUR AGAINST JESUS FOR RECEIVING
SINNERS. HE DEFENDS HIMSELF BY THREE GREAT PARABLES (THE LOST SHEEP, THE
LOST COIN, THE LOST SON)

Probably in Perea


  Luke 15:1-32

   1   Now all the publicans and sinners were drawing near unto him for
   2 to hear him. And both the Pharisees and the scribes murmured,
     saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them.
  3, 4 And he spake unto them this parable, saying, What man of you,
     having a hundred sheep, and having lost one of them, doth not
     leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that
   5 which is lost, until he find it? And when he hath found it, he
   6 layeth it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he cometh home, he
     calleth together his friends and his neighbours, saying unto them,
   7 Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost. I say
     unto you, that even so there shall be joy in heaven over one
     sinner that repenteth, _more_ than over ninety and nine righteous
     persons, which need no repentance.
   8   Or what woman having ten [1]pieces of silver, if she lose one
     piece, doth not light a lamp, and sweep the house, and seek
   9 diligently until she find it? And when she hath found it, she
     calleth together her friends and neighbours, saying, Rejoice with
  10 me, for I have found the piece which I had lost. Even so, I say
     unto you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over
     one sinner that repenteth.
  11, 12   And he said, A certain man had two sons: and the younger of
     them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of [2]_thy_
     substance that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living.
  13 And not many days after the younger son gathered all together, and
     took his journey into a far country; and there he wasted his
  14 substance with riotous living. And when he had spent all, there
     arose a mighty famine in that country; and he began to be in want.
  15 And he went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that
  16 country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine. And he
     would fain have been filled with [3]the husks that the swine did
  17 eat: and no man gave unto him. But when he came to himself he
     said, How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and
  18 to spare, and I perish here with hunger! I will arise and go to my
     father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against
  19 heaven, and in thy sight: I am no more worthy to be called thy
  20 son: make me as one of thy hired servants. And he arose, and came
     to his father. But while he was yet afar off, his father saw him,
     and was moved with compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and
  21 [4]kissed him. And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned
     against heaven, and in thy sight: I am no more worthy to be called
  22 thy son.[5] But the father said to his [6]servants, Bring forth
     quickly the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his
  23 hand, and shoes on his feet: and bring the fatted calf, _and_ kill
  24 it, and let us eat, and make merry: for this my son was dead, and
     is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be
  25 merry. Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew
  26 nigh to the house, he heard music and dancing. And he called to
     him one of the [6]servants, and inquired what these things might
  27 be. And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath
     killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and
  28 sound. But he was angry, and would not go in: and his father came
  29 out, and intreated him. But he answered and said to his father,
     Lo, these many years do I serve thee, and I never transgressed a
     commandment of thine: and _yet_ thou never gavest me a kid, that I
  30 might make merry with my friends: but when this thy son came,
     which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou killedst for him
  31 the fatted calf. And he said unto him, [7]Son, thou art ever with
  32 me, and all that is mine is thine. But it was meet to make merry
     and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive _again_;
     and _was_ lost, and is found.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _drachma_, a coin worth about sixteen cents.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _the_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _the pods of the carob tree_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _kissed him much_.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities add _make me as one of thy
     hired servants_. See ver. 19.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _Child_.]



§ 117. THREE PARABLES ON STEWARDSHIP (TO THE DISCIPLES, THE PARABLE OF
THE UNJUST STEWARD; TO THE PHARISEES, THE PARABLE OF THE RICH MAN AND
LAZARUS; TO THE DISCIPLES, THE PARABLE OF THE UNPROFITABLE SERVANTS)

  Probably in Perea


  Luke 16:1-17:10

   1   And he said also unto the disciples, There was a certain rich
     man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he
   2 was wasting his goods. And he called him, and said unto him, What
     is this that I hear of thee? render the account of thy stewardship;
   3 for thou canst be no longer steward. And the steward said within
     himself, What shall I do, seeing that my lord taketh away the
     stewardship from me? I have not strength to dig; to beg I am
   4 ashamed. I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the
   5 stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. And calling to
     him each one of his lord's debtors, he said to the first, How much
   6 owest thou unto my lord? And he said, A hundred [1]measures of
     oil. And he said unto him, Take thy [2]bond, and sit down quickly
   7 and write fifty. Then said he to another, And how much owest thou?
     And he said, A hundred [3]measures of wheat. He saith unto him,
   8 Take thy [2]bond, and write fourscore. And his lord commended
     [4]the unrighteous steward because he had done wisely: for the
     sons of this [5]world are for their own generation wiser than the
   9 sons of the light. And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends
     [6]by means of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when it shall
  10 fail, they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles. He that
     is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much: and he that
  11 is unrighteous in a very little is unrighteous also in much. If
     therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who
  12 will commit to your trust the true _riches_? And if ye have not
     been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that
  13 which is [7]your own? No [8]servant can serve two masters: for
     either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will
     hold to one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and
     mammon.
  14   And the Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these
  15 things; and they scoffed at him. And he said unto them, Ye are
     they that justify yourselves in the sight of men; but God knoweth
     your hearts: for that which is exalted among men is an abomination
  16 in the sight of God. The law and the prophets _were_ until John:
     from that time the gospel of the kingdom of God is preached, and
  17 every man entereth violently into it [_see Matt. 11:12_]. But it
     is easier for heaven and earth to pass away, than for one tittle
  18 of the law to fall. Every one that putteth away his wife, and
     marrieth another, committeth adultery: and he that marrieth one
     that is put away from a husband committeth adultery.
  19   Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple
  20 and fine linen, [9]faring sumptuously every day: and a certain
  21 beggar named Lazarus was laid at his gate, full of sores, and
     desiring to be fed with the _crumbs_ that fell from the rich man's
  22 table; yea, even the dogs came and licked his sores. And it came to
     pass, that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the
     angels into Abraham's bosom: and the rich man also died, and was
  23 buried. And in Hades he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and
  24 seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and
     said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he
     may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I
  25 am in anguish in this flame. But Abraham said, [10]Son, remember
     that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and Lazarus
     in like manner evil things: but now here he is comforted, and thou
  26 art in anguish. And [11]beside all this, between us and you there
     is a great gulf fixed, that they which would pass from hence to
     you may not be able, and that none may cross over from thence to
  27 us. And he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest
  28 send him to my father's house; for I have five brethren; that he
     may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of
  29 torment. But Abraham saith, They have Moses and the prophets; let
  30 them hear them. And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one go to
  31 them from the dead, they will repent. And he said unto him, If
     they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be
     persuaded, if one rise from the dead.
   1   And he said unto his disciples, It is impossible but that
     occasions of stumbling should come: but woe unto him, through whom
   2 they come! It were well for him if a millstone were hanged about
     his neck, and he were thrown into the sea, rather than that he
   3 should cause one of these little ones to stumble. Take heed to
     yourselves: if thy brother sin, rebuke him; and if he repent,
   4 forgive him. And if he sin against thee seven times in the day,
     and seven times turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt
     forgive him.
  5, 6   And the apostles said unto the Lord, Increase our faith. And
     the Lord said, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye
     would say unto this sycamine tree, Be thou rooted up, and be thou
   7 planted in the sea; and it would have obeyed you. But who is there
     of you, having a [12]servant plowing or keeping sheep, that will
     say unto him, when he is come in from the field, Come straightway
   8 and sit down to meat; and will not rather say unto him, Make ready
     wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, and serve me, till I have
   9 eaten and drunken; and afterward thou shalt eat and drink? Doth he
     thank the [12]servant because he did the things that were
  10 commanded? Even so ye also, when ye shall have done all the things
     that are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable [13]servants; we
     have done that which it was our duty to do.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _baths_, the bath being a Hebrew measure. See
     Ezek. 45:10, 11, 14.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _writings_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _cors_, the cor being a Hebrew measure. See Ezek.
     45:14.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _the steward of unrighteousness_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _age_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _out of_.]

     [Footnote 7: Some ancient authorities read, _our own_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _household-servant_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _living in mirth and splendour every day_.]

     [Footnote 10: Gr. _Child_.]

     [Footnote 11: Or, _in all these things_.]

     [Footnote 12: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 13: Gr. _bondservants_.]



§ 118. JESUS RAISES LAZARUS FROM THE DEAD

From Perea[a] to Bethany near Jerusalem


  John 11:1-44

   1   Now a certain man was sick, Lazarus of Bethany, of the village of
   2 Mary and her sister Martha. And it was that Mary which anointed
     the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose
   3 brother Lazarus was sick. The sisters therefore sent unto him,
   4 saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. But when Jesus
     heard it, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the
   5 glory of God, that the Son of God may be glorified thereby. Now
   6 Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. When therefore he
     heard that he was sick, he abode at that time two days in the
   7 place where he was. Then after this he saith to the disciples, Let
   8 us go into Judea again. The disciples say unto him, Rabbi, the
     Jews were but now seeking to stone thee; and goest thou thither
   9 again? Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If a
     man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light
  10 of this world. But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth,
  11 because the light is not in him. These things spake he: and after
     this he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus is fallen asleep; but
  12 I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. The disciples therefore
     said unto him, Lord, if he is fallen asleep, he will [1]recover.
  13 Now Jesus had spoken of his death: but they thought that he spake
  14 of taking rest in sleep. Then Jesus therefore said unto them
  15 plainly, Lazarus is dead. And I am glad for your sakes that I was
     not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go
  16 unto him. Thomas therefore, who is called [2]Didymus, said unto
     his fellow-disciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him.
  17   So when Jesus came, he found that he had been in the tomb four
  18 days already. Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen
  19 furlongs off; and many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary, to
  20 console them concerning their brother. Martha therefore, when she
     heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary still sat
  21 in the house. Martha therefore said unto Jesus, Lord, if thou
  22 hadst been here, my brother had not died. And even now I know that,
  23 whatsoever thou shalt ask of God, God will give thee. Jesus saith
  24 unto her, Thy brother shall rise again. Martha saith unto him, I
     know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.
  25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that
  26 believeth on me, though he die, yet shall he live: and whosoever
     liveth and believeth on me shall never die. Believest thou this?
  27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I have believed that thou art the
  28 Christ, the Son of God, _even_ he that cometh into the world. And
     when she had said this, she went away, and called Mary [3]her
     sister secretly, saying, The [4]Master is here, and calleth thee.
  29 And she, when she heard it, arose quickly, and went unto him. (Now
  30 Jesus was not yet come into the village, but was still in the
  31 place where Martha met him.) The Jews then which were with her in
     the house, and were comforting her, when they saw Mary, that she
     rose up quickly and went out, followed her, supposing that she was
  32 going unto the tomb to [5]weep there. Mary therefore, when she
     came where Jesus was, and saw him, fell down at his feet, saying
     unto him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.
  33 When Jesus therefore saw her [6]weeping, and the Jews _also_
     [6]weeping which came with her, he [7]groaned in the spirit, and
  34 [8]was troubled, and said, Where have ye laid him? They say unto
  35, 36 him, Lord, come and see. Jesus wept. The Jews therefore said,
  37 Behold how he loved him! But some of them said, Could not this
     man, which opened the eyes of him that was blind, have caused that
  38 this man also should not die? Jesus therefore again [9]groaning in
     himself cometh to the tomb. Now it was a cave, and a stone lay
  39 [10]against it. Jesus saith, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the
     sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he
  40 stinketh: for he hath been _dead_ four days. Jesus saith unto her,
     Said I not unto thee, that, if thou believedst, thou shouldest see
  41 the glory of God? So they took away the stone. And Jesus lifted up
     his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou heardest me.
  42 And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the
     multitude which standeth around I said it, that they may believe
  43 that thou didst send me. And when he had thus spoken, he cried
  44 with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. He that was dead came
     forth, bound hand and foot with [11]grave-clothes; and his face
     was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him,
     and let him go.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _be saved_.]

     [Footnote 2: That is, _Twin_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _her sister, saying secretly_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _wail_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _wailing_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _was moved with indignation in the spirit_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _troubled himself_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _being moved with indignation in himself_.]

     [Footnote 10: Or, _upon_.]

     [Footnote 11: Or, _grave-bands_.]

[Footnote a: Our Lord was apparently at a distance of two or three days'
journey (verses 6, 17) from Bethany; and he was probably in Perea. This
visit to Bethany, a suburb of Jerusalem, may be that to which Luke
pointed in 13:22.]



§ 119. THE EFFECT OF THE RAISING OF LAZARUS (ON THE PEOPLE, ON THE
SANHEDRIN, ON THE MOVEMENTS OF JESUS)

Jerusalem and Ephraim in Judea.


  John 11:45-54

  45   Many therefore of the Jews, which came to Mary and beheld [1]that
  46 which he did, believed on him. But some of them went away to the
     Pharisees, and told them the thing which Jesus had done.
  47   The chief priests therefore and the Pharisees gathered a council,
  48 and said, What do we? for this man doeth many signs. If we let him
     thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans will come
  49 and take away both our place and our nation. But a certain one of
     them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said unto them, Ye
  50 know nothing at all, nor do ye take account that it is expedient
     for you that one man should die for the people, and that the whole
  51 nation perish not. Now this he said not of himself: but being high
     priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for the
  52 nation; and not for the nation only, but that he might also gather
     together into one the children of God that are scattered abroad.
  53 So from that day forth they took counsel that they might put him
     to death.
  54   Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews, but
     departed thence into the country near to the wilderness, into a
     city called Ephraim; and there he tarried with the disciples.

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _the things which he
     did_.]



§ 120. JESUS STARTS ON THE LAST JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM BY WAY OF SAMARIA
AND GALILEE

_He heals the Ten Lepers and explains the Nature of the Kingdom of God to
the Pharisees and the Disciples._

In Samaria or Galilee


  Luke 17:11-37

  11   And it came to pass, [1]as they were on the way to Jerusalem,
  12 that he was passing [2]through the midst of Samaria and Galilee.[a]
     And as he entered into a certain village, there met him ten men
  13 that were lepers, which stood afar off [_see Lev. 13:45-46_]: and
     they lifted up their voices, saying, Jesus, Master, have mercy on
  14 us. And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go and shew yourselves
     unto the priests [_see Lev. 13:49; 14:1-3_]. And it came to pass,
  15 as they went, they were cleansed. And one of them, when he saw
     that he was healed, turned back, with a loud voice glorifying God;
  16 and he fell upon his face at his feet, giving him thanks: and he
  17 was a Samaritan. And Jesus answering said, Were not the ten
  18 cleansed? but where are the nine? [3]Were there none found that
  19 returned to give glory to God, save this [4]stranger? And he said
     unto him, Arise, and go thy way: thy faith hath [5]made thee
     whole.
  20   And being asked by the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God cometh,
     he answered them and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with
  21 observation: neither shall they say, Lo, here! or, There! for lo,
     the kingdom of God is [6]within you.
  22   And he said unto the disciples, The days will come, when ye shall
     desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, and ye shall not
  23 see it. And they shall say to you, Lo, there! Lo, here! go not
  24 away, nor follow after _them_: for as the lightning, when it
     lighteneth out of the one part under the heaven, shineth unto the
     other part under heaven; so shall the Son of man be [7]in his day.
  25 But first must he suffer many things and be rejected of this
  26 generation. And as it came to pass in the days of Noah, even so
     shall it be also in the days of the Son of man [_see Gen. 6:11-13;
  27 7:21-23_]. They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in
     marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the
  28 flood came, and destroyed them all. Likewise even as it came to
     pass in the days of Lot; they ate, they drank, they bought, they
  29 sold, they planted, they builded [_see Gen. 18:20-22_]; but in the
     day that Lot went out from Sodom [_see Gen. 19:24-25_] it rained
  30 fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all: after the
     same manner shall it be in the day that the Son of man is revealed.
  31 In that day, he which shall be on the housetop, and his goods in
     the house, let him not go down to take them away: and let him that
  32 is in the field likewise not return back. Remember Lot's wife [_see
  33 Gen. 19:26_]. Whosoever shall seek to gain his [8]life shall lose
  34 it: but whosoever shall lose _his [8]life_ shall [9]preserve it. I
     say unto you, In that night there shall be two men on one bed; the
  35 one shall be taken, and the other shall be left. There shall be two
     women grinding together; the one shall be taken, and the other
  37 shall be left[10]. And they answering say unto him, Where, Lord?
     And he said unto them, Where the body _is_, thither will the
     [11]eagles also be gathered together.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _as he was_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _between_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _There were none found ... save this stranger._]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _alien_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _saved thee_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _in the midst of you_.]

     [Footnote 7: Some ancient authorities omit _in his day_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _soul_.]

     [Footnote 9: Gr. _save it alive_.]

     [Footnote 10: Some ancient authorities add ver. 36 _There shall be
     two men in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other shall
     be left._]

     [Footnote 11: Or, _vultures_.]

[Footnote a: As Ephraim (§ 119) was pretty certainly in the northern part
of Judea, it has been reasonably supposed (Wieseler, Clark, and others)
that, when the Passover was approaching, Jesus went from that region
northward through Samaria into the southern or southeastern part of
Galilee, so as to fall in with the pilgrims going from Galilee through
Perea to Jerusalem. We thus again combine Luke's account with that of
John in easy agreement. And this explains Luke's mention of Samaria
first, which would be strange in describing a journey from Galilee
through Samaria to Jerusalem, while the marginal translation, "between
Samaria and Galilee," would he obscure and hard to account for. From this
point he is making his final journey to Jerusalem, for the Passover of
the crucifixion.]



§ 121. TWO PARABLES ON PRAYER (THE IMPORTUNATE WIDOW, THE PHARISEE AND
THE PUBLICAN)


  Luke 18:1-14

   1   And he spake a parable unto them to the end that they ought
   2 always to pray, and not to faint; saying, There was in a city a
   3 judge, which feared not God, and regarded not man: and there was a
     widow in that city; and she came oft unto him, saying, [1]Avenge me
   4 of mine adversary. And he would not for a while: but afterward he
   5 said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man; yet
     because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her, lest she
   6 [2]wear me out by her continual coming. And the Lord said, Hear
   7 what [3]the unrighteous judge saith. And shall not God avenge his
     elect, which cry to him day and night, and he is longsuffering
   8 over them? I say unto you, that he will avenge them speedily.
     Howbeit when the Son of man cometh, shall he find [4]faith on the
     earth?
   9   And he spake also this parable unto certain which trusted in
     themselves that they were righteous, and set [5]all others at
  10 nought: Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a
  11 Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee stood and prayed
     thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as the rest of
  12 men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. I
  13 fast twice in the week; I give tithes of all that I get. But the
     publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes
     unto heaven, but smote his breast, saying, God, [6]be merciful to
  14 me [7]a sinner. I say unto you, This man went down to his house
     justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth
     himself shall be humbled; but he that humbleth himself shall be
     exalted.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Do me justice of_: and so in verses 5, 7, 8.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _bruise_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _the judge of unrighteousness_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _the faith_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _the rest_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _be propitiated_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _the sinner_.]



§ 122. GOING FROM GALILEE THROUGH PEREA,[a] HE TEACHES CONCERNING DIVORCE

Perea


  Mark 10:1-12                      |Matt. 19:1-12
                                    |
   1   And he arose from thence, and| 1   And it came to pass when
     cometh into the borders of     |   Jesus had finished these words,
     Judea and beyond Jordan: and   |   he parted from Galilee, and came
     multitudes come together unto  |   into the borders of Judea
     him again; and, as he was wont,| 2 beyond Jordan; and great
     he taught them again.          |   multitudes followed him; and he
                                    |   healed them there.
   2   And there came unto him      | 3   And there came unto him
     Pharisees, and asked him, Is it|   [1]Pharisees, tempting him, and
     lawful for a man to put away   |   saying, Is it lawful _for a
   3 _his_ wife? tempting him. And  |   man_ to put away his wife for
     he answered and said unto them,| 4 every cause? And he answered
     What did Moses command you     |   and said, Have ye not read,
   4 [_see Deut. 24:1_]? And they   |
     said, Moses suffered to write a|
     bill of divorcement, and to put|
   5 her away. But Jesus said unto  |
     them, For your hardness of     |
     heart he wrote you this        |
   6 commandment. But from the      |   that he which [2]made _them_
     beginning of the creation, Male|   from the beginning made them
     and female made he them [_see  | 5 male and female, and said, For
   7 Gen. 1:27_]. For this cause    |   this cause shall a man leave
     shall a man leave his father   |   his father and mother, and
     and mother, [5]and shall cleave|   shall cleave to his wife; and
   8 to his wife; and the twain     |   the twain shall become one
     shall become one flesh [_see   | 6 flesh? So that they are no more
     Gen. 2:24_]: so that they are  |   twain, but one flesh. What
     no more twain, but one flesh.  |   therefore God hath joined
   9 What therefore God hath joined |   together, let not man put
     together, let not man put      |   asunder.
  10 asunder. And in the house the  | 7          They say unto him, Why
     disciples asked him again of   |   then did Moses command to give
     this matter.                   |   a bill of divorcement, and to
                                    | 8 put _her_ away? He saith unto
                                    |   them, Moses for your hardness
                                    |   of heart suffered you to put
                                    |   away your wives: but from the
                                    |   beginning it hath not been so.
  11              And he saith unto | 9 And I say unto you, Whosoever
     them, Whosoever shall put away |   shall put away his wife,
     his wife, and marry another,   |   [3]except for fornication, and
     committeth adultery against    |   shall marry another, committeth
  12 her: and if she herself shall  |   adultery: [4]and he that
     put away her husband, and marry|   marrieth her when she is put
     another, she committeth        |10 away committeth adultery. The
     adultery.                      |   disciples say unto him, If the
                                    |   case of the man is so with his
                                    |   wife, it is not expedient to
  11 marry. But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying,
  12 but they to whom it is given. For there are eunuchs, which were so
     born from their mother's womb: and there are eunuchs, which were
     made eunuchs by men: and there are eunuchs, which made themselves
     eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to
     receive it, let him receive it.

     [Footnote 1: Many authorities, some ancient, insert _the_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _created_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities read _saving for the cause
     of fornication, maketh her an adulteress_: as in ch. 5:32, § 54.]

     [Footnote 4: The following words, to the end of the verse, are
     omitted by some ancient authorities.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities omit _and shall cleave to
     his wife_.]

[Footnote a: Matthew expressly states that he went from Galilee through
Perea, and soon afterwards carries him forward to Jericho and Jerusalem.
(Comp. Mark also.) Yet he says that Jesus did this when he had finished
the parable of the unforgiving servant, which we have placed nearly six
months earlier (§ 92). Luke here presently agrees with Matthew and Mark,
and they go on together to the end, while heretofore Matthew and Mark
have given us nothing since Jesus went to the Feast of Tabernacles. In
one way or another we must suppose quite a break in their narrative. See
Broadus' commentary on Matthew 19:1, and compare note 10 at end of
Harmony.]



§ 123. CHRIST AND CHILDREN AND THE FAILURE OF THE DISCIPLES TO UNDERSTAND
THE ATTITUDE OF JESUS

Perea


  Mark 10:13-16          |Matt. 19:13-15         |Luke 18:15-17[a]
                         |                       |
  13   And they brought  |13   Then were there   |15   And they brought
     unto him little     |   brought unto him    |   unto him also
     children, that he   |   little children,    |   their babes, that
     should touch them:  |   that he should lay  |   he should touch
     and the disciples   |   his hands on them,  |   them: but when the
  14 rebuked them. But   |   and pray: and the   |   disciples saw it,
     when Jesus saw it,  |   disciples rebuked   |   they rebuked them.
     he was moved with   |   them.               |16 But Jesus called
     indignation, and    |                       |   them unto him,
     said unto them,     |14       But Jesus     |   saying, Suffer the
     Suffer the little   |   said, Suffer the    |   little children to
     children to come    |   little children, and|   come unto me, and
     unto me; forbid them|   forbid them not, to |   forbid them not:
     not: for of such is |   come unto me: for of|   for of such is the
     the kingdom of God. |   such is the kingdom |   kingdom of God.
  15 Verily I say unto   |   of heaven.          |17 Verily I say unto
     you, Whosoever shall|                       |   you, Whosoever
     not receive the     |                       |   shall not receive
     kingdom of God as a |                       |   the kingdom of God
     little child, he    |                       |   as a little child,
     shall in no wise    |                       |   he shall in no
  16 enter therein. And  |                       |   wise enter
     he took them in his |15            And he   |   therein.
     arms, and blessed   |   laid his hands on   |
     them, laying his    |   them, and departed  |
     hands upon them.    |   thence.             |

[Footnote a: From this point Matthew, Mark and Luke will be parallel more
frequently than they were even during the great ministry in Galilee.]



§ 124. THE RICH YOUNG RULER, THE PERILS OF RICHES, AND AMAZEMENT OF THE
DISCIPLES. THE REWARDS OF FORSAKING ALL TO FOLLOW THE MESSIAH WILL BE
GREAT, BUT WILL BE SOVEREIGN (PARABLE OF THE LABORERS IN THE VINEYARD)

In Perea


  Mark 10:17-31          |Matt. 19:16 to 20:16   |Luke 18:18-30
                         |                       |
  17   And as he was     |                       |
     going forth [8]into |                       |
     the way, there ran  |                       |
     one to him, and     |16   And behold, one   |18   And a certain
     kneeled to him, and |   came to him and     |   ruler asked him,
     asked him, Good     |   said, [1][2]Master, |   saying, Good
     [2]Master, what     |   what good thing     |   [2]Master, what
     shall I do that I   |   shall I do, that I  |   shall I do to
     may inherit eternal |17 may have eternal    |   inherit eternal
  18 life? And Jesus said|   life? And he said   |19 life? And Jesus
                         |   unto him, [3]Why    |
                         |   askest thou me      |
                         |   concerning that     |
     unto him, Why       |   which is good? One  |   said unto him, Why
     callest thou me     |   there is who is     |   callest thou me
     good? none is good  |   good: but if thou   |   good? none is good
     save one, _even_    |   wouldest enter into |   save one, _even_
  19 God. Thou knowest   |   life, keep the      |20 God. Thou knowest
     the commandments    |18 commandments. He    |   the commandments,
     [_see Ex. 20:12-16; |   saith unto him,     |
     Deut. 5:16-20_], Do |   Which? And Jesus    |
     not kill, Do not    |   said, Thou shalt not|
     commit adultery, Do |   kill, Thou shalt not|   Do not commit
     not steal, Do not   |   commit adultery,    |   adultery, Do not
     bear false witness, |   Thou shalt not      |
     Do not defraud,     |   steal, Thou shalt   |   kill, Do not
     Honour thy father   |   not bear false      |   steal, Do not bear
  20 and mother. And he  |19 witness, Honour thy |   false witness,
     said unto him,      |   father and thy      |   Honour thy father
     [2]Master, all these|   mother: and, Thou   |21 and mother. And he
     things have I       |   shalt love thy      |   said, All these
     observed from my    |   neighbor as thyself.|   things have I
  21 youth. And Jesus    |20 The young man saith |   observed from my
     looking upon him    |   unto him, All these |22 youth up. And when
     loved him, and said |   things have I       |   Jesus heard it, he
     unto him, One thing |   observed: what lack |   said unto him, One
     thou lackest: go,   |21 I yet? Jesus said   |   thing thou lackest
     sell whatsoever thou|   unto him, If thou   |   yet: sell all that
     hast, and give to   |   wouldest be perfect,|   thou hast, and
     the poor, and thou  |   go, sell that thou  |   distribute unto
     shalt have treasure |   hast, and give to   |   the poor, and thou
     in heaven: and come,|   the poor, and thou  |   shalt have
  22 follow me. But his  |   shalt have treasure |   treasure in
     countenance fell at |   in heaven: and come,|   heaven: and come,
     the saying, and he  |22 follow me. But when |23 follow me. But
     went away sorrowful:|   the young man heard |   when he heard
     for he was one that |   the saying, he went |   these things, he
     had great           |   away sorrowful: for |   became exceeding
     possessions.        |   he was one that had |   sorrowful; for he
  23   And Jesus looked  |   great possessions.  |   was very rich.
     round about, and    |23   And Jesus said    |24                And
     saith unto his      |   unto his disciples, |   Jesus seeing him
     disciples, How      |   Verily I say unto   |   said, How hardly
     hardly shall they   |   you, It is hard for |   shall they that
     that have riches    |   a rich man to enter |   have riches enter
     enter into the      |   into the kingdom of |   into the kingdom
  24 kingdom of God! And |   heaven.             |   of God!
     the disciples were  |                       |
     amazed at his words.|                       |
     But Jesus answereth |                       |
     again, and saith    |                       |
     unto them, Children,|                       |
     how hard is it      |                       |
     [9]for them that    |                       |
     trust in riches to  |                       |
     enter into the      |24         And again I |
  25 kingdom of God! It  |   say unto you, It is |25         For it is
     is easier for a     |   easier for a camel  |   easier for a camel
     camel to go through |   to go through a     |   to enter in
     a needle's eye, than|   needle's eye, than  |   through a needle's
     for a rich man to   |   for a rich man to   |   eye, than for a
     enter into the      |   enter into the      |   rich man to enter
  26 kingdom of God. And |25 kingdom of God. And |   into the kingdom
     they were astonished|   when the disciples  |   of God.
     exceedingly, saying |   heard it, they were |
     [10]unto him, Then  |   astonished          |26         And they
     who can be saved?   |   exceedingly, saying,|   that heard it
  27 Jesus looking upon  |   Who then can be     |   said, Then who can
     them saith, With men|26 saved? And Jesus    |   be saved?
     it is impossible,   |   looking upon _them_ |
     but not with God:   |   said to them, With  |27           But he
     for all things are  |   men this is         |   said, The things
     possible with God   |   impossible; but with|   that are
     [_see Gen. 18:24;   |   God all things are  |   impossible with
  28 Job, 42:2_]. Peter  |27 possible. Then      |   men are possible
     began to say unto   |   answered Peter and  |28 with God. And
     him, Lo, we have    |   said unto him, Lo,  |   Peter said, Lo, we
     left all, and       |   we have left all,   |   have left [12]our
     followed thee.      |   and followed thee;  |   own, and followed
                         |   what then shall we  |   thee.
  29               Jesus |28 have? And Jesus said|29       And he said
     said, Verily I say  |   unto them, Verily I |   unto them, Verily
     unto you,           |   say unto you, that  |   I say unto you,
                         |   ye which have       |
                         |   followed me, in the |
                         |   regeneration when   |
                         |   the Son of man shall|
                         |   sit on the throne of|
                         |   his glory, ye also  |
               There is  |   shall sit upon      |
     no man that hath    |   twelve thrones,     |
     left house, or      |   judging the twelve  |
     brethren, or        |   tribes of Israel.   |   There is no man
     sisters, or mother, |29 And every one that  |   that hath left
     or father, or       |   hath left houses, or|   house, or wife, or
     children, or lands, |   brethren, or        |   brethren, or
     for my sake, and for|   sisters, or father, |   parents, or
     the gospel's sake,  |   or mother,[4] or    |   children, for the
  30 but he shall receive|   children, or lands, |   kingdom of God's
     a hundredfold now in|   for my name's sake, |30 sake, who shall
     this time, houses,  |   shall receive [5]a  |   not receive
     and brethren, and   |   hundredfold,        |   manifold more in
     sisters, and        |                       |   this time,
     mothers, and        |                       |
     children, and lands,|                       |
     with persecutions;  |                 and   |              and in
     and in the [11]world|   shall inherit       |   the [11]world to
     to come eternal     |30 eternal life. But   |   come eternal life.
  31 life. But many _that|   many shall be last  |
     are_ first shall be |   _that are_ first;   |
     last; and the last  |   and first _that are_|
     first.              |   last.               |
                         | 1      For the kingdom of heaven is like unto
                         |   a man that is a householder, which went out
                         |   early in the morning to hire labourers
                         | 2 into his vineyard. And when he had agreed
                         |   with the labourers for a [6]penny a day,
   3 he sent them into his vineyard. And he went out about the third
   4 hour, and saw others standing in the marketplace idle; and to them
     he said, Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I
   5 will give you. And they went their way. Again he went out about
   6 the sixth and the ninth hour, and did likewise. And about the
     eleventh _hour_ he went out, and found others standing; and he
   7 saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? They say unto
     him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also
   8 into the vineyard. And when even was come, the lord of the
     vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and pay them
   9 their hire, beginning from the last unto the first. And when they
     came that _were hired_ about the eleventh hour, they received
  10 every man a [6]penny. And when the first came, they supposed that
     they would receive more; and they likewise received every man a
  11 [6]penny. And when they received it, they murmured against the
  12 householder, saying, These last have spent _but_ one hour, and
     thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden of
  13 the day and the [7]scorching heat. But he answered and said to one
     of them, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me
  14 for a [6]penny? Take up that which is thine, and go thy way; it is
  15 my will to give unto this last, even as unto thee. Is it not
     lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? or is thine eye
  16 evil, because I am good? So the last shall be first, and the first
     last.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _Good Master_. See Mark
     10:17; Luke 18:18.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities read _Why callest thou me
     good? None is good save one,_ even _God._ See Mark 10:18; Luke
     18:19.]

     [Footnote 4: Many ancient authorities add _or wife_: as in Luke
     18:29.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities read _manifold_.]

     [Footnote 6: The Roman denarius, about seventeen cents of our
     money.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _hot wind_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _on his way_.]

     [Footnote 9: Some ancient authorities omit _for them that trust in
     riches_.]

     [Footnote 10: Many ancient authorities read _among themselves_.]

     [Footnote 11: Or, _age_.]

     [Footnote 12: Or, _our own_ homes.]



§ 125. JESUS AGAIN FORETELLS TO THE DISCIPLES HIS DEATH AND RESURRECTION
(COMP. §§ 83, 85, 86, 88), AND REBUKES THE SELFISH AMBITION OF JAMES AND
JOHN

Probably in Perea


  Mark 10:32-45          |Matt. 20:17-28         |Luke 18:31-34
                         |                       |
  32   And they were in  |17   And as Jesus was  |
     the way, going up to|   going up to         |
     Jerusalem;[a] and   |   Jerusalem,          |
     Jesus was going     |                       |
     before them: and    |                       |
     they were amazed;   |                       |
     [3]and they that    |                       |
     followed were       |                       |
     afraid. And he took |              he took  |31   And he took unto
     again the twelve,   |   the twelve disciples|   him the twelve,
     and began to tell   |   apart, and in the   |   and said unto
     them the things that|   way he said unto    |   them, Behold,
     were to happen unto |   them,               |   we go up to
  33 him, _saying_,      |                       |   Jerusalem, and all
     Behold, we go up to |18       Behold, we go |   the things that
     Jerusalem; and the  |   up to Jerusalem; and|   are written [5]by
     Son of man shall be |   the Son of man shall|   the prophets shall
     delivered unto the  |   be delivered unto   |   be accomplished
     chief priests and   |   the chief priests   |   unto the Son of
     the scribes; and    |   and scribes; and    |32 man. For he shall
     they shall condemn  |   they shall condemn  |   be delivered up
     him to death, and   |19 him to death, and   |   unto the Gentiles,
     shall deliver him   |   shall deliver him   |   and shall be
     unto the Gentiles:  |   unto the Gentiles to|   mocked, and
  34 and they shall mock |   mock,               |   shamefully,
     him, and shall spit |                       |   entreated, and
     upon him, and shall |         and to        |33 spit upon: and
     scourge him, and    |   scourge, and to     |   they shall scourge
     shall kill him; and |   crucify: and the    |   and kill him: and
     after three days he |   third day he shall  |   the third day he
     shall rise again.   |   be raised up.       |   shall rise again.
                         |                       |34 And they
                         |                       |   understood none of
                         |                       |   these things; and
                         |                       |   this saying was
                         |                       |   hid from them, and
                         |                       |   they perceived not
                         |                       |   the things that
                         |                       |   were said.
  35 And there come near |20 Then came to him the|
     unto him James and  |   mother of the sons of Zebedee with her
     John, the sons of   |   sons, worshipping _him_, and asking a
     Zebedee, saying unto him,      |   certain thing of him.
     [4]Master, we would that thou  |
     shouldest do for us whatsoever |
  36 we shall ask of thee. And he   |21                       And he
     said unto them, What would ye  |   said unto her, What wouldest
  37 that I should do for you? And  |   thou? She saith unto him,
     they said unto him, Grant unto |   Command that these my two sons
     us that we may sit, one on thy |   may sit, one on thy right hand,
     right hand, and one on _thy_   |   and one on thy left hand, in
  38 left hand, in thy glory. But   |22 thy kingdom. But Jesus answered
     Jesus said unto them, Ye know  |   and said, Ye know not what ye
     not what ye ask. Are ye able to|   ask. Are ye able to drink the
     drink the cup that I drink? or |   cup that I am about to drink?
     to be baptized with the baptism|
  39 that I am baptized with? And   |
     they said unto him, We are     |   They say unto him, We are able.
     able. And Jesus said unto them,|
     The cup that I drink ye shall  |23 He saith unto them, My cup
     drink; and with the baptism    |   indeed ye shall drink:
     that I am baptized withal shall|
  40 ye be baptized: but to sit on  |                          but to
     my right hand or on _my_ left  |   sit on my right hand, and on
     hand is not mine to give: but  |   _my_ left hand, is not mine to
     _it is for them_ for whom it   |   give, but _it is for them_ for
  41 hath been prepared. And when   |   whom it hath been prepared of
     the ten heard it, they began to|24 my Father. And when the ten
     be moved with indignation      |   heard it, they were moved with
  42 concerning James and John. And |   indignation concerning the two
     Jesus called them to him, and  |25 brethren. But Jesus called them
     saith unto them, Ye know that  |   unto him, and said, Ye know
     they which are accounted to    |
     rule over the Gentiles lord it |   that the rulers of the Gentiles
     over them; and their great ones|   lord it over them, and their
     exercise authority over them.  |   great ones exercise authority
  43 But it is not so among you: but|26 over them. Not so shall it be
     whosoever would become great   |   among you: but whosoever would
     among you, shall be your       |   be great among you shall be
  44 [1]minister: and whosoever     |27 your [1]minister; and whosoever
     would be first among you, shall|   would be first among you shall
  45 be [2]servant of all. For      |28 be your [2]servant: even as the
     verily the Son of man came not |   Son of man came not to be
     to be ministered unto, but to  |   ministered unto, but to
     minister, and to give his life |   minister, and to give his life
     a ransom for many.             |   a ransom for many.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _servant_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _but some as they followed were afraid_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _through_.]

[Footnote a: He left Galilee in § 122, crossing the Jordan into Perea,
probably in company with many Jews from Galilee (who regularly went this
way to Jerusalem), and will now soon cross the river again and reach
Jericho (§ 126).]



§ 126. BLIND BARTIMÆUS AND HIS COMPANION HEALED

At Jericho


  Mark 10:46-52          |Matt. 20:29-34         |Luke 18:35-43
                         |                       |
  46   And they come to  |29   And as they went  |35   And it came to
     Jericho: and as he  |   out from Jericho, a |   pass, as he drew
     went out from       |   great multitude     |   nigh unto Jericho,
     Jericho, with his   |   followed him.       |
     disciples and a     |                       |
     great multitude, the|                       |
     son of Timæus,      |30               And   |
     Bartimæus, a blind  |   behold, two[a] blind|   a certain blind
     beggar, was sitting |   men sitting by the  |   man sat by the way
     by the way side.    |   way side,           |36 side begging: and
                         |                       |   hearing a
                         |                       |   multitude going
                         |                       |   by, he inquired
                         |                       |   what this meant.
  47                 And |             when they |37 And they told him,
     when he heard that  |   heard that Jesus was|   that Jesus of
     it was Jesus of     |   passing by, cried   |   Nazareth passeth
     Nazareth, he began  |   out, saying, Lord,  |38 by. And he cried,
     to cry out, and say,|   have mercy on us,   |   saying, Jesus,
     Jesus, thou son of  |   thou Son of David.  |   thou son of David,
     David, have mercy on|31 And the multitude   |   have mercy on me.
  48 me. And many rebuked|   rebuked them, that  |39 And they that went
     him, that he should |   they should hold    |   before rebuked
     hold his peace: but |   their peace: but    |   him, that he
     he cried out the    |   they cried out the  |   should hold his
     more a great deal,  |   more, saying, Lord, |   peace: but he
     Thou son of David,  |   have mercy on us,   |   cried out the more
     have mercy on me.   |   thou son of David.  |   a great deal, Thou
  49 And Jesus stood     |32 And Jesus stood     |   son of David, have
     still, and said,    |   still, and called   |40 mercy on me. And
     Call ye him. And    |   them,               |   Jesus stood, and
     they call the blind |                       |   commanded him to
     man, saying unto    |                       |   be brought unto
     him, Be of good     |                       |   him:
     cheer: rise, he     |                       |
  50 calleth thee. And   |                       |
     he, casting away his|                       |        and when he
     garment, sprang up, |                       |   was come near, he
     and came to Jesus.  |                       |41 asked him, What
  51 And Jesus answered  |                       |   wilt thou I should
     him, and said, What |         and said, What|   do unto thee? And
     wilt thou that I    |   will ye that I      |   he said, Lord,
     should do unto thee?|   should do unto you? |   that I may receive
     And the blind man   |33 They say unto him,  |42 my sight. And
     said unto him,      |   Lord, that our eyes |   Jesus said unto
     [1]Rabboni, that I  |34 may be opened. And  |   him, Receive thy
     may receive my      |   Jesus, being moved  |   sight: thy faith
  52 sight. And Jesus    |   with compassion,    |   hath [2]made thee
     said unto him, Go   |   touched their eyes: |43 whole. And
     thy way; thy faith  |   and straightway they|   immediately he
     hath [2]made thee   |   received their      |   received his
     whole. And          |   sight, and followed |   sight, and
     straightway he      |   him.                |   followed him,
     received his sight, |                       |   glorifying God:
     and followed him in |                       |   and all the
     the way.            |                       |   people, when they
                         |                       |   saw it, gave
                         |                       |   praise unto God.

     [Footnote 1: See John 20:16.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _saved thee_.]

[Footnote a: Matthew mentions two blind men, while Mark and Luke describe
one, probably the more conspicuous one.--The discrepancy as to place, "as
he went out from Jericho," "as he drew nigh unto Jericho," is best
explained by the recent suggestion that the healing occurred after he
left the old Jericho, and as he was approaching the new Jericho which
Herod the Great had built at some distance away. An older, and also
possible explanation was that the blind men made application when he was
approaching the city, but were not then healed, and only when he had left
the city were they healed. (Comp. Matt. 15:23 ff., and Mark 8:22 f.)]



§ 127. JESUS VISITS ZACCHÆUS, AND SPEAKS THE PARABLE OF THE POUNDS,[a]
AND SETS OUT FOR JERUSALEM

Jericho


  Luke 19:1-28

  1, 2 And he entered and was passing through Jericho. And behold, a
     man called by name Zacchæus; and he was a chief publican, and he
   3 was rich. And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not for
   4 the crowd, because he was little of stature. And he ran on before,
     and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him: for he was to pass
   5 that way. And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and said
     unto him, Zacchæus, make haste, and come down; for to-day I must
   6 abide at thy house. And he made haste, and came down, and received
   7 him joyfully. And when they saw it, they all murmured, saying, He
   8 is gone in to lodge with a man that is a sinner. And Zacchæus
     stood, and said unto the Lord, Behold, Lord, the half of my goods
     I give to the poor; and if I have wrongfully exacted aught of any
   9 man, I restore fourfold [_see Ex. 22:1; Num. 5:6-7_]. And Jesus
     said unto him, To-day is salvation come to this house, forasmuch
  10 as he also is a son of Abraham. For the Son of man came to seek
     and to save that which was lost [_Ezek. 34:16_].
  11   And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable,
     because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and _because_ they supposed that
  12 the kingdom of God was immediately to appear. He said therefore, A
     certain nobleman went into a far country, to receive for himself a
  13 kingdom, and to return. And he called ten [1]servants of his, and
     gave them ten [2]pounds, and said unto them, Trade ye _herewith_
  14 till I come. But his citizens hated him, and sent an ambassage
  15 after him, saying, We will not that this man reign over us. And it
     came to pass, when he was come back again, having received the
     kingdom, that he commanded these [1]servants, unto whom he had
     given the money, to be called to him, that he might know what they
  16 had gained by trading. And the first came before him, saying,
  17 Lord, thy pound hath made ten pounds more. And he said unto him,
     Well done, thou good [3]servant: because thou wast found faithful
  18 in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities. And the
  19 second came, saying, Thy pound, Lord, hath made five pounds. And
  20 he said unto him also, Be thou also over five cities. And
     [4]another came, saying, Lord, behold, _here is_ thy pound, which
  21 I kept laid up in a napkin: for I feared thee, because thou art an
     austere man: thou takest up that thou layedst not down, and
  22 reapest that thou didst not sow. He saith unto him, Out of thine
     own mouth will I judge thee, thou wicked [3]servant. Thou knewest
     that I am an austere man, taking up that I laid not down, and
  23 reaping that I did not sow; then wherefore gavest thou not my
     money into the bank, and [5]I at my coming should have required it
  24 with interest? And he said unto them that stood by, Take away from
  25 him the pound, and give it unto him that hath the ten pounds. And
  26 they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds. I say unto you, that
     unto every one that hath shall be given; but from him that hath
  27 not, even that which he hath shall be taken away from him. Howbeit
     these mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them,
     bring hither, and slay them before me.
  28   And when he had thus spoken, he went on before, going up to
     Jerusalem.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 2: _Mina_, here translated a pound, is equal to one
     hundred drachmas. See ch. 15:8.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _the other_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _I should have gone and required_.]

[Footnote a: The similar parable of the Talents was given several days
later. See § 139. On this first occasion the illustration has a specific
design (ver. 11 f.), which will not appear on the second, _viz._, to
check the wild enthusiasm of the multitude to make Jesus King in
Jerusalem as they had once planned a year ago (John 6:15. § 73).]



PART XI

THE LAST PUBLIC MINISTRY IN JERUSALEM

_Friday before to Tuesday of Passion Week, Spring of A.D. 30 (or A.D.
29).[a] Just before Passover. §§ 128a-138._

[Footnote a: If the feast of John 5:1 was a Passover, and so his ministry
lasted over three years, then his death was pretty certainly in A.D. 30;
otherwise in A.D. 29.]



§ 128a. JESUS ARRIVES AT BETHANY,[a] NEAR JERUSALEM

Friday afternoon


  John 11:55 to 12:1, 9-11

  55   Now the passover of the Jews was at hand: and many went up to
     Jerusalem out of the country before the passover, to purify
  56 themselves. They sought therefore for Jesus, and spake one with
     another, as they stood in the temple, What think ye? That he will
  57 not come to the feast? Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had
     given commandment, that, if any man knew where he was, he should
     shew it, that they might take him.
   1   Jesus therefore six days before the passover came to Bethany,
     where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead.[b]
   9   The common people therefore of the Jews learned that he was
     there: and they came, not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might
  10 see Lazarus also, whom he raised from the dead. But the chief
  11 priests took counsel that they might put Lazarus also to death;
     because that by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and
     believed on Jesus.

[Footnote a: Compare former visits to this Bethany, §§ 104, 118, and see
also below, § 141.]

[Footnote b: John (12:2-8) gives the supper in the house of Simon the
leper at this stage, probably because it is the last mention of Bethany
in his Gospel. It seems better to follow the order of Mark here in the
location of the anointing of Jesus by Mary of Bethany.]



_In §§ 128b-138 we have the Saviour's movements and teachings on Sunday,
Monday and Tuesday--the close of his public ministry, except the little
that he said during the Jewish and Roman trial. All of his teaching
thereafter will be given to his disciples._



§ 128b. HIS TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM AS THE MESSIAH[a]

From Bethany to Jerusalem and back (_Sunday_). A Day of Messianic
Demonstration


  Mark 11:1-11     |Matt. 21:1-11,   |Luke 19:29-44    |John 12:12-19
                   |  14-17          |                 |
   1   And when    | 1   And when    |29   And it came |
     they draw nigh|   they drew nigh|   to pass, when |
     unto          |   unto          |   he drew nigh  |
     Jerusalem,    |   Jerusalem, and|   unto Bethphage|
     unto Bethphage|   came unto     |   and Bethany,  |
     and Bethany,  |   Bethphage,    |   at the mount  |
     at the mount  |   unto the mount|   that is called|
     of Olives, he |   of Olives,    |   _the mount_ of|
     sendeth two of|   then Jesus    |   Olives, he    |
     his disciples,|   sent two      |   sent two of   |
   2 and saith unto|   disciples,    |   the disciples,|
     them, Go your | 2 saying unto   |   saying,       |
     way into the  |   them, Go into |30         Go    |
     village that  |   the village   |   your way into |
     is over       |   that is over  |   the village   |
     against you:  |   against you,  |   over against  |
     and           |   and           |   _you_; in the |
     straightway as|   straightway ye|   which as ye   |
     ye enter into |   shall find an |   enter ye shall|
     it, ye shall  |   ass tied, and |   find a colt   |
     find a colt   |   a colt with   |   tied, whereon |
     tied, whereon |   her:          |   no man ever   |
     no man ever   |        loose    |   yet sat: loose|
     yet sat; loose|   _them_, and   |   him, and bring|
     him, and bring|   bring _them_  |31 him. And if   |
   3 him. And if   | 3 unto me. And  |   any one ask   |12   On the
     any one say   |   if any one say|   you, Why do ye|   morrow [9]a
     unto you, Why |   aught unto    |   loose him?    |   great
     do ye this?   |   you, ye shall |   thus shall ye |   multitude
     say ye, The   |   say, The Lord |   say, The Lord |   that had
     Lord hath need|   hath need of  |   hath need of  |   come to the
     of him; and   |   them; and     |   him.          |   feast, when
     straightway   |   straightway he|                 |   they heard
     he [2]will    |   will send     |                 |   that Jesus
     send him      |   them.         |                 |   was coming
     [3]back       |                 |                 |   to
   4 hither. And   | 6       And the |32      And they |   Jerusalem,
     they went     |   disciples     |   that were sent|13 took the
     away, and     |   went, and did |   went away, and|   branches of
     found a colt  |   even as Jesus |   found even as |   the palm
     tied at the   |   appointed     |   he had said   |   trees, and
     door without  |   them,         |   unto them.    |   went forth
     in the open   |                 |                 |   to meet him,
     street; and   |                 |33           And |   and cried
     they loose    |                 |   as they were  |   out,
   5 him. And      |                 |   loosing the   |   Hosanna:
     certain of    |                 |                 |   Blessed _is_
     them that     |                 |   colt, the     |   he that
     stood there   |                 |   owners thereof|   cometh in
     said unto     |                 |   said unto     |   the name of
     them, What do |                 |   them, Why     |   the Lord,
     ye, loosing   |                 |   loose ye the  |   even the
   6 the colt? And |                 |34 colt? And they|   King of
     they said unto|                 |   said, The Lord|14 Israel. And
     them even as  |                 |   hath need of  |   Jesus,
     Jesus had     |                 |   him.          |   having found
     said: and they|                 |                 |   a young ass,
     let them go.  |                 |                 |   sat thereon;
   7 And they bring| 7       and     |35      And they |   as it is
     the colt unto |   brought the   |   brought him to|   written,
     Jesus, and    |   ass, and the  |   Jesus: and    |15 Fear not,
     cast on him   |   colt, and put |   they threw    |   daughter of
     their         |   on them their |   their garments|   Zion: behold,
     garments; and |   garments; and |   upon the colt,|   thy King
     he sat upon   |   he sat        |   and set Jesus |   cometh,
     him.          | 4 thereon. Now  |   thereon.      |   sitting on
                   |   this is come  |                 |   an ass's
                   |   to pass, that |                 |16 colt. These
                   |   it might be   |                 |   things
                   |   fulfilled     |                 |   understood
                   |   which was     |                 |   not his
                   |   spoken [1]by  |                 |   disciples at
                   |   the prophet   |                 |   first: but
                   |   [_see Isa.    |                 |   when Jesus
                   |   62:11; Zech.  |                 |   was
                   |   9:9_], saying:|                 |   glorified,
                   | 5   Tell ye the |                 |   then
                   |       daughter  |                 |   remembered
                   |       of Zion,  |                 |   they that
                   |     Behold, thy |                 |   these things
                   |       King      |                 |   were written
                   |       cometh    |                 |   of him, and
                   |       unto thee,|                 |   that they
                   |     Meek, and   |                 |   had done
                   |       riding    |                 |   these things
                   |       upon an   |                 |   unto him.
                   |       ass,      |                 |17 The
                   |     And upon a  |                 |   multitude
                   |       colt the  |                 |   therefore
                   |       foal of an|                 |   that was
                   |       ass.      |                 |   with him
                   | 8 And the most  |36          And  |   when he
                   |   part of the   |   as he went,   |   called
   8      And many |   multitude     |   they spread   |   Lazarus out
     spread their  |   spread their  |   their garments|   of the tomb,
     garments upon |   garments in   |   in the way.   |   and raised
     the way; and  |   the way; and  |37 And as he was |   him from the
     others        |   others cut    |   now drawing   |   dead, bare
     [4]branches,  |   branches from |   nigh, _even_  |18 witness. For
     which they had|   the trees, and|   at the descent|   this cause
     cut from the  |   spread them in|   of the mount  |   also the
   9 fields. And   | 9 the way. And  |   of Olives, the|   multitude
     they that went|   the multitudes|   whole         |   went and met
     before, and   |   that went     |   multitude of  |   him, for
     they that     |   before him,   |   the disciples |   that they
     followed,     |   and that      |   began to      |   heard that
     cried,        |   followed,     |   rejoice and   |   he had done
     Hosanna;      |   cried, saying,|   praise God    |   this sign.
     Blessed _is_  |                 |   with a loud   |19 The
     he that cometh|                 |   voice for all |   Pharisees
     in the name   |                 |   the [5]mighty |   therefore
     of the Lord   |                 |   works which   |   said among
     [_see Ps.     |   Hosanna to the|   they had seen;|   themselves,
     118:25-26_]:  |   son of David: |38 saying,       |   [10]Behold
  10 Blessed _is_  |   Blessed _is_  |   Blessed _is_  |   how ye
     the kingdom   |   he that cometh|   the King that |   prevail
     that cometh,  |   in the name of|   cometh in the |   nothing: lo,
     _the kingdom_ |   the Lord;     |   name of the   |   the world is
     of our father |                 |   Lord: peace in|   gone after
     David: Hosanna|   Hosanna in the|   heaven, and   |   him.
     in the        |   highest.      |   glory in the  |
     highest.      |                 |   highest.      |
                   |                 |39 And some of the Pharisees
                   |                 |   from the multitude said unto
                   |                 |   him, [6]Master, rebuke thy
                   |                 |40 disciples. And he answered and
                   |                 |   said, I tell you that, if these
                   |                 |   shall hold their peace, the
                   |                 |   stones will cry out.
                   |                 |41   And when he drew nigh, he saw
                   |                 |   the city and wept over it,
                   |                 |42 saying, [7]If thou hadst known
                   |                 |   in this day, even thou, the
                   |                 |   things which belong unto
                   |                 |   peace! but now they are hid
                   |                 |43 from thine eyes. For the days
                   |                 |   shall come upon thee, when
                   |                 |   thine enemies shall cast up a
                   |                 |   [8]bank about thee, and
                   |                 |   compass thee round, and keep
                   |                 |44 thee in on every side, and
                   |                 |   shall dash thee to the ground,
                   |                 |   and thy children within thee;
                   |                 |   and they shall not leave in
                   |                 |   thee one stone upon another;
                   |                 |   because thou knewest not the
                   |                 |   time of thy visitation [_see
                   |                 |   Ps. 139:9_].

                                     |Matt. 21:1-11, 14-17
  11   And he entered into Jerusalem,|10   And when he was come into
                                     |   Jerusalem, all the city was
                                     |   stirred, saying, Who is this?
                                     |11 And the multitudes said, This
                                     |   is the prophet, Jesus, from
                                     |14 Nazareth of Galilee. And
                                     |   the blind and lame came to
                                     |   him in the temple: and he
                                     |15 healed them. But when the chief
                                     |   priests and the scribes saw the
                                     |   wonderful things that he did,
                                     |   and the children that were
     into the temple;                |   crying in the temple and
                                     |   saying, Hosanna to the son of
                                     |   David; they were moved with
                                     |16 indignation, and said unto him,
                                     |   Hearest thou what these are
                                     |   saying? And Jesus saith unto
                                     |   them, Yea: did ye never read
                                     |   [_see Ps. 8:2_], Out of the
                            and when |   mouths of babes and sucklings
     he had looked round about upon  |17 thou hast perfected praise? And
     all things, it being now        |   he left them, and went forth
     eventide, he went out unto      |   out of the city to Bethany, and
     Bethany with the twelve.        |   lodged there.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _sendeth_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _again_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _layers of leaves_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _powers_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _O that thou hadst known_.]

     [Footnote 8: Gr. _palisade_.]

     [Footnote 9: Some ancient authorities read _the common people_.]

     [Footnote 10: Or, _Ye behold_.]

[Footnote a: Jesus now makes a formal challenge to the Jerusalem leaders
who have so long opposed his claims. This was a Day of Triumph that
seemed to the excited crowds to mean the establishment of a political
Messianic Kingdom.]



§ 129. THE BARREN FIG TREE CURSED, AND THE SECOND[a] CLEANSING OF THE
TEMPLE. (COMP. § 31)

Bethany and Jerusalem (_Monday_). A Day of Messianic Power


  Mark 11:12-18          |Matt. 21:18, 19,       |Luke 19:45-48
                         |  12, 13               |
  12   And on the morrow,|18   Now in the morning|
     when they were come |   as he returned to   |
     out from Bethany, he|   the city, he        |
  13 hungered. And seeing|19 hungered. And seeing|
     a fig tree afar off |   [1]a fig tree by the|
     having leaves, he   |   way side,           |
     came, if haply he   |                       |
     might find anything |                       |
     thereon: and when he|         he came to it,|
     came to it, he found|   and found nothing   |
     nothing but leaves; |   thereon, but leaves |
     for it was not the  |   only;               |
  14 season of figs. And |                       |
     he answered and said|         and he saith  |
     unto it, No man eat |   unto it, Let there  |
     fruit from thee     |   be no fruit from    |
     henceforward for    |   thee henceforward   |
     ever. And his       |   for ever.           |
     disciples heard it. |                       |
  15   And they come to  |12   And Jesus entered |45   And he entered
     Jerusalem: and he   |   into the temple     |   into the temple,
     entered into the    |   [2]of God,          |
     temple, and began to|                       |
     cast out them that  |              and cast |   and began to cast
     sold and them that  |   out all them that   |   out them that
     bought in the       |   sold and bought in  |   sold,
     temple, and         |   the temple, and     |
     overthrew the tables|   overthrew the tables|
     of the              |   of the              |
     money-changers, and |   money-changers, and |
     the seats of them   |   the seats of them   |
     that sold the doves;|   that sold the doves;|
  16 and he would not    |                       |
     suffer that any man |                       |
     should carry a      |                       |
     vessel through the  |                       |46       saying unto
  17 temple. And he      |                       |   them, It is
     taught, and said    |                       |   written [_see Isa.
     unto them, Is it not|13 and he saith unto   |   56:7; Jer. 7:11_],
     written, My house   |   them, It is written,|   And my house shall
     shall be called a   |   My house shall be   |   be a house of
     house of prayer for |   called a house of   |   prayer: but ye
     all the nations? but|   prayer:             |   have made it a den
     ye have made it a   |           but ye make |   of robbers.
  18 den of robbers. And |   it a den of robbers.|47   And he was
     the chief priests   |                       |   teaching daily in
     and the scribes     |                       |   the temple. But
     heard it, and sought|                       |   the chief priests
     how they might      |                       |   and the scribes
     destroy him: for    |                       |   and the principal
     they feared him, for|                       |   men of the people
     all the multitude   |                       |   sought to destroy
     was astonished at   |                       |48 him: and they
     his teaching.       |                       |   could not find
                         |                       |   what they might
                         |                       |   do; for the people
                         |                       |   all hung upon him,
                         |                       |   listening.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a single_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities omit _of God_.]

[Footnote a: Once more at the close of the Ministry in Jerusalem, as at
the beginning, Jesus asserts his authority over the Temple as the
Messiah. In both instances his authority is sharply challenged by the
Jewish rulers.]



§ 130. THE DESIRE OF SOME GREEKS TO SEE JESUS PUZZLES THE DISCIPLES AND
LEADS JESUS IN AGITATION OF SOUL TO INTERPRET LIFE AND DEATH AS SACRIFICE
AND TO SHOW HOW BY BEING "LIFTED UP" HE WILL DRAW ALL MEN TO HIM

Jerusalem (_Monday_)


  John 12:20-50

  20   Now there were certain Greeks among those that went up to worship
  21 at the feast: these therefore came to Philip, which was of
     Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying, Sir, we would see
  22 Jesus. Philip cometh and telleth Andrew: Andrew cometh, and
  23 Philip, and they tell Jesus. And Jesus answereth them, saying, The
  24 hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. Verily,
     verily, I say unto you, Except a grain of wheat fall into the
     earth and die, it abideth by itself alone; but if it die, it
  25 beareth much fruit. He that loveth his [1]life loseth it; and he
     that hateth his [1]life in this world shall keep it unto life
  26 eternal. If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am,
     there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will the
  27 Father honour. Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say [_see
     Ps. 42:6_]? Father, save me from this [2]hour. But for this cause
  28 came I unto this hour. Father, glorify thy name. There came
     therefore a voice out of heaven, _saying_, I have both glorified
  29 it, and will glorify it again. The multitude therefore, that stood
     by, and heard it, said that it had thundered: others said, An
  30 angel hath spoken to him. Jesus answered and said, This voice hath
  31 not come for my sake, but for your sakes. Now is [3]the judgement
  32 of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. And
     I, if I be lifted up [4]from the earth, will draw all men unto
  33 myself. But this he said, signifying by what manner of death he
  34 should die. The multitude therefore answered him, We have heard
     out of the law that the Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest
     thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man?
  35 Jesus therefore said unto them, Yet a little while is the light
     [5]among you. Walk while ye have the light, that darkness overtake
     you not: and he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither
  36 he goeth. While ye have the light, believe on the light, that ye
     may become sons of light.
       These things spake Jesus, and he departed and [6]hid himself from
  37 them. But though he had done so many signs before them, yet they
  38 believed not[a] on him: that the word of Isaiah the prophet might
     be fulfilled [_see Isa. 53:1_], which he spake,
       Lord, who hath believed our report?
       And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?
  39 For this cause they could not believe, for that Isaiah said again,
  40   He hath blinded their eyes, and he hardened their heart;
       Lest they should see with their eyes, and perceive with their
         heart,
       And should turn,
       And I should heal them.
  41 These things said Isaiah [_see Isa. 6:1, 10_], because he saw his
  42 glory; and he spake of him. Nevertheless even of the rulers many
     believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess
  43 [7]it, lest they should be put out of the synagogue: for they
     loved the glory of men more than the glory of God.
  44   And Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not
  45 on me, but on him that sent me. And he that beholdeth me beholdeth
  46 him that sent me. I am come a light into the world, that whosoever
  47 believeth on me may not abide in the darkness. And if any man hear
     my sayings, and keep them not, I judge him not: for I came not to
  48 judge the world, but to save the world. He that rejecteth me, and
     receiveth not my sayings, hath one that judgeth him: the word that
  49 I spake, the same shall judge him in the last day. For I spake not
     from myself; but the Father which sent me, he hath given me a
  50 commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. And I
     know that his commandment is life eternal: the things therefore
     which I speak, even as the Father hath said unto me, so I speak.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _soul_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _hour?_]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _a judgement_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _out of_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _in_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _was hidden from them_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _him_.]

[Footnote a: The rejection of Jesus by the Jews is clearly set forth by
John's Gospel. The Pharisees made many timid and afraid.]



§ 131. THE BARREN FIG TREE FOUND TO HAVE WITHERED

On the way from Bethany to Jerusalem. (_Tuesday_[a])


  Mark 11:19-25          |Matt. 21:19-22         |Luke 21:37, 38
                         |                       |
  19   And [1]every      |                       |37   And every day he
     evening [2]he went  |                       |   was teaching in
     forth out of the    |                       |   the temple; and
  20 city. And as they   |19   And immediately   |   every night he
     passed by in the    |   the fig tree        |   went out, and
     morning, they saw   |20 withered away. And  |   lodged in the
     the fig tree        |   when the disciples  |   mount that is
     withered away from  |   saw it, they        |   called _the mount_
  21 the roots. And Peter|   marvelled, saying,  |38 of Olives. And all
     calling to          |   How did the fig tree|   the people came
     remembrance saith   |   immediately wither  |   early in the
     unto him, Rabbi,    |21 away? And Jesus     |   morning to him in
     behold, the fig tree|   answered and said   |   the temple, to
     which thou cursedst |   unto them, Verily I |   hear him.
     is withered away.   |   say unto you, If ye |
  22 And Jesus answering |   have faith, and     |
     saith unto them,    |   doubt not, ye shall |
     Have faith in God.  |   not only do what is |
  23 Verily I say unto   |   done to the fig     |
     you, Whosoever shall|   tree, but even if ye|
     say unto this       |   shall say unto this |
     mountain, Be thou   |   mountain, Be thou   |
     taken up and cast   |   taken up and cast   |
     into the sea; and   |22 into the sea, it    |
     shall not doubt in  |   shall be done. And  |
     his heart, but shall|   all things,         |
     believe that what he|   whatsoever ye shall |
     saith cometh to     |   ask in prayer,      |
     pass; he shall have |   believing, ye shall |
  24 it. Therefore I say |   receive.            |
     unto you, All       |                       |
     things whatsoever ye pray and ask for, believe that ye have
  25 received them, and ye shall have them. And whensoever ye stand
     praying, forgive, if ye have aught against any one; that your
     Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.[3]

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _whenever evening came_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _they_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities add ver. 26 _But if ye do
     not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive
     your trespasses._]

[Footnote a: The Synoptic Gospels give more details of the teaching of
Jesus on this Tuesday in the Temple and on the Mount of Olives than for
any other single day. We had another Busy Day in Galilee (§§ 61-66).]



§ 132. THE RULERS (SANHEDRIN) FORMALLY CHALLENGE[a] THE AUTHORITY OF
JESUS AS AN ACCREDITED TEACHER (RABBI)

_Jesus bases His human authority on John the Baptist, His Forerunner who
baptized him, and demands the Sanhedrin's opinion of the Baptism of John.
This pertinent counter-question paralyzes the Jewish leaders and Jesus
drives His argument home by three parables. (a) Parable of the Two Sons.
(b) Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. (c) Parable of the Marriage Feast
of the King's Son._

In the court of the Temple. (_Tuesday_[b]) A Day of Controversy


  Mark 11:27-12:12       |Matt. 21:23-22:14      |Luke 20:1-19
                         |                       |
                         |                       | 1   And it came to
                         |                       |   pass, on one of
                         |                       |   the days, as he
  27   And they come     |23   And when he was   |   was teaching the
     again to Jerusalem: |   come into the       |   people in the
     and as he was       |   temple, the chief   |   temple, and
     walking in the      |   priests and the     |   preaching the
     temple, there come  |   elders of the people|   gospel, there came
     to him the chief    |   came unto him as he |   upon him the chief
     priests, and the    |   was teaching, and   |   priests and the
     scribes, and the    |   said, By what       |   scribes with the
  28 elders; and they    |   authority doest thou| 2 elders; and they
     said unto him, By   |   these things? and   |   spake, saying unto
     what authority doest|   who gave thee this  |   him, Tell us: By
     thou these things?  |24 authority? And Jesus|   what authority
     or who gave thee    |   answered and said   |   doest thou these
     this authority to do|   unto them, I also   |   things? or who is
  29 these things? And   |   will ask you one    |   he that gave thee
     Jesus said unto     |   [1]question, which  |   this authority?
     them, I will ask of |   if ye tell me, I    | 3 And he answered
     you one [1]question,|   likewise will tell  |   and said unto
     and answer me, and I|   you by what         |   them, I also will
     will tell you by    |   authority I do these|   ask you a
     what authority I do |25 things. The baptism |   [1]question; and
  30 these things. The   |   of John, whence was | 4 tell me: The
     baptism of John, was|   it? from heaven or  |   baptism of John,
     it from heaven, or  |   from men? And they  |   was it from
     from men? answer me.|   reasoned with       |   heaven, or from
  31 And they reasoned   |   themselves, saying, | 5 men? And they
     with themselves,    |   If we shall say,    |   reasoned with
     saying, If we shall |   From heaven; he will|   themselves,
     say, From heaven; he|   say unto us, Why    |   saying, If we
     will say, Why then  |   then did ye not     |   shall say, From
     did ye not believe  |26 believe him? But if |   heaven; he will
  32 him? [7]But should  |   we shall say, From  |   say, Why did ye
     we say, From        |   men; we fear the    |   not believe him?
     men--they feared the|   multitude; for all  | 6 But if we shall
     people: [8]for all  |   hold John as a      |   say, From men; all
     verily held John to |27 prophet. And they   |   the people will
  33 be a prophet. And   |   answered Jesus, and |   stone us: for they
     they answered Jesus |   said, We know not.  |   be persuaded that
     and say, We know    |   He also said unto   |   John was a
     not. And Jesus saith|   them, Neither tell  | 7 prophet. And they
     unto them, Neither  |   I you by what       |   answered, that
     tell I you by what  |   authority I do these|   they knew not
     authority I do these|   things.             |   whence _it was_.
     things.             |                       | 8 And Jesus said
                         |                       |   unto them, Neither
                         |                       |   tell I you by what
                         |                       |   authority I do
                         |                       |   these things.
                         |28 But what think ye?  |
                         |   A man had two sons; |
     and he came to the first, and said, [2]Son, go work to-day in the
  29 vineyard. And he answered and said, I will not: but afterward he
  30 repented himself, and went. And he came to the second, and said
     likewise. And he answered and said, I _go_, sir: and went not.
  31 Whether of the twain did the will of his father? They say, The
     first. Jesus saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, that the
     publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you.
  32 For John came unto you in the way of righteousness, and ye believed
     him not: but the publicans and the harlots believed him: and ye,
     when ye saw it, did not even repent yourselves afterward, that ye
                         |   might believe him.  |
   1   And he began to   |33   Hear another      | 9   And he began to
     speak unto them in  |   parable: There was  |   speak unto the
     parables. A man     |   a man that was a    |   people this
     planted a vineyard, |   householder, which  |   parable [_see Isa.
     and set a hedge     |   planted a vineyard, |   5:1-2_]: A man
     about it, and digged|   and set a hedge     |   planted a
     a pit for the       |   about it, and digged|   vineyard, and let
     winepress, and built|   a winepress in it,  |   it out to
     a tower, and let it |   and built a tower,  |   husbandmen, and
     out to husbandmen,  |   and let it out to   |   went into another
     and went into       |   husbandmen, and went|   country for a long
   2 another country. And|   into another        |10 time. And at the
     at the season he    |34 country. And when   |   season he sent
     sent to the         |   the season of the   |   unto the
     husbandmen a        |   fruits drew near, he|   husbandmen a
     [9]servant, that he |   sent his [3]servants|   [9]servant, that
     might receive from  |   to the husbandmen,  |   they should give
     the husbandmen of   |   to receive [4]his   |   him of the fruit
     the fruits of the   |35 fruits. And the     |   of the vineyard:
   3 vineyard. And they  |   husbandmen took his |   but the husbandmen
     took him, and beat  |   [3]servants, and    |   beat him, and sent
     him, and sent him   |   beat one, and killed|   him away empty.
   4 away empty. And     |   another, and stoned |11 And he sent yet
     again he sent unto  |36 another. Again, he  |   another
     them another        |   sent other          |   [9]servant: and
     [9]servant; and him |   [3]servants more    |   him also they
     they wounded in the |   than the first: and |   beat, and handled
     head, and handled   |   they did unto him in|   him shamefully,
     shamefully.         |   like manner.        |   and sent him away
                         |                       |12 empty. And he sent
   5             And he  |                       |   yet a third: and
     sent another; and   |                       |   him also they
     him they killed: and|                       |   wounded, and cast
     many others; beating|                       |13 him forth. And the
     some, and killing   |                       |   Lord of the
     some.               |                       |   vineyard said,
   6       He had yet    |37              But    |   What shall I do? I
     one, a beloved son: |   afterward he sent   |   will send my
     he sent him last    |   unto them his son,  |   beloved son: it
     unto them, saying,  |   saying, They will   |   may be they will
     They will reverence |   reverence my son.   |   reverence him.
     my son.             |38 But the husbandmen, |14            But when
   7         But those   |   when they saw the   |   the husbandmen saw
     husbandmen said     |   son, said among     |   him, they reasoned
     among themselves,   |   themselves,         |   one with another,
     This is the heir;   |   This is the heir;   |   saying, This is
     come, let us kill   |   come, let us kill   |   the heir: let us
     him, and the        |   him, and take his   |   kill him, that the
     inheritance shall be|   inheritance.        |   inheritance may be
   8 ours. And they took |39                 And |15 ours. And they
     him, and killed him,|   they took him, and  |   cast him forth out
     and cast him forth  |   cast him forth out  |   of the vineyard,
     out of the vineyard.|   of the vineyard, and|   and killed him.
   9 What therefore will |40 killed him. When    |   What therefore
     the lord of the     |   therefore the lord  |   will the lord of
     vineyard do?        |   of the vineyard     |   the vineyard do
                         |   shall come, what    |   unto them?
                         |   will he do unto     |
                         |   those husbandmen?   |
                         |41 They say unto him,  |
                 he will |   He will miserably   |16            He will
     come and destroy the|   destroy those       |   come and destroy
     husbandmen, and will|   miserable men, and  |   these husbandmen,
     give the vineyard   |   will let out the    |   and will give the
     unto others.        |   vineyard unto other |   vineyard unto
                         |   husbandmen, which   |   others. And when
                         |   shall render him the|   they heard it,
                         |   fruits in their     |   they said, [10]God
                         |42 seasons. Jesus saith|17 forbid. But he
  10             Have ye |   unto them, Did ye   |   looked upon them,
     not read even this  |   never read in the   |   and said, What
     scripture;          |   scriptures [_see Ps.|   then is this that
                         |   118:22-23_],        |   is written [_see
       The stone which   |     The stone which   |   Ps. 118:22_],
         the builders    |       the builders    |     The stone which
         rejected,       |       rejected,       |       the builders
       The same was made |     The same was made |       rejected,
         the head of the |       the head of the |     The same was
         corner:         |       corner:         |       made the head
  11   This was from the |     This was from the |       of the corner?
         Lord,           |       Lord,           |
       And it is         |     And it is         |
         marvellous in   |       marvellous in   |
         our eyes?       |       our eyes?       |
                         |43 Therefore say I unto|
                         |   you, The kingdom of |
                         |   God shall be taken  |
                         |   away from you, and  |
                         |   shall be given to a |
                         |   nation bringing     |
                         |   forth the fruits    |
                         |44 thereof. [5]And he  |18 Every one that
                         |   that falleth on this|   falleth on that
                         |   stone shall be      |   stone shall be
                         |   broken to pieces;   |   broken to pieces;
                         |   but on whomsoever it|   but on whomsoever
                         |   shall fall, it will |   it shall fall, it
                         |   scatter him as dust.|   will scatter him
                         |45 And when the chief  |   as dust [_see Isa.
                         |   and the Pharisees   |   8:14-15_].
                         |   heard his parables, |
                         |   they perceived that |19   And the scribes
                         |   he spake of them.   |   and the chief
  12 And they sought to  |46 And when they sought|   priests sought to
     lay hold on him; and|   to lay hold on him, |   lay hands on him
     they feared the     |   they feared the     |   in that very hour;
     multitude; for they |   multitudes,         |   and they feared
     perceived that he   |                       |   the people: for
     spake the parable   |                       |   they perceived
     against them: and   |               because |   that he spake this
     they left him, and  |   they took him for a |   parable against
     went away.          |   prophet.            |   them.
                         | 1   And Jesus answered|
   2 and spake again in parables unto them, saying, The kingdom of
     heaven is likened unto a certain king, which made a marriage
   3 feast for his son, and sent forth his [3]servants to call them
     that were bidden to the marriage feast: and they would not come.
   4 Again he sent forth other [3]servants, saying, Tell them that are
     bidden, Behold, I have made ready my dinner: my oxen and my
     fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come to the
   5 marriage feast. But they made light of it, and went their ways,
   6 one to his own farm, another to his merchandise: and the rest laid
     hold on his [3]servants, and entreated them shamefully, and killed
   7 them. But the king was wroth; and he sent his armies, and
   8 destroyed those murderers, and burned their city. Then saith he to
     his [3]servants, The wedding is ready, but they that were bidden
   9 were not worthy. Go ye therefore unto the partings of the
     highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage feast.
  10 And those [3]servants went out into the highways, and gathered
     together all as many as they found, both bad and good: and the
  11 wedding was filled with guests. But when the king came in to
     behold the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a
  12 wedding-garment: and he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in
  13 hither not having a wedding-garment? And he was speechless. Then
     the king said to the [6]servants, Bind him hand and foot, and cast
     him out into the outer darkness; there shall be the weeping and
  14 gnashing of teeth. For many are called, but few chosen.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _word_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _Child_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _the fruits of it_.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities omit ver. 44.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _ministers_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _But shall we say, From men?_]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _for all held John to be a prophet indeed_.]

     [Footnote 9: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 10: Gr. _Be it not so._]

[Footnote a: It was very common to test a Rabbi with hard questions. See
this continued in the following sections. In like manner the Fourth
Gospel gave us much animated dialogue between Jesus and the Jews at
Jerusalem in chap. 5, and chap. 7-10. The Sanhedrin were within their
rights in challenging the ecclesiastical and scholastic (scribal)
standing of Jesus. He did not dodge in his answer.]

[Footnote b: On this last day of Christ's public ministry the Sanhedrin
seek to break the power of Jesus with the people whose hero he is since
the Triumphal Entry. The first attempt fails miserably, but it is
followed by a series of other efforts to entrap Jesus and so turn the
crowd against him. The three parables leave the rulers exposed by Jesus
and they keenly feel the denunciation of the reply of Jesus.]



§ 133. THE PHARISEES AND THE HERODIANS TRY TO ENSNARE JESUS ABOUT PAYING
TRIBUTE TO CÆSAR


  Mark 12:13-17          |Matt. 22:15-22         |Luke 20:20-26
                         |                       |
                         |                       |20   And they watched
                         |                       |   him, and sent
                         |                       |   forth spies, which
                         |                       |   feigned themselves
                         |                       |   to be righteous,
  13   And they send unto|15   Then went the     |   that they might
     him certain of the  |   Pharisees, and took |   take hold of his
     Pharisees and of the|   counsel how they    |   speech, so as to
     Herodians, that they|   might ensnare him in|   deliver him up to
     might catch him in  |16 _his_ talk. And they|   the rule and to
     talk.               |   send to him their   |   the authority of
  14       And when they |   disciples,[a] with  |21 the governor. And
     were come, they say |   the Herodians,      |   they asked him,
     unto him, [1]Master,|   saying, [1]Master,  |   saying, [1]Master,
     we know that thou   |   we know that thou   |   we know that thou
     art true,           |   art true, and       |   sayest and
                         |   teachest the way of |   teachest rightly,
              and carest |   God in truth, and   |   and acceptest not
     not for any one: for|   carest not for any  |   the person _of
     thou regardest not  |   one: for thou       |   any_, but of a
     the person of men,  |   regardest not the   |   truth teachest the
     but of a truth      |17 person of men. Tell |   way of God [_see
     teachest the way of |   us therefore, What  |   John 3:2_]:
     God: Is it lawful to|                       |
     give tribute unto   |   thinkest thou? Is it|22             Is it
  15 Cæsar, or not? Shall|   lawful to give      |   lawful for us to
     we give, or shall we|   tribute unto Cæsar, |   give tribute unto
     not give? But he,   |18 or not? But Jesus   |23 Cæsar, or not? But
     knowing their       |   perceived their     |   he perceived their
     hypocrisy, said unto|   wickedness, and     |   craftiness, and
     them, Why tempt ye  |   said, Why tempt ye  |   said unto them,
     me? bring me a      |   me, ye hypocrites?  |24 Shew me a
     [2]penny, that I may|19 Shew me the tribute |   [2]penny.
  16 see it. And they    |   money. And they     |
     brought it. And he  |   brought unto him a  |
     saith unto them,    |20 [2]penny. And he    |              Whose
     Whose is this image |   saith unto them,    |   image and
     and superscription? |   Whose is this image |   superscription
     And they said unto  |   and superscription? |   hath it? And they
  17 him, Cæsar's. And   |21 They say unto him,  |25 said, Cæsar's. And
     Jesus said unto     |   Cæsar's. Then saith |   he said unto them,
     them, Render unto   |   he unto them, Render|   Then render unto
     Cæsar the things    |   therefore unto Cæsar|   Cæsar the things
     that are Cæsar's,   |   the things that are |   that are Cæsar's,
     and unto God the    |   Cæsar's; and unto   |   and unto God the
     things that are     |   God the things that |   things that are
     God's.              |   are God's.          |26 God's. And they
                         |                       |   were not able to
                         |                       |   take hold of the
                         |22            And when |   saying before the
            And they     |   they heard it, they |   people: and they
     marvelled greatly   |   marvelled, and left |   marvelled at his
     at him.             |   him, and went their |   answer, and held
                         |   way.                |   their peace.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 2: See marginal note on Matt. 18:28.]

[Footnote a: The Pharisees send a group of their keenest students to go
with the Herodians to catch Jesus with the dilemma about paying tribute
to Cæsar, a live question in current politics and theology. They offered
Jesus the alternative of popular disfavor or of disloyalty to the Roman
government.]



§ 134. THE SADDUCEES ASK HIM A PUZZLING QUESTION[a] ABOUT THE
RESURRECTION

In the Court of the Temple. (_Tuesday_)


  Mark 12:18-27          |Matt. 22:23-33         |Luke 20:27-40
                         |                       |
                         |                       |27   And there came to
                         |23   On that day there |   him certain of the
  18   And there come    |   came to him         |   Sadducees, they
     unto him Sadducees, |   Sadducees, [1]which |   which say that
     which say that there|   say that there is no|   there is no
     is no resurrection; |   resurrection: and   |28 resurrection; and
     and they asked him, |   they asked him,     |   they asked him,
  19 saying, [2]Master,  |24 saying, [2]Master,  |   saying, [2]Master,
     Moses wrote unto us,|   Moses said,         |   Moses wrote unto
                         |                       |   us [_see Gen.
                         |                       |   38:8; Deut.
                         |                       |   25:5-6_], that if
     If a man's brother  |                       |   a man's brother
     die, and leave a    |              If a man |   die, having a
     wife behind him, and|   die, having no      |   wife, and he be
     leave no child, that|   children, his       |   childless, his
     his brother should  |   brother [3]shall    |   brother should
     take his wife, and  |   marry his wife, and |   take the wife, and
     raise up seed unto  |   raise up seed unto  |   raise up seed unto
     his brother.        |25 his brother. Now    |29 his brother. There
  20              There  |   there were with us  |   were therefore
     were seven brethren:|   seven brethren: and |   seven brethren:
     and the first took a|   the first married   |   and the first took
     wife, and dying left|   and deceased, and   |   a wife, and died
  21 no seed; and the    |   having no seed left |30 childless; and the
     second took her, and|   his wife unto his   |31 second; and the
     died, leaving no    |26 brother; in like    |   third took her;
     seed behind him; and|   manner the second   |   and likewise the
     the third likewise: |   also, and the third,|   seven also left no
  22 and the seven left  |   unto the [4]seventh.|   children, and
     no seed. Last of all|27 And after them all  |32 died. Afterward
     the woman also died.|   the woman died.     |   the woman also
                         |28                 In  |33 died. In the
  23 In the resurrection |   the resurrection    |   resurrection
     whose wife shall she|   therefore whose wife|   therefore whose
     be of them? for the |   shall she be of the |   wife of them shall
     seven had her to    |   seven? for they all |   she be? for the
  24 wife. Jesus said    |29 had her. But Jesus  |   seven had her to
     unto them, Is it not|   answered and said   |34 wife. And Jesus
     for this cause that |   unto them, Ye do    |   said unto them, The
     ye err, that ye know|   err, not knowing the|   sons of this
     not the scriptures, |   scriptures, nor the |   [6]world marry, and
     nor the power of    |   power of God.       |   are given in
     God?                |                       |35 marriage: but
                         |                       |   they that are
                         |                       |   accounted worthy
                         |                       |   to attain that
                         |                       |   [6]world, and the
  25      For when they  |30              For in |   resurrection from
     shall rise from the |   the resurrection    |   the dead, neither
     dead, they neither  |   they neither marry, |   marry, nor are
     marry, nor are given|   nor are given in    |   given in marriage:
     in marriage; but are|   marriage, but are as|36 for neither can
                         |                       |   they die any more:
                         |                       |   for they are equal
     as angels in heaven.|   angels[5] in heaven.|   unto the angels;
                         |                       |   and are sons of
                         |                       |   God, being sons of
                         |                       |   the resurrection.
  26 But as touching the |31 But as touching the |37 But that the dead
     dead, that they are |   resurrection of the |   are raised, even
     raised; have ye not |   dead, have ye not   |   Moses shewed in
     read in the book of |   read that which was |   _the place
     Moses, in _the place|   spoken unto you by  |   concerning_ the
     concerning_ the     |   God, saying,        |   Bush, when he
     Bush, how God spake |                       |   calleth the Lord
     unto him, saying, I |32              I am   |   the God of
     _am_ the God of     |   the God of Abraham, |   Abraham, and the
     Abraham, and the God|   and the God of      |   God of Isaac, and
     of Isaac, and the   |   Isaac, and the God  |   the God of Jacob
  27 God of Jacob? He is |   of Jacob? God is not|   [_see Ex. 3:6_].
     not the God of the  |   _the God_ of the    |38 Now he is not the
     dead, but of the    |   dead, but of the    |   God of the dead,
     living: ye do       |33 living. And when the|   but of the living:
     greatly err.        |   multitudes heard it,|   for all live unto
                         |   they were astonished|39 him. And certain
                         |   at his teaching.    |   of the scribes
                         |                       |   answering said,
                         |                       |   [2]Master, thou
                         |                       |   hast well said.
                         |                       |40 For they durst not
                         |                       |   any more ask him
                         |                       |   any question.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _saying_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _shall perform the duty of a husband's brother to
     his wife_. Compare Deut. 25:5.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _seven_.]

     [Footnote 5: Many ancient authorities add _of God_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _age_.]

[Footnote a: Probably a stock conundrum that the Sadducees had often
propounded to the discomfort of the Pharisees.]



§ 135. THE PHARISEES REJOICE OVER THE ROUT OF THE SADDUCEES AND A
PHARISAIC LAWYER ASKS JESUS A LEGAL QUESTION

In the Court of the Temple. (_Tuesday_)


  Mark 12:28-34                     |Matt. 22:34-40
                                    |
  28   And one of the scribes came, |34   But the Pharisees, when they
     and heard them questioning     |   heard that he had put the
     together, and knowing that he  |   Sadducees to silence, gathered
     had answered them well, asked  |35 themselves together. And one of
     him,                           |   them, a lawyer, asked him a
                                    |   question, tempting him,
          What commandment is the   |36 [1]Master, which is the great
     first of all [_see Deut. 6:4_]?|37 commandment in the law? And he
  29 Jesus answered, The first is,  |   said unto him,
     Hear, O Israel; [3]The Lord our|
     God [_see Deut. 6:4_], the Lord|
  30 is one: and thou shalt love the|                  Thou shalt love
     Lord thy God [4]with all thy   |   the Lord thy God with all thy
     heart, and [4]with all thy     |   heart, and with all thy soul,
     soul, and [4]with all thy mind,|38 and with all thy mind. This is
     and [4]with all thy strength   |   the great and first
  31 [_see Deut. 6:5_]. The second  |39 commandment. [2]And a second
     is this, Thou shalt love thy   |   like _unto it_ is this, Thou
     neighbor as thyself [_see Lev. |   shalt love thy neighbour as
     19:18_]. There is none other   |40 thyself. On these two
     commandment greater than these.|   commandments hangeth the whole
  32 And the scribe said unto him,  |   law, and the prophets.
     Of a truth, [1]Master, thou    |
  33 hast well said that he is one; and there is none other but he: and
     to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding,
     and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is
     much more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices [_see 1
  34 Sam. 15:22_]. And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he
     said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no
     man after that durst ask him any question.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _And a second is like unto it, Thou shalt love
     etc._]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _The Lord is our God; the Lord is one._]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _from_.]



§ 136. JESUS, TO THE JOY OF THE MULTITUDE, SILENCES HIS ENEMIES BY THE
PERTINENT QUESTION OF THE MESSIAH'S DESCENT FROM DAVID AND LORDSHIP OVER
DAVID

In the Court of the Temple. (_Tuesday_)


  Mark 12:35-37          |Matt. 22:41-46         |Luke 20:41-44
                         |                       |
                         |41   Now while the     |
                         |   Pharisees were      |
                         |   gathered together,  |
  35   And Jesus answered|   Jesus asked them a  |41   And he said unto
     and said, as he     |42 question, saying,   |   them, How say they
     taught in the       |   What think ye of the|   that the Christ is
     temple, How say the |   Christ? whose son is|   David's son?
     scribes that the    |   he? They say unto   |
     Christ is the son of|   him, _The son_ of   |
     David?              |43 David. He saith unto|
  36       David himself |   them, How then doth |42              For
     said in the Holy    |   David in the Spirit |   David himself
     Spirit, [_see Ps.   |   call him Lord,      |   saith in the book
     110:1_],            |   saying,             |   of Psalms,
       The Lord said unto|44   The Lord said unto|     The Lord said
         my Lord,        |       my Lord,        |       unto my Lord,
       Sit thou on my    |     Sit thou on my    |     Sit thou on my
         right hand,     |       right hand,     |       right hand,
       Till I make thine |     Till I put thine  |43   Till I make
         enemies [1]the  |       enemies         |       thine enemies
         footstool of thy|       underneath thy  |       the footstool
         feet.           |       feet?           |       of thy feet.
  37 David himself       |45 If David then       |44 David therefore
     calleth him Lord;   |   calleth him Lord,   |   calleth him Lord,
     and whence is he his|   how is he his son?  |   and how is he his
     son?                |46 And no one was able |   son?
       And [2]the common |   to answer him a     |
     people heard him    |   word, neither durst |
     gladly.             |   any man from that   |
                         |   day forth ask him   |
                         |   any more questions. |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _underneath thy
     feet_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _the great multitude_.]



§ 137. IN HIS LAST PUBLIC DISCOURSE, JESUS SOLEMNLY DENOUNCES[a] THE
SCRIBES AND PHARISEES (COMP. § 107)

In the Court of the Temple. (_Tuesday_)


  Mark 12:38-40          |Matt. 23:1-39          |Luke 20:45-47
                         |                       |
                         | 1   Then spake Jesus  |45   And in the
                         |   to the multitudes   |   hearing of all the
  38   And in his        |   and to his          |   people he said unto
     teaching he said,   |   disciples, saying,  |   his disciples,
     Beware of the       | 2 The scribes and the |46 Beware of the
     scribes,            |   Pharisees sit on    |   scribes,
                         | 3 Moses' seat: all    |
                         |   things therefore    |
                         |   whatsoever they bid |
                         |   you, _these_ do and |
                         |   observe: but do not |
                         |   ye after their      |
                         |   works; for they say,|
                         | 4 and do not. Yea,    |
                         |   they bind heavy     |
                         |   burdens [1]and      |
                         |   grievous to be      |
                         |   borne, and lay them |
                         |   on men's shoulders; |
                         |   but they themselves |
                         |   will not move them  |
                         |   with their finger.  |
                         | 5 But all their works |
                         |   they do for to be   |
                         |   seen of men [_see   |
                         |   Ex. 13:9; Num.      |
                         |   15:38-39; Deut. 6:8;|
                         |   11:18_]: for they   |
                         |   make broad their    |
                         |   phylacteries, and   |
                  which  |   enlarge the borders |            which
     desire to walk in   |   _of their garments_,|   desire to walk in
     long robes, and _to | 6 and love the chief  |   long robes, and
     have_ salutations in|   place at feasts, and|   love salutations in
     the marketplaces,   |   the chief seats in  |   the marketplaces,
  39 and chief seats in  | 7 the synagogues, and |   and chief seats in
     the synagogues, and |   the salutations in  |   the synagogues, and
     chief places at     |   the marketplaces,   |   chief places at
     feasts:             |   and to be called of |   feasts;
                         | 8 men, Rabbi. But be  |
     not ye called Rabbi: for one is your teacher, and all ye are
   9 brethren. And call no man your father on the earth: for one is your
  10 Father, [2]which is in heaven. Neither be ye called masters: for
  11 one is your master, _even_ the Christ. But he that is [3]greatest
  12 among you shall be your [4]servant. And whosoever shall exalt
     himself shall be humbled; and whosoever shall humble himself shall
     be exalted.
  13   But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye
     shut the kingdom of heaven [5]against men: for ye enter not in
     yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering in to
     enter.[6]
                         |                       |
  40         they which  |                       |47         which
     devour widows'      |                       |   devour widows'
     houses, [12]and for |                       |   houses, and for a
     a pretence make long|                       |   pretence make long
     prayers; these shall|                       |   prayers: these
     receive greater     |                       |   shall receive
     condemnation.       |                       |   greater
                         |                       |   condemnation.
                         |                       |
  15   Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass
     sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he is become so, ye
     make him twofold more a son of [7]hell than yourselves.
  16   Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear
     by the [8]temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the
  17 gold of the [8]temple, he is [9]a debtor. Ye fools and blind: for
     whether is greater, the gold, or the [8]temple that hath
  18 sanctified the gold? And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it
     is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gift that is upon it,
  19 he is [9]a debtor. Ye blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or
  20 the altar that sanctifieth the gift? He therefore that sweareth by
  21 the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon. And he that
     sweareth by the [8]temple, sweareth by it, and by him that
  22 dwelleth therein. And he that sweareth by the heaven, sweareth by
     the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.
  23   Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye tithe
     mint and [10]anise and cummin [_see Lev. 27:30; Mic. 6:8_], and
     have left undone the weightier matters of the law, judgement, and
     mercy, and faith: but these ye ought to have done, and not to have
  24 left the other undone. Ye blind guides, which strain out the gnat,
     and swallow the camel.
  25   Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye cleanse
     the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are
  26 full from extortion and excess. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first
     the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside thereof
     may become clean also.
  27   Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like
     unto whited sepulchres, which outwardly appear beautiful, but
     inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness.
  28 Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but inwardly
     ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.
  29   Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye build the
     sepulchres of the prophets, and garnish the tombs of the
  30 righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we
     should not have been partakers with them in the blood of the
  31 prophets. Wherefore ye witness to yourselves, that ye are sons of
  32 them that slew the prophets. Fill ye up then the measure of your
  33 fathers. Ye serpents, ye offspring of vipers, how shall ye escape
  34 the judgement of [7]hell? Therefore, behold, I send unto you
     prophets, and wise men, and scribes: some of them shall ye kill
     and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues,
  35 and persecute from city to city: that upon you may come all the
     righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of Abel the
     righteous unto the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom ye
     slew between the sanctuary and the altar [_see Gen. 4:8; 2 Chron.
  36 24:20-21_]. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come
     upon this generation.
  37   O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killeth the prophets, and stoneth
     them that are sent unto her! how often would I have gathered thy
     children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her
  38 wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you
  39 [11]desolate [_see Jer. 12:7; 22:5_]. For I say unto you, Ye shall
     not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed _is_ he that
     cometh in the name of the Lord [_see Ps. 118:26_].

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities omit _and grievous to be
     borne_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _the heavenly_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _greater_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _minister_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _before_.]

     [Footnote 6: Some authorities insert here, or after ver. 12, ver.
     14, _Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye
     devour widows' houses, even while for a pretence ye make long
     prayers: therefore ye shall receive greater condemnation._ See
     Mark 12:40, Luke 20:47, above.]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _Gehenna_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _sanctuary_: as in ver. 35.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _bound_ by his oath.]

     [Footnote 10: Or, _dill_.]

     [Footnote 11: Some ancient authorities omit _desolate_.]

     [Footnote 12: Or, _even while for a pretence they make_.]

[Footnote a: Jesus has been criticized for lack of self-control in this
exposure of the hypocrisy of the Pharisees. One must bear in mind the
tremendous sins of which the Pharisees are guilty. The very teachers of
righteousness are now in the act of rejecting and finally crucifying the
Son of God. See my book, _The Pharisees and Jesus_, for full discussion.]



§ 138. JESUS CLOSELY OBSERVES[a] THE CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE TEMPLE, AND
COMMENDS THE POOR WIDOW'S GIFT

(_Tuesday_)


  Mark 12:41-44                     |Luke 21:1-4
                                    |
  41   And he sat down over against |
     the treasury, and beheld how   |
     the multitude cast [1]money    | 1   And he looked up, [3]and saw
     into the treasury: and many    |   the rich men that were casting
     that were rich cast in much.   |   their gifts into the treasury.
  42 And there came [2]a poor widow,| 2 And he saw a certain poor widow
     and she cast in two mites,     |   casting in thither two mites.
  43 which make a farthing. And he  |
     called unto him his disciples, |
     and said unto them, Verily I   | 3 And he said, Of a truth I say
     say unto you, This poor widow  |   unto you, This poor widow cast
     cast in more than all they     | 4 in more than they all: for all
     which are casting into the     |   these did of their superfluity
  44 treasury: for they all did cast|   cast in unto the gifts: but she
     in of their superfluity; but   |   of her want did cast in all the
     she of her want did cast in all|   living that she had.
     that she had, _even_ all her   |
     living.                        |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _brass_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _one_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _and saw them that ... treasury, and they were
     rich._]

[Footnote a: Notice that this was the last occurrence in the Saviour's
public ministry, except the trial and the crucifixion. This is the last
appearance of Jesus in the Temple. His public teaching is over save the
words of defence in his trial and the seven sayings on the Cross. The
Pharisees and Sadducees had withdrawn in terror at the explosion of the
wrath of Jesus and even the disciples were at some distance as Jesus sat
alone by the treasury. It is useless further to plead with his enemies.
The task now remains to get the disciples prepared for the Master's death
and the time is short and they as yet have completely failed to grasp the
fact or the significance of his death and the promise of his resurrection
on the third day.]



PART XII

IN THE SHADOW WITH JESUS

_Tuesday afternoon to Thursday night of Passion Week, A.D. 30 (or 29).
Jerusalem._

_§§ 139-152. Jesus now seeks to prepare the disciples for the tragedy of
His death and for carrying on His work after His departure._



§ 139. SITTING ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES, JESUS SPEAKS TO HIS DISCIPLES
ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, AND HIS OWN SECOND COMING, IN
APOCALYPTIC LANGUAGE. THE GREAT ESCHATOLOGICAL DISCOURSE[a]

(_Tuesday Afternoon_)


[Footnote a: This great discourse has as its background the death of
Christ. Further on as part punishment for this crime lies the destruction
of Jerusalem. This catastrophe is itself a symbol of the end of the world
and in one sense a coming of Christ in power and judgment. But Christ
boldly predicts his own personal return to earth, though the time is not
revealed. But he does exhort an expectant attitude toward the promises of
his coming and readiness for his return which will be at an unexpected
hour. Jesus employs the common Jewish apocalyptic imagery to portray this
most difficult subject. Some scholars insist that Jesus was himself
merely a wild enthusiast who was carried away by the Messianic hopes of
his people, but that is a one-sided and distorted view of Christ's life
and ignores the great mass of his ethical teaching. It forgets also that
Jesus has a world program of conquest and of power. The various aspects
of the discourse are not kept distinct. Some think that the Gospels have
misunderstood or misrepresented Jesus in this discourse. But we can catch
the general drift of the teaching and leave alone minute details of time
and place against which Jesus himself warned us.]


               |Mark 13:1-37      |Matt. 24 and 25   |Luke 21:5-36
               |                  |                  |
  _1  Occasion | 1   And as he    | 1   And Jesus    |
  of the       |   went forth out |   went out from  |
  Prophecy     |   of the temple, |   the temple, and| 5   And as some
  about the    |   one of his     |   was going on   |   spake of the
  Destruction  |   disciples saith|   his way; and   |   temple, how it
  of the       |   unto him,      |   his disciples  |   was adorned
  Temple._     |   [18]Master,    |   came to him to |   with goodly
               |   behold, what   |   shew him the   |   stones and
               |   manner of      |   buildings of   |   offerings, he
               |   stones and what| 2 the temple. But| 6 said, As for
               |   manner of      |   he answered and|   these things
               | 2 buildings! And |   said unto them,|   which ye
               |   Jesus said unto|   See ye not all |   behold, the
               |   him, Seest thou|   these things?  |   days will
               |   these great    |   verily I say   |   come, in which
               |   buildings?     |   unto you, There|   there shall
               |   there shall not|   shall not be   |   not be left
               |   be left here   |   left here one  |   here one stone
               |   one stone upon |   stone upon     |   upon another,
               |   another, which |   another, that  |   that shall not
               |   shall not be   |   shall not be   |   be thrown
               |   thrown down.   |   thrown down.   |   down.
  _2  Inquiry  | 3   And as he sat| 3   And as he sat|
  for Further  |   on the mount of|   on the mount of|
  Light from   |   Olives over    |   Olives,        |
  Peter and    |   against the    |           the    |
  James and    |   temple, Peter  |   disciples came |
  John and     |   and James and  |   unto him       | 7       And they
  Andrew on    |   John and Andrew|   privately,     |   asked him,
  Christ's     |   asked him      |   saying, Tell   |   saying,
  Second       | 4 privately, Tell|   us, when shall |   [18]Master,
  Coming and   |   us, when shall |   these things   |   when therefore
  the End of   |   these things   |   be? and what   |   shall these
  the World._  |   be? and what   |   _shall be_ the |   things be? and
               |   _shall be_ the |   sign of thy    |   what _shall be_
               |   sign when these|   [1]coming, and |   the sign when
               |   things are all |   of [2]the end  |   these things
               |   about to be    |   of the world?  |   are about to
               |   accomplished?  | 4 And Jesus      | 8 come to pass?
               | 5 And Jesus began|   answered and   |
               |   to say unto    |   said unto them,|   And he said,
               |   them, Take heed|   Take heed that |   Take heed that
               |   that no man    |   no man lead you|   ye be not led
               |   lead you       |   astray.        |   astray: for
               |   astray.        | 5         For    |   many shall
               | 6         Many   |   many shall come|   come in my
               |   shall come in  |   in my name,    |   name, saying,
               |   my name,       |   saying, I am   |   I am _he_;
               |   saying, I am   |   the Christ; and|   and, The time
               |   _he_; and shall|   shall lead many|   is at hand: go
               |   lead many      | 6 astray. And ye |   ye not after
               | 7 astray. And    |   shall hear of  | 9 them. And when
               |   when ye shall  |   wars and       |   ye shall hear
               |   hear of wars   |   rumours of     |   of wars and
               |   rumours of     |   wars: see that |   tumults, be
               |   wars, be not   |   ye be not      |   not terrified:
               |   troubled:      |   troubled: for  |   for these
               |   _these things_ |   _these things_ |   things must
               |   must needs come|   must needs come|   needs come to
               |   to pass; but   |   to pass; but   |   pass first;
               |   the end is not |   the end is not |   but the end is
               |   yet.           |   yet.           |   not
               |                  |                  |   immediately.
               |                  |                  |10   Then said he
               |                  |                  |   unto them,
               | 8      For nation| 7      For nation|   Nation shall
               |   shall rise     |   shall rise     |   rise against
               |   against nation,|   against nation,|   nation, and
               |   and kingdom    |   and kingdom    |   kingdom
               |   against        |   against        |   against
               |   kingdom: there |   kingdom: and   |11 kingdom: and
               |   shall be       |   there shall be |   there shall be
               |   earthquakes in |   famines and    |   great
               |   divers places; |   earthquakes in |   earthquakes,
               |   there shall be |   divers places. |   and in divers
               |   famines: these |   But all these  |   places famines
               |   things are the |   things are the |   and
               |   beginning of   |   beginning of   |   pestilences;
               |   travail [_see  |   travail.       |   and there
               |   Isa. 19:2_].   |                  |   shall be
               |                  |                  |   terrors and
               |                  |                  |   great signs
               |                  |                  |   from heaven.
               |                  |                  |
               | 9   But take ye  |                  |12   But before
               |   heed to        |                  |   all these
               |   yourselves: for| 9   Then shall   |   things, they
               |   they shall     |   they deliver   |   shall lay their
               |   deliver you up |   you up unto    |   hands on you,
               |   to councils;   |   tribulation,   |   and shall
               |                  |   and shall kill |   persecute you,
               |   and in         |   you: and ye    |   delivering you
               |   synagogues     |                  |   up to the
               |   shall ye be    |                  |   synagogues and
               |   beaten; and    |                  |   prisons,
               |   before         |                  |   [22]bringing
               |   governors and  |   shall be hated |   you before
               |   kings shall ye |   of all the     |   kings and
               |   stand for my   |   nations for my |   governors for
               |   sake, for a    |   name's sake.   |   my name's
               |   testimony unto |                  |13 sake. It shall
               |10 them. And the  |                  |   turn unto you
               |   gospel must    |                  |   for a
               |   first be       |                  |   testimony.
               |   preached unto  |                  |
               |   all the        |                  |
               |11 nations. And   |                  |
               |   when they lead |                  |14   Settle it
               |   you _to        |                  |   therefore in
               |   judgement_, and|                  |   your hearts,
               |   deliver you up,|                  |   not to
               |   be not anxious |                  |   meditate
               |   beforehand what|                  |   beforehand how
               |   ye shall speak:|                  |15 to answer: for
               |   but whatsoever |                  |   I will give
               |   shall be given |                  |   you a mouth
               |   you in that    |                  |   and wisdom,
               |   hour, that     |                  |   which all your
               |   speak ye: for  |                  |   adversaries
               |   it is not ye   |                  |   shall not be
               |   that speak, but|                  |   able to
               |   the Holy Ghost.|                  |   withstand or
               |12 And brother    |10 And then shall |   to gainsay.
               |   shall deliver  |   many stumble,  |16 But ye shall
               |   up brother to  |   and shall      |   be delivered
               |   death, and the |   deliver up one |   up even by
               |   father his     |   another, and   |   parents, and
               |   child; and     |   shall hate one |   brethren, and
               |   children shall |11 another. And   |   kinsfolk, and
               |   rise up against|   many false     |   friends; and
               |   parents, and   |   prophets shall |   _some_ of you
               |   [19]cause them |   arise, and     |   [23]shall they
               |   to be put to   |   shall lead many|   cause to be
               |   death [_see    |12 astray. And    |   put to death.
               |   Micah 7:6_].   |   because        |17 And ye shall
               |13 And ye shall be|   iniquity shall |   be hated of
               |   hated of all   |   be multiplied, |   all men for my
               |   men for my     |   the love of the|   name's sake.
               |   name's sake:   |   many shall wax |18 And not a hair
               |   but he that    |13 cold. But he   |   of your head
               |   endureth to the|   that endureth  |   shall perish.
               |   end, the same  |   to the end, the|19 In your
               |   shall be saved.|   same shall be  |   patience ye
               |                  |14 saved. And     |   shall win your
               |                  |   [3]this gospel |   [24]souls.
               |                  |   of the kingdom |
               |                  |   shall be       |
               |                  |   preached in the|
               |                  |   whole [4]world |
               |                  |   for a testimony|
               |                  |   unto all the   |
               |                  |   nations; and   |
               |                  |   then shall the |
               |                  |   end come.      |
  _3  Sign of  |14   But when ye  |15   When         |
  the          |   see the        |   therefore ye   |
  Destruction  |   abomination of |   see the        |
  of           |   desolation     |   abomination of |
  Jerusalem._  |   standing where |   desolation,    |
               |   he ought not   |   which was      |
               |                  |   spoken of [5]by|
               |                  |   Daniel the     |
               |                  |   prophet [_see  |
               |                  |   Dan. 9:27;     |
               |                  |   11:31; 12:11_],|
               |                  |   standing in    |
               |                  |   [6]the holy    |
               |   (let him that  |   place (let him |
               |   readeth        |   that readeth   |
               |   understand),   |   understand),   |
               |                  |                  |20     But when ye
               |                  |                  |   see Jerusalem
               |                  |                  |   compassed
               |                  |                  |   with armies,
               |                  |                  |   then know that
               |                  |                  |   her desolation
               |                  |                  |   is at hand.
               |   then let them  |16 then let them  |21 Then let them
               |   that are in    |   that are in    |   that are in
               |   Judea flee unto|   Judea flee unto|   Judea flee
               |   the mountains: |   the mountains: |   unto the
               |15 and let him    |17 let him that is|   mountains; and
               |   that is on the |   on the housetop|   let them that
               |   housetop not go|   not go down to |   are in the
               |   down, nor enter|   take out the   |   midst of her
               |   in, to take    |   things that are|   depart out;
               |   anything out of|   in his house:  |   and let not
               |16 his house: and |18 and let him    |   them that are
               |   let him that is|   that is in the |   in the country
               |   in the field   |   field not      |   enter therein.
               |   not return back|   return back to |
               |   to take his    |   take his cloke.|
               |   cloke.         |                  |22 For these are
               |                  |                  |   days of
               |                  |                  |   vengeance, that
               |                  |                  |   all things
               |                  |                  |   which are
               |                  |                  |   written may be
               |17 But woe unto   |19 But woe unto   |23 fulfilled. Woe
               |   them that are  |   them that are  |   unto them that
               |   with child and |   with child and |   are with child
               |   to them that   |   to them that   |   and to them
               |   give suck in   |   give suck in   |   that give suck
               |18 those days! And|20 those days! And|   in those days!
               |   pray ye that it|   pray ye that   |
               |   be not in the  |   your flight be |
               |19 winter. For    |   not in the     |
               |   those days     |   winter, neither|
               |   shall be       |   on a sabbath:  |
               |   tribulation,   |21 for then shall |
               |   such as there  |   be great       |
               |   hath not been  |   tribulation,   |
               |   the like from  |   such as hath   |
               |   the beginning  |   not been from  |
               |   of the creation|   the beginning  |
               |   which God      |   of the world   |
               |   created until  |   until now, no, |
               |   now, and never |   nor ever shall |
               |20 shall be. And  |   be [_see Dan.  |
               |   except the Lord|22 12:1_]. And    |
               |   had shortened  |   except those   |
               |   the days, no   |   days had been  |
               |   flesh would    |   shortened, no  |
               |   have been      |   flesh would    |
               |   saved: but for |   have been      |
               |   the elect's    |   saved: but for |
               |   sake, whom he  |   the elect's    |
               |   chose, he      |   sake those days|
               |   shortened the  |   shall be       |
               |   days.          |   shortened.     |
               |                  |                  |   for there
               |                  |                  |   shall be great
               |                  |                  |   distress upon
               |                  |                  |   the [25]land,
               |                  |                  |   and wrath unto
               |                  |                  |   this people.
               |                  |                  |24 And they shall
               |                  |                  |   fall by the
               |                  |                  |   edge of the
               |                  |                  |   sword, and
               |                  |                  |   shall be led
               |                  |                  |   captive into
               |                  |                  |   all nations:
               |                  |                  |   and Jerusalem
               |                  |                  |   shall be
               |                  |                  |   trodden down
               |                  |                  |   of the
               |                  |                  |   Gentiles,
               |                  |                  |   until the
               |                  |                  |   times of the
               |                  |                  |   Gentiles be
               |                  |                  |   fulfilled.
  _4.  False   |21 And then if any|23 Then if any man|
  Christs and  |   man shall say  |   shall say unto |
  the Second   |   unto you, Lo,  |   you, Lo, here  |
  Coming._     |   here is the    |   is the Christ, |
               |   Christ; or, Lo,|   or, Here;      |
               |   there; believe |   believe [7]_it_|
               |   [7]_it_ not:   |24 not. For there |
               |22 for there shall|   shall arise    |
               |   arise false    |   false Christs, |
               |   Christs and    |   and false      |
               |   false prophets,|   prophets, and  |
               |   and shall shew |   shall shew     |
               |   signs and      |   great signs and|
               |   wonders, that  |   wonders; so as |
               |   they may lead  |   to lead astray,|
               |   astray, if     |   if possible,   |
               |   possible, the  |   even the elect |
               |23 elect. But take|   [_see Deut.    |
               |   ye heed:       |25 13:1_]. Behold,|
               |   behold, I have |   I have told you|
               |   told you all   |26 beforehand. If |
               |   things         |   therefore they |
               |   beforehand.    |   shall say unto |
               |                  |   you, Behold, he|
               |                  |   is in the      |
               |                  |   wilderness; go |
               |                  |   not forth:     |
               |                  |   Behold, he is  |
               |                  |   in the inner   |
               |                  |   chambers;      |
               |                  |   believe [8]it  |
               |                  |27 not. For as the|
               |                  |   lightning      |
               |                  |   cometh forth   |
               |                  |   from the east, |
               |                  |   and is seen    |
               |                  |   even unto the  |
               |                  |   west; so shall |
               |                  |   be the         |
               |                  |   [1]coming of   |
               |                  |   the Son of man.|
               |                  |28 Wheresoever the|
               |                  |   carcase is,    |
               |                  |   there will the |
               |                  |   [9]eagles be   |
               |                  |   gathered       |
               |                  |   together.      |
               |                  |                  |
               |24 But in those   |29 But            |
               |   days, after    |   immediately,   |
               |   that           |   after the      |
               |   tribulation,   |   tribulation of |25 And there
               |   the sun shall  |   those days, the|   shall be signs
               |   be darkened,   |   sun shall be   |   in the sun and
               |   and the moon   |   darkened, and  |   moon and
               |   shall not give |   the moon shall |   stars; and
               |25 her light, and |   not give her   |   upon the earth
               |   the stars shall|   light, and the |   distress of
               |   be falling from|   stars shall    |   nations, in
               |   heaven,        |   fall from      |   perplexity for
               |                  |   heaven,        |   the roaring of
               |                  |                  |   the sea and
               |                  |                  |   the billows;
               |                  |                  |26 men
               |                  |                  |   [26]fainting
               |                  |                  |   for fear, and
               |                  |                  |   for
               |                  |                  |   expectation of
               |                  |                  |   the things
               |                  |                  |   which are
               |                  |                  |   coming on
               |          and the |                  |   [27]the world:
               |   powers that are|          and the |   for the powers
               |   in the heavens |   powers of the  |   of the heavens
               |   shall be       |   heavens shall  |   shall be
               |   shaken.        |30 be shaken: and |   shaken [_see
               |                  |   and then shall |   Isa. 13:9-10;
               |                  |   appear the sign|   Ezek. 32:7-8;
               |                  |   of the Son of  |   Joel 2:1-2,
               |                  |   man in heaven  |   10-11, 30-31;
               |                  |   [_see Zech.    |   Amos 8:9;
               |                  |   12:12_]: and   |   Zeph.
               |                  |   then shall all |   1:14-16_].
               |                  |   the tribes of  |
               |                  |   the earth      |
               |                  |   mourn, and they|27 And then shall
               |26 And then shall |   shall see the  |   they see the
               |   they see the   |   Son of man     |   Son of man
               |   Son of man     |   coming on the  |   coming in a
               |   coming in      |   clouds of      |   cloud with
               |   clouds with    |   heaven with    |   power and
               |   great power and|   power and great|   great glory.
               |27 glory. And then|31 glory. And he  |   [_see Dan.
               |   shall he send  |   shall send     |   7:13-14
               |   forth the      |   forth his      |   (Septuagint)_].
               |   angels, and    |   angels [10]with|
               |   shall gather   |   [11]a great    |
               |   together his   |   sound of a     |
               |   elect from the |   trumpet, and   |
               |   four winds,    |   they shall     |
               |   from the       |   gather together|
               |   uttermost part |   his elect from |
               |   of the earth to|   the four winds,|
               |   the uttermost  |   from one end of|
               |   part of heaven.|   heaven to the  |
               |                  |   other.         |
               |                  |                  |28 But when these
               |                  |                  |   things begin
               |                  |                  |   to come to
               |                  |                  |   pass, look up,
               |                  |                  |   and lift up
               |                  |                  |   your heads;
               |                  |                  |   because your
               |                  |                  |   redemption
               |                  |                  |   draweth nigh.
               |                  |                  |   [_see Deut.
               |                  |                  |   30:4
               |                  |                  |   (Septuagint);
               |                  |                  |   Isa. 27:12-13;
               |                  |                  |   Zech. 2:6
               |                  |                  |   (Septuagint)_]
  _Parable of  |28   Now from the |32   Now from the |29   And he spake
  the Fig      |   fig tree learn |   fig tree learn |   to them a
  Tree._       |   her parable:   |   her parable:   |   parable:
               |   when her branch|   when her branch|   Behold the fig
               |   is now become  |   is now become  |   tree, and all
               |   tender, and    |   tender, and    |30 trees: when
               |   putteth forth  |   putteth forth  |   they now shoot
               |   its leaves, ye |   its leaves, ye |   forth, ye see
               |   know that the  |   know that the  |   it and know of
               |   summer is nigh;|   summer is nigh;|   your own selves
               |29 even so ye     |33 even so ye     |   that the
               |   also, when ye  |   also, when ye  |   summer is now
               |   see these      |   see all these  |31 nigh. Even so
               |   things coming  |   things, know ye|   ye also, when
               |   to pass, know  |   that [12]he is |   ye see these
               |   ye that [12]he |   nigh, _even_ at|   things coming
               |   is nigh, _even_|   the doors.     |   to pass, know
               |   at the doors.  |34 Verily I say   |   ye that the
               |30 Verily I say   |   unto you, This |   kingdom of God
               |   unto you, This |   generation     |   is nigh.
               |   generation     |   shall not pass |32 Verily I say
               |   shall not pass |   away, till all |   unto you, This
               |   away, until all|   these things be|   generation
               |   these things be|   accomplished.  |   shall not pass
               |   accomplished.  |35 Heaven and     |   away, till all
               |31 Heaven and     |   earth shall    |   things be
               |   earth shall    |   pass away, but |   accomplished.
               |   pass away: but |   my words shall |33 Heaven and
               |   my words shall |   not pass away. |   earth shall
               |   not pass away. |36 But of that day|   pass away: but
               |32 But of that day|   and hour       |   my words shall
               |   or that hour   |   knoweth no one,|   not pass away.
               |   knoweth no one,|   not even the   |
               |   not even the   |   angels of      |
               |   angels in      |   heaven,        |
               |   heaven, neither|   [13]neither the|
               |   the Son, but   |   Son, but the   |
               |   the Father.    |   Father only.   |
               |                  |37 And as _were_  |
               |                  |   the days of    |
     Noah, so shall be the [1]coming of the Son of man [_see Gen.
  38 6:11-13; 7:7, 21-23_]. For as in those days which were before the
     flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in
  39 marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and they
     knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall be
  40 the [1]coming of the Son of man. Then shall two men be in the
  41 field; one is taken, and one is left: two women _shall be_
               |                  |   grinding at the|
               |                  |   mill; one is   |
               |                  |   taken, and one |
               |                  |   is left.       |
  _5  Readiness|33 Take ye heed,  |                  |34   But take heed
  urged by     |   watch [20]and  |                  |   to yourselves,
  Series of    |   pray: for ye   |                  |   lest haply
  Parables._   |   know not when  |                  |   your hearts be
               |   the time is.   |                  |   overcharged
               |34 _It is_ as     |                  |   with
               |   _when_ a man,  |                  |   surfeiting, and
               |   sojourning in  |                  |   drunkenness,
               |   another        |                  |   and cares of
               |   country, having|                  |   this life, and
               |   left his house,|                  |   that day come
               |   and given      |                  |   on you
               |   authority to   |                  |   suddenly as a
               |   his            |                  |35 snare: for
               |   [21]servants,  |                  |   _so_ shall it
               |   to each one his|                  |   come upon all
               |   work, commanded|                  |   them that
  _Parable of  |   also the porter|                  |   dwell on the
  the Porter_  |35 to watch. Watch|42          Watch |   face of all
               |   therefore: for |   therefore: for |36 the earth. But
               |   ye know not    |   ye know not on |   watch ye at
               |   when the lord  |   what day your  |   every season,
               |   of the house   |   Lord cometh.   |   making
               |   cometh, whether|                  |   supplication,
               |   at even, or at |                  |   that ye may
               |   midnight, or at|                  |   prevail to
               |   cockcrowing, or|                  |   escape all
               |   in the morning;|                  |   these things
               |36 lest coming    |                  |   that shall
               |   suddenly he    |                  |   come to pass,
               |   find you       |                  |   and to stand
               |37 sleeping. And  |43   [14]But know |   before the Son
  _Parable of  |   what I say unto|   this, that if  |   of man.
  the Master of|   you I say unto |   the master of  |
  the House._  |   all, Watch.    |   the house had  |
               |                  |   known in what  |
               |                  |   watch the thief|
               |   was coming, he would have watched, and would not have
               |   suffered his house to be [15]broken through.
               |44 Therefore be ye also ready: for in an hour that ye
  _Parable of  |45 think not the Son of man cometh. Who then is the
  the Faithful |   faithful and wise [16]servant, whom his lord hath
  Servant and  |   set over his household, to give them their food in
  of the Evil  |46 due season? Blessed is that [16]servant, whom his
  Servant._    |47 lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Verily I
               |   say unto you, that he will set him over all that he
               |48 hath. But if that evil [16]servant shall say in his
               |49 heart, My lord tarrieth; and shall begin to beat his
               |   fellow-servants, and shall eat and drink with the
               |50 drunken; the lord of that [16]servant shall come in
               |   a day when he expecteth not, and in an hour when he
               |51 knoweth not, and shall [17]cut him asunder, and
               |   appoint his portion with the hypocrites: there shall
               |   be the weeping and gnashing of teeth.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _presence_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _the consummation of the age_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _these good tidings_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _inhabited earth_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _a holy place_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _him_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _them_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _vultures_.]

     [Footnote 10: Many ancient authorities read _with a great trumpet,
     and they shall gather &c._]

     [Footnote 11: Or, _a trumpet of great sound_.]

     [Footnote 12: Or, _it_.]

     [Footnote 13: Many authorities, some ancient, omit _neither the
     Son_.]

     [Footnote 14: Or, _But this ye know._]

     [Footnote 15: Gr. _digged through_.]

     [Footnote 16: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 17: Or, _severely scourge him_.]

     [Footnote 18: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 19: Or, _put them to death_.]

     [Footnote 20: Some ancient authorities omit _and pray_.]

     [Footnote 21: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 22: Gr. you _being brought_.]

     [Footnote 23: Or, _shall they put to death_.]

     [Footnote 24: Or, _lives_.]

     [Footnote 25: Or, _earth_.]

     [Footnote 26: Or, _expiring_.]

     [Footnote 27: Gr. _the inhabited earth_.]

               |Matt. chap. 25
  _Parable of  | 1   Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto
  the Ten      |   ten virgins, which took their [1]lamps, and went
  Virgins._    | 2 forth to meet the bridegroom. And five of them were
               | 3 foolish, and five were wise. For the foolish, when
               | 4 they took their [1]lamps, took no oil with them: but
               |   the wise took oil in their vessels with their
               | 5 [1]lamps. Now while the bridegroom tarried, they all
               | 6 slumbered and slept. But at midnight there is a cry,
               |   Behold, the bridegroom! Come ye forth to meet him.
               | 7 Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their
               | 8 [1]lamps. And the foolish said unto the wise, Give
               | 9 us of your oil; for our [1]lamps are going out. But
               |   the wise answered, saying, Peradventure there will
               |   not be enough for us and you: go ye rather to them
               |10 that sell, and buy for yourselves. And while they
               |   went away to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that
               |   were ready went in with him to the marriage feast:
               |11 and the door was shut. Afterward, come also the
               |12 other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But
               |   he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know
               |13 you not. Watch therefore, for ye know not the day
               |   nor the hour.
  _Parable of  |14   For _it is_ as _when_ a man, going into another
  the Talents._|   country, called his own [2]servants, and delivered
               |15 unto them his goods. And unto one he gave five
               |   talents, to another two, to another one; to each
               |   according to his several ability; and he went on his
               |16 journey. Straightway he that received the five
               |   talents went and traded with them, and made other
               |17 five talents. In like manner he also that _received_
               |18 the two gained other two. But he that received the
               |   one went away and digged in the earth, and hid his
               |19 lord's money. Now after a long time the lord of
               |   those [2]servants cometh, and maketh a reckoning with
               |20 them. And he that received the five talents came and
               |   brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou
               |   deliveredst unto me five talents: lo, I have gained
               |21 other five talents. His lord said unto him, Well
               |   done, good and faithful [3]servant: thou hast been
               |   faithful over a few things, I will set thee over
               |   many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.
               |22 And he also that _received_ the two talents came and
               |   said, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents:
               |23 lo, I have gained other two talents. His lord said
               |   unto him, Well done, good and faithful [3]servant;
               |   thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will
               |   set thee over many things: enter thou into the joy
               |24 of thy lord. And he also that had received the one
               |   talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou
               |   art a hard man, reaping where thou didst not sow,
               |25 and gathering where thou didst not scatter: and I
               |   was afraid, and went away and hid thy talent in the
               |26 earth: lo, thou hast thine own. But his lord
               |   answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful
               |   [3]servant, thou knewest that I reap where I sowed
               |27 not, and gather where I did not scatter; thou
               |   oughtest therefore to have put my money to the
               |   bankers, and at my coming I should have received
               |28 back mine own with interest. Take ye away therefore
               |   the talent from him, and give it unto him that hath
               |29 the ten talents. For unto every one that hath shall
               |   be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him
               |   that hath not, even that which he hath shall be
               |30 taken away. And cast ye out the unprofitable
               |   [3]servant into the outer darkness: there shall be
               |   the weeping and gnashing of teeth.
  _6  Picture  |31   But when the Son of man shall come in his glory,
  of the       |   and all the angels with him [_see Zech. 14:5_], then
  Judgment     |32 shall he sit on the throne of his glory: and before
  with Parable |   him shall be gathered all the nations: and he shall
  of the Sheep |   separate them one from another, as the shepherd
  and the      |33 separateth the sheep from the [4]goats; and he shall
  Goats._      |   set the sheep on his right hand, but the [4]goats on
               |34 the left. Then shall the King say unto them on his
               |   right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit
               |   the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of
               |35 the world: for I was an hungred, and ye gave me
               |   meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a
               |36 stranger, and ye took me in; naked, and ye clothed
               |   me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison,
               |37 and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer
               |   him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and
               |38 fed thee? or athirst, and gave thee drink? And when
               |   saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked,
               |39 and clothed thee? And when saw we thee sick, or in
               |40 prison, and came unto thee? And the King shall
               |   answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you,
               |   Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of these my brethren,
               |41 _even_ these least, ye did it unto me. Then shall he
               |   say also unto them on the left hand, [5]Depart from
               |   me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire which is
               |42 prepared for the devil and his angels: for I was an
               |   hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and
               |43 ye gave me no drink: I was a stranger, and ye took
               |   me not in; naked, and ye clothed me not; sick, and
               |44 in prison, and ye visited me not. Then shall they
               |   also answer, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an
               |   hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or
               |   sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee?
               |45 Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto
               |   you, Inasmuch as ye did it not unto one of these
               |46 least, ye did it not unto me. And these shall go
               |   away into eternal punishment: but the righteous into
               |   eternal life [_see Dan. 12:2_].

     [Footnote 1: Or, _torches_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _kids_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _Depart from me under a curse._]



§ 140. JESUS PREDICTS HIS CRUCIFIXION TWO DAYS HENCE (JEWISH FRIDAY)

Probably at Bethany on Tuesday evening (beginning of Jewish Wednesday).
The Rulers in Jerusalem plot His death


  Mark 14:1-2            |Matt. 26:1-5           |Luke 22:1-2
                         |                       |
   1   Now after two days| 1   And it came to    | 1   Now the feast of
     was _the feast of_  |   pass, when Jesus had|   unleavened bread
     the passover and the|   finished all these  |   drew nigh, which
     unleavened bread:   |   words, he said unto |   is called the
                         | 2 his disciples, Ye   |   Passover.
                         |   know that after two |
                         |   days the passover   |
                         |   cometh, and the Son |
                         |   of man is delivered |
                         |   up to be crucified. |
                         | 3 Then were gathered  | 2           And the
     and the chief       |   together the chief  |   chief priests and
     priests and the     |   priests, and the    |
                         |   elders of the       |
                         |   people, unto the    |
                         |   court of the high   |
                         |   priest, who was     |
                         | 4 called Caiaphas; and|
     scribes sought how  |   they took counsel   |
     they might take him |   together that they  |   the scribes sought
     with subtilty, and  |   might take Jesus by |   how they might put
   2 kill him: for they  |   subtilty, and kill  |   him to death; for
     said, Not during the| 5 him. But they said, |
     feast, lest haply   |   Not during the      |
     there shall be a    |   feast, lest a tumult|
     tumult of the       |   arise among the     |   they feared the
     people.             |   people.             |   people.



§ 141. AT THE FEAST IN THE HOUSE OF SIMON THE LEPER MARY OF BETHANY
ANOINTS JESUS FOR HIS BURIAL

At Bethany (Tuesday evening, Jewish Wednesday)


  Mark 14:3-9            |Matt. 26:6-13          |John 12:2-8
                         |                       |
   3   And while he was  | 6   Now when Jesus was| 2   So they made him
     in Bethany in the   |   in Bethany, in the  |   a supper there: and
     house of Simon the  |   house of Simon the  |   Martha served; but
     leper, as he sat at |   leper,              |   Lazarus was one of
     meat, there came a  | 7        there came   |   them that sat at
     woman having [1]an  |   unto him a woman    |   meat with him.
     alabaster cruse of  |   having [1]an        | 3 Mary[a] therefore
     ointment of         |   alabaster cruse of  |   took a pound of
     [2]spikenard very   |   exceeding           |   ointment of
     costly; _and_ she   |   precious ointment,  |   [2]spikenard, very
     brake the cruse, and|   and she poured it   |   precious, and
     poured it over his  |   upon his head, as he|   anointed the feet
   4 head. But there were| 8 sat at meat. But    |   of Jesus, and
     some that had       |   when the disciples  |   wiped his feet
     indignation among   |   saw it, they had    |   with her hair: and
     themselves,         |   indignation, saying,|   the house was
     _saying_, To what   |   To what purpose is  |   filled with the
     purpose hath this   |                       |   odour of the
     waste of the        |                       | 4 ointment. But
     ointment been made? |                       |   Judas Iscariot,
   5 For this ointment   | 9 this waste? For this|   one of his
     might have been sold|   _ointment_ might    |   disciples, which
     for above three     |   have been sold for  |   should betray him,
     hundred [3]pence,   |   much,               | 5 saith, Why was not
     and given to the    |       and given to the|   this ointment sold
     poor. And they      |10 poor. But Jesus     |   for three hundred
     murmured against    |   perceiving it said  |   [3]pence, and
   6 her. But Jesus said,|   unto them, Why      |   given to the poor?
     Let her alone; why  |   trouble ye the      | 6 Now this he said,
     trouble ye her? she |   woman? for she hath |   not because he
     hath wrought a good |   wrought a good work |   cared for the
   7 work on me. For ye  |11 upon me. For ye have|   poor; but because
     have the poor always|   the poor always with|   he was a thief,
     with you, and       |   you;                |   and having the
     whensoever ye will  |                       |   [4]bag [5]took
     ye can do them good:|       but me you have |   away what was put
     but me ye have not  |12 not always. For in  | 7 therein. Jesus
   8 always. She hath    |   that she poured this|   therefore said,
     done what she could:|   ointment upon my    |   [6]Suffer her to
     she hath anointed my|   body, she did it to |   keep it against
     body aforehand for  |   prepare me for      |   the day of my
   9 the burying. And    |13 burial. Verily I    | 8 burying. For the
     verily I say unto   |   say unto you,       |   poor ye have
     you, Wheresoever the|   Wheresoever this    |   always with you;
     gospel shall be     |   gospel shall be     |   but me ye have not
     preached throughout |   preached in the     |   always.
     the whole world,    |   whole world, that   |
     that also which this|   also which this     |
     woman hath done     |   woman hath done     |
     shall be spoken of  |   shall be spoken of  |
     for a memorial of   |   for a memorial of   |
     her.                |   her.                |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a flask_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _pistic nard_, pistic being perhaps a local name.
     Some take it to mean _genuine_; others, _liquid_.]

     [Footnote 3: The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about
     seventeen cents.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _box_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _carried what was put therein_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _Let her alone:_ it was _that she might keep it_.]

[Footnote a: This anointing has nothing in common with that given by Luke
(§ 59), except the fact of a woman anointing the Saviour's feet, and the
name Simon, which was common. The former was in Galilee, this is at
Bethany near Jerusalem. There the host despised the woman who anointed,
here her brother is one of the guests, and her sister an active
attendant. There the woman was "a sinner," a notoriously bad woman, here
it is the devout Mary who "sat at the Lord's feet and heard his word"
months before (§ 104). There the host thought strange that Jesus allowed
her to touch him, here the disciples complain of the waste. There the
Saviour gave assurance of forgiveness, here of perpetual and world-wide
honor. Especially notice that here the woman who anoints is anticipating
his speedy death and burial, of which at the former time he had never
distinctly spoken. In view of all these differences it is absurd to
represent the two anointings as the same, and outrageous on such slender
ground to cast reproach on Mary of Bethany.]



§ 142. JUDAS, STUNG BY THE REBUKE OF JESUS AT THE FEAST, BARGAINS WITH
THE RULERS TO BETRAY JESUS

Tuesday Night in Jerusalem


  Mark 14:10-11          |Matt. 26:14-16         |Luke 22:3-6
                         |                       |
  10   And Judas         |14   Then one of the   | 3   And Satan entered
     Iscariot, [1]he     |   twelve, who was     |   into Judas who was
     that was one of the |   called Judas        |   called Iscariot,
     twelve, went away   |   Iscariot,           |   being of the
                         |                       |   number of the
                         |                       | 4 twelve. And he
                         |             went unto |   went away, and
     unto the chief      |   the chief priests,  |   communed with the
     priests,            |   and said,           |   chief priests and
              that he    |                       |   captains, how he
     might deliver him   |                       |   might deliver him
     unto them.          |                       |   unto them.
                         |15           What are  |
                         |   ye willing to give  |
                         |   me, and I will      |
                         |   deliver him unto    |
                         |   you?                |
  11           And they, |        And they       | 5            And
     when they heard it, |   weighed unto him    |   they were glad,
     were glad, and      |   thirty pieces of    |   and covenanted to
     promised to give him|   silver [_see Zech.  |   give him money.
     money.              |16 11:12_]. And from   | 6 And he consented,
           And he sought |   that time he sought |   and sought
     how he might        |   opportunity to      |   opportunity to
     conveniently deliver|   deliver him _unto   |   deliver him unto
     him _unto them_.    |   them_.              |   them [2]in the
                         |                       |   absence of the
                         |                       |   multitude.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _the one of the twelve_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _without tumult_.]



§ 143. THE PREPARATION FOR THE PASCHAL MEAL AT THE HOME OF A FRIEND
(POSSIBLY THAT OF JOHN MARK'S FATHER AND MOTHER)

Jerusalem, Thursday[a] afternoon. (A Day of Preparation)


  Mark 14:12-16          |Matt. 26:17-19         |Luke 22:7-13
                         |                       |
  12   And on the first  |17   Now on the first  | 7   And the day of
     day of unleavened   |   _day_ of unleavened |   unleavened bread
     bread, when they    |   bread the disciples |   came, on which the
     sacrificed the      |   came to Jesus,      |   passover must be
     passover, his       |   saying,             |   sacrificed.
     disciples say unto  |                       |
     him, Where wilt thou|           Where wilt  |
     that we go and make |   thou that we make   |
     ready that thou     |   ready for thee to   |
     mayest eat the      |   eat the passover?   |
     passover [_see Ex.  |   And he said,        |
  13 12:18-20_]? And he  |                       | 8             And he
     sendeth two of his  |                       |   sent Peter and
     disciples, and saith|                       |   John, saying, Go
     unto them,          |                       |   and make ready for
                         |                       |   us the passover,
                         |                       |   that we may eat.
                         |                       | 9 And they said unto
                         |                       |   him, Where wilt
                         |                       |   thou that we make
                         |                       |10 ready? And he said
                         |                       |   unto them, Behold,
                         |                       |   when ye are
                Go into  |18             Go into |   entered into the
     the city, and there |   the city to such a  |   city, there shall
     shall meet you a man|   man, and say unto   |   meet you a man
     bearing a pitcher of|   him,                |   bearing a pitcher
     water: follow him;  |                       |   of water; follow
                         |                       |   him into the house
  14 and wheresoever he  |                       |   whereinto he
                         |                       |11 goeth. And ye
     shall enter in, say |                       |   shall say unto the
     to the goodman of   |                       |   goodman of the
     the house, The      |                       |   house, The
     [1]Master saith,    |                       |   [1]Master saith
                         |        The [1]Master  |   unto thee, Where
     Where is my         |   saith, My time is at|   is the
     guest-chamber, where|   hand; I keep the    |   guest-chamber,
     I shall eat the     |   passover at thy     |   where I shall eat
     passover with my    |   house with my       |   the passover with
  15 disciples? And he   |   disciples.          |12 my disciples? And
     will himself shew   |                       |   he will shew you a
     you a large upper   |                       |   large upper room
     room furnished _and_|                       |
     ready: and there    |                       |   furnished: there
     make ready for us.  |                       |   make ready.
  16 And the disciples   |19            And the  |13              And
     went forth, and came|   disciples did as    |   they went, and
     into the city, and  |   Jesus appointed     |   found as he had
     found as he had said|   them;               |   said unto them:
     unto them: and they |                       |   and they made
     made ready the      |         and they made |   ready the
     passover.           |   ready the passover. |   passover.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Teacher_.]

[Footnote a: Wednesday (A Day of Rest) was apparently spent with the
disciples in retirement in Bethany. Thursday was spent wholly with the
disciples till the arrest in Gethsemane after midnight.]



§ 144. JESUS PARTAKES OF THE PASCHAL MEAL WITH THE TWELVE APOSTLES AND
REBUKES THEIR JEALOUSY

Jerusalem, Thursday evening after sunset (beginning of Jewish Friday)


  Mark 14:17             |Matt. 26:20            |Luke 22:14-16, 24-30
                         |                       |
  17   And when it was   |20   Now when even was |14   And when the hour
     evening he cometh   |   come, he was sitting|   was come, he sat
     with the twelve.    |   at meat with the    |   down, and the
                         |   twelve [1]disciples;|   apostles with him.
                         |                       |15 And he said unto
                         |                       |   them, With desire
     I have desired to eat this passover[a] with you before I suffer:
  16 for I say unto you, I will not eat it, until it be fulfilled in
     the kingdom of God.
  24   And there arose also a contention among them, which of them is
  25 accounted to be [2]greatest. And he said unto them, The kings of
     the Gentiles have lordship over them; and they that have authority
  26 over them are called Benefactors. But ye _shall_ not _be_ so: but
     he that is the greater among you, let him become as the younger;
  27 and he that is chief, as he that doth serve. For whether is
     greater, he that [3]sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he
     that [3]sitteth at meat? but I am in the midst of you as he that
  28 serveth. But ye are they which have continued with me in my
  29 temptations; and [4]I appoint unto you a kingdom, even as my
  30 Father appointed unto me, that ye may eat and drink at my table in
     my kingdom; and ye shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes
     of Israel.

     [Footnote 1: Many authorities, some ancient, omit _disciples_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _greater_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _reclineth_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _I appoint unto you, even as my Father appointed
     unto me a kingdom, that ye may eat and drink etc._]

[Footnote a: Some regard certain expressions in the Gospel of John as
showing that Jesus did not eat the Paschal meal, thus hopelessly
contradicting the other Gospels. But no one of John's expressions shows
what is supposed, and one of them really indicates the contrary. See note
at end of volume. Matthew, Mark, and Luke clearly show that he did eat
the regular Passover meal.]



§ 145. DURING THE PASCHAL MEAL, JESUS WASHES THE FEET OF HIS DISCIPLES

Evening before the Crucifixion (our Thursday, Jewish Friday)


  John 13:1-20

   1   Now before[a] the feast of the passover, Jesus knowing that his
     hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the
     Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved
   2 them [1]unto the end. And during supper, the devil having already
     put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's _son_, to betray
   3 him, _Jesus_, knowing that the Father had given all things into
     his hands, and that he came forth from God, and goeth unto God,
   4 riseth from supper, and layeth aside his garments; and he took a
   5 towel, and girded himself. Then he poureth water into the bason,
     and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the
   6 towel wherewith he was girded. So he cometh to Simon Peter. He
   7 saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet? Jesus answered and
     said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt
   8 understand hereafter. Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash
     my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part
   9 with me. Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but
  10 also my hands and my head. Jesus saith to him, He that is bathed
     needeth not [2]save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and
  11 ye are clean, but not all. For he knew him that should betray him;
     therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.
  12   So when he had washed their feet, and taken his garments, and
     [3]sat down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to
  13 you? Ye call me, [4]Master, and, Lord: and ye say well; for so I
  14 am. If I then, the Lord and the [4]Master, have washed your feet,
  15 ye also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an
  16 example, that ye also should do as I have done to you. Verily,
     verily, I say unto you, A [5]servant is not greater than his lord;
  17 neither [6]one that is sent greater than he that sent him. If ye
  18 know these things, blessed are ye if ye do them. I speak not of
     you all: I know whom I [7]have chosen: but that the scripture may
     be fulfilled, He that eateth [8]my bread lifted up his heel
  19 against me [_see Ps. 41:9_]. From henceforth I tell you before it
     come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that
  20 [9]I am _he_. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth
     whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth
     him that sent me.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _to the uttermost_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities omit _save_, and _his
     feet_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _reclined_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _an apostle_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _chose_.]

     [Footnote 8: Many ancient authorities read _his bread with me_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _I am_.]

[Footnote a: It is needlessly inferred that John by this expression means
that it was a full day before the passover meal. In fact, the words in
verse 2 "during supper" rather imply that "before passover" was just
before the meal began.]



§ 146. AT THE PASCHAL MEAL JESUS POINTS OUT JUDAS AS THE BETRAYER

Thursday evening (Jewish Friday)


  Mark 14:18-21   |Matt. 26:21-25  |Luke 22:21-23   |John 13:21-30
                  |                |                |
  18   And as they|                |21   But behold,|21   When Jesus had
     [2]sat and   |21 and as they  |   the hand of  |   thus said, he
     were eating, |   were eating, |   him that     |   was troubled in
     Jesus said,  |   he said,     |   betrayeth me |   the spirit, and
     Verily I say |   Verily I say |   is with me on|   testified, and
     unto you, One|   unto you,    |   the table.   |   said, Verily,
     of you shall |   that one of  |22 For the Son  |   verily, I say
     betray me,   |   you shall    |   of man indeed|   unto you, that
     _even_ he    |   betray me.   |   goeth, as it |   one of you
     that eateth  |                |   hath been    |   shall betray
     with me [_see|                |   determined:  |   me.
     Ps. 41:9_].  |                |   but woe unto |
                  |                |   that man     |
                  |                |   through whom |
                  |                |   he is        |
                  |22 And they were|23 betrayed! And|22     The
  19 They began to|   exceeding    |   they began to|   disciples
     be sorrowful,|   sorrowful,   |   question     |   looked one on
     and to say   |   and began to |   among        |   another,
     unto him one |   say unto him |   themselves,  |   doubting of
     by one, Is it|   every one, Is|   which of them|   whom he spake.
     I?           |   it I, Lord?  |   it was that  |
  20    And he    |23 And he       |   should do    |
     said unto    |   answered and |   this thing.  |
     them, _It is_|   said, He that|                |
     one of the   |   dipped his   |                |
     twelve, he   |   hand with me |                |
     that dippeth |   in the dish, |                |
     with me in   |   the same     |                |
  21 the dish. For|   shall betray |                |
     the Son of   |24 me. The Son  |                |
     man goeth,   |   of man goeth,|                |
     even as it is|   even as it is|                |
     written of   |   written of   |                |
     him: but woe |   him: but woe |                |
     unto that man|   unto that man|                |
     through whom |   through whom |                |
     the Son of   |   the Son of   |                |
     man is       |   man is       |                |
     betrayed!    |   betrayed!    |                |
     good were it |   good were it |                |
     [1]for that  |   [1]for that  |                |
     man if he had|   man if he had|                |
     not been     |   not been     |                |
     born.        |   born.        |                |23 There was at the
                  |                |                |   table reclining
                  |                |   in Jesus' bosom one of his
                  |                |   disciples, whom Jesus loved.
                  |                |24 Simon Peter therefore beckoneth
                  |                |   to him, and saith unto him, Tell
                  |                |   _us_ who it is of whom he
                  |                |25 speaketh. He leaning back, as he
                  |                |   was, on Jesus' breast saith unto
                  |                |26 him, Lord, who is it? Jesus
                  |                |   therefore answereth, He it is,
                  |                |   for whom I shall dip the sop, and
                  |                |   give it him. So when he had
                  |                |   dipped the sop, he taketh and
                  |                |   giveth it to Judas, _the son_ of
                  |                |   Simon Iscariot.
                  |25 And Judas,   |
                  |   which        |
                  |   betrayed him,|
                  |   answered and |
                  |   said, Is it  |
                  |   I, Rabbi? He |
                  |   saith unto   |
                  |   him, Thou    |
                  |   hast said.   |
                  |                |27                 And after the
     sop, then entered Satan into him. Jesus therefore saith unto him,
  28 That thou doest, do quickly. Now no man at the table knew for what
  29 intent he spake this unto him. For some thought, because Judas
     had the [3]bag, that Jesus said unto him, Buy what things we have
     need of for the feast; or, that he should give something to the
  30 poor. He then having received the sop went out straightway: and it
     was night.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _for him if that man_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _reclined_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _box_.]



§ 147. AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF JUDAS JESUS WARNS THE DISCIPLES (PETER IN
PARTICULAR) AGAINST DESERTION, WHILE ALL PROTEST THEIR LOYALTY


  Mark 14:27-31   |Matt. 26:31-35  |Luke 22:31-38   |John 13:31-38
                  |                |                |
                  |                |                |31   When therefore
     he was gone out, Jesus saith, Now [1]is the Son of man glorified,
  32 and God [1]is glorified in him; and God shall glorify him in
  33 himself, and straightway shall he glorify him. Little children,
     yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me: and as I said
  34 unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say unto
     you, A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another;
  35 [2]even as I have loved you, that ye also love one another. By
                  |                |                |   this shall all
                  |                |                |   men know that
                  |                |                |   ye are my
                  |                |                |   disciples, if
                  |                |                |   ye have love
                  |                |                |   one to another.
  27   And Jesus  |31   Then saith |31   Simon,     |36   Simon Peter
     saith unto   |   Jesus unto   |   Simon,       |   saith unto him,
     them, All ye |   them, All ye |   behold, Satan|   Lord, whither
     shall be     |   shall be     |   [4]asked to  |   goest thou?
     [3]offended: |   [3]offended  |   have you,    |   Jesus answered,
     for it is    |   in me this   |   that he might|   Whither I go,
     written [_see|   night: for it|   sift you as  |   thou canst not
     Zech. 13:7_],|   is written, I|32 wheat: but I |   follow me now;
     I will smite |   will smite   |   made         |   but thou shalt
     the shepherd,|   the shepherd,|   supplication |   follow
     and the sheep|   and the sheep|   for thee,    |   afterwards.
     shall be     |   of the flock |   that thy     |
     scattered    |   shall be     |   faith fail   |
     abroad.      |   scattered    |   not: and do  |
  28 Howbeit,     |32 abroad. But  |   thou, when   |
     after I am   |   after I am   |   once thou    |
     raised up, I |   raised up, I |   hast turned  |
     will go      |   will go      |   again,       |
     before you   |   before you   |   stablish thy |
     into Galilee.|   into Galilee.|   brethren.    |
  29 But Peter    |33 But Peter    |33          And |37 Peter saith
     said unto    |   answered and |   he said unto |   unto him, Lord,
     him, Although|   said unto    |   him, Lord,   |   why cannot I
     all shall be |   him, If all  |   with thee I  |   follow thee
     [3]offended, |   shall be     |   am ready to  |   even now? I
     yet will not |   [3]offended  |   go both to   |   will lay down
  30 I. And Jesus |   in thee, I   |   prison and to|   my life for
     saith unto   |   will never be|34 death. And he|38 thee. Jesus
     him, Verily I|   [3]offended. |   said, I tell |   answereth, Wilt
     say unto     |34 Jesus said   |   thee, Peter, |   thou lay down
     thee, that   |   unto him,    |   the cock     |   thy life for
     thou to-day, |   Verily I say |   shall not    |   me? Verily,
     _even_ this  |   unto thee,   |   crow this    |   verily, I say
     night, before|   that this    |   day, until   |   unto thee, The
     the cock crow|   night, before|   thou shalt   |   cock shall not
     twice, shalt |   the cock     |   thrice deny  |   crow, till thou
     deny me      |   crow, thou   |   that thou    |   hast denied me
  31 thrice. But  |   shalt deny me|   knowest me.  |   thrice.
     he spake     |35 thrice. Peter|                |
     exceeding    |   saith unto   |                |
     vehemently,  |   him, Even if |                |
     If I must die|   I must die   |                |
     with thee, I |   with thee,   |                |
     will not deny|   _yet_ will I |                |
     thee. And in |   not deny     |                |
     like manner  |   thee.        |                |
     also said    |   Likewise also|                |
     they all.    |   said all the |
                  |   disciples.   |
                  |                |35   And he said unto them, When I
                  |                |   sent you forth without purse,
                  |                |   and wallet, and shoes, lacked ye
                  |                |   any thing? And they said,
                  |                |36 Nothing. And he said unto them,
                  |                |   But now, he that hath a purse,
                  |                |   let him take it, and likewise a
                  |                |   wallet: [5]and he that hath
                  |                |   none, let him sell his cloke,
                  |                |37 and buy a sword. For I say unto
                  |                |   you, that this which is written
                  |                |   must be fulfilled in me [_see
                  |                |   Isa. 53:12_], And he was
                  |                |   reckoned with transgressors: for
                  |                |   that which concerneth me hath
                  |                |38 [6]fulfilment. And they said,
                  |                |   Lord, behold, here are two
                  |                |   swords. And he said unto them,
                  |                |   It is enough.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _was_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _even as I loved you, that ye also may love one
     another_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _caused to stumble_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _obtained you by asking_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _and he that hath no sword, let him sell his
     cloke, and buy one_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _end_.]



§ 148. JESUS INSTITUTES THE MEMORIAL OF EATING BREAD AND DRINKING WINE

Jerusalem. Evening before the Crucifixion


  Mark 14:22-25   |Matt. 26:26-29  |Luke[a] 22:17-20|1 Cor.[b] 11:23-26
                  |                |                |
                  |                |17   And he     |
                  |                |   received a   |
                  |                |   cup, and when|
                  |                |   he had given |
                  |                |   thanks, he   |
                  |                |   said, Take   |
                  |                |   this, and    |
                  |                |   divide it    |
                  |                |   among        |
                  |                |   yourselves:  |
                  |                |18 for I say    |
                  |                |   unto you, I  |
                  |                |   will not     |
                  |                |   drink from   |
                  |                |   henceforth of|
                  |                |   the fruit of |
                  |                |   the vine,    |
                  |                |   until the    |
                  |                |   kingdom of   |
                  |                |   God shall    |
                  |                |   come.        |
  22   And as they|26   And as they|                |23   For I received
     were eating, |   were eating, |19   And he took|   of the Lord
     he took      |   Jesus took   |   [1]bread, and|   that which also
     [1]bread, and|   [1]bread, and|   when he had  |   I delivered
     when he had  |   blessed, and |   given thanks,|   unto you, how
     blessed, he  |   brake it; and|   he brake it, |   that the Lord
     brake it, and|   he gave to   |   and gave to  |   Jesus in the
     gave to them,|   the          |   them, saying,|   night in which
     and said,    |   disciples,   |   This is my   |   he was betrayed
     Take ye: this|   and said,    |   body [5]which|24 took bread; and
     is my body.  |   Take, eat;   |   is given for |   when he had
                  |   this is my   |   you: this do |   given thanks,
  23 And he took a|27 body. And he |   in           |   he brake it,
     cup, and when|   took [2]a    |   remembrance  |   and said, This
     he had given |   cup, and gave|20 of me. And   |   is my body,
     thanks, he   |   thanks, and  |   the cup in   |   which [7]is for
     gave to them:|   gave to them,|   like manner  |   you: this do in
     and they all |   saying, Drink|   after supper,|   remembrance of
     drank of it. |   ye all of it;|   saying,      |25 me. In like
  24 And he said  |                |                |   manner also the
     unto them,   |                |                |   cup, after
     This is my   |28 for this is  |           This |   supper, saying,
     blood of     |   my blood of  |   cup is       |
     [3]the       |   [3]the       |   the new      |   This cup is the
     [4]covenant, |   [4]covenant, |   [6]covenant  |   new [6]covenant
     which is shed|   which is shed|   in my blood, |   in my blood:
     for many     |   for many unto|   _even_ that  |   this do, as oft
     [_see Ex.    |   remission of |   which is     |   as ye drink
     24:8; Lev.   |   sins.        |   poured out   |   _it_, in
     4:18-20; Jer.|                |   for you.     |   remembrance of
     31:31; Zech. |                |                |26 me. For as
     9:11_].      |29       But I  |                |   often as ye eat
  25 Verily I say |   say unto you,|                |   this bread, and
     unto you, I  |   I will not   |                |   drink the cup,
     will no more |   drink        |                |   ye proclaim the
     drink of the |   henceforth of|                |   Lord's death
     fruit of the |   this fruit of|                |   till he come.
     vine, until  |   the vine,    |                |
     that day when|   until that   |                |
     I drink it   |   day when I   |                |
     new in the   |   drink it new |                |
     kingdom of   |   with you in  |                |
     God.         |   my Father's  |                |
                  |   kingdom.     |                |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a loaf_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _the cup_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _the testament_.]

     [Footnote 4: Many ancient authorities insert _new_.]

     [Footnote 5: Some ancient authorities omit _which is given for you
     ... which is poured out for you._]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _testament_.]

     [Footnote 7: Many ancient authorities read _is broken for you_.]

[Footnote a: Luke here (see § 144) departs from the order of Mark (and
Matthew) and mentions the institution of the supper earlier in the
evening. It seems best to follow the chronology of Mark, who places it
after the departure of Judas.]

[Footnote b: These are two parallel reports of the institution of the
supper. Mark is followed by Matthew and 1 Corinthians (about A.D. 56) by
Luke (not earlier than A.D. 58).]



§ 149. THE FAREWELL DISCOURSE TO HIS DISCIPLES IN THE UPPER ROOM

Jerusalem


  John 14[a]

   1   Let not your heart be troubled: [1]ye believe in God, believe
   2 also in me. In my Father's house are many [2]mansions; if it were
     not so, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you.
   3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I come again, and will
     receive you unto myself; that where I am, _there_ ye may be also.
   4 [3]And whither I go, ye know the way. Thomas saith unto him, Lord,
   5 we know not whither thou goest; how know we the way? Jesus saith
   6 unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life: no one cometh
   7 unto the Father, but [4]by me. If ye had known me, ye would have
     known my Father also: from henceforth ye know him, and have seen
   8 him. Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it
   9 sufficeth us. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with
     you, and dost thou not know me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath
  10 seen the Father; how sayest thou, Shew us the Father? Believest
     thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words
     that I say unto you I speak not from myself: but the Father
  11 abiding in me doeth his works. Believe me that I am in the Father,
     and the Father in me: or else believe me for the very works' sake.
  12 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works
     that I do shall he do also; and greater _works_ than these shall
  13 he do; because I go unto the Father. And whatsoever ye shall ask
     in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in
  14 the Son. If ye shall ask [5]me anything in my name, that will I
  15 do. If ye love me, ye will keep my commandments. And I will
  16 [6]pray the Father, and he shall give you another [7]Comforter,
  17 that he may be with you for ever, _even_ the Spirit of truth: whom
     the world cannot receive; for it beholdeth him not, neither
     knoweth him: ye know him; for he abideth with you, and shall be in
  18 you. I will not leave you [8]desolate: I come unto you. Yet a
  19 little while, and the world beholdeth me no more; but ye behold
  20 me: because I live, [9]ye shall live also. In that day ye shall
  21 know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you. He that
     hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me:
     and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love
  22 him, and will manifest myself unto him. Judas (not Iscariot) saith
     unto him, Lord, what is come to pass that thou wilt manifest
  23 thyself unto us, and not unto the world? Jesus answered and
     said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my word: and my
     Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our
  24 abode with him. He that loveth me not keepeth not my words: and
     the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father's who sent me.
  25   These things have I spoken unto you, while _yet_ abiding with
  26 you. But the [7]Comforter, _even_ the Holy Spirit, whom the Father
     will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring to
  27 your remembrance all that I said unto you. Peace I leave with you;
     my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you.
  28 Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be fearful. Ye
     heard how I said to you, I go away, and I come unto you. If ye
     loved me, ye would have rejoiced, because I go unto the Father:
  29 for the Father is greater than I. And now I have told you before
  30 it come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe. I
     will no more speak much with you, for the prince of the world
  31 cometh: and he hath nothing in me; but that the world may know
     that I love the Father, and as the Father gave me commandment,
     even so I do. Arise, let us go hence.[b]

     [Footnote 1: Or, _believe in God_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _abiding-places_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities read _And whither I go ye
     know, and the way ye know._]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 5: Many ancient authorities omit _me_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _make request of_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _Advocate_. Or, _Helper_. Gr. _Paraclete_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _orphans_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _and ye shall live_.]

[Footnote a: Chapters 13 to 17 in John really belong together. There is
first the effort of Jesus to stop the bickerings of the Twelve, then his
warning and their reply. Jesus continues to address them with repeated
interruption (dialogue), but finally they fear to ask him further
(monologue). The discourse concludes with the wonderful prayer (the real
Lord's Prayer) in chapter 17.]

[Footnote b: Apparently they leave the Upper Room.]



§ 150. THE DISCOURSE ON THE WAY TO GETHSEMANE

Possibly on the Street


  John 15 and 16[a]

   1   I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. Every branch
   2 in me that beareth not fruit, he taketh it away: and every
     _branch_ that beareth fruit, he cleanseth it, that it may bear
   3 more fruit. Already ye are clean because of the word which I have
   4 spoken unto you. Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot
     bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; so neither can
   5 ye, except ye abide in me. I am the vine, ye are the branches: He
     that abideth in me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit: for
   6 apart from me ye can do nothing. If a man abide not in me, he is
     cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and they gather them, and
   7 cast them into the fire, and they are burned. If ye abide in me,
     and my words abide in you, ask whatsoever ye will, and it shall be
   8 done unto you. Herein [1]is my Father glorified, [2]that ye bear
   9 much fruit; and _so_ shall ye be my disciples. Even as the Father
  10 hath loved me, I also have loved you: abide ye in my love. If ye
     keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have
  11 kept my Father's commandments, and abide in his love. These things
     have I spoken unto you, that my joy may be in you, and _that_ your
  12 joy may be fulfilled. This is my commandment, that ye love one
  13 another, even as I have loved you. Greater love hath no man than
  14 this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. Ye are my
  15 friends, if ye do the things which I command you. No longer do I
     call you [3]servants; for the [4]servant knoweth not what his lord
     doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I heard
  16 from my Father I have made known unto you. Ye did not choose me,
     but I chose you, and appointed you, that ye should go and bear
     fruit, and _that_ your fruit should abide: that whatsoever ye
  17 shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you. These
  18 things I command you, that ye may love one another. If the world
     hateth you, [5]ye know that it hath hated me before _it hated_
  19 you. If ye were of the world, the world would love its own: but
     because ye are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world,
  20 therefore the world hateth you. Remember the word that I said unto
     you, A [4]servant is not greater than his lord. If they persecuted
     me, they will also persecute you; if they keep my word, they will
  21 keep yours also. But all these things will they do unto you for my
  22 name's sake, because they know not him that sent me. If I had not
     come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have
  23 no excuse for their sin. He that hateth me hateth my Father also.
  24 If I had not done among them the works which none other did, they
     had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and
  25 my Father. But _this cometh to pass_, that the word may be
     fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a
  26 cause [_see Ps. 35:19; 69:4_]. But when the [6]Comforter is come,
     whom I will send unto you from the Father, _even_ the Spirit of
     truth, which [7]proceedeth from the Father, he shall bear witness
  27 of me: [8]and ye also bear witness, because ye have been with me
     from the beginning.

   1   These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be made
   2 to stumble. They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the hour
     cometh, that whosoever killeth you shall think that he offereth
   3 service unto God. And these things will they do, because they have
   4 not known the Father, nor me. But these things have I spoken unto
     you, that when their hour is come, ye may remember them, how that
     I told you. And these things I said not unto you from the
   5 beginning, because I was with you. But now I go unto him that sent
   6 me; and none of you asketh me, Whither goest thou? But because I
     have spoken these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart.
   7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I
     go away: for if I go not away, the [6]Comforter will not come unto
   8 you; but if I go, I will send him unto you. And he, when he is
     come, will convict the world in respect of sin, and of
   9 righteousness, and of judgement: of sin, because they believe not
  10 on me; of righteousness, because I go to the Father, and ye behold
  11 me no more; of judgement, because the prince of this world hath
  12 been judged. I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot
  13 bear them now. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he
     shall guide you into all the truth: for he shall not speak from
     himself; but what things soever he shall hear, _these_ shall he
     speak: and he shall declare unto you the things that are to come.
  14 He shall glorify me: for he shall take of mine, and shall declare
  15 _it_ unto you. All things whatsoever the Father hath are mine:
     therefore said I, that he taketh of mine, and shall declare _it_
  16 unto you. A little while, and ye behold me no more; and again a
  17 little while, and ye shall see me. _Some_ of his disciples
     therefore said one to another, What is this that he saith unto us,
     A little while, and ye behold me not; and again a little while,
  18 and ye shall see me: and, Because I go to the Father? They said
     therefore, What is this that he saith, A little while? We know not
  19 what he saith. Jesus perceived that they were desirous to ask him,
     and he said unto them, Do ye inquire among yourselves concerning
     this, that I said, A little while, and ye behold me not, and again
  20 a little while, and ye shall see me? Verily, verily, I say unto
     you, that ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice:
  21 ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. A
     woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come:
     but when she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more
  22 the anguish, for the joy that a man is born into the world. And ye
     therefore now have sorrow: but I will see you again, and your
     heart shall rejoice, and your joy no one taketh away from you
  23 [_see Isa. 66:14_]. And in that day ye shall [9]ask me nothing.
     Verily, verily, I say unto you, If ye shall ask anything of the
  24 Father, he will give it you in my name. Hitherto have ye asked
     nothing in my name: ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be
     fulfilled.
  25   These things have I spoken unto you in [10]proverbs: the hour
     cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in [10]proverbs, but
  26 shall tell you plainly of the Father. In that day ye shall ask in
     my name: and I say not unto you, that I will [11]pray the Father
  27 for you; for the Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved
  28 me, and have believed that I came forth from the Father. I came
     out from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave
  29 the world, and go unto the Father. His disciples say, Lo, now
  30 speakest thou plainly, and speakest no [12]proverb. Now know we
     that thou knowest all things, and needest not that any man should
     ask thee: by this we believe that thou camest forth from God.
  31 Jesus answered them, Do ye now believe? Behold, the hour cometh,
  32 yea, is come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own,
     and shall leave me alone: and _yet_ I am not alone, because the
  33 Father is with me. These things have I spoken unto you, that in me
     ye may have peace. In the world ye have tribulation: but be of
     good cheer; I have overcome the world.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _was_.]

     [Footnote 2: Many ancient authorities read _that ye bear much
     fruit, and be my disciples_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _know ye_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _Advocate_. Or, _Helper_. Gr. _Paraclete_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _goeth forth from_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _and bear ye also witness_.]

     [Footnote 9: Or, _ask me no question_.]

     [Footnote 10: Or, _parables_.]

     [Footnote 11: Gr. _make request of_.]

     [Footnote 12: Or, _parable_.]

[Footnote a: Chapters 14-17 are called the Heart of Christ. Nowhere does
the Master lay bare his very soul more completely than here in chapters
15 and 16, with the allegory of the Vine and the teaching concerning the
Holy Spirit.]



§ 151. CHRIST'S INTERCESSORY PRAYER

Possibly near Gethsemane


  John 17

   1   These things spake Jesus; and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he
     said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that the Son may
   2 glorify thee: even as thou gavest him authority over all flesh,
     that whatsoever thou hast given him, to them he should give
   3 eternal life. And this is life eternal, that they should know thee
     the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, _even_ Jesus
   4 Christ. I glorified thee on the earth, having accomplished the
   5 work which thou hast given me to do. And now, O Father, glorify
     thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee
   6 before the world was. I manifested thy name unto the men whom thou
     gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them
   7 to me; and they have kept thy word. Now they know that all things
   8 whatsoever thou hast given me are from thee: for the words which
     thou gavest me I have given unto them; and they received _them_,
     and knew of a truth that I came forth from thee, and they believed
   9 that thou didst send me. I [1]pray for them: I [1]pray not for the
     world, but for those whom thou hast given me; for they are thine:
  10 and all things that are mine are thine, and thine are mine: and I
  11 am glorified in them. And I am no more in the world, and these are
     in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep them in thy
     name which thou hast given me, that they may be one, even as we
  12 _are_. While I was with them, I kept them in thy name which thou
     hast given me: and I guarded them, and not one of them perished,
     but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled
  13 [_see Ps. 41:9_]. But now I come to thee; and these things I speak
  14 in the world, that they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves. I
     have given them thy word; and the world hated them, because they
  15 are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. I [1]pray not
     that thou shouldest take them [2]from the world, but that thou
  16 shouldest keep them [2]from [3]the evil _one_. They are not of the
  17 world, even as I am not of the world. [4]Sanctify them in the
  18 truth: thy word is truth. As thou didst send me into the world,
  19 even so sent I them into the world. And for their sakes I
     [4]sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in
  20 truth. Neither for these only do I [1]pray, but for them also that
  21 believe on me through their word; that they may all be one; even
     as thou, Father, _art_ in me, and I in thee, that they also may be
  22 in us: that the world may believe that thou didst send me. And the
     glory which thou hast given me I have given unto them; that they
  23 may be one, even as we _are_ one; I in them, and thou in me, that
     they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that thou
  24 didst send me, and lovedst them, even as thou lovedst me. Father,
     [5]that which thou hast given me, I will that, where I am, they
     also may be with me; that they may behold my glory, which thou
     hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the
  25 world. O righteous Father, the world knew thee not, but I knew
  26 thee; and these knew that thou didst send me; and I made known
     unto them thy name, and will make it known; that the love
     wherewith thou lovedst me may be in them, and I in them.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _make request_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _out of_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _evil_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Consecrate_.]

     [Footnote 5: Many ancient authorities read _those whom_.]



§ 152. GOING FORTH TO GETHSEMANE, JESUS SUFFERS LONG IN AGONY

IN AN OPEN GARDEN, BETWEEN THE BROOK KEDRON AND THE FOOT OF THE MOUNT OF
OLIVES

Late in the night introducing Friday


  Mark 14:26, 32-42|Matt. 26:30,     |Luke 22:39-46    |John 18:1
                   |  36-46          |                 |
  26[a]   And when |30   And when    |39   And he came | 1   When Jesus
     they had sung |   they had sung |   out, and went,|   had spoken
     a hymn, they  |   a hymn, they  |   as his custom |   these words,
     went out unto |   went out unto |   was, unto the |   he went
     the mount of  |   the mount of  |   mount of      |   forth with
     Olives.       |   Olives.       |   Olives; and   |   his
                   |                 |   the disciples |   disciples
  32   And they    |36   Then cometh |   also followed |   over the
     come unto [1]a|   Jesus with    |40 him. And when |   [4]brook
     place which   |   them unto [1]a|   he was at the |   [5]Kidron,
     was named     |   place called  |   place, he said|   where was a
     Gethsemane:   |   Gethsemane,   |   unto them,    |   garden, into
     and he saith  |   and saith unto|                 |   the which he
     unto his      |   his disciples,|                 |   entered,
     disciples, Sit|   Sit ye here,  |                 |   himself and
     ye here, while|   while I go    |                 |   his
  33 I pray. And he|   yonder and    |                 |   disciples.
     taketh with   |37 pray. And he  |                 |
     him Peter and |   took with him |                 |
     James and     |   Peter and the |                 |
     John, and     |   two sons of   |                 |
     began to be   |   Zebedee, and  |                 |
     greatly       |   began to be   |                 |
     amazed, and   |   sorrowful and |                 |
     sore troubled.|   sore troubled.|                 |
  34 And he saith  |38 Then saith he |                 |
     unto them, My |   unto them, My |   Pray that ye  |
     soul is       |   soul is       |   enter not into|
     exceeding     |   exceeding     |   temptation.   |
     sorrowful even|   sorrowful,    |                 |
     unto death    |   even unto     |                 |
     [_see Ps.     |   death: abide  |                 |
     42:6_]: abide |   ye here, and  |                 |
     ye here, and  |   watch with me.|                 |
  35 watch. And he |39 And he went   |41 And he was    |
     went forward a|   forward a     |   parted from   |
     little, and   |   little, and   |   them about a  |
     fell on the   |   fell on his   |   stone's cast; |
     ground, and   |   face, and     |   and he kneeled|
     prayed that,  |   prayed,       |   down and      |
     if it were    |                 |   prayed,       |
     possible, the |                 |   saying,       |
     hour might    |                 |                 |
     pass away from|                 |                 |
  36 him. And he   |                 |                 |
     said, Abba,   |   saying, O my  |                 |
     Father, all   |   Father, if it |42 Father, if    |
     things are    |   be possible,  |   thou be       |
     possible unto |   let this cup  |   willing,      |
     thee; remove  |   pass away from|   remove this   |
     this cup from |   me:           |   cup from me:  |
     me: howbeit   |   nevertheless, |   nevertheless  |
     not what I    |   not as I will,|   not my will,  |
     will, but what|   but as thou   |   but thine, be |
     thou wilt.    |   wilt.         |43 done. [3]And there appeared
                   |                 |   unto him an angel from heaven,
                   |                 |44 strengthening him. And being
                   |                 |   in an agony he prayed more
                   |                 |   earnestly: and his sweat
                   |                 |   became as it were great drops
                   |                 |   of blood falling down upon the
                   |                 |45 ground. And when he rose up
                   |                 |   from his prayer, he came unto
  37 And he cometh,|40 And he cometh |   the disciples, and found them
     and findeth   |   unto the      |46 sleeping for sorrow, and said
     them sleeping,|   disciples, and|   unto them, Why sleep ye? rise
     and saith unto|   findeth them  |   and pray, that ye enter not
     Peter, Simon, |   sleeping, and |   into temptation.
     sleepest thou?|   saith unto    |
     couldest thou |   Peter, What,  |
     not watch one |   could ye not watch with me|
  38 hour? [2]Watch|41 one hour? [2]Watch and    |
     and pray, that ye   |   pray, that ye enter |
     enter not into      |   not into temptation:|
     temptation: the     |   the spirit indeed is|
     spirit indeed is    |   willing, but the    |
     willing, but the    |42 flesh is weak. Again|
  39 flesh is weak. And  |   a second time he    |
     again he went away, |   went away, and      |
     and prayed, saying  |   prayed, saying, O my|
     the same words.     |   Father, if this     |
                         |   cannot pass away,   |
                         |   except I drink it,  |
                         |   thy will be done.   |
  40 And again he came,  |43 And he came again   |
     and found them      |   and found them      |
     sleeping, for their |   sleeping, for their |
     eyes were very      |44 eyes were heavy. And|
     heavy; and they wist|   he left them again, |
     not what to answer  |   and went away, and  |
     him.                |   prayed a third time,|
                         |   saying again the    |
                         |   same words.         |
  41 And he cometh the   |45             Then    |
     third time, and     |   cometh he to the    |
     saith unto them,    |   disciples, and saith|
     Sleep on now, and   |   unto them, Sleep on |
     take your rest: it  |   now, and take your  |
     is enough; the hour |   rest: behold, the   |
     is come; behold, the|   hour is at hand, and|
     Son of man is       |   the Son of man is   |
     betrayed into the   |   betrayed unto the   |
     hands of sinners.   |   hands of sinners.   |
  42 Arise, let us be    |46 Arise, let us be    |
     going: behold, he   |   going: behold, he is|
     that betrayeth me is|   at hand that        |
     at hand.            |   betrayeth me.       |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _an enclosed piece of ground_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Watch ye, and pray that ye enter not_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities omit verses 43, 44.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _ravine_. Gr. _winter-torrent_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _of the Cedars_.]

[Footnote a: The Synoptic Gospels do not give the great discourse of
Jesus in John 14 to 17. Hence they represent Jesus as going forth to
Gethsemane after the institution of the supper (§ 148). The time was
probably not long and they apparently sang the hymn (probably one of the
Psalms) as they rose to leave the Upper Room (John 14:31). Hence the
passage in John 15 to 17 comes in between singing the hymn and reaching
Gethsemane.]



PART XIII

THE ARREST, TRIAL, CRUCIFIXION AND BURIAL OF JESUS

_Thursday Night, Friday, and Saturday of Passion Week (Days of Darkness
for the Kingdom of God[a]). §§ 153-168._

[Footnote a: "Your hour and the power of darkness" (Luke 22:53). Friday,
the Day of Suffering, has become for Christians the Day of the Cross and
of Glory.]



§ 153. JESUS IS BETRAYED, ARRESTED AND FORSAKEN

Garden of Gethsemane. Friday, long before dawn


  Mark 14:43-52   |Matt. 26:47-56  |Luke 22:47-53   |John 18:2-12
                  |                |                |
  43   And        |47   And while  |47   While he   | 2   Now Judas
     straightway, |   he yet spake,|   yet spake,   |   also, which
     while he yet |   lo, Judas,   |   behold, a    |   betrayed him,
     spake, cometh|   one of the   |   multitude,   |   knew the place:
     Judas, one   |   twelve, came,|   and he that  |   for Jesus
     the twelve,  |   and with him |   was called   |   oft-times
     and with him |   a great      |   Judas, one of|   resorted thither
     a multitude  |   multitude    |   the twelve,  |   with his
     with swords  |   with swords  |   went before  | 3 disciples. Judas
     and staves,  |   and staves,  |   them;        |   then, having
     from the     |   from the     |                |   received the
     chief priests|   chief priests|                |   [3]band _of
     and the      |   and elders of|   soldiers_, and officers from the
     scribes and  |   the people.  |   chief priests and the Pharisees,
     the elders.  |                |   cometh thither with lanterns and
                  |                | 4 torches and weapons. Jesus
                  |                |   therefore, knowing all the
                  |                |   things that were coming upon
                  |                |   him, went forth, and saith unto
                  |                | 5 them, Whom seek ye? They
                  |                |   answered him, Jesus of Nazareth.
                  |                |   Jesus saith unto them, I am
                  |                |   _he_. And Judas also, which
                  |                |   betrayed him, was standing with
                  |                | 6 them. When therefore he said
                  |                |   unto them, I am _he_, they went
                  |                |   backward, and fell to the
                  |                | 7 ground. Again therefore he asked
                  |                |   them, Whom seek ye? And they
                  |                | 8 said, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus
                  |                |   answered, I told you that I am
                  |                |   _he_: if therefore ye seek me,
                  |                | 9 let these go their way: that the
                  |                |   word might be fulfilled which he
                  |                |   spake, Of those whom thou hast
                  |                |   given me I lost not one.
  44 Now he that  |48 Now he that  |                |
     betrayed him |   betrayed him |                |
     had given    |   gave them a  |                |
     them a token,|   sign, saying,|                |
     saying,      |   Whomsoever I |                |
     Whomsoever I |   shall kiss,  |                |
     shall kiss,  |   that is he:  |                |
     that is he;  |   take him.    |                |
     take him, and|                |                |
     lead him away|                |                |
  45 safely. And  |                |                |
     when he was  |                |                |
     come,        |49 And          |   and he drew  |
     straightway  |   straightway  |   near unto    |
     he came to   |   he came to   |   Jesus to     |
     him, and     |   Jesus, and   |48 kiss him. But|
     saith, Rabbi;|   said, Hail,  |   Jesus said   |
     and          |   Rabbi; and   |   unto him,    |
     [1]kissed    |   [1]kissed    |   Judas,       |
     him.         |   him.         |   betrayest    |
                  |                |   thou the Son |
                  |                |   of man with a|
                  |50 And Jesus    |49 kiss? And    |
                  |   said unto    |   when they    |
                  |   him, Friend, |   that were    |
                  |   _do_ that for|   about him saw|
                  |   which thou   |   what would   |
                  |   art come.    |   follow, they |
                  |   Then they    |   said, Lord,  |
  46 And they laid|   came and laid|   shall we     |
     hands on him,|   hands on     |   smite with   |
     and took him.|   Jesus, and   |   the sword?   |
  47 But a certain|51 took him. And|50 And a certain|10 Simon Peter
     one of them  |   behold, one  |   one of them  |   therefore
     that stood by|   of them that |   smote the    |   having a sword
     drew his     |   were with    |   [2]servant of|   drew it, and
     sword, and   |   Jesus        |   the high     |   struck the high
     smote the    |   stretched out|   priest, and  |   priest's
     [2]servant of|   his hand, and|   struck off   |   [2]servant, and
     the high     |   drew his     |   his right    |   cut off his
     priest, and  |   sword, and   |   ear.         |   right ear. Now
     struck off   |   smote the    |                |   the
     his ear.     |   [2]servant of|                |   [2]servant's
                  |   the high     |                |   name was
                  |   priest, and  |                |11 Malchus. Jesus
                  |   struck off   |51      But     |   therefore said
                  |52 his ear. Then|   Jesus        |   unto Peter, Put
                  |   saith Jesus  |   answered and |   up the sword
                  |   unto him, Put|   said, Suffer |   into the
                  |   up again thy |   ye thus far. |   sheath: the cup
                  |   sword into   |   And he       |   which the
                  |   its place:   |   touched his  |   Father hath
                  |   for all they |   ear, and     |   given me, shall
                  |   that take the|   healed him.  |   I not drink it?
                  |   sword shall  |                |
                  |   perish with  |                |12 So the [3]band
                  |53 the sword. Or|                |   and the
                  |   thinkest thou|                |   [4]chief
                  |   that I cannot|                |   captain, and
                  |   beseech my   |                |   the officers of
                  |   Father, and  |                |   the Jews,
                  |   he shall even|                |   seized Jesus
                  |   now send me  |                |   and bound him.
                  |   more than    |                |
                  |   twelve       |                |
                  |   legions of   |                |
                  |54 angels? How  |                |
                  |   then should  |                |
                  |   the          |                |
                  |   scriptures be|                |
                  |   fulfilled,   |                |
                  |   that thus it |                |
                  |55 must be? In  |52 And Jesus    |
  48 And Jesus    |   that hour    |   said unto the|
     answered and |   said Jesus to|   chief        |
     said unto    |   the          |   priests, and |
     them, Are ye |   multitudes,  |   captains of  |
     come out, as |   Are ye come  |   the temple,  |
     against a    |   out as       |   and elders,  |
     robber, with |   against a    |   which were   |
     swords and   |   robber with  |   come against |
     staves to    |   swords and   |   him, Are ye  |
  49 seize me? I  |   staves to    |   come out, as |
     was daily    |   seize me? I  |   against a    |
     with you in  |   sat daily in |   robber, with |
     the temple   |   the temple   |   swords and   |
     teaching, and|   teaching, and|53 staves? When |
     ye took me   |   ye took be   |   I was daily  |
     not: but     |56 not. But all |   with you in  |
     _this is     |   this is come |   the temple,  |
     done_ that   |   to pass, that|   ye stretched |
     the          |   the          |   not forth    |
     scriptures   |   scriptures of|   your hands   |
     might be     |   the prophets |   against me:  |
     fulfilled.   |   might be     |   but this is  |
  50 And they all |   fulfilled.   |   your hour,   |
     left him, and|   Then all the |   and the power|
     fled.        |   disciples    |   of darkness. |
                  |   left him, and|                |
  51   And a      |   fled.        |                |
     certain      |
     young man    |
     followed with|
     him, having a linen cloth cast about him, over _his_ naked _body_:
  52 and they lay hold on him; but he left the linen cloth, and fled
     naked.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _kissed him much_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _bondservant_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _cohort_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _military tribune_. Gr. _chiliarch_.]



§ 154. JESUS FIRST[a] EXAMINED BY ANNAS, THE EX-HIGH-PRIEST

_The Jewish Trial and related occurrences, §§ 154-162._

Friday before dawn


  John 18:12-14, 19-23

  12   So the [1]band and the [2]chief captain, and the officers of the
  13 Jews, seized Jesus and bound him, and led him to Annas first; for
     he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was high priest that year.
  14 Now Caiaphas was he which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was
     expedient that one man should die for the people.
  19   The high priest therefore asked Jesus of his disciples, and of
  20 his teaching. Jesus answered him, I have spoken openly to the
     world; I ever taught in [3]synagogues, and in the temple, where all
  21 the Jews come together; and in secret spake I nothing. Why askest
     thou me? ask them that have heard _me_, what I spake unto them:
  22 behold, these know the things which I said. And when he had said
     this, one of the officers standing by struck Jesus [4]with his
  23 hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so? Jesus answered
     him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well,
     why smitest thou me?

     [Footnote 1: Or, _cohort_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _military tribune_. Gr. _chiliarch_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _synagogue_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _with a rod_.]

[Footnote a: The _Jewish trial_ comprised three stages, the preliminary
examination by Annas (§ 154), the informal trial by the Sanhedrin,
probably before dawn, and the formal trial after dawn. With these are
narrated two related matters, the denial by Peter and the suicide of
Judas.]



§ 155. JESUS HURRIEDLY TRIED AND CONDEMNED BY CAIAPHAS AND THE SANHEDRIN,
WHO MOCK AND BUFFET HIM

Residence of the High-priest Caiaphas. Before dawn on Friday


  Mark 14:53,      |Matt. 26:57,     |Luke 22:54,      |John 18:24
    55-65          |  59-68          |  63-65          |
  53   And they led|57   And they    |54   And they    |24   Annas
     Jesus away to |   that had taken|   seized him,   |   therefore
     the high      |   Jesus led him |   and led him   |   sent him
     priest: and   |   away to _the  |   _away_, and   |   bound unto
     there come    |   house of_     |   brought him   |   Caiaphas the
     together with |   Caiaphas the  |   into the high |   high priest.
     him all the   |   high priest,  |   priest's      |
     chief priests |   where the     |   house.        |
     and the elders|   scribes and   |
     and the       |   the elders    |
     scribes.      |   were gathered together.   |
  55   Now the chief     |59   Now the chief     |
     priests and the     |   priests and the     |
     whole council sought|   whole council sought|
     witness against     |   false witness       |
     Jesus to put him to |   against Jesus, that |
     death; and found it |   they might put him  |
  56 not. For many bare  |60 to death; and they  |
     false witness       |   found it not, though|
     against him, and    |   many false witnesses|
     their witness agreed|   came. But afterward |
  57 not together. And   |   came two,           |
     there stood up      |                       |
     certain, and bare   |                       |
     false witness       |                       |
     against him, saying,|61           and said, |
  58 We heard him say, I |   This man said, I am |
     will destroy this   |   able to destroy the |
     [1]temple that is   |   [1]temple of God,   |
     made with hands, and|   and to build it in  |
     in three days I will|   three days [_see    |
     build another made  |   John 2:19_].        |
  59 without hands. And  |                       |
     not even so did     |                       |
     their witness agree |                       |
  60 together. And the   |62 And the high priest |
     high priest stood up|   stood up, and said  |
     in the midst, and   |   unto him, Answerest |
     asked Jesus, saying,|   thou nothing? what  |
     Answerest thou      |   is it which these   |
     nothing? what is it |   witness against     |
     which these witness |63 thee? But Jesus held|
  61 against thee? But he|   his peace. And the  |
     held his peace, and |   high priest said    |
     answered nothing.   |   unto him, I adjure  |
     Again the high      |   thee by the living  |
     priest asked him,   |   God, that thou tell |
     and saith unto him, |   us whether thou be  |
     Art thou the Christ,|   the Christ, the Son |
     the Son of the      |64 of God. Jesus saith |
  62 Blessed? And Jesus  |   unto him, Thou hast |
     said, I am: and ye  |   said: nevertheless I|
     shall see the Son of|   say unto you,       |
     man sitting at the  |   Henceforth ye shall |
     right hand of power,|   see the Son of man  |
     and coming with the |   sitting at the right|
     clouds of heaven    |   hand of power, and  |
     [_see Ps. 110:1;    |   coming on the clouds|
  63 Dan. 7:13_]. And the|65 of heaven. Then the |
     high priest rent his|   high priest rent his|
     clothes, and saith, |   garments, saying, He|
     What further need   |   hath spoken         |
     have we of          |   blasphemy: what     |
  64 witnesses? Ye have  |   further need have we|
     heard the blasphemy |   of witnesses?       |
     [_see Lev. 24:16_]: |   behold, now ye have |
     what think ye? And  |   heard the blasphemy:|
     they all condemned  |66 what think ye? They |63   And the men that
     him to be [2]worthy |   answered and said,  |   held [5]_Jesus_
  65 of death. And some  |   He is [2]worthy of  |   mocked him, and
     began to spit on    |67 death. Then did they|64 beat him. And they
     him, and to cover   |   spit in his face and|   blindfolded him,
     his face, and to    |   buffet him: and some|   and asked him,
     buffet him, and to  |   smote him [2]with   |   saying, Prophesy:
     say unto him,       |   the palms of their  |   who is he that
     Prophesy: and the   |68 hands, saying,      |65 struck thee? And
     officers received   |   Prophesy unto us,   |   many other things
     him with [4]blows of|   thou Christ: who is |   spake they against
     their hands.        |   he that struck thee?|   him, reviling him.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _sanctuary_: as in Matt. 23:35; and chap. 27:5.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _liable to_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _with rods_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _strokes of rods_.]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _him_.]



§ 156. PETER THRICE[a] DENIES HIS LORD

COURT OF THE HIGH-PRIEST'S RESIDENCE, DURING THE SERIES OF TRIALS

Friday before and about dawn


  Mark 14:54,     |Matt. 26:58,    |Luke 22:54-62   |John 18:15-18,
    66-72         |  69-75         |                |  25-27
  54 And Peter had|58 But Peter    |54 But Peter    |15   And Simon
     followed him |   followed him |   followed afar|   Peter followed
     afar off,    |   afar off,    |   off.         |   Jesus, and _so
                  |                |                |   did_ another
                  |                |                |   disciple. Now
                  |                |                |   that disciple
                  |                |                |   was known unto
                  |                |                |   the high
                  |                |                |   priest, and
                  |                |                |   entered in with
                  |                |                |   Jesus into the
                  |                |                |   court of the
                  |                |                |   high priest;
                  |                |                |16 but Peter was
                  |                |                |   standing at the
                  |                |                |   door without.
                  |                |                |   So the other
                  |                |                |   disciple, which
     even within, |   unto the     |                |   was known unto
     into the     |   court of the |                |   the high
     court of the |   high priest, |                |   priest, went
     high priest; |   and entered  |                |   out and spake
                  |   in,          |                |   unto her that
                  |                |                |   kept the door,
                  |                |                |   and brought in
                  |                |                |17 Peter. The maid
                  |                |                |   therefore that
                  |                |                |   kept the door
                  |                |                |   saith unto
                  |                |                |   Peter, Art thou
                  |                |                |   also _one_ of
                  |                |                |   this man's
                  |                |                |   disciples? He
                  |                |                |   saith, I am
                  |                |                |18 not. Now the
                  |                |                |   [5]servants and
                  |                |                |   the officers
                  |                |                |   were standing
                  |                |                |   _there_, having
     and he was   |                |                |   made [6]a fire
     sitting with |   and sat with |                |   of coals; for
     the officers,|   the officers,|                |   it was cold;
     and warming  |   to see the   |                |   and they were
     himself in   |   end.         |55 And when they|   warming
     the light _of|                |   had kindled a|   themselves: and
     the fire_.   |                |   fire in the  |   Peter also was
                  |                |   midst of the |   with them,
                  |                |   court, and   |   standing and
  66 And as Peter |69 Now Peter was|   had sat down |   warming
     was beneath  |   sitting      |   together,    |   himself.
     in the court,|   without in   |   Peter sat in |
     there cometh |   the court:   |   the midst of |
     one of the   |   and a maid   |56 them. And a  |
     maids of the |   came unto    |   certain maid |
     high priest; |   him, saying, |   seeing him as|25 Now Simon Peter
  67 and seeing   |                |   he sat in the|   was standing
     Peter warming|                |   light _of the|   and warming
     himself, she |                |   fire_, and   |   himself. They
     looked upon  |                |   looking      |   said therefore
     him, and     |                |   stedfastly   |   unto him, Art
     saith, Thou  |   Thou also    |   upon him,    |   thou also _one_
     also wast    |   wast with    |   said, This   |   of his
     with the     |   Jesus the    |   man also was |   disciples?
     Nazarene,    |   Galilean.    |   with him.    |
     _even_ Jesus.|                |                |
  68 But he       |                |                |
     denied,      |70           But|                |
     saying, [1]I |   he denied    |57          But |              He
     neither know,|   before them  |   he denied,   |   denied, and
     nor          |   all, saying, |   saying,      |   said, I am not.
     understand   |   I know not   |   Woman, I know|
     what thou    |   what thou    |   him not.     |
     sayest: and  |   sayest.      |                |
     he went out  |                |                |
     into the     |                |                |
     [2]porch;    |                |                |
     [3]and the   |                |                |
     cock crew.   |                |                |
                  |71         And  |                |
                  |   when he was  |58          And |
                  |   gone out into|   after a      |
                  |   the porch,   |   little while |
                  |   another      |   another saw  |
  69 And the maid |   _maid_ saw   |   him, and     |
     saw him, and |   him, and     |   said, Thou   |
     began again  |   saith unto   |   also art     |
     to say to    |   them that    |   _one_ of     |
     them that    |   were there,  |   them. But    |
     stood by,    |   This man also|   Peter said,  |
     This is _one_|   was with     |   Man, I am    |
     of them.     |   Jesus the    |   not.         |
                  |72 Nazarene. And|                |
  70          But |   again he     |                |
     he again     |   denied with  |                |
     denied it.   |   an oath, I   |                |
                  |   know not the |59      And     |26 One of the
                  |73 man. And     |   after the    |   [5]servants of
     And after a  |   after a      |   space of     |   the high priest,
     little while |   little while |   about one    |   being a kinsman
     again they   |   they that    |   hour another |   of him whose
     that stood by|   stood by came|   confidently  |   ear Peter cut
     said to      |   and said to  |   affirmed,    |   off, saith, Did
     Peter, Of a  |   Peter, Of a  |   saying, Of a |   not I see thee
     truth thou   |   truth thou   |   truth this   |   in the garden
     art _one_ of |   also art     |   man also was |27 with him? Peter
     them; for    |   _one_ of     |   with him: for|   therefore
     thou art a   |   them; for thy|   he is a      |   denied again:
     Galilean.    |   speech       |60 Galilean. But|
                  |   bewrayeth    |   Peter said,  |
  71          But |74 thee. Then   |   Man, I know  |
     he began to  |   began he to  |   not what thou|
     curse, and to|   curse and to |   sayest.      |
     swear, I know|   swear, I know|                |
     not this man |   not the man. |                |
     of whom ye   |                |                |
  72 speak. And   |   And          |     And        |
     straightway  |   straightway  |   immediately, |   and straightway
     the second   |                |   while he yet |   the cock crew.
     time the cock|   the cock     |   spake, the   |
     crew.        |   crew.        |   cock crew.   |
                  |                |61 And the Lord |
                  |                |   turned, and  |
                  |                |   looked upon  |
                  |                |   Peter. And   |
                  |                |   Peter        |
           And    |75       And    |   remembered   |
     Peter called |   Peter        |   the word of  |
     to mind the  |   remembered   |   the Lord, how|
     word, how    |   the word     |   that he said |
     that Jesus   |   which Jesus  |   unto him,    |
     said unto    |   had said,    |   Before the   |
     him, Before  |   Before the   |   cock crow    |
     the cock crow|   cock crow,   |   this day,    |
     twice, thou  |   thou shalt   |   thou shalt   |
     shalt deny me|   deny me      |   deny me      |
     thrice.      |   thrice.      |   thrice.      |
     [4]And when  |           And  |62         And  |
     he thought   |   he went out, |   he went out, |
     thereon, he  |   and wept     |   and wept     |
     wept.        |   bitterly.    |   bitterly.    |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _I neither know, nor understand: thou, what
     sayest thou?_]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _forecourt_.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities omit _and the cock crew_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _And he began to weep._]

     [Footnote 5: Gr. _bondservants_.]

     [Footnote 6: Gr. _a fire of charcoal_.]

[Footnote a: Each of the four Gospels records three denials; but the
details differ considerably, as must always be the case where in each
narrative a few facts are selected out of many sayings and doings. We
have seen (footnote on § 154) that there were _three stages_ of the
Jewish trial, (l) before Annas, (2) before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin for
informal examination, (3) before them in a formal trial. Now John gives
only the first of the three stages, Luke only the last, Matthew and Mark
give the second stage fully, and the third in brief mention. If Peter's
denials ran through all three (and Luke says in ver. 59 that there was an
hour between his second and third denials), then no one of the four
Gospels could give each of the denials precisely at the time of its
occurrence; and so each Gospel merely throws them together, as in another
way we here bring them together in one section. There is no difficulty
about the substantial fact of the denials; and we must be content with
our inability to arrange all the circumstances into a complete
programme.]



§ 157. AFTER DAWN, JESUS IS FORMALLY[a] CONDEMNED BY THE SANHEDRIN

Friday


  Mark 15:1              |Matt. 27:1             |Luke 22:66-71
                         |                       |
   1   And straightway   | 1   Now when morning  |66   And as soon as
     in the morning the  |   was come, all the   |   it was day, the
     chief priests with  |   chief priests and   |   assembly of the
     the elders and      |   the elders of the   |   elders of the
     scribes, and the    |   people took counsel |   people was
     whole council, held |   against Jesus to put|   gathered together,
     a consultation,     |   him to death:       |   both chief priests
                         |                       |   and scribes; and
                         |                       |   they led him away
  67 into their council, saying, If thou art the Christ, tell us. But
  68 he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe: and if I
  69 ask _you_, ye will not answer. But from henceforth shall the Son
     of man be seated on the right hand of the power of God [_see Ps.
  70 110:1; Dan. 7:13_]. And they all said, Art thou then the Son of
  71 God? And he said unto them, [1]Ye say that I am. And they said,
     What further need have we of witness? for we ourselves have heard
     from his own mouth.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Ye say_ it, _because I am._]

[Footnote a: This ratification of the condemnation after dawn was an
effort to make the action legal. But no ratification of a wrong can make
it right. Some modern Jewish writers admit the illegalities and argue the
unhistorical character of the narrative. But the hate of the Sanhedrin
for Jesus made them violate their own rules of legal procedure. See my
book, _The Pharisees and Jesus_.]



§ 158. REMORSE AND SUICIDE OF JUDAS THE BETRAYER

IN THE TEMPLE AND IN A PLACE WITHOUT THE WALLS OF JERUSALEM

Friday morning


  Matt. 27:3-10                     |Acts 1:18, 19
                                    |
   3   Then Judas, which betrayed   |18   (Now this man obtained a
     him, when he saw that he was   |   field with the reward of his
     condemned, repented himself,   |   iniquity; and falling headlong,
     and brought back the thirty    |   he burst asunder in the midst,
     pieces of silver to the chief  |   and all his bowels gushed out.
   4 priests and elders, saying, I  |19 And it became known to all the
     have sinned in that I betrayed |   dwellers at Jerusalem; insomuch
     [1]innocent blood. But they    |   that in their language that
     said, What is that to us? see  |   field was called Akeldama, that
   5 thou _to it_. And he cast down |   is, The field of blood.)
     the pieces of silver into the  |
     sanctuary, and departed; and he|
   6 went away and hanged himself. And the chief priests took the
     pieces of silver, and said, It is not lawful to put them into the
     [2]treasury, since it is the price of blood [_see Deut. 23:18_].
   7 And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to
   8 bury strangers in. Wherefore that field was called, The field of
   9 blood, unto this day. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken
     [3]by Jeremiah the prophet, saying, And [4]they took the thirty
     pieces of silver, the price of him that was priced, [5]whom
  10 _certain_ of the children of Israel did price; and [6]they gave
     them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me [_see Zech.
     11:13; Jer. 18:2; 19:2; 32:6-15_].

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _righteous_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _corbanas_, that is, _sacred treasury_. Comp.
     Mark 7:11.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _through_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _I took_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _whom they priced on the part of the sons of
     Israel_.]

     [Footnote 6: Some ancient authorities read _I gave_.]



§ 159. JESUS BEFORE PILATE THE FIRST[a] TIME

Jerusalem. Friday, early morning


  Mark 15:1-5     |Matt. 27:2,     |Luke 23:1-5     |John 18:28-38
                  |  11-14         |                |
   1 and bound    | 2    and they  | 1   And the    |28   They lead
     Jesus, and   |   bound him,   |   whole company|   Jesus therefore
     carried him  |   and led him  |   of them rose |   from Caiaphas
     away, and    |   away, and    |   up, and      |   into the
     delivered him|   delivered him|   brought him  |   [2]palace: and
     up to Pilate.|   up to Pilate |   before       |   it was early;
                  |   the governor.|   Pilate.      |   and they
                  |                |                |   themselves
                  |                |                |   entered not
                  |                |                |   into the
                  |                |                |   [2]palace, that
                  |                |                |   they might not
                  |                |                |   be defiled, but
                  |                |                |   might eat the
                  |                |                |   passover.
                  |                | 2 And they     |29 Pilate
                  |                |   began to     |   therefore went
                  |                |   accuse him,  |   out unto them,
                  |                |   saying, We   |   and saith, What
                  |                |   found this   |   accusation
                  |                |   man          |   bring ye
                  |                |   perverting   |   against this
                  |                |   our nation,  |30 man? They
                  |                |   and          |   answered and
                  |                |   forbidding to|   said unto him,
                  |                |   give tribute |   If this man
                  |                |   to Cæsar, and|   were not an
                  |                |   saying that  |   evil-doer, we
                  |                |   he himself is|   should not have
                  |                |   [1]Christ a  |   delivered him up
                  |                |   king.        |   unto thee.
                  |                |                |31 Pilate therefore
                  |                |                |   said unto them,
     Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law. The Jews
     said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:
  32 that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake,
     signifying by what manner of death he should die.
                  |                |                |33   Pilate
                  |11   Now Jesus  |                |   therefore
                  |   stood before |                |   entered again
                  |   the governor:|                |   into the
                  |   and the      |                |   [2]palace, and
   2 And Pilate   |   governor     | 3 And Pilate   |   called Jesus,
     asked him,   |   asked him,   |   asked him,   |   and said unto
     Art thou the |   saying, Art  |   saying, Art  |   him, Art thou
     King of the  |   thou the King|   thou the King|   the King of the
     Jews? And he |   of the Jews? |   of the Jews? |34 Jews? Jesus
     answering    |   And Jesus    |   And he       |   answered,
     saith unto   |   said unto    |   answered him |   Sayest thou
     him, Thou    |   him, Thou    |   and said,    |   this of
     sayest.      |   sayest.      |   Thou sayest. |   thyself, or did
                  |                |                |   others tell it
                  |                |                |   thee concerning
  35 me? Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief
  36 priests delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done? Jesus
     answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of
     this world, then would my [3]servants fight, that I should not be
     delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.
  37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus
     answered, [4]Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end have I been
     born, and to this end am I come into the world, that I should bear
     witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my
  38 voice. Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said
                  |                |                |   this, he went
                  |                |                |   out again unto
                  |                | 4 And Pilate   |   the Jews, and
                  |                |   said unto the|   saith unto
                  |                |   chief priests|   them, I find no
                  |                |   and the      |   crime in him.
                  |                |   multitudes, I|
                  |                |   find no fault|
                  |                |   in this man. |
   3 And the chief|12 And when he  |                |
     priests      |   was accused  |                |
     accused him  |   by the chief |                |
     of many      |   priests and  |                |
   4 things. And  |   elders, he   |                |
     Pilate again |   answered     |                |
     asked him,   |13 nothing. Then|                |
     saying,      |   saith Pilate |                |
     Answerest    |   unto him,    |                |
     thou nothing?|   Hearest thou |                |
     behold how   |   not how many |                |
     many things  |   things they  |                |
     they accuse  |   witness      |                |
   5 thee of. But |   against thee?|                |
     Jesus no more|14 And he gave  |                |
     answered     |   him no       |                |
     anything;    |   answer, not  |                |
     insomuch that|   even to one  |                |
     Pilate       |   word:        |                |
     marvelled.   |   insomuch that|                |
                  |   the governor |                |
                  |   marvelled    |                |
                  |   greatly.     |                |
                  |                | 5 But they were|
                  |                |   the more     |
                  |                |   urgent,      |
                  |                |   saying, He   |
                  |                |   stirreth up  |
                  |                |   the people,  |
                  |                |   teaching     |
                  |                |   throughout   |
                  |                |   all Judea,   |
                  |                |   and beginning|
                  |                |   from Galilee |
                  |                |   even unto    |
                  |                |   this place.  |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _an anointed king_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _Prætorium_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _officers_: as in verses 3, 12, 18, 22.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Thou sayest_ it, _because I am a king._]

[Footnote a: The Roman Trial also comprised three stages, (1) the first
appearance before the Roman procurator Pilate (§ 159), (2) the appearance
before Herod Antipas, the native ruler of Galilee appointed by the Romans
(§ 160), and (3) the final appearance before Pilate (§ 161).]



§ 160. JESUS BEFORE HEROD ANTIPAS THE TETRARCH

Jerusalem. Friday, early morning


  Luke 23:6-12

   6   But when Pilate heard it, he asked whether the man were a
   7 Galilean. And when he knew that he was of Herod's jurisdiction, he
     sent him unto Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem in these
     days.
   8   Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was of a
     long time desirous to see him, because he had heard concerning
   9 him;[a] and he hoped to see some [1]miracle done by him. And he
  10 questioned him in many words; but he answered him nothing. And the
  11 chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. And
     Herod with his soldiers set him at nought, and mocked him, and
  12 arraying him in gorgeous apparel sent him back to Pilate. And
     Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day: for
     before they were at enmity between themselves.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _sign_.]

[Footnote a: See § 71.]



§ 161. JESUS THE SECOND TIME BEFORE PILATE

_Pilate slowly and reluctantly and in fear surrenders to the demand of
the Sanhedrin for the crucifixion of Christ._

Friday toward sunrise (John 19:14)


  Mark 15:6-15    |Matt. 27:15-26  |Luke 23:13-25    |John 18:39-19:16
                  |                |                 |
   6   Now at     |15   Now at     |                 |
     [1]the feast |   [1]the feast |                 |
     he used to   |   the governor |                 |
     release unto |   was wont to  |                 |
     them one     |   release unto |                 |
     prisoner,    |   the multitude|                 |
     whom they    |   one prisoner,|                 |
     asked of him.|   whom they    |                 |
   7 And there was|16 would. And   |                 |
     one called   |   they had then|                 |
     Barabbas,    |   a notable    |                 |
     _lying_ bound|   prisoner,    |                 |
     with them    |   called       |                 |
     that had made|   Barabbas.    |                 |
     insurrection,|                |                 |
     men who in   |                |                 |
     the          |                |                 |
     insurrection |                |                 |
     had committed|                |                 |
   8 murder. And  |                |                 |
     the multitude|                |                 |
     went up and  |                |                 |
     began to ask |                |                 |
     him _to do_  |                |                 |
     as he was    |                |                 |
     wont to do   |                |                 |
     unto them.   |                |                 |
                  |                |13   And Pilate  |
                  |                |   called        |
                  |                |   together the  |
                  |                |   chief priests |
                  |                |   and the rulers|
                  |                |   and the       |
                  |                |14 people, and   |
                  |                |   said unto     |
                  |                |   them, Ye      |
                  |                |   brought unto  |
                  |                |   me this man,  |
                  |                |   as one that   |
                  |                |   perverteth the|
                  |                |   people: and   |
                  |                |   behold, I,    |
                  |                |   having        |
                  |                |   examined him  |
                  |                |   before you,   |
                  |                |   found no fault|
                  |                |   in this man   |
                  |                |   touching those|
                  |                |   things whereof|
                  |                |   ye accuse him:|
                  |                |15 no, nor yet   |
                  |                |   Herod: for he |
                  |                |   sent him back |
                  |                |   unto us; and  |
                  |                |   behold,       |
                  |                |   nothing worthy|
                  |                |   of death hath |
                  |                |   been done by  |
                  |17 When         |16 him. I will   |
                  |   therefore    |   therefore     |39 But ye have a
                  |   they were    |   chastise him, |   custom, that I
                  |   gathered     |   and release   |   should release
                  |   together,    |   him.[5]       |   unto you one
   9 And Pilate   |   Pilate said  |                 |   at the
     answered     |   unto them,   |                 |   passover: will
     them, saying,|   Whom will ye |                 |   ye therefore
     Will ye that |   that I       |                 |   that I release
     I release    |   release unto |                 |   unto you the
     unto you the |   you?         |                 |   King of the
     King of the  |   Barabbas, or |                 |   Jews?
  10 Jews? For he |   Jesus which  |                 |
     perceived    |   is called    |                 |
     that for envy|18 Christ? For  |                 |
     the chief    |   he knew that |                 |
     priests had  |   for envy they|                 |
     delivered him|   had delivered|                 |
     up.          |19 him up. And  |                 |
                  |   while he was |                 |
                  |   sitting on   |                 |
                  |   the          |                 |
                  |   judgement-   |                 |
                  |   seat, his    |                 |
                  |   wife sent    |                 |
                  |   unto him,    |                 |
                  |   saying, Have |                 |
                  |   thou nothing |                 |
                  |   to do with   |                 |
                  |   that         |                 |
                  |   righteous    |                 |
                  |   man: for I   |                 |
                  |   have suffered|                 |
                  |   many things  |                 |
                  |   this day in a|                 |
                  |   dream because|                 |
  11 But the chief|20 of him. Now  |                 |
     priests      |   the chief    |                 |
     stirred up   |   priests and  |                 |
     the          |   the elders   |                 |
     multitude,   |   persuaded the|                 |
     that he      |   multitudes   |                 |
     should rather|   that they    |                 |
     release      |   should ask   |                 |
     Barabbas unto|   for Barabbas,|                 |
     them.        |   and destroy  |                 |
                  |21 Jesus. But   |                 |
                  |   the governor |                 |
                  |   answered and |                 |
                  |   said unto    |                 |
                  |   them, Whether|                 |
                  |   of the twain |                 |
                  |   will ye that |                 |
                  |   I release    |                 |
                  |   unto you? And|18 But they cried|40 They cried out
                  |   they said,   |   out all       |   therefore
                  |   Barabbas.    |   together,     |   again, saying,
                  |                |   saying, Away  |   Not this man,
                  |                |   with this man,|   but Barabbas.
                  |                |   and release   |   Now Barabbas
                  |                |   unto us       |   was a robber.
                  |                |19 Barabbas: one |
                  |                |   who for a     |
                  |                |   certain       |
                  |                |   insurrection  |
                  |                |   made in the   |
                  |                |   city, and for |
                  |                |   murder, was   |
                  |                |   cast into     |
                  |                |   prison.       | 1   Then Pilate
                  |                |                 |   therefore took
                  |                |                 |   Jesus, and
   2 scourged him. And the soldiers plaited a crown of thorns, and put
   3 it on his head, and arrayed him in a purple garment; and they came
     unto him, and said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they struck him
   4 [6]with their hands. And Pilate went out again, and saith unto
     them, Behold, I bring him out to you, that ye may know that I find
                  |                |                 |   no crime in
                  |                |                 | 5 him. Jesus
                  |                |                 |   therefore came
                  |                |                 |   out, wearing
                  |                |                 |   the crown of
                  |                |                 |   thorns and the
                  |                |                 |   purple
                  |                |                 |   garment. And
  12   And Pilate |22   Pilate     |20   And Pilate  |   _Pilate_ saith
     again        |   saith unto   |   spake unto    |   unto them,
     answered and |   them,        |   them again,   |   Behold, the
     said unto    |                |   desiring to   | 6 man! When
     them, What   |         What   |   release Jesus;|   therefore the
     then shall I |   then shall I |21 but they      |   chief priests
     do unto him  |   do unto Jesus|   shouted,      |   and the
     whom ye call |   which is     |   saying,       |   officers saw
     the King of  |   called       |   Crucify,      |   him, they
  13 the Jews? And|   Christ? They |   crucify him.  |   cried out,
     they cried   |   all say,     |22 And he said   |   saying,
     out again,   |   Let him be   |   unto them the |   Crucify _him_,
     Crucify him. |   crucified.   |   third time,   |   crucify _him_.
  14 And Pilate   |                |   Why, what evil|   Pilate saith
     said unto    |23 And he said, |   hath this man |   unto them,
     them, Why,   |   Why, what    |   done? I have  |   Take him
     what evil    |   evil hath he |   found no cause|   yourselves,
     hath he done?|   done?        |   of death in   |   and crucify
                  |                |   him: I will   |   him: for I
                  |                |   therefore     |   find no crime
                  |                |   chastise him  | 7 in him. The
                  |                |   and release   |   Jews answered
     But they     |   But they     |   him.          |   him, We have a
     cried out    |   cried out    |                 |   law, and by
     exceedingly, |   exceedingly, |                 |   that law he
     Crucify him. |   saying, Let  |                 |   ought to die,
                  |   him be       |                 |   because he
                  |   crucified.   |                 |   made himself
                  |                |                 |   the Son of
                  |                |                 | 8 God. When
   9 Pilate therefore heard this saying, he was the more afraid; and he
     entered into the [3]palace again, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art
  10 thou? But Jesus gave him no answer. Pilate therefore saith unto
     him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have
  11 [7]power to release thee, and have [7]power to crucify thee? Jesus
     answered him, Thou wouldest have no [7]power against me, except it
     were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto
     thee hath greater sin.
  12   Upon this Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out,
     saying, If thou release this man, thou art not Cæsar's friend:
     every one that maketh himself a king [8]speaketh against Cæsar.
  13 When Pilate therefore heard these words, he brought Jesus out, and
     sat down on the judgement-seat at a place called The Pavement, but
  14 in Hebrew, Gabbatha. Now it was the Preparation of the passover:
     it was about the sixth hour.[a] And he saith unto the Jews,
                  |                |                 |   Behold, your
                  |                |                 |15 King! They
                  |                |23 But they were |   therefore
                  |                |   instant with  |   cried out,
                  |                |   loud voices,  |   Away with
                  |                |   asking that he|   _him_, away
                  |                |   might be      |   with _him_,
                  |                |   crucified.    |   crucify him.
                  |                |                 |   Pilate saith
                  |                |                 |   unto them,
                  |                |                 |   Shall I
                  |                |                 |   crucify your
                  |                |                 |   King? The
                  |                |                 |   chief priests
                  |                |                 |   answered, We
                  |                |                 |   have no king
                  |                |                 |   but Cæsar.
                  |24 So when      |   And their     |
                  |   Pilate saw   |   voices        |
                  |   that he      |   prevailed.    |
                  |   prevailed    |                 |
                  |   nothing, but |                 |
                  |   rather that a|                 |
                  |   tumult was   |                 |
                  |   arising, he  |                 |
                  |   took water,  |                 |
                  |   and washed   |                 |
                  |   his hands    |                 |
                  |   before the   |                 |
                  |   multitude    |                 |
                  |   [_see Deut.  |                 |
                  |   21:6-9_],    |                 |
                  |   saying, I am |                 |
                  |   innocent     |                 |
                  |   [2]of the    |                 |
                  |   blood of this|                 |
                  |   righteous    |                 |
                  |   man: see ye  |                 |
                  |25 _to it_. And |                 |
                  |   all the      |                 |
                  |   people       |                 |
                  |   answered and |                 |
                  |   said, His    |                 |
                  |   blood _be_ on|24 And Pilate    |
                  |   us, and on   |   gave sentence |
                  |   our          |   that what they|
                  |   children.[b] |   asked for     |
  15 And Pilate,  |                |   should be     |
     wishing to   |                |25 done. And he  |
     content the  |                |   released him  |
     multitude,   |26 Then released|   that for      |
     released unto|   he unto them |   insurrection  |
     them         |   Barabbas: but|   and murder had|
     Barabbas, and|   Jesus he     |   been cast into|
     delivered    |   scourged and |   prison, whom  |16 Then therefore
     Jesus, when  |   delivered to |   they asked    |   he delivered
     he had       |   be crucified.|   for; but Jesus|   him unto them
     scourged him,|                |   he delivered  |   to be
     to be        |                |   up to their   |   crucified.
     crucified.   |                |   will.         |

     [Footnote 1: Or, _a feast_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities read _of this blood: see ye
     etc._]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _Prætorium_. See Mark 15:16.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _palace_.]

     [Footnote 5: Many ancient authorities insert ver. 17 _Now he must
     needs release unto them at the feast one_ prisoner. Others add the
     same words after ver. 19.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _with rods_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _authority_.]

     [Footnote 8: Or, _opposeth Cæsar_.]

[Footnote a: It appears that John, who wrote in Asia Minor, long after
the destruction of Jerusalem, makes the day begin at midnight, as the
Greeks and Romans did. We seem compelled so to understand him in 20:19
(comp. Luke 24:29-39); and in no passage of his Gospel is that view
unsuitable. Here then we understand that Pilate passed the sentence about
sunrise, which at the Passover, near the vernal equinox, would be 6
o'clock. The intervening three hours might be occupied in preparations,
and the Crucifixion occurred at 9 o'clock, viz. the third hour as counted
by the Jews (Mark 15:25).]

[Footnote b: Pilate, of course, could not escape full legal and moral
responsibility for his cowardly surrender to the Sanhedrin to keep his
own office. The guilt of the Sanhedrin (both Pharisees and Sadducees
unite in the demand for the blood of Jesus) is beyond dispute. It is
impossible to make a mere political issue out of it and to lay all the
blame on the Sadducees, who feared a revolution. The Pharisees began the
attacks against Jesus on theological and ecclesiastical grounds. The
Sadducees later joined the conspiracy against Christ. Judas was a mere
tool of the Sanhedrin, who had his resentments and grievances to avenge.
There is guilt enough for all the plotters in the greatest wrong of the
ages.]



§ 162. THE ROMAN SOLDIERS MOCK[a] JESUS

Friday, between 6 and 9 A.M.


  Mark 15:16-19                     |Matt. 27:27-30
                                    |
  16   And the soldiers led him away|27   Then the soldiers of the
     within the court, which is the |   governor took Jesus into the
     [4]Prætorium; and they call    |   [1]palace, and gathered unto
  17 together the whole [2]band. And|28 him the whole [2]band. And they
     they clothe him with purple,   |   [3]stripped him, and put on him
     and plaiting a crown of thorns,|29 a scarlet robe. And they
  18 they put it on him; and they   |   plaited a crown of thorns and
     began to salute him, Hail, King|   put it upon his head, and a
  19 of the Jews! And they smote his|   reed in his right hand; and
     head with a reed, and did spit |   they kneeled down before him,
     upon him, and bowing their     |   and mocked him, saying, Hail,
     knees worshipped him.          |30 King of the Jews! And they spat
                                    |   upon him, and took the reed and
                                    |   smote him on the head.

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _Prætorium_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _cohort_.]

     [Footnote 3: Some ancient authorities read _clothed him_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _palace_.]

[Footnote a: The Sanhedrin likewise had mocked Jesus when they had
condemned him to death (§ 155).]



§ 163. JESUS ON THE WAY TO THE CROSS (_VIA DOLOROSA_) ON GOLGOTHA[a]

Before 9 A.M. Friday


  Mark 15:20-23   |Matt. 27:31-34  |Luke 23:26-33    |John 19:16-17
                  |                |                 |
  20 And when they|31 And when they|                 |16   They took
     had mocked   |   had mocked   |                 |   Jesus
     him, they    |   him, they    |                 |17 therefore: and
     took off from|   took off from|                 |   he went out,
     him the      |   him the robe,|                 |   bearing the
     purple, and  |   and put on   |                 |   cross for
     put on him   |   him his      |                 |   himself,
     his garments.|   garments, and|                 |
     And they lead|   led him away |                 |
     him out to   |   to crucify   |                 |
     crucify him. |   him.         |                 |
  21   And they   |32   And as they|26   And when    |
     [2]compel one|   came out,    |   they led him  |
     passing by,  |   they found a |   away, they    |
     Simon of     |   man of       |   laid hold upon|
     Cyrene,      |   Cyrene, Simon|   one Simon of  |
     coming from  |   by name: him |   Cyrene, coming|
     the country, |   they         |   from the      |
     the father of|   [1]compelled |   country, and  |
     Alexander and|   to go _with  |   laid on him   |
     Rufus, to go |   them_, that  |   the cross, to |
     _with them_, |   he might bear|   bear it after |
     that he might|   his cross.   |   Jesus.        |
     bear his     |                |27   And there followed him a great
     cross.       |                |   multitude of the people, and of
                  |                |   women who bewailed and lamented
                  |                |28 him. But Jesus turning unto them
     said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for
  29 yourselves, and for your children. For behold, the days are
     coming, in which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the
  30 wombs that never bare, and the breasts that never gave suck. Then
     shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the
  31 hills, Cover us [_see Hos. 10:8_]. For if they do these things in
     the green tree, what shall be done in the dry?
                  |                |32   And there   |
                  |                |   were also two |
                  |                |   others,       |
                  |                |   malefactors,  |
                  |                |   led with him  |
                  |                |   to be put to  |
                  |                |   death.        |
  22 And they     |33 And when they|33   And when    |   unto the place
     bring him    |   were come    |   they came unto|   called The
     unto the     |   unto a place |   the place     |   place of a
     place        |   called       |   which is      |   skull, which
     Golgotha,    |   Golgotha,    |   called [3]The |   is called in
     which is,    |   that is to   |   skull,        |   Hebrew
     being        |   say, The     |                 |   Golgotha:
     interpreted, |   place of a   |                 |
     The place of |34 skull, they  |                 |
  23 a skull. And |   gave him wine|                 |
     they offered |   to drink     |                 |
     him wine     |   mingled with |                 |
     mingled with |   gall [_see   |                 |
     myrrh: but he|   Ps. 69:21_]: |                 |
     received it  |   and when he  |                 |
     not.         |   had tasted   |                 |
                  |   it, he would |                 |
                  |   not drink.   |                 |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _impressed_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _impress_.]

     [Footnote 3: According to the Latin, _Calvary_, which has the same
     meaning.]

[Footnote a: Golgotha is the Aramaic word for "skull," and Calvary is the
Latin word. The place cannot have been where the so-called "Church of the
Holy Sepulchre" stands, far within the walls. There is of late a rapidly
growing agreement that it was the northern end of the Temple hill, whose
rounded summit (without the city wall), and southern face with holes in
the rock, looks at a little distance much like a skull. This place
fulfils all the conditions.]



§ 164. THE FIRST THREE HOURS ON THE CROSS

_From nine A.M. till noon on Friday (three sayings of Jesus; the soldiers
gambling for the garment of Jesus; the inscription on the Cross; the
scoffing of Jesus by the multitude, the Sanhedrin, the soldiers, and even
by the two robbers on each side of Christ)_[a]


  Mark 15:24-32   |Matt. 27:35-44  |Luke 23:33-43   |John 19:18-27
                  |                |                |
  24 And they     |35   And when   |33 there they   |18 where they
     crucify him, |   they had     |   crucified    |   crucified him,
     and part his |   crucified    |   him,         |   and with him
     garments     |   him, they    |        and the |   two others, on
     among them,  |   parted his   |   malefactors, |   either side
     casting lots |   garments     |   one on the   |   one, and Jesus
     upon them,   |   among them,  |   right hand   |   in the midst.
     what each    |   casting lots:|   and the other|
     should take  |36 and they sat |   on the left. |
     [_see Ps.    |   and watched  |34 [4]And Jesus |
     22:18_].     |   him there.   |   said, Father,|
                  |                |   forgive them;|
                  |                |   for they know|
                  |                |   not what they|
                  |                |   do.          |23   The soldiers
                  |                |                |   therefore, when
                  |                |                |   they had
                  |                |       And      |   crucified
                  |                |   parting his  |   Jesus, took his
                  |                |   garments     |   garments, and
                  |                |   among them,  |   made four
                  |                |   they cast    |   parts, to every
                  |                |   lots.        |   soldier a part;
                  |                |                |   and also the
                  |                |                |   [5]coat: now
                  |                |                |   the [5]coat was
  24 without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore
     one to another, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it
     shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith,
       They parted my garments among them,
       And upon my vesture did they cast lots. [_Ps. 22:18_].
                  |                |                |   These things
  25   And it was |                |                |   therefore the
     the third    |                |                |   soldiers did.
     hour, and    |37 And they set |38 And there was|19 And Pilate
     they         |   up over his  |   also a       |   wrote a title
     crucified    |   head his     |  superscription|   also, and put
  26 him. And the |   accusation   |   over him,    |   it on the
    superscription|   written, THIS|   THIS IS THE  |   cross. And
     of his       |   IS JESUS THE |   KING OF THE  |   there was
     accusation   |   KING OF THE  |   JEWS.        |   written, JESUS
     was written  |   JEWS.        |                |   OF NAZARETH,
     over, THE    |                |                |   THE KING OF THE
     KING OF THE  |38   Then are   |                |20 JEWS. This
  27 JEWS. And    |   there        |                |   title therefore
     with him they|   crucified    |                |   read many of
     crucify two  |   with him two |                |   the Jews:
     robbers; one |   robbers, one |                |   [7]for the
     on his right |   on the right |                |   place where
     hand, and one|   hand, and one|                |   Jesus was
     on his       |   on the left. |                |   crucified was
     left.[3]     |                |                |   nigh to the
                  |                |                |   city: and it
                  |                |                |   was written in
  21 Hebrew, _and_ in Latin, _and_ in Greek. The chief priests of the
     Jews therefore said to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews;
  22 but, that he said, I am King of the Jews. Pilate answered, What I
                  |                |                |   have written I
                  |                |                |   have written.
  29 And they that|39 And they that|35 And the      |
     passed by    |   passed by    |   people stood |
     railed on    |   railed on    |   beholding.   |
     him, wagging |   him, wagging |                |
     their heads  |   their heads, |                |
     [_see Ps.    |40 and saying,  |                |
     22:7_], and  |   Thou that    |                |
     saying, Ha!  |   destroyest   |                |
     thou that    |   the          |                |
     destroyest   |   [1]temple,   |                |
     the          |   and buildest |                |
     [1]temple,   |   it in three  |                |
     and buildest |   days, save   |                |
     it in three  |   thyself: if  |                |
  30 days, save   |   thou art the |                |
     thyself, and |   Son of God,  |                |
     come down    |   come down    |                |
     from the     |   from the     |                |
  31 cross. In    |41 cross. In    |   And the      |
     like manner  |   like manner  |   rulers also  |
     also the     |   also the     |   scoffed at   |
     chief priests|   chief priests|   him, saying, |
     mocking _him_|   mocking      |   He saved     |
     among        |   _him_, with  |   others; let  |
     themselves   |   the scribes  |   him save     |
     with the     |   and elders,  |   himself, if  |
     scribes said,|42 said, He     |   this is the  |
     He saved     |   saved others;|   Christ of    |
     others;      |   [2]himself he|   God, his     |
     [2]himself he|   cannot save. |36 chosen. And  |
     cannot save. |   He is the    |   the soldiers |
  32 Let the      |   King of      |   also mocked  |
     Christ, the  |   Israel; let  |   him, coming  |
     King of      |   him now come |   to him,      |
     Israel, now  |   down from the|   offering him |
     come down    |   cross, and we|37 vinegar, and |
     from the     |   will believe |   saying, If   |
     cross, that  |43 on him. He   |   thou art the |
     we may see   |   trusted on   |   King of the  |
     and believe. |   God [_see Ps.|   Jews, save   |
                  |   22:8_]; let  |   thyself.     |
                  |   him deliver  |                |
                  |   him now, if  |                |
                  |   he desireth  |                |
                  |   him: for he  |                |
                  |   said, I am   |                |
     And they     |   the Son of   |39   And one of the malefactors
     that were    |44 God. And the |   which were hanged railed on him,
     crucified    |   robbers also |   saying, Art not thou the Christ?
     with him     |   that were    |40 save thyself and us. But the
     reproached   |   crucified    |   other answered, and rebuking him
     him.         |   with him cast|   said, Dost thou not even fear
                  |   upon him the |   God, seeing thou art in the same
                  |   same         |41 condemnation? And we indeed
                  |   reproach.    |   justly; for we receive the due
                  |                |   reward of our deeds: but this
                  |                |42 man hath done nothing amiss. And
                  |                |   he said, Jesus, remember me when
                  |                |   thou comest [6]in thy kingdom.
                  |                |43 And he said unto him, Verily I
                  |                |   say unto     |
                  |                |   thee, To-day |
                  |                |   shalt thou be|
                  |                |   with me in   |
                  |                |   Paradise.    |
                  |                |                |25 But there were
                  |                |                |   standing by the
                  |                |                |   cross of Jesus
                  |                |                |   his mother, and
     his mother's sister, Mary the _wife_ of Cleopas, and Mary
  26 Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple
     standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman,
  27 behold, thy son! Then saith he to the disciple, Behold, thy
     mother! And from that hour the disciple took her unto his own
     _home_.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _sanctuary_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _can he not save himself?_]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities insert ver. 28 _And the
     scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was reckoned with
     transgressors._ See Luke 22:37.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities omit _And Jesus said,
     Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do._]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _tunic_.]

     [Footnote 6: Some ancient authorities read _into thy kingdom_.]

     [Footnote 7: Or, _for the place of the city where Jesus was
     crucified was nigh at hand_.]

[Footnote a: It is not easy to tell the precise order of the events
during this period of three hours, since the Gospels do not present them
in the same detail or order. On the whole it has seemed best simply to
follow Mark's arrangement as we have done uniformly in the Harmony. Thus
the apparent order of the sayings is (1) The Prayer for Christ's enemies
in Luke 23:34. (2) The Promise to the Repentant Robber in Luke 23:43. (3)
The Charge to the Mother of Jesus and to the Beloved Disciple in John
19:26, 27. These three sayings are with reference to others.]



§ 165. THE THREE HOURS OF DARKNESS FROM NOON TO THREE P.M.

_(Four More Sayings[a] at the Close of the Darkness and the Death of
Christ.)_


  Mark 15:33-37   |Matt. 27:45-50  |Luke 23:44-46   |John 19:28-30
                  |                |                |
  33   And when   |45   Now from   |44   And it was |
     the sixth    |   the sixth    |   now about the|
     hour was     |   hour there   |   sixth hour,  |
     come, there  |   was darkness |   and a        |
     was darkness |   over all the |   darkness came|
     over the     |   [1]land until|   over the     |
     whole [1]land|   the ninth    |   whole [1]land|
     until the    |46 hour. And    |   until the    |
     ninth hour.  |   about the    |   ninth hour,  |
  34 And at the   |   ninth hour   |45 [4]the sun's |
     ninth hour   |   Jesus cried  |   light        |
     Jesus cried  |   with a loud  |   failing.     |
     with a loud  |   voice,       |                |
     voice, Eloi, |   saying, Eli, |                |
     Eloi, lama   |   Eli, lama,   |                |
     sabachthani? |   sabachthani? |                |
     which is,    |   that is, My  |                |
     being        |   God, my God, |                |
     interpreted, |   [2]why hast  |                |
     My God, my   |   thou forsaken|                |
     God, [2]why  |   me [_see Ps. |                |
     hast thou    |   22:1_]?      |                |
     forsaken me? |                |                |
  35 And some of  |47 And some of  |                |28   After this
     them that    |   them that    |                |   Jesus, knowing
     stood by,    |   stood there, |                |   that all things
     when they    |   when they    |                |   are now
     heard it,    |   heard it,    |                |   finished, that
     said, Behold,|   said, This   |                |   the scripture
     he calleth   |   man calleth  |                |   might be
  36 Elijah. And  |48 Elijah. And  |                |   accomplished,
     one ran, and |   straightway  |                |   saith, I
     filling a    |   one of them  |                |29 thirst. There
     sponge full  |   ran, and took|                |   was set there a
     of vinegar,  |   a sponge, and|                |   vessel full of
     put it on a  |   filled it    |                |   vinegar: so
     reed, and    |   with vinegar,|                |   they put a
     gave him to  |   and put it on|                |   sponge full of
     drink,       |   a reed, and  |                |   the vinegar upon
     saying, Let  |   gave him to  |                |   hysop, and
     be; let us   |49 drink. And   |                |   brought it to
     see whether  |   the rest     |                |   his mouth [_see
     Elijah cometh|   said, Let be;|                |   Ps. 69:21_].
     to take him  |   let us see   |                |30 When Jesus
     down.        |   whether      |                |   therefore had
                  |   Elijah cometh|                |   received the
                  |   to save      |                |   vinegar,
                  |50 him.[3] And  |                |
  37 And Jesus    |   Jesus cried  |46 [5]And when  |
     uttered a    |   again with a |   Jesus had    |
     loud voice,  |   loud voice,  |   cried with a |
                  |                |   loud voice,  |
                  |                |   he said,     |   he said, It is
                  |                |                |   finished:
                  |                |   Father, into |
                  |                |   thy hands I  |
                  |                |   commend my   |
                  |                |   spirit [_see |
                  |                |   Ps. 31:5_]:  |
                  |                |   and having   |   and he bowed
                  |            and |   said this, he|   his head, and
     and gave up  |   yielded up   |   gave up the  |   gave up his
     the ghost.   |   his spirit.  |   ghost.       |   spirit.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _earth_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _why didst thou forsake me?_]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities add _And another took a
     spear and pierced his side, and there came out water and blood._
     See John 19:34.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _the sun failing_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _And Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said_.]

[Footnote a: The probable order of these four sayings coming just before
the death of Jesus is (1) The Cry of Desolation, Mark 15:34 = Matt.
27:46. (2) The Cry of Physical Anguish, John 19:28. (3) The Cry of
Victory, John 19:30. (4) The Cry of Resignation, Luke 23:46. These four
sayings of Jesus are with reference to himself.]



§ 166. THE PHENOMENA ACCOMPANYING THE DEATH OF CHRIST


  Mark 15:38-41          |Matt. 27:51-56         |Luke 23:45, 47-49
                         |                       |
  38   And the veil of   |51   And behold, the   |45   And the veil of
     the [2]temple was   |   veil of the         |   the [2]temple was
     rent in twain from  |   [2]temple was rent  |   rent in the midst.
     the top to the      |   in twain from the   |
     bottom.             |   top to the bottom;  |
                         |   and the earth did   |
                         |   quake; and the rocks|
                         |52 were rent; and the  |
                         |   tombs were opened;  |
                         |   and many bodies of  |
                         |   the saints that had |
                         |   fallen asleep were  |
                         |53 raised; and coming  |
                         |   forth out of the    |
                         |   tombs after his     |
                         |   resurrection they   |
                         |   entered into the    |
                         |   holy city and       |
                         |   appeared unto many. |
  39        And when the |54 Now the centurion,  |47 And when the
     centurion, which    |   and they that were  |   centurion saw what
     stood by over       |   with him watching   |   was done, he
     against him, saw    |   Jesus, when they saw|   glorified God,
     that he [1]so gave  |   the earthquake, and |   saying, Certainly
     up the ghost, he    |   the things that were|   this was a
     said,               |   done, feared        |48 righteous man. And
                         |   exceedingly, saying,|   all the multitudes
           Truly this man|   Truly this was      |   that came together
     was [3]the Son of   |   [3]the Son of God.  |   to this sight,
  40 God. And there were |55 And many women were |   when they beheld
     also women beholding|   there beholding from|   the things that
     from afar: among    |   afar, which had     |   were done,
                         |   followed Jesus from |   returned smiting
                         |   Galilee, ministering|49 their breasts. And
     whom _were_ both    |56 unto him: among whom|   all his
     Mary Magdalene, and |   was Mary Magdalene, |   acquaintance, and
     Mary the mother of  |   Mary the mother of  |   the women that
     James the [4]less   |   James and Joses, and|   followed with him
     and of Joses, and   |   the mother of the   |   from Galilee,
  41 Salome; who, when he|   sons of Zebedee.    |   stood afar off,
     was in Galilee,     |                       |   seeing these
     followed him, and   |                       |   things.
     ministered unto him;|                       |
     and many other women|                       |
     which came up with  |                       |
     him unto Jerusalem. |                       |

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _so cried out, and gave
     up the ghost_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _sanctuary_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _a son of God_.]

     [Footnote 4: Gr. _little_.]



§ 167. THE BURIAL OF THE BODY OF JESUS IN THE TOMB OF JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA
AFTER PROOF OF HIS DEATH

Friday afternoon before 6 P.M.


  Mark 15:42-46   |Matt. 27:57-60  |Luke 23:50-54   |John 19:31-42
                  |                |                |
                  |                |                |31     The Jews
                  |                |                |   therefore,
     because it was the Preparation, that the bodies should not remain
     on the cross upon the sabbath (for the day of that sabbath was a
     high _day_), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and
  32 _that_ they might be taken away. The soldiers therefore came, and
     brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified
  33 with him: but when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead
  34 already, they brake not his legs: howbeit one of the soldiers with
     a spear pierced his side, and straightway there came out blood and
  35 water. And he that hath seen hath borne witness, and his witness
     is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye also may
  36 believe. For these things came to pass, that the scripture might
     be fulfilled [_see Ex. 12:46; Num. 9:12; Ps. 34:20_], A bone of
  37 him shall not be [3]broken. And again another scripture saith
     [_see Zech. 12:10. Deut. 21:22-23; Ex. 34:24_], They shall look on
                  |                |                |   him whom they
                  |                |                |   pierced.
  42   And when   |57   And when   |                |
     even was now |   even was     |                |
     come, because|   come,        |                |
     it was the   |                |                |
     Preparation, |                |                |
     that is, the |                |                |
     day before   |                |                |
     the sabbath, |                |50   And behold,|38   And after
  43 there came   |   there came a |   a man named  |   these things
     Joseph of    |   rich man from|   Joseph, who  |   Joseph of
     Arimathæa, a |   Arimathæa,   |   was a        |   Arimathæa,
     councillor of|   named Joseph,|   councillor, a|
     honourable   |                |   good man and |
     estate,      |                |   a righteous  |
                  |                |51 (he had not  |
                  |                |   consented to |
                  |                |   their counsel|
                  |                |   and deed), _a|
                  |                |   man_ of      |
                  |                |   Arimathæa, a |
                  |                |   city of the  |
         who also |   who also     |   Jews, who was|   being a
     himself was  |   himself was  |   looking for  |   disciple of
     looking for  |   Jesus'       |   the kingdom  |   Jesus, but
     the kingdom  |   disciple:    |52 of God: this |   secretly for
     of God; and  |58 this man went|   man went to  |   fear of the
     he boldly    |   to Pilate,   |   Pilate, and  |   Jews, asked of
     went in unto |   and asked for|   asked for the|   Pilate that he
     Pilate, and  |   the body of  |   body of      |   might take away
     asked for the|   Jesus.       |   Jesus.       |   the body of
     body of      |                |                |   Jesus: and
  44 Jesus. And   |                |                |
     Pilate       |                |                |
     marvelled if |                |                |
     he were      |                |                |
     already dead:|                |                |
     and calling  |                |                |
     unto him the |                |                |
     centurion, he|                |                |
     asked him    |                |                |
     whether he   |                |                |
     [1]had been  |                |                |
     any while    |                |                |
  45 dead. And    |                |                |
     when he      |                |                |
     learned it of|                |                |
     the          |                |                |
     centurion, he|   Then Pilate  |                |   Pilate gave
     granted the  |   commanded it |                |   _him_ leave. He
     corpse to    |   to be given  |                |   came therefore,
     Joseph.      |   up.          |                |   and took away
                  |                |                |39 his body. And
                  |                |                |   there came also
                  |                |                |   Nicodemus, he
                  |                |                |   who at the
                  |                |                |   first came to
                  |                |                |   him by night,
                  |                |                |   bringing a
                  |                |                |   [4]mixture of
                  |                |                |   myrrh and
                  |                |                |   aloes, about a
                  |                |                |   hundred pound
  46 And he bought|59 And Joseph   |53 And he took  |40 _weight_. So
     a linen      |   took the     |   it down, and |   they took the
     cloth, and   |   body, and    |   wrapped it in|   body of Jesus,
     taking him   |   wrapped it in|   a linen      |   and bound it in
     down, wound  |   a clean linen|   cloth,       |   linen cloths
     him in the   |   cloth,       |                |   with the
     linen cloth, |                |                |   spices, as the
                  |                |                |   custom of the
                  |                |                |   Jews is to
                  |                |                |41 bury. Now in
                  |                |                |   the place where
                  |                |                |   he was
                  |                |                |   crucified there
                  |                |                |   was a garden;
                  |                |                |   and in the
     and laid him |60 and laid it  |   and laid him |   garden a new
     in a tomb    |   in his own   |   in a tomb    |   tomb wherein
     which had    |   new tomb,    |   that was hewn|   was never man
     been hewn out|   which he had |   in stone,    |   yet laid [_see
     of a rock;   |   hewn out in  |   where never  |   Deut.
     and he rolled|   the rock: and|   man had yet  |   21:22-23_].
     a stone      |   he rolled a  |54 lain. And it |42 There then
     against the  |   great stone  |   was the day  |   because of the
     door of the  |   to the door  |   of the       |   Jews'
     tomb.        |   of the tomb, |   Preparation, |   Preparation
                  |   and departed.|   and the      |   (for the tomb
                  |                |   sabbath      |   was nigh at
                  |                |   [2]drew on.  |   hand) they laid
                  |                |                |   Jesus.

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _were already dead_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _began to dawn_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _crushed_.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities read _roll_.]



§ 168. THE WATCH OF THE WOMEN BY THE TOMB OF JESUS

_The women maintain their watch and rest on the Sabbath (beginning 6
P.M.) while the Pharisees have a guard of Roman soldiers to keep watch
over the Roman seal on the tomb._

Friday afternoon till Saturday afternoon


  Mark 15:47             |Matt. 27:61-66         |Luke 23:55-56
                         |                       |
  47 And Mary Magdalene  |61 And Mary Magdalene  |55 And the women,
     and Mary the        |   was there, and the  |   which had come
     _mother_ of Joses   |   other Mary, sitting |   with him out of
     beheld where he was |   over against the    |   Galilee, followed
     laid.               |   sepulchre.          |   after, and beheld
                         |                       |   the tomb, and how
                         |                       |   his body was laid.
                         |                       |56 And they returned,
                         |                       |   and prepared
                         |                       |   spices and
                         |                       |   ointments.
                         |                       |     And on the
                         |                       |   sabbath[a] they
                         |                       |   rested according
                         |                       |   to the commandment
                         |62   Now on the morrow,|   [_see Ex. 12:16;
                         |   which is _the day_  |   20:8-11; Deut.
                         |   after the           |   5:12-15_].
                         |   Preparation, the    |
                         |   chief priests and   |
  63 the Pharisees were gathered together unto Pilate, saying, Sir, we
     remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After
  64 three days I rise again. Command therefore that the sepulchre be
     made sure until the third day, lest haply his disciples come and
     steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the
  65 dead: and the last error will be worse than the first. Pilate said
     unto them, [1]Ye have a guard: go your way, [2]make it _as_ sure
  66 as ye can. So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the
     stone, the guard being with them.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _Take a guard_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _make it sure, as ye know_.]

[Footnote a: Luke (23:54) notes that "the Sabbath drew on" after the
burial on Friday afternoon. The Sabbath began at 6 P.M. Then Luke notes
that the women rested during the Sabbath (our Friday night and
Saturday).]



PART XIV

THE RESURRECTION, APPEARANCES, AND ASCENSION OF CHRIST

_During forty days beginning with Sunday after the death of Christ.
Spring of A.D. 30 (or 29). Judea and Galilee.[a] §§ 169-184._

[Footnote a: Of this period we see that he remained at or near Jerusalem
for a week. Then he probably left at once for Galilee (Matt. 28:7; Mark
16:7). In the month that followed we cannot fix the exact time of the
events that occurred in Galilee, but just at the end of the forty days we
find him again in Jerusalem.]



§ 169. THE VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE TOMB OF JESUS

_They watch the tomb late on the Sabbath (our Saturday afternoon); and
the purchase of spices by them after the Sabbath (after 6 P.M. Saturday)
on the first day of the week._

GOLGOTHA AND BETHANY

Our late Saturday afternoon and early evening


  Mark 16:1                         |Matt. 28:1
                                    |
                                    | 1   Now late on the sabbath
                                    |   day,[a] as it began to dawn
                                    |   toward the first _day_ of the
                                    |   week, came Mary Magdalene and
                                    |   the other Mary to see the
                                    |   sepulchre.
   1   And when the sabbath was     |
     past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary |
     the _mother_ of James, and     |
     Salome, bought spices, that    |
     they might come and anoint him.|

[Footnote a: This phrase once gave much trouble, but the usage of the
vernacular _Koiné_ Greek amply justifies the translation. The visit of
the women to inspect the tomb was thus made before the sabbath was over
(before 6 P.M. on Saturday). But the same Greek idiom was occasionally
used in the sense of "after." See Robertson, Grammar of the Greek New
Testament in the Light of Historical Research, p. 645. The distance from
Bethany to Golgotha was not more than a sabbath day's journey. The spices
could be purchased after sundown either in Bethany or Jerusalem. It must
be borne in mind that the Jewish First Day of the Week began at 6 P.M. on
our Saturday.]



§ 170. THE EARTHQUAKE, THE ROLLING AWAY OF THE STONE BY AN ANGEL, AND THE
FRIGHT OF THE ROMAN WATCHERS

Sunday before sunrise


  Matt. 28:2-4

   2   And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the
     Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled away the stone, and
   3 sat upon it. His appearance was as lightning, and his raiment white
   4 as snow: and for fear of him the watchers did quake, and became as
     dead men.



§ 171. THE VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE TOMB OF JESUS ABOUT SUNRISE SUNDAY
MORNING AND THE MESSAGE OF THE ANGELS ABOUT THE EMPTY TOMB

Golgotha. Early Sunday morning


  Mark 16:2-8      |Matt. 28:5-8     |Luke 24:1-8      |John 20:1
                   |                 |                 |
   2 And very early|                 | 1   But on the  | 1   Now on the
     on the first  |                 |   first day of  |   first _day_
     day of the    |                 |   the week, at  |   of the week
     week, they    |                 |   early dawn,[a]|   cometh Mary
     come to the   |                 |   they came unto|   Magdalene
     tomb when the |                 |   the tomb,     |   early, while
     sun was risen.|                 |   bringing the  |   it was yet
   3 And they were |                 |   spices which  |   dark, unto
     saying among  |                 |   they had      |   the tomb,
     themselves,   |                 | 2 prepared. And |   and seeth
     Who shall roll|                 |   they found the|   the stone
     us away the   |                 |   stone rolled  |   taken away
     stone from the|                 |   away from the |   from the
     door of the   |                 | 3 tomb. And they|   tomb.
   4 tomb? and     |                 |   entered in,   |
     looking up,   |                 |   and found not |
     they see that the   |           |   the body [2]of the Lord Jesus.
     stone is rolled     |           | 4 And it came to pass, while
     back: for it was    |                       |   they were
   5 exceeding great. And| 5      And the angel  |   perplexed
     entering into the   |   answered and said   |   thereabout,
     tomb, they saw a    |   unto the women, Fear|   behold, two men
     young man sitting on|   not ye: for I know  |   stood by them in
     the right side,     |   that ye seek Jesus, |   dazzling apparel:
     arrayed in a white  |   which hath been     | 5 and as they were
     robe; and they were | 6 crucified. He is not|   affrighted, and
   6 amazed. And he saith|   here; for he is     |   bowed down their
     unto them, Be not   |   risen, even as he   |   faces to the
     amazed: ye seek     |   said. Come, see the |   earth, they said
     Jesus, the Nazarene,|   place [1]where the  |   unto them, Why
     which hath been     | 7 Lord lay. And go    |   seek ye [3]the
     crucified: he is    |   quickly, and tell   |   living among the
     risen; he is not    |   his disciples, He is| 6 dead? [4]He is not
     here: behold, the   |   risen from the dead;|   here, but is
     place where they    |   and lo, he goeth    |   risen: remember
   7 laid him! But go,   |   before you into     |   how he spake unto
     tell his disciples  |   Galilee; there shall|   you when he was
     and Peter, He goeth |   ye see him: lo, I   |   yet in Galilee,
     before you into     | 8 have told you. And  | 7 saying that the
     Galilee: there shall|   they departed       |   Son of man must be
     ye see him, as he   |   quickly from the    |   delivered up into
   8 said unto you. And  |   tomb with fear and  |   the hands of
     they went out, and  |   great joy, and ran  |   sinful men, and be
     fled from the tomb; |   to bring his        |   crucified, and the
     for trembling and   |   disciples word.     |   third day rise
     astonishment had    |                       | 8 again. And they
     come upon them: and |                       |   remembered his
     they said nothing to|                       |   words.
     any one; for they   |                       |
     were afraid.        |                       |

     [Footnote 1: Many ancient authorities read _where he lay_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities omit _of the Lord Jesus_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _him that liveth_.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities omit _He is not here, but is
     risen._]

[Footnote a: So he had already risen at early dawn on the first day of
the week. He was buried (§ 167) shortly before sunset on Friday, and at
sunset the sabbath began. So he lay in the tomb a small part of Friday,
all of Saturday, and 10 or 11 hours of Sunday. This corresponds exactly
with the seven times repeated statement that he would or did rise "on the
third day," which _could not possibly_ mean after 72 hours. The phrase
two or three times given, "after three days," naturally denoted for Jews,
as for Greeks and Romans, a whole central day and any part of a first and
third, thus agreeing with "on the third day." Even the "three days and
three nights" of Matt. 12:40 need not, according to known Jewish usage,
mean more than we have described. So these expressions _can_ be
reconciled with "on the third day," and with the facts as recorded, while
"on the third day" _cannot_ mean after 72 hours. See Note 13 at end of
the Harmony for full discussion of the question. There is no real appeal
from the testimony of Luke, who gives the whole period. Luke states that
Jesus was buried just before the sabbath "drew on" (our Friday evening);
that the women rested during the sabbath (our Saturday), and that Jesus
was already risen early Sunday morning when the women came to the tomb.]



§ 172. MARY MAGDALENE AND THE OTHER WOMEN REPORT TO THE APOSTLES AND
PETER AND JOHN VISIT THE EMPTY TOMB


  Luke 24:9-12                      |John 20:2-10
                                    |
   9 and returned [1]from the tomb, | 2 She runneth therefore, and
     and told all these things to   |   cometh to Simon Peter, and to
     the eleven, and to all the     |   the other disciple, whom Jesus
  10 rest. Now they were Mary       |   loved, and saith unto them,
     Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary|   They have taken away the Lord
     the _mother_ of James: and the |   out of the tomb, and we know
     other women with them told     |   not where they have laid him.
     these things unto the apostles.| 3 Peter therefore went forth, and
  11 And these words appeared in    |   the other disciple, and they
     their sight as idle talk; and  | 4 went toward the tomb. And they
     they disbelieved them.         |   ran both together: and the
                                    |   other disciple outran Peter,
  12 [2]But Peter arose, and ran    | 5 and came first to the tomb; and
     into the tomb; and stooping and|   stooping and looking in, he
     looking in, he seeth the linen |   seeth the linen cloths lying;
     clothes by themselves; and he  | 6 yet entered he not in. Simon
     [3]departed to his home,       |   Peter therefore also cometh,
     wondering at that which was    |   following him, and entered into
     come to pass.                  |   the tomb; and he beholdeth the
                                    | 7 linen cloths lying, and the
                                    |   napkin, that was upon his head,
                                    |   not lying with the linen
                                    |   cloths, but rolled up in a
                                    | 8 place by itself. Then entered
                                    |   in therefore the other disciple
                                    |   also, which came first to the
                                    |   tomb, and he saw, and believed.
                                    | 9 For as yet they knew not the
                                    |   scripture, that he must rise
                                    |10 again from the dead. So the
                                    |   disciples went away again unto
                                    |   their own home.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit _from the tomb_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities omit verse 12.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _departed, wondering with himself_.]



_Five appearances are given as occurring on the day of his resurrection,
and five subsequently during the forty days. The five appearances on this
day were (1) to Mary Magdalene (John and Mark); (2) to other women
(Matthew); (3) to the two going to Emmaus; (4) to Simon Peter (Luke
24:34); (5) to ten apostles and others._



§ 173. THE APPEARANCE OF JESUS TO MARY MAGDALENE AND THE MESSAGE TO THE
DISCIPLES

Jerusalem. The first day of the week (Sunday)


  Mark 16:9-11                      |John 20:11-18
                                    |
                                    |11   But Mary was standing without
                                    |   at the tomb weeping: so, as she
                                    |   wept, she stooped and looked
                                    |12 into the tomb; and she
                                    |   beholdeth two angels in white
                                    |   sitting, one at the head, and
                                    |   one at the feet, where the body
                                    |13 of Jesus had lain. And they say
                                    |   unto her, Woman, why weepest
                                    |   thou? She saith unto them,
                                    |   Because they have taken away my
                                    |   Lord, and I know not where they
   9   [1]Now when he was risen     |14 have laid him. When she had
     early on the first day of the  |   thus said, she turned herself
     week, he appeared first to Mary|   back, and beholdeth Jesus
     Magdalene, from whom he had    |   standing, and knew not that it
     cast out seven [2]devils.      |15 was Jesus. Jesus saith unto
                                    |   her, Woman, why weepest thou?
                                    |   whom seekest thou? She,
                                    |   supposing him to be the
                                    |   gardener, saith unto him, Sir,
                                    |   if thou hast borne him hence,
                                    |   tell me where thou hast laid
                                    |   him, and I will take him away.
                                    |16 Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She
                                    |   turneth herself, and saith unto
                                    |   him in Hebrew, Rabboni; which
                                    |17 is to say, [3]Master. Jesus
                                    |   saith to her, [4]Touch me not;
                                    |   for I am not yet ascended unto
                                    |   the Father: but go unto my
                                    |   brethren, and say to them, I
                                    |   ascend unto my Father and your
                                    |   Father, and my God and your
  10   She went and told them that  |18 God. Mary Magdalene cometh and
     had been with him, as they     |   telleth the disciples, I have
     mourned and wept.              |   seen the Lord; and _how that_
                                    |   he had said these things unto
  11                   And they,    |   her.
     when they heard that he was    |
     alive, and had been seen of    |
     her, disbelieved.              |

     [Footnote 1: The two oldest Greek manuscripts, and some other
     authorities, omit from ver. 9 to the end. Some other authorities
     have a different ending to the Gospel.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _Teacher_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Take hold not on me._]



§ 174. THE APPEARANCE OF JESUS TO THE OTHER WOMEN

Jerusalem. Sunday the first day of the week


  Matt. 28:9-10

   9   And behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and
  10 took hold of his feet, and worshipped him. Then saith Jesus unto
     them, Fear not: go tell my brethren that they depart into Galilee,
     and there shall they see me.



§ 175. SOME OF THE GUARD REPORT TO THE JEWISH RULERS


  Matt 28:11-15

  11   Now while they were going, behold, some of the guard came into
     the city, and told unto the chief priests all the things that were
  12 come to pass. And when they were assembled with the elders, and
     had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers,
  13 saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away
  14 while we slept. And if this [1]come to the governor's ears, we
  15 will persuade him, and rid you of care. So they took the money,
     and did as they were taught: and this saying was spread abroad
     among the Jews, _and continueth_ until this day.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _come to a hearing before the governor_.]



§ 176. THE APPEARANCE TO TWO DISCIPLES (CLEOPAS AND ANOTHER) ON THE WAY
TO EMMAUS

Sunday afternoon


  Mark 16:12, 13                    |Luke 24:13-32
                                    |
  12   And after these things he was|13   And behold, two of them were
     manifested in another form unto|   going that very day to a
     two of them, as they walked, on|   village named Emmaus, which was
  13 their way into the country. And|   threescore furlongs from
     they went away and told it unto|14 Jerusalem. And they communed
     the rest: neither believed they|   with each other of all these
     them.                          |15 things which had happened. And
                                    |   it came to pass, while they
                                    |   communed and questioned
  16 together, that Jesus himself drew near, and went with them. But
  17 their eyes were holden that they should not know him. And he said
     unto them, [1]What communications are these that ye have one with
  18 another, as ye walk? And they stood still, looking sad. And one of
     them, named Cleopas, answering said unto him, [2]Dost thou alone
     sojourn in Jerusalem and not know the things which are come to
  19 pass there in these days? And he said unto them, What things? And
     they said unto him, The things concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which
     was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the
  20 people: and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up
  21 to be condemned to death, and crucified him. But we hoped that it
     was he which should redeem Israel. Yea and beside all this, it is
  22 now the third day since these things came to pass. Moreover
     certain women of our company amazed us, having been early at the
  23 tomb; and when they found not his body, they came, saying, that
     they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was
  24 alive. And certain of them that were with us went to the tomb, and
  25 found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not. And
     he said unto them, O foolish men, and slow of heart to believe
  26 [3]in all that the prophets have spoken! Behoved it not the Christ
  27 to suffer these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning
     from Moses and from all the prophets, he interpreted to them in
  28 all the scriptures the things concerning himself. And they drew
     nigh unto the village, whither they were going: and he made as
  29 though he would go further. And they constrained him, saying,
     Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is now far
  30 spent. And he went in to abide with them. And it came to pass,
     when he had sat down with them to meat, he took the [4]bread, and
  31 blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. And their eyes were
  32 opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight. And
     they said one to another, Was not our heart burning within us,
     while he spake to us in the way, while he opened to us the
     scriptures?

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _What words are these that ye exchange one with
     another?_]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _Dost thou sojourn alone in Jerusalem, and
     knowest thou not the things._]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _after_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _loaf_.]



§ 177. THE REPORT OF THE TWO DISCIPLES AND THE NEWS OF THE APPEARANCE TO
SIMON PETER

Jerusalem. Sunday evening


  Luke 24:33-35                     |1 Cor. 15:5
                                    |
  33   And they rose up that very   |
     hour, and returned to          |
     Jerusalem, and found the eleven|
  34 gathered together, and them    |
     that were with them, saying,   |
     The Lord is risen indeed, and  |
  35 hath appeared to Simon. And    |5 and that he appeared to Cephas.
     they rehearsed the things _that|
     happened_ in the way, and how  |
     he was known of them in the    |
     breaking of the bread.         |



§ 178. THE APPEARANCE TO THE ASTONISHED DISCIPLES (THOMAS ABSENT) WITH A
COMMISSION AND THEIR FAILURE TO CONVINCE THOMAS

Jerusalem. Sunday evening

  Mark 16:14             |Luke 24:36-43          |John 20:19-25
                         |                       |
                         |                       |19   When therefore it
                         |                       |   was evening, on
                         |                       |   that day, the
                         |                       |   first _day_ of the
                         |                       |   week, and when the
  14   And afterward he  |36   And as they spake |   doors were shut
     was manifested unto |   these things, he    |   where the
     the eleven          |   himself stood in the|   disciples were,
     themselves as they  |   midst of them,      |   for fear of the
     sat at meat;        |   [1]and saith unto   |   Jews, Jesus came
                         |   them, Peace _be_    |   and stood in the
                         |37 unto you. But they  |   midst, and saith
                         |   were terrified and  |   unto them, Peace
                         |   affrighted, and     |   _be_ unto you.
                         |   supposed that they  |
                         |   beheld a spirit.    |
     and he upbraided    |                       |
     them with their     |                       |
     unbelief and        |                       |
     hardness of heart,  |                       |
     because they        |                       |
     believed not them   |                       |
     which had seen him  |                       |
     after he was risen. |                       |
                         |38 And he said unto    |
                         |   them, Why are ye    |
                         |   troubled? and       |
                         |   wherefore do        |
                         |   reasonings arise in |
                         |39 your heart? See my  |20 And when he had
                         |   hands and my feet,  |   said this, he
                         |   that it is I myself:|   shewed unto them
                         |   handle me, and see; |   his hands and his
                         |   for a spirit hath   |   side.
                         |   not flesh and bones,|
                         |   as ye behold me     |
                         |40 having. [2]And when |
                         |   he had said this, he|
                         |   shewed them his     |
                         |   hands and his feet. |
                         |41 And while they still|
                         |   disbelieved for joy,|
                         |   and wondered, he    |
                         |   said unto them, Have|
                         |   ye here anything to |
                         |42 eat? And they gave  |
                         |   him a piece of a    |
                         |   broiled fish.[3] And|
                         |   he took it, and did |
                         |   eat before them.    |
                         |                       |   The disciples
                         |                       |   therefore were
  21 glad, when they saw the Lord. Jesus therefore said to them again,
     Peace _be_ unto you: as the Father hath sent me, even so send I
  22 you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith
  23 unto them, Receive ye the [4]Holy Ghost: whose soever sins ye
     forgive, they are forgiven unto them; whose soever _sins_ ye
     retain, they are retained.[a]
  24   But Thomas, one of the twelve, called [5]Didymus, was not with
  25 them when Jesus came. The other disciples therefore said unto him,
     We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see
     in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the
     print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not
     believe.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit _and saith unto them,
     Peace_ be _unto you_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities omit ver. 40.]

     [Footnote 3: Many ancient authorities add _and a honeycomb_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _Holy Spirit_.]

     [Footnote 5: That is, _Twin_.]

[Footnote a: Of our Lord's final commissions to the apostles and others
(Luke 24:33), this is the first. See a second in § 181, and a third in §
183.]



§ 179. THE APPEARANCE TO THE DISCIPLES THE NEXT SUNDAY NIGHT AND THE
CONVINCING OF THOMAS

Jerusalem


  John 20:26-31                     |1 Cor. 15:5
                                    |
  26   And after eight days again   | 5 [and that he appeared to
     his disciples were within, and |   Cephas;] then to the twelve;
     Thomas with them. Jesus cometh,|
     the doors being shut, and stood|
  27 in the midst, and said, Peace _be_ unto you. Then saith he to
     Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and see my hands; and reach
     _hither_ thy hand, and put it into my side: and be not faithless,
  28 but believing. Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my
  29 God. Jesus saith unto him, Because thou hast seen me, [1]thou hast
     believed: blessed _are_ they that have not seen, and _yet_ have
     believed.
  30   Many other signs therefore did Jesus in the presence of the
  31 disciples, which are not written in this book: but these are
     written, that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of
     God; and that believing ye may have life in his name.

     [Footnote 1: Or, _hast thou believed?_]



§ 180. THE APPEARANCE TO SEVEN DISCIPLES BESIDE THE SEA OF GALILEE.[a]
THE MIRACULOUS DRAUGHT OF FISHES


  John 21

   1   After these things Jesus manifested himself again to the
     disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and he manifested _himself_ on
   2 this wise. There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas called
     [1]Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the _sons_ of
   3 Zebedee, and two other of his disciples. Simon Peter saith unto
     them, I go a fishing. They say unto him, We also come with thee.
     They went forth, and entered into the boat; and that night they
   4 took nothing. But when day was now breaking, Jesus stood on the
   5 beach: howbeit the disciples knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus
     therefore said unto them, Children, have ye aught to eat? They
   6 answered him, No. And he said unto them, Cast the net on the right
     side of the boat, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and now
   7 they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes. That
     disciple therefore whom Jesus loved saith unto Peter, It is the
     Lord. So when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he girt his
   8 coat about him (for he was naked), and cast himself into the sea.
     But the other disciples came in the little boat (for they were not
     far from the land, but about two hundred cubits off), dragging the
   9 net _full_ of fishes. So when they got out upon the land, they see
     [2]a fire of coals there, and [3]fish laid thereon, and [4]bread.
  10 Jesus saith unto them, Bring of the fish which ye have now taken.
  11 Simon Peter therefore went [5]up, and drew the net to land, full
     of great fishes, a hundred and fifty and three: and for all there
  12 were so many, the net was not rent. Jesus saith unto them, Come
     _and_ break your fast. And none of the disciples durst inquire of
  13 him, Who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord. Jesus cometh, and
  14 taketh the [6]bread, and giveth them, and the fish likewise. This
     is now the third time that Jesus was manifested to the disciples,
     after he was risen from the dead.
  15   So when they had broken their fast, Jesus saith to Simon Peter,
     Simon, _son_ of [7]John, [8]lovest thou me more than these? He
     saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I [9]love thee. He
  16 saith unto him, Feed my lambs. He saith to him again a second
     time, Simon, _son_ of [7]John, [8]lovest thou me? He saith unto
     him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I [9]love thee. He saith unto
  17 him, Tend my sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, _son_
     of [7]John, [9]lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said
     unto him the third time, [9]Lovest thou me? And he said unto him,
     Lord, thou knowest all things; thou [10]knowest that I [9]love
  18 thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep. Verily, verily, I say
     unto thee, When thou wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and
     walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old, thou
     shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and
  19 carry thee whither thou wouldest not. Now this he spake,
     signifying by what manner of death he should glorify God. And when
  20 he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me. Peter, turning
     about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following; which also
     leaned back on his breast at the supper, and said, Lord, who is he
  21 that betrayeth thee? Peter therefore seeing him saith to Jesus,
  22 Lord, [11]and what shall this man do? Jesus saith unto him, If I
     will that he tarry till I come, what _is that_ to thee? follow
  23 thou me. This saying therefore went forth among the brethren, that
     that disciple should not die: yet Jesus said not unto him, that he
     should not die; but, If I will that he tarry till I come, what _is
     that_ to thee?
  24   This is the disciple which beareth witness of these things, and
     wrote these things: and we know that his witness is true.
  25   And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which
     if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world
     itself would not contain the books that should be written.

     [Footnote 1: That is, _Twin_.]

     [Footnote 2: Gr. _a fire of charcoal_.]

     [Footnote 3: Or, _a fish_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _a loaf_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _aboard_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _loaf_.]

     [Footnote 7: Gr. _Joanes_. See ch. 1:42.]

     [Footnotes 8, 9: _Love_ in these places represents two different
     Greek words.]

     [Footnote 10: Or, _perceivest_.]

     [Footnote 11: Gr. _and this man, what?_]

[Footnote a: The precise date of this seventh appearance is not known
except that it was after that on the Resurrection Day and before the
Ascension.]



§ 181. THE APPEARANCE TO ABOVE FIVE HUNDRED[a] ON AN APPOINTED MOUNTAIN
IN GALILEE, AND A COMMISSION GIVEN


  Mark 16:15-18          |Matt. 28:16-20         |1 Cor. 15:6
                         |                       |
                         |16   But the eleven    |
                         |   disciples went into |
                         |   Galilee, unto the   |
                         |   mountain where      |
                         |   Jesus had appointed | 6 then he appeared
                         |17 them. And when they |   to above five
                         |   saw him, they       |   hundred brethren
                         |   worshipped _him_:   |   at once, of whom
                         |   but some doubted.   |   the greater part
                         |18 And Jesus came to   |   remain until now,
                         |   them and spake unto |   but some are
                         |   them, saying, All   |   fallen asleep;
                         |   authority hath been |
                         |   given unto me in    |
                         |   heaven and on earth.|
  15   And he said unto  |                       |
     them, Go ye into all|19 Go ye therefore, and|
     the world, and      |   make disciples of   |
     preach the gospel to|   all the nations,    |
     the whole creation. |   baptizing them into |
                         |   the name of the     |
                         |   Father and of the   |
                         |   Son and of the Holy |
                         |20 Ghost: teaching them|
                         |   to observe all      |
                         |   things whatsoever I |
                         |   commanded you:      |
  16 He that believeth   |                       |
     and is baptized     |                       |
     shall be saved; but |                       |
     he that disbelieveth|                       |
     shall be condemned. |                       |
  17 And these signs     |                       |
     shall follow them   |                       |
     that believe: in my |                       |
     name shall they cast|                       |
     out [3]devils; they |                       |
     shall speak with    |                       |
  18 [4]new tongues; they|                       |
     shall take up       |                       |
     serpents, and if    |                       |
     they drink any      |                       |
     deadly thing, it    |                       |
     shall in no wise    |                       |
     hurt them; they     |                       |
     shall lay hands on  |                       |
     the sick, and they  |                       |
     shall recover.      |                       |
                         |   and lo, I am with   |
                         |   you [1]alway, even  |
                         |   unto [2]the end of  |
                         |   the world.          |

     [Footnote 1: Gr. _all the days_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _the consummation of the age_.]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _demons_.]

     [Footnote 4: Some ancient authorities omit _new_.]

[Footnote a: The meeting attended by so large a number as stated by Paul
was most probably that which Jesus had appointed (Matt. 28:16), and it
could be held on an appointed mountain without attracting the attention
of unbelievers.--The Commission in Mark may perhaps be reckoned the same
as Matthew's here. A third Commission is given by Luke in § 183. This is
what is called by many the Great Commission.]



§ 182. THE APPEARANCE TO JAMES THE BROTHER OF JESUS


  1 Cor. 15:7
   7   Then he appeared to James; then to all the apostles.



§ 183. THE APPEARANCE TO THE DISCIPLES WITH ANOTHER COMMISSION

Jerusalem


  Luke 24:44-49                     |Acts 1:3-8
                                    |
  44   And he said unto them, These | 3 to whom he also [3]shewed
     are my words which I spake unto|   himself alive after his passion
     you, while I was yet with you, |   by many proofs, appearing unto
     how that all things must needs |   them by the space of forty
     be fulfilled, which are written|   days, and speaking the things
     in the law of Moses, and the   |   concerning the kingdom of God:
     prophets, and the psalms,      | 4 and, [4]being assembled together
  45 concerning me. Then opened he  |   with them, he charged them not
     their mind, that they might    |   to depart from Jerusalem, but
  46 understand the scriptures; and |   to wait for the promise of the
     he said unto them, Thus it is  |   Father, which, _said he_, ye
     written [_see Hos. 6:2_], that | 5 heard from me: for John indeed
     the Christ should suffer, and  |   baptized with water; but ye
     rise again from the dead the   |   shall be baptized [5]with the
  47 third day; and that repentance |   Holy Ghost not many days hence.
     [1]and remission of sins should| 6   They therefore, when they were
     be preached in his name unto   |   come together, asked him,
     all the [2]nations, beginning  |   saying, Lord, dost thou at this
  48 from Jerusalem. Ye are         |   time restore the kingdom to
  49 witnesses of these things. And | 7 Israel? And he said unto them,
     behold, I send forth the       |   It is not for you to know times
     promise of my Father upon you: |   or seasons, which the Father
     but tarry ye in the city, until|   hath [6]set within his own
     ye be clothed with power from  | 8 authority. But ye shall receive
     on high.                       |   power, when the Holy Ghost is
                                    |   come upon you: and ye shall be
                                    |   my witnesses both in Jerusalem,
                                    |   and in all Judea and Samaria,
                                    |   and unto the uttermost part of
                                    |   the earth.

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities read _unto_.]

     [Footnote 2: Or, _nations. Beginning from Jerusalem, ye are
     witnesses._]

     [Footnote 3: Gr. _presented_.]

     [Footnote 4: Or, _eating with them_.]

     [Footnote 5: Or, _in_.]

     [Footnote 6: Or, _appointed by_.]



§ 184. THE LAST APPEARANCE AND THE ASCENSION

On Olivet between Jerusalem and Bethany


  Mark 16:19, 20         |Luke 24:50-53          |Acts 1:9-12
                         |                       |
                         |50   And he led them   |
                         |   out until _they     |
                         |   were_ over against  |
                         |   Bethany: and he     |
                         |   lifted up his hands,|
                         |   and blessed them.   |
  19   So then the Lord  |51 And it came to pass,|
     Jesus, after he had |   while he blessed    | 9 And when he had
     spoken unto them,   |   them, he parted from|   said these things,
     was received up into|   them, [1]and was    |   as they were
     heaven,             |   carried up into     |   looking, he was
                         |   heaven.             |   taken up; and a
                         |                       |   cloud received him
                         |                       |   out of their
                         |                       |   sight.
             and sat down|                       |
     at the right hand of|                       |10 And while they
     God.                |                       |   were looking
                         |                       |   stedfastly into
                         |                       |   heaven as he went,
                         |                       |   behold two men
                         |                       |   stood by them in
                         |                       |   white apparel;
                         |                       |11 which also said,
                         |                       |   Ye men of Galilee,
                         |                       |   why stand ye
                         |                       |   looking into
                         |                       |   heaven? this
                         |                       |   Jesus, which was
                         |                       |   received up from
                         |                       |   you into heaven,
                         |                       |   shall so come in
                         |                       |   like manner as ye
                         |                       |   beheld him going
                         |                       |   into heaven.
                         |52           And they  |
                         |   [2]worshipped him,  |
                         |   and returned to     |12   Then returned
                         |   Jerusalem with great|   they unto
                         |53 joy: and were       |   Jerusalem.
                         |   continually in the  |
  20       And they went |   temple, blessing    |
     forth, and preached |   God.                |
     everywhere, the Lord|                       |
     working with them,  |                       |
     and confirming the  |                       |
     word by the signs   |                       |
     that followed. Amen.|                       |

     [Footnote 1: Some ancient authorities omit _and was carried up
     into heaven_.]

     [Footnote 2: Some ancient authorities omit _worshipped him, and_.]



EXPLANATORY NOTES ON POINTS OF SPECIAL DIFFICULTY IN THE HARMONY


_1. About Harmonies of the Gospels_

We do not know how soon an effort was made to combine in one book the
several portrayals of the life of Jesus. Luke in his Gospel (1:1-4)
makes a selection of the material and incorporates data from different
sources, but with the stamp of his own arrangement and style. He
followed, in the main, the order of Mark's Gospel, as is easily seen.
But this method is not what is meant by a harmony of the Gospels, for
the result is a selection from all sorts of material (oral and written),
monographs and longer treatises.

The first known harmony is Tatian's Diatessaron (_dia tessaron_, by
four) in the second century (about 160 A.D.) in the Syriac tongue. It
was long lost, but an Arabic translation has been found and an English
rendering appeared in 1894 by J. Hamlyn Hill. It is plain that Tatian
has blended into one narrative our Four Gospels with a certain amount of
freedom as is shown by Hobson's _The Diatessaron of Tatian and the
Synoptic Problem_ (1904). There have been modern attempts also to
combine into one story the records of the Four Gospels. There is a
superficial advantage in such an effort in the freedom from variations
in the accounts, but the loss is too great for such an arbitrary gain.
The word harmony calls for such an arrangement, but it is not the method
of the best modern harmonies which preserve the differences in material
and style just as they are in the Four Gospels.

In the third century Ammonius arranged the Gospels in four parallel
columns (the _Sections_ of Ammonius). This was an attempt to give a
conspectus of the material in the Gospels side by side. In the fourth
century Eusebius with his _Canons_ and _Sections_ enabled the reader to
see at a glance the parallel passages in the Gospels. The ancients took
a keen interest in this form of study of the Gospels, as Augustine
shows.

Of modern harmonies that by Edward Robinson has had the most influence.
The edition in English appeared in 1845, that in Greek in 1846. Riddle
revised Robinson's Harmony in 1889. There were many others that employed
the Authorized Version, like Clark's, and that divided the life of
Christ according to the feasts.

Broadus (June, 1893) followed Waddy (1887) in the use of the Canterbury
Revision, but was the first to break away from the division by feasts
and to show the historical development in the life of Jesus. Stevens and
Burton followed (December, 1893) Broadus within six months and, like
him, used the Canterbury Revision and had an independent division of the
life of Christ to show the historical unfolding of the events. These two
harmonies have held the field for nearly thirty years for students of
the English Gospels. In 1903 Kerr issued one in the American Standard
Version and James one in the Canterbury Revision (1901).

Harmonies of the Gospels in the Greek continued to appear, like
Tischendorf's (1851, new edition 1891), Wright's _A Synopsis of the
Gospels in Greek_ (1903), Huck's _Synopse der drei ersten Evangelien_
(1892, English translation in 1907), Campbell's _First Three Gospels in
Greek_ (1899), _A Harmony of the Synoptic Gospels in Greek_ by Burton
and Goodspeed (1920).

The progress in synoptic criticism emphasized the difference in subject
matter and style between the Synoptic Gospels and the Fourth Gospel as
appears in the works of Huck, Campbell, and Burton and Goodspeed that
give only the Synoptic Gospels. Burton and Goodspeed have also an
English work, _A Harmony of the Synoptic Gospels for Historical and
Critical Study_ (1917). In 1917 Sharman (_Records of the Life of Jesus_)
gives first a harmony of the Synoptic Gospels with references to the
Fourth Gospel and then an outline of the Fourth Gospel with references
to the Synoptic Gospels.

Once more in 1919 Van Kirk produced _The Source Book of the Life of
Christ_ which is only a partial harmony, for the parables and speeches
of Jesus are only referred to, not quoted. But he endeavored to show the
results of Gospel criticism in the text of the book. There is much
useful material here for a harmony, but it is not a real harmony that
can be used for the full story of the life of Jesus. Van Kirk, however,
is the first writer to place Mark in the first column instead of
Matthew. I had already done it in my outline before I saw Van Kirk's
book, but his was published first. It is an immense improvement to put
Mark first. The student thus sees that the arrangement of the material
is not arbitrary and whimsical, but orderly and natural. Both Matthew
and Luke follow Mark's order except in the first part of Matthew where
he is topical in the main. John supplements the Synoptic Gospels,
particularly in the Judean (Jerusalem) Ministry.

Slowly, therefore, progress has been made in the harmonies of the
Gospels. But the modern student is able to reproduce the life and words
of Jesus as has not been possible since the first century. It is a
fourfold portrait of Christ that we get, but the whole is infinitely
richer than the picture given by any one of the Four Gospels. The
present Harmony aims to put the student in touch with the results of
modern scholarly research and to focus attention on the actual story in
the Gospels themselves. One may have his own opinion of the Fourth
Gospel, but it is needed in a harmony for completeness.


_2. Synoptic Criticism_

The criticism of the synoptic gospels has been able to reach a broad
general conclusion that is likely to stand the test of time. The reason
for this happy solution lies in the fact that the processes and results
can be tested. It is not mere subjective speculation. Any one who knows
how to weigh evidence can compare Mark, Matthew, and Luke in the
English, and still better in the Greek. The pages of the present harmony
offer proof enough. It is plain as a pikestaff that both our Matthew and
Luke used practically all of Mark and followed his general order of
events. For this reason Mark has been placed first on the pages where
this Gospel appears at all. But another thing is equally clear and that
is that both Matthew and Luke had another source in common because they
each give practically identical matter for much that is not in Mark at
all. This second common source for Matthew and Luke has been called
Logia because it is chiefly discourses. It is sometimes referred to as
"Q", the first letter of the German word _Quelle_ (source).
Unfortunately we do not have the whole of the Logia (Q) before us as in
the case of Mark, though we probably do not possess the original ending
of Mark in 16:9-20. But we can at least reproduce what is preserved.
Still, just as sometimes either Matthew or Luke made use of Mark, so in
the case of the Logia that is probably true. Hence we cannot tell the
precise limits of the Logia. Besides, a small part of Mark is not
employed by either Matthew or Luke and that may be true of the Logia.
But the fact of these two sources for Matthew and Luke seems to be
proven.

But there are various other points to be observed. One is that both
Matthew and Luke may have had various other sources. Luke tells us (Luke
1:1-4) that he made use of "many" such sources, both oral and written.
And a large part of Luke does not appear in the other gospels or at
least similar events and sayings occur in different environments and
times. Hence our solid conclusion must allow freedom and flexibility to
the writers in various ways. We can see for ourselves how Matthew and
Luke handled both Mark and the Logia, each in his own way and with
individual touches of style and purpose.

One other matter calls for attention. Papias is quoted by Eusebius as
saying that Matthew wrote in Hebrew (or Aramaic) whereas our present
Matthew is in Greek. It is now commonly held that the real Matthew
(Levi) wrote the Logia first in Aramaic and that either he or some one
else used that with Mark and other sources for our present Gospel of
Matthew.

It should be added also that there is a considerable body of evidence
for the view that Mark wrote under the influence of Simon Peter and
preserves the vividness and freshness of Peter's own style as an
eyewitness.

One other result has come. It is increasingly admitted that the Logia
was very early, before 50 A.D., and Mark likewise if Luke wrote the Acts
while Paul was still alive. Luke's Gospel comes (Acts 1:1) before the
Acts. The date of Acts is still in dispute, but the early date (about
A.D. 63) is gaining support constantly. The upshot of these centuries of
synoptic criticism has brought into sharp outline the facts that now
stand out with reasonable clearness. There are many points in dispute
still, but we at least know how the synoptic gospels were written, and
are reasonably certain of the dates and the authors.

There are many good books on the subject, like Hawkin's _Horae
Synopticae_ (second edition), Sanday's _Oxford Studies in the Synoptic
Problem_, Harnack's _Sayings of Jesus_ and his _Date of the Synoptic
Gospels and Acts_. My own views appear in my _Commentary on Matthew_
(Bible for Home and School), _Studies in Mark's Gospel_, and _Luke the
Historian in the Light of Research_.


_3. The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel_

It has come to pass that one has to defend the use of the Fourth Gospel
on a par with the Synoptic Gospels. The Johannine problem is an old one
and a difficult one. It cannot be said that modern scholarship has come
to a clear result here, as is true of the Synoptic Gospels. As a matter
of fact, the battle still rages vigorously. There are powerful arguments
on both sides. A mere sketch of the real situation is all that can be
attempted here.

The Gospel and the Epistles are in the same style and can be confidently
affirmed to be by the same author. The Apocalypse has some striking
peculiarities of its own. There are likenesses in vocabulary and idiom
beyond a doubt of a subtle nature, but the grammatical irregularities in
the Book of Revelation have long been a puzzle to those who hold to the
Johannine authorship. A full discussion of these grammatical details can
be found in the leading commentaries on the Apocalypse. A brief survey
is given in my _Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of
Historical Research_. The facts are undisputed and have a most
interesting parallel in the papyri fragments of some of the less
educated writers of the _Koiné_ as one can see for himself in Milligan's
_Greek Papyri_ or in any other collection.

There are two solutions of the problem with two alternatives in each
instance. There are those who roundly assert that the same man could not
have written both the Gospel and the Apocalypse. Some of these affirm
that the Apostle John wrote the Apocalypse but not the Gospel. Certainly
a "John" wrote the Revelation or claimed it at any rate. Others of this
group hold that an inferential Presbyter John (not "the elder" in 2 and
3 John) supposed to be meant by Papias wrote the Apocalypse while some
one else wrote the Gospel whether the Apostle John or not.

But a considerable body of scholars still hold that the same man wrote
both the Gospel and the Apocalypse, but a different explanation is
offered by two groups. One class of writers affirm that John wrote the
Apocalypse first before he had come to be at home in the Greek idiom as
we see it in the Gospel and the Epistles. We know that John and Peter
were fishermen and were not considered men of literary training by the
Sanhedrin (Acts 4:14). This explanation is sufficient but for the
further fact that the early date of the Apocalypse (about 70 A.D.) is
not now so generally held to be true. The later or Domitianic date as
given by Irenæus seems pretty clearly to be correct. So the other group
suggest that the books may belong substantially to the same period (the
Domitianic date) and that the explanation of the grammatical
infelicities in the Apocalypse may be due to the fact that John being on
the Isle of Patmos when he wrote did not have the benefit of friends in
Ephesus who apparently read the Gospel (John 21:24-25). Besides, the
excited state of John's mind because of the visions may have added to
the number of the solecisms in the Apocalypse. This view I personally
hold as probable. The unity of both Gospel and Apocalypse is denied by
some.

So the matter stands as between the Gospel and the Apocalypse. But the
Fourth Gospel has difficulties of its own. These relate in part to the
book in itself. It is true there is a great similarity in language and
style between the narrative parts of the book and the discourses of
Jesus. It is affirmed that the writer has colored the speeches of Jesus
with his own style or even made up the dialogues so that they are
without historical value or at least on a much lower plane than the
Synoptic Gospels as objective history. There is something in this point,
but one must remember that the Synoptic Gospels vary in their manner of
reporting the speeches of Jesus and aim to give the substance rather
than the precise words of the Master in all instances. It is at most a
matter of degree. There is a Johannine type of thought and phrase beyond
a doubt, but curiously enough we have a paragraph in Matthew 11:24-31
and Luke 10:21-23 that is precisely like the Johannine specimens,
written long before the Fourth Gospel. One must remember the versatility
of Jesus, who could not be retained in any one style or mold. But there
are those who admit the Johannine authorship of the Gospel and yet who
refuse to put it on the same plane as the Synoptic Gospels. Every one
must decide for himself on this point. For myself I see too much of
Christ in the Fourth Gospel in the most realistic and dramatic form to
be mere invention. We can enlarge our conception of Christ to make room
for the Fourth Gospel.

But even so it is urged that the Beloved Disciple cannot be the Apostle
John. If not, then the Fourth Gospel ignores the Apostle John,--a very
curious situation. It is a long story for which one must go to the able
books in defense of the Johannine authorship by Ezra Abbott, James
Drummond, W. Sanday, Luthardt, Watkins and many others. The ablest
modern attacks are made by Bacon and Wendt and Schmiedel. My own view is
given in my _The Divinity of Christ in the Gospel of John_.


_4. The Jesus of History_

It is not long since the cry of "Back to Christ" was raised and away
from Paul and John. Soon this cry was changed to an appeal to the Jesus
of History in opposition to the Christ of Theology. So we had the "Jesus
or Christ" controversy (see the Hibbert Journal Supplement for 1909). It
was gravely affirmed by some that Paul had created the Christ of
Christianity and had permanently altered the simple program of Jesus for
a social Kingdom and had turned it into a great ecclesiastical system
with speculative Christological interpretations quite beyond the range
of the vision of the Jesus of the Synoptic Gospels. It was admitted that
the Fourth Gospel, the Apocalypse, and the Epistles all gave the Pauline
view.

To the Synoptic Gospels, therefore, we all went. But the Christ of Paul
and of John is in the Synoptic Gospels. In all essentials the picture is
the same in Luke as in John and Paul. The shading is different, but
Jesus in Luke is the Son of God as well as the Son of Man (see my _Luke
the Historian in the Light of Research_). It was admitted that Matthew
gives the picture of Jesus as the Jewish Messiah. Mark reflects Peter's
conception of Jesus and gives Jesus as Lord and Christ (see my _Studies
in Mark's Gospel_). And Q (the Logia), the earliest document that we
have for the life of Christ and almost contemporary with the time of
Christ, gives the same essential features of Jesus as the Son of Man and
Son of God (see my article _The Christ of the Logia_ in the Contemporary
Review for August, 1919). The sober results of modern critical research
show the same figure in the very earliest documents that we possess (Q
and Mark's Gospel). The Christ of Paul and of John walks as the Jesus of
History in the Synoptic Gospels. We do know the earthly life of Jesus
much more distinctly and the research of centuries has had a blessed
outcome in the enrichment of our knowledge. Matthew and Luke are the
first critics of the sources for the life of Jesus. We see how they made
use of Mark, the Logia, and other documents. The Fourth Gospel comes
last with knowledge of the Synoptic Gospels.

There are, to be sure, a few men who even deny that Jesus ever lived at
all. That was the next step; but this absurdity has met complete
refutation. The Christ of faith is the Christ of fact. There is no
getting away from the fact of Christ, the chief fact of all the ages,
the centre of all history, the hope of the ages. Jesus Christ we can
still call him, our Lord and Saviour, and he never made such an appeal
to men as he does today in the full blaze of modern historical research.
Men are just beginning to take his words to heart in all the spheres of
human life. The one hope of a new world of righteousness lies precisely
in the program of Jesus Christ for the life of the individual in his
private affairs, in his family relations, in his business and social
dealings, in his political ideals and conduct. And nations must also
follow the leadership of Jesus the supreme Teacher of the race.

The purpose of a harmony is not to teach theology, but to make available
for men of any faith the facts in the Gospels concerning Jesus of
Nazareth. Each interprets these facts and teachings as he sees the
light. We can all acknowledge our debt to modern scholarship for the
tremendous contributions made to a richer understanding of the
environment into which Jesus came and to a juster appreciation of the
real significance of his person and his message. The Gospels are still
the most fascinating books in the world for sheer simplicity and beauty.
One can first trace the picture of Jesus in the Logia, then in Mark, in
Matthew, in Luke, in John. To these he can add the pictures of Christ in
the Acts, the Epistles, the Apocalypse.


_6. The Two Genealogies of Christ_

Sceptics of all ages, from Porphyry and Celsus to Strauss, have urged
the impossibility of reconciling the difficulties in the two accounts of
the descent of Jesus. Even Alford says it is impossible to reconcile
them. But certainly several possible explanations have been suggested.
The chief difficulties will be discussed.

1. In Matthew's list several discrepancies are pointed out.

_(a)_ It is objected that Matthew is mistaken in making three sets of
fourteen each. There are only forty-one names, and this would leave one
set with only thirteen. But does Matthew say he has mentioned forty-two
names? He does say (1:17) that there are three sets of fourteen and
divides them for us himself: "So all the generations from Abraham unto
David are fourteen generations; and from David unto the carrying away to
Babylon fourteen generations; and from the carrying away to Babylon unto
the Christ fourteen generations." The points of division are David and
the captivity; in the one case a man, in the other an event. He counts
David in each of the first two sets, although Jechoniah is counted only
once. David was the connecting link between the patriarchal line and the
royal line. But he does not say "from David to Jechoniah," but "from
David to the carrying away unto Babylon," and Josiah is the last name he
counts before that event. And so the first name after this same event is
Jechoniah. Thus Matthew deliberately counts David in two places to give
symmetry to the division, which made an easy help to the memory.

_(b)_ The omissions in Matthew's list have occasioned some trouble.
These omissions are after Joram, the names of Ahaziah, Joash, Amaziah,
and after Josiah, these of Jehoiakim and Eliakim (2 Kings 8:24; 1 Chron.
3:11; 2 Chron. 22:1, 11; 24:27; 2 Kings 23:34; 24:6). But such omissions
were very common in the Old Testament genealogies. See 2 Chron. 22:9.
Here "son of Jehoshaphat" means "grandson of Jehoshaphat." So in Matt.
1:1 Jesus is called the son of David, the son of Abraham. A direct line
of descent is all that it is designed to express. This is all that the
term "begat" necessarily means here. It is a real descent. Whatever
omissions were made for various reasons, would not invalidate the line.
The fact that Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah were the sons of Ahab and
Jezebel would be sufficient ground for omitting them.

_(c)_ Matthew mentions four women in his list, which is contrary to
Jewish custom, viz. Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, and the wife of Uriah. But
neither one is counted in the lists of fourteen, and each one has
something remarkable in her case (Broadus, Comm. on Matt. _in loco_).
Three were guilty of gross sin, and one, Ruth, was of Gentile origin and
deserved mention for that reason. This circumstance would seem to
indicate that Matthew did not simply copy the genealogical history of
Joseph. He did this, omitting what suited his purpose and adding
likewise remarks of his own. His record is thus reliable and yet made a
part of his own story.

2. A comparison of the lists of Matthew and Luke.

If no list had been given by Luke, no further explanations would be
necessary. But Luke not only gives a list, but one radically different
from Matthew's, and in inverse order. Matthew begins with Abraham and
comes to Jesus; Luke begins with Jesus and concludes with Adam [the son
of God]. Several explanations are offered to remove the apparent
contradiction.

_(a)_ As early as Julius Africanus it was suggested that the two lines
had united in accordance with the law of Levirate marriage. By this
theory, Heli and Jacob being stepbrothers, Jacob married Heli's widow
and was the real father of Joseph. Thus both genealogies would be the
descent of Joseph, one the real, the other the legal. This theory is
ably advocated by McClellan, pp. 416 ff., and Waddy, p. xvii. It is
argued that Jechoniah's children were born in captivity and so, being
slaves, lost both his royal dignity and his legal status. Stress is laid
upon the word "begat" to show that Matthew's descent must be the natural
pedigree of Joseph, and upon the use of the expression "son (as was
supposed) of Joseph." Hence both Joseph's real and legal standing are
shown, for by Luke's account he had an undisputed legal title to descend
from David. This is certainly possible, although it rests on the
hypothesis of the Levirate marriage.

_(b)_ Lord Arthur Hervey, in his volume on the Genealogies of Our Lord,
and in Smith's Dictionary, argues that Matthew gives Joseph's legal
descent as successor to the throne of David. According to this theory
Solomon's line failed in Jechoniah (Jer. 22:30) and Shealtiel of
Matthew's line took his place. Luke's account, on the other hand, gives
Joseph's real parentage. Matthew's Matthan and Luke's Mattathias are
identified as one, and the law of Levirate marriage comes into service
with Jacob and Heli. This explanation has received favor with such
writers as Mill, Alford, Wordsworth, Ellicott, Westcott, Fairbairn.
McNeile (on Matthew) considers this the "only possible" view. The chief
objection seems to be the most natural meaning of "begat," implying
direct descent, and the necessity for two suppositions, one about
Shealtiel and another about Jacob and Heli. It is even fairly probable
that the Shealtiel and Zerubbabel of Matthew and Luke are different
persons.

_(c)_ The third and most plausible solution yet suggested makes Matthew
give the real descent of Joseph, and Luke the real descent of Mary.
Several arguments of more or less weight can be adduced for this
hypothesis.

(1) The most natural meaning of "begat" in Matthew is preserved.
Jesus goes through David's royal line and so fulfils prophecy. It is not
elsewhere stated that Mary was of Davidic descent, although presumptive
evidence exists in the language of the angel (Luke 1:32) and the
enrollment of Mary (Luke 2:5). So Robinson (Revised edition).

(2) The use of Joseph without the article, while it is used with every
other name in the list. "The absence of the article puts the name
outside of the genealogical series properly so-called."--Godet. This
would seem to indicate that Joseph belonged to the parenthesis, "as was
supposed." It would read thus, "being son (as was supposed of Joseph) of
Heli." Luke had already clearly stated the manner of Christ's birth, so
that no one would think he was the son of Joseph. Jesus would thus be
Heli's grandson, an allowable meaning of "son." See Andrews' (new
edition) _Life of Our Lord_, p. 63.

(3) It would seem proper that Matthew should give the _legal_ descent of
Jesus, since he wrote chiefly for Jews. This, of course, could only be
through Joseph.

(4) And it would seem equally fitting that Luke should give the _real_
genealogy of Jesus, since he was writing for all. And this could come
only through Mary. If it is objected that a woman's genealogy is never
given, it may be replied that women are mentioned for special reasons in
Matthew's list, though not counted, and that Mary's name is not
mentioned in this list. The genealogy goes back to her father either by
skipping her as suggested above and making son mean the grandson of
Heli, or by allowing Joseph to stand in her place in the list, as he
would have to do anyhow. On the whole, then, this theory seems the most
plausible and pleasing. So practically Luther, Bengel, Olshausen,
Lightfoot, Wieseler, Robinson, Alexander, Godet, Weiss, Andrews (new
edition, p. 65), Broadus, and many recent writers.

But Bacon (Genealogy of Jesus Christ, Hastings D. B. and Am. J. of
Theol. Jan., 1911) says that nearly all writers of authority abandon any
effort to reconcile the two pedigrees of Jesus save as the effort of
Christians to give "His Davidic sonship rather than His actual descent."
See Machen's survey of negative criticism, on the subject in Princeton
Theol. Review (Jan., 1906). Barnard (Hastings D. C. G.) admits two
independent accounts, but sees no solution, but Sweet (Int. St. Bible
Encyl.) accepts the view that Matthew gives the real genealogy of Joseph
and Luke that of Mary. Plummer (Comm. on Luke) thinks it incredible that
Mary's genealogy should be given by Luke.


_6. The Probable Time of the Saviour's Birth_

Every one now understands that the accepted date of our Lord's birth is
wrong by several years. The estimates of the true date vary all the way
from one to seven years B.C. There are various data that fix the year
with more or less certainty, but none of them with absolute precision.
They do, however, agree in marking pretty clearly a narrow limit for
this notable occurrence, B.C. 6 or 5.

1. The death of Herod the Great is relied on with most certainty to fix
the year of Christ's birth. The rule of Archelaus and Antipas demands
B.C. 4. Josephus mentions an eclipse of the moon which occurred shortly
before he died. Ant. XVII, 6, 4. This eclipse is the only one alluded to
by Josephus, and fixes with absolute certainty the time after which the
birth of Jesus could not have occurred, since, according to Matt. 2:1-6,
Jesus was born while Herod was still living. The question to be
determined would be the year of this eclipse. Astronomical calculations
name an eclipse of the moon March 12 and 13, in the year of Rome 750,
and no eclipse occurred the following year that was visible in
Palestine. Josephus (Ant. XVII, 8, 1), says that Herod died thirty-seven
years after he was declared king by the Romans. In 714 he was proclaimed
king, and this would bring his death counting from Nisan to Nisan, as
Josephus usually does, "in the year from 1st Nisan 750 to 1st Nisan 751,
according to Jewish computation, at the age of seventy" (Andrews). Herod
died shortly before the Passover of 750, then, according to the eclipse
and the length of his reign. Caspari contends for January 24, 753, as
the date of Herod's death, because there was a total eclipse of the moon
January 10. So he puts his death fourteen days later. Mr. Page (_New
Light from Old Eclipses_) argues for the eclipse that occurred July 17,
752, as the one preceding Herod's death. He thinks that this makes
unnecessary the subtraction of two years from the reign of Tiberius on
the theory that Tiberius was contemporary ruler with Augustus for two
years. But he finds difficulty in lengthening Herod's reign so long, and
his theory has gained no great acceptance as yet. Our present era makes
the birth of Christ in the year of Rome 754, and is due to the Abbot
Dionysius Exiguus in the Sixth Century. Hence it is clear that if Herod
died in the early spring of 750, Jesus must have been born _at least_
four years before 754, the common era, and likely in the year 749.

2. It has been inferred by some that Jesus was at least two or three
years old when Herod slaughtered the infants in Bethlehem, Matt. 2:16.
Thus the year would be put two years further back to the end of 747 or
beginning of 748. But this is not demanded by the "two years" of
Matthew, for Herod would naturally extend the limit so as to be sure to
include the child in the number slain, and a child just entering the
second year would be called "two years" old by Jewish custom. No more
definite note of time comes from this circumstance, save that the
massacre probably took place some months before Herod's death, which
fact would bring the Saviour's birth back some time into the year 749.

3. The appearance of the "star in the east" (Matt. 2:2). This, of
course, was before Herod's death, and would agree in time with the
slaughter of the children, if the star be looked upon as a supernatural
phenomenon, and not the wise men's interpretation of a natural
conjunction of planets. Kepler first suggested that, as there was a
conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 747, to which Mars was added in
748, this conjunction might have been the bright star that led on the
wise men. See Wieseler, _Synopsis_, p. 57. Kepler had also suggested
that a periodical star or a comet might have joined the constellation.
The Chinese records preserve the account of the appearance of a comet in
the spring of 749. Either of these theories is fascinating in itself,
especially to those minds that prefer a natural explanation of anything
that looks miraculous. Both phenomena are possible in themselves, but
they hardly meet the requirements of the record in Matthew. (1) The word
used is _aster_, star, and not _astron_, a group of stars. (2) Rev. C.
Pritchard, whose calculations have been verified at Greenwich (Smith's
Dic.), has shown that those "planets could never have appeared as one
star, for they never approached each other within double the apparent
diameter of the moon." So Ideler's hypothesis that the wise men all had
weak eyes seems rather feeble. (3) The year 747 would conflict slightly
with other evidence for Christ's birth that favors 749, although
Wieseler, p. 53, note 4, contends that the star first appeared to the
wise men two years before their visit, and a second time on their visit
to Bethlehem. (4) Besides, the star is said to have stood over "where
the young child was," v. 9. If it were a natural star it would have kept
going as they went, and would not have stopped till they stopped. Even
then it would appear as far away as ever from Bethlehem. It seems best,
therefore, to admit the existence of a miracle here, and hence gain
nothing from the visit of the Magi to establish the date of the
Saviour's birth, save that it was not long before the slaughter of the
infants, and would at least agree with the date 749. See Broadus, Comm.
_in loco_.

4. The language of the heavenly host in Luke 2:14 is urged by some as
fixing the birth at a time when there was universal peace throughout the
world. The closing of the temple of Janus in the time of Augustus is
also adduced, but it is not certainly known when it was closed apart
from 725 and 729. It was intended to be closed at the end of 744, but
was delayed on account of trouble among the Daci and Dalmatæ. See
Greswell i. 469. Nothing specific can be obtained from this fact, save
that there was a time of comparative quiet in the Roman world from 746
to 752. There was a hush in the clangor of war when Jesus was born.

5. The entrance of John the Baptist upon his ministry gives us another
note of time. See Luke 3:1 f. John emerged from the wilderness seclusion
in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius. Augustus died August 29,
767. Adding fifteen years to this, the fifteenth year of Tiberius would
begin August 29, 781. John was of a priestly family and so could
naturally enter upon his work when thirty years of age. Thirty years
subtracted from this gives 751, as the date of John's birth. But that is
too late by two years to agree with the other date. Here, however, the
Roman histories come to our help. Tacitus, Ann. 1, 3: "Tiberius is
adopted by Augustus as his son, and _colleague in empire_." Vell. Pat.
2, 121; "At the request of Augustus, Tiberius was invested with equal
authority in all the provinces." So Suetonius Aug. 97 and Tib. 21. It is
clear, then, that Tiberius reigned jointly with Augustus about two years
before he assumed full control of the empire at the death of Augustus.
Luke could have used either date, but Tiberius' power was already equal
to that of Augustus in the provinces two years before his death. Luke
would naturally use the provincial point of view. Taking off the two
years from the joint reign of Augustus, we again come to the year 749,
as John was born six months before Jesus. So if John was born in the
early part of the spring, Jesus would have been born in the summer or
fall of 749.

6. The age of Jesus at his entrance upon his ministry, Luke 3:23. "And
Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years of age."
So most modern scholars, taking the language in the obvious sense.
Origen refers it to the beginning of a new life, by the second birth of
baptism, after his spiritualizing fashion. The Authorized Version has
it: "And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age," applying
the "beginning" to the period of thirty years. McClellan argues that it
means "about thirty years, beginning"; that is, a little the rise of
thirty years. The Revised Version seems to be preferable and the only
doubt would be as to what is included in the phrase "about thirty
years." It has been variously argued that Jesus was from one to three
years younger or older than thirty. It seems more reasonable to give the
words the meaning that he was just about thirty, a few months under or
over. Apparently this fact explains the idiom. The argument that Jesus
had to be exactly thirty years old because the priest had to be so, when
he entered upon his work, has no great force. For Jesus was not a priest
save in a spiritual sense. John had been preaching no great while when
Jesus was baptized by him and so entered upon his public ministry. If
John began his ministry when he was thirty years old in the fifteenth
year of Tiberius, then Jesus's ministry would begin about six months
later. His birth would then come in the latter part of 749, unless John
was born in the latter part of 748, when it would be earlier in the
year.

7. The building of the temple of Herod gives a further clue to the date
of Christ's birth. In John 2:20, the Jews say, "Forty and six years was
this temple in building." Josephus tells us in one place that Herod
began rebuilding the temple in the fifteenth year of his reign, War. I,
21, 1, and in another that he did so in the eighteenth year of his
reign, Ant. XV, 11, 1. In the account of Herod's death, Ant. XVII, 8, 1,
he used two dates for his reign, according as he counted from his
declaration as king by the Romans 714, or the death of Antigonus 717.
Eighteen and fifteen would both be correct, according as he reckoned
from the one date or the other. Eighteen added to forty-six and both to
714 would make 778. It was at the first Passover in his ministry that
this expression is used. It has been probably six months since his
baptism. If thirty and a half years be taken from 778, his birth would
be thrown back to the year 747, unless the forty-six years be taken as
completed, when it would be 748. So Robinson. But this does not quite
agree with the other notes of time we have. Many modern harmonists count
the eighteen years from 717, and so bring the whole number, adding
forty-six, down to 780, or, if the years are complete, 781. Thirty and a
half from this would give the autumn of 749 or 750. This is done because
Josephus usually reckons Herod's reign from the death of Antigonus, 717.
On the whole it seems clear that Josephus is wrong in the War. It is
common enough to find Josephus in one passage contradicting what he has
said elsewhere. The temple was begun the year that the Emperor came to
Syria, as is plain from Josephus. According to Dio Cassius, LIV, 7, this
visit was made in B.C. 20 or 19. Correcting Josephus by himself and by
Dio Cassius we thus again get B.C. 5 as the probable year of the birth
of Christ. See Schuerer, _History of the Jewish People in the Time of
Jesus Christ_, Div. I., Vol. I., p. 410.

8. The census of Augustus Cæsar mentioned in Luke 2:1 f., furnishes the
last note of time for this event. This subject is involved in a great
many difficulties, and for a full discussion, the reader is referred to
Ramsay's _Was Christ Born at Bethlehem_, and his _Bearing of Recent
Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament_ (Chap. XX) and to
my _Luke the Historian in the Light of Research_. Every statement made
by Luke in 2:1-7 was once challenged. Every one is now shown to be
correct.

(1) It used to be said that no census was ever taken by Augustus, but
heathen writers mention three, in 726, 746, 767. One of these, 746, may
be the one here mentioned, which was delayed for various reasons, or
which was executed slowly in the distant provinces. But it is not
necessary that the phrase "all the world" should be pressed to its
literal meaning, though this is more natural. Nor does the argument from
silence prove that no other general census was taken by Augustus. But
Ramsay has triumphantly vindicated Luke and the general census under
Augustus by proof from the papyri that Augustus inaugurated a periodical
census every fourteen years from B.C. 8 on. The second occurred A.D. 6
(Acts 5:37). See Ramsay's _Was Christ Born at Bethlehem_, and _Bearing
of Recent Discovery on Trustworthiness of the New Testament_ (Chap. XX)
and my _Luke the Historian_ (Chap. XX). We have only to think that there
was delay in the carrying out of the census in Palestine to bring this
date down to B.C. 6 (or even 5).

(2) It is not a "taxing," but an "enrollment" (Rev. Ver.) that was
taken. There was a taxing later (Acts 5:37). And if it were done while
Herod was king, Augustus could not have taxed Judea without Herod's
consent. But Herod was not now in good form with Augustus.

(3) This helps to explain another objection that the enrollment would
not have included Judea anyhow, because it was not yet a province, but a
kingdom. But it is not likely that Herod would have displeased Augustus
by refusing such information if it was desired. Tacitus asserts that the
_regna_, the dependent kingdoms, were included in the census taken by
Augustus.

(4) Hence, also, it is natural that the enrollment should have taken
place according to the Jewish and not according to the usual Roman
method, because Herod would wish it to be in accordance with the customs
of his kingdom. So every one went to his own city. We now know from
numerous papyri that in Egypt the family went to the home city. The Jews
were used to enrollment by tribes and that was allowed. See Deissmann's
_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 268, and Ramsay's _Was Christ Born at
Bethlehem_, p. 108.

(5) We now have to meet the objection that Quirinius was not governor
till ten years later, A.D. 6, when a taxing did occur. (See Acts 5:37.)

It is now possible to give a real solution of this problem. Luke is now
shown to be wholly correct in his statement that Quirinius was twice
governor, and that the first census took place during the first period.
A series of inscriptions in Asia Minor show that Quirinius was governor
of Syria B.C. 10-7 and so twice governor of Syria (second time A.D. 6;
Josephus, Ant. XVIII, 1:1). See Ramsay, _Bearing of Recent Discovery_,
pp. 273-300, and my _Luke the Historian_, pp. 127-9. Tertullian (_adv.
marc._ iv, 19) says that Sentius Saturninus was governor of Syria B.C.
9-6. But we now know that Varus was controlling the internal affairs of
Syria while Quirinius was leader of the army. Luke is therefore quite
accurate in his statement about Quirinius being twice governor of Syria.
The _Lapis Tiburtinus_ has _iterum Syriam_ about Quirinius. Ramsay has
cleared up this famous historical puzzle and has completely vindicated
Luke.

Few subjects have excited as much interest, even needless curiosity, as
the date of the birth of the Saviour. But it is noticeable that by the
masses of Christians more interest is taken in the day of Christ's birth
than in the year. The Christmas festivities and the natural desire to
make that the birthday of Jesus cause this widespread interest in
December 25. Not only is it impossible to determine with any degree of
certainty the day of the month, but the time of the year also is equally
uncertain. The chief thing that appears proved is that December 25 is
not the time, since the shepherds would hardly be in the fields at night
with the flocks, which were usually taken into the folds in November and
kept in till March. The nights of December would scarcely allow watching
in the mountain fields even as far south as Bethlehem. And besides, the
long journey from Nazareth to Bethlehem would hardly be made by Joseph
and Mary in winter, the rainy season. McClellan argues for December 25,
but his arguments are not convincing. The ancients had various days for
Christ's birth: May 20 (Clement of Alexandria), April 20, December 25,
January 5. Tertullian and others even say that the day of his birth
(December 25) was kept in the register at Rome. But chronologists attach
little weight to this testimony, since the same tradition puts the birth
of John, June 24; the annunciation of Mary, March 25, and Elizabeth's
conception, September 25--the four cardinal points of the year. If one
might hazard an opinion, it would be that the birth of Jesus occurred in
the summer or early in the fall of 749 or of 748, that is B.C. 6 or 5.
Turner (Chronology, Hastings D. B.) reaches B.C. 6 as the probable year
of the birth of Jesus though he did not have the new light on the census
and on Quirinius which confirms it. Hitchcock (Hastings D. C. G.) saw
the bearing of the periodical census that called for B.C. 7-5, but did
not yet know the discovery about Quirinius. Armstrong (Chronology New
Testament, Int. St. Bible Encycl.) is less certain about the precise
year.


_7. The Feast of John 5:1, and the Duration of Our Lord's Ministry_

It seems almost impossible to decide with certainty what feast is
alluded to in John 5:1. One can only speak with moderation where
everything is so doubtful. Various feasts have been suggested as solving
the problem.

1. The Feast of Dedication has been proposed by Kepler and Petavius. But
this view has met with no great amount of favor, for there is too short
an interval between the first Passover and December, when it occurred.
It might be a later Feast of Dedication, but this feast was not one of
the great feasts and would hardly have drawn Jesus all the way from
Galilee to attend it. He did attend this feast once (John 10:22), but he
was already in Judea at this time, having come up to attend the Feast of
Tabernacles (John 7:2, 14). So Robinson, Clark, etc. So this feast seems
to be ruled out of the question.

2. The Feast of Tabernacles is advocated by Ebrard, Ewald, Patritius. It
is very unlikely that the Feast of Tabernacles after the first Passover
could be meant, as the Saviour did not return to Galilee for some time
afterwards. He could hardly have come back so soon to Jerusalem. But the
Feast of Tabernacles after the Passover of John 6:4 is mentioned later,
John 7:2 f., which Jesus attended, it seems, because he was hindered
from going up to the previous Passover by the murderous designs of the
Jews. It is possible that the feast of John 5:1 may have been the Feast
of Tabernacles after a Passover not mentioned, and so would come after
the second Passover of his public ministry. But we do not know that
Jesus attended any other Feast of Tabernacles save the one in John 7:2,
which he may have done because he missed the preceding Passover.

3. The Feast of Purim, first suggested by Kepler, has had great favor
with modern harmonists, but apparently more on sentimental than on
scholarly grounds. Meyer says, "Without doubt it was Purim." But it is
by no means so certain as Meyer would have us believe. _(a)_ Meyer
relies on John 4:35 and 6:4 to show that this was the Feast of Purim
just before John 6:4. But the expression, "Say not ye, There are yet
four months and then cometh the harvest?" may be, and probably is a
proverbial saying indicating the usual length of time between sowing and
reaping, which, as a matter of fact, was about four months. Hence
nothing can be determined by this note of time. And, besides, the four
months could precede the Passover just as well as Purim, because the
sowing lasted a month or so. _(b)_ The Feast of Purim occurred a month
before the Passover. Is it at all likely that two circuits of all
Galilee were made in the meantime, besides much work of other kinds? See
Luke 8:1 and Matt. 9:35-38. The three general circuits throughout
Galilee, besides the mission of the twelve and a large part of their
training, the general statements about the Master's work of preaching
and healing, require an expansion rather than a contraction of the time
for this period of his ministry. It seems then quite unreasonable, when
once the mind takes in this enlarged conception of the missionary work
of Jesus, as recorded by the Synoptic Gospels, to limit it to the amount
of work mentioned by John, since he omits much of the early ministry,
because, it would seem, the others are so full just here. _(c)_ The
Feast of Purim, moreover, was observed at home in the synagogues, and
not by going to Jerusalem. See Esther 9:22 and Jos. Ant. xi. 6, 13. But
"the multitude" (John 5:13) seems to imply (Robinson) a concourse of
strangers at one of the great festivals. _(d)_ It seems hardly probable,
besides, that Jesus would go to any feast just a month before the
Passover and come back to Galilee and not go to the Passover itself
(John 6:4). Least of all would he do this in the case of Purim. _(e)_
The man who was healed at this feast was healed on the Sabbath (John
5:9), and this occasioned the outburst among the people. But the Feast
of Purim was never celebrated on the Sabbath, and when it came on a
Sabbath it was postponed. See Reland, Antiq. Sacr. 4, 9.

4. Pentecost is held to be the feast here alluded to by many early and
some later writers, such as Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, Erasmus,
Calvin, Bengel, etc. Norris makes it the Pentecost after the first
Passover, but to do this, has to crowd into this short interval Christ's
first Judean ministry, the journey through Samaria together with the
first part of his Galilean ministry. So this idea has little weight.
McClellan argues that the allusions of Jesus in John 5:17-47,
"infallibly point to Pentecost," meaning the Pentecost after a second
Passover that is not mentioned. He further contends that this best suits
the chronological arrangement and the term "a feast of the Jews." This
view is certainly possible and cannot be positively disproved, although
it is not so "infallibly" clear as McClellan imagines.

5. The Passover has always met with many adherents, being the second
Passover in the Saviour's ministry and making four in all (John 2:13;
5:1; 6:4; 12:1). An unnamed Passover may exist in the ministry even if
not referred to here. The arguments in favor of this interpretation are
the most satisfactory. We cannot consider them as absolutely conclusive,
yet the Passover meets all sides of the case better than any of the
other feasts. _(a)_ The plucking of ears from standing grain by the
disciples (Luke 6:1) would indicate a time after the Passover and before
Pentecost. This incident appears to have happened after the feast
mentioned in John 5:1. _(b)_ It is fairly implied (John 5:1) that the
feast took Jesus to Jerusalem. The Passover would more likely be the one
to lead him there. It is expressly stated that he attended two Passovers
and a special reason is given for his not attending a third. If there
was another Passover in his ministry, this would naturally be the one.
_(c)_ This suits best the hostility manifested at this feast, which
would have time to become acute (Broadus' Comm. on Matt.) and break out
with increased vigor in Galilee and prevent his attending the next
Passover (John 6:4; 7:1). _(d)_ If this Passover be a second Passover of
the ministry, sufficient time is afforded for the great Galilean
ministry without artificial crowding. His ministry would be long enough
to allow the great work recorded as done by him. Only two serious
objections can be urged to this idea. (1) It is objected that the
article would be used with "feast," if the Passover were thus mentioned
as _the_ feast. But to this we can reply: _(a)_ The article is sometimes
omitted when the Passover is meant (Matt. 27:15; Mark 15:6). _(b)_ The
absence of the article proves nothing whatever one way or the other. No
conclusion can be drawn for or against the idea of the Passover. _(c)_
The article does occur in many manuscripts, including the Sinaitic, and
is put in the margin of the Revised Version. So nothing can be gained
against this theory here. (2) The chief objection is that Jesus would
not have remained so long away from Jerusalem, a year and six months,
from the Second Passover till the Feast of Tabernacles after the Third
Passover. But _(a)_ we do not know that he did not attend any other
feast in that time, for silence proves nothing; and _(b)_ a good reason
is given for his failure to attend the Third Passover, which may have
applied to the others, if he did not go, _viz._, the desire of the Jews
to kill him (John 7:1).

Hence it is natural that there should be a variety of opinions as to the
length of the Saviour's ministry, varying all the way from one to four
years, leaving out mere guesses based on five and more Passovers.
McKnight argues that the ministry may have lasted five or more full
years, since all the Passovers of Christ's ministry may not be
mentioned.

(1) The _Bi-paschal_ theory makes the time of the public life of Jesus
one year, allowing only two Passovers to the Gospel of John. Browne in
his _Ordo Saeclorum_ advocates this view. But the words, "the Passover,"
in John 6:4 must be omitted, and for this there is not enough
documentary evidence. If this could be done, Westcott thinks Browne
would make out a good case. But with the present text, his view cannot
be entertained.

(2) The _Tri-paschal_ theory finds only three Passovers in the life of
Christ. Hence the public work of Jesus would be from two to two and a
half years in length. This view is quite possible, as is shown in the
Harmony. These writers usually make the feast of John 5:1 Purim before
the Passover of John 6:4, or Pentecost after it.

(3) The _Quadri-paschal_ theory contends for four Passovers and a
ministry of from three to three and a half years. This theory follows
from making John 5:1 a Passover or Purim before or Pentecost or
Tabernacles after an unnamed Passover. This seems to be the more
probable length of the Saviour's public work on earth. How short a space
was even this to compass such a marvellous work. The ministry of Jesus
seems crowded beyond our comprehension. It would be certain that the
Saviour's public life lasted about three years and a half, if it was
admitted that John 5:1 referred to a Passover. Various writers seek to
find an allusion to the three years of the Saviour's ministry in the
Parable of the Barren Fig Tree (Luke 13:6), but this application of the
parable is by no means certain, since three might naturally be used as a
round number. But there can very well have been a passover not
mentioned. All we can say is that we know that the ministry of Jesus was
two and a half years in length with the probability of three and a half.


_8. The Four Lists of the Twelve Apostles_

It is interesting to compare the four lists of Jesus' chosen apostles as
given by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Acts.

      Mark 3:16 f.    Matthew 10:2 f. Luke 6:14 f.     Acts 1:13 f.
   1. Simon Peter     Simon Peter     Simon Peter      Simon Peter
   2. James           Andrew          Andrew           James
   3. John            James           James            John
   4. Andrew          John            John             Andrew
   5. Philip          Philip          Philip           Philip
   6. Bartholomew     Bartholomew     Bartholomew      Thomas
   7. Matthew         Thomas          Matthew          Bartholomew
   8. Thomas          Matthew         Thomas           Matthew
   9. James the son   James the son   James the son    James the son
        of Alpheus      of Alpheus      of Alpheus       of Alpheus
  10. Thaddeus        Thaddeus        Simon the Zealot Simon the Zealot
  11. Simon the       Simon the       Judas the        Judas the
        Cananæan       Cananæan        brother of       brother of
                                       James            James
  12. Judas Iscariot  Judas Iscariot  Judas Iscariot

Let us examine the names here given.

(1) The lists are given some time after the selection was made, and
hence represent a later grouping according to later developments in this
inner circle. The primacy of Peter in these lists does not mean
necessarily that he was the acknowledged leader at first. See discussion
under (4) below. The point to note here is that we are not to think of
Peter as the formal leader of the Twelve before the death of Christ.
Jesus was himself that leader.

(2) One mark of an apostle was that he should have been with the Lord
from the baptism of John until the day that he was received up (Acts
1:21 f.). Perhaps no great stress is to be laid on any exact time here,
provided it began in the time of John. An apostle must know the Lord.
Hence Paul received the vision of Christ. We have some knowledge of
seven of these apostles before this time. If we infer from John 1:41
that John followed the example of Andrew in finding his own brother, it
was not long till James was a disciple as well as John, Andrew, and
Peter. Philip and Nathanael are soon added to the list (John 1:43 f.).
Later Matthew hears the call of the Saviour, too (Matt. 9:9; Mark 2:13
f). Of the other five we have no knowledge previous to this occasion.
Jesus had "found" them by the same insight that led to his other
selections. He chose Judas, though knowing that he was a devil.

(3) Observe the three groups of four, headed by Simon Peter, Philip, and
James the son of Alpheus, respectively. The great variety in the
arrangement of the other names makes this uniformity significant. It
seems clear that there are three recognized groups among the apostles
(Bengel, Broadus, Clark). Each group has the same persons in every list,
although there is such a variety in the order. In the first group
Matthew and Luke have the same order, while Mark and Acts agree. In the
second group Mark and Luke have a like order, while Matthew and Acts
agree in putting Matthew at the end of this group. In the third group
Matthew and Mark agree exactly, while Luke and Acts are identical save
the dropping out of Judas Iscariot from the list in Acts because of his
apostasy and death. No great importance can be attached to the precise
order within the groups since Luke, in the Gospel and Acts, gives a
different arrangement in the first and second groups.

(4) Observe also that Simon Peter not only stands at the head of his
group, but at the head of all the groups, while Judas Iscariot is always
at the bottom till he drops out entirely. Simon finally occupied a
position of precedence of some sort. He was one of the inner circle of
three that was so close to the Saviour's heart. Perhaps it was this,
rather than any notion of primacy in authority or power. He was the
spokesman because of his natural impetuosity. The question as to who
should be greatest among the apostles illustrates the spirit of rivalry
about precedence that existed among them. In the October, 1916, Journal
of Theol. Studies, Dr. A. Wright argues that the critical text in Mark
14:10 means "Judas Iscariot the first of the Twelve." The _Koiné_ did
sometimes use _heis_ as an ordinal (see Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 96,
and my _Grammar of the Greek New Testament_, pp. 671 f.). But the
disputes among the Twelve show that they themselves considered Jesus
only as leader till his death. See my article on "The Primacy of Judas
Iscariot," the Expositor (London) for April, 1917, and one by Rendel
Harris in the June, 1917, issue, and Wright's reply in the November,
1917, number.

(5) There are among the Twelve three pairs of brothers--Simon and
Andrew, James and John, James the son of Alpheus and Judas the brother
of James. The first two pairs form the first group of the Twelve. It is,
however, uncertain whether Judas is the brother or the son of James. The
Greek is ambiguous, James's Judas. The Revised Version translated it
"Judas son of James," but the Epistle of Jude begins "Judas a servant of
Jesus Christ and brother of James." But the Jude of the Epistle and the
Judas of the Twelve were hardly the same. Cf. Broadus, Comm. on Matt.,
p. 216.

(6) There are some apparent discrepancies in the names in the various
lists. Bartholomew occurs in every list, but is generally understood to
be another name for Nathanael. Thaddeus is also called Judas the brother
of James. Matthew and Mark give Thaddeus, and Luke in Gospel and Acts
gives Judas the brother of James. It was a very common circumstance for
one to have two names. Lebbeus, given in some MSS. in Matthew and Mark,
is only a marginal explanation of Thaddeus. Both are terms of
endearment. Matthew and Mark again call Simon the Cananæan, while Luke
in the Gospel and Acts speaks of him as Simon the Zealot. But "Zealot"
is simply a translation into Greek of the Aramaic "Cananæan." Jesus gave
the other Simon the name "Cephas," which was translated into the Greek
"Peter," meaning rock. He is called by all three names in the New
Testament. Matthew likewise had another name, Levi, and Thomas was also
called Didymus, which was a Greek translation of Thomas, meaning "twin."


_9. The Sermon on the Mount_

Do Matthew and Luke record the same discourse? Let us consider the
several theories on this subject. My own view will be stated last.

1. Some hold that the two discourses are entirely distinct in time,
place, circumstances and audience. The arguments for this theory usually
presented are these.

_(a)_ The time of delivery of the two sermons appears to be different.
Matthew gives the sermon before his call (Matt. 9:9), while Luke
precedes his sermon by the call of the twelve. Hence Matthew's discourse
comes quite a while before Luke's in the early Galilean ministry. But it
may be well replied that, inasmuch as Matthew's arrangement in ch. 8-13
is not chronological, but topical, it is entirely possible, even likely,
that the same arrangement should prevail in ch. 5-7. It is perfectly
natural that Matthew, writing for Jewish readers and about the Messianic
reign, should give at the beginning of his account of that reign the
formal principles that rule in this new state of affairs, as proclaimed
by Jesus on a later occasion. In the early part of the ministry of
Jesus, besides, the hearers would hardly be prepared for so advanced and
radical ideas. Besides, Matthew makes no note of time whatever for this
discourse.

_(b)_ The place appears to be different. One is on a mountain (Matt.
5:1), while the other is on a plain (Luke 6:17). Hence the one is called
by Clark the Sermon on the Mount, and the other the Sermon on the Plain.
Miller (Int. Stand. Bible Encyclopædia) is uncertain whether Matthew and
Luke report the same discourse and so discusses also Luke's "Sermon on
the Plain." But his argument is not convincing. If it is necessary that
"plain" here shall mean a place away from a mountain, down in a valley,
this would seem to refer to a different place. McClellan seeks to show
that Luke uses "and" in 6:17-20 by way of anticipation. He presents for
effective grouping events that happened after Jesus came down out of the
mountain before he gives the sermon delivered to the whole body of
disciples up in the mountain. This is possible, but another
interpretation is much more likely. The plain here is really simply "a
level place" (Rev. Ver.). So then the two accounts of Matthew and Luke
will harmonize quite well. Jesus first went up into the mountain to pray
(Luke 6:12) and selected and instructed the Twelve. Afterwards he came
down to a level place on the mountain side whither the crowds had
gathered, and stood there and wrought miracles (Luke 6:17). He then went
up a little higher into the mountain where he could sit down and see and
teach the multitudes (Matt. 5:1). Matthew gives the multitudes as the
reason for his going up into the mountain. By this arrangement any
discrepancy between "sat" in Matthew and "stood" in Luke disappears.
Waddy has given an admirable arrangement of the material at this point
in Note C, p. xix. Many writers affirm that the tradition mentioned by
Jerome, making the Horns of Hattin the place where the Sermon on the
Mount was delivered, suits this explanation exactly. There is a level
place on it where the crowds could have assembled. It is not necessary
to insist that this mountain is the Mount of Beatitudes, nor need we
contend, as Robinson does, that the mountain must be very close to
Capernaum.

_(c)_ The audience is different. Matthew (4:25) states that his audience
was composed of "great multitudes from Galilee and Decapolis and
Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond Jordan," while Luke (6:17) says that
there was "a great multitude of his disciples, and a great number of the
people from all Judea and Jerusalem, and the sea coast of Tyre and
Sidon." Matthew says (5:1) also that "his disciples came unto him."
Hence both assemblages were composed of great multitudes from many
regions besides many of his disciples, but in neither case is Jesus said
to address himself to any save his disciples, his followers (Matt. 5:1
and Luke 6:20). So in both accounts the Saviour seems to withdraw a
little from the great outside crowd of curiosity seekers. But the
multitudes also must have heard something of what he said, for they were
astonished at his teaching (Matt. 7:28). Andrews well shows that the
audience in Matthew were not mostly Jews (according to Kraft), and the
audience in Luke mostly heathen. Matthew omits Tyre and Sidon, but he
had already mentioned Syria (4:24), which includes Tyre and Sidon.
Neither list may be complete. Hence nothing can be made out of Luke's
omission of Galilee, Decapolis, and beyond Jordan. Great multitudes from
the same general regions are alluded to as being present.

_(d)_ The contents are radically different. It is objected by Alford,
Greswell, etc., that Luke omits large portions of what Matthew has so
that Luke has only thirty verses, while Matthew has one hundred and
seven. But this leaves out of consideration the several large portions
of the same matter which Luke has placed elsewhere, or which Jesus
repeated on other occasions (cf. Matt. 6:9-13 and Luke 11:2-4; Matt.
6:25-34 and Luke 12:22-31). Jesus often repeated his sayings on other
occasions as all teachers do and ought to do. Neither evangelist gives a
complete report of this wonderful discourse. So Matthew omits some
things which Luke records (cf. Matt. 5:12 with Luke 6:23-6; Matt. 7:12
with Luke 6:31-40). Nor need we be surprised that Luke, writing
generally for all Christians, omits large portions towards the beginning
of the sermon that were designed especially for Jews (see Matt. 5:17-27;
6:1-18). These Matthew would be sure to record. Luke adds four woes to
the beatitudes. It is unnecessary to remark upon minor variations of
language, since the gospels manifestly aim to give the sense of what the
Saviour said and not the _verbatim_ words. The variations in the
Synoptic reports of the sayings of Jesus add much to the interest of the
narratives. Moreover, to offset these variations, which admit of
explanation, it ought to be remembered that the two discourses begin
alike and end alike, that they have a general similarity in the order of
the different parts, and that they show a general likeness and often
absolute identity of expression.

So these differences all melt away on careful comparison, and it is not
proved that there are two distinct sermons.

2. Another theory holds that the two sermons are distinct, but spoken on
the same day, and near together. So Augustine, who is followed by Lange.
The further points of this theory are two. _(a)_ The one (Matt.) was
spoken before the choice of the Apostles, to the disciples alone, and
while Jesus was sitting on the mountain. _(b)_ The other (Luke) was
spoken after the choice of the Apostles, to the multitudes, and standing
upon the plain. It is not hard to see that these points do not solve the
question. In Matt. 7:28 we are told that the multitudes were astonished
at his teaching and in Luke 6:20 that "he lifted up his eyes on his
disciples, and said." So this distinction vanishes. The question of the
mountain and the plain has been already discussed, and another more
probable explanation suggested. It is only a conjecture that the
discourse of Matthew was before the appointment of the Twelve. This
theory has had no great following.

3. Wieseler holds that Matthew has simply brought together detached
sayings of Jesus on different occasions and does not mean to present the
whole as one discourse; Luke's account being only one of the discourses
used by Matthew. But this violates the evident notes of place and
audience and surroundings by which Matthew gives local color and cast to
the entire discourse. See Matt. 5:1 and 8:1. The case of the grouping of
the miracles in chapters 8 and 9 is not parallel, since there Matthew
does not state that they occurred on one occasion. The fact that various
portions of this discourse are repeated elsewhere by Matthew is
immaterial, because this was a common habit of Jesus in his discourses.
Votaw in his exhaustive and able discussion of the Sermon on the Mount
in the extra volume in the Hastings D. B. admits the possibility of this
hypothesis, but considers it far less probable than the historical
reality of the Sermon as recorded by both Matthew and Luke. Moffatt
(Encycl. Biblica) considers it "a composition rather than an actual
address," while Bacon (Sermon on the Mount) admits only what is also in
Luke. Adeney (Hastings D. C. G.) holds to the essential integrity of the
address in Matthew.

4. Both Matthew and Luke give substantially similar accounts of the same
discourse. In that case we have a good illustration of the use of the
Logia in Matthew and Luke. Most of the arguments for this interpretation
have been mentioned in rebuttal of the previously mentioned theories.
_(a)_ This is the most natural explanation in view of the large volume
of similar matter in both, in the beginning, progress, and close of the
discourse. It is always best to give the Scripture the most natural and
manifest setting, when possible. _(b)_ This theory is the most probable
one, since it is hardly likely that Jesus would again make the same
sermon to the same audience, and under the same circumstances. _(c)_
There are no objections to this theory that do not admit of a probable
explanation. See the discussion above. The omissions and additions in
each case suit the specific purpose of the writer. The apparent
contradictions, when studied carefully, blend into a harmonious whole.
Hence we seem to be justified in maintaining the identity of the
discourses recorded by Matthew and Luke. For a careful outline of this
matchless discourse see Broadus on Matthew. Stalker, _The Ethics of
Jesus_, has a very able exposition of the teaching.


_10. The Combination of Luke and John_

We now have to deal with the most perplexing question in harmonistic
study, the proper disposal of the mass of material furnished by Luke in
9:51-18:14. McClellan discusses ten schemes, pushes them all aside, and
then suggests another which is no more convincing and equally
complicated. Nothing can be attempted here but a presentation of the
chief points in this endless discussion. All the principal plans for
arranging this part of Luke proceed on one or the other of the following
ideas:

1. Some hold that this portion of Luke is neither orderly nor
chronological. Hence many of the incidents, here recorded as apparently
belonging to the last six months of the Saviour's ministry, in reality
are to be placed earlier. They are put here as a sort of summing up of
things not mentioned elsewhere. So Robinson and others. In favor of this
theory it is urged that Luke here speaks of some things that Matthew and
Mark put before the third Passover, such as the healing of a demoniac
(Luke 11:14-36) and the blasphemy following. But it may be well replied.

_(a)_ It is not at all clear that we have here the same events that are
recorded in Matthew and Mark. Similar miracles were often wrought in the
Master's work and similar sayings were frequently repeated on similar or
different occasions. This was a common habit with him, as we have
heretofore seen.

_(b)_ This portion of Luke is his distinctive contribution to the
ministry of Christ in addition to his account of the nativity. He has
condensed his account of the withdrawals from Galilee, apparently to
make room for the description of another part of Christ's work. Matthew
and Mark almost confine themselves to the ministry in Galilee, while
Luke thus devotes the bulk of his narrative to what seems to be a later
ministry, after Jesus has left Galilee. It is hardly likely that this
account should be a mere jumble of scattered details.

_(c)_ Especially is this unlikely in view of Luke's express statement
(1:3) that he was going to write an orderly narrative. In no real sense
could this be true, if this large section is dislocated in time and
order of events.

2. Others refer the entire narrative (Luke 9:51-18:14) to the last
journey of the Saviour to Jerusalem to the Passover and see a triple
reference to the same journey arguing for triplications in Luke. Others
prefer to understand it as meaning the journey to the Feast of the
Tabernacles or Dedication. Some would combine this idea with the
unchronological plan noticed above. In favor of this journey being
continuous and the last one to Jerusalem, the following arguments are
adduced:

_(a)_ The language of Luke 9:51, "when the days were being completed
that he should be received up," implies that the end was drawing near,
and that he was setting his face towards Jerusalem to meet it. This is
true without doubt, for Wieseler's interpretation of "received up" as
meaning Christ's reception by man is entirely too forced. The expression
points to the end of Christ's earthly career. But what does the vague
expression, "the days were being completed," mean? Does it have to mean
only a few weeks? May it not include as much as six months? For we know
that Jesus had been instructing his disciples on this very subject
expressly and pointedly, and at the Transfiguration he had spoken of his
"decease." Henceforward this was the uppermost subject in his mind. So
the interpretation is correct, but the inference is not necessary. This
journey in Luke 9:51 need not be either just before the Passover or the
Dedication. It could be as early as Tabernacles and be thus described.

_(b)_ It is insisted that this is Jesus' final departure from Galilee,
the one described by Matthew and Mark. No place is allowed for a return
to Galilee after the departure in Luke 9:51. Robinson urges that Luke
9:51 naturally means a final departure from Galilee. But it may simply
mean that he left it as a sphere of activity, not that he never entered
Galilee again. And then Luke 17:11 expressly says that Jesus went
"through the midst of Samaria and Galilee." This means more than going
on the border between the two countries, as McClellan argues. He went
through some portions of Samaria and Galilee. In order for McClellan to
carry out his scheme he has to resort to the artificial device of
referring part of John 10:40 to the departure from Galilee, and the
other half to the Perean ministry after a diversion of considerable
length into Samaria and back into Galilee. So the effort is not
convincing to place all the material in this large section of Luke in
one last journey to Jerusalem.

3. The combination of Luke's narrative with that of John. Wieseler was
the first to point out a possible parallel between Luke and John. John
gives us three journeys,--the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7:2 ff.), the
journey to Bethany at the raising of Lazarus (John 11:17 f.), the final
Passover (John 12:1). Luke likewise three times in this section speaks
of Jesus going to Jerusalem, 9:51; 13:22; 17:11. Hence it would seem
possible, even probable, that their journeys corresponded. If so, John
7:2-11:54 is to be taken as parallel to Luke 9:51-18:14. This plan is
followed by various modern scholars.

According to John's chronology, Jesus was in Jerusalem at the Feast of
Tabernacles (7:2), at the Feast of Dedication (10:22), and at the
Passover (12:1). Just after the Feast of the Dedication we find him
abiding beyond Jordan, where John had baptized (John 10:40). From this
point he comes to Bethany near Jerusalem at the raising of Lazarus (John
11:17), whence he withdraws to a little town called Ephraim in the hills
north of Jerusalem (John 11:54). Here he abides awhile with his
disciples away from his enemies till he goes to the Passover. Such is
John's outline of these last six months of the Saviour's life.

_(a)_ But how is all this to be reconciled with the statement of Luke
(17:11) that Jesus went through Samaria and Galilee? If Jesus went back
to Galilee, John would have mentioned it, we are told. Not necessarily,
not unless it fell in with his plan to do so. Hence no conflict need
exist between Luke and John. Luke says he went through Galilee and John
permits it by the break in his narrative at 11:54. Various points in the
six months have been suggested as the point when the return to Galilee
was made. The most natural point is from Ephraim, whither he had
withdrawn (John 11:54). It was not far to go up through Samaria and join
in Galilee (Luke 17:11) the pilgrims from his own country who were in
the habit of going to the Passover through Perea, to avoid passing
through Samaria. This supposition is not improbable, as Robinson and
McClellan urge, but very natural; it makes Luke and John both agree, and
allows Luke 9:51 to mean that Jesus then left Galilee as a field of
operations. Various other theories are suggested for this return to
Galilee, but none of them appear as fitting as this one. It was just
before the Passover, when such a journey from Galilee to Jerusalem would
be made.

_(b)_ One other point needs to be considered. The theory we hold makes
the journey in Luke 9:51 identical with the one in John 7:2-10, _viz._,
to Tabernacles. Many hold such identity to be impossible because of
apparent contradictions in the narratives. Andrews makes three
objections against this identity: (1) That the Lord refused to go with
his brethren (John 7:6). But it was his brothers who were not favorable
to him that he refused to go with. He simply wished to avoid publicity.
His face was set (Luke 9:51) all the time, but he was not going with
them. (2) That the manner of the going is unlike; the one in John is
secret, while the one in Luke is public. But the secrecy in John may
merely mean the avoidance of the caravan routes and so through Samaria
(Luke). The messengers sent before were not to herald his coming to
gather crowds simply, but to make ready for him. It was needed, since
the Samaritans saw that his face was as if he were going to Jerusalem.
(3) That he went rapidly according to John and slowly according to Luke.
He does, according to John, appear in Jerusalem before the feast is
over, but Luke does not make him move slowly. Nor is it necessary to
connect the sending of the seventy (Luke 10:1 ff.) with this journey. It
belongs rather to the interval between Tabernacles and Dedication. So
the secret going of John and the going through Samaria of Luke agree.
John explains, 7:10, that Jesus rejected the advice of his brothers.
This theory is held irrespective of this being the final departure from
Galilee. It is not necessary to fill out every detail in this programme
and show where Jesus was between Tabernacles and Dedication. The main
outlines remain clear and harmonious and are fairly satisfactory. This
combination of Luke and John preserves the integrity of both narratives
and fills up a large blank that would otherwise exist in these closing
months of the Saviour's life. Upon the whole, therefore, this view seems
decidedly preferable, though nothing like absolute certainty can be
claimed in regard to the question.

We do not know what special source Luke had for 9:51-18:14. Some of it
may have come from the Logia (Q). Hawkins (_Oxford Studies_, pp. 55 ff.)
calls it "the Travel Document." Burton _(Some Principles of Literary
Criticism and Their Application to the Synoptic Problem)_ suggests "The
Peræan Document" and thinks that Luke may have drafted it early out of
oral material. But at any rate it is a great and characteristic portion
of his Gospel and adds greatly to our knowledge of Christ.


_11. Did Christ Eat the Passover?_

To put this question in another form, it would be, On what day of the
month was Jesus crucified? For the crucifixion occurred on the same
Jewish day as the eating of the meal recorded by all four Evangelists.
Nearly all agree that the crucifixion occurred on Friday and the meal
was eaten the evening before, our Thursday, but the beginning of the
Jewish day, counting from sunset to sunset. But what day of the month
was it? The Passover feast began on the 15th Nisan, the lamb being slain
in the afternoon of the 14th. But the day of the week would vary with
the new moon. If Jesus ate the regular Passover supper, he was crucified
on the 15th Nisan. If he ate an anticipatory meal a day in advance and
was himself slain at the hour of killing the paschal lamb, he was
crucified on the 14th Nisan. In that case he did not really eat the
Passover supper at all. So then we must seek to determine the truth
about this matter, because express statements are made about it in the
Gospels.

1. Some sentimental views of the question need to be disposed of first.
A great controversy once raged in the early churches about the Passover.

_(a)_ In the latter part of the second century some of the churches of
Asia Minor, largely composed of Jewish Christians, kept up the Passover
on the ground that Jesus had eaten it the night before his crucifixion.
Polycarp, the disciple of John, expresses the persuasion that Jesus ate
the Passover.

_(b)_ But some of the churches were afraid of this example and its
application to the discussion about the relation of the Mosaic laws to
Christianity. So they took the position that Jesus did not eat the
Passover himself, but as the Paschal Lamb, was crucified at the time the
lamb was slain. He was our Passover. The Greek churches now hold this
position, while the Latin churches hold that Jesus ate the Passover. But
those arguments are purely subjective and do not affect the question of
fact. Hence we waive this old-time controversy and come to the testimony
of the Gospels themselves.

2. The testimony of the Synoptists, Mark, Matthew, and Luke. The
evidence they give is abundant and explicit to the effect that Jesus ate
the regular Paschal Supper on the evening after the 14th Nisan.

_(a)_ Jesus predicted that his death would occur during the Feast of the
Passover. See Matthew 26:2, "Ye know that after two days the Passover
cometh, and the Son of Man is delivered up to be crucified." See also
Mark 14:1 and Luke 22:1, where the fact is alluded to. Passover is used
in the general sense of the feast of unleavened bread, as Luke explains.
The feast of unleavened bread followed the Passover meal, beginning the
next morning and lasting a week. But the one term was used to include
the other. The Passover was expanded to mean the entire feast that
followed, and _vice versa_.

_(b)_ It is true that the Jewish authorities decided not to put Jesus to
death during the feast (Matthew 26:5; Mark 14:2). But this decision was
reached not because of any compunctions of conscience in the matter, but
because they were afraid of a tumult among the people, owing to the
great crowds, many of whom were friendly to Christ. But so soon as Judas
offered his services, their fears vanished and they proceeded with their
murderous designs (Matthew 26:14; Mark 14:11). The rulers did expedite
matters at the crucifixion that the bodies might not be exposed on the
Sabbath. But they had often tried to slay Jesus on the Sabbath
heretofore. Public executions did take place during the feasts (Deut.
17:12 f.).

_(c)_ The Synoptists flatly say (Matthew 26:17, 20; Mark 14:12, 17; Luke
22:7, 14) that on the first day of unleavened bread Jesus sent Peter and
John from Bethany into the city to make preparations for eating the
Passover, and that on the evening of the same day he ate it with his
disciples. Luke calls it "the hour." Now, the first day of unleavened
bread was the 14th Nisan. There is no question about this. Josephus
speaks of the feast lasting eight days. The lamb of the supper being
slain on the afternoon of this day, it was regarded as the beginning of
the feast. Besides, Mark and Luke end the whole matter by saying that on
this day they sacrificed the Passover. Jesus himself calls it the
Passover (Luke 22:15). It is useless to say that Jesus ate the Passover
a day in advance. This could not be done, especially by one to whom the
temple authorities were hostile. Equally useless is it to say that the
Jews ate the Passover a day too late. If a mistake was made about the
new moon, they would hardly keep the Passover on two different days, nor
would Jesus be apt to make a point about the matter.

3. The testimony of John. If we had only the evidence of the Synoptists,
no serious trouble would ever arise on this question. Strauss has
strenuously urged that John is on this point in hopeless conflict with
the other Evangelists, since he makes Jesus eat the Passover on the
evening after the 13th Nisan (Wednesday), and not the evening after the
14th (Thursday). This idea has gained a foothold among many able modern
writers who see a clear contradiction between the Synoptics and the
Fourth Gospel. Some of these evidently do so because they hold that the
Paschal controversy in Asia Minor arose from this supposed conflict of
John with the Synoptists, and that this shows John's Gospel to have been
in existence when that controversy began. It is not worth while to
maintain that John in chapter 13 alludes to a different meal on a
different occasion. The points of contact with the Synoptists are too
sharp and clear, such as the sop given to Judas. But five passages in
John are produced as being in direct opposition to the statements of the
Synoptic Gospels. A careful examination of each of these five passages
in the Fourth Gospel will show that John does not say that Jesus ate the
Passover meal a day in advance of the regular time, but quite the
contrary.

_(a)_ John 13:1 f., "Now before the feast of the Passover, Jesus
knowing, etc." Here, it is alleged, a distinct statement is made that
this supper was before the Passover, and consequently twenty-four hours
before. But several things are taken for granted in this inference. One
is that the phrase "feast of the Passover" is to be confined to this
particular meal, and is not to include the entire festival of unleavened
bread (_cf._ Luke 22:1). Often by a metonymy of speech the name of a
part is given to the whole. Besides, it is not certain that verse 1 is
to be connected with verse 2. The best exegetes agree that a complete
idea may be presented therein, either a general statement that Jesus
loved his own before the Passover and until the end, or that he came
into special consciousness of this love just before the Passover. And if
the more natural interpretation be taken and the application of this
love be made in verse 2, it is not necessary that the "before" be as
much as twenty-four hours. Observe also the text adopted in the Revised
Version in verse 2, not "supper being ended," but "during supper." With
this reading agree the other references in 13:4, "riseth from supper,"
13:12, "sat down again," 13:23, "there was at the table reclining in
Jesus' bosom." So the natural meaning is that just before the meal
began, Jesus purposed to show his love for his own by a practical
illustration. So, after they had all reclined at the table according to
custom, Jesus arose and passed around the tables, washing their feet;
then he reclined again and proceeded with the meal. So nothing at all
can be made out of this passage against the view that this was the
regular Passover; but, on the other hand, the most natural meaning is
that John is here describing what took place at this Passover meal.
Else, why should he mention the Passover at all?

_(b)_ John 13:27, "That thou doest, do quickly." The objection is made
that the disciples would not have thought that Jesus referred to the
feast (13:29), if the Passover meal was already going on or was over.
So, it is urged, this remark must have been made a day before the
Passover was celebrated. But if that were the case, where would be the
necessity for hurry, as there would be plenty of time on the morrow? The
word "feast" here need not be confined to the paschal supper, but more
naturally refers to the whole of the feast, of which the supper was a
part. So this haste was needed to provide for the feast of unleavened
bread which began on the next morning. No real force lies in the fact
that this day was a holy day, being the first day of the Passover
festival. The Mishna expressly allows the procuring, even on a Sabbath,
what was needed for the Passover. If this could be done on a Sabbath,
much more could it be done on a feast day which was not a Sabbath. Hence
not only was it possible for the disciples to have misunderstood the
remark of Jesus on the Passover evening, but it was far more natural
that such misapprehensions should arise then than a day before. So this
passage, like the preceding, when rightly understood, really confirms
the Synoptists.

_(c)_ John 18:28, "They themselves entered not into the palace, that
they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover." At first sight
this does look like a contradiction. For this was certainly after the
feast of John 13:2; and if they had not eaten the Passover meal, why
here is a clear case of conflict of authorities. But it is by no means
certain that the phrase "eat the Passover" means simply the paschal
supper. This phrase occurs five times in the New Testament besides this,
but all in Matthew, Mark, and Luke (Matt. 26:17; Mark 14:12, 14; Luke
22:11, 15). In all of these the reference is to the paschal supper. But
the word "passover" is used in three senses in the New Testament, the
paschal supper, the paschal lamb, or the paschal festival. The word is
used eight times in John besides this instance, and in every case the
Passover festival is meant. So we may fairly infer that the usage of
John must determine his own meaning rather than that of the Synoptists.
This becomes more probable when we remember that John wrote much later
than they, after the destruction of Jerusalem, when these terms were not
used so strictly. He always speaks of "the Jews" as separate from
Christians. And this very expression is used in 2 Chronicles 30:22, "And
they did eat the festival seven days." The Septuagint translates it,
"And they fulfilled (kept) the festival of unleavened bread seven days."
See Robinson. So it is entirely possible for the phrase, "eat the
Passover," to mean in this instance also the celebration of the Passover
festival. Some have urged that the Sanhedrin had not eaten the Passover
at the regular hour because of the excitement of the trial. But this is
hardly tenable. And, moreover, since this remark was made early in the
morning, how could that affect the eating of the supper in the evening?
For whatever impurities one had during the day passed away at evening.
Hence this uncleanness must belong to the same day on which it was
incurred. If the Passover festival had begun, this would be true, for
they would wish to participate in the offerings of that day. So this
passage likewise becomes an argument in favor of agreement with the
Synoptists.

_(d)_ John 19:14, "Now it was the Preparation of the Passover." This is
claimed to mean the day preceding the Passover festival. Hence Christ
was crucified on the 14th Nisan, in opposition to the Synoptists. The
afternoon before the Passover was used as a preparation, but it was not
technically so called. This phrase "Preparation" was really the name of
a day in the week, the day before the Sabbath, our Friday. We are not
left to conjecture about this question. The Evangelists all use it in
this sense alone. Matthew uses it for Friday (27:62), Mark expressly
says that the Preparation was the day before the Sabbath (15:42), Luke
says that it was the day of the Preparation and the Sabbath drew on
(23:54), and John himself so uses the word in two other passages (19:31,
42), in both of which haste is exercised on the Preparation, because the
Sabbath was at hand. The New Testament usage is conclusive, therefore,
on this point. This, then, was the Friday of Passover week. And this
agrees with the Synoptists. Besides, the term "Preparation" has long
been the regular name for Friday in the Greek language, caused by the
New Testament usage. It is so in the Modern Greek to-day. It was the
Sabbath eve, just as the Germans have Sonnabend for Sunday eve, _i.e._,
Saturday afternoon. So this passage also becomes a positive argument for
the agreement between John and the Synoptists.

_(e)_ John 19:31, "For the day of that Sabbath was a high day." From
this passage it has been argued that at this Passover the first day of
the Passover festival coincided with the weekly Sabbath. But that is an
entirely gratuitous inference. This coincidence would, of course, be a
"high day," but so would the first day of the feast, the last day, or
the Sabbath of the feast. In John 7:37 the last day is called "the great
day of the feast." The Sabbath occurring during the festival would be a
high day likewise. Robinson's arguments on this point are quite
conclusive. Nothing can be made out of the expression against the
position of the Synoptists.

McClellan discusses various other passages in John which show that the
crucifixion occurred on Friday, and that this was the first day of the
feast (John 18:39, 40; 19:31, 42; 20:1, 19, etc.). We conclude then that
a fair interpretation of the passages alleged not only removes all
contradiction between John and the Synoptists, but rather decidedly
favors the view that they have the same date for the Passover meal, and
that Jesus ate the Passover at the regular hour and was crucified on
Friday, 15th Nisan.

It is reassuring to note that David Smith (_The Days of His Flesh_,
Appendix VIII) reaches the same conclusion as that just stated. He makes
it out that Jesus ate the regular Passover meal and was crucified on
Friday 15th of Nisan and that the passages in John really agree with the
Synoptic account.


_12. The Hour of the Crucifixion_

In John 19:14 it is stated that the time when Pilate sentenced Jesus to
be crucified, or rather when he began the last trial in which he
sentenced him, was about the sixth hour. We read, however, in Mark 15:25
that it was the third hour when Christ was crucified. The Synoptists all
unite in saying that the darkness began at the sixth hour. The Jewish
way of counting the hours was to divide the night and day into twelve
divisions each, beginning at sunrise and sunset. The hours would thus
vary in length with the time of year. Just after the vernal equinox the
third hour of Mark would be about 9 A.M., and the sixth hour of the
Synoptists would be about noon. The ninth hour, when Jesus gave his
piteous cry to God (Mark 15:34), would be about 3 P.M. But how can the
sixth hour of John, the time when Jesus was sentenced by Pilate, be
reconciled to this schedule? A real difficulty is here presented, but by
no means an insuperable one, as Alford and Meyer hold. Let us discuss
some of the more usual explanations. Andrews and McClellan give quite a
variety of suggested solutions.

1. Some hold that "sixth" in John is a textual error for "third." This
could easily happen, since the gamma and the digamma of the Greek are
very similar. Eusebius said that the accurate copies had it "third" in
John. But the textual evidence is overwhelmingly against it, and,
besides, the difficulty would not be removed. John is evidently speaking
of the time at the last trial and Mark of the time after Jesus has been
led out to the crucifixion. So nothing is gained by this hypothesis. We
should still be confronted with the same difficulty. The change to
_third_ in John was a mere stupid scribal correction.

2. Others would change the punctuation in John 19:14 so as to make "of
the Passover" belong to "sixth hour," beginning from midnight. But there
is no evidence that the Passover began with midnight. So Hofmann. This
is very forced and unnatural.

3. Views that hinge on the word "preparation." Some would hold that John
simply says that about noon the preparation time of the Passover begins.
But Preparation here means Friday, and noon is not the hour needed to
harmonize with Mark. Equally arbitrary is it to count six hours backward
from noon so as to reach six o'clock.

Augustine suggested that the six hours are to be counted from 3 A.M.
This would make 9 A.M., and would concur with the hour of Mark. But this
is wholly arbitrary and unsatisfactory, and would not relieve the
trouble.

4. Equally arbitrary is the solution that makes Mark refer to the hour
of the sentence and John to the crucifixion, just the reverse of the
Scripture account. Augustine also proposed that Jesus was crucified at
the third hour by the tongues of the Jews, and at the sixth by the hands
of the soldiers.

5. Others hold that Mark and John both speak in general terms. Hence the
crucifixion may have taken place between 9 and 12 in the morning. Mark
looks in one direction and John in the other without aiming at
definiteness. The Jews, it is true, were not as exact in the use of
expressions of time as we are to-day, but this solution hardly meets the
requirements of the case. Mark puts his _third_ hour at the beginning of
the crucifixion, and John his _sixth_ hour at the beginning of the last
trial. This reconciliation does not reconcile.

6. The most satisfactory solution of the difficulty is to be found in
the idea that John here uses the Roman computation of time, from
midnight to noon and noon to midnight, just as we do now. Hence the
sixth hour would be our six o'clock in the morning. If this hour was the
beginning of the last trial of Jesus, we then have enough, but not too
much, time for the completion of the trial, the carrying away of Jesus
outside the city walls, together with the procuring of the crosses, etc.
All the events, moreover, narrated by the Evangelists, could have
occurred between dawn (John 18:27) and six or seven.

For a long time it was doubted whether the Romans ever used this method
of computing time for civil days. Farrar vehemently opposes this idea.
But Plutarch, Pliny, Aulus Gellius, and Macrobius expressly say that the
Roman civil day was reckoned from midnight to midnight. So the question
of fact may be considered as settled. The only remaining question is
whether John used this mode of reckoning. Of course, the Romans had also
the natural day and the natural night just as we do now. In favor of the
idea that John uses the Roman way of counting the hours in the civil
day, several things may be said.

_(a)_ He wrote the Gospel late in the century, probably in Asia Minor,
long after the destruction of Jerusalem, when the Jewish method would
not likely be preserved. Roman ideas were prevalent in Asia Minor. John
evidently is not writing for the Jews primarily, since he constantly
speaks of "the Jews" as outsiders. John is writing to be understood by
the people, and this is the way it would be understood in Asia Minor.

_(b)_ All the passages in John, where the hour is mentioned, allow this
computation. John 1:39 would be 10 A.M.; 4:6 f. would be 6 P.M.,
counting from noon also (as we do). This hour suits best the
circumstances. In the evening the women would come to get water, Jesus
would have time for his journey thither, and would be tired and hungry.
In John 4:52 the hour would be 7 P.M. This hour likewise suits the
circumstances better. John 11:9, Are there not twelve hours in the day?
is not against this idea, since here obviously the natural day, as
opposed to night, is meant. The Romans used both methods and so do we.

_(c)_ Moreover, one passage in John (20:19), when compared with Luke
24:29, 36, makes it necessary to understand that John used the Roman
method in this instance. It was toward evening, and the day had
declined, according to Luke, when Jesus and the disciples drew near to
Emmaus. Here he ate supper and, "rising up that very hour," the
disciples returned seven miles to Jerusalem and told these things to the
eleven who were together. But while they were narrating these things
Jesus appeared to them. Now John, in mentioning this very appearance of
Jesus (20:19), says that it "was evening on _that day_, the first day of
the week," _i.e._, evening of the day when Mary Magdalene had seen the
Lord. But with the Jews the evening began the day. Hence John, here at
least, is _bound_ to mean the Roman day. It was the evening of the same
day in the morning of which Mary had seen Jesus. This appears
conclusive. John did use the Roman method here, may have done so always,
almost certainly did so in 19:14. Besides, as McClellan shows, the
natural meaning of John's phrase is that it was the sixth hour of the
Friday (Preparation) of the Passover. But we have just seen that John in
20:19 counts according to the Roman day. Hence the sixth hour of Friday
would be six o'clock in the morning.

This is the only solution that really harmonizes John and Mark. The rest
make the hours agree, but the hours bring together different events.
This method harmonizes the whole narrative, and seems entirely probable,
if we can assume that the Romans or Greeks employed hours in this sense,
a point denied by Ramsay.

Sir W. M. Ramsay (_The Expositor_ for March, 1893, and Extra Volume,
Hastings D. B.) contends that Mark and John are at variance, but that it
is of small moment, since the ancients had little notion about hours. He
seeks to show that the martyrdom of Polycarp and Pronius, usually relied
on to prove that in Asia Minor the hours were counted from midnight,
took place in the afternoon, instead of the morning, the usual time.
Hence the eighth and tenth hours respectively would be 2 P.M. and 4 P.M.
Ramsay argues that, when hours were counted, they were always counted
from sunrise. He holds that John is more accurate about hours than Mark
and that hence Mark is in error. He agrees that John "stood on the Roman
plane" in the use of time, but denies that the sixth hour can be our 6
A.M. But the evidence is too uncertain for such a dogmatic position.


_13. The Time of the Resurrection of Christ_

1. Mark, Luke, and John say that the resurrection had taken place early
on the first day of the week, _i.e._ early Sunday morning. Mark (16:9)
says that Jesus, "having risen early, on the first day of the week,
appeared, etc." The position of "early" is ambiguous in the Greek and
the passage is disputed. Mark (16:2) states that it was very early on
the first day of the week, the sun having risen, when the women came to
the sepulchre. Luke (24:1) says that the women came to the tomb at early
dawn on the first day of the week. John (20:1) says that Mary Magdalene
came to the tomb in the morning on the first day of the week. So then,
there is no doubt that these three Evangelists mean to say that Jesus
rose very early on Sunday morning, and that shortly after that event
came the two Marys and some other women to anoint his body with spices.

Much objection is made to some of the details in the accounts of Mark
and John especially as being inconsistent. John (20:1) says that Mary
comes while it is yet dark, while Mark says (16:2) that the sun was
risen. But Mark also says in the same verse that it was very early,
which would agree with John's statement that it was yet dark. Hence
Mark's other statement, that the sun was risen, must be interpreted in
the light of his own words. Two solutions can be offered.

_(a)_ We may suppose, as McClellan and others, that John's note of time
refers to the starting from Bethany, while it was yet dark or very early
(Mark). In a few minutes it would be early dawn (Luke), and by the time
the women come to the tomb, the sun would be up. All this is entirely
possible and looks even probable, for in the twilight of early dawn, the
border line is very narrow between darkness and sunrise. A stiff morning
walk would pass through all the stages. It all depends on where you take
your stand in this fleeting interim. Mark covers both sides and so
includes it all from the first glimmering light till the full light of
day.

_(b)_ Or the expression, "the sun was risen" (aorist participle), may
simply be a general expression applicable to the phenomena of sunrise.
The first gleam of daylight comes from the rising sun, though not yet
completely risen. Robinson gives several examples from the Septuagint,
where the same phrase is used in the aorist tense in a general way for
the dawning light of day (Judges 9:33; 2 Kings 3:22; Ps. 104:22). Either
of these explanations is entirely possible and removes the difficulty.

2. But Matthew seems to put the resurrection on the evening after the
Sabbath, our Saturday evening. He says (28:1), "But late on the Sabbath
day, as it was dawning into the first day of the week, came Mary
Magdalene and the other Mary to view the sepulchre." If this passage
means that the visit was made at the end of the Sabbath day (evening)
and after the resurrection of Jesus, then Matthew is in plain
contradiction to the other Evangelists. Some have taken the position
that Jesus rose at sunset on the Sabbath day, forgetting that Mark
(16:9) says that he rose early in the morning. There are several ways of
reconciling Matthew with the other gospels.

_(a)_ Greswell, Alford and others would translate "late on the Sabbath
day" by "late in the week." The Greek word is the same in this verse for
Sabbath and week. In both cases, therefore, the translation could be the
same. But little sense would result from this translation. "Late in the
week" and "dawning into the first day of the week" hardly fit well. By
this explanation the latter expression is used for the first part of
Sunday and the visit occurred in this dawning part of the day.

_(b)_ Others would translate "late on the Sabbath day" by "after the
Sabbath day." Godet, Grimm and others contend that the Greek idiom could
mean this, and the _Koiné_ allows it (Robertson, _Grammar of the Greek
New Testament_, pp. 645 f.). This rendering is possible, though the
papyri have instances of "late on" for this preposition _(opse)_, and it
is so translated by several English translators. Thus the Greek idiom
allows either "late on" or "after."

_(c)_ Matthew does not clearly say that this visit was made after the
resurrection of the Saviour although his words may mean that. Hence the
words may have their natural meaning as sustained by the papyri. Late on
the Sabbath day, about sundown say, the two Marys go to view the
sepulchre (Matt. 28:1), having rested through the day (Luke 23:56). The
women who had come with Jesus from Galilee had gone thither on Friday,
after his burial, to see where he was laid and had prepared spices. If
they went at nightfall at the close of the Sabbath (Matt. 28:1) "to see
the sepulchre," they could have bought spices after sundown (Mark 16:1).
Then (Mark 16:2) in the early morning, they rose and took the spices and
went to anoint his body. It was then that they saw the angel (Matt.
28:5). Matthew does not say that in the visit of 28:1 the angel appeared
to them. He speaks of the earthquake having come, and the resurrection,
and then resumes. This view gains some support from the use of the same
Greek word in Luke 23:54, "And it was the day of the Preparation
(Friday) and the Sabbath drew on (was dawning)." Here the meaning seems
to be that the Sabbath _dawned_ at the close of the day. So Westcott,
McClellan and others. However it may be about the visit of the women in
Matt. 28:1, Matthew certainly does not mean to say that Jesus rose at
sunset on the Sabbath. The whole course of his narrative in the rest of
the chapter shows that it was the morning of Sunday when the angel
appeared. While (Matt. 28:11) the women went to the disciples, the
soldiers ran to the chief priests (Matt. 28:13) and said that the
disciples came by _night_ and stole him while they slept, clearly
implying that it was now day. Hence Matthew does not teach that Jesus
rose at sunset, but the reverse. Besides, Matthew expressly says that
Jesus rose on the third day, which would not be true, if he rose on the
Sabbath.

_(d)_ Sabbath day may be used of the day followed by the night,
according to a possible understanding of the language. The Jews
originally counted from evening to evening, but this custom did not
prevail universally. Jonah (1:17) and Matthew (12:40) speak of three
days and three nights, following the day by the night. Meyer, Morison,
Clark and others hold this view, and it is possible, but certainly not
so satisfactory as the view given under (c). At any rate, it remains
clear that Matthew agrees with the other Evangelists in putting the
resurrection of Jesus Sunday morning. The chief point of difficulty is
Matthew's visit of the women in 28:1, whether this was in the evening
before simply "to view the sepulchre," or in the morning to anoint the
body of the Saviour. The condensed account of Matthew leaves this
question unsettled, and there we too shall have to leave it. And this
last matter does not affect the question as to the time of the Lord's
resurrection, but only the number of the visits made by the women.


_14. The Length of Our Lord's Stay in the Tomb_

Quite an effort is made in some quarters to show that Jesus remained in
the tomb seventy-two hours, three full days and nights. The effort seems
due to a desire to give full value to the expression "three days" and to
vindicate scripture. But a minutely literal interpretation of this
phrase makes "on the third day" flatly erroneous. A good deal of labor
has been expended in the impossible attempt to make three and four equal
to each other. There are three sets of expressions used about the
matter, besides the express statements of the Gospels about the days of
the crucifixion and resurrection. Let us examine these lines of
evidence.

1. Luke settles the matter pointedly by mentioning all the time between
the crucifixion and the resurrection (Luke 23:50-24:3). The burial took
place Friday afternoon just before the Sabbath drew on (Luke 23:54). The
women rested on the Sabbath (Saturday) (Luke 23:56), and went to the
sepulchre early Sunday morning, the first day of the week (Luke 24:1).
There is no escaping this piece of chronology. This is all the time
there was between the two events. Jesus then lay in the tomb from late
in the afternoon of Friday till early Sunday morning. The other Gospels
agree with this reckoning of the time, as we have already seen.

2. But how about the prediction of Jesus, repeatedly made, and once
illustrated by the case of Jonah, that he would rise after three days?
Are two nights and a day and two pieces of days three days? Let us see.

_(a)_ The well-known custom of the Jews was to count a part of a day as
a whole day of twenty-four hours. Hence a part of a day or night would
be counted as a whole day, the term day obviously having two senses, as
night and day, or day contrasted with night. So then the part of Friday
would count as one day, Saturday another, and the part of Sunday the
third day. This method of reckoning gives no trouble to a Jew or to
modern men, for that matter. In free vernacular we speak the same way
today.

_(b)_ Besides, the phrase "on the third day" is obliged to mean that the
resurrection took place on that day, for, if it occurred after the third
day, it would be on the fourth day and not on the third. Now it so
happens that this term "third day" is applied _seven_ times to the
resurrection of Christ (Matt. 16:21; Matt. 17:23; Matt. 20:19; Luke
24:7, 21, 46; 1 Cor. 15:4). These numerous passages of Scripture, both
prophecy and statement of history, agree with the record of the fact
that Jesus did rise on the third day. (Luke 24:7.)

_(c)_ Moreover, the phrase "after three days" is used by the same
writers (Matthew and Luke) in connection with the former one, "the third
day," as meaning the same thing. Hence the definite and clear
expressions must explain the one that is less so. The chief priests and
Pharisees remember (Matt. 27:63) that Jesus said, after three days I
rise again. Hence they urge Pilate to keep a guard over the tomb until
the _third day_ (Matt. 27:64). This is their own interpretation of the
Saviour's words. Besides, in parallel passages in the different Gospels,
one will have one expression and another the other, naturally suggesting
that they regarded them as equivalent. (Cf. Mark 8:31 with Matt. 16:21,
Luke 9:22 with Mark 10:34.) On the third day cannot mean on the fourth
day, while after three days can be used as meaning on the third day.

_(d)_ Matthew 12:40 is urged as conclusive the other way. But the "three
days and three nights" may be nothing more than a longer way of saying
three days, using day in its long sense. And we have already seen that
the Jews counted any part of this full day (day and night) as a whole
day (day and night). Hence this passage may mean nothing more than the
common "after three days" above mentioned, and, like that expression,
must be interpreted in accordance with the definite term "on the third
day" and with the clear chronological data given by Luke and the rest.
They seemed to be conscious of no discrepancy in these various
expressions. Most likely they understood them as well as we do at any
rate.



A LIST OF THE PARABLES OF JESUS


The Sign of the Temple, § 3l.

The Physician, § 39 (cf. § 47).

The Three Parables about the New Dispensation, § 48.

The Blind Guiding the Blind, The Mote and the Beam, § 54.

The Wise and Foolish Builders, § 54.

The Children in the Market Place, § 57.

The Two Debtors, § 59.

Parables about Satan's Kingdom, § 6l.

The Unclean Spirit that Returned, § 62.

The Sower, § 64.

The Seed Growing of Itself, § 64.

The Tares, § 64.

The Mustard Seed, §§ 64 and 110.

The Leaven, §§ 64 and 110.

The Hid Treasure, § 64.

The Pearl of Great Price, § 64.

The Net, § 64.

The Scribe, § 64.

The Parable of Corban, § 77.

The Unmerciful Servant, § 92.

The Good Shepherd, § 10l.

The Good Samaritan, § 103.

The Importunate Friend, § 105.

The Rich Fool, § 108.

The Waiting Servants, § 108.

The Wise Steward, § 108.

The Fig Tree, § 109.

Seats at Feasts, § 114.

Feast for the Poor, § 114.

The Great Supper, § 114.

The Tower and the King, § 115.

The Lost Sheep, § 116 (cf. § 91).

The Lost Coin, § 116.

The Lost Son, § 116.

The Unrighteous Steward, § 117.

The Rich Man and Lazarus, § 117.

Unprofitable Servants, § 117.

The Importunate Widow, § 121.

The Pharisee and the Publican, § 121.

The Laborers in the Vineyard, § 124.

The Pounds, § 127.

The Two Sons, § 132.

The Wicked Husbandmen, § 132.

The Rejected Stone, § 132.

The Marriage Feast and the Wedding Garment, § 132.

The Fig Tree, § 139.

The Porter, § 139.

The Master and the Thief, § 139.

The Wise Servant, § 139.

The Ten Virgins, § 139.

The Talents, § 139.

The Sheep and the Goats, § 139.



A LIST OF THE MIRACLES OF JESUS


The Water Made Wine, § 29.

The Courtier's Son, § 38.

The First Draught of Fishes, § 41.

The Capernaum Demoniac, § 42.

Simon's Mother-in-law, § 43.

A Leper, § 45.

The Paralytic, § 46.

The Impotent Man, § 49.

The Man with a Withered Hand, § 51.

The Centurion's Servant, § 55.

The Widow's Son, § 56.

A Blind and Dumb Man, § 61.

The Stilling of the Storm, § 65.

The Gadarene Demoniacs, § 66.

The Woman with an Issue of Blood, § 67.

Jairus' Daughter, § 67.

Two Blind Men, § 68.

A Dumb Demoniac, § 68.

The Five Thousand Fed, § 72.

Jesus Walking on the Water, § 74.

The Phoenician Woman's Daughter, § 78.

The Deaf and Dumb Man, § 79.

The Four Thousand Fed, § 79.

A Blind Man Healed, § 81.

The Demoniac Boy, § 87.

The Shekel in the Fish's Mouth, § 89.

The Man Born Blind, § 100.

The Woman with an Infirmity, § 110.

The Man with the Dropsy, § 114.

The Raising of Lazarus, § 118.

The Ten Lepers, § 120.

Blind Bartimæus and His Companion, § 126.

The Fig Tree Cursed, § 129.

Malchus' Ear, § 153.

The Second Draught of Fishes, § 180.

Besides these particular miracles numerous general groups must be added,
as Mark 6:56; Matt. 4:23 f.; 9:35 f.; Luke 4:40 f.; 5:15 f.; 6:17-19;
7:21 f.; John 2:23; 3:2; 4:45; 20:30; 21:25.



LIST OF OLD TESTAMENT QUOTATIONS IN THE GOSPELS


Mark  1:2,     from Mal. 3:1; Isa. 40:3.

 "    1:3,      "   Isa. 40:3.

 "    1:11,     "   Ps. 2:7; Isa. 42:1.

 "    1:24,     "   Ps. 16:10.

 "    1:44,     "   Lev. 13:49; 14:2-32.

 "    2:24,     "   Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14; 23:25

 "    2:25,     "   Lev. 24:9; 1 Sam. 21:1-6.

 "    4:12,     "   Isa. 6:9, 10.

 "    4:29,     "   Joel 3:13.

 "    4:32,     "   Dan. 4:9.

 "    6:18,     "   Lev. 18:16; 20:21.

 "    7:6, 7,   "   Isa. 29:13.

 "    7:10,     "   Ex. 20:12; 21:17; Lev. 20:9; Deut. 5:16.

 "    8:18,     "   Isa. 6:9, 10; Jer. 5:21; Ezek. 12:2.

 "    8:38,     "   Ps. 62:12; Prov. 24:12.

 "    9:7,      "   Deut. 18:15; Isa. 42:1; Ps. 2:7.

 "    9:12,     "   Mal. 4:5.

 "    9:13,     "   1 Kings 10:2, 10.

 "    9:48,     "   Isa. 66:24.

 "    9:49,     "   Lev. 2:13.

 "   10:4,      "   Deut. 24:1.

 "   10:6,      "   Gen. 1:27; 5:2.

 "   10:7, 8,   "   Gen. 2:24.

 "   10:19,     "   Ex. 20:12-17; Deut. 5:16-21.

 "   10:27,     "   Gen. 18:14; Job 42:2.

 "   11:9,      "   Ps. 118:26.

 "   11:17,     "   Isa. 5:17; Jer. 7:11.

 "   12:2,      "   Isa. 5:1 f.

 "   12:10, 11, "   Ps. 118:22 f.

 "   12:19,     "   Gen. 38:8; Deut. 25:5, 6.

 "   12:26,     "   Ex. 3:6.

 "   12:29,     "   Deut. 6:4, 6.

 "   12:31,     "   Lev. 19:18.

 "   12:33,     "   1 Sam 15:22.

 "   12:36,     "   Ps. 8:7; 110:1.

 "   13:12,     "   Mic. 7:6

 "   13:14,     "   Dan. 9:27.

 "   13:19,     "   Dan. 12:1.

 "   13:24,     "   Dan. 8:10; Eccl. 12:2; Joel 4:16.

 "   13:26,     "   Dan. 7:13.

 "   14:12,     "   Ex. 12:18-20.

 "   14:18,     "   Ps. 41:9.

 "   14:24,     "   Ex. 24:8; Lev. 4:18-20; Jer. 31:31.

 "   14:27,     "   Zech. 13:7.

 "   14:34,     "   Ps. 42:6.

 "   14:62,     "   Ps. 110:1; Dan. 7:13.

 "   14:64,     "   Lev. 24:16.

 "   15:24,     "   Ps. 22:18.

 "   15:34,     "   Ps. 22:1.


Matt. 1:1-17,  from 1 Chron. 1:34; 2:1-15; 3:1-19.

 "    1:23,     "   Isa. 7:14.

 "    2:2,      "   Num. 24:17.

 "    2:6,      "   Mic. 5:1 f.

 "    2:15,     "   Hos. 11:1.

 "    2:18,     "   Jer. 31:15.

 "    3:3,      "   Isa. 40:3.

 "    3:17,     "   Ps. 2:7; Isa. 42:1.

 "    4:4,      "   Deut. 8:3.

 "    4:6,      "   Ps. 91:11.

 "    4:7,      "   Deut. 6:16.

 "    4:10,     "   Deut. 6:13.

 "    4:15 f.,  "   Isa. 8:23; 9:1 f.

 "    5:4,      "   Isa. 61:2.

 "    5:5,      "   Ps. 37:11.

 "    5:6,      "   Ps. 55.

 "    5:7,      "   Ps. 18:25; Prov. 11:17.

 "    5:8,      "   Ps. 24:3-5.

 "    5:21 f.,  "   Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17.

 "    5:27,     "   Ex. 20:14; Deut. 5:18.

 "    5:31,     "   Deut. 24:1.

 "    5:33 ff., "   Ex. 20:7; Num. 30:2; Lev. 19:12; Deut. 5:11;
                      23:21; Isa. 66:1; Ps. 48:2.

 "    5:38,     "   Ex. 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21.

 "    5:43,     "   Lev. 19:18; Deut. 23:6; 25:19.

 "    8:11,     "   Isa. 49:12.

 "    8:17,     "   Isa. 53:4.

 "    9:13,     "   Hos. 6:6.

 "    9:36,     "   Num. 27:17; Ezek. 24:5.

 "   10:35,     "   Mic. 7:6.

 "   11:5,      "   Isa. 2:18-19; 35:5-6; 61:1.

 "   11:10,     "   Mal. 3:1.

 "   11:15,     "   Mal. 4:5.

 "   11:23,     "   Isa. 14:13-15.

 "   11:24,     "   Gen. 19:24.

 "   11:29 f.,  "   Jer. 6:16.

 "   12:2,      "   Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14; 23:25.

 "   12:3,      "   Lev. 24:9; 1 Sam. 21:1-6.

 "   12:5,      "   Num. 28:9-10.

 "   12:7,      "   Hos. 6:6.

 "   12:18-21,  "   Isa. 42:1-4.

 "   12:40,     "   Jonah 1:17; 2:1-2; 3:5; 4:3; 1 Kings 10:1-10.

 "   13:14, 15, "   Isa. 6:9, 10.

 "   13:32,     "   Dan. 4:9-21.

 "   13:35,     "   Ps. 78:2.

 "   13:43,     "   Dan. 12:3.

 "   15:4,      "   Ex. 20:12; 21:17; Lev. 20:9.

 "   15:8, 9,   "   Isa. 29:13.

 "   16:4,      "   Jonah 3:4.

 "   16:18,     "   Ps. 89:4, 26, 38, 48.

 "   16:27,     "   Ps. 62:12; Prov. 24:12.

 "   17:5,      "   Isa. 42:1; Deut. 18:5; Ps. 2:7.

 "   17:11-12,  "   1 Kings 19:2, 10; Mal. 4:5-6.

 "   18:16,     "   Deut. 19:15.

 "   19:4,      "   Gen. 1:27; 5:2.

 "   19:5,      "   Gen. 2:24.

 "   19:7,      "   Deut. 24:1.

 "   19:18,     "   Ex. 20:12, 13, 14; 21:17; Deut. 5:19, 20.

 "   19:19,     "   Lev. 19:18; Ex. 20:12.

 "   19:26,     "   Gen. 18:14.

 "   21:5,      "   Isa. 62:11; Zech. 9:9.

 "   21:9,      "   Ps. 118:26.

 "   21:13,     "   Isa. 56:7; Jer. 7:11.

 "   21:16,     "   Ps. 82.

 "   21:33,     "   Isa. 5:1 f.

 "   21:42,     "   Ps. 118:22.

 "   21:44,     "   Isa. 8:14.

 "   22:24,     "   Deut. 25:5.

 "   22:32,     "   Ex. 3:6, 15.

 "   22:37,     "   Deut. 6:5.

 "   22:39,     "   Lev. 19:18.

 "   22:44,     "   Ps. 110:1.

 "   23:5-6,    "   Ex. 13:9; Num. 13:38-39; Deut. 6:8; 11:18.

 "   23:23,     "   Lev. 27:30; Mic. 6:8.

 "   23:35,     "   Gen. 4:8; 2 Chron. 24:20-21.

 "   23:38 f.,  "   Ps. 118:26; Jer. 12:7; 22:5.

 "   24:15,     "   Dan. 9:27; 11:31; 12:11.

 "   24:21,     "   Dan. 12:1.

 "   24:24,     "   Deut. 13:1.

 "   24:29,     "   Dan. 8:10; Joel 4:16.

 "   24:30,     "   Dan. 7:13; Isa. 13:9-10; Ezek. 32:7-8; Amos 8:9;
                      Zeph. 1:14-16.

 "   24:37,     "   Gen. 6:11-13; 7:7, 21-23.

 "   25:31,     "   Zech. 14:5.

 "   25:46,     "   Dan. 12:2.

 "   26:28,     "   Ex. 24:8; Lev. 4:18-20; Jer. 31:31; Zech. 9:11.

 "   26:31,     "   Zech. 13:7.

 "   26:64,     "   Ps. 110:1; Dan. 7:13.

 "   26:65,     "   Lev. 24:16.

 "   27:6,      "   Deut. 23:18.

 "   27:9, 10,  "   Jer. 18:2; 19:2; 32:6; Zech. 11:13.

 "   27:24,     "   Deut. 21:6-9.

 "   27:34,     "   Ps. 69:21.

 "   27:35,     "   Ps. 22:19.

 "   27:46,     "   Ps. 22:1.


Luke  1:15,    from Num. 6:3; Judg. 13:4-5; 1 Sam. 1:11.

 "    1:17,     "   Mal. 3:1; 4:5-6.

 "    1:19,     "   Dan. 8:16; 9:21.

 "    1:31,     "   Isa. 7:14.

 "    1:32,     "   2 Sam. 7:12-17.

 "    1:35,     "   Ex. 13:12.

 "    1:38,     "   Gen. 18:14.

 "    1:46 f.,  "   1 Sam. 2:1-10.

 "    1:48,     "   1 Sam. 1:11.

 "    1:49,     "   1 Sam. 2:2.

 "    1:50,     "   Ps. 103:17.

 "    1:51,     "   1 Sam. 2:4; Ps. 89:10.

 "    1:52,     "   1 Sam. 2:7; Job. 5:11; 12:19.

 "    1:53,     "   1 Sam. 2:5; Ps. 107:9.

 "    1:54,     "   Isa. 41:8-9; Gen. 17:7; Mic. 7:20.

 "    1:59,     "   Lev. 12:3.

 "    1:68,     "   Ps. 72:18; 111:9.

 "    1:69,     "   1 Sam. 2:10; Ps. 18:3.

 "    1:71,     "   Ps. 18:4; 106:10.

 "    1:72 f.,  "   Gen. 17:7; Lev. 26:42; Ps. 105:8; Mic. 7:20.

 "    1:76,     "   Mal. 3:1.

 "    1:78,     "   Mal. 4:2.

 "    1:79,     "   Isa. 8:22; 9:2.

 "    2:21,     "   Gen. 17:12; Lev. 12:3.

 "    2:23 f.,  "   Ex. 13:2, 12; Lev. 12:1-8.

 "    2:30,     "   Isa. 52:10.

 "    2:32,     "   Isa. 42:6; 49:6.

 "    2:41,     "   Ex. 23:14-17; Deut. 16:1-8.

 "    2:52,     "   1 Sam. 2:26.

 "    3:4-6,    "   Isa. 40:3-5.

 "    3:22,     "   Ps. 2:7; Isa. 42:1.

 "    3:23-38,  "   1 Chron. 1:1-4, 24-28; 2:1-15; 3:17;
                      Ruth 4:18-22.

 "    4:4,      "   Deut. 8:3.

 "    4:8,      "   Deut. 6:13.

 "    4:10 f.,  "   Ps. 91:11.

 "    4:12,     "   Deut. 6:16.

 "    4:18 f.,  "   Isa. 58:6; 61:1 f.

 "    4:25-27,  "   1 Kings 17:1, 8-9; 18:1-2; 2 Kings 5:1, 14.

 "    4:34,     "   Ps. 16:10.

 "    5:14,     "   Lev. 13:49; 14:2-32.

 "    6:2,      "   Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14; 23:25.

 "    6:3,      "   Lev. 24:9; 1 Sam. 21:1-6.

 "    6:21,     "   Isa. 61:2.

 "    7:22,     "   Isa. 2:18-19; 35:5-6; 61:1.

 "    7:27,     "   Mal. 3:1.

 "    8:10,     "   Isa. 6:9 f.

 "   10:12,     "   Gen. 19:24.

 "   10:15,     "   Isa. 14:13-15.

 "   10:27,     "   Lev. 18:5; 19:18; Deut. 6:4 f.

 "   11:29,     "   Jonah 3:1-4.

 "   11:31,     "   1 Kings 10:1-3.

 "   11:32,     "   Jonah 3:5-10.

 "   11:42, 51, "   Lev. 27:30; Gen. 4:8; 2 Chron. 24:20 f.;
                      Mic. 6:8.

 "   12:53,     "   Mic. 7:6.

 "   13:14, 19, "   Ex. 20:8-11; Deut. 5:12-15; Dan. 4:10-12, 20 f.

 "   13:27, 29, "   Ps. 6:8; 13:29; 107:3; Isa. 49:12.

 "   17:12,     "   Lev. 13:45-46.

 "   17:13 f.,  "   Lev. 13:49; 14:1-3.

 "   17:26,     "   Gen. 6:11-13; 7:7, 21-23.

 "   17:28, 33, "   Gen. 18:20-22; 19:24-25; Gen. 19:26.

 "   18:20,     "   Ex. 20:12-17; Deut. 5:16-21.

 "   19:8, 10,  "   Ex. 22:1; Num. 5:6-7; Ezek. 34:16.

 "   19:38,     "   Ps. 118:26.

 "   19:46,     "   Isa. 56:7; Jer. 7:11.

 "   20:9,      "   Isa. 5:1 f.

 "   20:17,     "   Ps. 118:22 f.

 "   20:18,     "   Isa. 8:14.

 "   20:28, 38, "   Gen. 38:8; Deut. 25:5 f.; Ex. 3:6.

 "   20:42 f.,  "   Ps. 8:7; 110:1.

 "   21:20,     "   Dan. 9:27.

 "   21:22,     "   Dan. 12:1.

 "   21:25 f.,  "   Dan. 8:10; Joel 4:16; Isa. 13:9 f.;
                      Ezek. 32:7 f.; Amos 8:9; Zeph. 1:14 f.

 "   21:27, 28, "   Dan. 7:13; Deut. 30:4 (LXX); Isa. 21:12 f.;
                      Zech. 2:6 (LXX).

 "   22:37,     "   Isa. 53:12.

 "   22:46,     "   Ps. 31:5.

 "   22:69,     "   Ps. 110:1; Dan. 7:13.

 "   23:30,     "   Hos. 10:8.

 "   23:46,     "   Ps. 31:6.

 "   23:56,     "   Ex. 12:16; 20:8-11; Deut. 5:12-15.

 "   24:46,     "   Hos. 6:2.


John  1:23,    from Isa. 40:3.

 "    1:29, 36, "   Isa. 53:7.

 "    1:49,     "   2 Sam. 7:14; Ps. 2:7.

 "    1:51,     "   Gen. 28:12.

 "    2:18,     "   Ex. 16:4, 15; Neh. 9:15; Ps. 69:9.

 "    3:14,     "   Num. 21:8-9.

 "    4:5,      "   Josh. 24:32.

 "    5:10,     "   Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14.

 "    6:14,     "   Deut. 18:15.

 "    6:31,     "   Ex. 16:4; Neh. 9:15; Ps. 78:24.

 "    6:45,     "   Isa. 54:13.

 "    7:22,     "   Gen. 17:9-14; Lev. 12:1-3.

 "    7:38,     "   Prov. 18:4.

 "    7:42,     "   2 Sam. 7:12; Isa. 11:1; Mic. 5:2.

 "    8:5,      "   Lev. 20:10; Deut. 22:22-24.

 "    8:17,     "   Deut. 17:6; 19:15.

 "    8:39,     "   Isa. 6:9 f.

 "   10:16,     "   Ezek. 35:23; 37:24.

 "   10:34,     "   Ps. 82:6.

 "   12:13,     "   Ps. 118:26.

 "   12:14 f.,  "   Zech. 9:9.

 "   12:27,     "   Ps. 42:6.

 "   12:38,     "   Isa. 53:1.

 "   12:40,     "   Isa. 6:9 f.

 "   13:18,     "   Ps. 41:9.

 "   15:25,     "   Ps. 35:19; 69:5.

 "   l6:22,     "   Isa. 66:14.

 "   17:12,     "   Ps. 41:9.

 "   19:24,     "   Ps. 22:18.

 "   19:29,     "   Ps. 69:21.

 "   19:36,     "   Ex. 12:46; Num. 9:12; Ps. 34:21.

 "   19:37,     "   Zech. 12:10.

 "   19:42,     "   Deut. 21:22.



A LIST OF SOME UNCANONICAL SAYINGS OF JESUS


Some of the more important reported sayings of Christ are given which
are not found in the Gospels or Acts; whether true words of the Master
or not, it is not known. Some certainly are not like the Spirit of
Christ, but it will be of service to the student to compare them with
the genuine Words of Jesus in our Gospels. The Apocryphal Gospels are
passed by as not worth using in this list.


1. The Logia of Jesus (Grenfell and Hunt):

Jesus saith: Except ye fast to the world, ye shall in no wise find the
Kingdom of God; and except ye keep the Sabbath, ye shall not see the
Father.

Jesus saith: I stood in the midst of the world, and in the flesh was I
seen of them, and I found all men drunken, and none found I athirst
among them, and my soul grieveth over the sons of men because they are
blind in their heart.

Jesus saith: Wherever there are ... and there is one ... alone, I am
with him. Raise the stone and there thou shalt find me, cleave the wood
and there am I.

Jesus saith: A prophet is not acceptable in his own country, neither
doth a physician work cures upon them that know him.

Jesus saith: A city built upon the top of a high hill and stablished,
can neither fall nor be hid.


2. Readings found in Codex D.

One is concerning a man found working on the Sabbath, and comes after
Luke 6:4: O man, if indeed thou knowest what thou doest, thou art
blessed; but if thou knowest not, thou art cursed and art a transgressor
of the law.

Likewise Codex D has, after Matt. 20:28: But you seek to increase from
little, and from greater to be less.


3. Quotations found in various early Fathers.

From Barnabas: Let us resist all iniquity, and hold it in hatred. They
who wish to see me and lay hold on my kingdom must receive me by
affliction and suffering.

From Origen and others: Show yourselves tried money changers.

Ask great things, and the small shall be added to you; and ask heavenly
things, and the earthly shall be added unto you.

He who is near me is near the fire: he who is far from me, is far from
the kingdom.

For those that are sick I was sick, and for those that hunger, I
suffered hunger, and for those that thirst, I suffered thirst.

From Clement of Rome (Ep. II.): Keep the flesh pure, and the seal
unspotted.

When the two shall be one, and that which is without as that which is
within, and the male with the female neither male nor female.

If ye kept not that which is small, who will give you that which is
great? For I say unto you, that he that is faithful in very little is
faithful also in much.

From Justin Martyr: In whatsoever I may find you, in this will I also
judge you. Such as I may find thee, I will judge thee.

From Ignatius: Take hold, handle me, and see that I am not an
incorporeal spirit.

From Clement of Alexandria: He that wonders shall reign, and he that
reigns shall rest. Look with wonder at that which is before you. My
mystery is for me and for the sons of my house.

From Papias: The days will come in which vines shall spring up, each
having ten thousand stocks, and on each stock ten thousand branches, and
on each branch ten thousand shoots, and on each shoot ten thousand
bunches, and on each bunch ten thousand grapes, and each grape when
pressed shall give five and twenty measures of wine. And when any saint
shall have seized one bunch, another shall cry: I am a better bunch;
take me; through me bless the Lord.



SIMILAR INCIDENTS AND CHIEF REPEATED SAYINGS


Calling Disciples: §§ 28, 41, and 53.

Cleansing the Temple: §§ 31 and 129.

Owning Jesus as Messiah: §§ 28, 35, 41, 76, 82, 118.

Rejection at Nazareth: §§ 39 and 69.

Miraculous Draught of Fishes: §§ 41 and 180.

Parables of Mustard Seed and Leaven: §§ 64 (d) and 110.

The Tours of Galilee: §§ 44, 60, and 70.

Healings on the Sabbath: §§ 42, 43, 49-51, 100, 110, 114.

The Lists of the Twelve: §§ 53 and 70.

Courtier's Son and Centurion's Servant: §§ 38 and 55.

The Model Prayer: §§ 54 and 105.

The Anointing of Christ: §§ 59 and 141.

The Blasphemous Accusation: §§ 61, 68, and 106.

Groups of Parables: §§ 64, 91-92, 108, 114-117, 121, 124, 132, 139.

Sending the Twelve and Sending the Seventy: §§ 70 and 102.

Feeding the Five Thousand and the Four Thousand: §§ 72 and 79.

Tests of Discipleship: §§ 76, 83 and 115.

Jesus Foretelling His Death: §§ 31, 83, 85, 86, 88, 125, 139-152.

The Twelve Contending for Supremacy: §§ 90, 125, 144.

Attacking Jesus in Jerusalem: §§ 31, 49, 96-101, 111, 119, 124-135,
153-167.

Foretelling the Second Coming: §§ 84, 120, 127, 139, 148-151.

Divorce: §§ 54 and 122.

Like Children: §§ 90 and 123.

Rewards of Service: §§ 93 and 124.

Worldly Anxieties: §§ 54 and 108.

The Ninety and Nine: §§ 91 and 116.

Baptism of Death: §§ 108 and 125.

The Pounds and the Talents: §§ 127 and 139.

The Agony of Christ: §§ 130 and 152.

Denouncing the Scribes and Pharisees: §§ 61 and 137.

Lament Over Jerusalem: §§ 113, 128, and 137.

About a Sword: §§ 70, 147, 153.

The Three Commissions: §§ 178, 181, and 183.

In general the Later Judean Ministry and the Perean Ministry, chiefly
Luke's contribution to the Life of Christ, furnish many events and
discourses similar to those described in the Galilean Ministry. Sections
102 to 127 furnish most of the so-called "doublets" or repeated sayings
of Jesus or similar miracles. This is just what we should expect in a
popular teacher who journeyed in different parts of the country. Some of
these were real doublets, spoken by Jesus more than once. Others may be
grouped by Luke in a different place. We have no way to decide the
problem.



BY PROFESSOR A. T. ROBERTSON


A HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS FOR STUDENTS OF THE LIFE OF CHRIST. Based on
the BROADUS HARMONY.

A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT IN THE LIGHT OF HISTORICAL
RESEARCH. Third Edition. Pages 1538.

A SHORT GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT. Fifth Edition. Pages 284.
Translation in Dutch, French, German and Italian.

PRACTICAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF CHRISTIANITY. The Wisdom of James.
Second Edition. Pages 271.

PAUL THE INTERPRETER OF CHRIST. Second Edition. Pages 155.

TYPES OF PREACHERS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Pages 238.

EPOCHS IN THE LIFE OF JESUS. Pages 212. Numerous Editions.

EPOCHS IN THE LIFE OF PAUL. Numerous Editions. Pages 337.

JOHN THE LOYAL: Studies in the Ministry of the Baptist. Pages 327.
Several editions.

THE PHARISEES AND JESUS. The Stone (Princeton) Lectures. The Studies in
Theology Series. Pages 201.

LUKE THE HISTORIAN IN THE LIGHT OF RESEARCH. Pages 267.

THE NEW CITIZENSHIP. Pages 157. Second Edition.

THE GLORY OF THE MINISTRY. Pages 243. Second Edition.

MAKING GOOD IN THE MINISTRY. A sketch of John Mark. Pages 174. Second
Edition.

PAUL'S JOY IN CHRIST. Studies in Philippians. Pages 267. Second Edition.

THE DIVINITY OF CHRIST IN THE GOSPEL OF JOHN. Pages 173. Second Edition.

THE STUDENT'S CHRONOLOGICAL NEW TESTAMENT. Second Edition.

COMMENTARY ON THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW. The Bible for Home and
School. Pages 308.

STUDIES IN MARK'S GOSPEL. Pages 158.

STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Many editions. Pages 284.

THE TEACHING OF JESUS CONCERNING GOD THE FATHER. The Teaching of Jesus
Series. Pages 190.

KEYWORDS IN THE TEACHING OF JESUS. Pages 127. Several Editions.

LIFE AND LETTERS OF JOHN A. BROADUS. Pages 476. Numerous Editions.

SYLLABUS FOR NEW TESTAMENT STUDY. Pages 207. Fourth Edition.





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