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´╗┐Title: Boscobel - Or, The History of his Sacred Majesties most Miraculous Preservation
Author: Blount, Thomas
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Boscobel - Or, The History of his Sacred Majesties most Miraculous Preservation" ***

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[Illustration: Cha.y. 2. was proclaymed King of great Britan, France &
Ireland at Worcester, 23 Aug. 1651.]


After the Battle of Worcester, 3. Sept. 1651.

    JOEL i. 2.

    _Hear this ye Old Men, and give ear all ye Inhabitants of the
    Land: Has this been in your dayes, or in the dayes of your

Printed for _Henry Seile_, Stationer
to the Kings most excellent Majesty, 1660.


Sold also by Stoddart & Craggs, Hull;
Mozley, Gainsbro'; Slater, Bacon, & Co. Sheffield;
and may be had of all other




The book which is here republished contains an account of the sufferings
 of CHARLES the Second, after the battle of Worcester, until his escape
 to the continent;--written by a co-temporary, and dedicated to that
 monarch whose misfortunes he records; we may therefore naturally
 infer, that the book is a true relation of the same.[1]

          [1] This is not the only account that is published, for we
          find it related by Bates, in his Elenchues, and by the Earl
          of Clarendon, whose account he received from the king

As this work has become so scarce that a copy can with difficulty be
procured, the editor thought he should do a service to the curious by
having it reprinted _verbatim_[2] from the edition of 1660.

          [2] The original style, &c. being preserved, will account for
          the very erroneous _punctuation_, to which it was deemed
          necessary to adhere.

The subject of this tract is interesting: it teaches us the instability
of human greatness. We are presented with a picture of the sufferings
of one, by lineal descent born to be the governor of a kingdom, reduced
to the alternative of either suffering on a scaffold, or quitting the
kingdom in habits of disguise.

When princes forget their subjects, or they their king, then both lose
their former allegiance and respect, they become mutual enemies, and
their inveteracy does not diminish until one or both are on the
precipice of destruction.

When Charles the First ascended the throne, his subjects were tenacious
of that religious freedom which they had procured under the reign of a
sovereign, whose name will ever be revered by innovators in theoretical
principles of religion. They had shaken off their subjugation to the
Roman Pontiff, and when he shewed signs of partiality to that
persuasion, they dreaded the consequences. They had not yet forgot the
atrocities committed in the reign of Mary; and were fearful, that if
their liberties were abridged, the same enormities would ensue. They
struggled for liberty, and he for power: both felt the lash of civil

When men are enthusiastically partial to an opinion, they are so
zealous in its cause they will die in its support. How many people have
suffered on this account, in all classes of religious opinions, in
different nations? Such was the case at that period. A rage for
polemical divinity took place, and brother against brother fought in
support of each other's tenets; each fully assured he was in the right.
The same spirit of innovation is too prevalent in the present day: the
principles they profess are at variance with the prosperity and
happiness of the country. They have made their way into our possessions
in the East Indies; and by their influence have brought on disaffection
among the native troops. From the organization of their native laws,
they are particularly tenacious of their theological principles;
according to which a man had better die than be a sceptic; for on
embracing any other faith, he must first lose his cast;[3] and in that
case he is deserted by all his relatives and countrymen, and driven
from the society of all he holds most dear on earth, so that his life
becomes insupportable.

          [3] Excommunicated by an ecclesiastical court similar to
          ours, only more rigid in its effects.

In the present state of civil commotions in the European countries,
caused by the ambitious views of Napoleon, it is exceedingly impolitic.
It is well known that he wishes to add India to his possessions, and in
the present disaffected state, nothing is more favourable to his
designs; as they would immediately flock to a leader, who would hold
out universal tolerance of religion; which has always been his maxim
where he has extended his arms. Thus, through the enthusiastic zeal of
a few, we may ultimately lose one of our finest possessions.

These people have universally promulgated such doctrines, that they
affect the organization of the brain; and have been the ruin of many a
happy family, by turning those who unfortunately had weak intellects
mad. And, such progress have their tenets made, that we may infer, the
period is not far distant when we shall see the orthodox church
completely deserted by the middling and lower orders of people.

    "For modes of faith, let graceless zealots fight;
    "His can't be wrong, whose life is in the right."


[Illustration: _View of Boscobel House, taken in 1792._]



    Among the many addresses, which every day offers your sacred
    Majesty, this humbly hopes your particular gracious acceptance;
    since it has no other ambition, then faithfully to represent to
    your Majesty, and, by your royal permission, to all the world, the
    history of those miraculous providences that preserv'd you in the
    battle of Worcester, conceal'd you in the wilderness at Boscobel,
    and led you on your way towards a land, where you might safely
    expect the returning favours of Heaven; which now, after so long a
    tryal, have graciously heard our prayers, and abundantly crown'd
    your patience.

    And, as in the conduct of a great part of this greatest affair, it
    pleased God (the more to endear his mercies) to make choice of many
    very little, though fit instruments: So has my weakness, by this
    happy president, been encourag'd, to hope it not unsuitable for me
    to relate, what the wisest King thought proper for them to act;
    wherein yet I humbly beg your Majesties pardon, being conscious to
    my self of my utter incapacity to expresse, either your
    unparallel'd valour in the day of contending, or (which is a vertue
    far less usual for Kings) your strong and even mind in the time of
    your sufferings.

    From which sublime endowments of your most Heroick Majesty I derive
    these comforts to my self, That whoever undertakes to reach at your
    perfections, must fall short as well as I, though not so much: And
    while I depend on your royal clemency more then others, I am more
    obliged to be

    Your Majesties

    Most loyal Subject,

    And most humble Servant,



_Behold, I present you with an_ History of Wonders; _wonders so rare
and great, that, as no former age can parallel, succeeding times will
scarce believe them._

_Expect here to read the highest tyranny and rebellion that was ever
acted by subjects, and the greatest hardships and persecutions that
ever were suffer'd by a_ King; _yet did his patience exceed his
sorrows, and his vertue at last became victorious._

_Some particulars, I confess, are so superlatively extraordinary, that
I easily should fear, they would scarce gain belief, even from my
modern reader, had I not this strong argument to secure me, That no
ingenuous person will think me so frontless, as knowingly to write an
untruth in an history, where_ His Sacred Majesty _(my dread Soveraign
and the best of Kings) bears the principal part, and all the other
persons concern'd in the same action_ (_except the_ Earl of Darby _and_
Lord Wilmot) _still alive, ready to poure out shame and confusion on so
impudent a forgery._

_But I am so far from that foul crime of publishing what's false, that
I can safely say, I know not one line unauthentick; such has been my
care to be sure of the truth, that I have diligently collected the
particulars from most of their mouths, who were the very actors
themselves in this scene of miracles._

_To every individual person (as far as my industry could arrive to
know) I have given the due of his merit, be it for valour, fidelity, or
whatever other quality, that any way had the honour to relate to his
Majesties service._

_And though the whole complex may want elegance and politeness of style
(which the nature of such relations does not properly challenge) yet it
cannot want truth, the chief ingredient for such undertakings. In which
assurance I am not afraid to venture myself in your hands._

Read on and wonder.


It was in _June_ in the year 1650. That CHARLES the Second, undoubted
heir of CHARLES the First, of glorious memory, King of Great Britain,
France, and Ireland, (after his Royal father had been barbarously
murdered, and himself banished his own dominions, by his own rebellious
subjects) took shipping at _Scheevling_ in _Holland_, and, having
escap'd great dangers at sea, arrived soon after at _Spey_ in the North
of _Scotland_.

On the first of January following, his Majesty was crown'd at _Scoon_,
and an army raised in that kingdome, to invade this; in hope to recover
his regalities here, then most unjustly detain'd from him, by some
members of the _Long Parliament_, and _Oliver Cromwell_ their general;
who soon after most traiterously assum'd the title of _Protector_ of
the new minted Common-wealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.

The first of August 1651. his Majesty with his army began his march
into England, and on the fifth of the same month, at his Royal Camp, at
_Woodhouse_ near the Border, publish'd his gracious declaration of
general pardon and oblivion, to all his loving subjects of the kingdom
of England and dominion of Wales, that would desist from assisting the
_usurped_ authority of the pretended Common-wealth of England, and
return to their obedience. Except only Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton,
John Bradshaw, John Cook, and all others, who did actually sit and vote
in the murder of his royal father.

His Majesty, after the publication of this gracious offer, march'd his
army into Lancashire, where he received some considerable supplies from
the _Earl of Darby_ (that loyal subject,) and at Warrington Bridge met
with the first opposition made by the rebels in England, but his
Majesties presence soon put them to flight.

In this interim his Majesty had sent a copy of his declaration,
enclosed in a gracious letter to the Lord _Mayor_ and _Aldermen_ of the
city of London, which, by order of the usurpers then sitting at
Westminster, was (on the 26. of August) publickly burnt at the Old
Exchange by the Hangman; and their declaration proclaimed there and at
Westminster, by beat of drum and sound of trumpet; by which his sacred
Majesty, (to whom they could afford no better title than _Charles
Stuart_,) his abettors, agents and complices, were declared traytors,
rebels and publique enemies.--Impudence and treason beyond example!

After a tedious march, his Majesty with his army arriv'd at Worcester
on the 22. of August, (being near three hundred miles from S.
_Johnstons_ in Scotland,) having left the Earl of Darby in Lancashire,
as well to settle that and the adjacent counties in a posture of
defence, against Cromwell and his confederates; as to raise some
auxiliary forces to recruit his Majesties army, in case the successe of
a battle should not prove so happy as all good men desired.

But (such was Heavens decree) on the 25. of August, the Earl's new
rais'd forces were totally defeated near Wiggan in that county by Col.
Lilburn, with a regiment of sectaries. In which conflict the Lord
Widdrington, Sir Thomas Tildesley, Colonel Trollop, Lieutenant Colonel
Galliard, (faithful subjects and valiant souldiers) with some others of
good note, were slain, Col. Roscarrock wounded, Sir William
Throckmorton, Sir Timothy Fetherstonhaugh, (who was afterwards beheaded
by the rebels,) Colonel Baines and others taken prisoners, and their
General the Earl of Derby forced to fly to save his life; In which
flight be made a sad choice of the way towards Worcester, whither he
knew his Majesties army was design'd to march.

After some days my Lord, with Colonel Roscarrock and two servants, got
into the confines of Staffordshire and Shropshire near Newport, where
at one Mr. Watsons house he met with Mr. _Richard Snead_ (an honest
gentleman of that country, and of his Lordship's acquaintance,) to whom
he recounted the misfortune of his defeat at Wiggan, and the necessity
of his taking some rest, if Mr. Snead could recommend his Lordship to
any private house near hand, where he might safely continue, till he
could find an opportunity to goe to his Majesty.

Mr. Snead brought my Lord and his company to _Boscobel-house_, a very
obscure habitation, situate in Shropshire, but adjoyning upon
Staffordshire, and lies between Tong-castle and Brewood. John Giffard,
Esq. having built this house about thirty years since, invited Sir
Basil Brook with other friends and neighbors to a house-warming feast;
at which time Sir Basil was desired by Mr. Giffard to give the house a
name, He aptly call's it BOSCOBEL (from the Italian _bosco bello_,
which in that language signifies _fair wood_) because seated in the
midst of many fair woods. It is now the inheritance of Mr. Basil
Fitzherbert, by Jane his wife, daughter and heir of Mr. John Cotton, by
Frances, daughter and heir of the said John Giffard.

At this place the Earl arrived on the 29. of August (being Friday at
night,) but no body was found at home, except William Penderel, the
house-keeper and his wife, who, to preserve so eminent a person,
adventur'd to receive my Lord, and kept him in safety till Sunday night
following, when (according to my Lords desire of going to Worcester,)
he convey'd him to Mr. Humphry Elliots house at Gataker Park, (a true
hearted royalist,) which was about nine miles on the way from Boscobel
thither. Mr. Elliot did not onely freely entertain the Earl, but lent
him ten pounds, and conducted him and his company safe to Worcester.

The next day after his Majesty arrival at Worcester, being Saturday the
23. of August, he was proclaimed King of Great Britain, France and
Ireland, by Mr. Thomas Lisens Mayor, and Mr. James Bridges Sheriff of
that loyal city, with great acclamations.

On the same day his Majesties sent abroad a declaration, given at his
city of Worcester, summoning, upon their alleageance, all the
neighboring nobility, gentry and others, from sixteen to sixty, to
appear in their persons and with horse and armes at _Pitchcroft_ on the
Tuesday following, where his Majesty would be present.

Upon Sunday 24. August, Mr. Crosby (an eminent divine of that city,)
preach'd before his Majesty in the Cathedral Church; and in his prayer
styled his Majesty _Supreme Head over all persons in his Dominions_: At
which some of the _Scots_ took exception, and Mr. Crosby was afterwards
admonish'd to forbear such expressions.

Tuesday the 26. of August was a Rendevouz in Pitchcroft neer the city,
of such loyal subjects of that and the adjacent counties as would come
in to his Majesties aid; Here appeared Francis Lord Talbot (now Earl of
Shrewsbury) with about sixty horse; Mr. Mervin Touchet, Sir John
Packington, Sir Walter Blount, Sir Ralph Clare, Mr. Ralph Sheldon of
Beoly, Mr. John Washburn of Witchingford, with forty horse, Mr. Thomas
Hornyold of Blackmore Park, with forty horse, Mr. Thomas Acton, Mr.
Rob. Blount of Kenswick, Mr. Rob. Wigmore of Lucton, Mr. Francis
Knotsford, Mr. Peter Blount and divers others. Notwithstanding which
access, the number of his Majesties army both _English and Scots_, was
conceiv'd not to exceed 12000. men, (viz.) ten thousand Scots and about
2000. English, and those too not excellently arm'd, nor plentifully
stored with ammunition.

Mean time Cromwell (that grand patron of sectaries) had amass'd
together a numerous body of rebels, commanded by himself in chief, and
by the Lord Grey of Groby, Fleetwood & Lambert under him, consisting of
above thirty thousand men, (being generally the scum and froth of the
whole kingdome;) One part of which were sectaries, who through a
fanatique zeal, were become devotes to this great _idol_; the other
part seduc'd persons, who either by force or fear were unfortunately
made actors or participants in this so horrible and fatal a tragedy.

Thus then began the pickeerings to the grand engagement. Major General
Massey with a commanding party, being sent by his Majesty to secure the
bridge and pass at _Upton_ upon _Severn_, 7 miles below Worcester. On
Thursday the 28. of August, Lambert with a far greater number of rebels
attaq'd him, and after some dispute gain'd the pass, the river being
then fordable. Here the Major General behav'd himself very gallantly,
receiv'd a shot in the hand from some musketiers the enemy had placed
in the church, and retreated in good order to Worcester.

During this encounter, Cromwell himself, (whose head-quarter was the
night before at _Pershore_,) advanc'd to _Stoughton_ within 4. miles of
the city on the southside, and that evening a party of his horse faced

The next day (August the 29.) the Sultan appear'd with a great body of
horse and foot on _Redhil_ within a mile of Worcester, where he made a
_Bonnemine_, but attempted nothing; and that night his head-quarters
were at Judge Berkleys house at _Speachley_.

Saturday (August 30.) it was resolv'd by his Majesty, at a council of
war, to give the enemy a _Camisado_, by beating up his quarters that
night with 1500. select horse and foot, commanded by Major General
Middleton, and Sir William Keyth; all of them wearing their shirts over
their armor for distinction; which accordingly was attempted, and might
in all probability have been successful, had not the design been most
traiterously discover'd to the rebels by one _Guyes_, a tailor in the
town, who was hang'd afterwards as the just reward of his treachery: In
this action Major Knox was slain and some few taken prisoners.

A considerable party of the rebels commanded by Col. Lambert, Col.
Ingoldsby, (not yet a convert) and Col. Gibbons being got over the
Severn at Upton, march'd the next day to _Powick Town_, where they made
an halt; for _Powick bridge_, lying upon the river _Team_ (between
Powick Town & Worcester,) was guarded by a Brigade of his Majesties
horse and foot, commanded by Major General Robert Montgomery, and Col.
George Keyth.

The fatal 3. of September being come, his Majesty this morning holds a
council of war upon the top of the Colledge-church-steeple, the better
to discover the enemies posture; Here his Majesty observ'd some firing
at Powick and Cromwell making a bridge of boats over Severn under
Bunshill, a mile below the city towards Team mouth; his majesty
presently goes down, commands all to their arms, and marches in person
to Powick bridge to give orders, as well for maintaining that bridge,
as for opposing the making the other of boats, and hasted back to his
army in the city.

Soon after his Majesty was gone from Powick bridge, the enemy assaulted
it furiously, which was well defended by Montgomery, till himself was
dangerously wounded, and his ammunition spent, so that he was forced to
make a disorderly retreat into Worcester; and Col. Keyth was taken
prisoner at the bridge.

At the same time Cromwell had with much celerity finisht his bridge of
boats and plancks over the main river, without any considerable
opposition, whereby he might communicate with those of his party at
Powick bridge, and was the first man that led the rest over, and then
went back himself and rais'd a battery of great guns against the
Fort-royal on the South-side the city.

His Majesty being returned from Powick bridge, march'd, with the Duke
of Buckingham and some of his cavalry, through the city, and out at
Sudbury gate by the Fort-royal, where the rebels great shot came
frequently near his sacred person.

By this time Cromwell was got to an advantageous post at _Perry wood_
within a mile of the city, swelling with pride and confident in the
numbers of his men; but Duke Hamilton (formerly Lord Lanerick,) with
his own troop and some Highlanders, Sir Alexander Forbus with his
regiment of foot, and divers English lords and gentlemen voluntiers, by
his Majesties command and encouragement, engaged him, and did great
execution upon his best men, forced the great _sultan_ (as the
_Rhodians_ in like case did the _Turk_) to retreat with his
_Janizaries_, and were once masters of his great guns.

Here his Majesty gave an incomparable example of valor to the rest, by
charging in person, which the Highlanders, especially imitated in a
great measure, fighting with the but-ends of their muskets, when their
ammunition was spent; but new supplies of rebels being continually
poured upon them, and the Scotch horse not coming up in due time from
the town to his Majesties relief, his army was forced to retreat in at
Sudbury gate in much disorder.

In this action Duke Hamilton (who fought valiantly) was mortally
wounded, of which he dyed within few days; Sir John Douglas also
received his deaths wound, and Sir Alexander Forbus was shot through
both the calves of his legs, lay in the wood all night, and was brought
a prisoner to Worcester the next day.

The rebels in this encounter had great advantage as well in their
numbers, as by fighting both with horse and foot, against his Majesties
foot only, the greatest part of his horse being wedg'd up in the town;
and when the foot were defeated, a part of his Majesties horse
afterwards fought against both the enemies horse and foot, upon great

At Sudbury gate a cart loaden with ammunition was overthrown, and lay
cross the passage of the gate, so that his Majesty could not ride into
the town, but was forc'd to dismount and come in on foot.

In the Friers street, his Majesty put off his armor, (which was heavy
and troublesome to him,) and took a fresh horse, and then perceiving
many of his foot-soldiers begin to throw down their arms and decline
fighting; his Majesty rode up and down among them, sometimes with his
hat in his hand, entreating them to stand to their arm's and fight like
men, other whiles encouraging them; but seeing himself not able to
prevail, said, _I had rather you would shoot me, then keep me alive to
see the sad consequences of this fatal day_: Such was the magnaminity
of this prophetique King.

During this hot engagement at Perry-wood and Red-hil, the rebels on the
other side the water possess'd themselves of S. Johns, and those of his
Majesties army that were there, without any great resistance laid down
their arms and submitted to mercy.

When some of the enemy were entred, and entring the town both at the
Key, Castle hill, and Sudbury gate, without any conditions; Th' Earl of
Cleveland, Sir James Hamilton, Col. William Carlis (then Major to the
Lord Talbot) Capt. Tho. Hornyold, Capt. Tho. Giffard, and Capt. Richard
Kemble, (Captain Lieutenant to the Lord Talbot) rallied what force they
could (though inconsiderable to the Rebels numbers,) and charg'd the
enemy very gallantly at Sudbury gate and in the street of that name:
Here Sir James and Capt. Kemble were desperately wounded, and others
slain; yet this action did much secure his Majesties march out at S.
Martins gate, who had otherwise been in danger of being taken in the

About the same time Colonel Drummond with a party of Scots maintain'd
the Castle hill with much resolution, till such time as conditions were
agreed on for quarter; So that the rebels, having at last subdued all
their opponents, fell to plundering the city unmercifully, few or none
of the citizens escaping, but such as were sectaries and of their

When his Majesty saw no hope of rallying his thus discomfited foot, he
march'd out of Worcester at S. Martins gate, about six of the clock in
the evening with his main body of horse, as then commanded by General
David Lesley, but were now in some confusion.

The foot consisting most of Scots were almost all either slain or
taken, and such of them (who in the battle escap'd death,) liv'd longer
to dye for the most part more miserably; many of them being afterwards
knock'd o'the head by country people, some bought and sold like slaves
for a small price, others went begging up and down, till charity
failing them, their necessities brought upon them diseases, and
diseases death.

Before his Majesty was come to Barbon's bridge, about half a mile out
of Worcester, he made several stands, faced about and desired the Duke
of Buckingham, Lord Wilmet, and other of his commanders, that they
might rally and try the fortune of war once more. But at the bridge a
serious consultation was held, and then perceiving many of the troopers
to throw off their arms and shift for themselves, they were all of
opinion, the day was irrecoverably lost, and that their only remaining
work was to save his Majesty from those ravenous wolves and regicides;
Whereupon his Majesty, by advise of his council resolv'd to march for

Immediately after this result, the Duke ask'd the Lord Talbot, if he
could direct the way Northwards, his Lordship answer'd, that he had one
_Walker_ in his troop (former Scoutmaster to Col. Sands) that knew the
way well; who was accordingly call'd to be the guide, and perform'd
that duty for some miles; but being come to Kinver heath, not far from
Kidderminster, and day-light being gone, Walker was at a puzzle in the

Here his Majesty made a stand, and consulted with the Duke, Earl of
Derby, Lord Wilmot, &c. whether he might march at least to take some
hours rest; The Earl of Derby told his Majesty, that in his flight from
Wiggan to Worcester, he had met with a perfect honest man, and a great
convenience of concealment at Boscobel house (before mentioned,) but
withall acquainted the king, it was a recusants house. And it was
suggested, that those people (being accustomed to persecution and
searches) were most like to have the readiest means and safest
contrivances to preserve him; His Majesty therefore resolv'd to goe

The Lord Talbot being made acquainted with his Majesties resolution,
and finding Walker dubious of the way, called for Mr. Charles Giffard,
(a faithful subject, and of the noble family of Chillington) to conduct
his Majesty towards Boscobel, which office Mr. Giffard willingly
undertook, having one _Yates_ a servant with him, very expert in the
wayes of that countrey; and being come neer _Sturbridge_, it was under
consideration whether his Majesty should march through that town or no,
and resolved in the affirmative, and that all about his person should
speak French, to prevent any discovery of his Majesties presence.

Mean time Lesley, with the Scottish horse, had, in the close of the
evening, taken the more direct way Northward by Newport, his Majesty
being left only attended by the Duke of Buckingham, Earl of Derby, Earl
of Lauderdail, Lord Talbot, Lord Wilmot, Colonel Thomas Blague, Colonel
Edward Roscarrock, Mr. Marmaduke Darcy, Mr. Richard Lane, Mr. William
Armorer, (since Knighted) Mr. Hugh May, Mr. Charles Giffard, Mr. Peter
Street, and some others, in all about sixty horse.

At a house about a mile beyond Sturbridge, his Majesty drank and eat a
crust of bread, the house affording no better provision; and as his
Majesty rode on, he discoursed with Col. Roscarrock touching
Boscobel-house, and the security which the Earl of Darby and he found
at that place.

Upon further consideration by his Majesty and council, and to the end
the company might not know whither his Majesty directly intended, Mr.
Giffard was required to conduct his Majesty to some house neere
Boscobel, the better to blind the design of going thither: Mr. Giffard
proposed _Whiteladies_ (another seat of the Giffards) lying about half
a mile beyond Boscobel, and 26. miles from Worcester, and still retains
its ancient name of Whiteladies, from its having formerly been a
monastery of Cistertian nuns, whose habit was of that colour.

His Majesty and his retinue (being safely conducted to Whiteladies by
Mr. Giffard) alighted, now, as they hop'd out of danger of any present
surprise by pursuit; George Pendrel (who was a servant in the house)
opened the Dores, and after his Majesty and the Lords were entered the
house, his Majesties horse was brought into the hall, and by this time
it was about break of day on Thursday morning: Here every one was in a
sad consult how to escape the fury of bloud-thirsty enemies, but the
greatest solicitude was to save the king, who was both hungry and tired
with this long and hasty march.

Col. Roscarrock presently caused _Barthol. Martin_ (a boy in the house)
to be sent to Boscobel for William Penderel, and Mr. Charles Giffard
sent also for Richard Penderel, who lived near hand at Hobbal Grange,
they both came forthwith to Whiteladies, and were brought into the
parlour to the Earl of Derby, who immediately took them into the inner
parlour, where the king was, and told William Penderel in particular,
_This is the king_ (pointing at his Majesty), _thou must have a care of
him, and preserve him as thou didst me_; to which commands William
yielded ready obedience, and Mr. Giffard did also much conjure Richard
to have an especial care of his charge.

Whilst William and Richard were thus sent for, his Majesty had been
advised to rub his hands on the back of the chimney, and with them his
face, in order to a disguise, and some person had cut off his locks of
hair: His Majesty, having put off his blue ribband, buff-coat, and
other princely ornaments, put on a noggen course shirt of _Edward
Martins_, who lived in the house, and Richard Penderels green suit, and
leather doublet, but had not time to be so exactly disguised as he was
afterwards; for both William and Richard Penderel did advertise the
company to make haste away, in regard there was a troop of rebels
commanded by Colonel Ashenhurst, quartered at Cotsal, but three miles
distant; some of which troop came to the house within half an hour
after the company were gone.

Richard Penderel conducted the king out at a back dore, unknown to most
of the company, (except some of the Lords and Colonel Roscarrock, who
waited on his Majesty into the backside, and there with sad hearts took
leave of him) and carried him into an adjacent wood belonging to
Boscobel, call'd Spring Coppice, about half a mile from Whiteladies;
William, Humphrey and George scouting abroad, and bringing what news
they could learn to his Majesty in the wood, as occasion required.

His Majesty being thus, as they hoped, in a way of security, the Duke,
Earl of Derby, Earl of Lauderdail, Lord Talbot and the rest (having for
their guide Mr. Charles Giffard, and being then not above 40. horse, of
which number his Majesties pad-nag was one, rode by Mr. Richard Lane,
one of the groom's of his Majesties bed-chamber) march'd from
Whiteladies Northward by the way of Newport, in hope to overtake or
meet General Lesley with the main body of Scotch horse.

As soon as they were got into the road, the Lord Leviston (who
commanded his Majesties life guard) overtook them, pursued by a party
of rebels, the Lords with their followers faced about and repeld them;
but when they came a little beyond Newport, some of Lilburn's men met
them in the front, other rebels from Worcester pursued them in the
rear, themselves and horses being sufficiently tired, the Earl of
Derby, Earl of Lauderdail, Mr. Charles Giffard and some others, were
taken and carried prisoners, first to Whitchurch, and from thence to an
inn in _Bunbury_, where Mr. Giffard found means to make an escape; but
the noble Earl of Derby was carried to Westchester, and there tryed by
a pretended court martial, held the first of October 1651. by vertue of
a commission from Cromwell, grounded on an execrable rumpact, of the
12. of August then last past, the very title whereof cannot be
mentioned without horror, but it pretended most traiterously to
_prohibit correspondence with_ CHARLES STUART (their lawful soveraign)
_under penalty of high treason, loss of life and estate_--Prodigious

In this black tribunal there sate, as judges, these persons, and under
these titles:

    Col. Humphry Mackworth _(who was plac'd in the Sella Curulis)
    Major General Mitton.
    Col. Robert Duckenfield.
    Col. Henry Bradshaw.
    Col. Thomas Croxton.
    Col. George Twisleton.
    Lieu. Col. Henry Birkinhead.
    Lieu. Col. Simon Finch.
    Lieu. Col. Alex. Newton.
    Capt. James Stepford.
    Capt. Samuel Smith.
    Capt. John Downes.
    Capt. Vincent Corbet.
    Capt. John Delves.
    Capt. John Griffith.
    Capt. Tho. Portington.
    Capt. Edward Alcock.
    Capt. Ralph Pownall.
    Capt. Richard Grantham.
    Capt. Edward Stelfax.

This was the authority, and some of these the persons that condemned
this noble Earl to death, notwithstanding his just plea, _That he had
quarter given him by one Captain Edge, who took him prisoner_. But this
could not obtain justice, nor any intercession, mercy; so that on the
15. of October, he was executed at Boulton in Lancashire, in a most
barbarous and inhumane manner.

The Earl of Lauderdail with divers others were carryed prisoners to
Windsor castle, where they continued many years.

Whilst the rebels were plundring these noble persons, the Duke, with
the Lord Levistan, Col. Blague, Mr. Marmaduke Darcy, and Mr. Hugh May,
forsook the road, and betook themselves to a by-way and got into
_Chessardine woods_, not far from Newport, where they receiv'd some
refreshment at a little obscure house, and afterwards met with two
honest laborers in an adjoining wood, to whom they communicated the
exigent and distresse which the fortune of war had reduc'd them to, and
finding them like to prove faithful, the duke thought fit to imitate
his royal master, quitted his horse, delivered his _George_ (which was
given him by the Queen of England) to _Mr. May_ (who preserved it
through all difficulties, and after restor'd it to his Grace in
Holland) and chang'd habit with one of the workmen; and in this
disguise was convey'd by one _Nich. Mathews_ a carpenter, to the house
of _Mr. Hawley_ an hearty cavalier at _Bilstrop_ in Nottinghamshire,
from thence to the _Lady Villiers_ house at Brooksby in Leicestershire,
and, after many hardships and encounters, his Grace got secure to
London, and from thence to his Majesty in _France_.

At the same time the Lord Leviston, Col. Blague, Mr. Darcy, and Mr.
May, all quitted their horses, severally shifted for themselves, and
most of them, through various dangers and sufferings, contriv'd their
escapes; In particular Mr. May lay 21. days in a hay-mow belonging to
one _Bold_ an honest husbandman, who liv'd neer Chessardine; Bold
having all that time rebel-souldiers quartered in his house, yet faild
not to give a constant relief to his more welcom guest, and when the
coast was clear of souldiers, Mr. May came to London on foot in a

The Lord Talbot, (seeing no hope of rallying,) hasted towards his
fathers house at Longford neer Newport, where being arriv'd, he
convey'd his horse into a neighbours barn, but was immediately pursued
by the rebels, who found the horse saddled, and by that concluded my
Lord to be not far off, so that they search'd Langford house narrowly,
and some of them continued in it four or five dayes; during all which
time my Lord was in a close place in one of the outhouses, almost
stifl'd for want of air, and had infallibly perish'd for want of food,
had he not been once relieved in the dead of night, and with much
difficulty by a servant; yet his Lordship thought it a great
providence, even by these hardships, to escape the fury of such
enemies, who sought the destruction of the nobility, as well as of
their king.

In this interim the valiant Earl of Cleveland, (who being above 60.
years of age, had marched 21. days together upon a trotting horse) had
also made his escape from Worcester, when all the fighting work was
over, and was got to _Woodcot_ in Shropshire, whither he was pursued,
and taken at one Miss Broughtons house.

The Scotch cavalry (having no place to retreat unto neerer then
Scotland,) were soon after totally dispersed, and most of them taken by
the rebels and country people in Cheshire, Lancashire, and parts

Thus was this royal army totally subdued, thus dispersed; and if in
this so important affair any of the Scottish commanders were
treacherous at Worcester, (as some suspected) they have a great account
to make for the many years miseries that ensued thereby to both
nations, under the tyrannical government of Cromwell.

But to return to the duty of my attendance on his Sacred Majesty in
Spring Coppice; by that time Richard Penderel had conveyed him into the
obscurest part of it, it was about sun-rising on Thursday morning, and
the heavens wept bitterly at these calamities; insomuch as the thickest
tree in the wood was not able to keep his Majesty dry, nor was there
any thing for him to sit on; Wherefore Richard went to _Francis Yates_
house, (a trusty neighbour, who married his wifes sister,) where he
borrowed a blanket, which he folded and laid on the ground for his
Majesty to sit on.

At the same time Richard spoke to the goodwife Yates, to provide some
victuals, and bring it into the wood at a place he appointed her, she
presently made ready a mess of milk and some butter and eggs, and
brought them to his Majesty in the wood; who being a little surpriz'd
to see the woman (no good concealer of a secret,) said cheerfully to
her; _Good woman, can you be faithfull to a distressed cavalier?_ She
answered, _Yes, sir, I will dye rather than discover you_; with which
answer his Majesty was well satisfied.

The Lord Wilmot in the interim took John Penderel for his guide, but
knew not determinately whither to goe, purposing at first to have
march'd Northwards, but as they passed by Brewood forge, the forgemen
made after them, till being told by one Richard Dutton, that it was
Col. Crompton whom they pursued, the _Vulcans_ happily, upon that
mistake, quitted the chase.

Soon after they narrowly escaped a party of rebels as they passed by
_Coven-brook;_ so that seeing danger on every side, and John meeting
with William Walker (a trusty neighbour,) committed my Lord to his care
and council, who for present conveyed them into a dry marl-pit (where
they staid awhile,) and afterward to one _Mr. Huntbaches_ house at
Brinsford, and put their horses into John Evans barn, whilst John
Penderel goes to Wolverhampton to see what convenience he could find
for my Lords coming thither, but met with none, the town being full of

Yet John leaves no means unessayed, hastens to Northcot, (an adjacent
village) and there, whilst he was talking with _Goodwife Underhill_ (a
neighbour,) in the instant _Mr. John Huddleston_ (a sojourner at _Mr.
Thomas Whitgreaves_ of _Moseley_, and of Johns acquaintance) was
accidently passing by, to whom John (well assured of his integrity,)
presently addresses himself and his business, relates to him the sad
news of the defeat of his Majesties army at Worcester, and discovers in
what straits and confusion he had left his Majesty and his followers at
Whiteladies, and in particular that he had brought thence a person of
quality, (for John then knew not who my Lord was) to Huntbaches house,
who, without present relief, would be in great danger of being taken.

Mr. Huddleston goes home forthwith, takes John with him and acquaints
Mr. Whitgreave with the businesse, who freely resolved to venture all,
rather than such a person should miscarry.

Hereupon Mr. Whitgreave repaires to Huntbaches house, speaks with my
Lord, and gives direction how he should be privately convey'd into his
house at Mosely about ten of the clock at night; and, though it so fell
out that the directions were not punctually observ'd, yet my Lord and
his man were at last brought into the house, where Mr. Whitgreave,
(after some refreshment given them) conveys them into a secret place,
which my Lord admiring for its excellent contrivance, and solicitous
for his Majesties safety, said, _I would give a world my friend_
(meaning the king) _were here_; and then deposited in Mr. Whitgreaves
custody a little bag of jewels, which my Lord received again at his

As soon as it was day Mr. Whitgreave sent William Walker with my Lords
horses to his neighbour Col. John Lane of Bentley near Walsal,
South-East from Mosely about four miles, (whom Mr. Whitgreave knew to
be a right honest gentleman, and ready to contribute any assistance to
so charitable a work) and wished Walker to acquaint the Colonel, that
they were the horses of some eminent person about the king, whom he
could better secure than his horses: The Col. willingly receives the
horses, and sends word to Mr. Whitgreave to meet him that night in a
close not far from Mosely, in order to the tender of farther service to
the owner of the horses, whose name neither the Colonel nor Mr.
Whitgreave then knew.

On Thursday night, when it grew dark, his Majesty resolv'd to go from
those parts into _Wales_, and to take Richard Penderel with him for his
guide; but, before they began their journey, his Majesty went into
Richards house at Hobbal Grange, where the old goodwife Penderel had
not onely the honour to see his Majesty, but to see him attended by her
son Richard: Here his Majesty had time and means better to complete his
disguise; his name was agreed to be _Wil. Jones_, and his arms a wood
bill: In this posture about nine a clock at night (after some
refreshment taken in the house) his Majesty, with his trusty servant
Richard, began their journey on foot, resolving to go that night to
_Madeley_ in Shropshire, about five miles from _Whiteladies_, and
within a mile of the river Severn, over which their way lay for Wales;
in this village lived one Mr. Woolf, an honest gentleman of Richards

His Majesty had not been long gon, but the Lord Wilmot sent John
Penderel from Mr. Whitegreaves to Whiteladies, to know in what security
the king was, John returned and acquainted my Lord that his Majesty was
marched from thence; Hereupon my Lord began to consider which way
himself should remove with safety.

Col. Lane, having secured my Lords horses, and being come to Mosely
according to appointment on Friday night, was brought up to my Lord by
Mr. Whitgreave, and (after mutual salutation) acquainted him, that his
sister Mrs. Jane Lane had by accident procured a pass from some
commander of the rebels, for her self and a man to goe to Bristol to
see her sister, then near her time of lying in; and freely offer'd, if
his Lordship thought fit, he might make use of it, which my Lord seem'd
inclinable to accept; and on Saturday night was conducted by Col. Lanes
man (himself not being well) to the Col. house at Bentley, his Lordship
then and not before discovering his name to Mr. Whitgreave, and giving
him many thanks for so great a kindnesse in so imminent a danger.

Before his Majesty came to Madely, he met with an il-favoured encounter
at _Evelin Mill_ being about 2. miles from thence; The miller (it
seems) was an honest man, but his Majesty and Richard knew it not, and
had then in his house some considerable persons of his Majesties army,
who took shelter there in their flight from Worcester, and had not been
long in the mill, so that the miller was upon his watch, and Richard,
unhappily permitting a gate to clap, through which they passed, gave
occasion to the miller to come out of the mill and boldly ask _who is
there_? Richard, thinking the miller had pursued them, quitted the
usuall way in some haste, and led his Majesty over a little brook,
which they were forced to wade through, and which contributed much
towards the surbating and galling his Majesties feet. Here his Majesty
(as he afterwards pleasantly observed) was in some danger of losing his
guide, but that the rustling of Richards calves-skin breeches was the
best direction his Majesty had to follow him in that dark night.

His Majesty arrived at Madely about midnight, Richard goes to Mr.
Woolfs house, where they were all in bed, knocks them up and acquaints
Mr. Woolfs daughter, (who came to the dore) that the king was there,
who presently received him into the house, where his Majesty refreshed
himself for some time; but, understanding that the rebels kept several
guards upon _Seavern_, and it being fear'd that some of their party (of
which many frequently passed through the town,) might quarter at the
house (as had often hapned,) it was apprehended unsafe for his Majesty
to lodge in the house (which afforded no secret place for concealment,)
but rather to retire into a barn near adjoining, as less liable to the
danger of a surprise, whither his Majesty went accordingly, and
continued there all the day following, his servant Richard attending

During his Majesties stay in the barn, Mr. Woolf had often conference
with him about his intended journey, and in order thereto took care by
a trusty servant (sent abroad for that purpose,) to inform himself more
particularly of those guards upon Seavern, and had certain word brought
him, that not only the bridges were secured, but all the passage-boats
seized on; insomuch as he conceived it very hazardous for his Majesty
to prosecute his design for Wales, but rather to go to Boscobel-house,
being the most retired place for concealment in all the country, and to
stay there till an opportunity of a further safe conveyance could be
found out; which advice his Majesty inclined to approve: And thereupon
resolv'd for Boscobel the night following; in the mean time his hands
not appearing sufficiently discoloured, suitable to his other disguise,
Mrs. Woolf provided walnut-tree leaves, as the readiest expedient for
that purpose.

The day being over, his Majesty adventured to come again into the
house, where having for some time refreshed himself, and being
furnished with conveniences for his journey, (which was conceived to be
safer on foot than by horse) he with his faithful guide Richard about
eleven of the clock at night, set forth towards Boscobel.

About three of the clock on Saturday morning, being come near the
house, Richard left his Majesty in the wood, whilst he went in to see
if no souldiers were there or other danger; where he found _Col.
William Carlis_, (who had seen, not the last man born, but the last man
kild, at Worcester, and) who, having with much difficulty, made his
escape from thence; was got into his own neighbor-hood, and, for some
time concealing himself in Boscobel wood, was come that morning to the
house to get some relief of William Penderel, his old acquaintance.

Richard having acquainted the Col. that the king was in the wood, the
Col. with William and Richard goe presently thither to give their
attendance, where they found his Majesty sitting on the root of a tree,
who was glad to see the Col. and came with them into the house, and did
there eat bread and cheese heartily, and (as an extraordinary) William
Penderels wife made his Majesty a posset, of thin milk and small beer,
and got ready some warm water to wash his feet, not onely extreme
dirty, but much galled with travail.

The Col. pull'd off his Majesties shoos, which were full of gravel, and
stockens which were very wet, and there being no other shoos in the
house that would fit his Majesty, the good wife put some hot embers in
those to dry them, whilst his Majesties feet were washing and his
stockens shifted.

Being thus a little refreshed, the Col. perswaded his Majesty to go
back into the wood (supposing it safer then the house,) where the
Colonel made choice of a thick leafed oak, into which William and
Richard help'd both the King and the Col. and brought them such
provision as they could get, with a cushion for his Majesty to sit on;
In this oak they continued most part of that day, and the Col. humbly
desired his Majesty (who had taken little or no rest the two preceding
nights,) to seat himself as easily as he could in the tree, and rest
his head on the Colonels lap, who was watchfull that his Majesty might
not fall; and in this posture his Majesty slumber'd away some part of
the day, and bore all these hardships and afflictions with incomparable

[Illustration: Boscobel House and surrounding area.]

In the evening they returned to the house, where William Penderel
acquainted his Majesty with the secret place, wherein the Earl of Derby
had been secured, which his Majesty liked so well, that he resolved,
whilst he staid there to trust onely to that, and go no more into the
royal oake, as from hence it must be cal'd, where he could not so much
as sit at ease.

His Majesty now, esteeming himself in some better security, permitted
William Penderel to shave him, and cut the hair of his head, as short
at top as the scissars would do it, but leaving some about the ears,
according to the country mode; Col. Carlis attending, told his Majesty,
_Will was but a mean barber_; To which his Majesty answered, _He had
never been shav'd by any barber before_: The King bade William burn the
hair which he cut off, but Will, was only disobedient in that, for he
kept a good part of it, wherewith he has since pleasur'd some persons
of honor, and is kept as a civil relique.

_Humphry Penderel_ was this Saturday design'd to goe to _Shefnal_, to
pay some taxes to one _Captain Broadway_; At whose house he met with a
Colonel of the rebels, who was newly come from Worcester in pursuit of
the King, and who being inform'd the King had been at Whiteladies, and
that Humphry was a near neighbor to the place, examin'd him strictly,
and laid before him as well the penalty for concealing the King, which
was death without mercy; as the reward for discovering him, which
should be one thousand pounds certain pay, but neither fear of
punishment, nor hope of reward, was able to tempt Humphry into any
disloyalty; He pleaded ignorance and was dismiss'd; and on Saturday
night related to his Majesty and the loial Colonel at Boscobel, what
had pass'd betwixt him and the rebel Colonel at Shefnal.

This night the good wife (whom his Majesty was pleased to call _My Dame
Joan_[4]) provided some chickens for his Majesties supper, (a dainty he
had not lately been acquainted with,) and a little pallet was put into
the secret place for his Majesty to rest in; some of the brothers being
continually upon duty, watching the avenues of the house and the road
way, to prevent the danger of a surprize.

          [4] D. Parkes, in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1792, p. 893,
          says there is the following epitaph at White Ladies.

              "Here lieth the Bodie of a friende the King did call Dame
              Joane--but now she is deceast & gone. Interred anno Do.

After supper Col. Carlis ask'd his Majesty what meat he would please to
have provided for the morrow, being Sunday, his Majesty desired some
mutton, if it might be had; But it was thought dangerous for William to
goe to any market to buy it, since his neighbors all knew he did not
use to buy such for his own dyet, and so it might beget a suspition of
his having strangers at his house; But the Col. found another expedient
to satisfy his Majesties desires; Early on Sunday morning he repairs to
Mr. William Stauntons sheep cote, who rented some of Boscobel grounds,
here he chose one of the best sheep, sticks him with his dagger, then
sends Wil. for the mutton, who brings him home on his back.

On Sunday morning (Sept. the seventh) his Majesty got up early (his
dormitory being none of the best, nor his bed the easiest,) and near
the secret place where he lay, had the convenience of a gallery to walk
in, where he was observ'd to spend some time in his devotions, and
where he had the advantage of a window, which surveid the road from
Tong to Brewood; Soon after his Majesty coming down into the parlor his
nose fell a bleeding, which put his poor faithful servants into a great
fright, but his Majesty was pleased soon to remove it, by telling them,
It often did so.

As soon as the mutton was cold, William cut it up and brought a leg of
it into the parlor, his Majesty cal'd for a knife and a trencher, and
cut some of it into collops and prick'd them with the knif's point,
then cal'd for a frying pan and butter, and fry'd the collops himself,
of which he ate heartily, Col. Carlis the while being but under cook,
(and that honor enough too,) made the fire and turn'd the collops in
the pan.

When the Colonel afterwards attended his Majesty in _France_, his
Majesty calling to remembrance this passage, among others, was pleased
merrily to propose it, as a problematical question, whether himself or
the Col. were the master-cook at Boscobel; and the supremacy was of
right adjudg'd to his Majesty.

All this while the other brothers of the Penderels were in their
several stations, either scouting abroad to learn intelligence, or upon
some other service; but it so pleas'd God, that though the soldiers had
some intelligence that his Majesty had been at Whiteladies, and none
that he was gone thence, yet this house (which prov'd a happy sanctuary
for his Majesty in this sad exigent,) had not at all been searched
during his Majesties aboad there, though that had several times, this
perhaps the rather escaping, because the neighbors could truly inform
none but poor servants to be here.

His Majesty, finding himself now in a hopefull security, spent some
part of this Lords-day in a pretty arbor in Boscobel garden, which grew
upon a mount, and wherein there was a stone table and seats about it.
In this place he pass'd away some time in reading, and commended the
place for its retiredness.

His Majesty, understanding by John Penderel, that the Lord Wilmot was
at Mr. Whitgreaves, (for John knew not of his remove to Bentley,) was
desirous to let my Lord know where he was, and in what security.

To this end John Penderel was sent on Sunday morning to Mosely; But
John, finding my Lord remov'd thence, was much troubled, and then
acquainted Mr. Whitgreave and Mr. Huddleston, that his Majesty was
return'd to Boscobel, and the disaccommodation he had there; whereupon
they both resolve to goe with John to Bentley, where having gain'd him
an access to my Lord, his Lordship design'd to attend the King that
night at Mosely, and desired Mr. Whitgreave to meet his Lordship at a
place appointed about 12 of the clock, And Mr. Huddleston to nominate a
place where he would attend his Majesty about one of the clock, the
same night.

Upon this intelligence my Lord made stay of Mrs. Jane Lanes journey to
Bristoll, till his Majesties pleasure were known.

John return'd to Boscobel in the afternoon with intimation of this
design'd meeting with my Lord at _Mosely_ that night, and the place
which was appointed by Mr. Huddleston, where his Majesty should be
expected. But his Majesty, having not recovered his late foot-journey
to _Madely_, was not able without a horse, to perform this to _Mosely_,
which was about five miles distant from Boscobel, and near the mid from
thence to Bentley.

It was therefore concluded that his Majesty should ride upon Humphry
Penderels mill-horse (for Humphry was the miller of Whiteladies mill).
The horse was taken up from grass, and accoutr'd not with rich
trappings or furniture, befitting so great a king, but with a pittiful
old saddle and a worse bridle.

When his Majesty was ready to take horse, Col. Carlis humbly took leave
of him, being so well known in the country, that his attendance upon
his Majesty would in all probability have prov'd rather a disservice
than otherwise, however his hearty praiers were not wanting for his
Majesties preservation.

Thus then his Majesty was mounted, and thus he rode towards Mosely,
attended by all the honest brothers, _William_, _John_, _Richard_,
_Humphry_, and _George Penderel_, and _Francis Yates_, each of these
took a bill or pike staff on his back, and some of them had pistols in
their pockets, two march'd before, one on each side his Majesties
horse, and two came behind a loof off; their design being this, that in
case they should have been question'd or encountr'd but by five or six
troopers or such like smal party, they would have shew'd their valor in
defending, as well as they had done their fidelity in otherwise serving
his Majesty: And though it was near midnight, yet they conducted his
Majesty through by-ways, for better security.

After some experience had of the horse, his Majesty complain'd, _It was
the heaviest dull jade he ever rode on_, to which (Humphry the owner of
him) answer'd (beyond the usual notion of a miller,) _My Leige! Can you
blame the horse to goe heavily, when he has the weight of three
kingdoms on his back?_

When his Majesty came to _Penford Mill_, within two miles of _Mr.
Whitgreaves_ house, his guides desired him to alight and goe on foot
the rest of the way, for more security, the foot way being the more
privat and the nearer, and at last they arriv'd at the place appointed
by _Mr. Huddleston_, (which was a little grove of trees in a close of
_Mr. Whitgreaves_ cal'd the Pit-leasow,) in order to his Majesties
being privatly convey'd into _Mr. Whitgreaves_ house; William, Humphry,
and George, returned with the horse, the other three attended his
Majesty to the house; but his Majesty, being gon a little way, had
forgot (it seems) to bid farewel to William and the rest, who were
going back, so he cal'd to them and said, _My troubles make me forget
myself, I thank you all_, and gave them his hand to kiss.

The Lord Wilmot, in pursuance of his own appointment; came to the
meeting place at his hour, where Mr. Whitgreave receiv'd him and
conveyd him to his old chamber, but hearing nothing of the King at his
prefixed time, gave occasion to suspect some misfortune might have
befaln him, though the night was very dark and rainy, which might
possibly be the occasion of so long stay; Mr. Whitgreave therefore
leaves my Lord in his chamber, and goes to Pit-leasow, where Mr.
Huddleston attended his Majesties coming, and about two hours after the
time appointed his Majesty came, whom Mr. Whitgreave and Mr.
Huddleston, convey'd, with much satisfaction into the house to my Lord,
who expected him with great solicitude, and presently kneel'd down and
embraced his Majesties knees, who kiss'd my Lord on the cheek, and
ask'd him earnestly, _what is become of Buckingham, Cleveland, and
others_? To which my Lord could give little satisfaction, but hop'd
they were safe.

My Lord (addressing himself to Mr. Whitgreave and Mr. Huddleston,)
said, _though I have conceal'd my friends name all this while, now I
must tell you, this is my master, your master, and the master of us
all_; not knowing that they understood it was the King; Whereupon his
Majesty was pleased to give his hand to Mr. Whitgreave and Mr.
Huddleston to kiss, and told them he had receiv'd such an account from
my Lord Wilmot of their fidelity, that he should never forget it; and
presently ask'd Mr. Whitgreave, _where is your secret place?_ which
being shew'd his Majesty, he was pleas'd therewith, and returning into
my Lords chamber, sate down on the bed-side, where his nose fell a
bleeding; and then puld out of his pocket a handkercher, suitable to
the rest of his apparel, both course and dirty.

His Majesties attire, as was before observ'd in part, was then a
leather-doublet, a pair of green breeches, and a jump-coat (as the
country calls it) of the same green, a pair of his own stockens with
the tops cut off, because embroider'd, and a pair of stirrop stockens,
which were lent him at Madely, a pair of old shoos, cut and slash'd to
give ease to his feet, an old grey, greasy hat without a lyning, a
noggen shirt, of the coursest linnen, his face and hands made of a
reechy complexion, by the help of the walnut tree leaves.

Mr. Huddleston observing the coursness of his Majesties shirt to
disease him much and hinder his rest, ask'd my Lord, if the King would
be pleased to change his shirt, which his Majesty condescended unto,
and presently put off his course shirt and put on a flexen one of Mr.
Huddleston's who pul'd off his Majesties shoos and stockens, and put
him on fresh stockens, and dry'd his feet, where he found some body had
innocently but indiscreetly put white paper, which, with going on foot
from the place where his Majesty alighted to the house, was roll'd
between his stockens and his skin, and serv'd to encrease rather than
asswage the soarness of his feet.

Mr. Whitgreave had by this time brought up some biscuit and a bottle of
sack, his Majesty ate of the one, and drank a good glass of the other;
and, being thus refresh'd, was pleas'd to say cheerfully, _I am now
ready for another march; and if it shall please God once more to place
me in the head of but eight or ten thousand good men, of one mind, and
resolv'd to fight, I shall not doubt to drive these rogues out of my

It was now break of the day on Munday morning the eighth of September,
and his Majesty was desirous to take some rest: In order whereto a
palet was carried into one of the secret places, where his Majesty lay
down, but rested not so well as his host desired, for the place was
close and inconvenient, and they durst not adventure to put him into
any bed in an open chamber.

After some rest taken in the hole, his Majesty got up, and was pleased
to take notice of, and salute Mr. Whitgreaves mother, and (having his
place of retreat still ready) sate between whiles in a closet over the
porch, where he might see those that pass'd the road by the house.

Before the Lord Wilmot betook himself to his dormitory, he conferr'd
with _Mr. Whitgreave_, and advised, that himself or _Mr. Huddleston_
would be alwayes vigilant about the house, and give notice if any
souldiers came, and (sayes this noble Lord) _If it should so fall out
that the rebels have intelligence of your harbouring any of the Kings
party, and should therefore put you to any torture for confession, be
sure you discover me first, which may happily in such case satisfie
them, and preserve the King_. This was the expression and care of a
loyal subject, worthy eternal memory.

On Munday his Majesty and my Lord resolv'd to dispatch John Penderel to
Col. Lane at Bentley, with direction for the Colonel to send my Lords
horses for him that night about midnight, and to expect him at the
usual place: My Lord accordingly goes to Bentley again that night, to
make way for his Majesties reception there, in order to a resolution
taken up by his Majesty to go Westward, under the protection of _Mrs.
Jane Lanes_ pass; it being most probable, that the rebels wholly
pursu'd his Majesty Northwards, and would not at all suspect him gone
into the West.

This Munday afternoon _Mr. Whitgreave_ had notice that some souldiers
were in the neighbourhood intending to apprehend him, upon information
that he had been at Worcester fight: The King was then laid down upon
Mr. Huddlestons bed, but Mr. Whitgreave presently secures his _Royal
Guest_ in the secret place, and my Lord also, leaves open all the
chamber dores, and goes boldly down to the souldiers, assuring them (as
his neighbours also testified) that he had not been from home in a
fortnight then last past; with which asseveration the souldiers were
satisfied, and came not up stairs at all.

In this interval the rebels had taken a _Cornet_ in _Cheshire_, who
came in his Majesties troop to Whiteladies, and, either by menaces or
some other way, had extorted this confession from him concerning the
King, (whom these bloud-hounds sought with all possible diligence) that
he came in company with his Majesty to Whiteladies, where the rebels
conceived he might still be; whereupon they posted thither without ever
drawing bit, almost kill'd their horses, and brought the faint-hearted
prisoner with them.

Being come to Whiteladies on Tuesday, they call for _Mr. George
Giffard_, who lived in an apartment of the house, present a pistol to
his breast, and bad him confesse where the King was, or he should
presently dye; Mr. Giffard was too loyal, and too much a gentleman to
be frighted into any infidelity, resolutely denies the knowing any
more, but that divers cavaliers came thither on Wednesday night, ate up
their provision and departed, and that he was as ignorant who they were
as whence they came, or whither they went, and beg'd, if he must dye,
that they would first give him leave to say a few prayers: One of these
villains answered, _If you can tell us no news of the King, you shall
say no prayers_: But his discreet answer did somewhat asswage the fury
of their leader, yet they searched every corner of the house, broak
down much of the wainscoat, and at last beat their intelligencer
severely for making them lose their labours.

During this Tuesday, in my Lord Wilmots absence, his Majesty was for
the most part attended by Mr. Huddleston, Mr. Whitgreave being much
abroad in the neighbourhood, and Mrs. Whitgreave below stairs, both
inquisitive after news, and the motions of the soldiery, in order to
the preservation of their Royal Guest; the old gentlewoman was this day
told by a countrey man, who came to her house, that he heard the King,
upon his retreat, had beaten his enemies at _Warrington bridge_, and
that there were three Kings come in to his assistance; which story she
related to his Majesty for divertisement, who smiling, answered,
_Surely they are the three Kings of_ Colein _come down from heaven, for
I can imagine none else_.

His Majesty out of the closet window, espy'd two souldiers, who pass'd
by the gate in the road, and told Mr. Huddleston, he knew one of them
to be a _Highlander_ and of his own regiment; who little thought his
King and Colonel was so near.

And his Majesty for entertainment of the time was pleas'd to discourse
with Mr. Huddleston the particulers of the battle of Worcester (the
same in substance with what is before related.) And by some words which
his Majesty let fall, it might easily be collected that his councils
had been too often sooner discovered to the rebels, than executed by
his loyal subjects.

Mr. Huddleston had under his charge young _Sir John Preston_, _Mr.
Thomas Palyn_ and _Mr. Francis Reynolds_, and on this Tuesday in the
morning (the better to conceal his Majesties being in the house, and
excuse his own more than usual long stay above stairs) pretended
himself to be indisposed and afraid of the souldiers, and therefore set
his schollers at several garret windows, that survey'd the roades, to
watch and give notice when they saw any troopers coming; This service
the youths perform'd very diligently all day, and at night, when they
were at supper, Sir John cal'd upon his companions, and said (more
truly than he imagin'd,) _Come lads, let us eat lustily, for we have
been upon the life-guard to day_.

On Tuesday night between twelve and one of the clock, the Lord Wilmot
sent Col. Lane to attend his Majesty to Bentley, Mr. Whitgreave meets
the Colonel at the place appointed, and brings him to the corner of his
orchard, where the Colonel thought fit to stay, whilst Mr. Whitgreave
goes in and acquaints the king that he was come: Whereupon his Majesty
presently took his leave of Mris. Whitgreave, saluted her and gave her
many thanks for his entertainment, but was pleas'd to be more
particular with Mr. Whitgreave and Mr. Huddleston, not onely by giving
them thanks, but by telling them, he was very sensible of the dangers
they might incur by entertaining him, if it should chance to be
discover'd; Therefore his Majesty advis'd them to be very careful of
themselves, and gave them direction to repair to a merchant in
_London_, who should have order to furnish them with moneys and means
of conveiance beyond sea, if they thought fit. However his Majesty
concluded, that if it should please God ever to restore him to the
government of his dominions, he should not be unmindful of their
civilities and fidelity to him. Thus grateful was this _excellent
King_, for even that which was every good subjects duty, and thus
sollicitous (in the midst of his own dangers), for their security.

After his Majesty had vouchsaf'd these gracious expressions to Mr.
Whitgreave and Mr. Huddleston, they told his Majesty all the service
they could now do him, was to pray heartily to Almighty God for his
safety and preservation, and then kneeling down, his Majesty gave them
his hand to kiss, and so went down stairs with them into the orchard,
where Mr. Whitgreave both humbly and faithfully deliver'd his _great
Charge_ into Col. Lanes hands, telling the Colonel who the person was
he there presented to him.

The night was both dark and cold, and his Majesties clothing thin,
therefore Mr. Huddleston humbly offer'd his Majesty a cloak, which he
was pleased to accept and wore to Bentley, from whence Mr. Huddleston
afterward received it.

As soon as Mr. Whitgreave and Mr. Huddleston heard his Majesty was not
onely got safe to Bentley, but march'd securely from thence, they began
to reflect upon his advice, and, lest any discovery should be made of
what had been acted at Mosely, they both absented themselves from home;
The one went to London, the other to a friends house in Warwickshire,
where they liv'd privately till such time as they heard his Majesty was
safely arriv'd in France, and that no part of the aforesaid
transactions at _Mosely_ had been discover'd to the rebels, and then
return'd home.

This _Mr. Whitgreave_ is descended of the ancient family of the
Whitgreaves of Burton in the county of Stafford, and was first a
_Cornet_, afterwards _Lieutenant_ to _Capt. Tho. Giffard_, in the first
war for his late Majesty.

_Mr. John Huddleston_ is a younger brother of the renowned family of
the house of _Hutton-John_ in the county of Cumberland, and was a
gentleman voluntier in his late Majesties service, first under _Sir
John Preston_ the elder, till Sir John was render'd unserviceable by
the desperate wounds he received, and after under _Colonel Ralph
Pudsey_ at Newark.

His Majesty being safely convey'd to Bentley by Col. Lane, staid there
but a short time, took the opportunity of Mris. Janes pass, and rode
before her to Bristow, the Lord Wilmot attending, for the most part at
a distance. In all which journey Mris. Lane perform'd the part of a
most faithful and prudent servant to his Majesty, shewing her
observance, when any opportunity would allow it, and at other times
acting her part in the disguise with much discretion.

But his Majesties particular _Gifts_ to Bristow and to the houses of
several loyal subjects, both in _Somersetshire_, _Wiltshire_,
_Hampshire_, and so to _Brighempston in Sussex_, where he, about the
end of October 1651. took shipping, and landed securely at _Deip_ in
_France_, and the several accidents, hardships and encounters, in all
that journey, can be exactly related by none but his Majesty himself;
now since the much lamented death of that faithful subject and
excellent souldier the _Lord Wilmot_, who was created Earl of
_Rochester_, as a part of that recompence his Majesty thought due to so
great a fidelity.

The very next day after his Majesty was gone from Boscobel, being
Monday the 8. of September, two parties of rebels came thither, the one
being part of the county troop, who search'd the house with some
civility; The other, Capt. Broadwayes men, these search'd severely, eat
up their little store of provision, plunder'd the house of what was
portable, and one of them presented a pistol to William Penderel, and
much frighted my Dame Joan; yet both parties return'd, as empty as they
came, of that intelligence they so greedily sought after.

This danger being over, honest William began to think of making
satisfaction for the fat mutton, and accordingly tender'd Mr. Staunton
its worth in money; but Staunton, understanding the sheep was kil'd for
the relief of some honest cavaliers, who had been shelter'd at
Boscobel, refus'd to take the money, but wish'd, much good it might doe

These _Penderels_ were of honest parentage, but mean degree, six
brothers born at _Hobbal Grange_ in the parish of _Tong_, and county of
Salop, William, John, Richard, Humphry, Thomas, and George; _John_,
_Thomas_ and _George_ were soldiers in the first war for his late
Majesty, _Thomas_ was slain at Stow fight, _William_, as you have
heard, was a servant at Boscobel, _Humphry_ a miller, and _Richard_
rented a part of _Hobbal Grange_.

His Majesty had not been long gone from Boscobel, but Col. Carlis sent
William Penderel to _Mr. Humphry Ironmonger_, his old friend, at
Wolverhampton, who not only procured him a pass from some of the rebel
commanders in a disguised name to goe to London, but furnish'd him with
money for his journey, by means whereof he got safe thither, and from
thence into Holland, where he brought the first happy news of _his
Majesties_ safety to his _royal sister_, the _Princess of Orange_.

This _Col. William Carlis_ was born at Bromhall in Staffordshire,
within two miles of Boscobel, of good parentage, is a person of
approved valor, and was engag'd all along in the first war for his late
Majesty of happy memory; and since his death has been no less active
for his Majesty that now is; for which and his particular service and
fidelity before mentioned, his Majesty has been pleased by letters
patents under the great seal of England to give him, by the name of
_William_ CARLOS (which in Spanish signifies _Charls_) this very
honorable coat of armes, _in perpetuam rei memoriam_, as 'tis expressed
in the letters patents.

The _Oake_ is now properly call'd _The Royal Oake of Boscobel_, nor
will it lose that name whilst it continues a tree: And since his
Majesties happy restauration, that these mysteries have been revealed,
hundreds of people for many miles round, have flock'd to see the famous
BOSCOBEL, which (as you have heard) had once the honour to be the
palace of his sacred Majesty, but chiefly to behold the royal oake,
which has been depriv'd of all its young boughs by the visitors of it,
who keep them in memory of his Majesties happy preservation.

[Illustration: _He bears upon an_ Oake proper, _in a_ Feild _Or a_ Fess
Gulles, _charged with_ 3 Regal Crowns _of ye second: by the name
of_ Carlos. _And for his Creast a_ Civic Crown, _or Oaken Garland,
with a_ Sword _and_ Scepter _crossed through it_ Saltierwise.]

This Boscobel-house has yet been a third time fortunate; for after Sir
George Booths forces were routed in Cheshire, in August 1659. the Lord
Bruerton, who was engaged with him, took sanctuary there for some time,
and was preserved.

When his Majesty was thus happily convey'd away by Col. Lane and his
sister, the rebels had an intimation that some of the brothers were
instrumental in his Majesties preservation; so that besides the
temptations Humphry overcame at Shefnal, William Penderel was twice
questioned at Shrewsbury on the same account by Capt. Fox and one
LLuellin a sequestrator, and Richard was much threatned by a peevish
neighbour at Whiteladies; but neither threats nor temptations were able
to batter the fort of their loyalties.

[Sidenote: Dan. 11. 9.]

After the _King had entred into the Kingdom, and returned to his own
land_, the 5. brothers attended him at _White-hall_, on Wednesday the
13. of June 1660. when his Majesty was pleased to own their faithful
service, and graciously dismiss'd them with a princely reward.

And soon after Mr. Huddleston and Mr. Whitgreave made their humble
addresses to his Majesty, from whom they likewise receiv'd a gracious
acknowledgment of their service and fidelity to him at Mosely; and this
in so high a degree of gratitude, and with such a condescending frame
of spirit, not at all puff'd up with prosperity, as cannot be
parallel'd in the best of Kings.

Here let us all with glad and thankful hearts humbly contemplate the
admirable Providence of Almighty God, who contriv'd such wonderful
wayes, and made use of such mean instruments for preservation of so
great a person: Let us delight to reflect minutely on every particular,
and especially on such as most approach to miracle; let us sum up the
number of those, who were privy to this first part of his Majesties
disguise and concealment; _Mr. Giffard_, the five _Penderels_, their
mother and three of their wives, Col. _Carlis_, _Francis Yates_ and his
wife, some of the inhabitants of _Whiteladies_, _Mr. Woolf_, his wife,
daughter and maid, _Mr. Whitgreave_ and his mother, _Mr. Huddleston_,
_Col. Lane_ and his sister; and then consider whether it were not
indeed a _miracle_, that so many men, and (which is far more) so many
women should faithfully conceal so important and unusual a secret; and
this notwithstanding the temptations and promises of reward on the one
hand, the danger and menaces of punishment on the other.

To which I shall adde but this one circumstance, that it was concealed
by persons, for the most part, of that religion, which has long
suffer'd under an imputation (laid on them by some mistaken zelots) of
disloyalty to their soveraign.

[Sidenote: Dan. 3. 10.]

And now, on my bended knees, let me joyfully congratulate his restored
Majesty, and humbly offer him this short and hearty wish, O KING, LIVE
FOR EVER. And not content with my own inconsiderable prayers, with all
my soul I beg the universal assistance of others, earnestly inviting
all the nation, even all the three nations, to sing

_Te Deum Laudamus_.

2 SAM. xix. 14.

_And he bow'd the hearts of all the people, as the heart of one man; So
that they sent this word unto the King_, Return thou and all thy


_Thomas & Hunsley, Printers, Doncaster._

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