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Title: The City of the Mormons - or, Three Days at Nauvoo, in 1842
Author: Caswall, Henry
Language: English
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  IN 1842.






                    O  merciful God,
                    who   hast  made
                    all   men,   and
                    hatest   nothing
                    that  thou  hast
                    made:       have
  mercy upon all Jews, Turks, Infidels, and  HERETICS,
  and take from them all ignorance, hardness of heart,
  and contempt of thy word;  and so  fetch them  home,
  blessed  Lord,  TO  THY  FLOCK,  that  they  may  be
                    saved      among
                    the  remnant  of
                    true Israelites,
                    and   be    made
                    one  fold  under
                    one    Shepherd,
                    Jesus     Christ
                    our   Lord,  who
                    liveth       and
                    reigneth    with
                    thee   and   the
                    Holy     Spirit,
                    one  God,  world
                    without     end.
                        A M E N.


The following narrative, the result of a few weeks' leisure on
shipboard, is presented to the Christian public, with a deep sense, on
the Author's part, of the iniquity of an imposture, which, under the
name of religion, is spreading extensively in America and in Great
Britain. Mormonism needs but to be seen in its true light to be hated;
and if the following pages, consisting almost exclusively of the
personal testimony of the Author, should assist in awakening public
indignation against a cruel delusion and a preposterous heresy, he will
consider himself amply rewarded. A History of Mormonism, from its
commencement to the present time, may perhaps form the subject of a
future publication.

  _Liverpool, June 19, 1842._


The rise and progress of a new religion afford a subject of the highest
interest to the philosophical observer. Under these circumstances human
nature may be seen in a novel aspect. We behold the mind grasping at an
ideal form of perfection, exulting in the imaginary possession of
revelations, and rejoicing in its fancied intercourse with the Supreme
Being. A new religion must, of necessity, be regarded by Christians as a
mere imposture. Painful, however, as it is to contemplate our
fellow-beings deceiving and deceived, it is instructive, on the one
hand, to watch the demeanour of those who have succeeded in establishing
a spiritual dominion, and, on the other hand, to notice the conduct of
those who believe themselves surrounded by the full blaze of prophecy
and miracle.

Nor is the growth of a new religion a subject merely of philosophical
curiosity. In a historical point of view it is worthy of all the light
which careful investigation can bestow. The cause of truth imperatively
demands that the progress of error should be diligently noted. How
gladly should we receive the testimony of one who had been a witness of
the early growth of the religion of Mahomet! How highly should we esteem
an authentic account of the process by which the corrupt Christian of
the seventh century was gradually alienated from the faith of his
fathers, and induced to accept as divine the "revelations" of the
Arabian impostor!

To give such a testimony, to describe such a process, is within the
power of the traveller at the present day. In Western America, amid
countless forms of schism, a new religion has arisen, as if in
punishment for the sins of Christendom. Like Mahometanism, it possesses
many features in common with the religion of Christ. It professes to
admit the inspiration of the Old and New Testaments, it even
acknowledges the Trinity, the Atonement and Divinity of the Messiah. But
it has cast away that Church which Christ erected upon the foundation of
Apostles and Prophets, and has substituted a false church in its stead.
It has introduced a new book as a depository of the revelations of God,
which in practice has almost superseded the sacred Scriptures. It
teaches men to regard a profane and ignorant impostor as a special
prophet of the Almighty, and to consider themselves as saints while in
the practice of impiety. It robs them sometimes of their substance, and
too often of their honesty; and finally sends them, beneath a shade of
deep spiritual darkness, into the presence of that God of truth whose
holy faith they have denied.

At the first preaching of Mormonism, sensible and religious persons,
both in Europe and in America, rather ridiculed than seriously opposed
it. They imagined it to be an absurd delusion, which would shortly
overturn itself. But system and discipline, almost equal to those of
Rome, have been brought to its aid. What was at first crude and
undigested, has been gradually reduced to shape and proportion. At the
present moment Mormonism numbers more than a hundred thousand adherents,
a large portion of whom are natives of Christian and enlightened

The immediate cause of my visit to Nauvoo was the following. Early in
April, 1842, business took me to St. Louis, a city of thirty thousand
inhabitants, situated on the western bank of the Mississippi, from which
Kemper College is six miles distant. Curiosity led me to the river's
side, where about forty steam-boats were busily engaged in receiving or
discharging their various cargoes. The spectacle was truly exciting. The
landing-place (or _levée_, as it is denominated) was literally swarming
with life. Here a ponderous consignment of lead had arrived from Galena,
four hundred miles to the north, and the crew were piling it upon the
shore in regular and well-constructed layers. There a quantity of
ploughs, scythes, and other agricultural implements, crowded the decks
of a steamer which had just finished a westward voyage of fourteen
hundred miles from Pittsburg. In another place, a vessel that had
descended the rapid current of the Missouri for many hundred miles in
an easterly direction, was landing pork and other produce of the fertile
West; while farther down a large steam-boat from New Orleans, crowded
with passengers from the South, having completed her voyage of twelve
hundred miles, was blowing off the steam from her high pressure engines
with a noise like thunder.

Desiring to know something respecting the passengers in the last boat, I
proceeded on board; and as soon as the stoppage of the steam permitted
me to be heard, I inquired of the clerk of the boat how many persons he
had brought from New Orleans. "Plenty of live stock," was his reply,
"plenty of live stock; we have three hundred English emigrants, all on
their way to join Joe Smith, the prophet at Nauvoo." I walked into that
portion of the vessel appropriated to the poorer class of travellers,
and here I beheld my unfortunate countrymen crowded together in a most
comfortless manner. I addressed myself to some of them, and found that
they were from the neighbourhood of Preston in Lancashire. They were
decent-looking people, and by no means of the lowest class. I took the
liberty of questioning them respecting their plans, and found that they
were indeed the dupes of the missionaries of Mormonism. I begged them to
be on their guard, and suggested to them the importance of not
committing themselves and their property to a person who had long been
known in that country as a deceiver. They were, however, bent upon
completing the journey which they had designed, and although they
civilly listened to my statements, they professed to be guided in
reference to the prophet by that perverted precept of Scripture; "Prove
all things, hold fast that which is good."

From this moment I determined to visit the stronghold of the new
religion, and to obtain, if possible, an interview with the prophet
himself. Accordingly, on Friday evening, April 15th, I embarked on board
the fine steamer "Republic," bound, as her advertisement assured me,
"for Galena, Dubuque, and Prairie du Chien." I had laid aside my
clerical apparel, and had assumed a dress in which there was little
probability of my being recognized as a "minister of the Gentiles." In
order to test the scholarship of the prophet, I had further provided
myself with an ancient Greek manuscript of the Psalter written upon
parchment, and probably about six hundred years old. Shortly after six
o'clock our paddles were in motion, and we were stemming the rapid
current of the "Father of waters," while the booming of our
high-pressure engine re-echoed from the buildings and the woods along
the shore. The passengers were principally emigrants from the eastern
states, on their way to the new settlements in Iowa and Wisconsin. Those
in the cabin were so numerous, that our long supper-table was three
times replenished at our evening meal; while a still greater number
crowded the apartments of the deck passengers. During the night we
passed the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi, and in the
morning we were pushing our way through the comparatively clear waters,
and along the woody banks of the Upper Mississippi. Occasionally we
passed a small village, and two or three times during the day we landed
at some rising town; but generally the scene was one in which nature
enjoyed undisturbed repose. The river was high from frequent rains in
the upper country, and its surface was about one foot lower than the top
of the verdant banks. Our cabin windows were frequently brushed by the
branches and clustering foliage of the cotton-wood trees; the
sugar-maple, and the sycamore, were putting forth their early leaves at
a short distance in the background, and one dense mass of heavy timber
covered the picturesque bluffs to their very summit. The day was
pleasant, and I sat almost constantly upon the highest or "hurricane"
deck, enjoying a fine prospect of the noble river and its shores. During
the following night we continued our ascending course, and early on
Sunday morning we were at the foot of the "Des Moines Rapids," with
Illinois on the right hand, and Iowa on the left. The rapids prevent the
passage of steam-boats during the greater part of the year, on account
of the shallowness of the water and the strength of the current. As the
river was now full, we experienced no difficulty, and slowly made our
way against a stream running perhaps seven miles an hour. The
Mississippi is here about a mile and a half in width, and forms a
beautiful curve. On the western side were a number of new houses with
gardens neatly fenced, and occupied, I was told, by Mormon emigrants who
had recently arrived. Farther onward the bluffs of Iowa rose boldly from
the water's edge, while on the Illinois or eastern side, as the steamer
gradually came round the curve, the Mormon city opened upon my view. At
length, Nauvoo in all its "latter-day glory" lay before me. The
landing-place being difficult of access from the rapidity of the
current, the steamer took me to Montrose immediately opposite, and
touching for a moment, while I stepped on shore, in the next moment was
again ploughing the descending waters.

Here I was in Iowa, two hundred and thirty miles from St. Louis, fifteen
hundred miles from the mouth of the majestic river before me, and two
thousand miles west of New York by the ordinary course of travel. It was
nine o'clock on Sunday morning; the sun was shining brightly, as usual
in this region, and a strong breeze had raised a moderate swell on the
face of the stream. No ferryman was to be found, and for a few minutes
it was a problem how I should cross to Nauvoo. The problem was soon
solved by the appearance of a long and narrow canoe, hewed from the
trunk of a tree, and lying close to the bank. In this doubtful-looking
craft, thirteen Mormons on their way to the meeting in Nauvoo, proceeded
to take their seats. At my request they accommodated me with a place,
and shortly afterwards pushed from the shore, and put their paddles in
motion. They worked their way with some difficulty, until they reached
two islands near the middle of the river. Between these there was no
swell, and little wind; but the current ran against us through a narrow
passage with the rapidity of a mill-race. Here I thought we should be
effectually baffled, and more than once the canoe seemed to yield to the
stream. At length the stout sinews of the Mormons prevailed, and we were
again in open water. After labouring hard for more than half an hour we
safely landed at Nauvoo.

The situation of the place is rather striking. Above the curve of the
Des Moines rapids the Mississippi makes another curve almost
semicircular towards the east. The ground included within the semicircle
is level, and upon this site the city has been laid out. The streets
extend across the semicircle east and west, being limited at each
extremity by the river. These streets are intersected at right angles by
others, which, running northward to the river, are bounded on the south
by a rising ground, on the summit of which the temple is in the course
of erection. It was to this last-mentioned spot that with my companions
I directed my steps. Having ascended the hill, I found myself close to a
large unfinished stone building, the walls of which had advanced eight
or ten feet above the ground. This was the Temple. The view of the
winding Mississippi from this elevation was truly grand, and the whole
of the lower part of the town was distinctly seen. I was informed by my
companions that the population of Nauvoo was about ten thousand; but
subsequent inquiry led me to place the estimate three or four thousand

The temple being unfinished, about half-past ten o'clock a congregation
of perhaps two thousand persons assembled in a grove, within a short
distance of the sanctuary. Their appearance was quite respectable, and
fully equal to that of dissenting meetings generally in the western
country. Many grey-headed old men were there, and many well-dressed
females. I perceived numerous groups of the peasantry of old England;
their sturdy forms, their clear complexions, and their heavy movements,
strongly contrasting with the slight figure, the sallow visage, and the
elastic step of the American. There, too, were the bright and innocent
looks of little children, who, born among the privileges of England's
Church, baptized with her consecrated waters, and taught to lisp her
prayers and repeat her catechism, had now been led into this den of
heresy, to listen to the ravings of a false prophet, and to imbibe the
principles of a semi-pagan delusion.

The officiating elders not having yet arrived, the congregation listened
for some time to the performances of a choir of men and women, directed
by one who appeared to be a professional singing-master. At length two
elders came forward, and ascended a platform rudely constructed of
planks and logs. One wore a blue coat, and his companion, a stout
intemperate-looking man, appeared in a thick jacket of green baize. He
in the blue coat gave out a hymn, which was sung, but with little
spirit, by the congregation, all standing. He then made a few
common-place remarks on the nature of prayer; after which, leaning
forward on a railing in front of the platform, he began to pray. Having
dwelt for a few minutes on the character and perfections of the
Almighty, he proceeded in the following strain:--

"We thank thee, O Lord, that thou hast in these latter days restored the
gifts of prophecy, of revelation, of great signs and wonders, as in the
days of old. We thank Thee that, as thou didst formerly raise up thy
servant Joseph to deliver his brethren in Egypt, so Thou hast now
raised up another Joseph to save his brethren from bondage to sectarian
delusion, and to bring them into this great and good land, a land
flowing with milk and honey, which is the glory of all lands, and which
Thou didst promise to be an inheritance for the seed of Jacob for
ever-more. We pray for thy servant and prophet Joseph, that Thou
wouldest bless him and prosper him, that although the archers have
sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him, his bow may abide in
strength, and the arms of his hands may be made strong by the hands of
the mighty God of Jacob. We pray also for thy holy temple, that the
nations of the earth may bring gold and incense, that the sons of
strangers may build up its walls, and fly to it as a cloud, and as doves
to their windows. We pray Thee also to hasten the ingathering of thy
people, every man to his heritage and every man to his land. We pray
that as thou hast set up this place as an ensign for the nations, so
Thou wouldest continue to assemble here the outcasts, and gather
together the dispersed from the four corners of the earth. May every
valley be exalted, and every mountain and hill be made low, and the
crooked places straight, and the rough places plain, and may the glory
of the Lord be revealed and all flesh see it together! Bring thy sons
from far, and thy daughters from the ends of the earth, and let them
bring their silver and their gold with them."

Thus he proceeded for perhaps half an hour, after which he sat down, and
the elder in green baize, having thrown aside his jacket,--for the heat
of the sun was now considerable,--commenced a discourse.

He began by stating the importance of forming correct views of the
character of God. People were generally content with certain
preconceived views on this subject derived from tradition. These views
were for the most part incorrect. The common opinion respecting God made
him an unjust God, a partial God, a cruel God, a God worthy only of
hatred; in fact, "the greatest devil in the universe." Thus also people
in general had been "traditioned" to suppose that divine revelation was
confined to the old-fashioned book called the Bible, a book principally
written in Asia, by Jews, and suited to particular circumstances and
particular classes. On the other hand, they supposed that this vast
continent of America had been destitute of all revelation for five
thousand years, until Columbus discovered it, and "the good, pious,
precise Puritans brought over with them, some two hundred years since,
that precious old book called the Bible." Now God had promised to judge
all men without respect of persons. If, therefore, the American
aborigines had never received a revelation, and were yet to be judged
together with the Jews and the Christians, God was most horribly unjust;
and he, for his part, would never love such a God; he could only hate
him. He said there was a verse somewhere in the Bible, he could not tell
where, as he was "a bad hand at quoting," but he thought it was in the
Revelation. "If it's not there," he said, "read the whole book through,
and you'll find it, I guess, somewhere. I hav'n't a Bible with me, I
left mine at home, as it ain't necessary." Now this verse, he proceeded
to observe, stated that Christ had redeemed men by his blood out of
_every_ kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; and had made them
unto God kings and priests. But in America there were the ruins of vast
cities, and wonderful edifices, which proved that great and civilized
nations had existed on this continent. If the Bible was true, therefore,
God must have had priests and kings among those nations, and numbers of
them must have been redeemed by the blood of Christ. Revelations from
God must consequently have been granted to them. The Old and New
Testaments were therefore only portions of the revelations of God, and
not a complete revelation, nor were they designed to be so. "Am I to
believe," said he, "that God would cast me or any body else into hell,
without giving me a revelation?" God now revealed Himself in America
just as truly as he had ever done in Asia. The present congregation
lived in the midst of wonders and signs equal to those mentioned in the
Bible, and they had the blessing of revelation mainly through the medium
of that chosen servant of God, Joseph Smith. The Gentiles often came to
Nauvoo to look at the prophet Joseph--old Joe, as they profanely termed
him--and to see what he was doing; but many who came to laugh remained
to pray, and soon the kings and nobles of the earth would count it a
privilege to come to Nauvoo and behold the great work of the Lord in
these latter days. "The work of God is prospering," he said, "in
England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales; in Australia, and at the Cape of
Good Hope, in the East and West Indies, in Palestine, in Africa, and
throughout America, thousands and tens of thousands are getting
converted by our preachers, are baptized for the remission of sins, and
are selling off all they have that they may come to Nauvoo. The great
and glorious work has begun, and I defy all earth and hell to stop it."

A hymn was now sung; and afterwards a tall, thin, New-England Yankee,
with a strong nasal twang and provincial accent, rose up, and leaning
forward on the railing, spoke for half an hour with great volubility. He
said that his office required him to speak of business. They were all
aware that God had by special revelation appointed a committee of four
persons, and had required them to build a house unto his name, such a
one as his servant, Joseph, should show them. That the said house should
be called the "Nauvoo House," and should be for a house of boarding:
that the kings and nobles of the earth, and all weary travellers, might
lodge therein, while they should contemplate the word of the Lord, and
the corner-stone, which He had appointed for Zion. That in this house
the Lord had said that there should be reserved a suite of rooms for his
servant Joseph, and his seed after him from generation to generation.
And that the Lord had also commanded that stock should be subscribed by
the saints, and received by the committee for the purpose of building
the house. The speaker proceeded as follows:--"Now, brethren, the Lord
has commanded this work, and the work _must_ be done. Yes; it _shall_ be
done--it _will_ be done. The Gentiles, the men of the world, tell us
that such stock must pay twenty-five per cent. per annum, and the Lord
hath required us to take stock; surely, then, when duty and interest go
together, you will not be backward to contribute. But only a small
amount of stock has hitherto been taken, and the committee appointed by
the Lord have had to go on borrowing, and borrowing, until they can
borrow no longer. In the mean time, the mechanics employed on the house
want their pay, and the committee are not able to pay them. We have a
boat ready to be towed up the river to the pine country, to get pinewood
for the edifice. We have a crew engaged, and all ready to start; but we
cannot send out the expedition without money. The committee have made
great personal sacrifices to fulfil the commandment of the Lord: I
myself came here with seven thousand dollars, and now I have only two
thousand, having expended five thousand upon the work of the Lord. But
we cannot go on in this way any longer. I call on you, brethren, to obey
God's command, and take stock, even though you may not dress so finely
as you do now, or build such fine houses. Let not the poor man say, I am
too poor; but let the poor man contribute out of his poverty, and the
rich man out of his wealth, and God will give you a blessing."

During this address, I noticed some of the English emigrants whom I had
seen a few days previously on board the steam-boat at St. Louis. They
were listening with fixed attention, and, doubtless, considering how
many of their hard-earned sovereigns should be devoted to the pious work
of building a fine hotel for the prophet and his posterity. The thought
arose in my mind, that these earnest appeals for money were designed
mainly for the ears of the three hundred green saints who had just

This address being concluded, two other elders followed in a similar
strain. They spoke with great fluency, and appeared equally familiar
with worldly business and operations in finance, as with prophecies and
the book of Mormon. At length, having, as they supposed, wrought up the
zeal of the congregation to a sufficient pitch, they called on all
believers in the book of Mormon, who felt disposed to take stock, to
come forward before the congregation, and give in their names with the
amount of their subscriptions. Upon this appeal, there was much
whispering among the audience; and I detected two Mormons, apparently
from Yorkshire, in the very act of nodding and winking at each other.
However, none came forward; and one of the elders coolly remarked,--that
as they appeared not to have made up their minds as to the amount which
they would take, he requested all who wished to become stockholders to
come to his house the next afternoon at five o'clock.

The elder who had delivered the first discourse now rose, and said that
a certain brother, whom he named, had lost a keg of white lead. "Now,"
said he, "if any of the brethren present has taken it by mistake,
thinking it was his own, he ought to restore it; but if any of the
brethren present has stolen the keg, much more ought he to restore it;
or else, may be, he will get _cotched_; and that, too, within the
corporation limits of the city of Nauvoo."

Another person rose and stated that he had lost a ten-dollar bill. He
had never lost any money before in his life; he always kept it very
safely; but now, a ten-dollar bill had escaped from him, and if any of
the brethren had found it, or taken it, he hoped it would be restored.

A hymn was now sung, and the service (if such it may be called) having
continued from half-past ten o'clock till two, finally concluded. As the
congregation dispersed, I walked with the Mormon who had brought me over
in his canoe, to see the temple. The building is a hundred and twenty
feet in length, by eighty in breadth; and is designed to be the finest
edifice west of Philadelphia. The Mormon informed me, that in this house
the Lord designed to reveal unto his Church things which had been kept
secret from the foundation of the world; and that He had declared that
He would here restore the fulness of the priesthood. He showed me the
great baptismal font, which is completed, and stands at the centre of
the unfinished temple. This font is, in fact, a capacious laver,
eighteen or twenty feet square, and about four in depth. It rests upon
the backs of twelve oxen, as large as life, and tolerably well
sculptured; but for some reason, perhaps mystical, entirely destitute of
_feet_, though possessed of legs. The laver and oxen are of wood, and
painted white; but are to be hereafter gilded, or covered with plates of
gold. At this place baptisms for the dead are to be celebrated, as well
as baptisms for the healing of diseases; but baptisms for the remission
of sins are to be performed in the Mississippi. My companion told me
that he was originally a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church in
Canada; but that he had obtained greater light, and had been led to join
the "latter-day saints." While he was a methodist he felt that he was
perfectly right, and could confute all other sects, except the Roman
Catholics. These had so much of the true and ancient Church mixed up
with their corruptions, that he could not readily confute them. Many
passages of the Scriptures remained at that time perfectly inexplicable
to him, and he felt that no denomination was organized exactly on the
primitive plan. But since he had been led to embrace Mormonism, new
light had opened upon his soul; the Scriptures had become perfectly
clear, and he had discovered a Church entirely conformable to the
primitive model; having the same divinely appointed ministry; the same
miraculous gifts of healing, and the unknown tongues; the same
prophetical inspiration; the same close intercourse with the Almighty. I
observed, that the truth of Mormonism depended on the determination of
the question, whether Joseph Smith was, in fact, a prophet of God. He
replied, that the inspiration of Joseph could be proved more readily
than that of Isaiah, Jeremiah, or Ezekiel. That Joseph had received
revelations ever since he was fifteen years of age; and that the
outlines of Mormonism were made known to him at a time when he could not
possibly have planned so vast a work, or anticipated its triumphant
success. While conversing on these subjects, we arrived at the "Nauvoo
House," the hotel founded by "revelation." The walls are advanced about
as much as those of the temple, and, when completed, will form a
capacious building. Passing the prophet Smith's house, which is one of
the best in the city, I arrived at a small, but neat, tavern, where I
called to get dinner. An old woman, apparently the mistress of the
house, was seated by the fire, devoutly reading the book of Mormon,
from which she scarcely lifted her eyes as I entered. Here I found a
decent, and probably intelligent, Scotchman. Conversing with him on the
subject of the services which I had just witnessed, I remarked how
greatly deficient they appeared in dignity and spirituality; and
contrasted them with the decorous and solemn worship of the Church of
England, and of the Scottish Kirk. I particularly referred to the keg of
white lead and the ten-dollar bill, as well as to the derogatory manner
in which the preacher had alluded to "the old-fashioned book called the
Bible." Although I endeavoured to speak with mildness, the Scotchman
replied with great warmth, that the English and Scottish Churches taught
lies, and that their members loved lies more than truth. That all their
solemnity was produced by hypocrisy and false doctrines respecting God.
That the Mormons despised long faces, and all religions which required
people to wear a sanctimonious and hypocritical exterior. He added, that
Mormonism was making rapid progress in Scotland.

From the tavern, I proceeded to the landing-place, and engaged the
ferryman to take me over to Montrose, on the Iowa side of the river. I
found this person to be a Mormon; and learned from him, that the ferry
was the property of the prophet Joseph. He further informed me, that the
number of passengers had become so considerable, that a steam ferry-boat
had been purchased, and would soon be in operation. I afterwards found
that his opinion of the character of his brethren, "the saints," was by
no means flattering to them. He told a person in Montrose, that it was
"no use to hoist a flag at Nauvoo as a signal to passengers, for it was
sure to be stolen by the people there; they had so much of the devil in

On arriving at Montrose, I went to the house of a gentleman to whom I
had brought letters of introduction from St. Louis. This gentleman, with
his lady and his brother, has resided many years at Montrose; and as he
possesses the independence to resist the encroachments of the Mormons,
and the ability to expose their designs, he has been an object of
constant persecution since the settlement of these people in his
vicinity. He at once desired me to make his house my home, and offered
me every assistance in prosecuting my researches. Under his hospitable
roof I spent a pleasant evening. His family united with me in religious
services (for there is no place of worship in the neighbourhood); and,
after the awful proceedings of the morning, I felt happy to be once more
among Christians.

On the following morning (Monday, April 18th), I took my venerable Greek
manuscript of the Psalter, and proceeded to the ferry to obtain a
passage. The boatman, being engaged to take over a family emigrating to
Nauvoo, had provided himself with a heavy flat-boat, which promised us a
long voyage. The family soon came on board. It consisted of a
simple-looking American, his wife, and a numerous progeny. They had with
them two oxen, two cows and a calf, bedding, tables, chairs, and a
wooden clock. As we were about to push off, a traveller on horseback
came on board, whom I found to be one of the numerous "Gentiles" induced
by curiosity to visit the "Zion" of the West. The father of the family
stated that he had become confounded by the conflicting doctrines of the
sects, and imagined that in Mormonism he had finally discovered the only
true Church. Our heavy boat was rowed up about a mile close to the Iowa
shore. Having proceeded considerably above Nauvoo, the ferryman and his
men began to venture out into the broad stream, in order to cross. As I
was in haste to get over, I was permitted to take the small skiff
alongside, and, in company with the emigrant, to pull over to Nauvoo. On
the way, I held some conversation with my companion, and found him to be
thoroughly wedded to his delusion. Arriving at the city, I passed along
a straggling street of considerable length bordering on the strand.
Perceiving a respectable-looking store (or shop), I entered it, and
began to converse with the storekeeper. I mentioned that I had been
informed that Mr. Smith possessed some remarkable Egyptian curiosities,
which I wished to see. I added that, if Mr. Smith could be induced to
show me his treasures, I would show him in return a very wonderful book
which had lately come into my possession. The storekeeper informed me
that Mr. Smith was absent, having gone to Carthage that morning; but
that he would return about nine o'clock in the evening. He promised to
obtain for me admission to the curiosities, and begged to be permitted
to see the wonderful book. I accordingly unfolded it from the many
wrappers in which I had enveloped it, and, in the presence of the
storekeeper and many astonished spectators, whom the rumour of the
arrival of a strange book had collected, I produced to view its covers
of worm-eaten oak, its discoloured parchments, and its mysterious
characters. Surprise was depicted on the countenances of all present,
and, after a long silence, one person wiser than his fellows, declared
that he knew it to be a revelation from the Lord, and that probably it
was one of the lost books of the Bible providentially recovered. Looking
at me with a patronizing air, he assured me that I had brought it to the
right place to get it interpreted, for that none on earth but the Lord's
prophet could explain it, or unfold its real antiquity and value. "Oh,"
I replied, "I am going to England next week, and doubtless I shall find
some learned man in one of the universities who can expound it." To this
he answered with a sneer, that the Lord had chosen the weak things of
the world to confound the mighty; that he had made foolish the wisdom of
this world; and that I ought to thank Providence for having brought me
to Nauvoo, where the hidden things of darkness could be revealed by
divine power. All expressed the utmost anxiety that I should remain in
the city until the prophet's return. The storekeeper offered immediately
to send an express eighteen miles to Carthage, to hasten the return of
Joseph. This I declined, and told him that my stay in Nauvoo must be
very limited. They promised to pay all my expenses, if I would remain;
and assured me that they would ferry me over the river as often as I
desired it, free of charge; besides furnishing me with a carriage and
horses to visit the beautiful prairies in the vicinity. At length I
yielded to their importunities, and promised, that if they would bring
me over from Montrose on the following morning, I would exhibit the book
to the prophet. They were very desirous that I should remain at Nauvoo
during the night; but as I had my fears that some of the saints might
have a revelation, requiring them to take my book while I slept, I very
respectfully declined their pressing invitation. They then requested to
know where I was staying in Montrose. I mentioned the name of my
hospitable entertainer; upon which they used the most violent language
against him, and said that he was their bitter enemy and persecutor,
that he was as bad as the people of Missouri, and that I ought not to
believe a word that he said. They again pressed me most earnestly not to
return to Montrose; but I continued firm, and expressed my intention of
hearing both sides of the question.

The storekeeper now proceeded to redeem his promise of obtaining for me
access to the curiosities. He led me to a room behind his store, on the
door of which was an inscription to the following effect: "Office of
Joseph Smith, President of the Church of Latter Day Saints." Having
introduced me, together with several Mormons, to this _sanctum
sanctorum_, he locked the door behind him, and proceeded to what
appeared to be a small chest of drawers. From this he drew forth a
number of glazed slides, like picture frames, containing sheets of
papyrus, with Egyptian inscriptions and hieroglyphics. These had been
unrolled from four mummies, which the prophet had purchased at a cost of
twenty-four hundred dollars. By some inexplicable mode, as the
storekeeper informed me, Mr. Smith had discovered that these sheets
contained the writings of Abraham, written with his own hand while in
Egypt. Pointing to the figure of a man lying on a table, he said, "That
is the picture of Abraham on the point of being sacrificed. That man
standing by him with a drawn knife is an idolatrous priest of the
Egyptians. Abraham prayed to God, who immediately unloosed his bands,
and delivered him." Turning to another of the drawers, and pointing to a
hieroglyphic representation, one of the Mormons said, "Mr. Smith informs
us that this picture is an emblem of redemption. Do you see those four
little figures? Well, those are the four quarters of the earth. And do
you see that big dog looking at the four figures? That is the old Devil
desiring to devour the four quarters of the earth. Look at this person
keeping back the big dog. That is Jesus Christ keeping the devil from
devouring the four quarters of the earth. Look down this way. This
figure near the side is Jacob, and those are his two wives. Now do you
see those steps?" "What," I replied, "do you mean those stripes across
the dress of one of Jacob's wives?" "Yes," he said, "that is Jacob's
ladder." "That is indeed curious," I remarked; "Jacob's ladder standing
on the ground, and only reaching up to his wife's waist."

After this edifying explanation, a very respectable looking Mormon asked
me to walk over to his house. This person was one of the committee
appointed by "revelation" to build the "Nauvoo house." He informed me
that he had migrated from the Johnstown District in Upper Canada. He
would have returned to that country before, had he not been desirous of
remaining to see the wonderful works of the Lord in Nauvoo. He preferred
Canada to the United States; and the British government was, in his
opinion, greatly superior to that of the Americans, which he considered
little better than an organized mob, especially in the Western States.
He regarded a strong monarchy as essential to good government, and
believed that this opinion was generally held among the "Saints." In the
event of a war between England and America, England might rely upon it
that the Mormons would not be her enemies. The Indians, too, whom the
Americans had persecuted almost as badly as the Missourians had
persecuted the Mormons, were decidedly friendly to England. He had
lately been among their tribes, and had found everywhere English muskets
bearing the date of 1839. The Indians were already making preparations
for espousing the cause of England in a war with America. He foretold
that great desolation was about to be inflicted on America by England,
with the assistance of the oppressed negroes and Indians. The
conversation was now interrupted by the entrance of numerous Mormons,
who begged to be permitted to see and handle the wonderful book. They
all looked upon it as something supernatural, and considered that I
undervalued it greatly, by reason of my ignorance of its contents. It
was in vain I assured them that a slight acquaintance with Greek would
enable any person to decipher its meaning. They were unanimous in the
opinion that none but their prophet could explain it; and congratulated
me on the providence which had brought me and my wonderful book to
Nauvoo. The crowd having cleared away, my host asked me to give my
opinion of Nauvoo. I told him that it was certainly a remarkable place,
and in a beautiful situation; but that I considered it the offspring of
a most astonishing and unaccountable delusion. He said that he admired
my candour, and was not surprised at my unbelief, seeing that I was a
stranger to the people and to the evidences of their faith. He then
proceeded to inform me respecting these evidences. He assured me, in the
first place, that America had been mentioned by the prophet Isaiah. I
begged for the chapter and verse. He pointed to the sentence,--"Woe to
the land shadowing with wings." Now to what land could this refer, but
to North and South America, which stretched across the world with two
great wings, like those of an eagle? "Stop," I said; "does not the
prophet describe the situation of the land? Observe that he says, 'it is
beyond the rivers of Ethiopia.'" "Well," said my host, "that may be
true; but is not America beyond Ethiopia?" "Have you a map?" I said.
"Yes," he replied, "here is my little girl's school atlas." "Now tell
me," I said, "where Isaiah wrote his book." "In Palestine," he answered.
"Very well," I replied; "now tell me in what direction from Palestine is
Ethiopia?" "South, by the map," was the reply. "In what direction from
Palestine is America?" "West," he answered. "Now do you think that
Isaiah, as a man of common sense, to say nothing of his prophetical
character, would have described a country in the west, as lying _beyond_
another which is due south?" He was silent for a moment, and then
confessed that he had never thought of studying the Bible by the map;
"but probably this map was wrong." I now requested him to let me know
the number of troops composing the Nauvoo Legion. He informed me that
they consisted at present of seventeen hundred men. He had taken the
oath of allegiance to Queen Victoria, and on this account had not
connected himself with the legion. The discipline of this band he
considered superior to that of the American militia generally, but
inferior to that of British troops, or even of the Canadian militia. He
believed that the Mormons held many doctrines in common with the
Irvingites and other sects in England. He cherished the belief in a
separate place of departed spirits distinct from heaven and hell, and in
a future restoration of all souls to the divine favour. He considered
that when the restitution of all things takes place, the earth will be
purified, and then transferred from its present sphere to a brighter and
more glorious system.

Having listened with due attention to the instructions of my host, I
walked over to the store, where the storekeeper expressed his readiness
to show me the mummies. Accordingly he led the way to a small house, the
residence of the prophet's mother. On entering the dwelling, I was
introduced to this eminent personage as a traveller from England,
desirous of seeing the wonders of Nauvoo. She welcomed me to the holy
city, and told me that here I might see what great things the Lord had
done for his people. "I am old," she said, "and I shall soon stand
before the judgment-seat of Christ; but what I say to you now, I would
say on my death-bed. My son Joseph has had revelations from God since he
was a boy, and he is indeed a true prophet of Jehovah. The angel of the
Lord appeared to him fifteen years since, and shewed him the cave where
the original golden plates of the book of Mormon were deposited. He
shewed him also the Urim and Thummim, by which he might understand the
meaning of the inscriptions on the plates, and he shewed him the golden
breastplate of the high priesthood. My son received these precious
gifts, he interpreted the holy record, and now the believers in that
revelation are more than a hundred thousand in number. I have myself
seen and handled the golden plates; they are about eight inches long,
and six wide; some of them are sealed together and are not to be opened,
and some of them are loose. They are all connected by a ring which
passes through a hole at the end of each plate, and are covered with
letters beautifully engraved. I have seen and felt also the Urim and
Thummim. They resemble two large bright diamonds set in a bow like a
pair of spectacles. My son puts these over his eyes when he reads
unknown languages, and they enable him to interpret them in English. I
have likewise carried in my hands the sacred breastplate. It is composed
of pure gold, and is made to fit the breast very exactly."

While the old woman was thus delivering herself, I fixed my eyes
steadily upon her. She faltered, and seemed unwilling to meet my glance;
but gradually recovered her self-possession. The melancholy thought
entered my mind, that this poor old creature was not simply a dupe of
her son's knavery; but that she had taken an active part in the
deception. Several English and American women were in the room, and
seemed to treat her with profound veneration.

I produced my wonderful book. The old woman scrutinized its pages, and
in an oracular manner assured me that the Lord was now bringing to light
the hidden things of darkness according to his word; that my manuscript
was doubtless a revelation which had long been hidden, and which was now
to be made known to the world, by means of her son the prophet Joseph.
She then directed me up a steep flight of stairs into a chamber, and
slowly crept up after me. She showed me a wretched cabinet, in which
were four naked mummies frightfully disfigured, and in fact, most
disgusting relics of mortality. One she said was a king of Egypt whom
she named, two were his wives, and the remaining one was the daughter of
another king. I asked her by what means she became acquainted with the
names and histories of these mummies. She replied, that her son had
obtained this knowledge through the mighty power of God. She accounted
for the disfigured condition of the mummies, by a circumstance rather
illustrative of the back-woods. Some difficulty having been found in
unrolling the papyrus which enveloped them, an axe was applied, by which
the unfortunate mummies were literally chopped open. I requested her to
furnish me with a "Book of Mormon." She accordingly permitted me to take
one of the first edition belonging to her daughter Lavinia, for which I
paid the young lady a dollar.

From Mr. Smith's residence I proceeded to the Mormon printing office,
where the official papers and "revelations" of the prophet are published
in a semi-monthly magazine, denominated the "Times and Seasons." Here I
purchased this magazine complete for the last year, the history of the
persecution of the Mormons by the people of Missouri, and other
documents of importance. The storekeeper met me at the printing-office,
and introduced several dignitaries of the "Latter-day Church," and many
other Mormons, to whom he begged me to exhibit my wonderful book. While
they were examining it with great apparent interest, one of the
preachers informed me that he had spent the last year in England, and
that, with the aid of an associate, he had baptized in that country
seven thousand saints. He had visited the British Museum, where he
affirmed that he had seen nothing so extraordinary as my wonderful book.
The Mormon authorities now formally requested me to sell them the book,
for which they were willing to pay a high price. This I positively
refused, and they next importuned me to lend it to them, so that the
prophet might translate it. They promised to give bonds to a
considerable amount, that it should be forthcoming whenever I requested
it. I was still deaf to their entreaties, and having promised to shew
the book to their prophet on the ensuing day, I left them and returned
to Montrose.

On arriving at the house of Mr. K. my hospitable entertainer, I was
informed by him that the Mormons on the Iowa side of the river had been
busily engaged in trying to find out who I was, and whence I came. They
had generally come to the conclusion that I was a convert to Mormonism
recently arrived from England.

After tea Mr. K. provided me with a horse, and, in company with him, I
took a delightful ride upon the prairie. The grass was of an emerald
green, and enamelled with the beautiful wild flowers of spring. Far to
the North West a line of bluffs seemed to bound the prairie at the
distance of eight or ten miles, while in other directions it extended as
far as the eye could reach. Numerous clumps of forest trees appeared at
intervals, and herds of cattle were reposing on the grass or feeding on
the rich herbage. The scene was one of novel and striking interest, and
I felt pained at the reflection that so fine a region seemed destined to
be given up to the followers of a mischievous delusion. Upon an eminence
near Montrose, I was shewn the tomb of Kalawequois, a beautiful Indian
girl of the tribe of Sacs and Foxes. She died recently at the early age
of eighteen, having lingered six years in a consumption. She was buried
on this spot by moonlight, with all the ancient ceremonies of her
nation. Adjoining her grave was the tomb of Skutah, a full-blooded
Indian "brave," and a distinguished warrior of the same tribe.

Mr. K. stated, that previously to the arrival of the Mormons, his only
neighbours were the Indians, with whom he lived on the most friendly
terms. Nothing could exceed their honesty and good faith in all their
intercourse with him: and although heathens, Mr. K. considered them
superior in morality and common sense to the "latter-day saints." Keokuk
is the present chief of the Sacs and Foxes, having succeeded to the
jurisdiction on the demise of the venerable Black Hawk, who died of
grief at the age of eighty, in consequence of the treatment experienced
by his nation at the hands of the United States. The residence of Keokuk
and the chief village of his tribe, are situated near the Des Moines
river, and about a day's journey westward of Montrose. The tribe
consisted, before the war, of about nine thousand persons, who are now
reduced to three thousand. The two sons of Black Hawk still survive, and
are noble and princely both in person and in character. The Indians have
the greatest possible contempt for Joseph Smith, and denominate him a
Tshe-wál-lis-ke, which signifies a rascal. Nor have other false prophets
risen more highly in their estimation. A few years since, that notorious
deceiver Matthias made his appearance one evening at the door of
Keokuk's "waikeop," or cabin. He wore a long beard, which was parted on
each side of his chin; a long gun was on his shoulder, and a red sash
around his waist. Keokuk demanded who he was, to which question Matthias
replied, that he was Jesus Christ the only true God, and that he was
come to gather the Indians, who were of the seed of Israel. "Well," said
Keokuk, who is a very dignified man, "perhaps you are Jesus Christ, and
perhaps you are not. If you are Jesus Christ you cannot be killed. If
you are not Jesus Christ, you are a rascal and deserve to be shot. Look
at these two fine rifle pistols; they were made in New York; they never
miss their aim. Now see me sound them with the ram-rod. They have a
tremendously heavy charge. Now I point them at you. Now I am going to
fire." At this Matthias suddenly bolted, being unwilling that his claims
should be tested by so novel and so striking a mode of theological
argument. He afterwards obtained admission, at Keokuk's request, to the
waikeop of an old Indian man and woman who lived alone. They gave him
supper, and when he had fallen asleep they made a fire, and watched him
all night, believing him to be the devil, whom they had heard described
by the Roman Catholic missionaries.

These Indians have many remarkable customs. Before undertaking a war,
their warriors fast forty days in a solitary cabin constructed of bark.
During this period, they eat barely sufficient to keep themselves alive.
They also sacrifice dogs; and having tied the dead bodies to trees about
six feet above the ground, they proceed to paint the noses and stomachs
of the victims with a deep red colour. They consult prophets, who are
provided with sacred utensils, denominated medicine bags; and which
contain the skins of "skunks," with other precious articles. When the
warriors return from their fast, the people make a great feast on dogs
which have been fattened for the occasion. None but men are allowed to
attend. At the appointed hour, the warriors may be seen travelling to
the rendezvous; each carrying, with great solemnity, his wooden bowl and
wooden spoon. At the house appointed for the feast, the dead dogs are in
readiness, together with a profusion of boiled Indian corn and beans.
Mr. K. was present on one of these occasions, and took particular notice
of the ceremonies. Some of the warriors began by cutting the dogs into
equal portions, which they placed in a large iron kettle over a fire,
and boiled for about half an hour. The remainder of the guests reclined
upon mats on both sides of the house, while the fire burned briskly at
the centre, the smoke escaping through an opening in the roof. The corn
and beans were placed all round the room in wooden dishes upon the
ground. The dog meat being sufficiently boiled, the pieces were taken
out, and every person present received his share. A distinguished
"brave" now arose, and made a speech; after which, a second stood up and
repeated the monosyllable, "ugh." At this signal, all began to eat;
holding the pieces of dog in their hands without knives or forks, and
devouring with all their might. This feast on dogs is considered a sort
of penance. Whoever swallows the whole of his portion is called a _big
brave_; while those who are made sick by it, are denominated _squaws_.
The men of this tribe enjoy themselves exceedingly at their villages
during the winter, visiting one another with great sociability. All the
hard work devolves upon the women, who cut down trees for firewood, make
the fires, and minister like slaves to the comfort and luxury of their
lords. These Indians, notwithstanding their neglect of the squaws, have
many courteous and gentlemanly habits. They have no profane word in
their vocabulary, and the most abusive words employed by them are
_liar_, _rascal_, _hog_, and _squaw_. They, however, catch with facility
the profane expressions of the whites, which they use with great
readiness, and without understanding their signification. Thus, they
will often employ an oath as a friendly salutation; and while kindly
shaking hands with a friend, will curse him in cheerful and pleasant
tones of voice.

The following morning (Tuesday, April 19th), a Mormon arrived with his
boat and ferried me over to Nauvoo. A Mormon doctor accompanied me. He
had obtained, I was told, a regular diploma from a medical school as a
physician; but since the Mormons generally prefer miraculous aid to
medicine, it is probable that his practice is somewhat limited. He
argued with me as we were on the passage, and evinced a tolerable share
of intelligence and acuteness. The success of Mormonism in England was a
subject of great rejoicing to him. I observed, that I had reason to
believe that the conquests of Mormonism in Britain had been principally
among the illiterate and uneducated. This, he partially admitted; but he
maintained that God had always chosen the poor, for they were rich in
faith. I replied, that the class of persons to whom he referred,
abounded in wrong faith no less than in right faith; and that among the
lower class of persons in England, the wildest delusions, of the most
contradictory character, had, from time to time, been readily
propagated. I further remarked, that the same class of people who
believed in Joanna Southcote, might easily be persuaded to credit the
divine mission of Joseph Smith. I begged him to inform me whether the
Mormons believed in the Trinity. "Yes," he replied; "we believe that the
Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God; that makes
three at least who are God, and no doubt there are a great many more."
He went on to state, that the Mormons believe that departed saints
become a portion of the Deity, and may be properly denominated "Gods."

On landing at Nauvoo, I proceeded with the Doctor along the street which
I mentioned before as bordering on the strand. As I advanced with my
book in my hand, numerous Mormons came forth from their dwellings,
begging to be allowed to see its mysterious pages; and by the time I
reached the prophet's house, they amounted to a perfect crowd. I met
Joseph Smith at a short distance from his dwelling, and was regularly
introduced to him. I had the honour of an interview with him who is a
prophet, a seer, a merchant, a "revelator," a president, an elder, an
editor, and the general of the "Nauvoo legion." He is a coarse, plebeian
person in aspect, and his countenance exhibits a curious mixture of the
knave and the clown. His hands are large and fat, and on one of his
fingers he wears a massive gold ring, upon which I saw an inscription.
His dress was of coarse country manufacture, and his white hat was
enveloped by a piece of black crape as a sign of mourning for his
deceased brother, Don Carlos Smith, the late editor of the "Times and
Seasons." His age is about thirty-five. I had not an opportunity of
observing his eyes, as he appears deficient in that open,
straightforward look which characterizes an honest man. He led the way
to his house, accompanied by a host of elders, bishops, preachers, and
common Mormons. On entering the house, chairs were provided for the
prophet and myself, while the curious and gaping crowd remained
standing. I handed the book to the prophet, and begged him to explain
its contents. He asked me if I had any idea of its meaning. I replied,
that I believed it to be a Greek Psalter; but that I should like to hear
his opinion. "No," he said; "it ain't Greek at all; except, perhaps, a
few words. What ain't Greek, is Egyptian; and what ain't Egyptian, is
Greek. This book is very valuable. _It is a dictionary of Egyptian
Hieroglyphics._" Pointing to the capital letters at the commencement of
each verse, he said: "Them figures is Egyptian hieroglyphics; and them
which follows, is the interpretation of the hieroglyphics, written in
the reformed Egyptian. Them characters is like the letters that was
engraved on the golden plates." Upon this, the Mormons around began to
congratulate me on the information I was receiving. "There," they said;
"we told you so--we told you that our prophet would give you
satisfaction. None but our prophet can explain these mysteries." The
prophet now turned to me, and said, "this book ain't of no use to you,
you don't understand it." "Oh yes," I replied; "it is of some use; for
if I were in want of money, I could sell it, and obtain, perhaps, enough
to live on for a whole year." "But what will you take for it?" said the
prophet and his elders. "My price," I replied, "is higher than you would
be willing to give." "What price is that?" they eagerly demanded. I
replied, "I will not tell you what price I would take; but if you were
to offer me this moment nine hundred dollars in gold for it, you should
not have it." They then repeated their request that I should lend it to
them until the prophet should have time to translate it, and promised me
the most ample security; but I declined all their proposals. I placed
the book in several envelopes, and as I deliberately tied knot after
knot, the countenances of many among them gradually sunk into an
expression of great despondency. Having exhibited the book to the
prophet, I requested him in return to shew me his papyrus; and to give
me his own explanation, which I had hitherto received only at second
hand. He proceeded with me to his office, accompanied by the multitude.
He produced the glass frames which I had seen on the previous day; but
he did not appear very forward to explain the figures. I pointed to a
particular hieroglyphic, and requested him to expound its meaning. No
answer being returned, I looked up, and behold! the prophet had
disappeared. The Mormons told me that he had just stepped out, and would
probably soon return. I waited some time, but in vain: and at length
descended to the street in front of the store. Here I heard the noise of
wheels, and presently I saw the prophet in his waggon, flourishing his
whip and driving away as fast as two fine horses could draw him. As he
disappeared from view, enveloped in a cloud of dust, I felt that I had
turned over another page in the great book of human nature.

The Mormons now surrounded me, and requested to know whether I had
received satisfaction from the prophet's explanation. I replied that the
prophet had given me no satisfaction, and that he had committed himself
most effectually. They wished to know my own religious opinions. I
informed them that I had been educated in the Church of England, to
which I was conscientiously attached. One of the Mormons said that the
Church of England had a form of godliness, but denied the power thereof,
and that it was the duty of all men to turn away from her. I asked him
what he understood by the _power_ of godliness. He replied, "the power
of working miracles and of speaking in unknown tongues." He maintained
that the Church of England denied that the gifts of the Holy Ghost are
communicated at the present day to the people of God. I told him that he
was mistaken, and referred him to the passages in the "Service for the
Ordering of Priests," "Receive the Holy Ghost for the office and work
of a Priest in the Church of God." And again,

  "Thou the Anointing Spirit art,
  Who dost thy _sevenfold gifts_ impart."

And again,

  "Thou in thy gifts art manifold,
  By _them_ Christ's Church doth stand."

Another said that the ministers of the Church of England were dumb dogs,
that its bishops were regardless of the advancement of the gospel, that
their belly was their God, and that money was their idol. I inquired
whether he was particularly well acquainted with the English bishops and
clergy. He replied, that he had never been out of America; but that he
had received these accounts from travellers. I told him that I had been
personally acquainted with many of the bishops and clergy of the English
Church, and that his assertion was not agreeable to the truth. A
renegade now came forward, who stated himself to have been a member of
the Established Church of Ireland. He said that the Thirty-nine Articles
were a bundle of inconsistencies from beginning to end. I begged him to
specify some of the inconsistencies. He said that the first Article
asserts that God is without body, parts, or passions; that the second
Article teaches that Christ is God; and that the fourth Article states
that Christ ascended into heaven with his body, flesh, and bones. Thus,
he maintained, the fourth Article was inconsistent with the first. I
replied, that the same charge of inconsistency might be applied to the
Scriptures with equal fairness, and quoted the texts by which the
doctrines of the first, second, and fourth Articles are distinctly
proved. He flew off at once to another subject, and maintained that
baptism in the Church of England is not valid, inasmuch as it is not
administered by persons having authority. I asked him what constituted a
sufficient authority. He replied, "a commission from Christ, proved by
the possession of miraculous gifts." I said that the English clergy
possessed a commission from Christ, which could be proved most
conclusively, even in the absence of miraculous gifts at the present
time. He wished to know how their commission could be proved without
miracles. I told him that the bishops of the English Church, by whom the
inferior clergy are ordained, are apostles just as truly as St. Barnabas
and St. Timothy were. This statement took him altogether by surprise; he
looked at me incredulously, and wished for proof. I presented him with a
brief outline of the clear and simple argument for the Apostolic
Succession, and showed him historically that bishops have been always
consecrated by bishops from the age of inspiration to the present time;
that the commission of our Saviour to the eleven, extending as it did
through all time and all the world, _implied_ an apostolical succession
till the day of judgment; that Scripture testifies to a succession of
Apostles as long as Scripture can testify to it; and that afterwards the
continuance of the succession is proved by a vast number of Christian
writers down to the present time. He considered for a moment, and then
said, that such a succession must have come through Rome; that Rome was
the mother of harlots, and that the Church of England was the eldest of
her numerous family of daughters. "The Church of England," said he,
"reminds me of a story I heard about an old cow--" As he was becoming
abusive I thought it best to check him, and seriously requested him to
inform me whether it was an English cow or an Irish bull of which he was
speaking. At this the younger Mormons began to laugh, and Paddy seemed
rather disconcerted and was silent.

An old American in a blue home-spun suit, and with a disagreeable
expression in his face, now entered the lists against me. He told me
that I was in great darkness and unbelief, and that I ought to repent,
obey the gospel, and be baptized. I replied, that as for repentance, I
repented every day; as for obedience, without boasting, I might claim to
be equal to the "Latter-day Saints;" and as for baptism, I had been
lawfully baptized by one having authority. He said that Church of
England baptism possessed only the authority derived from Acts of
Parliament, and that the English Church was merely a Parliament Church.
I replied, that the English Church had a double sanction: first, that of
Christ--who founded the Catholic Church, of which the English Church is
a portion; and secondly, that of Parliament, by which, long after its
foundation, it was acknowledged as the National Religion. "As for you
Mormons," I said, "it is now my turn to say something about your
religion, since you have spoken freely of mine. It is easy for you to
argue as you do about the descent of the Indians from Israel, the
probability of the restoration of miraculous powers to the Church, and
the errors and inconsistencies of existing sects; but in regard to the
real question at issue, on which your religion depends, namely, the
inspiration of your prophet, you have given me no satisfaction
whatever." They requested me to state what evidence I should consider
satisfactory. I replied, "When the Jewish dispensation was to be
introduced, God enabled Moses to work great wonders with his rod. God
smote a mighty nation with miraculous plagues. He divided the Red Sea
and the River Jordan. He came down on Mount Sinai amid clouds and
lightnings and the terrific sound of the trumpet of heaven. He caused
Moses to strike the rock and the waters gushed forth. He rained down
manna for the space of forty years in the wilderness. Again, when the
Christian dispensation was to be established, Christ walked upon the
waters; He controlled the winds and the waves; He fed assembled
thousands with a few loaves and fishes; He healed the sick; He opened
the eyes of the blind; He brought the dead to life; and finally, He
raised Himself from the grave.

"You maintain that your prophet is sent to establish a third
dispensation. I demand, therefore, what signs are given to prove his

The old man replied, that the healing of the sick, the casting out of
devils, and the speaking of unknown tongues, were very frequent in the
"Latter-day Church." I said that signs of that kind were of a very
doubtful description, since the imagination possessed great power over
the nervous system. I inquired whether Smith had ever walked across the
Mississippi, or brought a dead man to life, He replied in the negative;
but said, that among them the blind received their sight, and the ears
of the deaf were opened. I then observed, "You perceive that I am rather
deaf, and you say that I have no faith. Now can you open my ears so that
I may hear your arguments more distinctly?" Immediately the old man
stepped forward, and before I was aware of his object, thrust his
fore-fingers into my ears, and lifting up his eyes, uttered for about a
minute in a loud voice some unintelligible gibberish. "There," he said
finally, "the Holy Ghost prompted me to do that, and now you have heard
the unknown tongue." "But my hearing is not improved," I said. "That,"
he replied, "is because you have no faith. If ever you believe the Book
of Mormon, you will immediately recover perfect hearing, through the
gift of the Holy Ghost." I looked at him somewhat severely and said,
"Take care, old man, what you say. When you employ the names of Father,
Son, and Holy Ghost, you should speak with awe and reverence; but you
and other Mormons here, as far as I have observed, employ the most
sacred terms with the most disgusting levity. How miserable, how barren
were your services on last Sunday; how cold your worship, how utterly
unedifying and farcical your preaching. The Holy Ghost was manifestly
absent from your assembly, which resembled a Jewish Synagogue more than
a Christian congregation. There was no Bible, there was no Lord's
Prayer, there were no motives presented to humiliation,
self-examination, or any branch of devotion; nothing but senseless
speculations on the character of God, idle assertions of special
revelations and miraculous gifts, and disgraceful advertisements of
stolen goods." Here they interrupted me and said, that their preachers
did not need the Bible, being inspired by the Holy Ghost. "No," I said,
"it is not inspiration, it is a Satanic delusion. Your prophet has
committed himself to-day, and I will make the fact known to the world.
Would you believe a man calling himself a prophet, who should say that
black is white?" "No," they replied. "Would you believe him if he should
say that English is French?" "Certainly not." "But you heard your
prophet declare, that this book of mine is a Dictionary of Egyptian
hieroglyphics, written in characters like those of the original Book of
Mormon. I know it most positively to be the Psalms of David, written in
ancient Greek. Now what shall I think of your prophet?" They appeared
confounded for a while; but at length the Mormon doctor said, "Sometimes
Mr. Smith speaks as a prophet, and sometimes as a mere man. If he gave a
wrong opinion respecting the book, he spoke as a mere man." I said,
"Whether he spoke as a prophet or as a mere man, he has committed
himself, for he has said what is not true. If he spoke as a prophet,
therefore, he is a false prophet. If he spoke as a mere man, he cannot
be trusted, for he spoke positively and like an oracle respecting that
of which he knew nothing. You have talked to me very freely respecting
the Church to which I belong; but I hardly like to tell you what I think
respecting your religion, lest I should hurt your feelings." "Speak
out," said some. "Go on," said others. "If Smith be not a true prophet,"
I said, "you must admit that he is a gross impostor." "We must," they
replied. "Then I will freely tell you my opinion, so that you may not
think that I intend to say at a distance what I would not say in Nauvoo
itself. I think it likely that most of you are credulous and ignorant,
but well-meaning persons, and that the time at least _has_ been when you
desired to do the will of God. A knot of designing persons, of whom
Smith is the centre, have imposed upon your credulity and ignorance, and
you have been most thoroughly hoaxed by their artful devices. Mahomet
himself was a gentleman, a Christian, and a scholar, when compared with
your prophet. And oh! how mournful to look round, as I can at present,
and to reflect, how many have been drawn away from their homes, dragged
across earth and sea, and brought to this unwholesome spot, where, with
the loss of substance and of health, they are too often left to perish
in wretched poverty and bitter disappointment." One of the Mormons who
had listened attentively to what I said, now remarked with some
solemnity of manner, "If we are deceived, then are we of all men the
most miserable." "Indeed I believe you are most miserable," I replied,
"and I pity you from the very bottom of my heart. And oh! how gladly
would I see you delivered from this awful delusion, and returning to the
bosom of that holy Catholic Church, from which many of you have
apostatized. There you may find plain and honest teaching, without these
lying signs and wonders. There you may find holy and solemn services
fitted for the edification of the people of God. There you may find a
true baptism, a true communion, true gifts of the Holy Ghost, and true
ministers who descend in one unbroken line from the Apostles sent forth
by Christ Himself." Several of them now said that faith is the gift of
God, that God had promised to give wisdom to those who should ask it;
that they had prayed to God to guide them into all truth, and that He
had led them to believe in the book of Mormon. I replied that God had
appointed certain means of ascertaining the truth, and that if we
neglect those means it will be vain to pray to Him for guidance. Thus He
had declared his Church to be the pillar and ground of truth. But it was
evident that they had not built upon the true ground, for they had
attached themselves not to the apostolic Church, but a sect barely
fifteen years old. The old man in blue now told me that they pitied me
as much as I pitied them. "Come, my friend," he said to me, "let you and
I go down to the Mississippi, only let me put you under the water and
baptize you, and when you come up again, you will see all mysteries
clearly, and will believe in our great signs and wonders." I told him in
reply, that to submit to such a baptism would be almost the greatest
sacrilege which a Christian could commit. "I must now leave you," I
proceeded, "I have been among you three days; I have expressed my
sentiments freely respecting your religion and your prophet, and I
heartily thank you that you have listened to me with attention, and that
although you have had me altogether in your power, you have not put me
under the Mississippi and kept me there."

I walked to the ferry with the Mormon who had brought me over in the
morning, the Mormon doctor, and one or two others. When we arrived at
the boat we found it safe, as it had been carefully padlocked in the
morning. The oars, however, were missing, a circumstance which caused
great vexation to the owner. He exclaimed "My oars are gone; somebody
has hooked my oars." "Who has taken your oars?" I asked. "Some of the
boys, I guess," he replied. "What! some of the young Latter-day Saints?"
I said. "I guess it was," he answered. "But do not the young saints
learn the ten commandments," I demanded, "and especially the eighth,
'Thou shalt not steal?'" "I guess they know them all," the poor man
answered, "but any how they don't practise them." Accordingly he took a
piece of board in his hands, and having given another piece to one of
his companions, he proceeded rather awkwardly to paddle across the wide
and rapid stream. A third piece of board was given to the doctor, who
sat with me in the stern, to be used as a rudder. For some time we
advanced tolerably well; but before long the doctor began to argue with
me vehemently. He said that no man could obtain salvation, who devoted
so little attention to the truth of God as I had done; and that instead
of spending only three days, I ought to have remained at least three
weeks at Nauvoo. I told him that I had seen quite enough to convince any
person of ordinary understanding, that Smith was an impostor. He replied
that Smith might be as bad as he was reported to be, but that his
prophecies would not thereby be proved false. He might be a swindler, a
liar, a drunkard, a swearer, and still be a true prophet. David was a
murderer and an adulterer, and yet was a true prophet. St. Peter said
that even in his time "David had not yet ascended into heaven." David
was in hell, for no murderer had eternal life abiding in him. So Smith
might be as infamous as David was, and even deny his own revelations,
and turn away from his religion, and go to hell; but this would not
affect the revelations which God had given by him. It was in vain that I
attempted to correct the doctor's false positions; the stream of his
eloquence had begun to flow, and, finally, I suffered it to flow
unchecked. He said that the truth of Mormonism did not depend on the
character of Smith or of any other man. That our Lord had told the Jews
that there were other sheep, not of that fold, whom He intended to
bring, and that in accordance with this declaration, after his ascension
into heaven, He descended again in America and preached the Gospel to
the Indians, as the veracious history of the book of Mormon assured us.
That for his own part, his faith had been produced solely by the power
of God, and that if he was deceived, God Almighty had deceived him, and
no other. "I was once an honest Atheist," he proceeded, "I felt that
Christianity could not be true, since Christians have not yet decided
among themselves what Christianity is. I was induced by curiosity to
listen to the preaching of a Mormon elder. My attention was strongly
arrested; I began to believe in God, and for many weeks and months was
earnest in my prayers to Him for a knowledge of the truth. After the
space of six months, I was one night lying awake in my bed meditating,
when suddenly a conviction of the reality of the Christian religion
flashed upon my mind like lightning. I saw the truth of the Scriptures
and of the book of Mormon. I felt powerfully convinced that the
prophecies of Joseph Smith were from God. At the same time I was filled
with a supernatural extasy which resembled heaven itself. I could not
restrain my feelings, but cried out, O my God, if it be thus to be
baptized with the Holy Ghost, what must it be to be baptized with fire!
From that time I have been a member of the 'Latter-day Church,' and,
believe me, I would rather be an honest Atheist again, than embrace the
doctrines of any of the sects. If the religion which I profess be false,
there is no true religion upon earth."

The doctor's zeal had so completely carried him away, that he quite
forgot his duty as helmsman. The boat was now about the middle of the
Mississippi, and after sundry tortuous windings, seemed about to return
to Nauvoo. The poor fellows who were paddling with the boards
complaining of the doctor's steering, I volunteered to take the helm,
and the medical gentleman forthwith resigned his piece of board into my
hands. The skiff now proceeded with a straight course, and we shortly
landed in Iowa. The doctor, on parting from me, complimented me somewhat
equivocally on my seamanship, by observing, that if I knew the way of
salvation as well as I knew how to steer, I might have a good chance of
getting to heaven.

During the remainder of the day, I employed myself in obtaining
testimony from persons residing in Iowa in reference to the conduct and
character of their Mormon neighbours. I have every reason to believe
that this testimony is correct, partly because it agrees with what I
myself saw and heard in Nauvoo, and partly on account of the character
and respectability of the witnesses.

The reader must have already inferred from my description, that the
false prophet himself is a coarse and gross personage, by no means
punctilious in regard to truth. The following facts related by actual
witnesses will not therefore appear incredible.

Before the Mormons settled in the vicinity, no shop for the sale of
spirituous liquors had been established in Montrose. After their arrival
two of their preachers commenced a grog-shop in that place, which was
principally supported by the "Latter-day Saints." In September 1841, the
prophet being in Montrose, became intoxicated at this shop. While in
this condition he told the by-standers "that he could drink them all
drunk," and requested the shop-keeper to treat all his friends at his

On another occasion, having been discharged from arrest, through
informality in the writ requiring his apprehension for high treason
against the State of Missouri, Smith gave a party at Monmouth, and,
after a regular frolic with his lawyers and friends, became thoroughly
intoxicated. On being asked how it was that he, a prophet of the Lord,
could get drunk, he replied, that it was necessary that he should do so,
in order to prevent his followers from worshipping him as a God.

While intoxicated at Montrose, at another time, he was heard by
several persons saying to himself, "I am a P.R.O.F.I.T. I am a
P.R.O.F.I.T."--spelling (or rather mis-spelling) the word deliberately,
and repeating the letters in solemn succession.

About two years since, at a political convention held in Nauvoo, the
prophet became intoxicated, and was led home by his brother Hyrum. On
the following Sunday, he acknowledged the fact in public. He said that
he had been tempted, and had drunk too much; but that he had yielded to
the temptation for the following reason:--Several of the elders had got
drunk, and had never made confession; but he was desirous of getting
drunk and confessing it, in order to set the elders a good example.

The language of the prophet is gross in the extreme. A Mormon, for
example, having made some remarks derogatory to "the elect lady," Mrs.
Smith, the prophet was dreadfully exasperated. He endeavoured to find
out the name of the offender; but, being unable to do so, he alluded to
the subject in a sermon, preached in the open air, at Montrose, on the
9th of May, 1841. He said, "I hope I may never find out that person; for
if I do, my appetite shall never be satisfied till I have his blood; and
if he ever crosses my threshold I will send him to hell."

I have already stated some circumstances which may appear to reflect on
the common honesty of some of the Mormons. Mr. K. mentioned that he had
lived five years among heathen Indians, and had never been robbed by
them of the most trifling article. During the three years which have
elapsed since the settlement of the Mormons at Montrose and Nauvoo,
_fourteen robberies_, to the amount of two thousand dollars, have been
committed upon his property. 1st, His store was robbed of goods worth
five hundred dollars; 2nd, his warehouse was plundered of one barrel of
pork, two barrels of sugar, and five kegs of lard; 3rd, his smoke-house
was despoiled of thirty-three hams and eleven shoulders; the 4th robbery
deprived him of a barrel and a half of salt; the 5th, of another barrel
of salt; the 6th, of a saddle, bridle, and martingale, which were taken
from his stable; 7thly, four wheels were taken from his waggon; 8thly,
three saddles and bridles and a martingale from his stable; 9thly, sixty
bushels of wheat from his granary; 10thly, six boxes of glass, a hundred
and fifty pounds of bacon, and two boxes of axes, from his warehouse;
11th, six more barrels of salt; 12th, between three and four hundred
bushels of Indian corn; 13th, one wheel was stolen from his chariot
within an enclosure; and, 14th, his store was robbed of forty-two pieces
of dark prints, five or six pieces of satinette, and other articles,
worth about four hundred dollars.

Joseph Smith, alluding to these robberies in a sermon, said that he "did
not care how much was taken from Mr. K. and his brother." He cited the
example of Christ and his apostles, who, he said, when hungry, scrupled
not to steal corn while walking in the fields. He added the following
words,--"The world owes me a good living; if I cannot get it otherwise,
I will steal it, and catch me at it if you can."

He has, however, thought fit to disavow these principles. In the "Times
and Seasons" of Dec. 1, 1841, we have the following official document:

  "State of Illinois, } SS.
  Hancock County.     }

"Before me, John C. Bennett, Mayor of the City of Nauvoo, personally
came Joseph Smith, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints (commonly called Mormons), who, being duly sworn
according to law, deposeth and saith, that he has never, directly or
indirectly, encouraged the purloining of property, or taught the
doctrine of stealing, or any other evil practice; and that all such
vile and unlawful acts will ever receive his unqualified and
unreserved disapproval, and the most vigorous opposition of the
Church over which he presides; and further this deponent saith not.


  "President of the Church of Latter-day

After this follows an account of two unlucky Mormons, who seem to be
selected as scape-goats. Being officers of the Nauvoo legion, they are
tried by court martial, found guilty of theft, and sentenced to be
cashiered. Joseph Smith solemnly approves of this sentence, and the
proceedings are published in the "Times and Seasons." About the same
time, five Mormons are gazetted as being expelled from the church for

The following circumstance was mentioned as a specimen of the manner in
which these singular heretics endeavour to rid themselves of the
imputation of thievishness universally cast upon them. In the winter of
1841, a Mormon was committed to the penitentiary on a charge of
horse-stealing. Upon this, the "Saints" denied that he was a Mormon. Two
Mormon preachers, however, offered themselves as bail for the prisoner,
and having effected his liberation, speedily decamped. When the spring
session of the court of Lee County for 1842 had arrived, it appeared
that the accused had followed their example, for neither he nor his
securities were to be found.

The sufferings experienced by many of the English emigrants at Nauvoo
were described as truly appalling. Nauvoo is one of the most unhealthy
spots on the Mississippi, between New Orleans and the Falls of St.
Anthony. This insalubrity is produced by the low islands adjoining the
city, which are frequently overflowed. Sufficient evidence of the
unhealthiness of the place is furnished in the following extract from a
"revelation given to Joseph Smith, January 19th, 1841," and published in
the "Times and Seasons" for June 1st, 1841:

"Verily thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant, Joseph Smith,--I am
well pleased with your offerings and acknowledgements which you have
made; for unto this end have I raised you up, that I might show forth my
wisdom through the weak things of the earth. * * * * * Let no man go
from this place who has come here _a_ssaying to keep my commandments. If
they live here, let them live unto me, and if they die, let them die
unto me; for they shall rest from all their labour here, and shall
continue their works. Therefore, let my servant William put his trust in
me, and cease to fear concerning his family, because of the sickness of
the land. If ye love me, keep my commandments, and the sickness of the
land shall redound to your glory."

I was informed again and again in Montrose, that nearly half of the
English who emigrated to Nauvoo in 1841 died soon after their arrival.
Far from the graves of their fathers, remote from the ministers of the
true faith, they ended their days in want and wretchedness, and were
buried without that respectful solemnity which in England is not denied
even to the pauper from the workhouse.

In his sermon of the 9th of May, 1841, the following words of _most
Christian consolation_ were delivered by the prophet to the poor deluded

"Many of the English who have lately come here have expressed great
disappointment on their arrival. Such persons have every reason to be
satisfied in this beautiful and fertile country. If they choose to
complain, they may; but I don't want to be troubled with their
complaints. If they are not satisfied here, I have only to say this to
them,--Don't stay whining about me, but go back to England and be d--d."

One of Joseph's missionaries, having returned from a mission to England,
preached a sermon at Nauvoo on Sunday, July 4th, 1840. Having given an
account of his proceedings during his absence, and alluded to the
converts whom he had persuaded to settle near Nauvoo, he proceeded to
speak as follows:--"I have not had an opportunity to visit these English
brethren since my return. I cannot spend my time in visiting them. If
they are as much dissatisfied as they are said to be, I have only this
to say to them,--You had better go back to England; but if you go, go
like men and be d--d, and don't whine about it."

The Secretary for the territory of Iowa was present on this occasion,
and remarked to my informant, that he was astonished at hearing these
expressions from the very man who had brought these poor people a
distance of six thousand miles.

The method in which the Mormons baptize is a perfect burlesque on the
holy initiatory sacrament of the gospel. On one occasion, a hundred and
sixty-five persons were baptized by immersion at Nauvoo, some for the
remission of sins, and some for their deceased friends, which is their
baptism for the dead. This business was done by seven elders, who
enjoyed it as a capital frolic. One of these elders baptized a woman six
times during the same day. Not satisfied with this, she presented
herself a seventh time, when the elder jocosely remarked, "What! haven't
you got wet enough already?" A very tall man offering himself, the
elder, who is very stout, laughed aloud, and said, "I am the only one
big enough to put tall chaps like you under water."

The Christian reader will feel that he has now had enough of these awful
profanations; and I assure him that nothing but a sense of the duty of
exposing imposture could have induced me to commit them to paper. A mere
selection from the sayings, writings, and doings of the leading Mormons,
equal to the preceding in horrid wickedness, would fill volumes. Enough
has been said, however, to prove that Mormonism is associated in the
minds of its most zealous advocates with dispositions and actions the
very reverse of those which are inculcated by the Gospel, and exhibited
in the example of Jesus Christ.

In the evening subsequent to my last visit to Nauvoo, I walked by the
western banks of the noble Mississippi. Beside me flowed its smooth
waters, undisturbed by the slightest ripple. On the eastern bank the
rays of the setting sun were reflected from the windows of Nauvoo, and
his parting beams illuminated the white dwellings of the prophet and his
followers. It was a time adapted to serious reflection. I felt
convinced, that palpable as are the absurdities of Mormonism, it is a
system which possesses many elements of strength, and of extension. When
the present generation of deceivers and of dupes shall have gone to
their graves, a new class of Mormons may have arisen, educated in the
principles of the sect, and taught by experience to disavow some
features in their religion which are at present its shame and its
disgrace. They may consign Joseph Smith to perdition, together with the
sweet Psalmist of Israel; while his doctrines, somewhat refined, may be
a rule of faith and action to admiring millions. It remains (under God)
for Christians of the present day to determine whether Mormonism shall
sink to the level of those fanatical sects which, like new stars, have
blazed for a little while, and then sunk into obscurity; or whether,
like a second Mahometanism, it shall extend itself sword in hand, until,
throughout western America, Christianity shall be levelled with the

And how shall Christians effectually avert the calamity? I reply, by
encouraging the feeble and infant Christian institutions already
existing in that wonderful land which Mormonism, even now, claims as
its own. As a Churchman, I feel almost ashamed for my Church, when I
reflect upon the heavy discouragements which are suffered to afflict the
amiable and patient missionary bishop of Missouri, Iowa, and Wisconsin.
Where are the zealous missionaries who should be flocking to his
assistance? Where are the means which should be provided for the support
of a learned clergy in the rising cities of the west? Why is Kemper
College, the first and only institution of the Church beyond the
Mississippi, permitted to languish, while the Mormon temple, and the
Mormon university, offer their delusive attractions to the rising
generation? Why is the venerable bishop of Illinois permitted to labour
almost alone, while the missionaries of Joseph Smith, with a zeal worthy
of the true Church, perambulate his diocese and plant their standard in
every village?

If the Churches of England and America possessed the activity of the
Mormons, questions like the above would soon be needless. Churchmen
would contribute from their poverty as well as from their riches;
churches would be erected, missionaries maintained, and colleges in
which a learned clergy could be educated, would be liberally endowed.
Fanaticism, no longer rampant, would hide itself in the darkest recesses
of the forest; while pure and genuine religion would be the comfort of
the weary emigrant, and the faithful guide of the fifty millions who,
doubtless, before another century, will occupy the valley of the

How present exigencies shall be met, is a question worthy of the careful
consideration of all, both in England and America, who are solicitous
for the advancement of truth and piety. The appointment of a
self-denying missionary to reside in the immediate vicinity of Nauvoo,
might in some degree check the rising heresy. Such a missionary should
be thoroughly acquainted with the Mormon controversy; patient, willing
to endure contradiction and persecution, and able to accommodate himself
readily to all circumstances, and to all classes of people. Those who
become disgusted with Mormonism might thus be saved from embracing
Atheism; the poor disappointed English might be relieved, encouraged,
and restored to the Church of their fathers; the progress of the
delusion might be closely watched, and the artifices of its leaders duly

It is also worthy of remark, that the success of Joseph Smith appears to
warrant a system of emigration and settlement conducted on religious
principles. The notorious Owen, as is well known, attempted the
establishment of an Infidel community at New Harmony, in Indiana, and
totally failed. Joseph Smith has availed himself of the religious
principle natural to man, and has triumphantly succeeded. If a false
faith has thus prevailed, true religion might accomplish wonders.
Whatever may be said, and much may be said with truth, respecting the
superior claims of the British colonies, it is certain that a vast
proportion of those who emigrate from Great Britain and Ireland, proceed
to the United States. Numbers of these have been educated in the
principles of the Established Church; and yet, from various causes, few
of them comparatively attach themselves to the Church in America. Many
connect themselves with various dissenting denominations; while still
more, it is to be feared, sink into heartless apathy and irreligion. But
we will suppose that a large body of members of the Church determine
upon emigrating, on a system which shall secure mutual co-operation and
religious fellowship. Before leaving home, the outlines of their plan
are fixed: they are accompanied by a sufficient number of well-educated
pastors and teachers: they purchase a district of four or five thousand
acres in a healthy portion of Iowa, for example: they obtain from the
legislature charters for a city, a college, and a church, respectively:
they erect their own dwellings upon a handsome and tasteful design: they
elect a mayor and a corporation for their rising city. A substantial
Church is built, which may afterwards form one wing of a noble Gothic
Cathedral. Schools and teachers are provided for the children,
professors are appointed for the college, libraries are commenced, and
halls are erected. Allotments of land are set aside for the perpetual
maintenance of religion and Christian education. The clergy, if
sufficiently numerous, elect, with the approbation of the laity, some
learned and active man as their bishop, who is afterwards duly
consecrated by the authorities of the American Church. The Church now
appears in its fulness and dignity; and missionaries go forth from the
city, in sincerity and truth, to traverse the land and to convert its

This is not a chimerical idea, it is a sketch of what might be realized
with little difficulty. Discouragements would occasionally arise; but
ultimately, with proper management, such a plan would undoubtedly
succeed. A new point of attraction would thus be presented to European
and American emigrants, and the power of the false prophet would be
shaken to its foundation.


PAGE 2. "Amid countless forms of schism."

Bishop Kemper gives the following information on this subject, in a
recent appeal to the European Churches.

  "Under a canon of the Protestant Episcopal Church, passed in the
  year 1835, I was consecrated a missionary Bishop for Indiana and
  Missouri, to which were afterwards added Wisconsin, Iowa, and the
  country beyond the Mississippi, extending southward to latitude 36°
  30´, northward to the British possessions, and westward to the
  Pacific Ocean. This region contains a million of square miles, a
  million and a quarter of white and negro inhabitants, and numerous
  Indian tribes amounting in population to not less than three hundred
  thousand souls. I proceeded forthwith to my field of labour, and
  found many members of our Catholic and Apostolic Church straying
  from her fold through the want of pastors. Romanism, heresy, schism,
  infidelity, paganism, and a new religion--known as Mormonism,
  extensively pervading the land; and not more than six or seven
  clergymen of our church scattered at wide intervals over this
  prodigious surface. I also found that about thirty thousand
  emigrants from Europe annually settled within my jurisdiction, a
  large proportion of whom were members of the Reformed Churches of
  Great Britain, Germany, Prussia, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, in
  addition to a vast influx of settlers from the eastern parts of the
  United States, and British America."

Speaking of the Roman Catholics, the Bishop says,

  "Within the bounds of my mission, where I have (1841) but
  twenty-three fellow-labourers, they have three bishops, and one
  hundred and six priests. They annually receive large funds from
  Vienna, Lyons, &c., by which they are enabled to erect splendid
  cathedrals, extensive colleges, large convents, and substantial
  stone churches. In St. Louis alone they have a large cathedral,
  which cost, it is said, eighty thousand dollars, to which, beside
  the bishop, there are attached four clergymen, who preach and
  catechise every Sunday in English, French, and German. They have
  also four chapels, and a splendid church, as yet unfinished, one
  hundred and twenty feet in length, and eighty in width. The present
  position of their diocese of St. Louis is as follows:--fifty-six
  churches, nine churches building, sixty other stations,
  seventy-three clergymen, two ecclesiastical seminaries, two colleges
  for young men, one academy for boys, ten female convents, ten
  academies for young ladies, four schools, and eight charitable

PAGE 3. "A New Book."

The Book of Mormon contains five hundred and eighty-eight duodecimo
pages, consisting of fifteen different books, purporting to be written
at different times, and by different authors, whose names they
respectively bear. The period of time covered by these spurious records
is about a thousand years, commencing with the time of Zedekiah, and
terminating with the year of our Lord 420. It professes to trace the
history of the American aborigines, from the time of their leaving
Jerusalem in the reign of Zedekiah, under one Lehi, down to their final
disaster near the hill Camorah, in the state of New York, in which
contest, according to "the prophet Moroni," about 230,000 were slain in
a single battle, and he alone escaped to tell the tale. These records,
with which various prophecies and sermons are intermingled, are declared
by Smith to have been written on golden plates, in "the reformed
Egyptian character," and discovered to him by an angel in the year 1823.
An English edition of the Book of Mormon, _revised and corrected_, has
been published at Manchester, for the benefit of British "Saints."

PAGE 4. "a large portion of whom are natives of Christian and
enlightened England."

I am permitted by a clergyman of the diocese of Chester to give the
following extracts from a letter, addressed by him to me, February 4th,

  "For your very kind and satisfactory information as to that
  arch-impostor, Joe Smith, I most cordially thank you. Mormonism is a
  heresy of a very dangerous and disgraceful tendency; and I am sorry
  to add, it has produced effects already in some parishes in England
  which, in this enlightened age, one could scarcely imagine possible.
  They first of all laid their blasphemous scheme at Preston, in
  Lancashire, after taking out a licence at the quarter sessions. This
  occurred about the year 1836 or 37; and they soon numbered in that
  locality nearly 500 converts. In 1838, they extended their
  iniquitous operations to various villages on each side of the
  Ribble. At Ribchester, the famous Roman station of Ribcunium, they
  seduced many; and the same results followed in other places nearer
  Clitheroe. Since that time, itinerant preachers among the Methodists
  and Calvinists have joined the unholy compact; and even farmers,
  labourers, mechanics, and others,--in short, whoever among them
  could supply the _needful_,--have been persuaded to sell their
  property, and emigrate to Nauvoo. In 1838, every Mormon in one
  village, and in other villages probably the same, received a
  certificate, or passport, of which the following is a copy:

    "We do hereby certify that A. B., the bearer of this, is a regular
    member, and in good standing and fellowship, in the Church of the
    Latter-day Saints in Waddington, and is a worthy member of the same;
    and as a token also of our love and good will, we give unto him this
    letter of commendation to the esteem and fellowship of the Saints,
    in any land or country to which he may be pleased to remove.

    "_March 29,

    "H. C. KIMBALL,
    "Presiding Elders of said Church.

    "This will be called for."

Three hundred of these certificates were printed at Clitheroe, by which
speculation about £15 were realized.

The way in which a Mormon prophecy is given to produce effect on the
converts, is artfully designing. A young man, for instance, is immersed.
After his immersion, the elders write a letter, unknown to the proselyte
himself. As long as he remains faithful, all is right; the letter
remains carefully sealed, and is kept by third parties. If he leaves
them, a meeting of all the Mormons in the neighbourhood takes place, the
letter is brought out with solemn pomp, the seal is broken, and the
contents are read publicly. The following will serve for an example of
these prophetic letters:

  "Liverpool, _April 13, 1838_.

  "DEAR BROTHERS AND SISTERS IN PRESTON,--It seemeth good unto us, and
  also unto the Holy Ghost, to write to you a few words, which cause
  pain in our hearts, and will also pain you when they are fulfilled
  before you; yet you shall have joy in the end. Brother Webster will
  not abide in the Spirit of the Lord, but will reject the truth, and
  become the enemy of the people of God, and expose the mysteries
  which have been committed to him, that a righteous judgment may be
  executed upon him, unless he speedily repent. When this sorrowful
  prediction shall be fulfilled, this letter shall be read to the
  church, and it shall prove a solemn warning to all to beware.

  "Farewell in the Lord,
  "H. C. KIMBALL."

In England, the preachers of Mormonism generally begin by insinuating
among the astonished natives of rural villages, or the weak and wavering
classes in larger towns, that our Bible has suffered by translation, and
that it is deficient and incomplete in many particulars. They next
declare that the Book of Mormon and the revelations bestowed on Smith
and Rigdon are additional favours from the Deity, designed to explain
the obscurities and supply the deficiencies of our Scriptures. It never
enters into the minds of their dupes to inquire as to the _credentials_
of these preachers. They are the eye-witnesses of no miracle: they see
no dead raised to life, no dumb qualified to speak, no blind enabled to

One night the Mormon elder commences by observing to his congregation
that he does not know what to say, but that he will say whatever the
Lord shall put into his mouth. On another night, he gravely announces
his intention to read a portion of the old Scriptures for edification;
invariably, however, taking care not to confine himself to any
particular subject, but to have as extensive a field as possible, in
order to weave in from time to time such portions of the "Book of
Mormon" as he knows to be best adapted to effect his object. The
American edition of this book had no index to guide its readers to any
particular passage or doctrine; it was not generally circulated in
England, even among the converts; and hence very few were able to know
precisely when the preacher's words were _Mormonic_, and when they were
not. This peculiarity was remarked upon at the time, and in an English
edition, printed at Manchester, an index was inserted.

For the continuance of the fraudulent scheme, they proceed to enact a
mock ordination, choosing out of the whole body of converts certain
individuals who are deemed most trustworthy. These assume their
blasphemous calling on the pretended sanction of the Deity, immerse
converts after dark, _confirm_ the parties next day, and administer, in
the course of two or three days at the farthest, a mock sacrament, to
individuals who in the bewildered state of their minds scarcely know
their right hand from their left.

It is under the very convenient cloak of night, however, that Mormonism
in England performs most of its operations. It is then in the zenith of
its glory, converting ignorance into the tool of delusion, chaining it
fast by iniquitous discipline, order, and system, and trying with all
its energy to make the worse appear the better cause. In such beguiling
hours, the secret "Church Meeting" is held, to the exclusion of every
individual except the initiated. High and mighty is the business
transacted on such occasions. It consists of exhortations to stand firm,
instructions given, explanations offered, visions and revelations
stated, gifts received for the "Bishop of Zion," confessions made,
threatenings held out, converts reprimanded, apostates excommunicated,
the successes of Mormonism described, and suggestions offered for
removing the difficulties in its way. Enquiries are made in reference to
other particulars: for example,--"What kind of people reside in this
neighbourhood? What places of worship do they frequent? What opinions
have you formed as to the natural bent of their respective dispositions?
Will they be disposed to join us, or will they exercise an influence
against us? Are they principally in the humble walks of life, or are
they of some knowledge and understanding?" If the answer to these and
other questions be apparently favourable, the necessary advice is given
to the first converts how they may prevail upon more. Suggestions are
thrown out how to persuade; and the next step is to urge in every
possible way the grievous sin of baptizing infants, and the absolute
necessity of _dipping_, as the very _sine quâ non_, the only effectual
path to everlasting salvation.

It was the opinion of many of our clerical brethren in England, at
first, that the evil would upset itself. But system, order, and
discipline are powerful ingredients, even in a bad cause. Smith writes
to England as follows:--"The Nauvoo Legion embraces all our military
power." "The University of Nauvoo will enable us to teach our children
arts, sciences, and learned professions. The regents of the university
will supervise all matters of education, from common schools up to the
highest branches."

PAGE 3. "St. Louis, a city of thirty thousand inhabitants."

St. Louis was founded in 1764, under the auspices of the French
government, by M. Laclede, who named it in honour of the reigning
monarch, Louis XV. In 1770, it passed into the possession of Spain, and
as the seat of government for Upper Louisiana was occupied by a Spanish
governor. In 1800, Louisiana was retroceded to France, from which
government it was purchased by the United States during the presidency
of Mr. Jefferson. St. Louis increased slowly until the introduction of
steam navigation on the western rivers; but during the last seven years
its population has increased from 8000 to 30,000. It contains fifteen
places of worship, viz., two Episcopalian churches, two Roman Catholic,
two Methodist meeting-houses, two Presbyterian, one Associate Reformed
Presbyterian, one German Lutheran, one Baptist, one Unitarian, an
African Methodist, and an African Baptist meeting-house, besides a
Jewish synagogue. A third Roman Catholic church is in progress, and the
number of Roman Catholics in the city is not less than 14,000. The
buildings are of brick or stone, and generally present a handsome

PAGE 5. "Father of waters," &c.

When the Mississippi is at its lowest stage, the depth of water at St.
Louis is four feet; when full, the depth is twenty-nine feet. The width
of the river is three-quarters of a mile; the average velocity four
miles an hour; the average descent of the stream six inches in every

PAGE 8. "This was the Temple."

The following are some of Joseph Smith's "Revelations" on the subject of
the temple, extracted from the "Times and Seasons" for June 1, 1841.

  "Verily, verily, I say unto you, let all my saints come from afar,
  and send ye swift messengers, yea, chosen messengers, and say unto
  them, Come ye with all your gold, and your silver, and your precious
  stones, and with all your antiquities; and all who have knowledge
  of antiquities that will come, may come; and bring the box-tree, and
  the fir-tree, and the pine-tree, together with all the precious
  trees of the earth; and with iron, and with copper, and with brass,
  and with zinc, and with all your precious things of the earth; and
  build a house to my name, for the Most High to dwell therein: for
  there is not a place found upon earth, that he may come and restore
  again that which was lost unto you, or which he hath taken away,
  even the fulness of the priesthood.

  "* * * And again, verily, I say unto you, how shall your washings be
  acceptable unto me, except ye perform them in a house which you have
  built to my name? For this cause, I commanded Moses that he should
  build a tabernacle, that they should bear it in the wilderness, and
  to build a house in the land of promise, that those ordinances might
  be revealed which had been hid from before the world was. * * * *

  "And verily I say unto you, let this house be built unto my name,
  that I may reveal mine ordinances therein unto my people; for I
  design to reveal unto my church things which have been kept hid from
  the foundation of the world; things that pertain to the dispensation
  of the fulness of times. And I will show unto my servant Joseph, all
  things pertaining to this house, and the priesthood thereof, and the
  place whereon it shall be built. * * * * And it shall come to pass,
  that if you build a house unto my name, and do not the things that I
  say, I will not perform the oath which I make unto you; neither
  fulfil the promises which ye expect at my hands, saith the Lord:
  for instead of blessings, ye by your own works, bring cursings,
  wrath, indignation, and judgment upon your own heads by your
  follies, and by all your abominations which you practise before me,
  saith the Lord."

PAGE 12. "In Palestine, &c."

The following is from the 'Times and Seasons' for April 1st, 1842.

  "Another letter has just come to hand from Elder Hyde, dated Jaffa,
  Oct. He was then on his way to Jerusalem, the date being much
  earlier than the one inserted in another page. We have only room for
  the following extract, which we publish as among the most
  extraordinary signs of the times. 'On my passage from Beyroot to
  this place (Jaffa) the night before last, at one o'clock, as I was
  meditating on the deck of the vessel as she was beating down against
  a sultry wind, a very bright glittering sword appeared in the
  heavens, with a beautiful hilt, as plain and complete as any cut you
  ever saw. And what is still more remarkable, an arm with a perfect
  hand, stretched itself out and took hold of the hilt of the sword.
  The appearance really made my hair rise, and my flesh, as it were,
  crawl on my bones. The Arabs made a wonderful outcry at the sight.
  Oh, Allah! Allah! was their exclamation all over the vessel. I
  mention this, because you know there is a commandment of God for me,
  which says, 'Unto you it shall be given to know the signs of the
  times, and the sign of the coming of the Son of man.'

  Yours, in Christ,

PAGE 13. "Nauvoo House."

The following is a further extract from the "Revelation" of January 19,
1841, quoted above.

  "Verily, I say unto you, let my servant George, and my servant
  Lyman, and my servant John Snider, and others, build a house unto my
  name, such an one as my servant Joseph shall show unto them, upon
  the place which he shall show unto them also. And it shall be for a
  house of boarding, a house that strangers may come from afar to
  lodge therein. * * * * Let it be built unto my name, and let my name
  be named upon it; and let my servant Joseph and his house have place
  therein, from generation to generation. For this anointing have I
  put upon his head, that his blessing shall also be put upon the
  heads of his posterity after him; and as I said unto Abraham, even
  so I say unto my servant Joseph, in thee and in thy seed shall all
  the kindreds of the earth be blessed. Therefore, let my servant
  Joseph and his seed after him have place in that house from
  generation to generation, for ever and ever, saith the Lord; and let
  the name of that house be called the Nauvoo House, and let it be a
  delightful habitation for man, and a resting-place for the weary
  traveller, that he may contemplate the glory of Zion, and the glory
  of this corner-stone thereof."

PAGE 22. "The writings of Abraham."

Smith's pretended version of these documents may be found in the "Times
and Seasons" for March 1, and March 15, 1842, with the following

  "A Translation of some ancient Records that have fallen into our
  hands from the Catacombs of Egypt, purporting to be the writings of
  Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written
  by his own hand upon papyrus."

PAGE 25. "The Nauvoo Legion."

The subjoined will serve as a specimen of "General Orders," issued by
Joseph Smith, in his military capacity:

  "Head Quarters. Nauvoo Legion, City of Nauvoo.

                          "_May 25_, A. D. 1841.

  "The 1st Company (riflemen), 1st Battalion, 2nd Regiment, 2nd
  Cohort, will be attached to the escort contemplated in the general
  order of the 4th instant, for the 3rd of July next. In forming the
  Legion, the Adjutant will observe the rank of companies as follows,
  to wit:

  "1st Cohort.--The flying artillery first, the lancers next, and the
  riflemen next, visiting companies of dragoons next the lancers, and
  cavalry next the dragoons.

  "2nd Cohort.--The artillery first, the lancers next, the riflemen
  next, the light-infantry next, visiting companies in their
  appropriate places, on the right of the troops of their own grade:
  the ranking company of the 1st Cohort will be formed on the right of
  the said Cohort, and the ranking company of the 2nd Cohort will be
  formed on the left of the said Cohort, the next on the right of the
  left; and so on to the centre. The escort will be formed on the
  right of the forces.

  "Major-General,       "Lieutenant-General."

PAGE 33. "The Mormons prefer miraculous aid to medicine."

The following is abridged from a London paper:--"On Wednesday an
investigation was gone into before Mr. Baker the coroner, at the Royal
Oak, Galway Street, St. Luke's, on the body of Elizabeth Morgan, aged
fifty-five years, whose death was alleged to have been caused through
improper treatment by unqualified persons. Maria Watkins said she had
known deceased about twelve months, and on Tuesday week witness was sent
for to attend her. Witness found her very ill; but no medical gentleman
was called in, it being against the religious tenets of the sect to
which the deceased belonged to do so. The sect to which she belonged
styled themselves 'The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,'
their place of meeting being in Castle street, Cow-cross. They treated
their sick according to a text taken from the last chapter of the
Epistle of St. James. Witness had known of healing under such
circumstances, but the deceased sank and died on Saturday last. No
surgeon was sent for. The coroner said he hardly knew how to deal with
the case, as he had his doubts whether it was not one of manslaughter.
The jury, after some deliberation, returned a verdict of 'Natural
death,' with a hope that the present inquiry would act as a caution for
the future."

PAGE 41. "The healing of the sick, the casting out of devils," &c.

In the "Times and Seasons," vol. iii. p. 709, may be found Joseph
Smith's creed, in which are contained the following articles:--

  "We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions,
  healing, interpretation of tongues, &c." "We believe all that God
  has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we believe that He
  will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the
  kingdom of God."

PAGE 44. "A knot of designing persons."

Professor Turner of Illinois College, thus addresses Joseph Smith.

  "I have charitably sought to find some ground for believing that you
  and your comrades were only a new species of religious maniacs. I
  have sought in vain. A man, however kindly disposed to think well of
  you, after a thorough examination of your career, might as well
  attempt to believe your religion, as to regard you in any other
  light than that of a deliberate, cold-blooded, persevering deceiver.
  I do not pretend that in the outset you even anticipated the final
  result. On the contrary, there is abundant evidence that at first
  your aims rose no higher than those of ordinary vagrants and
  jugglers. You have not even the poor merit of either talent or
  originality. Your highest aim has ever been to crawl among the
  droves of reptile impostors who have preceded you, and though your
  ignorance and utter incapacity have not suffered you to turn aside
  from their loathsome track, your fortunate union with others of
  greater ability, who have entered into your secrets, and the
  lamentable credulity of the times, have enabled you to attain a more
  signal and desolating success than most of your predecessors."

PAGE 44. "Mahomet" &c.

In the course of the trial of Joseph Smith and others, for high treason
against the state of Missouri, George M. Hinkle testified as follows:

  "I have heard Joseph Smith say, that he believed Mahomet was a good
  man; that the Koran was not a true thing, but that the world belied
  Mahomet as they belied him, and that Mahomet was a true prophet."

John Corrill also testified that he had heard Joseph Smith say publicly,
"that if people molested him he would establish his religion by the
sword; and that he would become to this generation a second Mahomet."

PAGE 47. "David was in hell."

In a report of Smith's sermon of May 16th, 1841, in the "Times and
Seasons" of June 1st, 1841, we find the annexed passage:--

  "Even David must wait for the times of refreshing before he can come
  forth and his sins be blotted out; for Peter speaking of him says,
  'David hath not ascended into heaven, for his sepulchre is with us
  to this day:' his remains were then in the tomb. Now we read that
  many bodies of the Saints arose at Christ's resurrection, probably
  all the Saints, but it seems that David did not. Why? because he had
  been a murderer."

PAGE 47. "He descended in America and preached the Gospel to the

See Book of Mormon, 5th chapter of Nephi. "And now it came to pass that
there were a great multitude gathered together of the people of Nephi;
* * * and they cast their eyes up towards heaven, and behold they saw a
man descending out of heaven; he was clothed in a white robe, and he
came down and stood in the midst of them, and the eyes of the whole
multitude was turned upon him, * * * and it came to pass that he
stretched forth his hand and spake unto the people saying: 'Behold I am
Jesus Christ of which the prophets testified that should come into the
world, and behold I am the light and life of the world, and I have drank
out of that bitter cup which the Father hath given me, and have
glorified the Father, in taking upon me the sins of the world.'"

PAGE 55. "Baptism for the dead."

Joseph Smith says in an article on this subject in the "Times and
Seasons," for April 15th, 1842.

  "What has become of our fathers? will they be damned for not obeying
  the Gospel, when they never heard it? Certainly not. But they will
  possess the same privilege that we here enjoy through the medium of
  the _everlasting_ priesthood, which not only administers in earth,
  but in heaven, * * * they will come out of their prison upon the
  same principle as those who were disobedient in the days of Noah
  were visited by our Saviour, * * * and in order that they might
  fulfil all the requisitions of God, their living friends were
  baptized for their dead friends, and thus fulfilled the requirements
  of God: 'Except a man be born again of water, and of the Spirit, he
  can in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven;' they were baptized
  of course, not for themselves, but for their dead. _Crysostum_ says,
  that the _Marchionites_[A] practised baptism for the dead, 'after a
  catechumen was dead, they hid a living man under the bed of the
  deceased; then coming to the dead man, they asked him whether he
  would receive baptism; and he making no answer, the other answered
  for him, and said that he would be baptized in his stead,--and so
  they baptized the living for the dead."

It appears by the above extract, that the prophet is beginning (in his
own way) to quote the fathers.


  [A] This is the prophet's own orthography.

PAGE 57. "The amiable and patient missionary bishop of Missouri," &c.

It is pleasing to turn from Joseph Smith, to the contemplation of the
truly estimable person in question. Bishop Kemper is of German descent;
his immediate ancestors having emigrated from Manheim on the Rhine. For
many years he was assistant minister to the late bishop White, in the
parochial charge of Christ-Church, Philadelphia. He was subsequently
elected and consecrated by the House of Bishops, as the first missionary
bishop. The expenses of his mission are borne by the committee for
domestic missions in the United States. He is absolutely _without a
home_, being almost perpetually engaged in visiting various portions of
the enormous region committed to his ecclesiastical superintendence. A
more difficult field of missionary duty can scarcely be imagined.

PAGE 57. "Kemper College."

This institution is the most western Protestant Episcopal college in the
world, being nearly half-way between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
The main building was completed externally during the year 1841, Bishop
Kemper having solicited and obtained funds for the purpose, to the
amount of twenty-five thousand dollars, from zealous Christians in New
York and Philadelphia. In the same year a considerable amount of
valuable books was presented to the college by pious individuals in
England, as well as by several of the great Societies. The object of the
college, is the preparation of young men for the ministry of the
Protestant Episcopal Church, and, under the enlightened and active
presidency of the Rev. E. C. Hutchinson, it bids fair ultimately to
realize the sanguine expectations of the Church.

PAGE 57. "The Mormon University."

Under an act of the Illinois legislature, incorporating the city of
Nauvoo, the following provisions are found:--

  "Sec. 24. The city council may establish and organize an institution
  of learning within the limits of the city, for the teaching of the
  arts, sciences, and learned professions, to be called the
  'University of the city of Nauvoo,' which institution shall be under
  the control and management of a board of trustees, consisting of a
  chancellor, registrar, and twenty-three regents, which board shall
  thereafter be a body corporate and politic, with perpetual
  succession, by the name of the chancellor and regents of the
  university of the city of Nauvoo, * * * provided that the trustees
  shall at all times be appointed by the city council, and shall have
  all the powers and privileges for the advancement of the cause of
  education, which appertain to the trustees of any other college or
  university of this state."

PAGE 58. "Few attach themselves to the Church in America."

The indifference of the poorer class of English emigrants to the Church
of their fathers is truly lamentable. The Roman Catholic emigrant,
however poor or friendless, retains his attachment to his faith. The
German Lutheran is firm in his allegiance to the principles which he
held in the land of his nativity. The same may be said of the Scottish
Presbyterian, and of the Irish and Scottish Episcopalian. But the
English labourer, mechanic, or small farmer, on his arrival in the
United States, too often forgets his churchmanship, and, through
ignorance or carelessness, readily connects himself with any schismatic
conventicle which may be at hand.


The Mormon Creed, as published by Joseph Smith himself, is given below.
(See "Times and Seasons," vol. iii. p. 709.)

  "We believe in God the Eternal Father, and in his Son Jesus Christ,
  and in the Holy Ghost.

  "We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and not
  for Adam's transgression.

  "We believe that through the atonement of Christ all mankind may be
  saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel.

  "We believe that these ordinances are, 1st, Faith in the Lord Jesus
  Christ; 2nd, Repentance; 3rd, Baptism by immersion, for the
  remission of sins; 4th, Laying on of hands, for the gift of the Holy

  "We believe that a man must be called of God by prophecy, and by
  laying on of hands by those who are in authority, to preach the
  Gospel, and administer in the ordinances thereof.

  "We believe in the same organization that existed in the primitive
  church, viz, Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, Teachers, Evangelists, &c.

  "We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions,
  healing, interpreting of tongues, &c.

  "We believe the Bible to be the Word of God, as far as it is
  translated correctly; we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the
  Word of God.

  "We believe all that God has revealed, all that he does now reveal,
  and we believe that he will yet reveal many great and important
  things pertaining to the kingdom of God.

  "We believe in the literal gathering of Israel, and in the
  restoration of the Ten Tribes; that Zion will be built upon this
  continent; that Christ will reign personally upon the earth; and
  that the earth will be renewed, and receive its paradisaic glory.

  "We claim the privilege of worshipping Almighty God according to the
  dictates of our conscience, and allow all men the same privilege,
  let them worship how, where, or what they may.

  "We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers, and
  magistrates, in obeying, honouring, and sustaining the law.

  "We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous; and
  in doing good to all men; indeed we may say that we follow the
  admonition of Paul, 'we believe all things, we hope all things;' we
  have endured many things, and hope to be able to endure all things.
  If there is anything virtuous, lovely, or of good report, or
  praiseworthy, we seek after these things."

Joseph Smith, by his own account, was born in the town of Sharon,
Windsor County, Vermont (U. S.), on the 23rd of December, 1805.


  GILBERT & RIVINGTON, Printers, St. John's Square, London.

Transcriber's Notes:

  Passages in italics are indicated by _italics_.

  Inconsistencies in spelling and hyphenation have been retained from
    the original.

  Errors in punctuation have been corrected without note.

  Obvious typographical errors have been changed as follows:

    Page 15: "hav'nt" changed to "hav'n't"
    Page 30: "intercouse" changed to "intercourse"
    Page 70: the duplicate word "for" deleted

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