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´╗┐Title: Glacier National Park [Montana]
Author: Interior, United States Dept. of the
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Glacier National Park [Montana]" ***

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[Illustration: (Front Cover)]


  _American Section_ WATERTON-GLACIER

United States Department of the Interior

_Harold L. Ickes, Secretary_


_Arno B. Cammerer, Director_





The Park Regulations are designed for the protection of the natural
beauties as well as for the comfort and convenience of visitors. The
complete regulations may be seen at the office of the superintendent
and at ranger stations. The following synopsis of the rules and
regulations is for the general guidance of visitors, who are requested
to assist in the administration of the park by observing them.

=_Fires._=--Fires are the greatest menace to the forests of Glacier
National Park. Build camp fires only when necessary and at designated
places. Know that they are out before you leave them. Be sure your
cigarette, cigar, pipe ashes, and matches are out before you throw them
away. During periods of high fire hazard, camp fires are not permitted
at nondesignated camp grounds.

=_Camps._=--Camping is restricted to designated campgrounds. Burn all
combustible garbage in your camp fire; place tin cans and unburnable
residue in garbage cans. There is plenty of pure water; be sure to get
it. Visitors must not contaminate water-sheds or water supplies.

=_Natural features._=--The destruction, injury, or disturbance in any
way of the trees, flowers, birds, or animals is prohibited. Dead and
fallen wood may be used for firewood. Picking wild flowers and removing
plants are prohibited.

=_Bears._=--It is prohibited and dangerous to feed the bears. Do not
leave foodstuffs in an unattended car or camp, for the bear will break
into and damage your car or camp equipment to secure food. Suspend
foodstuffs in a box, well out of their reach, or place in the care of
the camp tender.

=_Dogs and cats._=--When in the park, dogs and cats must be kept under
leash, crated, or under restrictive control of the owner at all times.

=_Fishing._=--No license for fishing in the park is required. Use of
live bait is prohibited. Ten fish (none under 6 inches) per day, per
person fishing is the usual limit; however, in some lakes the limit is
5 fish per day and in others it is 20. Visitors should contact the
nearest district ranger to ascertain the fish limits in the lakes. The
possession of more than 2 days' catch by any person at any one time
shall be construed as a violation of the regulations.

=_Traffic._=--Speed regulations: 15 miles per hour on sharp curves and
through residential districts; 35 miles per hour on the straightaway.
Keep gears enmeshed and out of free wheeling on long grades. Keep
cutout closed. Drive carefully at all times. Secure automobile permit,
fee $1.

=_Rangers._=--The rangers are here to assist and advise you as well as
to enforce the regulations. When in doubt consult a ranger.


Forest Fires are a terrible and ever-present menace. There are
thousands of acres of burned forests in Glacier National Park. Most of
these "ghosts of forests" are hideous proofs of some person's criminal
carelessness or ignorance.

Build camp fires only at designated camp sites. At times of high
winds or exceptionally dry spell, build no fires outside, except in
stoves provided at the free auto camps. At times of extreme hazard,
it is necessary to restrict smoking to hotel and camp areas. Guests
entering the park are so informed, and prohibitory notices are posted
everywhere. Smoking on the highway, on trails, and elsewhere in the
park is forbidden at such times. During the dry period, permits to
build fires at any camp sites other than in auto camps must be procured
in advance from the district ranger.

Be absolutely sure that your camp fire is extinguished before you leave
it, even for a few minutes.

Do not rely upon dirt thrown on it for complete extinction.

_Drown_ it completely with water.

Drop that lighted cigar or cigarette on the trail and step on it.

Do the same with every match that is lighted.

_Extreme caution is demanded at all times._

Anyone responsible for a forest fire will be prosecuted to the full
extent of the law.

_If you discover a forest fire, report it to the nearest ranger
station or hotel._


The heart of a territory so vast it was measured not in miles but
degrees, the site of Glacier National Park was indicated as terra
incognita or unexplored on most maps even as late as the dawn of the
present century. To its mountain fastness had come first the solitary
fur trader, the trapper, and the missionary; after them followed the
hunter, the pioneer, and the explorer; in the nineties were drawn the
prospector, the miner, and the picturesque trader of our last frontier;
today, the region beckons the scientist, the lover of the out-of-doors,
and the searcher for beauty. Throughout its days, beginning with the
Lewis and Clark Expedition, the Glacier country has been a lodestone
for the scientist, attracted from every corner of the earth by
the combination of natural wonder and beauty to be found here.
A chronological list of important events in the park's history

 1804-5  | Lewis and Clark Expedition. Meriwether Lewis reached a
         |   point 40 miles east of the present park. Chief Mountain
         |   was indicated as King Mountain on the expedition map.
 1810    | First definitely known crossing of Marias Pass by white man.
 1846    | Hugh Monroe, known to the Indians as Rising Wolf,
         |   visited and named St. Mary Lake.
 1853    | Cutbank Pass over the Continental Divide was crossed by
         |   A. W. Tinkham, engineer of exploration party with Isaac
         |   I. Stevens, Governor of Washington Territory. Tinkham
         |   was in search of the present Marias Pass, described to
         |   Governor Stevens by Little Dog, the Blackfeet chieftain.
 1854    | James Doty explored the eastern base of the range and
         |   camped on lower St. Mary Lake from May 28 to June 6.
 1855    | Area now in park east of Continental Divide allotted as
         |   hunting grounds to the Blackfeet by treaty.
 1872    | International boundary survey authorized which fixed the
         |   location of the present north boundary of the park.
 1882-83 | Prof. Raphael Pumpelly made explorations in the region.
 1885    | George Bird Grinnell made the first of many trips to the region.
 1889    | J. F. Stevens explored Marias Pass as location of railroad line.
 1891    | Great Northern Railroad built through Marias Pass.
 1895    | Purchase of territory east of Continental Divide from the
         |   Blackfeet Indians for $1,500,000, to be thrown open to
         |   prospectors and miners.
 1901    | George Bird Grinnell published an article in Century Magazine
         |   which first called attention to the exceptional grandeur
         |   and beauty of the region and need for its conservation.
 1910    | Bill creating Glacier National Park was signed by President
         |   Taft on May 11. Maj. W. R. Logan became first superintendent.
 1932    | Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park dedicated.
 1933    | Going-to-the-Sun Highway opened to travel throughout its
         |   length.
 1934    | Franklin D. Roosevelt first President to visit Glacier National
         |   Park.



  International Peace Park                                 1

  How to Reach Glacier Park                                3
    By Rail                                                3
    By Automobile                                          3
    By Airplane                                            3

  Centers of Interest                                      3
    Glacier Park Station                                   3
    Two Medicine                                           4
    Cutbank                                                6
    Red Eagle                                              6
    St. Mary and Sun Camp                                  6
    Many Glacier Region                                    8
    Belly River Valley, Waterton Lake, and Goathaunt      11
    Flattop Mountain and Granite Park                     13
    Logan Pass                                            14
    Avalanche Camp                                        14
    Lake McDonald                                         15
    Sperry Chalets                                        16
    Belton                                                16

  What to Do and See                                      17
    Fishing                                               17
    Hiking and Mountain Climbing                          18
    Popular trails                                        21
    Swimming                                              22
    Camping out                                           22
    Photography                                           22

  Park Highway System                                     22

  How to Dress                                            23

  Accommodations                                          24

  Saddle-Horse Trips                                      25

  All-Expense Tours by Bus                                26

  Transportation                                          27

  Launches and Rowboats                                   28

  Administration                                          28

  Naturalist Service                                      29

  Automobile Campgrounds                                  29

  Post Offices                                            29

  Miscellaneous                                           29

  The Park's Geologic Story                               30

  Flora and Fauna                                         34

  Ideal Place to See American Indians                     34

  References                                              37

  Government Publications                                 40

[Illustration: _Photo by Hileman._ KINNERLY PEAK FROM KINTLA LAKE]

GLACIER _National Park_


Glacier National Park, in the Rocky Mountains of northwestern Montana,
established by act of Congress May 11, 1910, contains 981,681 acres, or
1,534 square miles, of the finest mountain country in America. Nestled
among the higher peaks are more than 60 glaciers and 200 beautiful
lakes. During the summer months it is possible to visit most of the
glaciers and many of the lakes with relatively little difficulty.
Horseback and foot trails penetrate almost all sections of the park.
Conveniently located trail camps, operated at a reasonable cost, make
it possible for visitors to enjoy the mountain scenery without having
to carry food and camping equipment. Many travelers hike or ride
through the mountains for days at a time, resting each evening at one
of these high mountain camps. The glaciers found in the park are among
the few in the United States which are easily accessible.


The Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park was established in 1932
by Presidential proclamation, as authorized by the Congress of the
United States and the Canadian Parliament.

At the dedication exercises in June of that year, the following message
from the President of the United States was read:

    The dedication of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
    is a further gesture of the good will that has so long blessed
    our relations with our Canadian neighbors, and I am gratified by
    the hope and the faith that it will forever be an appropriate
    symbol of permanent peace and friendship.

In the administration of these areas each component part of the Peace
Park retains its nationality and individuality and functions as it did
before the union.

[Illustration: _Copyright, Hileman._ WATERTON LAKE--THE INTERNATIONAL



The park entrances are on the main transcontinental line of the Great
Northern Railway. Glacier Park Station, Mont., the eastern entrance, is
1,081 miles west of St. Paul, a ride of 30 hours. Belton, Mont., the
western entrance, is 637 miles east of Seattle, a ride of 20 hours.

For information regarding railroad fares, service, etc., apply to
railroad ticket agents or address A. J. Dickinson, passenger-traffic
manager, Great Northern Railway, St. Paul, Minn.

A regular bus schedule is maintained by the Glacier Park Transport Co.
to accommodate persons arriving by rail.


Glacier National Park may be reached by motorists over a number of
well-marked automobile roads. The park approach roads connect with
several transcontinental highways. From both the east and west sides
automobile roads run north and connect with the road system in Canada,
and motorists may continue over these roads to the Canadian national
parks. Glacier National Park is the western terminus of the Custer
Battlefield Highway.

A fee of $1 is charged for a permit to operate an automobile in Glacier
Park. This permit allows reentry into the park at any time during the
current season. Maximum speed limit in the park is 30 miles per hour.
On mountain climbs and winding roads, utmost care in driving is
demanded. All cautionary signs must be observed.


Fast de luxe airplane service is available by Northwest Airlines to
Missoula, Mont., and Spokane, Wash., as is transportation via United
Air Lines, from the east and west coasts to Spokane. National Park
Airlines has a service from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Great Falls, Mont.



Glacier Park on the Great Northern Railway is the eastern entrance to
the park. It is located on the Great Plains, near the base of Glacier's
Rockies. It is on U S 2, which traverses from the east through northern
Montana along the southern boundary of the park to Belton, the western
entrance, and on to the Pacific coast. Glacier Park is also the southern
terminus of the Blackfeet Highway which parallels the eastern boundary
of the park and connects with the Alberta highway system. It is the
southern end of the Inside Trail to Two Medicine, Cutbank, Red Eagle,
and Sun Camp.

The commodious Glacier Park Hotel, several lesser hotels, auto camps,
stores, an auxiliary park office, a Government fish hatchery, a post
office and other structures are located here. The village gives a
fine touch of western life, with Indians, cowboys, and picturesque
characters contributing to its color. An encampment of Blackfeet is
on Midvale Creek; these Indians sing, dance, and tell stories every
evening at the hotel.


Two Medicine presents a turquoise mountain lake surrounded by majestic
forest-covered peaks separated by deep glaciated valleys. A road leads
into it from the Blackfeet Highway and ends at the chalets near the
foot of Two Medicine Lake. Across the water rises Sinopah Mountain,
while to the north sweep upward the gray-green slopes of Rising Wolf
to terminate in purple-red argillites and snow banks. One of the most
inviting camp sites of the park is immediately below the outlet of the
lake, not far from the chalets. From it, one looks across a smaller
lake, banked with gnarled and twisted limber pines, to the superb
mountain scenery in every direction.

The cirques and broad mountain valleys above timberline are studded
with cobalt blue lakes, and carpeted with multicolored beds of flowers.
Mountain goats and sheep are frequently seen in these higher regions.
Beaver colonies are located at the outlet of Two Medicine Lake and
elsewhere around it, making this one of the best regions in the park
to study these interesting mammals. An abundance of brook and rainbow
trout in Two Medicine waters makes it a favorite spot for fishermen.

[Illustration: _Photo by Hileman._ TRICK FALLS IN TWO MEDICINE CREEK]

A campfire entertainment with a short popular talk is conducted every
evening in the campfire circle of the auto camp by a resident ranger
naturalist. Both chalet and campground guests avail themselves of the
opportunity to meet for pleasure and instruction under the stars.
Trails for hikers and saddle-horse parties radiate to adjacent points
of interest: to Glacier Park via Scenic Point and Mount Henry, to Upper
Two Medicine Lake and Dawson Pass, to Two Medicine Pass and Paradise
Park, and up the Dry Fork to Cutbank Pass and Valley. A daily afternoon
launch trip across Two Medicine Lake brings the visitor to the foot of
Sinopah, from which there is a short, delightful path through dense
evergreen forest to the foot of Twin Falls. Trick Falls, near the
highway bridge across Two Medicine River, 2 miles below the lake, is
more readily accessible and should be visited by everyone entering the
valley. A great portion of its water issues from a cave beneath its
brink. In the early season it appears a very proper waterfall, paneled
by lofty spruce with the purple, snow-crowned Rising Wolf Mountain in
the background. In late season water issues from the cave alone, with
the dry fall over its yawning opening.


Cutbank is a primitive, densely wooded valley with a singing mountain
stream. Six miles above the Blackfeet Highway are a quiet chalet,
a ranger station, and a small grove for auto campers. A spur lane,
leaving the highway at Cutbank Bridge, 4 miles north of the Browning
Wye, brings the autoist to this terminus. A more popular means of
approach is on horseback, over Cutbank Pass from Two Medicine or over
Triple Divide Pass from Red Eagle. Cutbank is a favorite site for
stream fishermen. At the head of the valley above Triple Divide Pass is
the Triple Divide Peak (8,001 feet) which parts its waters between the
three oceans surrounding North America, i. e., its drainage is through
the Missouri-Mississippi system to the Gulf of Mexico (Atlantic),
through the Saskatchewan system to Hudson Bay (Arctic), and through the
Columbia system to the Pacific.


Red Eagle Lake in Red Eagle Valley is reached by trail only from
Cutbank over Triple Divide Pass or from St. Mary Chalets or Sun
Camp via the Many Falls Trail. From the lake rise imposing Split,
Almost-a-Dog, and Red Eagle Mountains. On its sloping forested sides
reposes Red Eagle Camp, which furnishes rest and shelter. It is a
stopping place for travelers on the Inside Trail from Sun Camp or St.
Mary to Glacier Park, and is a favorite spot for fishermen, as large,
gamey, cutthroat trout abound in the waters of the lake. Reached by a
secondary, picturesque trail that winds through magnificent forests,
the head of Red Eagle Creek originates in a broad, grassy area almost
as high as the Continental Divide. This bears Red Eagle Glacier and a
number of small unnamed lakes, and is hemmed in by imposing rock walls
and serrate peaks.


To many people Upper St. Mary Lake is the most sublime of all mountain
lakes of the world. From its foot roll the plains northeastward to
Hudson Bay and the Arctic. Its long and slender surface is deep emerald
green, nestled in a salient in the Front Range, with peaks rising
majestically a mile sheer over three of its sides. These for the most
part possess names of Indian origin: Going-to-the-Sun, Piegan, Little
Chief, Mahtotopa Red Eagle, and Curley Bear.

[Illustration: _Hileman photo._ GOING-TO-THE-SUN CHALETS]

St. Mary Chalet at the lower end of the lake, Going-to-the-Sun Chalets
(Sun Camp) near the upper end, Roes Creek Camp Grounds on the north
shore, and a hikers' camp at the outlet of Baring Creek furnish ample
accommodations for all classes of visitors.

The celebrated Going-to-the-Sun Highway from St. Mary Junction over
Logan Pass to Lake McDonald runs along the north shore of St. Mary Lake
past Roes Creek Camp. Spurs connect the chalets. Trails centering at
Sun Camp lead everywhere: Along the south shore (the Many Falls Trail)
to Red Eagle and St. Mary Chalets; up St. Mary Valley to Blackfeet
Glacier, Gunsight Lake, and over Gunsight Pass to Lake Ellen Wilson,
Sperry Chalets, and Lake McDonald; up Reynolds Creek over Logan Pass
and along the Garden Wall to Granite Park; a spur from the trail up
the same creek turns right and joins at Preston Meadows, high on
Going-to-the-Sun Mountain, with another trail from Sun Camp which leads
up Baring Creek past Sexton Glacier and over Siyeh Pass; from Preston
Meadows over Piegan Pass and down Cataract Canyon to Many Glacier; up
Roes Creek to Roes Basin; up Mount Reynolds to a fire look-out.

A ranger naturalist is stationed at Sun Camp who conducts field trips
daily, lectures each evening in the chalet lobby, and maintains a
cut-flower exhibit there. Small stores are maintained at both chalets;
gasoline is obtainable at each. Scenic twilight launch rides on the
lake are featured when the waters are calm. The ranger-naturalist
generally accompanies these trips to impart interesting information
about the lake and mountains.

Walks and hikes are popular at Sun Camp--to Baring, St. Mary, Florence,
and Virginia Falls; to Roes and Baring Basins; to Sexton and Blackfeet
Glaciers; to the summit of Goat Mountain. Sunrift Gorge, 100 feet north
of the highway at Baring Creek Bridge, should be seen by everyone. It
can be reached by trail from Sun Camp.


For many Swiftcurrent Lake is the hub of points of interest, to be
surpassed by no other spot in the park. From it branch many deep and
interesting glacial valleys. Fishing, boating, swimming, hiking,
photographing, mountain climbing, horseback riding, and nature study
are to be enjoyed at their best here. It is reached by an excellent
spur road from the Blackfeet Highway at Babb, or by trail from Sun
Camp, Granite Park, and Waterton Lakes.

Many Glacier Hotel, the largest hotel in the park, is located on
Swiftcurrent Lake. Just beyond the hotel is an excellent auto camp and
a group of auto housekeeping cabins. The hotel has telegraph and
telephone services, an information desk, curio shop, a grill room and
soda fountain, swimming pool, barber and shoe-shining shop, photograph
shop, a first-aid medical establishment, and other services. A garage
is situated near the hotel. A store with an ample line of campers'
needs, including fresh meat, bread, butter, and eggs, is located in
the auto campground.

Ranger-naturalist service is available at Many Glacier. This includes
daily field walks; a nightly lecture augmented by motion pictures and
slides in the Convention Hall in the basement of the hotel; an evening
campfire entertainment in the auto camp; a cut-flower and geological
exhibit in the hotel lobby and in the auto camp; a small museum on the
opposite shore of the lake from the hotel, on the road leading to the
campground; a self-guiding trail around Swiftcurrent Lake; information
service in the museum; a naturalist-accompanied launch trip on
Swiftcurrent and Josephine Lakes in the afternoon. In addition to this
last-named, several other launch trips are taken daily on these lakes.
This service may be used to shorten hikers' distance to Grinnell Lake
and Glacier.

[Illustration: _Grant photo._ PICTURESQUE GLACIER PARK HOTEL]

Many Glacier is a center for fishermen, as there are a dozen good
fishing lakes in the vicinity. Rainbow, brook, and cutthroat trout
abound in Swiftcurrent, Josephine, and Grinnell Lakes, and the lakes
of the Upper Swiftcurrent Valley. Wall-eyed pike are plentiful in Lake
Sherburne, the only body of water in the park in which these fish are

There are many excellent trails in the Swiftcurrent region. Cracker
Lake, Morning Eagle Falls, Cataract Falls, Grinnell Lake, Grinnell
Glacier, Iceberg Lake, and Ptarmigan Lake are all reached by oiled
horseback trails. Good footpaths lead around Swiftcurrent and Josephine
Lakes to the summit of Mount Altyn and to Appekunny Falls and Cirque.

[Illustration: _Hileman photo._ BIGHORN RAMS ARE AMONG THE MANY

The possibility of seeing and studying wildlife is best in the Many
Glacier region. Except during midsummer, mountain sheep are commonly
seen at close range around the chalets or in the flats above Lake
Sherburne. Throughout summer they are high on the slopes of Mount Altyn
or Henkel. Mountain goats are often seen clinging to the precipitous
Pinnacle Wall on the way to Iceberg Lake, or on Grinnell Mountain while
en route to Grinnell Glacier, or on the trail to Cracker Lake. Black
bears and grizzlies occasionally visit the grounds near the hotel.
Conies are to be heard bleating among the rock slides back of the
ranger station along the trail to Iceberg Lake, or near the footpath
across the lake from the hotel. Early in the morning, or at twilight,
beavers are frequently seen swimming in the lake. Marmots are common in
many valleys near the hotel and auto camp. Deer infrequently visit the
region. Hikers, horseback riders, and rangers have reported seeing such
rare animals as foxes, wolves, and lynxes. Without moving from one's
comfortable chair on the veranda of the hotel one may watch the ospreys
soaring back and forth over the lake in quest of fish. These graceful
and interesting birds have their huge nest on top of a dead tree across
the lake from the hotel. The pair of birds return annually to the same
nest. Beside Swiftcurrent Falls, two families of nesting water ouzels
may be studied at close range.


Though much like Swiftcurrent Valley in topographical make-up, the
Belly River district is much wilder and more heavily forested. It is
accessible by trail only from Many Glacier over Ptarmigan Wall or from
Waterton Lake over Indian Pass. These, with spur trails to Helen and
Margaret Lakes, make up the principal trail system. The Glacier Park
Saddle Horse Co. maintains a comfortable mountain camp on Crossley
Lake, where food and lodging are available at reasonable rates. Fishing
is good in the lakes of the Belly River country. The 33-mile trip from
Many Glacier to Waterton is one of the finest to be taken in the park.
Crossley Lake Camp is approximately midway.

The International Waterton Lake and the northern boundary line of
Glacier National Park mutually bisect each other at right angles. Mount
Cleveland rises 6,300 feet sheer above the head of the lake. Waterton
Lake townsite, Alberta, is located at the foot. It is reached by
highway from Glacier Park, Babb, Cardston, Lethbridge, Calgary, and
points in the Canadian Rockies. The modern Prince of Wales Hotel,
several other hostelries, cabin camps, garages, stores, and other
conveniences are in the settlement. A 12-mile spur highway leads to
Cameron Lake, another international body of water on whose northern
(Canadian) shore is a fine example of a sphagnum bog. Another winding
road leads to a colorful canyon known as "Red Rock."

A picturesque cut-off highway over aspen-covered foothills around the
very base of majestic Chief Mountain, and beginning at a point 4 miles
north of Babb, leads to Waterton Lakes Park in Canada.

Trails lead from the village to principal points of interest in the
Canadian Park as well as up the west shore to the head of the lake at
which are situated the Government ranger station and Goathaunt Camp.
The head of the lake is more readily reached by the daily launch
service from Waterton Village, or over trail from Many Glacier by
Crossley Lake Camp, or by Granite Park and Flattop Mountain. A scenic
trail leads to Rainbow Falls and up Olson Valley to Browns Pass, Bowman
Lake, Hole-in-the-Wall Falls, Boulder Pass, and Kintla Lake in the
northwest corner of the park. There are no hotel or camp accommodations
at Bowman or Kintla Lakes.

[Illustration: _Grant photo._ HORSEBACK PARTY ON BOULDER PASS]

Game is varied and abundant at Waterton Lake. Moose are sometimes seen
in the swampy lakes along Upper Waterton River. Later in the season,
bull elk are heard bugling their challenge through the night. Deer are
seen both at Waterton Lake Village and Goathaunt Camp. Sheep and goats
live on neighboring slopes. One does not have to leave the trail to see
evidence of the work of the beaver. The trail down Waterton Valley has
had to be relocated from time to time, as these industrious workers
flooded the right-of-way. A colony lives at the mouth of the creek
opposite Goathaunt Camp. Otters have been seen in the lakes in the
evening. Marten have bobbed up irregularly at the ranger station.

Bird life is abundant in this district, because of the variety of
cover. Waterfowl are frequently seen on the lake. A pair of ospreys
nest near the mouth of Olson Creek. Pine grosbeaks, warblers, vireos,
kinglets, and smaller birds abound in the hawthorne and cottonwood
trees, and in the alder thickets.


Glacier Park has within its boundary two parallel mountain ranges.
The eastern, or front range, extends from the Canadian boundary almost
without a break to New Mexico. The western, or Livingston Range, rises
at the head of Lake McDonald, becomes the front range beyond the
international line, and runs northwestward to Alaska. Between these two
ranges in the center of the park is a broad swell which carries the
Continental Divide from one to the other. This is Flattop Mountain,
whose groves of trees are open and parklike, wholly unlike the dense
forests of the lowlands with which every park visitor is well

A trail leads south from Waterton over Flattop to the tent camp called
"Fifty Mountain" and to Granite Park, where a comfortable high-mountain
chalet is located. Here is exposed a great mass of lava, which once
welled up from the interior of the earth and spread over the region
which was then the bottom of a sea. The chalets command a fine view of
the majestic grouping of mountains around Logan Pass, of the noble
summits of the Livingston Range, and of systems far to the south and
west of the park. Extending in the near foreground are gentle slopes
covered with sparse clumps of stunted vegetation. In early July open
spaces are gold-carpeted with glacier lillies and bizarrely streaked
with lingering snow patches. Beyond are the deep, heavy forests of
Upper McDonald Valley.

The chalets may also be reached from Sun Camp and Logan Pass over a
trail along the Garden Wall, from the highway 2 miles above the western
switchback by a 4-mile trail, from Avalanche Camp and Lake McDonald
over the McDonald Valley trail, and from Many Glacier by the beautiful
trail over Swiftcurrent Pass. A short distance from the chalets a spur
from the trail to the Waterton Lake leads to Ahern Pass, from which
there is an unexcelled view of Ahern Glacier, Mount Merritt, Helen and
Elizabeth Lakes, and the South Fork of the Belly River. This spur is
only a mile from the chalets. At Fifty Mountain Camp, half-way between
Granite Park and Waterton, a second spur, a quarter of a mile long,
takes one above Flattop Mountain to the summit of the knife-edge. From
here there is a fine panorama of Mount Cleveland, Sue Lake, and Middle
Fork of Belly River.

A foot trail 1 mile long leads from the Granite Park chalet to the
summit of Swiftcurrent Mountain upon which a fire lookout is located.
For the small amount of effort required to make this ascent of 1,000
feet, no more liberal reward of mountain scenery could be possible.
Another foot trail leads from the chalets to the rim of the Garden
Wall, from which there are splendid views of Grinnell Glacier and the
Swiftcurrent region.

Animal life is varied and easily studied at Granite Park. Bear and deer
are common in this section. Mountain goats are frequently seen above
Flattop Mountain or near Ahern Pass. Mountain sheep graze on the slopes
of the Garden Wall. Ptarmigan should be looked for, especially above
Swiftcurrent Pass.

Granite Park is a paradise for lovers of alpine flowers. On the Garden
Wall, the connoisseur should seek for the rare, heavenly blue alpine
columbine. Here are expanses of dryads, globe flowers, alpine firewood,
and a wealth of others. Early July is the best time for floral beauty.


Logan Pass lies between the headwaters of Logan and Reynolds Creeks. It
crosses the Continental Divide and carries the Going-to-the-Sun Highway
from Lake McDonald to Upper St. Mary Lake and the trail from Sun Camp
to Granite Park.

Though there are no overnight stopping places on the pass, its
accessibility by automobile makes it a starting place for several
delightful walks, chiefly to Hidden Lake, which occupies a basin only
recently evacuated by ice, and tiny Clements Glacier, which sends its
water to both the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, and which has been termed
"Museum Glacier" because it encompasses in its few hundred acres of
surficial area all of the principal features of a major glacier.

Ranger-naturalist services, including short field trips, are available
daily throughout summer on the pass.


Avalanche auto camp is located in a grove of cedars and cottonwoods on
a picturesque flat at the mouth of Avalanche Creek. It is equipped with
modern toilets, showers, and laundry, but has no stores or gasoline
station. A Government ranger naturalist and a camp tender serve the
camp, which is on Going-to-the-Sun Highway.

Near the upper end of the camp, Avalanche Creek has cut a deep, narrow
gorge through brilliant red argillite. It is filled with potholes
scoured out by stones swirled in the foaming torrent. Drooping
hemlocks, festooned with goatsbeard lichen, keep the spot in cool,
somber gloom even on the hottest midday. This gorge is the home of the
water ouzel, which is often seen flying back and forth in the spray.

From the gorge, a self-guiding trail leads 2 miles to Avalanche Basin,
a semicircular amphitheater with walls over 2,000 feet high over which
plunge a half dozen snowy waterfalls. A dense forest and calm lake
repose on the floor of the cirque. Fishing is good in the lake. The
narrow canyon through which the trail leads from the camp offers fine
views of Heaven's Peak, Mount Cannon, Bearhat Mountain, Gunsight
Mountain with the cirque bearing Sperry Glacier, and the canyon in
which Hidden Lake reposes. In the early season the walls of the basin
and canyon are draped with countless waterfalls. The sides of Cannon
and Bearhat offer one of the most opportune places for seeing mountain
goats. In late season huckleberries are abundant.

A ranger naturalist conducts an entertainment every evening in the
campfire circle in the auto camp.


Lake McDonald is the largest lake in the park, being 10 miles long and
a mile wide. Its shores are heavily forested with cedar, hemlock,
white pine, and larch. At its head, impressive, rocky summits rise to
elevations 6,000 feet above its waters. The Going-to-the-Sun Highway
runs along its southeastern shore. Its outlet is 2 miles above Belton

Lake McDonald Hotel is on the highway near the upper end of the lake.
It has a store for general supplies, a gasoline station, curio shop,
and all modern conveniences. Its dining room, facing the lake, is one
of the most appropriate and charming in the park. Its lobby is filled
with well-mounted animals and birds of the region. It is the focal
point for trails to Sperry Chalet and Gunsight Pass, Upper McDonald
Valley, the summit of Mount Brown, and Arrow Lake. There is good
fishing in Arrow and Snyder Lakes.

Private cabin camps are located at the head and foot of the lake. A
general store and gasoline filling station are located at the foot of
the lake. A well-equipped public auto campground is at Sprague Creek,
near Lake McDonald Hotel.

Ranger-naturalist services are available at the hotel. Lectures on
popular natural history are delivered each evening in the hotel lobby
and at the Sprague Creek campfire circle. A cut wild-flower exhibit is
also placed in the hotel. Self-guiding trails lead to Fish and Johns
Lakes, short distances from the hotel.


Sperry Chalets are located in a picturesque high-mountain cirque,
with precipitous, highly colored Edwards, Gunsight, and Lincoln Peaks
hemming it in on three sides. It is reached by trail only from Lake
McDonald and from Sun Camp via Gunsight and Lincoln Passes.

Mountain climbing, exploring Sperry Glacier, fishing in nearby Lake
Ellen Wilson, and meeting mountain goats are the chief diversions of
this entrancing spot, located at timberline. During late afternoons
goats are to be seen perched against the cirque walls. Practically
every evening they start down for the chalets, to reach there after
midnight and fill expectant visitors with joy. Besides these, deer,
marmots, conies, and Clark nutcrackers and other wildlife are abundant.


Belton, on the Great Northern Railway, is the entrance to the west
side of the park. It has stores, hotel, chalet, and a cabin camp to
accommodate the visitor.

[Illustration: _Hileman photo._ ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT]



The waters of Glacier National Park abound in fish. All popular species
of trout have been planted. They have thrived owing to the abundant
natural fish foods and the nearly constant temperature of the waters
the year around. Cutthroat, eastern brook, and rainbow, are the most
abundant. Fly fishing is the greatest sport, but spinners and the
ever-abundant grasshopper may be used successfully by those not skilled
in the use of the fly. In the larger lakes a Mackinaw or Dolly Varden
weighing 40 pounds is a possibility. All fishing must be in conformity
with the park regulations.

[Illustration: _Hileman photo._ FISHING THE RAPIDS]

_Two Medicine Chalets._--Two Medicine Lake has become well known for
its eastern brook and rainbow trout. Good fishing is also found in the
Two Medicine River below Trick Falls. This lake and stream are probably
better stocked than any in the park, because of the proximity to the
hatchery at the eastern entrance.

_Cut Bank Chalets._--This camp is located on the banks of the North
Fork of Cut Bank Creek, which may be fished both ways from the camp for
a distance of from 3 to 5 miles. Cutthroat and eastern brook inhabit
this section, and the fisherman who takes the center of the stream and
fishes with skill is sure of a well-filled creel. The South Fork at Cut
Bank Creek is a wild little stream, well stocked, but little known.

_St. Mary Chalets._--St. Mary Lake is the home of the Mackinaw trout,
as well as cutthroat and rainbow trout. Numerous streams empty into
this lake from which a goodly toll may be taken with fly or spinner.
Red Eagle Lake, easily reached by trail from St. Mary Chalets, is one
of the best fishing spots in the park. There is also good fishing in
Red Eagle Creek.

_Going-to-the-Sun Chalets._--The lakes in Roes Creek Basin will furnish
excellent sport. For the large Mackinaw trout the upper end of St. Mary
Lake is a good place. Gunsight Lake, 9 miles distant, is well stocked
with rainbow trout.

_Many Glacier Hotel._--Lake Sherburne contains pike, Lake Superior
whitefish, and rainbow and cutthroat trout. Pike, and often a
cutthroat, are readily taken with the troll. Swiftcurrent River affords
good stream fishing for the fly caster. Swiftcurrent, Grinnell,
Josephine, and Ptarmigan Lakes are famous for cutthroat, eastern brook,
and rainbow trout. The small lakes along the Swiftcurrent Pass Trail
abound in eastern brook and rainbow trout. Cracker Lake is always ready
to fill the creel with a small black-spotted trout.

The North and South Forks of Kennedy Creek are excellent for fishing.
Cutthroats are abundant in them and in Slide Lake. Lower Kennedy Lake
on the South Fork abounds in grayling.

_Lake McDonald Hotel._--Fishing in Lake McDonald is good but there is
unusually good trout fishing in Fish Lake (2 miles), Avalanche Lake (9
miles), Snyder Lake (5 miles), and Lincoln Lake (11 miles). Trout Lake
(7 miles) and Arrow Lake (11 miles), as well as McDonald Creek, also
furnish a good day's sport.

There is a good automobile road to within 3 miles of Avalanche Lake.

_Red Eagle Tent Camp._--Red Eagle Lake and Red Eagle Creek, both above
and below the lake, abound in large cutthroat trout, some attaining the
weight of 7 pounds.

_Crossley Lake Tent Camp._--Crossley and other lakes on the Middle Fork
of the Belly River furnish excellent sport. Cutthroat and Mackinaw
trout are found here. Large rainbow trout and grayling abound in
Elizabeth Lake. In the Belly River proper, rainbow and cutthroat trout
and grayling are plentiful.

_Goathaunt Tent Camp._--Large Mackinaw and cutthroat trout are found in
Waterton Lake; eastern brook trout are numerous in Waterton River; Lake
Francis on Olson Creek abounds in rainbow trout.


The park is a paradise for hikers and mountain climbers. There are
numerous places of interest near all hotels and chalets which can be
visited by easy walks. Or trips can be made to occupy one or more days,
stops being planned at various hostelries or camping sites en route.

Space does not permit giving detailed information regarding points
of interest along the trails, but this can be secured from Elrod's
Guidebook and the United States topographic map. Directional signs are
posted at all trail junctions. There is not the slightest danger of
hikers getting lost if they stay on the trails. It is safe to travel
any of these trails alone. Unless wild animals in the park are molested
or are protecting their young they never attack human beings.

Hikers should secure a topographic map of the park which shows all
streams, lakes, glaciers, mountains, and other principal features in
their proper positions. With a little practice it can be read easily.
The official map can be purchased for 25 cents at the superintendent's
office at Belton, the administration office at Glacier Park Station,
the hotels, and all registration stations at the park entrances.

The trip should not be ruined by attempting too much. An average of 2
or 3 miles per hour is good hiking time in the rough park country. One
thousand feet of climb per hour is satisfactory progress over average
trails. In this rugged country hikes of 15 miles or more should be
attempted only by those who are accustomed to long, hard trips. An
attempt at mountain climbing or "stunts" should not be made alone
unless one is thoroughly acquainted with the nature of Glacier's
mountains and weather. Too often "stunts" result in serious body
injuries, or even death, as well as much arduous work for rangers and
others. Hikers should consult a ranger naturalist or information ranger
before venturing on a hazardous, novel, or new undertaking. No one but
an experienced mountaineer should attempt to spend a night in the open.
Shelter cabins, for free use by parties overtaken by a storm, have been
erected by the Government on Indian, Piegan, and Gunsight Passes. They
are equipped with flagstone floors, stoves, and a limited supply of
fuel wood. Mountain etiquette demands that they not be left in a
disorderly state, that no more fuel be consumed than is absolutely
necessary, and that their privileges and advantages not be abused.

Shelter is not available in some of the most beautiful sections of the
park. To those who are sufficiently sturdy to pack blankets, cooking
utensils, and provisions, and are sufficiently versed in woodcraft
to take care of themselves overnight, Glacier presents wonderful
opportunities. Provisions can be purchased at Glacier Park Station,
Belton, and at any hotel or chalet in the park. For fire prevention,
it is unlawful to build campfires (or fires of any kind) except at
designated places. The location of these sites can be ascertained from
park rangers. Unless one is an experienced mountaineer and thoroughly
familiar with the park, it is unwise to go far from the regular trails
alone. He should not scorn the services of a guide on such trips.
_Above all, he should not attempt to hike across country from one trail
to another._ The many sheer cliffs make this extremely dangerous.

If one is a veteran mountaineer and plans to climb peaks or explore
trackless country, he should take the precaution to leave an outline of
his plans at his hotel, chalet, or camp, giving especially the time he
expects to return or reach his next stopping place.

At each ranger station, hotel, chalet, and permanent camp in the park
will be found a "Hiker's Register" book. Everyone is urged for his own
protection to make use of these registers, entering briefly his name,
home address, time of departure, plans, and probability of taking side
trips or of changing plans. The hotel clerk should be informed of these
at the time of departure. If a ranger is not there, this information
should be entered in the register which will be found near the door
outside the building, so that when the ranger returns he can report
it to the next station or to headquarters. These precautions are to
protect the park visitor. In case of injury or loss, rangers will
immediately investigate.

In planning hiking trips, the following should also be taken into
consideration: At higher elevations one sunburns easily and painfully
because of the rarity of the atmosphere and intense brightness of the
sun. Hikers should include in their kits amber goggles and cold cream
for glacier and high mountain trips.

Footwear is most important. A hike should not be started with shoes
or boots that have not been thoroughly broken in. Because feet swell
greatly on a long trip, hiking shoes should be at least a half size
larger than street shoes. They need not be heavy, awkward shoes--in
fact, light shoes are much easier on the feet. Most people are made
uncomfortable by high-top boots or shoes which retard the circulation
of the calves. Six-or eight-inch tops are sufficient. Soles should be
flexible, preferably of some composition which is not slippery when
wet. Crepe soles are excellent for mountain climbing and for fishing.
Hobnailed shoes are necessary only for grassy slopes or cross-country
work. Hungarian nails are much to be preferred to hobs, and only a
light studding of soles and heels is most effective. White silk socks
should be worn next to the feet, a pair of heavy wool (German) socks
over them. Soaking the feet daily in salt or alum solution toughens
them. On a hike the feet should be bathed in cold water whenever

Hiking trips with ranger naturalists are described under that service.
There are many interesting short side trips from all hotels, chalets,
and camps. Short self-guiding trails upon which interesting objects
of natural history are fittingly labeled have been established at the
following places:

1. Around Swiftcurrent Lake (2-1/2 miles).

2. From Lake McDonald Hotel to Fish Lake (2 miles).

3. From Lake McDonald Hotel to Johns Lake (2 miles).

4. From Avalanche Campground to Avalanche Lake (2 miles).

Lunches may be ordered from hotels and chalets the night before a trip.
If an early departure is planned, it should be so stated upon ordering
the lunch.


(Figures indicate altitude in feet above sea level)

Glacier Park Hotel (4,796) to Two Medicine Chalets (5,175) via Mount
Henry Trail (7,500). Distance, 11 miles.

Two Medicine Chalets to Cut Bank Chalets (5,100) via Cut Bank Pass
(7,600), 17-1/2 miles.

Cut Bank Chalets via Triple Divide Pass (7,400) and Triple Divide Peak
(8,001) to Red Eagle Camp on Red Eagle Lake (4,702), 16 miles.

Red Eagle Camp to St. Mary Chalets (4,500), 9 miles.

The Many Falls Trail: Red Eagle Camp via the south shore of St. Mary
Lake and Virginia Falls to Going-to-the-Sun Chalets (4,500), 11-1/2

The 2-day trip, St. Mary Chalets to Red Eagle Camp (7 miles) and thence
over Many Falls Trail to Going-to-the-Sun Chalets, is excellent.

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets via Sunrift Gorge (4,800), Siyeh (8,100), and
Piegan (7,800) Passes to Many Glacier Hotel (4,861), 17-1/2 miles.

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets via Reynolds Creek, Preston Park, and Piegan
Pass to Many Glacier Hotel, 19 miles.

Many Glacier Hotel to Granite Park Chalets (6,600) via Swiftcurrent
Pass (7,176), 9 miles.

Granite Park Chalets to Lake McDonald Hotel (3,167) via McDonald Creek,
18 miles.

Granite Park Chalets (6,600) via Logan Pass (6,654) to Going-to-the-Sun
Chalets (4,500), 18 miles.

Granite Park Chalets to the Going-to-the-Sun Highway (5,200) meeting it
2 miles above the switchback, 4 miles.

Granite Park Chalets to Goathaunt Camp at Waterton Lake (4,200) via
Flattop Mountain (6,500), 20 miles. A short side trail leads to Ahern
Pass, from which is obtained a splendid view of the valley of the South
Fork of Belly River. Another from Flattop Mountain to the Summit of the
Continental Divide overlooks Sue Lake and the Middle Fork of the Belly
River. Fifty Mountain Camp is midway between Granite Park and Goathaunt

Goathaunt Camp to Browns Pass (6,450), Boulder Pass (8,200), and
Hole-in-the-Wall Falls, 15 miles. One of the most scenic trips in the
park. From Boulder Pass a trail leads to Kintla Lake; from Browns Pass
a trail to Bowman Lake. A secondary road leads from Kintla to Bowman
Lakes, 20 miles.

Goathaunt Camp via Indian Pass (7,400) to Crossley Lake Camp (4,855),
18 miles.

Crossley Lake Camp to Many Glacier Hotel (4,861) via the celebrated
Ptarmigan Trail which includes a 183-foot tunnel through Ptarmigan
Wall, 17 miles.

Lake McDonald Hotel to Avalanche Camp (3,400), 6-1/2 miles.

Avalanche Camp to Avalanche Lake (3,885), 2 miles.

Lake McDonald Hotel to Sperry Chalets (6,500), 6 miles. From Sperry
Chalets to Sperry Glacier, 2-1/2 miles.

Sperry Chalets to Going-to-the-Sun Chalets (4,500) via Lincoln (7,000)
and Gunsight (6,900) Passes, 13 miles.


While it is possible for visitors to indulge in lake bathing, it will
be found that the water of the lakes, usually just from the melting
glaciers, is uncomfortably cold, and for this reason is not enjoyed
except by the most hardy. Swimming pools and plunges with warmed water
are provided at Glacier Park Hotel and Many Glacier Hotel.


The traveler who is not in a hurry may camp out in the magnificent
wilderness of the park, carrying equipment in his automobile and
staying as long as he wishes in any of the free Government campgrounds,
or he may carry his bed and provisions on his back. With a competent
guide and a complete camping outfit the park visitor may set forth upon
the trails to wander at will. On such trips one may venture far afield,
explore glaciers, climb divides for extraordinary views, linger for the
best fishing, or spend idle days in spots of inspirational beauty.

The Glacier Park Saddle Horse Co. provides excellent small sleeping
tents and a complete outfitting of comforts for pack trips.

There are several important points to be remembered on such trips:

A Government topographic map should be procured and consulted

Extreme care should be taken about fires. No fire should be left even
for a few minutes unless it is _entirely extinguished_. It should be
_drenched completely with water_.


Glacier offers exceptional views to delight the photographer. While
the scenic attractions are most commonly photographed, the animals, the
flowers, and the picturesque Blackfeet Indians provide interesting
subjects. Photographic laboratories are maintained at Many Glacier,
Lake McDonald, and Glacier Park Hotels, and at Belton village. Expert
information regarding exposures and settings is also available at
these places.


The Blackfeet Highway, lying along the east side of the park, is an
improved highway, leading from Glacier Park Station to the Canadian
line via Babb, Mont., and from the line to Waterton Lakes Park and
other Canadian points via Cardston, Alberta. There is also an improved
picturesque cut-off highway, which branches from this road at Kennedy
Creek Junction, 4 miles north of Babb, leading around the base of Chief
Mountain to Waterton Lakes Park. Improved highways lead from the
Blackfeet Highway to Two Medicine Lake, the Cutbank Chalets, and Many
Glacier Hotel on Swiftcurrent Lake.

The Theodore Roosevelt Highway (US 2) follows the southern boundary of
the park from Glacier Park Station to Belton, a distance of 58 miles,
and a trip over this highway affords views of excellent scenery.

The spectacular Going-to-the-Sun Highway, well known as one of the
outstanding scenic roadways of the world, links the east and west sides
of the park, crossing the Continental Divide through Logan Pass at an
altitude of 6,654 feet, and connects with the Blackfeet Highway at St.
Marys Junction, a distance of 51 miles from Belton. East of the divide
an improved spur road leads to Going-to-the-Sun Chalets on famous St.
Marys Lake. On the west side at Apgar, 2 miles above Belton, a narrow
dirt road follows the north fork of the Flathead River to Bowman and
Kintla Lakes.


As a rule tourists are inclined to carry too much. There are no
unnecessary formalities and no need for formal clothes in Glacier Park,
where guests are expected to relax from everyday affairs of living. An
inexpensive and simple outfit is required--old clothes and stout shoes
are the rule. These, together with toilet articles, can be wrapped into
a compact bundle and put into a haversack or bag. For saddle trips,
hiking, or idling, both men and women wear riding breeches for greater
comfort and freedom. Golf knickers are also satisfactory. "Shorts",
such as are worn by Boy Scouts, are not generally feasible in this
park. Ordinary cotton khaki breeches will do, although woolen ones are
preferable; lightweight woolen underwear and overshirt are advised
because of rapid changes of temperature. A sweater or woolen mackinaw
jacket, 1 or 2 pairs of cotton gloves, and a raincoat are generally
serviceable. Waterproof slickers are furnished free with saddle horses.

Supplies and essential articles of clothing of good quality, including
boots, shoes, leggings, socks, haversacks, shirts, slickers, blankets,
camping equipment, and provisions, may be purchased at well-stocked
commissaries at Glacier Park, Many Glacier, and Lake McDonald Hotels
and at the camp store at Many Glacier campground. The Glacier Park Hotel
Co., which operates these commissaries, also makes a practice of
renting, at a nominal figure, riding outfits, mackinaw coats, and other
overgarments. Stores carrying a similar general line of articles most
useful in making park trips are located at Belton and at Glacier Park
village. There is a store carrying provisions, cigars, tobacco, and
fishermen's supplies at the foot of Lake McDonald.


The Glacier Park Hotel Co., under franchise from the Department of the
Interior, operates the hotel and chalet system in the park and the
Belton Chalets. This system includes the Glacier Park Hotel at Glacier
Park Station, an imposing structure built of massive logs, nearly as
long as the Capitol at Washington, accommodating 400 guests; the Many
Glacier Hotel on Swiftcurrent Lake, accommodating over 500 guests; and
the Lake McDonald Hotel on Lake McDonald, with capacity for 100 guests.

The chalet groups are from 10 to 18 miles apart, but within hiking
distance of one another or of the hotels, and provide excellent
accommodations for trail tourists. They are located at Two Medicine,
Cutbank, St. Mary, Sun Camp, Granite Park, Sperry, and Belton. In
addition to these, the Glacier Park Saddle Horse Co. maintains tent
camps at Red Eagle Lake, Crossley Lake, Goathaunt, and Fifty Mountain.

There are also a few hotels and camps located on the west side, in
or adjacent to the park, on private lands. The National Park Service
exercises no control over their rates and operations. Private tourist
cabins and hotels are operated outside the park at Glacier Park
Station, Belton, St. Mary, Babb, and Browning Junction.


The Glacier Park, Many Glacier, and Lake McDonald Hotels are open from
June 15 to September 15. The American-plan rates range from $6.50 a day
for a room, without bath, to $14 a day for de luxe accommodations for
one. Rooms may also be obtained on the European plan. Breakfast and
lunch cost $1 each; dinner, $1.50. Children under 8 are charged half
rates, and a discount of 10 percent is allowed for stays of a week or
longer at any one hotel. Cabins are obtainable at Lake McDonald Hotel
at a rate of $5 each, American plan, for 3 persons in 1 room; 2 persons
in room, $5.50 each; 1 person, $6.50.

Chalets operated during 1937 will be open from June 15 to September 15,
except Sperry and Granite Park, which will open July I and close
September 1. Minimum rates are computed on a basis of $4.50 a day per
person, special accommodations ranging as high as $7.50. A 10-percent
discount is allowed for stays of a week or more at any one chalet
group. Tent camp rates are $5 per day, per person, American plan.

[Illustration: _Hileman photo._ HOUSEKEEPING CABINS AT MANY GLACIER

The Swiftcurrent auto cabins are located a little more than a mile from
Many Glacier Hotel. Here a 2-room cabin for 1 or 2 persons costs $2.50
a day; 3 or 4 persons in a 3-room cabin, $4 a day. Blankets and linen
may be rented by the day. The 10 percent discount given at the hotels
and chalets also applies to the housekeeping cabins.


Glacier National Park has the distinction of being the foremost trail
park. More saddle horses are used than in any other park or like
recreational region in this country. The Glacier Park Saddle Horse Co.
has available during the season about 800 saddle animals. There are
nearly 900 miles of trails in this park.

At Glacier Park, Many Glacier, and Lake McDonald Hotels,
Going-to-the-Sun Chalets, and Goathaunt Tent Camp, horses may be
engaged or released for trips in the park, including camping trips.
At Two Medicine Chalets horses may be engaged or released for local
rides only.

A wonderful 3-day excursion is afforded by the Logan Pass Triangle
trip. This trip may be started at either the Many Glacier Hotel and
Chalets or Going-to-the-Sun Chalets. Beginning at Many Glacier Hotel,
the first day's route follows up Swiftcurrent Pass to Granite Park
Chalets, where luncheon is served and the overnight stop made. The
second day the Garden Wall Trail to Logan Pass is followed, with a box
luncheon on the way, and Going-to-the-Sun Chalets is reached in late
afternoon in time for dinner. The return to Many Glacier Hotel is made
the third day via Piegan Pass, Grinnell Lake, and Josephine Lake.

The South Circle trip requires 5 days to complete and may be
started either from Many Glacier, Going-to-the-Sun Chalets, or Lake
McDonald Hotel on Lake McDonald. Three of the principal passes are
traversed--Swiftcurrent, Gunsight, and Piegan. The North Circle trip is
also a 5-day tour via tent camps, crossing Swiftcurrent Pass, Indian
Pass, and Ptarmigan Wall. The trip starts from Many Glacier Hotel,
Going-to-the-Sun Chalets, or Lake McDonald Hotel.

There is a 4-day inside trail trip from Glacier Park Hotel via Two
Medicine, Cut Bank, and Red Eagle to Sun Camp.

Many delightful specially scheduled trips of 1 and 2 days' duration are
also available.

Information about saddle-horse trips may be obtained at any of the
hotels or other points of concentration. Practically any type of
trip desired can be arranged, from short excursions to special points
of interest, such as the half-day trip from Glacier Park Hotel to
Forty-Mile Creek for $3.50, to pack trips of unlimited duration; the
larger the party, the cheaper the rates. For minimum parties of 3
persons, the average rate for 1-day trips is $5 or $6. For parties of 3
or more, the all-expense Fifty Mountain Trail trip of 3 days is $28.50;
the 5-day North Circle trip, $50.50. These are specifically mentioned
merely to give an idea of the cost; many other fine trips are available
at rates computed on a similar basis.

Special arrangements can be made for private camping parties making a
trip of 10 days or more at rates amounting to $11 a day each for groups
of 7 or more; $12 a day each for 6 persons; $13 for 5; $15 for 4; $16
for 3; $18 for 2; and $27 for 1 person. A guide and cook, are furnished
for a party of one or more persons, and extra helpers are added, if the
number of persons require it. Private trips of less than 10 days may
also be arranged.

Experienced riders may rent horses for use on the floor of the valleys
at $1 an hour, $3 for 4 hours, and $5 for 8 hours.


The Glacier Park Transport Co. and the Glacier Park Hotel Co. have
jointly arranged some very attractive all-expense tours of 1, 2, 3, and
4 days' duration. These trips are priced reasonably and include auto
fare, meals, and hotel lodgings. The trips begin at Glacier Park Station
for west-bound passengers and at Belton for east-bound passengers and
are made daily during the season.


_Trip No. 1._--Logan Pass Detour.--Glacier Park Hotel to Going-to-the-Sun
Chalets, Lake McDonald Hotel, and Belton, Mont. Leave Glacier Park
Hotel at 2:30 p.m.; arrive Belton the next day, 2:05 p.m. All-expense
rate, $15.50.

_Trip No. 2._--Glacier Park Hotel to Many Glacier Hotel, Going-to-the-Sun
Chalets, Lake McDonald Hotel, and Belton. Leave Glacier Park Hotel 2:30
p.m.; arrive Belton on third day, 2:05 p.m. All-expense rate, $27.75.

_Trip No. 3._--Glacier Park Hotel to Two Medicine Lake, Many Glacier
Hotel, Going-to-the-Sun Chalets, Lake McDonald, and Belton. Leave
Glacier Park Hotel 2 p.m.; arrive Belton on fourth day, 2:05 p.m.
All-expense rate, $38.

_Trip No. 4._--Same as Trip No. 3, except an extra day at Many Glacier
Hotel, and the all-expense rate is $44.50.

All west-bound trips are scheduled to arrive at Belton at 2:05 p.m.,
in time for the Empire Builder, west. The trips east bound all begin
at Belton and close at Glacier Park Station, in time for the Empire
Builder, east. The rates for these trips are:

No. 1--$16.50 No. 2--$30.25 No. 3--$36.75 No. 4--$45.00.

All trips, both east and west, are routed over the spectacular
Going-to-the-Sun Highway and Logan Pass.


The Glacier Park Transport Co. is operated in the park under franchise
from the Department of the Interior. Daily stage service in each
direction is maintained between Glacier Park Hotel and St. Mary
Chalets, Many Glacier Hotel and Chalets, Waterton, and Going-to-the-Sun
Chalets, Lake McDonald Hotel, and Belton Station. A daily bus trip is
made from Glacier Park Hotel to Two Medicine Chalets on Two Medicine
Lake, allowing sufficient time at the lake to fish or make the launch
trip. Regular motorbus service is maintained between Glacier Park Hotel
and Belton. On the west side daily bus service is maintained between
Belton, the foot of Lake McDonald, and the Lake McDonald Hotel at the
head of Lake McDonald, and between this hotel and Logan Pass on the
Continental Divide.

The transportation company and launch companies allow each passenger
to carry with him 25 pounds of hand baggage without extra charge, which
is usually sufficient for shorter trips. Trunks are forwarded at
extra expense. Arrangements can be made for caring for trunks left at
entrances during tour of park or rechecking them for passengers who
enter at one side and leave by the other. Storage charges on baggage at
Glacier Park Station and at Belton are waived while tourists are making
park trips.


The Glacier Park Hotel Co. operates launch service on Waterton Lake
between Goathaunt Camp in Glacier Park, and the Waterton Lake townsite
in Alberta, Canada, crossing the international boundary line about
half-way up the lake. One-way, the fare is 75 cents; round trip, $1.50.

Twilight launch rides on St. Mary and McDonald Lakes are featured
during fair weather.

The J. W. Swanson Boat Co. operates launch service on beautiful
Two Medicine Lake, at a charge of 75 cents each for four or more
passengers. For a smaller number the minimum charge for the trip around
the lake is $3. Trips around Josephine and Swiftcurrent Lakes may be
made for $1 each. The Swanson Co. also rents rowboats for 50 cents an
hour; $2.50 a day, or $15 a week for use on the following lakes: Two
Medicine, St. Mary, Swiftcurrent, Josephine, and McDonald. Outboard
motors may also be rented.

This booklet is issued once a year and the rates mentioned herein may
have changed slightly since issuance, but the latest rates approved by
the Secretary of the Interior are on file with the superintendent and
the park operators.


The representative of the National Park Service in immediate charge of
the park is the superintendent, E. T. Scoyen, Belton, Mont.

William H. Lindsay is United States commissioner for the park and holds
court in all cases involving violations of park regulations.


A daily schedule of popular guided trips afield, all-day hikes, boat
trips, campfire entertainments, and illustrated lectures is maintained
at Many Glacier, Going-to-the-Sun, Two Medicine, Lake McDonald, Sprague
Creek, and Avalanche Auto Campgrounds, the leading tourist centers.
Naturalists who conduct local field trips and walks to nearby Hidden
Lake and Clements Glacier are stationed at Logan Pass daily from 9 to 4.

A small museum dealing with popular local natural history subjects is
maintained throughout July and August at Many Glacier Ranger Station.
Cut-flower exhibits are installed at various hotels and chalets, and an
exhibit of rock specimens is in the lobby of Many Glacier Hotel.

Requests from special parties desiring ranger naturalist assistance
are given every consideration. All park visitors are urged to avail
themselves of the services of the naturalists who are there to assist
them in learning of the untold wonders that abound everywhere in the
park. Acceptance of gratuities for this free service is strictly

For complete information on naturalist schedules and types of service
offered consult the free pamphlet, Ranger-Naturalist Service, Glacier
National Park.


For the use of the motoring public a system of free automobile
campgrounds has been developed on both sides of the park. On the east
side, these camps are located at Two Medicine, Cutbank, Roes Creek, and
Many Glacier. The west side camps are at Bowman Lake, Fish Creek,
Avalanche Creek, and Lake McDonald. Pure water, firewood, cookstoves,
and sanitary facilities are available, but campers must bring their own


The United States post offices are located at Glacier Park, Mont.,
Belton, Mont., Polebridge, Mont., and (during summer season) Lake
McDonald, Mont., at Lake McDonald Hotel, and Apgar, at the foot of Lake
McDonald. Mail for park visitors should include in the address the name
of the stopping place as well as the post office.


Telegraph and express service is available at all points of concentration.

Qualified nurses are in attendance at the hotels and both sides of the
park, and there is a resident physician at Glacier Park Hotel.


The mountains of Glacier National Park are made up of many layers of
limestone and other rocks formed from sediments deposited under water.
The rocks show ripple marks which were made by waves when the rock
material was soft sand and mud. Raindrop impressions and sun cracks
show that the mud from time to time was exposed to rains and the drying
action of the air. These facts indicate that the area now known as
"Glacier National Park" was once covered by a shallow sea. At intervals
muds were laid down which later became consolidated into rocks known as
"shales" and "argillites." Limy or calcareous muds were changed into
limestone. The geologist estimates that these depositions were made
several hundred million years ago.

In the plains area east of the mountains are other lime and mud
formations. These are younger and softer than the rocks which make
up the mountains but were undoubtedly formed under much the same
conditions. These contain much higher forms of life, such as fish
and shells.

When originally laid down all these layers must have been nearly
horizontal, just as they are deposited today in bodies of standing
water all over the world. Then came a time when the sea slowly but
permanently withdrew from the area by an uplift of the land, which
since that time has been continuously above sea level. This uplift, one
of the greatest in the history of the region, marks the beginning of
a long period of erosion which has carved the mountains of Glacier
National Park.

The geologist observes that the rock layers are no longer in the
horizontal position in which they were laid down. There are folds
in the rocks and many breaks or faults cutting across the layers.
Furthermore, the oldest rocks in the region are found to be resting on
the younger rocks of the adjacent plains. One of the best examples of
this is to be seen at Chief Mountain where the ancient limestone rests
directly on the young shale below (fig. 1). The same relationship is
visible in Cutbank, St. Mary, and Swiftcurrent Valleys. In these areas,
however, the exact contact is not always so easy to locate principally
because of the debris of weathered rocks that have buried them. What
has happened? How did this peculiar relationship come about? The
answers to these questions unravel one of the grandest stories in earth
history. Forces deep in the earth slowly gathered energy until finally
the stress became so great that the rocky crust began to move.

The probable results of the movement in the crust of the earth are
shown in the diagram (fig. 2). Section A represents a cross section
of the Glacier Park region, as it most likely appeared, immediately
following the long period of sedimentation. The rock strata are
horizontal. Section B shows the same region after the rock layers have
been slightly wrinkled due to the forces from the southwest, which,
although slightly relieved by the bending, still persisted and the
folds were greatly enlarged as shown in section C. At this stage the
folds reached their breaking limit, and the strata broke in a number of
places as indicated by dotted lines in the diagram. As a result of this
fracturing, the rocks on the west side of the folds were pushed upward
and over the rocks on the east, as shown in section D. The mountain
rocks (represented by patterns of cross lines) were shoved over the
rocks of the plains (represented in white), producing what is known as
an "overthrust fault." It has been estimated that the rocks have moved
a distance of at least 15 miles.

As the rocks were thrust northeastward and upward they made a greatly
elevated region, but did not, however, at any time project into the
air, as indicated in section D, because as the rocky mass was being
uplifted, streams were wearing it away and cutting deep canyons in its
upland portion. The rocks of the mountains, owing to their resistant
character, are not worn away as rapidly as the plains formations with
the result that great thicknesses of limestone and argillite tower
above the plains. Where the older, more massive strata overlie the
soft rocks the mountains are terminated by precipitous walls as
shown in section E. This explains the absence of foothills that is
so conspicuous a feature of this mountain front and one in which it
differs from most other ranges.

While the region now known as "Glacier National Park" was being
uplifted and faulted, the streams were continually at work. The sand
and other abrasive material being swept along on the beds of the
streams slowly wore away much of the rock. The uplifting gave the
streams life and they consequently cut deep valleys into the mountain
area. They cut farther and farther back into the mountain mass until
they dissected it, leaving instead of an upland plateau a region of
ridges and sharp peaks. This erosional process which has carved the
mountains of Glacier Park has produced most of the mountains of the

Following their early erosional history, there came a period of much
colder climate during which time heavy snows fell and large ice fields
were formed throughout the mountain region. At the same time huge
continental ice sheets formed in Canada and also in northern Europe.
This period, during which glaciers, sometimes over a mile thick,
covered many parts of the world including all of Canada and New England
and much of North Central United States, is known as the "Ice Age."
Such a tremendous covering of ice had an enduring and pronounced effect
upon the relief of the country.

[Illustration: Figure 1.--_Sketch showing structure of Chief Mountain.
The ancient limestone above is not appreciably altered, but the lower
part is broken up by many oblique thrust faults. The entire mountain
is composed of ancient rocks and rests on shale of a very much younger
age. After Bailey Willis._]

[Illustration: Figure 2.--_The Lewis overthrust. Diagram illustrating
how pressure from the northwest affected the rocks of the Glacier Park

[Illustration: Figure 3.--_A, An irregular V-shaped valley produced
by stream erosion; B, the same valley after it has been occupied by
a glacier. Note the smooth topography and U-shaped form._]

In Glacier National Park some of the ice still remains in the higher
portions of the valleys and a study of these ice fields helps in
interpreting the history of the park during the Ice Age. It is evident
that ice did not cover the entire range, but that the higher peaks
stood out above the ice, which probably never reached a thickness of
over 3,000 feet in this region. The V-shaped valleys which had been
produced by stream erosion were filled with glaciers which moved slowly
down the valleys. The ice froze onto all loose rock material and
carried it forward, using it as abrasive to gouge out the rock, the
valley bottoms, and sides. Gradually the valleys were molded until they
had acquired a smooth U-shaped character (fig. 3). There are excellent
examples of this work of ice in the park, among which are Two Medicine,
Cut Bank, St. Mary, Swiftcurrent, and Belly River Valleys.

In addition to smoothing the valley down which they moved, the glaciers
produced many rock basins called cirques. These are the result of ice
plucking in the regions where the glaciers formed. Alternate freezing
and thawing cause the rock to break and the resulting fragments are
carried away by the moving ice mass. In the majority of cases the
cirques have lakes on their floors. The park is dotted with these
beautiful little lakes scattered throughout the high mountain country.

The valley lakes are usually larger than the cirque lakes and have a
different origin. As the glaciers melted they deposited huge loads of
sand, mud, and boulders in the valley bottoms called moraines. Debris
of this nature has helped to hold in the waters of St. Mary, Lower Two
Medicine, McDonald, Bowman, and numerous other lakes in the park.


Glacier National Park is exceptionally rich in many kinds of wildlife.
Its rugged wilderness character, enhanced by numerous lakes and almost
unlimited natural alpine gardens, combine to offer an unexcelled
opportunity to enjoy and study nature.

Glacier is noted for its brilliant floral display which is most
striking in early July. Above timber line hardy plants such as mosses
and lichens, together with the delicately colored alpine flowers, are
found. Lower on the mountains are heather, gentians, wild heliotrope,
and stunted trees of alpine fir, white-barked pine, and alpine larch.
The valleys on the east bear Engelmann spruce, alpine fir, lodgepole
pine, Douglas fir, and limber pine.

The valleys of the west side are within an entirely different plant
life zone, typified by dense climax forests. For the most part these
forests consist of red cedar and hemlock, with intermediate forests of
larch, fir, spruce, and white pine. There are also younger stands of
larch and lodgepole pine. Some of the white pines in McDonald Valley
have reached huge dimensions. The deficiency of wild flowers found
there is in part made up by the presence of sphagnum bogs with a
typical fauna and flora of their own.

On the east, at lower elevations, representatives of the Great Plains
flora are found, such as the passion flower, carpet pink, shooting
star, scarlet paintbrush, red and white geraniums, bronze agoseris, the
gaillardia, wild hollyhock, asters, and many other composites. The bear
grass is one of the most characteristic plants of Glacier.

Of equal interest is the abundant animal life, including both the
larger and smaller forms. Bighorn, mountain goats, moose, wapiti,
grizzly and black bear, and western white-tailed and Rocky Mountain
mule deer exist in as natural a condition as is possible in an area
also utilized by man. Mountain caribou are occasional visitors to the
park. Mountain lions, bobcats, and coyotes are present, although the
first have been reduced greatly from their original numbers. The
beaver, marmot, otter, marten, cony, and a host of smaller mammals are
interesting and important members of the fauna. Among the birds, those
that attract the greatest interest are the osprey, water ouzel,
ptarmigan, Clark nutcracker, thrushes, and sparrows.

[Illustration: _Hileman photo._ BEARGRASS]


With the exception of the Kootenais, few Indians ventured into the
fastness of the park mountains before the coming of the white men. Yet
so frequently did a large number of tribes use its trails for hunting
and warfare, or camp in midsummer along its lakes and streams on the
edge of the plains, that the park has an Indian story intertwined with
its own that is unsurpassed in interest. Except for a few plateau
Indians who had strong plains' characteristics because they once lived
on the plains, all tribes were of that most interesting of Indian
types, the plains Indian.

The earliest peoples inhabiting the northern Montana plains of which
we have any record were apparently Snake Indians of Shoshonean stock.
Later Nez Perces, Flatheads, and Kootenais pushed eastward through
passes from the headwaters of the Columbia River system. Then came
horses and firearms, and the whites themselves to set up an entirely
different state of affairs in their hitherto relatively peaceful
existence. First, a growing and expounding Siouan race, pressed forward
also by an expanding irresistible Algonkian stock, occupied the high
plains and pushed back its peoples behind the wall of mountains. These
were the Crows from the south, the Assiniboins to the east. Lastly,
armed with strategy and Hudson's Bay Co. firearms, and given speed and
range with horses, the dauntless Blackfeet came forth from their
forests to become the terror of the north. They grew strong on the
abundance of food and game on the Great Plains, and pushed the Crows
beyond the Yellowstone River, until met by the forces of white soldiery
and the tide of civilization.

Today the Blackfeet on the reservation adjoining the park on the east
remain a pitiful but picturesque remnant of their former pride and
glory. They have laid aside their former intense hostility to the
whites and have reconciled themselves to the fate of irrepressible
civilization. Dressed in colorful native costume, a few families of
braves greet the park visitor at Glacier Park Station and Hotel. Here
they sing, dance, and tell stories of their former greatness. In these
are reflected in a measure the dignity, the nobility, the haughtiness,
and the savagery of one of the highest and most interesting of
aboriginal American peoples.


ALBRIGHT, HORACE M., and TAYLOR, FRANK J. Oh, Ranger! About the
     national parks.

BOWMAN, I. Forest Physiography. New York, 1911. Illustrated; maps.

EATON, WALTER PRITCHARD. Boy Scouts in Glacier Park. 1918. 336 pages.

---- Sky-line Camps. 1922. 268 pp., illustrated. A record of wanderings
     in the Northwestern Mountains from Glacier National Park to Crater
     Lake National Park in Oregon.

ELROD, Dr. MORTON J. Complete Guide to Glacier National Park. 1924.
     208 pp.

FARIS, JOHN T. Roaming the Rockies. 1930. 333 pp., illustrated. Farrar
     & Rinehart, New York City, Glacier National Park on pp. 42 to 80.

     Park, Its Trails and Treasures. 1917. 262 pp., illustrated.

JEFFERS, Le ROY. The Call of the Mountains. 1922. 282 pp., illustrated.
     Dodd, Mead & Co. Glacier National Park on pp. 35-39.

JOHNSON, C. Highways of Rocky Mountains. Mountains and Valleys in
     Montana, pp. 194-215. Illustrated.

KANE, J. F. Picturesque America. 1935. 256 pp., illustrated. Frederick
     Gumbrecht, Brooklyn, N. Y. Glacier National Park on pp. 147-169.

LAUT, AGNES C. The Blazed Trail of the Old Frontier. Robt. M. McBride &
     Co., New York, 1926.

---- Enchanted Trails of Glacier Park. Robt. M. McBride & Co., New
     York. 1926.

MARSHALL, L. Seeing America. Philadelphia, 1916. Illustrated. Map.
     Chapter XXIII, Among the American Alps, Glacier National Park,
     pp. 193-200.

McCLINTOCK, W. The Old North Trail. 539 pp., illustrated, maps.
     Macmillan Co. 1920.

---- Old Indian Trails, Houghton Mifflin Co. 1923.

MILLS, ENOS A. Your National Parks. 532 pp., illustrated. Houghton
     Mifflin Co. 1917. Glacier National Park on pp. 148-160, 475-487.

RINEHART, MARY ROBERTS. Through Glacier Park. The Log of a Trip with
     Howard Eaton. 1916. 92 pp., illustrated.

---- My Country 'Tis of Thee.

Rolfe, Mary A. Our National Parks, Book Two. A supplementary reader on
     the national parks for fifth- and sixth-grade students. Benj. H.
     Sanborn & Co., Chicago. 1928. Glacier National Park on pp. 197-242.

SANDERS, H. F. Trails Through Western Woods. 1910. 310 pp., illustrated.

---- History of Montana, vol. 1, 1913. 847 pp. Glacier National Park on
     pp. 685-689.

---- The White Quiver. 344 pp., illustrated, Duffield & Co., New York.

SCHULTZE, JAMES WILLARD. Blackfeet Tales of Glacier National Park. 1916.
     242 pp., illustrated.

STEELE, DAVID M. Going Abroad Overland. 1917. 198 pp., illustrated.
     Glacier National Park on pp. 92-101.

STIMSON, HENRY L. The Ascent of Chief Mountain. In Hunting in Many
     Lands, edited by Theodore Roosevelt and George B. Grinnell, 1895,
     pp. 220-237.

YARD, ROBERT STERLING. The Book of the National Parks. Scribner's,
     1926, 444 pp., 74 illustrations, 14 maps and diagrams. Glacier
     National Park on pp. 251-283.


=Glimpses of Our National Parks.= Brief descriptions of national parks.
Address Director, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. Free.

=Recreational map.= Shows Federal and State recreational areas throughout
the United States and gives brief descriptions of principal ones. Address
as above. Free.

Illustrated booklets about the following national parks may be obtained
free of charge by writing to the Director, National Park Service:

  Acadia, Maine.
  Carlsbad Caverns, N. Mex.
  Crater Lake, Oreg.
  General Grant, Calif.
  Grand Canyon, Ariz.
  Grand Teton, Wyo.
  Great Smoky Mountains, N. C.-Tenn.
  Hawaii, Hawaii.
  Hot Springs, Ark.
  Lassen Volcanic, Calif.
  Mesa Verde, Colo.
  Mount McKinley, Alaska.
  Mount Rainier, Wash.
  National Capital Parks, Washington, D. C.
  Platt, Okla.
  Rocky Mountain, Colo.
  Sequoia, Calif.
  Wind Cave, S. Dak.
  Yellowstone, Wyo.-Mont.-Idaho.
  Yosemite, Calif.
  Zion and Bryce Canyon, Utah.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Publications for sale in Glacier National Park_

  Wild Animals of Glacier National Park      $1.00
  Plants of Glacier National Park              .50
  Origin of Scenic Features of Glacier         .20
  Geological Survey map of Glacier             .25
  Fauna of the National Parks                  .20
  National Parks Portfolio                    1.50



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