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Title: Fifty Years In The Northwest - With An Introduction And Appendix Containing Reminiscences, - Incidents And Notes
Author: Folsom, William Henry Carman
Language: English
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FIFTY YEARS IN THE NORTHWEST.

WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND APPENDIX
CONTAINING
REMINISCENCES, INCIDENTS AND NOTES.


BY W. H. C. FOLSOM.

EDITED BY S. E. EDWARDS.

PUBLISHED BY
PIONEER PRESS COMPANY.
1888.

                      TO THE OLD SETTLERS
                             OF
                    WISCONSIN AND MINNESOTA,

  WHO, AS PIONEERS, AMIDST PRIVATIONS AND TOIL NOT KNOWN TO THOSE OF
      LATER GENERATION, LAID HERE THE FOUNDATIONS OF TWO GREAT
        STATES, AND HAVE LIVED TO SEE THE RESULT OF THEIR
          ARDUOUS LABORS IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE
            WILDERNESS--DURING FIFTY YEARS--INTO A
              FRUITFUL COUNTRY, IN THE BUILDING
                OF GREAT CITIES, IN THE
                  ESTABLISHING OF ARTS
                    AND MANUFACTURES,
                        IN THE
                    CREATION OF COMMERCE
                AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
                  THIS WORK IS RESPECTFULLY

                        DEDICATED

             BY THE AUTHOR, W. H. C. FOLSOM.



PREFACE.


At the age of nineteen years, I landed on the banks of the Upper
Mississippi, pitching my tent at Prairie du Chien, then (1836) a
military post known as Fort Crawford. I kept memoranda of my various
changes, and of many of the events transpiring. Subsequently, not,
however, with any intention of publishing them in book form until
1876, when, reflecting that fifty years spent amidst the early and
first white settlements, and continuing till the period of
civilization and prosperity, itemized by an observer and participant
in the stirring scenes and incidents depicted, might furnish material
for an interesting volume, valuable to those who should come after me,
I concluded to gather up the items and compile them in a convenient
form.

As a matter of interest to personal friends, and as also tending to
throw additional light upon my relation to the events here narrated, I
have prefixed an account of my own early life for the nineteen years
preceding my removal to the West, thus giving to the work a somewhat
autobiographical form. It may be claimed that a work thus written in
the form of a life history of a single individual, with observations
from his own personal standpoint, will be more connected, clear and
systematic in its narration of events than if it were written
impersonally.

The period included in these sketches is one of remarkable
transitions, and, reaching backward, in the liberty accorded to the
historian, to the time of the first explorations by the Jesuits, the
first English, French and American traders, is a period of
transformation and progress that has been paralleled only on the
shores of the New World. We have the transition from barbarism to
civilization; we have the subjugation of the wilderness by the first
settlers; the organization of territorial and state governments; an
era of progress from the rude habits of the pioneer and trapper, to
the culture and refinement of civilized states; from the wilderness,
yet unmapped, and traversed only by the hardy pioneer in birch barks
or dog sledges, to the cultivated fields, cobwebbed by railways and
streams furrowed by steamers. It is something to have witnessed a
part, even, of this wonderful transformation, and it is a privilege
and a pleasure to record, even in part, its history.

I have quoted from the most correct histories within my reach, but the
greater part of my work, or of that pertaining to the fifty years just
passed, has been written from personal observation and from
information obtained directly by interview with, or by written
communications from, persons identified in some way with the history
of the country. To those persons who have so freely and generously
assisted me in the collection of material for this work, I hereby
express my thanks. I have relied sparingly on traditions, and, where I
have used them, have referred to them as such.



INTRODUCTION.


While genealogical tables are of interest chiefly to the families and
individuals whose names are therein preserved, I still deem it not
amiss to insert here a brief account of my ancestry. Among the
emigrants from England to the New World in 1638, came John Foulsham,
then twenty-three or twenty-four years of age, and his wife, to whom
he had been married about a year and a half. They came from Hingham,
England, to Hingham, Mass., with a colony that probably named the
settlement in loving remembrance of the town they had left. They came
on account of certain ecclesiastical troubles; their rector, with whom
they sympathized, having torn down the altar rails and leveled the
altar, an act of irreverence that called down upon them the wrath of
their superior, Bishop Wren, and resulted in rector and people selling
out their real estate at half its value and emigrating to America.
John received a grant of land consisting of four acres and built
himself a house, the frame being constructed of sawed oak timber. This
house, built in 1640, stood until 1875, two hundred and thirty-five
years, when it was taken down and manufactured into canes and chairs,
which were distributed as relics to the American descendants of the
family. The family, however, had increased so greatly that the supply
was not equal to the demand.

The wife of John Foulsham was Mary Gilman. From this couple the
American Folsoms and their allies from marriages with the female
descendants of the family have sprung. The ancestors of John Foulsham
may be traced backward a period of near six hundred years, and many of
the family have honorable mention in English history. The earliest
mention is concerning John Foulsham of Foulsham, prior of a Carmelite
monastery in Norwich, and "præses provincialis" of all England. This
Foulsham is spoken of in Bayle's catalogue of eminent worthies as "no
mean proficient in controversial theology, knowing how, by means of
syllogystic tricks, to turn white into black and men into donkeys." He
died in the great plague at Norwich in 1348.

A certain John de Foulsham is spoken of in Blomefield's History of
Norfolk as an "eloquent, unflinching opponent of the corruptions of
the times." It is possible that this may be the Carmelite prior above
mentioned, though the prefix _de_ leaves the matter somewhat in doubt.

As to the original derivation of the family name, Hon. George Folsom,
of Philadelphia, in one of the manuscripts left by him, says: "It
arose upon the adoption of surnames in England, from the town of
Foulsham, a village in the county of Norfolk, six or eight miles north
of Hingham, in which county the family was seated for many centuries,
possessing estates in fifteen different places." Thus John de, or John
of Foulsham, became John Foulsham.

The orthography and pronunciation of the name have varied in the
family itself, as well as among those writing and pronouncing it. The
first Anglo-American bearing the name spelled it "Foulsham." His son,
Deacon John, spelled it "Fullsam" in 1709, and it is signed "Foullsam"
in his last will--1715. In one instance, in the Hingham town records,
it is spelled "Fulsham," but always afterward, "Foulsham." In the
Exeter records it is written uniformly "Folsom" with but one
exception, when it is written by the town clerk "Foulshame." In the
records of the first parish, Haverhill, Massachusetts, it is written
"Foulsham," "Foulsam," "Folsham" and "Fulsom." Originally it was
doubtless spelled "Foulshame," its etymological significance being the
_fowls' home_, a breeding place or mart. It was probably at first
written with a hyphen, as Fouls-hame, but the final syllable was
eventually shortened. Everywhere it is now written _Folsom_ by those
having the name, and is pronounced like _wholesome_.

The characteristics of the family have been quite uniform. Far as
known they were a religious family, and prominent as such in both
Catholic and Protestant circles, with a strong disposition toward
dissent from the established order of things. Thus John de Foulsham
wrote a treatise quite at variance with the doctrines of the church,
advocating the marriage of priests. John Foulsham, the Anglo-American,
left England on account of his dissent, preferring a home in the
wilderness with freedom to worship God, to dwelling under the rule of
a haughty and tyrannical bishop. Many of the family espoused the
doctrines of Whitfield. Many of them became Baptists, becoming such at
a time when the Baptists were most unpopular, and afterward becoming
Free Will Baptists, in which communion more of the family may to-day
be found than in any other.

The occupations of the family were mostly, in the early days,
mechanical. Many were joiners and millwrights. The children and
grandchildren were farmers, landholders and lumbermen. Of the many who
removed to Maine, after the Revolution, most engaged in lumbering, but
turned their attention also to milling and storekeeping.

The family have also shown a military tendency, and during the various
wars visited upon the country since the early colonial times, this
family has borne its full share of the dangers, toils and expense.

My father, Jeremiah Folsom, was born in Tamworth, New Hampshire, Sept.
16, 1780, and was married to Octavia Howe, April 5, 1805. My mother
was born in Machias, Maine, Oct. 12, 1786. My father was a prominent
business man, and was engaged in shipping and mercantile pursuits, he
owning vessels that plied from St. Johns to Machias and other American
ports. To facilitate his business, St. Johns was his home four years,
during which time he was associated with William Henry Carman. This
temporary residence and business association account for my being born
on British soil, and for the names by which I was christened.
According to the record in the old family Bible, I was born at St.
Johns, New Brunswick, June 22, 1817. When I was six months old my
parents moved to Bangor, Maine, thence to Foxcroft, Maine, thence to
Ascot, Lower Canada.

When I was five years old my parents moved to Tamworth, New Hampshire.
Young as I was, I am still able to recall events that occurred while I
lived in Canada. I remember falling into a well and being badly
bruised. I remember also an adventure with a bear. My parents had gone
to church, leaving me at home, greatly against my will. I attempted to
follow, but missed the road and wandered off into a wood, perhaps
three miles away. When my parents returned they were much alarmed,
and parties immediately went in pursuit. When I knew I was lost I set
up a vigorous screaming, which had the effect of attracting attention
from two very different parties. The first was a huge bear in quest of
food, and doubtless delighted at the prospect before him. The second
was one of the rescuing parties in quest of the lost boy. Both
simultaneously approached the screaming youngster and Bruin fought
stubbornly for his prey, but was vanquished by the clubs of my
rescuers, and I was carried home in triumph. I do not clearly recall
all the incidents of this scene, and, strangely enough, do not
remember seeing the bear. Perhaps the terror of being lost drove out
every other impression. An excuse for the narration of this apparently
trifling incident may be found in the fact that but for the prompt
arrival of the rescuing party, this history would never have been
written.

When I was ten years of age my parents removed to Bloomfield, Maine.
While in Tamworth I had excellent opportunities of attending school,
which I improved to the utmost. After leaving Tamworth my school
privileges were well nigh ended, as I never received from that time
more than six months' schooling. My father followed lumbering on the
Kennebec river. During the first winter in Maine, he took me to the
logging camp as camp boy. During the second winter he hired me to
Matthew and Lewis Dunbar as a cook for their wood camp. I cooked for
six men and received five dollars a month. I was used very kindly by
the Dunbars, but that winter in the woods seemed a long, long winter.
The only book in camp was the Bible. There were, however, newspapers
and playing cards. In the spring my father used the fifteen dollars
received for my three months' work to purchase a cow. I served the
Dunbars the third winter, as cook, for six dollars a month, and worked
the ensuing summer on farms at about twenty-five cents per day. During
the fourth winter I worked for the Dunbars and Timothy Snow at seven
dollars per month, and the summer following worked on a farm for
Benjamin Cayford at seven dollars. Cayford was a merciless tyrant, and
sometimes compelled his men to work in the field till nine o'clock at
night. These details of wages paid and work done, uninteresting in
themselves, serve to show the value of a boy's work (I was not yet
fifteen) and what was expected of the average boy, for mine was no
exceptional case nor was my father more exacting than others in his
station in life. He was in poor health, and had a large family of
boys. We were eight in number, and of these I was one of the most
robust and able to assist in the support of the family.

This year I persuaded my father to sell me my time, which amounted to
five years, which he reluctantly did, accepting two hundred and fifty
dollars as an equivalent. It was my ambition to go West. Horace
Greeley had not uttered the talismanic words, "Go West, young man,"
but I believed that by going West I would be better able to advance my
own interests and assist my parents. My father signed the necessary
paper relinquishing my time, which was printed in the Skowhegan
_Clarion_. From this time until I was nineteen years old I worked on
the river and on farms, worked continuously and beyond my strength. I
worked another summer for Cayford, but have no pleasant recollections
of him, for on his farm I was sadly overworked, being often called to
work before sunrise and kept at work after sunset. I worked two
winters cooking in the woods for Capt. Asa Steward, of Bloomfield, one
of the best men I ever served, a kind hearted, honest Christian. He
gave me good counsel and good wages besides. In the fall of 1835 I
went into the woods to work for Capt. Eb. Snow, of Madison. Like
Cayford, he was a merciless tyrant and abusive to his men. I left his
camp before my engagement closed, not being able to endure his abuse
longer. This is the only time in which I failed to keep a labor
engagement. I finished the winter with Capt. Asa Steward, but my eyes
became so inflamed from the smoke of the camp that I was obliged to
abandon cooking.

During this winter occurred an incident that came near having a
serious and even fatal termination. There were three of us, Simeon
Goodrich, Jimmie Able and myself, who went down the Kennebec to the
Forks, a distance of twelve miles from camp. A deep, damp snow had
fallen the night previous, and through this snow, reaching above our
knees, we trudged wearily till Able gave out. We carried him a short
distance, but becoming exhausted ourselves, laid him down in the snow.
To remain with him would be to imperil the lives of all; by hurrying
on we might be able to send a party to bring him in. We carefully
made for him a bed of fir boughs and placed loose garments over him
and under him, and as he was sick, weak and faint, gave him a draught
of liquid opodeldoc, and leaving the bottle with him, hurried on. We
traveled the last mile through an opening. Snow drifted deeply. We
dragged our bodies through the drifts in the direction of a glimmering
light, which proved to be Sturgis' hotel, which we reached at 11
o'clock P. M. A team was sent back immediately for the lost Able by a
road of which we knew nothing. The rescuing party met him trudging
along with all his baggage. The opodeldoc had revived him, and he had
traveled a full mile when he met the rescuing party. At two o'clock
the team returned bringing the lost wayfarer.

Another adventure terminated more disastrously than this. In the
spring of 1835 I was employed in taking logs across Moosehead lake.
The logs were in booms, and were moved by a capstan and rope. This was
before the days of steamboats, and the moving of the booms was no
light task. On this occasion a gale of wind struck us and drifted us
across the lake. We threw out an anchor, hoping to check the course of
the boom and swing it into Cowan's bay. In one of our throws the
anchor tripped, or caught fast, and suddenly tightened the line. Our
whole crew were in an instant hurled headlong. Some were thrown into
the water. One man (Butler) had his ribs broken. All were more or less
injured. The capstan went overboard. The old boom swung on and on,
and, passing Spencer's bay, broke and went to pieces on the shore. The
logs were with great difficulty regathered, but were finally brought
to the outlet of the lake July 4th, the last raft of the season.

After river driving in the spring of 1835, I went to the Penobscot
river and found employment at twenty dollars a month at East Great
Works, building a dam. John Mills, our superintendent, was a good man.
There was a lyceum here, the first I ever attended. In December I
returned to the Kennebec, and in the spring of 1836 went to Dead river
to drive, but an attack of the measles and general ill health, with
symptoms of pulmonary derangement, compelled me to abandon the work. I
had lived nine years on the Kennebec, years of hard labor and exertion
beyond my strength, and in that time had earned enough to pay my
father two hundred and fifty dollars. I had been able to purchase a
small library, and had two hundred dollars in cash to defray my
expenses to the West.

REMINISCENCES.--He that leaves the home of his youth for a strange
land carries with him memories, pleasant to recall, of scenes and
incidents, the influence of which he feels to the latest hour of life.
There are some things he can not forget. They may not be an essential
part of his own life history, but still they have found a place in his
mind and seem a part of himself, and he recurs to them again and again
with ever increasing delight. There are other things, may be, not so
pleasant to dwell upon, which still have a place in his memory and may
be profitably recalled. No one who has ever lived in Maine can forget
its dark pine forests, its rugged hills, its rushing streams, cold and
clear as crystal, its broad lakes, the abundant game of its forests
and the fish in its waters. The Minnesota and Wisconsin pioneers, who
with the author of this book claim Maine as an early home, will not
object to the insertion in this chapter of a few of these
reminiscences.

MOOSEHEAD LAKE.--My first visit to Moosehead lake was in the early
winter of 1834. At that time it was still in the wilderness, only two
settlers having found their way to its shores. We were going with a
six ox team to a camp on the Brasua and our road led us across the
frozen lake. Emerging from a beech and maple grove on the margin near
Haskell's, our sled plunged downward, and in a moment we found
ourselves on the gray ice of the lake, with a wonderful panorama
spread out before us. The distant islands and the shores, hilly and
mountainous, stood out plainly between the winter sky and the ice
covered lake. The mirage added its finishing touches to the picture,
increasing the brightness and apparent size of distant objects, or
lending them brilliant hues, the whole scene sparkling in the frosty
sunlit air, making a vision of beauty that could not fade. On we
trudged over the ice, the sled creaking, the ice emitting a roaring
sound, not unlike the discharge of a park of artillery, sounds
produced by the expansion of the ice. We trudged on past islands and
craggy, rock-bound shores, passed Burnt Jacket, Squaw and Moxey
mountains in the east, Lily and Spencer bays at the southeast, Misery
and other mountains in the west, while far away to the north of east
towered white old Katahdin. Before us loomed up the flint rock Kinneo,
its perpendicular face fronting west, on the lake; at the base a
beautiful maple interval extending toward Spencer bay.

The following spring our boom lay wind-bound at the base of Kinneo,
and we seized the opportunity of climbing the vast pile of flinty
rocks composing it, and obtained thence a view of unparalleled beauty,
including the broad, bright lake, fairy islands, mountains and hills
and vast stretches of pine forests. The tourist might seek far and
wide, vainly, for a landscape rivaling this.

MOOSE HUNTING.--The lake and surrounding country offer unrivaled
attractions to the sportsman. The lake abounds in fish, of which the
lake trout is the most abundant in number and delicious in flavor.
Specimens are frequently taken weighing from ten to fifteen pounds.
The forests at that time abounded in wild animals, chief of which was
the moose, the largest and the homeliest of the deer family. With his
long, narrow head, small eyes, donkey-like ears, pendant lips, the
upper one curling like a small proboscis, with his high shoulders and
giraffe-like hips, with his short, round body, long and clumsy legs,
he is as distinguished for his want of grace and comeliness as the red
deer is for its presence. No animal is better adapted for its own home
and mode of life. Their heavy coat of hair adapts them to high
latitudes. With their curved upper lip they take hold of the branches
of the trees, and with their strong teeth and paws they are able to
peel off the tender bark of saplings and small trees. The moose, when
attacked, is fierce, resolute, defiant, and defends himself in a
masterly manner, striking with his fore legs with such precision that
the hunter is obliged to keep at a respectful distance. The male moose
wears a remarkable pair of horns of annual growth, to which each year
a prong is added. The home of the moose is the northern part of the
North Temperate Zone.

Moose hunting is a healthy though laborious pastime. The hunter must
be an expert, and it requires years of practice to become skillful. He
must build his camp in the wilderness, packing thither his food,
blankets, camp utensils and gun. With his pack of dogs he starts out
in search of a moose yard. This is generally in some well timbered
district. The snow in winter is generally from three to six feet deep,
but the moose has broken paths through this to facilitate his
movements through the forest, and here he roams about in fancied
security, browsing on the young shrubs, but the hunter finds his
hiding place. In such case he conceals himself in the snow near one of
these paths and waits patiently till the moose passes, when he fires
upon him. If the moose is killed at once the hunter waits patiently in
his hiding place till another and another comes up to share a like
fate. If the moose is only wounded he starts off as rapidly through
the snow as his long legs will carry him, pursued by the hunter and
his dogs. The hunter has all the advantages of the position, being
mounted on snowshoes, thus being able to move with comparative
swiftness, while the moose plunges heavily through the snow, and at
last, weakened by loss of blood, he is overtaken and easily killed.

MOUNT BIGELOW.--This is a noble, grand, historical mountain, situated
on the south side of Dead river, in Franklin county. For years it had
been my strong desire to make the ascent, and in May, 1833, the desire
was gratified. With six others, I left camp, and by evening reached
Green's hotel, where we obtained lodgings for the evening. At early
dawn, having supplied ourselves with lunch, tin cup and hatchet, we
began the ascent on the northeast side. We soon passed the thrifty
timber and aided our ascent of the craggy sides of the mountain by
clinging to the shrubs that found roothold in the crevices of the
rocks. It may not be amiss to say that we rested, that we rested
frequently, for mountain climbing is no light work for those
unaccustomed to it. While toiling wearily upward we found ourselves
enveloped in mist, or a cloud, from which we soon emerged to find the
heavens above us clear and bright, while leaden clouds shut out the
landscape below. At twelve o'clock, noon, we were on the summit. By
this time the clouds had been dispersed. The air was clear and cold
and beneath us lay, as in a beautiful panorama, the lands and lakes of
Maine. There are two peaks, about half a mile apart, between which is
a valley and a small lake. From the highest of these peaks the view
was magnificent. In the far north we imagined we saw Canada. The vast,
northern expanse was all unoccupied save by a few farms at the foot of
the mountain, and by a few camps of lumbermen, hunters and trappers.
Looking to the northeast, we saw in the blue distance, glittering with
snow drifts, Mount Katahdin. A little north of the divide line to
Katahdin lay Moosehead lake, the largest, most beautiful lake in
Maine.

At this season of the year the snow had disappeared from the valleys
and hills, but the summits of the mountains were still white. In all
directions the scene was grand and inspiring. We could trace the
Kennebec river in its windings to the sea and fancied we could see in
the dim distance the blue Atlantic. To the southwest mountains seemed
piled on mountains, while here and there in intermediate vales bright
lakes reflected the blue of the upper deep. In this direction there
were farms, but they looked like mere dots on the face of the earth.
Lake Umbagog lay coiled in the shade of distant mountains in the
southwest. We fancied that we could see the ragged crest of the white
mountain still further beyond. The scene had also its historical
associations. Along the base of this mountain, on the northwestern
side, ere his name had been sullied by the foulest treason in our
country's history, Benedict Arnold bravely led the Colonial troops in
the campaign against Canada. With him, as an aid, was Col. Bigelow,
whose name is given to the mountain. The gallant little army halted on
the banks of Dead river at the base of the mountain, and made their
camp. While the army was resting at this camp Lieut. Col. Bigelow
ascended the mountain and planted his country's flag upon the highest
peak, doubtless the first white man who made the ascent, and the
mountain is his monument to-day. Around the site of the camp was
planted the colony of Flagstaff.

While we were gazing on the magnificent scene, musing upon its varied
beauties and recalling its historical associations, the sun set, and
reluctantly we set out on our return, a descent the more perilous
because it was growing dark. Extreme caution was necessary;
nevertheless we made good headway, as we found ourselves sometimes
sliding and even rolling down the path that we had ascended with so
much difficulty in the forenoon. It was long after nightfall that,
tired and hungry, we reached Wyman's hotel on the banks of Dead river.

LUMBERING IN MAINE.--The practical lumberman did not usually start his
teams for the pineries until snowfall and the freezing of the lakes
and rivers. The first thing was to select a place for operations. This
was done in the open season. When the winter had fairly set in the
lumberman, with his ox teams, generally six oxen to a sled, the sleds
laden with camp plunder, would start for the pineries. The slow ox
teams would consume many days making the journey. The crew of men
employed for the winter generally met the teams in camp. The snow
would be cleared away for the camp, and a fire built. The cook would
prepare a supper of fried pork, fritters or pancakes, tea, syrup and
New England apple sauce, the crew meanwhile cutting boughs, wood,
etc., and preparing for permanent camp. Supper over, the cattle were
tied to trees and fed. Water was secured for evening use only. A
glowing fire would be kept up, around which the crew would gather to
spend the evening in talking over the adventures of the day,
discussing plans for the morrow or singing camp songs. Thus the
evening would pass merrily and swiftly. At the hour for retiring
parties of two would spread their blankets on a couch of fir or cedar
boughs, and lie down to rest. Next morning the cook would rise at four
o'clock to prepare breakfast, which over, as soon as it was light
enough the crew would commence the work of the day. Every man goes to
his assigned duties, the _boss_ in charge having the general
oversight.

The life of a lumberman is one of exposure to the elements, yet it is
not necessarily unfriendly to the development of character. With a
well ordered camp and gentlemanly crew the winter may pass away
pleasantly, and the young man engaged in the comparatively hard toil
of the camp, may, with books and papers and cheerful converse with the
more thoughtful of his elders, improve the long evenings spent around
the camp fire. Many a Maine boy has received here the greater part of
his training for the duties of after life.

Sunday was usually occupied in reading, singing, and doing some of the
lighter work of camp, such as repairing sleds, shoeing oxen and making
axe helves or visiting neighboring camps. It was a day of rest only so
far as the heavier work of the camp was suspended. Sanctuary
privileges there were none. The work would often close in the sunny
days of March. The men would mostly depart for home. A few would
remain to drive the logs with the first water from the melting of the
snows late in April.

Driving logs in the rapid waters of Maine is hazardous work. Scarcely
a day passes without imminent risk to life and limb of the hardy and
venturesome men engaged in the work of breaking log landings and jams,
and running boats. Men are exposed to wet and cold from dawn till
dark. This work requires active and vigorous men, constitutionally
fitted and carefully trained to the work. They are usually sociable,
lively and wide awake, these qualities enabling them to endure, and
even to enjoy, the life of hardship which they lead, and to which they
become so accustomed that they are unwilling to leave it until worn
out by its inevitable hardship.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


W. H. C. Folsom                                           Frontispiece

James S. Anderson                                               opp 55

Martin Mower                                                        60

John McKusick                                                   opp 68

Edward White Durant                                                 74

William M. Blanding                                                114

Reuben F. Little                                                   121

Oliver Wendell Holmes Hospital                                     157

John Comstock                                                  opp 170

Hans B. Warner                                                 opp 207

Rev. Wm. T. Boutwell                                               273

Devil's Chair                                                      301

Frank N. Peterson                                                  320

Rev. E. E. Edwards                                                 348

Smith Ellison                                                      351

Isaac Staples                                                  opp 413

Jacob Bean                                                         416

Louis Hospes                                                       418

Fort Snelling                                                      498

William D. Washburn                                            opp 517

John S. Pillsbury                                              opp 528

St. Anthony Falls                                                  531

Birdseye View of St. Paul                                      opp 536

Henry H. Sibley                                                opp 553

Alex. Ramsey                                                   opp 555

Henry M. Rice                                                  opp 558

Edmund Rice                                                    opp 560

Wm. Rainey Marshall                                            opp 568

Wm. H. Fisher                                                      571

John B. Sanborn                                                opp 577

H. P. Hall                                                         589

Hon. G. W. Le Duc                                                  594

Lucius F. Hubbard                                              opp 597

Home of the Author                                                 614

State Seal                                                         658

Seal of Old Settlers Association                                   732



CONTENTS.


INTRODUCTION.

BIOGRAPHICAL.
  Genealogy of the American Folsoms                                VII

AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL.
  Parentage                                                         IX
  Time and Place of Birth                                           IX
  Earliest Recollections                                            IX
  Removal to Bloomfield, Maine                                       X
  First Essay at Logging                                             X
  Commencing Life                                                   XI
  Lost in the Snow                                                  XI
  Adventure on Moosehead Lake                                      XII
  On the Penobscot                                                 XII
  Reminiscences of Maine                                          XIII
  Moosehead Lake                                                  XIII
  Ascent of Kinneo Mountain                                        XIV
  Moose Hunting                                                    XIV
  Mount Bigelow                                                     XV
  Lumbering in Maine                                               XVI


CHAPTER I.

GOING WEST.                                                          1
  Lakes Huron and Michigan                                           3
  Chicago and Milwaukee                                              5
  On Foot to Galena                                                  6
  The Northwestern Territory                                         7
  Arrival at Dubuque                                                 7
  Reminiscences of Dubuque                                           8
  Arrival at Prairie du Chien                                        9
  Early History of Prairie du Chien                                  9
  Ancient Document                                                  10
  Forts Shelby--McKay--Crawford                                     11
  First Commissioners at Prairie du Chien                           11
  Organization of Crawford County                                   12
  Indian Troubles                                                   12
  Running the Gauntlet                                              13
  Fort Crawford Robbed                                              13
  Early Justice                                                     14
  A Southward Journey                                               15
  New Orleans, Vicksburg                                            15
  Return to Prairie du Chien                                        16
  Privations                                                        16
  A Perilous Journey                                                17
  Return to Maine--Mountains of New Hampshire                       17
  Marriage                                                          18
  Prairie du Chien in 1837                                          18
  American Residents                                                19

BIOGRAPHIES.
  James Duane Doty                                                  19
  James H. Lockwood                                                 20
  Indian Troubles                                                   21
  John S. Lockwood                                                  22
  Samuel Gilbert                                                    23
  Michael Brisbois                                                  23
  Pierre La Point                                                   24
  Joseph Rolette                                                    24
  Hercules Dousman                                                  24
  Rev. David Lowry                                                  25
  Chief Justice Charles Dunn                                        25
  Rev. Alfred Brunson                                               26
  Ira Brunson                                                       27
  John H. Folsom                                                    28
  Ezekiel Tainter                                                   28
  Judge Wyram Knowlton                                              29
  Robert Lester                                                     29
  Thomas Pendleton Burnett                                          30
  General Henry Dodge                                               30
  General George W. Jones                                           31
  S. G. and S. L. Tainter, John Thomas                              31


CHAPTER II.

STILLWATER AND ST. CROIX COUNTY.

From Prairie du Chien to Stillwater                                 32
Stillwater in 1845                                                  33
St. Croix County                                                    33
  First Settlement in 1838                                          34
  Dismemberment of St. Croix Valley from Crawford County            34
  Judge Irwin's Court in 1840                                       35
  Events in 1840, First Commissioners' Meeting                      35
  Election Precincts in 1841                                        36
Early History of Stillwater                                         37
  The First Saw Mill                                                37
  Copy of Agreement of Mill Company                                 38
  Agreement of Land Claims                                          40
  Bateau Voyage up the St. Croix                                    41
  Indian Drunks                                                     42
  Skiff Voyage to Prairie du Chien                                  42
  Mail Carrying                                                     43
  Claim and Mill at Arcola                                          43
Stillwater in 1846, Events                                          44
  Overland Trip to Prairie du Chien                                 44
  Return, Adventure                                                 45
  A Pioneer Cat                                                     45
Stillwater in 1847                                                  46
  Territorial Election                                              46
  Arrest of Nodin and Ne-she-ke-o-ge-ma                             46
  Visit to Sunrise, Connor's Camp                                   47
  Murder of Henry Rust                                              47
  Funeral, Indignation Meeting                                      48
  First District Court in Stillwater                                48
  Nodin and Ne-she-ke-o-ge-ma Acquitted                             49
  Steamer War Eagle and Raft                                        49
  Society Ball in Stillwater                                        49
  Stillwater in 1848                                                50


CHAPTER III.

BIOGRAPHIES.

  Joseph Renshaw Brown                                              52
  Paul Carli                                                        53
  Dr. Christopher Carli                                             53
  Lydia Ann Carli                                                   54
  Phineas Lawrence                                                  54
  Jacob Fisher                                                      55
  James S. Anderson                                                 55
  Emanuel D. Farmer                                                 56
  Col. John Greely                                                  56
  Mrs. Hannah Greely                                                57
  Elam Greely                                                       57
  Himan Greely                                                      57
  Aquilla Greely                                                    58
  Elias McKean                                                      58
  Calvin F. Leach                                                   58
  Socrates Nelson                                                   58
  Mrs. Socrates Nelson                                              59
  Edward Blake                                                      59
  Walter R Vail                                                     59
  John E Mower                                                      60
  Martin Mower                                                      61
  William Willim                                                    61
  Albert Harris                                                     61
  Cornelius Lyman                                                   62
  David B Loomis                                                    62
  William E Cove                                                    63
  John Smith                                                        63
  John Morgan                                                       63
  Anson Northrup                                                    63
  Robert Kennedy                                                    64
  Harvey Wilson                                                     65
  Andrew Jackson Short                                              65
  James D McComb                                                    65
  William Rutherford                                                66
  Albion Masterman                                                  66
  Joseph N Masterman                                                66
  Mahlon Black                                                      66
  Morton S Wilkinson                                                67
  William Stanchfield                                               67
  Thomas Ramsdell                                                   68
  Charles Macey                                                     68
  Jonathan E McKusick                                               68
  John McKusick                                                     68
  William McKusick                                                  69
  Noah McKusick                                                     69
  Royal McKusick                                                    69
  Ivory E McKusick                                                  69
  Charles E Leonard                                                 69
  Daniel McLean                                                     70
  Robert Simpson                                                    70
  William H Hooper                                                  70
  James H Spencer                                                   71
  John T Blackburn                                                  71
  Joseph T Blackburn                                                71
  Horace McKinstry                                                  71
  Seth M Sawyer                                                     71
  Henry Sawyer                                                      72
  Alvah D Heaton                                                    72
  John McKenzie                                                     72
  George McKenzie                                                   72
  Henry Kattenberg                                                  72
  Julius F Brunswick                                                73
  Henry McLean                                                      73
  Hugh Burns                                                        73
  Sylvanus Trask                                                    73
  Ariel Eldridge                                                    73
  Edward White Durant                                               74
  Oliver Parsons                                                    75
  Albert Stimson                                                    75
  Abraham Van Voorhees                                              75
  Michael E Owens                                                   76
  Joseph Bonin                                                      77
  Marcel Gagnon                                                     77
  Sebastian Marty                                                   77
  John Marty                                                        77
  Adam Marty                                                        77
  Michael McHale                                                    77
  George Watson                                                     78
  Rev Eleazer A Greenleaf                                           78
  J B Covey                                                         78
  John Shaesby                                                      78
  John S Proctor                                                    78
  Barron Proctor                                                    79
  Henry Westing                                                     79
  Thomas Dunn                                                       79
  Charles J Gardiner                                                79
  Samuel Staples                                                    79
  Josiah Staples                                                    80
  Joel M Darling                                                    80
Early River Pilots                                                  80
  Joe Perro                                                         80
  James McPhail                                                     80
  John Cormack                                                      81
  John Hanford                                                      81
  John Leach                                                        81
  Stephen B Hanks                                                   81
  Samuel S Hanks                                                    81


CHAPTER IV

POLK COUNTY

Description and History                                             82
  Franklin Steele, the First Pioneer                                82
    His Account of the Settlement                                   83
The St Croix Falls Lumbering Company                                83
  Organization and History                                          83
St Croix River, Origin of Name                                      84
    Treaty and Purchase of 1838                                     85
History of Polk County                                              85
  County Seat located at St. Croix Falls                            86
  First Election County Officers                                    86
  First Happenings                                                  87
  The Liquor Traffic                                                87
  Melancholy Results                                                88
  Death of Hall and Livingston                                      88
  Indian "Jamboree."                                                88
  Frontier Justice                                                  89
  Balsam Lake Murders                                               89
  Execution of an Indian                                            89
  Population of St. Croix Falls in 1848                             90
  Natural Language                                                  90
  Drowning of H. H. Perkins                                         90
  A Quailtown Murder                                                90
  Mineral Permits                                                   91
  Marriage under Difficulties                                       91
  An Indian Scare                                                   92
  The First Fire Canoe                                              92
  Mill Building                                                     92
  More Indian Murders                                               93
  Indian Battle of Stillwater                                       96
  The First Loggers                                                 96
  The First Rafting                                                 97
  An Indian Payment                                                 98
  Indian Dancing and Theft                                          99
  Other Thefts                                                      99
  Hard Times                                                       100
  Puzzled Indians, "Ugh! Ugh!"                                     101
  Mrs. Worth and Muckatice                                         101


CHAPTER V.

POLK COUNTY--CONTINUED.

BIOGRAPHIES.
  Gov. William Holcombe                                            103
  William S. Hungerford                                            104
  Caleb Cushing                                                    104
  Judge Henry D. Barron                                            105
  George W. Brownell                                               107
  Col. Robert C. Murphy                                            108
  Edward Worth                                                     109
  Mrs. Mary C. Worth                                               109
  Maurice M. Samuels                                               109
  Joseph B. Churchill                                              110
  John McLean                                                      110
  Gilman Jewell                                                    110
  Elisha Creech                                                    110
  James W. McGlothlin                                              110
  Andrew L. Tuttle                                                 110
  John Weymouth                                                    111
  B. W. Reynolds                                                   111
  Augustus Gaylord                                                 111
  James D. Reymert                                                 111
  William J. Vincent                                               112
  Thompson Brothers                                                112
  William Amery                                                    112
  Lewis Barlow                                                     113
  Levi W. Stratton                                                 113
  Elma M. Blanding                                                 113
  Blanding Family                                                  113
  Frederick G. Bartlett                                            114
  Michael Field                                                    115
Alden                                                              115
  Rev. A. B. Peabody                                               115
  V. M. Babcock                                                    117
Apple River                                                        117
Balsam Lake                                                        117
Beaver                                                             118
Black Brook                                                        118
Clam Falls                                                         119
  Daniel F. Smith                                                  119
Clayton                                                            120
  Reuben F. Little                                                 120
Clear Lake                                                         122
Pineville                                                          123
  Frank M. Nye                                                     123
Eureka                                                             123
  Charles Nevers                                                   123
Farmington                                                         124
  Harmon Crandall                                                  125
  Samuel Wall                                                      125
  William Ramsey                                                   125
  Hiram R. Nason                                                   126
  Joel F. Nason                                                    126
  John McAdams                                                     126
  Charles Tea                                                      126
Garfield                                                           126
Georgetown                                                         127
  A Double Murder                                                  127
  George P. Anderson                                               128
Laketown                                                           128
Lincoln                                                            128
  William Wilson                                                   129
Loraine                                                            129
  William W. Gallespie                                             130
Luck                                                               130
  William H. Foster                                                130
Milltown                                                           130
  Patrick Lillis                                                   131
Osceola                                                            131
  Scenery                                                          132
  First Happenings                                                 132
  Change of Name                                                   133
Osceola Village                                                    134
  Daniel Mears                                                     134
  Nelson McCarty                                                   134
  William O. Mahony                                                135
  Richard Arnold                                                   135
  William Kent, Sr.                                                135
  Robert Kent                                                      135
  Andrew Kent                                                      135
  William, James, Thomas, and John Kent                            136
  Samuel Close                                                     136
  Ebenezer Ayres                                                   136
  Dr. Carmi P. Garlick                                             137
  John S. Godfrey                                                  137
  William A. Talboys                                               137
  Charles H. Staples                                               138
  J. W. Peake                                                      138
  George Wilson                                                    138
  Samuel B. Dresser                                                138
  Frederic A. Dresser                                              139
  Oscar A. Clark                                                   139
  Oscar F. Knapp                                                   139
  Mrs. Elisabeth B. Hayes                                          140
  Cyrus G. Bradley                                                 140
  W. Hale                                                          141
  Edgar C. Treadwell                                               141
St. Croix Falls                                                    141
  St. Croix Falls Village                                          141
West Sweden                                                        142
Sterling                                                           142
  Dr. Samuel Deneen                                                143
  William W. Trimmer                                               143
  Arnold Densmore                                                  143


CHAPTER VI.

ST. CROIX COUNTY.

Organization, 1840                                                 144
Division, 1848                                                     144
County Seat Located at Buena Vista                                 145
First Election                                                     145
Division of the County, 1853                                       146
Present Limits                                                     146
General Description                                                146
Monument Rock                                                      147
Towns and Date of Organization                                     148
St. Croix County Agricultural Society                              148
Pomona Grange                                                      148
Agricultural Statistics                                            148
Manufactures                                                       149
St. Croix Poor Farm                                                149
First Tax Roll of County, 1848                                     149
Hudson City                                                        152
  Original Claimants                                               153
  First Survey, etc.                                               153
  First Deed Recorded                                              154
  City Government                                                  155
  Mayors of the City                                               155
  City Schools                                                     155
  Military Institute                                               156
  Mills and Manufactories                                          156
  Banks                                                            156
  Oliver Wendell Holmes Hospital                                   157
  Water Works                                                      158
  Hotels, the Great Fire, 1866                                     158
  Social and Benevolent Organizations                              159

BIOGRAPHIES.
  Louis Massey                                                     159
  Peter Bouchea                                                    160
  William Steets                                                   160
  Capt. John B. Page                                               160
  Dr. Philip Aldrich                                               160
  The Nobles Family                                                161
  James Purinton                                                   161
  Ammah Andrews                                                    162
  James Walstow                                                    162
  James Sanders                                                    162
  J. W. Stone                                                      162
  Joseph Bowron                                                    163
  Moses Perin                                                      163
  John O. Henning                                                  163
  Moses S. Gibson                                                  164
  Col. James Hughes                                                164
  Daniel Anderson                                                  165
  Alfred Day                                                       165
  Dr. Otis Hoyt                                                    165
  S. S. N. Fuller                                                  166
  Miles H. Van Meter                                               166
  Philip B. Jewell                                                 166
  John Tobin                                                       166
  Horace A. Taylor                                                 167
  Jeremiah Whaley                                                  167
  Simon Hunt                                                       167
  John S. Moffatt                                                  167
  James H. Childs                                                  168
  William Dwelley                                                  168
  James M. Fulton                                                  168
  Marcus A. Fulton                                                 168
  David C. Fulton                                                  168
  N. S. Holden                                                     168
  William H. Semmes                                                169
  Sterling Jones                                                   169
  D. R. Bailey                                                     169
  Henry C. Baker                                                   169
  Mert Herrick                                                     169
  D. A. Baldwin                                                    170
  John Comstock                                                    170
  Lucius P. Wetherby                                               170
  John C. Spooner                                                  170
  Thomas Porter                                                    171
  Herman L. Humphrey                                               171
  Theodore Cogswell                                                172
  Frank P. Catlin                                                  172
  Charles Y. Denniston                                             173
  A. E. Jefferson                                                  173
  Samuel C. Symonds                                                173
  John E. Glover                                                   173
  Lemuel North                                                     173
  Edgar Nye                                                        173
  William T. Price                                                 173
  E. B. Bundy                                                      174

TOWNS AND BIOGRAPHIES.
Baldwin                                                            174
  Baldwin Village                                                  174
  Woodville Village                                                175
Cady                                                               175
Cylon                                                              175
Eau Galle                                                          176
Emerald                                                            176
Erin Prairie                                                       176
Forest                                                             177
Glenwood                                                           177
Hammond                                                            177
  Hammond Village                                                  178
  John Thayer                                                      178
  Rev. William Egbert                                              178
Hudson                                                             178
  James Kelly                                                      178
  Daniel Coit                                                      179
  James Virtue                                                     179
  Theodore M. Bradley                                              179
  William Dailey                                                   179
  Robert and Wm. McDiarmid                                         179
  William Martin                                                   179
  Paschal Aldrich                                                  180
Kinnikinic                                                         180
  Duncan McGregor                                                  180
  W. B. and James A. Mapes                                         181
Pleasant Valley                                                    182
Richmond                                                           182
Boardman Village                                                   183
Gridley Village                                                    183
New Richmond Village                                               183
New Richmond City                                                  183
  Bank, High School                                                184
  Benjamin B.C. Foster                                             184
  Robert Philbrick                                                 185
  Linden Coombs                                                    185
  Eben Quinby                                                      185
  Lewis Oaks                                                       185
  Henry Russell                                                    185
  Joseph D. Johnson                                                185
  Joel Bartlett                                                    185
  Francis W. Bartlett                                              186
  George C. Hough                                                  186
  Silas Staples                                                    186
  Dr. Henry Murdock                                                187
  Steven N. Hawkins                                                187
Rush River                                                         188
Somerset                                                           188
Somerset Village                                                   189
  Gen. Samuel Harriman                                             189
St. Joseph                                                         190
Houlton Village                                                    191
Burkhardt Village                                                  191
Springfield                                                        191
Hersey Village                                                     191
Wilson Village                                                     192
Stanton                                                            192
Star Prairie                                                       192
Huntington Village                                                 192
Star Prairie Village                                               192
  Hon. R. K. Fay                                                   192
Troy                                                               193
  James Chinnock                                                   193
  William L. Perrin                                                193
Warren                                                             194
  James Hill                                                       194
Village Plats                                                      195


CHAPTER VII

PIERCE COUNTY.

Descriptive                                                        196
  History, First Events                                            197
  County Seat Changed to Ellsworth                                 198
  Railroads                                                        199
  Miscellaneous Statistics                                         199
  Village Plats                                                    199
  Organization of Towns                                            200
Clifton                                                            200
  George W. McMurphy                                               201
  Osborne Strahl                                                   201
  Charles B. Cox                                                   201
  Ephraim Harnsberger                                              201
Diamond Bluff                                                      202
  Capt. John Paine                                                 202
  John Day                                                         202
  Sarah A. Vance                                                   203
  Allen R. Wilson                                                  203
  E. S. Coulter                                                    203
  James Bamber                                                     203
  Jacob Mead                                                       203
  Charles Walbridge                                                203
  Charles F. Hoyt                                                  203
  Enoch Quinby                                                     203
  The First Settler                                                203
El Paso                                                            204
Ellsworth                                                          205
Ellsworth Village                                                  205
  Anthony Huddleston                                               206
  Perry D. Pierce                                                  206
  Hans B. Warner                                                   207
Gilman                                                             207
Hartland                                                           208
Isabelle                                                           208
Maiden Rock                                                        209
  Christopher L. Taylor                                            209
Martell                                                            209
Oak Grove                                                          210
  Lewis M. Harnsberger                                             210
Prescott City                                                      210
  History                                                          211
  Platted in 1857                                                  212
  First Official Board                                             212
  Statistics, First Events                                         212
  Churches                                                         212
  Fair Grounds                                                     213
  Cemetery                                                         213
  Destructive Fires                                                213
  Philander Prescott                                               214
  George Schaser                                                   214
  William S. Lockwood                                              215
  James Monroe Bailey                                              215
  Adolph Werkman                                                   215
  Joseph Manese                                                    215
  Hilton Doe                                                       215
  Lute A. Taylor                                                   215
  John Huitt                                                       216
  John M. Rice                                                     216
An Indian Battle                                                   216
River Falls                                                        217
  First Happenings                                                 217
  Water Powers                                                     217
  Schools at River Falls                                           218
  River Falls Academy                                              218
  Churches                                                         219
  Associations                                                     219
  Bank, Railroad                                                   220
  Fires                                                            220
River Falls City, Organization                                     220
  Falls of Kinnikinic                                              220
  The Cave Cabin                                                   221
  The Fourth State Normal School                                   221
  Joel Foster                                                      224
  Jesse B. Thayer                                                  224
  A. D. Andrews                                                    224
  Joseph A. Short                                                  225
  Prof. Allen H. Weld                                              225
  Allen P. Weld                                                    225
  George W. Nichols                                                225
  W. D. Parker                                                     226
  William Powell                                                   226
  Lyman Powell                                                     226
  Nathaniel N. Powell                                              226
  Oliver S. Powell                                                 226
  Nils P. Haugen                                                   227
  H. L. Wadsworth                                                  227
Rock Elm                                                           227
Salem                                                              227
Spring Lake                                                        228
Trenton                                                            228
Trimbelle                                                          229
  M. B. Williams                                                   229
Union                                                              229


CHAPTER VIII.

BURNETT, WASHBURN, SAWYER AND BARRON COUNTIES.

BURNETT COUNTY.
  Location and Description                                         230
  Organization                                                     231
  Pine Barrens                                                     231
  Murders                                                          232
  Old Geezhic                                                      233
  The First Mission                                                234
  The Chippewas of Wood Lake                                       236
  Grantsburg                                                       237
    Canute Anderson                                                237
    The Hickerson Family                                           238
    The Anderson Family                                            238
    Robert A. Doty                                                 238
  The Cranberry Marshes                                            239
WASHBURN COUNTY.
  Description, Town Organization                                   240
  First Events                                                     240
  Shell Lake, Summit Lake                                          241
  First Board of County Officers                                   241
  Shell Lake Lumber Company                                        241
  Sawyer Creek                                                     242
  Spooner Station                                                  242
  Veazie Village                                                   242
SAWYER COUNTY.
  Organization, Description                                        242
  County Indebtedness                                              243
  Town of Hayward                                                  243
    Village of Hayward                                             243
  First Events, Schools, Churches, etc.                            244
  Bank, Lumber Company                                             244
    Malcomb Dobie                                                  245
    Milton V. Stratton                                             245
BARRON COUNTY.
  Description, Organization                                        245
  Turtle Lake, Town and Village                                    245
  Barron, Perley Village                                           246
  Cumberland Village                                               246
  Sprague                                                          246
  Comstock and Barronett Villages                                  247
    Charles Simeon Taylor                                          247


CHAPTER IX.

ASHLAND, BAYFIELD AND DOUGLAS COUNTIES.

ASHLAND COUNTY.
  History, Location, Description                                   248
  Isles of the Apostles                                            248
  Claude Allouez at Madeline Island                                249
  Early History of La Pointe                                       249
  Remarkable Epitaph                                               249
  La Pointe County Election                                        249
    John W. Bell                                                   250
  Ashland                                                          250
    History, First Events                                          250
    Asaph Whittlesey                                               251
    J. P. T. Haskell                                               251
    G. S. Vaughn                                                   251
    Dr. Edwin Ellis                                                252
    Martin Beaser                                                  252
    Hon. Sam S. Fifield                                            252
BAYFIELD COUNTY.
  Location and History                                             253
    Bayfield Village                                               253
  Washburn, Drummond, etc.                                         254
DOUGLAS COUNTY.
  Description and History                                          254
  First Election                                                   254
  Superior City                                                    255
    History                                                        255
    Early Speculation                                              256
    Period of Depression                                           257
  West Superior                                                    258
    The Bardon Brothers                                            258
    William H. Newton                                              258
    Judge Solon H. Clough                                          258
    Vincent Roy                                                    259
    D. George Morrison                                             259
    August Zachau                                                  259


CHAPTER X.

PINE COUNTY.

  History                                                          260
  Description                                                      260
  First Events                                                     261
  Finances, Railroads                                              261
  Losses by Fire                                                   262
Pokegama Lake and Mission                                          262
  Thomas Conner's Trading Post                                     262
  Presbyterian Mission                                             263
  Mushk-de-winini                                                  263
  Battle of Pokegama                                               264
  Cannibalism                                                      265
  A Noble Chief                                                    267
  Frank Confessions                                                267
  A Cowardly Deed                                                  268
  An Unjust Accusation                                             268
  Indian Magnanimity                                               269
    Rev. Frederic Ayer                                             269
    Rev. William T. Boutwell                                       272
  Discovery of Itasca                                              274
    Mrs. Hester C. Boutwell                                        276
Chengwatana                                                        276
  First Settlers                                                   276
  Chengwatana Village Platted                                      277
  Chengwatana Town Organized                                       277
    Louis Ayd                                                      277
    Duane Porter                                                   277
    S. A. Hutchinson                                               277
  Hinckley, Town of                                                278
    Hinckley, Village of                                           278
    James Morrison                                                 278
  Sandstone Village and Quarries                                   279
    Wm. H. Grant, Sr.                                              279
  Kettle River, Town of                                            279
    John C. Hanley                                                 280
  Mission Creek                                                    280
  Pine City, Town of                                               280
    Pine City, Village of                                          281
    Richard G. Robinson                                            281
    Hiram Brackett                                                 281
    Randall K. Burrows                                             281
    John S. Ferson                                                 282
    Samuel Millet                                                  282
  Rock Creek                                                       282
    Enoch Horton                                                   282
  Royalton                                                         282
  Windermere                                                       283
    Neshodana, Fortuna, St. John's                                 283
    A Rock Creek Murder                                            283
    Burning of a Jail                                              283
    A Disfigured Family                                            284
    Indian Faith Cure                                              284
    Indian Graves                                                  284
    Indian Stoicism                                                285
    Old Batice                                                     285
    An Indian Dance                                                285


CHAPTER XI.

KANABEC, ISANTI, AND MILLE LACS COUNTIES.

KANABEC COUNTY.
  History, Boundaries, etc.                                        286
  Description                                                      286
  First Settlers, First Election                                   287
  First Events                                                     287
  Arthur                                                           288
    Mora, Village of                                               288
    Stephen L. Danforth                                            288
    N. H. Danforth                                                 288
    Alvah J. Conger                                                288
    Ira Conger                                                     288
    Bronson, Village of                                            288
  Brunswick, Town of                                               289
    Brunswick, Village of                                          289
  Ground House City                                                289
    James Pennington                                               289
    George L. Staples                                              289
    Daniel Gordon                                                  290
  Grass Lake, Town of                                              290
ISANTI COUNTY.
  Organization                                                     290
  Cambridge                                                        291
  North Branch, Town of                                            291
  Oxford, Town of                                                  291
    Stephen Hewson                                                 291
    George W. Nesbit                                               292
    Rensselaer Grant                                               292
MILLE LACS COUNTY.
  Description                                                      292
  Mille Lacs Reservation                                           293
  County Organization in 1860                                      293
  First Election and Officers                                      293
    Milacca, Village of                                            294
    Bridgman, Village of                                           294
    Princeton, Village of                                          294
    Samuel Ross                                                    296
    Joseph L. Cater                                                296
    M. V. B. Cater                                                 296
    Edwin Allen                                                    296
    John H. Allen                                                  296
    A. B. Damon                                                    296
    C. H. Chadbourne                                               296


CHAPTER XII.

CHISAGO COUNTY.

Location, Surface, Scenery                                         298
Chisago Lake                                                       298
Dalles of the St. Croix                                            299
Origin of the Formation                                            300
The Devil's Chair                                                  300
The Wells                                                          301
Settlement and Organization                                        302
Joe R. Brown to the Front                                          303
Prehistoric Remains                                                303
Robinet in Possession                                              303
Robinet Bought Off, First Improvements                             304
Death of B. F. Baker                                               304
The First Log House Built                                          305
First Crops Raised                                                 305
First Election                                                     305
Chisago County Named                                               306
First Commissioners                                                307
County Seat Located at Taylor's Falls                              307
Removed to Centre City                                             307
Amador                                                             307
First Supervisors                                                  308
  Thornton Bishop                                                  308
  William Holmes                                                   308
  James M. Martin                                                  309
Branch                                                             309
North Branch Station                                               309
  Henry L. Ingalls                                                 310
  Mrs. Lavina L. Ingalls                                           310
Chisago Lake, First Settlers                                       310
  First Crops                                                      311
  Swedish Lutheran Church                                          311
Centre City                                                        312
  Andrew Swenson                                                   312
  John S. Van Rensselaer                                           312
  Axel Dahliam                                                     313
  Nels Nord                                                        313
  Join A. Hallberg                                                 314
  Charles A. Bush                                                  313
  Lars Johan Stark                                                 313
  Frank Mobeck                                                     313
  Robert Currie                                                    314
  Andrew N. Holm                                                   313
Cemetery and other Associations                                    314
Incorporation                                                      314
Indian Dance                                                       314
Lindstrom Village                                                  314
  Daniel Lindstrom                                                 315
  Magnus S. Shaleen                                                315
Chisago City                                                       315
  Otto Wallmark                                                    316
  Andrew Wallmark                                                  316
Fish Lake                                                          316
  Peter Berg                                                       317
  Benjamin Franklin                                                317
Franconia                                                          317
  Franconia Village                                                318
  Ansel Smith                                                      318
  Henry F. and Leonard P. Day                                      318
  Henry Wills                                                      318
  The Clark Brothers                                               319
  David Smith                                                      319
  Jonas Lindall                                                    319
  William Peaslee                                                  319
  Charles Vitalis                                                  319
  August J. Anderson                                               320
  Frank N. Peterson                                                320
Harris                                                             321
  Harris Village                                                   321
Lent                                                               322
Nessell                                                            322
  Robert Nessell                                                   323
  Stephen B. Clark                                                 323
Rush Seba                                                          323
Rush City                                                          323
  Thomas Flynn                                                     324
  Patrick Flynn                                                    324
  Rufus Crocker                                                    324
  Frank H. Pratt                                                   324
  Voloro D. Eddy                                                   325
  F. S. Christianson                                               326
Shafer                                                             326
  Jacob Shafer                                                     326
  Peter Wickland                                                   327
  Tuver Walmarson                                                  327
  Andros Anderson                                                  327
  Eric Byland                                                      327
  Jacob Peterson                                                   327
  Ambrose C. Seavey                                                327
Sunrise                                                            328
  Sunrise Village                                                  328
  Kost Village                                                     329
Chippewa                                                           329
Dronthiem                                                          329
Nashua                                                             330
Washington                                                         330
  John A. Brown                                                    330
  Patten W. Davis                                                  330
  James F. Harvey                                                  330
  Floyd S. Bates                                                   330
  Isaac H. Warner                                                  331
  Charles F. Lowe                                                  331
  Wells Farr                                                       331
  John G. Mold                                                     331
  George L. Blood                                                  331
  Joel G. Ryder                                                    332
  John Dean                                                        332
Taylor's Falls                                                     332
First Post Office and Mail Service                                 332
Mills, First Events                                                333
Religious Organizations                                            333
Bridge Company                                                     334
Banks, Mining Companies                                            334


CHAPTER XIII.

BIOGRAPHICAL.

  Jesse Taylor                                                     336
  Joshua L. Taylor                                                 336
  Nathan C. D. Taylor                                              337
  Thomas F. Morton                                                 337
  Henry N. Setzer                                                  337
  Patrick Fox                                                      338
  William F. Colby                                                 339
  Oscar Roos                                                       339
  Samuel Thomson                                                   339
  Susan Thomson Mears                                              339
  George De Attly                                                  340
  Jacob Markley                                                    340
  John Dobney                                                      340
  William Dobney                                                   340
  Henry H. Newbury                                                 340
  Emil Munch                                                       340
  A. M. Wilmarth                                                   341
  Lucius K. Stannard                                               341
  James W. Mullen                                                  342
  David Caneday                                                    342
  George B. Folsom                                                 343
  Aaron M. Chase                                                   343
  Peter Abear                                                      343
  Levi W. Folsom                                                   344
  Eddington Knowles                                                344
  Dr. Lucius B. Smith                                              344
  William Comer                                                    344
  E. Whiting and Brothers                                          345
  Frederic Tang, Sr.                                               346
  Ward W. Folsom                                                   346
  George W. Seymour                                                346
  James A. Woolley                                                 346
  Patrick Carroll                                                  347
  Joseph Carroll                                                   347
  E. E. Edwards                                                    347
  Stephen J. Merrill                                               348
  Noah Marcus Humphrey                                             348
  Royal C. Gray                                                    349
  John P. Owens                                                    349
  Andrew Clendenning                                               350
  Smith Ellison                                                    350
Wyoming--Settlement and Organization                               350
  Wyoming Village                                                  352
Deer Garden                                                        352
  L. O. Tombler                                                    352
  Dr. John Woolman Comfort                                         353
  Isaac Markley                                                    353
  Joel Wright                                                      353
  Randall Wright                                                   353
  Frederic Tepel                                                   353
  Charles Henry Sauer                                              354


CHAPTER XIV.

WASHINGTON COUNTY.

Organization in 1849                                               355
First Board of Officers                                            355
Afton                                                              356
  Afton Village                                                    357
  South Afton                                                      357
  Valley Creek                                                     357
  St. Mary Village                                                 357
  Joseph Haskell                                                   358
  Lemuel Bolles                                                    358
  Taylor F. Randolph                                               358
  Elijah Bissell                                                   358
  Andrew Mackey                                                    358
Baytown Settlement                                                 359
  Baytown Village                                                  359
Bangor                                                             360
Middletown                                                         360
South Stillwater                                                   360
  Mills, etc.                                                      360
  Docks, Factories, Cemeteries                                     360
Cottage Grove                                                      361
  Cottage Grove Village                                            361
  Langdon                                                          362
  Joseph W. Furber                                                 362
  Samuel W. Furber                                                 362
  Theodore Furber                                                  363
  James S. Norris                                                  363
  Lewis Hill                                                       363
  Jacob Moshier                                                    363
  William Ferguson                                                 363
  John Atkinson                                                    363
Denmark                                                            364
Point Douglas                                                      364
  Levi Hertzell                                                    365
  Oscar Burris                                                     365
  David Hone                                                       365
  William B. Dibble                                                366
  George Harris                                                    366
  Harley D. White                                                  367
  Thomas Hetherington                                              367
  James Shearer                                                    367
  Simon Shingledecker                                              367
  Caleb Truax                                                      367
  Abraham Truax                                                    368
  George W. Campbell                                               368
Forest Lake, History of                                            368
  Captain Michael Marsh                                            369
  Forest Lake Village                                              369
Grant, History of                                                  369
  Dellwood                                                         370
  Eagle City                                                       370
  Mahtomedi                                                        370
  Wildwood                                                         370
  William Elliott                                                  371
  Frederick Lamb                                                   371
  James Rutherford                                                 371
  Jesse H. Soule                                                   371
Lakeland, Description and History of                               372
  Lakeland Village                                                 372
  Henry W. Crosby                                                  373
  Reuben H. Sanderson                                              373
  Newton McKusick                                                  373
  Captain John Oliver                                              373
  Captain Asa Barlow Green                                         374
  L. A. Huntoon                                                    374
Marine, Origin of Settlement                                       374
  First Settlers                                                   375
  The Mill Completed                                               375
  Marine Mills Village                                             376
  First Lawsuit                                                    376
  Churches, Improvements                                           377
  Losses by Fire                                                   378
  Vasa Village                                                     378
  Orange Walker                                                    378
  Lewis Walker                                                     379
  Samuel Burkelo                                                   379
  Asa S. Parker                                                    379
  Hiram Berkey                                                     380
  George B. Judd                                                   380
  James Hale                                                       380
  John Holt                                                        380
  George Holt                                                      381
  William Town                                                     381
  Matthias Welshance                                               381
  Benj. T. Otis                                                    382
  William Clark                                                    382
  James R. Meredith                                                382
  John D. and Thomas E. Ward                                       382
  Samuel Judd                                                      382
  Frederic W. Lammers                                              382
  James R. M. Gaskill                                              382
Newport, Town of                                                   383
  Isle Pelee                                                       383
  Red Rock                                                         383
  Mission at Red Rock                                              384
  Gray Cloud City                                                  385
  Newport Village                                                  385
  John Holton                                                      385
  John A. Ford                                                     385
  Daniel Hopkins, Sr.                                              385
  William R. Brown                                                 386
  William Fowler                                                   386
Oakdale, Town of                                                   386
  Lake Elmo Village                                                387
  E. C. Gray                                                       387
  Arthur Stephens                                                  388
Oneka, Town of                                                     388
  Oneka Station                                                    389
Shady Side Village                                                 389
  Daniel Hopkins, Jr.                                              389
Stillwater, Town of                                                389
  Oak Park                                                         390
  David P. Lyman                                                   390
  Henry A. Jackman                                                 390
  Frederic J. Curtis                                               391
  David Cover                                                      391
  John Parker                                                      391
Woodbury, Town of                                                  391
  Jacob Folstrom                                                   392
  Alexander McHattie                                               393
  John McHattie                                                    393
  The Middleton Family                                             393
  Newington Gilbert                                                394
  Ebenezer Ayers                                                   394


CHAPTER XV.

WASHINGTON COUNTY--CONTINUED.

CITY OF STILLWATER.
  Stillwater in 1850                                               396
    The Freshet of 1850                                            397
    A Real Estate Movement                                         397
    Incorporation of Stillwater                                    398
    List of Marshals                                               398
    Post Office, Mail Routes                                       398
    Statistics                                                     399
    Hotels                                                         399
    City Banks                                                     400
    Board of Trade, Water Company                                  402
    Fire Department                                                402
    Gas Light, Telegraph, Telephone                                403
    Elevator, Express Companies, Bridge                            403
    Lumbering Interests, Flour Mills                               404
    Manufactories                                                  404
    Building Association                                           405
    Churches, etc.                                                 406
    Public Buildings                                               408
    Societies, etc.                                                409
    Cemeteries                                                     410
    Agricultural Society                                           410
    State Prison                                                   410
    Fires, Bonds, Indebtedness                                     412
BIOGRAPHIES.
    Isaac Staples                                                  413
    Samuel F. Hersey & Sons                                        415
    Jacob Bean                                                     416
    Charles Bean                                                   416
    Rudolph Lehmicke                                               417
    Hollis R. Murdock                                              417
    George M. Seymour                                              417
    Frank A. Seymour                                               418
    Louis Hospes                                                   418
    David Tozer                                                    419
    David Bronson                                                  420
    John Maloy                                                     420
    Mrs. Susannah Tepass                                           420
    William E. Thorne                                              420
    Edmund J. Butts                                                420
    A. B. Easton                                                   421
    Edwin A. Folsom                                                421
    John B. H. Mitchell                                            421
    Joseph Schupp                                                  422
    Clifford A. Bennett                                            422
    Samuel Mathews                                                 422
    John and James Mathews                                         423
    Peter Jourdain                                                 423
    James Rooney                                                   423
    James N. Castle                                                423
    Abraham L. Gallespie                                           423
    John C. Gardiner                                               423
    V. C. Seward                                                   424
    Ralph Wheeler                                                  424
    Edward S. Brown                                                424
    William Lowell                                                 424
    Albert Lowell                                                  425
    Nelson H. Van Voorhes                                          425
    Andrew J. Van Voorhes                                          425
    Henry C. Van Voorhes                                           425
    C. A. Bromley                                                  426
    Charles J. Butler                                              426
    Levi E. Thompson                                               427
    George Davis                                                   427
    William M. McCluer                                             427
    John N. Ahl                                                    427
    Samuel M. Register                                             428
    J. A. Johnson                                                  428
    Gold T. Curtis                                                 429
    Harley D. Curtis                                               429
    Francis R. Delano                                              429
    Henry W. Cannon                                                430
    Dwight M. Sabin                                                430


CHAPTER XVI.

STEARNS, ANOKA AND SHERBURNE COUNTIES.

STEARNS COUNTY.
  Organization and History of                                      432
  St. Cloud                                                        434
    Newspapers and Post Office                                     435
    Village and City Organization                                  435
    Land Office, Expenditures                                      435
    The St. Cloud Dam, Improvements                                436
    Banks, Public Buildings                                        436
    St. John's University                                          437
  La Sauk, Town of                                                 438
    Peter Schaeler                                                 438
    John L. Wilson                                                 438
    Charles T. Stearns                                             438
    Henry G. Fillmore                                              438
    Nathaniel Getchell                                             438
    James Keough                                                   438
    Loren W. Collins                                               438
    Henry C. Waite                                                 439
    Gen. S. B. Lowry                                               439
    A. and Joseph Edelbrock                                        439
    John Rengel                                                    440
    Louis A. Evans                                                 440
    Ambrose Freeman                                                440
    Nathan F. Barnes                                               440
    Nehemiah P. Clark                                              441
    Oscar E. Garrison                                              441
    Charles A. Gilman                                              441
    Other Citizens                                                 442
ANOKA COUNTY.
  Organization                                                     442
  First Settlers, Commissioners                                    443
  Anoka, Town of                                                   443
  Anoka, City of                                                   443
    Incorporation                                                  444
    Fires, Public Buildings                                        445
    Manufactures, Banks                                            445
  Bethel, Town of                                                  446
  Blaine, Town of                                                  446
  Burns, Town of                                                   446
  Centreville, Town of                                             446
    Centreville Village                                            446
  Columbus, Town of                                                447
  Fridley, Town of                                                 447
    John Banfil                                                    448
  Grow, Town of                                                    448
  Ham Lake, Town of                                                448
  Linwood, Town of                                                 448
  L. S. Arnold                                                     449
  S. Ridge                                                         449
  J. G. Green                                                      449
  S. W. Haskell                                                    449
  M. M. Ryan                                                       449
  Hurley Family                                                    449
  Oak Grove, Town of                                               449
  Ramsey, Town of                                                  449
  St. Francis, Town of                                             450
    An Indian Riot                                                 450
    Jared Benson                                                   451
    James C. Frost                                                 451
    A. J. McKenney                                                 451
    John Henry Batzle                                              452
    John R. Bean                                                   452
    A. McC. Fridley                                                452
    William Staples                                                452
    Capt. James Starkey                                            453
SHERBURNE COUNTY.
  Description                                                      453
  Organization                                                     453
  Towns of Sherburne County                                        454
  Villages of Sherburne County                                     455
  Orono, Elk River                                                 455
  East St. Cloud                                                   456
  Clear Lake                                                       456
  Becker                                                           456
  Big Lake                                                         456
    J. Q. A. Nickerson                                             456
    Henry Bittner                                                  456
    Francis DeLille                                                457
    Mrs. F. DeLille                                                457
    Howard M. Atkins                                               457
    B. F. Hildreth                                                 458
    Samuel Hayden                                                  458
    Joseph Jerome                                                  458
    Joshua O. Cater                                                458
    J. F. Bean                                                     458
    J. H. Felch                                                    458
    James Brady                                                    458
    Joshua Briggs                                                  458
    Robert Orrock                                                  458
    John G. Jamieson                                               458
    A. B. Heath                                                    458
    Dr. B. R. Palmer                                               459
    Judge Moses Sherburne                                          459
    Charles F. George                                              459
    Royal George                                                   459
    W. L. Babcock                                                  459


CHAPTER XVII.

BENTON, MORRISON AND CROW WING COUNTIES.

BENTON COUNTY.
  Description                                                      460
  First Settlers, Organization                                     461
  Towns of Benton County                                           461
  Villages                                                         461
  Sauk Rapids, Incorporation                                       461
    Dam and Public Buildings                                       462
    The Cyclone of 1886                                            462
    Watab Village                                                  462
    Philip Beaupre                                                 462
    David Gilman                                                   463
    James Beatty                                                   463
    Ellis Kling                                                    463
    George W. Benedict                                             464
    J. Q. A. Wood                                                  464
    William H. Wood                                                464
    Mrs. Wm. H. Wood                                               465
    A. DeLacy Wood                                                 465
    P. H. Wood                                                     465
    Rev. Sherman Hall                                              465
    Jeremiah Russell                                               466
    Edgar O. Hamlin                                                467
MORRISON COUNTY.
  Description                                                      468
  History                                                          468
  Indian Feuds                                                     469
  Organization                                                     469
  Winnebago Indiana                                                470
  Towns of Morrison County                                         471
  Little Falls Village                                             471
    Little Falls Water Power                                       472
    Incorporation                                                  473
    Schools and Churches                                           473
  Royalton Village                                                 473
    Incorporation, First Officers                                  473
    Peter Roy                                                      473
    William Sturgis                                                474
    James Fergus                                                   474
    Nathan Richardson                                              475
    Moses La Fond                                                  475
    O. A. Churchill                                                475
    John M. Kidder                                                 476
    Warren Kobe                                                    476
    Ola K. Black                                                   476
    Ira W. Bouch                                                   476
    Robert Russell                                                 476
    Peter A. Green                                                 476
    Rodolphus D. Kinney                                            476
    John D. Logan                                                  476
CROW WING COUNTY.
  Description                                                      477
  First Settlers                                                   477
  Organization                                                     478
  Reorganization                                                   478
  Murderers Lynched                                                478
  Brainerd                                                         478
    First Settlers                                                 479
    Northern Pacific Sanitarium                                    480
    The Kindred Dam                                                480
    L. P. White                                                    480
    Allen Morrison                                                 480
    Charles F. Kindred                                             481


CHAPTER XVIII.

AITKIN, CARLTON, ST. LOUIS, LAKE AND COOK COUNTIES.

AITKIN COUNTY.
  Description                                                      482
  Organization, Officers                                           482
  Aitkin Village                                                   483
    William A. Aitkin                                              483
    Alfred Aitkin                                                  483
    Nathaniel Tibbett                                              484
CARLTON COUNTY.
  History and Organization                                         484
  Towns of Carlton County                                          485
  Thomson Village                                                  485
  Cloquet Village                                                  485
  Moose Lake Station                                               485
  Barnum Station                                                   486
  Mahtowa Station                                                  486
  North Pacific Junction                                           486
    Francis A. Watkins                                             486
ST. LOUIS COUNTY.
  Description                                                      486
  Picturesque Scenery                                              487
  Commissioners' Meetings                                          487
  List of Commissioners                                            488
  Duluth, Early History                                            488
  Growth, Population                                               489
  Mills, Warehouses, Shipments                                     489
  Duluth Harbor                                                    490
  Fish Commission                                                  490
  Fond du Lac Village                                              491
  Oneota Village                                                   492
  Clifton Village                                                  492
  Portland Village                                                 492
  Endion Village                                                   492
  Middleton Village                                                492
  Montezuma Village                                                492
  Buchanan Village                                                 492
  St. Louis Falls Village                                          492
  Fremont Island                                                   493
  Tower                                                            493
    George R. Stuntz                                               494
    George E. Stone                                                494
    Charles H. Graves                                              494
    Ozro P. Stearns                                                494
Lake County.
  Description                                                      495
  Two Harbors                                                      496
COOK COUNTY.
  History and Organization                                         496


CHAPTER XIX.

HENNEPIN COUNTY.

Organization and History, Towns                                    497
Fort Snelling                                                      497
Treaty of 1837                                                     499
First Land Claims, 1838                                            499
Cheever's Tower                                                    500
St. Anthony Village Platted                                        500
First Marriage in the Territory                                    500
First Courts, School, Post Office                                  501
Church Organizations                                               501
The Suspension Bridge Built                                        502
St. Anthony Incorporated 1855                                      502
  Annexation to Minneapolis, 1872                                  502
St. Anthony Falls                                                  502
  La Salle's Description                                           502
Minneapolis, Early Settlers                                        502
  Early Land Claims                                                504
  Business Enterprises                                             505
  Mills Erected                                                    505
  St. Anthony Water Power Company                                  506
Minneapolis Named, Land Office                                     506
  Incorporation as a City, 1867                                    506
  Annexation of St. Anthony                                        506
  List of Mayors                                                   507
  Water vs. Steam                                                  507
  Terrific Explosion at the Flour Mills                            508
  Suburban Resorts                                                 508
  List of Public Buildings                                         509
  Post Office Statistics                                           510
  Lumber Manufactured                                              511
  Bonded Debt, Taxes, Expenses                                     511
  West Minneapolis                                                 511
BIOGRAPHIES.
  Calvin A. Tuttle                                                 512
  Cyrus Aldrich                                                    512
  Dr. Alfred E. Ames                                               514
  Dr. Albert A. Ames                                               514
  Jesse Ames                                                       515
  Cadwallader C. Washburn                                          515
  William D. Washburn                                              517
  Joseph C. Whitney                                                517
  Charles Hoag                                                     518
  Franklin Steele                                                  518
  Roswell P. Russell                                               519
  Horatio P. Van Cleve                                             520
  Charlotte O. Van Cleve                                           520
  Ard Godfrey                                                      520
  Richard Chute                                                    521
  Lucius N. Parker                                                 521
  Captain John Rollins                                             521
  John G. Lennon                                                   521
  John H. Stevens                                                  522
  Caleb D. Dorr                                                    522
  Rev. Edward D. Neill                                             522
  John Wensignor                                                   523
  Robert H. Hasty                                                  524
  Stephen Pratt                                                    524
  Capt. John Tapper                                                524
  R. W. Cummings                                                   524
  Elias H. Conner                                                  524
  C. F. Stimson                                                    524
  William Dugas                                                    524
  David Gorham                                                     525
  Edwin Hedderly                                                   525
  Louis Neudeck                                                    525
  Andrew J. Foster                                                 525
  A. D. Foster                                                     525
  Charles E. Vanderburgh                                           525
  Dorillius Morrison                                               526
  H. G. O. Morrison                                                526
  F. R. E. Cornell                                                 526
  Gen. A. B. Nettleton                                             527
  Isaac Atwater                                                    527
  Rev. David Brooks                                                527
  Prof. Jabez Brooks                                               527
  John S. Pillsbury                                                528
  Henry T. Welles                                                  528
  David Blakely                                                    528
  William Lochren                                                  528
  Eugene M. Wilson                                                 528
  R. B. Langdon                                                    529
  William M. Bracket                                               529
  Thos. B. and Platt B. Walker                                     529
  Austin H. Young                                                  530
  Henry G. Hicks                                                   530
  John P. Rea                                                      530
  John Martin                                                      520
  John Dudley                                                      531


CHAPTER XX.

RAMSEY COUNTY.

Organization, First Officers                                       532
St. Paul in 1840, Known as Pig's Eye                               532
First Settlers                                                     532
Father Ravoux, 1841                                                533
Henry Jackson Established a Trading Post                           533
Accessions of 1843                                                 533
Accessions of 1844                                                 534
First Deed                                                         534
Accessions of 1845                                                 534
First School                                                       535
Second Deed, Phalen's Tract                                        535
Accessions of 1846                                                 535
Reminiscences                                                      536
Accessions in 1847                                                 536
St. Paul Platted                                                   537
Miss Bishop's School                                               537
First Steamboat Line                                               537
Accessions of 1848                                                 538
Progress in 1849                                                   539
St. Paul Made the Capital of the State                             539
The First Newspapers                                               539
Early Items and Advertisements                                     540
Pioneers of 1849                                                   540
Some Comparisons                                                   541
Statistics of Population, Schools, Buildings                       542
List of Mayors                                                     543
West St. Paul                                                      544
Towns of Ramsey County                                             544
  White Bear                                                       545
    First Settlers                                                 545
    Indian Battle Ground                                           546
    Town Organization                                              547
    White Bear Lake Village                                        548
    Hotels and Cottages                                            548
    Daniel Getty                                                   549
  South St. Paul                                                   549
  North St. Paul                                                   550
  Population of St Paul                                            550
  Post Office History                                              551


CHAPTER XXI.

BIOGRAPHICAL.

  Henry Hastings Sibley                                            553
  Alexander Ramsey                                                 556
  William H. Forbes                                                557
  Henry M. Rice                                                    558
  Edmund Rice                                                      560
  Louis Robert                                                     561
  Auguste L. Larpenteur                                            562
  William H. Nobles                                                562
  Simeon P. Folsom                                                 563
  Jacob W. Bass                                                    563
  Benjamin W. Brunson                                              564
  Abram S. and Chas. D. Elfelt                                     564
  D. A. J. Baker                                                   565
  Benjamin F. Hoyt                                                 565
  John Fletcher Williams                                           566
  Dr. John H. Murphy                                               566
  William H. Tinker                                                567
  George P. Jacobs                                                 567
  Lyman Dayton                                                     567
  Henry L. Moss                                                    567
  William Rainey Marshall                                          568
  David Cooper                                                     569
  Bushrod W. Lott                                                  570
  W. F. Davidson                                                   570
  Wm. H. Fisher                                                    571
  Charles H. Oakes                                                 572
  C. W. W. Borup                                                   572
  Capt. Russell Blakely                                            573
  Rensselaer R. Nelson                                             573
  George L. Becker                                                 574
  Aaron Goodrich                                                   575
  Nathan Myrick                                                    575
  John Melvin Gilman                                               576
  Charles E. Flandrau                                              576
  John B. Sanborn                                                  577
  John R. Irvine                                                   579
  Horace R. Bigelow                                                580
  Cushman K. Davis                                                 580
  S. J. R. McMillan                                                581
  Willis A. Gorman                                                 581
  John D. Ludden                                                   582
  Elias F. Drake                                                   582
  Norman W. Kittson                                                583
  Hascal R. Brill                                                  583
  Ward W. Folsom                                                   584
  Gordon E. Cole                                                   584
  James Smith, Jr.                                                 584
  William P. Murray                                                585
  Henry Hale                                                       585
  James Gilfillan                                                  585
  Charles Duncan Gilfillan                                         586
  Alexander Wilkin                                                 586
  Westcott Wilkin                                                  587
  S. C. Whitcher                                                   587
  T. M. Newson                                                     587
  Alvaren Allen                                                    588
  Harlan P. Hall                                                   589
  Stephen Miller                                                   589


CHAPTER XXII.

DAKOTA, GOODHUE, WABASHA AND WINONA COUNTIES.

DAKOTA COUNTY.
  Description                                                      591
  Hastings                                                         591
  Farmington                                                       591
    Ignatius Donnelly                                              591
    Francis M. Crosby                                              592
    G. W. Le Duc                                                   593
GOODHUE COUNTY.
  Red Wing, Barn Bluff                                             595
  Cannon Falls                                                     595
  Indian Burying Ground                                            596
    Hans Mattson                                                   596
    Lucius F. Hubbard                                              597
    William Colville                                               599
    Martin S. Chandler                                             599
    Charles McClure                                                600
    Horace B. Wilson                                               600
WABASHA COUNTY.
  Wabasha Village                                                  601
    Bailey and Sons                                                602
    Nathaniel S. Tefft                                             602
    James Wells                                                    602
WINONA COUNTY.
  Scenery                                                          602
  Winona City                                                      603
    Daniel S. Norton                                               603
    William Windom                                                 603
    Charles H. Berry                                               604
    Thomas Wilson                                                  604
    Thomas Simpson                                                 605
    Wm. H. Yale                                                    605


CHAPTER XXIII.

MISCELLANEOUS BIOGRAPHIES.

Pierre Bottineau                                                   606
Andrew G. Chatfield                                                606
Hazen Mooers                                                       607
John McDonough Berry                                               607
Mark H. Dunnell                                                    608
James H. Baker                                                     608
Horace B. Strait                                                   609
Judson Wade Bishop                                                 610
John L. McDonald                                                   610
Thomas H. Armstrong                                                611
Augustus Armstrong                                                 611
Moses K. Armstrong                                                 611
James B. Wakefield                                                 611
William Wallace Braden                                             611
Reuben Butters                                                     612
Michael Doran                                                      612
Andrew McCrea                                                      613
John W. Blake                                                      613
Knute Nelson                                                       613
William R. Denny                                                   613


APPENDIX.

MISCELLANEOUS INCIDENTS, INDIAN TREATIES, ETC.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY                           616
  Spanish Claims                                                   616
  French Claims                                                    617
  Louisiana in 1711                                                618
  Settlement of Marietta, Ohio                                     618
  Ohio Territory                                                   619
  Statistics                                                       619
BOUNDARY QUESTION                                                  625
  Wisconsin Constitutional Convention, 1846                        625
  Wisconsin Constitutional Convention, 1847                        626
  Some Resolutions                                                 627
  Under What Government?                                           628
  H. H. Sibley Elected Congressional Delegate                      628
  Queries                                                          629
  Minnesota Territory Created                                      629
  Land Office at Stillwater                                        629
INDIAN TREATIES                                                    629
  Treaty with the Sioux (Mendota) 1805                             629
  Treaty with the Chippewas (Mendota) 1837                         630
  Treaty with the Sioux (Washington) 1837                          630
  Treaty with the Winnebagoes (Washington) 1837                    631
  Treaty with the Chippewas (Fond du Lac) 1847                     631
  Treaty with the Pillager Band (Leech Lake) 1847                  632
  Treaty with the Sioux (Traverse des Sioux) 1851                  632
  Treaty with the Sioux (Mendota) 1851                             632
  Treaty with the Chippewas (La Pointe) 1854                       634
  Treaty with the Pillagers (Washington) 1855                      634
  Treaty with the Chippewas (Red Lake River) 1863                  634
GEN. PIKE AND THE INDIANS                                          635
  Treaty of 1805                                                   636
    Pike's Address to the Council                                  636
    Details of Treaty                                              636
    Pike Hospitably Entertained                                    637
UNITED STATES SURVEYS IN THE NORTHWEST                             637
  Establishment of Land Offices                                    638
  Establishment of the Present System of Surveys                   638
  The First Surveyor General's Office at Marietta, O               638
UNITED STATES LAND OFFICES IN THE NORTHWEST                        639
  List of Registers and Receivers, Wisconsin                       639
  First Entries                                                    640
  First Auction Sale of Land                                       641
  List of Registers and Receivers, Minnesota                       641
  List of Wisconsin Territorial and State Officers, Governors,
    Senators, andRepresentatives from St. Croix Valley             641
  Legislative Representation                                       642
  First and Second Constitutional Conventions                      643
  Governors of Wisconsin                                           643
  United States Senators                                           643
  United States Representatives                                    644
  District Judges                                                  644
  State Legislature                                                644
  List of Minnesota Territorial and State Officers                 647
  Census of the Territory in 1849                                  647
  First Territorial Legislature                                    648
  First Prohibition Law                                            649
  Constitutional Convention                                        649
  List of State Officers and Judicial                              649
  Senators and Representatives                                     650
  Minnesota State Legislatures                                     651
  Constitutional Convention of 1857                                654
  Division of Convention                                           654
  Union of Conventions on a Constitution                           656
  Have We a Constitution                                           656
  First, Minnesota State Legislature                               657
  Protests Against Legislation                                     657
  Five Million Bill Passed and Adopted                             657
  State Seal Adopted                                               658
  State Seal Design                                                659
  Adjourned Session of Legislature                                 660
  Protests Against Recognizing Gov. Medary                         660
  Reports on Protests                                              661
  Land Grants--Railroad Surveys and Construction                   665
  Northern Pacific Railroad                                        665
  Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railroad                  667
  St. Paul & Duluth Railroad                                       668
  Minnesota & Manitoba Railroad                                    669
  Stillwater, White Bear & St. Paul Railroad                       670
  St. Paul, Stillwater & Taylor's Falls Railroad                   671
  Wisconsin Central Railroad                                       671
  Taylor's Falls & Lake Superior Railroad                          672
  Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad                           672
  A Memorial for "Soo" Railroad                                    673
  Organization of Minneapolis, Sault Ste. Marie & Atlantic
    Railroad                                                       674
  Mileage of Railroads Centring in St. Paul and Minneapolis        675
  Chicago, Burlington & Northern Railroad                          675
  Congressional Appropriations                                     675
  Inland Navigation                                                676
  George R. Stuntz on Lake Superior and St. Croix Canal            680
  Waterways Convention, 1885                                       682
  E. W. Durant's Valuable Statistics                               683
  Resolution for St. Croix and Superior Canal                      685
  Early Steamboat Navigation                                       686
  Steamboat Accommodations                                         687
  First Mississippi Steamboat Officers                             689
  First Mississippi Steamboat Organizations                        689
  List of Steamboats                                               690
  Later Navigation on Northwest Rivers                             691
  Steamboating on the St. Croix                                    692
  Ice Boats                                                        693
  James W. Mullen's Reminiscences, 1846                            694
  St. Croix Boom Company                                           696
  Surveyors General of Logs                                        696
  Organization                                                     696
  Conflict over State Boundary                                     697
  Language of Logs                                                 698
  Logs Cut from 1837 to 1888                                       700
  Chartered Dams                                                   701
  Lumbering and Lumbermen in 1845                                  702
  Lumbering and Lumbermen in 1887                                  705
  St. Croix Dalles Log Jams                                        706
  Population of Northwest Territory in 1790                        709
  Population of Wisconsin Territory in 1836                        709
  Subsequent Census                                                709
  Population of Minnesota in 1849                                  709
  Minnesota State Capitol                                          710
  Burning of State House                                           711
  Selkirk Visitors                                                 712
  Cyclones                                                         713
  Isanti and Chisago Cyclone                                       713
  Cottage Grove and Lake Elmo Cyclone                              715
  Washington County and Wisconsin Cyclone                          717
  St. Cloud and Sauk Rapids Cyclone                                718
  Curious Lightning Freaks                                         721
  Asiatic Cholera on the Royal Arch                                721
  First Decree of Minnesota Citizenship                            722
  International Hotel, St. Paul, Burned                            723
  Grasshoppers                                                     723
  Ancient Mounds                                                   724
  Lake Itasca, Schoolcraft and Boutwell Form the Name Itasca.
    Description of Itasca                                          726
  Elk and Boutwell Lakes                                           727
  Capt. Glazier's False Claim                                      727
  Copper Mining on St. Croix                                       728
  Rev. Julius S. Webber; Reminiscences                             729
  Judge Hamlin--Amusing Incident                                   730
  Minnesota Old Settlers Association                               731
  St. Croix Valley Old Settlers Association                        740
  Newspaper History                                                741
  Gen. Scott, Maj. Anderson, and Jeff. Davis                       752
  Jeff. Davis' Marriage at Fort Crawford                           753
  Dred Scott at Fort Snelling                                      754
  Incidents in Dred Scott's History                                755
  Old Betz and Descendants                                         757
ADDENDA.
  Military History of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1865                  759
  Gov. Alex. Ramsey's Address to Loyal Legion                      759
  Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth Legislative Sessions
    of Wisconsin                                                   762



ERRATA.

[Transcriber's note: Errata corrected in the text.]


Chapter II, page 32, read Stillwater and St. Croix County, instead of
Counties.

Page 140, read Cyrus G. Bradley, instead of Cyrus Q.

Page 166, read Philip B. Jewell, instead of Philip P.

Page 422, read Clifford A. Bennett, instead of Clifton.

Page 432, read Stearns, Anoka and Sherburne Counties, instead of
Stearns, Anoka and Morrison Counties.

Page 420, read Edmund J. Butts, instead of Edward J. Butts.



CHAPTER I.


Going West.--In June, 1836, I again visited the Penobscot in quest of
employment, in which I was unsuccessful. At Stillwater, above Bangor,
I met my kind friend Simeon Goodrich, also out of employment. After
mature deliberation we concluded to go West. Returning to Bloomfield,
I collected the money held for me by Capt. Ruel Weston and was soon in
readiness for the journey. But a few days before the time agreed upon
for leaving, I received a letter from Simeon Goodrich, which contained
the unpleasant information that he could not collect the amount due
him and could not go with me. Truly this was a disappointment. I was
obliged to set out alone, no light undertaking at that early day, for
as yet there were no long lines of railroad between Maine and the
Mississippi river. The day at last arrived for me to start. My
companions and acquaintances chaffed me as to the perils of the
journey before me. My mother gave me her parting words, "William,
always respect yourself in order to be respected." These words,
accompanied with her farewell kiss, were long remembered, and, I doubt
not, often kept me from evil associations.

The stage took us directly to the steamboat at Gardiner. The steam was
up and the boat was soon under way. It was the New England, the first
boat of the kind I had ever seen. I felt strangely unfamiliar with the
ways of the traveling world, but observed what others did, and asked
no questions, and so fancied that my ignorance of traveling customs
would not be exposed. It was sunset as we floated out into the wide
expanse of the Atlantic. The western horizon was tinged with fiery
hues, the shores grew fainter and receded from view and the eye could
rest at last only upon the watery expanse. All things seemed new and
strange. Next morning a heavy fog hung over the scene. The vessel was
at anchor in Boston harbor and we were soon on shore and threading the
crooked streets of the capital of Massachusetts. I was not lost in the
wilderness maze of streets, as I had feared I should be, but on
leaving Boston on the evening train I took the wrong car and found
myself uncomfortably situated in a second or third class car, crowded
and reeking with vile odors, from which the conductor rescued me,
taking me to the pleasant and elegant car to which my first class
ticket entitled me. On arriving at Providence I followed the crowd to
the landing and embarked on the steamer President for New York, in
which city we remained a day, stopping at the City Hotel on Broadway.
I was greatly impressed with the beauty of part of the city, and the
desolate appearance of the Burnt District, concerning the burning of
which we had read in our winter camp. I was not a little puzzled with
the arrangement of the hotel tables and the printed bills of fare, but
closely watched the deportment of others and came through without any
serious or mortifying blunder. Next morning I left New York on the
steamer Robert L. Stevens for Albany, and on the evening of the same
day went to Schenectady by railroad. Some of the way cars were hauled
by horses up hills and inclined planes. There were then only three
short lines of railroad in the United States, and I had traveled on
two of them. At Schenectady I took passage on a canal boat to Buffalo.
I had read about "De Witt Clinton's Ditch," and now greatly enjoyed
the slow but safe passage it afforded, and the rich prospect of
cities, villages and cultivated fields through which we passed. At
Buffalo we remained but one day. We there exchanged eastern paper for
western, the former not being current in localities further west. At
Buffalo I caught my first glimpse of Lake Erie. I stood upon a
projecting pier and recalled, in imagination, the brave Commodore
Perry, gallantly defending his country's flag in one of the most
brilliant engagements of the war, the fame whereof had long been
familiar to the whole country and the thrilling incidents of which
were the theme of story and song even in the wilderness camps of
Maine.

The steamer Oliver Newberry bore me from Buffalo to Detroit. From
Detroit to Mt. Clemens, Michigan, I went by stage and stopped at the
last named place until October 14th, when, being satisfied that the
climate was unhealthy, fever and ague being very prevalent, I returned
to Detroit, and on the fifteenth of the same month took passage on the
brig Indiana, as steamers had quit running for the season. The brig
was aground two days and nights on the St. Clair flats. A south wind
gave us a splendid sail up the Detroit river into Lake Huron. We
landed for a short time at Fort Gratiot, at the outlet of the lake,
just as the sun was setting. The fort was built of stone, and
presented an impressive appearance. The gaily uniformed officers, the
blue-coated soldiers, moving with the precision of machines, the whole
scene--the fort, the waving flags, the movement of the troops seen in
the mellow sunset light--was impressive to one who had never looked
upon the like before. A favorable breeze springing up, we sped gaily
out into the blue Lake Huron. At Saginaw bay the pleasant part of the
voyage ended. The weather became rough. A strong gale blew from the
bay outward, and baffled all the captain's skill in making the proper
direction. Profane beyond degree was Capt. McKenzie, but his
free-flowing curses availed him nothing. The brig at one time was so
nearly capsized that her deck load had rolled to one side and held her
in an inclined position. The captain ordered most of the deck load,
which consisted chiefly of Chicago liquors, thrown overboard.
Unfortunately, several barrels were saved, two of which stood on deck,
with open heads. This liquor was free to all. The vessel, lightened of
a great part of her load, no longer careened, but stood steady against
the waves and before the wind. It is a pity that the same could not be
said of captain, crew and passengers, who henceforth did the
careening. They dipped the liquor up in pails and drank it out of
handled dippers. They got ingloriously drunk; they rolled unsteadily
across the deck; they quarreled, they fought, they behaved like
Bedlamites, and how near shipwreck was the goodly brig from that day's
drunken debauch on Chicago free liquor will never be known. The vessel
toiled, the men were incapacitated for work, but notwithstanding the
tempest of profanity and the high winds, the wrangling of crew and
captain, we at last passed Saginaw bay. The winds were more favorable.
Thence to Mackinaw the sky was clear and bright, the air cold. The
night before reaching Mackinaw an unusual disturbance occurred above
resulting from the abundance of free liquor. The cook, being drunk,
had not provided the usual midnight supper for the sailors. The key of
the caboose was lost; the caboose was broken open, and the mate in the
morning was emulating the captain in the use of profane words. The
negro cook answered in the same style, being as drunk as his superior.
This cook was a stout, well built man, with a forbidding countenance
and, at his best, when sober, was a saucy, ill-natured and impertinent
fellow. When threat after threat had been hurled back and forth, the
negro jumped at the mate and knocked him down. The sailors, as by a
common impetus, seized the negro, bound him tightly and lashed him to
a capstan. On searching him they found two loaded pistols. These the
mate placed close to each ear of the bound man, and fired them off.
They next whipped him on the naked back with a rope. His trunk was
then examined and several parcels of poison were found. Another
whipping was administered, and this time the shrieks and groans of the
victim were piteous. Before he had not even winced. The monster had
prepared himself to deal death alike to crew and passengers, and we
all felt a great sense of relief when Capt. McKenzie delivered him to
the authorities at Mackinaw.

Antique Mackinaw was a French and half-breed town. The houses were
built of logs and had steep roofs. Trading posts and whisky shops were
well barred. The government fort, neatly built and trim, towered up
above the lake on a rocky cliff and overlooked the town, the whole
forming a picturesque scene. We remained but a few hours at Mackinaw.
There were ten cabin passengers, and these, with two exceptions, had
imbibed freely of the Chicago free liquor. They were also continually
gambling. Capt. McKenzie had fought a fist fight with a deadhead
passenger, Capt. Fox, bruising him badly. What with his violence and
profanity, the brutality of the mate and the drunken reveling of crew
and passengers, the two sober passengers had but a sorry time, but the
safe old brig, badly officered, badly managed, held steadily on its
course, and October 30th, fifteen days from Detroit, safely landed us
in Chicago.

After being so long on the deck of a tossing vessel, I experienced a
strange sensation when first on shore. I had become accustomed to the
motion of the vessel, and had managed to hold myself steady. On shore
the pitching and tossing movement seemed to continue, only it seemed
transferred to my head, which grew dizzy, and so produced the
illusion that I was still trying to balance myself on the unsteady
deck of the ship.

Chicago, since become a great city, had at that time the appearance of
an active, growing village. Thence I proceeded, November 1st and 2d,
by stage to Milwaukee, which appeared also as a village, but somewhat
overgrown. Idle men were numerous, hundreds not being able to obtain
employment. Here I remained a couple of weeks, stopping at the
Belleview House. After which I chopped wood a few days for Daniel
Wells. Not finding suitable employment, I started west with a Mr.
Rogers, December 2d. There being no other means of conveyance, we
traveled on foot. On the evening of the second we stopped at Prairie
Village, now known as Waukesha. On the evening of the third we stopped
at Meacham's Prairie, and on the fifth reached Rock River, where I
stopped with a Mr. St. John. The evening following we stopped at an
Irish house, where the surroundings did not conduce to comfort or to a
feeling of security. Several drunken men kept up a continuous row. We
hid our money in a haystack, and took our turn sleeping and keeping
watch. We ate an early breakfast, and were glad to get away before the
men who had created such a disturbance during the night were up. We
moved onward on the seventh to Blue Mound, where we found a cheerful
resting place at Brigham's. The eighth brought us to Dodgeville, where
we stopped at Morrison's. On the ninth we reached Mineral Point, the
locality of the lead mines, where I afterward lost much time in
prospecting. Mineral Point was then a rude mining town. The night of
our arrival was one of excitement and hilarity in the place. The first
legislature of the territory of Wisconsin had been in session at
Belmont, near Mineral Point, had organized the new government and
closed its session on that day. To celebrate this event and their
emancipation from the government of Michigan and the location of the
capital at Madison, the people from the Point, and all the region
round about, had met and prepared a banquet for the retiring members
of the legislature. Madison was at that time a paper town, in the
wilderness, but beautifully located on Cat Fish lake, and at the head
of Rock river. The location had been accomplished by legislative tact,
and a compromise between the extremes. In view of the almost certain
division of the Territory, with the Mississippi river as a boundary,
at no very distant day, it was agreed that Madison should be the
permanent capital, while Burlington, now in Iowa, should be used
temporarily. Milwaukee and Green Bay had both aspired to the honor of
being chosen as the seat of government. Mineral Point, with her rich
mines, had also aspirations, as had Cassville, which latter named
village had even built a great hotel for the accommodation of the
members of the assembly. Dubuque put in a claim, but all in vain.
Madison was chosen, and wisely, and she has ever since succeeded in
maintaining the supremacy then thrust upon her.

In my boyhood, at school, I had read of the great Northwest Territory.
It seemed to me then far away, at the world's end, but I had
positively told my comrades that I should one day go there. I found
myself at last on the soil, and at a period or crisis important in its
history. The great Northwest Territory, ceded by Virginia to the
United States in 1787, was no more. The immense territory had been
carved and sliced into states and territories, and now the last
remaining fragment, under the name of Wisconsin, had assumed
territorial prerogatives, organized its government, and, with direct
reference to a future division of territory, had selected its future
capital, for as yet, except in name, Madison was not. In assuming
territorial powers, the boundaries had been enlarged so as to include
part of New Louisiana, and the first legislature had virtually
bartered away this part of her domain, of which Burlington, temporary
capital of Wisconsin, was to be the future capital.

Two more days of foot plodding brought us to Galena, the city of lead.
The greeting on our entering the city was the ringing of bells, the
clattering of tin pans, the tooting of ox horns, sounds earthly and
unearthly,--sounds no man can describe. What could it be? Was it for
the benefit of two humble, footsore pedestrians that all this uproar
was produced? We gave it up for the time, but learned subsequently
that it was what is known as a charivari, an unmusical and disorderly
serenade, generally gotten up for the benefit of some newly married
couple, whose nuptials had not met with popular approval.

At Galena I parted with Mr. Rogers, my traveling companion, who went
south. On the fifteenth of December I traveled to Dubuque on foot.
When I came to the Mississippi river I sat down on its banks and
recalled the humorous description of old Mr. Carson, my neighbor, to
which I had listened wonderingly when a small boy. "It was," he said,
"a river so wide you could scarcely see across it. The turtles in it
were big as barn doors, and their shells would make good ferryboats if
they could only be kept above water." Sure enough, here was the big
river, but covered with ice, scarcely safe to venture on. Several
persons desiring to cross, we made a portable bridge of boards,
sliding them along with us till we were safe on the opposite bank. I
was now at the end of my journey, on the west bank of the Mississippi,
beyond which stretched a vast and but little known region, inhabited
by Indians and wild beasts.

As I review the incidents of my journey in 1836, I can not but
contrast the conditions of that era and the present. How great the
change in half a century! The journey then required thirty days. It
now requires but three. I had passed over but two short lines of
railroad, and had made the journey by canal boat, by steamer, by
stage, and a large portion of it on foot. There were few regularly
established lines of travel. From Michigan to the Mississippi there
were no stages nor were there any regular southern routes. Travelers
to the centre of the continent, in those days, came either by the
water route, via New Orleans or the Fox and Wisconsin river route, or
followed Indian trails or blazed lines from one settlement to another.
The homes of the settlers were rude--were built principally of logs.
In forest regions the farms consisted of clearings or square patches
of open ground, well dotted with stumps and surrounded by a dense
growth of timber. The prairies, except around the margins or along
certain belts of timber following the course of streams, were without
inhabitants. Hotels were few and far between, and, when found, not
much superior to the cabins of the settlers; but the traveler was
always and at all places hospitably entertained.


DUBUQUE.

Dubuque was a town of about three hundred inhabitants, attracted
thither by the lead mines. The people were principally of the mining
class. The prevailing elements amongst them were Catholic and Orange
Irish. These two parties were antagonistic and would quarrel on the
streets or wherever brought in contact. Sundays were especially days
of strife, and Main street was generally the field of combat. Women
even participated. There was no law, there were no police to enforce
order. The fight went on, the participants pulling hair, gouging,
biting, pummeling with fists or pounding with sticks, till one or the
other party was victorious. These combats were also accompanied with
volleys of profanity, and unlimited supplies of bad whisky served as
fuel to the flame of discord. Dubuque was certainly the worst town in
the West, and, in a small way, the worst in the whole country. The
entire country west of the Mississippi was without law, the government
of Wisconsin Territory not yet being extended to it. Justice, such as
it was, was administered by Judge Lynch and the mob.

My first employment was working a hand furnace for smelting lead ore
for a man named Kelly, a miner and a miser. He lived alone in a
miserable hovel, and on the scantiest fare. In January I contracted to
deliver fifty cords of wood at Price's brickyard. I cut the wood from
the island in front of the present city of Dubuque, and hired a team
to deliver it.

While in Dubuque I received my first letter from home in seven months.
What a relief it was, after a period of long suspense, spent in
tediously traveling over an almost wilderness country,--amidst
unpleasant surroundings, amongst strangers, many of them of the baser
sort, drinking, card playing, gambling and quarreling,--what a relief
it was to receive a letter from home with assurances of affectionate
regard from those I most esteemed.

Truly the lines had not fallen to me in pleasant places, and I was
sometimes exposed to perils from the lawless characters by whom I was
surrounded. On one occasion a dissolute and desperate miner, named
Gilbert, came to Cannon's hotel, which was my boarding house while in
Dubuque. He usually came over from the east side of the river once a
week for a spree. On this occasion, being very drunk, he was more than
usually offensive and commenced abusing Cannon, the landlord, applying
to him some contemptuous epithet. I thoughtlessly remarked to Cannon,
"You have a new name," upon which Gilbert cocked his pistol and aiming
at me was about to fire when Cannon, quick as thought, struck at his
arm and so destroyed his aim that the bullet went over my head. The
report of the pistol brought others to the room and a general melee
ensued in which the bar was demolished, the stove broken and Gilbert
unmercifully whipped. Gilbert was afterward shot in a drunken brawl.

I formed some genial acquaintances in Dubuque, amongst them Gen.
Booth, Messrs. Brownell, Wilson and others, since well known in the
history of the country. Price, the wood contractor, never paid me for
my work. I invested what money I had left for lots in Madison, all of
which I lost, and had, in addition, to pay a note I had given on the
lots.

On February 11th I went to Cassville, journeying thither on the ice.
This village had flourished greatly, in the expectation of becoming
the territorial and state capital, expectations doomed, as we have
seen, to disappointment. It is romantically situated amidst
picturesque bluffs, some of which tower aloft like the walls and
turrets of an ancient castle, a characteristic that attaches to much
of the bluff scenery along this point.


PRAIRIE DU CHIEN.

I reached this old French town on the twelfth of February. The town
and settlement adjacent extended over a prairie nine miles long, and
from one to two miles broad, a beautiful plateau of land, somewhat
sandy, but for many years abundantly productive, furnishing supplies
to traders and to the military post established there. It also
furnished two cargoes of grain to be used as seed by the starving
settlement at Selkirk, which were conveyed thither by way of the
Mississippi, St. Peter and Red rivers. The earliest authentic mention
of the place refers to the establishment of a post called St.
Nicholas, on the east bank of the Mississippi, at the mouth of the
Wisconsin, by Gov. De La Barre, who, in 1683, sent Nicholas Perrot
with a garrison of twenty men to hold the post. The first official
document laying claim to the country on the Upper Mississippi, issued
in 1689, has mention of the fort. This document we transcribe entire:

"Nicholas Perrot, commanding for the king, at the post of the
Nadouessioux, commissioned by the Marquis Denonville, governor and
lieutenant governor of all New France, to manage the interests of
commerce amongst the Indian tribes and people of the Bay des Puants
(Green Bay), Nadouessioux (Dakotahs), Maseontins, and other western
nations of the Upper Mississippi, and to take possession in the king's
name of all the places where he has heretofore been, and whither he
will go.

"We, this day, the eighth of May, one thousand six hundred and
eighty-nine, do, in the presence of the Reverend Father Marest, of the
Society of Jesus, missionary among the Nadouessioux; of Monsieur de
Borieguillot (or Boisguillot), commanding the French in the
neighborhood of the Ouiskonche (Wisconsin), on the Mississippi;
Augustin Le Gardeur, Esq., Sieur de Caurnont, and of Messeurs Le
Sueur, Hibert, Lemire and Blein:

"Declare to all whom it may concern, that, being come from the Bay des
Puants, and to the lake of the Ouiskonches, and to river Mississippi,
we did transport ourselves to the country of the Nadouessioux, on the
border of the river St. Croix, and at the mouth of the river St.
Pierre (Minnesota), on the bank of which were the Mantantans; and
further up to the interior to the northeast of the Mississippi, as far
as the Menchokatoux, with whom dwell the majority of the Songeskitens,
and other Nadouessioux, who are to the northeast of the Mississippi,
to take possession for, and in the name of, the king of the countries
and rivers inhabited by the said tribes, and of which they are
proprietors. The present act done in our presence, signed with our
hand and subscribed."

Then follow the names of the persons mentioned. The document was drawn
up at Green Bay.

There is little doubt that this post was held continuously by the
French as a military post until 1696, when the French authorities at
Quebec withdrew all their troops from Wisconsin, and as a trader's
post or settlement, until the surrender in 1763 to the British of all
French claims east of the Mississippi. It was probably garrisoned near
the close of the latter period. It remained in the possession of the
French some time, as the English, thinking it impossible to compete
for the commerce of the Indian tribes with the French traders who had
intermarried with them, and so acquired great influence, did not take
actual possession until many years later.

The post is occasionally mentioned by the early voyageurs, and the
prairie which it commanded was known as the "Prairie du Chien," or
praire of the dog, as early as 1763, and is so mentioned by Carver. It
was not formally taken possession of by the United States until 1814,
when Gov. Clarke with two hundred men came up from St. Louis to
Prairie du Chien, then under English rule, to build a fort and
protect American interests at the village. At that time there were
about fifty families, descended chiefly from the old French settlers.
These were engaged chiefly in farming, owning a common field four
miles long by a half mile wide. They had outside of this three
separate farms and twelve horse mills to manufacture their produce.
The fort, held by a few British troops under Capt. Deace, surrendered
without resistance, but soon after the British traders at Mackinaw
sent an expedition under Joe Rolette, Sr., to recapture the post,
which they did after a siege of three days, the defenders being
allowed to withdraw with their private property on parole. They were
followed by the Indians as far as Rock Island. Meanwhile, Lieut.
Campbell, with reinforcements on his way from St. Louis, was attacked,
part were captured and the remainder of his troops driven back to St.
Louis. Late in 1814 Maj. Zachary Taylor proceeded with gunboats to
chastize the Indians for their attack on Campbell, but was himself met
and driven back. The following year, on the declaration of peace
between Great Britain and America, the post at Prairie du Chien was
evacuated. The garrison fired the fort as they withdrew from it.

The fort erected by the Americans under Gen. Clarke in 1814 was called
Fort Shelby. The British, on capturing it, changed the name to Fort
McKay. The Americans, on assuming possession and rebuilding it, named
it Fort Crawford. It stood on the bank of the river at the north end
of St. Friole, the old French village occupied in 1876 by the
Dousmans. In 1833 the new Fort Crawford was built on an elevated site
about midway in the prairie. It was a strong military post and was
commanded at this time by Gen. Zachary Taylor. Many officers, who
subsequently won distinction in the Florida Indian, Mexican, and late
Civil War, were stationed here from time to time. Within a time
included in my own recollections of the post, Jefferson Davis spirited
away the daughter of his commanding officer, Gen. Taylor, and married
her, the "rough and ready" general being averse to the match.

Prairie du Chien derived its name from a French family known as du
Chien, in English "The Dog." By this name the Prairie was known long
prior to the establishment of the French stockade and post. By that
name it has been known and recognized ever since. It has been
successively under the French, English and United States governments,
and lying originally in the great Northwestern Territory, in the
subsequent divisions of that immense domain, it has been included
within the bounds of the territories of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Michigan, and Wisconsin. Gov. Wm. H. Harrison, of Indiana Territory,
recognized Prairie du Chien by issuing commissions to Henry M. Fisher
and ---- Campbell as justices of the peace, the first civil
commissions issued for the American government in the entire district
of country including West Wisconsin and Minnesota east of the
Mississippi. Prior to this time, about 1819, the inhabitants had been
chiefly under military rule. In 1819 the county of Crawford was
organized as a part of Michigan Territory, and blank commissions were
issued to Nicholas Boilvin, Esq., with authority to appoint and
install the officers of the new county government. Gov. Lewis Cass
established by proclamation the county seat at Prairie du Chien, and
John W. Johnson was installed as chief justice of the county court.
The entire corps of officers were qualified. In January, 1823,
Congress passed an act providing for circuit courts in the counties
west and north of Lake Michigan, and James Duane Doty was appointed
judge for the district composed of Brown, Mackinaw and Crawford
counties, and a May term was held in Prairie du Chien the same year.

INDIAN TROUBLES.--There were some Indian troubles, an account of which
is given in the biographical sketch of J. H. Lockwood. There were
other incidents which may be worthy of separate mention. In 1827 an
entire family, named Methode, were murdered, as is supposed, by the
Indians, though the murderers were never identified. The great
incentive to violence and rapine with the Indians was whisky. An
intelligent Winnebago, aged about sixty years, told me that
"paganini," "firewater" (whisky), was killing the great majority of
his people, and making fools and cripples of those that were left;
that before the pale faces came to the big river his people were good
hunters and had plenty to eat; that now they were drunken, lazy and
hungry; that they once wore elk or deer skins, that now they were clad
in blankets or went naked. This Indian I had never seen drunk. The
American Fur Company had huts or open houses where the Indians might
drink and revel.

At an Indian payment a young, smart looking Indian got drunk and in a
quarrel killed his antagonist. The friends of the murdered Indian held
a council and determined that the murderer should have an opportunity
of running for his life. The friends of the murdered Indian formed in
a line, at the head of which was stationed the brother of the dead
man, who was to lead in the pursuit. At a signal the bands of the
prisoner were cut, and with a demoniacal yell he bounded forward, the
entire line in swift and furious pursuit. Should he outrun his
pursuers, he would be free; should they overtake and capture him, they
were to determine the mode of his death. He ran nearly a mile when he
tripped and fell. The brother of the dead Indian, heading the pursuit,
pounced upon him and instantly killed him with a knife.

Considering the fact that the Indians were gathered together under the
guns of a United States fort, and under the protection of a law
expressly forbidding the sale of intoxicating liquors to them, the
people of the United States were certainly justified in expecting
better results, not only in regard to the protection of the frontier
settlers but for that of the Indians themselves. All came to naught
because of the non-enforcement of law. Liquors were shamelessly sold
to the Indians and they were encouraged to drunken revelry and orgies
by the very men who should have protected and restrained them.

The prosperity of Prairie du Chien depended upon the Indian trade, and
upon government contracts which the presence of a military force
rendered necessary. The Indians gathered here in great numbers.

Here the Winnebagoes, part of the Menomonies and some Chippewas
received their annuities, and here centred also an immense trade from
the American Fur Company, the depot being a large stone building on
the banks of the Mississippi, under the charge of Hercules Dousman.


FORT CRAWFORD ROBBED.

Two discharged soldiers (Thompson and Evans) living at Patch Grove,
thirteen miles away, visited the fort often. On a morning after one of
their visits a soldier on guard noticed a heap of fresh earth near the
magazine. An alarm was given, an examination made, and it was found
that the magazine had been burst open with bars and sledge hammers,
entrance having been obtained by digging under the corner picket.
Three kegs of silver, each containing $5,000, were missing. The kegs
had been passed through the excavation underneath the picket. One keg
had burst open near the picket, and the silver was found buried in the
sand. The second keg burst on the bank of the Mississippi, and all the
money was found buried there except about six hundred dollars. The
third keg was found months after by John Brinkman, in the bottom of
the river, two miles below the fort. He was spearing fish by
torchlight, when he chanced to find the keg. The keg he delivered at
the fort and received a small reward. On opening the keg it was found
to contain coin of a different kind from that advertised as stolen.
Brinkman, however, made no claims on account of errors. Thompson,
Evans, and a man named Shields were arrested by the civil authorities
on suspicion; their trial was continued from term to term and they
were at last dismissed. One man, who had seen the silver in the sand
during the day and gone back at night to fill his pockets, was seized
by a soldier on guard, imprisoned for a year, and discharged.


EARLY JUSTICE.

A Frenchman shot and killed a couple of tame geese belonging to a
neighbor, supposing them to be wild. Discovering his mistake, he
brought the geese to the owner, a Dutchman, who flew into a great
rage, but took the geese and used them for his own table, in addition
to which he had the goose-killer arrested and tried before Martin
Savall, a justice of the peace. The defendant admitted the killing of
the geese, the plaintiff admitted receiving them and using them for
food, nevertheless the justice gave judgment in favor of plaintiff by
the novel ruling that these geese, if not killed, would have laid eggs
and hatched about eight goslings. The defendant was therefore fined
three dollars for the geese killed, and eight dollars for the goslings
that might have been hatched if the geese had been permitted to live,
and costs besides. Plaintiff appealed to the district court which
reversed the decision on the ground that plaintiff had eaten his
geese, and the goslings, not being hatched, did not exist. Plaintiff
paid the costs of the suit, forty-nine dollars, remarking that a
Dutchman had no chance in this country; that he would go back to
Germany. The judge remarked that it would be the best thing he could
do.


A SOUTHWARD JOURNEY.

My original plan on leaving Maine was to make a prospecting tour
through the West and South. I had been in Prairie du Chien for a
season, and as soon as my contract to cut hay for the fort and my
harvesting work was done. I started, with two of my comrades, in a
birch bark canoe for New Orleans. This mode of traveling proving slow
and tedious, after two days, on our arrival at Dubuque, we sold our
canoe and took passage on the steamer Smelter for St. Louis, which
place we reached on the seventeenth of October. We remained five days,
stopping at the Union Hotel. St. Louis was by far the finest and
largest city I had yet seen in the West. Its levee was crowded with
drays and other vehicles and lined with steamers and barges. Its
general appearance betokened prosperity. On the twenty-second, I left
on the steamer George Collier for New Orleans, but the yellow fever
being reported in that city, I remained several days at Baton Rouge.
On the second of November I re-embarked for New Orleans, where I found
a lodging at the Conti Street Hotel. New Orleans was even then a large
and beautiful city. Its levee and streets were remarkable for their
cleanness, but seemed almost deserted. Owing to a recent visitation of
the yellow fever and the financial crisis of 1837, business was almost
suspended. These were hard times in New Orleans. Hundreds of men were
seeking employment, and many of them were without money or friends. It
was soon very evident to me that I had come to a poor place to better
my fortunes. After a thorough canvass, I found but one situation
vacant, and that was in a drinking saloon, and was not thought of for
an instant. I remained fifteen days, my money gradually diminishing,
when I concluded to try the interior. I took steamer for Vicksburg,
and thence passed up the Yazoo to Manchester, where I spent two days
in the vain search for employment, offering to do any kind of work. I
was in the South, where the labor was chiefly done by negroes. I was
friendless and without letters of recommendation, and for a man under
such circumstances to be asking for employment was in itself a
suspicious circumstance. I encountered everywhere coldness and
distrust. I returned to Vicksburg, and, fortunately, had still enough
money left to secure a deck passage to the North, but was obliged to
live sparingly, and sleep without bedding. I kept myself somewhat
aloof from the crew and passengers. The captain and clerk commented on
my appearance, and were, as I learned from a conversation that I could
not help but overhear, keeping a close eye upon me for being so quiet
and restrained. It was true that the western rivers were infested with
desperate characters, gamblers and thieves such as the Murrell gang.
Might I not be one of them. I was truly glad when, on the fifth of
December, we landed at St. Louis. It seemed nearer my own country; but
finding no employment there, I embarked on the steamer Motto for
Hennepin, Illinois, where I found occasional employment cutting
timber. There was much talk here of the Murrell gang, then terrorizing
the country; and I have good reason to believe that some of them at
that time were in Hennepin. After remaining about two months, I left,
on foot, valise in hand or strapped upon my back, with J. Simpson, for
Galena, which place we reached in four days. Finding here Mr. Putnam,
with a team, I went up with him on the ice to Prairie du Chien, where,
after an absence of five months of anxiety, suspense and positive
hardships, I was glad to find myself once more among friends.

During the summer of 1838 I cultivated a farm. I had also a hay
contract for the fort. My partner was James C. Bunker. I had worked
hard and succeeded in raising a good crop, but found myself in the
fall the victim of bilious fever and ague. I continued farming in 1839
and furnishing hay to the fort, but continued to suffer with chills
and fever. Myself and partner were both affected, and at times could
scarcely take care of ourselves. Help could not be obtained, but ague
comes so regularly to torture its victims that, knowing the exact hour
of its approach, we could prepare in advance for it, and have our
water, gruel, boneset and quinine ready and within reach. We knew when
we would shake, but not the degree of fever which would follow. The
delirium of the fever would fill our minds with strange fancies. On
one occasion I came home with the ague fit upon me, hitched my horses
with wagon attached to a post and went into the house. Banker had
passed the shaking stage, and was delirious. I threw myself on the
bed, and the fever soon following, I knew nothing till morning, when I
found the team still hitched to the post, and, in their hunger, eating
it.

In November of this year I made a somewhat perilous trip with team to
Fort Winnebago, at the portage of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. The
weather was cold and the military road, much of the distance, covered
with snow. There was scarcely a trail over the rolling prairie to
guide me. Exposure brought on the chills as I was returning. Fatigued,
sick and suffering, I coiled myself on the top of the load. The second
day, as the sun was setting, I came in sight of Parish's Grove, but
the horses were unwilling to obey my guidance. Coming to a fork in the
road they insisted on going to the right. I pulled them to the left.
Had I been guided by their "horse sense" they would have brought me in
a few moments to the door of Parish's hotel. As it was, I drove on
until far in the night, when we came to a steep hill, two steep for
descent in the wagon. I unhitched the team, loaded them with the
portable things in the wagon to keep them from the wolves that were
howling around, mounted one of the horses and descended the hill and
found myself at Parish's door, the very place I had been trying to
find for a day and a night. Lieut. Caldwell, quartermaster at Fort
Crawford, received the load, and learning something of the perils of
the journey, gave me eighty dollars instead of the forty he had
promised.


RETURN TO MAINE.

During the spring and summer of 1840, I fulfilled heavy hay and wood
contracts for the fort, and in the autumn of that year concluded to
revisit my early home in Maine. I set out September 23d, and reached
Chicago in seven days, traveling with a team. I traveled thence by
steamer to Buffalo, by canal boat to Rochester, by railroad and stage
to Albany and Boston, by railroad to Lowell, and by stage to Tamworth,
New Hampshire. After spending four years amidst the prairies of the
West it was indeed a pleasure to look again upon the grand ranges of
mountains in this part of New England. When eleven years of age I had
lived where I could look upon these mountains, and now to their
grandeur was added the charm of old association. I looked with
pleasure once more upon "Old Ossipee," Coroway Peak, and White Face.
Time had written no changes upon these rugged mountains. There were
cottages and farms on the mountain side. Sparkling rivulets gleamed in
the sunlight, as they found their way, leaping from rock to rock, to
the valleys beneath. Tamworth is situated on beautiful ridges amongst
these mountain ranges. Near this place is the old family burying
ground containing the graves of my grand parents and other near
relatives. These mountain peaks seemed to stand as sentinels over
their last resting place. I remained at Tamworth a short time, visited
the graves of my kindred, and on October 20th pursued my journey to
Bloomfield, Maine, my old home. I found great changes. Some kind
friends remained, but others were gone. The old home was changed and I
felt that I could not make my future home here. The great West seemed
more than ever attractive. There would I build my home, and seek my
fortune. I found here one who was willing to share that home and
whatever fortune awaited me in the West. On January 1st I was married
to Mary J. Wyman, by Rev. Arthur Drinkwater, who gave us good counsel
on the eve of our departure to a new and still wilderness country. On
February 16th we bade adieu to our friends in Maine, visited awhile at
Tamworth, and March 20th reached Prairie du Chien, having traveled by
private conveyance, stage and steamer, passing through New Haven, New
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Frederick City, Maryland, over the
National road to Wheeling, Virginia, by steamer down the Ohio and up
the Mississippi to our destination. Here we made our home until the
autumn of 1845, I continuing in the business in which I had been
previously engaged. At this time a failure in my wife's health
rendered a change of climate necessary.


PRAIRIE DU CHIEN IN 1836-37.

Our history of Fifty Years in the Northwest commences properly at
Prairie du Chien in the years 1836-37. The entire country west and
north was at that time but little better than a wilderness. Prairie du
Chien was an outpost of civilization. A few adventurous traders and
missionaries had penetrated the country above, planting a few stations
here and there, and some little effort had been made at settlement,
but the country, for the most part, was the home of roving tribes of
Indians, and he who adventured among them at any distance from posts
or settlements did so at considerable peril. Prairie du Chien, as we
have shown, had been for an indefinite period under various
governments, at first a French, and later an American settlement,
generally under the protection of a military force. It was a primitive
looking village. The houses were built for the most part of upright
timber posts and puncheons, and were surrounded by pickets. There was
no effort at display. Every thing was arranged for comfort and
protection.


AMERICAN RESIDENTS.

There were living at Prairie du Chien in 1837 the following Americans
with their families: Alfred Brunson, Thomas P. Burnett, Joseph M. and
Thomas P. Street, Ezekiel Tainter, John Thomas, Milo Richards, John H.
Fonday, Samuel Gilbert, and William Wilson. The following were
unmarried: James B. Dallam, Ira B. Brunson, William S. Lockwood, and
Hercules Dousman. In addition to these were perhaps near a hundred
French families, old residents. Among the more noted were the
Brisbois, La Chapelle, Rolette and Bruno families.

We include in the following biographical sketches some names of
non-residents, prominent in the early territorial history, and others
who came to Prairie du Chien later than 1837.


BIOGRAPHIES.

JAMES DUANE DOTY.--The life of this eminent citizen is so interwoven
with the history of Wisconsin that it might well claim more space than
is here allotted to it. The plan of this work forbids more than a
brief mention, and we therefore give only the principal events in his
life. Mr. Doty was born in Salem, Washington county, New York, where
he spent his early days. After receiving a thorough literary education
he studied law, and in 1818 located at Detroit, Michigan. In 1820, in
company with Gov. Cass, he made a canoe voyage of exploration through
Lakes Huron and Michigan. On this voyage they negotiated treaties with
the Indians, and returning made a report on the comparatively
unexplored region which they had traversed. Under his appointment as
judge for the counties of Michigan west of the lake, which appointment
he held for nine years, he first made his home at Prairie du Chien,
where he resided one year, thence removing to Green Bay for the
remainder of his term of office, at which place he continued to
reside for a period of twenty years. In 1830 he was appointed one of
the commissioners to locate military routes from Green Bay to Chicago
and Prairie du Chien. In 1834 he represented the counties west of the
lake in the Michigan legislative council at Detroit, at which council
the first legislative action was taken affecting these counties. At
that session he introduced a bill to create the state of Michigan,
which was adopted. The result of this action was the creation of the
territory of Wisconsin in 1836. In 1838 Mr. Doty was chosen
territorial delegate to Congress from Wisconsin, in which capacity he
served four years, when he was appointed governor. He served as
governor three years. He acted as commissioner in negotiating Indian
treaties. In 1846 he was a member of the first constitutional
convention. In 1848 he was elected member of Congress, and was
re-elected in 1851.

Somewhere in the '50s he built a log house on an island in Fox river,
just above Butte des Mortes, and lived there with his family many
years. There he gathered ancient curiosities, consisting of Indian
implements, and relics of the mound builders. This log house still
stands and is kept intact with the curiosities gathered there by the
present owner, John Roberts, to whom they were presented by Mrs.
Fitzgerald, a daughter of Gov. Doty, in 1877. The cabin overlooks the
cities of Menasha and Neenah, and the old council ground at the outlet
of Lake Winnebago, where the Fox and Sioux Indians held annual
councils, also the old battle ground where the Fox Indians routed the
Sioux in one of the hardest fought battles on record.

In 1861 Judge Doty was appointed superintendent of Indian affairs, and
subsequently was appointed governor of Utah Territory, which place he
held until his death in 1865. Wisconsin had no truer friend nor more
faithful and efficient servant. His aims were exalted, and he
deservedly held a high place in the affections of his fellow citizens.

JAMES H. LOCKWOOD.--Mr. Lockwood was the only practicing lawyer at the
organization of Judge Doty's court. He was the pioneer lawyer in
Prairie du Chien, and the first lawyer admitted to the bar in what is
now Wisconsin. He practiced in Crawford, Brown and Mackinaw counties.
He was born in Peru, Clinton county, New York, Dec. 7, 1793. He
married Julia Warren in 1822. She died at Prairie du Chien in 1827.
He married his second wife, Sarah A. Wright, in St. Louis, Missouri,
in 1834. She died at Prairie du Chien in 1877, much esteemed as one of
the pioneer women of the Upper Mississippi, and respected as a devout
Christian, whose faith was proven by her works. The early years of Mr.
Lockwood were spent on a farm. He had not the privileges of a
classical education, and he may be said to be self educated. In 1810
he commenced the study of law. In 1814 he was sutler in the United
States army, and in 1815 at the post at Mackinaw. From 1816 to 1819 he
was an Indian trader, his home being at Prairie du Chien. In 1826
orders came to abandon the fort at Prairie du Chien. The soldiers were
transferred to Fort Snelling, but arms and ammunition were left in
charge of John Marsh, sub-Indian agent. Mr. Lockwood's family was the
only American family at the post. On June 25th of the ensuing year he
left for New York by the Wisconsin River route, Mrs. Lockwood
remaining at home. The Winnebagoes were a little troublesome at this
time, the more so as the soldiers were removed from the post, but no
serious disturbance was anticipated. The first night after leaving
Prairie du Chien Mr. L. met some Winnebagoes, and all camped together
for the night; but the Indians, under their chief, Red Bird, left the
camp stealthily before morning, and, proceeding to Prairie du Chien,
entered the house of Mr. Lockwood with loaded rifles. Mrs. L., greatly
frightened, fled to the store, then in charge of Duncan Graham, an old
English trader. The Indians followed Mrs. L. into the store. Graham
counseled with them and they left. As they were acting suspiciously a
messenger was sent after Mr. Lockwood in haste. He returned on the
twenty-seventh and found the inhabitants assembled, but without
ammunition or means of defense. The Indians told the people not to go
into the fort, as they would destroy it. As the day passed pickets and
embankments were built around an old tavern. About sundown a keelboat
came down the river and landed, bearing three dead bodies and several
wounded. The sides of the boat had been riddled by bullets. This
ghastly arrival increased the panic. Mr. Lockwood urged organization
for defense. He was selected as captain but declined, and Thomas
McNair was chosen, who ordered an immediate removal to the fort.
Repairs were made and preparations for successful defense. On the day
the fighting commenced Red Bird and his companions shot and killed
Gagner and Lipcap. Mrs. Gagner, with rifle in hand, held Red Bird at
bay till she escaped with one child into the rushes, whence she was
rescued by a soldier on patrol duty. The soldier went to the house,
where he found Gagner and Lipcap lying dead upon the floor, and an
infant child, scalped and with its throat cut, lying under the bed.
Gov. Cass, of Michigan, arrived on the fourth of July, greatly to the
relief of the besieged garrison, which he mustered into the service of
the United States, appointing Mr. Lockwood quartermaster. Another
company, under Capt. Abner Field, was sent from Galena to their
relief. Mr. Lockwood sent a messenger to Col. Snelling at Fort
Snelling, who promptly sent down a company in a keelboat. The force
thus concentrated at the fort was sufficient to overcome the Indians,
who were in no plight to engage in a war with the United States. As
the result of a council held by the Winnebagoes in the presence of the
officers of the garrison, the Indians agreed to surrender Red Bird and
Kee-Waw to Maj. Whistler, the Indians asking that the prisoners should
not be ironed or harshly treated. Maj. Whistler promised that they
should be treated with consideration, and Red Bird, rising from the
ground, said, "I am ready," and was marched off with his accomplice,
Kee-Waw, to a tent in the rear and placed under guard. The prisoners
were handed over to Gen. Atkinson, and given into the hands of the
civil authorities. They were chained and imprisoned, which so chafed
the proud spirit of Red Bird that he drooped and soon died of a broken
heart. Kee-Waw was afterward pardoned by the president of the United
States. For this and other outrages perpetrated upon the settlers, not
a single Indian suffered the penalty of death, excepting Red Bird,
whose pride may be said to have been his executioner.

Mr. Lockwood continued in mercantile business at Prairie du Chien many
years. He held many positions of honor and trust, acquitting himself
with credit. He built the first saw mill north of the Wisconsin river,
on the Menomonie river. The famous Menomonie mills now occupy the same
site. A small mill had been commenced prior to this on Black river,
but the Indians had burned this mill before it was completed. Mr.
Lockwood died at his home, Aug. 24, 1867.

JOHN S. LOCKWOOD.--John S., the brother of James H. Lockwood, was
born in 1796 in New York; came to Prairie du Chien in 1838, and
thereafter engaged in merchandising. He was a man of exemplary habits
and a member of the Presbyterian church most of his life. He raised an
interesting family. He died at his home at Prairie du Chien in 1858.

SAMUEL GILBERT settled at Prairie du Chien in 1830. He was of Kentucky
birth, a blacksmith by trade, and a model man in habits. Mr. Gilbert,
in 1842, became one of the proprietors of the Chippewa Falls mill. He
afterward lived at Albany. He followed Mississippi river piloting,
removed to Burlington, Iowa, and died in 1878. Mr. Gilbert left four
sons, Oliver, lumberman in Dunn county, Wisconsin, John and I. Dallam,
lumber merchants at Burlington, Iowa, and Samuel.

MICHAEL BRISBOIS.--We find the names of Brisbois and some others
mentioned in the proceedings of the commission held by Col. Isaac Lee
in 1820, to adjust claims to land in Prairie du Chien and vicinity.
Michael Brisbois testified that he had been a resident of the Prairie
thirty-nine years, which would date his settlement as far back as
1781. Mr. Brisbois lived a stirring and eventful life. He died in
1837, leaving several children. Joseph, the oldest, became a man of
prominence and held many offices in state and church. Charles, the
second son, while yet a boy went to McKenzie river, British
possessions, in the employ of the Northwestern Fur Company, where he
lived thirty years beyond the Arctic circle, and raised a large
family. In 1842 he returned to Prairie du Chien, but his children,
reared in the cold climate of the frozen zone, soon after his return
sickened, and most of them died, unable to endure the change to a
climate so much milder. Bernard W., a third son, was born at Prairie
du Chien, Oct. 4, 1808. He was well educated and grew up a leading and
influential citizen. As a child he had witnessed the taking of Fort
Shelby by the British in 1814, and its recapture as Fort McKay by the
United States troops in 1815. During the Red Bird Indian war he served
as second lieutenant, and for several years was stationed at Fort
Crawford. He was also a prominent agent or confidential adviser in the
fur company which had its headquarters at Prairie du Chien. He was
sheriff of Crawford county and held the office of county treasurer and
other positions of trust. In 1872 President Grant appointed him consul
to Vernier, Belgium, but ill health compelled an early return. Mr.
Brisbois married into the La Chapelle family. He died in 1885, leaving
an interesting family.

PIERRE LAPOINT was also before the commission of Col. Lee as an early
resident, having lived at the Prairie since 1782. The testimony of
these early citizens served to establish the ancient tenure of the
lands by French settlers, a tenure so ancient that no one could
definitely give a date for its commencement. Mr. Lapoint was a farmer.
He reared a large family of children, and died about 1845.

JOSEPH ROLETTE.--Joseph Rolette was at one time chief justice of the
county court of Crawford county. He was of French descent and was born
in Quebec, L. C., in 1787. He was educated for the Catholic
priesthood. In 1804 he came to Prairie du Chien. In the early part of
his mature life he was an active and successful trader with the
Indians on the Upper Mississippi. He was a man of keen perceptions and
considerable ambition. He joined the British at the siege of Detroit,
and was an officer at the capture of Mackinaw. He was in command of a
company in the campaign of the British from Mackinaw to Prairie du
Chien, and aided in taking the American stockade. His early education
and associations inclined him to espouse the British cause during the
war of 1812, which he did with all the ardor and enthusiasm of his
nature. To his family he was kind and indulgent, giving his children
the best education possible. One daughter, married to Capt. Hoe, of
the United States army, was a very superior woman. One son, Joseph,
received all the aid that money could give, and might have risen to
distinction, but he early contracted intemperate habits which became
in later life tenaciously fixed. This son was at one time a member of
the Minnesota legislature. Joseph Rolette, Sr., died at Prairie du
Chien in 1842.

HERCULES DOUSMAN.--The leading Indian trader of the Upper Mississippi,
the prominent adviser at Indian treaties and payments and the trusted
agent of the American Fur Company, was Hercules Dousman, a keen,
shrewd man, and universally influential with the Indians, with whom it
might be said his word was law. He understood all the intricacies
involved in the Indian treaty and the half-breed annuities and
payments. His extended favors and credits to the Indians, properly
proven, of course, would be recognized and paid at the regular
payments. He accumulated through these agencies great wealth, which
he retained to his dying day. He came to Prairie du Chien, in the
employ of Joseph Rolette, in 1828. He afterward married the widow of
Rolette. He died in Prairie du Chien in 1878.

REV. DAVID LOWRY.--A noble, big hearted Kentuckian, a minister of the
Cumberland Presbyterian church, he was located by the government as
farmer and teacher of the Indians on Yellow river, near Prairie du
Chien, in 1833. For years this good man labored with unquestioned zeal
for the welfare of the untutored Indian. Mr. Lowry informed me, while
at his post, that he was fearful that all his labor was labor lost, or
worse than useless. The Indian pupil learned just enough to fit him
for the worst vices. The introduction of whisky was a corrupting
agency, in itself capable of neutralizing every effort for the moral
and intellectual advancement of the Indian, with whom intoxication
produces insanity. He felt quite disheartened as to the prospect of
accomplishing any good. He died at St. Cloud some time in the '50s.

CHIEF JUSTICE CHARLES DUNN.--When Wisconsin Territory was organized in
1836, Charles Dunn was appointed chief justice. He served as judge
until Wisconsin became a state in 1848. He was of Irish descent and
was born in Kentucky in 1799. He studied law in Kentucky and Illinois,
and was admitted to practice in 1820 at Jonesboro, Illinois. He was
chief clerk of the Illinois house of representatives five years. He
was one of the commissioners of the Illinois and Michigan canal. In
1829 he was one of a party which surveyed and platted the first town
of Chicago, and superintended the first sale of town lots there. He
was captain of a company during the Black Hawk War in 1832, and was
severely wounded through mistake by a sentinel on duty. In 1835 he was
a member of the Illinois house of representatives. In 1837, as judge,
he held his first court in Crawford county. In this court, in 1838,
indictments were found against certain individuals for selling liquor
to whites and Indians contrary to law, when, by evasions, continuances
and technicalities, the suits would go by the board. In one case the
charge given to the jury by this dignified and courteous Judge Dunn
was as follows: "Gentlemen of the Jury: Unless you are satisfied that
the defendants in this case did deal out, in clear, unadulterated
quantities, intoxicating drinks, it is your imperative duty to
discharge them." The jury, of course, discharged the defendants.
Aside from his drinking habits, which interfered much with his
usefulness, he was a genial gentleman and regarded by his associates
as an eminent jurist. He sometimes kept the court waiting till he
should become sober, and on one occasion came near losing his life in
a drunken spree. He jumped through an upper window of Tainter's hotel,
and escaped with only a broken leg. Judge Dunn was a member of the
second Wisconsin constitutional convention. He was state senator in
1853-4-5 and 6. He died at Mineral Point, April 7, 1872.

REV. ALFRED BRUNSON, a distinguished pioneer preacher in the West, was
born in Connecticut, 1793, and received there a common school
education. His father died while he was yet a minor, and with
commendable zeal and filial love he devoted himself to providing for
his mother and her bereaved family, working at the trade of a
shoemaker till he was seventeen years of age, when he enlisted as a
soldier under Gen. Harrison and served under him until the peace of
1815, when he entered the Methodist ministry, in which, by industry
and close application, he became quite learned and eminent as a
divine. His active ministry extended to the long period of sixty-seven
years. He was the first Methodist minister north of the Wisconsin
river. In 1837 he established a mission at Kaposia and thence removed
to Red Rock (Newport), in Washington county, Minnesota. In 1840 he was
a member of the Wisconsin legislature. In 1842 he was Indian agent at
Lapointe, on Lake Superior. Mr. Brunson was very prominent in the
councils of his own church, having represented his conference several
times in the general conference of that body. He is also the author of
many essays and other publications, among them "The Western Pioneer,"
in two volumes, a most entertaining and instructive account of life in
the West.

Mr. Brunson was married to Eunice Burr, a relative of the famous Aaron
Burr. She was a woman of great intelligence and of excellent qualities
of heart as well as mind. Her heart overflowed with sympathy for the
sick and distressed, and she won by her care for them the affectionate
title of "Mother Brunson." She died in 1847.

Rev. Alfred Brunson, though an itinerant, was so favored in his
various fields of labor that he was able to have his permanent home
at Prairie du Chien, where he lived from 1835 until the time of his
death in 1882.

Many incidents in Mr. Brunson's career are worthy of permanent record.
He was among the most hardy and daring of the pioneers. He came down
the Ohio and up the Mississippi in a barge to Prairie du Chien in
1835, the barge laden with household furniture and the material for a
frame building which, on landing, he proceeded immediately to erect.
This house, which he and his family occupied till his death, is still
standing.

When he established his mission at Kaposia he was greatly in need of
an interpreter. An officer at Fort Snelling owned a negro slave who
had been a Methodist before going into the army in the service of his
master. Afterward he had married a Dakota woman and by associating
with the Indians had learned their language. This young negro, James
Thompson, was a slave, and Mr. Brunson could only secure his services
by purchasing him outright, which he did, paying the price of $1,200,
the money for which was raised by subscription in Ohio. "Jim" was
presented with his "free papers," and was soon interpreting the Gospel
to the Indians at Kaposia. This is the only instance on record of a
slave being sold on Minnesota soil. It will be remembered, however,
that the historical "DRED SCOTT" was also the property of an officer
at the Fort, Surgeon Emerson. James Thompson resided in St. Paul in
the later years of his life, and died there in 1884.

IRA BRUNSON.--Ira, the eldest son of Rev. A. Brunson, was born in Ohio
in 1815, and came to Prairie du Chien in 1836. He was a member of the
legislature during the years 1837-38-39 and 40. He was also postmaster
many years. He was continuously in office in Crawford county until his
death in 1884. In 1840 he was appointed special deputy United States
marshal for the purpose of removing the settlers from the Fort
Snelling reservation. These settlers were mostly from Selkirk,
Manitoba. They had been driven out by the grasshoppers and, fleeing
southward, had settled about Fort Snelling to be under the protection
of the Fort. The government, however, considered them intruders and
ordered Mr. Brunson to remove them outside the reservation, and to
destroy all their dwellings and farm improvements, which disagreeable
duty he performed as well, perhaps, as it could be performed; he, as
he afterward told me, being satisfied in his own mind that the
removal would be for their ultimate good, the influences of the Fort
and of the associations of the motley crowd of hangers on around it
being somewhat demoralizing. At any rate the eviction of these western
Acadians has never aroused the sympathies of the poet and
sentimentalist as did that of the Acadians of the East.

JOHN H. FOLSOM, brother of W. H. C. Folsom, was born in Machias,
Maine, Dec. 27, 1813. He was engaged during his youth in clerking. In
1835 he made a voyage as supercargo of a vessel to the Congo coast. In
1836 he came to Michigan, and in 1837 to Prairie du Chien, where he
has since continuously resided. He was married in 1839 to Angelica
Pion, who died in 1878, leaving no children. He has a very retentive
memory, and is quoted as an authority in the local history of Prairie
du Chien. The writer is indebted to him for many particulars referring
to the early history of that city.

EZEKIEL TAINTER.--Mr. Tainter came to Prairie du Chien in 1833 from
Vermont. He had at first fort contracts, but afterward engaged in
merchandising, farming and hotel keeping. He also served as sheriff.
He was eccentric and original in his methods, and some amusing stories
are told of his prowess in arresting criminals. On one occasion he was
about to arrest a criminal. Having summoned his _posse_, he followed
the man until he took refuge in a cabin with one door and two windows.
Stationing his men before the door, he thus addressed them: "Brave
boys, I am about to go through this door. If I fall, as I undoubtedly
will, you must rush over my dead body and seize the ruffian." Giving
the word of command, he plunged through the door and captured the
criminal, apparently much astonished at finding himself still alive.
At his tavern, one morning, a boarder announced that he had been
robbed. Uncle Zeke quieted him, and, quickly examining his rooms,
found one boarder missing. It was gray twilight. He ordered all to
retire but the man who had been robbed. The two sat quietly down as
they saw a man approaching the house from the bluffs. To their
surprise it was the absentee approaching. As he stepped on the piazza,
Uncle Zeke dexterously tripped him up with his stiff leg, and seizing
him by the throat, shouted to the astonished miscreant: "Where is the
money you stole? Tell me at once, or you will never get up." The
prostrate culprit, thoroughly frightened, tremblingly answered, "I
hid it in the bluff." They marched him to the spot, recovered the
money and generously allowed the thief his freedom on the condition of
his leaving the country. Uncle Zeke lived to a good old age, and died
at the residence of his son Andrew, in Menomonie, Wisconsin.

WYRAM KNOWLTON.--Mr. Knowlton was born in Chenango county, New York,
in 1816, came to Wisconsin in 1837, and commenced the study of law. He
was admitted to practice in Platteville, and in 1840 came to Prairie
du Chien and opened a law office. In 1846 he enlisted and served in
the Mexican War, after which he resumed practice. In 1850 he was
appointed judge of the Sixth Judicial district of Wisconsin, and
served six years. He held the first court in Pierce county in 1854. He
was a man of fine ability. He died in the north part of the State in
1873.

ROBERT LESTER.--A melancholy interest attaches to the memory of this
man on account of his early tragical death. He had come to Prairie du
Chien in 1840, and in 1842 had been elected sheriff. Next year his
official duties called him to the Menomonie and Chippewa valleys. On
his return he had left Lockwood's mills on the Menomonie, and had
passed through Trempealeau and was coasting along the west shore, when
an Indian hailed him, calling for bread. Lester passed on without
responding. As he reached a point of land the Indian ran across the
point and, awaiting his approach, shot him through the heart. Lester
rose as the ball struck him, and fell overboard. Mr. Jean Bruno,
proprietor of the Chippewa mills, was on his way up river in a canoe,
and witnessed the whole transaction. Mr. Bruno described the whole
tragic scene. Popular excitement ran high at Prairie du Chien. A party
of men volunteered to search for Lester's body, which was found at the
place of the murder and brought back for interment at Prairie du
Chien. The Indian, a Sioux, was arrested and kept in jail a long time,
and although he had acknowledged to some of his Indian friends that he
had killed Lester, he was acquitted. It was a cold blooded and
atrocious murder, and the proof of the Indian's guilt was
overwhelming, as he was, by his own confession, the murderer; still he
was not punished. In this case the prisoner did not languish and die
in jail of a broken heart as did Red Bird, the murderer of Gagner and
Lipcap. As a rule the courts dealt very leniently with Indian
criminals.

THOMAS PENDLETON BURNETT was born in Virginia in 1800. He studied law
and was admitted to the bar in Paris, Kentucky. He was appointed
sub-Indian agent under J. M. Street, in 1829. He came to Prairie du
Chien in 1830 and entered upon the duties of the agency. He also
practiced law. In 1835 he was a member of the Michigan territorial
council and its president. In 1836, after his term of office expired,
he married a daughter of Alfred Brunson and, continuing the practice
of law, became quite eminent for his skill, and acquired an extensive
practice. He was a fluent speaker, well skilled in the management of
the cases intrusted to his care. In 1840 he removed to a farm at Patch
Grove, Grant county. He was a member of the Wisconsin constitutional
convention which met in 1846. He served but a few weeks when he was
called home by the death of his mother and the sickness of his wife.
The fatigue of a twenty-four hours' ride of eighty-five miles in a
rude lumber wagon was too much for his not very rugged constitution,
and four days after his mother's death he followed her to the world of
spirits. His devoted wife survived him but three hours. Under
circumstances of such unusual sadness did this brilliant and promising
lawyer and citizen take his departure from earth. His death created a
profound sensation throughout the entire Northwest, where he was so
well and favorably known.

HENRY DODGE, the first governor of Wisconsin Territory, was born in
Vincennes, Indiana, Oct. 12, 1782. He came to the lead mines of
Wisconsin in 1828. In 1832 he took part in the Black Hawk War, an
uprising of the Sac and Fox Indians against the United States
government. Mr. Dodge participated as a general at the battle of Bad
Axe, his regiment occupying the front rank in that battle. April 30,
1836, he was appointed governor of Wisconsin by President Andrew
Jackson, reappointed in 1839 by President Van Buren, and by President
Polk in 1845, serving three terms. From 1841 to 1845, during the
presidency of Harrison and his successor (Tyler), he served as
territorial delegate to Congress. In 1848 he was elected United States
senator for the short term, and re-elected in 1851, Senator Walker
being his colleague. On the occasion of the motion to admit
California, the Wisconsin senators were instructed by the legislature
to vote against the measure. Senator Walker disregarded the
instruction and voted for the measure. Senator Dodge, although
extremely ill at the time, had himself carried to the senate chamber
that he might record his vote adversely to the bill. Gov. Dodge rose
to the highest position in his State, and chiefly by his own unaided
efforts. As a soldier he was brave and efficient, as a governor,
congressional delegate and senator he was clear headed, cautious and
wise, and altogether a citizen of whom the State might justly be
proud. He died in Burlington, Iowa, June 19, 1867.

GEORGE W. JONES was born in Vincennes, Indiana. He graduated at
Transylvania University, Kentucky, in 1825. He was educated for the
law, but ill health prevented him from practicing. He, however, served
as clerk of the United States district court in Missouri in 1826, and
during the Black Hawk War served as aid-de-camp to Gen. Dodge. In 1832
he was appointed colonel of militia, and was promoted to a major
generalship. After the war he served as judge of a county court. In
1835 he was elected delegate to Congress from the territory of
Michigan, or from that part of it lying west of Lake Michigan, and
remained a delegate until the formation of Wisconsin Territory, in
1836, when he was elected delegate from the new territory. In 1839 he
was appointed surveyor general for Wisconsin. He was removed in 1841,
but reappointed by President Polk, and continued in office until
elected senator from the state of Iowa, which position he held for six
years, and was then appointed by President Buchanan minister to New
Granada. During the Civil War his sympathies were with the South and
he was imprisoned for awhile at Fort Warren under a charge of
disloyalty. He has resided in Dubuque, Iowa, since the formation of
Iowa Territory. He still lives, a hale and hearty old gentleman, and
served as a delegate to the waterways convention held in St. Paul,
September, 1880.

S. G. AND S. L. TAINTER AND JOHN THOMAS (father of Hon. Ormsby Thomas,
representative from Wisconsin in the Congress of 1887-88) with their
families came to Prairie du Chien in 1837. The Messrs. Tainter and
Thomas died many years ago.



CHAPTER II.

STILLWATER AND ST. CROIX COUNTY.


In September, 1844, reluctantly I bade adieu to Prairie du Chien with
its picturesque bluffs and historic associations, and embarked on the
steamer Highland Mary, Capt. Atchison, to seek a home and more
salubrious climate further north. The voyage was without incident
worthy of note, till we reached St. Croix lake, in the midst of a
crashing thunder storm and a deluge of rain, which did not prevent us
from eagerly scanning the scenery of the lake. The shores were as yet
almost without inhabitants. The home of Paul Carli, a two story house
at the mouth of Bolles creek, was the first dwelling above Prescott,
on the west side of the lake. A few French residences were to be seen
above on the west side. On the east bank, below the mouth of Willow
river, where Hudson is now situated, were three log houses owned by
Peter Bouchea, Joseph Manesse, and Louis Massey. On the high hill
west, nearly opposite Willow river, stood the farm house of Elam
Greely, and on the same side, on the point, in full view of
Stillwater, stood the farm house of John Allen. With the exception of
these few dwellings, the shores of the lake were untouched by the hand
of man, and spread before us in all their primitive beauty. There were
gently rounded hills sloping to the water's edge, and crowned with
groves of shrubby oak, amidst which, especially at the outlet of
streams into the lake, the darker pines stood out boldly against the
sky. We passed on over the clear, blue expanse of water on which was
no floating thing save our boat and the wild fowl which were scared
and flew away at our approach, till we reached the head of the lake at
Stillwater, the end of our journey. November 30th my family arrived on
the steamer Cecilia, Capt. Throckmorton.


STILLWATER IN 1845.

We landed just in front of the store of nelson & co. just below the
landing was a clear, cold spring, bubbling out of the earth, or the
rock rather. It was walled in and pretty well filled with speckled
trout. On the opposite side of the street Walter R. Vail had a house
and store; north of Vail's store the house and store of Socrates
Nelson. Up Main street, west side, stood Anson Northrup's hotel and
Greely & Blake's post office and store. One street back was the
residence of John E. Mower, and north of this the mill boarding house,
and in the rear the shanty store of the mill company, where the Sawyer
House now stands. Up a ravine stood the shanty residence of John
Smith. In a ravine next to Nelson & Co.'s store was the residence of
Wm. Cove. On Main street, opposite Greely & Blake's store, was the
residence of Albert Harris. On the shore of the lake, north of
Chestnut street, was John McKusick's saw mill. Sylvester Stateler's
blacksmith shop stood just south of the mill. In Brown's Dakotah, now
Schulenberg's addition, near the old log court house, was a log hotel,
kept by Robert Kennedy. This was Stillwater in 1845.


ST. CROIX COUNTY.

From 1819 to 1836 this valley was under the jurisdiction of Crawford
county, Michigan, there being no white inhabitants save Indian
traders. There was no law dispensed in this region, excepting the law
that might makes right. In 1836 the territory of Wisconsin, comprising
all of Michigan west of the great lakes; also all that portion of
Missouri Territory out of which was formed the state of Iowa, which
was organized as a territory in 1838, and admitted as a state in 1846;
also that portion of Minnesota which lies west of the present
state--yet unorganized--known as Dakota, was organized.

The year 1837 forms a new era in our history. Gov. Henry Dodge, of
Wisconsin, on the part of the national government, was appointed to
negotiate with the Ojibways. They met at Fort Snelling. A treaty was
made, the Indians ceding to the United States all their lands east of
the Mississippi, to near the headwaters of the St. Croix and Chippewa
rivers.

A deputation of Dakotas at Washington, the same year, ceded all their
lands east of the Mississippi to the parent government, thus opening
to settlement all this portion of Minnesota and Wisconsin. But few
adventurers made their way into this far off region, however, for many
years. A steamer once in two months was the only mode of travel,
excepting by birch canoe.

In October, 1837, at Prairie du Chien, I met a party who had ascended
the Mississippi and the St. Croix as far as St. Croix Falls. According
to their account they had found the place where creation ended, where
a large river, capable of bearing a steamer, burst out of a rock like
that which Moses smote. They had seen "the elephant with his quills
erect," and were returning satisfied to their New England home. They
had entered the since famous Dalles of the St. Croix, located at the
head of navigation on that river.

In the year 1838, being the year succeeding the purchase of the lands
bordering on the St. Croix river and a portion of her tributaries, may
be dated the commencement of the settlement of the St. Croix valley;
but with the exception of the Hon. Joseph R. Brown, the parties that I
shall enumerate as opening business, came here for the purpose of
lumbering, and in no instance as permanent settlers. The valley was
considered too far north and the soil too sterile for cultivation, but
many of those who came here in 1838 found out their mistake and made
choice of the valley for their permanent homes. They were afterward
abundantly satisfied with the healthfulness of the climate and the
fertility of the soil. Several companies were formed this year for the
ostensible purpose of lumbering, many members of which became
permanent settlers.

The first dismemberment of the St. Croix valley from Crawford county
was by the organization of the county of St. Croix. Joseph R. Brown
was elected representative to the legislature, from the north part of
Crawford county. His residence at that time was Gray Cloud, now in
Washington county. Mr. Brown introduced the bill for the organization
of St. Croix county, which passed and was approved by the governor of
Wisconsin, Jan. 9, 1840. The writer of these sketches was employed by
Messrs. Brown and Brunson (the representatives from this district), in
December, 1839, to take them with a team from Prairie du Chien to
Madison. One of the indispensable requirements for traveling in those
days was a large "Black Betty," which was the butt of much wit and
humor. Mr. Brown said the contents of Old Betty must establish a new
county away up in the Northwest. The deed was done--the act did pass.
I don't know whether Old Betty came back to assist in organizing the
county or not. It is well to say Mr. Brown acquitted himself with
honor to his constituents, and was successful in the one great object
for which he sought the election. This was the precursor to coming
events--a shadow cast before. For it was under this organization that
Northwest Wisconsin and Minnesota first obeyed the mandates of law and
order.

Under the provision of the act of organization, Hazen Mooers, of Gray
Cloud, Samuel Burkelo, of Marine, and Joseph R. Brown, of Dakotah,
were constituted a board of county commissioners with county seat
located at Dakotah.

This town was located at the head of Lake St. Croix, on the west side,
on unsurveyed government lands, known as "Joe Brown's Claim." When the
Wisconsin legislature of 1840 made this the county seat of St. Croix
county it was named Dakotah.


JUDGE IRWIN'S COURT IN 1840.

The first district court north of Prairie du Chien was called at
Dakotah, St. Croix county. This county had been assigned to Judge
Irwin's district (Green Bay). The time assigned for the court was
June, 1840. Judge Irwin wended his way up Fox river to the portage,
down the Wisconsin to Prairie du Chien, up the Mississippi to St.
Paul, and across from St. Paul to Dakotah with guides. At Dakotah the
regular officers were all absent, but he found at the court house two
young men named Brown and six Frenchmen from St. Paul and Little
Canada, summoned as jurors by Sheriff Lawrence. Judge Irwin remained
one night, slept in deer skins in the county building, subsisting
meanwhile on venison and bear steak. No calendar was to be found and
the judge and jurors left for home.

The first commissioners' meeting was held Oct. 5, 1840. At this
meeting much important work was done. An acre of ground at the county
seat was selected for county buildings. A contract to erect a court
house according to specifications was let to J. R. Brown, he to
receive for the same eight hundred dollars. The parties agreed upon a
deed or conveyance of ground, a synopsis of which we append. The
conveyance cites and reiterates a Wisconsin legislative law
establishing St. Croix county, giving to the people the right to
locate the county seat by vote and to the county commissioners power
to erect county buildings, the selected location to be the permanent
seat of justice of said county. It further provides that the county
commissioners shall carry into effect the law of Congress of the
United States, entitled "An act granting to counties or parishes, in
which public lands are situate, the right of pre-emption to one-fourth
section of land, for seats of justice within the same." Approved May
20, 1824. It then cites the vote taken Aug. 5, 1840, locating the
county seat at "Brown's warehouse, at the head of Lake St. Croix."
Further conditions are set forth in compliance with the law,
confirming the location on Joseph R. Brown's land claim. This is the
first recorded deed in St. Croix county.

Thirty dollars was allowed to J. R. Brown and W. B. Dibble, each, for
carrying election returns to Prairie du Chien. The first abstract of
votes polled in St. Croix county was for delegate to Congress and for
county officers. For delegate to Congress the following vote was cast:
Henry Dodge, seventeen; Jonathan E. Arnold, ten. Samuel Burkelo, Hazen
Mooers and W. B. Dibble were elected county commissioners; William
Holcombe, county treasurer and register of deeds; Phineas Lawrence,
sheriff; J. R. Brown, county clerk and clerk of court, and Philander
Prescott, assessor.

The first recorded deed of property in Stillwater was from Walter R.
Vail to Rufus S. King, transferring for a consideration of $1,550 a
tract bounded east by Lake St. Croix and south and north by lands
owned by Churchill and Nelson.

Three election precincts had been established in this portion of
Crawford county prior to the organization of St. Croix county:
Caw-caw-baw-kank, embracing the county adjacent to St. Croix Falls;
Dakotah, the county at the head of Lake St. Croix, and Chan-wak-an the
Gray Cloud settlement, on the Mississippi.

On July 5, 1841, the commissioners held a meeting and established
voting precincts as follows:

_Gray Cloud_--Judges of election, Hazen Mooers, David Howe, Joseph
Haskell.

_Mouth of St. Croix Lake_--Judges of election, P. Prescott, Oscar P.
Burris, John Burke.

_Marine Mills_--Judges of election, Asa Parker, Samuel Burkelo, T.
Harrington.

_Falls of St. Croix_--Judges of election, Joseph W. Furber, Joshua L.
Taylor, Jesse Taylor.

_Pokegama_--Judges of election, Jeremiah Russell, E. Myers, E. L. Ely.

Feb. 2, 1844, St. Paul and Stillwater were made election precincts by
the Wisconsin legislature, and Stillwater was made the county seat.
The constituted authorities were not successful in making out
assessments and collecting county revenues. The first estimate of
expenditures for the county was for 1842, and amounted to $482. This
included the estimate for holding one term of court. Up to the time of
changing the county seat to Stillwater much dissatisfaction existed as
to the manner in which the county finances had been managed, and there
was a general revolt, a refusal to pay taxes. In consequence, the
county building at Dakotah remained unfinished and was finally
abandoned by the county authorities. J. R. Brown lost on his contract
on account of this failure and abandonment. The first successful
collection of taxes in St. Croix county, considered legal, was in
1845. Capt. Wm. Holcombe acted during this period as clerk of the
commissioners, and register of deeds. In 1846 he deputized W. H. C.
Folsom as deputy clerk and register of deeds, and transmitted the
records from St. Croix Falls to Stillwater.

[A]
EARLY HISTORY OF STILLWATER.

In the spring of 1843 Jacob Fisher made a claim on unsurveyed lands at
the head of Lake St. Croix, immediately south of Dakotah, spotting and
blazing the trees to mark the limits of his claim. Mr. Fisher thought
it a good site for a saw mill, and made an offer to Elias McKean and
Calvin F. Leach of the entire claim on condition that they would build
a mill. McKusick and Greely were looking for a mill site; Mr. Fisher
referred them to McKean and Leach. It was agreed that the four should
take the claim and erect the mill. Greely improved and held the
claim, while McKusick went to St. Louis and procured mill irons and
supplies. McKean and Leach operated in the pinery. By April 1, 1844,
the mill was finished and in operation. This was the first frame
building erected in Stillwater. It stood on the lake shore, east of
Main street, lot 8, block 18. The second frame building was McKusick's
boarding house, west of Main street, on block 18. John Allen's family
was the first to locate in Stillwater. Mr. Allen came in the spring of
1844, and subsequently removed to California. The second family was
that of Anson Northrup coming soon after. Mr. Northrup built a public
house on the west side of Main street, just north of Nelson's alley.
Soon afterward came widow Edwards and family from Ohio, relatives of
the Northrups; Mrs. Northrup being a daughter of widow Edwards.
Socrates Nelson came about this time and built the first store in
Stillwater. His family joined him soon afterward. The first marriage
was that of Jesse Taylor and Abbie Edwards, J. W. Furber, Esq.,
officiating justice. The second marriage was that of William Cove to
Nancy Edwards in May, 1845. The first white child born was Willie
Taylor, son of Jesse Taylor, in 1845. A daughter, Maud Maria, was born
to Mr. and Mrs. Paul Carli in Dakotah (Schulenburg's addition to
Stillwater), in 1843.

Stillwater derives its name from its appropriate location on the banks
of the still waters of Lake St. Croix. A post office was established
in 1845, and Elam Greely was appointed postmaster. The first business
partnership was that of the saw mill company, already noted. We give
here in full the articles of agreement as the first written and the
oldest on record in Washington county. This document is important not
only as fixing a date for the origin or founding of Stillwater, but as
an important event, as it thus early laid the foundation of the future
prosperity of the city, and indicated the direction in which its
energies should be chiefly turned:


[_Copy of Agreement._]

This agreement, made and entered into this twenty-sixth day of
October, Anno Domini eighteen hundred and forty-three, by the
following named individuals, viz.: John McKusick, Elias McKean, Elam
Greely, and Calvin F. Leach, for the purpose of building a saw mill
near the head of Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin Territory, and for carrying
on the lumbering business in all its various branches.

_Article first_--It is understood by this agreement, that the
heretofore named individuals form themselves into a company to
continue and exist by the name of the Stillwater Lumber Company.

_Article second_--It is agreed to by the heretofore named individuals,
that the whole amount of property owned and business done by the
aforesaid company shall be included in fifteen shares, and to be
divided and owned by each individual of the aforesaid company as
follows, viz.: John McKusick, five-fifteenths; Elias McKean,
three-fifteenths; Elam Greely, four-fifteenths; and Calvin F. Leach,
three-fifteenths.

_Article third_--It is furthermore understood, that each proprietor of
the aforesaid company shall pay his proportion of all the expenses
arising from all the business done or transacted by the aforesaid
company, and to continue the same ratio, so long a time as said
company shall exist and continue to do business under the present
form, and likewise any gain or loss, arising or accruing from any or
all of the business done by the aforesaid company, shall be shared or
sustained by each proprietor of the aforesaid company, in the same
ratio as above named, in proportion to each above named proprietor's
share of stock owned in the aforesaid company.

_Article fourth_--It is furthermore agreed to, that the whole amount
of money or property that each or either of the proprietors of the
aforesaid company shall invest, advance, or pay for the benefit or use
of the aforesaid company, the same amount shall be credited to the
separate credit of the proprietor or either of the proprietors of the
aforesaid company making such investments, on the books of accounts
kept by the aforesaid company.

_Article fifth_--It is furthermore understood, that for the amount of
money or property that any one of the proprietors of the aforesaid
company shall invest, advance, or pay for the benefit or use of the
aforesaid company, more than his proportional share of the whole
amount of money or property invested by the aforesaid company, the
same amount of money, with interest, shall be paid or refunded back to
said proprietor by the aforesaid company, out of the first proceeds
arising from the business done by the company aforesaid.

_Article sixth_--It is furthermore understood, that in case any one of
the aforesaid proprietors should at any time hereafter be disposed to
sell, transfer or dispose of his share of stock owned in the aforesaid
company, he shall first pay to said company all the liabilities or
indebtedness of said share of stock, and then give said company the
preference of purchasing and owning said share of stock, at the same
rates by which said proprietor may have an opportunity to sell said
shares of stock.

_Article seventh_--It is furthermore understood that the proprietors
of the aforesaid company, individually, shall have no right, or power,
to sign any obligation or due bill, make any contract, or transact any
business of importance in the name of, or binding on, the aforesaid
company, except some one proprietor of the aforesaid company should
hereafter be fully authorized by the aforesaid company to act and
transact business as agent for the aforesaid company.

In testimony whereof, we hereunto set our hands and seals this
twenty-sixth day of October, Anno Domini eighteen hundred and
forty-three.

JOHN MCKUSICK,
ELAM GREELY,
ELIAS MCKEAN,
C. F. LEACH.

Attest: C. SIMONDS.

This agreement and dates are taken from the original book of records
in the possession of John McKusick.

After this agreement was signed, until Mr. McKusick became the sole
owner, the business was conducted by mutual agreement, there being no
constituted agent, except in case of an emergency.

The mill boarding house, a two story building, erected in 1845, was
burned in 1846, and immediately rebuilt. In 1846 J. H. Brewster built
a small store. McKusick's store was built the same year, on the
southwest corner of Main and Myrtle streets. Some smaller buildings
were erected this year.

In 1845 a verbal agreement was made with regard to land claims, by
which Brown's claim was recognized as extending along the lake shore
north of Battle Hollow, where the Minnesota state prison now stands.
South of Battle Hollow, along the lake shore to Nelson, extending
three-fourths of a mile west, was the claim of the mill company,
originally held by Fisher. South of Nelson's alley, one-half mile down
the lake, three-fourths of a mile west, was S. Nelson's claim. When
the government survey was made these claims and lines were amicably
adjusted and confirmed. A congressional law was in existence making
provisions for villages and cities built on unsurveyed lands, that
such lands should be equitably divided and surveyed into lots, and the
actual settler or occupant should be protected in his rights.

In May, 1846, a desire was expressed by citizens of St. Paul and
Stillwater for the opening of new roads between these cities. The
traveled road up to that time was by Haskell's and Bissell's Mounds.
Louis Roberts and the writer examined a route by White Bear lake. A
road was established south of this route in June.

In July I started up the St. Croix river with Joseph Brewster, in a
batteau, to put up hay for Elam Greely on Kanabec river. We poled our
batteau with outfit and camped where now stands the village of
Franconia. The next morning early we entered the picturesque Dalles of
the St. Croix, then cordelled our boat over Baker's falls, and landed
at the village of St. Croix Falls. This village, the first American
settlement on the St. Croix, had one large mill with six saws. The
water power was utilized by means of a permanent dam with massive
piers. A warehouse was perched in a romantic situation amidst the
cliffs of the Dalles and furnished with a tramway or wooden railway
extending to the summit of the cliffs, for the transportation of
goods. A boarding house dubbed the "Barlow House," another the "Soap
Grease Exchange," and a few small tenement houses, constituted the
village. The leading business men were James Purinton, Wm. Holcombe,
Joseph Bowron and Lewis Barlow. We spent half a day in making a
portage around the St. Croix falls. The wind being fair, on the third
day we sailed as far as Sunrise island. At Wolf creek we passed an
Indian trading post. In front of Sunrise island and on the west side
of the St. Croix river, a little below the mouth of Sunrise river,
stood the trading post of Maurice M. Samuels, long known as one of the
most remarkable and notorious men on the frontier. He was a Jew, but
had married a Chippewa woman, claiming that he had married one of his
own people, the Indians being, according to his theory, descendants of
the Lost Tribes of Israel.

On the sixth day we came to the farm of Jeremiah Russell, on Pokegama
lake. We found him a pleasant gentleman, engaged as an Indian farmer.
We paddled across the lake to the Presbyterian mission. Mr. Boutwell,
the superintendent, was absent. The mission was pleasantly located,
the management was excellent, the crops were in fair condition, and
well cultivated. Everything about the mission betokened good
management. Next day we went to a hay meadow opposite the mouth of
Ground House creek, where we put up on this and adjacent meadows sixty
tons of hay. We left on the twenty-fourth, camping the first night at
Chengwatana. On the morning of the twenty-fifth, while passing down
Kanabec river, our ears were greeted with some most horrible and
unearthly noises. On turning a bend in the river we saw a large body
of Indians cutting indescribable antics, in the river and on the
shore, chasing each other, reeling and staggering to and fro, yelling
and firing guns. They seemed a lot of Bedlamites turned out as if to
dispute our passage down the river. Pass them now we must. It was too
late to retreat. Our batteau was light. I was in the bow, Brewster was
in the stern. The yelling and uproar grew each moment more horrible.
Brewster said: "Keep the bow in the best water and pass them in a
hurry." He was of great strength; every set of his pole would almost
lift the boat from the water. While we were passing several guns were
leveled at us, but such was the noise that if any were fired we did
not hear them. We were glad when we passed out of range and hearing.
While passing we caught a glimpse of the cause of the unusual
disturbance, some whisky barrels, and drunken savages around them,
staggering, fighting or lying on the ground in drunken stupor. Landing
at Samuels' camp, we learned of him that one Myers had hidden a couple
of barrels of whisky on Kanabec river, that the Indians had found
them, and the jollification we had witnessed would last till the
whisky was all gone. We arrived at Stillwater without further
adventure.

In July I made another visit to Prairie du Chien. The mail packet for
Fort Snelling, on which I expected to return, broke her shaft and
returned to St. Louis for repairs. The postmaster at Prairie du Chien
offered me seventy dollars to carry the mail to the Fort, which offer
I accepted. I bought a skiff, blankets and provisions, hired one man
and started. We poled, paddled and rowed against a strong current, the
low water compelling us to keep near the centre of the river. We
arrived at Bully Wells' on Lake Pepin on the fifth evening and
politely asked the privilege of stopping with him and were promptly
refused. It was raining very hard at the time. We drew our skiff up on
the shore, turned it over for a shelter, and crawled beneath it with
the mail. As it was a cold, wet night, we suffered severely. As we
were passing an island above Red Wing, the day following, we saw some
Sioux Indian wigwams, and, as we had no firewater and no food to spare
we kept close to the opposite shore. We were, however, observed. An
Indian appeared on the shore near the wigwams and beckoned to us to
cross over. We made no reply but kept steadily on our course,
observing, meanwhile, that the Indian, with his gun, was skulking
along through the brush, apparently bent on overtaking and waylaying
us. We kept a respectful distance, and fortunately were able to
increase it, but not till we were beyond rifle shot did we dare to
pause for rest. That night we camped without striking a light, and
next day arrived at Point Douglas. I went no further. The hardship and
exposure of this trip brought on a severe illness. Mr. David Hone, at
whose house I remained for two weeks, under the care of Dr. Carli, of
Stillwater, took the mail to Fort Snelling. Soon as able I returned to
Stillwater.

In May of this year I had made a claim of government unsurveyed land,
covering springs sufficient for a water power. While I was sick at
Point Douglas, Joseph Brewster, Martin Mower and David B. Loomis
formed a company to build a mill and carry on a logging business. They
had agreed upon me as a fourth partner and to build on my claim; Mower
and Loomis to attend to getting logs, Brewster and Folsom to build the
mill. We moved to our claim Oct. 6, 1846, and went to work in earnest.
We agreed upon the name of Arcola for the new settlement. The mill was
not finished until April 3, 1847, at which time Brewster and Folsom
sold out their interest and returned to Stillwater.


STILLWATER IN 1846.

Living in Stillwater, Jan. 1, 1846, were the following married men:
Cornelius Lyman, Socrates Nelson, Walter R. Vail, Robert Kennedy,
Anson Northrup, Albert Harris, John E. Mower, William E. Cove, John
Smith, and W. H. C. Folsom. Among the unmarried men were: John
McKusick, C. Carli, Jacob Fisher, Elam Greely, Edward Blake, Elias
McKean, Calvin F. Leach, Martin Mower, David B. Loomis, Albion
Masterman, John Morgan, Phineas Lawrence, Joseph Brewster, John
Carlton, Thomas Ramsdell, William Rutherford, William Willim, Charles
Macey, and Lemuel Bolles.

Here follows a list of the pioneers of the St. Croix valley, in 1846,
not mentioned elsewhere: Nelson Goodenough, who became a river pilot
and settled at Montrose, Iowa; James Patten, Hugh McFadden, Edwin
Phillips, a millwright, an ingenious, eccentric man, who left the
valley in 1848; Joseph Brewster, who left in 1848, and settled in
Earlville, Illinois; Sylvester Stateler, blacksmith, who removed to
Crow Wing county, Minnesota, and O. H. Blair, who followed lumbering,
a man of talent, but eccentric. He died in 1878. The first school was
taught in 1846, by Mrs. Ariel Eldridge, formerly Sarah Louisa Judd.
The second school was taught in 1847, by Mrs. Greenleaf; the third in
1848, by Wm. McKusick. A school house was built in 1848. Rev. W. T.
Boutwell, a Presbyterian minister, preached occasionally in the
reception room of Northrup's hotel. Rev. Eleazer Greenleaf, an
Episcopalian, came the next summer and established regular services.
Prior to the organization of Stillwater, Rev. J. Hurlbut, a Methodist
minister, had preached in Dakotah, St. Croix Falls and Marine, but
organized no societies.

The winter of 1845-46 was very open. All teaming business was done on
wheels, except for a few days in December, in which there was snow
enough for sledding. A new feature in the trade of the valley this
year was the rafting and running of logs to St. Louis.

In December, 1845, Dr. Borup, of La Pointe, and others went by ice and
overland with teams to Prairie du Chien, I accompanying them. The
first day we came to Point Douglas, at the confluence of the St. Croix
and the Mississippi. Between Stillwater and Point Douglas, on the
route we followed, some distance west of the lake, we found but one
settler, Joseph Haskell. At Point Douglas there were David Hone, a
hotel keeper; Hertzell & Burris, merchants, and Wm. B. Dibble, farmer.
We reached Red Wing the second day. At this place lived the famous
Jack Frazier, a Sioux half-breed and Indian trader, one Presbyterian
missionary, Rev. ---- Denton, and a man named Bush. James Wells, more
familiarly known as "Bully Wells," lived with an Indian squaw on the
west shore of Lake Pepin, where stands the town of Frontenac. On the
third day we went as far as Wabasha, on the west side, three miles
below Lake Pepin, where we found several French families. We stopped
at Cratt's hotel. On the fourth day we reached Holmes' Landing, now
Fountain City. There were then but two houses, both unoccupied. About
noon we passed Wabasha prairie, now the site of Winona. It was then
covered with Indian tepees. At Trempealeau, in the evening of the
fifth day, we found two French families. On the next day we reached La
Crosse and found there two American families. Two days more brought us
to Prairie du Chien. On the way we passed a few French families, and
these, with those previously named, constituted the entire white
population between Stillwater and Prairie du Chien.

We started on our return with four two horse teams. We took the river
road, passing over the ice. In our company was one Tibbetts, from Fort
Crawford, and Jonathan E. McKusick, emigrating from Maine to St. Croix
valley. They were a social, jovial pair. At Capilaux bluff, Dibble's
team was ahead, and my team second. At this place all halted to allow
the thirsty an opportunity of liquoring up, which was done at the rear
team. Dibble, in going back, left his team unfastened, and while he
was "smiling" with his jovial companions the team ran away. The horses
soon broke loose from the sled. One horse made for the shore, the
other plunged into an air hole in the ice. The entire company rushed
to the rescue, and with ropes and poles managed, at last, to float the
horse upon the ice in an unconscious condition. All the whisky left by
the "smiling" throng was poured down the horse's throat, but in vain.
The animal was dead. No other event of interest occurred except some
difficulties experienced in the transportation of the first cat ever
brought to Stillwater. "Tom" was caged in a narrow box, and the
confinement so chafed his proud spirit that he sickened and at one
time was reported dead. At the inquest held over his remains by Capt.
McKusick, signs of life were discovered, and by liberal blood-letting
the cat was restored to consciousness and lived several years
afterward, a terror to the rats in Stillwater.


STILLWATER IN 1847.

For about a year the writer had been officiating as justice of the
peace with but little official business, but now and then a marriage
to celebrate. On one occasion I walked to Marine to marry W. C. Penny
to Jane McCauslin. The marriage was celebrated at Burkelo's boarding
house. The wedding supper consisted of cold water and cold pork and
beans. The following morning I did not wait for breakfast but returned
to Stillwater as I had come, on foot. Another day I rode to Bissell's
Mounds and united in marriage John Kenny and a mulatto woman. Friend
Kennedy threatened to disown me for thus aiding miscegenation. "Such
things are intolerable," he said, but from aught I have ever known to
the contrary the couple were well assorted.


TERRITORIAL ELECTION.

On the sixth day of April an election was held for the ratification or
rejection of the constitution adopted by the late territorial
convention for the anticipated state government; also a resolution
relative to negro suffrage, and an election was ordered for sheriff.
The vote resulted as follows:

For the constitution, 65; against, 61. For equal suffrage to colored
persons, 1; against, 126. For sheriff, Walter R. Vail, 58; W. H. C.
Folsom, 72.

There were five precincts that held elections--Stillwater, St. Paul,
Gray Cloud, Marine, and St. Croix Falls.

I immediately gave bonds and qualified as sheriff, and the same day
took charge of two criminals, Chippewa Indians, who had been committed
by me for murder, while acting as justice. I had previously deputized
Ham Gates to take care of them. While in Stillwater they were confined
in the basement of the post office building. Their names were Nodin
and Ne-she-ke-o-ge-ma. The latter was the son-in-law of Nodin. They
were very obedient and tractable, and I treated them kindly, for which
Nodin repeatedly told me he would show me a copper mine on Kanabec
river. Nodin died not long after his trial, and before he could redeem
his promise. The copper mine is yet undiscovered. Fort Snelling was,
at that time, the receptacle for criminals in this region, and to the
Fort I carried these prisoners with a team,--Ham Gates being
driver,--unshackled, unbound, my only weapon a pistol without a lock.
In May I summoned jurors and visited Kanabec river to procure
witnesses in the case against Nodin and Ne-she-ke-o-ge-ma for the
murder of Henry Rust. The first night I stopped with B. F. Otis, on
the St. Croix, where Taylors Falls is now situated. On the second day
I crossed the river and proceeded up the east side to Wolf creek,
thence crossing to the west side, up as far as Sunrise river. There
was no inhabitant, Samuels having vacated his shanty. I crossed the
river with great difficulty. The water was high, the current was
strong and swift, and I could not swim. I found a fallen tree, partly
under water, cut a pole, waded out as far as I could into the current,
and then by the aid of the pole floated down some distance, until by
pawing and splashing I was able to reach the other shore. That night I
stopped with an old Indian trader, Mr. Connor, who, with his Indian
wife, welcomed me to his bark shanty, divided into rooms by handsome
mats, and made me quite comfortable. He had plenty of good food, and
entertained me besides by a fund of anecdotes, incidents in Indian
history, and adventures of traders, trappers and missionaries in the
Lake Superior and St. Croix region. He was a very intelligent and
genial man. Next day I went to Russell's farm, paddled a canoe to
Ground House river, and traveled thence on foot to Ann river, where I
found the parties of whom I was in quest, Greely, Colby, Otis and
others, a jolly log driving crew, with whom I spent a very pleasant
evening. On the return journey, about two miles above the mouth of
Ground House river, I saw the ruins of the trading house in which
Henry Rust was killed. Rust, at the time of his murder, was selling
whisky for Jack Drake. Rev. W. T. Boutwell gives the following account
of the murder: "In the winter of '46 and '47 I visited the camps of
Kent & True and Greely & Blake. On one occasion I met Rust, and asked
him to come and hear me preach. He did not attend. On this day I
preached at three camps. On the following night, at Greely's camp,
came a midnight visitor with word that Rust had been shot.
Seventy-five men armed themselves with all kinds of weapons, proceeded
to the scene of the tragedy, removed the body of Rust and all
valuables from the house, knocked out the heads of two whisky barrels
and fired the house, the whisky greatly aiding the combustion. I
removed the body to Pokegama and buried it there. Forty men attended
the funeral. They held a meeting and resolved to clear the country of
whisky. They commenced by destroying two barrels of it for Jarvis. He
begged hard for his whisky, saying he was a poor man, and in debt to
Frank Steele at Fort Snelling. The response was, 'Out with your
whisky,' and it was destroyed before his eyes. The whisky of two other
trading stations followed. For a brief period there was peace, but the
whisky soon put in an appearance again."

The first term of district court held in Minnesota, then Wisconsin,
was convened in Stillwater, the county seat of St. Croix county, June
1st. It was held in the upper story of John McKusick's store,
southwest corner of Maine and Myrtle streets, Hon. Charles Dunn
presiding. The session lasted one week. The bounds of St. Croix county
then included Crawford county, Wisconsin, on the south, Brown county,
Wisconsin, and the Lake Superior country on the east, the region as
far as the British possessions on the north, and to the Mississippi
river on the west. The jurors were found within a circuit of a hundred
miles.

The grand jury was composed of the following gentlemen:

Jonathan McKusick, J. W. Furber, J. L. Taylor, W. R. Brown, Chas.
Cavalier, J. A. Ford, Hazen Mooers, C. Lyman, C. A. Tuttle, Hilton
Doe, Elam Greely, Martin Mower, Jr., Edward Blake, W. B. Dibble,
Harmon Crandall, Jerry Ross, James Saunders, Joseph Brown, J. R.
Irving, J. W. Simpson, John Holton, Pascal Aldrich, and Albert Harris.

Joseph R. Brown acted as clerk of court, Jonathan E. McKusick as
foreman of the grand jury, and Morton S. Wilkinson as prosecuting
attorney.

The attorneys present were: M. S. Wilkinson, of Stillwater; A.
Brunson, of Prairie du Chien; Ben C Eastman, of Platteville, Crawford
and Frank Dunn, of Mineral Point. There were but few civil cases.
Nodin and Ne-she-ke-o-ge-ma were indicted for murder, tried and
acquitted on the ground that the killing was the result of a drunken
brawl.

This season, in addition to attending to my duties as sheriff, I went
to St. Louis with a raft of logs. The steamer War Eagle, Capt. Smith
Harris, towed through the two lakes, St. Croix and Pepin, a fleet
containing ten acres of logs. During the winter of 1847-8, I was
engaged in logging. It was difficult to get supplies to the pineries
before the swamps were frozen over. This season my goods were taken by
batteaus from Stillwater to Clam lake.


AMUSEMENTS.--SOCIETY BALL IN STILLWATER.

A writer in the Stillwater _Lumberman_, April 23, 1877, gives a
sketchy account of an old time ball, from which we select a few items:

Anson Northrup kept what we called a first class hotel. If a man had
blankets he could spread them upon the floor and sleep till the bell
rang. If he had none he spread himself on the floor and paid for his
lodging by tending stove and keeping the dogs from fighting. It was
one of the aristocratic rules of the house that a man who slept in
blankets was not to be disturbed by dogs.

At one time our popular landlord got up a ball. He sent round a copper
colored card,--a half-breed Indian boy,--to tell all the folks to
come. Everybody was invited. At the appointed hour they began to
assemble. Soon all in town arrived except one Smith. Frequent
inquiries were made for Smith, and at last a deputation was sent to
inquire the cause of his absence; when it transpired that he had
broken his leg. He said he was helping the landlord roll a barrel of
whisky from the landing when the barrel slipped, and, rolling back on
his leg, broke it. Northrup said that he had bet him one gallon of
whisky that he could not lift the barrel to his lips and drink from
the bung. In attempting to do this the barrel had slipped from his
grasp with the result before mentioned. The wife regretted the
accident very much, and said that if it had not been for that barrel
of whisky, or some other whisky, they might have both attended the
dance. She could have put out the fire, locked up the house, tied up
the dog and taken her nine days' old baby with her. "There would be
younger babies at the dance," she said.

Everything was ready. The ball opened with three "French fours," or
two over. They danced a French two, the music consisting of one old
violin with three strings, played by a half-breed from St. Croix
Falls. He played but one tune and called it, "Off she goes to
Miramachee." This carried a "French four" well enough, but when we
danced a cotillion or hornpipe there was a great deal of rolling
around instead of dancing. We often called for a new tune. "Oh, yes,
gentlemen, you shall have him," but when we got him it was the same
old "Off she goes." He worked hard to please the company and the sweat
rolled down his manly cheeks like the droppings from the eaves of a
saw mill; but all this would not do; it was the same old "Off she
goes." There were twenty-four couples at the ball. The ladies brought
with them their babies, fourteen in number, and ranging from six weeks
to six months old. The night passed merrily, uproariously, but without
tragic incident. The fiddler became at last so tipsy that he could no
longer play "Off she goes to Miramachee," and staggered off to that
locality himself. The only thing direful occurred at the breaking up,
about five o'clock in the morning. The fourteen babies had been laid
to sleep on a bed, but some malevolent genius during the dance mixed
them up and changed their wraps, so that the mothers, in the hurry of
their departure, gathered and took home with them each one some other
mother's darling, and this deponent saith not that the snarl has ever
been untangled and the babies restored to their rightful mothers.

With the year 1848 a new era dawned upon Stillwater and the valley of
the St. Croix. Great changes had taken place in the little town. There
were many new citizens, new buildings had been erected and the streets
were much improved. Slabs had been placed over the quagmires on Main
street. A stage route had been established to St. Paul, on which
stages ran regularly. This was the first stage route in Minnesota.

The correction lines of the government survey had been run in 1846-7,
chiefly in the latter year. Township, range and section lines were run
in 1847, and in the early part of 1848. Prior to this claims had been
made and were held subject to the limitations of the first legal
survey. The creation of the new state of Wisconsin and the
prospective organization of Minnesota Territory, the development of
the lumbering business and the formal opening of the government lands
to entry, gave an impetus to immigration. Stillwater profited largely
by this immigration, it being an objective point. Population
increased. The village was regularly surveyed and platted in the fall
of 1848, Harvey Wilson, surveyor. Stillwater, although it never
aspired to be the future capital of the Territory, became a
headquarters for political characters and a place for public meetings
for the discussions of territorial and other public questions. It was
convenient of access, and contained up to that time a greater
population than was to be found in St. Paul, and it seemed likely to
become the commercial metropolis of the Territory.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] For the facts in this history I am indebted to John McKusick,
Jacob Fisher, Elias McKean, and Elam Greely.



CHAPTER III.


BIOGRAPHIES.

JOSEPH RENSHAW BROWN, one of the best known of the pioneers, came to
Dakotah, Schulenberg's addition, in 1839. For items in his history I
am personally indebted to him. He was born in 1805, and, when old
enough, apprenticed to a printer. On account of ill treatment he ran
away and enlisted in the United States army at the age of fourteen
years, serving as a drummer boy. He came with the army to the
Northwest Territory in 1819. After enlistment he made his first home
at Gray Cloud on the Mississippi, where he married a half-breed woman.
Wisconsin history says she was the daughter of Robert Dickson, Indian
trader and friend of the English in 1812. He learned and spoke the
Chippewa and Sioux languages fluently. In 1839 he founded the town of
Dakotah, at the head of Lake St. Croix, and erected some log
buildings. Through his influence, in part, St. Croix county was
organized, and the county seat located in Dakotah.

He built here a two story log court house, which, the county failing
to pay for, was left upon his hands. He kept a trading station, was
clerk of the county court and county commissioner. He filled several
offices of trust and was by far the most important and universally
serviceable man in the new county of St. Croix. In 1843 he left
Dakotah, and returning to Gray Cloud, continued his Indian trade at
that point and further west by means of branch houses. He was a member
of the territorial Wisconsin legislature two sessions at Madison. He
returned to Stillwater in 1848, left again in 1849, and in 1850
removed to St. Paul, where, in 1852, he purchased of Mr. Goodhue the
_Pioneer_, then the leading Democratic paper of the Territory. Mr.
Brown was chief clerk in the Minnesota territorial legislature during
the sessions of 1849, 1850 and 1851. In 1854 and 1855 he was a member
of the territorial council. In 1857 he was a member of the Democratic
wing of the constitutional convention. During his residence in St.
Paul he was interested in building up the town of Henderson, to which
place he ran a stage line from St. Paul. About this time, also, he
busied himself with the invention of a steam wagon, calculated to
traverse the western plains and drag after it trains of cars.
Financial and other difficulties prevented the completion of his
design, which, however, he never entirely abandoned during the
remainder of his life. In fact he went East in 1870 expressly to get
his invention perfected, but from this journey he never returned. He
died somewhat suddenly in New York in that year.

Mr. Brown was a man of iron will and muscular frame. He owed but
little to schools, but was a close observer of men and of the times in
which he lived. He was a genial companion and true friend, and a man
of honorable principles. His was a rugged but generous nature. He was
public spirited, far seeing and far reaching in his plans. He believed
in the great Northwest. He predicted its future greatness as a wheat
growing and agricultural country, and, as far back as 1839, predicted
that a great city would rise at the head of Lake St. Croix or at the
Falls of St. Anthony. Yet so little schooled was he in the wisdom of
the speculator that he sold the property in St. Paul now known as
Kittson's addition, and worth several millions of dollars, for one
hundred and fifty dollars, and a lot on Third street, now valued at
$25,000, for a box of cigars.

PAUL CARLI.--Mr. Carli was of German and Italian descent. He was born
in Italy, July 25, 1805. His father was a merchant. He was married in
Chicago, in 1834, to a sister of Joseph R. Brown, and moved in 1841 to
the outlet of Bolles creek, on the west side of Lake St. Croix, to a
place near the site of Afton. In 1846 he was accidentally drowned in
the lake, within sight of his dwelling. His children, Joseph R. and
Maria, are residents of Stillwater.

CHRISTOPHER CARLI, brother of Paul, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main,
Germany, Dec. 7, 1811. The youth of Christopher was devoted to study.
He was educated at Heidelberg University, and studied medicine. He
came to America in February, 1832. The March following he located in
Buffalo, where he practiced medicine three years, and returned to
Europe where he remained two years. Returning to America, he practiced
a year in Chicago, a year in New Orleans and another year in Chicago.
He came to Dakotah, St. Croix valley, May 24, 1841. March 12, 1847, he
was married to the widow of Paul Carli, Joseph R. Brown officiating as
magistrate. He was the first practicing physician north of Prairie du
Chien. His home was at Dakotah until the organization of Stillwater.
He opened his first office on the west side of Lower Main street,
block 28. His practice extended from Lake Pepin to Lake Superior and
from Menomonie Mills, Wisconsin, to the Mississippi river. His mode of
travel was by birch canoe, on horseback, on skates and on foot. He was
a member of the first city council in Stillwater and has been city and
county physician. He opened the first bank in Stillwater when
fractional currency was in demand. His floating scrip was all
redeemed. Two children, Christopher and Socrates N., are married and
residents of Stillwater. Dr. Carli died Nov. 6, 1887.

LYDIA ANN CARLI.--Mrs. Carli has passed through many stirring scenes,
and is one of the first female settlers in the St. Croix valley. A
fluent and interesting talker, her recitals of early incidents and
adventures are heart enlivening. Lydia Ann Brown was born in
Lancaster, Penn., March 18, 1818. In 1834 she came with friends to
Chicago, where in 1839 she was married to Paul Carli. She came to
Dakotah in 1841, and lived there until 1844. The village was
surrounded by Indians and there was no white woman nearer than Marine,
twelve miles distant. In 1844 the Carlis removed to the mouth of
Bolles creek, near Afton, on Lake St. Croix, where they built
themselves a two story house commanding a picturesque view of the lake
and the adjacent prairies and hills. It was a lone tenement, midway
between Prescott and Stillwater. Mrs. Carli having lost her husband as
before narrated, in 1847 was married to his brother, Dr. Christopher
Carli.

[Illustration: James S. Anderson]

PHINEAS LAWRENCE.--But little is known of the early life of Mr.
Lawrence. He had been a river pilot. He was the first sheriff elected
in the St. Croix valley, or northwest of Prairie du Chien. He was
elected and qualified in 1841. On serving the first and only summons
he was ever called upon to serve, he approached the party summoned,
holding up to view the documents, and exclaimed: "I, Phineas Lawrence,
high sheriff of St. Croix county, in the name of the United States and
of the Immaculate God, command you to surrender." He was a robust,
fleshy, cheerful man, and felt in all their force the responsibilities
of the position in which he was placed. His name has been given to a
creek in Chisago county, where he once logged. He died in Stillwater
in 1847.

JACOB FISHER.--Jacob Fisher, a millwright, came to St. Croix Falls in
1842, and being a skilled mechanic found employment at once on the old
mill at the Falls. He made the first land claim and framed the first
building in Stillwater. The building framed was the mill of which
mention has been made. This establishes his claim to priority as the
first white man who made a movement toward the settlement of
Stillwater. Others were before him in the settlement of Dakotah or
Schulenberg's addition. Mr. Fisher is a plain, frank, outspoken man,
who has no trouble in making his hearers understand exactly what he
means. He was born in Canada in 1813, and still resides in Stillwater.
He has a wife and one son in California.

JAMES S. ANDERSON was born at Marshalltown, West Virginia, on the
fourth of February, 1826. When he was twelve years old his parents
removed with him to Burlington, Iowa, where he lived for eight years.
He came to Stillwater in 1846, where he has since resided. In 1852 he
was married to Miss Harriet T. McDonald, at St. Louis, by whom he has
had four children, three of whom are now living--Robert M. Anderson,
prominently known in lumber circles, and Misses Sibella S. and Ella P.
Anderson. Upon Mr. Anderson's arrival at Stillwater, he engaged in the
employ of Elias McKean, then a prominent lumberman, now a resident of
Washington county. In 1869 Mr. Anderson formed a partnership with
William McKusick, John A. Nelson and Alexander Johnson, under the firm
name of McKusick, Anderson & Co., which firm built and operated the
large saw mill opposite Stillwater. Four years ago Mr. McKusick
retired from the firm, since which time the firm has been J. S.
Anderson & Co. In 1874 Mr. Anderson became the senior member of a
heavy logging firm known as Anderson & O'Brien, of which the other
members were the well known lumbermen J. S. and John O'Brien. In
connection with his other business interests Mr. Anderson was a heavy
owner of pine lands, and a stockholder and director in the Lumberman's
National Bank. There were two other well known lumber firms of ancient
date with which he was connected, and these were McComb, Simpson &
Co., organized in 1850, and also Delano, McKusick & Co., organized in
1857. From 1857 to 1869 he was also a heavy logger alone. Mr. Anderson
died May 8, 1885. His death resulted from a mill accident, his rubber
coat having caught in the belting of a shaft revolving at a rapid
rate. His body was frightfully mangled, but he survived two days,
exhibiting, under the circumstances, the most remarkable composure,
dictating his will and arranging his business matters as calmly as he
might have done on an ordinary occasion.

EMANUEL DIXON FARMER was born in Tennessee in 1828, and came to
Stillwater in 1845, where he has resided ever since, engaged in the
lumbering and saloon business. He was married to Parmelia A. Collier,
in Stillwater, 1848.

COL. JOHN GREELY.--Col. Greely was sixty years of age when he came to
the West, and although a strong, active and enterprising man in the
earlier part of his life, owing to advancing years and ill health was
rather a spectator than an active participant in the stirring scenes
of his new home. He was born at Southampton, Massachusetts, April,
1777. He was married to Hannah Greely, a second cousin, at Hopkinton,
New Hampshire, Oct. 5, 1801. He followed the lumbering business on the
Merrimac river in early life. He furnished the timber used in erecting
the first factory in Lowell, Massachusetts, cut on the mountains of
North New Hampshire. In after life he moved to the west end of Sebec
lake, Maine, where he founded the town at first named Greely, but
afterward Willimantic, now the site of extensive manufactories where
the famous Willimantic thread is made. Col. Greely came to Stillwater
in 1847.

Born during the Revolutionary struggle, he lived to witness the
marvelous growth and prosperity of his country and died during the
first year of the war of the Rebellion. Aged as he was, having entered
upon his eighty-fifth year, he was intensely interested in the issue
of that struggle, and ardently desired to live long enough to witness
the triumph of his country's cause. It was not to be. He sank
peacefully to rest, Oct. 30, 1861, dying as he had lived, an honest
man, his memory revered by all who knew him, and cherished by three
generations of descendants. His children were three sons and five
daughters--Sarah, Mrs. Blake, Mrs. Greenleaf, and Phebe and Servia,
wives of John McKusick. Miss Sarah alone survives.

MRS. HANNAH GREELY.--Mrs. Greely, the wife of Col. John Greely, was
born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, October, 1787, came to Stillwater in
1847 and died May, 1878, at the advanced age of ninety years. For
sixty years she and her husband walked side by side. She survived him
seventeen years, and, after a life well spent, resignedly folded her
hands and sank to her last repose.

ELAM GREELY.--Elam, son of Col. John Greely, was born in Salisbury,
New Hampshire, Aug. 13, 1818, and, with his parents, moved to Maine,
where they made their home on Sebec lake. In 1840 Mr. Greely came to
St. Croix Falls, where he was employed by the St. Croix Falls Company
the greater part of the time until 1843, when he became a settler at
the head of Lake St. Croix. He was one of the original owners of the
first mill at Stillwater. In 1844 he sold his interest to John
McKusick. The same year he was appointed postmaster at Stillwater. The
office was located at the southwest corner of Main and Chestnut
streets.

Mr. Greely filled many offices of honor and trust meritoriously. He
was a member of the third and fourth Minnesota territorial councils.
In 1845, in company with Edward Blake, he did an extensive pine log
business, running the logs to St. Louis, in which business he
continued until the death of Mr. Blake in 1848.

Mr. Greely early identified himself with the interests of Stillwater,
of which he was one of the founders, and which owes much of its
prosperity to his efforts. He was married in Kenosha, Wisconsin, in
1850, to Hannah P. Hinman, who, with three children, a son and two
daughters, survives him. His oldest son died Oct. 21, 1876. Mr. Greely
had many severe reverses in business, but by indomitable energy
recovered from them, and was able not only to care for his aged
parents, to bring them from Maine and keep them with him until
separated by death, but to leave his family well provided for. He died
suddenly away from home, Sept. 14, 1883. His body was brought to
Stillwater for burial.

HIMAN GREELY.--Himan, son of Col. John Greely, was born in Franklin,
New Hampshire, October, 1828. He came to Stillwater in 1846, where he
followed the business of lumbering. In 1850 he was married to Lucia
Darling. After a brief residence in Stillwater, he removed to
Beauford, Blue Earth county, where he remained until his death in
1882. His wife survived him but a few months. The bodies of both were
removed and buried in Fairview cemetery, Stillwater. Mr. Greely
applied himself closely to business, and was an honest, upright and
intelligent man. His education was derived chiefly from reading and
observation. He left two sons.

AQUILLA GREELY.--Aquilla, the youngest son of Col. Greely, was born in
Greely, Maine, June, 1831. During his youth he spent several years
with friends in Canada, where he learned the art of surveying. He came
to Minnesota in 1849, and followed surveying and lumbering. He died in
Stillwater, April 25, 1857.

ELIAS MCKEAN.--A thorough business man, an eccentric man, notably so,
an apt man, ready in reply, somewhat harsh, if irritated, but kind in
heart and forgiving in spirit, is Elias McKean. He was born in
Bradford county, Pennsylvania, June 30, 1817, and received a practical
education. His father was a man of some note, and for twenty-eight
years a circuit judge in Pennsylvania. Elias McKean came to St. Croix
Falls in 1841, and for a year was in the employ of the Falls Company,
but afterward engaged successfully in business for himself. He was one
of the original proprietors of the Stillwater mill, and one of the
founders of Stillwater. In 1850 he settled on a farm on the west side
of Lake St. Croix. In 1855 he was married to the widow of Calvin F.
Leach, and a family of six sons has grown up around them.

CALVIN F. LEACH.--We are not able to give date or place of birth. Mr.
Leach came to St. Croix Falls in 1842 and soon after came to the head
of Lake St. Croix, and became one of the original owners of the mill,
and a founder of the city of Stillwater. In 1850 he was married to
Miss ---- Smith, of St. Anthony. He died in St. Louis in 1853. He was
modest and retiring in his demeanor, correct in his deportment and
respected by all his acquaintances.

SOCRATES NELSON.--Mr. Nelson was born in Conway, Massachusetts, Jan.
11, 1814, received an academic education, was married to Mrs. Bertha
D. Bartlett in 1844, at Hennepin, Ill., and the same year came to
Stillwater, and engaged in selling goods. Previous to his removal to
Stillwater he engaged in merchandising in Illinois, in 1839, and in
St. Louis from 1840 to 1844, where he established a trading post on
the Mississippi nearly opposite Reed's Landing, at a place since known
as Nelson's Landing. Mr. Nelson was the first merchant in Stillwater.
His store stood on Main street. He built a substantial dwelling and
lived in it until his death, May 6, 1867. He filled many public
positions, was territorial auditor from 1853 to 1857, and was a
senator in the second state legislature. As a merchant he was very
successful, being fitted by nature for commercial pursuits. In 1853,
he, with others, built a saw mill in South Stillwater and engaged in
lumbering. He was of a free and generous disposition in all his
relations of life. He conveyed, as a donation to Washington county, a
half interest in the block of land on which the court house stands.
His liberality and public spirit did much for the prosperity of
Stillwater. His wife and one daughter, Mrs. Fayette Marsh, survived
him, but Mrs. Marsh died in 1880. She was a woman of great sweetness
of disposition, and beloved by all who knew her. His widow died in
1885.

MRS. SOCRATES NELSON.--Bertha D. was born at Conway, Franklin county,
Massachusetts, Sept. 6, 1813. She was married to Geo. A. Bartlett, of
Conway, in 1838, and removed with him to Knoxville, Illinois, where he
died. She returned to her parents in Massachusetts, and removed with
them to Hennepin, Illinois. In the fall of 1844 she was married to
Socrates Nelson, and came with him to Stillwater. She died Oct. 8,
1885. She was the last of her family, husband and daughter having
preceded her to the world of spirits. The large attendance of old
settlers from Washington county and elsewhere at her funeral, and the
beautiful floral tributes contributed by her friends, attested but
partially the respect and veneration in which she was held.

EDWARD BLAKE.--Of Mr. Blake's early history we have no data. He came
to the St. Croix valley in company with Elam Greely in 1840, engaged
in lumbering, and died in 1849.

WALTER R. VAIL.--Mr. Vail, the second merchant in Stillwater, came
West in 1844. He built a store, with dwelling attached, just south of
Socrates Nelson's store, which buildings are still standing and
occupied (1886). Mr. Vail was not successful in business and moved
away in 1848.

[Illustration: MARTIN MOWER. A PRACTICAL AND SUCCESSFUL LUMBERMAN OF
STILLWATER.]

JOHN E. MOWER.--Mr. Mower was born in Bangor, Maine, Sept. 15, 1815.
He was married to Gratia Remick, in Keokuk, Iowa, in 1842, and removed
to St. Croix Falls, where he entered the employ of the Falls Lumbering
Company. Two years later he removed to Stillwater, where he built the
second frame dwelling, still standing. Mr. Mower was a millwright and
carpenter, but was engaged in lumbering most of his time. He purchased
an interest in the mill property at Arcola, in 1847, which place he
made his home until his death, which occurred June 11, 1879. He left a
widow and three daughters, Helen, wife of the late Louis Torinus;
Emily, wife of Henry Van Voorhees; and Mary, wife of ---- Richardson.
One son died after arriving at manhood. Mr. Mower was a pleasant,
reliable man, a kind husband and loving father. He was honored by his
fellow citizens with an election to the fifth and sixth territorial
councils, and to the seventeenth state legislature (house). The
territorial legislature affixed his name to a county.

MARTIN MOWER.--Martin, brother of John E. Mower, came to St. Croix
Falls in 1842, and worked in the employ of the Falls Company.
Afterward he engaged in lumbering and became one of the original
proprietors of the Arcola mill. He was also engaged in manufacturing
and merchandising in Stillwater. He built a fine block of buildings on
Chestnut street, recently burned down and rebuilt on a larger scale.
He has been one of the managing owners of the St. Croix Boom Company
from its origin. His business interests have been divided between
Stillwater and Arcola, but he has made the latter place his home since
1846. As a business man he is capable and shrewd, giving close
attention to his business; in his manner somewhat eccentric. He has
done in much to improve the farming and other interests of the
country.

WILLIAM WILLIM.--A firm, consistent, worthy citizen and true friend of
his adopted country is William Willim. He was born in the parish of
Woolhope, Herefordshire, England, June 26, 1821; came to America in
1838, and to Stillwater in 1844. He was married in 1847 to Clara G.
Haskell, and, after her death in 1850, to Joanna W. Hinman. Mr. Willim
is a stonemason, plasterer and contractor. He was a member of the
sixth Minnesota territorial legislature, and has filled many
responsible positions in Stillwater. Mr. Willim's was the first
naturalization that occurred in the limits of Minnesota. The oath of
allegiance, a somewhat unique and original document of its kind, bears
date of June 18, 1847, Stillwater, St. Croix county, Wisconsin
Territory, and is signed by Joseph R. Brown.

ALBERT HARRIS.--Mr. Harris was a native of Maine. He was born in 1815
and married to Miss Greenleaf in 1841, who died in 1853. He came to
Stillwater in 1845, where he died in 1856, leaving one daughter, wife
of the late Levi Thompson, attorney at law in Stillwater, and one son
in California. Mr. Harris was a house carpenter and much respected by
his neighbors.

CORNELIUS LYMAN.--Mr. Lyman is of the seventh generation of the Lyman
family that came over from England in 1631. He was born in Brookfield,
Vermont, Aug. 11, 1792. He was married in Brookfield to Betsey Cushman
and came to Illinois at an early date, whence he removed to Marine
Mills, in 1842, where he kept a boarding house until 1844, when he
removed to Stillwater, where he kept a boarding house until 1848. He
then removed to his farm three miles above Stillwater, where, by
industry and economy, aided by his faithful wife, he was able to build
a comfortable home, in which they continued to live until at a good
old age they were removed by death, which claimed them in the same
year, the husband dying January, 1864, and the wife in April. They
were members of the Presbyterian church from early life, and respected
as citizens, honored as Christians. Mrs. Lyman was one of the
excellent of the earth. Mr. Lyman had an inexhaustible fund of humor,
and was rather fond of practical joking. Many of his jokes were of the
rarest description. They left two sons, Cornelius Storrs and David
Pride.

DAVID B. LOOMIS.--Few men have been more active in business and public
life than David B. Loomis. He was born in Wilmington, Connecticut,
April 17, 1817. In 1830 he came with his parents to Alton, Illinois,
where, at the age of fifteen, he engaged as clerk in a store and
served in that capacity five years. Mr. Loomis was in the building in
Alton in which Lovejoy was shot and killed for the expression of
sentiments which the nation has since been compelled to adopt. In 1843
he came to the St. Croix valley and engaged in lumbering. In 1846 he
was one of the four original owners of the Arcola mill, but in 1849
sold his interest to Mr. Mower, and for four succeeding years was in
charge of the St. Croix boom. In 1847 he was surveyor general of logs
and lumber. In 1851 he was a member of the Minnesota territorial
council, and was re-elected in 1853, serving in all four years, during
one of which he was president of the council. In 1853 he was one of a
company that built a mill in South Stillwater. He sold out in 1859. In
1861 he entered the army as lieutenant, Company F, Second Minnesota
Volunteers, and was promoted to a captaincy. He served three and a
half years. Stillwater has been his home since the war. In 1873 he
represented Washington county in the legislature.

WILLIAM E. COVE.--The year of Mr. Cove's birth is not known. He came
to Stillwater in 1844. His marriage to Nancy Edwards, elsewhere noted,
was the second marriage in the village. He was by trade a house
carpenter. He removed to Minneapolis in 1864.

JOHN SMITH.--Of the eight first families, that of John Smith was one.
Of this particular "John Smith" little is known, except that he was
sober and industrious, and, in 1848, moved to parts unknown.

JOHN MORGAN.--We have no account of the early days of Mr. Morgan,
except that he was a native of Pennsylvania. He was living in
Stillwater in 1845, in the employ of Churchill & Nelson. In 1848 he
was elected sheriff of St. Croix county, Wisconsin. In the same year
he was married to Hannah Harnish. He settled on a farm and kept a
"half way house" on the road from Stillwater to St. Paul, when the
pioneer stages of Willoughby & Power were placed on this route. In
1848 he obtained a charter from the Wisconsin legislature for a ferry
across Lake St. Croix at Stillwater. This ferry changed ownership
repeatedly and was discontinued when the bridge was built.

ANSON NORTHRUP.--This gentleman, whose name was borne by the first
steamboat ever launched on the Red River of the North, and who brought
the first drove of cattle through from Illinois to St. Croix Falls,
deserves a conspicuous place in the annals of the Northwest. He was
born in Conewango, Cataraugus county, New York, Jan. 4, 1817. His
education was limited, but he was a man of more than ordinary native
ability and energy. He lived in Ohio some years, and came West in
1838. In 1839 he drove the first herd of cattle through a wilderness
country from the Wisconsin river to the St. Croix. In 1841 he removed
his family from Ohio to St. Croix Falls. He came by way of St. Louis,
from that point embarking on the steamer Indian Queen for the Falls.
The steamer was three weeks making the trip. Above Prairie du Chien
crew and passengers were obliged to cut wood to run the boat. Mr.
Northrup had married Betsey Edwards, daughter of widow Edwards, one of
the pioneers of Stillwater. Charles H., their eldest son, was the
first white child born at St. Croix Falls. In the spring of 1844 he
moved to Stillwater, where he built and kept the first hotel in that
place. From 1847 to 1848 he was part owner of the Osceola saw mill
along with Mahony and Kent. In 1849 he removed to St. Paul, and built
the American Hotel on Third street, east from Seven Corners. In 1851
he removed to St. Anthony Falls and built there the St. Charles Hotel.
In 1853 he removed to Minneapolis, and built the Bushnell House, the
first brick building in the city. Subsequently he became a resident at
Long Prairie, Swan River and Duluth. Although Mr. Northrup's genius
tended chiefly in the direction of hotel building, his abilites in
other directions were beyond question. With equal facility he turned
his hand to lumbering, steamboating and statesmanship. His great
steamboat enterprise was the attempted transfer of the steamer North
Star by water from the Mississippi to the Red River of the North. The
boat was one hundred feet long by twenty wide, and of light draught.
Starting from St. Cloud in the spring of 1859 he performed the
wonderful feat of ascending the Mississippi as far as Pokegama Falls,
hoping to ascend further, and during a high stage of water to float
the boat over the height of land into some of the tributaries of the
Red river. The water was not sufficiently high. The winter following
he took the boat to pieces, and removed it by land to Red river,
opposite the mouth of the Cheyenne, where it was reconstructed and
launched, taken to Fort Garry and afterward sold to Mr. Burbank. This
boat, its name being changed to Anson Northrup, was the first
steamboat on the waters of Red river.

Mr. Northrup's political career commenced and closed with the first
Minnesota legislature, 1857-58, he representing the counties of
Morrison, Crow Wing and Mille Lacs in the senate.

During the Rebellion he served as wagon master. He lived in Texas
three years, returned to St. Paul, where he lived in 1874-75-76, and
now lives in Bismarck, Dakota.

ROBERT KENNEDY.--Mr. Kennedy, in 1839, located at Holmes' Landing, now
Fountain City, on the banks of the Mississippi, above Winona. In 1844
he removed to Dakotah, where he kept a hotel in the old tamarack court
house, built by Joseph R. Brown. In 1846 he kept a hotel in the
Northrup House, Stillwater; in 1848 he kept the American Hotel,
Shakopee. Subsequently he returned to St. Paul and kept a boarding
house, and for three years the hotel known as "Moffett's Castle."
Afterward he kept the Snelling House, and last the Bernard House.
From 1853 to 1856 he was collector of customs for the port of St.
Paul, and during that time the fees amounted to the enormous sum of
forty six dollars and forty-two cents. Mr. Kennedy spent about thirty
years as a landlord, in which capacity he was very popular.

HARVEY WILSON.--Mr. Wilson was born in Corinth, Saratoga county, New
York, December, 1815. He resided in his native county twenty-five
years, then removed to St. Louis, where, for three years, he engaged
in surveying. He came to St. Croix Falls in 1843 and to Stillwater in
1847. He acted as J. R. Brown's deputy clerk of court, June term,
1847. He was appointed clerk of the first Minnesota territorial term
of court, Aug. 13, 1849, in which office he continued until his death,
Nov. 3, 1876. Mr. Wilson was married in 1851 to widow Mary
Stanchfield.

ANDREW JACKSON SHORT.--Mr. Short was born in St. Clair county,
Illinois, in 1818. He came thence to the St. Croix valley and located
at Marine in 1843, and commenced running rafts with W. B. Dibble. In
1857 and 1858 he gathered logs as agent in Lake St. Croix, rafted and
run them below, but lost heavily and was in fact financially wrecked.
He afterward engaged in the logging and hardware business in
Stillwater. In 1868 he built the famous Dudley mills at Point Douglas,
at a cost of $35,000. Mr. Short made Stillwater his home until 1862,
when he removed to Hastings. Much credit is due him for what he has
accomplished. When he came to the St. Croix valley he could neither
read nor write, but by energy, industry and native force of character,
notwithstanding a few reverses, he has done far more than many other
men in his position could have done. As a man he is genial and social.

JAMES D. MCCOMB.--Mr. McComb was born in Washington county,
Pennsylvania, Feb. 13, 1827, came to Stillwater June 10, 1846, and
engaged in mercantile business with John H. Brewster three years, when
he entered the firm of Anderson, McComb & Co., Robert Simpson being
the third member. They did an extensive business for years. They built
the large stone store on the corner of Main and Myrtle streets. Mr.
McComb in 1860 became clerk in the surveyor general's office, which
position he held ten years. He was surveyor general of logs and lumber
four years, his accurate knowledge of the various marks used admirably
fitting him for the position. He served as deputy sheriff in 1846
under James Fisher, of Prairie du Chien, and in 1847 under W. H. C.
Folsom, of Stillwater. Mr. McComb has passed all the degrees in Odd
Fellowship. He was married to Eliza T. McKusick in Stillwater, March
4, 1851. Mrs. McComb died in Stillwater Sept. 17, 1885.

WILLIAM RUTHERFORD.--Mr. Rutherford was born in 1823, in Stanton
county, New York, and came to Stillwater in 1844. He married Christina
J. Holcombe, at Jackson, Mississippi, in 1849. In 1848 he removed to
his farm near Stillwater, where he has since lived. He has been quite
successful as a farmer. Mr. Rutherford died March 15, 1888. His name
will be remembered with honor.

ALBION MASTERSON.--Mr. Masterman has also prospered as a farmer. He
was born in Franklin county, Maine, in 1823; received a common school
education; was married to Eliza Middleton in 1848; came to Stillwater
in 1844, and in 1850 removed thence to his farm, where he died, Aug.
8, 1886. Mr. Masterman's life has been an industrious and exemplary
one.

JOSEPH N. MASTERMAN.--Mr. Masterman came to Stillwater, September,
1848. He engaged in lumbering and scaling continuously. He was born in
Franklin county, Maine, in 1814, and spent his youth at home, but his
education was somewhat limited. At the age of sixteen years he moved
to Schoodic, lived there fourteen years, when he married Alice M.
Prescott, and four years later came to Stillwater. His two sons,
Wellington and Joseph P., reside in Stillwater. Wellington is auditor
of Washington county.

MAHLON BLACK.--Mr. Black is of Scotch descent. His grandfather was a
naval officer during the war of the Revolution, and a soldier in the
war of 1812. Mahlon Black was born in Hamilton county, Ohio, Oct. 4,
1820. He spent his youth on his father's farm, and received a common
school and academic education. When seventeen years of age he began
the study of medicine in Cincinnati Medical College, but did not
complete the course. In 1842 he came to Menomonie Mills, Wisconsin,
and engaged in lumbering until 1846. In 1847 he was connected with
government surveys, and the same year located in Stillwater. He was a
representative in the first, third, and last territorial legislature,
also a member of the extra session in 1857. He was mayor of Stillwater
in 1860-61. In 1862 he enlisted in a company of sharpshooters, which
was assigned to the Army of the Potomac. He was promoted to be
captain, and provost marshal in the second division of the Second Army
Corps, and one of Gen. Gibbon's staff officers. He was in fifty-four
battles and skirmishes, in some of which over 100,000 men were engaged
on each side. He was wounded four times, once severely, by a bayonet
thrust received in a charge at the battle of Petersburgh. He served
until the close of the war, and received a special and honorable
discharge from his commander, Gen. Smyth, on the face of which are
recorded the names of the battles in which he participated. In 1867 he
removed from Stillwater to Minneapolis, where he has held the
positions of land examiner and auditor of Hennepin county. He has the
distinction of being the first Odd Fellow initiated in Minnesota.
Sept. 21, 1850, he was married to Jane M. Stough, of Pennsylvania.

MORTON S. WILKINSON.--The record of Mr. Wilkinson, though brief, is
brilliant. He was born in Skaneateles, Onondaga county, New York, June
22, 1819; received an academic education in his native town; read law;
was admitted to the bar at Syracuse, New York, in 1842; commenced
practice in Eaton Rapids, Michigan, and in 1847 came to Stillwater.
Mr. Wilkinson was the first practicing lawyer northwest of Prairie du
Chien, was the prosecuting attorney at Judge Dunn's court in
Stillwater, June, 1847, and was a member from Washington county of the
first territorial legislature in 1849. He removed to St. Paul in 1850,
to Mankato in 1857, and in 1859 was elected United States senator. In
1860 he was one of the commissioners to compile the state statutes. In
1868 he was elected representative to Congress and at the close of the
term was re-elected. From 1874 to 1877, inclusive, he served as state
senator from Blue Earth county. Mr. Wilkinson is an eloquent and
forcible speaker, and a man of unusual ability, a sound and logical
reasoner, and withal fluent. He has been twice married. His first wife
was a daughter of Rev. Lemuel Nobles, of Michigan. Mrs. Wilkinson died
in Michigan. He married a second wife before coming West. They reside
in Wells, Minnesota.

WILLIAM STANCHFIELD.--Mr. Stanchfield was a native of Maine, born in
the year 1820, was married to Mary Jackins, in Bangor, Maine, in 1840,
and came to Stillwater in 1846, where he engaged in keeping a hotel on
Main street, which was burned while he was in charge. Mr. Stanchfield
died in 1850, leaving a widow who subsequently married Harvey Wilson,
and an infant daughter, who became, years after, the wife of George
Davis.

THOMAS RAMSDELL.--Mr. Ramsdell was born at Falmouth, England, Dec. 28,
1820. He married in England and came to this country with his wife in
1843. He settled in Stillwater in 1844, and removed to his farm in
1846, where he has been successful in raising apples and smaller
fruits. His wife died in 1851. His second wife was Jane Willey. Mr.
Ramsdell has been a quiet, good citizen, reliable and trustworthy.

CHARLES MACY.--An orphan at thirteen years of age, Mr. Macy's early
life was full of changes, adventures and vicissitudes. He was born in
Canada East in 1821. He lived a somewhat wandering life until 1845,
when he came to Fort Snelling, and shortly after to Stillwater, where,
in 1846, he made a claim which became his permanent home. He was
married in 1854.

JONATHAN E. MCKUSICK.--There was no more genial, pleasant, off-hand
man than Jonathan E. McKusick. He was the life of public gatherings.
His remarks, full of wit and sentiment, would keep his audience in a
pleasant frame of mind. At old settlers' meetings his fund of
anecdotes, historical incidents and reminiscences were in the highest
degree interesting and entertaining. Mr. McKusick was born in Cornish,
Maine, in 1812; was married to Minerva King in 1836, and came up the
Mississippi on the ice, in December, 1845, to Stillwater, which he
made his home until his death, which occurred Aug. 21, 1876. He took
an active interest in the welfare of the city and held many offices of
trust. He served his country during the war of the Rebellion, and in
1863 was appointed quartermaster with the rank of captain, which
position he held until mustered out at the close of the war.

JOHN MCKUSICK.--Prominent amongst the pioneers of the St. Croix
valley, and deserving of special mention for his enterprise and public
spirit, is the subject of this sketch. He was born in Cornish, Maine,
in 1815; received a common school education; came to Illinois in 1839,
and to St. Croix Falls in 1840, where he engaged in the lumbering
business, getting logs to the Falls mill, and sawing them. Through
industry and economy he saved enough to enable him to become part
owner and builder of the first mill in Stillwater. He has held many
positions of trust. He served as state senator in 1863-64-65 and 66.
He was active in aiding to secure the land grant to build railroads
into Stillwater, in the welfare of which city he has ever manifested
the deepest interest. He has been one of the largest proprietors, and
most liberal in improving and adorning the city, has encouraged a
sound system of finances, and has steadily opposed the bonding system.
Mr. McKusick was married to Phebe Greely in 1847, who soon afterward
died. He married his second wife, Servia Greely, in November, 1849. He
has three children living, Newton, Chester and Ella. Mrs. McKusick
died Feb. 18, 1887.

[Illustration: John McKusick]

WILLIAM MCKUSICK, a younger brother of Jonathan E. and John McKusick,
came to Stillwater in 1847, and engaged in lumbering. He was a member
of the fifth territorial house, and a senator in the second, sixteenth
and seventeenth state legislatures. In 1870, with the firm of
McKusick, Anderson & Co., he built the large saw mill at Houlton,
opposite Stillwater. In 1882 he made his home upon a farm at Big Stone
Lake.

NOAH MCKUSICK, another brother, came to Stillwater in 1847, followed
lumbering some years, removed to Oregon, and died there in 1886.

ROYAL MCKUSICK came to the valley in 1848, and died a few years later,
leaving a large and respectable family.

IVORY E. MCKUSICK.--Ivory E., brother of John and J. E. McKusick, was
born in Maine, July 2, 1827. In 1847 he came to Stillwater, with which
city he has since been permanently identified. He spent two years
working in the old mill, the first built at Stillwater, and then
engaged in lumbering until 1859. In 1862 he was appointed prison
guard, and served two years. In 1864 he was in the service of the
government, and helped build Fort Wadsworth, Dakota. He served as
surveyor general several years, and later has engaged in the
forwarding and commission business. He was married to Sophia A.
Jewell, Feb. 9, 1854. He is a man of probity and merit.

CHARLES E. LEONARD.--The subject of this sketch was born Feb. 25,
1810, at Worthington, Massachusetts. His father died when he was four
years old. In his early life he experienced some vicissitudes. He
tried farming and hotel keeping, but owing to poor health was obliged
to give up these employments. He started West in 1846, remained awhile
in Hancock county, Illinois, and in 1847 came to Stillwater, where he
engaged in mercantile pursuits. He removed to St. Anthony in 1850, to
St. Paul in 1855, to Point Douglas in 1866, to Sioux City in 1880, and
to Princeton, Mille Lacs county, in 1881. Mr. Leonard has held several
official positions. In 1852 he was appointed territorial treasurer,
and in 1857, serving four years; was a member of the Democratic wing
of the constitutional convention. He did some military service during
the Indian outbreak in 1862. He was married to Catherine Yendes, of
Rodman, New York, January, 1835.

DANIEL MCLEAN.--Mr. McLean was born in the north of Ireland in 1800
and came to America in his youth with his brothers. He lived
successively in Philadelphia, Indianapolis and St. Louis, whence he
embarked for St. Croix Falls in 1839, in the employ of the Falls
Manufacturing Company. He came to Stillwater in 1848. Through industry
and economy he accumulated a handsome fortune, which, at his death, he
left to his heirs in Stillwater. He was an upright christian man. He
died in Stillwater in 1873.

ROBERT SIMPSON.--Mr. Simpson was born in Sussex, England, in 1815. He
married Mary Ann Shelley in 1840 and came the same year to the United
States. After spending two years in New York and other places, he came
to St. Croix Falls in 1842, where he followed lumbering until 1850,
when he came to Stillwater. He belonged to the firm of Simpson,
Anderson & McComb, lumbering and merchandising, and engaged in other
branches of business. He was a member from Stillwater of the first
state legislature. He is a quiet, unobtrusive gentleman, greatly
esteemed by those who know him. Mrs. Simpson and an only child died in
Stillwater in 1856.

WILLIAM H. HOOPER.--This gentleman attained considerable notoriety in
later life as an influential Mormon and a delegate to Congress from
Utah from 1859 to 1868. He was a man of unquestioned ability and an
eloquent speaker. His plea for "religious liberty," made against the
Cullom bill, is said to have been one of the most eloquent speeches
ever delivered in Congress. Mr. Hooper was born in Warwick Manor,
Maryland, Dec. 25, 1813. In 1835 he moved to Galena and engaged in
mercantile business. In the panic of 1838 Mr. Hooper and his partner
failed to the amount of $200,000, but, after years of struggling, the
debt was entirely paid. In 1843 Mr. Hooper engaged in steamboating as
clerk on the steamer Otter, on the Upper Mississippi and its
tributaries, and was well known at Stillwater. His boat in 1843 landed
the mill irons for McKusick & Co.'s mill. In 1844 he built the steamer
Lynx and several other boats, the last being known as the Alex.
Hamilton, of which he was part owner. This was burned at St. Louis in
1849, which left him again penniless. In 1850 he emigrated to Salt
Lake and there in his business enterprises greatly prospered. Although
he espoused Mormonism and became one of its leaders, he was opposed to
polygamy. He died in Salt Lake City.

JAMES H. SPENCER.--James H. Spencer came to Stillwater in 1845, a boy
of sixteen. His educational privileges had been limited, but he was
ambitious and studious, and by his own unaided exertions acquired a
practical business education. He followed lumbering and exploring, and
was employed as state timber agent for fifteen years. He was born in
Boone county, Missouri, in 1829, and was married to Rose M. Winters,
in Stillwater, in 1869.

JOHN T. BLACKBURN.--The brothers Blackburn were born in Cincinnati,
Ohio, John, the elder, in 1823. He came to Stillwater in 1844, and has
since been actively engaged in lumbering. His home has been at
Stillwater, Marine, Taylor's Falls, and Shell Lake, where he now
resides.

JOSEPH T. BLACKBURN.--Joseph, the younger brother, was born in 1834,
and in 1847 came to Stillwater. He has followed lumbering and Indian
trading. He has made his home at Stillwater, at Taylor's Falls, and,
since 1860, on Totogatic river, in Douglas county, Wisconsin, ten
miles from Gordon. Mr. Blackburn enjoys wilderness life, is eccentric
in manner, and attends strictly to his own business.

HORACE K. MCKINSTRY.--We have no data of Mr. McKinstry's early life.
He came to Stillwater in 1846. His family consisted of his wife, three
daughters, and son, John, who afterward married the eldest daughter of
Anson Northrup. Mr. McKinstry was a justice of the peace in 1847 and
1848, and was engaged in mercantile business the two succeeding years.
He removed to Maiden Rock, Wisconsin, a year or two after and died
there March 12, 1884.

SETH M. SAWYER.--Mr. Sawyer was born in Skowhegan, Maine, in 1822. He
came to Stillwater in 1846, followed lumbering, and afterward engaged
in building a saw mill in the firm name of Sawyer & Heaton. In 1850 he
was married to Eliza McKinstry. Mr. Sawyer left Minnesota in 1866 for
an extended sojourn in the Southern States, and engaged in business
there, but nothing is known positively of his present whereabouts.

HENRY SAWYER.--Henry, the younger brother of Seth, came from Skowhegan
to Stillwater in 1849, and engaged in mercantile pursuits for two
years in partnership with Horace McKinstry. In 1856 he built the first
stone block in Stillwater, on lot 2, block 27. In 1857 he built the
Sawyer House, a four story hotel. Mr. Sawyer married Lucy Noyes. He
died in Stillwater, Dec. 27, 1865, and his remains were buried in the
Kah-ba-kong cemetery, at Taylor's Falls.

ALVAH D. HEATON.--Mr. Heaton was the partner of Seth Sawyer in
building the second saw mill in Stillwater. He came to St. Croix in
1847 and worked at the Osceola mills some time. He was a partner in
logging with O. H. Blair and afterward with Wm. Kent. He was a
brother-in-law to Hon. Cyrus Aldrich, representative in Congress from
Minnesota. In after years he removed to Idaho.

JOHN MCKINZIE.--Mr. McKinzie was born at Inverness, Scotland, in 1818,
and came to America in 1841. He located in Stillwater in 1846, and
followed lumbering until 1856, when he removed to a farm in the Lyman
settlement. He married Rose Carlton in 1872 and removed to Miles City,
Montana, in 1879.

GEORGE MCKINZIE, a younger brother of John, came to Stillwater in
1851, and engaged in lumbering and exploring. In 1885 he was adjudged
insane and sent to the St. Peter's hospital, from which he was soon
released. He afterward visited California, where he was drowned in San
Francisco bay. He was unmarried.

HENRY KATTENBERG.--Mr. Kattenberg was born in Prussia in 1821, and
married to Arnebia C. Silova, at Kemper, on the banks of the Rhine, in
1844. He came to America in June, 1847, and to Stillwater in 1848. Mr.
Kattenberg opened a shop and engaged in the tailoring business. By
industry and close application to business, he prospered and secured a
pleasant home. By liberality and kindness in extending credits, and an
unfortunate venture in lumbering, he lost $14,000, which effectually
closed his business operations. With characteristic honesty, he
turned over to his creditors his homestead and all he had to meet his
liabilities. In 1880 he removed to Taylor's Falls and commenced
keeping hotel at the Falls House, on Bench street. In October, 1886,
he purchased the Dalles House of Mrs. C. B. Whiting.

JULIUS F. BRUNSWICK.--Mr. Brunswick was born in Switzerland in 1826;
came to this country in 1846, remained a year in Illinois, and came to
Stillwater in 1848, where he engaged in lumbering, farming,
merchandising, and dealing in pine lands. Mr. Brunswick applied
himself closely to business and was successful. Feb. 29, 1859, he
married Margaret Darms, of Stillwater. He died at his home in
Stillwater in 1874, leaving a widow and seven children.

HENRY MCLEAN.--Mr. McLean was born in Washington county, Maine, in
1828, and in 1848 came to Stillwater, which has since been his home.
He is engaged in lumbering. In 1851 he married Caroline Cover.

HUGH BURNS.--Hugh Burns came from Ireland to America in 1830, when he
was but eight years of age, lived in the province of New Brunswick
until 1848, when he came to Stillwater, where he has since been
engaged in lumbering and farming. In 1850 he removed to St. Anthony,
in 1855 to St. Paul, and in 1856 to Stillwater.

SYLVANUS TRASK.--Mr. Trask was born in Otsego county, New York, Nov.
16, 1811. He secured a liberal education, and taught school several
years in the state of New York. He came to Stillwater in 1848, and in
1852 was married to Euphenia Turner, of St. Paul. He represented the
Stillwater district in the first and second territorial legislatures,
1849-51. For many years he has been a surveyor and scaler of logs.

ARIEL ELDRIDGE.--Mr. Eldridge was born in Hartford, Vermont, June 10,
1815. He was reared during his minority by an uncle, at Cambridge, New
York. In 1844 he came to the Wisconsin lead mines, at Platteville, and
in 1848 to Stillwater, where he worked afterward at his trade of house
carpenter until 1862, when he opened a book and stationery store. He
has held several city and county offices. In 1849 he was married to
Sarah L. Judd. Mrs. Eldridge died in Stillwater, Oct. 12, 1886, aged
eighty-four years. Mrs. Eldridge taught the first school in
Stillwater.

[Illustration: E. W. DURANT. A PROMINENT MINNESOTIAN OF RENOWNED
REPUTATION.]

EDWARD WHITE DURANT.--Mr. Durant is of Huguenot descent. During the
eighteenth century his ancestors lived in Massachusetts and were
active participants in the agitation against English oppression.
Edward Durant, Jr., an ancestor five generations from the present, was
a delegate to the Provincial Congress of 1774 and 1775, and chairman
of the committee on commercial correspondence. He died in 1782. Others
of the family filled prominent places, and were noted for their
whole-souled patriotism.

Mr. Durant was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, April 8, 1829. He
received a common school education, and a year in the academy. He came
to Cincinnati in 1838, and in 1844 we find him with his parents in
Albany, Illinois. In 1848 he left his parents and came to Stillwater,
where he worked three seasons on the river, running logs. He then
became a pilot on the St. Croix and Mississippi rivers and continued
in this business about sixteen years. He acted as salesman for Hersey,
Staples & Co. some years. He has been since then engaged in lumbering
and a portion of the time as a member of the firm of Durant, Wheeler &
Co. The annual sales of this firm amount to over half a million
dollars. In 1874 he was a candidate on the Democratic ticket for
lieutenant governor and in 1876 was president of the state Democratic
convention. He represented his district in the fifteenth, seventeenth
and twenty-fourth state legislatures. He was several years grand
master of the Masons of Minnesota. He has served as mayor of
Stillwater, and often as a member of the council. Mr. Durant, as his
record shows him, is one of the most industrious men of the time, and
possessed of good executive and business abilities. Mr. Durant was
married Dec. 29, 1853, to Henrietta Pease, of Albany, Illinois.

OLIVER PARSONS.--Mr. Parsons was born in South Paris, Maine, and is
also descended from Revolutionary stock. He came to Stillwater in
1848, where he engaged in merchandising and farming. He removed to
Minneapolis in 1876, where he is at present engaged in selling goods.
He was married to C. Jewell, April, 1855. Mr. Parsons has ever been an
exemplary man.

ALBERT STIMSON.--A native of York county, Maine, Mr. Stimson spent
there his early life, and, after a few years in New Brunswick, came to
Stillwater in 1849. He followed lumbering in his native state and on
the St. Croix. He served as surveyor general of the First district,
Minnesota, three years. He was a member of the Minnesota territorial
councils of 1854 and 1855 and a member of the house in 1853. He was
mayor of Stillwater one year, alderman two years, and was also a
supervisor of Washington county. From 1870 to 1872 Mr. Stimson was a
citizen of Kanabec county, which county he helped organize, and of
which he was one of the first commissioners. His present residence is
Anoka.

ABRAHAM VAN VOORHEES.--Mr. Van Voorhees' ancestors were patriots
during the Revolution, and lived in New York and New Jersey. He was
born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, Dec. 2, 1793. He was reared
as a farmer. His school privileges were limited. "The Major," as he
was familiarly styled, once told me that the educational advantages he
had received in youth were very few, and that his desires and
ambitions were far beyond his means to satisfy and fulfill, and he
remarked with justifiable pride: "And what I am now, if I amount to
anything, I owe to strong nerves and will power; God has always
sustained me, and I have always acknowledged allegiance to Him." The
major had an ingenious and inventive mind. Being studious and
industrious, he accomplished much without scholastic training, and
became well versed in the sciences, and an acute reasoner. In 1832 he
removed to Athens county, Ohio, where for five years he devoted
himself to mechanical pursuits and the study of the sciences. In 1837
he removed to Athens, and became editor and proprietor of the _Hocking
Valley Gazette_, and retained the editorship six years. While living
in Ohio, he served as county treasurer, county surveyor, member of the
legislature, and state senator. In the latter position he served four
years. In 1849 he was appointed by President Taylor register of the
United States land office at Stillwater, which place he held until
1853. In 1852 Gov. Ramsey appointed him territorial auditor. He was a
representative in the territorial legislature of 1856 and of the state
legislature of 1859-60. He was one of the commissioners for locating
the capitol and university lands. He was postmaster in Stillwater many
years, and when he was eighty years of age acted as surveyor of
Washington county. Such is a brief record of an unusually active and
useful life. Maj. Van Voorhees was a thoroughly good citizen and
christian gentleman. In politics he was Whig and Republican. His
church membership was in the Presbyterian church, of which he became a
member in 1832. In 1817 he was married to Mary Workman Voorhees. He
died at his home in Stillwater, Jan. 24, 1879, aged eighty-six years,
and was buried with christian and masonic honors.

MICHAEL E. AMES, an attorney from Boston, came to Stillwater in 1849,
and became one of the leading lawyers of the Territory. He was urbane
and dignified, both in society and at the bar. He was a charming
conversationalist, and such a ready and fluent speaker that it was a
pleasure to listen to him. Many of his witty sayings will long be
remembered. He was twice married, but his domestic life was by no
means a happy one. He died in St. Paul in 1861, his life, no doubt,
shortened by intemperate habits, but he was polite and genial and
witty to the last.

JOSEPH BONIN is of French descent. He was born in Montreal, Canada,
Aug. 26, 1820. He was married to Margaret Bruce in 1851. The writer
first met Mr. Bonin in Stillwater in 1845. He was then in the employ
of John McKusick. He had spent much of his life on the frontier as an
employe of the fur companies, and could relate many stirring incidents
and perilous adventures. Mr. Bonin located at Baytown at an early day.
During the Rebellion he was a member of Company B, First Minnesota
Heavy Artillery.

MARCEL GAGNON.--Mr. Gagnon was born in Lower Canada, Aug. 17, 1825. On
arriving at manhood he came to the United States, and was an employe
of the American Fur Company several years. He removed to Stillwater in
1845, engaging in lumbering. In 1863 he enlisted in the Minnesota
Volunteer Independent Battalion, and served three years. Mr. Gagnon is
a polite, pleasant, hard working and independent man.

SEBASTIAN MARTY was born in Switzerland in 1809, came to America in
1836, to Stillwater in 1845, and located on a farm in section 32, town
of Stillwater, now known as the Jackman homestead. In 1850 he made his
home in section 30, town of Lakeland, where he resided until his
death, Nov. 3, 1885. His widow was formerly Christine Mamsche. He was
a quiet, unobtrusive, thoroughly honest and reliable man.

JOHN MARTY was born in Switzerland in 1823. He learned the art of
manufacturing straw goods in France. He came to America in 1846, to
Stillwater in 1848 and not long after settled on his farm in Baytown.
He was married to Anna M. Henry, in St. Paul, 1852.

ADAM MARTY.--Mr. Marty was born in Switzerland in 1839. In 1846 he
came with his grandparents to America and located at St. Louis. In
1849 he came to Stillwater and learned the printer's trade. He was
employed one year by John McKusick. He enlisted April 29, 1861, in
Company B, First Minnesota Volunteers, was severely wounded at the
battle of Gettysburg, and honorably discharged. He resides in
Stillwater, where he has held responsible positions, and has taken a
deep interest in the Grand Army of the Republic, of which he has been
post commander.

MICHAEL MCHALE.--Mr. McHale came from Ireland in 1836; located first
in Quincy, Illinois; then, 1840, in Galena; in 1842 in Potosi,
Wisconsin, and in 1849 at Stillwater. He was interested in a saw mill
(McHale & Johnson's), and operated also as a contractor in prison
work. He was married to Rosanna McDermott in Wisconsin, 1847. She died
in 1856.

GEORGE WATSON.--Mr. Watson is, in common parlance, a self-made man.
Left alone in the world and dependent entirely on his own exertions
for a livelihood, he learned the carpenter's trade, learned it well,
and followed it industriously through life. Mr. Watson was born in
Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, Sept. 13, 1823, and came to the St.
Croix valley in 1849. He lived a few years in Hudson, and then removed
to Stillwater, where he has the credit of building many fine
structures. He was married in 1860 to Frances Lyman, of Stillwater.

REV. ELEAZER A. GREENLEAF was educated at Bangor Theological Seminary.
He came to Stillwater in 1846, and became pastor of the first
Protestant Episcopal church organized north of Prairie du Chien,
excepting at Fort Snelling and some Indian mission charges. Mr.
Greenleaf was married to Susan P. Greely, of Williamsburg, Maine, in
1838. He became a great sufferer in the later years of his life. He
died in Stillwater in 1878. Mrs. Greenleaf died in Minneapolis in
1881.

J. B. COVEY.--Dr. J. B. Covey came to Stillwater in 1844. He was born
in Duchess county, New York, in 1784. He practiced medicine many years
in Missouri. He died in Stillwater in 1851.

JOHN SHAESBY was born in Warwick, England, in 1811; came to America in
1836, to Stillwater in 1848; removed to St. Croix county in 1850,
thence to St. Joseph, to Rush River and to Baldwin in 1874, where he
died in 1880, leaving two children and his widow in comfortable
circumstances. His eldest daughter was the wife of Capt. Isaac Gray.

JOHN S. PROCTOR.--Mr. Proctor is of English descent, and was born in
Cavendish, Windsor county, Vermont, Feb. 26, 1826. He was favored with
a common school education. In 1846 he came to St. Louis, Missouri, and
served as mercantile clerk until 1849, when he came to Stillwater and
engaged in lumbering and mercantile pursuits. He was a member of the
firm of Short, Proctor & Co., hardware merchants. In 1860 he was
appointed warden of the Minnesota state prison, which office he held
until 1868. In 1860 he was also appointed secretary and treasurer of
the St. Croix Boom Company. He performed the duties of both positions,
but continued to serve the boom company twenty years. His experience
and reliability made him almost the umpire of this company. He was
appointed surveyor general for the years 1881 to 1884, inclusive. Mr.
Proctor was married to Caroline Lockwood, daughter of John Lockwood,
of Prairie du Chien, in 1854. They have one son, Levi.

BARRON PROCTOR, brother of John S. Proctor, came to Stillwater when a
young man, but after a few years removed to New Orleans, whence he
returned to Stillwater, and in 1873 engaged in flour manufacturing as
one of the firm of Cahill, Townshend & Co. He disposed of his interest
in 1880. Mr. Proctor was married to Hettie Carson, adopted daughter of
Socrates Nelson and widow of John A. Hanford. He lives in St. Paul.

HENRY WESTING is a native of Hanover. He emigrated to America in 1840
and came to Stillwater in 1848. He commenced his business career as a
day laborer and by industry, perseverance and tact, rose to a position
of wealth and influence. He died in Stillwater, Feb. 26, 1885, much
esteemed by his associates for his sterling qualities of character.

THOMAS DUNN was born in 1823, in Queens county, Ireland. He emigrated
to America in 1826, locating at Miramachi, on the northeast coast of
New Brunswick. He came thence to Maine, where he spent two years. He
came to the St. Croix valley in 1846, located in Stillwater, where he
has since lived and been engaged in lumbering. He is the owner of a
valuable land property at Yellow Lake, Burnett county, Wisconsin. He
has been a member of the Catholic church since infancy.

CHARLES J. GARDINER was born at Charlotte, Maine, in 1826, and came to
Stillwater in 1849, where he followed lumbering and farming. He served
as surveyor of the First Minnesota district five years. He was married
in 1853 to Pamela Jackman. They have five children.

SAMUEL STAPLES was born in Topsham, Maine, September, 1805. He came
west from Brunswick, Maine, in 1854, and located in Stillwater, where
he died, Dec. 26, 1887. He is the elder brother of Isaac, Silas and
Winslow Staples. He leaves a widow (his second wife), two daughters,
Mrs. E. A. Folsom and Mrs. G. M. Stickney, and two sons, Josiah and
Winslow, besides a step-son, William Langly.

JOSIAH STAPLES, son of Samuel, was born in Brunswick, Maine, June 20,
1826. He received a good common school education. At the age of
thirteen his family removed to Penobscot county, and later to the
province of New Brunswick, but returned to Maine in 1840. In 1848 he
came to Stillwater, and has since been continuously engaged in milling
and lumbering operations, and, latterly, in steamboating. He was
married to Lydia McGlaughlin in 1853. His children are six sons and
one daughter.

JOEL M. DARLING was born in Madison county, New York, in 1842. He came
to Galena, Illinois, in 1840, and to Stillwater in 1848, where he
engaged in farming. He served three years during the Civil War in
Company F, Seventh Minnesota, and has since been pensioned for
disabilities incurred in the service. He is unmarried. He lives in
South Stillwater.


EARLY RIVER PILOTS.

JOE PERRO.--"Big Joe" as he was familiarly called, was large of frame
and big-hearted as well, honest, manly, of good report for courage and
honesty. He was fearless and prompt in taking the part of the weak and
oppressed. We were once passing together up Broadway, St. Louis, when
we passed a peanut stand. A small negro boy was crying piteously and
begging the peanut vender to give him back his money, to which appeal
the peanut vender was obdurate. We halted. Joe Perro organized a
court, heard the testimony of man and boy, and satisfied himself that
in making change the man had wrongfully withheld a dime due the boy.
Joe decided in favor of the boy and ordered the vender of peanuts to
pay him the ten cents. He replied insolently: "It is none of your
d----d business." That was enough to kindle the magazine of Joe's
wrath. A sudden blow of his fist, and the man was prostrate on the
sidewalk and his peanuts and apples scattered. The last seen of the
discomfited street merchant he was on his hands and knees scrambling
with the boys for the possession of his scattered fruits, and casting
an occasional vengeful glance at the towering form of "Big Joe"
departing slowly from the scene of conflict. Mr. Perro is of French
parentage, and a native of Kaskaskia, Illinois. He has been a resident
of Stillwater since 1844.

JAMES MCPHAIL.--Mr. McPhail, as his name indicates, is of Scotch
parentage. He was born in Inverness, Scotland, in 1824, and came to
America in early life. He was one of the first log pilots on the
waters of the Mississippi and St. Croix. He settled in Stillwater in
1848, was married to Eliza Purinton in 1849, and died in St. Louis in
1857. Mrs. McPhail died in Stillwater in 1885. They left no children.

JOHN CORMACK.--Mr. Cormack commenced piloting on the St. Croix in
1845. He was married in 1860 to Miss Jackins. He made his home in
Stillwater continuously for thirty years, during which time he served
as pilot. He died at Princeton, Mille Lacs county, in 1885.

JOHN HANFORD.--Mr. Hanford was a St. Croix river pilot in the '40s. He
married an adopted daughter of Socrates Nelson, of Stillwater. He died
at Stillwater. Mrs. Hanford subsequently married Barron Proctor.

JOHN LEACH.--Mr. Leach made his home at Marine many years, during
which time he engaged in piloting on the St. Croix; subsequently he
removed to Stillwater. In the later years of his life he has been
blind.

STEPHEN B. HANKS.--Mr. Stephen B. Hanks, formerly of Albany, Illinois,
piloted the first raft from St. Croix Falls to St. Louis in 1842. He
followed piloting rafts and steamboats until 1885.

SAMUEL S. HANKS.--Samuel, a brother of Stephen B., commenced piloting
in the '40s, and is still active.

     Among the early pilots on the St. Croix and Mississippi
     rivers were Antoine Lapoint, Augustus Barlow, Richard
     Whiting, James Hickman, George M. Penny, and Daniel McLean.



CHAPTER IV.

POLK COUNTY--DESCRIPTION AND HISTORY.


Polk county contains 700,000 acres of land, well diversified with
timber and prairie, uplands and valleys, rivers and lakes, and fertile
enough to sustain a large population. The county was established by
the Wisconsin legislature in 1853, and originally included much more
territory than it now contains, new counties having been formed north
and east of its present domain. Indian traders had visited it at an
earlier period, but the first permanent white settlement was made in
1837, and the first pioneer who came with the serious intention of
making permanent improvements was Franklin Steele. As Mr. Steele's
history is in a great part the history of the early settlement, we
insert it here, and very nearly in the language of Mr. Steele himself,
as he communicated it to the writer some years since:

"I came to the Northwest in 1837, a young man, healthy and ambitious,
to dare the perils of an almost unexplored region, inhabited by
savages. I sought Fort Snelling (which was at that time an active
United States fort) as a point from which to start. In September,
1837, immediately after the treaty was made ceding the St. Croix
valley to the government, accompanied by Dr. Fitch, of Bloomington,
Iowa, we started from Fort Snelling in a bark canoe, also a scow
loaded with tools, supplies and laborers, descended the Mississippi
river and ascended the St. Croix to the Dalles. We clambered over the
rocks to the Falls, where we made two land claims, covering the Falls
on the east side and the approach to it in the Dalles. We built a log
cabin at the Falls, where the Upper Copper trap range crosses the
river and where the old mill was afterward erected. A second log house
we built in the ravine at the head of navigation. Whilst building,
four other parties arrived to make claim to this power. I found the
veritable Joe Brown on the west side of the St. Croix, trading with
the Indians, a few rods from where Baker & Taylor built their mill
(near the end of the present toll bridge). Brown had also cut pine
logs, part of which, in 1838, were used by Baker & Taylor, but most of
them were burned by forest fires on the ground where they were felled.
In February, 1838, I made a trip to the Falls with a dog team for the
relief of one Boyce, who was cutting logs at the mouth of Snake river,
and had had some trouble with the Indians. I helped him until he left
the country. Peshick, a chief of the Chippewas, said, 'We have no
money for logs; we have no money for land. Logs can not go.' He said
he could not control his young men and would not be responsible for
their acts.

"In the spring of 1838, from Fort Snelling we descended the
Mississippi river to Prairie du Chien in bark canoes, thence by
steamer to St. Louis, Missouri, where a co-partnership was formed by
Messrs. Fitch, of Muscatine, Iowa, Libbey, of Alton, Illinois,
Hungerford and Livingston, of St. Louis, Hill and Holcombe, of Quincy,
Illinois, and myself. We chartered the steamer Palmyra, loaded her
with all the materials with which to build a saw mill, including
mechanics to do the work, and started for the scene of operations.
Plans for procedure, rules and by-laws were discussed and adopted
during the journey on the steamer, and the new organization was
christened the St. Croix Falls Lumbering Company. Calvin A. Tuttle was
the millwright."

The trip was made in safety, our immediate plans executed, and the
Palmyra was the first steamboat that ever sailed the St. Croix river
and lake. Mr. Steele made an estimate for the construction of the mill
and dam at $20,000, which he submitted to the company. It was
accepted, and Calvin A. Tuttle, a millwright, was placed in charge of
the work, but Mr. Steele sold his interest to the company before the
mill was completed. On examination of the records we find that W.
Libbey was the first agent of the company. We find also from the same
record that Libbey knew little or nothing of the business he had
undertaken. With a few barrels of whisky and one of beads he busied
himself trading with the Indians. This was the first whisky sold in
the valley, and it was sold in defiance of government law.

Much could be written about this old pioneer company of the Northwest,
and its history, could it be truly written, would contain many
thrilling incidents and scenes worthy of remembrance; but much is
already forgotten and many of the most prominent actors have passed
away, leaving no record of their lives. The company, as a corporation,
passed through many changes of name and ownership. Its history would
be a history of litigations, of wranglings and feuds, of losses and
gains, of mistakes, of blunders and of wrongs. In the first place, the
mill was planned by men practically unfitted for such work,
inexperienced in lumbering and unacquainted with the vast expenditures
requisite for the opening up of a new country, hundreds of miles from
labor and the supplies needed for manufacturing. There were three
requisites present, a splendid water power, abundance of timber at
convenient distances and a healthful climate; but these alone did not
and could not make the enterprise a success. Had practical,
experienced lumbermen been employed the result might have been
different, but impractical methods, enormous expenses, with no profits
or dividends, caused most of the company to withdraw, forfeiting their
stock in preference to continuing with the prospect of total
bankruptcy. Goods were brought annually, at great expense, from St.
Louis by the large steamers which then controlled the trade of the
Mississippi and the St. Croix. The navigation of the St. Croix grew
annually more difficult, the immense number of logs floated down since
1838 wearing away the banks and increasing the number and area of sand
bars and not infrequently obstructing the channel with jams.

It is not known exactly how or when the name of St. Croix came to be
applied to the beautiful river bearing it, but La Harpe, in his
"Louisiana," gives the most plausible account of its origin: "This
name is not ecclesiastical in its associations, but named after
Monsieur St. Croix, who was drowned at its mouth." Le Sueur, who
explored the Upper Mississippi in 1683, says he left a large river on
the east side, named St. Croix, because a Frenchman of that name was
drowned at its mouth. As Duluth was the first white man to embark in
the waters of the St. Croix, descending it in canoes, from near Lake
Superior, which he did in 1680; and as Hennepin and La Salle ascended
the Mississippi the same year, the name could not have had an earlier
origin, but may be fixed as given sometime between 1680 and 1683. An
old map in my possession, one hundred and twenty-five years old, gives
the present name of the river and lake. The St. Croix valley embraces
an area of territory from 20 to 90 miles in width, and about 120 miles
in length. Its northern water, Upper Lake St. Croix, is about 20 miles
from Lake Superior. The southern portion is a rich prairie country,
interspersed with groves of hardwood timber. The more northern portion
is interspersed with groves of pine, tamarack, cedar, balsam and
hardwoods. The whole district, with a small exception, is a cereal
country. It abounds in wild meadows, and much of the swampy portion
will ultimately be utilized by ditching, which will transform it all
into a good stock raising country. About eight-tenths of this entire
valley is fitted by nature for agriculture.

Wheat, the leading cereal, averages ten to thirty bushels per acre;
the growth of tame grasses can not be excelled; vegetables grow to
wonderful size; native wild fruits abound; cultivated fruits are being
successfully introduced; cranberries are being cultivated in the
northern part. Wheat, stock, and pine lumber are the principal
articles of export. The southern portion is well watered by the St.
Croix and its tributaries--Kinnikinic, Willow, Apple, Sunrise, and
smaller streams, lakes and springs. The northern portion is abundantly
watered by the St. Croix and tributaries--Wolf, Trade, Wood, Clam,
Yellow, Namakagan, Rush, Kanabec and Kettle rivers. Small streams and
lakes are numerous, of which only the largest are named on the maps.
The valley is abundantly supplied with water power, capable of running
enough manufactories to work up all the products of the country. The
soil is, as a general thing, dry and arable. April and May are the
seeding months. Crops mature, and are seldom injured by frosts. The
whole country adjacent to this valley will answer to this general
description.

On the twenty-ninth day of July, 1837, our government purchased the
valley of the St. Croix of the Indians at a treaty held at Fort
Snelling, Gov. Henry Dodge and Gen. Wm. R. Smith acting as
commissioners. The purchase was ratified in Congress in the spring of
1838. Polk county, originally a part of Crawford, in 1840 became a
part of St. Croix, and in 1853 received its present organization and
name, the latter in honor of James K. Polk, eleventh president of the
United States. This country occupies the eastern part of the valley
of the St. Croix lying between Burnett and St. Croix counties on the
north and south, and Barron on the east, the St. Croix river forming
its western boundary. The surface is agreeably diversified with forest
and prairie land, and is supplied with excellent springs, rivers and
lakes. Most of the underlying rock is sandstone. This rock crops out
along the banks of the St. Croix and is extensively used for building
purposes. Lime rock is also found along the river banks, some of which
is of a superior grade, notably that below Osceola, which is
manufactured into lime and exported. The natural scenery can scarcely
be surpassed in the West. The towering, precipitous bluffs along the
St. Croix, the picturesque trap rocks of the Dalles, and the bright
clear lakes of the interior have long been an attraction to the
tourist. The lakes and smaller streams abound in fish, and the latter
are famous for their abundance of brook trout.

The county seat at the organization of the county was located at St.
Croix Falls. The first election held in the limits of the present
county of Polk, prior to its organization, was at St. Croix Falls,
then a voting precinct, known as Caw-caw-baw-kang, a Chippewa name,
meaning waterfall. The returns of this election were made to Prairie
du Chien. I was present at the canvassing of these returns. They were
found to be accurate. Annually since then elections were held at this
point and returns made, first to Prairie du Chien, Crawford county,
then to Stillwater, St. Croix county, to Hudson, St. Croix county, and
to Osceola Mills, Polk county. By an election held in Polk county just
after its organization the county seat was removed to Osceola Mills,
by a unanimous vote. The records of the first elections can not be
found, they having been stolen from the safe in 1864. The following
county officers were elected in 1853: Isaac Freeland, clerk of court
and register of deeds; E. C. Treadwell, sheriff; Oscar A. Clark,
surveyor; Wm. Kent, county treasurer; Harmon Crandall, coroner; Nelson
McCarty, district attorney; J. Freeland, clerk of board of
supervisors. The first meeting of the board of supervisors was held in
Osceola, in Isaac Freeland's building, where the offices were located
for many years. The first court was held in the school house, Wyram
Knowlton presiding. Both petit and grand juries were in attendance.
Isaac Freeland was the first attorney admitted to practice. Isaac W.
Hale was the first county judge. The first marriage was that of Lewis
Barlow to ---- ----, at St. Croix Falls. The first birth in the county
was that of Charles Northrup, son of Anson Northrup, at St. Croix
Falls (1844). The first death was that of John Kelly, by drowning
(1839), at St. Croix Falls. The first school in the county was
established at St. Croix Falls by Miss Tainter, from Prairie du Chien,
in 1848. The first school house was built in Osceola in 1852, the
second at St. Croix Falls in 1861. The first mail, established in
1840, was carried up the St. Croix river by batteaus in summer and by
sleds over the ice in winter. The mail was weekly; the carrier was Dr.
Philip Aldrich. The first land mail route was in 1847, from Willow
River to St. Croix Falls. The mail was carried by Dr. Aldrich through
the woods. The first stage route was established in 1855. The first
deed we find of Polk county property is recorded at Prairie du Chien
Sept. 2, 1845, from James Purinton to John Witherell, of St. Louis,
Missouri, for $4,933,--a deed of trust covering a saw mill at St.
Croix Falls. The second deed is from Benj. T. Otis to Edmond Johnson,
conveying an undivided interest in a pre-emption claim, known as the
Northrup or Jerusalem claim, about one mile east of St. Croix Falls,
for $200. The first deed recorded in the county of old St. Croix was
Sept. 29, 1845, from James Purinton, of St. Croix Falls, to John H.
Ferguson, of the city of St. Louis, Missouri,--consideration
$1,552,--of St. Croix Falls water power property. The first store was
built in St. Croix Falls in 1839 and stocked with goods by the St.
Croix Falls Company. The first blacksmith shop and the first hotel
were built at St. Croix Falls. The first grist mill was built at
Osceola in 1853. The first crops were raised at "Jerusalem," the first
farm in the county, in 1839. "Jerusalem" was the farm now owned by Wm.
Blanding, and was early noted as a resort for pleasure seekers, as a
place for picnics and base ball games. The first pre-emption and entry
of land was made in 1848, by Harmon Crandall, of Farmington. Settlers
came into the county slowly until about 1866, since which time the
population has more rapidly increased.


THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC.

Undoubtedly the greatest curse to the pioneers of a new settlement,
and to the aborigines as well, is the liquor traffic. The Indians,
under the influence of whisky, became infuriated and were capable of
committing any atrocity; the effects upon the whites were not so
violent but just as surely demoralizing, and in time as fatal. Among
dealers in the vile fluid there was no one more persistent and
unscrupulous than Capt. M. M. Samuels. During the summers of 1848 and
1849 there was no other whisky selling house at the Falls. The
character of the whisky sold was vile beyond description. Mrs. H----
and son informed me that they were employed by Samuels during the
summer in compounding various roots with tobacco and boiling them, for
the manufacture of a strong drink that was sold for whisky. Many, both
whites and Indians, were poisoned by this compound. As an emphatic
evidence against the vileness of the liquor, I append some of the
blighting results:

A talented young lawyer, Hall by name, from Philadelphia, became
infatuated with the peculiar whisky furnished by Samuels, and when
insane from its effects ran from Barlow's boarding house to a high
rock overhanging the St. Croix river, just below the falls, plunged in
and was drowned.

Another, named Douglas, under the same influence, tried repeatedly to
drown himself, when his friends bound him securely with cords. He then
managed to stab himself.

Alexander Livingston, a man who in youth had had excellent advantages,
became himself a dealer in whisky, at the mouth of Wolf creek, in a
drunken melee in his own store was shot and killed by Robido, a
half-breed. Robido was arrested but managed to escape justice.

Livingston, once, when on his way from Wolf creek to Clam falls,
sought refuge in my camp, having with him two kegs of whisky. The
Indians soon collected at the camp in fighting trim and sung and
danced madly about the door of the cabin, and clamored for
scoot-a-wa-bo (whisky). I refused to allow any whisky to be issued.
The Indians were furious. Livingston cowered with fear. Foreseeing
trouble I ordered Nat Tibbetts and Jonathan Brawn to take the kegs and
follow me. The Indians stopped their gymnastic performances and gazed
intently. With an axe and with a single blow on each keg I knocked in
the heads, and the whisky was soon swallowed up in the snow. The
Indians sprang forward with demoniac yells and commenced licking up
the saturated snow, after which they danced around me, calling me
"Oge-ma" (captain). I gave them food and they went away sober and
apparently satisfied.


FRONTIER JUSTICE.

In the spring of 1848 there were two rival whisky sellers at or near
Balsam lake. Miles Tornell, a Norwegian, was located midway between
the lake and the Falls. Miller, a German, had his post at the lake.
Miller was an older trader, and claimed exclusive rights. A bitter
feeling sprang up between them, which resulted, as the testimony
afterward proved, in the murder of Tornell. His house was burned, and
his body found concealed in a coal pit. One McLaughlin, who was
stopping with Tornell, was also murdered. An investigation was set on
foot. Samuels and Fields acted as detectives, and fixed the crime upon
an Indian, whom they arrested on an island in Blake's lake, and
brought to the Falls for trial. H. H. Perkins acted as judge, a jury
of good men was impaneled, and the trial was held in Daniel Mears'
store. A prosecuting attorney and counsel for the accused were
appointed. The Indian frankly confessed the killing, and said that he
had been hired to do the bloody work by Miller. Another Indian
testified to being present on the occasion of the murder. After brief
remarks by the lawyers, the jury brought in a verdict of guilty. There
was no formal sentence. The Indian was kept under guard till next
morning, when, by the unanimous consent of all present, he was hanged
to a tree, since blighted, that stood near the old burying ground
(later Louisiana street), and was hanged, Samuels officiating as
sheriff. The Indians present were permitted to take the body, which
they buried with Indian rites. Toward Miller, who ought to have been
held as principal, the crowd were unexpectedly lenient. Instead of
being hanged upon the same tree, he was merely lashed to it, and
flogged, Pat Collins administering fifteen strokes on the bare back
with a beech withe. He was then placed on a steamboat and ordered to
leave the country, never to return. Of the more active participants in
the hanging, Pat Collins, who officiated as hangman, and who flogged
Miller, was undeniably a hard citizen. He had a bitter grudge against
Miller, and administered the strokes with a will. He was himself
hanged some years later in California for highway robbery. Chas. F.
Rowley, who assisted in the hanging, lived for some years on a farm
at Wolf creek, enlisted in 1861 in the Union army, and was killed in
battle.


POPULATION OF ST. CROIX FALLS IN 1848.

The following heads of families resided in St. Croix Falls in 1848: H.
H. Perkins, Edward Worth, G. W. Brownell, Otis Hoyt, J. Saunders, R.
Arnold, L. Barlow, A. L. Tuttle, M. M. Samuels, Geo. De Attley, Moses
Perin, and W. H. C. Folsom.

The following single men claimed this as their home: D. Mears, J. L.
and N. C. D. Taylor, P. Kelly, A. Romain, J. and W. R. Marshall, W. F.
Colby, Dr. De Witt, W. J. Vincent, C. Dexter, A. Youle, H. H.
Newberry, J. and O. Weymouth, Geo. Field, W. W. Folsom, J. H. Tuller,
J. Dobney, J. Paine, and some others whose names I can not readily
recall.


NATURAL LANGUAGE.

The Indians, when unable to talk English, nevertheless managed to
express themselves intelligibly by gestures, picture writing, and
vocal utterances, imitating the sounds which they wished to describe.
A kind old Chippewa occasionally visited my camp. He would sit by the
camp fire and mark out in the ashes the outlines of lakes and streams.
In tracing South Clam river, at a certain point he drew a line across
the stream, and blew his breath between his teeth and lips in such a
way as to perfectly imitate the sound of falling water. Sometime
afterward, in exploring Clam river, on rounding a curve I heard the
sound of falling water, and found the fall just as he had located it.


THE DROWNING OF HAMLET H. PERKINS.

Mr. Perkins had been in the village since 1847, acting as agent for
the Falls company until the winter of 1850-51, when he was
accidentally drowned while attending to his duties. He was engaged in
repairing the dam, and was standing on a block of ice. In an unguarded
moment he lost his foothold and was carried by the swift current under
the ice. It was two days before his body was recovered. His family
left the valley, taking the body with them.


A QUAILTOWN MURDER.

St. Croix Falls. The buildings consisted of a dwelling house, whisky
shop, bowling alley, Indian house and stable, the whole
inappropriately styled Quailtown, as the name was a gross slander upon
the innocent birds. The quails in this "Partridge" nest were evil
birds. The resort was noted for its riotous disorder. The worst
classes met there for revelry and midnight orgies. In the summer of
1849 Alfred Romain and Patrick Kelly met at Quailtown, disputed,
fought, were parted, and the neat day met by agreement to continue the
fight with pistols. They were to meet at sunrise in front of Daniel
Mears' store. An attempt was made to pacify them, but in vain. Only
Romain appeared at the appointed place, and not finding Kelly, hunted
through the village for him. About 9 o'clock A. M. he found him at the
house of Kimball, a mulatto man. Romain shot him at sight, fatally. At
the inquest, held by Dr. Hoyt, it was proven that Romain fired four
shots into the body of Kelly, each taking effect, and then crushed his
skull with the pistol, and that Kelly fired one shot at Romain. Romain
was held for murder, but was never brought to trial. After two years'
confinement he escaped from the jail at Prairie du Chien.

Romain afterward removed to St. Louis, reformed his mode of life and
became a steady and respectable man. Kelly was a native of Ireland,
and at the time of his death was engaged to be married to an estimable
lady, one of the corps of teachers sent out by Gov. Slade.


MINERAL PERMITS.

In 1846 a party of speculators, composed of Caleb Cushing, Rufus
Choate, Robert Rantoul, and others, located a mineral permit, one mile
square, covering part of the site of the two towns of St. Croix and
Taylor's Falls, with the water power as the centre. Their permit was
filed in the general land office at Washington. They located another
permit at or near the mouth of Kettle river. As no money was ever
expended in improving them, these permits were never respected.
Subsequently the government resurveyed the lands and sold them. The
present title to these lands is perfectly good.


MARRIAGE UNDER DIFFICULTIES.

In the olden time officers could not always readily be found to
execute the laws. Parties desiring to be married, being unable to
secure the services of a minister or justice of the peace, would seek
for an officer on the other side of the river, get on a raft or boat,
cast off the fastenings and under the concurrent jurisdiction of the
state and territorial authorities, would be pronounced "man and wife."
Parties have had the same rite performed in the winter season while
standing on the ice of the St. Croix midway between the two shores.


AN INDIAN SCARE.

During the excitement following the Indian outbreak, there was a
general feeling of insecurity and alarm. The half-breeds were
especially apprehensive of some kind of violence. One bright moonlight
evening, at St. Croix, a surveyor was taking some observations, and as
his instrument glittered brightly in the moonlight, the half-breeds
saw it and fled, badly frightened, fancying a Sioux behind every bush.
The whites seeing them running, as if for their lives, caught the
panic, and fled over to the Minnesota side. The Taylor's Falls people
were aroused from their peaceful slumbers to find, soon after, that it
was a false alarm. Some of the fugitives hid underneath the bridge and
clung to the trestle work till morning.


THE FIRST FIRE CANOE.

I am indebted to Calvin A. Tuttle for the following reminiscence: In
July, 1838, the steamer Palmyra, Capt. Middleton, of Hannibal,
Missouri, in command, the first steamer on St. Croix waters, brought
me to St. Croix Falls, landing in the Dalles, east side, opposite
Angle Rock. The snorting of the Palmyra brought many curiosity seeking
Indians to the Dalles. They gathered on the pinnacles of the trap
rock, peered curiously over and jumped back, trembling with fright at
the "Scota Cheman" or "fire canoe," the first that had ever floated on
the placid waters of the St. Croix. I had been employed as millwright
to erect mills in the new, and, as yet, almost unknown settlement. On
the Palmyra came the proprietors, Steele, Fitch, Hungerford, Libbey,
Livingston, Hill, and Russell, with mill irons, tools and provisions
for the enterprise.


MILL BUILDING.

After climbing over the cragged rocks we came to an Indian trail which
led to the Falls, where we found two men, Lagoo and Denire holding
the claim for Steele. The fanciful scheme of building a mill up in the
wild land looked now like a reality. The men lived in a log cabin just
below the Falls, in a small clearing in the timber, near a copper rock
range. Boyce and his men had been driven in by Indians from above.
Andrew Mackey and others of Boyce's men went to work with us.
Thirty-six men had come from St. Louis on the steamer Palmyra. We
moved our machinery from the Dalles to the Falls by water and
commenced work immediately. Steele's men had been hindered by the
Indians from procuring timber for the building of the mill. We
obtained a supply from Kanabec river, which arrived September 15th.
Building the mill and blasting the rock occupied our attention during
the winter. The mill was soon completed and running. During this
period the work was often interrupted and the men were greatly
demoralized by the threatening behavior of the Indians. Many of them
were frightened into leaving the settlement, but their places were
supplied by the company whenever practicable. During 1840 we received
some reliable accessions, among them J. L. Taylor, John McKusick,
Joseph Haskell, Elam Greely, J. W. Furber and A. McHattie. Some frame
houses were built near the mill. Washington Libbey was our first
agent, Darnes our second (1839), Capt. W. Frazer our third (1840),
Capt. Wm. Holcombe our fourth (1841). The first death was of a man
drowned in 1840. The first white woman who visited the Falls was Mrs.
David Hone. Rev. Boutwell preached here in 1839. A. Northrup and
family came in 1840.


INDIAN MURDERS.

In 1840 Jeremiah Russell, the Indian farmer at Pokegama, Pine county,
Minnesota, sent two Chippewa Indians to St. Croix Falls for supplies,
who arrived in safety. A band of fifty Sioux Indians were concealed at
this (St. Croix Falls) settlement for some days. Within an hour after
the arrival of the two Chippewas, the settlement was surrounded by
these Sioux. The whites, seeing that trouble was brewing, secreted the
Chippewas for two days, the Sioux closely watching. The white men were
restless, and afraid to go to work. Capt. Frazer, Rev. Ayers and
myself held a council and explained the situation to the Chippewas,
who replied that they would not expose the whites to trouble. They
resolved on leaving and started in open day north over the trap rock
ridge, thence through the bushes, where they discovered two Sioux. The
Chippewas were armed and fired on the Sioux, killing them instantly.
The Chippewas then started to run. The report of the guns brought
squads of Sioux immediately in pursuit, who, firing on the Chippewas,
killed one. The two dead Sioux were sons of Little Crow. They were
placed by the Sioux in a sitting posture, with backs to a tree, facing
the enemy's country, on the second bench near where the mill dam was
subsequently built, a double barreled gun standing on the ground
between them. They decorated the corpses with war paint, ribbons and
mosses. The two Chippewas who killed Little Crow's sons bore the
titles Julius and Wezhaymah. The Sioux in pursuit killed Julius, and
his head was hung up in a kettle before those he had slain. His body
was chopped in pieces and scattered to the four winds.

From an historical letter, written by Mrs. E. T. Ayer, who lives at
Belle Prairie, Minnesota, and whom we have elsewhere mentioned, we
have the following description of the death of the sons of Little
Crow:

"Julius was of medium height, stout build, very neat, and when in full
dress very few Indians would favorably compare with him. Being a good
hunter he had the means of gratifying his taste. His hair was long and
abundant, and was kept clean and shining by the frequent use of comb
and brush, with the help of a little marrow or bear's oil. Three or
four of his numerous long braids, studded with silver brooches, hung
gracefully on both sides of his face and over his arms--the rest of
his dress in a manner corresponding. His hair, like Absalom's, did not
save him from his enemies. The Dakotas may dance around it for
generations and never see its equal.

"Wezhaymah made his appearance at Pokegama. As he drew near the houses
he gave a salute from his double barreled gun. The Ojibways were much
frightened. They believed the Sioux had returned to make another trial
for scalps and plunder. The first impulse of the women was to hide.
The chief's wife and oldest daughter being at the mission house, went
through a trap door into a dark cellar. But when the supposed dead
stood before them, alive and well, there was great rejoicing.

"Wezhaymah said that Julius killed both of Little Crow's sons; that
the Sioux followed him but a short distance, then all turned after
Julius. He took a circuitous route home, traveling in the night and
hiding in the day. Julius' parents, Joseph and Eunice, and other
members of their family, were members of the mission church. He and
his wife made no profession, though they sometimes attended religious
worship."

About twenty days after, about one hundred Sioux came from little
Crow's band at Red Rock for the bodies of their dead comrades and the
gun, having first, by means of spies, satisfied themselves that there
were no Chippewas in the vicinity. One morning, as the whites were
going to work, they were surprised by the sudden appearance of these
Indians, who rushed suddenly down upon them from different trails,
gorgeously painted and without blankets. Their movements were so
sudden that the whites were completely surprised, and at the mercy of
the Indians, who, however, satisfied themselves with searching the
camp and appropriating all the victuals they could find, ostensibly
searching for the gun which was not to be found where they had left
it. Complaining bitterly of its loss, they withdrew to a trap rock
ledge near by, where they formed a circle, danced, sung and fired
several guns into the air. They then asked to see "Oge-ma," the agent,
and formally demanded the gun. Everyone in camp denied any knowledge
whatever of the missing article. The Indians were at first much
dissatisfied, but finally Little Crow advanced, smoked a pipe and
offered it to. Capt. Frazer, shook hands and withdrew, apparently in
peace.

As it is not the custom for Indians to molest the dead, they firmly
believed a white man had taken the gun. Little Crow applied to Maj.
Plympton at Fort Snelling, charging the theft upon the whites. The
major in turn wrote to Capt. Frazer at the Falls to make an
investigation, as a result of which the gun was found in a tool chest
belonging to Lewis Barlow, concealed under a false bottom. Barlow
professed entire innocence and ignorance of the matter, suggesting
that his brother must have placed the gun there. Capt. Frazer severely
reprimanded him for imperiling the lives of all the whites in the
settlement by his foolish and thievish act. The gun was sent to Maj.
Plympton, who wrote to Capt. Frazer cautioning him to be on his guard,
as the Indians were much irritated. Barlow had earned the contempt and
dislike of his fellow workmen.


INDIAN BATTLE OF STILLWATER

Mr. Tuttle was at the Falls at the time of the famous battle between
the Sioux and Chippewas, which was fought in the ravine where the
Minnesota state prison now stands, July 3, 1839, and has given me the
following account:

The Chippewas of the St. Croix had been invited by the officer in
command at Fort Snelling to a council, the object of which was to
effect a treaty of peace. Two hundred and fifty or three hundred
Chippewas, including their women and children, passed down the St.
Croix in canoes, rested in fancied security in the ravine near the
present site of Stillwater, and made a portage thence to Fort
Snelling, where, under protection of government soldiers, the council
was held. The pipe of peace had been smoked and the Chippewas were
quietly returning home, and had encamped a second time in the ravine,
expecting to re-embark the next morning on the waters of the St.
Croix. Just at the dawn of the ensuing day, and while they were still
asleep, a large body of Sioux, who had stealthily followed them, fell
upon them suddenly, and with wild yells commenced an indiscriminate
slaughter. The Chippewas rallying, drove the Sioux from the ground,
thereby retaining possession of their dead, to the number of about
thirty. After the smoke of peace at Fort Snelling it was reported that
a Sioux had been killed. This incensed them so that they followed in
two parties, one party pursuing the St. Croix band and another the
Mille Lacs band up Rum river. The latter party overtook the Chippewas
at the point where Princeton is now located, and slew sixty of their
number. It was afterward ascertained that the Sioux killed near Fort
Snelling was killed by a Pillager of the Upper Mississippi, an Indian
of a band that was not in the council. The Sioux and Chippewas, it is
true, are bitter, relentless, hereditary foes, but this slaughter
occurred through a grievous mistake. The Chippewas, on their return,
rested at the Falls. Capt. Frazer gave them medicine, dressed their
wounds and fed them. The Indians gave way to the wildest grief at
their losses, and when they heard of the sixty killed of the Mille
Lacs band, their mourning cries and moans baffled description.


THE FIRST LOGGERS.

The first logs were cut by J. R. Brown on the Taylor's Falls flat in
the winter of 1836-37, but the first regular outfit and camp was that
of John Boyce, who came up in a mackinaw boat from St. Louis with
eleven men and six oxen, landing at St. Croix Falls late in the fall
of 1837. Mr. Andrew Mackey, who was in his party, has furnished me
with some items regarding this adventure. The boat was cordelled over
the rapids, and, with poles and lines, taken as far as the mouth of
Kanabec river, where a camp was established. Boyce had considerable
trouble with the Indians. Little Six, a Chippewa chief, came to the
camp with two hundred warriors in a defiant, blustering manner,
telling him to "go away," to "go back where they came from." Boyce
proceeded to the Indian mission at Lake Pokegama and invoked the aid
of Rev. Mr. Boutwell, Ely, Ayers and Seymour, who came back with him
to the camp and had a "talk" with Little Six, who claimed that the
whites had paid no money. Mr. Seymour explained to them the provisions
of the treaty, of which they would soon hear; that under its
provisions the whites had a right to the timber; that they were not
usurpers, that they would live peaceably and not disturb their game.
The Indians granted assent, but refused to allow the whites to remove
any of their chingwack (pine). Mr. Seymour, apprehending trouble,
advised Mr. Boyce to leave. He determined to remain. The Indians being
still troublesome, Mr. Boyce descended the river to the falls, the
Indians following. On going over the falls the boat filled and Mr.
Boyce lost nearly all he had. The Palmyra shortly after broke the
silence of the Dalles with its shrill whistle and brought the news of
the ratification of the treaty by Congress. Boyce sent his boat down
the river, built small boats and made haste to return to his camp on
Kanabec river, where he remained through the fall and winter cutting
logs.


THE FIRST RAFTING.

In April and May of 1839, Boyce rafted his logs with poles and ropes
made of basswood strings. The high water swept them away. He gathered
from the broken rafts enough for one raft, made it as strong as
possible, and continued the descent. The raft struck upon the first
island and went to pieces. Boyce saved the canoe and a part of the
provisions. Boyce was by this time in a furious rage at his want of
success, but tried a third time to make a raft. The crew, tired and
hungry, refused to work. A new contract was made and written on a
slate, there being no paper. The logs were left in the river. Some of
them floated down and were sold to the Falls company and to the
company at Marine. Boyce lost all his labor and investment; the men
got but little for their work. Frank Steele had assisted in supplying
provisions and clothing for the men, the value of which he never
received. Boyce was disgusted and left the country.


AN INDIAN PAYMENT.

Levi W. Stratton, who came up on the Palmyra, July, 1838, gives a few
reminiscences from which we select an account of a payment made to the
Chippewa Indians the year of his arrival. The crew and passengers of
the Palmyra had been greatly annoyed by the Indians, who expected
their first payment in July, and besieged the boat in great numbers,
demanding it at the hands of the first whites who had come up the
river, unable to understand the difference between the regularly
constituted authorities and those immigrants who had nothing to do
with the payments. It was not until the first week of November that
their goods came for payment. The place where Stillwater now stands
was selected as the place where they should assemble.

The old stern wheel Gipsey brought the goods and landed them on the
beach. The Chippewas came there to the number of 1,100 in their
canoes, nearly starved by waiting for their payment. While there
receiving it the river and lake froze up, and a deep snow came on;
thus all their supplies, including one hundred barrels of flour,
twenty-five of pork, kegs of tobacco, bales of blankets, guns and
ammunition, casks of Mexican dollars, etc., all were sacrificed except
what they could carry off on their backs through the snow hundreds of
miles away. Their fleet of birch canoes they destroyed before leaving,
lest the Sioux might have the satisfaction of doing the same after
they left.

Many of the old as well as the young died from overeating, they being
nearly starved. Thus their first payment became a curse rather than a
blessing to them, for their supplies soon gave out, the season for
hunting was past, they were away from home and had no means of getting
there, except by wading through deep snow. Many perished in the
attempt. As is usual in such cases, I suppose, no one was to blame,
but the poor Indians had to suffer the consequences of somebody's
neglect. The old Gipsey had scarcely time to get through the lake
before the ice formed.


INDIAN DANCING AND THEFT.

In the rough log cabin at St. Croix Falls were three females, the
wives of Messrs. Orr and Sackett, employes of the company, and Miss
Young, daughter of a widower of that name. Life in that cabin was by
no means a dream of bliss, for in consequence of the mosquitoes, more
relentless persecutors than the Indians, a smudge had to be kept
burning night and day, or at least by day when the sun was not
shining. The old cabin served for a kitchen, while an arbor was
improvised outside for a dining room. Shortly after the arrival of the
immigrants, and before they had learned all the peculiarities of
Indian character, they were visited by a party of fifteen or twenty
braves, who set about adorning themselves, and spent the forenoon in
painting and getting themselves up in gorgeous rig, regardless of
expense, preparatory to giving a free entertainment. Just before
dinner was called, they arranged themselves near the table and gave a
dance, which was very much applauded, after which they were given
presents of bread and meat, and dismissed, apparently highly pleased
with the success of their exhibition. The household gathered about the
table to enjoy their repast, but to their consternation, not a knife,
fork or spoon could be found. While the majority of the Indians were
riveting the attention of the new comers by their extraordinary
antics, the remainder were quietly abstracting the tableware. They
were afterward charged with the theft, but protested innocence. The
missing articles were never heard of again. A pig of lead, left
outside, disappeared at the same time. The poor Indians denied ever
having seen the lead. Mr. Stratton remarked, however, that all their
war clubs, pipes and gun stocks had been lately and elaborately
ornamented with molten lead.


OTHER THEFTS.

At another time, shortly before payment, when the Indians were
unusually hungry and troublesome, two barrels of pork and one of
butter mysteriously disappeared. The pork barrels were found empty in
the river, and also the butter barrel with one-third of the contents
missing. The Indians lay all day in camp sick, but protested their
innocence. Nevertheless, at payment day a claim of two hundred dollars
for the pork and one hundred and fifty for the butter was allowed and
kept back. They made no objections to paying for the pork, but
protested against paying for the butter, as it did them no good and
made them all sick.

In September, an old Indian came to the cabin, begging for something
to eat. The agent went to the pork barrel and held up a fine piece of
pork weighing about twelve pounds, to which the tail was still
attached. At sight of this his countenance fell and he went away
silently and sullenly.

Shortly afterward a yoke of oxen was missing. They had been driven off
over some bare ledges of trap to break the trail. An Indian was hired
to hunt for them. He found that this same beggar who had been so
disgusted with the offer of a piece of pork with the tail attached had
driven them off and slaughtered them. Payment day made all right, and
the Indians were compelled to pay a good price for rather poor beef.


HARD TIMES.

Mrs. Mary C. Worth communicated to the writer the following incidents,
illustrating some of the vicissitudes of the early settlers:

It was in the fall of 1842. There were about two hundred people in the
village, most of them in the employ of James Purinton, company agent.
They were already short of provisions and the winter was rapidly
coming on, and the expected boat, with its cargo of provisions for the
winter supply, was long delayed. September passed, October came and
nearly passed, and still no boat. Snow covered the ground, and thin
ice the river. The ice, in finely broken pieces, floated down the
rapids and was beginning to gorge in the Dalles, and still no boat.
Provisions were allotted to the resident families, and the gloomiest
anticipations filled all minds at the prospect of the long, dreary
winter without food; when, on the twenty-eighth of October, the long
expected whistle was heard from the coming steamer. The people rushed
frantically down to the old warehouse, but the ice was so gorged in
the Dalles that no boat could make the landing. No boat was in sight,
nor was the whistle heard again. Had it all been an illusion? The
eager throng were again in despair. Another night of cold would
blockade the river. Just then the voices of white men were heard from
the rocks of the Dalles, and to their great joy they perceived the
boat's officers and passengers clambering down from the rocks, with
the glad tidings that the boat had reached the landing, half a mile
below, and was then unloading her cargo. The boat, as soon as
unloaded, hurriedly departed to avoid being frozen in. The winter
passed merrily enough, but clouds and darkness gathered in the spring.
Provisions were again short, and had to be apportioned sparingly and
equally. Occasionally a deer or a fish eked out the supply, but
starvation was again imminent. On this occasion they were relieved by
the reception of condemned pork from Fort Snelling. The St. Louis
proprietors sent up another boat load of supplies after the opening of
navigation, and all seemed well, when, during the prevalence of high
water, the boom and mill race gave way and the logs, their main
dependence, were swept down the river and beyond their control. This
important occurrence, as it then seemed to be, opened up for the
company and people a new trade from the valley below, which has been a
source of immense profit. It suggested the idea of booming and rafting
their logs for points down the river, and led to the building of the
first saw mill at Stillwater.


UGH! UGH!

Mr. Purinton at one time invited a few noted Indians who were begging
for food to be seated at his table. He politely asked them if they
would have tea or coffee. "Ugh! Ugh!" (equivalent to yes, yes) replied
the whole party. So Mr. Purinton mixed their tea and coffee.


MRS. WORTH AND MUCKATICE.

Muckatice, a Chippewa chief, heard that a barrel of whisky had been
stored for safe keeping in the cellar of Mrs. Worth, at Balsam Lake.
Muckatice forced himself into the house and attempted to raise the
cellar trap door. Mrs. Worth forbade him and placed herself upon the
door. Muckatice roughly pushed her aside. He raised the trap door,
and, while in the act of descending, fell. While falling Mrs. Worth
suddenly shut the trap door upon him, by which one of his legs was
caught. Mrs. Worth held the door tightly down. When at last Muckatice
was released, gathering a crowd of Indians he returned and demanded
the whisky. Thayer, with ropes, managed to get the barrel out of the
cellar and out upon the ground, and seeing the peril of giving so much
whisky to the Indians, knocked in both heads of the barrel with an
axe, and the earth drank the poisonous fluid. Muckatice then shook
hands with Mrs. Worth, called her very brave, and departed.



CHAPTER V.

BIOGRAPHIES.


The biographical histories of the early settlers of Polk county
considerably antedate the organization of the towns to which they
would be referred as at present belonging, and we therefore group
together those earliest identified with the history of the valley, and
its first settlement at St. Croix Falls, referring also some, such as
Joseph R. Brown, Gov. W. R. Marshall and Frank Steele, to localities
in which they had been more intimately connected.

GOV. WM. HOLCOMBE was one of the active resident proprietors and agent
of the St. Croix Falls Lumber Company from 1838 to 1845. He was born
at Lambertville, New Jersey, in 1804; left home when a boy; went to
Utica, New York, where he learned the wheelwright trade. He married
Martha Wilson, of Utica; moved to Columbus, Ohio, and was successful
in business, but lost all by fire, when he moved to Cincinnati, and
from thence to Galena. While in Galena he embarked in steamboating on
the Mississippi. Mrs. Holcombe died in Galena. From Galena he came to
St. Croix Falls, where he devoted his time as agent to selling lumber
and keeping books. Mr. Holcombe took a deep interest in opening the
valley to public notice and improvement. He traveled over the
wilderness country from Prairie du Chien to St. Croix Falls before
there was a blazed path, driving horses and cattle. He helped locate
the two first roads in the valley from the mouth of St. Croix lake,
via Marine, to St. Croix Falls and from St. Croix Falls, via Sunrise
and Rush lakes, to Russell's farm, on Pokegama lake. He supervised the
cultivation of the first crops raised in Polk county, at Jerusalem.
He settled in Stillwater in 1846, where he became an active worker in
behalf of education, and did much to establish the present excellent
system of schools. In 1846 he was a member of the first constitutional
convention of Wisconsin Territory, representing this valley and all
the country north of Crawford county. He was a faithful worker on the
boundary question, and effected a change from the St. Croix to a point
fifteen miles due east, from the most easterly point on Lake St.
Croix, from thence south to the Mississippi river and north to the
waters of Lake Superior. His course was approved by his constituents.
In 1848 he took an active part in the formation of Minnesota
Territory, and was secretary of the first convention called for that
purpose in Stillwater. He was receiver of the United States land
office at Stillwater four years. He was a member of the Democratic
wing of the constitutional convention for Minnesota in 1857, and was
honored by being elected first lieutenant governor of Minnesota in
1857. The name of Gov. Holcombe will long be remembered in the valley
of the St. Croix. He died in Stillwater, Sept. 5, 1870, and was buried
with masonic honors. He left two sons, William W. and Edward Van
Buren, by his first wife. He married a second wife in Galena, in 1847,
who died in 1880.

WILLIAM S. HUNGERFORD was born in Connecticut, Aug. 12, 1805. He was
married to Lucinda Hart, at Farmington, Connecticut, in 1827. He came
to St. Louis, Missouri, at an early age and engaged in mercantile
pursuits in the firm of Hungerford & Livingston. In 1838 he became one
of the original proprietors of the St. Croix Falls Lumbering Company,
and gave his time and talents to its welfare. He was of a hopeful
temperament, and even in the darkest hour of the enterprise in which
he had embarked, cherished a most cheerful faith in its ultimate
success.

Hon. Caleb Cushing, whose name was to be associated intimately with
that of Mr. Hungerford in the future history and litigation of the
company, recognizing St. Croix Falls as a point promising unrivaled
attractions to the manufacturer, in 1846 purchased an interest in the
company, which was at once reorganized with Cushing and Hungerford as
principal stockholders. The acute mind of Gen. Cushing recognized not
only the prospective advantages of the water power, but the
probability of the division of Wisconsin Territory, which might result
in making St. Croix Falls the capital of the new territory, and
formed plans for the development of the company enterprise, which
might have resulted advantageously had not he been called away to take
part in the Mexican War and thence to go on a political mission to
China. During his absence there was a complete neglect of his American
inland projects and the enterprise at St. Croix suffered greatly; the
new company accomplished but little that was agreed upon in the
consolidation. Cushing had inexperienced agents, unfitted to attend to
his interest. He furnished money sufficient, if judiciously handled,
to have made a permanent, useful property here. Conflicting questions
arose between Hungerford and Cushing's agents, which terminated in
lawsuits. The first suit was in 1848, Hungerford, plaintiff. Different
suits followed, one after another, for over twenty years, which cursed
the property more than a mildew or blight. During this time the
parties alternated in use and possession, by order of court.
Hungerford, during these trials, pre-empted the land when it came in
market. For this he was arrested on complaint of perjury. Hungerford,
by order of court, was, on his arrest, taken away in chains. He was
soon after released. Hungerford was an indefatigable worker. The labor
of his life was invested in the improvements of the company. Cushing,
being a man of talent and influence, could fight the battle at a
distance. He employed the best legal talent in the land; he met
Hungerford at every turn, and Hungerford became a foe worthy of his
steel. They unitedly accomplished the ruin of their town. Mr.
Hungerford had an excellent family, making their home at the Falls
during all their perplexities. On the occasion of his arrest he was
manacled in presence of his family, who bore it with a fortitude
worthy the name and reputation of the father and husband. The
litigation ended only with the death of the principal actors. The
perishable part of the property, mills and other buildings, has gone
to ruin. The whole history is a sad comment on the folly of attempting
to manage great enterprises without harmony of action and purpose. Mr.
Hungerford died in Monticello, Illinois, in 1874. Mrs. Hungerford died
in Connecticut in 1880. Mr. Cushing died in 1876.

HON. HENRY D. BARRON.--Henry Danforth Barron was born in Saratoga
county, New York, April 10, 1832. He received a common school
education, studied law, and graduated from the law school at Ballston
Spa, New York. He came to Wisconsin in 1851; learned the printer's
trade, and was afterward editor of the Waukesha _Democrat_. In 1857 he
removed to Pepin, Wisconsin, and in 1860 received the appointment of
circuit judge of the Eighth district.

In September, 1861, he came to St. Croix Falls, as agent for Caleb
Cushing and the St. Croix Manufacturing and Improvement Company.

He was elected to the lower house of the Wisconsin legislature in
1862, and served as assemblyman continuously from 1862 to 1869, and
for the years 1872 and 1873. During the sessions of 1866 and 1873 he
was speaker of the assembly. A portion of this time he held the
responsible position of regent of the State University, and was also a
special agent of the treasury department. In 1869 President Grant
appointed him chief justice of Dakota, which honor was declined. The
same year he was appointed fifth auditor in the treasury department,
which office he resigned in 1872 to take a more active part in
advancing the interests of his State. He was chosen a presidential
elector in 1868, and again in 1872, and served as state senator during
the sessions of 1874, 1875 and 1876, and was at one time president
_pro tem_. of the senate. In 1876 he was elected judge of the Eleventh
Judicial circuit. During his service as judge he was highly gratified
that so few appeals were taken from his decisions, and that his
decisions were seldom reversed in higher courts. He had also held the
offices of postmaster, county attorney, county judge, and county
superintendent of schools.

Although formerly a Democrat, at the outbreak of the Rebellion he
became a Republican. Of late years he was a pronounced stalwart.
Throughout his life he never received any profit, pecuniarily, from
the prominent positions in which he was placed, his only endeavor
seeming to be to advance the interests, influence, worth and ability
of the younger men with whom he was associated, and hundreds who
to-day hold positions of prominence and responsibility, owe their
success and advancement to his teachings and advice. Of a disposition
kind, courteous and generous, he was possessed of a remarkably
retentive memory, which, with his intimate associations with leading
men, and familiarity with public life, legislative and judicial,
afforded a fund of personal sketches, anecdotes and biographies, at
once entertaining, amusing and instructive.

The judge was twice married, his first wife having died at Waukesha,
leaving him an only son, Henry H. Barron, who was with him at the time
of his death. His second marriage was to Ellen K. Kellogg, at Pepin,
in 1860. For some time she has made her home with her mother in
California, on account of ill health. At the time of his death, which
occurred at St. Croix Falls, Jan. 22, 1882, he was judge of the
Eleventh Judicial circuit. His remains were buried at Waukesha.

GEORGE W. BROWNELL.--Mr. Brownell, though not among the earliest of
the pioneers of St. Croix valley, yet deserves special mention on
account of his scientific attainments, his high character as a man,
and the fact that he was an influential member, from the St. Croix
district, of the Wisconsin territorial constitutional convention, he
having been elected over Bowron on the question of establishing the
new state line east of the St. Croix.

Mr. Brownell was born in Onondago, New York, and when a youth lived in
Syracuse, where he learned the trade of a carriage maker. He was a
resident of Galena, Illinois, over thirty years, where he engaged in
mining and geological pursuits. He spent two years in the lead mines
of Wisconsin. He was connected with the Galena _Gazette_ some years.
In 1846 he visited the Superior copper mining region for a Boston
company. He formed the acquaintance of Caleb Cushing, Rufus Choate,
Horace Rantoul, and others, and located for them mineral permits at
St. Croix Falls and Kettle river, and became, this year, a resident of
St. Croix Falls. In 1847 he was married to Mrs. Duncan, of Galena. He
was elected this year to the constitutional convention. In 1851 he
returned to Galena and engaged in the grain trade and cotton planting
near Vicksburg, Mississippi, in which he was not successful. In 1865
he visited Colorado and made investments there. When on a trip to
Colorado, in 1866, the stage was attacked by Indians. Brownell and
another passenger alighted to resist the attack. He was armed with a
rifle, and, if properly supported, would probably have been saved; but
most of the passengers remained in the stage. The driver, getting
scared, whipped his horses and drove rapidly away, leaving Brownell
and companion, who were overpowered and killed. Their bodies were
recovered, shockingly mutilated. His remains were forwarded to Galena
for burial. Mr. Brownell had a scientific mind, and passed much of
his life in scientific studies and practical experiments. He attained
a good knowledge of geology, mineralogy and chemistry. The foresight
of Mr. Brownell on the Wisconsin boundary, and in other public
matters, has been, in time, generally recognized. He was a good
neighbor and kind friend.

COL. ROBERT C. MURPHY.--Col. Murphy, a man of fine address and
admirable social qualities, made his home at St. Croix Falls in
1860-61 and 62, during which time he was in charge of the Cushing
interest and property, which position he left to accept the colonelcy
of the Eighth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. His military career was
not fortunate and its abrupt termination was a sad disappointment to
himself and friends. An article in the Milwaukee _Weekly Telegraph_,
from the pen of one who knew Col. Murphy well, thus sums up some of
the salient points in his character and career. We make a few
extracts:

"Col. Murphy was educated and accomplished. He had been instructed in
the Patridge Military School, and was possessed of some experience in
Indian fights on the plains with Burnside, bearing scars of that
experience, and a recommendation of skill and courage from Gen.
Burnside to Gov. Randall. His great intuitiveness, his ready manner,
his cultivation of mind, gained for him the respect and charity of his
superiors, and brought him the respect and confidence of his regiment.
His father, a native of Ireland, was a successful practicing lawyer
and politician in Ohio, without much education; a man of strong
natural talent and integrity. Upon his son he showered all his
earnings, in the form of that which the father lacked the most--books,
schooling and polish. Judge Murphy (the father) was the bearer of
important dispatches to Texas from the Tyler and Polk administrations
in connection with the annexation of that republic to this country,
and is referred to in Benton's 'Thirty Years' as Tyler's 'midnight
messenger.' Young Murphy was appointed by President Pierce American
consul in China, while Gen. Caleb Cushing was minister to that
country, and he discharged important consular and judicial duties
there with credit to himself and his government. Upon his return Gen.
Cushing selected him to take charge of the Cushing interest and
property at St. Croix Falls, in this State. From there he went 'to the
front,' and his military career was cut short by his failure at Iuka
and Holly Springs. Gen. Grant dismissed him in brief, terse words, but
was willing afterward that he should be heard by a board of army
officers detailed for that purpose. Stanton was inexorable and
refused."

After his dismissal from the army he removed to Washington and
accepted a clerkship in the post office department where he still
remains. It is due to him to say that his own version of his military
troubles is ingenious and plausible, and would, if sustained, quite
exonerate him from the charges that have pressed so heavily upon him.

EDWARD WORTH.--Mr. Worth came to St. Croix Falls from New York State
in 1842, where he continued to reside the remainder of his life,
experiencing the vicissitudes of pioneer life to their fullest extent.
He died in 1863, leaving a widow, an only son (Henry) and two
daughters, Myra, wife of W. T. Vincent, and Sarah, wife of John
Blanding.

MRS. MARY C. WORTH.--Mrs. Worth was born Oct. 14, 1812, was married to
Edward Worth, Dec. 24, 1835, and came to St. Croix Falls in 1842,
where she lived till Jan. 12, 1886, when she peacefully passed away.
She was a woman of rare mental ability, untiring industry and skill in
managing her household affairs, and unquestioned courage, as many
incidents in her St. Croix experience will evidence. She was a member
of the Episcopal church and went to her grave with the respect and
admiration of all who knew her.

MAURICE MORDECAI SAMUELS, better known as Capt. Samuels, was born in
London, of Jewish parentage. It is not known exactly when he came to
this country. I first met him in 1844, at Prairie du Chien, at which
time he was a traveling peddler. In 1846 I found him in the Chippewa
country, living with an Indian woman and trading with the Indians at
the mouth of Sunrise river. In 1847 he established a ball alley and
trading post at St. Croix Falls, where he lived until 1861, when he
raised a company (the St. Croix Rifles) for the United States service,
received a commission and served till the close of the war. After the
war he became a citizen of New Orleans, and in 1880 changed his
residence to Winfield, Kansas. While in St. Croix he reared a family
of half-breed children. He was a shrewd man and an inveterate dealer
in Indian whisky. Capt. Samuels was sent as a government agent to the
Chippewas of St. Croix valley and the southern shore of Lake
Superior, in 1862, to ascertain and report their sentiment in regard
to the Sioux war. It may be said of Capt. Samuels that, however
unprincipled he may have been, he was no dissembler, but outspoken in
his sentiments, however repellant they may have been to the moral
sense of the community. He died at Winfield, Kansas, in 1884.

JOSEPH B. CHURCHILL was born in New York in 1820; was married in New
York to Eliza Turnbull, and came to St. Croix Falls in 1854. He has
filled various offices creditably, and has the respect and confidence
of his acquaintances. His oldest daughter is the wife of Phineas G.
Lacy, of Hudson. His second daughter is the wife of Joseph Rogers. He
has one son living.

JOHN MCLEAN.--Mr. McLean was born 1819, in Vermont; was married in
1844 to Sarah Turnbull and settled on his farm near St. Croix Falls in
1850. Through untiring industry and honorable dealing he has secured a
sufficiency for life, a handsome farm and good buildings. A large
family has grown up around him, and have settled in the county.

GILMAN JEWELL came from New Hampshire; was married in New Hampshire
and came to the West in 1847. He settled on a farm near St. Croix
Falls. He died in 1869. Mrs. Jewell died January, 1888. One son,
Philip, resides on the homestead. Ezra, another son, resides at the
Falls. The other members of the family have moved elsewhere.

ELISHA CREECH was born in West Virginia, 1831. He came to St. Croix
Falls in 1849, and was married to Mary M. Seeds in 1863. They have
four children. Mr. Creech has been engaged much of his life in
lumbering. Through industry and temperate habits he has made a good
farm and a pleasant home.

JAMES W. MCGLOTHLIN was born in Kentucky; came to St. Croix Falls in
1846, and engaged successfully in sawing lumber at the St. Croix mill
in 1846 and 1847, but in 1848 rented the mill, being sustained by
Waples & Co., of Dubuque, Iowa, but by reason of bad management, he
failed and left the valley in 1849. He afterward went to California,
where he met a tragic fate, having been murdered by his teamster.

ANDREW L. TUTTLE.--Mr. Tuttle came to St. Croix Falls in 1849, and was
engaged many years as a lumberman and as keeper of a boardinghouse. He
settled on his farm at Big Rock in 1856, where he made himself a
comfortable home. He went to Montana in 1865, and died there in 1873.
Mrs. Tuttle still resides at the homestead, an amiable woman, who has
acted well her part in life. One of her daughters is married to Wm. M.
Blanding. One son, Eli, died in 1883, another son, Henry, died in
Montana. Perly, John and Warren are settled near the homestead.

JOHN WEYMOUTH was born at Clinton, Maine, in 1815, and came to St.
Croix Falls in 1846, where he followed lumbering and made himself a
beautiful home on the high hill overlooking the two villages of St.
Croix Falls and Taylor's Falls. By frugality and industry Mr. Weymouth
has accumulated a competence. He was married in St. Croix Falls in
1850, to Mary McHugh. One son, John, is married to Miss Ramsey, of
Osceola, and a daughter, Mary J., is married to Samuel Harvey, of St.
Croix Falls.

B. W. REYNOLDS, a tall, thin, stoop-shouldered man of eccentric
manners, was receiver at the St. Croix land office from 1861 to 1864.
He was a native of South Carolina, and a graduate of Middlebury
College, Vermont. He had studied for the ministry, and, if we mistake
not, had devoted some years of his life to pastoral work, but devoted
later years to secular pursuits. At the close of the war he returned
to South Carolina as a reconstructionist, but in two or three years
came North, and located at La Crosse, Wisconsin, where he edited the
La Crosse _Star_. He died at La Crosse Aug. 17, 1877.

AUGUSTUS GAYLORD.--Mr. Gaylord was a merchant in St. Croix Falls prior
to the Rebellion. In 1861 Gov. Harvey appointed him adjutant general
of the State. In this office he acquitted himself well. He was an
efficient public officer and in private life a high minded, honorable
gentleman.

JAMES D. REYMERT.--Mr. Reymert was born in Norway in 1821, and came to
America and settled in Racine in 1845. He was a practical printer, and
editor of the first Norwegian paper west of the lakes, if not the
first in America, and was a man of recognized literary ability. He was
a member of the second Wisconsin constitutional convention, 1847, from
Racine. In 1849 he was a member of the Wisconsin assembly. He came to
St. Croix Falls in 1859, and served two years as agent of the St.
Croix Falls Company. He was the organizer of a company in New York
City, known as "The Great European-American Land Company," in which
Count Taub, of Norway, took an active part. This noted company
claimed to have purchased the Cushing property, a claim true only so
far as the preliminary steps of a purchase were concerned. For a time
there was considerable activity. The town of St. Croix Falls was
resurveyed, new streets were opened, and magnificent improvements
planned, but failing to consummate the purchase, the company failed,
leaving a beggarly account of unpaid debts.

WILLIAM J. VINCENT.--Mr. Vincent is of Irish descent. He was born June
10, 1830, and came West when a youth. In 1846, at the age of sixteen,
he enlisted in Company H, Mounted Rifles, and served through the
Mexican War. In 1848 he came to St. Croix Falls, where he followed
lumbering and clerking. He was married to Myra Worth in 1855. In 1861
he enlisted in Company F, First Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, of which
company he was appointed second lieutenant. He resigned in 1862. He
has held the office of county commissioner eleven years, that of
county clerk seven years, that of state timber agent four years. In
1879 he served as representative in the Wisconsin assembly. In 1880 he
commenced selling goods with his son-in-law, under the firm name of
Vincent & Stevenson. He erected the first brick store building in St.
Croix Falls in 1884.

THOMPSON BROTHERS.--Thomas Thompson was born in Lower Canada, Nov. 11,
1833, and was married to Eliza Clendenning in 1861. James Thompson was
born in Lower Canada, Nov. 11, 1840, and was married to Mary A. Gray
in 1871. The brothers came to the Falls in 1856 and engaged in
lumbering about ten years, and then in merchandising, jointly, but in
1868 formed separate firms. Thomas built the first brick dwelling
house in St. Croix in 1882. Mrs. Thomas Thompson died in 1886. James
erected a large flour mill in 1879.

WILLIAM AMERY was born in London, England, in 1831. He learned the
carpenter's trade in London and came to America in 1851, locating at
first in Stillwater, but the ensuing year removing to St. Croix Falls.
He pre-empted the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of
section 31, township 34, range 18, and adjoining lands in 1853, and
this has been his continuous home since. He has served as county
treasurer four years and held many town offices. He was married to
Sarah Hackett in 1855. The town of Amery is named in honor of this
respected man. Mr. Amery died Sept. 4, 1887, leaving a widow, two sons
and three daughters.

LEWIS BARLOW.--Among the first immigrants to St. Croix Falls was Lewis
Barlow, an eccentric, sensitive man. He was a millwright, and, being
of an unhappy disposition, led a troubled life. He was the first man
married at the Falls. In 1847 he moved to the Minnesota side, where he
owned considerable land. He lived here until 1852 when his family left
him. He sold his interests and followed and reunited them at Rock
Island, Illinois. Here he suffered much and became blind. He traveled
with a panorama and so earned a scanty livelihood. In later life he
revisited his old home at the Falls, but broken and dejected in
spirit. He died at Rock Island in 1872.

LEVI W. STRATTON.--Mr. Stratton was one of the passengers of the
Palmyra in 1838. He worked for the St. Croix Company two years. After
leaving the Falls, he changed his residence several times, and finally
settled at Excelsior, Hennepin county, Minnesota, where he died in
1884. Mr. Stratton wrote for the Minneapolis papers many interesting
reminiscences of pioneer life on the St. Croix.

ELMA M. BLANDING.--Mr. Blanding was born in Harford, Susquehanna
county, New York, Feb. 14, 1800. He was married to Eliza Tuttle in
1826. He settled on a farm near St. Croix Falls in 1856, where he
died, Sept. 16, 1871. Father Blanding, as he was affectionately called
in the later years of his life, was a man of exemplary habits, of
strong religious convictions, and a consistent member of the
Presbyterian church. He left a widow, five sons and three daughters.
Mrs. Eliza Blanding died Jan. 18, 1887. Wm. M. Blanding, the oldest
son, owns a fine farm near the Falls, formerly known as "Jerusalem."
He is a surveyor, lumberman and farmer, and a prominent citizen. He
was married to Eliza Tuttle. A family of thirteen children has grown
up around him. In 1887 he was appointed receiver in the St. Croix land
office. John, the second son, is also a farmer in St. Croix Falls. He
was married to Sarah, daughter of Edward and Mary C. Worth. Eugene E.
is engaged in the drug business at Taylors Falls, and is also surveyor
and express agent. He married Joanna Ring, of Taylors Falls, in 1871.
Fred, the fourth son, was married in 1885 to Emma Sly. He was
appointed United States land receiver at St. Croix Falls in 1887. He
died in California, Jan. 30, 1888. Frank, the youngest son, was
married to Annie McCourt, and lives on the homestead. Josephine, the
oldest daughter, is the wife of Wm. Longfellow, and resides in
Machias, Maine. Flavilla, the widow of Charles B. Whiting, lives at
St. Paul, Minnesota. Her husband died in 1868. Mrs. Whiting was
executrix of the will of Dr. E. D. Whiting, and successfully
controlled a property valued at about $80,000. Mary, wife of Wm.
McCourt, died in 1880.

[Illustration: WILLIAM M. BLANDING.]

FREDERICK K. BARTLETT was a native of New England. He came to St.
Croix Falls in 1849, as attorney and land agent for Caleb Cushing. He
was candidate for judge of the district court in 1850, but was
defeated. He subsequently settled in Stillwater, and later in Hudson,
where he died in 1857, leaving a wife and one son, who became a civil
engineer and died in St. Paul in 1885, and one daughter, Helen, who
achieved some reputation as a writer for periodicals.

MICHAEL FIELD was born June 8, 1806. He came from a New England
family, his father and mother having resided in Connecticut. In early
life he removed to New York and resided awhile at Rochester. He
engaged principally in transportation business. The earliest work he
ever did was on the Erie canal. He was married in 1833 to Miss
Reynolds, who died in 1874. His children are Capt. Silas Wright Field
(mortally wounded at Shiloh), Norton, a resident of Racine, Wisconsin,
Mrs. Fanny Nason, wife of Hon. Joel F. Nason, Phebe and Mary,
unmarried and resident in Brooklyn. Mr. Field was married to his
second wife, Mrs. Harriet Lee Bracken, in 1882. He was appointed
register of the land office at St. Croix Falls by President Lincoln in
1861, and served twenty-six years. Though over eighty years of age he
retains his faculties and general health, and his mind is a store
house of the early history of the country.


ALDEN.

The town of Alden embraces township 32, range 17, and twenty-four
sections of range 18. It has both prairie and timber land, and is
abundantly supplied with water. Apple river traverses it from
northeast to southwest. There are many tributary small streams, and a
large number of small lakes, of which Cedar lake is the largest. This
lies only partially in Alden. The surface is gently undulating.

The town of Alden was organized in 1857. The first board of
supervisors were Stephen Williams, William Folsom and H. Sawyer. The
first post office was established at Wagon Landing in 1862, V. M.
Babcock, postmaster. The first settlers were Wm. Folsom, V. M.
Babcock, V. B. Kittel, I. L. Bridgman, Charles Vassau, Jr., and
Humphrey Sawyer, in 1856. Mr. Bridgman raised the first crops in 1857.
The first marriage was C. Vassau to Alma Kittel, in 1858, by Rev. A.
Burton Peabody. The first white child born in Alden was P. B. Peabody,
July 28, 1856. The first death was that of a child, Nicholas W.
Gordon, June 10, 1857. Alden has two post towns, Little Falls and
Alden.

REV. A. BURTON PEABODY was born May 22, 1823, in Andover, Windsor
county, Vermont. He was the youngest of four minor children, and was
left fatherless at eight years of age, and motherless at fifteen. He
obtained a good English education in the common schools, and at
Chester and Black River academies. The winter terms he spent in
teaching. In 1844 he came to Janesville, Wisconsin, where he spent two
years, partly on a farm and partly in a law office, as a student and
clerk. In 1847 he went to Iowa county, and taught school through the
winter at Mineral Point. The next year he went to Clarence, Green
county, Wisconsin, where he spent four years in teaching. In 1852 he
entered the Nashotah Theological Seminary, where he completed the
course, and was ordained deacon in the Protestant Episcopal church,
June 3, 1855, by the Rev. Bishop Kemper, and took temporary charge of
Grace church, Sheboygan. He was married to Charity Esther Kittel,
Sept. 22, 1855, at Clarence, by the Rev. Wm. Ruger. In November of the
same year he removed to Mississippi, spending the winter at Jackson.
In February he went to Middleton, Mississippi, to take charge of a
mission work, including several appointments. He came, the June
following, to Polk county, Wisconsin, and spent the summer at Wagon
Landing, on Apple river, where his wife's friends had made a
settlement, but in the winter returned to his mission work in the
South, and there remained until 1857. Owing to the troubled political
condition of the South, he did not deem it advisable to remove his
family thither, and so returned to Wagon Landing and obtained mission
work, visiting at intervals Foster's Mills, now New Richmond,
Huntington, Cedar Valley, and St. Croix Falls. The intervening country
was, much of it, an unbroken wilderness, and he was obliged to make
his journeys not infrequently on foot, to cross the swollen streams
and dare all the perils of the winter storm. In 1859 Mr. Peabody
accepted a call to the rectorship of St. Paul's church, Plymouth,
Sheboygan county, but in 1862 returned to the valley of the St. Croix,
and settled on a farm, undertaking meanwhile ministerial work at
Prescott and other points, in a line extending as far north as St.
Croix Falls. Three years later Prescott and River Falls were made
independent, another man taking charge. In 1879 Mr. Peabody undertook
additional work on the North Wisconsin railroad, including a large
number of places, to be visited monthly. In 1882 his railroad work was
limited to Clayton, Cumberland and Hayward. He still has charge, as
rector, of Star Prairie and Wagon Landing. Few men have led more
laborious lives or been more useful in their calling. He has witnessed
the erection of eight churches on the field in which he labored,
though concerned directly in the building of only four. Mr. Peabody's
family consists of seven sons and seven daughters. One of the latter
died in infancy.

V. M. BABCOCK settled at Wagon Landing, town of Alden, in 1856. He was
born in Rensselaer county, New York; married his first wife in New
York and his second wife at Somerset, St. Croix county, Wisconsin.
They have four children. He has held town offices ever since the
organization of the town. He has been sheriff, and was county
superintendent of schools for seven years.


APPLE RIVER.

The town of Apple River includes township 34, range 16, and derives
its name from its principal river. The town is well watered by Apple
river and its tributaries, and it also has numerous lakes, the most
considerable of which is White Ash lake. The surface of the town is
gently undulating, and was originally covered with pine, interspersed
with hardwood groves. There is good wheat soil, and natural meadows
are found in some parts. The town was organized Jan. 22, 1876, having
been set off from Balsam Lake. There are two post offices, Apple River
on the west, and Shiloh on the east town line.


BALSAM LAKE.

The town of Balsam Lake embraces township 34, range 17, and takes its
name from a lake within its bounds. It has an undulating surface,
covered with heavy oak, pine, and maple timber principally. Balsam
creek, the outlet of Balsam lake, flows through it in a southerly
direction, affording fine water powers. About one-sixth of the surface
is covered with lakes. The largest of these, Balsam lake, in the
Indian language An-in-on-duc-a-gon, or evergreen place, gives name to
the town. Deer, Long, Wild Goose, and Mud lakes are fine bodies of
water with bold, timbered shores, and abundance of fish. The town is
near the geographical centre of the county. The first white man, prior
to the organization of the town, to locate within its present bounds
was a disreputable trader named Miller, who in 1848 built a shanty on
Balsam lake, from which he dispensed whisky to the Indians. This man
was not long afterward driven out of the country. (See history of St.
Croix Falls.) The town was organized in 1869. The first board of
supervisors consisted of Geo. P. Anderson, Wright Haskins, and Joseph
Loveless. The clerk was H. J. Fall; the treasurer, F. R. Loveless. The
first school was taught by Jane Husband. Aaron M. Chase built a
shingle mill at the outlet of Balsam lake in 1850, and he seems to
have been the first actual settler or the first man to make
improvements. As he had neither oxen nor horses, the timbers for the
mill were hauled by man power with the aid of yokes and ropes. Other
persons came to the mill and lived there awhile, but the first
permanent settlers came in in 1856. They were J. Shepherd, Joseph
Loveless, Joseph Ravett, and John M. Rogers. Mr. Rogers raised the
first crops in the town; Joseph Ravett was the first postmaster. The
first marriage was that of J. K. Adams to Miss L. A. Millerman, by W.
H. Skinner. The first white child born was a daughter to R. S.
Haskins. The first death, that of a child, occurred in 1870. A first
class flouring mill has been erected at the outlet of Balsam lake. It
is owned by Herman Corning; a saw mill is also in operation at this
point. A Methodist church, 30 × 40 feet ground plan, was erected at
Balsam Lake by the Methodist society in 1886.


BEAVER.

The town of Beaver includes township 34, range 15. It was set off from
Apple River and organized Nov. 15, 1885. The name was suggested as
being appropriate from the work of the beaver in past ages. Beaver
dams are numerous on all the creeks. These ancient works will mostly
disappear with the progress of agriculture. The town is drained by
streams flowing into Apple river. Horseshoe lake, in the northeast
corner, is three miles in length.


BLACK BROOK.

The town of Black Brook includes township 32, range 16. Apple river,
with its tributaries, supplies it with abundant water privileges.
Black Brook, the principal tributary, gives the town its name, and
drains the southern portion. There are many small lakes. The surface
is undulating and most of the soil good. The post office of Black
Brook is in section 32. The North Wisconsin railroad passes through
sections 25, 35 and 36. This town was originally a part of Alden, but
was organized and set off as a new town Aug. 5, 1867. J. C. Nelson
and G. H. Goodrich were the first supervisors. The first settlers
(1863) were John Gorsuch, John Reed and Jacob Polwer; the first
postmaster was ---- Gates; the first school teacher, Tina
Starkweather; the first marriage that of S. D. Starkweather and Mary
Danforth; the first death that of Mrs. Ben Gilman.


CLAM FALLS.

Clam Falls comprises township 37, range 16, and derives its name from
the falls on Clam river. The surface is rolling and timbered with
hardwood and pine. It is well watered by South Clam creek and its
tributaries. Somers' lake, in section 27, is the only lake. An
upheaval of trap rock on Clam creek has caused the waterfall from
which the town has taken its name. It is a fine water power. A dam for
collecting tolls on saw logs has been placed just above the Falls.
Good specimens of copper ore are found in the trap. The town was set
off from Luck and organized Nov. 15, 1876. The first town meeting was
held April, 1877. The first supervisors were Daniel F. Smith, John
Almquist and John Bjornson. D. F. Smith was the first settler, built
the first saw mill, and raised the first crops.

Daniel F. Smith, a peculiar and eccentric man, was born in Chautauqua
county, New York, in 1813; emigrated to Michigan in 1834, where he
married Eliza Green the following year, and moved to Racine county,
Wisconsin. In 1842 he engaged in lumbering on the Wisconsin river, his
home being at Stevens Point. He was of the firms of Smith & Bloomer
and Smith & Fellows. Mr. Bloomer was accidentally killed, on which
account the business of these firms was closed, Mr. Smith removing to
Galena to facilitate the settlement of their affairs. In 1852 he
removed to St. Louis; in 1853 to Memphis, Tennessee, where he engaged
in the wholesale grocery business, losing heavily, in fact all the
accumulations of his life. In the spring of 1855 he leased the St.
Croix Falls saw mill, and operated it for two years, when trouble
arose and litigation ensued, in which Smith obtained a judgment
against Cushing for $1,000. In 1860 he removed to Clinton, Iowa, and
thence in the same year to California. He traveled much, visiting
mines. He spent some time in mining, and also manufactured shingles.
In 1862 he returned to St. Croix Falls and engaged in lumbering for
three years. In 1868 he built a saw mill at Butternut Lake,
Wisconsin. He did much to open that country to settlement. He was the
founder of a town which he called "Luck." In 1872 he was the first
settler at Clam Falls, where he built a saw mill with but one man to
assist, and around that mill has sprung up a flourishing settlement.
Dan Smith, with undaunted perseverance, has battled his way through
life, and has come out victorious over difficulties and opposition
that would have discouraged and turned back other men. Mr. Smith is a
plain, direct, outspoken man; a man of energy and ability. He has ably
and satisfactorily filled many places of trust. For many years he has
been a commissioner of Polk county.


CLAYTON.

Clayton includes township 33, range 15. The town was set off from
Black Brook. The surface of a great part of the town is level and was
originally marshy, but these marshes have been gradually drained, and
fine farms and hay meadows have taken their place. The town was
organized Nov. 10, 1875. The first supervisors were Morris De'Golier,
Worthy Prentice and H. D. West. The first homestead entries were made
in 1865 by Peter Bouchea and John McKay, a Frenchman, both Indian
traders, who established a post at Marsh lake, but in six months
abandoned it and never returned. The next settlers were Vandyke,
Morehouse and Tanner, near the west line of the town, about 1870. The
first improvements were made by Elam Greely in 1862, who dug a canal
into Marsh lake to get water to float logs out of Beaver brook,
thereby draining great tracts of swamp land. The laying of the North
Wisconsin railroad track gave a fresh impetus to business, and
conduced greatly to the building of the village of Clayton in section
24. The first sermon in the town of Clayton was preached by Rev. W. W.
Ames, a Baptist; the first school was taught by S. M. De'Golier; the
first store was opened by A. M. Wilcox, 1874. D. A. Humbird was the
first postmaster. The North Wisconsin railway passes through the
southeast part and the Minneapolis, Soo & Atlantic passes from the
west side to the northeast corner of the town, and has a station,
Gregory, in the west part.

REUBEN F. LITTLE was born June 13, 1839, in Topsham, Devonshire
county, England. At ten years of age he began to care for himself,
working for sixpence per week, carrying pottery in a moulding house.
Before leaving England his wages had increased to three shillings per
week. In the spring of 1853 he had saved three pounds sterling, and
his grandfather gave him two pounds sterling. This five pounds paid
his passage to Quebec and Montreal, where he got four dollars per
month. Soon after he apprenticed himself for five years to learn the
baker's and confectioner's trade at London, Upper Canada. Subsequently
he took a homestead from the British government at Trading Lake, Upper
Canada.

[Illustration: REUBEN F. LITTLE.]

In the spring of 1861, at Detroit, Michigan, he enlisted in the United
States infantry, regular army, and was promoted successively to first
sergeant, to sergeant major, to second lieutenant, to first
lieutenant. He resigned in September, 1865. During the war he served
continuously in Gen. George H. Thomas' division, and took part in all
the engagements under him, from Miles Springs, Kentucky, to Nashville,
Tennessee. On the twenty-second of September, 1863, Mr. Little had the
honor of being the last man to leave the Rossville Gap in front of
Chattanooga after the disastrous fight of Chickamauga. He was wounded
in the battle of Hoover's Gap and Smyrna, and at the siege of Corinth.

Mr. Little was married in 1865, and divorced in 1869, and re-married
in St. Paul in 1878. He lost his Canada homestead, and took another
homestead in Lincoln, Polk county, Wisconsin, in 1866. Afterward he
went to St. Paul and became one of the firm of Little & Berrisford in
the wholesale confectionery business. In 1879 he returned to Clayton,
formerly part of Lincoln, and reclaimed a swamp of over six hundred
acres, making it a productive meadow and tillage farm. Mr. Little has
served several years as Clayton's town supervisor.


CLEAR LAKE.

Clear Lake embraces township 32, range 15. It derives its name from a
beautiful clear lake on the western boundary near Clear Lake village.
The west part of the town is timbered principally with hardwood, and
is good farming land. The eastern part is more diversified, and there
are some large groves of pine. Willow river runs through the town. The
North Wisconsin railroad traverses the town diagonally from northeast
to southwest: The town was organized June 20, 1877; S. D. Mann, J. C.
Gates, and W. R. Ingalls, supervisors. The first settlers were John
Hale, L. P. Nash, S. D. Starkweather, and Perry Clark. Lawrence
O'Connor was first postmaster; Mr. Starkweather carried the mail on
foot. Israel Graves, in 1875, built the first saw mill in Clear Lake
village and the first house. There is now at the village a stave mill
owned by Symme & Co. Jewett Bros. own a saw mill on Willow river,
three miles from the village, which has a capacity of 8,000,000 feet.
The lumber is delivered to the railway at the village by a wooden
tramway. The lots for the village were purchased from the government
by A. Boody and A. Coventry, in 1856. The plat was made by Symme,
Glover & Co. The survey was made by G. W. Cooley. Thomas T. McGee was
the first settler (1875), and Stephen H. Whitcomb the second. The
first school house was built in 1875, and the first school was taught
by Clara Davis in the same year. The village has now a good graded
school with three departments, Charles Irle, principal. Its two church
buildings, Congregational and Methodist, were destroyed by the cyclone
of 1884, but are being rebuilt. The Swedish Lutherans have a church a
mile from the village. Chas. Decker was the first postmaster; A. Symme
& Co. were the first merchants; P. Gates, M.D., the first practicing
physician; F. M. Nye the first lawyer. The first marriage was that of
John C. Gates and Ella Scovill. The first birth was Chas. W. Whitcomb,
and the first death that of a child of Hans Johnson.


PINEVILLE.

The town of Pineville, a railroad station and village in section 9, is
a lumbering centre. The Pineville Lumbering Company have here a saw
mill with a capacity of 7,000,000 feet. The logs are brought on wooden
railways three to ten miles. P. B. Lacy & Co., of Hudson, are the
proprietors.

FRANK M. NYE was born in Shirley, Piscataquis county, Maine, in 1852.
His parents removed to Wisconsin in 1854. He was educated at the
common schools and at River Falls Academy. He came to Clear Lake in
1879, and was elected district attorney for Polk county in 1880, and
representative in the Wisconsin assembly in 1885. He removed to
Minneapolis in 1887.


EUREKA.

Eureka embraces township 35, range 18 and a fractional part of range
19. The west part is somewhat broken by the St. Croix bluffs; the
remainder is undulating and capable of agricultural improvement. There
are many good farms in this town. There are a few small lakes in the
eastern part. Eureka was set off from St. Croix Falls, and organized
Dec. 16, 1877. The first supervisors were Lucius A. Harper, Jens
Welling and William Booth. The first settlers were L. A. Harper, John
C. Beede, Henry Cole and others. There are three post offices in the
town,--Harper, Cushing and North Valley. At the mouth of Wolf creek,
in the extreme northwestern section of this town, J. R. Brown had a
trading house in the '30s, and Louis Roberts in the '40s. At this
place Alex. Livingston, another trader, was killed by Indians in 1849.
Livingston had built him a comfortable home, which he made a stopping
place for the weary traveler, whom he fed on wild rice, maple sugar,
venison, bear meat, muskrats, wild fowl and flour bread, all decently
prepared by his Indian wife. Mr. Livingston was killed by an Indian in
1849.

In 1855 Carma P. Garlick surveyed a quarter section here and laid it
off into town lots, and had lithograph maps published, calling the
prospective village Sebatanna, an Indian town signifying "Water
Village."

CHARLES NEVERS settled here about 1860, and has now a fine farm and
good buildings.


FARMINGTON.

Farmington was organized as a town in 1858. It contains forty-two
sections of land, in township 32, ranges 18 and 19, with some
fractions of sections on the St. Croix. It is a rich agricultural
town, well diversified with prairie and timber land. Its western
portion, along the St. Croix, has the picturesque bluffs common to
that river, with some unusually beautiful cascades and hillside
springs, of which the most notable are the well known mineral spring
and the springs at the lime kiln. The mineral spring is situated on
the St. Croix river, at the base of the bluff, and about one mile and
a half below Osceola Mills. A beautiful hotel was built in 1876 on the
cliff above, at a cost of about $20,000, which became quite a popular
place of resort until 1885, when it was burned. It has not been
rebuilt. The property was improved by Currant & Stevens, but afterward
sold.

The following analysis shows the chemical constituents of a gallon of
the water of the spring:

                                GRAINS.
    Chloride of sodium             .053
    Sulphate of soda               .524
    Bicarbonate of soda            .799
    Bicarbonate of lime          11.193
    Bicarbonate of magnesia       7.248
    Iron and alumina               .492
    Silica                         .265
    Organic matter              a trace
                                -------
    Total                        20,565

South Farmington Corners has a prosperous cheese factory, owned and
operated by Koch Brothers, erected in 1883, turning out in 1884
sixteen tons of cheese and in 1885 over twenty tons. South Farmington
has a Catholic church building.

The first crops in Farmington were raised by Wm. Kent on a farm near
Osceola in 1846, and the same year Harmon Crandall and Richard Arnold
improved land and raised crops not far from the present village of
Farmington. Here, owing to the sandy nature of the soil, well digging
proved rather perilous to the two farmers. Mr. Arnold attempted to dig
a well in a depression, a sinkhole, in the prairie. As he dug deeper
the sides of the well caved in, almost burying him. He managed by his
own utmost exertions and those of his friend Crandall to escape, but
left his boots deeply imbedded in prairie soil.

In 1887 the Soo Railroad Company bridged the St. Croix, at the cedar
bend at the south point of the leaning cedars, and extended their
grade along the base of the precipice overlooking the river above, and
commanding an extensive view of bold, picturesque and beautiful
scenery.


BIOGRAPHICAL.

HARMON CRANDALL.--The Crandall family were the first to settle in
Osceola Prairie, in the town of Farmington. Mr. Crandall moved to his
farm in 1846, and lived there many years; sold out and removed to
Hudson, where, in later life, he became blind. He had three sons born
in Farmington. In 1882 he moved to Shell Lake, Washburn county, where
he died, Aug. 8, 1886. Mrs. Crandall died May 11, 1888.

SAMUEL WALL.--Mr. Wall was born in 1824, in Shropshire, England; went
as a British soldier to the West Indies in 1840; two years later came
to New York City; one year later to St. Louis; in 1844 to St. Paul and
in 1846 to the St. Croix valley, where he made a permanent home at the
lime kiln, which he bought of William Willim. He was married to Anna
Maria Moore in 1857. They had been educated as Episcopalians, but are
now Catholics and have educated their children in that faith in the
schools at St. Paul. Mr. Wall served five years in the British army
for thirteen pence a day, but West India rum was cheap, only ten pence
per gallon, and this, Mr. Wall pathetically remarked, "was an
unfortunate element for the lime-kiln man." After twenty-six years of
struggle Mr. Wall came out victorious and now strongly advises all
young men to "touch not, taste not, handle not," anything that can
intoxicate. The writer trusts he may stand firm.

WILLIAM RAMSEY was born in Ireland in 1814, and came to America with
his parents in his youth, first settling in Nova Scotia. In 1834 he
came to Washington county, Maine. In 1839 he was married to Sarah
Stevens, at Crawford, Maine. In 1849 he went to California. In 1850 he
returned, and located on his farm in Farmington, Polk county, where he
still resides, an efficient citizen, who has borne his full part in
the organization of town and county, and filled various offices.

HIRAM W. NASON.--Mr. Nason was born in Waterville, Maine, in 1792.
When of age he settled in Crawford, Maine. In 1852 he was married. He
came to Polk county, and settled in Farmington in 1853. Mr. Nason died
in 1859. Mrs. Nason died some years later. They were members of the
Baptist church. Their children are Joel F., Levi, Merrill, Crocker,
Albert, James, Maria, wife of Thos. Ford, of Farmington, and Frances,
wife of Moses Peaselee, of Farmington. Mr. Ford died in 1880. He was a
well to do farmer. Mr. Peaselee, also a farmer, has served as sheriff
of Polk county.

JOEL F. NASON.--Mr. Nason was born Aug. 31, 1828, in Washington
county, Maine. He was married to Bertha Hanscomb, of Crawford, Maine,
in July, 1851. Their children are Everett, Fred, Louisa, wife of
Albert Thompson, and Bertha. Mrs. Nason died in 1862. Mr. Nason was
married to Mary Ann Godfrey, of Osceola, in 1867. Mrs. Nason died
February, 1885. He was married to Miss Fanny Field, of St. Croix
Falls, in 1887. Mr. Nason settled in Farmington in 1852. He engaged in
lumbering many years, and was called by his fellow citizens to fill
several important offices. He served eight years as county clerk. He
was appointed receiver of the United States land office at St. Croix
Falls in 1871, which office he resigned in 1884, when he was elected
state senator.

JOHN MCADAMS was born in Tennessee in 1808. He was employed for many
years on the Louisville (Ky.) canal. He was married to Eliza Robinson
in 1840. Mrs. McAdams died in 1844, leaving one son, Melville, born
1842, who came with his father to the St. Croix valley in 1849. He
first located at Osceola, but in 1854 removed to Farmington, where he
died in 1883. Mr. McAdams was a mineralogist of some ability.

CHARLES TEA was born in Pennsylvania in 1817; came into the St. Croix
valley in 1849; was married in 1850 to Mary McAdams, sister of John
McAdams, and in the same year settled on a farm in Farmington. In 1880
he removed to Southern Iowa.


GARFIELD.

Garfield includes thirty sections of range 17, and six sections of
range 18, township 33. It is well watered and has many small lakes,
while Sucker lake, a lake of considerable size, is about equally
divided between its own territory and that of Lincoln. Garfield was
organized in 1886. The first supervisors were Abraham Sylvester, James
T. Montgomery and Martin Hanson. In 1887 the Minneapolis, Soo &
Atlantic railway built through the town from west to southeast and
established one station, Deronda, in the southeast corner of the town.
The post office of El Salem is in Garfield.


GEORGETOWN.

Georgetown comprises township 35, ranges 15 and 16. This town is
abundantly supplied with water by Apple river and its tributaries, and
numerous lakes, some of them of considerable size. The largest are
Bone, Blake, Powder and Pipe. The timber is hardwood and pine
intermingled. Immense quantities of pine have been taken from this
town, and still much remains. Wild meadows are plentiful. Georgetown
was set off from Milltown and organized Nov. 15, 1879. The first
supervisors were David H. Smith, Elisha E. Drake and August Larbell.
George P. Anderson was the first settler (1873), and his christian
name was affixed to the town. The first school was taught in 1874 by
John Burns. A post office was established in 1881 at Bunyan, G. P.
Anderson, postmaster. The first sermon was preached by Rev. C. D.
Scott, a Methodist. The first birth was that of Lucy Anderson; the
first marriage that of Henry King to Etta Clark. The first death was
that of August Larbell.


TWO MEN MURDERED.

Oliver Grover and Harry Knight, two prominent lumbermen of Stillwater,
on July 2, 1864, were exploring for timber and hay on Pipe lake,
section 10, in Georgetown. Not returning to their camp, two miles
distant, the watchman at the camp, after waiting two days, went to St.
Croix Falls and gave the alarm. Many parties went in pursuit of the
lost men. Some traces of their presence were discovered on the shore
of this lake, but the search was finally abandoned. After some months
the Indians confessed that two of their young men shot the two men,
disemboweled them, burned the entrails and sunk the bodies in the
lake. Their bodies were never found. We append the following newspaper
clipping:

"FINALE.--The friends of the two Indians that shot Grover and Knight,
last Tuesday delivered to P. B. Lacy, of St. Croix Falls, the
valuables that were taken from the bodies of the murdered men. They
consisted of $113 in gold, $282.05 in greenbacks, $160 in silver, one
silver watch, one wallet and one pocket knife. This is probably the
closing act of the bloody tragedy which cost two innocent men their
lives at the hands of Indians steeped in liquor, and who, fearing the
vengeance of the white man, committed suicide."

The two murderers had confessed the crime and shot themselves.

GEORGE P. ANDERSON.--Mr. Anderson was born in Fulvana county,
Virginia, 1825; was educated in the common schools; lived in Ohio
eighteen and in Indiana fifteen years, and came to Balsam Lake in
1866. Few men have been more active in the opening up of a new
settlement. Mr. Anderson has been several times elected to office in
the new county, and was a principal actor in the establishment of the
Polk County Agricultural Society in 1886. He has a family of fifteen
children living.


LAKETOWN.

Laketown includes township 36, range 18. It is named from the lakes
that dot almost every section in the town. Trade lake, with its
tributary from Butternut lake, are the principal streams. The town was
set off from Sterling and organized April 6, 1875. The first
supervisors were L. Bell; S. P. Heard and N. Fornell. The town was
settled largely by Swedes, Norwegians, Danes and Alabamians. The
latter settled in the northwestern part of the town. In 1869 Caleb
Cushing bought the agricultural college lands in the town to the
amount of 7,200 acres. The first school house was built in 1870, in
section 8. P. Tierney taught the first school. Lindsey McKee was the
first settler. He was also the first to sell out and leave. Daniel
Swensbarger, a German, bought him out, and a number of his countrymen
settled near him. Jacob Swensbarger started a store. N. Grondund built
the first blacksmith shop. Peter Olsen built the first saw mill, at
the foot of Long lake, in 1875. The first marriage was that of L.
McKee and Mary Addington, by L. Bell, Esq.


LINCOLN.

Lincoln includes township 33, range 16, and the eastern tier of
sections of township 33, range 17. It is abundantly watered by Apple
river and its tributaries, and has numerous lakes of which Sucker
lake is the largest. The soil is well adapted to the culture of wheat.
There are many fine farms in this township. The surface, originally
covered with timber, is undulating. The town was organized in 1860,
being set off from Osceola. The first town meeting was held April,
1861. A. A. Heald, M. C. Lane and John Hurness were the first
supervisors. The post town is at Lincoln Centre. The Polk county poor
farm is pleasantly situated on a lake in Lincoln, and has been well
managed for a series of years by Capt. Wilkie.

AMERY village is located on Apple river, at the crossing of the "Soo
Line" railway. It has two saw mills and a stave factory. The
Minneapolis, Soo & Atlantic railway passes through Lincoln from
southwest to east, and has a station at Apple River crossing, named
Amery, in honor of William Amery, one of Polk county's best citizens.

WM. WILSON was born in 1828, at Armagh county, Ireland. At four years
of age he came to America with his parents, who located at Canada
West, where he learned the baker's trade. In 1849 he came to Osceola
and followed lumbering eight years. He was married at Osceola to Leah
Moody and located on his homestead in Lincoln in 1870. He has three
sons. Mr. Wilson has been a useful citizen and has done his full share
of pioneer work.


LORAINE.

Loraine includes townships 36 and 37, range 15. It is a heavily
timbered district, with hardwood and pine interspersed. The surface is
undulating and the soil is much of it good. It is well watered by
South Clam creek and tributaries, and has a multitude of small lakes.
There are some fine farms in the northern part of the township.
Loraine was organized Nov. 14, 1872. The first town meeting was held
April, 1873. The first supervisors were, Frank J. Williams, George
Phelps and John Klinch. Wm. Gallespie built the first hotel and opened
it in 1873. The first school was taught by Georgia Lacy. The first
marriage was that of James Lago and Almeda Johnson. The first white
child was George Phillips; the first death that of a child of J. L.
Ellis.

The first settler was C. Loraine Ruggles. He was somewhat eccentric.
He published a book embodying his own adventures during the Rebellion,
which he called "The Great American Spy." The town was named after
him. N. B. Bull and Chas. Anderson were the next settlers.

WM. WALLACE GALLESPIE was born in Louisville, Kentucky; lived in his
youth in Illinois and came to Marine Mills in 1844. In 1851 he married
Cecilia M. Ring, widow of Charles Turner, of Taylor's Falls. In 1878
he moved to his homestead in Loraine, where he has a good farm and
hotel. He has two sons and one daughter.


LUCK.

Luck includes township 36, ranges 16 and 17. It is a good agricultural
region and contains already many valuable farms. The eastern half of
the town was originally a rich pine wood region. Much of the timber is
yet standing. The town is well watered by Upper Trade and Straight
rivers and has many beautiful lakes, the principal of which are
Butternut and North. Luck was organized as a town Nov. 9, 1869. The
first supervisors were Wm. H. Foster, M. C. Pederson and J. J. Bille.
The first settlers were Wm. W. Gallespie, W. H. Foster and D. F. Smith
(1857). The first marriage was that of W. H. Foster, and his oldest
child was the first white child born in Luck. Wm. Gallespie raised the
first crops. D. F. Smith built the first saw mill. W. H. Foster was
first postmaster. At present there are two post offices, one at the
village of Luck, the other at West Denmark. Laura Jones taught the
first school in Luck. The town has been settled chiefly by Danes,
mostly direct from Denmark. A Danish high school was established in
1884, K. Noregaad, principal, at which different languages are taught.
The building cost $3,000. It is beautifully located on Butternut lake.
The Lutherans have three flourishing church organizations in this
town.

WILLIAM H. FOSTER was born in Bangor, Maine, in 1828; came to St.
Croix valley in 1844; settled in Luck in 1857 and engaged in farming
and lumbering. He served in the army during the Rebellion, and was
postmaster at Luck for eighteen years. His father, Daniel Foster, came
with him to the St. Croix valley in 1844 and died in 1876. His native
place was New Hampshire.


MILLTOWN.

Milltown includes township 35, range 17. It is a good agricultural and
stock growing town. It is watered by the small streams flowing into
Balsam, Half Moon and other lakes. The timber is mostly hardwood.
There is pine in the eastern part. The Patterson post office is
located in section 7, Milltown in section 36. Milltown was set off
from St. Croix Falls Dec. 20, 1869. The first town meeting was held
Jan. 8, 1870. The first supervisors were John Lynch, M. Fitzgerald,
Sr., and John Hurley. The Roman Catholic church was organized here in
1864. Their new house of worship was built in 1870. The first settlers
were James and John Rogers. The first school (1865) was taught by
Maggie Crawford. The first school house was built in 1866. A grange
was organized in 1884. The town has now a good brick school house and
a saw and flour mill.

PATRICK LILLIS was born in Ireland in 1807. He came to Polk county in
1856, and, with his amiable wife and enterprising sons, made a claim
on what was afterward styled Milltown, an inappropriate name, but
given by Mr. Lillis himself, as he humorously remarked, "because there
was not a stream large enough for a mill site in the town," and
Milltown it remains to this day. Mr. Lillis prospered and made himself
a good home. He died Feb. 26, 1886. Mrs. Lillis died December, 1885.
They left six sons. John C. is in Greene county, Texas, Simon C. is in
Southern California, and Richard is in Memphis, Tennessee. Henry, the
youngest, aged twenty-nine years, has for the past six years been a
resident of Tacoma, Washington Territory. The residence of Martin and
James is not known.


OSCEOLA.

Osceola contains all of township 33, range 18, except the eastern tier
of sections, and ten whole sections and some fractions of range 19,
made somewhat irregular by the St. Croix river boundary, and the
obtrusion of three sections of Farmington in the southwestern part. It
is a rich agricultural town, consisting chiefly of prairie, the whole
forming a tableland, terminating westward on the precipitous bluffs of
the St. Croix. It has a good steamboat landing and two good water
powers, Osceola and Close's creeks. These are both fine trout brooks.
The bluffs overlooking the St. Croix are bold and high, and, for a
great part, precipitous. Most conspicuous of these bluffs is the
promontory known as Eagle Point, situated just below the Osceola
landing. An escarpment of limestone, about two hundred feet above the
river, projects over its base, not much unlike the celebrated table
rock at Niagara Falls. A tall and solitary pine tree stands upon the
extreme verge of this rock, the whole forming a conspicuous landmark,
visible to a distance of several miles down the river. The cascade on
Osceola creek, a few rods above its mouth, has scarcely a rival
amongst the waterfalls of the West. It has sometimes been called the
Minnehaha of Wisconsin, but while it resembles somewhat in the lower
part of its descent that celebrated cascade, the scenery around it is
much wilder, perpendicular rocks towering over it to a great height,
while the upper part of the fall is over an inclined plain, broken
into steps. It is a favorite haunt for artists and photographers.
There are several minor waterfalls of great beauty in the vicinity.
The trap rock formation crops out in the eastern and northern parts of
the town, rich in specimens of copper and silver. Silver is also found
in ledges at East Lake.

The first land claim in the town, made May 14, 1844, by Milton V.
Nobles and Lucius N. S. Parker, included the cascade and the present
site of the village. The claim was made with the intention of building
a saw mill at the outlet of Osceola creek. The mill company, organized
in 1841, consisted of M. V. and W. H. Nobles, Wm. Kent, Wm. O. Mahony
and Harvey Walker. Mr. Nobles sold his interest and removed to Willow
River; Wm. Parker removed to St. Anthony. The mill commenced cutting
timber in 1845. It was run at first with a small flutter wheel, which
was replaced by a an overshot wheel, 30 feet; that by another, 45
feet, and that by one 50 feet in diameter. In 1845 the company built a
two story boarding house, also a shop and office, near the mill. After
the completion of the mill Walker withdrew from the firm and Anson
Northrup was for a short time a member. Kent & Mahony for a number of
years operated the mill, selling lumber in Galena and St. Louis.
Mahony left for California in 1852. Around this mill, as a nucleus,
the settlement of Osceola and the village were built up. The mill,
with its immense water wheel, for so many years a conspicuous object
on the river, has long since disappeared.

Osceola has had many enterprising business men engaged in
merchandising and manufacturing. The first flouring mill was built by
Kent Brothers in 1853, just above the cascade. This mill changed
owners several times, and was burned in 1880. It was rebuilt by
Lovejoy & Sutton in 1883. Its present capacity is one hundred barrels
per day. The second flouring mill was built by Dresser & Wilson in
1867. It is situated on the same stream, a few rods above the first.
It has also changed owners several times. Its capacity is fifty
barrels per day. The first merchants were Wyckoff and Stevenson, in
1856. These have been succeeded by Rice, Webb, Clark Brothers,
Armstrong & Co., Talboys & Staples, Dresser & Wilson, Lacy & Johnson,
W. A. Talboys, Gridley & Co., Heald & Thing, Dresser Brothers, and
others. Dr. Gray was the first practicing physician. After him, at
different periods, came Drs. Hilton, Brooks, Gaskill, Garlick,
Marshall, Searles, Cornbacker and Clark. The first deed recorded of
Osceola property was a quitclaim from Wm. H. Nobles to Anson Northrup,
consideration $3,250, in 1847. The first lawyer settled here was I. P.
Freeland. His successors were Button, Dowling, Dyke, McDill, and
others. The first sermon preached in Osceola was by Rev. Lemuel
Nobles, a Methodist minister, in 1851. There are two church
organizations; each has respectable church buildings. The first
Baptist preacher was Rev. S. T. Catlin, in 1854. The Baptists built
the first church in the county in Osceola, 1856. The first log house
in the town was built by Richard Arnold in the locality of the famous
Drake Troutmere springs. This house was built in 1848. Mr. Arnold
raised the first crops in the town of Osceola. The first school house
was built in 1852. A high school building was erected in 1868. W. A.
Talboys taught the first public school in 1852. Until 1861 the schools
were under the town system. In 1875 a free high school was
established. The first post office was established in 1854, and W. C.
Guild was postmaster for twenty years. The first town election was
held April 5, 1853, when the following supervisors were elected: Wm.
Ramsey, chairman; Nelson McCarty and W. C. Guild. At this meeting the
town voted a tax of thirty dollars for school and fifty dollars for
town expenses. The first Sunday-school was organized by W. A. Talboys
in 1852.

The first marriage, that of John Buckley to Elizabeth Godfrey, was in
1853. The first white child born was John Francis, in 1847. The first
death was that of Leroy Hubble, by accident, in 1845.


CHANGE OF NAME.

The name of the town was originally Leroy, in honor of Mr. Hubble
above mentioned. It is to be regretted that this name was not
retained, inasmuch as Osceola, though the name of one of the most
celebrated Indians in American history, is shared by a post town in
the eastern part of the State. It was therefore necessary to call this
post town Osceola Mills, a distinction that correspondents and
postmasters are not always careful to note. Osceola village remained
unorganized until Aug. 10, 1887. The first officers were: President,
H. B. Dyke; trustees, W. C. Reilly, R. S. Sutton, G. W. De Long, H. E.
Cornbacker, Paul Filzen, S. C. Benjamin; clerk, S. Rowcliff;
treasurer, C. W. Staples; supervisor, G. D. McDill; justice of the
peace, George Wilson; police justice, T. Post. The village has a
splendid situation upon the bluffs overlooking the river, and
communicates with points on the river by boat, and with overland
points by the Minneapolis, Soo & Atlantic railway, completed to this
place Aug. 21, 1887. There is also a branch road from Dresser's
station to St. Croix Falls. The village was visited by destructive
fires at various times. Most prominent of these was the burning of the
Freeland Hotel in 1857, the Western Hotel in 1878, and the first
flouring mill in 1880.


BIOGRAPHICAL.

DANIEL MEARS.--Mr. Mears was born in Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1819. His
first wife, Emeline Mendon, died in 1850, leaving three sons, Charles,
David, and Daniel. In 1852 he was married to Susan Thompson. They have
one daughter, Lulu, now Mrs. Wheeler, of Stillwater. Mr. Mears came
West in 1848, and sold goods one year at Taylor's Place (since
Taylor's Falls). In 1849 he removed his store to St. Croix Falls,
where he continued merchandising and lumbering until 1852, when he
went to Willow River as agent in building the first saw mill in what
is now Hudson. In 1860 he made himself a permanent home on a farm near
Osceola. He served as state senator from the Twenty-eighth district in
1858-59, and as state timber agent in 1874-75. As an officer Mr. Mears
acquitted himself well. In politics he is a Democrat, and while in the
senate took an active part in debates. The oldest son, Charles, is
editor and proprietor of the _Polk County Press_. The three sons are
married.

NELSON MCCARTY.--Mr. McCarty was born July 4, 1819, in Pike county,
Pennsylvania; in 1834 was married to Mary McKune, and came to St.
Croix valley in 1846, where he engaged in piloting and lumbering. In
1847 he made him a farm on Osceola prairie. He died in 1856. His
brother Philip came to Osceola in 1850, and settled on Osceola
prairie.

WILLIAM O. MAHONY, a native of Ireland, born about 1810, came to
America while he was yet a minor, and to St. Croix Falls in 1843. He
had learned the trade of a baker, but in 1844 became one of the
proprietors of the saw mill at Osceola, and sold his interest in 1860.
He was a man of original and eccentric mind. He went to California in
1862, and died there in 1866.

RICHARD ARNOLD is of Illinois birth. He came to Osceola in 1845, and
moved to his farm near the village in 1848. In 1852 he removed to
Taylor's Falls and built the Cascade House. In 1855 he was the first
farmer in the town of Amador, Chisago county. In 1859 he left the
valley for Pike's Peak, Colorado.

WM. KENT SR., was born in Scotland sometime in 1790. He was married in
Scotland, and, with his wife and two eldest children, came to America
in 1823. He seems to have lived awhile in New Brunswick, probably till
1829 or 30, when he removed to Eddington, Maine, whence he removed to
the West and made his home at Osceola in 1852, where he and his wife
died at an advanced age, honored by all who knew them. His family of
six sons and five daughters all grew to mature age, and, except
Andrew, who located in Farmington, had homes in Osceola The daughters
are Anna, wife of Curtis Guild; Agnes (deceased), wife of I. W.
Freeland; Jane, wife of Jerry Mudget; Mary (deceased), wife of Chapin
Kimball; and Eva, wife of Henry C. Goodwin.

ROBERT KENT, oldest son of Wm. Kent, Sr., was born in Scotland in
1819; came to Galena, Illinois, in 1840, and to Osceola in 1848, where
he has filled many responsible public positions. His first wife, to
whom he was married in Galena in 1841, died in 1847, leaving four
children. In 1859 Mr. Kent was married to Susan Babb, of Osceola.

ANDREW KENT was born in Scotland in 1821. He was married in New
Brunswick in 1838, but his wife died soon after. He came to Osceola in
1852 and was married to Esther Hill, of Osceola, in 1855. Mr. Kent
followed lumbering for many years but finally settled on a beautiful
farm in Farmington, where he still resides, an industrious, thrifty
farmer.

WILLIAM KENT, JR., was born in New Brunswick in 1824; came to Galena
in 1843 and to St. Croix Falls in 1844. He was one of the original
owners and builders of the first mill at Osceola. From time to time he
purchased the interests of other partners until he became sole owner
of mill and town site. In 1853 he sold the mill to B. H. Campbell, of
Galena. Mr. Kent engaged in steamboating for many years and was a
popular commander. He built the Nellie Kent, the Helen Mar and Maggie
Reany. Of late years he has been engaged in mercantile pursuits. He
was married to Nellie Kidder in 1855. They have no children. Mr. Kent
is an influential member of the masonic order, and has filled many
positions of public trust.

JAMES KENT was born in Frederickton, New Brunswick, in 1826; came to
Wisconsin in 1850; and was married to Mary Jane Wilson at Osceola in
1858. In 1874 he removed to Ashland, Wisconsin, where he died in 1878,
leaving a wife and five children.

THOMAS KENT was born in Richmond, New Brunswick, in 1828. He came to
Osceola in 1849 and was married in 1856 to Achsah Hale. He was a
practical lumberman and a very active man. He was accidentally killed
in 1847, while breaking a jam of logs in Clam river. He left a wife
and one child.

JOHN KENT was born in Eddington, Maine, in 1831. He came to Wisconsin
with his parents in 1852. He was married to Jennie Kidder in 1866. He
was a house carpenter. Lived in Duluth some years but returned and
settled in Osceola.

SAMUEL CLOSE in 1845 made a land claim for a mill at the falls of
Close creek. Shortly after he abandoned the claim and left the
country, leaving his name to the creek and slough.

EBENEZER AYRES came from Maine to the St. Croix valley in 1850, and
settled on a farm in Osceola, where he made his home during the
remainder of his active life. During his last years he became very
feeble and partially insane, and his friends placed him in the asylum
at Madison, where he died, Aug. 20, 1876. His wife, familiarly known
in later years as "Mother Ayres," and greatly esteemed for her
excellence of character, died two years later. They reared a family of
four sons and seven daughters. The sons Charles, Seth and Andrew are
farmers on typo for Osceola prairie. Warren, a fourth son, died in
Iowa. The daughters were married--Elizabeth to Ambrose Sevey, Ruth to
Walter Carrier, Mary (deceased) to Frank S. Eddy, Sarah to E. R. St.
Clair, and to a second husband, H. H. Newberry, all of Taylor's Falls;
Abigail to Wm. E. Doe, and to a second husband, the distinguished
phrenologist, O. S. Fowler, of New York; Almena to ---- Clough, of
Osceola prairie, and, after his decease, to Wallace, of Osceola; and
Emma to Charles P. Fenlason, of Pipestone, Minnesota.

CARMI P. GARLICK was born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, in 1818; was
married in 1842 to Elizabeth Thompson, of Ohio, and come to Amador,
Chisago county, Minnesota, in 1854, where he built a saw mill. Not
succeeding as he had expected, he betook himself to farming and to the
practice of medicine while in Amador. In 1858 he removed to Osceola,
where he practiced medicine until he entered the United States service
as surgeon during the war of the Rebellion. He died at Milwaukee, Jan.
12, 1864, while in the United States service. He was educated in
Columbus (Ohio) Medical College. He left a wife, one son (Louis), and
one daughter, wife of Henry Jones, of Osceola.

JOHN S. GODFREY was born in Sackville, Halifax county, Nova Scotia,
Dec. 18, 1809; was married to Sarah Wright, in Stonnich, Nova Scotia,
in 1832; came to Easton, Wisconsin, in 1849, to Taylor's Falls in
1851, and to their beautiful homestead in Osceola in 1852, where he
still lives, respected and honored by all his neighbors as an honest,
worthy and industrious man. He has sometimes engaged in lumbering, but
his chief success has been as a farmer. Mr. and Mrs. Godfrey are
members of the Baptist church. They have four sons and five daughters.
Of his sons, George died in 1872. Of his daughters, Mary Ann, wife of
Joel F. Nason, died in 1885. John, the youngest son, was married to
Mamie Maxwell, and died January, 1888. The daughters are
married--Elizabeth to John Buckley, Charlotte to S. B. Dresser, Eunice
to George Clark, and Sarah to Joseph A. Brown. The two oldest sons are
married--James to M. Fenlason, Arthur to Mary J. Daniel.

WILLIAM A. TALBOYS was born in Bristol, England; was married to Mary
Rowcliff, in London, in 1845; came to America in 1845, and to Osceola
in 1851, where for some years he clerked for Kent Brothers. He taught
the first school in Osceola and served four years as county treasurer.
He has held many positions of trust. For many years he has been
engaged in lumbering and merchandising. In 1874 he built an elevator
for handling wheat. Mr. Talboys and his wife are members of the
Methodist church. They have three children living. The oldest, W. E.,
is editor of the Grantsburg _Sentinel_, Burnett county. Frederic C. is
in St. Paul. Adelaide E. was married to Benj. Knapp, captain of the
steamboat Cleon. Her husband died in 1887.

CHARLES H. STAPLES.--Mr. Staples was born in Portsmouth, New
Hampshire, in 1824. In 1848 he came to Bunker Hill, Illinois, and in
the same year was married to Hannah Garland. He was engaged seven
years in the milling business, and in 1856 came to Osceola, where he
engaged in lumbering, selling goods and medicines. He has filled
several county offices. Of their four children, Charles W. was married
to May Foster, of Osceola, in 1878, Eva is married to H. B. Dyke, and
Frank to Ella Fiske.

J. W. PEAKE was born Dec. 2, 1822, in Schoharie county, New York. At
the age of twenty-one he settled near La Salle, Illinois, and kept a
hotel. He came to Osceola in 1854, and settled on a farm. On July 15,
1862, he enlisted in the Tenth Wisconsin Battery, and served till the
close of the war. He served several years as town supervisor and
assessor. He died at his home, March 13, 1886.

GEORGE WILSON was born in Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, in 1836.
His privileges for education were good. He taught school in
Pennsylvania; came to Osceola in 1857; followed clerking and teaching
school; was nine years in flouring mill and merchandising; was two
years register of deeds, and has filled minor offices. He was married
to Emma R. Fiske in 1854, at Osceola. They have two sons and two
daughters, one the wife of Capt. George Knapp.

SAMUEL B. DRESSER.--Mr. Dresser was born in Buxton, Maine, in 1832.
During his youth he lived with his parents, chiefly at Bangor, where
he received the rudiments of a good education in the common schools,
and in Kent Seminary at Readfield. He came to Taylor's Falls in 1851,
and followed lumbering and merchandising until 1862, when he settled
on his farm homestead on Osceola prairie. Mr. Dresser was a member of
the Twenty-third Wisconsin assembly. He was married to Charlotte M.
Godfrey, June 23, 1859. They have one daughter, Helen A., and six
sons, Elma T., William A., Lester B., Wyman H., Mark S., and Frank E.

FREDERIC A. DRESSER, brother of Samuel B., was born at Moscow, Maine,
Nov. 2, 1841, came to Taylor's Falls, Minnesota, in 1858, and remained
some years, when he removed to Osceola. He served three years during
the Civil War in the Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry, and left the
service with the rank of quartermaster. After the war he was married
to Mary E. Thoms, of Biddeford, Maine. During his subsequent residence
in Osceola he engaged in mercantile pursuits, served as county
treasurer four years and as register of deeds five years, which office
he held at the time of his death which occurred Oct. 23, 1886.

OSCAR A. CLARK came to Taylor's Falls in 1881, settled on a farm in
Osceola in 1852, and brought hither his parents from Vermont, both of
whom have since died. Oscar was a surveyor. He engaged also in the
lumbering and commercial business. He was of the firm of Clark
Brothers. He enlisted in a Wisconsin regiment during the Rebellion,
and served till mustered out, but never returned to his home, and as
nothing has since been heard from him, his friends have concluded that
he must have been murdered after his discharge, possibly on the way
home. Cornelius, a brother, lives at the Clark homestead; George, a
brother, married a daughter, of John S. Godfrey. He died in 1873. The
widow was subsequently married to Cornelius. Leman, a brother, settled
on a farm in Osceola, and died in 1879, leaving a large family.
Andrew, another brother, of the firm of Clark Brothers, died in
Osceola.

OSCAR F. KNAPP.--Capt. Knapp has been conspicuous as a steamboat
maker, owner and captain for the last thirty years. He was born in
Clinton county, New York, in 1831. At the age of fifteen years he came
West and located in Delavan, Wisconsin. In 1852 he removed to Osceola,
Wisconsin, where he engaged in lumbering for about four years. In 1856
he was married to Miss Angeline Hayes, of Osceola. In the same year he
engaged in the business of steamboating, with which he has been since
identified more or less. His first steamboat was the H. S. Allen,
which, in company with E. B. Strong, he bought of H. S. Allen, of
Chippewa Falls, in 1856, for $5,000. In 1862 he built the Enterprise,
a small but serviceable boat of light draft and fair speed. In 1864
Capt. Knapp built the Viola, owned by a stock company. In 1866 he
built the G. B. Knapp, in 1879 the Jennie Hayes, and ran these two
boats fourteen years. In 1877 he entered the employment of the United
States government, improving the navigation of the St. Croix river, in
which work he is still engaged. His two sons, Ben and George,
succeeded him in the steamboat business. Ben, the oldest son, was born
in Osceola in 1857; George, the second son, in 1859. These two boys
spent their childhood and youth on the river, and have grown up to be
expert pilots and captains, and inherit their father's popularity as
river men. Ben was married to Addie Talboys, June, 1880; George to
Claribel Wilson, in 1883. Capt. Knapp has two other children, Viola,
now Mrs. Arthur Johnson, and Guy, still a minor. Mrs. Angeline Knapp
died at her home in Osceola, March 6, 1883, respected and lamented by
all who knew her. Capt. Ben Knapp died Oct. 5, 1887, leaving a wife
and two children.

MRS. ELISABETH B. HAYES.--Mrs. Hayes was born in 1811, in Dundee,
Yates county, New York. In 1854 she removed with her husband to
Missouri. After his death, in the fall of the same year, she came with
her children to Osceola, where she built the Osceola House, which she
kept a number of years. The daughters were Angeline B. (Mrs. O. F.
Knapp), Mrs. Hubbell and Mrs. Milroy, of New York, and Mrs. Truman
Foster, widow, since the wife of Capt. C. G. Bradley. Her sons were
George, Frank and David. Capt. George Hayes followed piloting and
steamboating, excepting during the Rebellion, when he served as a
soldier in the Fourth Wisconsin Volunteers. In the latter part of the
war he served as a scout for Gen. Canby. At the present time he has
the appointment of steamboat inspector, with office in St. Paul. David
has been prominent as a steamboat captain. He now resides in Iowa.

CYRUS G. BRADLEY was born in Kaskaskia, Illinois, in 1825. In 1845 he
came to the lead mines in Wisconsin and to Osceola in 1848. He was
married in 1846 to the widow of Truman Foster, of Osceola. Mr. Bradley
engaged in lumbering, became a river pilot, running rafts to St.
Louis, with stems and blades, called oars and sweeps, before steamboat
towing was in vogue. When steamboats became useful in running rafts,
he built two steamers especially for raft towing. He had much to do in
introducing the steamboat towing business. Mr. Bradley moved to his
farm near Osceola in 1874, where he still resides.

W. HALE.--Judge Hale's early life was spent on a farm. He commenced
lumbering in 1822, and followed that business and piloting on the Ohio
and Alleghany rivers until 1851, when he came to Osceola prairie and
opened a farm. Mr. Hale was the first county judge of Polk county, and
held the position eight years. He has also served as county
superintendent of schools. He was born in Harmony, Susquehanna county,
Pennsylvania, in 1802; was married to Nancy McKeene, of Orange county,
New York, in 1826. They have four sons, John, Isaac, Silas F., and
Reuben W., and three daughters, Esther (Mrs. Treadwell), Malvina (Mrs.
Merrick), and Achsah (Mrs. Thomas Kent).

EDGAR C. TREADWELL was born March 29, 1832, in Susquehanna county,
Pennsylvania. He came with a team from Pennsylvania to Osceola in
1846, where he engaged in lumbering and piloting until 1863, when he
enlisted in Company D, Second Wisconsin Cavalry. He was wounded at
Yazoo river. He returned to Osceola in 1865 and was married to Esther
Hale in 1866. Mr. Treadwell was the first sheriff of Polk county, and
has filled other places of trust. Since the war he has resided on his
farm.


ST. CROIX FALLS.

Extended mention has already been made of the village of St. Croix
Falls in the general history of the first settlement of the county.
The town includes township 34, range 18, and two partial sections of
range 19. It was organized in 1854, but unfortunately no records of
its organization can be obtained. The surface is agreeably diversified
by hill and plain, and is supplied with many species of timber,
including maple, elm, and several varieties of oak. The St. Croix
river forms its western boundary, and presents here some of its
wildest and most beautiful scenery, including the trap rock ledges of
the Dalles.


ST. CROIX FALLS VILLAGE.

The buildings of the Falls company formed the nucleus of a village
which took the name of the Falls. Its history has been given somewhat
at length in the history of the settlement, and in "Reminiscences." It
is situated on the east bank of the river, between the upper and lower
falls. It contains one first class flouring mill, owned by James
Thompson, one wagon and plow factory, owned by Comer Brothers, one
agricultural warehouse, two livery stables (Harvey & Co., and Lillis
& Co.), two excellent hotels (J. W. Mullen, and C. C. Fiske), one
United States land office, one church building (Presbyterian), costing
about $2,500, one graded school building, costing $6,000, one town
hall and several commodious stores and dwellings. The village was
platted in 1857, by Marion T. Chandler. The post office was
established in 1844. Harvey Wilson was the first postmaster. The
Minneapolis, Soo & Atlantic Railway Company have a branch road
extending to this place from Dresser's station, a distance of three
miles. The village was incorporated Feb. 21, 1888, with the following
board of officers: President, J. H. McCourt; trustees, John Comer,
Jacob Berger, George Thompson, Charles Amery, Barney O'Neal, Sidney
Wall; clerk, Thomas Peck; treasurer, A. Hoagland; assessor, P. B.
Jewell; supervisor, S. W. Blanding; constable, Hoover Christopher;
justice of the peace, W. B. Bull; police justice, Thomas Peck. St.
Croix village has suffered from fires. The heaviest losses were
without insurance. The flouring mill was burned April 30, 1863; loss,
$8,000. The company's hotel was burned May, 1880; loss, $3,000.
Fiske's hotel was burned Sept. 16, 1885; loss, $6,000.


WEST SWEDEN.

West Sweden embraces township 37, range 17. This is almost exclusively
a hardwood timbered district, with some pine in the north. The soil is
rich and well watered with Spirit creek and Upper Wood river. The
surface is undulating. The north part has numerous lakes and meadows.
There is an upheaval of trap rock in section 2 and copper specimens
abound. The principal settlers are Swedes. The town was organized Nov.
10, 1875. The first supervisors were N. C. Johnson, A. Larson and A.
Dolberg.


STERLING.

The town of Sterling is composed of township 36, ranges 19 and 20. The
east part is heavy hardwood timber land, with rich soil suitable for
wheat; the west portion is very sandy and covered with a few
scattering oaks and black pines. The whole town is well supplied with
hay meadows, which afford great advantages to the stock raiser. The
first actual settlers were Samuel Deneen and William Trimmer, who came
in the fall of 1855. The year following William Lowell, from
Stillwater, entered three hundred and twenty acres in sections 14 and
15, range 19, and made extensive improvements. Daniel F. Smith took up
the same amount of land in section 9, same town and range, and made
improvements. The first white child born was the son of James Cragin,
August, 1858. The first white couple married was John Berry and Emily
Stout, in 1859. The first death was that of Mrs. Dunlap, sister of
William Trimmer, in 1859.

The town was organized in 1855. The first town meeting was held at the
residence of William Lowell, and Samuel Deneen was the first chairman
of the town. The town was called Moscow, which name was changed one
year after to that of Sterling. It was the largest town in the county
then. It was organized into two school districts, but District No. 1
not being able to build a good school house, an old log shanty was
fixed up for school purposes, and in this Miss Fanny Trimmer taught
the first school. The first saw and grist mill was built by Dr.
Deneen. Olaf Strandburg established the first blacksmith shop and with
it a gun shop. In 1849 Charles F. Rowley built a "stopping place," so
called in those days, on the banks of Wolf creek, at the old crossing,
half a mile west of Deneen's, and cultivated a few acres of land. This
house was burned one night by a lot of teamsters in a drunken orgie.

DR. SAMUEL DENEEN, the first white settler in Sterling, was born Dec.
27, 1801, in Youngstown, Ohio. He was married in 1825 to Margaret
Conly. He studied medicine in Michigan, and came to Wisconsin in 1854,
and to Sterling in 1855. Dr. Deneen practiced his profession, made him
a farm, built a saw and grist mill on Wolf creek, established a post
office and took an active part in the interests of the new settlement.
He and his wife still live on the homestead which they have held for
the past thirty years. Mrs. Deneen was born in 1800.

WILLIAM W. TRIMMER came to Sterling in 1855 and made a home, building
and occupying what was for many years known as "Trimmer's Hotel." Mr.
Trimmer died in St. Croix Falls in 1874.

ARNOLD DENSMORE was born in Nova Scotia, in 1822; was married to
Matilda Wallace in 1845, and came to Sterling in 1867, where he died,
Jan. 20, 1886, much respected as a neighbor, citizen and Christian.



CHAPTER VI.

ST. CROIX COUNTY.


Jan. 9, 1840, the Wisconsin legislature created a new county out of
Crawford county, including territory west of the Chippewa river,
extending northward to the British possessions, and named it St.
Croix. By the same act, a day was designated for an election, at which
a county seat was to be chosen and county officers elected. "Mouth of
St. Croix," now Prescott, and Caw-caw-baw-kang, now St. Croix Falls,
were designated as voting places. Two places only were voted for,
"Mouth of St. Croix," and Dakotah, Brown's claim, now Schulenberg's
addition to Stillwater. Dakotah was chosen by a vote of forty-five to
thirteen. The returns were made to Prairie du Chien, county seat of
Crawford county, and certificates issued to the county officers
elected by C. J. Leonard, clerk of Crawford county. The legislature
had at the time of creating the new county made it a probate district,
Philip Aldrich being appointed judge.

The history of the county until 1848 has been given elsewhere, as
connected with the early history of Stillwater.

The admission of Wisconsin Territory as a state in 1848 divided the
county, giving it the St. Croix river and state line as its western
boundary. The Wisconsin portion of the old county was consequently
left without a county seat, while the portion west of the St. Croix
had a county seat, but was without state or territorial jurisdiction.
Congress, however, declared Wisconsin territorial laws to be still in
force in the excluded territory, and they so remained until the
organization of Minnesota Territory. Soon after the admission of
Wisconsin, that part of St. Croix county within its limits was
reorganized for county and judicial purposes, and a new county seat
chosen, located in section 24, township 29, range 19, at the mouth of
Willow river. This county seat was at first called Buena Vista. On
Sept. 9, 1848, the county commissioners, under the law creating the
county, held their first meeting at the county seat, in the house of
Philip Aldrich. The commissioners present were Ammah Andrews,
chairman; W. H. Morse, and W. R. Anderson, clerk. Philip Aldrich was
appointed treasurer. Four voting precincts were established, Mouth of
St. Croix, Willow River or Buena Vista, Osceola, and Falls of St.
Croix. These early commissioners performed duties of the most varied
character incident to the government of a new county. There was as yet
no county seal, and they were required to draw with the pen upon legal
documents a scroll representing a seal, and to use other forms,
appliances and devices without legal precedent.

At the second meeting of the county commissioners Osceola was
represented by Harmon Crandall, he having been absent at the first
meeting of the board. Moses Perin was appointed collector. License for
selling intoxicating liquors was fixed at twenty dollars per annum.
The rate of taxation was fixed at seven mills on the dollar. The first
state election in the county was held at Buena Vista, Nov. 7, 1848.
One hundred and fifteen votes were the whole number cast in the
county. The following officers were elected: Senator, James Fisher, of
Crawford county; representative, Joseph Bowron, Buena Vista; county
commissioners, Wm. H. Morse, Ammah Andrews, Harmon Crandall, Buena
Vista; county clerk, W. Richardson, Buena Vista; register of deeds, W.
R. Anderson, Buena Vista; judge of probate court, Alvah D. Heaton,
Osceola; county treasurer, Philip Aldrich, Buena Vista; coroner, Wm.
O. Mahony, Osceola; surveyor, Alex. S. Youle, St. Croix Falls.

At the commissioners' meeting, Feb. 28, 1849, the county was divided
into the following towns: St. Croix Falls, Buena Vista, and Elisabeth.
At an election held Sept. 3, 1849, Hamlet H. Perkins received
forty-nine votes for judge, and Joel Foster forty-one. Mr. Perkins was
drowned at St. Croix Falls soon after, and the governor appointed Mr.
Foster to fill the vacancy. Judge Foster held his first court at Buena
Vista. Daniel Noble Johnson was appointed prosecuting attorney in
1849. James Hughes was appointed in 1850. The first district court was
held in August, 1850.

At a special meeting of the commissioners in 1849, James Hughes and J.
M. Bailey were appointed a building committee to make estimates for
the erection of a courthouse and jail. At the special meeting of the
commissioners, Jan. 15, 1851, the town of Kinnikinic was organized.
They had also under consideration the erection of county buildings,
and appointed Ammah Andrews to erect the same. Otis Hoyt, for
non-attendance at this meeting of the board, was fined fifty dollars,
but the fine was subsequently remitted. The legislature of 1851
changed the name of the town of Buena Vista to Willow River, also of
the town of Elisabeth to Prescott. At a subsequent meeting the
contract with Ammah Andrews to erect public buildings was rescinded,
and Daniel Mears was made special agent to build a jail, and three
hundred and fifty dollars was appropriated for that purpose. The town
of Rush River was organized Nov. 13, 1851. At the request of
petitioners, the town of Leroy (now Osceola) was organized Nov. 9,
1852. A day was fixed in 1852 to vote on the change of name, Willow
River to Hudson. The name Hudson was adopted by a two-thirds majority.
The legislature of 1853 created from the territory of St. Croix county
the counties of Polk, St. Croix and Pierce, Polk being located on the
north, Pierce on the south, and St. Croix occupying the central
portion of the original St. Croix county, and retaining the county
seat.

St. Croix county, as at present constituted, lies on the east bank of
the river and Lake St. Croix, forming, but for slight irregularities
on the western line, a parallelogram. It includes townships 28 to 31,
and ranges 15 to 19, with fractions of range 20 on the west. The
surface varies from gently undulating to hilly. The bluffs along the
lake are not precipitous, as on the Upper St. Croix, but are even and
continuous, with gently rounded slopes. From the river, eastward, the
country is broken and somewhat hilly; the central portions are rolling
prairies on which are fine farms, and the eastern portions are level
and originally heavily timbered. The eastern tier of townships is
covered by a heavy growth of timber known as the Big Woods. The timber
is composed of basswood, maple, butternut, several species of oak, and
a sprinkling of white pine. The soil is a rich clayey loam and well
adapted for grass, grain and root crops. Good building and limestone
crop out in places. The county is well drained by the St. Croix and
its tributaries, Apple, Willow and Kinnikinic on the west and Rush
river on the east. Of these tributaries Apple river is the largest. It
rises in Polk county, where it is supplied by numerous lakes, enters
St. Croix county and passes diagonally across the northwest corner and
empties into the St. Croix river a few miles above Stillwater. Willow
river rises in Cylon township and empties into St. Croix lake, just
above Hudson. This river passes through a deep gorge in the limestone
rock, a few miles above its mouth, falling in its passage over several
ledges of rock, producing falls famed far and near for their wildness
and grandeur. Kinnikinic river in the south part of the county is
famed also for the beauty of its scenery and for its waterfalls. It
passes into Pierce county and then, uniting with its southern branch,
flows into Lake St. Croix. Rush river rises in Eau Galle, and turns
and flows thence to Lake Pepin. These streams have unfailing supplies
from springs and small lakes. There is a remarkable formation in the
Kinnikinic valley about seven miles above River Falls, called the
Monument. It is a ledge of pure white sandstone rock, nearly circular,
and rising to a height of sixty feet. It stands on a natural elevation
far above the level of the valley and so forms a very conspicuous and
curious object. The base is forty or fifty feet wide, and the summit
is a turret-shaped mass of rock about fifteen feet wide and as many
high. The part upon which the turret rests is dome-shaped, its sides
worn by the rains into deep furrows. Years ago a tree grew upon the
summit. The soft sandstone is being gradually worn away by the winds
and rains.


HOW THE SCHOOL LANDS WERE SELECTED.

Philip Aldrich was appointed commissioner in 1848 to locate the state
school lands in St. Croix county, at that time including Polk and
Pierce counties. It is said that Dr. Aldrich would climb to the
summits of the highest mounds, and, casting his eyes east, west, north
or south, would proclaim such and such numbers or sections as school
lands. Where all were so arable and fertile there was no use in
discriminating. At the division of the county in 1853 the part
designated as St. Croix county was subdivided into three towns, Buena
Vista or Hudson, Willow River and Kinnikinic or Troy. As the
population increased these towns were divided and subdivided until
they numbered twenty-three. We append their names and dates of
organization. Where more than one name is given the last is the
present name:

    Buena Vista, Willow River, Hudson            1849
    Malone, Troy                                 1851
    Rush River                                   1851
    Pleasant Valley                              1851
    Somerset                                     1856
    Hammond                                      1856
    Star Prairie                                 1856
    Dayton, Malone, Kinnikinic                   1857
    Cold Spring, Richmond                        1857
    Erin Prairie                                 1858
    Brookville, Eau Galle                        1858
    St. Joseph                                   1858
    Cylon                                        1859
    Warren                                       1860
    Springfield                                  1860
    Emerald                                      1861
    Stanton                                      1870
    Cady                                         1870
    Baldwin                                      1872
    Forest                                       1881
    Glenwood                                     1885

Some changes were also made in the boundaries of the towns. No
progress was made in the erection of county buildings until 1856, when
a contract was made by the commissioners with Ammah Andrews to build a
court house for $14,300 on the ground originally purchased of Moses
Perin. The final cost was $20,045.


ST. CROIX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.

An important event to the county was the organization of the St. Croix
Agricultural Society, in 1857. Beautiful grounds were chosen on the
bluffs one-half mile south of the city of Hudson. The annual fairs of
this association, formerly held in rotation at various points in the
county, now limited to the grounds south of the city, have always been
well patronized and successful.


POMONA GRANGE.

The Pomona Grange of St. Croix county holds quarterly meetings at
various points, alternately. There are subordinate granges at Hudson,
Richmond, Hammond, and Warren. There is a co-operative store in the
city of Hudson which is well sustained. These granges are in a
flourishing condition.


AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS.

At the taking of the last census there were 2,289 farms in St. Croix
county, containing 202,588 acres of improved land, valued at
$7,015,198. The farm implements were then placed at a valuation of
$346,374; live stock, at $810,525; and all soil products at
$1,815,266. The stock numbered 6,272 horses, 319 mules, 442 oxen,
5,624 cows, and 6,149 other cattle.

The average yield of products throughout the county can be fairly
placed at these figures: Wheat, 1,375,000 bushels; oats, 800,000
bushels; rye and barley, 35,000 bushels; corn, 200,000 bushels;
potatoes, 150,000 bushels; hay, 20,000 tons; cheese, 180,000 pounds;
butter, 350,000 pounds.

During the past few years agriculture has steadily increased while
rapid strides have been made in manufactures, so that the totals would
be quite materially enlarged now over those of 1885.


MANUFACTURES.

In manufactures the statisticians have the county down for 112
establishments with a capital of $740,197, utilizing materials to the
amount of $1,105,203, evolving products to the sum of $1,488,192, and
paying $107,469 in wages per annum.

As to manufactures, in round numbers there is produced in the county:
Lumber, 50,000,000 feet; shingles, 18,000,000: laths, 7,000,000;
furniture, $120,000; barrels, 125,000; flour, 160,000 barrels.


ST. CROIX POOR FARM

Is located in the northwest part of Kinnikinic, section 11, on each
side of the Kinnikinic river. It was purchased in 1870 for $1,000, and
the probable present value is $10,000.


FIRST TAX ROLL OF ST. CROIX COUNTY, 1848.

ST. CROIX FALLS.

===========================================================
NAMES.                      | AMT. PROPERTY. | TOTAL TAX.
----------------------------+----------------+-------------
John McKusick               |    $1,500.00   |     $10.50
Leach & McKean              |     5,400.00   |      37.80
Edward Johnson              |     1,115.00   |        .81
Falls of St. Croix Company  |    59,700.00   |     417.90
Dexter & Harrington         |     2,585.00   |      18.09
A. W. Russell               |       405.00   |       2.83
Edward Worth                |       199.00   |       1.39
Peter Lombair               |        40.00   |        .28
Serno Jonava                |        75.00   |        .52
J. McLanglin                |     2,204.00   |      15.43
Wm. Town                    |       144.00   |       1.01
J. Cornelison               |        75.00   |        .52
George De Attley            |        50.00   |        .35
S. Partridge                |       418.00   |       3.37
Dan Foster                  |        30.00   |        .21
A. Livingston & Kelly       |       185.00   |       1.29
John Powers                 |        21.00   |        .14
Thos. Foster                |        10.00   |        .08
George Field                |        45.00   |        .31
Adam Sebert                 |       240.00   |       1.68
Weymouth & Brother          |       130.00   |        .91
S. S. Crowell               |       150.00   |       1.05
Lewis Barlow                |       103.00   |        .72
I. S. Kimball               |        30.00   |        .21
Philip B. Jewell            |     7,235.00   |      50.64
Kent & Mahoney              |     3,631.00   |      25.42
H. Crandall                 |       219.00   |       1.53
Daniel Coite                |        85.00   |        .57
M. M. Samuels               |       375.00   |       2.62
W. H. C. Folsom             |       800.00   |       5.60
W. W. Folsom                |       210.00   |       1.47
J. Sanders                  |       207.00   |       1.45
G. W. Brownell              |     1,755.00   |      12.28
Richard Arnold              |       205.00   |       1.45
Wm. R. Marshall             |        15.00   |        .10
Dr. Palmer                  |        10.00   |        .07
Joseph Lagroo               |        25.00   |        .17
J. Bascan                   |        25.00   |        .17
B. Cheever                  |     1,100.00   |       7.70
H. H. Perkins               |     2,000.00   |      14.00
Levi Lagoo                  |        50.00   |        .35
M. Shults                   |     2,000.00   |      14.00
                            +----------------+------------
     Total                  |   $94,801.00   |  $1,642.72
------------------------------------------------------------


WILLOW RIVER.

===========================================================
NAMES.                         AMT. PROPERTY.  TOTAL TAX.
----------------------------+----------------+-------------
James Purinton              |      $800.00   |      $5.60
Wm. R. Anderson             |        75.00   |        .52
Samuel Clift                |        15.00   |        .10
Joseph Kelner               |        15.00   |        .10
P. D. Aldrich               |       195.00   |       1.36
Moses Perin                 |       240.00   |       1.68
Ammah Andrews               |       409.00   |       2.86
John B. Page                |     1,128.00   |       7.89
Lewis Massey                |       185.00   |       1.29
Joseph Lagrew               |       190.00   |       1.33
Wm. H. Nobles               |       299.00   |       2.10
Lemuel Nobles               |        40.00   |        .28
Milton E. Nobles            |       339.00   |       2.37
John Collier                |       125.00   |        .87
Philip Aldrich              |       361.00   |       2.52
Peter F. Bouchea            |       136.00   |        .96
A. Smith                    |       105.00   |        .73
McKnight                    |       149.00   |       1.03
Wm. Steets                  |       143.00   |        .79
Joseph Abear                |        38.00   |        .24
                            +----------------+------------
  Total                     |    $4,949.00   |     $38.71
------------------------------------------------------------


MOUTH OF LAKE ST. CROIX.

==================================================================
       NAMES.               |AMT. PROPERTY. |  TOTAL TAX.
----------------------------+---------------+----------------------
Thomas M. Finch             |   $176.00     |     $1.23
Mrs. Lockwood               |  1,181.00     |      8.27
Freeman, Larpenteur & Co    |    300.00     |      2.10
Frank Trudell               |     50.00     |       .35
Louis Barlow                |    600.00     |      4.20
Fog & Crownenbald           |  2,625.00     |     18.39
I. L. Minox                 |    183.00     |      1.26
J. R. Rice                  |    545.00     |      2.81
G. W. McMurphy              |    425.00     |      2.97
H. Doe                      |    340.00     |      2.38
Wm. Kimbrough               |     60.00     |       .42
W. H. Morse                 |    135.00     |       .61
Wilson Thing                |    385.00     |      2.69
W. C. Copley                |     50.00     |       .35
Willard Thing               |    164.00     |      1.15
George Shagor               |  1,000.00     |      7.00
George Barron               |    180.00     |      1.26
Joseph Monjon               |    235.00     |      1.64
Joseph Monjon, Jr.          |     60.00     |     42.00
Henry Thaxter               |     75.00     |       .52
Aaron Cornelison            |    325.00     |      2.27
James Cornelison            |    265.00     |      1.85
Lewis Harnsberger           |     75.00     |       .52
----------------------------+---------------+------------------
Totals                      | $9,434.00     |    $68.91
==============================================================

The above roll was published in pamphlet form, certified to by Wm. R.
Anderson, clerk of board of county commissioners, and an order issued
to Moses Perin to collect such taxes, and pay over to the treasurer of
St. Croix county. The amounts were duly collected.


HUDSON CITY.

The first settlement in St. Croix county was made on the present site
of Hudson city in 1838 by Peter Bouchea, Louis Massey, Wm. Steets and
Joseph Lagroo, Frenchmen, who subsisted chiefly by hunting and
fishing, but who also raised garden crops of corn, beans and other
vegetables. These people were contented and jovial, fond of dancing
and social enjoyment. Beyond the mere pleasure of living they seemed
to have but little care and were without enterprise or ambition. More
enterprising and industrious people followed them to the new
settlement, and as the public lands were not open for entry until
1848, settled upon the lands and made some improvements, awaiting
patiently the time when they could acquire a legal title. The original
claimants of the town of Buena Vista in 1848 were Peter Bouchea, Louis
Massey, Wm. Steets, Joseph Lagroo, Joseph Lenavil, ---- Revere, Ammah
Andrews, W. H. and M. V. Nobles, John B. Page, Philip Aldrich, and W.
R. Anderson. These parties, after the survey and prior to the entry of
the land, made an equitable division of their claims. Peter Bouchea
and Louis Massey were then delegated to purchase the lands, which they
did, Bouchea purchasing the southwest quarter of southeast quarter of
section 24, township 29, range 20, and Massey, the northwest quarter
of the southeast quarter of section 24, township 29, range 20. Deeds
were then made to the various claimants according to the original
agreement. The first individual survey of lots was made on Massey's
entry, Harvey Wilson, of Stillwater, being the surveyor. The village
thus platted was at first called Buena Vista, but some confusion
arising as to the title of lots in 1851, the legislature changed the
name of the town and village to Willow River, which, by vote of the
people in 1852, was changed to Hudson. The original proprietors of the
village of Buena Vista were Paschal Aldrich, James Sanders, Moses
Perin, James R. Patten and Joseph Abear. Additions were surveyed in
1849 and 1850 by Gibson, Henning and others. To avoid confusion we
shall discard the earlier names applied to what has since become the
city of Hudson and speak of it solely by its later and better known
name.

In 1840 the locality, as seen from a passing steamer, seemed a
wilderness of orchard oaks and maples, filling the valley of Willow
river, and clothing the slopes of the hills. A closer view might have
revealed an occasional shanty, a cabin of the first French settlers,
with small gardens, the whole inclosed by high picket fences as a
protection against strolling Indians. Seven years later loggers were
at work on Willow river under Capt. J. B. Page. The same year a couple
of frame houses appeared in the oak openings. The first was built by
W. H. Nobles, which is still standing and is occupied by Mrs. Col.
James Hughes. The second was built by Ammah Andrews and is now
occupied by Horace Champlin. In 1848 James Purinton commenced a saw
mill and dam at the mouth of Willow river, which were not, completed
until 1850. In 1848 Wm. H. Nobles started a ferry over the lake. James
Purinton opened a store and Moses Perin built a hotel and boarding
house, which stood opposite Champlin's present livery stable. In 1849
Miss Richards, from Prairie du Chien, taught the first school. Mrs. A.
M. Richardson, the wife of the Methodist minister, the second. A
school house was not built until 1855. John G. Putman built the
Buckeye House, corner of First and Buckeye streets. Horace Barlow
built a residence. Mr. Stone also put up a store building. The first
attorneys, Daniel Noble Johnson and Col. James Hughes, commenced
practice in Hudson in 1849. The first public building stood on the lot
now occupied by the Methodist church. It burned down in the spring of
1851, and an account of the fire, as published at that time, stated
that the "court house, Methodist, Baptist, Congregational and
Episcopal churches, together with the high school buildings, were all
consumed." It is but fair to say that there were no regular church
organizations at this time, but occasional services by local and
transient ministers. Rev. Lemuel Nobles, a Methodist minister,
preached the first sermon in 1847. The first society organization was
that of the Baptists, Rev. S. T. Catlin, pastor, in 1852. In the same
year Rev. A. M. Richardson was regularly appointed as pastor of the
Methodist Episcopal church. In 1855 the First Presbyterian church was
organized under the pastorate of Rev. Chas. Thayer, and Rev. Wilcoxson
became the first rector of the Episcopal church. In 1856 Rev. Father
McGee took charge of the Catholic church. In 1857 Rev. C. H. Marshall
was called to the pastorate of the Congregational church. A Norwegian
Lutheran church was organized in 1876. All of these church
organizations have good church buildings, and the Catholic church has
a flourishing school connected with it. School interests were not
neglected by the early settlers. A good school house was built in 1855
and graded. The first deed recorded covering Hudson property was by
Louis Massey and Frances, his wife, to Wm. H. Nobles; warranty;
consideration, $67.18; situate in east half of southwest quarter of
section 24, township 29, range 20.


CITY GOVERNMENT.

Hudson was incorporated as a city in 1857, and the first municipal
election was held in April of that year. The city was divided into
three wards. A. D. Gay was the first mayor. The following were the
first aldermen: First ward, James B. Gray, Milton V. Nobles, J. M.
Fulton; Second ward, Alfred Day, R. A. Gridley, Chas. E. Dexter; Third
ward, Chas. Thayer, N. P. Lester, N. Perry. The remaining city
officers were: City clerk, O. Bell; city attorney, Cyrus L. Hall;
surveyor, Michael Lynch. At the first meeting of the city council,
after the appointment of committees on by-laws, bond sales, salaries,
etc., license for selling intoxicating liquors was fixed at fifty
dollars per annum for hotel keepers, two hundred dollars for wholesale
dealers, with various grades for retail saloons. The first license
issued was to John Cyphers, for keeping saloon and billiard hall.


MAYORS OF HUDSON CITY.

     1. A. D. Gray,
     2. Alfred Day,
     3. Silas Staples,
     4. John Comstock,
     5. S. N. Clough,
     6. A. D. Richardson,
     7. C. R. Coon,
     8. H. L. Humphrey,
     9. J. H. Brown,
    10. Simon Hunt,
    11. Lemuel North,
    12. C. H. Lewis,
    13. H. A. Wilson,
    14. A. J. Goss,
    15. P. Q. Boyden,
    16. D. C. Fulton,
    17. M. A. Fulton,
    18. Samuel Hyslop,
    19. Sam. C. Johnson, M. D.
    20. Wm. H. Phipps.


CITY SCHOOLS.

Graded schools were established in 1859. They have ever maintained an
excellent reputation. In 1860 Charlotte Mann was chosen principal, and
taught the eight ensuing years. A new school building was completed in
1887 at a cost of $25,000. This building is devoted to high school
purposes. The schools of the city are graded. There are eleven
departments and twelve teachers. Each ward of the city has a separate
building. The school fund amounts to about $5,000 per annum. The
schools are under the control of six commissioners.


A MILITARY INSTITUTE

Was organized at River Falls by Prof. J. R. Hinckley, and shortly
afterward removed to Hudson, and a building worth $7,000 erected for
its accommodation. In 1880 it was purchased by the Catholics, and it
is now known as St. Marys Academy.


MILLS AND MANUFACTORIES.

The first saw mill, as already noted, was completed in 1850. It was
known as Purinton's saw mill. Other saw mills were built, but
destroyed by fire. We have no record of ownership and losses, but
estimate the aggregate of the latter as near $100,000. The Willow
River mills, built in 1867, consist of two flouring mills, with a
capacity of four hundred barrels per day. Connected with these are a
large elevator and cooper shop. The present proprietors are Cooper,
Clark & Co. The invested capital is $150,000. The Hudson Lumber
Company, in 1883, built a saw mill, below the steamboat landing. This
mill has a capacity of 18,000,000 feet per annum, and has a planing
mill attached. It is complete in all its departments, manufacturing
all classes of lumber, from timber to mouldings. The capital stock
amounts to $100,000. The officers are H. A. Taylor, president; C. R.
Coon, vice president; M. Herrick, secretary; F. D. Harding, treasurer;
S. W. Pierce, superintendent. The Hudson Foundry and Machine Shop was
established in 1870. The North Hudson Foundry and Car Shops are doing
a fine business. The Hudson Carriage Works were established in 1885,
and the Hudson Furniture Manufactory in 1883. The amount invested in
this enterprise is $180,000, and it furnishes employment to one
hundred men. C. R. Coon is president of the company. There are two
breweries--Moctreman's, established in 1857, and Yoerg's in 1870.


BANKS.

The St. Croix Valley Bank was organized in 1855. It was a bank of
issue, payable at Gordon, Wisconsin. It closed in 1857. The Hudson
City Bank, organized Sept. 10, 1856, went into operation under the
general law of Wisconsin, capital stock $25,000, secured by Michigan
and Missouri state stocks. J. O. Henning was president and M. S.
Gibson, cashier. It soon closed. The Farmers and Mechanics Bank, a
state bank, went into operation in 1857 and closed the following
year. The Hudson First National Bank was organized in 1863, with a
capital of $50,000. The first officers were John Comstock, president;
Alfred J. Goss, cashier. The officers in 1888 are John Comstock,
president; A. E. Jefferson, cashier. The surplus fund is $53,000. The
directors are H. A. Taylor, H. L. Humphrey, John C. Spooner, A. L.
Clark, F. D. Harding, A. T. Goss, and W. H. Crowe. The Hudson Savings
Bank was organized in 1870, with a capital stock of $50,000. Alfred
Goss, president; A. J. Goss, cashier. Alfred Goss died in 187--, but
the bank is in successful operation, the son still retaining his
father's name as head of the firm.


THE OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES HOSPITAL.

[Illustration: OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES HOSPITAL.]

The beautiful private hospital which takes the name of America's
popular poet, Oliver Wendell Holmes, was opened June 7, 1887. The
credit of this hospital scheme is entirely due to Dr. Irving D.
Wiltrout, of Hudson, who for some years has been assiduously at work
maturing the plans. The owners are Dr. Wiltrout and the Johnston
Brothers, of Boardman. The site is upon a beautiful wooded slope of
Willow river, about a mile from its mouth, overlooking Lake Mallalieu,
an expanse of the river, and a broad sweep of the St. Croix with its
undulating banks, commanding the most delightful and extensive views.
The building is lighted by the Mather self regulating, incandescent
system of electricity. The dynamo, engine and boilers are located in a
fireproof brick structure, some distance from the building proper,
communicating with the hospital by an underground passageway. The
hospital is under the direction of the following board: President, A.
J. Goss; first vice president, John Comstock; second vice president,
John E. Glover; secretary, Thomas Hughes; treasurer, Rev. M. Benson.


WATER WORKS.

The Hudson water works, supplied from Lake St. Croix, are situated
upon Liberty Hill, in the rear of the southern part of the city. They
are owned by W. S. Evans. The hill is two hundred and seventeen feet
above the lake, and commands a magnificent view of the surrounding
country. The summit is easily accessible. The city is also well
supplied with water from artesian wells, which were sunk to a depth of
five hundred feet, and afford a flow of two hundred gallons per
minute.


HOTELS.

The principal hotels are the Chapin House, first built in 1867, but
twice destroyed by fire. The last structure was erected in 1879, by H.
A. Taylor. The Tracy House was built in 1867, the Seely House in 1873,
the Commercial Hotel in 1875, and the Central House in 1876.


THE GREAT FIRE.

May 19, 1866, Hudson city was visited with a destructive
conflagration. Sixty-four business houses and twenty-five residences
were destroyed. It was probably the result of accident or
carelessness. It commenced in the rear of H. A. Taylor's furniture
rooms and printing office, and spread with such rapidity that it was
with the greatest difficulty that merchants and others were able to
save their valuable papers. The wind blew a gale and the flames spread
and caught in every direction. The fire occurred fortunately in the
daytime or it might have been attended with a frightful loss of life.
As it was, there were many narrow escapes. The total losses from this
fire were $325,000, on which there was but $75,000 insurance. A
destructive fire occurred in 1872, destroying the Chapin Hall House,
valued at $50,000, and other property to the value of $35,000, on
which there was but $15,000 insurance. During the same year another
fire occurred, destroying 30,000 bushels of wheat and the furniture of
the Chapin Hall House, which had been saved from the previous fire.
The loss was estimated at $60,000 with $16,355 insurance.


SOCIAL AND BENEVOLENT ORGANIZATIONS.

St. Croix Lodge, A. F. and A. M., founded 1855; Colfax Lodge, No. 85,
I. O. O. F., founded 1856; Hudson City Lodge, No. 486, I. O. G. T.,
founded 1867; Ladies' Library Association, founded 1868; St. Croix R.
A. Chapter, founded 1874; Y. M. C. A., founded 1875; Nash Lodge, I. O.
G. T., founded 1877; Temple of Honor, founded 1877; St. Croix
Commandery, founded 1879; St. Croix Lodge, A. O. U. W., founded 1880;
Equitable Union, founded 1880. In addition to the foregoing there is a
volunteer fire company, a boat club, an old settlers' club, a bible
society, a building and loan association, and a cemetery association.


BIOGRAPHICAL.

LOUIS MASSEY came of a long-lived French-Canadian family. His father
lived to the age of one hundred and seven and his mother to one
hundred and five and he himself lived to the age of ninety-nine years.
He was born in Canada, near Montreal, in 1788. In 1805 he left home to
enter the service of the British fur traders at Detroit. In his
eventful life he had many adventures and passed through many perils.
He was once arrested with his employer by the American authorities and
once made prisoner by the Indians. In 1812 he entered the employ of
the notorious Col. Dickson, and, while with him, made a trip from
Detroit by way of Mackinaw, Green Bay, Fox and Wisconsin rivers to
Prairie du Chien in a birch canoe. He made two trips in mackinaw boats
from Prairie du Chien to New Orleans and return. In one trip he was
four months making his way from New Orleans to St. Louis. He made one
voyage in a birch canoe from Montreal via Ottawa river, Georgian bay,
Lake Huron, St. Marie's river and Lake Superior to Fond du Lac, at the
mouth of St. Louis river, via Sandy lake and the Mississippi river to
Lake Winnibagoshish, and another from Fond du Lac to Brule river,
across to St. Croix river, thence to the Mississippi, and by way of
St. Peter's river to Lake Traverse by canoe. In 1818 he entered the
service of the American Fur Company, and lived at Fond du Lac, the
headquarters of the company, for ten years. There he was married to a
sister of Peter Bouchea. In 1828 he settled on the reservation near
Fort Snelling, where he was held in such estimation that, on the
expulsion of the settlers, the officers of the Fort assisted him in
his removal to Willow River, whither he came in 1838 with Peter
Bouchea. Wm. Steets and Joseph Lagroo soon followed them. These four
were the first settlers in Hudson. Mr. Massey lived at his old home
with a son-in-law, Richard Picard, until his death, Oct. 14, 1887. His
only child living is Mrs. Picard.

PETER BOUCHEA was born at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, about 1815. He
spent his early life in the neighborhood of Lake Superior, was married
to a daughter of ---- Bruce, and came to the mouth of Willow river in
1838. Mr. Bouchea had been educated for the Catholic priesthood. He
was a truthful, intelligent, reliable man and filled some positions of
responsibility. He had many stirring adventures and was once wounded
by Indians and cared for by Gov. Cass, of Michigan, at Detroit and
Fort Gratiot. He died in 1875, at Fort Edward, on the north shore of
Lake Superior.

WILLIAM STREETS came to Willow River in 1838, a refugee from the Fort
Snelling reservation. He was frozen to death in the winter of 1851.

CAPT. JOHN B. PAGE came from Piscataquis county, Maine, to the St.
Croix valley in 1844, and engaged for awhile in cutting pine logs on
Willow river. While rafting on the Mississippi he met, and after a
brief courtship married, a woman who returned with him to his home on
Willow river and who survives him. Mrs. Page had some reputation as a
(Thomsonian) physician. They made their home in Hudson in 1847. Their
daughter Abigail was the first white child of American descent born in
Hudson. Abigail married George Bailey, and their sons, George W. and
David, were for a long time residents of Hudson, and have but lately
deceased. Mr. Page died Feb. 11, 1865.

DR. PHILIP ALDRICH, although not a permanent settler till 1847, was an
occasional or transient visitor, and had made a land claim in section
24. He took a deep interest in the affairs of the pioneer settlement,
and at his house many of the public gatherings, political and social,
were held. He was the first postmaster, and, in the exigencies of the
service, sometimes carried the mail on foot. While a resident of St.
Croix Falls in 1844, he was appointed probate judge. In 1848 he was
appointed treasurer of the county of St. Croix, and at the election in
November of the same year, elected to that office. Dr. Aldrich was
born in New York in 1792, and died at his home in Hudson, March 16,
1858.

THE NOBLES FAMILY settled in Hudson in 1847. Rev. Lemuel Nobles, the
father, was a Methodist local minister, and in 1847 preached the first
sermon at the mouth of Willow river. He came originally from New York,
lived a few years in the valley and removed to Michigan, where he
died. His children were William H., Milton V., John, Mrs. Battles and
Mrs. Morton S. Wilkinson, deceased. Wm. H. became a resident of
Minnesota and a noted man. His biography is given elsewhere.

MILTON V. NOBLES was born in New York in 1818; removed to Michigan;
was married to Matilda Edwards, Sept. 2, 1846, in Stillwater, and came
to Hudson in 1847, where he followed lumbering until 1860, when he
returned to New York and located at Elmira, where he resided until his
death. While at Elmira he became an inventor and took out several
valuable patents. His fortunes varied, and as is frequently the case
with inventors, at one time he was wretchedly poor. In the midst of
his galling poverty he sold one of his patents for a beautiful
homestead in Elmira. Mrs. Nobles had not been informed of the
transaction, but with her husband had visited the occupants of the
homestead. Mrs. Nobles could not but contrast this pleasant home with
her own poverty stricken surroundings, and in inviting her
entertainers to return the call, told them plainly that she lived in a
very humble home, and feared she could not make a visit pleasant to
them. At this point the host stepped forward, and, by a preconcerted
arrangement, presented her a deed to the mansion and grounds--a joyful
surprise.

JOHN NOBLES, the youngest son, returned to Michigan and New York,
where he became a Methodist minister. Some time subsequently he
removed to Colorado, where he died.

JAMES PURINTON was born in 1797, in Tamworth, New Hampshire. He was
married to Mary Mann, in Sandwich, New Hampshire. He afterward removed
to Maine. He came to St. Croix Falls in 1842, and leased the St. Croix
mills, and some time after became part owner. This venture not being
successful, he removed to Willow River in 1847, where he built a large
dam across the river, and with others erected a saw mill on the point
of land between the lake and river. This venture was not successful
and the mill property passed into other hands. Mr. Purinton was an
experienced lumberman and an active, energetic man. The north side of
Willow River, in which he was so much interested, became afterward
quite valuable on account of the centralization of shops, depots and
business of the West Wisconsin and North Wisconsin railroads. Mr.
Purinton died in Hudson in 1849, leaving two married daughters--Mrs.
----Graves and Mrs. James McPhail.

AMMAH ANDREWS was born in Herkimer county, New York, in 1801, and
passed his early life in that place. In 1829 he was married to Laura
Andrews, and in the same year moved to Michigan. He came to Hudson in
1847. Mr. Andrews was a carpenter and took some important building
contracts. He was one of the first commissioners of St. Croix county
under the state government, and also one of the first school
directors. He has been an active and influential member of the
Methodist Episcopal church the greater part of his life. He has three
sons, now living in Nebraska, and one daughter, the wife of F. D.
Harding, of Hudson, Wisconsin. Mr. Andrews died Jan. 5, 1888.

JAMES WALSTOW.--Mr. Walstow was born in Nottingham, England, in 1815;
was married there, and came to Hudson in 1849. He removed to Nebraska
in 1863.

JAMES SANDERS was born in Devonshire, England, in 1818; came to
America in 1841, and lived for years in New York. In 1844 he married
Mary Walstow, removed to St. Croix Falls in 1845 and to Hudson in
1850, where he opened and improved the first farm in the present St.
Croix county. Mrs. Sanders died in 1873. She left two sons, William
and Walstow. Mr. Sanders removed to Osceola in 1880.

J. W. STONE was born in Connecticut in 1800. He came to Hudson in 1849
and opened the first store the same year. He died in 1860.

JOSEPH BOWRON was born Aug. 1, 1809, in Essex county, New York. His
parents were from Newcastle on the Tyne, England. His mother was a
member of the Society of Friends. She died when Joseph was five years
old, and he was reared by his aunt until nineteen years of age, when
he engaged in business for himself in Lower Canada. Some time
afterward he removed to the United States and obtained work on the
Illinois canal. He next removed to St. Louis, and from thence, in
1841, to St. Croix Falls, where he acted as clerk, scaler of logs and
mill superintendent. He was a member of the first state legislature of
Wisconsin, in 1848. W. R. Marshall had received the certificate of
election, but Mr. Bowron successfully contested the election. Mr.
Bowron removed in 1848 to Hudson, where he attended to general
collections, and served as justice of the peace. In 1849 Mr. Bowron
was married to Celia Partridge, of Columbia county, Wisconsin, who
died three years later. In 1854 he was married to Rosanna Partridge,
who died in 1863. Mr. Bowron died April 10, 1868, leaving two
children, who now reside in Kansas.

MOSES PERIN was born in 1815; came to St. Croix Falls in 1847 and to
Hudson in 1849. He was the first collector of St. Croix county. In
1853 he built a warehouse and saw mill at Lakeland, Minnesota. The
warehouse was burned, and the saw mill removed. In 1847 Mr. Perin
removed to San Diego, California.

JOHN O. HENNING was born at Bellefonte, Centre county, Pennsylvania,
in 1819. His great grandfather was the first settler in that county.
In 1825 his father removed to Ithaca, New York, and there the youthful
Henning received his education at the academy. During the excitement
of the Jackson administration he became an ardent Democrat, and, that
he might enter more fully into the political strife of the day,
learned the printer's trade and devoted himself more or less to
newspaper work. He visited the Mississippi valley in 1838, remained
some time at St. Louis, Missouri, Springfield, Illinois, Burlington,
Iowa, and some other places. In 1846 he established the _Journal_ at
Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, and in 1849 removed to Hudson, Wisconsin,
where he still resides. He served eight years as register of the
United States land office at that place. He represented St. Croix
county in the assembly of the Fourth Wisconsin legislature and has
held many other positions of trust. Mr. Henning was married, Jan. 29,
1840, to Fidelia Bennet. Mrs. Henning died June 27, 1886, aged
sixty-six years.

MOSES S. GIBSON was born in 1816, in Livingston county, New York. He
received the rudiments of a common school education. He was engaged in
mercantile pursuits a large portion of his life. He settled at
Sheboygan, Wisconsin, in 1844, but afterward moved to Fond du Lac. He
represented Fond du Lac county in the constitutional convention in
1847. He was appointed receiver of the United States land office at
Hudson in 1849. In 1856 he was married to Carrie F. Gilman. During the
Rebellion he acted as paymaster, United States army, and was assigned
to the department of Missouri, with headquarters at St. Louis. In 1878
he was appointed assistant in the sixth auditor's office, Washington,
District of Columbia. Mr. Gibson has led a busy and useful life and
has acquitted himself well in the various positions of responsibility
to which he has been called.

COL. JAMES HUGHES.--Col. Hughes was born in Prince Edwards county,
Virginia, Oct. 12, 1805. He received a classical education at
Hampdon-Sydney College, Virginia, studied law, and was admitted to
practice in Virginia. He came to Ohio in 1835, and was elected to the
legislature in 1838 and 1839. He was married in 1839 to Elisabeth
Mather, in Jackson county. He remained in Ohio until 1849, publishing
successively the _Jackson Standard_ and the _Meigs County Telegraph_,
both Whig papers. In 1849 he came to St. Paul and brought with him the
first printing press and outfit in that city, and established the
_Minnesota Chronicle,_ which subsequently united with the _Register_.
The first number bears the date June 1, 1849. In November of the same
year he sold his interest in the _Chronicle and Register_ and removed
to Hudson, where he established the _St. Croix Banner_, the first
paper printed and issued in the St. Croix valley. Mrs. Hughes was
associated with him in its management. They subsequently published the
Hudson _Republican_. Mr. Hughes died at Hudson in 1873, leaving a
widow and eleven children, seven sons and four daughters. Of the sons,
Eleazer is a farmer in St. Croix county; Geo. R. is engaged in the
real estate business in St. Paul; Edward P. is a lawyer in Anoka;
James S., a surveyor; Chas. V. is manager of the Western Telegraph
Company; and Lucius A. is a telegraph operator in St. Paul.

DANIEL ANDERSON was born in 1806, in New York; received a common
school education, and removed with his parents to Macoupin county,
Illinois, in 1820; was married in 1831 to Eliza Hoxsey; lived in
Dubuque in 1847 and 1848, and moved to Hudson in 1849, where he
followed merchandising until 1876. He was county treasurer in 1877 and
part of the year following. He died July 1, 1878: Mrs. Anderson died
in September of the same year, leaving a daughter, Medora, wife of
Alfred Day, of Hudson, and one son, Jarret, now a resident in Montana.

ALFRED DAY was born in 1824, in Vermont, and came to Hudson in 1849,
where he engaged in the real estate, farming and livery business. Mr.
Day was married in Hudson, to a daughter of Daniel Anderson. He died
in St. Paul, Nov. 18, 1880, leaving a widow, three sons and two
daughters.

DR. OTIS HOYT.--Dr. Hoyt was born in Sandwich, New Hampshire, Dec. 3,
1812. His parents were George and Mary Hoyt. Both grandfathers were
soldiers in the war of the Revolution. He received a common school
education; prepared for college in the academy at Fryburg, Maine;
graduated at Dartmouth in 1833, and from Jefferson Medical College, at
Philadelphia, in 1836. He practiced his profession at Mason, New
Hampshire, and Framingham, Massachusetts, until 1846, when he entered
the service as surgeon in the United States army during the Mexican
War. In 1849 he came to St. Croix Falls, and practiced medicine. In
1852 he removed to Hudson. The same year he was elected to the Fifth
Wisconsin legislature, as assemblyman. In 1862 he entered the United
States service as surgeon of the Thirtieth Wisconsin Volunteer
Infantry, but was on detached service most of the time. For awhile he
had charge of the hospital at Camp Randall, Madison, Wisconsin. He was
examining surgeon of 11,000 recruits, and was medical director at
Bowling Green and Louisville, Kentucky. He was eminent in his
profession, yet public spirited, and engaged at times, successfully,
in real estate and railroad enterprises. As a physician, it is said,
to his credit, that he was impartial to the last degree, and as prompt
and punctilious in visiting the log cabin of the poor man as the
parlor of a state or government official. He was married in 1837 to
Mary King. Two children were born to them, Charles and Mary (Mrs. H.
A. Wilson, deceased). Mrs. Hoyt died at Framingham. In 1843 Dr. Hoyt
was married to Eliza B. King, sister of his first wife. Their
children are Ella Frances, married to Dr. Chas. F. King, Hudson;
Annie, married to Dr. Eppley, of New Richmond; Hattie, married to
----Wyard, Crookston, Minnesota; Ida, a teacher at Stillwater, and
Lizzie, married to Rev. W. R. Reynolds, of Hudson. Dr. Hoyt died at
his home in Hudson, Nov. 12, 1885. Mrs. Hoyt died Oct. 1, 1886, in
Boston, Massachusetts. Her remains were brought to Hudson for burial.

S. S. N. FULLER.--Mr. Fuller was born in Attleboro, Massachusetts, in
1814. He removed to Harford, Pennsylvania, with his parents when six
years of age. He was educated at Harford. He studied law and was
admitted to practice at Montrose. He practiced at Great Bend,
Pennsylvania. He came to Fond du Lac county, Wisconsin, in 1844, where
he was seven years district attorney. He came to Hudson in 1857,
removed to Iowa in 1865 and died at Logan, Harrison county, Iowa, in
1851. He was married to Clarissa A. Day in 1841, who with one son and
four daughters, all married and resident in Iowa, survives him. He was
district judge some years for the St. Croix Valley district.

MILES H. VAN METER was born in Kentucky in 1810. He received a common
school education and learned the trade of a builder. He was married to
Mary P. Litsey, in Kentucky, in 1830, moved to Illinois in 1836 and to
Hudson in 1850. He has six sons and two daughters. Abe C. is editor of
the _St. Croix Republican_ at New Richmond. Two of his sons are in
Illinois, three in Dakota. Mrs. Van Meter died in 1875.

PHILIP B. JEWELL was born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, Oct. 25, 1816;
was raised on a farm; obtained a common school education; in 1841 was
married to Hannah J. Fuller, and in 1847 came to St. Croix Falls,
where he lived until 1851, when he removed to Hudson. He engaged in
lumbering and piloting on the St. Croix. At the beginning of the late
war he enlisted in the Twelfth Wisconsin Infantry and served during
the war. In 1874 he was appointed inspector of logs and lumber of the
Fourth district. Mrs. Jewell died in 1875. He married, as his second
wife, Ellen Restiaux.

JOHN TOBIN.--Mr. Tobin was born in Ireland in 1818. His father died in
1830, and he came with an uncle to this country. He settled at Marine
in 1842, and in 1853 came to St. Joseph's township, where he resided
until his death, Jan. 22, 1880. He was married in Illinois in 1848 and
his widow still lives at the old homestead. Of twelve children seven
are now living.

HORACE A. TAYLOR, son of Rev. Adolphus Taylor, of Norfolk, New York,
was born in 1837. His father died in 1842. At the age of ten years
Horace was earning his living on a farm. At thirteen he came to River
Falls. Some time after he returned East and spent four years on a
farm. Returning to Wisconsin he established a stage line between
Prescott and Hudson. In 1857, with his brother Lute A., he established
the River Falls _Journal_, and, in 1860, purchased the Hudson
_Chronicle_ and changed its name to the Hudson _Times_. Four years
later the _Times_ and the _North Star_ were consolidated under the
title of the _Star and Times_. Mr. Taylor is a man of energy and
enterprise and has engaged in real estate transactions on a large
scale. He is a man of quick perceptions and of ready wit and has been
honored with some important public positions. He was for some time
state agent of railroad lands. He was appointed consul to Marseilles
by President Garfield in 1881, but resigned the position in 1884. In
1860 he was married to Lizzie Madden, of Chicago.

JEREMIAH WHALEY was born in 1818, in Castile, New York. His father
dying he aided in caring for his widowed mother. He was married in
Pike county, New York, in 1839, and came to Hudson in 1851, where he
engaged in the mercantile and real estate business and acted as
postmaster. Mr. Whaley died in Hudson in 1884, leaving a widow, two
sons in Michigan, one in Pipestone, Minnesota, and four daughters.

SIMON HUNT was born in Camden, Maine, in 1826. He lived at home until
seventeen years old; acquired a common school and academic education;
served an apprenticeship of five years at boot and shoe making in
Georgetown, Massachusetts, and came to Hudson in 1851. He was married
to Jane C. Arcy in Maine in 1854. Mr. Hunt has served as mayor of
Hudson and was for several years superintendent of schools. Mrs. Hunt
died in 1880.

JOHN S. MOFFATT was born in Tompkins county, New York, in 1814. He
received a common school and academic education. In 1844 he was
married to Nancy Bennett. He removed to Hudson in 1854, and was in the
land office several years. He is a lawyer by profession; has served
thirteen years as police justice, and eight years as county judge.

JAMES H. CHILDS was born in Montear county, Pennsylvania, in 1825;
came to Wisconsin in 1848; settled in Hudson in 1849, and engaged in
the real estate and lumbering business. He was married to Elisabeth
McCartney, in Hudson, 1860.

WILLIAM DWELLEY was born in Foxcroft, Maine, in 1816; came to the St.
Croix valley in 1850, and settled in Hudson in 1854. Mr. Dwelley was
an explorer, scaler of logs, and surveyor. He died April 8, 1885.

JAMES M. FULTON--The ancestors of Mr. Fulton came from Scotland and
settled in New York about 1770. His father served in the army during
the war of 1812 and died while in the service. James M. Fulton with
his family came to Hudson in 1854, where he died, March 30, 1858, aged
about forty-six. Mrs. Fulton still lives in Hudson.

MARCUS A. FULTON, oldest son of James M. Fulton, was born in Bethel,
Sullivan county, New York, in 1826. He came with his parents to Hudson
in 1854, and engaged with his brother in the mercantile and real
estate business. He was elected to the state senate in 1866 and 1867.
In 1878 he was elected mayor of Hudson. He has also served on the
board of education, and as alderman. He was married in 1863 to Augusta
Ainsley, who died in 1876. In 1877 he was married to Adelia Frances
Ainsley.

DAVID C. FULTON, second son of James M. Fulton, was born in New York,
February, 1838. He came to Hudson with his parents, and, after
completing a common school and academic education, engaged in
mercantile and real estate business. Mr. Fulton has been elected to
various important positions. He was mayor of Hudson one term,
supervisor of St. Croix county three years, member of the board of
education, alderman, and member of the state assembly (1873). He
served three years during the Civil War as captain in the Thirtieth
Wisconsin Infantry, and was promoted to position of major. Since the
war, he served six years as one of the board of managers of the
National Home for Disabled Soldiers, and is now serving, by
appointment of President Cleveland, as United States marshal for
Western Wisconsin. Mr. Fulton was married in 1866 to Minnie Champlin.

N. S. HOLDEN was born in 1822; was one of the early settlers of the
St. Croix valley, and for many years a citizen of Hudson. He followed
surveying and scaling. He died suddenly, July 4, 1882. He left a
widow, two sons and four daughters.

WILLIAM H. SEMMES was born in Alexandria, Virginia. He came to Hudson
in 1851, and practiced law, as a partner of Judge McMillan, in
Stillwater. He was a young man of great promise, but died early and
much lamented, Sept. 13, 1854.

STERLING JONES was born in Steuben county, New York, in 1812. He
removed to Indiana in 1833, and in 1835 was married to Elisabeth
Sines. They removed to Beloit, Wisconsin, in 1847, and to Hudson in
1850. Mr. Jones died in 1874. Mrs. Jones, five sons and two daughters
are still living. Edwin B. married a daughter of Rev. W. T. Boutwell.
Jerome B. married a daughter of Rev. Wm. Egbert, of Hammond, and
resides in Hudson. He has been sheriff and treasurer of St. Croix
county and has held town and city offices. The remaining sons, George
R., Henry B. and Harvey J., and the daughters, Eunice M. and Sarah E.,
are married and reside in Hudson.

D. R. BAILEY was born April 27, 1833, in Vermont. He attended Oberlin
College, Ohio, and graduated in law at Albany Law School, in 1859. He
was collector of customs at Highgate, Vermont, from 1860 to 1864. He
practiced law at St. Albans, Vermont, ten years, and was state
representative in 1866 and 1867. He was a delegate to the Republican
National convention in 1878, and a member of the Vermont senate from
1870 to 1872. He made his residence in St. Croix county in 1877, where
he resided till 1883, when he removed to Sioux Falls, Dakota. While in
St. Croix county he engaged in farming, lumbering and manufacturing.

HENRY C. BAKER was born in 1831, in Genesee county, New York;
graduated at Albany University, New York, in 1854, and was admitted to
the bar in 1858, and came to Hudson in 1859. He has practiced law
continuously since; has also held many town and county offices; has
been attorney of the various railroads centring in Hudson, and is now
attorney of the Minneapolis, Soo St. Marie & Atlantic railroad. He was
married in 1860 to Ellen M. Brewster.

MERT HERRICK was born in Orleans county, New York, in 1834. He
received a common school education. He came to St. Croix in 1857; was
married in 1859 to Lois P. Willard; enlisted at the beginning of the
Civil War in the Thirtieth and later in the Fortieth Wisconsin
Volunteer Infantry, and served during the war. He has held the office
of treasurer of St. Croix county for six years. He is at present a
member of the Hudson Lumber Company.

D. A. BALDWIN, president of the West Wisconsin railroad, built a fine
residence on the shore of the lake, north of Willow river, in the
latter part of the '50s, and did much to promote the interests of
North Hudson, which he surveyed into village lots in 1873. D. A. and
H. A. Baldwin erected a commodious hotel in North Hudson in 1873. The
hotel was subsequently sold to H. A. Taylor and removed to Hudson,
where it was known as the Chapin Hall House. Mr. Baldwin removed from
Hudson when the West Wisconsin railroad passed into other hands.

JOHN COMSTOCK was born in Cayuga county, New York, in 1813. When he
was twelve years old his parents removed to Pontiac, Michigan. He here
served an apprenticeship of three years to a millwright, and afterward
engaged in business at Pontiac until 1851. He came to Hudson in 1856,
and was city contractor six years. In 1863 he founded the First
National Bank of Hudson, in which he has ever since been a director.
Mr. Comstock has been engaged in many public enterprises and has been
uniformly successful. He is one of the most reliable and substantial
of the business men of Hudson. He was married in 1844.

LUCIUS P. WETHERBY was born in Onondago county, New York, October,
1827. At eighteen years of age, he went to Weston, New York, where he
studied law with Martin Grover and W. J. Angell. He was married in
1849 to Sophia Antremont, and in 1856 removed to Hudson. In 1860 he
was elected judge of the Eighth district, Wisconsin, and served six
years.

JOHN C. SPOONER.--Mr. Spooner was born in Lawrenceburg, Indiana, Jan.
6, 1843. He was educated at the district schools until 1859, when his
father, Judge Spooner, removed to Madison, Wisconsin. This removal
afforded the son an opportunity of entering upon a course of classical
instruction in the State University, which he would have completed but
for the Civil War. In 1864 he enlisted as a private in the Fortieth
Wisconsin Infantry. He did honorable duty at the front until compelled
by sickness to retire from the army. After having served a short time
as assistant state librarian, and having been restored to health, he
raised a company which was attached to the Fiftieth Wisconsin
Regiment, and became its captain. His regiment was sent to the
Missouri river to do service among the Indians, and was stationed at
Fort Rice, Dakota. In July, 1866, it was mustered out of the service.
He then returned to Madison and commenced the study of law.

[Illustration: John Comstock]

When Gen. Lucius Fairchild was elected governor, Mr. Spooner was
chosen as his private and military secretary. He held this position
for eighteen months, when he resigned and entered the office of the
attorney general of the State as assistant. In 1870 he removed to
Hudson and began a general law practice. The following year he was
elected a member of the state legislature. While a member of this body
he vigorously championed the State University, which institution was
at that time in sore trouble. His service in this matter was afterward
recognized by the governor, who appointed him a member of the board of
regents of the university, which position he still retains. He was for
twelve years general solicitor of the West Wisconsin Railroad Company
and the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Company. In May, 1884,
he resigned. Mr. Spooner stands deservedly high in his profession, and
has acquired eminence also as a political speaker.

The Wisconsin legislature elected him to the United States Senate,
January, 1885, and he at once took rank among the most eloquent and
able members of that body. He is of small physique, not weighing over
one hundred and twenty-five or one hundred and thirty pounds, has a
dark complexion and a smoothly shaven face, and is possessed of great
bodily as well as mental energy.

THOMAS PORTER.--Mr. Porter was born in Tyrone, Ireland, in 1830;
received a common school education, and learned the trade of
wagonmaker. He came to America in 1855; served three years during the
Civil War as a private in Company A., Thirtieth Regiment, Wisconsin
Volunteers; moved to Hudson in 1871, and represented St. Croix county
in the assembly in 1885.

HERMAN L. HUMPHREY was born at Candor, Tioga county, New York, March
14, 1830; received a public school education, with the addition of one
year in Cortland Academy; became a merchant's clerk at the age of
sixteen, in Ithaca, New York, and remained there for several years;
studied law in the office of Walbridge & Finch, was admitted to the
bar in July, 1854, and removed to Hudson, Wisconsin, where he
commenced practice in January, 1855; was soon after appointed district
attorney of St. Croix county, to fill a vacancy; was appointed by the
governor county judge of St. Croix county, to fill a vacancy, in the
fall of 1860, and in the spring of 1861 was elected for the full term
of four years from the following January; was elected to the state
senate for two years, and in February, 1862, resigned the office of
county judge; was elected mayor of Hudson for one year; was elected in
the spring of 1866 judge of the Eighth Judicial circuit, and was
re-elected in 1872, serving from January, 1867, until March, 1877. He
was elected a representative from Wisconsin in the Forty-fifth
Congress as a Republican, and was re-elected to the Forty-sixth
Congress. During the past three years he has devoted himself to his
profession in Hudson. Mr. Humphrey has been twice married. In June,
1855, he was married to Jennie A. Cross, in Dixon, Illinois. Mrs.
Humphrey died in January, 1880, leaving two sons, Herman L., Jr., and
William H., and three daughters, Fanny S., Mary A., and Grace J. Mr.
Humphrey was married to Mrs. Elvira Dove, at Oswego, New York, October
1881. In 1887 he served again as a member of the assembly.

THEODORE COGSWELL was born in 1819, at Whitehall, New York. He
received a common school education and learned the trade of a painter.
He removed to Stillwater in 1848 and to Hudson in 1861 and to St. Paul
in 1882. He was married to Augusta B. Kelly in 1855. His son was for
many years editor of the Hudson _Republican_.

FRANK P. CATLIN is of Revolutionary and Connecticut stock. His father
entered the war of the Revolution at eleven years of age as a
musician. He served seven years. His discharge is signed by George
Washington. Mr. Frank P. Catlin is the youngest of fourteen children.
He was born in Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, in 1815. He was
married in 1840 to Elizabeth Dubois, who died in 1852, leaving three
sons, Charles L., Frank E. and Fred. Mr. Catlin was married to his
second wife in 1857, who died in 1872, leaving one son, William W. Mr.
Catlin moved to Green Bay in 1840, to Green Lake in 1844, and to
Hudson in 1849, having been commissioned by President Taylor as
register of the Willow River land office. This position he held four
years. Mr. Catlin spent some time traveling in foreign lands. In 1868
he removed to Ripon, Wisconsin, but returned in 1870 to Hudson, where
he still lives.

CHARLES Y. DENNISTON was born in Orange county, New York, in 1832;
graduated at University of Vermont in 1852; studied law in Iowa in
1853-54, and came to Hudson in 1855, where he engaged in real estate
and insurance business, in which he has been quite successful. He was
married in 1856 to Maria A. Coit, of Hudson. Mrs. Denniston died Aug.
31, 1886.

A. E. JEFFERSON.--Mr. Jefferson came from Genesee county, New York, to
Hudson in 1859. For the past fifteen years he has officiated as
cashier of the Hudson First National Bank.

SAMUEL C. SYMONDS was born in 1831, in Hooksett, New Hampshire. He
graduated at the University of Vermont in 1852 and the ensuing year
came to Hudson, where he taught school and studied law for three years
and afterward engaged in the real estate business and subsequently
officiated as county judge four years. He was married in 1860 to Mary
C. Bloomer. In 1886 he was commissioned postmaster of the city of
Hudson by President Cleveland.

JOHN E. GLOVER, an old citizen and successful lawyer of Hudson, has
gained a prominent position amongst the solid business men of the city
by his untiring industry, combined with rare judgment and knowledge of
men. In addition to his law business he is an extensive operator in
real estate, flouring and lumber mills.

LEMUEL NORTH, a reliable merchant of Hudson, a public spirited citizen
and a kind hearted man, merits the respect which his townsmen accord
him. He has been successful in business.

EDGAR NYE, much better known under his _nom de plume_ "Bill Nye," was
born in 1846. When a boy he came West with his parents to the
Kinnikinic valley. Mr. Nye studied law and practiced some years in
Laramie City, Wyoming Territory, where he obtained a national
reputation as a wit from his connection with the Laramie newspaper
known as the _Boomerang._ Mr. Nye's mirth-provoking sketches have been
published in book form. His parents still live at River Falls.

WILLIAM THOMPSON PRICE.--Mr. Price was born in Barre, Huntington
county, Pennsylvania, June 17, 1824. After receiving a fair education,
he came West, and in 1845 settled in Black River Falls, Wisconsin,
where he at once entered upon the occupation of a lumberman. In 1851
he was elected to the assembly as a Democrat, but on the organization
of the Republican party in 1854, he united with the organization, with
which he remained during the balance of his life. In 1853 and 1854 he
was judge of Jackson county; in 1855 he was under sheriff. He was a
member of the state senate in 1858, 1870, 1878, 1879, 1880, and 1881;
a member of the assembly in 1882; was collector of internal revenue
from 1863 to 1865, and held many local offices in his county. For many
years he was president of the Jackson County Bank. In 1882 he was
elected to the Forty-eighth Congress; was re-elected in 1884 to the
Forty-ninth, and in 1886 to the Fiftieth. He died at his home at Black
River Falls, Dec. 6, 1886. He was a man of immense energy and
endurance; and was ever ready to do his full share of labor in all
places. As a public man he acquitted himself well. In addition to
business tact and energy, and practical common sense, he was a public
speaker of unusual readiness and ability. In private life he was a
generous hearted man, strongly attached to his friends, and greatly
respected for his sterling qualities of character.

E. B. BUNDY.--Judge Bundy was born in Broome county, New York, in
1833. He received a common school and academic education and attended
one year at Hamilton College. He came to Dunn county, Wisconsin, where
he practiced law until 1877, when he was elected judge of the Eighth
Judicial circuit, to which position he was re-elected and is still
serving. He stands high in the estimation of his associates and the
people as a judge, and not less high in social life.


BALDWIN.

This town is coextensive with township 29, range 16. It was set off
from the township of Springfield and organized Dec. 3, 1872. Wm.
Whewell was chairman of the first board of supervisors.


BALDWIN VILLAGE,

Located on the West Wisconsin railroad, on the west boundary of the
township, has a population of eight hundred, about evenly divided
between the Norwegian and American elements, the latter being
principally from Vermont. The _Bulletin_, a lively weekly paper,
established in 1873, is published by B. Peachman. The graded school
has three departments, with two hundred and twenty-five scholars,
under the control of Prof. J. E. Brainard. The school building cost
$4,000. A state bank, organized in 1883, has a capital stock of
$25,000, and a surplus of $12,500. F. A. Decker is cashier. Baldwin
has one elevator, of 750,000 bushels capacity, two flour mills--one
with a capacity of two hundred and fifty barrels per day, built at a
cost of $55,000; the other of one hundred and twenty-five barrels, at
a cost of $20,000; one creamery, one cheese factory, one tannery, a
good town hall, capable of seating six hundred persons, four good
church buildings--Lutheran, Presbyterian, Episcopal and
Congregational--and over thirty stores or shops. The water supply is
ample, the village being furnished with public cisterns and wells, and
having an excellent fire department, with hook and ladder company. The
village is surrounded by a rich agricultural country.


WOODVILLE VILLAGE

Is situated four miles east of Baldwin, on the West Wisconsin
railroad, at the junction of a branch road extending into Pierce
county. It is the centre of heavy lumbering operations, and is a
flourishing village. It has one church.


CADY.

Cady is the southeastern township in St. Croix county, and occupies
township 29, range 15. It is drained by Eau Galle waters. Amongst the
first settlers were Irving Gray, Charles, John, and Brazer Bailey. A
post office was established near the centre of the town in 1860. D.C.
Davis was first postmaster. A branch railroad traverses the town from
northwest to southeast. There are two lumber mills. The town was
organized in 1870. The supervisors were William Holman, Charles Palmer
and Mead Bailey. The village of Brookville is on the west line of the
town.


CYLON,

Including township 31, range 16, lies on Willow river. It is a rich
and populous township, consisting originally of mixed prairie and
timber lands. The first settlement in this town was made in 1855. The
early settlers were Otto Natges, J. Smith, H. Fouks, E. Johnson,
George Goodrich, S. W. Beel, and J. Tomlinson. The town was organized
in 1859. The supervisors were C. A. Hall, chairman; John Sweet and
John Gibson. A post office was established in 1861, Mrs. John B.
Gibson, postmistress. The Wisconsin Central railroad passes through
the southwest, and the North Wisconsin through the northwest part of
the township. There are four church buildings, one on section 18, one
near Cylon post office, and two in Deer Park village. This village, a
station located on the North Wisconsin railroad, is a wheat buying
centre of considerable importance, and has several business houses.
The school house is one of the best buildings in the county outside of
Hudson. The Catholics and Methodists have churches here.


EAU GALLE,

Township 28, range 16, is drained by the Eau Galle and Rush rivers. We
have not the date of the first settlement, but it was amongst the
earliest in the county. The first settlers were William Holman, Andrew
Dickey, Joseph Barnish, and Uriah Briggs. The town was organized in
1858, with the following as supervisors: Wm. Holman, ---- Babcock, and
---- McCartney. A post office was established in 1853, of which W.
Holman was postmaster. Mr. Holman built a saw mill the same year, the
first in the region. There are now six, mostly lumber mills. The
township is traversed from north to south by a branch of the West
Wisconsin railroad. Wildwood, a thriving station on this road is the
headquarters of the St. Croix Land and Lumber Company, a stock company
with a capital of $300,000. The town of Eau Galle has one church
building belonging to the evangelical society.


EMERALD

Includes township 30, range 16. It is drained by the waters of Willow
and Menomonie rivers, and was originally covered with pine and
hardwood timber. It was organized in 1861. The Wisconsin Central
railroad passes through the northeast part of the township and has one
station, Emerald. A high mound is a conspicuous object near the centre
of the township.


ERIN PRAIRIE.

Erin Prairie, township 30, range 17, lies on Willow river. John Casey
entered the first land in 1854. The first house was built on section
17, in May, 1855, by John Ring. Among the settlers of 1855, of whom
there were about twenty families, we have the names of Michael Hughes,
Peter Queenan and James, Michael and Thomas McNamara. The town was
organized in 1858, with the following board of supervisors: Richard
Joyce, chairman; Alexander Stevens and Peter Queenan, and Wm. McNally,
clerk. Richard Joyce was first school teacher and first postmaster.

There are now two post offices, one at Erin Centre village, and the
other at Jewett's Mills, two and a half miles apart. There are at Erin
Centre one store, one wagon shop, one blacksmith shop, and a Catholic
church; at Jewett's Mills a store, a saw, a planing and a flour mill,
all run by water. There are six good school houses in the township. It
is traversed by the Wisconsin Central railroad.


FOREST,

Embracing township 31, range 15, occupies the northeast corner of the
county. It is heavily timbered with pine and hardwoods, is a new town
and is fast being converted into an agricultural district. Willow
river has its sources in this town. It was organized Dec. 10, 1881,
with S. D. Love as chairman of the first board of supervisors.


GLENWOOD,

Set off from the town of Emerald at its organization in 1885, embraces
township 30, range 15. It was originally a pine and hardwood region.
Its waters flow eastward into the Menomonie. The Wisconsin Central
railroad crosses the township from east to west. Its only station is
Glenwood. It is being rapidly settled and has already some good farms
and several saw mills. H. J. Baldwin was the chairman of the first
board of supervisors.


HAMMOND

Includes township 29, range 17. It is drained by tributaries of the
Rush river. Of the first settlers were the Peabodys, James R. Ismon,
Rev. Wm. Egbert, Rev. George Spalding, Mert Herrick, John Thayer, Mrs.
Adams, John Nelson, and Thomas Byrnes. The town was organized Sept.
16, 1856, with A. G. Peabody as chairman of supervisors and John G.
Peabody, clerk. It is now a prosperous farming town. The West
Wisconsin railroad passes through the south part of the township.


HAMMOND VILLAGE,

Located on the line of this road, in sections 27 and 28, has seven
hundred inhabitants. It is situated on a commanding elevation, giving
an extended view of the rich farming country surrounding it. It has a
school house, built at a cost of $2,500, with rooms for three grades,
and one hundred and seventy-five scholars, one elevator of 20,000
bushels capacity, one first class hotel, the Gardiner House, Odd
Fellows', Good Templars' and Grangers' halls, and three church
buildings, with parsonages--the Catholic, Congregational and
Methodist. The village contains about twenty-five stores and shops.
The water supply, on account of the elevation, is from wells and
cisterns. Rev. George Spalding preached the first sermon and was the
first merchant in the village. Hammond was incorporated Sept. 20,
1880, with J. B. Fithian as president of supervisors and John W. Owen,
clerk.

JOHN THAYER was born in 1809, in Worcester county, Massachusetts, from
which place he moved to Ohio, and, after residing there fifteen years,
came to Wisconsin and settled at Hammond village. He has been twice
married, his second wife still living, and has one son, Andrew P. The
father and son are engaged in merchandising in Hammond.

REV. WM. EGBERT was born in 1815, in Oneida county, New York. He
obtained a common school and academic education. He spent his early
life in New York City; came to Indiana in 1837 and to Hammond,
Wisconsin, in 1856. The first trial in Hammond was before Mr. Egbert,
as justice of the peace, in 1856. He has been for forty-one years a
local minister in the Methodist Episcopal church. He has been twice
married, his second wife still living. He has four children.


HUDSON.

Hudson includes sections 7 to 36, inclusive, of township 29, range 19.
Willow river flows through the northwest part. The North Wisconsin and
West Wisconsin railroads pass through the township. It is one of the
handsomest and richest farming townships in the State. It was
organized as a town in 1849. Its history is given in that of the
county of St. Croix and in the biographies of its early inhabitants.

JAMES KELLY was born at Osnabruck, Ireland, where he grew to manhood.
In 1850 he came to Hudson and located on a farm, where he prospered,
and became an honored citizen. In 1857 he married Catherine, daughter
of Wm. Dailey. He died at Turtle Lake, Barron county, Wisconsin, of
injuries received from a rolling log, Feb. 19, 1888, leaving a widow,
three sons and one daughter.

DANIEL COIT was born in Vermont in 1801. He learned the trade of a
house carpenter; came West as far as Galena, Illinois, in 1845, to St.
Croix Valley in 1848, and to Hudson in 1850. He died in Baldwin in
1884. He was a man of eccentric manners, but upright life.

JAMES VIRTUE came to Willow River Mill in 1849, settled in the town of
Hudson, and died in 1874.

THEODORE M. BRADLEY was born in 1831, in Jackson county, Illinois. He
lived three years in Lafayette county, Wisconsin; came to Osceola
Mills in 1850, and to Hudson in 1867. He has engaged chiefly in
farming. In 1857 he was married to Margaret Wilson. They have two sons
and three daughters. Mr. Bradley died in 1887.

WILLIAM DAILEY was born in Cork, Ireland, in 1800; came to America in
1819, and settled in Hudson in 1849, where he lived, a successful
farmer, until his death in 1867. He left five sons--William, Guy W.,
Jacob, Edward, and Asa, all farmers, industrious and prosperous, all
good citizens, and church members, all married and settled in St.
Croix county. Guy W. represented St. Croix county in the state
assembly of 1877. In 1866 he was president of the St. Croix
Agricultural Society.

ROBERT AND WILLIAM MCDIARMID, brothers, came from St. Stevens, New
Brunswick, and settled in Hudson in 1851, on a farm in sections 10 and
14. By industry and perseverance they have become independent, and own
fine farms, with blooded stock, improved agricultural implements, and
all the appliances for successful farming. Robert married in 1857, and
has three sons and three daughters. William married Laura Rabold, in
1860, and has three sons and four daughters. William has been chairman
of the county board of supervisors several years.

WILLIAM MARTIN was born in Vermont, in 1800. In 1846 he moved to
Janesville, Wisconsin, and in 1851 to Hudson, where he engaged in
farming. He was an exemplary christian man, and a member of the
Baptist church. His son, Geo. W. Martin, succeeds him on the farm. He
died in 1885.

PASCHAL ALDRICH was born in the state of New York, in 1820; came to
Illinois with his parents in 1826; was married in Illinois, to Martha
Harnsberger, in 1841, and came to Marine in the same year. He
returned, for a short time, to Illinois, and again moved to the valley
of the St. Croix, settling at Hudson in 1846, where he died in 1860,
leaving three sons and five daughters.


KINNIKINIC

Originally included nine towns of townships 27 and 28, from St. Croix
lake east. By the setting off of Pierce county from St. Croix, the
towns in township 27 were stricken off, and the territory has since
been reduced until comprised in township 28, range 18. It is a wealthy
agricultural township. Its surface is agreeably diversified with
undulating prairies and high hills. The Kinnikinic, a beautiful and
clear winding stream, drains it from the northeast. The famous
Monument Rock, an outlying sandstone formation, is in the centre of
this township. From the summit a magnificent view may be obtained of
this fine farming region. The farmers have fine dwellings and barns,
and the town has numerous school houses; one church is located on
section 15. The history of the town, as far as we were able to obtain
it, may be found in the biographies of the Mapes brothers.

DUNCAN MCGREGOR was born in Perth, Scotland, in 1821. His educational
advantages were limited. He emigrated to Canada while yet a youth,
served seven years in the British Army, and was one year in Canada
during the Papineau Rebellion. He was married to Jane Morse, in
Canada, Jan. 31, 1848, and in 1849 removed to the United States and
settled at River Falls, where he still lives on the homestead which he
pre-empted. Mrs. McGregor was the first resident white woman, and Mr.
McGregor the second person who settled at the Falls.

His mother, an aged lady living with him at the Falls, at one time
found the house surrounded by over a hundred Sioux Indians, who
commenced plundering the garden of everything eatable. Mrs. McGregor
bravely confronted and drove them away. The only crops in the valley
at the time were those of Messrs. Foster and McGregor.

Mr. McGregor learned in early life the trade of a mason. While a
resident of River Falls he followed farming except during a few years
in which he kept a hardware store. He was three years county
commissioner of St. Croix county. He has three children living,
Roderick, Malcolm and Neville.

W. B. AND JAS. A. MAPES, brothers, from Elmira, New York, landed at
Willow River Sept. 7, 1849. They proceeded at once with an ox team and
cart, on which last was placed all their worldly goods, to the valley
of the Kinnikinic. Having selected a claim and erected a temporary
shanty, William B. returned by river as far as Galena, for a breaking
team, wagon and plow, and other farm furniture and provisions, while
James remained to make hay. After the brother's return, a substantial
winter cabin was built. The ensuing spring they broke ground and
raised a fair crop, consisting of 80 bushels of oats, 200 of
buckwheat, 100 of corn and 100 of potatoes. The winter of their
arrival, Duncan McGregor came to the settlement and spent the winter
with Judge Foster. In the fall of 1850 came Ira Parks and family, and
settled on lands adjoining the Mapes farm. This family and others were
entertained by the Mapes brothers, with genuine frontier hospitality.
Among the families coming in at this time were those of Dr. Whipple,
Mrs. Sprague, Lorenzo Daggett, and the widow of Josephus Medley, of
Stillwater. This year came also the Pomeroy brothers, Luke and Frank,
from New York State, and J. G. Crowns, James Penn, and William Tozer,
from Illinois. During 1851 several families settled in the valley,
among them James Chinnoch and Elisha Walden, from Ohio; Alanson Day
and John Scott, from Pennsylvania; the brothers W. L. and J. E.
Perrin, single men, from New York State, and Mrs. Lynch, from
Illinois. Previous to the settlement of these families there were no
young ladies in the town. The arrival of fifteen young ladies, mostly
marriageable, produced a flutter of excitement among the lonesome
bachelors of the colony, and the services of Rev. S. T. Catlin were
soon called into requisition. The first couple married was James A.
Mapes and Eunice E. Walden, in 1852. The next year W. B. Mapes and
Catherine Scott were married. In 1852 J. W. Mapes, a younger brother,
joined the colony. In 1857 G. W. Mapes located a Mexican War land
warrant on adjoining laud. W. B., J. A. and C. W. Mapes had also
Mexican War land warrants.

In 1860 J. W. Mapes sold his farm and returned to New York, enlisted
in the One Hundred and First Pennsylvania Volunteers, and served
through the Peninsular Campaign under McClellan, and afterward in
North Carolina, where he was captured at Plymouth, April 23, 1864, and
taken to Andersonville, where he died, June 30, 1864. W. B. Mapes sold
his farm to Chas. Davies and removed to Macon county, Mississippi, in
1866, at which place he died in 1877. His widow and five children
still reside there. C. W. Mapes sold his farm to G. I. Ap Roberts, and
kept store for awhile in the village, and in 1879 removed to Sussex
county, Virginia, where he still resides. He has four children living.
Jas. A. Mapes still resides on the old homestead. Mr. Mapes was
honored with an election to the office of treasurer for St. Croix
county in 1883 and 1884.


PLEASANT VALLEY.

Pleasant Valley includes the west half of township 28, range 17. It is
drained by the headwaters of the Kinnikinic. The first settlement was
made Sept. 19, 1856. Among the first settlers were Sheldon Gray, Asa
Gray, S. W. Mattison, and Allen Webster. The town was organized March
30, 1857, with Peleg Burdick as chairman of supervisors. The first
school was taught in 1857, by Miss Mary Munson. A post office was
established in 1866 with Peter Hawkins as postmaster.


RICHMOND.

Richmond is a rich agricultural township, consisting chiefly of
undulating prairie land. It is included in township 30, range 18.
Willow river flows diagonally through it from northeast to southwest.
The following persons settled within the present limits of the town
prior to 1855: Eben Quinby, Lewis Oaks, James Taylor, Harvey Law,
Norman Hooper, J. J. Smith, A. S. Kinnie, W. R. Anderson, Francis
Kelly, Clinton Boardman, S. L. Beebe, the Beal brothers, E. P. Jacobs
and E. W. Darnley.

The town of Richmond was organized in 1857, with the following
officers: Supervisors, Robert Philbrick, chairman; C. A. Boardman and
Harvey Law; clerk, W. M. Densmore; assessor, W. R. Anderson;
treasurer, G. W. Law. The first post office was established at the
house of Joel Bartlett, who served as postmaster. This post office was
known as the Richmond post office. It was a small affair. The first
mail, brought on a mule's back from Maiden Rock, contained but one
letter. The first quarter's commission amounted to but one dollar and
fifty-nine cents. The post office case contained but four boxes, five
by six inches in size. This case is preserved at the _Republican_
office, as an interesting relic. Small as was the office, and meagre
as were the receipts, the postmaster was able to employ a deputy, F.
W. Bartlett. By way of agreeable contrast we give the commission for
the first quarter of 1886 as $674.89.


BOARDMAN VILLAGE

Is located on the east bank of Willow river and near the western
boundary of Richmond. It is a flourishing village. Its public
buildings are a Methodist church and a large school house. Boardman
has a good flour mill. Everything in the village bespeaks enterprise
and thrift.


GRIDLEY VILLAGE

Was platted by Gridley & Day in 1857, and, together with Fremont
village, platted by Henry Russell, was incorporated in the village of


NEW RICHMOND

in 1878. The first officers of the new village were: President, F. W.
Bartlett; trustees, B. C. B. Foster, Wellington Pierce, Thos. Porter,
Peter Schore, S. M. Bixby, Geo. C. Hough.


NEW RICHMOND CITY

Was incorporated in 1884. It includes the northwest quarter of section
2 and the northeast quarter of section 3 of township 30, range 18, and
the south half of section 36, township 31, range 18. This latter half
section originally belonged to Star Prairie, but is now attached to
New Richmond. The first election was held April 8, 1884, at which the
following officers were elected: President, Ward S. Williams;
aldermen, First ward, F. W. Bartlett, Geo. A. Gault, Th. Gaskell;
Second ward, A. L. Greaton, A. H. Stevens, J. C. Sabine; Third ward,
John Halversen, D. H. Dodge, H. F. Fall; treasurer, L. Taft; clerk, W.
F. McNally; assessor, D. A. Kennedy.

The city is beautifully located on a level prairie. The streets are
from eighty to one hundred feet wide and bordered with maple, elm and
boxwood trees. The city lots and grounds attached to the residences
are beautifully adorned with shrubbery and flowers and are without
fences. The commons and unoccupied spaces in the city are covered
with a luxuriant growth of white and red clover, filling the air with
its pleasant odor, and suggesting the title of "Clover City." It has
many fine business buildings and tasteful residences. It is in the
midst of a fine farming country, on the banks of a beautiful stream,
Willow river, and two railroads, the North Wisconsin and Wisconsin
Central, furnish abundant means of communication with the outer world.
It has one steam saw mill with a capacity of 60,000 feet per day, and
a water power flour mill with a capacity of one hundred barrels per
day.

The Bank of New Richmond was organized in 1878, with a paid up capital
of $35,000. In 1885 the bank did a business of about $8,000,000. The
bank had a surplus in 1886 of $9,000. It has an extensive agency in
flour, wheat and other agricultural products, also in lumber and real
estate. The officers are: President, F. W. Bartlett; vice president,
Mathias Frisk; cashier, John W. McCoy. The annual business of the city
amounts to $12,000,000.

The city has a high school, established in 1884, with six departments.
The building cost $12,000. The Baptists, Catholics,
Congregationalists, Episcopalians, and Methodists have church
buildings.

There are several fraternities here, including the Masonic, the Odd
Fellows, Good Templars, Women's Christian Temperance Union and
Catholic Knights of St. John. There are also a hook and ladder company
and a library association. There are two cemeteries, one belonging to
the masonic order.


BIOGRAPHICAL.

BENJAMIN B. C. FOSTER was born in New Portland, Maine, in 1816. When
seventeen years of age he bought his time of his father and commenced
life for himself. He lived eight years in Atkinson, Maine, where he
taught school and engaged in farming. In 1842 he was married to
Charlotte S. Gilman. In 1852 he went to California where he remained
three years. He came to New Richmond in 1855 and built a saw mill and
dam, and a board shanty in which he lived with his wife and two
children. Around the mill has since grown up the beautiful city of New
Richmond. The first school taught in New Richmond was taught at the
house of Mr. Foster by Amanda Dayton. In his house was organized the
first Sunday-school, the first sermon was preached in it and the first
school meeting was held there.

ROBERT PHILBRICK was born in Old Town, Maine, in 1814. He learned the
trade of a millwright, and in 1847 moved to North Hudson. He was
married in 1851 to Frances Cook. They stood on a raft, afloat in the
St. Croix river, just below the Falls, while Ansel Smith, of Taylor's
Falls, performed the ceremony. Mr. Philbrick removed to New Richmond
and built a frame house in 1855. The house is still standing. One
daughter of Mr. Philbrick is the wife of D. L. Nye. Amaziah, a son by
his first wife, is a stonemason. Alice M., daughter by his first wife,
is married to John McGregor. Mr. Philbrick died prior to 1865.

LINDEN COOMBS came to New Richmond in 1855, built the first hotel in
1856, and some years later moved away.

EBEN QUINBY was born in Lisbon, New Hampshire, in 1809, and came to
New Richmond in 1849, where he has since continuously been engaged in
farming. In 1865 he was married to Mrs. Philbrick, widow of Robert
Philbrick.

LEWIS OAKS was born in Sangerville, Maine, in 1826; came West in 1846
and to New Richmond in 1854. He is a farmer.

HENRY RUSSELL was born in Vermont in 1801. His ancestors took part in
the Revolution. He was married in Vermont, lived seventeen years in
New York, came to Hudson in 1853, and to New Richmond in 1857, where
he bought the pre-emption made by Robert Philbrick, and had it
surveyed and platted as the village of Fremont. He died in 1878. Mrs.
Russell survives him and is now (1886) eighty-five years of age. Their
sons Alexander and Austin are prominent citizens of New Richmond.

JOSEPH D. JOHNSON was born in Huron county, Ohio, May 12, 1829. From
eight years of age he was thrown upon his own resources. The greater
part of his youth was spent in Michigan. In 1848 he removed to
Winnebago, Illinois, where he married Marcella L. Russell. He settled
at New Richmond in 1853. One son, Ezra O., is editor of the
_Northwestern News_, at Hayward, Wisconsin, and one daughter is
married to Frank F. Bigelow.

JOEL BARTLETT was born in Hebron, Maine, in 1804. He received an
academic education and became a teacher. He was principal of a high
school in Bath, Maine, before he was twenty-one years of age. In 1825
he went to Harmony, Maine, where he was engaged in lumbering until
1848. In 1830 he was a member of the Maine legislature; in 1849 and
1850 he followed lumbering in Fairfield, Maine, and then removed to
New York where he lived six years. In 1858 he came to New Richmond,
where he has since led an active business life. Mr. Bartlett was
married in Maine in 1826. One of his sons, J. A., is a Presbyterian
clergyman in Centreville, Iowa. He graduated at Waterville College,
Maine, and practiced law three years in New York City before entering
the ministry.

FRANCIS W. BARTLETT, the second son of Joel Bartlett, was born in
Maine in 1837. He received an academic education, and has been an
active and successful business man. He came to New Richmond in 1858,
and served as register of the land office at Bayfield from 1861 to
1867. He was married in 1867 to Mary J. Stewart, of Pennsylvania. He
was engaged in the coal trade in Milwaukee three years, and two years
at Detroit and Toledo, but returned to New Richmond and is now
president of the New Richmond Bank, and dealer in furniture, hardware,
etc.

GEORGE C. HOUGH was born in Fairfax county, Virginia, in ----. He has
led a somewhat adventurous life. He served awhile as a soldier in the
Black Hawk War under Gen. Dodge. Afterward he went to Missouri,
graduated at the State University, and engaged in lead mining and
prospecting. He went to California in 1862, where he practiced law. He
returned in 1876, and located in Richmond where he still resides.

SILAS STAPLES was born in Lisbon, Maine, Sept. 18, 1814. He came to
Hudson, Wisconsin, in 1854, took charge of the Willow River mills,
buying a quarter interest at $20,000, including 5,000 acres of land on
Willow river. In 1856 he sold his interest to Jewell and Bodie, of
Maine, for $55,000, and for three years carried on a banking business
in Hudson. In the winter of 1859-60 he removed to New Richmond. In
1861 he returned to Hudson and put up a shingle and lath addition to
his saw mill. He built a flouring mill at New Richmond in 1864. He
built large dams on Willow river for driving logs, and carried on
lumbering operations until 1868, when he removed to Canada and carried
on milling and lumbering enterprises four years, at Collins' Inlet,
Georgian bay. In 1872 he returned to Hudson and to a farm, and was
also engaged with Mr. Gibson in mercantile business. In 1873 he
returned to New Richmond, and, buying a half interest in the mill,
took charge of it for one year, then removed to Stillwater and took
charge of his brother's (Isaac Staples) saw mill.

In 1875 he removed to Elk River, Minnesota, and took charge of a farm.
The next year he returned to New Richmond, where he settled his family
and bought a half interest in a saw and grist mill at Jeweltown. He
also built an elevator there with a capacity of 20,000 bushels.

Mr. Staples was married in 1837 to Hannah Williams, of Bowdoinham,
Maine, who died in 1838. He was married in 1841 to Abigail Ann Rogers
of Oldtown, Maine, who died in the spring of 1845. He was married in
the fall of 1846 to Nancy D. Gilman, who died in 1873. He was married
to Mrs. Nancy B. Jamison in the fall of 1874. He has six children,
Charles A., Silas G., Nellie B., Nettie, Edward P, and Lizzie G.

HENRY M. MURDOCK.--Dr. Murdock was born at Antwerp, New York, in
October, 1823. His father, Dr. Hiram Murdock, moved to Gunning, at
which place the son attended school till he was fifteen years of age.
The father moved to Pulaski, New York. Henry studied medicine with his
father until he was nineteen years of age, then attended medical
lectures at Castleton, Virginia, where he graduated at the age of
twenty-one. After practicing three years at Dexter, and after a
co-partnership of seven years with his father in a drug store at
Pulaski, he came West and settled in Stillwater, where he bought the
drug store and business of Dr. Carli. In 1858 he went to Taylor's
Falls and practiced medicine until the spring of 1860, when he removed
to Hudson and formed a partnership with Dr. Hoyt. In the fall of 1861
he accepted the position of assistant surgeon of the Eighth Wisconsin,
and served during the war, having been promoted meanwhile to the
position of brigade surgeon. In 1866 he removed to New Richmond, where
he has since resided, having now retired from business. He was twice
married, in 1845 to Cornelia A. Sandford, who died childless, and in
1865 to Sarah J. Allan. His children are Cornelia A. and Henry A.

STEVEN N. HAWKINS was born in Galway, Ireland, Dec. 26, 1846, but
while he was a mere child his parents emigrated to America; remained a
few years in Connecticut; came West in 1855, and made their home in
Pleasant Valley, St. Croix county. His early life was marked by the
usual vicissitudes of life in a new country. He tried for a time
various occupations--farm work, rafting, sawing lumber, teaching, and,
during the later months of the war, was a volunteer soldier. He
managed to secure a good education in the common schools and at the
River Falls Academy. He studied medicine and surgery a few months, but
devoted himself chiefly to teaching until 1872, when he engaged in a
mercantile enterprise at which he continued four years, but at the
close of that period found himself obliged to suspend, with an
aggregate of $5,000 against him. This he afterward paid, but he
concluded, perhaps wisely, to change his occupation. He studied law,
and was admitted to the bar, July, 1876. In this profession he has
achieved an enviable success. In 1872 he was married to Margaret
Early, of Alleghany county, New York. They have had four children, the
first of which died in infancy.


RUSH RIVER

Occupies the east half of township 28, range 17. The first settlement
was made in 1850. The following came in 1850-51: Daniel McCartney,
Amos Babcock, Joseph King, Stephen Claggitt and Z. Travis. The town
was set off from Kinnikinic and organized in 1851, with Daniel
McCartney as chairman of the board of supervisors. At his house was
held the first election.

Woodside has one church and several buildings, is near the centre of
the town, and New Centreville in the southern part. The date of
settlement is second to that of Hudson. It was traversed by the old
Hudson and Prairie du Chien stage route. It was originally a mixed
timber and prairie district.


SOMERSET

Occupies sections 1 to 18, inclusive, of township 30, range 19, two
sections of township 30, range 20, and all of township 31, range 19,
lying east of the St. Croix river. The surface is generally
undulating, but along the St. Croix and Apple rivers abrupt and hilly.
The first settlers were French colonists at Apple River Falls in 1851.
They built a school house and Catholic church upon the bluffs below
the falls. The latter is a conspicuous object as seen from the St.
Croix river. The falls of Apple river, about one and a half miles
above its junction with the St. Croix, is one of the finest of the
Wisconsin waterfalls. Apple river traverses the county from northeast
to southwest. The Wisconsin Central railroad crosses the southern
part. The town of Somerset was organized Sept. 19, 1856, with Thomas
J. Chappell as chairman of supervisors. Mr. Chappell was also
appointed postmaster in 1854 at Apple River Falls.


SOMERSET VILLAGE,

Located about three miles above the Falls, has a good improved water
power, a flour mill with a capacity of one hundred and fifty barrels
per day, and a saw mill, built and owned by Gen. Sam Harriman, the
founder of the village. In 1856 a church and school house were erected
at a cost of about $12,000.

SAMUEL HARRIMAN.--Gen. Harriman was born in Orland, Maine. He spent
four years in California, engaged in mining and lumbering, and dug the
second canal in the State for sluicing purposes. He came to Somerset
in 1859, and has ever since made it his residence. He is one of the
founders and platters of the village, and built most of the houses,
including the hotel and two stores on the east side of Apple river,
and all the dwelling houses on the west side. He has been remarkably
successful in the various pursuits to which he has turned his
attention, and may well be considered a man of remarkable executive
ability. He has a farm of five hundred and fifty-five acres, and his
agricultural and stock products are second to none. As a lumberman he
has cut 3,000,000 feet per year. He has a rotary saw mill with a
planing, lath and shingle mill attached, and under the same roof he
has a flouring mill and six run of stone; he has a large store in
which he keeps a general stock of merchandise; he has also a cooper
shop, where he makes his own barrels, a warehouse and a blacksmith
shop. He has also an excellent stone quarry on his premises.

We look in vain for his name in the Wisconsin blue book, or among the
list of office holders. He has been too busy to turn aside in quest of
political preferment. We believe, however, that he was commissioned as
notary public by Govs. Taylor and Smith. When men were needed for the
defense of the country he left his interests to enlist as a private.
His military record is brilliant. He enlisted in Company A, Thirtieth
Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, June 10, 1862, was made captain on the
organization of the company, which position he held till Feb. 16,
1864, when he was commissioned colonel of the Thirty-seventh
Wisconsin Infantry. This regiment was recruited by Col. Harriman, he
having been commissioned for that purpose. Its services on many a hard
fought field, and especially about Petersburg, is a matter of well
known history. Its most memorable action occurred on the thirtieth of
July, just after the explosion of the mine under the enemy's fort.
Col. Harriman, with the Thirty-seventh Wisconsin, was ordered to
occupy the dismantled fort, which he did under a heavy fire, and the
walls had been so leveled as to afford but slight protection from the
enemy's batteries. While in possession they repelled all attempts to
dislodge them until four o'clock the next morning, when, receiving no
support, the Thirty-seventh Regiment,

    "All that was left of them,"

fell back to the line. At roll call that evening, of two hundred and
fifty men that answered to their names before the action, only
ninety-five responded. The remnant of the regiment was attached to a
new brigade, of which Col. Harriman was commissioned commander. On the
tenth of September, the war having ended, the tattered flag of the
Thirty-seventh was returned to the governor of the State and Brig.
Gen. Harriman returned to private life and his business enterprises.

The general is a genial, kind hearted man, fond of a good joke and
story, even though they are at his own expense. He narrates of
himself, that when mustered out of the service at Washington he was
addressed as _General_ Harriman; on his way home he was saluted as
_colonel_; when nearing Wisconsin, he was hailed as _major;_ in the
State, as _captain_; in St. Croix county and at home as Mr. Harriman;
when met by the boys, they greeted him with "_Hello, Sam._"


ST. JOSEPH

Includes the three lower tiers of sections of township 30, range 19,
fractions of range 20, and the six upper sections of township 29,
range 19. Willow river traverses the southeast corner. The surface
varies from undulating to hilly. In the eastern part of the town is
Balsam lake, a picturesque body of water two miles in length. There
are also two high elevations of land, or ridges, that serve as
conspicuous landmarks. The earliest settlers came in 1850, and located
on farms in different parts of the town. St. Joseph was organized in
1858. The North Wisconsin railroad passes through the southeast corner
of the town.


HOULTON.

Opposite Stillwater, on the shore of the lake, is a platted village
known as Houlton, which has improved much during the last few years.
J. S. Anderson & Co. built a large saw mill at this place, which has
changed ownership several times. The residences of the village are on
the high bluffs overlooking the lake, and commanding from a point two
hundred feet above the level of the water a most magnificent view,
including Stillwater, Hudson and Lakeland.


BURKHARDT VILLAGE

Is situated upon Willow river, just above the Falls. Joseph Bowron and
others built a mill here in 1851. The mill property changed hands many
times, and finally passed into the hands of Burkhardt. In March, 1887,
the mill was consumed, with a loss to Mr. Burkhardt of $100,000, an
immense loss, representing the earnings of a lifetime; but with
tireless energy Mr. Burkhardt went to work rebuilding, and, it is to
be hoped, will soon re-establish his thriving business. There is one
church near Burkhardt.


SPRINGFIELD,

At its organization in 1860, embraced its own territory and that of
Baldwin, set off in 1872. It now includes township 29, range 15. It
was originally covered with pine and hardwood timber. Within the last
few years it has been improved and much of the timber land is used for
farming. It is drained by the headwaters and tributaries of Rush and
Menomonie rivers. The West Wisconsin railroad passes through the
southern tier of sections, and a branch road, leading southward into a
pine district, has a junction at Hersey. Most of the early settlers
were Union soldiers. Among them were S. T. Adams, Thomas Ross, Isaac
Burgitt and Capt. Rogers. Springfield was organized Nov. 15, 1860,
with J. R. Ismon as chairman, and Perrin and Hall as supervisors.


HERSEY.

The village of Hersey, located on section 28, is a station on the West
Wisconsin and branch railroad, has a lumber mill, and is a flourishing
village.


WILSON VILLAGE,

Section 35, is also a station on the West Wisconsin road, and an
important manufacturing place. The village is owned and controlled by
the Wilson Manufacturing Company, which has a capital stock of
$150,000. There is one church in the village.


STANTON

Was set off from Star Prairie and organized Dec. 30, 1870, with
Trueworthy Jewell as chairman of supervisors. It is a rich prairie
town, well drained by the waters of Apple and Willow rivers, and well
cultivated. The North Wisconsin railroad passes southwest to northeast
through this town. Star Prairie village lies partly in this town and
partly in the town of Star Prairie. There are two church buildings in
the town of Stanton.


STAR PRAIRIE,

Township 31, range 18, was organized Jan. 28, 1856. At its
organization it included township 31, ranges 17 and 18, and north half
of township 30, ranges 17 and 18. The first election was held at the
house of B. C. B. Foster, in New Richmond. Apple river flows through
the town from northeast to southwest. Cedar lake, in the northeast
part, furnishes at its outlet a good water power. Among the first
settlers were the Jewell brothers, Ridder and sons.


HUNTINGTON VILLAGE

Is located near the outlet of Cedar lake and on the stream by which
the waters of the lake are borne to Apple river. It has a large
flouring mill.


STAR PRAIRIE VILLAGE,

Lying partially in sections 1 and 12 and partially in Stanton, has a
saw and flouring mill, a hotel, a school house and two churches, with
some fine residences.

HON. R. K. FAY, born in 1822, came from New York to Wisconsin in 1849,
locating at Princeton, where he resided for nine years, most of the
time engaged as the principal of the high school at that place. He was
a man of sterling character, who is remembered as an able teacher and
public spirited citizen. He has been assemblyman from Adams and St.
Croix counties, and a county superintendent of schools, and has taught
school forty-nine terms. When a member from St. Croix county, he
introduced the bill requiring the constitutions of the United States
and of Wisconsin to be taught in the common schools. He died at his
home in Star Prairie, Jan 5, 1888. Five sons and five daughters
survive him. His wife died about three years ago.


TROY,

Township 28, range 19, and fractional township 28, range 19,
consisting of about three sections, lying along the shore of Lake St.
Croix, has a fine frontage of bluffs overlooking the lake, with rich,
level prairie lands stretching away eastward. The Kinnikinic river
flows through the southeast corner of the township. It was organized
in 1851 as Malone, the name having been chosen by the Perrin brothers,
who came from Malone, New York, in 1851. The name, some years later,
was changed to Troy. The Hudson & Ellsworth railroad passes diagonally
through the township from northwest to southeast.

The village of Glenmont, section 25, township 28, range 20, lies on
the shore of Lake St. Croix. It contains a large saw mill, built by
the Lord brothers. It has since changed hands.

The village of East Troy, in section 36, has recently been annexed by
legislative enactment to the city of River Falls.

JAMES CHINNOCK, the first settler in Troy, was born in Somersetshire,
England, in 1810. He officiated twelve years at Bristol Harbor,
England, as superintendent of docks and vessels. He was married in
England to Harriet Owens; came to America in 1841, lived in Ohio until
1850, when he came to Hudson and immediately located a claim within
the present limits of Troy. He raised the first crop in the town, and
built the first house, of stone, for greater protection from the
Indians. Mr. Chinnock made his home upon this farm until his death in
1870. He left a widow and four sons, three of them farmers in Troy.
One son, James T., has been register of deeds for St. Croix county
from 1885 to 1888.

WILLIAM LEWIS PERRIN was born in 1825, and with his brother came to
Troy in 1851, where he has since lived. He has been a successful
farmer and public spirited citizen, and has filled offices in the town
organization. He was married in 1855 to Julia F. Loring. They have
three sons and one daughter.


WARREN,

Township 29, range 18, is a rich prairie town, drained by the
tributaries of Kinnikinic and Willow river. George Longworth and
family, of Waukegan, Illinois, settled here in October, 1855. In the
year following, Lyman and David Sanford, brothers, came from Ohio, and
made their home here. Mr. Longworth, in 1856, broke the first ground
on land now within the limits of Hudson. Henry M. Sanford came in the
spring of 1857.

Warren was organized as a town in 1860, with the following
supervisors: Beach Sanford, George Frissell and Seth Colbeth; L. J.
Sanford, clerk. A post office was established in 1860, and Mrs. Beach
Sanford was appointed postmistress, at Warren village, now Roberts.
The village of Roberts is located on the West Wisconsin railroad,
which traverses sections 19 to 24, inclusive, of this town. It
contains one elevator, one storage house, one feed mill, one cheese
factory, one machine shop, one syrup mill, several stores and shops,
one hotel, one school house, one public hall, and one church building
belonging to the Congregationalists.

No intoxicants are sold in the village. The first school was taught in
1859, by Jane Sanford.

JAMES HILL was born in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, Feb. 15, 1825, and
settled in Warren, St. Croix county, in 1863, where he engaged in
farming and dealing in grain. He represented St. Croix county in the
Wisconsin assembly of 1878-79-80.


TOWN PLATS LOCATED IN ST. CROIX COUNTY.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 NAME OF       | TOWN       | DATE OF PLAT. |  SURVEYOR.     | PROPRIETORS.
 VILLAGE.      | LOCATION.  |               |                |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Buena Vista    |Hudson      | In 1849       | Harvey Wilson  |Louis Massey &
               |            |               |                |  Co.
New Centreville|Rush River  | Mch. 26, 1856 | Geo. Strong    |Daniel
               |            |               |                | McCartney.
Hammond        |Hammond     | July 15, 1856 | A. W. Miller   |Hammond &
               |            |               |                |  Spaulding.
De Soto        |Hudson      | Aug. 15, 1857 |                |Aptemards
               |            |               |                |  Burkhart.
Somerset       |Somerset    | Aug. 28, 1857 |Geo. Strong     |Harriman & Reed.
Glenmont       |Troy        | Jan. 5, 1858  |C. N. Bates     |M. Bank, Lake
               |            |               |                |  St. Cx.
Huntington     |Star Prairie| Sept. 24, 1858|E. W. McClure   |John Brown.
Gridley, New}  |            |               |                |
Richmond and}  |Richmond    | 1857          |                |Gridley & Day.
Fremont     }  |            |               |                |
Troy           |Troy        | Dec. 29, 1859 |J. A. Short     |Cox & Powell.
Boardman       |Richmond    | July 5, 1866  |W. R. Anderson  |Beebe &
               |            |               |                |  Boardman.
Star Prairie   |Star Prairie| June 15, 1870 |John McClure    |Simonds &
               |            |               |                |  Millard.
Baldwin        |Baldwin     | Mch. 14, 1873 |H. J. Baldwin   |D. R. Bailey.
Roberts        |Warren      | Jan. 4, 1875  |Geo. Strong     |Comstock, Platt
               |            |               |                |  & Co.
Deer Park      |Cylon       | Jan. 25, 1879 |J. W. Remmington|J. A. Humbird.
New Saratoga}  |            |               |                |
  Springs   }  |Stanton     | Sept. 17, 1878|John McClure    |A. P. Muggey.
Hersey         |Springfield | Dec. 24, 1880 |Geo. Strong     |L. T. Adams.
Cylon          |Cylon       | Sept. 16, 1884|Alfred Pierce   |Beebe &
               |            |               |                |  McNarama.
Emerald        |Emerald     | July 13, 1885 |Alfred Pierce   |Hurd Brothers.
Glenwood       |Glenwood    | Jan. 2, 1886  |H. J. Baldwin   |Glenwood Manf.
               |            |               |                |  Co.
Wilson         |Springfield | 1886          |                |West Wis. Manf.
               |            |               |                |  Co.
Woodville      |Baldwin     | 1886          |                |Woodville Lumber
               |            |               |                |  Co.
Wildwood       |Eau Galle   | 1886          |                |St. Cx. L. &
               |            |               |                |  Manf. Co.
Brookville     |Eau Galle   | 1886          |                |Wood & Decker.
Houlton        |St. Joseph  | Not recorded  |                |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------



CHAPTER VII.

PIERCE COUNTY.


This county, named in honor of President Pierce, was separated from
St. Croix county in 1853, and organized by the same act that created
Polk county, and gave to St. Croix its present limits. It contains
about six hundred square miles of territory, lying east of the
Mississippi river and Lake St. Croix. It is somewhat triangular in
shape, the river and lake forming the hypotenuse, and St. Croix, Dunn
and Pepin bounding it by right lines on the north and east, Pepin also
forming a small part of its southern boundary.

The scenery is picturesque and varied. Along the river and lake is a
series of limestone bluffs, broken at intervals by ravines and
valleys, and leaving the impression upon the mind of the traveler on
the Mississippi of a rough, broken and inhospitable country, than
which nothing could be further from the truth. Beyond these rugged
escarpments of limestone and out of sight of the traveler, the country
stretches away toward the interior as an undulating prairie, with
meadows and rich pasturelands, with occasional forests, the whole
watered and drained by an intricate network of streams tributary to
the lake and river, and the three larger streams, the Kinnikinic,
which empties into the St. Croix and Big rivers, Trimbelle and Rush,
that empty into the Mississippi. Some branches of the Chippewa also
take their rise in this county. These streams uniformly have their
source in springs and their waters are consequently pure, cold and
invigorating, flowing over beds of white sand or pebbles, and in their
downward course forming many ripples, rapids, cascades and some
beautiful waterfalls. Their total descent to the bed of the
Mississippi is about four hundred feet. Pierce county has no inland
lakes within its limits, nor any indications of their previous
existence. The soil is formed chiefly from decomposed rocks or ledges
worn down by the abrading forces of water and wind, of frost and heat.
The rivers in their downward course have excavated broad valleys,
having originally precipitous bluffs on either side, and even bluffs
once islands in the midst of the streams. These, by later agencies,
have been smoothed to gentle slopes and rounded into graceful mounds,
towering sometimes as much as eighty feet above the valley or plains.
In some places mere outlines of sandstone or limestone rock are left,
turret-like, on the summit of a mound, as monuments on which the
geologist may read the record of ages gone. As the character of the
soil of a country depends upon the composition of the rocks underlying
it, and those removed from the surface, reduced to soil and widely
distributed, we give what may be considered as the section of any one
of the mounds near Prescott in the order of the superposition of
strata:

    At the base--Lower magnesian limestone         250 feet.
    Above the plain--Upper sandstone                50 feet.
    On the summit--Trenton, or shell limestone      30 feet.

Over a great part of the county the Trenton and limestone are worn
almost entirely away, and their former existence is attested only by a
few mounds, bluffs and outlines. Drift is not often met with. The soil
may be considered as formed out of drift, now removed from its
original position, and out of the sandstone and limestone. It is,
therefore, soil of the richest quality.

By the same act that created the county of Pierce, passed March 14,
1853, Prescott was declared the county seat. The town board of
Prescott was constituted the county board. The commissioners were
Osborn Strahl, chairman; Silas Wright and Sylvester Moore. At the
first county election, Nov. 15, 1853, one hundred and ten votes were
cast. The following were the officers elected: County judge, W. J.
Copp; sheriff, N. S. Dunbar; treasurer, J. R. Freeman; clerk of court,
S. R. Gunn; clerk of board, Henry Teachout; coroner, J. Olive;
district attorney, P. V. Wise; surveyor, J. True; register of deeds,
J. M. Whipple. Mr. Whipple was authorized to transcribe the records of
St. Croix county up to date of the organization of Pierce.

The first assessment in the county, in 1853, amounted to $24,452. At
the meeting of the supervisors, Jan. 18, 1854, the district attorney
was allowed forty dollars per annum as salary. Courts were held
wherever suitable buildings could be obtained. During this year Judge
Wyram Knowlton, of Prairie du Chien, held the first district court at
Prescott. The first records of the court were kept on sheets of
foolscap paper, and fastened together with wafers. The first case
before the court was that of "The State of Wisconsin, Pierce County,
Wm. Woodruff _vs._ Chas. D. Stevens, August Lochmen, and Chas.
Peschke, in Court of said County. In Equity." On reading and filing
the bill in complaint, in this case, on motion of S. J. R. McMillan
and H. M. Lewis, solicitors for counsel, J. S. Foster, it was ordered
that a writ of injunction be issued in the case, pursuant to the
prayer of said bill, upon said complainant. Some one, in his behalf,
filed with the clerk of said court, a bond for damages and costs in
the sum of $1,700, with surety to be approved by the clerk or judge of
said court. The first document recorded in the county is an agreement
between Philander Prescott and Philip Aldrich, wherein Aldrich agrees
to occupy lands adjoining Prescott's, at the mouth of St. Croix lake
on the west, and David Hone on the east. The second document is a
deed, conveying a tract of three hundred and twenty acres of land from
Francis Chevalier to Joseph R. Brown, the land lying near the mouth of
Lake St. Croix, and marked by stakes planted in the ground, and
adjoining Francis Gamelle's claim, dated July 20, 1840.

In 1857 County Treasurer Ayers became a defaulter to the county in the
sum of $2,287.76, and to the Prescott Bank, $4,000. In 1861, by act of
the legislature, the question of changing the county seat from
Prescott to Ellsworth was submitted to the people. The vote as
declared was six hundred for removal and three hundred and
seventy-three against it. Technical objections having been raised as
to the legality of the vote, the subject was submitted to the people a
second time in 1862. The vote for removal was confirmed. In 1863 the
district system was adopted and three districts were established by
legislative enactment, but in 1870 the county returned to the original
system by which the board of supervisors was made to consist of a
chairman from each one of the town boards. A poor farm was established
near Ellsworth in 1869, at a cost of $3,600. The county board also
appropriated $31,000 for county buildings at Ellsworth.

The finances of the county have been admirably managed. In 1885 there
was no indebtedness, and a surplus in the treasury of $5,000. The
educational interests are well cared for. There are over one hundred
school districts in the county, with well conducted schools, and
generally with good substantial buildings. The school lands of St.
Croix, then including Pierce county, were appraised in 1852 by Dr.
Otis Hoyt, ---- Denniston and James Bailey, and the lands at once
offered for sale. Settlers' rights were respected. The county issued
$5,000 in bonds to aid in establishing the normal school at River
Falls.


RAILROADS.

River Falls has direct communication with Hudson by a branch of the
Chicago & St. Paul railroad. In 1885 the Burlington & Northern
railroad route was surveyed and established, entering the county on
the shore of Lake Pepin, and running nearly parallel with lake and
river to Prescott, where it crosses Lake St. Croix near its mouth, on
a bridge, the total length of which is 520.5 feet, with one draw span
367.5 feet in length, and one piled span of 153 feet. This bridge was
completed, and the first train entered Prescott, May 31, 1886. The
grade of this road does not exceed fifteen feet to the mile.


MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS.

The Grand Army of the Republic have posts at the following places:

    No. 72, A. W. Howard Post              Rock Elm.
    No. 117, I. M. Nichols Post            River Falls.
    No. 118, Ellsworth Post                Ellsworth.
    No. 189, R. P. Converse Post           Prescott.
    No. 204, U. S. Grant Post              Maiden Rock.
    No. 209, Plum City Post                Plum City.

The following are the village plats of Pierce county, with date of
survey and location:

Prescott, town of Prescott                                        1853
Kinnikinic, town of River Falls                                   1854
Monte Diamond (Diamond Bluff), town of Diamond Bluff              1854
Saratoga, town of Isabelle                                        1855
River Falls (Greenwood and Fremont), town of River Falls          1856
Maiden Rock, town of Maiden Rock                                  1856
Warren, town of Maiden Rock                                       1856
Trimbelle, town of Trimbelle                                      1856
Franklin, town of Trimbelle                                       1856
Martell (Rising Sun), town of Martell                             1856
Beldenville, town of Trimbelle                                    1857
Trenton, town of Trenton                                          1857
Plum City, town of Union                                          1858
El Paso, town of El Paso                                          1858
Esdaile, town of Hartland                                         1870
Rock Elm, town of Rock Elm Centre                                 1876
Hogan, town of Trenton                                            1886
Bay City, town of Isabelle                                        1887


ORGANIZATION OF TOWNS.

The following is the chronological order in which the towns of Pierce
county were organized:

Prescott[B].                                                      1853
Greenwood (now River Falls)                                       1854
Martell                                                           1854
Isabelle                                                          1855
Trimbelle                                                         1855
Diamond Bluff                                                     1855
Clifton                                                           1855
Oak Grove                                                         1856
Perry (Ellsworth)                                                 1856
Spring Valley (Maiden Rock)                                       1857
Trenton                                                           1857
El Paso                                                           1858
Hartland                                                          1859
Union                                                             1861
Salem                                                             1862
Rock Elm                                                          1862
Deerfield (Gilman)                                                1868
Spring Lake                                                       1868


CLIFTON,

Situated in the northwestern part of the county, contains a little
over thirty full sections of land, those on the St. Croix having a
somewhat irregular boundary. The surface is somewhat broken where
traversed by the Kinnikinic and its tributaries. It includes
twenty-four sections on the west side of township 27, range 19, and
fractional township 27, range 20. It was established in 1855. Its
first board of officers were: Supervisors--Geo. W. McMurphy, chairman;
Osborne Strahl and G. W. Teachout. C. B. Cox was the first postmaster,
in 1852, at a place called Clifton Mills, from which the town
afterward derived its name. This post town is situated on the
Kinnikinic, in section 18, township 27, range 18 west. It has one
grist mill and two saw mills, belonging to Cox, King & Goodsall. No
intoxicants are sold here. The Glenwood saw mills, having a capacity
of 3,000,000 feet, are located on the lake shore. In 1868 a limestone
quarry was opened on the lake shore, by Oakley & Nichols. In 1881 the
firm became Oakley & Hall. They have a patent kiln and good machinery,
and some seasons have manufactured as much as 5,000 barrels of lime.

GEORGE W. MCMURPHY was born at Newcastle, Delaware, in 1821. In 1845
he came to St. Croix Falls, and in 1848 to Clifton, where he
pre-empted the beautiful homestead which he still holds, and where he
has successfully followed the business of farming. He has been
repeatedly elected to town and county offices. In 1848 he was married
to Maria A. Rice. Their children are Augustus (resident of St. Paul),
George (a physician living in Ortonville, Minnesota), James A.,
Robert, Albert and Edward, and two married daughters. Mr. McMurphy is
a member of the Congregational church.

OSBORNE STRAHL was born in Belmont county, Ohio, in 1818; came to
Galena, Illinois, in 1838, in 1845 to Mauston and Stevens Point,
Wisconsin, and to Chippewa Falls in 1847. During these years he
followed lumbering. In 1850 he came to the town of Elisabeth, St.
Croix county, which on subsequent division of towns and counties left
Mr. Strahl in Clifton, where he has been engaged in farming. He was
married in 1860 to Rebecca McDonald. They have two sons, Wm. Day,
living in Dakota, Howard P., in River Falls; three daughters, Mabel,
wife of Joseph M. Smith, banker at River Falls, and two daughters
unmarried. Mr. Strahl filled various town and county offices.

CHARLES B. COX was born June 25, 1810, in Chenango county, New York.
He learned the trade of a miller, lived in Ohio seventeen years and
came to Clifton in 1849. He built at Clifton the first saw and grist
mill in the Kinnikinic valley, in 1850. He changed his residence to
River Falls in 1854, where he lived till 1874, when he removed to
California. During the year 1851 he ground three hundred bushels of
wheat, the sole product of the valley.

EPHRAIM HARNSBERGER was born in Kentucky, Nov. 21, 1824, moved with
his parents to Illinois in 1832, and to Prescott in 1847, where he
pre-empted a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres. He was married
at Alton, Illinois, in 1858, to Lizzie Johnson. Their children are
Charles, Sarah Etta, and Jennie.


DIAMOND BLUFF

Is a triangular shaped town, the hypotenuse being formed by the
Mississippi river. It contains ten sections and three fractional
sections in town 25, range 18, and five sections and five fractional
sections in town 25, range 19. It is traversed in the eastern part by
Trimbelle river. The town was established in 1857, and the first town
meeting was held that year at the home of David Comstock. The town
board consisted of: Supervisors--James Akers, chairman; Wilson Thing
and C. F. Hoyt; justice, S. Hunter. Susan Rogers taught the first
school. This town has the honor of claiming the first white settler,
aside from traders, in the Upper Mississippi valley. He came to the
site of the present village of Diamond Bluff in 1800, and named it
Monte Diamond. We give elsewhere a somewhat extended account of this
ancient pioneer, with some speculations concerning him and his
descendants that are plausible enough to warrant their insertion. In
historic times a post office was established here in 1854, called at
the time, Hoytstown, from C.F. Hoyt, the first postmaster.

On the organization of the town the name was changed to Diamond Bluff.
Quite a village has since grown up around it. The first frame house
was built in 1855, by Enoch Quinby. The first sermon was preached by
Rev. J. W. Hancock, a Presbyterian minister, for some years a
missionary among the Indians. The first birth was that of Mary Day, in
1851, and the first death that of Daniel Crappers, in 1854.

CAPT. JOHN PAINE.--Jack Paine, as he is familiarly called, was born in
England, and for the greater part of his life has been a seafaring
man. For the past thirty years he has been a steamboat man on the
Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri rivers. He has been married three
times: first in Rhode Island, second to Mrs. La Blond, of St. Louis,
and last to Miss Ressue, of Diamond Bluff. He came to Diamond Bluff in
1848, with four children of his first wife, his second wife having
died childless. He is now living with his third wife in La Crosse.
They have three children.

JOHN DAY was born in Martinsburg, Virginia. In 1850 he and his wife
and three children, with Allen B. Wilson and his wife, came to Diamond
Bluff. Mr. Day is well known as a fearless and enthusiastic hunter. In
1852 he had a close encounter with a large black bear, which, after a
desperate struggle, he killed with an axe. The Indians considered Mr.
Day as "waukon," supernatural, averring that their bravest warriors
would not have attacked singly so large an animal.

SARAH A. VANCE, the wife of Mr. Day, was born in Kentucky. The Vance
family were famous pioneers, and some of them were noted Methodist
preachers. Miss Vance's first marriage was to John R. Shores, by whom
she had two children, one of whom, Isabella, became the wife of A. R.
Wilson.

ALLEN R. WILSON.--Mr. Wilson was born in Kentucky; spent his early
boyhood in Shawneetown, Illinois; was married to Miss Shores at
Potosi, Wisconsin, April 16, 1848, and in 1850 came to Diamond Bluff.
Mr. Wilson took great interest in politics, was an ardent Republican,
and was among the first to volunteer his services for the suppression
of the Rebellion in 1861. He enlisted in Company B, Sixth Regiment,
Wisconsin Volunteers, and fell in battle, Sept. 14, 1862, at South
Mountain. Mr. Wilson was well informed, a close observer of political
events at home and abroad, and was a brave and efficient soldier. He
left five children.

E. S. COULTER.--Mr. Coulter is a Virginian by birth. In early manhood
he traveled extensively as a book agent, and finally settled at
Diamond Bluff, where he successfully engaged in farming and dealing in
wheat and merchandise.

JAMES BAMBER, ex-musician in the British and United States armies.

JACOB MEAD, ex-shoemaker, ex-soldier and miner, a man of superior
natural and acquired talent.

CHARLES WALBRIDGE came to Diamond Bluff in 1852.

JACOB MEAD died in 1884, leaving a large property.

CHARLES F. HOYT, with his wife and one child, came to Diamond Bluff
from Illinois, in 1853.

ENOCH QUINBY was born at Sandwich, New Hampshire; was married to
Matilda Leighton, originally from Athens, Maine. Mr. Quinby and his
wife came from Pittsfield, Illinois, to Diamond Bluff in 1854.


THE FIRST SETTLER.

There is a pretty well grounded tradition that the first white man who
found his way to Diamond Bluff was a French Vendean loyalist of the
army of Jacques Cathelineau; that he fled from France in 1793 or 1794,
landed at Quebec, and was traced by his enemies to Mackinaw and
Chicago, where they lost his trail. He came to Diamond Bluff in 1800,
and named it "Monte Diamond." He had for his housekeeper the daughter
of an Indian chief. He died here about 1824. After his death the
Indians always called the place the "Old White Man's Prairie." E.
Quinby, of Diamond Bluff, to whom we are indebted for this account,
adds: "All the additional evidence I can give in regard to this
pioneer is that prior to 1793 his wife died, leaving him one daughter,
who was deformed. A former friend of his had a beautiful daughter of
about the same age of his own. After the uprising and defeat of the
Vendeans, they became enemies, and he, to save his life, took his
former friend's daughter, instead of his own, and fled to this
country. The father pursued them as far as Chicago, where he saw his
daughter in company with some Indian girls, and having on her person
some ornaments once worn by her mother. He at once seized her and
carried her back with him to France, and the old Frenchman found his
way to Diamond Bluff." Faribault's son,[C] now living somewhere in
Minnesota, wrote me a few years since, inquiring about the old
Frenchman, saying that his grandmother claimed that her husband was a
French nobleman, and that he lived near Lake Pepin. He believed the
old Frenchman was his grandfather. The above statements were
communicated to the late Capt. Orin Smith, of Galena, Illinois, Allen
B. Wilson and myself, in 1854, or in 1855, by an old Frenchman then
residing at Potosi, Wisconsin, who claimed to have seen and gathered
these facts from the old man himself. Capt. Smith was well acquainted
with the Frenchman at Potosi, and gave the fullest credence to his
account.


EL PASO

Occupies township 26, range 16. It is drained chiefly by Rush river
and its tributary, Lost creek, on the west. The two post villages in
this town are, El Paso, located in section 5, and Lost Creek, in
section 3. George P. Walker was the first settler. He built the first
house and raised the first crop; Thomas T. Magee came in 1855. In 1860
the town was organized, Thomas Hurley and Geo. P. Walker being
supervisors. In 1862 Mr. Magee built a saw and flour mill in section
5, and platted the village of El Paso. In 1875 he removed to Clear
Lake, Polk county, of which town he was the first settler. Clara
Green taught the first school in El Paso, in 1861. There is one
Catholic and one Lutheran church in the village. The name El Paso
signifying a crossing, is of somewhat obscure derivation.


ELLSWORTH

Was organized under the name of Perry, March 3, 1857, but in 1862 it
received its present name. It occupies a central position in the
county and includes township 26, range 17. This is a rich farming
town, originally timbered with hardwood. The surface is elevated and
gently undulating. It is drained on the east by the tributaries of
Rush river, but has no large or important streams. The first
supervisors were: P. M. Simons, chairman; Caleb Bruce and Wilson
Kinnie. The first settler was Anthony Huddleston, who came April 23,
1856, and pre-empted the southeast quarter of section 20. On November
26th, of the same year, came Caleb, Elihu W. and Eli T. Bruce, who
pre-empted farms on sections 18 and 19. During the same year Wilson
and Norris Kinnie and David Klingensmith pre-empted farms in sections
18 and 19. Lilly, Miscen, Russ, and Campbell came also in 1855. The
first log house in the town was built by Anthony Huddleston in 1855.
Norris Kinnie built the first in what was afterward the village of
Ellsworth. The first school house, a log building, built was in 1857,
and Mary Filkins, now Mrs. G. H. Sargeant, of Minnesota, taught the
first school. The first marriage was that of Charles Stannard and Mary
Leonard, in 1855. The first birth, that of the twin children of
Wilson. Both died. The first death of an adult was that of Mrs. Jacob
Youngman in the winter of 1855. The post office was opened in 1860,
with Seely Strickland as postmaster.


ELLSWORTH VILLAGE.

The original owners of the southern half of section 18, and the
northern half of 19, Norris Kinnie, Eli T. Bruce, Henry P. Ames, and
Wm. Crippin laid out and platted the village of Ellsworth in 1862. Wm.
Crippin, built a frame hotel there in 1860. C. S. Dunbar opened a
store in 1861. The prospect of Ellsworth becoming the county seat gave
a great impetus to business enterprises. This was decided by a popular
vote in 1861, but owing to some technical defects was resubmitted to
the people of the county in 1862, and then definitely decided. In the
year 1862 the citizens of Ellsworth built a log house in which the
first terms of court were held; meanwhile the county officers had
their offices in the basement of Crippin's hotel. The permanent county
buildings were not erected until 1869. They are built of stone and
cost $60,000. In 1863 a frame schoolhouse took the place of the old
log structure, and in 1874 a commodious brick building was erected, at
a cost of $5,000.

The Methodists, Lutherans and Catholics have church buildings. There
is one newspaper, the _Pierce County Herald_, edited by E. F. Case and
E. S. Doolittle. The Barnes saw mill built in 1867, burned down and
rebuilt, has a capacity of about 5,000 feet per day. A branch
railroad, built from Hudson to River Falls, was extended to Ellsworth
in 1885. The depot is one mile from the village. The Pierce County
Central fair grounds, containing seventeen acres, are located near the
village. The grounds are inclosed and are covered with a fine maple
grove, in the midst of which is a large flowing spring. D. W.
Woodworth was first president of the fair association. Ellsworth has
two handsome cemeteries, Maplewood and the Catholic.

The village itself is beautifully situated on an elevated plateau
originally covered with hardwood timber. The streets are tastefully
adorned with maple trees.

ANTHONY HUDDLESTON.--Mr. Huddleston is of Irish descent. He was born
in West Virginia in 1804; had but limited educational privileges;
lived for a part of his life in Ohio and Indiana, and settled in
Ellsworth in 1855, being the first settler in the town. He was a house
carpenter for over sixty years. He was a member of the Dunkard church
sixty-two years. He was married in 1826, in Ripley, Indiana, to
Susannah Whetstone. They have three sons and six daughters living.

PERRY D. PIERCE was born in Harpersfield, Delaware county, New York.
He traces his lineage to ancestors who came across in the Mayflower
and landed at Plymouth Rock. He received an academic education,
studied law with A. Reckor, Oswego, New York, and was admitted to
practice at Cooperstown in 1843, practiced in Albany three years, and
in 1854 came to the St. Croix valley, locating first at Prescott,
where he served as district attorney for four years, and county judge
eight years. He was married in 1860, to Lua E. Searsdall. He is now a
resident of Ellsworth.

[Illustration: _Very Respectfully Hans B. Warner_]

HANS B. WARNER, of Ellsworth, Pierce county, was born at
Gulbrandsdalen, Norway, July 12, 1844; received a common school
education; is by occupation a farmer; emigrated and settled in Dodge
county, Wisconsin, in 1853, and thence removed to Pierce county in
1855, where he has since resided. He enlisted in March, 1864, as a
private, in Company G, Thirty-seventh Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer
Infantry; was wounded and captured in front of Petersburg, Virginia,
July 30, 1864, and was held a prisoner of war in Danville and Libby
prisons until paroled, September, 1864; was discharged from service on
account of wounds received in battle July 18, 1865. He has held
various local offices, and the position of county clerk of Pierce
county from January, 1869, to Dec. 21, 1877, when he resigned, to
assume the duties of secretary of state, to which office he was
elected in 1877, and was re-elected in 1879, serving in all four
years. He was elected to the state senate in 1882 and served until
1886. His home business is farming and real estate. He was married in
1866, to Julia E. Hudson.


GILMAN.

The town of Gilman includes township 27, range 16. The postal villages
are Gilman, section 10, and Olivet, section 36. Gilman was organized
as the town of Deerfield, in 1868, but in 1869 the name was changed to
Gilman. The first supervisors were Oliver Purdy, Caleb Coon, Bardon
Jensen. The first school was taught in 1870, by M. L. Maxgood. A
Norwegian Lutheran church was built in 1883, at a cost of $1,500.
There are six school houses with an aggregate cost of $2,000. The
first marriage was that of Caleb Coon and Cenith Preston, in 1867. The
first birth was a child of this married couple. The first death was
that of Mrs. Rufus Preston. The first post office was at Gilman, U. F.
Hals, postmaster. The first settlers were B. F. Gilman, in 1859, still
a resident; N. B. Lawrence, soon after, now removed; Rufus Preston and
family; Joseph and Caleb Coon and families, in 1865, still resident.
J. R. Maxgood, B. Jensen and son, E. B. Jensen, the Matthieson
brothers, Z. Sigursen, H. Bredahl, S. J. Goodell, Nels Gulikson, M. O.
Grinde, Albert Martin, P. Vanosse, and T. B. Forgenbakke are among the
oldest citizens.


HARTLAND.

Hartland occupies township 25, range 17. It has one post village,
Esdaile. It has one saw mill and a factory for the manufacture of hubs
and bent wood work, operated by Charles Betcher, of Red Wing,
Minnesota, which gives employment to seventy-five men and ten teams
the year round. The village of Esdaile has also two general
merchandise stores and a hotel. Hartland was organized in 1859. The
first supervisors were A. Harris, chairman; Joseph Sleeper and R. M.
Sproul. Amongst the first settlers were Augustus E. Hodgman, section
24, 1854; James Buckingham, section 28, 1854; Lewis Buckmaster,
section 1, 1853. The first school was taught in 1858, by Mary Ann
Stonio. The first post office was at Esdaile, Hiram Patch, postmaster.
There are three church organizations, Presbyterian, Methodist and
Lutheran (Norwegian), with buildings valued at from $700 to $1,000.
There are nine school houses, ranging in cost from $500 to $1,400. The
Good Templars have an organization.


ISABELLE.

Isabelle consists of the two upper tiers of section 7, township 24,
range 17, the lower tier being much broken in outline by Lake Pepin on
the south. It contains also fractions of sections in the third tier.
Bay City, on the shore of the lake, is the postal town. It was
organized in 1855. In 1869 it was annexed to Hartland, but in 1871 it
was re-established. The first chairman of supervisors was John
Buckingham. The election was held at the house of Abner Brown. Charles
R. Tyler and Lorenzo D. Philips settled here in 1854, and built a saw
mill where now stands the thriving village of Bay City. Saratoga plat
was laid out upon this ground in 1856, by A. C. Morton. A. J. Dexter
was the original claimant of the land. Mr. Morton purchased the land
which covered a part of Bay City from the government. A surveyor named
Markle was employed by Morton to run the lines, which Mr. Dexter
considered an intrusion upon his rights, and he shot Markle. Dexter
was tried before Judge S. S. N. Fuller, in 1855, was convicted, and
sentenced to prison for life. After a few years he was pardoned by
Gov. Barstow.


MAIDEN ROCK.

Maiden Rock occupies the four upper tiers of sections of township 24,
ranges 15 and 16, except such portions on the southwestern corner as
are cut off by Lake Pepin. It contains about forty sections. The town
was organized under the name of Spring Valley, in 1857. Its postal
villages are Maiden Rock, on the lake shore, section 15, range 15, and
Warren, also on the lake shore, section 7, range 15. The site of
Maiden Rock village was purchased from the government in 1853, by
Albert Harris and J. D. Trumbull. In 1855 they erected the first
house, and in 1856 built a saw and shingle mill. J. D. Trumbull
platted the village in 1857, and christened it Maiden Rock, from the
celebrated rock of that name a few miles further down the lake. Among
the first settlers in the village were J. H. Steel, J. D. Brown, John
Foster, and Joseph B. Hull.

The first hotel was run by G. R. Barton, in a house built by J. D.
Trumbull. This hotel has since been enlarged and is now the Lake View
House. The first marriage was that of A. J. Smith and Corinda
Eatinger, in 1857; the first birth was that of Ida Trumbull, in 1858,
and the first death that of William Trumbull, in 1858. The first
school was taught by Lottie Isabel, of Batavia, Illinois. The first
sermon was preached by Rev. James Gurley, a Methodist preacher from
North Pepin.

A post office was established in 1856, of which J. D. Trumbull was
postmaster. The receipts the first year were eleven dollars, the
expenses, fifty dollars, paid by the postmaster. The town of Maiden
Rock has six school houses, one saw and one grist mill.

CHRISTOPHER L. TAYLOR was born in Oneida county, New York, in 1829;
came to Chicago at an early day, and to Maiden Rock in 1868, where he
engaged in manufacturing. He served as county supervisor for eight
years, and as member of the Wisconsin legislature in 1876. He removed
to St. Paul in 1880, where he still resides. He is a dealer in real
estate.


MARTELL.

Martell occupies township 27, range 17. Joseph Martell, John Dee,
Louis Lepau and Xerxes Jock, Frenchmen, were the first settlers. They
located here in 1847, and remained till 1860, when they moved further
west, allured by the attractions of frontier life. Martell was
organized in 1854, with the following supervisors: Amos Bonesteel,
chairman; M. Statten and R.J. Thompson. The first school was taught in
1857, by W. Bewel. Martell is the postal village. The first postmaster
was O. Rasmunson. There are two evangelical Lutheran churches in the
town, built at a cost of $3,500 and $5,000. There is also a good town
hall, valued at $600. The Martell Mutual Insurance Company is in
successful operation.


OAK GROVE.

Oak Grove includes township 26, range 19 (with the exception of
section 31 and parts of 30 and 32), and six sections of range 20, in
all about forty sections. It is drained by Big river. It was set off
from Clifton in 1856. Hart Broughton was the first chairman of
supervisors. It contains a flouring mill on Big river; Catholic,
Lutheran, and Methodist church buildings; that of the Catholic cost
$4,000, and has a school attached. There are seven school houses. Big
River is the postal village. John Berry was first postmaster. The
first settlers were (1848) the Thing brothers, the Harnsberger
brothers, the Cornelius brothers, Rice, Schaser, McMurphy, Rissue, and
the Miner brothers.

LEWIS M. HARNSBERGER was born in Kentucky, April 18, 1822, and moved
with his parents to Illinois, where he lived nine years. He came to
Prescott in 1846, and pre-empted a farm in Oak Grove, where he has
since continuously resided. He has filled many public positions
creditably. He was married to Annie Jeffreys, of Illinois, in 1860.
Their sons are Ephraim, Lewis and John.


PRESCOTT CITY

Is beautifully located at the junction of the St. Croix and
Mississippi rivers. The business portion of the city is on a terrace
at the base of the bluff, and between it and the river and lake. The
public buildings, churches, school house and residences are chiefly on
the upper terrace, or bluff, and command an extensive view of the
valley of the two rivers, the whole forming a landscape of unrivaled
beauty. The advantages of the position are by no means limited to its
picturesque surroundings. Prescott, from its position at the junction
of the two rivers, was early recognized as an important point for the
reshipping of freight and re-embarkation of passengers. The St.
Croix, which comes in from the north, rises within a few miles of Lake
Superior, and after running a course of two hundred miles, empties its
waters into Lake St. Croix, twenty-four miles above its outlet. The
lake is navigable at all times to Stillwater and to Taylor's Falls at
the Dalles. The Mississippi comes in from the northwest, and is
navigable to St. Paul, a distance of thirty miles. The two channels at
the junction are each about 1,000 feet wide, with an average depth of
fifteen feet, and the banks slope to the water's edge, or stand in
some places in vertical ledges, thus forming a natural quay along the
entire front of the city. The quay, or landing, is semicircular in
shape, the upper terrace, or bench, about one hundred feet in height,
is likewise semicircular, the convexity being toward the river and
lake. The crest of the terrace is worn down by the rains into ravines,
leaving rounded points, or promontories, on the summit of which the
ancient mound builders have left traces of their peculiar art. The
first settlement of Prescott was made by Philander Prescott, Col.
Thompson, Dr. Emerson, and Capt. Scott, the three last named being
army officers at Fort Snelling. Mr. Prescott, acting as agent for the
others, made the claim in 1836, remaining three years to hold it, when
it was left in the care of Joseph Mosier until 1851.

In 1837 seven acres were broken and fenced, constituting the entire
landed improvements within the present bounds of Pierce county. In
1849 one hundred and fifty acres were improved. Geo. Schaser and H.
Doe were the first resident farmers. From 1838 to 1849 a trading post
for Indian supplies was kept by persons holding the claim. W. S.
Lockwood opened a store in 1842, and other improvements were made. As
the army officers were called to other fields of labor, Mr. Prescott
soon found himself in sole possession of the original claim, he
purchasing their interests, and in 1849, when the lands had been
surveyed by the government, he entered sixty-one acres. In 1853 Dr. O.
T. Maxon and W. J. Copp purchased a greater part of the town site and
surveyed and platted it as the city of Prescott. A charter was
obtained in 1857. A post office had been established here in 1840,
called the "Mouth of St. Croix," but it was removed across the lake
and named Point Douglas. The post office was re-established at
Prescott in 1852. Dr. O. T. Maxon was first postmaster. The number of
persons who came that year to Prescott is estimated at about one
hundred and fifty.[D] Mr. Schaser platted an addition to the city of
sixty-one acres in 1855. When the city received its charter the
following officers were elected: Mayor, J. R. Freeman; aldermen, First
ward, N. S. Dunbar, Thomas Dickerson and Seth Ticknor; Second ward,
Hilton Doe, George W. Oakley, N. A. Miller; president of the council,
Seth Ticknor; justices of the peace, I. T. Foster, O. Edwards; city
attorney, P. V. Wise; city surveyor, Wm. Howes; superintendent of
schools, Thomas Dickerson.

Wm. Schaser built the first frame house, and Mrs. Wm. Schaser was the
first white woman. Their daughter Eliza was the first white child born
in the new settlement. The first marriage was that of G. W. McMurphy
to a daughter of Mr. Rice, April 24, 1848. The first death was that of
W. S. Lockwood, in 1847.

When the county of Pierce was organized Prescott was designated as the
county seat, and so remained until 1862, when, by popular election,
Ellsworth was chosen.

In 1856 Messrs. Silverthorn & Dudley started a saw mill, which they
operated until 1861, when Mr. Dudley purchased his partner's interest,
and erected a flouring and saw mill.

A wagon and carriage manufactory was established by F. Menicke, in
1862, the Prescott brewery in 1866, by N. P. Husting, and the Prescott
machine shops in 1876, by H. B. Failing. The City Bank of Prescott was
organized in 1858, Charles Miller, president; W. P. Westfall, cashier;
capital stock, $50,000. It closed in 1862. The National Bank was
established in 1877, by W. S. Miller. The first school in Pierce
county was taught by a missionary named Denton, at Prescott, in 1843.
In 1851 Miss Oliver taught a private school. In 1853 the first
district school was established. The school board were: Directors, M.
Craig, George W. McMurphy; treasurer, N. S. Dunbar; clerk, Dr. O. T.
Maxon; teacher, Miss Matthews. The first school house was built in
1854. A building for a graded school was erected in 1859. A high
school building was erected in 1847, at a cost of $20,000.

The first religious society was that of the Methodists, organized in
1853, under the labors of Rev. Norris Hobart. Their first building
was erected in 1856. Its dimensions were 20 × 32 feet, ground plan. In
1868 they erected a building 40 × 70 feet, ground plan, at a cost of
$4,000.

In 1854 the Baptist church was organized by Rev. E. W. Cressy.

In 1854 the Congregationalists organized, with Rev. P. Hall as pastor,
and in 1855 built a brick church, 40 × 50 feet, ground plan.

In 1855 the Presbyterians organized, and in 1866 built a church.

The Lutheran church was organized in 1865, by Rev. C. Thayer.

Under the preaching of Rev. M. Guild the Episcopal church was
organized in 1872. Previous to this date Revs. Breck, Wilcoxson and
Peabody had labored from time to time. The Catholic church was
organized by Rev. Father Vervais in 1860. In 1868 a church edifice was
built.

The following social and benevolent orders have organizations in
Prescott:

Northwestern Lodge, A. F. and A. M                      organized 1856
Prescott Lodge, I. O. O. F                                  "     1868
Lodge No. 319, I. O. G. T                                   "     1876
Prescott Juvenile Temple, No. 108                           "     1877
Prescott Temple of Honor                                    "     1878
Converse Post, G. A. R.                                     "     1884
Pierce County Agricultural Society, O. T. Maxon, president  "     1859

The Agricultural Society has fair grounds just east of the city, well
arranged, with a half mile race track, and buildings in good
condition. Fairs are held annually. Pine Glen cemetery is situated on
the bluff half a mile below the city. It was established in 1856.
Nature has done much for the site. The view of the Mississippi valley
is unobstructed for a distance of from twelve to twenty miles on the
south, and to the bend of the river bluffs above Hastings. The grounds
are handsomely laid out and adorned with shrubbery.


DESTRUCTIVE FIRES.

Prescott has suffered severely from fires. The following is a partial
list of losses:

Lowry & Co., saw mill                     loss  $3,500
Todd & Horton's mill                        "    2,000
Stevens, Lechner & Co. (1854)               "    3,000
Fire on Main street (1871)                loss $22,000
Fire on Main street (1872)                  "   12,000
Fire on Main street (1874)                  "   12,000
Redman, Cross & Co., flour mills (1877)     "   40,000

The latter was insured for $20,000. Total loss, nearly $75,000.


BIOGRAPHICAL.

PHILANDER PRESCOTT was born in 1801, at Phelpstown, Ontario county,
New York. Late in the year 1819 he came to Fort Snelling and remained
there, or in the vicinity, the greater part of his life. From his
constant association with the Indians, especially with the Sioux, he
learned to speak their language. He was also related to them by his
marriage with a Sioux woman. This fact, added to his influence among
them, and being a man not only of a high character for integrity, but
well educated and intelligent, he was able to render the officers of
the Fort much service. He made a translation into the Sioux dialect of
a number of English and French hymns for the use of the mission
schools near Prescott. He gave his children an English education. In
1835, while acting as Indian interpreter, he came to the present site
of Prescott, and in conjunction with several officers of the Fort, he
acting as their agent, laid claim to considerable territory, and made
some improvements in the shape of log buildings. When the army
officers were sent to other posts, Mr. Prescott purchased their
interests and held the claim. In 1849, after the government survey, he
pre-empted sixty-one acres and laid out what he called the city of
Prescott. He resided here and at the Fort alternately until his death,
which occurred in 1862. He had been sent by the government on a peace
mission to the Indians in rebellion, met them at a point near Mankato,
and was cruelly assassinated by those to whom he had ever proven a
true friend, and whom he had every reason to suppose friendly to him.

GEORGE SCHASER is a native of Austria, and came to the mouth of the
St. Croix in 1841. In 1842 he returned to St. Louis and married
Christine Bucher. Mrs. Schaser was the first white woman resident in
Prescott. Mr. Schaser built the first frame house in the settlement,
in 1844. This house was regarded for many years as the finest house
between Prairie du Chien and St. Paul. In 1855 Mr. Schaser surveyed an
addition to Prescott on land he had pre-empted in 1849. In 1858 he
built the brick hotel known as the St. Nicholas. Mr. Schaser died May
3, 1884, leaving a widow, three sons and one daughter. His sons are
Henry, Edward and George A. His daughter Emma was married to Capt.
John E. Ball (deceased 1881). An older daughter, Eliza, the first
child born in Pierce county, was married to E. W. Haviland, and died
in 1880, near New Orleans.

WILLIAM S. LOCKWOOD, a native of New York State, came to Prairie du
Chien in 1833, and to Prescott in 1842. The year following his family
followed. Mr. Lockwood died in 1847. His widow, Georgiana Barton, was
married to Orange B. Walker, of Marine Mills, and died at Marine, Oct.
9, 1885.

JAMES MONROE BAILEY was born in 1824, in Sullivan county, New York,
where his youthful days were passed. He came to Prescott in 1849,
where he has since been engaged in farming, mercantile and real estate
business. He was married in 1856, in Prescott, to Nettie Crippin. They
have one son, Victor, and two daughters, Myrtle, wife of E. L.
Meacham, of Prescott, and Jessamine. Mr. Bailey has a very pleasant
home in Prescott. He has filled various offices, among them that of
treasurer and clerk of St. Croix county, prior to the organization of
Pierce.

ADOLPH WERKMAN was born in Germany in 1826; came to America in 1847,
and to Prescott in 1848. He was married at Prescott in 1856.

JOSEPH MANESE (alias Joseph Abear) was of French extraction and a
native of Lower Canada. While yet a youth he came into the Lake
Superior region, where he was employed most of his time in hunting and
trapping by the fur companies. His history, if written in full, would
abound in stirring incidents and adventures. He was a man of unusual
strength and activity, and in disposition light hearted, vivacious and
gay even to hilarity. He died in Prescott in 1884.

HILTON DOE was a native of New York State, and came to Red Wing, as
Indian farmer, about 1840. He settled in Prescott in 1844, in sections
9 and 10, pre-emptions subsequently surveyed into town lots. Mr. Doe
married Miss Daily, in Illinois, in 1844. Mrs. Doe died in 1860, Mr.
Doe in 1884.

LUTE A. TAYLOR, a young man of decided talent, a good classical
scholar, a brilliant writer and humorist, came to River Falls in 1856,
and in 1857, with his brother Horace, established the River Falls
_Journal_, which they continued to publish jointly for three years,
when Horace removed to Hudson and established the _Times_. Lute A.
removed to Prescott, taking with him the material of the _Journal_
office, and established the Prescott _Journal_, which he edited and
published until 1869, when he removed to La Crosse and published the
La Crosse _Leader_ until his death, which occurred in 1872.

Mr. Taylor was a correspondent of various papers and an entertaining
lecturer. As a conversationalist and wit, he was without a rival. A
slight impediment in his speech, if anything, added to the humorous
effect of his pithy sayings. He is well remembered in the valley of
the St. Croix. A volume containing his biography and some
characteristic sketches has been published since his death.

JOHN HUITT, a Canadian, came to Prescott in 1847, and erected the
first blacksmith shop in the village. He was married in Prescott to a
daughter of Joseph Mosier, and subsequently pre-empted a quarter
section of land on Prescott prairie. He built a saw and planing mill
on Trimbelle river. He died at Trimbelle in 1873.

JOHN M. RICE was born in Sudbury, Massachusetts, in 1805; was married
in 1828, in Massachusetts, to Mary A. Goodenough; came in 1837 to
Marine, Illinois, and in 1847 to Prescott. Mr. Rice was a house
carpenter, but followed also the business of farming. He was an
upright man and a member of the Congregational church. He died in
1878, leaving one son, David O., living in Prescott; a daughter, Maria
A., wife of G. W. McMurphy, of Prescott, and a daughter in Illinois.


AN INDIAN BATTLE.

The feud between the Sioux and Chippewas originated in prehistoric
times and from causes not now known. It has been a tribal vendetta,
continuous and relentless, with the advantages in favor of the
Chippewas, who, in the course of time, have steadily forced the Sioux
westward from the Sault Ste. Marie to the Mississippi at Prescott. We
give the following account of one of their battles, being an Indian
version, translated and written out by Philander Prescott. This fight
occurred in 1711, on the site of the city of Prescott. As the Indians
had been supplied by the French with firearms as early as 1700, there
is nothing improbable in their alleged use on this occasion. But for
the story:

     "The Chippewas, a thousand strong, attacked a camp of
     eighteen Sioux lodges by night and killed most of the
     warriors. The women and children fled to the canoes, and,
     jumping in, pushed from the shore, but, in their hurry,
     without paddles. A large eddy in the river carried the
     canoes round and round, and, as they swept near the shore,
     the Chippewas seized them, pulled them to the shore and
     butchered the women and children. A few Sioux warriors had
     fled up the bank of the lake, where they hid in crevices and
     caves of the rocks. The Chippewas discovered their hiding
     places and killed all but one, who rushed from his retreat,
     and, diving again and again in the lake, swam for the
     opposite shore. As often as his head appeared above the
     water the Chippewas fired a volley of bullets, which fell
     around like hail, but harmlessly. The bold swimmer finally
     reached the opposite shore unharmed, when he gave a whoop of
     joy and disappeared in the thicket. The Chippewas, filled
     with admiration at his daring exploit, returned his farewell
     whoop with interest."


RIVER FALLS

Occupies township 27, range 18, and a tier of two sections from range
19. Trimbelle river drains the eastern portion and the Kinnikinic the
northwest. Its early history is identified with the history of River
Falls city, its first settlement. It was organized in 1854, as
Greenwood, but in 1858 the name was changed to River Falls. As River
Falls city was not incorporated until 1885, we shall give its early
history in connection with that of the town.

The first settler was Joel Foster, in the fall of 1848. In 1849, came
D. McGregor, James and Walter Mapes; in 1850, Messrs. Hayes, Tozer,
Penn and Parks, and not long after the Powells and Clark Green. These
early settlers chose locations at, or near, the present site of River
Falls city, and along the banks of the Kinnikinic, which here, owing
to its numerous waterfalls, offered unusual facilities for milling and
manufacturing. The first crop was raised by Joel Foster, in 1849. The
first saw mill was built in 1851 by the brothers N. N. and O. S.
Powell, just below the site of the present Greenwood mill. This was
burned in 1876. In 1854 the Powell brothers platted the village of
River Falls, called at first, Kinnikinic, setting apart for that
purpose two hundred acres of land. This plat included the upper
waterfalls within the present city limits. The largest water power
they donated to C. B. Cox as a mill site, to encourage settlement in
the village. The brothers co-operated in building up the village,
amongst other things building a frame store and stocking it with
goods. This was the first store in the Kinnikinic valley. They dealt
also in real estate and lumber. The name of River Falls, as applied to
the village, dates from the establishment of the first post office, in
1854. Charles Hutchinson was the first postmaster, and the office was
held in this pioneer store. J. S. Rounce, in 1870, built the first
foundry in Pierce county.

The water powers of River Falls have been extensively utilized, many
saw and flouring mills having been erected at various times on the
Kinnikinic. Of these, in 1886, the more notable are, the Junction
mills, owned by Freeman, Rhyder & Co., with a capacity of 400 barrels
daily, and a barrel manufactory attached, which gives employment to 40
men and turns off from 300 to 400 barrels daily. The Greenwood mills,
owned by Geo. Fortune & Co., capacity 50 barrels; the Cascade mills,
owned by the Baker estate, capacity 50 barrels; the Prairie mill,
built by C. B. Cox in 1858, and now owned by J. D. Putnam, capacity
150 barrels.

In educational matters River Falls has taken and maintained an
advanced position. The first school house was built in 1854, by seven
men, at a cost of five hundred dollars. Helen Flint taught the first
school. In 1856 a joint stock association was incorporated as "The
River Falls Academy." A building was erected, 36 × 66 feet, ground
plan, and two stories in height. Prof. Wilcox was the first principal.
This school was maintained as an academy until 1860, at which time it
was superseded by the free schools. In the fall of 1879 the building
was destroyed by fire. Subsequently a commodious brick structure was
erected in its place at a cost of $15,000. Excellent private schools
were maintained by Hinckley, Cody and Baker, for five years during the
'60s. The State Normal School, of which a more extended account is
given elsewhere, was established here, and a building erected in 1874,
at a cost of about $65,000, the people of River Falls and other towns
contributing to this fund $25,000, with private subscriptions to the
amount of $12,000, and a donation of ten acres of land. Of the $25,000
River Falls gave $10,000, Troy $4,000, Clifton $3,000, while Pierce
county contributed $5,000, and Kinnikinic, St. Croix county, gave
$3,000. The building, a handsome brick, four stories high, including
the basement, stands on an elevated plat of ground in the southeastern
part of the city. The first board of instruction consisted of W. D.
Parker, president, with the following assistants: J. B. Thayer,
conductor of teachers' institute; A. Earthman, history, geography,
music; Lucy E. Foot, English literature, reading, spelling; Julia A.
McFarlan, mathematics; Margaret Hosford, Latin and English literature.
Model department, Ellen C. Jones, teacher, grammar grade; Mary A.
Kelley, teacher, intermediate grade; Lizzie J. Curtis, teacher,
primary grade.

The following are the churches of River Falls, with date of
establishment and name of first pastor when known: Congregational,
1855, Rev. James Stirratt; Baptist, 1857, Rev. A. Gibson; Methodist,
1858; Episcopal, 1871, Rev. Chas. Thorpe; Catholic, 1875, Rev. Father
Connelly; Seventh Day Adventist, 1881.

With the exception of the last named, these church organizations have
good buildings. The Congregational church building erected in 1857 was
superseded by a building in 1867 that cost $10,000. This was destroyed
by a tornado in 1868, but has since been rebuilt at the cost of the
building destroyed, and a parsonage has been added at a cost of
$2,000.

A Sunday-school was established in River Falls in 1853, and the first
sermon was preached, in 1850 or 1851, by Rev. Julius S. Webber, a
Baptist missionary. Rev. John Wilcoxson, an Episcopalian, held
occasional services as early as 1859.


ASSOCIATIONS.

The following are the social and benevolent associations of River
Falls, with dates of organization: Masonic Lodge, June, 1859; I. O. O.
F., 1872; I. O. G. T., March 15, 1877; Juvenile Temple of Honor, March
15, 1877; Temple of Honor, March 31, 1878; A. O. U. W., 1878. The
hall, fixtures and charter of the Odd Fellows Lodge was destroyed in
the fire of 1876, but the lodge was rechartered the same year.


THE BANK OF RIVER FALLS

Was organized Jan. 1, 1874. ---- Bartlett, president; Joseph M. Smith,
cashier. Capital, $15,000. It was reorganized in 1883, under state
law, R. S. Burhyte, president; W. D. Parker, vice president; J. M.
Smith, cashier. Capital stock, $35,000. Total business in 1885,
$5,770,733.98.


HUDSON & RIVER FALLS RAILROAD.

This road was built in 1878, the people of River Falls contributing
$60,000 to its construction. The road is ten miles in length. In 1885
it was extended to Ellsworth, a distance of twelve miles.


RIVER FALLS BOARD OF TRADE

Was established in 1884. A. D. Andrews, president; C. H. Keys,
secretary.


FIRES.

In 1875 the Metropolitan Hotel, costing $15,000, and other buildings
were burned; loss $30,000. The insurance was light. In 1876 a large
portion of the town was destroyed by fire.


RIVER FALLS CITY.

River Falls was incorporated as a city in 1885. At the first election
for city officers, held April 7th, three hundred and nineteen votes
were cast, and the following persons were declared duly elected to the
positions named: Mayor, A. A. Andrews; treasurer, G. E. Pratt;
assessor, E. H. Daniel; aldermen, First ward, W. W. Wadsworth; Second
ward, L. M. Rosenquist; Third ward, R. N. Jenson; Fourth ward, L.
Styles; marshal, R. N. Bevens; city clerk, Allen H. Weld. The license
for the sale of intoxicants was fixed at $200. The population of River
Falls in 1886 was 1,700. It is a lively, prosperous city, planned on a
liberal scale, with wide streets, well shaded with ornamental trees.
The mills have reservations by which they are separated from the
business part of the city. The beauty of the original waterfalls is
somewhat marred by the mills and their debris. Originally they were
very beautiful and picturesque, and were widely celebrated, and much
visited by the lovers of Nature. Of these falls there are four, two on
the south branch, one on the north branch, and one some rods below
the junction of the two streams. The falls were not noted for their
grandeur, but rather for their quiet beauty, the water falling over
ledges but a few feet in height, and so broken in two of them as to
present the general appearance of a succession of stairs, or steps, of
unequal elevation, over which the water falls. An interesting feature
at the junction of the two rivers is the cave in which the pioneer
settler, Judge Joel Foster, with his negro boy, spent the winter of
1848-49. From his cave cabin he had full view of the falls on the two
streams, no less beautiful in their winter dress of gleaming icicles,
with the frost-whitened boughs of the willow and alder drooping over
them, than in their summer brightness. The judge has told me that he
loved, almost worshiped, this spot. The cave cabin stood about one
hundred feet from the sparkling stream. There, in the early morning,
he could cast his line, and have for his regal breakfast the speckled
trout. Above him towered a precipice crowned with evergreen trees, and
around him, on the borders of the streams, were the elm and maple, and
an undergrowth of alder and birch. There certainly could have been no
fairer scene in the West. To-day no traces remain of the old cave
cabin. The Junction mills have effaced the more beautiful and poetic
features of the scene. The judge has passed away, and found a grave on
an elevation overlooking his old home and the scenes he loved so well.
The judge, although a friend to progress, and active in advancing the
material interests of the locality in which he lived, was unalterably
opposed to the movement to incorporate River Falls, and did all he
could to defeat the measure. When the incorporative act had been
passed, he moved outside of the city limits, declaring that he would
neither live nor die within them; but having been fatally injured by
an accident, he was brought back to his old home, and died within the
city.


THE FOURTH STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT RIVER FALLS--HISTORY.

The constitution of the State, adopted in 1848, provides "that the
revenue of the school fund shall be exclusively applied to the
following objects:

     "_First_--To the support and maintenance of common schools
     in each school district, and the purchase of suitable
     libraries and appurtenances therefor.

     "_Second_--That the residue of the income of the school fund
     shall be appropriated to the support of academies and normal
     schools, and suitable libraries and appurtenances therefor."

No effort was made to take advantage of this provision of the
constitution for the endowment of normal schools until 1857, when an
act was passed providing "that the income of twenty-five per cent of
the proceeds arising from the sale of swamp and overflowed lands
should be appropriated to normal institutes and academies, under the
supervision and direction of a 'board of regents of normal schools,'"
who were to be appointed in pursuance of the provisions of that act.
Under this law, the income placed at the disposal of the regents was
distributed for several years to such colleges, academies and high
schools as maintained a normal class, and in proportion to the number
of pupils in the class who passed satisfactory examinations, conducted
by an agent of the board.

The law under which these schools are organized provides that "the
exclusive purpose of each normal school shall be the instruction and
training of persons, both male and female, in the theory and art of
teaching, and in all the various branches that pertain to a good
common school education, and in all subjects needful to qualify for
teaching in the public schools; also to give instruction in the
fundamental laws of the United States and of this State, and in what
regards the rights and duties of citizens."


REGULATIONS FOR ADMISSION TO THE NORMAL SCHOOLS.

Tuition is free to all students who are admitted to these normal
schools under the following regulations of the board of regents:

     _First_--Each assembly district in the State shall be
     entitled to eight representatives in the normal schools, and
     in case vacancies exist in the representation to which any
     assembly district is entitled, such vacancies may be filled
     by the president and secretary of the board of regents.

     _Second_--Candidates for admission shall be nominated by the
     superintendent of the county (or if the county
     superintendent has not jurisdiction, then the nomination
     shall be made by the city superintendent) in which such
     candidate may reside, and shall be at least sixteen years of
     age, of sound bodily health and good moral character. Each
     person so nominated shall receive a certificate setting
     forth his name, age, health and character.

     _Third_--Upon the presentation of such certificate to the
     president of a normal school, the candidate shall be
     examined, under the direction of said president, in the
     branches required by law for a third grade certificate,
     except history, theory and practice of teaching, and if
     found qualified to enter the normal school in respect to
     learning, he may be admitted after furnishing such evidence
     as the president may require of good health and good moral
     character, and after subscribing to the following
     declaration:

     I, ---- ----, do hereby declare that my purpose in entering
     this State Normal School is to fit myself for the profession
     of teaching, and that it is my intention to engage in
     teaching in the schools of the State.

     _Fourth_--No person shall be entitled to a diploma who has
     not been a member of the school in which such diploma is
     granted, at least one year, nor who is less than nineteen
     years of age; a certificate of attendance may be granted by
     the president of a normal school to any person who shall
     have been a member of such school for one term; provided,
     that in his judgment such certificate is deserved.

As an addition to the work of the normal schools, the board of regents
are authorized to expend a sum not exceeding $5,000 annually, to
sustain teachers' institutes, and may employ an agent for that
purpose. Institutes are regarded as important auxiliaries and feeders
to the normal schools. At present one professor from each normal
school is employed conducting institutes every spring and fall.

The normal school fund now amounts to over $1,250,000, and yields an
annual income of about $100,000. It will be increased by the further
sale of swamp lands, and will prove ample for the objects for which it
is set apart.

In 1865 the legislature divided the swamp lands and swamp land fund
into two equal parts, one for drainage purposes, the other to
constitute a normal school fund. The income of the latter was to be
applied to establishing, supporting and maintaining normal schools,
under the direction and management of the board of regents of normal
schools, with a proviso that one-fourth of such income should be
transferred to the common school fund, until the annual income of that
fund should reach $200,000. During the same year, proposals were
invited for extending aid in establishment of a normal school, and
propositions were received from various places.

In 1866 the board of regents was incorporated by the legislature.

JOEL FOSTER.--Judge Foster was born at Meriden, Connecticut, Dec. 15,
1814. He was liberally educated. He came to Edwardsville, Illinois, in
1830, and to Hudson, then known as Buena Vista, in 1848. After a
careful exploration of the country he made choice of the valley of the
Kinnikinic, and made him a home in the fall of 1848, at the junction
of the two branches of that stream, and within sound of its beautiful
cascades. He was the pioneer settler of the River Falls of to-day. He
built the first dwelling house, raised the first crops, and ever
proved himself a worthy citizen, first in every good work and
enterprise. He was a man of far more than ordinary intelligence and
moral worth, was temperate, industrious, public spirited, sagacious
and independent. He has filled many positions of responsibility,
amongst them that of judge of St. Croix county. During the Mexican War
he served as a quartermaster in Col. Bissell's Second Illinois
Regiment. Judge Foster was married at Chicago in 1856 to Charlotte
Porch. He died at his home in River Falls, Aug. 9, 1885.

JESSE B. THAYER was born Oct. 11, 1845, in Janesville, Wisconsin; was
educated at Milton College in 1870, and is by profession a teacher.
During the Rebellion he served in the Fortieth and Forty-ninth
Wisconsin Volunteers as a private. He served five years as principal
of the public schools in Menomonie, and since 1875 has been connected
with the State Normal School at River Falls as conductor of
institutes. In 1885 he was elected to represent Pierce county in the
state assembly.

A. D. ANDREWS.--Dr. A. D. ANDREWS was born in Lowell, Maine, Sept. 21,
1830. He graduated at the Chicago Medical College in 1860, and in 1861
was commissioned assistant surgeon of the Sixth Wisconsin Infantry, of
the famous Iron Brigade, with which he served up to the battle of
Gettysburg. After retiring from the army he came to River Falls and
engaged in milling, in which business he successfully continued until
1880, when he retired. He was elected state senator in 1878. He was
appointed a regent of the Fourth State Normal School in 1877. He died
at his home an River Falls, after a short illness, July 23, 1885. He
was mayor of the city at the time of his death.

JOSEPH A. SHORT.--Mr. Short was born in Madison county, New York,
April 16, 1806. He learned the trade of a millwright. He visited the
East and West Indies. He came to Milwaukee in 1842. In 1849 he went to
California, but returned in 1854, and settled in River Falls, where he
built a saw and planing mill, laid out an addition to the village and
in various ways promoted the interests of the settlement. Mr. Short
was a member of the Methodist church sixty years, and of the Masonic
fraternity fifty years. He was married Aug. 25, 1831, in New York, to
Olive Prossen. He died at his home, May 6, 1886, aged eighty years,
leaving a son and three daughters.

ALLEN H. WELD.--Prof. A. H. Weld, widely known as a pioneer educator,
and as the author of an excellent grammar, was born in Vermont in
1810. He graduated at Yale College. He came to River Falls in 1858 and
taught the first graded school in the village. For two years he was
principal of the high school at Hudson, and for six years was
superintendent of schools in St. Croix county. He was a member of the
state board of regents nine years, and was prime mover in securing the
location of the State Normal School at River Falls. The excellent
character of the schools in St. Croix county, and the high educational
position of River Falls, are due to his untiring effort and wise
direction. Mr. Weld was a member of the Congregational church and a
consistent Christian as well as a progressive, public spirited man. He
died in 1882, at his home in River Falls, leaving a widow and one son,
Allen P.

ALLEN P. WELD was born in North Yarmouth, Maine, in 1839. In 1859 he
graduated at Dartmouth College. He studied law and was admitted to
practice in 1867, at Albany, New York. He taught school at Albany
three years, and came to River Falls in 1859, where he is a dealer in
real estate. He was married in 1872 to Alice Powell, daughter of Lyman
Powell.

GEORGE W. NICHOLS was born in 1795, at Braintree, Vermont. His father
was a soldier in the Revolution. At the age of seventeen he enlisted
and served in the war of 1812. He lived in Vermont fifty years, in
Massachusetts ten years, and in 1855 came to River Falls, where he
engaged in farming until he was eighty years of age. He was married in
Vermont to Deborah Hobart, who died in 1874. His sons George H. and
William H. reside in River Falls. They were soldiers during the war of
the Rebellion. His son Isaac N. was a member of Capt. Samuels'
company, and was killed at Perrysville, Kentucky. The Grand Army of
the Republic post at River Falls has his name. He died in 1887.

W. D. PARKER--Prof. Parker was born in Bradford, Orange county,
Vermont, in 1839. He received a common school and academic education.
At the age of sixteen years he entered the Janesville High School, and
four years later graduated. He taught two years in Janesville, four
years at Delavan, and one year in Monroe, Green county, Wisconsin. In
1867 he visited Europe, after which he taught two years at Lake
Geneva, Wisconsin. He was superintendent of schools five years at
Janesville. In 1875 he was elected to the presidency of the Fourth
State Normal School at River Falls. In 1886 he was elected state
superintendent of public instruction. Prof. Parker was married to
Justine B. Hewes, of Chicago, in 1869.

THE POWELL FAMILY.--William Powell, the father, came to River Falls in
1849, where he lived with his sons until his death, Nov. 30, 1865. His
second wife was the widow of ---- Taylor, and the mother of Horace and
Lute Taylor, the well known journalists. Mrs. Powell died in July,
1884.

LYMAN POWELL came to River Falls with his family in 1855. He was
married to Lucinda Taylor, sister of Horace and Lute Taylor. Mr.
Powell died at River Falls, Nov. 9, 1872, leaving a wife, two sons and
five daughters.

NATHANIEL N. POWELL, the second son, born May 11, 1827, in St.
Lawrence county, New York, came to River Falls in 1849, and pre-empted
the northeast quarter of section 1, now a part of the site of River
Falls city. He was married to Martha Ann Hart, Sept. 28, 1842, at
Hudson. He died at River Falls, Sept. 28, 1862, leaving one son and
one daughter.

OLIVER S. POWELL, the youngest son, was born June 19, 1831, and came
to Hancock county, Illinois, in 1843, where he lived eight years. He
had no great opportunities for gaining an education. He came to
Stillwater in 1849, bringing with him the first threshing machine
north of Prairie du Chien. He threshed the first grain threshed in the
county in the fall of that year, for Fiske, on a farm three miles
below Stillwater. In November, 1849, he located in River Falls,
pre-empting the south half of the southeast quarter of section 36,
town 28, range 19, lands lying just north of those claimed by his
brother, and which afterward became a part of River Falls. Mr. Powell
was a representative in the state assembly in 1870-71-72, and was a
county commissioner many years. He was married in 1860 to Elmira
Nichols. They have three sons, Harvey C., Newell N. and Lyman T., and
four daughters, Lucy M., Sarah H., Amy E., and Miriam.

NILS P. HAUGEN was born in Norway in 1849; came to America in 1853 and
to River Falls in 1854. He graduated in the law department of Michigan
State University in 1874. Mr. Haugen was phonographic reporter of the
Eighth and Eleventh Judicial circuits for several years, and a member
of the assembly from Pierce county in 1879 and 80. He was elected
railroad commissioner for Wisconsin in 1881, and re-elected in 1884.
In 1886 he was elected representative to Congress.

H. L. WADSWORTH was born July 10, 1821, in Erie county, New York. He
learned the trade of a shoemaker, came West in 1846, and settled at
River Falls some time in the '50s, and engaged in farming. He has
filled many positions of trust in the St. Croix valley, and in 1867
represented St. Croix county in the assembly. In 1841 he was married
to Miss A. R. Baldwin. Eight children have been born to them.


ROCK ELM

Includes township 26, range 15. It was organized as a town Nov. 16,
1866. The first town meeting was held at the house of J. Prickett. The
first commissioner was Sylvester Fox, chairman. The post offices are
at Rock Elm, on the western line of the town, section 19, and Rock Elm
Centre, sections 16 and 17. At the latter place is located Rock Elm
Institute, a school of high grade, founded in 1880. Harrison Lowater
is the principal. The town is well supplied with schools, there being
as many as nine within its limits. Among its first settlers were
Loomis Kellogg, Charles A. Hawn and Sylvester Fox.


SALEM.

Salem occupies township 25, range 16. It is drained by Rush river. It
was organized as a town Jan. 13, 1862. First board of supervisors, C.
C. Carpenter, Eben White and J. H. Shults. The first school was taught
in 1857, by Thompson McCleary. The first marriage was that of Harvey
Seeley and Kate McKinstry. The first child born was Sarah Fuller. The
first death was that of John McCleary, Sept. 2, 1863. The first post
office was established at Rush River, May 1860, Joseph Seeley,
postmaster. The first settlers were Jeremiah Fuller, from Ohio, and W.
Wells, 1846; Harvey Seeley, 1848; Thomas Boyle and James White, 1854;
John F. Davis from Ireland, 1856 (town clerk twenty years); John H.
Brasington, from Pennsylvania (town treasurer fifteen years); Eben
White, James Walsingham, John Strong, H. M. Hicks, from Pennsylvania,
1858; John Foley and brothers, from Ireland, 1856; James H. Shults,
Joseph Seeley, H. C. Brown, John McClure, from Ireland; C. C. and Ira
W. Carpenter, from Connecticut, 1858.

Mrs. Fuller, the wife of the pioneer, was here over six months, during
which time she did not see a white woman.


SPRING LAKE

Is the extreme northeastern town of the county, occupying township 27,
range 15. The post offices are Oak Ridge and Spring Valley. The town
was organized Nov. 10, 1868. The first town meeting was held at the
house of A. M. Wilcox. The first supervisors were: W. D. Akers,
chairman; Jonas Nebb; Levi Hess, clerk. The first school was taught in
1866, by Agnes Harriman. The Methodist and Baptist churches have
organizations, and the Methodists have a building worth five hundred
dollars. The first marriage was that of H. M. Wilcox to Mrs. Kate
Rice, of Lake City, by W. D. Akers, justice of the peace. The first
child born was a daughter of Ole P. Gardner. The first death was that
of Leota Wilcox, in 1864. The first postmaster was B. H. Preston,
1871. The first settlers in the order of their coming were James
Gilmore, O. P. Gardner, George Wilcox, John Francisco and W. D. Akers.


TRENTON.

Trenton contains about twenty-eight sections, those on the Mississippi
having very irregular boundaries. Twenty-four whole sections lie in
township 25, range 18, and the remainder in township 24, range 18.
Trenton, in section 33, township 25, is its post village. Trenton was
organized in 1857; James Akers, chairman of supervisors. Wilson
Thing, the pioneer settler, came in 1848.


TRIMBELLE.

Trimbelle includes township 26, range 18. Its post villages are
Trimbelle and Beldenville. It was organized March 2, 1855. Its
supervisors were F. Otis, chairman, and Aaron Cornelison. Among its
earliest settlers were the Cornelisons, F. Otis and M. B. Williams. It
has four saw mills and one flouring mill, five school houses and one
church (Methodist).

MARTIN B. WILLIAMS was born in New York in 1812. He received a common
school education, and at the age of sixteen years was thrown upon his
own resources. He learned the trade of blacksmith. He was married in
New York, and has four sons, Clark M., Frank T., G. Glen and A. Judd.
Mr. Williams is one of the pioneer settlers of Trimbelle, and has held
many public town and county positions. He served as treasurer of
Pierce county four years. He has been a local preacher in the
Methodist Episcopal church for over thirty years.


UNION.

Union consists of township 25, range 15. It is drained by Plum creek.
It has two post offices, Plum Creek, in section 24, and Ono, section
6. It was organized Aug. 15, 1863. Among its first settlers were
Eleazer Holt, Hiram N. Wood, and Capt. Horst, who made their homes
here in the early '50s.

FOOTNOTES:

[B] In 1849 the town of Elisabeth was organized by St. Croix county,
and included what is now Pierce county. The first board of supervisors
were William Thing, chairman; Aaron Cornelius, and L. M. Harnsberger;
clerk, Hilton Doe; treasurer, Geo. W. McMurphy. In 1851, by
legislative enactment, the name Elisabeth was changed to Prescott.

[C] A member of the well known Faribault family, after whom the town
of Faribault has been named.

[D] NOTE.--When I touched at Prescott in 1845, it was generally known
as the "Mouth of St. Croix," though by some called "Prescott's
Landing." The residents were Hilton Doe, a farmer; Geo. Schaser,
boarding house keeper; W. S. Lockwood, merchant; Joseph Mosier, an
Indian trader or storekeeper. The principal trade was with Indians.



CHAPTER VIII.

BURNETT, WASHBURN, SAWYER AND BARRON COUNTIES.


BURNETT COUNTY.

Burnett county was named in honor of a genial, kind hearted and
eccentric lawyer, Thomas Pendleton Burnett, of Prairie du Chien. It is
somewhat irregular in outline, and is bounded on the north by Douglas,
on the east by Barron, on the south by Polk and Barron counties, and
on the west by the St. Croix river. It includes townships 37 to 42,
range 14; from 38 to 42, range 15; from 38 to 41, ranges 16 and 17;
from 37 to 40, ranges 18 and 19; from 37 to 38, range 20. Seven of
these townships bordering on the St. Croix are fractional. Much of the
soil of the county is a sandy loam admirably suited to cereals and
vegetables. Some townships in the southeast are first class wheat
lands. The timber is mostly a thicket-like growth of small pines,
constituting what is called pine barrens. The southeast portion of the
county is timbered with hardwoods. It is drained by the St. Croix,
Trade, Wood, Clam, Yellow, and Namakagon rivers, with their
tributaries, and with the Wood lakes (Big and Little), Mud Hen, Trade,
Yellow, Spirit, and numerous other lakes. There are besides many
thousand acres of marsh land. These marsh lands are by no means
valueless, as they have given rise to a very important industry--the
growing of cranberries. There are fine deposits of iron. Large tracts
of bog ore are found in townships 38 to 41, ranges 16 to 19. There is
an abundance of wild meadow land, easily drained and profitable to
stock growers.

The settlers of this county are, for the greater part, Swedish and
Norwegian emigrants, an intelligent, moral and religious class of
people who, while they cherish the traditions, manners, customs and
language of their native country, still readily adapt themselves to
American institutions, taking kindly to our common school system and
to other distinctive features of their adopted country. A liberal
spirit has characterized these people in building roads, bridges,
school houses, churches, and making other public improvements. They
have succeeded well also in their private enterprises, the cultivation
of farms and the building of homes.


ORGANIZATION.

The county, originally a part of Polk, was set off March 1, 1856, and
included also at that time, and till the year 1877, the present county
of Washburn. It was organized in 1865. The first county officers,
appointed by the governor, were: Judge, Nimrod H. Hickerson; clerk of
court, Canute Anderson; register of deeds, Peter Anderson; treasurer,
S. Thompson; sheriff, Martin B. Johnson; district attorney, Jacob
Larson. Grantsburg was selected as the county seat. The first county
supervisors, consisting of Michael Jenson, chairman, Thore Ingebritson
and Peter Anderson, met Jan. 24, 1865. The first election was held at
the house of Nimrod H. Hickerson, Nov. 7, 1865. The first frame house
in the county was built at Grantsburg in 1865, by W. H. Peck. The
first crops were raised in township 39, range 18, by Charles Ayer. The
finances of the county have been managed discreetly. The state
drainage fund was judiciously expended. The first deed recorded in
Burnett county was a tax deed from Polk county to Simon Estonson, of
the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 35, township
38, range 19. It bears date Jan. 20, 1866.


THE PINE BARRENS.

So prominent a feature in Burnett and other counties in Northwest
Wisconsin, consist of sandy stretches of undulating, though sometimes
of level lands, sparsely covered with a growth of young pines,
generally of the Black Prince variety. In some places, where the trees
are crowded thickly together, they are not unlike immense cane-brakes.
The trees, from their proximity, have grown very tall and slender. The
lateral branches, crowded together and deprived of sunshine, have
perished early and the growth of the young trees is chiefly vertical.
The lower dead limbs remaining attached to the trunks give the young
forest a peculiarly ragged and tangled appearance. There is abundant
evidence to prove the existence of ancient pine forests where these
pine barrens are now the only growth. In fact some of the larger trees
are still standing, and the charred trunks and decaying remnants of
others. The gradations from the younger to the older growth may be
very plainly seen. Fire is undoubtedly the efficient cause of the
stunted and irregular growth of the pine barrens. The matured forests
are destroyed by fire, and are succeeded by the young pines which are
further reduced and injured by annual fires. It is a mistake to
suppose that the soil of these barrens is necessarily poor. Many of
them have a black, sandy soil, capable of producing fine crops. In
most of them there is a dense undergrowth of blueberry bushes,
producing annually millions and millions of bushels of their small but
luscious fruit.


MURDERS.

Burnett county is not without the traditions of lawlessness and murder
that tarnish so many frontier settlements, and here, as elsewhere, the
primal cause of most of such crimes is whisky. Whisky maddens the
brain and nerves the arm of the assassin. Whisky hardens the heart and
blinds the eyes to what is right, and the sale of whisky on the
frontier, authorized or unauthorized, in nearly all cases the latter,
is the bartering of the human life for gold. The money received for it
is the price of blood, although in some instances the seller himself
may be the victim. It is whisky that does the work.

Jack Drake, a whisky seller at Wood Lake, whose outfit was supplied by
Samuels & Partridge, naturally of a quarrelsome disposition, was
especially so when under the influence of liquor. On one of these
occasions he was killed by a half-breed known as Robideau, and his
body was buried on the shores of Little Wood lake. Robideau was
imprisoned a short time at St. Croix Falls, but being carelessly
guarded, easily made his escape and was not heard of afterward. What
did it matter? It was only the result of a drunken row.

The body of a murdered stranger was found by a crew of men working on
Little Wood river, in the spring of 1843. He had left Superior City
with an Indian guide for St. Paul, and was not afterward seen alive.
His land warrants and watch, which had been taken from him, were
afterward recovered, and the Indian who had been his guide was
himself mysteriously assassinated the following spring.

GEEZHIC.--At Wood Lake, Burnett county, Wisconsin, lived in 1874 an
aged and blind Indian woman who calculated her pilgrimage on earth by
moons. All traces of her traditional beauty as an Indian maiden had
long since departed. Shriveled, decrepit, bent, she was the
impersonation of all that is unlovely and repulsive in age. Taciturn
and sullen, her mind lethargic and dull, she seemed but little more
than half alive, and could not easily be aroused to the comprehension
of passing events, or to the recognition of those around her. She must
have been very old. When aroused to consciousness, which was but
seldom, she would talk of things long past. A light would come into
her sightless eyes as she recounted the traditions, or described the
manners and customs of her people, and spoke with evident pride of
their ancient power and prowess when her people planted their tepees
on the shores of the "Shining Big Sea Water" (Lake Superior) and drove
their enemies, the Dakotahs, before them. Her people wore blankets
made from the skins of the moose; elk and buffalo, with caps from the
skins of the otter and beaver. There was then an abundance of "kego"
(fish) and "wash-kish" (deer). There were no pale faces then in all
the land to drive them from their tepees and take their hunting
grounds. Of course there had been occasional whites, hunters, trappers
and missionaries, but the formidable movements of the now dominant
race had not fairly commenced. Counting the years of her life on her
fingers, so many moons representing a year, she must have numbered a
score beyond a century, and she had consequently witnessed, before her
eyes were dimmed, the complete spoliation of her people's ancestral
domain.

The physical features of the country have undergone a change. The
towering pines have decayed or been leveled by the woodman's axe. Some
of the small lakes have receded, and tall grasses wave and willows
grow where once the "kego" sported in the clear blue waters. "The sun
drew the waters up into the heavens," but the old shores may still be
traced, by the fresh water shells that are crushed by the foot of the
explorer, and by the ineffaceable mark of the water breaking upon the
beach and undermining the rocky ledges.

A few Indians still linger on the old hunting grounds and about the
graves of their fathers, but as a race they are doomed, and the time
is not far distant when their only memorials will be the printed or
striped rocks that are found along the streams and lakes, and here and
there the sunken graves of the vanquished race.


THE FIRST MISSION.

In the autumn of the year 1833 the first mission was established in
the St. Croix valley, at the outlet of Yellow lake, in Burnett county.
This may be considered the first actual movement in opening the way
for white settlements in the St. Croix valley. The good and
indefatigable laborers, who came away into these western wilds, spent
many years in this valley endeavoring to improve the benighted
aborigines. Their labors were successful, until the bane of the human
family--alcoholic drinks--was introduced by the corrupt border
traders. Rev. Fred Ayer (since a resident of Belle Prairie, Minnesota,
and a member of the convention that framed our constitution), Mrs.
Ayer, with Miss Crooks (afterward Mrs. Boutwell) as teacher, arrived
at Yellow Lake Sept. 16, 1833. Miss Crooks opened her school on the
twenty-fourth, with eight scholars. This was evidently the first
school in the St. Croix valley. This mission was under the patronage
of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Thirty or
forty Indians came to the trading house, a mile from the mission, for
the purpose of obtaining ammunition and moccasins for making what is
called the fall hunt. During their visit at the traders', Mr. Ayer had
the opportunity of explaining the object of his mission--schooling
their children, and aiding them in agriculture, planting their
gardens, and furnishing them with seeds. To the objects of the mission
all listened with interest, but, as the chiefs were not present, no
reply was made to Mr. Ayer. After obtaining their supplies from the
traders, they dispersed for their fall hunt. The school in the
meantime progressed, and frequent opportunities occurred for giving
religious instructions to adults during the winter. In April some
twenty-five families encamped near the mission; many were interested
in the objects which the mission proposed. In the spring of 1834 four
families made gardens by the mission and schooled their children;
three of the families belonged to the influential in the band. One of
these, the chief who visited Washington during the administration of
Adams, was Gis-kil-a-way, or "Cat Ear."

The Indian mind is suspicious of the white man. Waiingas, "The Wolf,"
another chief of considerable note, was prejudicing the minds of his
friends against the whites. He openly declared that if the Indians
would join him, he would burn the mission house and drive the teachers
from his country. On one occasion a party of Indians, including this
hostile chief, passed the evening at Mr. Ayer's. The chief closed his
speech at midnight with these words: "The Indians are troubled in mind
about your staying here, and you must go--you shall go; not only I say
so, but all here present say so!" The next morning all the Indians
assembled. The trader, the late Dr. Borup, and his wife were present.
The Wolf and his party were determined to expel all the whites. The
friend of the white man, Cat Ear, took the floor and shaking hands
with Dr. Borup and Mr. Ayer, began a speech of half an hour's length.
Pointing to The Wolf and to two other chiefs sitting side by side, he
says: "I speak for them. Look at them. To them belong this land. Since
last evening we have considered this subject. We have changed our
minds. The Great Spirit made us all--made us red--you white. He gave
you your religion, manners and customs--he gave us ours. Before we saw
white man we dressed in skins and cooked with stones. You found our
land on the map and come--since then you have clothed and provided for
us. Why should we send you away? We only should be the sufferers--all
of us tell you to stay--again we say, stay. We do not wish you to go;
no, no--we say to you all, stay; you may plant and build, but the land
is ours. Our Great Father has sent you here--we are glad--we will tell
you why we fear the whites--we fear you will get our land away. If
this room were full of goods we would not exchange our lands for them.
This land is ours and our children's; it is all we have."

The mission at Yellow Lake had been in progress two years. Several
families had listened with glowing interest to religious instruction,
schooled their children, and cultivated gardens near the mission, when
Mr. Ayer visited the band of Indians at Pokegama. Here were some
thirty-five or forty families in the year 1835. The chief and two or
three families expressed to him a desire to settle down and school
their children. They requested him to come and bring all with him who
wished to come from Yellow Lake. The reasons that induced him to
Pokegama were, first, the means of subsistence were more abundant,
both for the Indians and the mission family--wild rice and fish in
particular; this being the case the Indians could be more stationary
and send their children to school. Second, the soil for agricultural
purposes was superior to that of Yellow Lake. As one of the leading
objects of the mission was to induce the Indians to settle down and
adopt habits of civilization, this object could be better attained at
this place than at Yellow Lake, where it was comparatively sterile and
sandy. A third object gained would be to locate in the midst of a
larger number of Indians, with whom we could come in more frequent
contact, and last, but not least, put the mission in a nearer point of
communication with St. Peter, from whence all the family necessaries
were obtained at that day. These reasons, together with the
solicitation of one of the chiefs, and his permission to build on his
land, and use his wood, water and fish, led Mr. Ayer, in the fall of
1835, to remove to Pokegama.

For the continued history of this mission the reader is referred to
the history of Pine county.

CHIPPEWAS OF WOOD LAKE.--A small band of Chippewas, as late as 1870,
lingered about Big Wood lake, unwilling to leave their old hunting
grounds. Though brought directly in contact with civilization, they
adopted its vices, otherwise remaining savages, taking no part in
cultivating the soil or educating their children, contented to live
and die in the old fashion of their race. They subsist, as far as
possible, by hunting and fishing, and are by no means above begging
when occasion may offer. They retain their annual dances and
festivals, at the occurrence of which other bands join them from a
distance. A dance with its accompanying feasts occupies generally
about ten days, and is conducted according to rigid formulas. These
dances are intended as representations of hunting, fishing or
fighting, and are honored accordingly. They are accompanied with music
upon rude instruments, and a weird chant in guttural and nasal tones,
which may be understood as a poetic recital of their deeds or
expression of their feelings. Their dead are buried in conspicuous
places. The graves are decorated with splints of timber. A pole with
rags and trinkets is planted near the graves. There is nothing that
can long mark their resting places or keep them from being desecrated
by the share of the plowman.


GRANTSBURG

Was founded by Canute Anderson, in 1865, in section 14, town 38, range
19. He built a flour and saw mill, the first in the county, a good
hotel, and opened a store. It became the centre of trade for the
county, prospered continuously, and now (in 1886) contains a good
court house, built at a cost of $7,000 (burned December, 1887), a
school house, four churches, two hotels, five stores and numerous
shops and dwellings. There are two resident lawyers and one physician.
Grantsburg is the terminus of the St. Paul & Duluth (branch) railroad,
completed in 1884. The scheme of building a branch road to connect
with the St. Paul & Duluth railroad at Rush City was long cherished by
Canute Anderson, and through his efforts the road was finally built.
The county voted $20,000 bonds, at seven per cent interest, which
bonds the state of Wisconsin cashed. The road was graded from
Grantsburg to the St. Croix river in 1878, from Rush City to St. Croix
in 1882. The St. Paul & Duluth Railroad Company built the railroad and
assumed the bonded indebtedness, payable in fifteen annual
installments. Cars ran to the St. Croix river in 1883. The bridge over
the St. Croix, completed in 1883, cost $20,000. The road was opened to
Grantsburg Jan. 22, 1884. At this opening over a thousand persons were
present, five hundred of whom came in on the train. Canute Anderson
made an address of welcome, followed by James Smith, president of the
road. Congratulatory letters were read from Hons. S. S. Fifield, Henry
M. Rice, and W. H. C. Folsom, the tenor of which was highly
complimentary to Mr. Anderson, and full of hope for the future of the
railroad and its terminus.

CANUTE ANDERSON was born in Norway, 1830. He came to America in 1851,
and three years later settled in the northeast quarter of section 2,
township 37, range 19, making a large stock farm, part of it being a
fine natural meadow, with running stream. In 1858 the first post
office in the county (called Anderson) was established at his house,
and he was appointed postmaster. In 1878 he represented Ashland,
Barron, Bayfield, Burnett, Douglas, and Polk counties in the
legislature. He is and ever has been a master spirit in his county,
using all his influence to further the interests of his adopted home.
Many of the early settlers were poor,--strangers in a strange
land,--and for them Mr. Anderson's house was ever a resort. It was
also an intelligence office, where the inquiring immigrant could
obtain reliable information as to the country and its resources, and
facilities to the settler. In 1860 Mr. Anderson was married to
Catharine Nelson, daughter of Magnus Nelson, one of Burnett county's
first settlers.

THE HICKERSON FAMILY came from Ohio to Wisconsin. Nimrod H., the
oldest brother, settled on Wood river in 1859, built a saw mill, kept
a hotel and established a post office on the St. Paul and Bayfield
stage route in 1860. Mr. Hickerson went to California in 1875, and
died there. Joel, the second brother, is a merchant at Grantsburg. He
served during the later years of the Civil War as a soldier, Company
C, Seventh Minnesota Volunteers, and was pensioned for disabilities.
He was married in 1868 to Mary Anderson. Perry D., the third brother,
keeps a hotel in Grantsburg. He was also a member of Company C,
Seventh Minnesota Volunteers, and with his brother was mustered out at
the close of the war, and has received a pension for disabilities. He
was married to Ellen M. Anderson, daughter of Peter Anderson. They
have eleven children. Newton, the fourth son, lives in Grantsburg. He
was a soldier in Company D, Twenty-first Ohio, during the war. Was
wounded and totally disabled. He has no pension. He is unmarried.

THE ANDERSON FAMILY.--The four brothers, Peter, George, Hans and
Martin, with their aged parents, came from Norway and settled in
Grantsburg in 1883. The father but recently died. The mother is still
living, having reached the extreme age of ninety-seven years. During
the last six years she has been blind. Peter Anderson was married in
Norway in 1846. His wife died in 1877, leaving three sons and four
daughters. He was married to his second wife in 1878. Peter has served
as county supervisor, and filled other offices. The brothers have been
active in promoting the interests of their town and county.

ROBERT A. DOTY was born in Niagara county, New York; lived some years
in Genesee county, Michigan, and settled in Sterling, Polk county, in
1865. He subsequently became the first settler in the town of
Marshfield, Burnett county. He was accidentally killed in 1879 by
being thrown from his wagon. His widow and two sons live in
Grantsburg. John H., the oldest son, resides on the old homestead in
Sterling.


THE CRANBERRY MARSHES.

The cultivation of the cranberry is an important industry in Burnett
county. The berry is raised chiefly in townships 38 and 39, ranges 17
and 18. The writer of these sketches visited the localities named in
1873, and although there have been many changes and improvements since
then, the description quoted from an essay read before the
Horticultural Society will still be generally applicable:

     "The scene on approaching these marshes, where the native
     cranberry was found, before the white man had commenced to
     improve them, was picturesque in the extreme to those who
     have a taste for Nature's handiwork. There are extensive
     tracts of land covering thousands of acres, dotted here and
     there with islands of young pine and points of highland
     projecting in various shapes into the marshes. It reminded
     me of an ocean bay, in a calm, only changing the ocean water
     color to endless green. There are in these marshes somewhere
     from one to two townships of land, on which cranberries were
     then growing, or susceptible of being improved so that
     cranberries can be raised thereon. One township contains
     23,040 acres. The parties operating on the marshes I visited
     already have some 30 or 40 miles of ditch made, averaging 5
     feet at the top, 3 feet at the bottom, with an average depth
     of 4 feet, at a cost of about 75 cents per rod. These
     ditches are to drain the water from the marshes when
     desired. They have dams across these ditches, to flood the
     marshes when desired. The flooding of the marshes aids in
     subduing the wild grasses and other incumbrances, also is
     essential to the growth of the berries. On these marshes,
     wherever the flowage is killing the grass, the vine is
     rapidly spreading, without transplanting. Undoubtedly they
     would yield a quicker return by transplanting. Large tracts
     of these lands, which, at this time have no vines, are
     bought by companies, mostly from the cranberry lands in
     Eastern Wisconsin, who are experienced in this business, and
     know what they are doing. They openly declare that vines can
     be grown on these marshes, where sufficient water can be
     obtained and controlled to flow the lands. Mr. Irvine
     informed me that this flooding process, and the manner in
     which it was controlled, was the key to success. I examined
     the effect which one year alone had accomplished, as these
     companies commenced operations in 1872. It surprised me when
     I saw the mode, and heard it explained, that so little was
     generally known of this business. After the marshes are
     subdued, dams and ditches built, there is comparatively
     small cost in raising the fruit until the harvest, when men,
     women and children flock in from the farming countries to
     pick, to pack, to store, to dry, to box, and convey to
     market. An expert will pick from five to ten bushels per day
     by hand, no rakes being allowed. In 1873 these marshes had
     an abundant yield. These companies paid to outsiders one
     dollar and fifty cents per bushel. There are several
     companies operating in Burnett county. They have made and
     are making substantial improvements, in building roads, dry
     houses, dwelling houses, etc. The past year a saw mill was
     erected for sawing staves for barrels, lumber for boxes,
     etc. These marshes are about twenty miles east of the
     Superior railroad."


WASHBURN COUNTY.

Washburn county was organized in 1883, and embraces townships 37 to
42, inclusive, and ranges 10 to 13, inclusive, a total of 24
townships. It is drained by St. Croix waters with the exception of the
southeast corner, which is drained by a branch of the Chippewa river.
It has been a rich timbered region and large forests of pine still
remain. The greater part of the county is adapted to agriculture, and
is settling rapidly. Two lines of railway traverse the county, one
from south to north, and the other from southwest to northeast, giving
the county excellent facilities for transportation and marketing of
products. The county is divided into two towns, Bashaw in the south
and Veasie in the north. These towns were organized in 1877, while
Washburn was a part of Burnett county. The first supervisors of Bashaw
were: L. E. Thomas, chairman; John Arbuckle and John McMullen. The
town of Bashaw was the first settled. John McMullen settled in
township 38, range 13, in 1872, in Bashaw valley. He married a member
of the Hart family, old settlers of the town. He died in 1878. L. E.
Thomas was the second settler in Bashaw and in Washburn county, and
has been officially connected with the town and county organization.
He is a native of Michigan, and has followed lumbering and farming. L.
E. Thomas built the first house. Nellie Raberge taught the first
school in Bashaw, in 1881. Miss Raberge has since become the wife of
Milton Stratton. The first post office was established in 1880, Mrs.
Malcolm Dobie, postmistress. The first sermon was preached by Rev.
Ellingwood. G. P. Pearly was the first physician; A. L. Bugbee, the
first lawyer. Messrs. Hart, Baker, Gardner and others have large farms
in Bashaw valley. By the act organizing the county,


SHELL LAKE

was made the county seat. It is beautifully located on the shores of
Summit lake. It has a court house, built at a cost of $11,000, in
1885, one of the most tasteful buildings of the kind in the St. Croix
valley. The town is built on railroad lands, purchased by the Shell
Lake Lumber Company, and by them surveyed into lots. The streets are
from sixty-six to eighty feet wide. A restriction in the deeds to the
lots and lands against the sale of alcoholic drinks has been
continuously violated. In 1883 the town board fixed license at five
hundred dollars, a plain violation of the original agreement.

A fine school building with four apartments was built in 1885, at a
cost of $5,000. Prof. Halphyde is principal of the schools. The
Episcopalians and Catholics have church buildings. The Baptists,
Methodists, Lutherans and Presbyterians have church organizations. The
Masons, Good Templars and Knights of Labor have organizations.

Summit lake, on the west bank of which the town is situated, is about
two and a half miles broad by three and a half long. It has bold,
gravelly shores. The water is deep, clear and pure. The slopes
surrounding it are covered with evergreen, and hardwood timber. One
small steamer floats upon its waters.

The first board of county officers was as follows: Treasurer, Leander
E. Thomas; clerk, Frank B. Nelson; sheriff, James Wynne; attorney,
Frank Gudette; register of deeds, Albert L. Bugbee; judge, L. H. Mead;
clerk of court, A. Gibson; superintendent of schools, Clara Stratton;
surveyor, Patrick Kelly. The first circuit court was held in June,
1883, Hon. S. S. Clough, presiding. The county has two court terms for
the year, in June and December.

The Shell Lake Lumber Company was organized in 1880, under Iowa laws.
It is composed of C. Lamb and David Joice and sons, of Clinton, Iowa;
Laird, Norton & Co., of Winona; Weyerhauser & Dinkeman, of Rock
Island, Illinois; S. T. McKnight, of Hannibal, Missouri; D. R. Moore,
Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Their mills are located on the northwest side
of Summit lake. They have a capacity of 50,000,000 feet per year. The
capital stock amounts to $500,000. Employment is furnished to 250 men.
In 1880 the hour system of labor was adopted. A narrow gauge railroad,
twelve miles long, supplied with two locomotives and fifty cars, is
used for bringing logs to mill. This road has a steel track and 3,000
feet of piling. The refuse burner of the mill is 20 feet in diameter
and 102 in height. There are 63 tenement houses to accommodate the
laborers. A. H. Earle superintends this vast concern.

Sawyer creek obtained its name from Seth M. Sawyer, of Stillwater.
This stream flows into Yellow river, five miles from Summit lake. It
rises from springs three hundred feet from the lake, and one hundred
feet lower down, and may be considered its subterranean outlet, as
visible outlet there is none. The lake, literally a summit lake, the
receding and descending slopes, the springs uniting to form a larger
stream, form a peculiar landscape, quite park-like in some of its
features, and worthy of being converted into a park.


SPOONER,

In the township of Veazie, on the north branch of the Yellow river,
township 39, range 12, is a dinner station on the North Wisconsin
railroad. The railroad company have fitted up an elegant eating house,
and a few neat buildings, the nucleus of a much larger village,
cluster around it.


VEAZIE VILLAGE

Is in township 41, range 10, and has a post office. The town of
Veazie, occupying the northern part of the county, was organized in
1877. Millions of feet of pine timber have been gathered and marketed
from this town, and it is estimated that 150,000,600 feet still
remain. Ames and Sinnot station are in the township of Veazie.


SAWYER COUNTY.

Sawyer county was organized March 9, 1883. It is comprised of
townships 37 to 42, and ranges 5 to 9, inclusive. Of these townships
twenty-five are drained by Chippewa waters and five by Namakagon
river. The county is heavily timbered with pine, though vast
quantities have been taken and marketed. The county seat was located
at Hayward in the bill organizing the county. The county officers,
appointed by Gov. Rusk, were: Sheriff, A. Blaisdell; clerk, C. H.
Clapperton; register of deeds, H. E. Ticknor; treasurer, R. L.
McCormack; county judge, H. W. Hart; attorney, N. E. Ticknor;
superintendent of schools, Miss M. Mears; surveyor, W. J. Moulton;
coroner, E. G. Gregg.

The court house was built in 1885, at a cost of $18,000. The county at
its organization assumed the following indebtedness:

To Ashland county                                       $25,000
To town of Ashland, Ashland county                        1,870
To town of Butternut, Ashland county                      2,050
To Chippewa county                                        1,900
To town of Flambeau, Chippewa county (disputed claim)     5,000
To town of Big Bend, Chippewa county                      3,000
To town of Sigel, Chippewa county                         2,000

Outside indebtedness, total                             $40,820

All this indebtedness, with the exception of the unsettled claim of
Flambeau, Chippewa county, has been paid. Since its organization the
county has expended $30,000 on roads to Chippewa waters. This, added
to the cost of the court house, $18,000, a school house for the town
of Hayward, $6,500, town hall for Hayward $5,000, makes a total of
expenditures for the county within the past three years of $106,420, a
remarkable sum for a new county with so sparse a population to pay,
but not so remarkable when we take into account the immense value of
its lumber products and standing timber.

Hayward is the only town in the county. Its first board of supervisors
were: A. J. Hayward, chairman; Thos. Manwarin and Michael Jordan. A.
L. McCormack was first treasurer, and C. C. Claghorn, clerk. The
village is situated in sections 21 and 22, township 41, range 9, upon
a level pine plateau on the north side of Namakagon river, a tributary
of the St. Croix. The village was platted in 1883, but a post office
had been established the year before, C. H. Clapperton being the first
postmaster. The first marriage in the town of Hayward and county of
Sawyer was that of Fred Emmons and Mary Lindmark, in 1883. The first
birth was that of a daughter to Al. Blaisdell. The first death was
that of Nels J. Eggin. Rev. A. Safford preached the first sermon. Anna
Shafer taught the first school. E. G. Gregg opened the first store.
H. E. Ticknor was the first lawyer and J. B. Trowbridge the first
physician.

The first school house, built at a cost of $5,000, was burned. There
was an insurance of $4,500. A new building was erected at a cost of
$6,000, with three departments, and with steam heating apparatus.
Prof. F. A. Nichols was the principal.

The Congregational church at Hayward is one of the finest church
buildings in the Northwest. It is built in the Queen Anne style, with
circular seats, the whole finished in exquisite taste. Senator Sawyer,
after whom the county was named, contributed a town clock and bell
worth $1,000. The Catholics have a church here, and the Lutherans an
organization. The Odd Fellows and Knights of Labor have organizations.

The Sawyer County Bank was organized March 9, 1884, with a capital
stock of $200,000, divided equally between three stockholders, R. L.
McCormack, A. J. Hayward and E. H. Halbert, the latter being general
manager and cashier. The bank deals in real estate, abstracts,
insurance and general monetary business. The business transacted for
the year ending June 6, 1886, amounted to $3,000,000. The bank
building is a substantial brick. The Hayward Lumber Company has a mill
on the Namakagon river. The water power has a fall of eighteen feet
and a flowage of about three miles. A sixty foot channel has been left
through the flowage for slucing logs. The saw mill has a capacity of
35,000,000 feet per annum. It has a planing mill attached. The company
is composed of T. F. Robinson, Weyerhauser & Dinkeman and R. L.
McCormack. Mr. Weyerhauser is president of the company. Mr.
Weyerhauser is also president of the Rock Island Lumber Company and of
Weyerhauser, Dinkeman & Co., of Rock Island, and is a stockholder in
Renwick, Crosset & Co., Cloquet, Minnesota, Shell Lake, Barronett,
Masons, White River, and Chippewa Falls Lumber companies, and is
president of the Beef Slough Boom and Chippewa and Mississippi Logging
companies. Mr. Weyerhauser is the most extensive holder and owner of
unoperated pine lands in the West, or probably on the continent. The
stockholders of the Hayward Lumber Company are all men of wealth
accumulated by their own industry. Mr. R. L. McCormack, the resident
stockholder and manager, is admirably adapted for the position he
holds. Mr. McCormack was a citizen of Minnesota for fourteen years,
and a member of the Minnesota legislature in 1881. He was born in
Pennsylvania in 1847.

Dobie & Stratton, contractors for pine stumpage on the Lac Oreilles
Indian reservation, reside in Hayward. They cut 28,000,000 feet of
logs in the winter of 1885-86.

MALCOMB DOBIE, of this firm, is a native of Canada. He came to the St.
Croix valley in 1864, and was married to Harriet Stratton, at St.
Croix Falls, in 1874.

MILTON V. STRATTON, brother of Mrs. Dobie, was raised at St. Croix
Falls, and engaged in business with Mr. Dobie. In 1886, his health
failing, he removed to California.


BARRON COUNTY.

Barron county was formerly a heavily timbered tract of country, but is
now being rapidly cleared and settled. It is well watered by the Red
Cedar and its tributaries, and has many beautiful lakes, among them
Turtle, Beaver, Chetek, Red Cedar, Rice, Bear, and Long lakes. The
county was first established as Dallas county, in 1859, and attached
to Polk for judicial purposes. In 1868 it was organized for county and
judicial purposes, and the county seat was changed from Manhattan to
Barron, section 26, township 34, range 12. By act of legislature in
1869, the name of the county was changed to Barron, and the county
seat was called by the same name, in honor of Hon. Henry D. Barron,
then judge of the Eleventh circuit. It comprises townships 32 to 36,
inclusive, and ranges 10 to 14, in all 25 townships. Barron county has
three railroads, on the lines of which thriving settlements have
sprung up. The railroads are three, the North Wisconsin, a branch line
of the Omaha, and the Minneapolis, Soo Ste. Marie & Atlantic. The
North Wisconsin railroad passes through the northwestern part of the
county. The Chippewa Falls & Superior City branch of the Omaha enters
the southeast corner, and traverses the county in a direction west of
north. The Minneapolis, Soo Ste. Marie & Atlantic passes through the
middle of the county in a direction from east to west.


TURTLE LAKE TOWN

Was organized in 1879. The village of Turtle Lake is situated in
sections 30 and 31, township 34, range 14. It contains a large saw
mill with a capacity of 40,000,000 feet per annum; a union depot, used
by the North Wisconsin, and Minneapolis, Soo Ste. Marie & Atlantic
railroads, and stores, shops and dwellings, all new. The Minneapolis,
Soo Ste. Marie & Atlantic railroad was built through the county in
1885, and completed in 1887.


BARRON,

The county seat, is a growing lumber town, with farming lands to the
south. It has a population of over 1,000. The "Soo Line" railway has a
station here.


PERLEY VILLAGE

Is located also in Turtle Lake town, in section 8, township 34, range
14, and on the line of the North Wisconsin railroad. It has a large
saw mill with a capacity of 16,000,000 feet per annum. The village is
beautifully located on Horse Shoe lake.


CUMBERLAND VILLAGE

Is situated in the town of Cumberland, section 7, township 35, range
15, on Beaver Dam lake. It is pleasantly situated, and is the largest
village on the line of the Northwestern railroad. Its appearance gives
evidence of enterprise and thrift on the part of its citizens. The
Beaver Dam Lumber Company have here a saw mill with a capacity of
24,000,000 feet per annum. Cook & Co. have a saw mill (burned and
rebuilt) with a capacity of 6,000,000 feet. The village has a bank and
one newspaper, the Cumberland _Advocate_, first issued in 1880 as the
_Herald_.

Cumberland was organized as a village in 1881, and organized under a
city charter in 1885. The population is now about 1,700. The
mercantile business will aggregate about $500,000 annually. The
aggregate output of lumber is 30,000,000 feet, while other industries
aggregate $200,000 per annum. There are four churches, one graded
school of five departments in which students are prepared to enter
college. There is here one banking house.


SPRAGUE

Is a village in Cumberland, on the Northwestern railroad. It has a saw
mill with a capacity of about 15,000,000 feet per annum.


COMSTOCK,

In Cumberland, on the Northwestern railroad, has a shingle mill and
saw mill, the latter having a capacity of about 5,000,000 feet.


BARRONETT,

In Cumberland, is located in township 36, range 13, in the midst of a
well timbered region. Its saw mill, directly on the county line, has a
capacity of 25,000,000 feet. M. Bowron has a farm adjoining the
village of 250 acres, improved and yielding tame grass.

De Graw and Granite Lake Mills are also located on the Northwestern
railroad.

Turtle Lake, Scott's Siding, Cosgrove, Barron, the county seat,
Cameron and Canton, are on the Minneapolis, Soo Ste. Marie & Atlantic
railroad.

Chetek, Cameron Junction, Rice Lake and Bear Creek are located on the
Omaha branch.

CHARLES SIMEON TAYLOR.--Mr. Taylor was born in Geneva, Wisconsin,
October, 1851; graduated at the Wisconsin State University; studied
law and settled at Barron, Barron county, in 1876, where he practices
his profession and edits the _Barron County Shield_. He was elected
member of the Thirty-seventh Wisconsin assembly in 1885-86 and
represented the counties of Barron, Bayfield, Burnett, Douglas, and
Washburn.



CHAPTER IX.

ASHLAND, BAYFIELD AND DOUGLAS COUNTIES.


ASHLAND COUNTY.

Ashland was originally a part of Crawford county, afterward of St.
Croix and La Pointe, and was set off from the latter March 27, 1860.
It is bounded on the north by Lake Superior and Montreal river, on the
east by Oneida, on the south by Price and Chippewa, and on the west by
Bayfield and Chippewa counties. It includes townships 41 to 47, ranges
1, 2, and 3 east of the fourth principal meridian, and townships 41 to
48 west of the same; the northern towns bordering on Montreal river
and Lake Superior are fractional. The group of Apostle islands belongs
to this county. The surface is generally level except where broken by
the iron and copper ranges in the middle and southern part of the
county. The Gogebic range, southeast of Ashland, is especially rich in
iron. A railroad along this range connects Ashland with the Michigan
roads. The soil is somewhat varied, ranging from sandy loam in the
interior, to red clay on the lake shore. The county is drained by Bad,
White and Montreal rivers and their tributaries, and the headwaters of
the Chippewa. The timber is pine, fir, birch, etc.

The Apostle islands, situated in Lake Superior at the mouth of
Chequamegon bay, form a fine natural harbor. The group consists of
twenty-two islands, the most considerable of which are Madeline,
Oatez, Oak, Hemlock, Rice, Basswood, Presque, Bear, Sand, and
Michigan. The islands range in area from a very few acres up to
14,804. They are heavily timbered with hardwood, have fertile soil,
and are well adapted to farm and garden culture. The largest of these
islands is Madeline, situated directly at the entrance to Chequamegon
bay, and noted as containing the oldest settlement on the lake. Claude
Allouez, a Jesuit missionary, landed at Madeline island Oct. 1, 1665,
and erected a bark chapel at the place now known as La Pointe, and
commenced instructing the Indians of the Algonquin and Huron tribes.
Since that time the island has been held by missionaries and trading
companies, with some pretty long intervals of abandonment. In 1800, M.
Cadot, a French trader, came to La Pointe, erected fortified dwellings
and lived here till his death, in 1837. At the commencement of the
present century the American Fur Company made its headquarters on the
southern part of the island, and occupied a post there until 1835,
when they removed to La Pointe. Rev. Sherman Hall, of the Presbyterian
church, established a mission here in 1830. In 1835 Rev. Father
Baraga, a Catholic missionary, arrived, and built a church which he
occupied until 1841, when he built a better one, which still stands in
the inclosure of an ancient burying ground. This church contains a
painting said to be over two hundred years old. Some of the graves are
quite ancient, and have quaint inscriptions upon their tombstones. One
that has often been copied and commented on by tourists is as follows:

    "ERECTED
    TO THE MEMORY OF ABRAHAM BEAULIEAU
    WHO WAS ACCIDENTALLY SHOT
    AS A MARK OF AFFECTION
    BY HIS BROTHER."

These islands are becoming a fashionable resort for tourists, and many
of them have been utilized as pleasant summer residences. Some of them
are occupied by lighthouses of which there are five in all. The
islands abound in brown stone, which is being quarried extensively for
building purposes. The stone for the Milwaukee court house was taken
from the quarries on Basswood island.

LA POINTE COUNTY ELECTION.--In 1848 La Pointe county was set off from
St. Croix county, and at an election held Nov. 10, 1848, John H. Wells
and Leonard Wheeler were elected justices of the peace, and J. F.
Hughes was elected clerk of the board of county commissioners. Returns
of their election and that of members of the legislature were made to
Hudson, county seat of St. Croix county.

HON. JOHN W. BELL, born in New York City in 1805, in his eighth year
went to Canada with his parents, learned to be a watchmaker, a ship
builder and a cooper, and came to La Pointe in 1835, where he has
since resided. He carried on the coopering business first, for the
American Fur Company, and then for himself established a trading post,
became interested in mining stocks, and filled various county offices,
having served as county judge and register of deeds a great many
years. In later life he was postmaster at La Pointe. He was married in
1837 to Miss Margaret Brahant, in the Catholic chapel, by Bishop
Baraga. He died in 1888.


ASHLAND

Is situated on a plateau of about thirty feet elevation, on the south
shore and near the head of Chequamegon bay. The first house, a cabin,
was built in 1854. Other cabins were added the same year. In the cabin
erected by Mr. Asaph Whittlesey, in the winter of 1854-55, was
preached the first sermon in Ashland by Rev. L. H. Wheeler, of the
Odanah mission. A post office was established in March, 1855, Mr.
Whittlesey, postmaster. The first American child born was the second
daughter of Asaph Whittlesey. The name of Ashland was conferred upon
the town by Martin Beaser, an ardent admirer of Henry Clay, it being
the name of Mr. Clay's homestead. The village and post office was
first known as Whittlesey, but on the organization of the county in
1860, the name of Ashland was applied to both. The new town was not
destined to immediate and continuous prosperity, and at one time, in
1863, had decreased so much in population that its post office was
discontinued for a period of nine years. After that date it entered
upon an era of prosperity.

Julia Wheeler taught the first school in 1859. The Methodists
organized the first Protestant society in 1872. The Catholics
commenced a church building in 1873. In 1872 the first newspaper in
Ashland, the _Press_, was established by Sam S. and Hank O. Fifield,
under whose charge it remained until 1874, when S. S. Fifield bought
his brother's interest in the paper and has since published it
continuously, and in 1888 established a daily.

In 1872 the Wisconsin Central railroad commenced work at the bay, and
the outlay for improvements that year amounted to $244,800. The
Wisconsin Central railroad built the Hotel Chequamegon in 1877. It is
built in the form of an L, 120 feet front and 80 feet deep with 400
feet of veranda, and accommodations for 100 guests. There are numerous
other hotels in the city, and several boarding houses receive guests
during the summer season. Ashland has vast lumber interests. The
Ashland Lumber Company built the first mill, in 1872, which had a
capacity of about 15,000,000 feet per annum. The Union mill, built in
1878, has a capacity of about 18,000,000 feet. Mueller & Richie's
mill, built in 1881, has a capacity of about 20,000,000 feet. There is
also a planing mill belonging to Geo. White. Ashland has become a
railroad centre. The Wisconsin Central, St. Paul & Omaha, Milwaukee &
Lake Shore and Northern Pacific concentrate a heavy freight for their
elevators and lake docks. The largest dock in the world was built in
Ashland in 1887. It was built almost expressly for iron ore shipments
from Penoka and Gogebic ranges.

ASAPH WHITTLESEY selected the site of Ashland in 1854, and in
conjunction with George Kilborn built the first dwelling. He was the
first postmaster. He was appointed in 1855. He represented Ashland,
Burnett, Douglas, La Pointe, Polk, and St. Croix in the Wisconsin
assembly in 1860.

J. P. T. HASKELL was the second settler in Ashland. He came with his
wife, Nov. 2, 1854, but did not long remain.

S. S. VAUGHN was born in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, Sept. 2, 1830. He came
with his brother to La Pointe in 1852, and engaged in the fishing and
fur trade until 1855, when he returned to Ohio. After taking a course
in a commercial college, he returned to Wisconsin in 1856, took a
claim of one hundred and sixty acres at Ashland and opened a store at
Bayfield. In 1856 he surveyed and platted what is known as Vaughn's
addition to Ashland. In 1871 he represented Ashland, Barron, Bayfield,
Burnett, Douglas, and Polk counties in the Wisconsin assembly. At
Ashland he built docks, warehouses and a store, and in later years
dealt largely in iron mines and in lumber. He was married to Miss E.
Patrick, of Ohio, in 1864. He died at Ashland, February, 1886. He
induced the Wisconsin Central Railroad Company to make Ashland their
lake terminus. He did more for that city than any other man.

EDWIN ELLIS, M.D., was born in Oxford county, Maine; was educated in
Farmington Academy, Colby University and Bowdoin College, where he
graduated and afterward completed a medical course at the University
of New York. He came West in 1854, and located first at St. Paul, but
in 1855 removed to Ashland where he made a claim, which, in part,
became in 1873 Ellis' addition to Ashland. He practiced his profession
at Ashland and Ontonagon, Michigan. He was married in 1850 to Martha
B. Baker, of Sharon, Maine.

MARTIN BEASER, one of the pre-emptors of the site of Ashland, was born
in Erie county, New York, Oct. 22, 1822. For many years he was a
seafaring man. He spent seven years in whaling, at the close of which
time he came to Ontonagon in a sailing vessel, and thence with three
companions in a dog sledge to Ashland, arriving February, 1856. Here
he pre-empted land, and assisted in laying out the village. He engaged
in the mercantile business. He was drowned in November, 1866, while
trying to cross Chequamegon bay in an open boat during a storm. Mr.
Beaser was a public spirited man and freely used his wealth in
attempting to build up Ashland. He never lost faith in the ultimate
prosperity of his adopted home.

HON. SAM S. FIFIELD was born in Corinna, Penobscot county, Maine, June
24, 1839. His early days were spent in Bangor, and he had but limited
school privileges. He was early thrown upon his own resources and
learned lessons in the rough school of life. He spent his time
variously, as errand boy, hotel clerk, night watch on a steamboat,
toll keeper; but finally, having served a brief apprenticeship in a
printing office, he became the proprietor of the _Polk County Press_
in 1862. In 1872 he and his brother Hank O. established the Ashland
_Press_, of which he is now sole editor and publisher. Mr. Fifield
entered the political arena as a Republican and has been remarkably
successful. His record from the Wisconsin blue book is as follows:

1868-69--Assembly proof-reader and assistant sergeant-at-arms.
1871-72--Assembly sergeant-at-arms.
1874-75-76--Member of assembly from Ashland, Barron, Burnett, Douglas, and
Polk counties.
1876--Speaker of the assembly.
1877--Member of the senate.
1880-81--Member of the senate.
1882-86--Lieutenant governor.

Mr. Fifield was married to Stella Grimes, at Prescott, 1863.
Considering the disadvantageous circumstances of his youth, Mr.
Fifield's career has been a notable one.


BAYFIELD COUNTY.

Bayfield county includes townships 43 to 52, except as affected by the
irregular outline of its lake boundary on the north, and ranges 5 to
9. It has seventy-five miles of lake shore, with some fine harbors,
the finest of which are those in the shelter of the Apostle islands,
on the northeast. The country is covered with dense growths of
evergreen and hardwood timber. Numerous streams flow into the lake on
the north, and into the tributaries of the St. Croix on the south. The
Chippewa Indians formerly occupied the country. The Red Cliff Indian
reservation is located at Buffalo Bay, a short distance north of
Bayfield City. The territory of Bayfield county has been successively
in the bounds of Crawford, St. Croix and La Pointe. By subsequent
subdivisions Douglas and Ashland counties were set off from La Pointe,
and the Apostle islands given to Ashland, and the remaining part of La
Pointe was organized as Bayfield county, with the county seat at
Bayfield, in 1868. Aside from traders and adventurers and the
occasional advent of a missionary, the first settler was Elisha Pike,
who came with his family in 1855, and settled in section 21, township
50, range 4, not far from Bayfield. Bayfield was named in honor of
Admiral Bayfield of the British Navy, who made a survey of Lake
Superior in 1822-23.


BAYFIELD.

The village of Bayfield was platted in 1856, by H. M. Rice. It has
since been incorporated. It is beautifully situated. The site slopes
gently from high timbered regions to the shores of the bay. The waters
of the bay are deep, clear, and, from the shelter afforded by the
Apostle islands, almost unruffled. The harbor thus afforded is among
the best on the lake. Bayfield was made a port of entry in 1858. The
city is well supplied with stores, mills, hotels, school houses, and
churches. There are many pleasant homes, with fountains playing in
front, lawns, shade trees and ornamental shrubs. The landscape,
especially to those residing in the rear of the city on the higher
grounds, is exquisitely beautiful. There are many beautiful trout
brooks and ponds in the suburbs. As a summer resort Bayfield is
becoming every year better appreciated. The Bayfield _Press_,
established in 1874, is the local newspaper. It is edited and
published by Currie C. Bell.


WASHBURN

Is a new town on the west side of Chequamegon bay. It is the lake
terminus of the Omaha railroad. It has a fine harbor, large mills and
other enterprises that mark it as a growing town.


DRUMMOND, PRATT AND MASON

Are prosperous manufacturing villages, with large saw mills, located
on White river, on the line of the North Wisconsin railroad.


CABLE STATION,

On the railroad, in township 43, range 7, contains about a dozen
buildings. Mathews, Olson & Co. are working a silver mine near Cable
which yields twenty-three dollars per ton. There are several other
villages and stations on the line of the two railroads passing through
this county.


DOUGLAS COUNTY.

This county occupies the extreme northwestern corner of the State,
having a frontage of six townships on the lake by six on the Minnesota
state line, making a total of thirty-six whole townships and five
fractional, the latter lying along the lake. The northern part of the
county is drained by the tributaries of St. Louis river and Lake
Superior, the principal streams being the Nemadji, Middle and Brule
rivers. The southern part is drained by the St. Croix and tributaries.
The Omaha railroad intersects the county from south to north, having
its northern terminus at West Superior. The Northern Pacific crosses
the upper tier of towns, having its principal station at Superior.
Thriving villages are growing up along these lines of railroad, and
the county is being rapidly settled. It was organized as a county in
February, 1854, from territory originally belonging successively to
Crawford, St. Croix and La Pointe counties.

The first election was held Nov. 7, 1854. The following officers were
elected: County judge, J. A. Markland; sheriff, Asa A. Parker;
district attorney, R. R. Nelson; register of deeds, F. A. Whitaker;
county treasurer, Bradley Salter; supervisors, Frank Perfect, Chas. H.
Kimball and Alexander Paul; supervisors' clerk, C. H. Kingsbury;
superintendent of schools, J. J. Post; coroner, R. H. Barrett. Judge
J. A. Markland held the first term of court, June 4, 1854. The first
deed filed in the county was from William Herbert to Geo. L. Becker,
being a warranty in section 14, township 47, range 14. Consideration,
$250. The deed was recorded February, 1854. At the organization of the
county, Superior was made the county seat.


SUPERIOR CITY.

The site is on a beautiful plateau originally covered with pine, lying
on the southern shore of Lake Superior, separated, however, from it by
the waters of Superior bay, a fine natural harbor shut in from the
lake by tongues of land called Minnesota and Wisconsin Points. These
approach within a half mile of each other, the space thus left being
the original outlet of the bay. Between Wisconsin Point and the main
land lie the waters of Allouez bay, extending in length a distance of
three miles, and in width in its widest part about one mile. The
Nemadji river flows into Superior bay near its outlet. The bay of St.
Louis finds an outlet into Superior bay between Rice's Point and a
tongue of land a mile or more in length, projecting from the Wisconsin
main land. Minnesota Point, which separates Superior bay from Superior
lake, is a strip of land seven miles in length, with an average width
of seven hundred feet, beautifully fringed with pines. At the outlet
of Superior bay two piers have been constructed, extending into the
lake three-fourths of a mile. On one of these piers is a forty-day
lighthouse, constructed by the government. The bay forms one of the
finest harbors in the world.

The plateau on which Superior City is located is about thirty-five
feet above the waters of the bay. The site occupies the triangular
space lying between St. Louis bay and the bays of Allouez and
Superior, and has at least eleven miles of frontage on these bays,
along which numerous docks and piers have been built and projected,
some of them costing as much as $200,000. The government surveys were
made in 1853, by George R. Stuntz. In July of the same year J.
Addison Bulmer made a location on Allouez Point. In August, John T.
Morgan settled at the mouth of the Nemadji river. They were followed
by Wm. H. Newton, George E. Nettleton, Benjamin Thompson, Col. D. A.
Robertson, R. R. Nelson, and D. A. J. Baker, of St. Paul. In September
the Roy brothers and ---- Cadott came. The same autumn Frank Roy,
Abraham Emmuit and Louis Souvenard made pre-emptions of frontage on
Superior bay. Several buildings were erected. Mr. Roy and others give
to Col. Robertson the honor of building the first house in Superior.
It is still standing.

In the fall of 1853 mineral explorations were made, and mines were
worked during the ensuing winter. An Indian trail was widened and a
road opened into the St. Croix valley by which supplies were brought
from St. Paul. This road was not wide enough for wagons, but was
traveled during the winter in dog sledges and on snowshoes. The winter
following the opening of the road, Messrs. Robertson, Nelson and Baker
went over it to St. Paul on foot. In the spring of 1854 Newton and
others made additional surveys of the town site of Superior City, and
the same was recorded Nov. 6, 1854. Settlers came in rapidly. O. K.
Hall built a hotel. At the organization of Douglas county, in 1854,
Superior was made the county seat, the proprietors donating twelve
acres of land for county buildings. Two lots for every eight blocks
were donated for schools, twenty lots for churches, and a square for a
park. A weekly mail to and from St. Paul was established in July of
that year. A saw mill was erected. A land office was established at
Superior that year. Rev. David Brooks, a pioneer Methodist minister,
preached the first sermon, using a carpenter's shop as an audience
room.

An old settlers' association was organized September, 1855, known as
the Fond du Lac Historical Society. Its officers were: R. B. Carlton,
president; W. H. Norton and E. F. Ely, vice presidents; E. W. Perry,
secretary. The Superior _Chronicle_ issued its first number June 12,
1855. It was the first newspaper published at the head of Lake
Superior. Ashton & Wise were the publishers. The second number
contained the announcement of the opening of the Ste. Marie canal and
the passage through it of the first boat, the steamer Illinois. It
contained also the astonishing announcement, from the St. Anthony
_Express_, that a salt lake had been discovered by W. H. Ingersoll,
one hundred and fifty miles west of St. Cloud. The salt was said to
be of good quality, and in such quantity that it could be gathered by
the bushel. Large beds of coal had also been discovered near the lake.
The _Chronicle_ was discontinued in 1863 and succeeded by the Superior
_Gazette_ in 1864. The _Gazette_ has been succeeded by the Superior
_Times_, now edited by J. Lute, Thomas Bardon, proprietor.

Superior City has passed through periods of depression as well as of
advancement. At an early period speculators were lured to the spot by
the manifest advantages it presented for the building of a great city.
The favorable site attracted attention throughout the Union. Wealthy
men and men prominent in the political history of the country invested
largely. Amongst these we find the names of W. W. Corcoran, of
Washington; Robert J. Walker, of New York; G. W. Cass, of Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania; Horace S. Walbridge, of Toledo, Ohio; the Breckenridges
of Kentucky; the Rice brothers, of St. Paul; and James Stinson, of
Chicago. With the influence of these names, and the means furnished,
the new city had a rapid, if not healthy growth. The prosperity was
short lived. The adjacent country was not sufficiently developed, the
shipping interests languished, and those who had been attracted hither
by dreams of becoming suddenly rich, were discouraged and moved away,
till, in 1858, the city was half deserted. The period of depression
continued through the Civil War, and for years afterward, until, by
the building of railroads and the consequent development of the
country, the claims of Superior as a centre of trade were again
acknowledged, and the tide of emigration was turned back. With
Allouez, Superior and Duluth bays for its harbor, with its railroads
already built, building or projected, its enterprising people are
ready to contest with Duluth for the sovereignty of the Unsalted Seas.

Superior, being a combination of Old Superior and West Superior under
one municipality, was organized as a village Aug. 27, 1887, and held
her first village election Sept. 24, 1887, with a population of 6,000
people. It was organized with the following officers: President, L. F.
Johnston; trustees, Wm. Munro, Neil Smith, L. G. Moran, A. Lederman,
A. A. Cross, and Howard Thomas.


WEST SUPERIOR

Was platted in 1884. The first buildings were erected in October of
the same year. The city has now a population of 3,000. It has
excellent graded schools, under the supervision of Prof. G. Glen
Williams. The Catholics, Presbyterians and Congregationalists have
church buildings, and the Methodists are about to build. A hotel is in
process of building that will cost when completed $100,000. West
Superior is supplied with water works, the electric light, extensive
coal docks and elevators, and has three newspapers, the Superior
_Inter-Ocean_, established June 3, 1886; the West Superior _News_,
established June 24, 1886; and the _Sunday Morning Call_, established
July, 1887.

THE BARDON BROTHERS.--James, Thomas and John A. Bardon came early to
Superior City and upheld her doubtful fortunes in the days of trial,
never losing faith in her prospective greatness. They have not toiled
and watched and waited in vain. The expected railways have been built;
the improved harbor, with dredge boats, well built piers and
lighthouse, has been completed. Surveys and terminal approaches of
other roads insure the commercial prosperity of the city. Thomas has
for some years been a resident of Ashland, Wisconsin.

WM. H. NEWTON, an early citizen of Superior City, is among those who
have never lost faith in its future prosperity, believing the head of
the lake to be the natural terminus of European trade and a centre of
American commerce. He is an engineer, surveyor, real estate dealer,
and is interested in some of the converging lines of railroad at
Superior City.

SOLON H. CLOUGH.--Mr. Clough was born in Madison county, New York,
Aug. 31, 1828; was educated at Fulton Academy, since known as Falley
Seminary, Oswego county, New York. He attended for a short time
Hamilton College, New York, studied law, and was admitted to the bar
at Syracuse in 1851. He came to Hudson, Wisconsin, in the fall of
1857; in 1861 was elected mayor of Hudson; in 1864, judge of the
Eleventh circuit, and removed to Osceola. In 1869 he removed to
Superior City; in 1876 returned to Hudson, but removed again to
Superior in 1881, where he still resides. He was re-elected circuit
judge in 1870, and in 1882 was appointed by Gov. Rusk to fill the
vacancy caused by the death of Judge Barron. At the conclusion of his
term he was re-elected for the ensuing term. Judge Clough was married
in 1851 to Kate Taylor, of New York.

VINCENT ROY, a brother of Peter Roy, well known among the pioneers of
the Northwest, was born in Fort Francis in 1825; came to La Pointe in
1839; attended school a few terms, and engaged in the fur trade. In
1854 he came to Superior, where he still resides, and is an active,
enterprising merchant.

D. GEORGE MORRISON, a son of William Morrison, the discoverer of the
source of the Mississippi, resides at Superior City, where he has
served as register of deeds for Douglas county since 1856, a period of
thirty-one years. He came to Superior an 1854.

AUGUST ZACHAU came to Superior in 1852, from Chicago, where he had
been for three years, working at the carpenter's trade. He was then
twenty-seven years of age, and a Prussian by birth. He was engaged by
the Superior Town Site Company to superintend the building
improvements going on at what is now the East End. When he came up, no
Ste. Marie canal had been dug, and a portage was necessary between
Lakes Superior and Huron, involving a change in the line of vessels.
He built the first hotel in Superior, the old Pioneer House, which
burned in 1857, and also the present Nicollet House, which was built
of logs, cut on what is now Tower Slip. He also built the Quebec pier,
the first dock ever built at the head of Lake Superior. He also
assisted in cutting the old government trail through to the St. Croix
river. He was an active participant in the defense of the town site
people in their battles with the claim jumping pre-emptioners, who had
settled on the lands adjoining, and who filed contests on much of the
town site as soon as the plats were returned to the land office at
Willow River, now known as Hudson. In cutting the sixty miles of trail
to the St. Croix, every able-bodied man turned out, except enough to
guard the homes and cut kindling wood. The axemen ground their axes at
Fond du Lac, the only trading station of importance at that time on
the St. Louis river. He pre-empted, in the interest of his fellow
sufferers on the town site, eighty acres of land, now part of
Superior. He has always led a quiet, laborious life; now runs a small
general store at the East End, and does a little general contracting
for ties and bridge timbers and dock piling. He has a family of five
boys and one girl now living, all in Superior.

Among the first settlers were Judge Hiram Hayes, ---- Ritchie and ----
Gates.



CHAPTER X.

PINE COUNTY.


Prior to the organization of Minnesota Territory, in 1849, Pine county
was included within the limits of St. Croix county, Wisconsin. Until
the organization of Chisago county, in 1852, it was within the limits
of Ramsey, and from thence until 1854, within the limits of Chisago,
when it was organized under its present name. Until 1858 it included
the territory of the present counties of Kanabec and Carlton. It is
bounded on the north by Carlton county, on the east by the St. Croix
river and the state line, and on the west by Aitkin and Kanabec
counties. It is well watered by the St. Croix, Kettle and Kanabec
rivers with their numerous tributaries. There are many fine lakes
within its borders. The finest of these are Cross, Pokegama, Pine and
Sturgeon lakes. This county was originally heavily timbered with pine,
from which fact it derived its name. Though immense quantities have
been removed, the supply is still great enough to make this region a
lumberman's paradise for years to come.

The facilities for floating logs to the St. Croix are scarce equaled
elsewhere. Since 1837 the Kanabec river has been a principal feeder to
the lumber trade of the St. Croix valley. In some of the forests a new
growth has succeeded the old, and should the land be not otherwise
used, the lumberman may yet reap successive harvests in periods
ranging from eight to fifteen years. Much of the land in this county
is well adapted for agriculture. The soil is chiefly a sandy loam with
clay subsoil. Much of the county will eventually become a good grazing
and cereal growing region. The southern townships are heavily timbered
with hardwood and are rapidly being converted into good wheat farms. A
large quantity of cordwood, piles and ties is annually marketed by
means of the railroad. Kanabec river is navigable from Chengwatana and
Pine City to Brunswick, in Kanabec county. The same steamboat that
since 1881 has navigated the Kanabec, also makes trips, six miles up
the Rice and Pokegama rivers. The first crops raised in the county,
except those raised by traders and missionaries, were raised on the
Greeley farm, Kanabec river, near the western limits of the county, by
Royal C. Gray.

At the organization of the county, Herman Trott, George W. Staples and
Royal C. Gray were appointed commissioners. The county was attached
for judicial purposes to Chisago until 1872, at which date the county
seat, located at Chengwatana by legislative enactment, was changed by
a popular vote to Pine City. The first district court was held in
October, 1872, Judge Crosby, presiding; John D. Wilcox, clerk; Edward
Jackson, sheriff.

The first marriage license, issued in 1872, was to John Kelsey and
Mary Hoffman. The first board of county officers, after the removal of
the county seat, were: Commissioners, Hiram Brackett, George Goodwin
and Edward Jackson; auditor, Adolph Munch; register of deeds, Don
Willard; county attorney, treasurer and superintendent of schools,
John D. Wilcox. The first article recorded by the register of Pine
county was a military land warrant, No. 12702, in the name of Prudence
Rockwell, located by William Orrin Baker upon the southeast quarter of
section 32, township 38, range 20, subject to forty days' pre-emption,
dated Stillwater, June 19, 1855; T. M. Fullerton, register. Assigned,
June 14, 1856, to Enos Jones. The second record is of a warranty deed
from John F. Bradford to W. A. Van Slyke, of Ramsey county, of the
west half of the northwest quarter of section 30, township 39, range
19, and the west half of the northwest quarter of the same section.

The finances of the county were in good condition until 1872, from
which time, owing to heavy expenditures for new roads, with possibly
injudicious management, and two defalcations of county auditors,
considerable embarrassment ensued. In 1876 the state legislature
bonded the county indebtedness of $10,000, in ten year bonds, at ten
per cent interest. These bonds were readily received by the creditors,
and the county is now free from debt. During the last year a bridge
800 feet long was built across the Kanabec river near Pine City, at a
cost of $3,350, for which the State appropriated $1,500 and the county
$1,850.

The Lake Superior & Mississippi railroad was completed to Kanabec
river in 1868, and in 1869 extended northwest to the county line. The
building of this road was speedily followed by the erection of
numerous mills along its line, a list of which is appended, with the
very remarkable statistics of the losses by fire, from which but four
of these mills were exempt:

     North Branch, Swenson & Co., flour mill; burned; loss,
     $8,000.

     Rush City, Taylor & Co., capacity 1,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $3,000.

     Rock Creek, Edgerton & Co., capacity 2,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $8,000; rebuilt.

     Rock Creek, Strong & Co., capacity 1,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $1,500; rebuilt.

     Rock Creek, Long & Co., capacity 1,000,000 feet yearly;
     removed.

     Pine City, Ferson & Co., capacity 10,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $50,000; rebuilt.

     Pine City, Ferson & Co., capacity 10,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $25,000; rebuilt.

     Pine City, Munch & Burrows, stave mill; burned; loss,
     $10,000.

     Pine City, Brackett & Co., capacity 3,000,000 feet yearly.

     Mission Creek, Taylor & Co., capacity 3,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $12,500; rebuilt.

     Mission Creek, Taylor & Co., capacity 3,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $12,500.

     Hinckley, Grant & Co., capacity 1,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $3,000.

     Hinckley, McKean & Butler, capacity 3,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $7,000; rebuilt.

     Miller Station, Robie & Co., shingle mill; burned; loss,
     $3,000.

     Kettle River, S. S. Griggs & Co., capacity 3,000,000 feet
     yearly; never operated; loss, $5,000.

     Moose Lake, McArthur & Co., capacity 2,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $30,000.

     Barnum, Cooley & Co., capacity 1,000,000 feet yearly;
     burned; loss, $5,000.

     Barnum, Bliss & Co., capacity 10,000,000 feet yearly.

     Northern Pacific Junction, Payne & Co., two mills burned;
     loss, $50,000; rebuilt the third time.


POKEGAMA LAKE.

This beautiful lake lies in township 39, range 22. It is about five
miles in length by one in breadth and finds an outlet in Kanabec
river. It is celebrated for its historical associations. Thomas
Conner, an old trader, informed the writer of these sketches, in 1847,
that he had had a trading post on the banks of this lake thirty years
before, or about the year 1816. This was before Fort Snelling was
built. Mr. Conner said that there was a French trading post at
Pokegama long before he went there. It was in the spring of 1847,
after a wearisome day's tramp, that I made his acquaintance and shared
his unstinted hospitality. His post, at that time, was located at the
mouth of Goose creek, Chisago county, on the banks of the St. Croix.
His rude, portable house was built of bark, subdivided with mats and
skins into different apartments. Although at an advanced period in
life, his mind was clear and he conversed with a degree of
intelligence which caused me to ask him why he lived thus secluded,
away from all the privileges of a civilized life. His reasons, some of
them, were forcible; he liked the quiet of the wilderness, away from
the turmoils of the envious white race. I learned from him many
interesting facts connected with travelers, traders and explorers of
our St. Croix valley. This was the last season he spent on the river.

In 1847, when I visited Pokegama, Jeremiah Russell, an Indian farmer,
had a very pretty farm on a point of land on the southwest side of the
lake, and between the lake and the river. A Frenchman, Jarvis, lived a
short distance from Russell. Across the lake from Russell's were the
neat and tasteful log buildings and gardens of the Presbyterian
mission. The mission was established in the spring of 1836, by Rev.
Frederic Ayer and his associates, under the auspicies of the American
Board of Foreign Missions. Mr. Ayer had been laboring at Yellow Lake
mission, but, owing to the growing unfriendliness of the Indians, had
been removed to Pokegama. Much pertaining to the mission work, both at
Pokegama and elsewhere, will be found in the biographies of the
principal missionaries. We mention here only such incidents as may be
of more general interest. For many of these incidents we are indebted
to Mrs. Elisabeth J. Ayer, of Belle Prairie, the widow of Rev.
Frederic Ayer, for a long time missionary to the Ojibways. This
estimable lady has passed her eighty-fifth year, but her mind is still
clear and her hand steady, her manuscript having the appearance of the
work of a precise young schoolmistress. She mentions an old Canadian,
who had been in the country sixty years, and for seven or eight years
had been entirely blind. He was known as Mushk-de-winini
(The-old-blind-prairie-man), also the old trader, Thomas Conner, the
remains of whose mud chimney and foundation of the old trading house
may still be seen on the southern shore of the lake.

Franklin Steele was the first white man to visit the mission. In the
spring of 1837 the mission aided three or four families in building.
February, 1837, Rev. Mr. Hall, of the La Pointe mission, visited
Pokegama, and organized a church of seven members,--three of whom were
natives,--administered the ordinance of baptism to eight persons, and
solemnized two marriages, probably the first in the valley of the St.
Croix. Revs. Boutwell and Ely came to the mission in 1837. A school
had been opened, some Indian houses built, and gardens enlarged, and
the future of the mission seemed assured. Mrs. Ayer relates the
following account of the


BATTLE OF POKEGAMA.

In 1811 the Sioux selected this settlement as the place to avenge the
wrongs of the Ojibways--some of recent date; the principal of which
was the killing of two sons of Little Crow (done in self defense)
between Pokegama and the falls of the St. Croix. The Sioux arrived at
Pokegama in the night, and stopped on the opposite side of the lake,
two miles from the mission. The main body went to the main settlement,
and, after examining the ground where they intended to operate, hid
among the trees and brush back of the Indian gardens, with orders that
all keep quiet on both sides of the lake till a given signal, when the
Indians were busy in their gardens, and then make quick work. But
their plans failed. Most of the Ojibways of the settlement had, from
fear of the Sioux, slept on an island half a mile out in the lake (I
mean the women and children), and were late to their gardens. In the
meantime a loaded canoe was nearing the opposite shore and the few
Sioux who had remained there to dispatch any who, in time of battle,
might attempt to escape by crossing over, fired prematurely. This gave
the alarm, and saved the Ojibways. The chief ran to Mr. Ayer's door
and said, expressively: "The Sioux are upon us," and was off. The
Indians seemed at once to understand that the main body of the enemy
was at hand. The missionaries stepped out of the door and had just
time to see a great splashing of water across the lake when bullets
came whizzing about their ears, and they went in. The Sioux had left
their hiding place and the battle commenced in earnest. Most of the
women and children of the settlement were yet on the island. The house
of the chief was well barricaded and most of the men gathered in
there. The remainder took refuge in a house more exposed, at the other
end of the village. The enemy drew up very near and fired in at the
window. One gun was made useless, being indented by a ball. The owner
retired to a corner and spent the time in prayer. The mother of the
house, with her small children, was on her way to the island under a
shower of bullets, calling aloud on God for help.

The missionaries seeing from their windows quantities of bloody flesh
upon stumps in the battle field, thought surely that several of their
friends had fallen. It proved to be a cow and calf of an Ojibway. The
mission children were much frightened and asked many questions, and
for apparent safety went up stairs and were put behind some well
filled barrels. In the heat of battle two Ojibways came from the
island and landed in front of Mr. Ayer's house. They drew their canoe
ashore and secreted themselves as well as the surroundings would
permit. Not long after three Sioux ran down the hill and toward the
canoe. They were fired upon and one fell dead. The other two ran for
help but before they could return the Ojibways were on the way back to
the island. Not having time to take the scalp of their enemy, they
hastily cut the powder horn strap from his breast, dripping with
blood, as a trophy of victory. The Sioux drew the dead body up the
hill and back to the place of fighting. The noise ceased. The battle
was over. The missionaries soon heard the joyful words, quietly
spoken: "We still live." Not a warrior had fallen. The two school
girls who were in the canoe at the first firing in the morning were
the only ones killed, though half the men and boys in the fight were
wounded. The Sioux women and boys who had come with their warriors to
carry away the spoils had the chagrin of returning as empty as they
came.

The Ojibways were careful that no canoe should be left within reach of
the Sioux. From necessity they took a canoe, made by Mr. Ely, and
removed their dead two miles up the river, dressed them (seemingly) in
the best the party could furnish, with each a double barreled gun, a
tomahawk and scalping knife, set them up against some large trees and
went on their way. Some of these articles, including their
head-dresses, were sent to the museum of the American board, in
Boston.

In the closing scene the missionaries had the opportunity of seeing
the difference between those Indians who had listened to instruction
and those who had not. The second day after the battle the pagan party
brought back to the island the dead bodies of their enemies, cut in
pieces, and distributed parts to such Ojibways as had at any time lost
friends by the hands of the Sioux. One woman, whose daughter was
killed and mutilated on that memorable morning, when she saw the
canoes coming, with a head raised high in the air on a long pole,
waded out into the water, grabbed it like a hungry dog and dashed it
repeatedly on the stones with savage fierceness. Others of the pagans
conducted themselves in a similar manner. They even cooked some of the
flesh that night in their kettles of rice. Eunice (as she was named at
her baptism) was offered an arm. At first she hesitated; but for
reasons, sufficient in her own mind, thought best to take it. Her
daughter-in-law, widow of her son who had recently been killed and
chopped into pieces by the Sioux, took another, and they went into
their lodge. Eunice said: "My daughter, we must not do as some of our
friends are doing. We have been taught better," and taking some white
cloths from her sack they wrapped the arms in them, offered a prayer,
and gave them a decent burial. About this time a Mr. Kirkland was sent
from Quincy, Illinois, by a party who wished to plant a colony not far
from the mission station. He arrived at Pokegama very soon after the
battle. Notwithstanding what had happened he selected a location on
Cross lake, just where a railroad has now been in operation for some
years. He worked vigorously for two or three weeks, and then went to
consult the Indian agent and the military at Fort Snelling. They gave
him no encouragement that the two tribes would ever live in peace; and
he went home. The Ojibways lived in constant fear, and the place was
soon deserted. This was a great trial to the missionaries; but they
did not urge them to stay. They separated into small parties and went
where they could get a living for the present and be out of danger.
The teachers remained at their post, occasionally visiting the Indians
in their retreat, hoping they might soon think it safe to return to
their homes. In this they were disappointed. These visits were not
always very safe. On one of these trips Mr. Ayer was lost, and from
cold and hunger came near perishing. Not finding the party he sought,
he wandered about for a day or two. In the meantime the weather became
much colder. Not expecting to camp out he took only one blanket and
food enough for one meal. In crossing Kettle river on a self-made
conveyance, and there being ice on the opposite shore, he got wet. The
Indians, anticipating his visit, had sent a young man to the mission
station to guide him to, their new locality. He returned in haste,
fell on Mr. Ayer's track, and a light sprinkle of snow enabled him to
follow it until he was found.

Mrs. Ayer relates several incidents illustrative of Indian character.
As her husband had been stationed at Yellow Lake, and afterward at Red
Lake, these incidents are not necessarily located at Pokegama:


A NOBLE CHIEF.

The Red Lake Indians were a noble band--they had a noble chief. In
civilization he led the way, in religion he did not oppose. He
shouldered a heavy axe, and could be seen chopping on one side of a
large tree, in perspiration, while his wife was on the other side,
helping all she could with her hatchet. This chief was also an
advocate of temperance. Not that he didn't love whisky, but he hated
the effect of it on his band. He dictated a letter to the president,
begging him not to let the white faces bring any more firewater to his
people, giving as one reason that they had teachers among them who
must be protected, and if they had whisky he did not know what might
happen.


FRANK CONFESSIONS.

In the church there was much childish simplicity. Once when Mr. Ayer
was lecturing on the eighth commandment, he paused, and without
expecting an answer, said: "Now who is there among you who has not
stolen?" One woman began to confess--another followed, then another.
One thought she had stolen about seven times. Another entered more
into particulars, mentioning the things she had stolen, till the scene
was quite amusing. Another rose to confess, but was cut short by her
husband, who said: "Who knows how many times he has stolen? We are a
nation of thieves." And with a few remarks the meeting closed.


A COWARDLY DEED.

After a medicine dance, according to Indian custom, they proposed a
feast, but there was nothing on which to feast. There was a large
company and all were hungry. Mr. Ayer's cow was in the barnyard near.
Three daring fellows sitting by themselves began to taunt each other
in regard to their comparative prowess. After an excitement was
created, one of them, to show his bravery, shot the cow. Mr. Ayer was
in his garden and witnessed the performance. Two or three of the
leading men in this pagan party came immediately to Mr. Ayer to learn
whether he would take the cow for his own use. While they were talking
(perhaps twenty minutes) the cow was cut in pieces, and in the
Indians' kettles preparatory to a good time. After the Indians had
sold their land they paid for the cow.


AN UNJUST ACCUSATION.

Indians are said to be revengeful. They are. So are white men. They
fight for their rights. So do white men. They are thieves and liars.
So are white men. Quarrelsome, envious, jealous. So are white men.
Experience teaches that according to their knowledge they compare
favorably with Anglo-Saxons. Sin is none the better, nor less
mischievous, for being civilized.

A missionary, a good man, too, he was, accused an innocent woman of
stealing his shirts that were laid out on the snow to whiten. His
wife, not remembering that she had brought them in early in the
morning, asked him to go out and get them. But they were not to be
found! "Who has been here this morning?" was asked. "Ekwazans; I don't
remember any other." "Well, she shan't have those shirts. I'll
overtake her before she gets home." He followed her four miles,
determined to have his shirts. The woman declared her innocence, and
told him to search the wigwam. He did so, but said himself that it was
done rather roughly. In the meantime the wife espied the shirts just
where she had put them. This affair was ever after a source of regret
to them.

Some of the Indians laughed heartily; others made remarks rather
sarcastic. The woman herself felt disgraced by the accusation, but
never manifested signs of wanting to "pay back," or in any way to
avenge the wrong.


INDIAN MAGNANIMITY.

An employe of the American Fur Company, a "green hand," was crossing a
portage. The load on his back was topped off with a bag of flour. The
hill was steep and long. Steps were cut in it like a flight of stairs.
As he reached the top a mischievous Indian touched the bag, and it
went tumbling to the foot of the hill. The Frenchman immediately sent
the Indian tumbling after it. Some of the company advised the
Frenchman to run away, for the Indian might kill him. He told them
boldly that he would not run away. The Indian gathered himself up,
came to the top of the hill, told the Frenchman he had done just
right, offered his hand and they were firm friends. Magnanimous had it
been a white man.

REV. FREDERIC AYER was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in 1803.
When he was two years old the family moved to Central New York. His
father was a Presbyterian minister, and they intended that their son
should follow the same profession; but before he was prepared his
health failed and he turned his attention to other business.

He commenced his labors for the Indians in 1829, by teaching the
mission school at Mackinaw, under the superintendency of Rev. M.
Ferry. The pupils of this school were not all Ojibways but were from
many different tribes, and spoke different languages. Mackinaw was
then a general depot of the North American fur traders. They brought
not only their own children to the school but such others as parents
among whom they were trading wished to send. They were gathered from
Lake Winnipeg, British America north, to Prairie du Chien and the head
of Lake Michigan south. They were taught in English only.

In the summer of 1830 Mr. Ayer went to La Pointe, Lake Superior, with
Mr. Warren, opened a school and commenced the study of the Ojibway
language. In 1831 he met at Mackinaw, Revs. Hall and Boutwell, who
were sent out by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign
Missions to the Indians, and he returned with Mr. and Mrs. Hall and
their interpreter to spend another winter at La Pointe.

The next year, 1832, Mr. Ayer wintered with another trader at Sandy
Lake. He opened a school there and completed a little Ojibway
spelling book which was commenced at La Pointe. In the spring of 1833
he left Sandy Lake for Utica, New York, to get the book printed. Mr.
Aitkin, with whom he had wintered, gave him eighty dollars, and with a
pack on his back and an experienced guide, he started on his journey.
Before they reached Sault Ste. Marie the ice on Lake Superior was so
weak that Mr. Ayer broke through and was saved only by carrying
horizontally in his hands a long pole to prevent his sinking.

Mr. Ayer hastened on to complete the object of his journey, that he
might return to Mackinaw in time to go up Lake Superior with the
traders. Mr. Ayer, hitherto an independent worker, now put himself
under the direction of the "American Board," and was sent to Yellow
Lake, within the present bounds of Burnett county, Wisconsin. Miss
Delia Cooke, whose name should never be forgotten among the early
missionaries of the American board to the Indians, and Miss Hester
Crooks, a girl educated at Mackinaw, and who had some experience in
teaching, were among the number who coasted up Lake Superior in a
Mackinaw boat; the former to La Pointe mission, the latter to Yellow
Lake with Mr. and Mrs. Ayer. They wintered in Dr. Borup's family. Mrs.
Borup also had, for some years, been a pupil at Mackinaw. The next
year Miss Crooks married Rev. Mr. Boutwell and went to Leech lake, and
J. L. Seymour and Miss Sabrian Stevens, also Henry Blatchford, an
interpreter from Mackinaw, were added to Yellow Lake mission. When Mr.
Ayer told the Indians his object in coming among them, they gave him a
welcome. But six months later, seeing two or three log houses in
process of building, they were much troubled, and met in a body to
request him to go away. A Menomonie from the region of Green Bay had
stirred them up, not against the missionaries, but against the general
government.

The speaker said: "It makes the Indians sad to see the white man's
house go up on their land. We don't want you to stay; you must go."
Further on he said: "You shall go!" Mr. Ayer answered him. The party
left at midnight, and the missionaries went to bed with heavy hearts,
thinking they might be thurst out almost immediately. But before
sunrise the next morning about two-thirds of the same party returned,
and said they had come to take back what they said the night before.
The war chief was speaker, but his words were mild. "Why," said he,
"should we turn these teachers away before they have done us any
harm?" They would like to have us stay, he said, but added that they
did not want any more to come, for the result might be the loss of
their lands. We might use whatever their country afforded, but they
would not give us any land, or sell us any. "For," said the speaker,
"if we should sell our land where would our children play?"

Mr. Ayer finished his school house, and went on with his work as
though nothing had happened. But evidently things were not as they
should be. The chief seemed to "sit on the fence," ready to jump
either way. The war chief was always friendly, but he had not so much
control over what concerned us. He did what he could without giving
offense, and was anxious that his daughter of fourteen years should be
taken into the mission family. Mr. Ayer remained two years longer at
Yellow Lake. In the meantime the chief of the Snake River band sent
messages inviting the teachers to come and live among them.
Accordingly in the spring of 1836 the mission was removed to Pokegama
lake, eighteen miles up the river. The chief did all he had promised,
and showed himself a man. Nothing was said here to remind the
missionaries that they were using the Indians' wood, water and fish.
On the contrary, when they sold their land, it was urged that the
teachers' children should be enrolled for annual payment, the same as
their own. The chief said that as they were born on the land it was no
more than right, and he wished it might be done.

In 1842 Mr. Ayer went with his family to the States; and in Oberlin
was ordained preacher to the Ojibways. He soon returned to the Indian
country, and David Brainard Spencer, an Oberlin student, with him.
They spent the winter of 1842-3 in traveling from one trading post to
another, selecting locations for missionary labor. For their own field
they chose Red Lake. When Mrs. Ayer, with her two little boys, six and
eight years old, went to join her husband at the new station, Alonzo
Barnard and wife and S. G. Wright, all of Oberlin College, went with
her. Other missionaries soon followed, and that station was for many
years supplied with efficient laborers. More recently the work there
was assigned to Bishop Whipple, and is still carried on.

Mr. and Mrs. Ayer, in 1865, offered their services to the freed-men of
the South and were employed at Atlanta, Georgia.

Mr. Ayer organized a Congregational church and a baptistry connected
with the house of worship, that he might baptise by immersion or
otherwise, according to the wishes of the candidate. He also formed a
temperance society, which some months before his death numbered more
than six hundred members.

There was great grief at his death amongst all classes. An aged man,
who had lost a small fortune in his devotion to the Confederacy,
embraced the corpse, and said: "If he had not holpen me, I should have
before gone him." Many others, in word or action, expressed a similar
feeling. All classes of people were represented at his funeral. His
remains were buried in the Atlanta cemetery, Oct. 1, 1867. Thus passed
away one who had spent a life for the benefit of others.

Mr. and Mrs. Ayer in some instances taught three generations of
Ojibway blood, and North and South, they were, in the course of their
labors, associated for a longer or shorter time, with more than eighty
different missionaries,--a noble band,--with few exceptions worthy the
name they bore. Most of them have passed away, and their graves are
scattered here and there from British America to Georgia.

REV. WILLIAM T. BOUTWELL, who figures so prominently in the history of
the early missions in the St. Croix valley, was born in Hillsborough
county, New Hampshire, Feb. 4, 1803. He was educated at Dartmouth and
Andover colleges, and in 1831, the year of his graduation at Andover,
he came to the Northwest as a Presbyterian missionary. He spent one
year at Mackinaw, learning the Chippewa language, under the
instruction of Rev. W. M. Ferry, father of Senator Ferry, of Michigan.

In 1832 our government sent an embassy of thirty men, under the
control of the Indian agent at Ste. Marie, Henry R. Schoolcraft, to
tranquilize the tribes and effect some advantageous treaties. The
embassy was accompanied by an outfit of soldiers under the command of
Lieut. Allen, Dr. Houghton, physician, George Johnson, interpreter,
and Mr. Boutwell. The embassy had a liberal outfit of provisions,
equipages and trinkets for the Indians, and was conveyed in a large
bateau of several tons capacity, and some birch canoes, the largest of
which was thirty feet long, and capable of containing nine persons. On
arriving at Fond du Lac, the head of navigation on the St. Louis
river, Mr. Boutwell wrote as follows to the missionary board:

[Illustration: WILLIAM T. BOUTWELL.]

"On arriving here I was not a little surprised to find four hundred
souls, half-breeds and white men. The scene at our landing was such as
I never before witnessed, and enough to fill one, unaccustomed to the
like as myself, with wonder, if not with fear. The yelling of Indians,
barking of dogs, crying of children, running of the multitude,
discharge of musketry, and flourish of flags, was noise in the
extreme. At ten o'clock I preached to about forty in English, the
first sermon ever preached here, and at 4 P. M. I addressed, through
Mr. Johnson, more than twice that number of French, half-breeds and
Indians; many of the latter of whom for the first time listened to the
word of Life. All listened with attention and interest. My interpreter
sat on my right, while a chief occupied a seat at my left. Around and
below me, on the floor, sat his men, women and children, in a state of
almost entire nudity, many of whom had no more than a cloth about the
loins, and a blanket, but some of the children not even a
blanket,--all with their pipes and tobacco pouches, painted with all
the variety of figures that can be imagined."

From Fond du Lac he proceeded with the expedition up the St. Louis
river, crossing the falls by a portage, and ascending to the point
nearest Sandy lake, which was reached by a portage. The expedition
proceeded up the Mississippi to Leech lake. Learning from the Indians
at this point that Cass lake, the reputed source of the Mississippi,
was not the real source, the expedition proceeded, under the guidance
of a chief and a number of his tribe, to ascend the river further.
When they reached the lake, now known as Itasca, five of the party,
Lieut. Allen, Schoolcraft, Houghton, Johnson, and Boutwell, were sent
in canoes with Indian guides to explore the shores of the lake. No
inlet being found the party came to the conclusion that this was, as
the Indians claimed, the true source of the Mississippi river. Mr.
Schoolcraft being satisfied as to the correctness of the observations,
landed his party on an island near the middle of the lake.

He was puzzled to know what name to give the lake, and asked Mr.
Boutwell if he knew of any word that would express the term "true head
of the river." Mr. Boutwell said he could think of no single word that
would express it, but there were two Latin words that would answer the
purpose, and those were _veritas_--true, and _caput_--head. Mr.
Schoolcraft immediately wrote on a piece of paper the two words, and
then erasing the first syllable of the first word and the last
syllable of the latter, joined the remaining syllables. He then
planted the stars and stripes on a little eminence, and formally
christened the lake "Itasca." They then proceeded to descend the
Mississippi. "As we were passing through the outlet of the lake," said
Mr. Boutwell, "I stopped my canoe on the shore and jumped across the
Mississippi. I considered that a great thing to relate in after
years."

The party with their own boats descended the Mississippi, distributing
tobacco, medals and flags to Indians on their way.[E] "When I see the
great cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul now," said Mr. Boutwell, "I
have to reflect that when we made our memorable trip down the river in
1832 we stopped at St. Anthony falls, and I stood on the east bank and
looked across the river in profound admiration of the most beautiful
landscape I had ever seen, with only a few head of government cattle
belonging at Fort Snelling grazing upon it. The whole country on both
sides of the river was as God had made it. When we passed the locality
of St. Paul there was not even an Indian tepee to be seen."

The party halted at a Sioux Indian village at Kaposia, a few miles
below St. Paul, and after a short consultation proceeded to the mouth
of the St. Croix, and ascending the St. Croix to its source, made a
portage of two miles to the source of the Burnt Wood river, which they
descended to Lake Superior, and thence returned to their starting
place. In the following year Mr. Boutwell established a mission at
Leech lake. In giving an account of his reception by the Indians, he
says: "When I arrived the men, with a few exceptions, were making
their fall hunts, while their families remained at the lake and its
vicinity to gather their corn and make rice. A few lodges were
encamped quite near. These I began to visit, for the purpose of
reading, singing, etc., in order to interest the children and awaken
in them the desire for instruction. I told them about the children at
Mackinaw, the Sault, and at La Pointe, who could read, write and sing.
To this they would listen attentively, while the mother would often
reply: 'My children are poor and ignorant.' To a person unaccustomed
to Indian manners and Indian wildness it would have been amusing to
have seen the little ones, as I approached their lodge, running and
screaming, more terrified, if possible, than if they had met a bear
robbed of her whelps. It was not long, however, before most of them
overcame their fears; and in a few days my dwelling, a lodge which I
occupied for three or four weeks, was frequented from morning till
evening by an interesting group of boys, all desirous to learn to
read, sing, etc. To have seen them hanging, some on one knee, others
on my shoulder, reading and singing, while others, whether from shame
or fear I know not, who dared not venture within, were peeping in
through the sides of the cottage, or lying flat upon the ground and
looking under the bottom, might have provoked a smile; especially to
have seen them as they caught a glance of my eye, springing upon their
feet and running like so many wild asses colts. The rain, cold and
snow were alike to them, in which they would come, day after day, many
of them clad merely with a blanket and a narrow strip of cloth about
the loins. The men at length returned, and an opportunity was
presented me for reading to them. The greater part listened
attentively. Some would come back and ask me to read more. Others
laughed, and aimed to make sport of both me and my mission."

He continued to labor here until 1837, when the Indians becoming
troublesome, and having murdered Aitkin, an agent of the fur company,
he deemed it advisable to remove the mission to Pokegama lake. He
labored here faithfully, much respected by the Indians for his
firmness and christian devotion. In 1847 he removed to Stillwater and
settled on a farm near the city, where he is spending the remainder of
his days, cared for by his affectionate daughter Kate and her kind
husband, ----Jones. Though infirm in body on account of advanced age
his mind is clear and his memory retentive. He enjoys the respect
accorded to venerable age, and that which pertains to an early and
middle life spent in unusual toils and hardships in the noblest work
intrusted to the hands of man.

MRS. HESTER CROOKS BOUTWELL deserves honorable mention as the early
companion of the devoted missionary. She was the daughter of Ramsey
Crooks, of New York, an Indian trader. Her mother was a half-breed
Ojibway woman. Hester Crooks was born on Drummond island, Lake Huron,
May 30, 1817. Her father gave her a superior education at Mackinaw
mission. She was a woman of tall and commanding figure, her black hair
and eyes indicating her Indian origin. She was a fluent
conversationalist, and careful and tidy in her personal appearance.
She died in Stillwater in 1853, leaving a family of seven children.


CHENGWATANA.

This town derived its name from the Chippewa words, "cheng-wa" (pine)
and "tana" (city), applied to an Indian village which from time
immemorial had been located near the mouth of Cross lake. This
locality had long been a rallying point for Indians and traders. When
the writer visited it, in 1846, it had the appearance of an ancient
place of resort. Half-breeds and whites with Indian wives settled
here, and in 1852 there were several log houses, and a hotel kept by
one Ebenezer Ayer. There was also a dam built for sluicing logs. Among
the early settlers were Duane Porter, George Goodwin, Herman Trott,
John G. Randall, Emil, Gustave and Adolph Munch. Mr. Trott built a
fine residence on the shore of Cross lake, afterward the home of S. A.
Hutchinson. The Munch brothers built a store and made other
improvements. John G. Randall, in 1856-7-8, manufactured lumber, ran
it down the Kanabec and St. Croix rivers to Rush Seba, Sunrise and
Taylor's Falls. In 1852, and soon after the building of the government
road to Superior City, a post office and a stage route from St. Paul
to Superior City were established. The dam, to which reference has
been made, was built in 1848, by Elam Greely. It is at the outlet of
Cross lake and has ten feet head. The flowage covers many thousands of
acres. The ownership has changed several times. The tolls levied
amount to from ten to fifteen cents per thousand feet. The chartered
operators control the flowage completely, opening and shutting gates
at their pleasure. Many of the first settlers removed to other
localities. Mr. Trott and the Munch brothers to St. Paul, J. G.
Randall to Colorado, and Louis Ayd to Taylor's Falls.

In 1856 an effort was made to found a village on the site of the old
Indian town of Chengwatana. Judd, Walker & Co. and Daniel A. Robertson
surveyed and platted the village of Alhambra, but the name was not
generally accepted, and the old Indian name of Chengwatana superseded
it. The town of Chengwatana was organized in 1874. The first
supervisors were Duane Porter, Resin Denman and Ferdinand Blank.

LOUIS AYD was born in Germany in 1840; came to America in 1852 and
settled in Chengwatana. He served three and a half years as a soldier
during the Rebellion, and was seriously injured in the service. On his
return he settled in Taylor's Falls. He is a well-to-do farmer and
dealer in live stock for the meat market. He has been a member of the
Roman Catholic church from childhood. He was married to Rosabella
Hoffman, of Hudson, Wisconsin, in 1871.

DUANE PORTER, the son of a surgeon in the United States Army in the
war of 1812, was born in Washington county, New York, in 1825; came
West as far as Illinois in 1852, and to St. Croix Falls in 1844. He
was married in 1848 to Mary Lapraire, and in the same year located at
Chengwatama. His occupation is that of an explorer and lumberman. He
has ten children living.

S. A. HUTCHINSON.--Mr. Hutchinson was a native of Maine, and while
yet a youth came to the valley of the St. Croix, and located at
Chengwatana, where he married a Chippewa woman, and raised a family of
half-breed children. "Gus" Hutchinson, as he was familiarly called,
had many noble traits of character and was very popular with his
associates. He had a well trained mind; was skilled as a lumberman and
explorer, and was of a genial disposition, honest in heart and true in
his friendships. He was elected sheriff of Pine county, and served
four years. On the night of Aug. 16, 1880, he was found in a sitting
posture on his bed, lifeless, a rifle ball having pierced his heart.
It appeared, on investigation, that his oldest son wanted to marry an
Indian girl, to which his father objected. On the night after the
murder the marriage took place in Indian style. Suspicion pointing
strongly toward mother and son, they were arrested, and an indictment
found by the grand jury against the son. He was tried and acquitted.


HINCKLEY.

The township of Hinckley was organized in 1872. It includes a large
area of land; heavily timbered with pine and hardwood. The soil is
varied, consisting of black and yellow sand loam with clay subsoil. It
abounds in meadows, marshes, tamarack swamps, pine and hardwood
ridges, and is capable of cultivation.


THE VILLAGE OF HINCKLEY

Lies midway between St. Paul and Duluth, on the St. Paul & Daluth
railroad. It was founded soon after the completion of the road. The
Manitoba railroad passes through the village, running from St. Cloud
to Superior. It was incorporated in 1885. The following were the first
officers: President, James J. Brennan; recorder, S. W. Anderson;
trustees, James Morrison, Nels Parson, John Perry; treasurer, John
Burke; justices of the peace, John Brennan, A. B. Clinch; constable,
Andrew Stone. Prior to this incorporation, Hinckley had suffered
considerably from the lawlessness of its occasional or transient
residents and visitors, and the large majority of the vote in favor of
incorporation is justly considered as a triumph of law and order. The
village has a saw mill doing a large business, a good depot, round
house, four hotels, several stores, shops, and fine residences, a
commodious school house, and two churches--a Lutheran and Catholic.
The Minneapolis & Manitoba railroad connects here with the St. Paul &
Duluth railroad, and is being extended to Superior.

JAMES MORRISON was born on Cape Breton island in 1840. Mr. Morrison
was one of the first settlers of Hinckley, having come to the
settlement in 1869, in the employ of the St. Paul & Duluth railroad.
He has followed farming and hotel keeping. He is an active and
industrious man, the proprietor of a large hotel, and a member of the
Presbyterian church.


SANDSTONE VILLAGE

Is located in the northwest quarter of section 15, township 42, range
20. It contains about forty dwellings, three large boarding houses,
two stores, one hotel and a stone saw mill with diamond-toothed saw,
built by Ring & Tobin, at a cost of $30,000. The stone quarries of the
Kettle River & Sandstone Company are located on sections 3, 10 and 15,
in township 42, range 20, and extend two and three-quarters miles on
each side of Kettle river. The first work in opening the quarries was
done Aug. 22, 1885. The village plat was surveyed in June, 1887, and a
post office established there the February preceding, W. H. Grant,
Jr., being the first postmaster. The saw mill and the quarries give
employment to about four hundred men. Sandstone is located on the old
site of Fortuna. The Kettle River railroad was built to the quarries
in 1886, from the St. Paul & Duluth railroad, a distance of five
miles. The Manitoba railroad, running to Superior, passes through the
village.

WILLIAM H. GRANT, SR., one of the founders of Hinckley, and the
proprietor and founder of the Sandstone enterprise, was born Dec. 23,
1829, at Lyndborough, New Hampshire. He received his education at
Hancock Academy, New Hampshire, and Yates Academy, Orleans county, New
York. He studied law and was admitted to practice in 1854 at
Hillsborough, New Hampshire. He came to St. Paul in 1859, where he
still resides, his property interests at Sandstone being immediately
under the super vision of his son, W. H. Grant, Jr. He sold his
interest in May, 1888, for $100,000. He was married to Martha McKean
in New Hampshire, January, 1855.


KETTLE RIVER.

The town of Kettle River, including townships 43 and 44, lying on the
west line of the county, was organized in 1874. S. S. Griggs was
chairman of the first board of supervisors. The town contains but one
school district. The first settler was S. S. Griggs, who, in company
with John S. Prince, of St. Paul, built a saw mill at the St. Paul &
Duluth railroad crossing on Kettle river, in 1871-72. This was not a
successful venture. A post office was established at the mill, and S.
S. Griggs was appointed postmaster. The Manitoba and St. Paul & Duluth
railroads pass through the town from south to north. The township now
has no settlement except about twenty-four families at the station and
village. It is heavily timbered with pine and hardwood. There are
meadows, marshes and tamarack swamps, fine streams and beautiful
lakes, and much excellent farming land besides. The Pine lakes in
township 43, range 21, are beautiful sheets of water. There are no
good roads or public improvements.

JOHN C. HANLEY was born in Covington, Kentucky, and was educated at
Oxford College, Ohio. He came to St. Paul in 1849, as a machinist and
millwright. He was married in 1853, at St. Anthony, to Sophia
Ramsdale. In 1862 he enlisted in Company M, Minnesota Mounted Cavalry,
a company recruited principally at Sunrise, Chisago county, by Capt.
James Starkey. He was commissioned second lieutenant and was with Gen.
Sibleys expedition against the Sioux. Subsequently he received a
captain's commission, and recruited Company M, Second Minnesota
Cavalry, stationed on the frontier. He was mustered out in 1865. He
resides at Kettle River.


MISSION CREEK

Was organized as a town in 1880. The first supervisors were M. Thomas,
T. Johnson, Wm. McKean; Messrs. H. A. Taylor and Philip Riley & Co.,
of St. Paul, were the first operators here. They built a saw mill with
a capacity of 3,000,000 feet per annum. This property has changed
owners, and is now held by the John Martin Lumber Company, of St.
Paul. It was burned down in 1885, but was immediately rebuilt.


PINE CITY.

The town of Pine City was organized in 1874. The first supervisors
were Hiram Brackett, H. B. Hoffman and James Griffith. The village of
Pine City was platted in 1869. The original proprietors were James and
Stephen H. Petrie, Catherine Sloan and Luther Mendenhall. The survey
was made by B. W. Brunson. Wm. Branch acted as attorney and the
acknowledgment was made by J. J. Egan, notary public, of St. Louis
county. The village was organized in 1881, but the officers did not
qualify until the following year.

The oldest settler was probably a Mr. Kirkland, of Quincy, Illinois,
who worked for some time on the banks of Cross lake, on the present
site of Pine City, hoping to be able to plant a colony there, but,
according to the testimony of Mrs. E. T. Ayer, the missionary became
disheartened by the Indian troubles, and left in 1841, abandoning his
scheme. The completion of the railroad which crosses the Kanabec river
at this point gave a great impetus to the prosperity of the village
and neighborhood. It now contains a fine court house, built at a cost
of $8,000, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian and Lutheran churches, good
buildings for graded and common schools, and three hotels. Pine City
has besides a pleasant park, the gift of Capt. Richard G. Robinson,
which has been adorned and embellished and named after the donor,
"Robinson Park."

RICHARD G. ROBINSON was born in Jackson county, Iowa, in 1829; he
moved thence with his parents to Illinois, and to St. Croix Falls in
1848, where he followed lumbering, scaling, surveying and exploring.
He lived at St. Croix and Taylor's Falls until 1872, when he received
the appointment of land examiner for the Lake Superior & Mississippi
Railroad Company. He was in the employ of the company twelve years,
making his home at Pine City, where he still lives, engaged in
lumbering and real estate. He was married to Catharine A. Fullenwider,
of Iowa. Mrs. Robinson died at Pine City in 1885.

HIRAM BRACKETT was born in 1817, in China, Maine, and came to Pine
City in 1868 from Aroostook county, Maine. He was among the first to
make improvements. He built a hotel and was the first postmaster in
the town. He died in 1883, leaving an estimable widow, three sons,
John, Albert and Frank, and two daughters, Emily, married to Henry A.
Linn, of Milwaukee, and Louise, married to Henry D. Crohurst, of Pine
City.

RANDALL K. BURROWS, a native of Connecticut, came to Pine City in
1869, and, with Adolph Munch, built a large stave mill on the shores
of Cross lake. This proved an unfortunate investment, resulting in
litigation, during the progress of which the mill was destroyed by
fire, in 1878. Mr. Burrows was an active, enthusiastic man, and worked
hard for the interests of Pine City, filling many positions of trust.
He was elected to the state senate from the Twenty-eighth district, in
1874. His seat was contested by John Hallburg, of Centre City. The
Senate referred the question to the people, but in the election that
followed (1875) he was defeated. In 1879 he removed to Dakota, where
he died three years later.

JOHN S. FERSON came from Michigan to Pine City in 1869. During that
and the succeeding year he was principal in building a first class
steam saw mill. It was located on a bay in the western part of the
city. This mill was burned in 1872, rebuilt and burned again. Mr.
Ferson has since removed to Dakota.

SAMUEL MILLET settled in Pine City in 1869, and in 1870 erected the
Bay View House, on an elevated plateau commanding a fine view of Cross
lake and Kanabec river. Mr. Millet died in 1879, leaving a widow, two
sons and three daughters.


ROCK CREEK

Was organized March, 1874. The first supervisors were Enoch Horton,
Frank England, and S. M. Hewson. Obadiah Hewsom was town clerk. Enoch
Horton and C. W. Gill were justices of the peace. Mr. Horton was the
first settler, he having come to the county in 1872. The year
following he raised the first crop. Mr. Horton was from Colchester,
New York. He was born in 1811, and came to Minnesota in 1862. He was
the first postmaster at Rock Creek. Other settlers came in slowly.
Edgerton, Gill & Co. built a saw mill in 1873, with a capacity of
3,000,000 feet. This property has changed hands several times.

CAPT. ENOCH HORTON commenced official life at the age of twenty-two
years, in New York, where he served twenty-eight years as justice of
the peace and county judge. He served during the Rebellion as captain
of a company of sharpshooters.


ROYALTON

Was organized in 1880. The first supervisors were Edward Peterson,
Alexis Kain and Joseph Heiniger. It is a good farming township with
many good farms. The first settlement was made by Elam Greely, in
1849, who made a farm and built a large barn, hauling the lumber from
Marine Mills, a distance of seventy miles. The town was named in
honor of Royal C. Gray, who located on the Greely farm in 1854, in the
northwest quarter of section 15, township 38, range 22, on the banks
of the Kanabec river.


WINDERMERE

Was organized as a town Jan. 3, 1882. The first supervisors were
August Schog, William Champlain and Frank Bloomquist.

The towns of Kettle River, Hinckley and Pine City were organized, and
Chengwatana reorganized by special act of the legislature in 1874, and
at that time embraced all the territory in the county. Since 1874,
Mission Creek, Rock Creek and Royalton have been set off from Pine
City and Windermere from Kettle River.

The following villages were platted at the dates named: Neshodana, by
Clark, Cowell & Foster, in townships 41 and 42, ranges 15 and 16, in
1856; Fortuna, by W. A. Porter, surveyor, at the crossing of Kettle
river and the military road, January, 1857; St. John's, by M. L.
Benson, surveyor, in section 26, township 41, range 17, October, 1857;
Midway, by Frank B. and Julia L. Lewis, proprietors, in the northwest
quarter of section 34, township 40, range 21, September, 1855.


A ROCK CREEK MURDER.

A man passing under the name of Harris had been arrested for stealing
horses. George Hathaway started with the prisoner to Sunrise. Five
days afterward Hathaway's dead body was found, and the inquest decided
that he probably met his death by stabbing or shooting at the hands of
his prisoner, who made his escape, and was never again heard from.
Hathaway was a native of Passadumkeag, Maine.


THE BURNING OF A JAIL.

March 22, 1884, a couple of young men, John Cope and William Leonard,
were arrested for drunkenness and disorderly conduct, and confined in
the Pine City jail, a wooden structure. About three o'clock the next
morning the jail was found to be on fire. All efforts to extinguish
the flames or rescue the unhappy prisoners were unavailing. The fire
originated from within, in all probability from the careless action of
the prisoners themselves in striking matches, either for the purpose
of smoking or of exploring their cells.


A DISFIGURED FAMILY.

Mr. Redman, the agent at the Kettle River railroad station, called my
attention to the fact that old Batice is singularly disfigured. He was
born without thumbs or big toes. The fingers and remaining toes
resemble birds' claws. Two of the fingers of each hand and two of the
toes on each foot are united to the tips but have distinct nails. Of
his four children three are disfigured like the father. His
grandchildren are many of them worse than himself, one having but one
finger.


INDIAN FAITH CURE.

A woman at Pokegama was badly burned by the explosion of gunpowder
while she was putting it in a flask. Her face became terribly swollen
and black. The missionaries did what they could for her, but thought
she must die. After two days the Indian doctors held a medicine dance
for her benefit. After they had gone through with their magic arts the
woman arose, and, without any assistance, walked around distributing
presents to the performers of the ceremony. It was truly wonderful.
She recovered rapidly.


INDIAN GRAVES.

The Chippewas bury their dead much as the whites do. The body is
deposited in a grave and covered with earth. A low wooden covering,
somewhat like the roof of a house, is reared above it, the gables
resting on the ground. The roof is covered with white or bleached
muslin, and surmounted by a board cross. An aperture about six inches
square is left in each end of the structure. The head of the grave is
toward the west, and here are deposited offerings of fruits and
trinkets of various kinds. We found at one grave a broken saucer, an
oyster can filled with blueberries, a large red apple, and a pair of
old shoes. Friends of the deceased visit the graves for one or two
years, renewing their tributes of affection, and bringing offerings of
fruit according to the season, and various foods, from acorns to dried
venison, but in time these visits are discontinued and the graves are
neglected and forgotten.


STOICISM OF THE INDIAN.

On the banks of the Kettle river a five-year-old boy burned his hand
badly. The mother, after examining the wound, decided that it was
incurable, ordered the boy to place his hand upon a block, and by a
single blow from a common hatchet severed it from the wrist. The boy
endured the suffering without flinching.

OLD BATICE, _alias_ "Kettle," lived on Kettle river in 1880. Counting
by moons he claims to have lived there ninety-nine years. He is
certainly very old. He says that he has always been a friend to the
whites, and that in the Sioux outbreak of 1862 he counseled his people
to remain quiet; that he was the enemy of the Sioux, three of whom he
had killed and scalped. To commemorate his warlike deeds in
slaughtering his enemies, he wore three large eagle feathers in his
gray hair. He claims to be half French.


AN INDIAN DANCE.

In June, 1880, the Indians were practicing a new dance near the Kettle
River railroad station, part of which it was my privilege to witness.
The dance house was a rudely constructed pole frame covered with birch
bark, fastened down with willow twigs. About thirty dancers, male and
female, and of all ages, were crowded in the dance house, sweating,
grunting, hopping and bounding at the tap of a deer skin drumhead, and
the "chi-yi-chi-yi-chi-hoo" of a quartette of boys and girls, squatted
in a corner of the bark house. The din was incessant, the chant of the
singers, or howlers, monotonous and wearisome, yet the dancers stepped
and bounded to their rude music as readily as do civilized dancers to
the more exquisite music of stringed instruments. This dance was the
same that so frightened the Burnett county people, and required at
least ten days for its complete performance. A few minutes'
observation amply satisfied us, and we gladly withdrew.

FOOTNOTES:

[E] Several years prior to this William Morrison had a trading station
upon the shores of this lake, and is probably the first white man who
visited it, but it does not appear that he identified it as the source
of the Mississippi.



CHAPTER XI.

KANABEC COUNTY.


Kanabec county, prior to 1849, was included in St. Croix county,
Wisconsin; thence until 1852 it was a part of Ramsey county,
Minnesota; until 1854 a part of Chisago county; and thence until its
organization in 1859, a part of Pine county. It was attached for
judicial purposes at various times to Chisago, Isanti and Pine
counties. In 1882 it was organized for judicial purposes, Judge Crosby
holding the first term of court at Brunswick. The second term was held
at Mora in 1884, in the new court house.

The writer, when a member of the Minnesota senate in 1858, selected
the name and introduced the bill for the formation of the county. Its
boundaries are Aitkin county on the north, Pine on the east, Isanti on
the south, and Mille Lacs on the west. It is well watered and drained
by the Kanabec and its tributaries. This river is navigable to
Brunswick, and one of its tributaries, Rice river, is navigable six
miles from its mouth to Rice lake. The soil is a rich, sandy loam,
deep, strong and productive. One-fifth of the entire surface was
originally covered with pines. About 25,000 acres are natural meadows,
while much of the remainder is covered with hardwood, and a small
portion is brush prairie, which can be easily rendered fit for
cultivation. The best crops are wheat, oats and potatoes, but Indian
corn can be grown profitably as compared with other localities in
Minnesota. Small fruits, wild and cultivated, grow luxuriantly.
Cranberries have been shipped in considerable quantities. Redtop,
clover, and timothy grow rank, and are profitably cultivated. Upward
of 5,000 tons of hay are cured annually. The lumbering interests are
still important, about 75,000,000 feet of logs being annually driven
to the Stillwater boom. This county is spotted with lakes and abounds
in streams capable of being utilized as water powers. Good building
granite is found on the Kanabec river above Mora, which will
eventually be quarried and exported.

The first permanent settlers were George L. Staples and James
Pennington, who came in 1855. They were followed by Stephen W. Tolman,
Alvin De Wolf, John L. Spence and others. Gov. Sibley appointed the
following as the first board of officers, June 10, 1859: County
commissioners, Geo. L. Staples, chairman; Daniel Gordon, Benj. L.
Gifford; clerk and register of deeds, James C. Morrison; treasurer,
Alvah Lougee; sheriff, Benj. L. Gifford. The first election was held
in October, 1859. The following were elected county officers: County
commissioners, Geo. L. Staples, chairman; James Pennington, Geo.
Morrison; auditor, Benj. Bill.

In the bill organizing the county, Brunswick was designated as the
county seat, and so remained until 1882, when by popular vote Mora was
selected. In 1883 the county built a court house at a cost of $5,000,
and a jail costing $2,000. In 1874 the county built a bridge across
the Kanabec at Brunswick, the bridge and its approaches being 1,300
feet in length, at a cost of $5,000. In 1879 the county built a bridge
across the Kanabec at Grass Lake at a cost of $4,000. As this bridge
obstructed navigation in 1884, the county, at a cost of $4,000,
rebuilt it in such a way that steamers could pass underneath. In 1883
another bridge was built across the Kanabec in the town of Arthur at a
cost of $4,000.

The first post office was established at Brunswick in 1859, Geo. L.
Staples, postmaster. The first mail was from Anoka via Cambridge to
Brunswick. In 1847 Rev. W. S. Boutwell preached the first sermon
within the present limits of the county. The first deed recorded was a
warranty deed from Ralph Potter to John A. Snyder, both of Illinois,
in June, 1857, conveying lands in sections 3 and 10, township 38,
range 25. The second deed recorded was from David Bagley to Hersey,
Hall, Whitney and Fenno, of Boston, and Isaac Staples of Stillwater,
conveying the northeast quarter of section 1, township 38, range 24,
and other lands.


ARTHUR.

The town of Arthur includes township 39, ranges 23, 24 and 25. It was
organized in 1883. The first supervisors were: Ira A. Conger, Andrew
E. Westling and Charles A. Staples; clerk, Stanton D. Seavey. The
village of Mora was the first settlement. Anna C. Larson was the first
child born in the town. The first marriage was that of Frederick G.
Turner and Edith Perkins. The first death was that of Henry Rust, in
1847, killed by Indians. There is one house of worship, at what is
known as the Swedish mission.


MORA,

A village, platted in 1882, is located in section 11, township 39,
range 24, on the Hinckley branch of the Manitoba railroad. Myron R.
Kent, owner of the town plat, made the first improvements, building a
hotel and post office, of which he became postmaster. Alvah J. Conger
opened the first store in 1882. The village now contains a court
house, school house, two hotels, five stores, three saloons, and many
fine residences. Lake Mora, a lovely sheet of deep, blue water, about
one hundred and fifty acres in extent, is located within the village
limits. The village is beautifully situated on a plateau on the east
side of Kanabec river.

STEPHEN L. DANFORTH lived in the county of Kanabec during the '70s.
His occupation was that of a farmer or lumberman. He died in
Stillwater in 1884.

N. H. DANFORTH, brother of S. L., also settled here in the '70s, and
still resides here, an active business man.

ALVAH J. AND IRA CONGER are cousins. They came from Maine to Minnesota
in 1850. Alvah J. kept the Tombler House in Wyoming. Subsequently he
removed to Cambridge, where he kept a hotel and store, and thence
removed to Pine City, where he kept a store until 1882, when he moved
to Mora. He was married to Charlotte Pennington. They have no
children. Ira Conger has been actively engaged in business at
Cambridge and other places, and moved to Mora in 1883, where he is
proprietor of a hotel and store. His oldest son, John, has charge of
his business interests.


BRONSON.

This village is yet unplatted. It is located in section 21, range 24,
on the line of the Manitoba railroad. A post office was established
here in 1884, of which Frank P. Burleigh is postmaster. Adjoining and
including this village is the large farm of Isaac Staples, including
2,000 acres, of which six hundred and fifty acres are under
cultivation. The improvements on the farm are two large barns, one
store, one blacksmith shop, one wood working shop, and commodious
dwellings for employes. This farm is headquarters for the lumbering
interests of Mr. Staples in Kanabec county.


BRUNSWICK

Includes township 38, ranges 24 and 25. The town was organized in
1883. The first supervisors were Eric Hokansen, John Rines and Haquin
Ekman. The first school was taught by Charlotte Pennington, in 1856.
The first death was that of ---- Cowan, killed accidentally, in 1857.
There are two church organizations, Swedish Baptist and Swedish
Lutheran. Stephen E. Tallman built a saw mill in 1870, and a flour
mill in 1879. The village of Brunswick is located in the southwest
quarter of section 1, township 38; range 24. It was platted in 1856,
by Isaac and George Staples. It was originally designated as the
county seat.


GROUND HOUSE CITY

Was platted by Isaac Staples for Hersey, Staples & Co., Jan 17, 1857,
in section 7, township 38, range 24.

JAMES PENNINGTON was born in Queensborough, New Brunswick, in 1799. He
lived in Houlton, Maine, fifteen years, and came to Kanabec county in
1854 with his family, who were the first permanent settlers in the
county. Mr. Pennington farmed and lumbered. He died in December, 1887.
Mrs. Pennington died in 1878. Six sons and three daughters are living.
The sons are residents of Minnesota. The daughters are married as
follows: Elisabeth to ---- Grant, of Detroit, Minnesota; Charlotte to
A. J. Conger, of Mora, Minnesota; Augusta to B. C. Newport, of
Pipestone, Minnesota.

GEORGE L. STAPLES settled in section 1, township 38, range 24, in
1855. He lived there eight years and filled various responsible
offices. He was an upright, conscientious man, much respected by all
who knew him. In 1863 he removed to Monticello, Minnesota, and died in
1877, leaving a widow, five sons and a daughter. Mr. Staples raised
the first crop in the county, opened the first store, and gave the
name of Brunswick to the town. Isaac Edwin Staples, son of George, was
the first white child born in the county. He was clerk of court in
Morrison county in 1887.

DANIEL GORDON was born in Readfield, Maine, in 1809. In 1856 he
settled in the southeast quarter of section 1, township 38, range 24.
He was married to widow Tallman in Brunswick. This was the first
marriage in the town. Mrs. Gordon died in June, 1885.


GRASS LAKE

Includes township 38, range 23. It was organized in 1883. It is
thickly settled, mostly by Swedes. They have good farms, roads and
schools. The first settler was Solomon Anderson; the second, Benjamin
Norton; both were farmers. There are in this town three houses of
worship, two belonging to the Swedish mission, and one to the
Baptists. There are five school houses.

The remainder of the county, consisting mostly of pine lands, and
including nine townships, is without organization or township
government. It is divided into three assessment districts over which
the county exercises jurisdiction, making levies and collecting taxes.


ISANTI COUNTY.

Isanti county lies directly west of Chisago and south of Kanabec. It
is bounded on the west and south by Sherburne, Mille Lacs and Anoka
counties, and contains about fourteen towns. The soil is well adapted
for agriculture. The county has no large lakes, but is well watered by
tributaries of Rum and Sunrise rivers. It is well timbered in the
north with sugar maple. The settlers are chiefly Scandinavians, who,
by their industry, have made the plains and oak ridges to blossom with
clover and the cereals. The county was organized Feb. 13, 1857. It
took its name from a tribe of Indians who some time ago occupied the
country about Mille Lacs. The first board of county commissioners
consisted of Oscar Smith, Hugh Wylie and Elbridge G. Clough. The first
county officers were: William Tubbs, auditor; F. H. Moon, treasurer;
G. G. Griswold, register of deeds; Stephen Hewson, judge of probate;
H. M. Davis, clerk; George L. Henderson, sheriff. The first court was
held by Judge C. E. Vanderburgh in October, 1871. Prior to this time
Isanti had been attached to Auoka county for judicial purposes.


CAMBRIDGE,

The county seat of Isanti, was incorporated as a village in 1876. It
is pleasantly located on the west side of Rum river. It has one
flouring mill, a newspaper office, and several stores, shops,
dwellings and churches. The county buildings are neat and convenient.
The new court house cost $7,000. It is worthy of mention that B. A.
Latta, as county treasurer, paid the first money into the hands of the
state treasurer for war purposes. The first postmasters in the county
were Van Vliet Ainsley, of Spencer Brook, and G. G. Griswold, in 1858.


NORTH BRANCH TOWN

Lies on the headwaters of the Sunrise river. It was settled, as early
as 1855, by John P. Owens, W. A. Hobbs, B. T. Huntley, and John
Schinler. It was organized as a town in 1858, John P. Owens being
chairman of the first board of supervisors. John Schinler raised the
first crop, in 1857. Schools were established in 1860.


OXFORD.

Rensselaer Grant, M. Hurley and Stephen Hewson settled within the
present limits of this town in 1855. At that time the town was not
organized. In 1865 it was included within the limits of North Branch,
but in 1878 the town of Oxford was set off as now defined. The first
supervisors were John Bachelor, P. Lillygrin and P. Berg. Stephen
Hewson was town clerk, and has retained the office ever since. A post
office was established in 1863. Stephen Hewson was postmaster, and has
held the office continuously ever since. The town is well settled by
farmers. In 1870 a cyclone passed through the town, destroying
everything in its track, which was about twenty rods wide. Not a
building was left on the homestead of Mr. Hewson. His fine large barn
was torn to pieces and the fragments scattered for the distance of a
mile.

STEPHEN HEWSON is a native of England, which he left in 1844. He
resided in Canada a few years, then came to Chicago, and later to
Minnesota. He was for awhile a partner in the publishing firm of E. S.
Goodrich & Co., then proprietors of the St. Paul _Pioneer_. He made
his present home in Oxford in 1855, and has since that time been
intimately identified with its history and that of the county of
Isanti. He was a representative from the Fourth district in the
legislature of 1865. He has filled the offices of county auditor,
county commissioner and judge of probate court. As an ordained
minister of the Methodist church he takes an active interest in
religious matters, serving as superintendent of the Sunday-school, and
occasionally filling the pulpit. Five of his daughters are school
teachers, one of whom, Mary, in 1870, taught the first school in
Oxford. He remains hale and hearty in his seventy-seventh year.

GEORGE W. NESBIT was born in 1828, in Delaware county, New York. He
received an academic education. He came in 1856 to St. Francis, Anoka
county, Minnesota, and in 1863 to Isanti county. He has been engaged
in farming and selling goods, and is an energetic, busy man. He made
the first pre-emption timber claim on the Mille Lacs reservation,
which was rejected. Mr. Nesbit was married in New York and has a
family of six children.

RENSSELAER GRANT was born in New York in 1816. His father was a native
of Scotland but emigrated to the United States and took part in the
war of 1812. Mr. Grant was married in Saratoga county, New York, in
1837, to Libiah Mitchell. The Grants moved to Illinois in 1850, and to
Isanti county in 1856. Mr. and Mrs. Grant died at North Branch, in
1886, leaving, three married sons, two living in Isanti county, and
one at Rush City, and three daughters, the eldest married to J. W.
Delamater, the second to W. H. Hobbs, the third living in St. Paul.


MILLE LACS COUNTY.

This county is bounded on the north by Mille Lacs lake and Aitkin
county, on the east by Isanti, Kanabec and Aitkin, on the south by
Sherburne and on the west by Morrison and Benton counties, and
includes about 17 townships extending from south to north a distance
of 48 miles, and having a breadth of 12 miles, excepting the two upper
series of towns, which have a width of 18 miles. It is, excepting two
agricultural towns in the south, heavily timbered, chiefly with pine.
It is well watered by Rum river and its tributaries, and by the body
of water known as Mille Lacs, a large picturesque lake, which covers
over one hundred and five sections of Aitkin, Crow Wing and Mille Lacs
counties. The tributaries of the St. Croix also drain the
northeastern part of the county. The southern townships consist of
prairies and oak openings, the northern and central parts being
covered with hardwood and pine. Immense quantities have been already
marketed. The hardwood ridges and flats offer good farming lands, and
the wild meadows, scattered over the county, excellent hay and
pasturage.

Mille Lacs lake, the largest inland lake in Minnesota, is a beautiful
and picturesque sheet of water, with receding wooded shores, with but
little low land adjoining. The waters are deep and clear and
abundantly supplied with fish. This lake, when reached by railways,
will be one of the most pleasant summer resorts in the Northwest. It
already attracts the attention of the tourist. A steamer built in 1885
floats upon its waters. The lake is about eighteen miles long by from
twelve to fifteen wide, and covers about six townships. Three small
islands gem its surface, one of which, from its columnar appearance,
seems to be of volcanic or igneous formation.

The Mille Lacs reservation covers about four fractional towns,
bordering the southern shore of the lake. Since the treaty these lands
have been covered by pre-emptions, soldiers' warrants and half-breed
scrip, but are held by a doubtful tenure owing to the uncertain and
various rulings of the land department. Under the provisions of the
treaty, the Indians, a band of Chippewas, were allowed to retain
possession until ordered to remove. In anticipation of this order
settlements have been made at various periods, and patents have been
issued to the pre emptors in a few cases, but in many cases refused.
Half-breed scrip has been laid upon thousands of acres under one
administration at Washington, the permission to be countermanded by
another. Meanwhile the Indians, not having received the order for
removal, claim to be the owners of the land, and with some show of
justice. In 1882 the Manitoba Railroad Company built a road through
the county from east to west, through township 40, ranges 26 and 27.

In the early divisions of Minnesota into counties, the territory of
Mille Lacs was included in Ramsey and Benton counties. Prior to its
present organization, a county called Monroe, covering the territory
of Mille Lacs, was established but never organized. By legislative
enactment in 1857 Mille Lacs county was established and organized by
the people in 1860, the counties of which its territory was originally
a part concurring, and Princeton was made the county seat. In 1859
there had been effected the organization of one town in the county,
known as Princeton. This has since been subdivided into Princeton
Greenbush, and Milo. The officers of the town organization in 1859
were: Supervisors, C. W. Houston, Charles Pratt, Joseph L. Cater. The
first county election, held April, 1860, resulted in the election of
the following officers: County commissioners, Joseph L. Cater,
chairman; Samuel Orton, C. S. Moses; auditor and register of deeds, W.
W. Payne; clerk of court, S. M. Byers; treasurer, E. J. Whitney;
sheriff, Wm. McCauley; probate judge, Samuel Ross. The first term of
court was held June 3, 1861, E. C. Vanderburgh, presiding judge. The
first recorded deed was from E. J. Whitney to Isaac Staples, and bears
date Aug. 4, 1854.


MILACCA

Has a pleasant site on the Manitoba railroad, on the banks of Rum
river at the crossing of the Manitoba & Superior and the junction of
the Elk River & Princeton railroad. The Manitoba Company have a good
saw mill here, with a capacity of 125,000 feet per day, built at a
cost of $50,000. A planing mill is attached. There is a good three
story hotel, well kept, here.

The village was surveyed and platted March 24, 1886; Chas. Keith,
surveyor; James J. Hill, president of the Mille Lacs Lumber Company,
proprietor. It is located in the town of Greenbush.


BRIDGMAN VILLAGE,

Located in the town of Milo, has a steam saw mill, spoke and hub
factory, around which are several residences.


PRINCETON.

The village of Princeton is located at the junction of the two
branches of the Rum river, on a beautiful prairie, surrounded by rich
prairie and timber lands. The first log house was built in 1849, and
kept as a stopping place by a mulatto known as "Banjo Bill." This
house is still standing. The first permanent settlers were A. B.
Damon, O. E. Garrison, C. H. Chadbourne, Edwin Allen, John W. Allen,
Chas. Whitcomb, Joseph L. Cater, W. F. Dunham, and Samuel Ross. They
were also the first settlers in the county, and came in 1853-7. In
1855 Messrs. Damon and Allen farmed on the present site of the
village. The village was surveyed and platted Feb. 11, 1859, by S.
Ross & Co. S. Ross also built a hotel where the North Star Hotel now
stands. This year the first frame building was erected and used as a
store. W. F. Dunham built a steam saw mill. The first school house was
built, although school organization was not effected until 1858. James
M. Dayton taught the first school. A post office was established with
O. E. Garrison as postmaster. Samuel Ross brought the mail once a week
from Anoka. A Congregational church was established, of which Rev.
Royal Twichell was chosen as pastor. The Methodists organized a
society the following year.

The village was incorporated March 13, 1877, by legislative enactment.
The commissioners appointed under the organic act were E. C. Giles, H.
B. Cowles, C. H. Rines, B. F. Whiting, and Charles Keith. At the
election ordered by them the following officers were chosen:
President, C. H. Rines; trustees. F. M. Campbell, Isaiah S. Mudgett,
Thomas F. Caly; recorder, Silas L. Staples; treasurer, D. H. Murray;
justices of the peace, Scott M. Justice, Charles Keith. The Princeton
_Appeal_ was established by Rev. John Quigley in 1873, but
discontinued in 1875. In December, 1876, Robert C. Dunn started the
Princeton _Union_, which he still publishes.

The Manitoba branch railroad from Elk River to Milacca village passes
through Princeton. The first train arrived Nov. 30, 1880. The county
contributed $47,000 in bonds at five per cent interest for twenty
years, to aid in building the road. The St. Paul, Mille Lacs,
Brainerd, Leech Lake & Crookston railroad will, when completed, pass
through Princeton. An excellent school building was erected in 1885,
at a cost of about $7,000. Guy Ewing is principal of the school, which
is graded. The Grand Army of the Republic have a post here known as
the Wallace Rines post. The Masons have an organization, with a
splendid hall. A three story hotel, built by Samuel Ross, is kept by
his only daughter, Mrs. Barker. A two story brick hotel, the
Commercial House, Henry Newbert, proprietor, a handsome structure, was
built in 1887. The Mille Lacs County Bank, located here, has a paid up
capital of $20,000. Charles Erickson is president; L. P. Hyberg, vice
president; Frank Hewse, clerk. Princeton has one steam saw mill, two
flouring mills, one feed mill, two elevators with a capacity of 60,000
bushels, and one brewery. A court house and jail are in process of
erection at an estimated cost of $10,000.


BIOGRAPHICAL.

SAMUEL ROSS was born Aug. 22, 1812. He attended Western Reserve
College, but through ill health did not graduate. He came to Iowa in
1839, where he was married to Mary Vaughn in 1841. He came to
Princeton in 1855, where he took an active part in building up the
town and county, filled many prominent and responsible positions in
the village and county, and served as representative of the first
state legislature. Mrs. Ross died in 1851; Mr. Ross died in 1881,
leaving an only daughter, Olive R., widow of A. P. Barker, who was a
prominent lawyer of Princeton. Mrs. Barker was elected superintendent
of schools in 1880, to which position she has been re-elected and is
at present filling the office efficiently. She was the first female
superintendent elected in Minnesota.

JOSEPH L. CATER was born in Strafford county, New Hampshire, in 1828.
He came to Princeton in 1855 and engaged in farming. His name appears
in all the original organizations of town and county. M. V. B. Cater
and sons have also been active and prominent citizens of Princeton. M.
V. B. Cater died some years since.

EDWIN ALLEN, originally from Welton, Maine, came to Princeton in 1855
and engaged in farming.

JOHN H. ALLEN came from Maine to Princeton in 1854, engaged in farming
and became prominent as a public spirited citizen. He held various
positions of trust in the county and was appointed receiver of the
land office at Fergus Falls by President Hayes, and resides there.

A. B. DAMON came from Maine to Princeton in 1853 and made the first
claim on the town site.

C. H. CHADBOURNE was born at Lexington, Massachusetts. At the age of
sixteen he embarked in a seafaring life in which he continued nine
years. Mr. Chadbourne, wishing to abandon his seafaring ways, and to
put himself beyond danger of resuming them, came to the centre of the
continent and located on a farm near Princeton in 1856. He has since
followed farming continuously. His farm consists of 900 acres under
cultivation, 500 of which is devoted to tame grass and pasturage, on
which he feeds 150 head of blooded stock. He has a large dairy which
nets him $1,200 annually. He was a member of the state legislatures of
1874-5 and was seven years county commissioner of Sherburne county.
Mr. Chadbourne was married in 1852 to Deborah Crowell. They have three
sons and two daughters.



CHAPTER XII.

CHISAGO COUNTY.


LOCATION--SURFACE--SCENERY.

Chisago county, located on the west bank of the St. Croix river,
between the counties of Pine on the north and Washington on the south,
the St. Croix river on the east and the counties of Isanti and Anoka
on the west, presents an agreeable variety of surface, upland and
generally undulating, covered with hard and soft wood timber, well
watered by lakes and streams. Its principal streams are the St. Croix
and its tributaries, Rush and Sunrise rivers and Goose creek, and its
principal lakes are Chisago, Sunrise, Green, Rush, and Goose lakes.
Its lake scenery is unsurpassed in beauty. The county takes the name
of its largest and most beautiful lake. In its original, or rather
aboriginal, form it was Ki-chi-sago, from two Chippewa words meaning
"kichi," large, and "saga," fair or lovely. For euphonic
considerations the first syllable was dropped.


CHISAGO LAKE.

This lake is conspicuous for its size, the clearness of its waters,
its winding shore and islands, its bays, peninsulas, capes, and
promontories. It has fully fifty miles of meandering shore line. Its
shores and islands are well timbered with maple and other hard woods.
It has no waste swamps, or marsh borders. When the writer first came
to Taylor's Falls, this beautiful lake was unknown to fame. No one had
seen it or could point out its location. Indians brought fish and
maple sugar from a lake which they called Ki-chi-sago Sagi-a-gan, or
"large and lovely lake." This lake, they said, abounded with "kego,"
fish.

In 1851 the writer, with Bart Emery, made a visit to this beautiful
sheet of water. We found it what its Indian name imports, "fair and
lovely water." The government had, the year before, completed a survey
of the lake, and it was high time that it should be given a name by
which it should be designated on the map and recognized by civilized
visitors. What name more beautiful and appropriate than that which the
Indians had already given it. That name we at once recognized and used
all our influence to perpetuate under somewhat adverse influences; for
Swedish emigrants having settled in its neighborhood, a strong effort
was made to christen it "Swede Lake," but the lake is to-day known as
Chisago, and Chisago it is likely to remain. We believe in the policy
of retaining the old Indian names whenever possible. As a rule they
are far more musical and appropriate than any we can apply. The
Indians have left us their lands, their lakes, their streams; let us
accept with them the names by which they were known. Some have been
translated into English and appear on the maps as Goose, Elk, Beaver
and Snake. By all means let us retranslate them in memory of the race
that once owned them.


DALLES OF ST. CROIX.

Chisago county shares with Polk county in the ownership of the wildest
and most peculiar scenery in the valley of the St. Croix. At Taylor's
Falls, the head of navigation, the river flows between ledges of trap
rock, varying in height from fifty to two hundred and fifty feet, for
the most part perpendicular, but wildly irregular, as is common in
trap rock formations. These ledges are crowned with pine trees and a
dense undergrowth of bushes and vines. The prevailing color of the
rock is a cold or bluish gray, but broken occasionally by brilliant
patches of coloring, red, yellow or green, as they may be stained by
oxides of the metals, or covered with lichens and mosses. This
formation is known as "The Dalles," sometimes improperly styled
"Dells." The rocks composing it are porphyritic trap, an igneous rock
forced upward from the interior of the earth through crevices in the
crust while still in a liquid state and then solidifying in masses,
sometimes prismatic but oftener in irregular polygons, and broken by
parallel lines of cleavage. Some geological experts claim that these
rocks are "in place" as forming a part of the original crust of the
earth, but the balance of evidence seems to be in favor of their
having been erupted at a comparatively modern period. This is
evidenced by the presence of water-worn boulders and pebbles, imbedded
in the trap, somewhat like plums in a pudding, while it was yet
plastic; and now forming a species of conglomerate as hard and compact
as the trap itself. These rocks are supposed to be rich in copper and
silver, and miners have spent much time in prospecting for these
metals.

Whatever the origin of the rocks, it is conceded that they were once
plastic, at which time this region could not have been a safe or
pleasant dwelling place for such beings as now inhabit the world. The
theory of a comparatively recent eruption of these rocks is not a
pleasant one, for the suggestion forces itself upon the mind that that
which has been, at least in recent times, may occur again. The
occasional recurrence of earthquakes on our western coast, and the
recent severe disturbances in South Carolina and Georgia, raise the
query whether this region may not again be visited with an outburst
and overflow of trap, terrible and destructive as the first. The
foundations, however, seem firm enough to last forever. The rocks are
of unusual hardness, and the crust of the earth is probably as solid
and thick here as elsewhere. The Dalles proper are about one mile in
length. The river, in its passage through them, varies in width from
one hundred and fifty to three hundred feet. It was formerly reported
unfathomable, but in recent years, owing to a filling up process
caused by the debris of the log drivers, it is found to be not more
than a hundred feet in its deepest place. The river makes an abrupt
bend about a bold promontory of trap known as Angle or Elbow Rock. To
the first voyageurs this seemed to be the end of the river, and gave
rise to the story that at this point the river burst out of the rocks.
Much of the frontage of the rocks upon the river is smooth and
perpendicular, and stained with oxides of iron and copper. In places
it is broken. The upper rocks are disintegrated by the action of rain
and frost, and, where far enough from the river, have fallen so as to
form a talus or slope of angular fragments to the water's edge.

[Illustration: THE DEVIL'S CHAIR.]


THE DEVIL'S CHAIR.

There are some instances in which, by the breaking away and falling of
smaller rocks, larger rocks have been left standing in the form of
columns. Most notable of these are the "Devil's Pulpit," and the
"Devil's Chair." The former, owing to surrounding shrubbery, is not
easily seen. The latter is a conspicuous object on the western shore
of the river a few rods below the lower landing. It stands on the
slope formed by the debris of a precipice that rises here about 120
feet above the river. Its base is about 40 feet above low water mark;
the column itself reaches 45 feet higher. It is composed of many
angular pieces of trap, the upper portion bearing a rude resemblance
to a chair. It is considered quite a feat to climb to the summit. The
face of the rocks is disfigured by the names of ambitious and
undeserving persons. The nuisance of names and advertisements painted
upon the most prominent rocks in the Dalles is one that every lover of
Nature will wish to have abated. To spend an hour climbing amongst
these precipices to find in some conspicuous place the advertisement
of a quack medicine, illustrates the adage: "There is but one step
from the sublime to the ridiculous."


THE WELLS.

A more remarkable curiosity may be found on that bench or middle
plateau of the Dalles, lying between the upper and the lower Taylor's
Falls landings, in what has been not inaptly styled "The Wells." These
are openings, or pits, not much unlike wells, in places where the trap
is not more than 50 feet above water level, varying in width from a
few inches to 30 or 40 feet, the deepest being from 20 to 25 feet.
These seem to have been formed by the action of water upon pebbles or
boulders, much as "pot holes" are now being formed in the rocky
bottoms of running streams. The water falls upon the pebbles or
boulders in such a way as to cause them to revolve and act as a drill,
boring holes in the rock proportioned to the force of the agencies
employed. Some of these boulders and pebbles, worn to a spherical
shape, were originally found at the bottoms of these wells, but have
been mostly carried away by the curious. Some of the wells are cut
through solid pieces of trap. The walls of others are seamed and
jointed; in some cases fragments have fallen out, and in others the
entire side of the wells has been violently disrupted and partly
filled with debris. The extreme hardness of the trap rock militates
somewhat against the theory of formation above given. It is, however,
not improbable that this hardness was acquired after long exposure to
the air.


SETTLEMENT AND ORGANIZATION.

In the history of St. Croix Falls mention has been made of some of the
pioneers of Chisago county. St. Croix Falls and Taylor's Falls, the
pioneer settlement of Chisago county, though a river divides them
which is also the boundary line of two states, have much that is
common in their early history. The inhabitants were always greatly
interested in what was going on over the river. We may add, that
although they now stand in the attitude of rival cities, their
interests are still identical, and we believe that, but for the unwise
policy of making St. Croix river a state line, they might be to-day
under one city government, and as compact and harmonious as though no
St. Croix river rolled between them. The river is their joint
property; both have the same heritage of trap rocks and pines, the
same milling privileges, the same lumbering interests, and, it must be
confessed, they remain up to the present time about equally mated. J.
R. Brown was unquestionably the pioneer of the settlement. Frank
Steele says he found J. R. Brown trading, in 1837, on the spot now the
site of Taylor's Falls.

He was not, however, the first white man upon the soil. There is some
documentary evidence of the establishment by the French of a fort
forty leagues up the St. Croix some time between the years 1700 and
1703. This fort was in all probability erected on the plateau below
the Dalles, the distance given, forty leagues, being exaggerated after
the fashion of the early voyageurs. It was called Fort St. Croix.
There was also a prehistoric settlement, the ruins of which the writer
noted as early as 1851, on the school land addition to Taylor's Falls.
These were the foundations of nine houses, plainly visible. Over some
of them trees two feet in diameter were growing. The rock foundations
ranged in size from twenty to thirty feet, with the hearth containing
ashes underlying the debris of ages, on smooth hearthstones showing
years of service, being apparently a century old. These were the
homes, undoubtedly, of a civilized people, and we may claim for
Taylor's Falls, Chisago county, one of the first improvements made by
whites in the limits of Minnesota.

During the last half of the last century a prominent trading post was
established and maintained for many years on the St. Croix river,
which was founded by Pierre Grinow, and during the close of the last
century it was in the charge of one James Perlier, who afterward
became one of the most useful citizens of Green Bay, Wisconsin.
Lawrence Barth was also here in 1793. The evidence of the existence of
this trading post rests upon traditions and the ruins referred to.
Recurring to the pioneer Brown, the most irrepressible of all the
advance guard of civilization, we find him only a transient
inhabitant. He stayed long enough to cut 200,000 feet of pine logs
from the present site of Taylor's Falls, when the neighborhood lost
its attractions. These were the first pine saw logs cut in the St.
Croix valley.

In 1838 a French trader, Robinet, was located at the same place, but
in the summer of the same year came Mr. Jesse Taylor from Fort
Snelling where he had been following the business of a stonemason. He
had heard of the ratification of the Indian treaty by Congress, and he
greatly coveted some of the rich lands brought into market by that
treaty. Mr. Taylor, with an Indian guide, came to the Dalles of the
St. Croix. As Mr. Steele had already claimed the east side, Mr. Taylor
concluded that he would claim the west side. Returning to Fort
Snelling he reported to an associate, Benjamin F. Baker, formed a
partnership and returned with men, boats, provisions and building
material, but on his return to the falls he found Robinet, the trader,
in a bark shanty (at the present junction of Bridge and River
streets). Robinet was in actual possession of the coveted acres.
Robinet having no other function than that of a trader, and
consequently having no serious designs on the lands was easily bought
off, and Baker & Taylor, in August, 1838, commenced improvements,
building a log house, a blacksmith shop, a mill, and commencing a mill
race which had to be blasted. They also built piers and a wing dam
just above the present location of the bridge. The mill was located at
what has since become the upper steamboat landing. Mr. Taylor named
the lower falls Baker's falls, and the settlement, Taylor's Place.
When the town was platted, in 1850, it was called Taylor's Falls. The
name came also to be applied to the lower falls.

The mill enterprise was a melancholy failure. The builders were not
practical mill men. The improvements were expensive. The work of
blasting rock and building made slow progress. There was no income as
long as the mill was in process of building. In the midst of these
embarrassments, in 1840, Mr. Baker died. Mr. Taylor took entire
possession with no other right than that of a squatter sovereign. In
1843 Mr. Taylor sold the unfinished mill to parties in Osceola, and in
1844 everything movable was transferred to that place. The double log
cabin remained, and there Mr. Taylor lived for eight years on the
proceeds of the sale, performing in all that time no work more worthy
of the historian's notice than fixing his name upon the settlement and
falls. Many of the later residents query as to why it was ever called
Taylor's Falls. It takes a keen eye to discover any fall in the river
at the point named. The falls indeed were once far more conspicuous
than they are now, owing to the fact that a large rock rose above the
water at the ordinary stage, around which the crowded waters roared
and swirled. That rock, never visible in later days, was called Death
Rock, because three hapless mariners in a skiff were hurled against it
by the swift current and drowned.

The old log house, the sole remnant of the Baker and Taylor project,
if we may except some holes in the rock made by blasting, and some
submerged ruins of the wing dam and pier, has passed through various
changes. It has been used as a store, as a boarding house, as a
warehouse, as a church, as a school house, and as a stable. Part of it
still remains and is habitable. It is located on lot 18, block 15. In
1846 Jesse Taylor sold his claim to Joshua L. Taylor for two hundred
dollars. This claim, like most of the claims made prior to the survey
of government lands, was not accurately defined. It included, however,
all the lands, on the west side of the river, extending northward to
the St. Croix Company's claim, at the upper falls, and including the
present site of Taylor's Falls.

Aside from mill building, nothing was done in the way of improvements
until 1846, when Jerry Ross and Benjamin F. Otis commenced farming on
what was subsequently known as the Morton and Colby farms. Both raised
potatoes and garden vegetables and built houses. This was the first
cultivation of the soil in Chisago county. In 1847 Mr. Otis sold his
improvements to Wm. F. Colby, who, in that year, raised the first corn
grown by white men in the county. In 1846 Thornton Bishop commenced
improvements on a farm at the head of the rapids, six miles above
Taylor's Falls. J. L. Taylor, in 1848, built a pre-emption shanty
midway between the upper and lower falls. In 1849 he proved up his
pre-emption to lots 5, 6 and 7, section 30, township 34, range 18. N.
C. D. Taylor pre-empted the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter
of section 25, and the west half of the same quarter section; also lot
1, section 36, township 34, range 19.

In 1849 Lewis Barlow and Wm. E. Bush became citizens. An abstract of
the canvassed returns of an election held November 26th shows but six
votes in the settlement. In 1850 W. F. Colby pre-empted the northeast
quarter of section 25, township 34, range 19, and W. H. C. Folsom the
southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of the same.

At a regular meeting of the St. Croix county board, held at
Stillwater, April 2, 1850, the following judges of election were
appointed within the present limits of Chisago county: St. Croix Falls
precinct, Wm. F. Colby, Wm. Holmes, N. C. D. Taylor; Rush Lake
precinct, Levi Clark, Walter Carrier and Richard Arnold. At a meeting,
held Oct. 7, 1850, the petition of Lewis Barlow and ten others, of St.
Croix Falls precinct, was presented, asking for a special election, to
elect two justices of the peace. Their petition was granted. The poll
was: Wm. E. Bush, one vote; John H. Reid, six votes; Ansel Smith, five
votes. Reid and Smith were declared elected. The first survey of town
lots was made in 1851, by Theodore E. Parker, of Stillwater, and under
this survey the village was legally established as Taylor's Falls. The
first deeds recorded in Chisago county were transcripts from
Washington county of lands consisting of town site property, dated
1851, conveyed to W. H. C. Folsom by J. L. and N. C. D. Taylor.

The movement for the organization of a new county from the northern
part of Washington commenced in the winter of 1851-52. A formidable
petition to the legislature to make such organization, drawn up and
circulated by Hon. Ansel Smith, of Franconia, and the writer, was duly
forwarded, presented and acquiesced in by that body. The writer had
been selected to visit the capital in the interest of the petitioners.
Some difficulty arose as to the name. The writer had proposed
"Chi-sa-ga." This Indian name was ridiculed, and Hamilton, Jackson,
Franklin and Jefferson were in turn proposed. The committee of the
whole finally reported in favor of the name, Chisaga, but the
legislature, in passing the bill for our county organization, by
clerical or typographical error changed the last "a" in "saga" to "o,"
which, having become the law, has not been changed.

The eastern boundary of the county was fixed as the St. Croix river;
the southern boundary, the line between townships 32 and 33; the
western, the line between ranges 21 and 22, for three townships south,
and the line between ranges 22 and 23 for the remaining townships
north. To show how little was known of the geography of the section we
refer to the record of the county commissioners of Washington county,
dated Dec. 15, 1848, at which St. Croix district, the present Chisago
county, was established as "bounded on the north by Sunrise river and
on the west by line between ranges 21 and 22"--an utter impossibility,
as the Sunrise river flows in a northerly direction entirely through
the county and at its nearest point does not come within three miles
of the range line mentioned.

The election for the first board of county officers was held at the
Chisago House, Oct. 14, 1851. Twenty-three votes were polled at this
election. The following officers were elected: Commissioners, Samuel
Thomson, chairman; N. C. D. Taylor, Thomas F. Morton; clerk of board
and register of deeds, F. W. Abbott; treasurer, W. H. C. Folsom. The
bill establishing the county provided that "the seat of justice of the
county of Chisago shall be at such point in said county as the first
board of commissioners elected in said county shall determine." In
accordance with this law, at the first meeting of the commissioners,
held at the office of N. C. D. Taylor in Taylor's Falls, Jan. 5, 1852,
the town of Taylor's Falls was chosen as the county seat, "agreeable
to the Revised Statutes, chapter 1st, section 14th."

As the population of the county increased the project of moving the
county seat to a more nearly central position was agitated. In 1858 a
vote was taken which resulted in favor of its removal to Centre City.
The matter of the legality of the vote was referred to the court, and
decided by Judge Welch adversely, on the ground that a majority of the
voters of the county had not voted. The county seat consequently
remained at Taylor's Falls. In 1861 another vote was taken by which
the county seat was removed to Chisago City, and there it remained
under somewhat adverse circumstances. Chisago City having but a small
population and no conveniences for such a purpose, and being for
several years without even a post office, repeated efforts were made
for another removal, until in 1875 a vote to remove it to Centre City
carried. In January, 1876, the records were removed. The county
authorities issued $5,000 bonds for a court house which was erected on
a point of land extending into Chisago lake, a beautiful situation.
The bonds have been paid and the county is without indebtedness, and
has a surplus of about $10,000.

The town of Amador comprises two eastern tiers of sections of township
35, range 20, and two fractional sections of township 36, range 20,
fractional township 35, range 19, and one fractional section of
township 36, range 19. The St. Croix river forms its boundary on the
north and east. The surface is undulating. The western and southern
part is covered with hardwood timber and has rich soil. The northern
part has oak openings and prairie, with soil somewhat varied, in some
places more or less sandy. It is well watered and drained. Thornton
Bishop, the first settler, came in 1846, and located a farm on the
banks of the St. Croix, at the head of the rapids, in section 34.
Richard Arnold settled on Amador prairie in 1854, and was followed by
James P. Martin, Carmi P. Garlick and others. Garlick was a practicing
physician, but engaged in other work. He built a steam saw mill and
made many other improvements, among them laying out the village of
Amador in section 9, township 35, range 20. H. N. Newbury, surveyor,
not succeeding in his undertaking, issued the prospectus of a paper to
be called the _St. Croix Eagle_ and to be published at Taylor's Falls.
This failing he removed to Osceola.

Amador was organized in 1858. The first supervisors were C. P.
Garlick, R. Arnold and James Martin. A post office was established in
1857; Henry Bush, postmaster. Mr. Bush had a small farm at the mouth
of Deer creek, where he built a large public house, two stories high.
This house burned down. He established a ferry across the St. Croix.
He had a large family of boys who roamed the woods freely until one of
their number was lost. The other boys came home as usual but of one
they could give no account. Parties were organized for the search,
which at last was given up as unsuccessful. A year afterward the bones
of the missing boy were found some miles away, by the side of a log,
where the little wanderer had doubtless perished of starvation and
exposure. Mr. Bishop raised the first crops of the town. The first
marriage was that of Charles S. Nevers and Mary Snell, by John Winans,
Esq., Feb. 23, 1860.

THORNTON BISHOP was a native of Indiana. He came to St. Croix Falls in
1841 and was married to Delia Wolf in 1842, by Rev. W. D. Boutwell, at
the Pokegama mission. This wife was a well educated half-breed. They
raised a large family of children. He came to Amador in 1846 and
farmed for some time at the head of the rapids, when he sold his farm
and moved to Sunrise. In 1880 he removed to Kettle River station. In
1883-84-85-86 he served as commissioner for Pine county.

WILLIAM HOLMES came to Amador and settled on a farm at the head of the
rapids in 1848. The farm is now held by John Dabney. Mr. Holmes
married a sister of Mrs. Thornton Bishop. She was educated at
Pokegama mission. They raised a large family of children. In 1852 Mr.
Holmes removed to Sunrise and thence to Trade River, Wisconsin, in
1875, where he sickened. His brother-in-law, Bishop, came to his
relief, removed him to his own home and cared for him till he died,
May, 1876.

JAMES M. MARTIN was one of the first settlers in Amador. He came
originally from Missouri, where he was married. He died July 17, 1887;
Mrs. Martin dying some years prior. Their sons are James M., Harvey,
Charles, Isaac, and Theodore. Their daughters are Mrs. Cowan, Mrs.
Wilkes, Mrs. Nordine and Mrs. Lanon.


BRANCH.

The town of Branch, occupying township 35, range 21, was set off from
Sunrise, and organized in 1872. The first supervisors were William
Winston, Peter Delamater and Frank Knight. A post office was
established in 1869; Geo. W. Flanders, postmaster. The surface is
mostly undulating, and the soil a sandy loam. There are oak openings,
and along the course of the north branch of the Sunrise river, which
flows through the town from west to east, there are many excellent
wild meadows. The north part originally contained pine forests; about
5,000,000 feet have been cut away. Branch contains some pretty and
well cultivated farms. The St. Paul & Duluth railroad traverses the
town from south to north.


NORTH BRANCH STATION.

The only village in the town of Branch was platted in January, 1870,
the proprietors being the Western Land Association, L. Mendenhall,
agent. The plat includes the north half of the northwest quarter of
section 21, and the northeast quarter of section 20, township 35,
range 21. The first settler was G. M. Flanders, who opened a store
here in 1868, which was burned in 1869. Henry L. Ingalls erected a
good hotel and other buildings. In 1870 Gurley & Bros. established a
store; B. F. Wilkes built a hotel; Winston, Long & Co. established a
store. In 1874 J. F. F. Swanson built a flouring mill, which was
burned in 1878. The loss was about $6,000, with but little insurance.
The village now contains two elevators, three hotels, six stores and
the usual proportion of dwellings. There are two churches, the
Episcopalian building, erected in 1883; and the Congregational, in
1884. There is also a good school house. The village was incorporated
in 1882. In December, 1884, the store of Singleton & Bonnafon was
burned; loss estimated at $15,000, with but little insurance.

HENRY L. INGALLS was born in Abingdon, Connecticut, in 1804. In 1832
he was married to Lavina L. Child, of Woodstock, Connecticut, and with
his wife and younger brother emigrated to Illinois, settling at
Chandler, Cass county. There he remained seventeen years, when, his
impaired health necessitating a change, with his son Henry he went to
California. In 1853 he returned and settled on Sunrise prairie, then
an unbroken wilderness. For seventeen years he lived on his farm and
kept a popular country hotel. In 1870 he removed to North Branch and
built a large frame residence, where he lived until his death, which
occurred Sept. 2, 1876. Mr. Ingalls left three sons, Ephraim, Henry
and Van Rensselaer.

MRS. LAVINA L. INGALLS, whose maiden name was Childs, was born in
Connecticut in 1806; was married as above stated in 1832, from which
time she cheerfully and uncomplainingly shared the fortunes of her
husband in the West, undergoing the usual toils and privations of the
pioneer. While at Sunrise, during part of the time she had no
neighbors nearer than Taylor's Falls. The first post office in Chisago
county north of Taylor's Falls was at her house, and was known as
Muscotink. She and her husband, during the later years of their lives,
were Spiritualists, and derived great comfort from their peculiar
phase of belief. Mrs. Ingalls was a talented and kind hearted woman,
charitable in act and beloved by her associates. She died Dec. 29,
1879.


CHISAGO LAKE.

The town of Chisago Lake includes the four western tiers of sections
of township 33, range 20, and township 34, range 20. A permanent
characteristic of this town is its unrivaled lake scenery, rendering
it not only attractive for residences but a favorite resort of
visitors. Its principal lake has already been described. The first
settler was John S. Van Rensselaer, who located on an island opposite
the present site of Centre City in the spring of 1851, and raised a
crop of corn and vegetables. He built him a cabin and lived there
three years. Eric Norberg, a prominent Swede, came to the lake from
Bishop's Hill, Illinois, in April, 1851, and being pleased with the
locality, came back with a colony of Swedes, including Peter Berg,
Andrew Swenson, Peter Anderson, Peter Shaline, Daniel Rattick, and
others. They came by steamboat, landed at Taylor's Falls June 24,
1851, cut a road to Chisago lake and took undisputed possession of its
shores, finding no trace of human occupancy save some deserted Indian
tepees and the claim cabin of Mr. Van Rensselaer on the island. Mr.
Berg settled on the west part of lot 3, section 35, and southwest
quarter of southwest quarter of section 26, township 34, range 20.
Peter Anderson on the east part of lot 3, and northwest quarter of
northeast quarter of section 35, township 34, range 20. Andrew Swenson
on lot 5, section 27, township 34, range 20. Mr. Norberg had come
first to the country at the invitation of Miles Tornell, who was
murdered in 1848, near St. Croix Falls, by some Indian assassins,
hired to commit the deed by one Miller, a whisky seller. Mr. Norberg
originally intended to make his home at Chisago Lake, but died at
Bishop's Hill, Illinois, while on a visit in 1853.

The colony in 1852 raised the first rye, barley and flax in the
county. They also raised potatoes, green corn and vegetables, cut out
roads, cleared timber, and made other improvements. Peter Berg raised
flax and made linen thread in 1852, the first made in Minnesota.
Settlers came in rapidly. Among the arrivals in 1852 and soon after
were the Petersons, Strands, Johnsons, Frank Mobeck, Dahliam, Porter,
and others. A post office was established in 1858; A. Nelson,
postmaster. The town was organized in 1858. The first supervisors
were: Ephraim C. Ingalls, chairman; Frank Mobeck and Daniel Lindstrom.

The first church organization in the county was that of the Swedish
Evangelical Lutheran, in 1854. Here was built the first church edifice
in 1855, a frame structure subsequently enlarged, but in 1882
superseded by a fine brick building, costing $30,000. Its dimensions
are 116 × 66 feet, ground plan, and the spire is 135 feet in height. A
fine organ was purchased at a cost of $1,500. This church building is
an ornament to the town and the State, and would be creditable even to
our great cities. The first pastor was Rev. P. A. Cedarstam. His
successors are Revs. C. A. Hedengrand and John J. Frodeen, the present
incumbent. The communicants number about 1,300.

In 1880 the St. Paul & Duluth railroad extended a branch road from
Wyoming to Taylor's Falls. This passes through the town of Chisago
Lake, from west to east, crossing three arms of the lake. To secure
this road the town gave $10,000 in twenty year bonds. It obtains in
exchange an outlet for the products of its farms and forests. The
bridge across Chisago lake was built in 1857, at a cost of $1,500. It
has since been made an embankment bridge at an additional cost of
$1,600. Of this the State furnished $1,000 and the county $600.


CENTRE CITY,

The county seat of Chisago county, was platted May, 1857, on lot 5,
section 27, township 34, range 20; Andrew Swenson, proprietor; Alex.
Cairns, surveyor. It is located on a peninsula midway on the east
shore of Chisago lake. Few villages are more beautifully situated. It
contains two hotels, three stores, a saw and feed mill, two church
buildings, a Swedish Lutheran and Swedish Methodist, a school house
and many pleasant residences. The court house was built in 1876, at a
cost of $5,000, on a promontory commanding a fine view of the lake.
The depot of the branch of the St. Paul & Duluth railroad is located
half a mile south of the village. Summer excursionists assemble here
in goodly numbers, and the location bids fair to become very
attractive as a summer resort. During the Indian outbreak in 1862, and
the period of uncertainty as to the probable attitude of the Chippewa
Indians, the people of Chisago Lake built breastworks for protection,
on the isthmus connecting Centre City with the mainland, and planted
cannon upon them for defense. The remains of these old fortifications
may still be seen.

ANDREW SWENSON.--Mr. Swenson, the founder of Centre City, came to the
shores of the lake in 1851, and made his home on the present site of
the city. He was born in Sweden in 1817; came to America in 1850, and
remained a short time in New Orleans before coming to Minnesota. He
was a farmer and a member of the Methodist church. He was married to
Catharine Peterson in 1838. He died in July, 1887, leaving two sons
and two daughters.

JOHN S. VAN RENSSELAER came to Chisago Lake in the spring of 1851, and
settled on an island, where he lived three years in hermit-like
seclusion, raising corn and vegetables. His cabin, always neat and
tasteful, was furnished with a choice library. In 1854 he removed to
Sunrise Lake, where he lived fifteen years, engaged in farming. He
removed thence to Sunrise City. Mr. Van Rensselaer was the founder of
the first cheese factories in the county, at Sunrise City and Centre
City. He is an honorable and upright man, whose high aim is to
exemplify the golden rule in his life and deportment.

AXEL DAHLIAM settled on the west shore of East Chisago lake in 1852.
Mr. Dahliam had been an officer in the Swedish Army. He was a
cultivated gentleman. He died in 1869.

NELS NORD was born in Lindhopsing, Sweden, in 1819. In his eighteenth
year he enlisted in the Swedish Army and served twelve years. He came
to America in 1855 and located on Chisago lake, in the northeast
quarter of section 32, township 34, range 20. He was married in Sweden
to Lisa Anderson. They have one son, John P., who has been for seven
years the popular and efficient auditor of Chisago county. He was
married in 1878 to Hildah, daughter of Rev. C. A. Hedengrand. They
have one daughter.

JOHN A. HALLBERG was born at Smolland, Sweden, in 1830. He came to
America in 1853 and to Centre City in 1854. In 1872 he purchased a saw
and feed mill of Shogren Brothers. In 1876 he built a hotel. He has
held the office of justice of the peace many years and has served four
years as county commissioner. He was married to Matilda E. Carlson in
1870.

CHAS. A. BUSH is of German descent. His father, Wm. H. Bush, lived in
Wyoming. His great grandfather came to this country in 1765 and fought
on the side of the colonies. Chas. A. came to Minnesota in 1869 from
Pennsylvania. He has served as treasurer of Chisago county four years.

LARS JOHAN STARK was born in Sweden in 1826; came to America in 1850,
and settled at Chisago Lake in 1852. He was married in 1865, and again
in 1870. He has eleven children living. In Sweden he served as clerk
ten years. In his American home he has followed farming chiefly. He
has served as justice of the peace and county commissioner, and has
filled some town offices. He was engrossing clerk of the house of
representatives in 1864. He was a member of the house in the sessions
of 1865 and 1875. In 1868 he moved to the town of Fish Lake, and in
1877 to Harris.

FRANK MOBECK was born in Sweden in 1814. He came to America in 1851,
and in 1853 to Chisago Lake, where he settled on lot 5, section 34,
township 34, range 20. His home is on a beautiful elevation, on a
point of land projecting into the lake. Mr. Mobeck served in the
Swedish Army seventeen years. He has raised a large family of
children, all of whom are good citizens.

ROBERT CURRIE was born in Ayrshire, Scotland. After reaching manhood
he was employed many years as superintendent of a fancy manufacturing
company. He was married in Scotland. In 1854, after the death of his
wife, he came to America, and in 1855 selected a place for a home on
the north shore of west Chisago lake, where he lived till his death by
drowning in 1883. The site of his home was well chosen. It commanded a
beautiful view of the lake, and in the summer months was luxuriantly
adorned with flowers. Mr. Currie was a man of fine intellect, well
cultivated, and an ardent admirer of his countryman Burns, from whom,
and from Shakespeare and other masters of English literature he could
quote for hours. Mr. Currie's occupation was farming, but he filled
several offices acceptably. He was superintendent of schools, judge of
probate and clerk of district court. Though somewhat eccentric, he was
a social, kind hearted man.

ANDREW N. HOLM, formerly Andrew Nelson, his name having been changed
by legislative enactment in 1867, was born in Sweden in 1829. He
learned the trade of carpenter, came to America in 1855 and located in
Centre City in 1857, of which city he was first postmaster. He served
as a soldier during the Civil War and at its close removed his family
to Taylor's Falls, which is still his home.


LINDSTROM VILLAGE,

Located on the line of the Taylor's Falls branch of the St. Paul &
Duluth railroad, on lot 4, section 33, town 34, range 20, was platted
in 1880 by G. W. Sewall, surveyor. The proprietors are James and
Elisabeth Smith. It is situated on high ground and almost surrounded
by the waters of Lake Chisago. It would be difficult to find a
lovelier site. Maurice Tombler built the first store and elevator
here, in 1881. There are now three stores, one hotel, one railroad
station and several shops and dwellings. A post office was established
at Lindstrom in 1880; Charles H. Bush, postmaster.

DANIEL LINDSTROM was born in 1825, in Helsingland, Sweden. He had no
early advantages for obtaining an education, and spent most of his
youth herding goats amongst the mountains in the north part of Sweden.
In 1854 he came to America and located on Chisago lake, choosing a
beautiful location, which has since been laid out as a village, and
bids fair to become a place of popular resort. Mr. Lindstrom was
married first in Sweden, and now lives with his second wife, the first
having died in 1864. He has a family of three children. He has filled
official positions in his town acceptably.

MAGNUS S. SHALEEN was born in Sweden in 1796; came to America in 1855,
and made a homestead near Lindstrom in section 29, town 34, range 20,
where he died in 1869. Mrs. Shaleen died in 1873. John, the oldest
son, resides on the family homestead. He has served as sheriff of
Chisago county six years, and state senator eight years. Peter, the
second son, has served as postmaster of Centre City fourteen years,
and clerk of the district court five years. Sarah, the eldest
daughter, married John Swenson. They have three sons, John H., Henry
A. and Oscar, industrious, reliable young men, all in the employ of
the St. Paul & Duluth Railroad Company. Mary married Andrew Wallmark
at Chisago Lake, in 1856. One daughter is unmarried.


CHISAGO CITY.

The village of Chisago City is located on a hardwood ridge, between
Chisago and Green lakes, in sections 6 and 7, township 34, range 20.
It was platted by Isaac Bernheimer & Co., of Philadelphia, on lot 4,
section 7, township 34, range 20, in 1855. They built a hotel, several
dwellings, and a saw and grist mill on the banks of Chisago lake, at
an expense of about $7,000. These mills were burned in 1872. A stave
factory was built on the site of the burned mills, which was operated
successfully for many years under the management of George Nathan,
Otto Wallmark, W. D. Webb and others. This stave mill gave a new
impetus to the prosperity of the village, under the influence of which
the county seat was transferred to it. Its subsequent growth, however,
did not justify expectations. It was for many years without even a
post office. In 1875 the county seat was removed to Centre City. The
Lutherans have here one of the finest church buildings in the county.
The branch railroad depot is located one mile north, and quite a
village has grown up around it.

OTTO WALLMARK was born Dec. 7, 1830, in the province of Halland,
Sweden. In his minority he was nine years clerk in a store. He
received a common school education. In 1854 he came to America and
directly to Chisago City, where he lived many years, making a
homestead, which has since been his permanent home. He served eighteen
years as Chisago county auditor. He served several years as postmaster
at Chisago City, and in 1886 was elected state senator for four years.
His first wife was Mary Helene, his second wife, Eva Palmgreen. They
have one son and one daughter.

ANDREW WALLMARK, brother of Otto, was born in Sweden in 1826; received
a liberal education, and came to Chisago Lake from Sweden in 1854. He
has filled several town offices; has been register of deeds for
Chisago county nineteen years; was married to Mary Shaleen in 1856.
They have two sons and three daughters.


FISH LAKE.

The town of Fish Lake includes township 36, range 22. It was
originally well timbered, chiefly with hardwood, but 25,000,000 feet
of pine timber has been cut from it and mostly manufactured in the
town. There are some fine lakes in the town, of which the largest and
finest are Horseshoe and Cedar. The soil is black clay loam with
subsoil of clay. The town was cut off from the town of Sunrise and
organized in 1868. The first supervisors were Chas. F. Stark, Benjamin
Franklin and John A. Hokanson. A post office was established in 1868;
Benjamin Franklin, postmaster. The first settlers were Peter Olaf and
Peter Bergland, in section 25. The first school was taught by Miss
Mattison. The first marriage was that of John Hokanson and Matilda
Samuelson. The first death was that of John Erickson. The population
is mostly from Sweden. There is a good Swedish Lutheran church built
near the centre of the town. There are also a Swedish Methodist and a
Swedish Baptist society. The people are a well-to-do, independent
class. Fish Lake has a saw mill with a capacity of about 1,000,000
feet. In 1877 Hosburg, the watchman of this mill, was killed by
Priestly, an Englishman. Hosburg, in accordance with the rules, had
ordered him not to smoke on the premises. The Englishman was arrested,
tried for murder and acquitted.

PETER BERG was born in Sweden in 1801; came to America in 1850, and
settled at Chisago Lake in 1851. Some time subsequently he settled on
the north shore of Fish lake. In 1886, at the age of eighty-five
years, he is still a vigorous, active man. Mr. Berg was married in
Sweden. He has one daughter, Katharine, who married Sam Hamilton, of
Taylor's Falls. Mr. Hamilton died in 1871. She married as her second
husband Swain G. Yongren.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, though he bears the name of America's most
illustrious philosopher, is a native of Sweden, whence he came with a
Swedish colony in 1852, settled at Taylor's Falls, and subsequently
removed to the northern shore of Fish lake. By way of explaining how
he came by his American name we add that soon after his arrival he
came to the writer somewhat puzzled as to how he should write his
Swedish name in English. He gave it as "Ben Franz Norel," but
pronounced it in such a way that it sounded rather like Benjamin
Franklin. We suggested that name as a happy solution of the
difficulty, telling him something about the illustrious man who had
made it honorable. He adopted it at once, and has never disgraced it.
He is still a worthy, industrious and honorable citizen of Fish Lake.


FRANCONIA

Includes the two eastern tiers of sections of township 33, range 20,
and fractional township 33, range 19, including about fifteen whole
sections, and four fractional. The soil is good, and originally
supported a growth of hardwood. The surface is undulating. It is well
watered by Lawrence and several other small creeks tributary to the
St. Croix, and has several small but clear lakes. Ansel Smith was the
first settler of the town and village, which he named after Franconia
in the White mountains. He came here in 1852, and located a claim on
the present site of the village, on the St. Croix river, section 10,
township 33, range 19. He did much for the prosperity of the village
and town. He raised the first crops and was the first postmaster
(1854). The town was organized in 1858. The first supervisors were
Ansel Smith, Leonard P. Day and A. J. Adams. The town is now well
settled and has many excellent farms. The branch St. Paul & Duluth
railroad has a depot three-fourths of a mile from the village of
Franconia. A German Methodist church is located near the centre of the
town.


FRANCONIA VILLAGE

Was platted in 1858, by Ansel Smith. It was incorporated in 1884. Paul
Munch, in 1860, erected a first class, three storied flouring mill on
Lawrence creek. A saw mill, erected in 1854 by the Clark brothers and
Ansel Smith, has passed through many changes of ownership. It is now
the property of Matthews & Jourdain. Henry F. and Leonard P. Day built
the first good dwelling in the village, on the banks of the St. Croix,
just above the steamboat landing. Margaret Smith taught the first
school. The first death in the village was that of Neil Monroe.

ANSEL SMITH came from Vermont to St. Croix Falls in 1850 and engaged
in teaching. In 1851 he helped erect the Chisago House in Taylor's
Falls. In 1852 he made a claim on the St. Croix river, in section 10,
township 33, range 19, and there platted the village of Franconia,
clearing away the worst of the timber with his own hands. He was an
energetic, active business man, and took an interest not only in the
affairs of his town and neighborhood, but in the country at large. He
represented his district in the fifth, sixth and seventh legislatures.
He was appointed register of the United States land office at Duluth
in 1870 and served till 1872. Mr. Smith died at his residence in
Duluth in 1878, leaving a wife and three promising sons, two of them
practicing attorneys in Duluth; one cashier of a bank in Duluth.

HENRY F. AND LEONARD P. DAY.--The Day brothers came from St. Lawrence,
New York, to the St. Croix valley in 1849, and settled in Franconia in
1852. Henry married Margaret Smith, daughter of David Smith. During
the Rebellion he served in Company C, Seventh Minnesota Volunteers. He
moved to Florida in 1886. Leonard P. was married to Mary Mitchell in
1856. He died in 1874, leaving a widow, two sons and two daughters.
His widow (in 1886) is the wife of Henry Wills, of Osceola.

HENRY WILLS was born in 1829, in Illinois, and married his first wife
in Missouri in 1856, who died in 1878, leaving nine children. Mr.
Wills was one of the first farmers in Franconia, and has been active
in promoting improvements in his town and county. He moved to Osceola
in 1886.

THE CLARK BROTHERS came from Maine and located in Franconia in 1854,
where they built the first mill in the village. Subsequently they
became citizens of Taylor's Falls, engaging in the mercantile, livery,
saw and stave mill business. James, the oldest, married Carrie
Jellison in 1863, and moved to Windom, Minnesota. Rufus, the next in
age, married Kate Strand in 1860, and died May, 1880, leaving a widow,
three sons and one daughter. Charles, the youngest, was married to
Martha J. Gray in 1868, and removed to Fergus Falls.

DAVID SMITH was born in Scotland. He came to Franconia in 1855, where
he has now one of the best farms in Chisago county. His youngest son,
James, lives on the old homestead with him. His second son, John, has
made his home in Rush City. Andrew, his oldest, served during the
Rebellion in company C, Seventh Minnesota. His oldest daughter,
Margaret, is the wife of H. F. Day. His daughter Nancy is the wife of
N. H. Hickerson and resides in California,. Barbary, the third
daughter, is the wife of John Grove of Burnett county.

JONAS LINDALL was for many years an enterprising and prosperous
business man in Franconia. He opened up an extensive wood trade with
St. Paul, in which C. J. Vitalis is his successor. Mr. Lindall
represented his county in the senate of the fifteenth and sixteenth
state legislatures. He was accidentally drowned from a barge of wood
at Hastings in May, 1872. His widow is married to Chas. J. Vitalis.

WM. PEASLEE came from Maine to the St. Croix valley and settled in
Franconia in 1857, and followed mercantile pursuits at that place and
at Taylor's Falls. He died at the latter place in 1876. Mr. Peaslee
was married at Palmyra, Maine, to Sophia E. Harriman, who, with
Clarence, an only son, survives him. His widow resides in Taylor's
Falls and superintends a millinery and fancy store. Clarence succeeds
his father in the grocery and dry goods business at Taylor's Falls. He
married Rosa, a daughter of Patrick Fox.

CHARLES VITALIS was born in Smolland, Sweden, in 1843; came to America
in 1868 and settled in Franconia village. He was for five years
employed as clerk. In 1873 he embarked in the mercantile and wood
business. In one year he shipped 13,000 cords of wood, and has
averaged for the last 14 years 7,000 cords, making a total of 100,000
cords. He was married to Josephine Nelson, widow of Jonas Lindall, in
1873. They have three children. Elof, John, Elias and Hans are
brothers of Charles Vitalis, residing in the town of Franconia.

AUGUST J. ANDERSON was born near Wexico, Sweden, in 1860; came to
America with his parents in 1869, and to Franconia. At thirteen years
of age he commenced clerking for C. Vitalis, with whom he continued
until 1873, when he associated himself with him in the mercantile
business. He visited Europe in 1883.

FRANK N. PETERSON.--Mr. Peterson came to America in 1865, and in 1866
settled in the valley of the St. Croix. He attended school at Carver,
Minnesota, one year, when he became a traveling salesman for Leopold &
Co., of Chicago, and in 1881 settled in Franconia. He organized the
lumbering firm of Borens Brothers & Peterson, which continued until
1886, when a new organization was formed, called the Franconia Lumber
Company, consisting of P. Jordan, Sam Mathews, of Stillwater, and the
subject of our sketch.

[Illustration: FRANK N. PETERSON.]

Mr. Peterson has been the president of Franconia since its
incorporation. In 1869 he married Miss Ingur Johnson, daughter of Eric
Johnson, a pioneer of St. Peter, Minnesota, and is the father of two
children, Axel, a promising son, who died in February, 1885, at
fourteen years of age, and Maria, now a student in the Ladies'
Seminary at Faribault, who is developing marked ability as a pencil
artist. Mr. Peterson owns one of the finest houses in the valley,
romantically situated, which is supplied with pure spring water. It is
a pride to the village and attracts general attention. He is also the
inventor and patentee of the Lindholm & Peterson adding machine.


HARRIS.

The town of Harris contains twenty-four sections of township 36, range
21, the four western tiers of sections. The soil is a sandy loam with
clay subsoil. The town is well watered and drained by Goose creek,
which entering the town from the northwest, and bending at first
southward, then eastward, leaves the town near its southeastern line
in section 22. The timber consisted originally of oak openings and
pine; 10,000,000 feet of the latter have been removed from the
southeastern portion. Luxuriant wild meadows are found along Goose
creek. The first improvement was a farm, made by W. H. C. Folsom in
sections 21 and 22 in 1854. The first permanent settler was Henry H.
Sevy, who located on this farm in 1856. The town of Harris was
organized in 1884.


HARRIS VILLAGE.

A charter organizing Harris village was granted by the district court,
under the general law, in 1882. A question arose as to the legality of
the act. A subsequent legislature, by legislative act, confirmed all
similarly organized villages in the State. The supreme court decided
the organization of such villages illegal and the legislative act
sanctioning it unconstitutional. It was subsequently organized
legally. The village was surveyed by A. D. Miller and platted in May,
1873, in the south half of section 21, township 36, range 21, Philip
S. Harris and N. D. Miller, proprietors. It derived its name from
Philip S. Harris, a prominent officer of the St. Paul & Duluth
railroad. Fred Wolf was the first settler, in 1870, and first merchant
and first railroad agent, in 1873. He acted as postmaster subsequently
and filled other offices of trust. His interests are intimately
blended with those of the village. Isaac Savage was the second settler
and merchant. He was the first postmaster, in 1873. The first school
was taught by Mary Gwinn, in 1873. The first marriage was that of M.
P. Smith and Charlotte Swenson. The first child born was Brague, son
of W. D. Sayers. The first death was that of Isaac Morrill. A good
school house was built in 1877. The village is rapidly growing. It has
an extensive trade in hay, wood, ties and piles. Wheat shipments are
large. It has four stores, two hotels, three elevators, three hay
presses, two wagon and smith shops, one agricultural warehouse, one
skating rink, one livery stable, two saloons, one meat shop and a
railroad depot.


LENT.

This town includes the whole of township 34, range 21. It is well
watered and drained by Sunrise river, but has no lakes. The soil is a
sandy loam; the timber chiefly oak openings. The early settlers were
Harvey Lent, from whom the town derived its name, William Robinson,
James Buchanan, who raised the first crops in 1855, Joshua Dawson,
Jesse Moore and others. The town was organized in 1872. The first
supervisors were Dawson, Moore and Robinson. The first post office was
established in 1875, at Stacy, a railroad station on the St. Paul &
Duluth railroad, which traverses this town from south to north. Frank
Dawson was the first postmaster.


NESSELL.

Nessell includes township 37, range 22. The surface was originally
covered with a growth of hardwood, with some pine. Of the latter,
about 10,000,000 feet has been cut. The soil is adapted to wheat
culture. It is well watered. Rush lake occupies a nearly central
position, and is a beautiful sheet of water with about fourteen miles
of meandering shore line, crystal clear, and deep, well stocked with
fish, and bordered with groves of maple, oak and linden. The town was
set off from Rush Lake and organized in 1870. The first supervisors
were Wm. H. McCray, John H. Breit and Matts Colleen. The town is
settled by a class of industrious, upright people. There are three
churches, with prosperous societies, the Swedish Baptist, the Swedish
Lutheran and German Lutheran. Martin Linnell was the first child born.
The first marriage was that of Wm. Vanetta and Anna Johnson, in 1861.
Alice Draper taught the first school. Rev. Cedarstam preached the
first sermon.

ROBERT NESSELL was the oldest settler. The town was named for him. He
was born in Germany in 1834; came to America in 1847, and to Minnesota
in 1854. He was married at Sunrise to Kate Torbert, of Shafer, in
1856, and the same year located his present home. Other early settlers
are John H. Breit, John Lindsey, P. Kelley, and the Jarchow brothers.

STEPHEN B. CLARK made Nessell his home in 1867. Mr. Clark was born in
Vermont in 1830; came to Marine in 1851. He served three years during
the Rebellion in the Second Wisconsin Cavalry. He removed to Rush City
in 1856.


RUSH SEBA.

Rush Seba comprises township 37, range 21, and fractional part of
township 37, range 20, consisting of about ten sections, irregularly
bounded by the St. Croix river. It is timbered with hardwood, has good
soil, chiefly a black clay loam, with clay subsoil, and is well
watered by Rush river and Rock creek and tributaries. Wild meadows and
marshes are intermingled with the timber. The town was organized in
1858, with George B. Folsom, Robert Newell and Timothy Ward as
supervisors. A post office was established in 1859, in section 14,
George B. Folsom, postmaster. George B. Folsom was the first settler,
raising the first crops in the town in 1855. The St. Paul & Duluth
railroad traverses the town from south to north. It was built in 1868,
and a branch road to Grantsburg, Wisconsin, was built in 1884.
Josephine Blanding taught the first school, in 1856. The first death
was that of James Ward, who died from accidental poisoning.


RUSH CITY.

In 1868, at the completion of the St. Paul & Duluth railroad, a depot
was built and a station established at the crossing of Rush river,
around which rapidly grew up the village of Rush City. It was surveyed
and platted by Benjamin W. Brunson, surveyor, in January, 1870, in the
northeast quarter of section 21, township 37, range 26. The Western
Land Association, L. Mendenhall, agent, was proprietor. Thomas Flynn
was the first settler, he having in 1857 pre-empted the land which
afterward became the site of the village. Among the improvements in
1869 was a steam saw mill, built by Taylor & Co. This mill was burned
in 1879, at a loss of $13,000. Rush City was incorporated in 1874.
Frank H. Pratt was president of the first village council. Rush City
has now a commodious town hall, an exchange bank, one elevator, one
foundry, a good school house, built at a cost of $3,000; a good graded
school, under the supervision of Prof. V. D. Eddy; a lodge of Ancient
Order United Workmen (No. 42), a board of trade, a Woman's Christian
Temperance Union Association, a Sons of Temperance lodge, a post of
the Grand Army of the Republic (Ellsworth Post, No. 58), and a masonic
organization (Jasper Lodge). The following denominations have churches
and societies: Catholic, Episcopalian, German Lutheran, Swedish
Lutheran, and Swedish Evangelical. The Catholics are building a church
at a cost of $10,000.

THOMAS FLYNN was born in county Mayo, Ireland, 1828. He came to
America in 1831, and lived in Canada East until 1857; when he located
in Minnesota, pre-empting the northeast quarter of section 21,
township 37, range 21. His farm became the site of the village of Rush
City in 1868, and in 1869 he built the first frame house in its
limits. Mr. Flynn has been married three times, losing each of his
wives by death. He has two sons living, James H. and Frank A.

PATRICK H. FLYNN was born in county Mayo, Ireland, in 1829; came to
America in 1831; lived in Canada East until 1857, and coming to
Minnesota pre-empted the northwest quarter of section 21. He was
married in 1857 to Margaret Kelly, of Illinois. They have two sons and
two daughters living. Mr. Flynn, in 1880, erected the Globe Hotel in
Rush City, where he now resides.

RUFUS CROCKER was the second settler in Rush Seba. He was the first
justice of the peace and held other offices. Mr. Crocker was married
to Miss Mercy Hewson, of Isanti county. He is now a citizen of Rock
Creek.

FRANK H. PRATT was born in Skowhegan, Maine, in 1836. His father,
Henry P. Pratt, a veteran editor, who had served twenty years on the
Kennebec _Journal_, and later was connected with the Somerset
_Journal_ and Skowhegan _People's Press_, came to St. Paul in 1854
with his family, and was associated with John P. Owens as assistant
editor of the St. Paul _Minnesotian_. On Sunday, May 6, 1855, Mr.
Pratt went on board the steamer Royal Arch, which had landed at the
St. Paul levee that morning with a cargo of passengers, sick, dying
and dead of cholera. Thirteen had already died on the boat. Mr.
Pratt, Sr., went on board to alleviate the sufferings of the sick and
dying, and in consequence, within two days, himself sickened and died.
The writer and his family were passengers on the Royal Arch, and
witnesses to these scenes of suffering and death and Mr. Pratt's
heroic self-devotion. After his father's death Frank continued in the
office of the _Minnesotian_ as printer. He worked also in the offices
of the St. Paul and St. Peter _Tribune_ and the Prescott _Transcript_.
In 1858-59 he served as local editor and foreman in the _Transcript_
office. In 1860 he removed to Taylor's Falls, and established the
Taylor's Falls _Reporter_, the first newspaper published in Chisago
county. In 1862 he enlisted in Company C. of the Seventh Minnesota
Volunteer Infantry; was commissioned second lieutenant, and served
until he resigned his office in the latter part of 1864, having been
promoted to the captaincy of Company C. After the war he located in
Sunrise City, and engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1872 he removed
to Rush City, continued in mercantile business, and took an active
part in all enterprises looking to the welfare of the city. He built a
store, elevator and a fine residence, which was burned in 1881. Mr.
Pratt represented his district in the sixteenth legislature. He was
married to Helen A. Bossout, at St. Paul, in 1858. They have one son,
Fred, and three daughters. Mr. Pratt moved to St. Paul in 1882, where
he died, March 25, 1884. Fred, his son, succeeds him in business in
Rush City. He is married to a daughter of Jonathan Chase, of East
Minneapolis.

VOLORO D. EDDY was born in Java, Wyoming county, New York, Sept. 7,
1840; received a common school education supplemented by two years'
attendance at Griffith Institute, Springfield, New York; gave up his
school to enlist in his country's service, as a member of the
"Ellsworth Avengers" (the Forty-fourth New York Volunteers). The
regiment was mustered into service at Albany, New York, Aug. 8, 1861.
He served in this regiment until June 5, 1864, when he was taken
prisoner at Old Church, Virginia. He endured the horrors of prison
life until Feb. 26, 1865, and was discharged from service May 20,
1865. In 1868 he came to Taylor's Falls and engaged in teaching, which
he has made his profession, having taught continuously since 1869. He
has been county superintendent of schools for twelve years, during
which time he has resided at Rush City. Mr. Eddy was married to
Frances Cowley, at Taylor's Falls, Sept. 30, 1868. Mrs. Eddy died
June, 1881. He was married to Anna R. Olmstead, July 25, 1883, at
Arcadia, New York.

FERDINAND SWEEDORFF CHRISTIANSON was born in Copenhagen, Denmark,
April 18, 1837; came to the United States in 1866, to Minnesota in
1868, and to Chisago county in 1870. He was married to Selma A.
Willard, at Red Wing, Minnesota, Dec. 12, 1869. He represented Chisago
county in the legislature of 1878. He was assistant secretary of state
from 1880 to 1882. In 1882 he established the Rush City Bank. In 1883
he was appointed member of the state board of equalization, and in
1885 was one of the committee for selecting a location for the Third
Hospital for the Insane.


SHAFER

Comprises all of the territory of township 34, range 19, excepting the
plat of Taylor's Falls, and fractional sections in the northeast
corner of the township. It was at first heavily timbered with
hardwood, interspersed with marshes and meadows. The soil is good.
Lawrence and Dry creeks drain the greater part of the township. It is
now well settled, and has many fine farms. A Swedish colony settled
here in 1853, consisting of Peter Wyckland, Andros Anderson, Eric
Byland, Tuver Walmarson, and others. The town organized first as
Taylor's Falls, but the name was changed to Shafer in 1873. John G.
Peterson, John Nelson and John Carlson were the first supervisors. The
first school was taught by Ella Wyckoff, in the Marshall district, in
1859. The first marriage was that of Peter Abear to Kittie Wickland.
The branch St. Paul & Duluth railroad passes through the southern part
of this township. The township contributed to this road $3,000 in
bonds. A railroad station in the southwest quarter of section 32 bears
the name of Shafer, derived, together with the name of the township,
from

JACOB SHAFER, who, as early as 1847, cut hay in sections 4 and 5. He
seems to have been in no sense worthy of the honor conferred upon him,
as he was but a transient inhabitant, and disappeared in 1849. No one
knows of his subsequent career. The honor ought to have been given to
some of the hardy Swedes, who were the first real pioneers, and the
first to make substantial improvements.

PETER WICKLAND came from Sweden in 1853, and settled in the northeast
quarter of section 26. He moved to Anoka in 1860, and was drowned in
Rum river in 1880. His son Peter is a prominent merchant in Anoka.

TUVER WALMARSON was born in Sweden in 1812. He was a member of the
Swedish colony of 1853, settled in the northwest quarter of section
26. Mr. and Mrs. Walmarson reared a fine family of children. Nelson
Tuver Walmarson, the eldest son, inherits the industry and frugality
of both parents. By hard work and close attention to business the
family has prospered abundantly.

ANDROS ANDERSON came also from Sweden in 1853 and settled in the east
half of the northeast quarter of section 34. Mr. Anderson moved to
Taylor's Falls in 1859 and died there in 1873. He left but one child,
the wife of Daniel Fredine, of Shafer. Mr. Anderson was a born
humorist and fond of practical jokes. On one occasion his ready wit
was exercised at the expense of a man to whom he had mortgaged his
farm. Deeming the house in which he lived his own, in the absence of
the mortgagee he removed it to Taylor's Falls. The mortgagee, E. W.
Holman, told him that he had stolen the house and must replace it.
Anderson told Holman to take the house and replace it himself, but if
he took his (Anderson's) family along with it he would have him sent
to the penitentiary. Mr. Holman did not see his way clear and the
house was not disturbed.

ERIC BYLAND, another of the Swedish colony, settled in the west half
of the southeast quarter of section 23. In 1860 he sold out and moved
further west. The farm he left is now owned by John Nelson and is one
of the finest farms in Chisago county.

JACOB PETERSON was born in 1847 and came with his parents to Chisago
county in 1854. They located on a beautiful spot in Franconia, on the
shore of a small lake, where they made a farm and where Jacob passed
his boyhood and youth. In 1881 he commenced business at Shafer station
as a merchant and dealer in wood. He was the first postmaster at
Shafer. He was married in 1881 to Mary Heline.

AMBROSE C. SEAVEY was born in Machias, Maine, in 1824; was married to
Elizabeth Ayers, in Crawford, Maine, in 1846, and came to St. Croix
Falls in 1848. In 1852 he removed to Taylor's Falls, and opened the
first blacksmith shop. He was absent two years in Colorado, and when
he returned settled on a farm in the town of Shafer. He has a family
of four sons and six daughters.


SUNRISE.

The town of Sunrise includes the two eastern tiers of sections of
township 36, range 21, one whole and eight fractional sections of
township 36, range 20, and all of township 35, range 20, except the
two eastern tiers of sections. It is well watered by the St. Croix and
Sunrise rivers and their tributaries. The latter river rises in
Washington county, having for its principal source Forest lake, and
flows through the town in a northerly direction into the St. Croix. It
has three considerable tributaries from the west known as North,
Middle and South branches. St. Croix river has, as tributary, Goose
creek, which flows through the northern part of the town. The soil
varies from a rich sandy loam to a sandy soil. The town contains many
fine farms. The old government road from Point Douglas to Superior
passes through the town.

Sunrise was incorporated as a town Oct. 26, 1858; Isaac A. Parmenter,
David Lovejoy and A. C. Mattison, supervisors. A post office was
established in 1856; George S. Frost, postmaster. The first marriage
was that of Robert Nessell and Kate Torbert, by J. D. Wilcox, Esq. The
first child born was Joshua Taylor Gallaspie. The first death was of
an unknown man who died from the kick of a horse. Wm. Holmes, the
first settler, located on Sunrise prairie in 1853, and raised crops on
fifteen acres that year. John A. Brown and Patten W. Davis cultivated
thirty-five acres the same year on Sunrise prairie. Messrs. Brown,
Davis and Ingalls made a wagon road from Sunrise to St. Paul in 1853.
John A. Brown, in the same year, built a hotel and opened a store. The
hotel was built of logs, the store was a frame, the first erected in
Sunrise. In 1855 he built a saw mill. His hotel was burned in 1856.
These buildings were the nucleus of Sunrise village.


SUNRISE VILLAGE

Was platted July, 1857, in the north half of the northeast quarter of
section 8, and the west half of the southwest quarter and the
northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 4, and the
southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 9, all of
township 3, range 20. The proprietors were John A. Brown, J. S.
Caldwell and C. L. Willis; surveyor, W. F. Duffy. It contains a first
class roller flour mill, a saw mill, both owned by Caspar Spivac, two
stores, a school house and several shops and dwellings. In 1857 a
colony from Western New York settled in and around Sunrise village.
The Wilcoxes, Wilkes, Collins, Gwynne, Smith, and others were of this
colony. The village has suffered greatly from fires. The buildings
lost at various times were one flouring mill, valued at $10,000, four
hotels and several private dwellings. The flouring mill was the
property of Mrs. J. G. Mold. Two lives were lost at the burning of the
mill.

In the fall of 1862, immediately after the Sioux outbreak, and while
considerable apprehension was felt as to the attitude of the Chippewas
toward the white settlers, a company of volunteers under Capt.
Anderson was stationed at Sunrise. This company built temporary
quarters of logs, and were very comfortably fixed during the winter.
They had presumably a very good time, but repelled no savage foes.


KOST VILLAGE

Is located in the west half of section 32, township 35, range 20. It
has a first class roller flouring mill, owned by Ferdinand A. Kost,
erected in 1883 at a cost of $13,000, and a saw mill, also owned by F.
A. Kost, erected the same year. It has two stores, a number of shops
and dwellings and a post office, established in 1884, of which F. A.
Kost is postmaster.


CHIPPEWA

Was platted March, 1856, by Benj. Dinsmore, surveyor, in the northwest
quarter of section 2, and the west half of the northeast quarter of
section 2, township 36, range 21. The proprietors were James Starkey,
Charles S. Patteys, Michael E. Ames, Isaac Van Etten, and Moses
Sherburne. It makes a fair farm.


DRONTHEIM

Was platted in 1856, in the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter
and the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 1,
township 36, range 20; C. C. P. Myer, proprietor. It is still a brush
and swamp plat.


NASHUA

Was platted July, 1857, H. H. Newbury, surveyor, on lots 6 and 7 of
section 33, and lot 5 in section 34, township 34, range 20.
Proprietors, N. F. Taylor, W. H. C. Folsom, L. K. Stannard and N. C.
D. Taylor. It has made two fair farms.


WASHINGTON

Was platted August, 1856, W. F. Duffy, surveyor, in the south half of
section 35, township 35, range 21. Proprietors, James Y. Caldwell and
L. C. Kinney. On this site the Starkey Indian battle was fought.

JOHN A. BROWN.--Mr. Brown, a native of Pennsylvania, came to Sunrise
in 1853, and was for awhile quite prominent, building a store, hotel
and other buildings. In 1855 he was married to Emeline Hartwell. He
prospered in business, but owing to some domestic difficulties, in
1857 left suddenly for parts unknown. His property was sacrificed to
meet obligations, and his wife left helpless. Mrs. Brown died in
Minneapolis in 1880.

PATTEN W. DAVIS was a native of Virginia. He came to Stillwater in
1848, and soon after removed to Osceola Mills, where he lived two
years. In 1853 he removed to Sunrise, and was associated in business
for two years with John A. Brown. He has held the positions of
postmaster, town clerk, treasurer, county commissioner, supervisor,
and assessor. In 1876 he married a Virginia lady, and returned to his
native state.

JAMES F. HARVEY was born in 1820, in Penobscot county, Maine. He came
West in 1847 and settled at Marine Mills. In 1854 he removed to
Sunrise and located in the northeast quarter of section 14, township
36, range 21, at what was known as Goose Creek crossing. His first
wife, whom he had married in Maine, died shortly after their arrival
at Sunrise, leaving one daughter, Maria, wife of Leonard Clark, of
Stillwater. Mr. Harvey was married in 1856 to widow Patience Knight,
the mother of Mrs. Floyd S. Bates, Albert S. and Frank E., of Taylor's
Falls, and Ella Medora Harvey, wife of J. A. Shores, of Minneapolis.
Mr. Harvey died at his home in 1864. Mrs. Harvey died at Taylor's
Falls in 1871.

FLOYD S. BATES, originally from Maine, has been since 1854 a prominent
lumberman on the St. Croix, living first at Sunrise, and in later
years at Taylor's Falls. He owns an extensive farm in Cass county,
Dakota. Of his three brothers, E. Hines resides in Taylor's Falls, and
J. Herrick and Charles in Dakota Territory.

ISAAC H. WARNER was born in New York in 1830, was married in 1852 and
came to Sunrise in 1854, where he followed farming and selling goods.
He has served as postmaster, justice of the peace and held other
positions. He has three children. His eldest, a daughter, wife of
Samuel McClure, a lumberman of Sunrise, died February, 1885. Mr.
Warner removed to Dakota in 1883.

CHARLES F. LOWE was born in 1815 in Concord, New Hampshire, received a
collegiate education and came to Sunrise in 1855. He interested
himself in real estate but devoted about one-half of his time to
travel, of which he was passionately fond. He made one trip around the
globe, writing back interesting letters descriptive of what he had
seen. He made his last annual tour in 1873, and, while sailing in a
small boat in some of the waters of Florida, the boat was struck by a
squall, capsized and Mr. Lowe was drowned. Mr. Lowe was a member of
the Minnesota constitutional convention.

WELLS FARR came from New York State to Sunrise prairie in 1854, where
he has since lived in a comfortable home, a successful farmer. He has
a family of four sons and two daughters. His oldest daughter is the
wife of Ephraim C. Ingalls. His second daughter is the wife of Frank
Dawson, of Lent. Mr. Farr died in March, 1888.

JOHN G. MOLD came to Sunrise in 1854, where he engaged in milling,
hotel keeping and mercantile business. He was the proprietor of the
Sunrise City mills, since burned. He died in 1873, aged fifty years,
leaving a widow, two sons and two daughters.

GEORGE L. BLOOD, during his early life, was a seafaring man, spending
many years upon the ocean, and visiting during this time many foreign
ports, keeping a daily record of his journeyings. Mr. Blood had
learned the trade of house joiner, but coming to Sunrise in 1854,
attempted farming, at which he was not successful. In 1864 he removed
to Taylor's Falls, where he died in 1869. His life was an exemplary
one, and his death that of a Christian. His family returned to their
old home in Connecticut. His two sons reside in St. Paul.

JOEL G. RYDER came from New York to the St. Croix and settled in the
town of Sunrise, near the village, about the year 1855. He was
energetic and able, and was called to fill many town and county
offices. He was a representative in the fifteenth state legislature.
In 1860 he was married to Lizzie Perkins.

JOHN DEAN was born in 18--; was married to Mary Draper in 1860; came
to Minnesota in 18--; served some time as river pilot, and settled on
his farm near Sunrise City in 1860. Mr. Dean represented his district
in the house of the twenty-first and twenty-second legislatures.


TAYLOR'S FALLS.

The village of Taylor's Falls was platted in 1851, a survey of lots
having been made at that time by Theodore S. Parker, of Stillwater.
Additions were made from time to time as the increasing population
demanded. A year before the survey a frame building was erected on
what was subsequently the northwest corner of River and First streets.
In 1851 and 1852 some streets were opened, but with considerable
difficulty, on account of the trap rock, which to be removed required
blasting. Bowlders that could not be removed were buried. The work of
cutting a street to the upper steamboat landing was specially
difficult. There were no roads to the village, and the only means of
travel was by steamboat, bateaux, or birch bark canoes, until the
government road was opened sometime in 1856. A post office was
established in March, 1851, and a weekly mail was ordered from
Stillwater. Prior to this time a semi-monthly mail had been carried
between the points named. Of the office established in 1851, N. C. D.
Taylor was first postmaster. The office was in W. H. C. Folsom's
store, Folsom acting as deputy postmaster. The successors of Mr.
Taylor have been, Porter E. Walker, Edward P. Wyman, Thomas Holmes,
Oscar Roos, George W. Seymour, and N. M. Humphrey; not a long list for
thirty-five years. The location of the office was changed with each
successive incumbent. The mail carrier in 1851 was the Hon. Warren
Bristol, since then four times a representative and senator from
Goodhue county in the state legislature, and United States judge in
Arizona. The mail service has passed through all the gradations from a
semi-monthly to a semi-daily mail. The mail has been carried in canoes
or bateaux, on foot, on horseback, on steamboat and rail car. It is
now carried by rail. Of the Baker & Taylor mill an account has been
given elsewhere. The next mill, a grist mill, was built by N. C. D.
Taylor, W. H. C. Folsom and the Day brothers, in 1852. It was several
years later remodeled and changed into a carding mill, and is now the
property of Jonas Gray. Kingman Brothers built a saw mill in 1857,
with a capacity of 12,000 feet per day. Several parties succeeded to
the ownership and control of the mill, but, after doing good service
for many years, it was abandoned. Clark Brothers built a lumber and
stave mill in 1868. After ten years this mill was removed.

The first merchant was Daniel Mears, who sold goods as early as 1848.
W. H. C. Folsom opened a store in 1850; Taylor & Fox in 1852. The
Chisago House was built by Thomson & Smith in 1852, on the corner of
Bench and First streets. In 1870 the name was changed to Dalles House.
It has changed landlords many times, the last being Henry Kattenberg.
The Cascade House was built in 1853, on the corner of Walnut and Bench
streets, by Richard Arnold. It is no longer used. The Falls House was
built in 1870, on Bench street near Walnut, by Erastus Guard, and
converted into a hotel in 1880, with Henry Kattenberg as proprietor,
by whom it was conducted as a temperance house. It is now in charge of
Eugene Fitzgerald.

The first physician was Lucius B. Smith. Susan Thomson taught the
first school. The first marriage was that of Charles D. Turney and
Cecilia Ring, Ansel Smith, justice of the peace, tying the knot. Wm.
Colby was the first white child born in the village. The first death
was that of a three-year-old daughter of Ansel Smith, in 1852. Rev. W.
T. Boutwell preached the first sermon, in 1851. In 1852 three young
Episcopal ministers, Revs. Breck, Myrick and Wilcoxson, alternated in
holding services, but did not organize a society. Rev. Julius S.
Webber, Baptist, preached occasionally in 1852 and 1853; Rev. W.
Miner, Congregationalist, in 1856 and 1857 became the first resident
minister. In April, 1859, Rev. Silas Bolles, a Methodist, organized a
society, the first in the village. In June, 1859, Rev. A. M. Torbet
organized a Baptist society and served as pastor four years. The
society built a church in 1861 at a cost of $3,000.

In 1860 the Swedish Evangelical Lutherans built a church on the corner
of Mulberry and Government streets, at a cost of $1,500. Rev. C. A.
Cedarstam was pastor in 1871-72-73, Rev. ---- Tornell the three
succeeding years, and three other pastors have served since. In 1866
Rev. John G. Hall organized a Presbyterian society, and built a church
in 1868, on the corner of River and Chisago streets, at a cost of
$1,500. Mr. Hall served as pastor four years. The Roman Catholics
erected a church on the corner of Walnut and Centre streets in 1873,
at a cost of $1,000. They have as yet no settled priest or parish
school.

The St. Croix Bridge Company was organized in 1854. The incorporators
were W. H. C. Folsom, Patrick Fox, Joshua L. Taylor, W. S. Hungerford,
Wm. Kent, Nelson McCarty, John Dobney, W. F. Colby, Orange Walker,
Fred W. Lammers, and N. C. D. Taylor. The bridge was built in 1856; W.
S. Sewall, St. Paul, was the engineer. The capital stock amounted to
$4,925, and was divided into 197 shares at $25 each. The bridge was
rebuilt in 1870, on the same plan, and in 1884 was replaced by an iron
bridge, at a cost of $6,253. The bridge has a span of 150 feet and is
a light and graceful structure. It was the first bridge that spanned
the St. Croix and Mississippi rivers.

The Chisago County Bank was organized in 1858, under the state banking
law; capital stock, $25,000; Levi W. Folsom, president; S. C. Gould,
cashier. It was closed in 1859.

The Taylor's Falls Copper Mining Company was organized Dec. 15, 1874;
W. H. C. Folsom, president; George W. Seymour, secretary; L. W.
Folsom, treasurer; D. A. Caneday, mining agent. The operations of this
company extended to sinking a shaft to a depth of one hundred and
thirty feet.

The Kahbakong Cemetery Association was organized in 1853. The first
board of officers were W. H. C. Folsom, president; Joshua L. Taylor,
secretary. The cemetery is located a mile and a half from the village
and contains fifteen acres of ground beautifully located.

Zion Lodge, No. 55, A. F. &. A. M., was organized March 3, 1866.
Sherman Post, No. 6, G. A. R., was organized in July, 1882, Caspar
Hauser, commander. Taylor's Falls Library Association was organized
Oct. 8, 1871, E. D. Whiting, president; J. A. McGowan, secretary.
Within two years the library numbered 1,000 volumes and since that
time the number has been increased to 1,500.

In 1858 the village of Taylor's Falls was regularly incorporated with
the following board of officers: Trustees, Patrick Fox, president; W.
H. C. Folsom, E. D. Whiting, L. W. Folsom; recorder, H. H. Newbury;
treasurer, Wm. Comer.


AN INDIAN DANCE.

The last Indian dance in Taylor's Falls was given by a party of
Chippewas in 1856. They had come down the St. Croix in birch canoes
with furs and cranberries to exchange with Samuels in St. Croix
village for "scootawabo," or whisky. They remained about a week,
drinking and carousing in their peculiar style. One Sabbath, and when,
for a wonder, they were quite sober, they visited Taylor's Falls and
gave a series of grotesque and laughable dances in the street,
opposite Folsom's store, after which they called for presents as
tokens of friendship and appreciation, kindly and gravely shook hands
and recrossed the river.

    "Thus departed Hiawatha."



CHAPTER XIII.


BIOGRAPHICAL.

JESSE TAYLOR, the first permanent settler of Taylor's Falls, came to
the Falls in 1838, as narrated in the general history of the village.
Nothing is known of his life before coming to the Falls, except that
he was originally from Kentucky, and lived at Fort Snelling, where he
was employed as a stonemason. By the death of his associate, B. F.
Baker, he came into possession of the mill property and its
belongings. This he sold to Joshua L. Taylor in 1846, and removed to
Stillwater, where he took a contract for stone work on the prison
walls. His name appears as a member of the house from Stillwater in
the territorial legislature for 1851 and 1852. He was married in 1844
to Abigail, daughter of widow Edwards, of Stillwater. He left
Stillwater in 1853.

JOSHUA L. TAYLOR was born in Sanbornton, New Hampshire, in 1816. In
1836 he removed to Alton, Illinois, where he lived until 1840, when he
came to Taylor's Falls in the employ of the St. Croix Falls Lumber
Company. In 1846 he purchased the property of Jesse Taylor. He engaged
in logging until 1849, meanwhile pre-empting portions of the site of
Taylor's Falls. In the fall of 1849 he went to California, and was
fairly successful in his mining ventures. He returned to Taylor's
Falls in 1852, where he has since resided. He was married in October,
1856, at Skowhegan, Maine, to Clarinda Wyman. Mrs. Taylor died May 4,
1860, leaving no children. Mr. Taylor built a fine residence in 1856,
on block 1, River street, Taylor's Falls, commanding a beautiful view
of the river. Mrs. Gilmore, a sister of Mr. Taylor, and her daughter
Mary, lived with him many years. Mrs. Gilmore died in 1868. Mary
Gilmore was married to D. G. Sampson in 1881 and now lives in Ashland.
Mr. Taylor had many opportunities of entering public life, but, with a
solitary exception, declined them. At the organization of the
territory of Minnesota, in 1849, he was appointed United States
marshal, but declined. He was afterward appointed warden of the
penitentiary at Stillwater, and served two years.

NATHAN C. D. TAYLOR, elder brother of Joshua, was born in Sanbornton,
New Hampshire, in 1810; removed to Alton, Illinois, in 1832 and was
for several years in the employ of Godfrey, Gilman & Co., merchants of
Alton. Mr. Taylor came to St. Croix Falls in 1846. He was one of the
original pre-emptors of the site of Taylor's Falls. In 1852 he engaged
with Patrick Fox in the mercantile business. They carried on an
extensive trade in goods and logs until 1858. The firm of Taylor & Fox
erected a good store building on lot 16, block 15. He was a member of
the house in the fifth and seventh territorial legislatures, and
speaker of the fifth. In 1866 he was elected county treasurer of
Chisago county, and thereafter to the same office continuously for ten
years. Mr. Taylor never married. He died at Taylor's Falls, March 20,
1887.

THOMAS F. MORTON was born in South Carolina. He came to St. Croix
Falls in 1840. In 1850 he settled on a farm adjoining Taylor's Falls,
known as the Jerry Ross claim. He pre-empted the southwest quarter of
section 25. In 1852 he was married to Mrs. Margaret Boyce, his second
wife, mother of Silas Boyce, of Amador. He followed farming
successfully a few years, and in 1862 enlisted in his country's
service, as a private in Company C, Seventh Minnesota Volunteer
Infantry, and along with his friends Colby and Guard did noble
service, participating in several battles, in one of which, the battle
of Nashville, he was wounded by the bursting of a shell. He remained
with the regiment, however, until, disabled by his wound and by
sickness at the siege of Spanish Fort, he was compelled to return
home. He never recovered his health, but in 1867 peacefully passed
away. He was a good man, a brave soldier, and an exemplary Christian.

HENRY N. SETZER.--Mr. Setzer is a descendant of a North German family.
He was born in Montgomery county, Missouri, Oct. 6, 1825, and received
his education at home, which he left at the age of fourteen years,
and afterward at St. Charles College, Missouri. In 1843 Mr. Setzer
came to the St. Croix valley, where he engaged in lumbering for
himself and others, and devoted some time to public affairs. From 1843
to 1854 he resided alternately at Stillwater, Marine, Taylor's Falls
and Chengwatana. Mr. Setzer represented the Fourth district, including
Marine, Rush Lake, Rice River and Snake River precincts, in the house
of the first territorial legislature, and the First district,
including the counties of Washington, Itasca, Chisago, Superior and
Doty, in the council of the seventh and eighth territorial
legislatures. He was a member of the Democratic wing of the
constitutional convention in 1857. In 1857 he was appointed warden of
the state prison at Stillwater, which position he held until 1860,
when he was appointed register of the land office at Cambridge, Isanti
county. He held this position until April,1861. Having devoted his
leisure time to the study of law, and having been admitted to practice
in the supreme court of Minnesota, he concluded to devote himself
entirely to practice. He established a law office in Taylor's Falls
with L. K. Stannard. He removed to Superior City in 1869, to Duluth in
1874, and returned to Taylor's Falls in 1877. He has served as town
and county attorney in Chisago county for many years, and has an
extensive practice in the higher courts.

PATRICK FOX was born in Tipperary county, Ireland, in 1819; came with
his parents to America in 1823, and to Davenport, Iowa, in 1836. In
1841 he came to St. Croix Falls, where he lived three years, moving
thence to Stillwater, where he engaged in logging until 1851, when he
removed to Taylor's Falls and engaged in lumbering for a year, then
entered into a mercantile partnership with N. C. D. Taylor. The firm
closed business in 1858. Mr. Fox has been a public spirited citizen,
contributing freely of his means for the improvement of the village,
aiding in opening roads, building levees and bridges, and school
houses, before such enterprises could be paid for out of tax revenues.
Mr. Fox represented Chisago county in the second legislature, 1860.
Mr. Fox is a good neighbor, industrious and temperate. He was married
at Davenport, Iowa, to Elisabeth Riley. They have three sons and two
daughters. The eldest daughter is the wife of Clarence Peaslee; the
second daughter became the wife of Winfield P. Larcy, of Dakota, in
1886.

W. F. COLBY was born in Whitefield, Maine, June 12, 1818. In his early
life he was a sailor. He came to St. Croix Falls in 1843. He was
married to Salina De Attly in 1849, and removed to the west side of
the river, where he located on the Otis farm which he had previously
bought. He followed lumbering and farming and kept a lodging house for
travelers. He built a good house, and the first frame barn in Chisago
county. He sold his property, consisting of one hundred and sixty
acres and improvements, for $8,000. In 1862 Mr. Colby enlisted in
Company C, Seventh Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, and served until the
close of the war as sergeant. Mr. Colby is a bluff, square, outspoken
man, hearty in his manner, and somewhat sailor-like in his expressions
though almost a lifetime has passed since he trod the deck of a
vessel.

OSCAR ROOS was born in West Gothland, Sweden, in 1827. He came to
America in 1850, and located in Taylor's Falls, where he has since
resided continuously, taking an active part in public affairs, and a
deep interest in everything pertaining to the growth of the village
and county. Mr. Roos was postmaster at Taylor's Falls 8 years,
register of deeds 8 years, register of the land office 5 years, and
county treasurer 8 years. He is engaged in exchange, loaning money,
etc., and has a branch office in Centre City. He was married to Hannah
Swanstrom in 1870.

SAMUEL THOMSON, a Pennsylvanian by birth, came to Taylor's Falls in
1851, and in company with Ansel Smith built the Chisago House, a
notable enterprise at that time, as neither the resources of the
village or surrounding country had been developed in such a way as to
give any assurance of success. Mr. Thomson removed in 1854 to Polk
county; and settled on a farm in Osceola, where he made himself an
attractive and pleasant home. His farm has long been celebrated for
its trout pond. Mr. Thomson has given much attention and been quite
successful in fish culture. The farm was sold in 1885, and Mr.
Thompson removed to Arkansas, where he died Nov. 5, 1886.

SUSAN THOMSON, sister of Samuel Thomson, taught the first school in
Taylor's Falls, in 1852. She had just come from Pennsylvania, and had
traveled on horseback from Stillwater, there being no carriage roads
above Marine. She was married to Daniel Mears, of Osceola, in 1852.

GEORGE DE ATTLY, a native of Virginia, came to St. Croix Falls with
his family in 1847, and removed to Taylor's Falls in 1851, locating in
section 25, and making a pre-emption. He was a carpenter. He raised a
large and respected family. One son is in the Black Hills, Dakota
Territory. His oldest daughter is the wife of Wm. F. Colby, of
Taylor's Falls. His second daughter was the widow of Jacob Markley.
His third daughter is the wife of Alvah Brown. One son, George,
resides in Taylor's Falls. Mr. De Attly died in Nebraska.

JACOB MARKLEY came from Virginia to the St. Croix valley in 1847,
settling first at St. Croix Falls, and in 1851 locating at Taylor's
Falls, where he pre-empted the northeast quarter of the northeast
quarter of section 24. He went to Montana in 1869, where he died a
tragic death. His widow and two children reside in the Black Hills,
Dakota.

JOHN DOBNEY was born in England in 1820; came to America when a child,
to Stillwater in 1845, and to Taylor's Falls in 1852. He followed
logging for many years, and made himself a permanent home on a farm in
Amador, on the banks of the St. Croix river, in 1858. He was married
to Eveline Page, in Michigan, in 1859.

WILLIAM DOBNEY, younger brother of John, came to Taylor's Falls from
Michigan in 1852, and engaged, with characteristic energy, in
lumbering and selling goods until his death, which was the result of
an accident, he having been thrown violently from a wagon which he was
driving, in the spring of 1871. He was married in 1855 to Fanny M.
Gray, who with two children survives him. The oldest, a son, is
married and resides in Minneapolis. The daughter is the wife of Dr.
Greely Murdock, of Taylor's Falls.

HENRY H. NEWBURY came to St. Croix Falls in 1849, and to Taylor's
Falls in 1852. Mr. Newbury is a practical surveyor and explorer. He
served as county surveyor and commissioner many years. He was married
first to Sarah Ayers, widow of E. R. St. Clair, who died in 1874. In
1880 he was married to Fanny M. Gray, widow of Wm. Dobney.

EMIL MUNCH was born in Prussia in 1831; came to America in 1849, and
to Taylor's Falls in 1852, where, until 1857, he worked at the
carpenter's trade, when he removed to Chengwatana, Pine county, and
engaged in lumbering and dealing in pine lands. He served as register
of deeds in Pine county, and represented Washington, Chisago, Pine and
Kanabec counties in the house of the third legislature in 1861. He
enlisted at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, Oct. 16, 1861, as a private in
the First Minnesota Battery, and was chosen captain on the following
month; was wounded at Shiloh, April 5, 1862; returned to his battery
in September of the same year, took part in the battle of Corinth,
October 4th and 5th, and in the after campaign was appointed chief of
artillery, in October, 1862, and from effects of exposure on the march
was forced to resign in the December following, but again entered the
service to fight the Sioux Indians on the Minnesota frontier in May,
June and July, 1863. He entered the Veteran Reserve Corps in August,
1863. At the close of the war, in 1865, he settled in St. Paul and
acted as deputy state treasurer. In 1868 he was elected state
treasurer and held the office until 1872. Mr. Munch lost most of his
property in a long litigation, in consequence of some unfortunate
ventures in buying pine lands. Subsequent to his term of office as
state treasurer he removed to Lakeland and engaged in the lumber
business. In 1875 he removed to Afton where he took charge of a
flouring mill. He was married in 1865 to Bertha Segar. He died Aug.
30, 1887.

ALVIN MASON WILMARTH.--Mr. Wilmarth came from Massachusetts to the
valley of the St. Croix in 1849, and to Taylor's Falls in 1852. He has
followed lumbering and farming. Mr. Wilmarth is a steady, temperate
man.

LUCIUS KINGSBURY STANNARD was born in Franklin county, Vermont, July
6, 1825. He had good educational advantages and improved them. He
completed his literary course at Barkersfield Academic Institute,
Vermont, afterward studied law at St. Albans, and was admitted to the
bar in 1850. In 1852 he came West and located at Taylor's Falls, where
for some years he had charge of the business of Taylor & Fox. In 1857
he was a member of the territorial legislature, representing in the
house the counties of Washington, Itasca, Chisago, Superior, and Doty.
He was a member of the Republican wing of the constitutional
convention of 1857. He represented Chisago, Pine and Isanti counties
in the state senate of 1859-60. He was a member of the house of the
thirteenth legislature, 1871, representing Washington, Chisago, Pine
and Kanabec counties. He held the position of receiver in the United
States land office at Taylor's Falls from 1861 to 1870. He was the
first lawyer admitted to practice in the courts of Chisago county. He
was associated in his law practice for several years with H. N.
Setzer. He has served as prosecuting attorney and probate judge. He
served several years as county surveyor. He has, in later years, been
engaged in the lumbering and mercantile business, in the firm of
Ellison & Stannard. In October, 1884, he was appointed register in the
land office, which position he now holds. Mr. Stannard has a very
pleasant home within the village limits, but some distance beyond the
settled portion. He is a man of sound judgment, of grave and almost
severe demeanor, outspoken and positive in his views, but withal a
reliable citizen and kind neighbor. He was married in 1858 to Harriet
Stevenson, in St. Louis. They have one son, Luke.

JAMES W. MULLEN was born in Nova Scotia in 1830. He came to Davenport,
Iowa, in 1843. He commenced life on a steamboat at the age of fourteen
years. He was employed on the steamer Boreas, plying between St. Louis
and Keokuk, and followed river life most of the time until 1878. In
1885 he built the Vincent House, St. Croix. Taylor's Falls has been
his home at different times since his marriage in 1854. He was married
to Margaret Riley, of Davenport, Iowa. Their children are William,
Edward and Elsa.

DAVID CANEDAY was born in Vermont in 1830, and settled in Taylor's
Falls in 1853. Mr. Caneday has devoted much of his time to prospecting
as a mineralogist. During the years 1861-62 he edited the _St. Croix
Monitor_, and from 1881-84 the _St. Croix Dalles_. In 1862 he enlisted
in Company C., Seventh Minnesota Infantry, and served till the close
of the war. His record as a soldier was good. After the battle of
Tupelo he volunteered to remain with the wounded, of whom there were
about sixty, in the hands of the enemy. Two of these wounded were
comrades and friends in Company C., Andrew J. Colby and John S.
Swenson. The former died. Mr. Caneday remained at great personal risk,
and saw the inside of several prisons before being exchanged. After
his return Mr. Caneday engaged in mining and prospecting, except such
time as he edited the _St. Croix Dalles_. He is now mining on Kettle
river, in Pine county, Minnesota, and in Burnett county, Wisconsin. He
was married in 1865 to Laura, daughter of Judge N. M. Humphrey.

GEORGE B. FOLSOM was born in St. Johns, New Brunswick, April 9, 1815.
He was married to Deborah Sawyer, October, 1842, and came to Taylor's
Falls in 1853, where he engaged in lumbering. In 1855 he removed to
Rush Seba, locating in section 14. He was the first settler in the
town and raised the first crops; built the first log and the first
frame house, and was prominent in advancing the educational and other
interests of the town. He was appointed postmaster in 1856, and held
the office fourteen years. He held the office of county commissioner
ten years. In 1875 he was appointed receiver of the land office at
Taylor's Falls, which office he held for ten years, since which time
he has resided in the village.

AARON M. CHASE was born in Machias, Maine, April 7, 1813. He received
a home and common school education. In the fall of 1848 he came to St.
Anthony and engaged in lumbering. He and Sumner Farnham ran the first
logs down the Mississippi from Rabbit river to Fort Ripley and St.
Anthony, in 1849. In the spring of 1849, in company with Pat Morin, he
built a tow boat, clearing for that purpose a tow path on the eastern
side of the river a distance of eighty miles. He carried freight for
the American Fur Company, but the introduction of steamboats put an
end to this enterprise. In the fall of 1849 he went to St. Louis and
remained there till August, 1850, when he returned North, locating at
the outlet of Balsam lake, Polk county, Wisconsin, where he built a
saw mill. He built a dam and mill, bringing the materials together
without other team than himself and five men. After completing the
mill he engaged for some years in lumbering. He located at Taylor's
Falls in 1853. In 1869 he supervised the building of a series of dams
on streams tributary to the Upper St. Croix, the water collected by
them to be used at low stages to float logs to the St. Croix and down
that stream to Stillwater. These dams are operated under a charter
from the state of Wisconsin, and have proved a great benefit to the
lumbermen. Mr. Chase is president of the company. He is a man of
strong, clear mind, deliberate in action, positive in his opinions and
pointed in his expressions, and withal a kind hearted, generous and
true man. Mr. Chase is unmarried.

PETER ABEAR was born in Canada East in 1830; came to Stillwater in
1850, but subsequently removed to Taylor's Falls where, in 1855, he
was married to Kitty Wickland, who died in 1860, leaving a son,
Franklin E., merchant at Anoka. Mr. Abear married again. His second
wife died in 1868, leaving a daughter, Mary. Mr. Abear married a third
wife, who died in 1874, leaving no children. Mr. Abear is a machinist
but has given much of his attention to farming.

LEVI W. FOLSOM was born in Tamworth, Carroll county, New Hampshire,
Sept. 25, 1821. He was fitted for college at Gilmanton, entered Penn
College at Gettsyburg, Pennsylvania, and graduated in 1848. Returning
to New England, he studied law at Cornish, Maine, with Caleb R. Ayer,
and was admitted to practice in the county of Carroll, New Hampshire.
He came to Taylor's Falls in 1854, and was admitted to practice in the
supreme court of Minnesota, and practiced law for a period of fifteen
years, when he engaged in real estate and other business. He is a
pleasant and agreeable speaker, stands high in the masonic fraternity,
is an ardent and uncompromising Democrat, a positive man with strong
home and social feelings. He has been vice president of the Taylor's
Falls branch of the St. Paul & Duluth railroad since its organization.
He was married in 1859 to Abbie Shaw, in St. Paul.

EDDINGTON KNOWLES was born in Kentucky in 1821; came to St. Croix
Falls in 1844, and followed lumbering. He was married to Ann Carroll
at Taylor's Falls in 1854, and made his residence at Taylor's Falls.
He enlisted for service during the Rebellion in the Third Minnesota
Volunteers, but was discharged for disability before the close of the
war. He died at Hayward, Wisconsin, in 1883, leaving a widow and three
children. His oldest daughter is the wife of Douglas Greely, of
Stillwater. His body was brought to the Taylor's Falls cemetery for
interment.

DR. LUCIUS B. SMITH.--Dr. Smith was the first regular physician in
Taylor's Falls, having located here in 1854. He was born in Berlin,
Erie county, Ohio, in the year 1824. He was married in 1849, and after
some years' practice of medicine in his native town he came West and
located in Taylor's Falls, where he resided until 1862, when he was
appointed surgeon of the Seventh Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, in
which regiment were many of his friends and associates. He performed
well his duties in that position, but was killed on the day preceding
the battle of Tupelo, the division to which he belonged having been
ambuscaded by Forrest's troops. His remains were carried to the field
of Tupelo and there buried, but have since been removed to Kahbakong
cemetery, at Taylor's Falls. Dr. Smith was a tall man, of fine
presence, with the air of an officer, for which reason, doubtless,
some sharpshooter singled him out for destruction. Dr. Smith left a
widow, one son, Charles, and one daughter, Mary, the wife of J. W.
Passmore. His widow was married to E. D. Whiting. Both are deceased.

WILLIAM COMER was born in Cheshire county, England, in 1812; was
married to Elisabeth Davis; came to America in 1846 and located in St.
Louis, where he remained until 1852, when he removed to Pike county,
Illinois. In 1854 he removed to St. Croix Falls and in 1855 to
Taylor's Falls, where he has since resided. He has been treasurer of
Chisago county two terms, and four years register of the United States
land office. For a number of years he has held the position of town
and bridge treasurer. He and his two sons, George and William, are
engaged in the mercantile business. His daughter, Eleanor, is the wife
of Benj. Thaxter, of Minneapolis.

DR. ERASTUS D. WHITING.--The Whiting family, consisting of three
brothers, Erastus D., Selah and Charles B., came to Taylor's Falls in
1855, and for many years were prominent merchants and business men in
the village. Erastus D. Whiting was born in Vernon Centre,
Massachusetts, in 1811. He was educated in the common schools and at
Westfield Academy. At the age of sixteen he commenced reading medicine
and graduated at the Ohio Medical College in 1832. He practiced three
years in Ashtabula, Ohio, and twenty years in Pike county, Illinois.
When he came to Taylor's Falls he retired from practice and engaged in
the mercantile and lumbering business until 1867. During this time he
served in two sessions of the Minnesota legislature as representative,
1860-61. In 1869 he visited Europe. He died in Taylor's Falls in 1880.
He was twice married; first in 1837, to Emily Bradley, who died in
1866; and second in ----, to Mrs. Smith (widow of Dr. L. B. Smith),
who died in 1872.

SELAH WHITING was born in Connecticut; came West to Pike county,
Illinois, in 1836, and to Taylor's Falls in 1855. He engaged in the
mercantile business. His wife died in 1867. He died in 1868.

CHARLES B. WHITING was born in Litchfield county, Connecticut; came to
Pike county, Illinois, in 1836, and to Taylor's Falls in 1855. He was
associated with his brothers in the mercantile business. He was
register of the land office four years and served as United States
marshal during the war. His first wife died in Taylor's Falls. He was
married to Flavilla Blanding in 18--. Mr. Whiting died in 1873.

FREDERIC TANG was born in Prussia in 1819. He learned the trade of
house carpenter and served in the Prussian Army one year. He was
married in Germany, in 1850; came to America in 1852 and to Taylor's
Falls in 1856. He served three years in Company C, Seventh Minnesota,
during the Rebellion. One son, Frederic, resides at Taylor's Falls,
engaged in lumbering. His oldest daughter, Pena, is the wife of Ernest
Leske, of Taylor's Falls. His second daughter, Bertha, is the wife of
David Bowsher, of Dakota. Mr. Tang died in November, 1887.

WARD W. FOLSOM was born in 1822, in Tamworth, New Hampshire; was
married to Matilda Stedman in 1844; came to Taylor's Falls in 1856,
where he kept a boarding house for several years. He died at his home,
Sept. 28, 1884. His eldest son, Charles W., was editor of the Taylor's
Falls _Reporter_ for several years. He was married to Luella Gray in
1865. He died in 1872. Edward H., his second son, for some years has
edited the Taylor's Falls _Journal_. He started and conducted for some
years the Stillwater _Lumberman_. He was married to Susie Way, in
September, 1868.

GEORGE W. SEYMOUR was born in Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, in
1828, and came to Taylor's Falls in 1857, where he has since resided,
following the occupation of druggist, but occasionally holding a town
office. Mr. Seymour held the positions of postmaster and justice of
the peace for several years, and has been secretary of the Taylor's
Falls & Lake Superior railroad since its organization. Mr. Seymour is
an active member of the masonic fraternity, an ardent Democrat and
thoroughly trustworthy and reliable as a man and friend. He is
unmarried.

JAMES A. WOOLLEY, a native of England, came to Taylor's Falls in 1857.
He was an engineer and in my employ as engineer and foreman in the
pinery for fourteen years, during which period our association was
quite intimate, and I learned to know him and esteem him as a true
friend, and faithful to all his obligations as a man. He was a true
Christian and died in full hope of immortality. He promised, when he
knew himself to be dying, to return to earth and revisit me if
possible, but so far has not returned. He died in 1874. His family
removed to Dakota. His oldest son, John Alley, was killed in
Washington Territory by a premature explosion of a blast in a mine, by
which nineteen others were killed at the same time. Alida married
William McKenzie and resides at Grand Forks, Dakota. Frank W. F., the
youngest son, also lives in Dakota.

PATRICK CARROLL, was of Irish birth. His wife is a sister of Patrick
Fox. He is about ninety years of age. They have had two sons, Joseph
and one drowned, and three daughters, one the wife of E. Knowles,
deceased, the other two becoming respectively the first and second
wife of John O'Brien. Mr. O'Brien has two daughters, Minnie and
Lizzie, and three sons, William, Joseph and Daniel.

JOSEPH CARROLL was born at Davenport, Iowa, in 1840; came to St. Croix
when a boy, early in the 50's, and worked for his uncle, Patrick Fox,
in the pinery; was married to Mary Cotter at Davenport, Iowa, in 1858.
He resided at Taylor's Falls until 1861, when he enlisted in a Kansas
regiment. He was severely wounded at Springfield, Missouri. He was
subsequently transferred to a heavy artillery company of colored
troops from Tennessee, and commissioned a lieutenant. He was at Fort
Pillow during the massacre, was taken prisoner and confined at
Andersonville eighteen months. After his dismissal he went to Memphis
and was employed in the police service until 1867, when he and his
wife died of yellow fever, leaving two daughters, one the wife of
Edward St. John, of Marine, the other of Geo. W. Booth, of Taylor's
Falls.

REV. E. E. EDWARDS was born in Delaware, Ohio, Jan. 26, 1831; was
educated at Indiana Asbury University, and has been employed most of
his life in educational work, serving as president of Whitewater
College, Indiana, professor of Latin in Hamline University, professor
of natural sciences at St. Charles and McKendre colleges, and
president of the Colorado State Agricultural College. Mr. Edwards came
to Taylor's Falls in the winter of 1860, and remained two years as
pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church, and teacher in the Chisago
Seminary. During the last year of the war he was chaplain of the
Seventh Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. In the winter of 1885 he again
became pastor of the Taylor's Falls Methodist Episcopal church. He was
married in 1854 to Alice L. Eddy, of Cincinnati, Ohio. His family
consists of four sons and one daughter.

STEPHEN J. MERRILL was born in Schoharie county, New York, in 1827;
came to the St. Croix valley in 1848, and to Taylor's Falls in 1861.
He was married to Caroline Nelson in 1861. They have six sons and one
daughter. He has a beautiful and well improved homestead within the
town limits, adjoining the cemetery.

[Illustration: REV. E. E. EDWARDS.]

NOAH MARCUS HUMPHREY was born in 1809, at Goshen, Smithfield
Connecticut. He removed to Ohio in 1833, served in the Ohio
legislature in 1852 and 1853, and was for six years judge of probate
court in Summit county. He was married twice, the second time to Mrs.
Young, in 1840. His first wife left two children, Mark, for some time
a resident of Taylor's Falls, now deceased, and Laura, wife of David
Caneday. Judge Humphrey has been justice of the peace in Taylor's
Falls for twenty years, and postmaster for as many more. He was judge
of probate court for ten years, and has recently been re-elected to
that position.

ROYAL C. GRAY was born in Bakersfield, Vermont, October, 1832. He
spent his early life in Vermont and Massachusetts. He came West in
1850, and located in Kanabec county, where he farmed and kept a public
house at Greely station, on Kanabec river, until 1860, when he
returned to Massachusetts. In 1864 he returned to the St. Croix valley
and located in Taylor's Falls, where he still resides. He has been
employed by the St. Paul & Duluth Railroad Company for ten years as
surveyor and explorer, and holds some valuable pine lands. In 1861 Mr.
Gray was married to Ann Eliza Johnson, in Massachusetts. They have one
son, Orin.

JOHN PHILIP OWENS.--William Owens, the father of John Philip, came to
America from North Wales, and served as a soldier in the war of 1812.
John Philip was born Jan. 6, 1818. His father died seven years later,
and the son was brought up on a farm by a stepfather. He received an
academic education at Cincinnati, Ohio. At the age of seventeen he
commenced learning the printer's trade, served as an apprentice four
years, and graduated on his twenty-first birthday. Having some means
inherited from his father, he commenced a newspaper enterprise at
Cincinnati, invested and lost all his money. For several years he was
engaged as a reporter and assistant editor on various papers in
Cincinnati, Louisville, Vicksburg and New Orleans. In 1849 he formed a
business partnership with Nat. McLean, of Cincinnati, to establish a
paper at St. Paul. He arrived at St. Paul May 27th of that year. The
first number of the _Minnesota Register_ was printed in Cincinnati and
brought to St. Paul for distribution in July. In October the paper was
united with the _Minnesota Chronicle_, and so published until July,
1850, when it was discontinued. In 1851 Mr. Owens and G. W. Moore
started the _Weekly Minnesotian_, adding in 1854 a daily and
tri-weekly edition. The _Minnesotian_ was ably edited, and was
Republican in politics. Owing to poor health, Mr. Owens sold his
interest in the _Minnesotian_. In 1862 he was appointed quartermaster
of the Ninth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. This regiment did service
in the State during the Sioux War, but in 1864 was ordered South and
attached to the Sixteenth Army Corps. Mr. Owens served as regimental
and brigade quartermaster until the close of the war. In April, 1868,
he was appointed register of the United States land office, which
position he held until his death, Sept. 11, 1884. He was first Grand
Master of the I. O. O. F. in Minnesota; He left at his death an
unpublished manuscript, "The Political History of the State of
Minnesota." His first wife was Helen McAllister, whom he married in
Ohio in 1848. She left an only daughter, Mary Helen. Mr. Owens' second
wife was Frances M. Hobbs, whom he married Oct. 26, 1853, in New York
City.

ANDREW CLENDENNING was born in 1798, in the north of Ireland. He was a
Protestant, united with the Methodist church when a young man and
proved ever after a consistent Christian, strong in his religious
convictions and a faithful worker. He crossed the ocean in 1835,
locating first at New Brunswick. In 1855 he came to Michigan, in 1859
to St. Croix Falls, in 1870 to Taylor's Falls, where he resided until
his death, in 1875. He left three sons in Taylor's Falls, Andrew,
James and George, and one son in Oregon. One son, Joseph, died in the
service of his adopted country, having enlisted in Company C, Seventh
Minnesota. One daughter, the wife of Thomas Thompson, of St. Croix
Falls, died in 1886.

SMITH ELLISON was born in Marine, Madison county, Illinois, March 15,
1823. He came to Marine Mills in 1844. For two years he was in the
employ of Judd, Walker & Co. The next three years he spent at Osceola,
Wisconsin. In 1849 he engaged in logging and continued in that
business for many years. In 1856 he settled on and improved a farm in
Sunrise. In 1868 he removed to Taylor's Falls and formed a partnership
with L. K. Stannard in the mercantile and lumbering business. Mr.
Ellison was a representative in the eighth legislature, and served as
county commissioner eight years. In late years he has been interested
in a saw, planing and flour mill at Stillwater. He is a stockholder
and director in the First National Bank at Stillwater and owns large
tracts of pine lands. He has applied himself closely to business, is
energetic, cautious and thoroughly reliable. Mr. Ellison is unmarried.


WYOMING

Includes township 33, range 21. The eastern half is well timbered, the
west has oak openings. Sunrise river flows in a northerly direction
through the township, and with its tributaries and numerous lakes
supplies it abundantly with water. There are some wild meadows and
tamarack swamps. Green lake, in the eastern part of the township, is a
picturesque sheet of water, five miles in length by one and a half
broad, with sloping timbered shores and cedar points projecting into
the lake, in one place forming a natural roadway nearly across, which
is connected with the mainland opposite by a bridge.

[Illustration: SMITH ELLISON.]

A colony from Eastern Pennsylvania settled the western part of the
township in 1855. The colony was composed of L. O. Tombler, Dr. John
W. Comfort, E. K. Benton, and some others, in all ten families. The
eastern part had been previously settled by Swedes. The township was
organized in 1858. The supervisors were J. W. Comfort, L. O. Tombler
and Fred Tepel. A post office was established at Wyoming with J. Engle
as postmaster. The Catholics and Methodists erected churches in 1864.
The St. Paul & Duluth railroad was completed in 1868, and in 1879 the
branch road to Taylor's Falls. The township was settled rapidly after
the completion of the railroad. At the junction of the two roads there
is a good depot, two stores and a fine hotel, the latter kept by L. O.
Tombler.


WYOMING VILLAGE

Was surveyed and platted by Ben. W. Brunson in 1869, in portions of
sections 17, 19 and 20, township 33, range 21; proprietors, Western
Land Association, L. Mendenhall, agent.


DEER GARDEN VILLAGE

Was surveyed and platted by Alex. Cairns, October, 1856, in sections 1
and 12, township 33, range 21; proprietor, Erastus S. Edgerton.

LUCIUS O. TOMBLER was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1823. His
ancestors were Moravians, who, driven from Germany in the eighteenth
century, came to America, and founded the colony of Bethlehem, a
colony famed for its thrift, advancement in educational matters, and
high morality. Mr. Tombler and his wife, Christiana Brown, to whom he
was married in 1845, were educated in the Moravian schools. They came
with the colony from Bethlehem to Wyoming in 1855, and built a two
story log hotel on the St. Paul and Lake Superior stage road, which
was long noted as a rest for the weary traveler and a home for the
invalid. Mr. Tombler was an energetic, worthy man, genial in his
manners, a good farmer, a good landlord, and an accomplished musician
besides. Mrs. Tombler possessed superior endowments as a landlady, and
the house soon gained widespread popularity with the traveling public.
The first hotel was burned in 1876, but the year following a more
commodious building was erected on the grounds, which, with its modern
improvements within, and its park-like surroundings, is more popular
with the traveling public than its predecessor. The Tombler family
consists of Charles A., the father of Lucius O., born in 1800, but
still hale and vigorous, in the possession of all his faculties, two
sons, Maurice and Milton, and one daughter, Laura. Charles A., the
grandfather, has received the thirty-third degree Scottish Masonic
rite.

DR. JOHN WOOLMAN COMFORT was born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, in
1804. He graduated at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in
1836, and practiced medicine continuously, and, although an
accomplished graduate of an allopathic school, was a zealous advocate
and exponent of the Thompsonian system, in favor of which he published
several works. He was also for some years editor of the _Thompsonian
Medical Journal_. As a physician he was untiring, and impartial in the
performance of his duties, never refusing a medical call on account of
the poverty of the patient. He was especially kind to the poor. He
came to Wyoming with the colony in 1855, and died there Feb. 9, 1881,
leaving a widow, since deceased, one son in Philadelphia, and two
daughters, Mrs. Markley, of Wyoming, and Mrs. Carter, of Melbourne,
Australia.

ISAAC MARKLEY was born in Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, April 2,
1822. In the spring of 1849 he came westward, and engaged in
steamboating. He commanded the Uncle Toby, and in October, 1850, ran
his steamboat from St. Louis to Taylor's Falls for the writer of this
work. He engaged in mercantile pursuits for some time in St. Paul, and
in 1871 came to Wyoming and located on a farm. He was married to
Frances, a daughter of Dr. Comfort. He died at his home, February,
1883.

JOEL WRIGHT was born in Pennsylvania in 1800, and came to Wyoming with
the Bethlehem colony in 1855. He is a blacksmith by trade, but has
also devoted himself to hunting and trapping. Mr. Wright has been
married three times, and has three children.

RANDALL WRIGHT, second son of the foregoing, was born in Pennsylvania
in 1828; was married to Anna Montgomery in 1850, and came to Wyoming
in 1855. He is a house carpenter by trade.

FREDERIC TEPEL was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1824; received a fair
education and learned the trade of blacksmithing. He came to America
in 1843, lived in New Orleans one year, in St. Louis ten years, in St.
Paul one year, and settled in Wyoming in 1855. In 1847 he was married
to Fredrica Wilmina, of St. Louis. They have seven children. Mr. Tepel
has held many town offices to the satisfaction of his townsmen. He has
been for forty years a member of the Methodist church. CHARLES HENRY
SAUER was born in Germany in 1824; served as a soldier in the German
Army three years, and in the twenty-fourth year of his age came to
America. The year following he returned to Europe and was married. In
1851 he took up his residence in Chicago, and in 1855 came to Wyoming,
and engaged in farming. He has three sons, Fred, Henry and Harvey, and
a daughter married to a Lutheran minister.



CHAPTER XIV.

WASHINGTON COUNTY.


The early history of Washington county is to be found in the history
of St. Croix county, Wisconsin, of which it was a part until the
organization of Minnesota Territory in 1849. At the first session of
the territorial legislature Washington county was established in full
for county and judicial purposes. It included all that part of the
Territory lying east of the range line between ranges 21 and 22 and
north of the Mississippi as far as the British possessions and
fractional parts of townships 29 and 30, range 22.

The courts held prior to this organization are referred to elsewhere.
The first territorial court in Washington county was held Aug. 13,
1849, Judge Aaron Goodrich, presiding; Judge David Cooper, associate.
It continued in session six days. There were sixty cases on the
calendar. Harvey Wilson was clerk of court; A. M. Mitchell, of St.
Paul, United States marshal; Henry L. Moss, district attorney; John
Morgan, sheriff. The lawyers present were H. L. Moss; M. S. Wilkinson,
M. E. Ames, A. M. Mitchell, L. Babcock, and David Lambert. The second
court house (the first under the new organization) was built in
Stillwater, corner of Fourth and Chestnut streets, in 1849, at a cost
of $3,600. This was the first court house in the territory of
Minnesota. The lot was donated by John McKusick. In this building were
held all the courts from 1849 to 1867. In that year Churchill & Nelson
donated a city block on Nelson Hill, a fine location overlooking the
city and lake, and the county erected upon it a fine stone structure
costing $60,000, including jail and ground improvements.

The first election was held Nov. 26, 1849. The following board of
county officers was elected: Commissioners, John McKusick, Hiram
Berkey, Joseph Haskell; treasurer, Socrates Nelson; register of deeds,
John S. Proctor; judge of probate, Harvey Wilson; sheriff, Jesse
Taylor. At the same election the following persons were elected
justices of the peace in their various precincts: St. Croix Falls,
Jerry Ross; Point Douglas, Martin Leavitt; Stillwater, Albert Harris
and H. K. McKinstry; Marine, James Moore and W. H. Johnson.

The territory of the county has been from time to time divided and
subdivided for the organization of new counties. Washington county,
however, was divided but once. In 1852 the county of Chisago was set
off in the north, since which time its boundaries have been, Chisago
on the north, the St. Croix river and lake on the east, the
Mississippi river on the south, Anoka and Ramsey counties and the
Mississippi river on the west. It includes the following townships:
From 27 to 32 inclusive, ranges 20 and 21, and fractional parts of
townships 31 and 32, range 19, and fractional part of township 26,
range 20.


AFTON

Was organized as a town in 1858. Joseph Haskell, G. W. Cutler and H.
L. Thomas were the first supervisors; Minor H. Thomas, clerk. It
includes a fractional part of township 28, range 20. It is well
watered by Bolles and Valley creeks, streams tributary to the St.
Croix. The southwestern part of the township is rolling prairie, the
remainder somewhat broken. The soil is all productive and the streams
afford good water powers. The township had French settlers as early as
1837,--Baptist Fornier and others. Joseph Haskell commenced his farm
in 1839. Prior to 1850 A. Mackey, L. Bolles, P. J. Carli, T. F.
Randolph, E. Bissell, N. H. Johnson, James Getchell, and A. McHattie
located in the town.

The first crops were raised by the French settlers. The first marriage
was that of Andrew Mackey to Mrs. Hamilton, in 1844. The first child
born was Helen M. Haskell, daughter of Joseph Haskell. The first death
was that of Paul J. Carli, in 1844, accidentally drowned in the lake.
The first road was located between Stillwater and Point Douglas, in
1847. A military road was surveyed from Point Douglas to Superior
through this town in 1850. Lemuel Bolles erected a flouring mill on
Bolles creek, in the winter of 1845-46, the first to grind wheat
north of Prairie du Chien. The old mill was long since replaced by a
new one, and the mill property has changed owners many times, Emil
Munch being the last owner. The present mill is a fine structure with
a capacity of fifty barrels per day. The first post office was at the
old mill; L. Bolles, postmaster. The first organized school was in the
Haskell district, in 1855. The Scandinavian Methodists have a church
in section 18, built in 1885. The German Lutherans have a church in
section 6, and a parochial school.


AFTON VILLAGE.

In May, 1855, Afton village was surveyed and platted by Haskell,
Getchell & Thomas, in section 23; Emerson & Case were the surveyors.
The village is beautifully located on the shore of the lake and
contains one hotel, one church (Congregational), one school house, an
academy building, and several stores, shops and dwellings. The
academy, known as the St. Croix Academy, was established in 1868, and
the building, a handsome three story brick structure, erected the same
year. Mr. Gorrie was the first principal. Simon Putnam was the first
pastor of the Congregational church.


SOUTH AFTON

Is located one mile south of Afton, on the shores of the lake. It has
an elevator, store, warehouses and other buildings. A saw mill was
built by Lowry & Co., between Afton and South Afton; in 1854, and
rebuilt in 1855 by Thomas & Sons. The Getchell Brothers built a mill
in 1861, which was burned.


VALLEY CREEK

Is a small village on Bolles creek, in sections 9 and 10. Erastus
Bolles located here in 1857, and improved the water power, built a
machine shop and manufactured edge tools. He sold out to his son, C.
E. Bolles, who further improved the property by building a corn and
feed mill. In 1860 Gilbert & Buswell erected a flour mill with three
run of stone. The post office in this village was established in 1874,
with Erastus Bolles as postmaster.


ST. MARY VILLAGE

Was platted in 1855, on lots 1, 2 and 3, section 14. Thomas W.
Coleman, proprietor; James A. Carr, surveyor.

JOSEPH HASKELL was born Jan. 9, 1805, in Kennebec county, Maine.
During his minority he worked with his father on a farm at Skowhegan,
Maine. In 1837 he came West, stopping two years in Indiana. July 24,
1839, he arrived at Fort Snelling on the steamer Ariel, obtained
employment of Frank Steele for whom he, with others, rowed a mackinaw
boat from Fort Snelling to St. Croix Falls. While at the falls he
worked on the dam and mill, then in process of building. In the fall
of 1839 he made a trip to Fort Snelling and returned to the Falls,
carrying the mail in a birch canoe to Catfish bar, and then across by
Indian trail to the Fort. While on this trip he made the claim for his
homestead in Afton. In 1840 he put three acres under cultivation,
raising corn and potatoes. This was the first attempt at farming,
except by the French pioneers, who raised only garden crops, north of
Prairie du Chien. September, 1844, he made a trip to Maine, and
returned bringing three sisters with him. They kept house for him
until he married. Mr. Haskell was married to Olive Furber, sister of
J. W. Furber, in 1849. They have four children, Helen M., Mary E.,
Henry Pitt and Hiram A. Mr. Haskell was a representative in the state
legislatures of 1869 and 1871. He was of most exemplary habits. He
died at his home Jan. 23, 1885.

LEMUEL BOLLES was born in New York. He came to St. Croix Falls in
1840. In 1843 he opened a grindstone quarry in the soft, coarse
sandstones, a short distance below the Dalles. In 1844-45 his
grindstones were much used. He made Stillwater his home in 1844-55,
when he removed to Afton. He was industrious, ingenious and eccentric.
He died in Stillwater in 1875.

TAYLOR F. RANDOLPH was the first school teacher in Washington county.
He and his wife taught at Red Rock in 1837-38-39-40, under the
supervision of the Methodist mission at that place. In 1842 he settled
on a farm in a valley near Bissell's Mounds, Afton, where he and his
wife died in 1846.

ELIJAH BISSELL, in 1842, located a farm near the three mounds in
section 8, which now bear his name. He left the county in 1850.

ANDREW MACKEY.--Mr. Mackey, of whom some mention is made in the
chapter concerning the early history, is one of the first pioneers,
having come in 1837 with John Boyce to the valley of the St. Croix in
a mackinaw boat, towed from St. Louis to the mouth of Lake St. Croix
by a steamer, from which point they poled their boat up to the St.
Croix falls, where they landed on the west side. From this point they
made a portage and cordelled their boat, and with poles and lines
ascended to Snake river. He engaged for some time in lumbering, and
worked at the falls until 1841, when he settled on a beautiful farm,
on a part of which Afton is now situated. Mr. Mackey was born in
Kilkenny, Ireland, in 1804, and (in 1888) is still living. His wife
died in 1873.


BAYTOWN

Comprises the north half of fractional township 28, range 20. The
surface is somewhat uneven and broken, owing to the lake bluff
formation, but there is much good farming land. Originally it was
covered with oaks or oak openings. It derives its name from a bay
indenting the western shore of Lake St. Croix. At South Stillwater
village a considerable stream, known as Spring creek, flows from some
large springs and forms a good water power in its descent to the lake.
Two flour mills are located on this stream. In 1842 Francis Bruce
built a house on the present site of the office of the St. Croix
Lumber Company. In the same year Norman Kittson built a trading post
at what has been since known as Kittson's Point. Both of these parties
left in 1844 and John Allen built a house and cultivated a field on
the east side of Kittson's Point. Allen sold the place in 1846 and
removed to California. He raised the first crops in the town. In 1847
Joseph Pero became a prominent settler and made him a good home on
Spring creek. Other parties made claims and abandoned or sold them.
Fiske & Marty located here in 1848. In 1860 came Ambrose Secrest and
some others. In 1852 Nelson, Loomis & Co. built a steam saw mill on
the bay. In 1854 Secrest & Booth built a flour mill on Spring creek.
In 1858 Baytown was organized as a town. The first supervisors were
Ambrose Secrest, John Parker and W. H. Crosby; John J. Hale, clerk.


BAYTOWN VILLAGE.

Socrates Nelson, D. B. Loomis, Levi Churchill, Daniel Mears, and James
W. Hinton, in February, 1856, platted the village of Baytown. Harvey
Wilson was the surveyor. The location was on the lake shore, lots 3
and 4, section 11, and lot 7, section 2. In 1872 a post office was
established called South Stillwater; William Graves, postmaster.


BANGOR VILLAGE

Was platted May. 1857, by C. I. and J. E. Whitney, Albert and Edwin
Caldwell, Wm. Hollinshead, Isaac Staples, and A. J. Short; J. J.
Carleton, surveyor. It was situated on the shore of the lake south of
Baytown.


MIDDLETOWN VILLAGE

Was platted in July, 1857, in parts of sections 2 and 3, by William
Holcomb; Myron B. Shepard, surveyor.


SOUTH STILLWATER

Was platted in January, 1873, by the St. Croix Railway Improvement
Company; Peter Berkey, president; A. B. Stickney, secretary; J. S.
Sewall, surveyor. South Stillwater was made to include the platted
villages of Baytown, Bangor and Middletown. It has prospered greatly
as a manufacturing village. In 1854 Torinus, Staples & Co. built a
steam saw mill, to which from time to time they added various
manufacturing establishments. Subsequently the firm became the St.
Croix Lumber Company. In the spring of 1876 this company sustained a
loss by fire on their mill and appurtenances to the value of $70,000,
which was not insured: With indomitable energy they rebuilt, and
prospered. The two leading business men in this firm were Louis
Torinus and William Chalmers. Turnbull's steam saw mill, on the lake
shore, has a capacity of 100,000 feet per day. The property is valued
at $70,000. The South Stillwater Lumber Company has a mill with a
capacity of 90,000 feet per day, with planer and other machinery
attached, in which they have invested $70,000. The firm consists of D.
Tozer, A. T. Jenks, H. McGlinn, E. W. Durant, and R. Wheeler. The
mills of the Herschey Lumber Company, valued at $70,000, have a
capacity of 100,000 feet per day. The proprietor, ---- Herschey, lives
in Muscatine, Iowa.

The Stillwater Dock Company was organized in 1877. The company
consists of Durant, Wheeler & Co., St. Croix Lumber Company and Jonah
Bachelder. They have built many fine steamers and barges. Their
repairing docks are a great convenience to steamboat lumbermen. The
South Stillwater Soap Factory, owned by McKenzie & Co., deserves
honorable mention. The construction of the branch railroad from
Stillwater in 1872, and the St. Paul & Milwaukee railroad, built in
1883, have greatly increased the prosperity of the village. Aside from
mills and manufactories there are many private residences, one hotel,
stores, shops, a Lutheran church, and a school house. There are three
cemeteries in the village limits known as Hazlewood, St. Michael's,
and the potter's field. The block for the former was contributed by
Secrest & Pero, in 1858. St. Michael's was established by the
Catholics in 1873. The potter's field was established by the city of
Stillwater in 1873. The first death in the limits of South Stillwater
was that of Sylvester, son of Joseph Pero. South Stillwater was
organized in 1881. First board of officers were: President, B. E.
Meigs; clerk, Edward Ivison; councilmen, Richard Burns, C. M.
Anderson, Charles Kregor; justice of the peace, Ambrose Secrest. South
Stillwater has a graded school with four departments.


COTTAGE GROVE

Includes township 27 and a fractional part of township 26, range 21.
It was organized as a town in October, 1858; James S. Norris,
moderator; William Watson, clerk; John Atkinson, Jacob Moshier, Joel
Munger, judges of election; William Watson, John Atkinson, B. Winant;
supervisors. Wm. Ferguson, Lewis Hill, James S. Davis, Jonathan Brown,
and Jacob Moshier were the first settlers, locating here in 1844. The
first marriage was that of Henry W. Crosby to Hannah Waterman, in
1854. The first child born was Nathan, son of John Atkinson, in 1846;
the first death was that of Mehitable, wife of P. P. Furber, in 1851.
A post office was established at Cottage Grove village in 1850; J. W.
Furber was postmaster. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad was
completed through the town in 1871. With its fine natural advantages
of soil, and its convenient access to markets, Cottage Grove is well
settled and prosperous.


COTTAGE GROVE VILLAGE

Is situated in section 12. It is a pleasant inland village, well
supplied with stores, shops and dwellings. It has one hotel, one
school house and three churches, Congregational, Evangelical German
Lutheran and Methodist. The Congregational society was organized in
1858, Rev. B. Hall, pastor; the Evangelical in 1874; the Methodist
some years later. The Universalists also have an organization. The
village was platted in April, 1871, by John P. and S. W. Furber, James
A. McClusky, Margaret M. Ellwell and Clarence Smith, in the southwest
quarter of the northwest quarter of section 12; J. W. Furber,
surveyor.


LANGDON VILLAGE

Was platted in December, 1871, in the southwest quarter of section 21,
on the line of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad. It contains
an elevator, hotel, three stores, a school house, Catholic church and
other buildings. The Catholic church was erected in 1873. Father
Huxley is the officiating clergyman. The village was platted by Joseph
J. Dodge; C. B. Lowell, surveyor.

JOSEPH W. FURBER was born in New Hampshire in 1813. His ancestors came
to this country with the early colonists of New England. His father
was a soldier in the war of 1812. During his minority he worked at
farming, obtaining, meanwhile, an education in the common schools and
at Foxcroft Academy, Maine. He emigrated to the valley of the
Mississippi in 1838, locating at Alton, Illinois, where he remained
for two years. In 1840 he came to St. Croix Falls and engaged in
lumbering until 1844, when he located in Cottage Grove. In 1846 Mr.
Furber represented Crawford county in the Wisconsin legislature as
representative. He traveled on foot as far as Prairie du Chien on his
way to the capital of the Territory. He represented the First district
in the first Minnesota territorial legislature and was elected speaker
of the house; was again a representative in the eighth territorial
legislature in 1857; was a member of the tenth and seventeenth state
legislatures. In 1857 he was commissioned major general of Minnesota
militia. He was also appointed United States marshal of Minnesota by
President Fillmore. He died at his residence in Cottage Grove in 1883.
He was a man of strong intellect, sound judgment and high moral
character. His widow, Sarah Wimples, to whom he was married in 1843,
one son, William W., and two daughters survive him.

SAMUEL W. FURBER was born in Stafford county, New Hampshire, in 1819.
He removed with his parents to Milo, Maine, and came to Cottage Grove
in 1860.

THEODORE FURBER was born in 1817, in Farmington, New Hampshire; came
West in 1845 and located at St. Croix Falls. In the following year he
moved to Cottage Grove. Mr. Furber was married to Sarah J. Hale in
1843, in Skowhegan, Maine. Mr. and Mrs. Furber visited California in
1867. In 1885 they removed to California.

JAMES S. NORRIS.--James S. Norris was born in Monmouth, Kennebec
county, Maine, in 1810. He was married at Newport in 1845 to Miss
Haskell. Mr. Norris came to St. Croix Falls in 1839, removed to
Washington county in 1842, where he settled on a farm at Cottage
Grove, and lived continuously till his death, March 5, 1874. He raised
the first crops in Cottage Grove, and though he made farming his chief
business, his abilities were such that his fellow citizens intrusted
him with many official positions, in all of which he acquitted himself
with honor. He acted as county commissioner, was a member of the first
territorial council, member of the sixth and seventh territorial house
of representatives, and speaker of the sixth, a member of the
Democratic wing of the constitutional convention, and of the twelfth
state legislature (house).

LEWIS HILL was born at Hollis, Maine, in 1822. In 1843 he came to the
valley of the St. Croix and located at St. Croix Falls. In 1844 he
came to Cottage Grove and engaged in farming, and, excepting a few
years spent in Dakota county, has resided there since. He was married
to Abbie Welch in 1854. Their living children are Emma C., Jessie L.
and Frederick E. G.

JACOB MOSHIER was born in Nova Scotia in 1820. He removed with his
parents in 1829 to Canada West. In 1839 he removed to Illinois, in
1843 to St. Croix Falls, and in 1845 to Cottage Grove, where he still
resides. He is a house carpenter, and has also been engaged in
farming. He was married in 1854 to Maria Shatto. Their children are
Annie F., Mahala, William, Addie, Grant, Laura, and George.

WILLIAM FERGUSON came to Cottage Grove in 1844, and made a claim in
section 26.

JOHN ATKINSON was born in Lewiston, Maine, April 4, 1805. He remained
in his native town until 1833, resided in Pittsfield until 1844, when
he came West and located in Cottage Grove. He pre-empted eighty acres
of land, purchased additions to it from time to time, and made for
himself a very attractive home, where he resided thirty years. Mr.
Atkinson was twice married, first to Hannah Moore, at Lewiston, Maine,
who died in 1874, then to Mrs. A. B. Fiske, of Baytown, at which place
he now resides, an aged, much respected citizen. His first wife left
four sons and two daughters.


DENMARK.

This town is located on the point of land between the Mississippi
river and Lake St. Croix, and includes the territory lying south of
Afton, and between Cottage Grove and Lake St. Croix, fractional
townships 26 and 27, range 20. The surface is elevated, somewhat
rolling, without lakes or streams, and the soil rich and well adapted
to agricultural purposes. The early history of the town is
substantially that of its earliest settlement, Point Douglas. It was
organized in 1858. Supervisors, John Shearer, Thomas Wright and David
Hone.


POINT DOUGLAS.

Levi Hertzell and Oscar Burris, young men, located in 1839 on the
extreme point of the delta between the Mississippi and St. Croix lake,
where they cut wood and sold it to the steamboats. They built a log
cabin and store, under one roof, and traded with Indians, discharged
soldiers and French settlers. They were diligent and industrious, and
prospered. In 1846 they built a frame store building. Their trade
increased and they grew wealthy. Messrs. Levi Hertzell, Oscar Burris
and David Hone, in 1849, platted the village of Point Douglas, Harvey
Wilson acting as surveyor. It was named in honor of Stephen A.
Douglas.

The following settlers came to Point Douglas prior to 1850: Wm. B.
Dibble, the Truaxes, Harley D. White, David Barber, E. H. Whittaker,
James Shearer, Martin Leavitt, Simon Shingledecker, H. A. Carter,
Thomas Hetherington, Geo. W. Campbell, John Allibone, Mark Wright,
John H. Craig, John O. Henry, and George Harris. The first post office
north of Prairie du Chien was established in 1840, on the site of
Prescott, at that time known as "Mouth of St. Croix." This office was
removed to the opposite side of the lake in 1841, and Levi Hertzell
was appointed postmaster. The first school was taught in 1850, by
John Craig. Rev. Joseph Hurlbut, a Methodist minister, preached here
in 1848. In 1656 Rev. T. Wilcoxson, Episcopalian, established "St.
Paul's Parish." Mr. Woodruff erected a saw mill in 1851. The
enterprise was not successful. A. J. Short built a saw mill in 1858,
which eventually passed into the hands of John Dudley. The first road
to Point Douglas was the Stillwater county road, located in 1847. The
Point Douglas and Lake Superior military road was built in 1849. A
ferry was established in 1851 from Point Douglas to Prescott, which
was chartered in 1856, and controlled by W. B. Dibble, who also
established a ferry from Point Douglas to Hastings in 1857. The first
marriage was that of Oscar Burris to Amanda M. Henry, Nov. 14, 1847.
The first birth was that of Emmet M. Hone, born in 1845, son of David
and Mary G. Hone.

LEVI HERTZELL came to Point Douglas in 1839, and was quite successful
in business. In 1846 he was married to Rhoda C. Pond, an adopted
daughter of Cornelius Lyman, of Stillwater. In 1849, in company with
Burris and Hone, he platted the village of Point Douglas. In the
spring of 1856, while in New York, whither he had gone to purchase
goods, he mysteriously disappeared, and nothing has since been heard
from him. Mrs. Hertzell and her three children were left in a
dependent condition, she being able to realize but little from the
property held in Point Douglas. She soon after married again. Of her
subsequent history nothing is known.

OSCAR BURRIS, associated with Levi Hertzell as one of the first
settlers of Point Douglas and pioneer merchants and traders, left in
1849 for California.

DAVID HONE.--The following statement was given me, on request, by Mr.
Hone himself: "I was born in Cherry Valley, Otsego county, New York,
April 5, 1808, and was married to Mary Henry in 1835. We came by stage
over the mountains of Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh and by steamboat from
there to Cairo, Illinois, and stopped at the Marine settlement until
Sept. 10, 1838. At that time I embarked on the steamboat Ariel, at St.
Louis, and in twenty-five days reached the head of Lake St. Croix,
from which point I proceeded on a flatboat, propelled by poles, to St.
Croix Falls, the trip occupying two days. I made a pine timber claim
on an island opposite the mouth of Kettle river. On my return, which
was made with eight companions in birch canoes, I stopped at Marine
and made a claim where the Marine mill now stands, intending to build
a saw mill. We then proceeded in our canoes to Galena, where we took
passage on the Ariel for St. Louis, landing there November 10th, after
an absence of two months, more than half of which had been spent on
the water. We reported favorably, and, organizing a company of
thirteen at Marine settlement, Illinois, with a capital of $26,000,
got our material together at St. Louis during the winter, and embarked
on the Fayette, May 4, 1839, for the point afterward known as Marine
Mills, Minnesota. We arrived May 13th and commenced at once to work
upon the projected mill, which was completed Sept. 1, 1839. I remained
at the mill until March, 1841, when I removed to Gray Cloud. I made a
claim at Point Douglas in 1843, and moved upon it in April of that
year. In 1844 I built the Union House, the first frame house built in
the territory now embraced in Minnesota. At Gray Cloud I acted as
justice of the peace. I was appointed deputy sheriff by Sheriff R. D.
Lester of Crawford county, and held the office until Minnesota
Territory was organized. My first wife died in November, 1864, leaving
three sons, Edwin A., John H. and Emmet M. In 1865 I was married to
Electa Barnes, of St. Paul. In 1872 I removed to Hastings, my present
home." Mr. Hone died at Hastings, July 11, 1887.

WILLIAM B. DIBBLE was born in the state of New York in 1815. He spent
part of his early life in Pennsylvania, Georgia, Alabama and Illinois.
He came to the St. Croix valley in 1839, and was one of the founders
of Marine, Minnesota, from whence he removed to Point Douglas in 1844,
and established ferries across Lake St. Croix to Prescott, and across
the Mississippi river to Hastings. He also engaged in farming. He was
twice married, first in 1844, to Eliza McCauslin, who died in 1847,
then to Mary Wright, who, with nine children, survives him. Mr. Dibble
died in 1884.

GEORGE HARRIS was born in Pennsylvania in 1824. In 1827 his father
removed to Illinois and was killed during the Black Hawk War while
acting as sentry. At the age of eight years George commenced working
on a farm, and continued nine years. He then removed to Missouri and
remained until 1845, when he came to Stillwater and engaged in
lumbering. Soon afterward he settled on a farm near Point Douglas,
where he still resides. His family consists of a wife (formerly Alice
White) and seven children.

HARLEY D. WHITE was born in Orange county, Vermont, in 1812; came to
Prairie du Chien in 1840 and engaged in selling goods; removed to Red
Rock in 1844 where he sold goods in partnership with Daniel Hopkins,
and settled on a farm at Point Douglas in 1847. Some years later he
removed to Beattie, Kansas. He was married to Mrs. E. Tainter, of St.
Croix Falls, in 1849. She died in 1850, leaving a daughter, who was
adopted into the family of W. H. Tinker, of St. Paul. This daughter
became a teacher and taught in the public schools of St. Paul for a
period of eighteen years, and with her earnings purchased a home for
her foster parents. Mr. White married a second time and reared two
sons, one an editor, now residing in Alameda, California. The other is
engaged in farming in Kansas. Mr. White died in April, 1888.

THOMAS HETHERINGTON was born in Northumberland, England, in 1818; came
to Canada at the age of sixteen years and to Point Douglas in 1849 and
settled on a farm at Basswood Grove, where he died in 1885, leaving
his family in good circumstances. He was held in great esteem as an
upright man by those who knew him.

JAMES SHEARER was born at Palmer, Massachusetts, Oct. 30, 1815. He was
engaged in the mercantile business from 1837 to 1843, when he sold out
and went to Canada. He came to Point Douglas May 8, 1849, and engaged
in farming. He held various offices of trust in the county and town.
He served as county commissioner for 6 years, postmaster 2 years,
chairman of town board of Denmark for 4 years, and town treasurer 12
years. Mr. Shearer was married to Minerva J. Taylor, March 6, 1866.
Their children are Marcus, Martha and Irvin.

SIMON SHINGLEDECKER was born in Germany in 1815; came to America in
1831 and located in Ohio, where he worked nine years as a farmer. He
removed thence to Illinois, then to St. Louis, and in 1845 came to
Hudson, Wisconsin, where he engaged in lumbering. In 1848 he located
on a farm near Point Douglas, which is still his home. In 1850 he was
married to Margaret Truax. They have eight children.

CALEB TRAUX was born in Mohawk valley in 1810. He became a citizen of
Montreal and was there married to Elisabeth Morehouse. He removed to
Point Douglas in 1849, where he followed the business of farmer and
house carpenter. He was a representative in the fourth territorial
legislature. He died at his home in 1878, leaving seven sons and three
daughters.

ABRAHAM TRUAX was born in Brooklynn, Canada West. He came to Point
Douglas in 1848; removed to Hastings in 1850. While there he was
elected sheriff of Dakota county. He returned to Point Douglas in
1859, where he still resides. He was married to Mary Lahey in 1859.
Mrs. Truax died in 1867, leaving five children.

GEORGE W. CAMPBELL was born in Canton, New York, April 8, 1810. He
received a common school and academic education. His father died in
1826, leaving to George W. the care of the family and the management
of the estate. He was married in 1832, at Cornwell, Canada West, to
Margaret Harriet Robinson. He came to Point Douglas in 1848, where he
has lived since, engaged in farming and lumbering. He was a
representative in the first state legislature, 1857-58. Mrs. Campbell
died at her home in Point Douglas in 1886, aged seventy-four years.
She had been a member of the Episcopal church for sixty years. Six of
her seven surviving children with the aged husband and father attended
the funeral. Mr. Campbell died in 1887.


FOREST LAKE.

This town includes township 32, range 21. The surface was originally
covered with hardwood timber, interspersed with wild meadows; the
western part with oak, maple, poplar and tamarack. The first settlers
were Louis Schiel, Wilson, Rice and Cyrus Gray. Later came Simmons,
Posten, Marsh, York, and Banty. The first marriage was that of Francis
Cartwright to Mary Long, in 1865. The first child born was Rebecca
Simmons. The first death was that of Frederic Veith, in 1867. In 1873
the first school district was organized. A Methodist church was
organized in 1876 by Rev. Adam Ringer. The Forest Lake Lodge, I. O. G.
T., was organized in 1879. A post office was established in 1868;
Michael Marsh, postmaster. The town of Forest Lake was organized in
1874; W. D. Benedict, A. C. York and George Simmons, supervisors;
Louis Schiel, clerk.


FOREST LAKE VILLAGE

Was platted May, 1869, in the northwest part of the town, by Luther
Mendenhall, agent of the Western Land Company, and surveyed by B. W.
Brunson. It is beautifully located on the shore of Forest lake and is
rapidly becoming a popular place of resort for summer tourists and
pleasure parties. The lake is almost separated into three distinct
parts by points or capes. It is five miles from the northwest to the
southeast extremity and is nearly two miles wide at the widest point.
Its shores are well timbered and approach the water's edge in gravelly
slopes. The indications are that the lake was once much larger. In the
south lakes the water is deepest, averaging twenty feet. The south
lakes have also higher banks. The lake covers territory in sections 8
to 15, inclusive, of township 32, range 21.

CAPT. MICHAEL MARSH is a native of Wesemburg, Germany, and has resided
at this lake nineteen years. He has done much to make it attractive as
a place of resort. He has built a hotel with seventy-five rooms for
the accommodation of summer visitors, and has placed a steamer, the
Germania, upon the lake. Capt. Marsh was married in Germany and has a
family of two sons and three daughters.


GRANT.

This town was organized in 1858, under the name of Greenfield. In 1864
the name was changed to Grant. It comprises township 30, range 21. The
soil is a sand and clay loam, with clay gravel subsoil. The surface
varies from undulating to rolling, and was originally well timbered
with white, black and burr oak. White Bear lake lies partly within the
township, occupying about 1,200 acres. Other and smaller lakes are
Pine, Stone Quarry, Deep, Ben's, and Long.

The first officers of the town were: Moderator, Joseph Crane; clerk,
Jesse H. Soule; supervisors, Albion Masterman, James Rutherford and
Joseph Crane. The first settlers were Albion Masterman and William
Rutherford, in 1849. Soon after came James Rutherford, Thomas Ramsdell
and George Bennett. Albion Masterman built the first house, and his
wife, formerly Eliza Middleton, was the first woman in the settlement.
The first public highway through the town was the Rum river road. The
first child born was Castinea O. Rutherford. The first death was that
of James, son of James Rutherford. The first school house was built in
section 1, in 1856. Joseph Crane taught the first school. The first
sermon was preached by Rev. ---- Hamlin, a Free Will Baptist, but the
first religious organization was that of the German Protestant
Lutheran. Rev. Siegrist was the first pastor. The church building is
in section 2, and was built in 1872. The Spiritualists had an
organization in 1868, of which Jesse H. Soule was president, and
George Walker secretary. Summer meetings were held, and lecturers from
abroad invited to address them.


DELLWOOD VILLAGE

Was platted in September, 1882, on the line of the Stillwater & White
Bear railroad, on the shore of White Bear lake; Augustus K. and Carrie
Barnum, proprietors; Simon & Morton, surveyors.


EAGLE CITY

Was platted in 1854; proprietors, K. Starkey and Chas. G. Pettys;
surveyor, Daniel S. Turpen. It is located in the southwest quarter of
section 27.


MAHTOMEDI

Was platted in July, 1883; proprietors, Mahtomedi Assembly; surveyors,
Hone & Holland. White Bear lake has become a noted resort for tourists
and pleasure parties. A steamboat plies regularly upon its waters
during the open months, and the Stillwater & White Bear, the St. Paul
& Duluth and the Wisconsin Central railroads render it easy of access.
It is made attractive by the beauty of its scenery, the clearness and
brightness of its waters and its convenient distance from St. Paul,
Minneapolis and Stillwater. The Mahtomedi Association have erected
here a fine hotel, assembly houses and numerous cottages for the
accommodation of summer visitors. Summer schools are held here under
the auspices of the Chautauqua Association. The grounds are also
adapted to camp meetings, conventions and military parades.


WILDWOOD PARK

Was platted in 1883, by the Park Association; Elmer & Newell,
surveyors. It is located on White Bear lake, on the line of the
Stillwater & White Bear railroad.

WILLIAM ELLIOTT was born in Ireland in 1825. His parents removed to
New Brunswick in 1830, whence he came to Minnesota in 1850, and
located in Grant in 1862, devoting himself to farming. He had been a
pilot and a lumberman. His second wife was Mary Crawford. They have
eight children.

FREDERICK LAMB was born in Prussia in 1825; served three years in the
Prussian Army, traveled some time for a manufacturing firm in Germany
through Switzerland, France, England, and Italy; came to America in
1848, and to Stillwater in 1849. For some time he was unsettled as to
his location, but in 1852 made his home in Stillwater, where he
remained until 1866, when he located in Grant. He was married in 1851
to Lena Laroche. A son and a daughter lost their lives by accident.
Three daughters are living.

JAMES RUTHERFORD was born in the parish of Elsdon, Northumberland
county, England, in 1812. In 1818 he came with his parents to America.
In 1849 he came to the valley of the St. Croix and located in what is
now the town of Grant. He built a flour mill on Brown's creek. He
engaged in farming and also in lumbering for many years. He was
married to Elisabeth Smith in 1836. He died at his residence Sept. 14,
1874. Four children survive him.

JESSE H. SOULE has been a prominent and enterprising citizen of Grant
since 1854. He was born at Avon, Franklin county, Maine, in 1823. Mr.
Soule came to Grant when there were but six families in the town, and
pre-empted one hundred and fifty acres of land, where he made him a
pleasant and attractive home. He has held many positions of trust,
having been elected town clerk, which office he held twenty-two years,
justice of the peace, assessor, superintendent of schools and county
commissioner. He represented his district in the house of the sixth
state legislature in 1864. Mr. Soule has been married three times. His
first wife left one daughter, his second wife two sons, twins, Osmar
and Winfield; his third wife, who still lives, Rachel Michener, to
whom he was married in 1871, has three children, Alice, Olive and
Reuel.

Albion Masterman and William Rutherford, the first settlers of Grant
township, are mentioned among the biographies of the chapter on
Stillwater.


LAKELAND.

This town includes the south half of fractional township 29, range 20,
and comprises about 65,920 acres. The surface is quite diversified,
ranging from undulating prairie land to hills. Before settlement there
were prairies and oak openings. The soil is productive and is well
cultivated.

The first settlers were French, who located along the lake shore in
1838-39. These early settlers raised the first crops, but were
gardeners rather than farmers, and were transient. The first American
settler was Henry W. Crosby, who came in 1842, and located on the site
of the present village of Lakeland. George Clark, a young man, came
with him and made a claim near the ferry, but was drowned not long
afterward. This was the first death in the town of which we have any
mention. The first marriage was that of Wm. Oliver and Mrs. Mary
Davis, a sister of Joseph Haskell, in 1848; the next was that of A. B.
Green to Eliza M. Oliver, Oct. 1, 1851.

A ferry was established in 1848. Moses Perrin built a hotel and saw
mill the ensuing year, and platted the village of Lakeland. Another
mill was built by Ballard & Reynolds. In 1857 Stearns, Watson & Co.
built an extensive saw mill at a cost of $45,000. This mill changed
hands many times, finally passing into the hands of C. N. Nelson, who
enlarged it to a capacity of 20,000,000 feet per annum, a $50,000
investment. The St. Paul & Milwaukee railroad traverses this town near
and parallel to the lake shore. The town contributed $5,000 in ten per
cent bonds to the building of the road, for which they received an
equal amount of railroad stock. The St. Paul & Omaha railroad crosses
the lake and a part of the northeastern part of the township of
Lakeland. The railroad bridge has its western terminus in Lakeland, a
short distance above the village. Lakeland was organized as a town
Oct. 20, 1858. The first board of supervisors consisted of Charles A.
Oliver, Elias Megean and A. D. Kingsley.


LAKELAND VILLAGE,

Situated on the lake shore, nearly opposite Hudson, Wisconsin, was
platted in 1849 by Moses Perrin. A school was taught in 1852 by
Harriet E. Newell. A post office was established in 1854; Freeman C.
Tyler was the first postmaster. Lakeland has the following benevolent
and social societies: Masons, Golden Rule Lodge, No. 65, organized in
1867; Temple of Honor, organized 1877; the Independent Order of Good
Templars, No. 200, organized in 1876. It has a Baptist and
Congregational church.

HENRY W. CROSBY was born in Albany, New York, in 1819. He spent his
youth in Buffalo. In 1840 he came to St. Croix Falls, and in 1842 to
the banks of Lake St. Croix, and located on the site of the village of
Lakeland where he resided ten years. During the ensuing thirteen years
he followed his trade as machinist at various places, besides serving
three years as a volunteer in the Eighth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry.
He was married in Cottage Grove in 1845, to Hannah Waterhouse. He has
four sons.

REUBEN H. SANDERSON.--Mr. Sanderson was born in Genesee county, New
York, in 1831. He received a common school education and studied one
year in Brockport Collegiate Institute. He came to Lakeland in 1855,
and followed the business of a house carpenter. Mr. Sanderson has
filled many town offices, and was a member of the Democratic wing of
the state constitutional convention in 1857.

NEWTON MCKUSICK, the oldest son of John McKusick, was born in
Stillwater in 1850. He received a good education in the city schools,
completed at the Minnesota State University, and located on a farm in
Lakeland in 1871. He was married to Jennie L. Green, of Stillwater,
June 6, 1872. His home and farm display taste and thrift worthy of
commendation.

CAPT. JOHN OLIVER.--John Oliver was born March 9, 1796, at Land's End,
England. He was bred to a seafaring life, and the early part of his
life was well spiced with adventure. He escaped from the British
service to enter the American, but was twice captured, and after the
second capture suffered a rigorous imprisonment at Dartmoor, England.
At the close of the war he came to the United States and became a
Boston harbor pilot, a responsible calling which he followed for
thirty-three years. He came to the West in 1848, and settled in
Lakeland. In 1819 he was married to Sarah Spear, whose father was one
of the celebrated Boston Tea Party in 1774. Capt. Oliver, after his
removal to Lakeland, busied himself in farming. He died on the
homestead in 1869, leaving a widow who survived until 1883, and five
sons, two having died prior to 1869. Of his seven sons, six were in
the Union Army in Minnesota regiments during the Rebellion: Wm. H.,
Thomas E., Charles A., George A., Walter J., and Howard F. Walter J.
died in the army.

ASA BARLOW GREEN.--The name of Capt. Green was once familiar on the
St. Croix. He was a man of varied talents and striking
characteristics, who, in a public life extending over a period of many
years, figured as a lawyer, sheriff, probate judge, steamboat captain,
minister, chaplain, and missionary. He was born at Warren, Vermont,
1826, and during his minority lived at home. He had a common school
education, and by his own efforts attained a knowledge of the law and
was admitted to practice in Minnesota and Wisconsin in 1858. He served
as sheriff in Washington county, held the office of probate judge, and
some minor offices. He commanded the steamer Equator in 1859, when
that boat was wrecked on Lake St. Croix. He was part owner of the
boat. In 1860 he was ordained as a minister of the Calvinist Baptist
church. In 1862 he entered the United States service as chaplain of
the Third Wisconsin Volunteers, and served three years, after which he
devoted himself to ministerial and missionary labors. He died in
Whitewater, Wisconsin.

L. A. HUNTOON located in Lakeland in 1857, and engaged in mercantile
pursuits. He served as town clerk and postmaster, filling the latter
position fifteen years. He represented his district in the house of
the seventh and nineteenth legislatures. He died suddenly at his home
in 1879, leaving a wife and three children. His oldest son, Samuel, a
promising young man, principal of the Hammond high school, and fitting
himself for the medical college, was drowned Oct. 9, 1872, in Cutter's
lake, at the age of twenty-one. He was much esteemed and lamented.


MARINE.

The town of Marine includes townships 31 and 32, range 20, and
fractional townships 31 and 32, range 19. The surface is somewhat
rolling, and before settlement was timbered chiefly with hardwood. It
is dotted with beautiful lakes, some of which have abrupt and hilly
shores. The more noted of these lakes are Big, Carnelian, Square,
Bony, Terrapin, Long, Fish, and Hay.

Next to St. Croix Falls, Marine contains the earliest settlement in
the valley. In September, 1838, Lewis Judd and David Hone were
deputized by a company of men residing in Marine, Illinois, to visit
the Northwest and examine the region recently secured by treaty from
the Chippewas, and to return the same year and report upon its
advantages of climate, soil and other resources. They were authorized
also to locate a claim for a future settlement, if they found one
entirely suitable. They embarked on the steamer Ariel at St. Louis,
September 10th, and were twenty-five days reaching the head of Lake
St. Croix, whence they proceeded in a flatboat propelled by poles up
the St. Croix as far as the falls, and thence to the mouth of Kettle
river. Returning by birch canoes, they stopped at the site of the
present village of Marine, and there made a mill claim. They then
returned to Marine, Illinois, where they arrived November 10th, and
reported favorably on the location chosen.

During the following winter a verbal agreement was made by thirteen
persons, all of Marine settlement, to start in the spring and build a
saw mill on the distant St. Croix. On April 27th this company left St.
Louis on the steamer Fayette for the new settlement, which they
reached on the thirteenth of May. The Fayette was chartered expressly
for this voyage. They took with them mill irons, farming tools,
household goods, three yoke of oxen, and cows.

The members of the party were Lewis, George and Albert Judd, David
Hone, Orange Walker, Asa S. and Madison Parker, Samuel Burkelo, Wm. B.
Dibble, Dr. Lucius Green, Joseph Cottrell, and Hiram Berkey. When they
landed they found Jeremiah Russell and Levi W. Stratton in possession
of the claim, they having taken possession during the preceding
winter. These men demanded and received three hundred dollars for
relinquishing the claim to its rightful owners.

The colonists set to work immediately to build a log cabin as a
temporary shelter, which being completed, they commenced the mill, and
worked with such energy that it was finished in ninety days. The first
wheel used was a flutter wheel, which, not proving satisfactory, was
replaced by an overshot with buckets. This mill sawed the first lumber
in the St. Croix valley.

Orange Walker was the first clerk and chieftain of the concern, and
when anything was wanted a call of the company would be made, and the
members assembled. No article of agreement existed. Only one book was
kept for a series of years--a unique affair, no doubt. The first
installment was $200; second, $75; third, $50; all within two years,
after which the company became self sustaining. No partner forfeited
his stock. One by one the partners sold out their interest, until
Orange Walker and G. B. Judd were the owners. The company was first
known as the Marine Lumber Company. In 1850 the name was changed to
Judd, Walker & Co., the firm consisting then of the Judd brothers,
Orange Walker, Samuel Burkelo, Asa Parker, and H. Berkey. In 1863,
when Orange Walker was sole owner, he associated with him Samuel Judd
and W. H. Veazie, and the firm name has since been Walker, Judd &
Veazie.

The colonists raised, during the first year, corn, potatoes and garden
vegetables. They found the Indians peaceably inclined toward the
settlers, though the Chippewas and Sioux kept up a constant warfare
with each other. During the winter of 1839-40 four members of the
company, Parker, Berkey, Green and Dibble, were sent to the mouth of
Kettle river to cut logs. Marine was organized as a town in 1858, with
the following supervisors: J. R. M. Gaskell; John E. Mower and B. F.
Allen.


MARINE MILLS VILLAGE.

The settlement gradually grew into the village of Marine Mills, which
was not platted, however, until 1853, nor incorporated until 1875. The
following was the first board of officers: President, Orange Walker;
councilmen, J. R. M. Gaskell, Ola Westergreen and Asa S. Parker. Until
1842 the mail was received from Ft. Snelling by private conveyance,
when a monthly mail service was established from Point Douglas, and
Samuel Burkelo was appointed postmaster.

The first jury trial in the St. Croix valley was held at Marine, in
1840, before Joseph R. Brown, justice of the peace. The case was that
of Philander Prescott against Chas. D. Foote, plaintiff charging
defendant with jumping a claim. The jury consisted of Samuel Burkelo,
Orange Walker, H. Berkey, David Hone. J. Haskell, J. S. Norris, A.
McHattie, A. Mackey, H. Sweezy, Francis Nason, and two others. The
claim in dispute was located near Prescott. The court adjourned to
allow the jury to visit Prescott to ascertain if the claim had been
made in accordance with custom. On viewing the premises the jury
failed to agree, and the matter was compromised by Prescott allowing
Foote eighty acres of the claim.

The first white child born in Marine was Sarah Anna Waterman, in 1844.
Dr. Wright, the first physician, located in Marine in 1849. The first
marriage was that of Wm. B. Dibble to Eliza McCauslin, in 1842. The
first death was that of a child of W. H. Nobles, in 1843. The first
sermon preached was by Rev. J. Hurlburt, a Methodist missionary, Jan.
1, 1844. The first school was taught by Sarah Judd, in 1849. The
Swedish Evangelical Lutherans built the first church in the town of
Marine, in section 27, in 1856, a log structure afterward used as a
school, its place being supplied by a new structure in section 14 in
1858. In 1874 a large church 50 × 80 feet, ground plan, and with
steeple 80 feet high, succeeded the second structure. A fine parsonage
was attached. This church was blown down by a cyclone in 1884, but was
rebuilt.

The Swedish Methodists built a church on the south side of Long lake
in 1856; C. P. Agrelius, pastor. The Congregationalists commenced the
first church and perfected the first organization in Marine village,
in 1857. The church was completed and dedicated in 1859. Rev Geo.
Spaulding was the first pastor. The second Congregational church was
erected in 1878, in section 21. The Swedish Lutherans have a church
and congregation in the village of Marine. The church was built in
1875. Rev. L. O. Lindh was the first pastor. Oakland Cemetery
Association was organized in 1872 and the cemetery located near Marine
village.


IMPROVEMENTS.

A passable road was opened from Stillwater to Marine in 1841. The
government road from Point Douglas to Superior was built through
Marine in 1852-3. The company built the first frame dwelling, on a
point above the mill, in 1848. The mill company built a frame store in
the same year. This building was burned in 1863; loss, $4,000. The
only hotel until 1850 was a log building, when the Marine store was
built. The Lightner House was built in 1857, the St. Croix House in
1858. The Marine flour mill was built in 1856 by Gaskell & Co. The
first flour was manufactured in 1857. The mill is four stories high
and is furnished with a turbine wheel. The water is brought a distance
of 1,000 feet by an elevated race. The Arcola saw mills were built in
the winter of 1846-7, by Martin Mower, David B. Loomis, Joseph
Brewster and W. H. C. Folsom. They were located on the river shore
three miles below Marine Mills. The motive power is an overshot wheel,
propelled by water from two large springs. The mill is now the
property of Martin Mower. The losses by fire in Marine have been:

     The Marine saw mill, Sept. 16, 1863, loss $6,000; Judd &
     Gaskell's store, Jan. 9, 1864, loss $4,000; Samuel B. Judd's
     dwelling, April, 1884, loss $12,000;

     W. H. Veazie's dwelling, April, 1885, loss $6,000.

A heavy financial failure occurred in the winter of 1885-6. The firm
of Walker, Judd & Veazio were compelled to make an assignment;
indebtedness, $250,000. In the ensuing May, by order of the court, the
mill property with its assets passed into the hands of a newly
constituted organization, styled the Marine Lumber Company. This
company was composed of the creditors of Judd, Walker & Veazie; B. C.
Keater, president; Ed. St. John, superintendent; capital stock,
$750,000. In 1888 the property passed into the hands of Anderson &
O'Brien.


VASA VILLAGE

Was platted in 1856, in section 30, township 32, range 19, by B. F.
and Mary Jane Otis and John Columbus; W. P. Payte, surveyor. James
Russell, James Cilley and Frank Register in 1857 built a steam saw
mill. James Russell built a three story hotel. A saloon and other
buildings were erected, but the village did not prosper, and the site
is now abandoned. There are several ancient mounds in the town site
which have been utilized to some extent as burial mounds. One in the
rear of the school house contains the remains of Caroline Reid, a
sister of Mrs. B. F. Otis, and Hiram Otis, a son of the latter. A
mound on the farm of John Copas contains the remains of John Columbus,
buried there at his own request with the body of his favorite dog. A
post office was established at Scandia, in the northern part of
Marine, in 1878; John M. Johnson, postmaster. The upper part of the
town of Marine was at one time organized as a town called Vasa, but
has since been merged in Marine.

ORANGE WALKER was born at St. Albans, Vermont, Sept. 1, 1801. His
ancestors were of English stock and Revolutionary fame. He received a
good common school education, and at the age of sixteen entered as an
apprentice in a tanner and currier's establishment in St. Albans.
After learning the trade he worked at it some time in Milton, Vermont.
In 1834 he came West, and located at Jacksonville, Illinois, where he
worked at his trade and also engaged in farming until 1839, when he
became a member of the Marine Lumber Company, and came with them to
Marine, where he resided a period of forty-eight years. During that
time he has been the most active and influential man in the company,
having been in almost constant service as its president or principal
agent. Mr. Walker was well known to the earlier dwellers in the St.
Croix valley as a hale, hearty, well informed man, prompt in
fulfilling his engagements, and liberal in everything that pertains to
the general good. Mr. Walker filled many public positions. He was
county commissioner ten years, postmaster twenty-five years, and
represented his district in the house of the Second Minnesota
legislature in 1859-60. He was married Sept. 16, 1848, to Mrs.
Georgiana Lockwood, of Prescott, formerly Miss Barton, a native of
Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania. Mrs. Walker died Oct. 9, 1885. Mr. Walker
died Aug. 17, 1897.

LEWIS WALKER, brother of Orange Walker, was born in St. Albans,
Vermont, in 1811; in early life removed to Marine, Illinois, and in
1853 came to Marine Mills, Minnesota. He spent many years at the St.
Croix upper boom, and the last fifteen years of his life he lived in
Osceola. He was a quiet, peaceable citizen, exemplary in his habits
and respected by all his acquaintances. He died in Osceola in 1882.
Mr. Walker was married in 1853 to Calphrunia White, who, with two
daughters, survives him. The oldest daughter, Ella, has been for many
years a teacher in the Minneapolis and St. Paul and other schools.
Emma is the wife of Henry Fifield, a printer and journalist of
Northern Michigan.

SAMUEL BURKELO was born in Kent county, Delaware, March 31, 1800. He
came to Marine in 1839, being one of the thirteen constituting the
Marine Lumber Company. He remained with the company ten years, removed
to Stillwater and engaged in the mercantile business. In 1858 he
removed to a farm in Lakeland, where he died in 1874. He was one of
the commissioners appointed in 1840 to organize St. Croix county, and
represented his district in the council of the first and second
territorial legislatures. He was married Dec. 7, 1844, to Susan
McCauslin, at Point Douglas. Four children survive him.

ASA S. PARKER was born in Windsor county, Vermont, July 11, 1812. His
youth was spent in Vermont, New York and Illinois. He was by trade a
brickmaker. He joined the Marine Company and came to Marine in 1839.
He continued a member of the company until 1858, since which time he
has been engaged in farming and selling goods at Marine. Mr. Parker is
a quiet, unobtrusive gentleman, well posted in general matters. He was
a very useful member of the company. He was eight years county
commissioner, and has filled responsible town and county positions. He
was married in 1859 to Isabella Thompson. Archie I., an only son,
living with his parents, was married to Lena Smith in 1883.

HIRAM BERKEY was born in Somerset county, Pennsylvania, Oct. 22, 1813.
He came to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1819, but made Collinsville,
Illinois, his home, and engaged in farming. He came to Marine Mills in
1839, and was one of the original company that founded Marine. He sold
his interest in 1860, since which time he has been engaged in hotel
keeping and farming. He served as county commissioner four years, and
filled local offices. He was married to Jennie McCarty, of
Pennsylvania, Oct. 23, 1860. They have one son, John R.

GEO. B. JUDD was born in Farmington, Connecticut, Oct. 19, 1799. In
1832 he came to Illinois and engaged in farming and merchandising. In
1839 he became a member of the Marine Company, and came up on the
Fayette, but did not make his residence there until 1862. He retained
his interest in the company until about 1863. He removed to St. Louis
in 1844, and became a member of the enterprising commission firm of
Judd & Hammond. After his removal to Marine he engaged in the
mercantile and lumbering business. Mr. Judd died at his home in Marine
in 1872.

JAMES HALE was born in 1822, in Putnam county, Indiana; lived five
years in Illinois, and came to Marine Mills in 1844, where he engaged
in farming. He was married to Mary Finnegan in 1855. Mr. Hale died
Feb. 9, 1888.

JOHN HOLT was born in Jefferson county, Kentucky, in 1818. He came to
Marine in 1846. In 1852 he was married to Mary Jane Ward, and removed
to Stillwater, where for two years he kept the Minnesota House, at the
southwest corner of Main and Chestnut streets. Returning to Marine in
1853 he followed lumbering and farming many years. During the latter
portion of his life he was afflicted with partial blindness. He died
Jan. 12, 1874, leaving two children.

GEORGE HOLT, brother to John Holt, was born in Kentucky in 1822, where
he spent his early life. After spending a year at Prairie du Chien, in
1846 he came to Marine and obtained employment with the Marine
Company. In 1850 he removed to Stillwater, and engaged in the livery
stable and hotel business until 1853, when he returned with his
brother to Marine. He claims to have carried, in 1851, the first
leathern mail pouch from Stillwater to Taylor's Falls. During the
Rebellion he served one year in Company G, Fourth Minnesota Volunteer
Infantry. While residing in Marine he has been engaged chiefly in
farming, rafting and lumbering. In 1851 he was married to Melinda
Ward. They have five children.

WILLIAM TOWN was born in Rome, N. Y., 1814. In 1836 he removed to
Warren county, Illinois, and in 1838 he was married to Louisa
Robinson. He came to Marine in 1846; removed to St. Croix Falls in
1847; to Osceola Prairie in 1852, and to Taylor's Falls in 1860, where
he died in 1870. His first wife died at Osceola in 1855, leaving three
daughters, one the wife of W. J. Seavey, of Taylor's Falls, one the
first wife of Henry Mallen, of Farmington, Wisconsin, and one the wife
of E. Hines Bates, of Taylor's Falls. Mr. Town was married in 1857 to
Mrs. Mary Collins, formerly Mary Talboys. A daughter of Mrs. Town, by
her first husband, is the wife of N. P. Bailey, of Taylor's Falls. Mr.
Town's aged mother came to Osceola Prairie in 1856, and died in June,
1886, aged ninety-seven years. Mrs. Abbott, of Moorhead, and Mrs.
Richmond, of Farmington, are her daughters.

MATTHIAS WELSHANCE was born in 1818, in Pennsylvania, where he lived
during his minority and learned the carpenter's trade. In 1843 he
removed to Galena, Illinois, in 1847 to St. Croix Falls and in 1848 to
Marine Mills, where he worked at his trade until 1856. From that time
until his death, May 19, 1886, he was engaged in hotel keeping. He was
for nine years keeper of the Marine Hotel and has since been
proprietor of the St. Croix House. He was married Nov. 12, 1848, to
Mary J. Hooper. They have five children living. One daughter, Mrs.
Tolan, met a tragic death at the hands of an insane husband, in 1881.
Mr. Welshance died in 1886.

BENJAMIN T. OTIS was born in Fairfield, Maine, in 1816. He came to St.
Croix Falls in 1841, and engaged in lumbering. In 1846 he located on
what is known as Colby Flat, on the site of Taylor's Falls, and
improved a farm. In 1849 he removed to Marine. His first wife died
suddenly at Marine. He was married to Mrs. Church, of Stillwater, in
1859. Henry F., a son by his first wife, enlisted in 1862, in the
Seventh Minnesota Volunteers, was wounded in 1864, and honorably
discharged.

WILLIAM CLARK was born in New Brunswick, July, 1815. He came to Marine
Mills in 1848, and since has followed lumbering. He married Elisa Jane
Nelson in 1861. Mrs. Clark died in 1879, leaving two daughters.

JAMES R. MEREDITH was born Aug. 22, 1812, in White county, Illinois,
where he lived until eighteen years of age, when he removed to Galena,
where he spent five years in mining. He went thence to Burlington,
Iowa, and in 1849 located in Marine, and was employed by the Marine
Company several years. In 1860 he located upon his present farm. In
1847 he was married to Eleanor Freeman. They have three children
living.

JOHN D. AND THOMAS E. WARD. The Ward brothers are natives of
Massachusetts. They came to the St. Croix valley with their
brothers-in-law, John and George Holt. They have engaged chiefly in
steamboating and river business.

SAMUEL JUDD, son of Lewis Judd, was born in Illinois in 1840. He
graduated at McKendrie College, Lebanon, Illinois, and came to Marine
in 1863, and became a member of the firm of Walker, Judd & Veazie. In
1874 he was married to Amelia D. Flaherty, at St. Louis. Their
children are Orange W. and Lucille M. In 1886 he changed his residence
to St. Paul.

FREDERIC W. LAMMERS was born in Germany in 1829. He came to America in
1843, locating first at St. Louis, where he remained two years. In
1845 he removed to the St. Croix valley, and for several years engaged
in lumbering. In 1852 he settled on a farm in Taylor's Falls, and was
married to Helen C. Nelson, of Marine. In 1865 he sold his farm and
removed to Big Lake Marine. Mr. Lammers has been a public spirited and
excellent citizen. His family consisted of fifteen children; of these
thirteen are living.

JAMES R. M. GASKILL was born in Madison county, Illinois, in 1820;
graduated from McKendrie College in 1843; graduated from the medical
department of the Missouri State University in 1854; practiced
medicine a short time at Centralia, Illinois, and came to Marine in
1855, where he practiced medicine and interested himself in milling,
lumbering and merchandise. He represented his district in the house of
the first legislature of Minnesota, 1857-58, and of the fourteenth and
fifteenth, 1872-73. He served during the Rebellion as surgeon of the
Forty-fifth Illinois Volunteers. He was for many years a trustee of
the Minnesota State Prison. In 1861 he was married to Clara E. Hughes.
They have one son and one daughter.


NEWPORT.

The town of Newport includes fractional townships 27 and 28, range 22,
and part of sections 34, 35 and 36, in township 29, range 22: It was
organized as a town Oct. 20, 1858. The first supervisors were William
Fowler, E. B. Schofield and John Willoughby. The surface is mostly
prairie. This town has some points of great historic interest. Gray
Cloud island, in the southern part, in the Mississippi river,
separated from the mainland by a slough, is the place where, according
to some historians, Le Sueur planted a French fort in 1695. It was
styled the "Isle Pelee," and was described as a beautiful "Prairie
Island."

The description of the island tallies precisely with that of Gray
Cloud, and is applicable to none of the other conjectured localities.
It is mentioned by many antiquarian writers as a place of rendezvous
for French traders during the French domination in this part of the
continent. Gray Cloud has been known as a trading post for the last
hundred years, and has the credit of being the first white settlement
in Washington county, and probably in Minnesota. Here came Joseph R.
Brown in 1838, and here he married the daughter of Dickson, the
trader. Hazen Mooers, one of the commissioners of St. Croix county in
1840, Joseph Boucher and others were living at Gray Cloud when the
Methodist mission was established at Kaposia in 1836. Gray Cloud is
the translation of the Indian name of the island. It was also borne by
an Indian maiden, who became the wife of Hazen Mooers, who seems to
have been a man of excellent repute and considerable influence. The
Browns cherished for him a very warm feeling of regard.

Red Rock, another historic locality, derives its name from a painted
rock which seems to have been held in great reverence by the Sioux
Indians. According to Rev. Chauncey Hobart, a veteran pioneer and
preacher still living in Minnesota, it was the custom among the Sioux
to worship the boulders that lie scattered along the hills and
valleys. When a Dakotah was in danger, it was his custom to clear a
spot from grass and brush, roll a boulder upon it, paint it, deck it
with feathers and flowers, and pray to it for needed help.

The peculiarity of the painted boulder from which Red Rock took its
name is that it was a shrine, to which from generation to generation
pilgrimages were made, and offerings and sacrifices presented. Its
Indian name was "Eyah Shah," or "Red Rock." The stone is not naturally
red, but painted with vermillion, or, as some say, with the blood of
slaughtered victims. The Indians call the stone also "Waukan," or
"mystery." It lies on a weathered stratum of limestone, and seems to
be a fragment from some distant granite ledge. The Dakotahs say it
walked or rolled to its present position, and they point to the path
over which it traveled. They visited it occasionally every year until
1862, each time painting it and bringing offerings. It is painted in
stripes, twelve in number, two inches wide and from two to six inches
apart. The north end has a rudely drawn picture of the sun, and a rude
face with fifteen rays.

Red Rock is noted as the site of a mission planted here in 1837 by the
Methodist Episcopal church, by Alfred Brunson, a distinguished pioneer
preacher and missionary. The mission was originally established at
Kaposia, on the western bank of the river, in 1837, but removed by
Alfred Brunson in the same year to Red Rock. Rev. B. T. Kavanaugh, of
this mission, and afterward a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church
South, superintended the erection of the first buildings. Taylor F.
Randolph and wife were teachers here, as assistants in the Indian
school, and also in a school of mixed bloods and whites. B. T.
Kavanaugh was postmaster in 1841. John Holton was mission farmer in
1841, under a commission from Maj. Taliaferro, of Fort Snelling. The
mission was discontinued in 1842. Mr. Randolph and wife made them a
home in the town of Afton, where both died in 1844.

The first marriage was that of John A. Ford to Mary Holton, daughter
of John Holton, in 1843. The first birth was that of Franklin C. Ford,
September, 1844. The first death was that of a child of Rev. B. T.
Kavanaugh. The village of Newport was platted in 1857. W. R. Brown's
addition was platted in 1874. A steam saw mill was built in 1857 by E.
M. Shelton & Brothers. The mill was destroyed by fire in 1874. A flour
mill was built in its place by Joseph Irish. The first Baptist church
was organized Jan. 18, 1858. The first commodious house of worship was
built in 1878. The Red Rock Camp Meeting Association was organized in
1869. A plat of ten acres, beautifully situated in a natural grove
near the village, and on the line of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul
railroad, was donated to the association by John Holton. These grounds
have been improved, and adorned with tasteful cottages. The camp
meetings held during the summer are largely attended.


GRAY CLOUD CITY

Was platted in June, 1856, by J. R. Brown and Truman W. Smith, and
surveyed by J. Donald McCullom.


NEWPORT VILLAGE

Was platted May 2, 1857, by Joseph H. Huganin, R. C. Knox, Wm. and
James Fowler, and surveyed by B. Densmore.

JOHN HOLTON came to Red Rock in 1831, with the Methodist missionaries;
served some years as Indian farmer under Maj. Taliaferro, Indian
agent, and afterward settled on a farm just above the mission ground.
He donated ten acres of this farm to the Methodists for camp meeting
grounds. Mr. Holton died in 1884, leaving two children, Mrs. Ford and
Mrs. Winters.

JOHN A. FORD was born in Utica, New York, in 1811. He learned the
trade of edge tool and rifle making, and in 1834 came West with his
father, locating a land claim where Chicago now stands. In 1841 the
son came to Red Rock and erected a store building in which he sold
goods for twelve years. Subsequently he engaged in farming. With the
exception of the traders Mr. Ford was the first merchant in Washington
county. Mr. Ford was a representative in the second territorial
legislature. He was married to May Holton in 1843. Their children are
Franklin and Willis. Franklin, the eldest son, was married to Addie
Witherspoon in 1870, and resides in Newport.

DANIEL HOPKINS, a native of New Hampshire, came West at an early age.
He was a gunsmith by trade. He located in Green Bay in 1836, and
removed to Prairie du Chien in 1838, where he built a stone shop with
a large double window over his workbench and overlooking a spot where
he kept his money buried. A large mullein growing over it sufficiently
indicated that his treasure was still undisturbed. Growing somewhat
doubtful of the security of his hoard, he removed and placed a
thousand dollars in a stone quarry as a safer place of deposit.
Unexpectedly to him, the quarry was reopened and a well placed blast
scattered the old gentleman's treasure to the four winds. He recovered
but a portion of it. In 1844 he left Prairie du Chien and came to Red
Rock. He was three years associated with John A. Ford in selling
goods, after which, in 1848, he removed to St. Paul, where he opened a
store. He died in 1852, aged sixty-five years.

WILLIAM R. BROWN was born in Urbana, Ohio, in 1816. He spent his
boyhood at home on a farm and served as an apprentice to a carpenter
in Mt. Carmel, Illinois. In April, 1848, he came to Red Rock mission
in company with Rev. B. T. Kavanaugh, Charles Cavalier and Julia
Bosnell. He lived upon a farm until 1854, when he sold out and removed
to St. Paul, where he dealt in real estate. During the Rebellion he
served three years in Company C, Sixth Minnesota Volunteers. He was
married in 1841 to Martha Neuman. He died Nov. 25, 1874.

WILLIAM FOWLER settled in Newport in 1852 and has become a prominent
farmer and successful stockman. His farm, which originally cost him
$2,500, he sold in 1887 for $80,000. He was for two years president of
the Minnesota Agricultural Society, and five years of the Dairymen's
Association. He was a member of the house of representatives in 1872.
During the war he served as lieutenant in the Eighth Minnesota
Volunteers.


OAKDALE.

Oakdale includes township 29, range 21. Originally it was covered with
white, black and burr oak timber; the surface is rolling, and the soil
well adapted to the cultivation of wheat. It is well watered and has
numerous lakes, among which Lake Elmo is favorably known as a summer
resort.

Oakdale was organized as a town November, 1858. The first supervisors
were E. C. Gray, John Bershen and E. L. Morse. The clerk was W.
Armstrong.

The first settler was B. B. Cyphers, who kept a hotel or stopping
place on Sun Fish lake in 1848. The year following John Morgan built a
more commodious house a mile and a half west on the stage road, and
this was afterward known as the "Half-way House," it being nearly
midway between St. Paul and Stillwater. At this well known station the
pioneer stages of Willoughby & Powers changed horses at noon, and the
passengers took dinner. In 1855 the property passed into the hands of
E. C. Gray. The Malones, Lohmans, Grays, Day, Stevens, and Gardiner
located here in the '50s.

The first post office established was in 1857, in the south part of
the town, in section 35. Arthur Stephens was for ten years postmaster.
The office was called Oakdale, and was discontinued and another
established at the Half-way House, and called Lohmanville post office.
In 1873 it was transferred to the Oakdale station on the railroad. It
was discontinued in 1876, and re-established at Bass Lake station,
where it has since remained but is now known as the Lake Elmo post
office.

The St. Paul & Stillwater railroad passes through this town from east
to west. It has three stations, Lake Elmo, Oakdale and Midvale.

The churches of Oakdale are the St. John's Lutheran and the Church of
the Holy Angels. These churches have fine buildings and good
congregations. The buildings are located on the line of the old stage
road, and have spacious burial grounds attached.

Lake Elmo is the only village in the town. It is handsomely located on
Lake Elmo. The company that platted the village has expended over
$65,000 on improvements. The hotel is an elegant and spacious
building, and a favorite resort for summer tourists. The lake was
originally known as Bass lake, and the station was known as Bass Lake
station. In 1879 the lake and station were rechristened Elmo, a name
certainly more musical and charming than the original, and inferior
only to the aboriginal name, which ought to have been retained.

E. C. GRAY came originally from Pennsylvania, and located in Oakdale
in 1855, having purchased the Half-way House of John Morgan. He died
in 1874, leaving a large family of children. Two of his sons, M. P.
and W. H., remain on the family homestead. Others are in St. Paul. All
are known as men of good business ability.

ARTHUR STEPHENS was born in Scotland in 1830. He came to America in
1839, lived awhile in Illinois, learned the trade of a mason and
plasterer, came to St. Paul in 1849, worked at his trade until 1854,
when he removed to Oakdale, where, with the exception of six years'
residence at Stillwater, he has since lived. Mr. Stephens served as
postmaster ten years, as county commissioner three years, and has
filled town offices. He was married to Marie Payden in 1852. Their
children are Harris S., Arthur, Elizabeth and Emma.


ONEKA.

The town comprises township 31, range 21. It was organized as a town
in 1880. A. J. Soule was the first moderator, George Walker the first
clerk and treasurer. The eastern and southern portions are
diversified, being quite rugged and uneven. The western part is quite
level, and was originally timbered with burr oak and poplars. The town
abounds with lakes. Bald Eagle lies partly in the town; Oneka; Rice,
Egg, Eagle, Horseshoe, and others are within the town. Small springs
and rivulets abound. A tamarack swamp, varying in width from a few
rods to a half mile, traverses the town from north to south, forming a
natural barrier between the eastern and western divisions. The
principal lake is Oneka, located in sections 9 and 16. Rice lake has
been celebrated as the resort of Indians from Mendota, who camped here
annually to gather wild rice for the St. Paul and Minneapolis markets.

The first settlers were Fayette Tainter and John Chester, young men
who came together in 1850 for the purpose of locating claims and
baling hay. They carried on a stock farm for five years. The next
settlers, Lewis Sempler and his son-in-law, Joseph Freeman, came in
1855. They were followed by Dunn, Barnum, Hatch and Beecroft.

The St. Paul & Duluth railroad passes through the western part of the
town, entering in section 31, and leaving in section 5. There is but
one station upon the road, Centreville, a thriving little village,
having a hotel, store, school house, etc. Its post office was
established in 1874.

The first school district was organized in 1867. Ruth Miller taught
the first school. The first marriage was that of Joseph Lambert and
Mary Courtone. The first child born was Hoyt E., son of O. L. Kinyon,
Dec. 27, 1863. The first death was that of Herbert, son of O. L.
Kinyon, May 30, 1869.


ONEKA,

Located in the northeast quarter of section 8, was platted May, 1847,
by Franklin Jones; Chas. B. Lowell, surveyor.


SHADY SIDE VILLAGE,

Located on Bald Eagle lake, was platted in 1880, by Chas. P. Hill;
Brinckerhoff & Phillips, surveyors.

DANIEL HOPKINS, SR., son of Daniel Hopkins, of whom biographical
mention is made in the history of Newport, was born in New Hampshire.
He came to St. Paul in 1850, and engaged in the mercantile business on
Third street until 1852, when he removed to a farm between St. Anthony
and St. Paul, and dealt extensively in blooded stock until about
1855-56, when he purchased the farms of Austin and Tainter, on Rice
creek near the railroad. His farm consists of about 600 acres. The
railroad has a flag station at the farm known as Hopkins station.


STILLWATER.

Stillwater comprises fractional township 30, range 20, excepting the
site of the city of Stillwater. The surface is rolling and the soil
good. It is well watered with rivulets and small lakes. The first
settlers in the town outside the city limits were the Lymans,
consisting of the father (Cornelius) and two sons, C. Storrs and D.
P., Charles Macy, W. T. Boutwell, Sebastian Marty, Wm. Rutherford, J.
J. McKenzie, Albion Masterman, and Dr. James Carey. The first white
child born in the town was Emily S., daughter of C. S. Lyman, in 1846.
The first death was that of Betsey, daughter of C. S. Lyman, in 1846.
The first marriage was that of Abraham Click and Jane Sample, in 1853.
The first school was taught by Cynthia Pond, in 1852. The first road
through the town was from Dakota village via Carnelian lake and Marine
to St. Croix Falls. Messrs. Rutherford & Booth in 1857 built a flour
mill on Brown's creek, which empties into the St. Croix near the head
of the lake. The mill was located above McKusick's lake, and has been
for some years abandoned. Brown's creek originally passed through
sections 18, 19, 20 and 21 to the river, but was turned in 1843 from
its natural course, and made to connect McKusick's lake with the St.
Croix by a new channel cut through sections 28 and 29, thus giving to
Stillwater its initial advantages as a manufacturing centre. The
Washington county poor farm, consisting of 207 acres of improved laud
with good buildings and other conveniences, was located in this town
in 1858.


OAK PARK

Was platted May 27, 1857. It is situated between the city of
Stillwater and South Stillwater, with frontage on the lake. The
proprietors were John Parker, Wm. Dorr, Gold T. Curtis, Mary Curtis,
Olive A. B. Anderson, and Wm. M. McCluer. The surveyor was A. Van
Voorhes.

The township of Stillwater was organized April 3, 1860, with the
following board of officers: Moderator, Cornelius Lyman; judges of
election, H. Packard, W. T. Boutwell, D. P. Lyman; supervisors, C.
Storrs Lyman, H. Packard, Henry A. Jackman; clerk, Sylvanus Trask.

DAVID P. LYMAN was born in St. Lawrence county, New York, in 1822. In
1844 he came with his parents to Marine. In 1846 he removed to his
present residence in the town of Stillwater. He was married to Anna J.
Hannah, at Farmingdale, Illinois, in 1850. They have five children.
Mr. Lyman is an upright, reliable citizen, and a consistent member of
the Presbyterian church.

HENRY A. JACKMAN, a native of Robbinstown, Maine, was born July 30,
1819. He was married to Sarah Blanchard in 1848. Mr. Jackman, with his
family, his father and his wife's parents, came West in 1849 and
located in Stillwater. In 1851 he removed to his farm. He has since
engaged in farming and lumbering, and has filled several important
positions. He served as school trustee for 30 years, as county
commissioner 8 years, as warden of state prison 4 years, as state
prison inspector 20 years, and was a representative in the territorial
legislature of 1856, and the state legislature of 1867. Mr. Jackman's
father, a native of Brunswick, Maine, died at his son's residence in
Stillwater, April, 1867, aged seventy-four years. He was a man honored
for his kindness and sterling integrity. His wife, the mother of Henry
A., died in Maine in 1844. Three sons and four daughters survive them.
The children of Henry A. Jackman are Mary E. (Mrs. Russell Pease),
James E. and Alice (Mrs. Wm. A. Boxwell).

FREDERIC J. CURTIS, a native of Ireland, was born in 1818. Before
coming to America he learned the trade of boot and shoe making. He
came to America in 1843, and spent two years in New York City working
at his trade. He also spent two years in St. Louis and New Orleans. He
came to Stillwater in 1848 and settled on his farm in section 9, where
he has since lived. He held the office of sheriff two years. He was
one of the first police of the city of Stillwater and has been town
treasurer and school director. He was married to Bridget Fenton in
1849. Their children are Daniel, Thomas, James, Elisabeth, Mary,
Maggie, and Ellen B.

DAVID COVER was born in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, May 22,
1826. In 1844 he came with his parents to St. Louis, Missouri, where
he became a river pilot, and engaged in lumbering for eight years,
when he came to Stillwater, and for some years gave his attention
largely to selling logs and lumber between Stillwater and St. Louis.
During the years between 1860 and 1870 his business transactions were
heavy, involving hundreds of thousands of dollars annually, and from
some injudicious movements, due to lack of experience, resulted in
disastrous failure. After his failure he devoted himself to farming
and fire insurance business. He was married in 1850 to Elisabeth
Harrold. They are the parents of three sons. Mr. Cover was
accidentally drowned in Lake St. Croix Sept. 14, 1884. His life was
insured for $17,000.

JOHN PARKER came from Vermont to the valley of the St. Croix in 1848,
located for a couple of years at St. Croix Falls, and came to Oak
Park, town of Stillwater, about 1850. In 1848 Mr. Parker was married
to Susan, daughter of David Cover, who bore him three children: Edwin
E., the oldest, killed by the explosion of the boilers of the steamer
Penn Wright, near Winona; John E., living at home with his mother, and
Ella, wife of Henry Pevey, of Stillwater. Mr. Parker was a kind
hearted, genial man. He was one of the early river pilots, and came to
his death in June, 1867, while in the performance of his duties as a
pilot. In handling a line to "snub" a raft, he was caught in its coils
and so bruised that he died.


WOODBURY,

As at present organized, includes township 28, range 21. At the date
of its organization, in 1868, it was named Red Rock, and made to
include a little over two sections of fractional township 28, range
22. This fragment contains the famous painted rock, now included in
the town of Newport, and from this rock, familiarly called Red Rock,
the town received its first name. The first board of town officers
consisted of John Colby; moderator; David Little and C. Schmeiding,
judges of election; John Colby, John A. Ford, J. J. Miller,
supervisors; Ebenezer Ayers, clerk.

The town held the name of Red Rock until