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Title: The Colonization of North America - 1492-1783
Author: Bolton, Herbert Eugene, Marshall, Thomas Maitland
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Marc D'Hooghe












This book represents an attempt to bring into one account the story of
European expansion in North America down to 1783. Text-books written in
this country as a rule treat the colonization of the New World as the
history, almost solely, of the thirteen English colonies which formed
the nucleus of the United States. The authors have essayed to write a
book from a different point of view. It has been prepared in response to
a clear demand for a text written from the standpoint of North America
as a whole, and giving a more adequate treatment of the colonies of
nations other than England and of the English colonies other than the
thirteen which revolted. This demand is the inevitable result of the
growing importance of our American neighbors and of our rapidly growing
interest in the affairs of the whole continent, past as well as present.

The book is divided into three main parts: I. The Founding of the
Colonies; II. Expansion and International Conflict; III. The Revolt of
the English Colonies. The keynote is expansion. The spread of
civilization in America has been presented against a broad European
background. Not only colonial beginnings but colonial growth has been
traced. This method accounts for the development of all geographical
sections, and shows the relation of each section to the history of the
continent as a whole. When thus presented the early history of
Massachusetts, of Georgia, of Arkansas, of Illinois, or of California is
no longer merely local history, but is an integral part of the general
story. The colonies of the different nations are treated, in so far as
practicable, in the chronological order of their development, the desire
being to give a correct view of the time sequence in the development of
the different regions.

A principal aim of the authors has been to make the book comprehensive.
The activities of the Dutch and Swedes on the Atlantic mainland are
given a large setting in both Europe and the New World. The account of
French expansion in North America has been extended beyond the
conventional presentation to embrace the West Indies, the founding of
Louisiana, and the advance of the French pioneers across the Mississippi
and up its tributaries, and up the Saskatchewan to the Rocky Mountains.
The story of English expansion embraces not only the thirteen colonies
which revolted, but also the Bermudas, the West Indies, Hudson Bay,
Canada, and the Floridas. The treatment of the new British possessions
between 1763 and 1783 aims to present in one view the story of the
expansion of the whole English frontier, from Florida to Hudson Bay.

The Spanish colonies of North America, in particular, have been accorded
a more adequate treatment than is usual in textbooks. To writers of
United States history the Spaniards have appeared to be mere explorers.
Students of American history in a larger sense, however, know that Spain
transplanted Spanish civilization and founded vast and populous
colonies, represented to-day by some twenty republics and many millions
of people. The notion, so widely current in this country, that Spain
"failed" as a colonizer, arises from a faulty method. In treating
Spain's part in the New World it has been customary, after recounting
the discovery of America, to proceed at once to territory now within the
United States--Florida, New Mexico, Texas--forgetting that these regions
were to Spain only northern outposts, and omitting the wonderful story
of Spanish achievement farther south. This book being a history of the
colonization of North America, Spain's great colonies in South America,
now powerful nations, fall beyond our geographical limits.

When approached from a new viewpoint many familiar things appear in a
new light. Hitherto, for example, the inter-colonial wars in North
America have been regarded mainly as a struggle between France and
England, and as confined chiefly to the Canadian border. By following
the larger story of European expansion, however, it becomes plain that
there was an Anglo-Spanish and a Franco-Spanish, as well as a
Franco-English struggle for the continent, not to mention the ambitions
and efforts of Dutch, Swedes, Russians, and Danes. In nearly all the
general inter-colonial wars the Caribbean area and the Carolina-Florida
frontier were scenes of frequent conflicts quite as important as those
waged on the Canadian border. Between France and Spain a border contest
endured for more than a century and extended all the way from the Lesser
Antilles to the Platte River. The Anglo-French contest ended in 1763;
but the Anglo-Spanish conflict, which began in the sixteenth century,
endured to the end of the eighteenth and, in the hands of the American
offspring of Spain and England, to the middle of the nineteenth century.

Some teachers may for special reasons wish to treat the development of
the colonies of a single nation as a continuous movement, or in longer
periods, less frequently broken by happenings in the colonies of other
nations. This can be done conveniently by grouping the chapters in the
desired order. A continuous account of Spanish expansion is given in
Chapters II, III, XIII, XVI, and XXI. A connected story of French
America is told in Chapters IV, XIV, XV, XX. By omitting these and
Chapter IX a continuous narrative of English expansion is obtained.

August, 1920.



       Growth of Geographical Knowledge
       Portuguese Discoveries
       Columbus and the Discovery of America

     II. THE FOUNDING OF NEW SPAIN (1492-1543)
       Spain during the Conquest
       The Occupation of the West Indies
       Beginnings of Colonial Administration and Policy
       Exploration of the Mainland Coasts and the Search for a Strait
       The Mayas and the Nahuas
       The Conquest of Central America
       The Conquest of the Valley of Mexico
       The Spread of the Conquest
       Explorations in the Northern Interior and on the Pacific
       The Establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Spain

       Old and New Spain under Philip II
       The Mines of Northern Mexico
       The Settlement of the Atlantic Seaboard
       Foreign Intrusions in the Atlantic
       The Philippines and California
       The Founding of New Mexico
       Spanish Achievements in the 16th Century

       The French Background
       Early Explorations and Colonizing Efforts
       The St. Lawrence Valley
       Reorganization and the Iroquois Wars
       The West Indies
       Opening the Upper Lake Region and the Mississippi Valley

       The Tudor Period
       Commercial Expansion
       The Elizabethan Sea-dogs
       The Search for a Northwest Passage
       Attempts at Colonization

       England under the Early Stuarts, 1603-1640
       The Colonial Administrative System of the Early Stuarts
       The Founding of Virginia
       The Founding of Maryland
       The Bermudas
       The Lesser Antilles
       The Providence Island Company

       The Puritan Movement in England
       The Plymouth Colony
       Colonizing Activities on the New England Coast
       The Massachusetts Bay Colony
       Expansion of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
       Rhode Island
       Settlements in the Connecticut Valley

       Politics, Administration, and Expansion
       New England Development
       Virginia and Maryland

       Dutch Expansion
       New Netherlands
       The Dutch and the Swedes on the Delaware
       Absorption of New Netherlands by the English

       Colonial Policy and Administration
       Machinery of Government
       Misrule and Rebellion in Virginia
       Discontent in Maryland
       Royal Interference in New England

       New York
       The Jerseys
       The Insular Colonies
       The Carolinas
       Western Trade and Exploration
       Hudson's Bay Company

       New England
       New York and East New Jersey
       Colonies along Delaware River and Bay
       The Chesapeake Bay Region
       South Carolina


       Spain and the Colonies in the Seventeenth Century
       Frontier Administration
       The Missions
       The Jesuits in Sinaloa and Sonora
       Efforts to Occupy Lower California
       The Settlement of Chihuahua
       New Mexico in the Seventeenth Century
       Coahuila Occupied
       First Attempts in Eastern Texas
       The Struggle with Rivals in the West Indies
       The Struggle with the English on the Carolina Border

       The Preliminary Struggle for the Northern Fur Country.
       The War of the English Succession
       The War of the Spanish Succession
       The Peace of Utrecht

       The Founding of Louisiana
       Louisiana under the Company of the Indies
       Louisiana under the Royal Governors
       The Trans-Mississippi West
       The Advance Toward New Mexico
       The Far Northwest

       Northeastward Advance of the Spanish Frontier
       The Founding of Texas
       War with France
       The Expansion of Texas
       The Franco-Spanish Border
       Pimería Alta
       The Jesuits in Lower California

       The Westward Movement
       Defence of the Northern Frontier
       Reorganization of the Carolinas
       The Founding of Georgia
       The German and Swiss Migration
       The Scotch-Irish
       Significance of the Settlement of the Piedmont

       General Features
       New England Industry
       The Middle Colonies
       The Southern Colonies
       Labor Systems
       Features of Society
       Barbados, the Leeward Isles, and Jamaica

       The First Reorganization of William III
       William's Second Reorganization
       The Colonial System During the Reign of Anne
       The Colonial System Under the Whigs

       Spain and the Powers, 1715-1739
       The War of Jenkins' Ear
       The War of the Austrian Succession
       The Approach of Another Conflict
       The French and Indian War

       LOUISIANA BY SPAIN (1763-1783)
       Readjustment in Spanish North America
       The Russian Menace
       The Founding of Alta California
       Northern Explorations
       Louisiana under Spain, 1762-1783

       Provisions for Defence, Government, and the Fur Trade
       The Occupation of the Floridas
       Military Occupation of the Illinois Country
       Land Speculation and Plans for Western Colonies
       Trans-Alleghany Settlement
       The Province of Quebec
       The Northern Fur Traders


       GOVERNMENT (1763-1775)
       The Background of the Contest
       Reforms of the Grenville Ministry
       Repeal of the Stamp Act
       The Townshend Acts
       Beginning of Organized Resistance
       The Tea Controversy
       Lord North's Coercive Policy
       The First Continental Congress

       The Opening of Hostilities
       The Second Continental Congress
       Progress of the War
       The Loyalists
       The Declaration of Independence

       The Contest for New York
       The New Jersey Campaign
       The Struggle with Burgoyne
       The Contest for Philadelphia

       The French Alliance
       The War in the West
       Spain in the War
       The War on the Sea and the Dutch Alliance

       The War in the South
       The Yorktown Campaign
       The Treaty of Peace

       The Second Continental Congress
       Financial Affairs
       State Governments during the Revolution
       The Articles of Confederation
       Governmental Reorganization


  Portuguese Expansion and Magellan's Voyage
  The Four Voyages of Columbus
  The Unification of Spain
  The Development of the West Indies, 1492-1519
  The Development of Central America, 1500-1543
  The Development of Southern Mexico, 1519-1543
  Explorations in the Northern Interior, 1513-1543
  The Advance into Northern Mexico, 1543-1590
  Spanish Florida
  Explorations on the California Coast, 1542-1603
  New Mexico in Oñate's Time
  Cartier's Explorations, 1534-1542
  The French in Canada in the Seventeenth Century
  The Caribbean Area in the Seventeenth Century
  La Salle's Colony on the Texas Coast, 1684-1689
  Settlements in Virginia, 1634
  Settlements in Maryland, 1634
  The Bermudas
  Principal Settlements in Massachusetts, 1630
  Settled Areas in New England, about 1660
  Settled Areas in Virginia and Maryland, about 1660
  Van Der Donck's Map of New Netherland, 1656
  New Sweden
  The Delaware River Region, 1665-1774
  The Southern Colonies, 1607-1735
  Hudson's Bay Company Posts
  Settled Areas in New England and on Long Island, about 1700
  Settled Areas in the Middle Colonies, about 1700
  Settled Areas in the Southern Colonies, about 1700
  Sinaloa and Sonora in the Seventeenth Century
  A Dutch Map Illustrating the Insular Theory of California's Geography
  New Mexico in the Seventeenth Century
  The Beginnings of Coahuila and Texas
  The Intercolonial Wars
  The French in Louisiana and the Far Northwest
  Texas in the 18th Century
  Father Kino's Map of Pimería Alta
  Mainland Regions occupied by the English, 1700-1760
  Principal Areas of German Settlement before 1763
  The Areas Largely Populated by Scotch-Irish before 1763
  The Western English Frontier, 1763
  Alta California Settlements
  The Spanish Frontier in the Later Eighteenth Century
  The New British Possessions, 1763-1783
  Boston with Environs During the Revolution
  Northern New Jersey, New York and Its Environs during the Revolution
  The Region of Burgoyne's Invasion (1777)
  Morristown, New Jersey, to Head of Elk, Maryland (1777)
  The War in the South (1778-1781)





The fifteenth century witnessed the culmination of the Renaissance, the
rise of the Turkish Empire, the shifting of the commercial center from
the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, the discovery of America and the
opening of the Cape route to India. Portugal and Spain started on their
careers as great commercial and colonizing nations, the former destined
for a time to control the commerce of the Far East, the other to possess
more than half of the Americas and to dominate the Pacific.


Classical ideas of the world.--The discoveries of the century completely
transformed the conceptions of geography. Greek and Roman scholars had
agreed that there were three continents, Europe, Asia, and Africa,
encircled by the ocean. Aristotle, Strabo, and others accepted the
theory that the earth was a sphere, but they usually underestimated its
size. Ptolemy, the greatest of the ancient geographers, made two
fundamental errors, which most of the Arab and Christian scholars
accepted. He depicted the Indian Ocean as an inland sea, and greatly
extended Africa until it filled the entire southern hemisphere, China
and Africa being connected.

Arab theories and Christian scholars.--The Arabs believed that the earth
was a disc or ball, which was the center of the universe. The center of
the earth's surface they called Arim, meaning the cupola of the earth.
At the eastern extremity stood the pillars of Alexander, at the western
the pillars of Hercules, while the north and south poles were equally
distant from Arim. The Ptolemaic idea of Africa was accepted by most of
the Arabs, but many of their later map makers decreased its size,
cutting it off in the neighborhood of Cape Bojador on the African coast,
and calling the region beyond the "Green Sea of Darkness." Others
sketched in a great southern continent below Africa. The "Green Sea of
Darkness" was filled with terrors, whirlpools ready to destroy the
adventurous mariner, a sea of mist, fog, and vapor, peopled by monsters.
If he escaped these as he ventured southward, he would come to a zone of
torrid heat where no man could survive. Roger Bacon, the great Christian
scientist, accepted the Arabian theories but supplemented them by a
study of the classics. He believed that the habitable world was more
than half of the whole circuit, an idea which was repeated in the _Imago
Mundi_ of Pierre d'Ailly, a work which may have influenced Columbus.

Early Asiatic contact with America.--Some scholars believe that the
western coast of North America was visited by Asiatics long before the
eastern shores were reached by Europeans. In 499 a Buddhist priest
returned from a voyage claiming to have been to a country called Fusang,
lying far to the east. The location of Fusang has interested numerous
students, whose conjectures have been marshalled by Vining to prove that
it was Mexico. Some have attributed the remarkable sporadic growth of
cypress trees below Monterey, California, to this episode. The trend of
opinion accepts ethnographic and linguistic similarities as of greater
conclusiveness than recorded Chinese history. Belief in early Japanese
contact with America rests on a similar basis.

The Northmen.--The first Europeans to venture far out on the Atlantic
were the Northmen, a people but little touched by classical, Arabic, or
Christian culture before their great period of expansion. The western
sea to them had no terrors. Near the close of the eighth century they
appeared in England; in 860 they sighted Iceland and in 874 commenced
its colonization. Three years later they discovered Greenland, but it
was not until 986 that Eric the Red colonized it. In the year 1000,
Leif, the son of Eric, went in quest of a land to the west, of which he
had heard report. The result of the voyage was the discovery of
Vinland, the exact whereabouts of which has been one of the puzzles of
history, some scholars claiming it to have been Nova Scotia, others New
England. Wherever it may have been, it probably played no part in the
Columbian discovery of America, for though the settlements in Greenland
continued until early in the fifteenth century, scientists and mariners
remained in almost complete ignorance of the far-off activities of the

Mediæval travelers.--During the period of the Crusades, travel became
more and more extensive. Returning crusaders told of their adventures
and of the lands which they had visited. Pilgrims returning from the
East increased the store of geographical knowledge and repeated
marvelous tales of Russia, China, and India, although none of them had
first-hand knowledge. But during the thirteenth century accurate
information was obtained. John de Plano Carpini, a Neapolitan
Franciscan, went as a legate of Pope Innocent IV to the Great Khan in
Tartary. His _Book of the Tartars_ is the first reliable account of the
empire of the Great Mogul. A few years later William de Rubruquis was
sent by St. Louis of France to the same court, and returned to tell a
tale of wonders.

Between 1255 and 1265 two Venetians, Nicolo and Matteo Polo, were
trading in southern Russia, and eventually they visited the court of
Kublai Khan in Mongolia, later returning to Europe. In 1271 they again
visited the Far East, this time accompanied by their nephew, Marco,
whose account of their journeyings is the most famous book of travel.
Marco became an official at the Mongol court and was sent on various
missions which carried him over a large part of China. He also learned
of the wonders of Cipango or Japan. In 1292 the Polos left China,
visited Java, India, and Ceylon, and eventually returned to Europe.
Their travels made known a vast region which had previously lain almost
outside the reckoning of geographers, and gave to Europeans a fairly
accurate as well as a fascinating account of the Far East.

Early maritime activities on the African coast.--While the Polos were in
Asia, mariners were beginning to explore outside the Pillars of
Hercules. In 1270 the Canaries were discovered by Malocello and a few
years later Genoese galleys reached Cape Nun. In 1341 the Canaries were
again visited, this time by an expedition from Lisbon, and in 1370 an
Englishman, Robert Machin, who had eloped from Bristol with Anne
d'Arfet, was driven from the French coast in a storm and came to Madeira
where they both died from exposure. Some of the crew, however, returned
to tell the tale. In 1402 a Norman, De Béthencourt, reached the Canaries
and several of the islands were soon colonized.

Advance of maritime science.--As sea voyaging progressed, maritime
science was also advancing. A large number of coast charts called
Portoláni were made, which plotted with remarkable accuracy the coast
lines of Europe and northern Africa. Over four hundred of these charts
are still in existence. Their accuracy was largely due to the use of the
compass and astrolabe, which are known to have been invented before


The rise of Portugal.--In the work of geographical and commercial
expansion Portugal now took the lead. The little kingdom, from a small
territory to the north of the Douro, had gradually extended its domain
to the southward by driving out the Moors. Its commercial importance
began by the opening of a trade with England. From 1383 to 1433 Portugal
was ruled by John the Great, and during his reign the oversea expansion
of the country began.

Henry the Navigator.--The greatness of Portugal was largely due to one
of King John's sons, Prince Henry. He was born in 1394 and at an early
age became interested in furthering trade with the interior of Africa.
In 1410 or 1412 he is said to have sent caravels down the coast. In 1415
he assisted in the capture of the Moorish stronghold of Ceuta, where he
gained great military renown. In 1419 he was made governor of Algarve,
the southern province of Portugal. He established himself at Sagres, on
Cape St. Vincent, where he enlarged the old naval arsenal, built a
palace, chapel, study, and observatory, and here it was that he spent
the greater portion of his life.

Henry had three main objects: first, to open trade with the interior of
Africa; second, to found a colonial empire; third, to spread the
Christian faith. A tale was current that somewhere in Africa lived a
Christian king called Prester John, who was cut off from the world by
Islam. To find his kingdom and unite with him in the overthrow of the
Mohammedans was a natural ambition in a prince who had already assisted
in the capture of Ceuta.

Henry gathered about him a group of trained mariners, some of whom were
Italians, made a study of geography and navigation, instructed his
captains, and sent them out from Lagos to find new markets. Between 1420
and 1430 Cape Blanco was discovered and the first slaves were brought
back, this being the beginning of an extensive traffic. Four years later
Cape Verde was reached, and in 1455 the Cape Verde Islands were
discovered and the coast of Senegal explored. The results of the
Portuguese explorations under Prince Henry were incorporated in a map of
the world, made by Fra Mauro in the convent of Murano, near Venice.

Discovery of a route to India.--During the sixty years which followed
the death of Prince Henry, 1460-1520, the Portuguese completed the
exploration of the west coast of Africa, discovered a route to India,
explored a considerable part of the eastern coast of North and South
America, and founded a colonial empire. In 1486 Bartholomew Díaz passed
the Cape of Good Hope and in 1498 Vasco da Gama, spurred on by the
discoveries of Columbus, crossed the Indian Ocean to Calicut.

It has been customary to ascribe the diversion of trade from the eastern
Mediterranean to the Cape of Good Hope route to the rise of the Turkish
Empire, which was supposed to have cut the old lines of communication to
the Far East. Recent investigation has shown that such is not the case.
As Professor Lybyer says, "They [the Turks] were not active agents in
deliberately obstructing the routes.... Nor did they make the discovery
of new routes imperative. On the contrary they lost by the discovery of
a new and superior route." This superiority was due to the fact that the
Cape route was an all-water route which did not require the rehandling
of goods and expensive caravan transportation. Not the Turk, but cheap
freight rates, diverted trade from the Mediterranean to the Cape route.

[Illustration: Portuguese Expansion and Magellan's Voyage.]


Early life of Columbus.--Meanwhile America had been discovered by
Christopher Columbus, in the service of Spain. Much that was formerly
believed to be true concerning the early life of Columbus recent
research has proved to be false or to rest upon doubtful evidence. He
was born at or near Genoa, probably in 1452, and was the son of a woolen
weaver. Little is known of his education, but in some manner he acquired
a knowledge of Latin, read the principal geographical works then
accessible, and acquired a wide knowledge of navigation. Three books
which he studied with care were the _General History and Geography_ by
Æneas Sylvius, the _Imago Mundi_ of Pierre d'Ailly, and the _Travels_ of
Marco Polo.

He entered the marine service of Portugal, probably lived for a time on
the island of Porto Santo, one of the Madeiras, visited the coast of
Guinea, and sailed as far north as England. He married Felipa Moniz, a
niece of Isabel Moniz, whose husband was Bartholomew Perestrello, who
served under Prince Henry. It is probable that a correspondence occurred
between Columbus and the Florentine geographer, Toscanelli, who is said
to have suggested to the navigator the possibility of reaching the
Indies by sailing west and to have sent him a copy of a chart which he
had prepared. The Toscanelli map has not come down to us, the so-called
reproduction of it being an adaptation of Behaim's globe of 1492.
Through these various influences Columbus conceived the plan of seeking
new lands in the Atlantic and became convinced of the feasibility of
opening a western route to the Indies.

His sojourn in Spain.--After unsuccessfully urging his views in
Portugal, in 1484 Columbus went to Spain, where he presented himself at
the court and made the acquaintance of many influential persons. He also
sent his brother Bartholomew to obtain assistance in western exploration
from Henry VII of England. Columbus met with slight encouragement in
Spain, and decided to seek French aid, but just as he was making his
departure he was recalled, Queen Isabella having been brought to a
favorable decision by Fray Juan Pérez, a former confessor, by Luis de
Santangel, the treasurer of Aragon, by the Count of Medina-Celi, and by
the Marquesa de Moya.

His commission.--Columbus was given a commission authorizing him to
explore and trade. It said nothing of a route to the Indies. The
enterprise of discovery was essentially a new one, and it was natural
that the first patent should contain only general provisions. Indeed,
the document was so brief and incomplete that many supplementary orders
had to be issued before the expedition was ready. In return for services
and to provide a representative of Spanish authority in anticipated
discoveries, Columbus was ennobled and made admiral, viceroy, and
governor-general in such lands as he might add to the Castilian realm.
These offices were patterned after well-known institutions then in use
in Spain. The titles were to be hereditary in Columbus's family. The
admiral was to have a tenth of the net profits of trade and precious
metals within his discoveries. By contributing an eighth of the expense
of commercial ventures, he was entitled to an additional eighth of the
profits from trade. To encourage the expedition all duties on exports
were remitted.

Outfitting the expedition.--The story that Isabella pawned her jewels to
equip the expedition is now disproved, the royal share of the money
apparently being loaned to the Castilian treasury by Luis de Santangel.
The total cost of outfitting was probably somewhat less than $100,000,
of which Columbus or his friends furnished an eighth. Three vessels, the
_Santa Maria_, the _Pinta_, and the _Niña_, were provided. The number
who sailed is variously estimated at from ninety to one hundred and
twenty men.

The discovery.--In August, 1492, the three vessels sailed from Palos to
the Canaries, those islands then being a possession of Spain which she
had acquired from Portugal in 1479. During the entire colonial period
they were an important factor in navigation, being a place for refitting
before the long trans-Atlantic voyage. The vessels left the Canaries on
September 6 and sailed almost due west. They met with fair weather, but
the length of the voyage caused much complaint, which resulted in a plot
to get rid of Columbus. The Admiral succeeded in quelling the mutiny,
however, and shortly afterward land was sighted.

On the evening of October 11 a light in the distance was twice seen by
the commander, and before morning the moonlight disclosed to the lookout
of the _Pinta_ a sandy beach. The landfall was a small coral island of
the Bahamas, which Columbus named San Salvador and which was probably
the one now called Watling's Island. Believing that he had reached the
Indies, he called the inhabitants Indians, a name which has clung ever
since to American aborigines.

[Illustration: The Four Voyages of Columbus.]

Sojourn in the West Indies.--Through all of his sojourn in the West
Indies, Columbus was filled with the idea that he had found the Indies.
Hearing of Cuba and believing that it was Cipango, he planned to visit
the mainland and go to the city of Guisay, the Quinsai of Marco Polo.
From the Bahamas he proceeded to Cuba and explored the eastern third of
its northern coast. He despatched an interpreter to the Grand Khan, but
instead of a mighty city, an Indian village was discovered. There
Europeans first saw the smoking of tobacco. From Cuba the expedition
went to Haiti, which Columbus named Española (Little Spain), corrupted
in English to Hispaniola, and there the _Santa Maria_ was wrecked.

The return voyage.--Having built a fort on the northern shore of
Española not far from its westernmost point, which he named La Navidad
(the Nativity) because the neighboring harbor was entered on Christmas
day, Columbus left forty-four of the crew with ample provisions,
implements, and arms, and began the return voyage on January 4, 1493.
Two violent storms were encountered, but both were weathered, and on
March 4 the vessels came to anchor in the mouth of the Tagus.

His reception.--In Lisbon the news of the discovery created great
excitement. The King of Portugal invited Columbus to court and
entertained him royally. On March 13 he sailed for Spain, arriving at
Palos two days later. The citizens adjourned business for the day; bells
were rung, and at night the streets were illumined with torches. From
there he proceeded to Seville and then to the court at Barcelona, where
the greatest honors were bestowed upon him. He was allowed to be seated
in the presence of the sovereigns, who showed the keenest interest in
his specimens of flora and fauna, pearls and golden trinkets, but
especially in the Indians whom he had brought from Española. The theory
that he had reached the outlying parts of the Indies was readily
accepted, and the sovereigns at once prepared to take possession of the
newly discovered lands.

The line of Demarcation.--The king of Portugal, jealous of Spain's
triumph, is said to have planned to send a fleet across the Atlantic to
dispute the Spanish claims. Ferdinand and Isabella hurried a messenger
to Rome asking the pope to confirm their rights to the new discoveries.
Accordingly, on May 4, 1493, Pope Alexander VI assigned to Spain all
lands west of a meridian one hundred leagues west of the Azores and Cape
Verde Islands. King John was not satisfied, and a year later, by the
treaty of Tordesillas, a division line was fixed at 370 leagues west of
Cape Verde Islands. This change gave Portugal title to her later
discoveries on the Brazilian coast, though it lessened her possessions
in the Orient.



Beazley, C.R., _The Dawn of Modern Geography; Prince Henry the
Navigator_, 1-105; Fischer, J., _The Discoveries of the Northmen in
America_; Fiske, John, _The Discovery of America_, I, 151-255, 363-381;
Hovgaard, W., _The Voyages of the Norsemen to America_, 221-255; Marco
Polo, _The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian_, Yule ed.; Olson, J.E.,
and Bourne, E.G., eds., _The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot (Original
Narratives of Early American History)_, 3-84; Vining, E.J., _An
Inglorious Columbus; or evidence that Hwi Shan ... discovered America in
the Fifth Century_; Winsor, Justin, _Narrative and Critical History of
America_, I, 1-58; Fossum, A., _The Norse Discovery of America_;
Steensby, H.P., _The Norsemen's Route to Wineland_; Larson, L.M., "The
Church in North America (Greenland) in the Middle Ages," in _The
Catholic Historical Review_, V, 175-194.


Beazley, C.R., _Prince Henry the Navigator_, 123-307; Bourne, E.G.,
"Prince Henry the Navigator," in _Essays in Historical Criticism_,
173-189; Cheyney, E.P., _European Background of American History_,
60-70; Helps, Arthur, _The Spanish Conquest in America_, I, 1-54; Jayne,
K.G., _Vasco da Gama and his Successors_, 7-240; Lybyer, A.H., "The
Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade," in _The English
Historical Review_, XXX, 577-588; Major, R.H., The Discoveries of Prince
Henry the Navigator; Martins, J.P.O., _The Golden Age of Prince Henry
the Navigator_, 66-84, 205-231; Stephens, H.M., _Portugal_, 115-248;
Vander Linden, H., "Alexander VI., and the Demarcation of the Maritime
and Colonial Dominions of Spain and Portugal," in _American Historical
Review_, XXII, 1-20.


Biggar, H.P., "The New Columbus," in Am. Hist. Assoc., _Ann. Rpt.,
1912_, pp. 97-104; Bourne, E.G., _Spain in America_, 8-32; Channing,
Edward, History of the United States, I, 14-25; Hart, A.B., _American
History told by Contemporaries_, I, 28-48; Helps, Arthur, _The Spanish
Conquest in America_, I, 55-88; Herrera, Antonio, _Historia General_;
Las Casas, Bartholomew, _Historia de las Indias_; Major, R.H., _Select
Letters of Columbus_; Markham, Clements, _Life of Columbus_; Navarrete,
M.F., _Colección de los Viages y Descubrimientos_; Olson, J.E., and
Bourne, E.G., eds., _The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot (Original
Narratives)_, 80-383; Peter Martyr, _De Orbe Novo_ (F.A. McNutt,
trans.); Richman, L.B., _The Spanish Conquerors_, 1-63; Thacher, J.B.,
_Columbus_; Vignaud, Henry, _Toscanelli and Columbus_: Winsor, Justin,




The discoveries of Columbus opened to Spain the opportunity to found a
great colonial empire in the new world. For this work Spain had been
prepared by the welding of the nation which was perfected during the
reign of Ferdinand and Isabella.

The Christian reconquest.--In the eighth century the Mohammedan Berbers
had overthrown the Visigothic kingdom, the unconquered Christian princes
retiring to the mountain regions of the north. Gradually they
reconquered the country. By 910 they had established the kingdoms of
León and Navarre, and the county of Barcelona. By 1037 León and Castile
had united and conquered a wide tract south of the Douro River. Aragon,
originally a Frankish country, had also become an independent kingdom.
By 1150 almost two-thirds of the peninsula had been conquered; Portugal
now extended from the Minho River to the Tagus; Castile occupied the
central region, and Aragon had incorporated Barcelona and Catalonia.
During the next two centuries the rest of the peninsula, except the
small kingdom of Granada, was conquered, and Aragon established her
power in the Balearic Isles, Sardinia, and southern Italy. In 1469
Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon, thus uniting the two
great states. In 1481 they made war upon Granada, completing its
conquest in the year of the discovery of America. All of these changes
had been chiefly of rulers, the great body of the people remaining of
the original Iberian stock.

Lack of unity.--But there was neither unity of speech, customs, nor
institutions. There were three main religious groups, Christians,
Mohammedans, and Jews. The people were also divided into social classes,
nobility, clergy, common people, and slaves. The ranks and privileges of
the nobility varied greatly, some having immense estates and almost
sovereign powers, others being landless soldiers of fortune. Castile
was the land of castles. The nobles were turbulent and warlike. They
delighted in chivalry, which probably attained a higher development in
Spain than in any other country. Furthermore, there were three great
military orders, which had grown in strength during the Moorish wars;
these were the Knights of Santiago, of Calatrava, and of Alcántara, at
the head of each of which was a grand master. The orders, the landed
nobility, and the church owned about one-third of the land and
controlled large military forces. The cities were also powerful; they
were strongly fortified, regulated their own affairs, and many of them
had great fleets and extensive commerce. Life outside of the cities was
largely pastoral, wool, growing being the principal industry. Both
Castile and Aragon contained governing bodies called _Cortes_, to which
some of the larger cities sent representatives, but they were of little
importance, most of the work of lawmaking being done by the sovereign
acting with his Council of State.

Establishment of unity.--To bring the entire country into religious and
political unity was the great task of Ferdinand and Isabella. This was
accomplished partly through the _Hermandad_ and the organization of
several royal councils. The _Hermandad_, originally a local police, was
organized as a state police; captured offenders were punished before
local officers of the crown called _alcaldes_. Turbulent nobles and
brigands were made to feel the long arm of the royal power. The nobles
were also curbed by transferring the grand masterships of the military
orders to the crown and the sovereigns resumed control of many estates
which had been granted to churches and nobles. The royal council of
twelve had been the principal governing body. Under Ferdinand and
Isabella it was divided into three councils, justice, state, and
finance. Other councils were added from time to time; among these was
the Council of the Inquisition, whose business it was to stamp out
heresy. By its efforts unbaptized Jews and Moors were expelled. The
rulers also sent royal officers called _corregidores_ into the local
communities, who gradually extended the powers of the crown at the
expense of local government. Thus were laid the foundations of an
absolute monarchy, which, in the sixteenth century, became the most
influential in Europe.

Charles V.--The prestige of Spain was greatly enhanced in the
sixteenth century by the Emperor Charles V, the grandson of Ferdinand
and Isabella. From his mother he inherited Spain, Naples, and Sicily,
and possessions in the new world and the Far East; from his father the
Netherlands; from his grandfather, Maximilian I, the Hapsburg
inheritance in Germany. By election he became Holy Roman Emperor. The
larger part of the reign was occupied by three great European contests;
a series of struggles with Francis I of France for the control of Italy,
the Reformation in Germany, and the curbing of the westward advance of
the Turks. The almost constant wars of the Emperor kept him away from
Spain nearly his entire time, but he used the centralized system of
Ferdinand and Isabella to supply him with soldiers and money. The
constant drain of treasure overtaxed the resources of Spain, but the
rich mines of the new world furnished the surplus for his vast
undertakings. The fact that Charles was successful in retaining his
power in Italy, coupled with his struggle against the Protestants and
the Turks, made him the recognized protector of the Catholic church. His
reign, marked by many sad failures in Europe, witnessed a phenomenal
expansion of Spain's colonies.

[Illustration: The Unification of Spain. (Based on Maps in Shepherd,
W.R., _Historical Atlas_, pp. 82-83.).]


The rule of Columbus in the Indies.--When Columbus discovered a new
world for Spain, that country was placed in a new situation, and a
settled colonial policy was developed only with experience. A department
of Indian affairs was created at once and put in charge of Fonseca, a
member of the royal council. A combined interest in commerce, religion,
and colonization was shown in all the arrangements for a second voyage
by Columbus, but commerce was the primary object. At first it was
planned to send a thousand colonists, but so eager were the applicants
that fifteen hundred embarked. The expedition was equipped at the
queen's expense, and most of the colonists were in her pay.

Reaching Española in November, 1493, Columbus found Navidad destroyed by
Indians; he accordingly established a new settlement, named Isabella, at
a point farther east. Leaving his brother Diego in charge, Columbus
explored the southern coast of Cuba, discovered Jamaica, and
circumnavigated Española. Complaints being made against his
administration, in 1495 Columbus returned to Spain to defend himself.
Shortly after his departure, gold being found in the southern part of
Española, the new town of Santo Domingo was founded there and became the
capital. Other men were eager for commercial adventure, and, in response
to their demands, in 1495 trade in the Indies was opened to all
Spaniards, at their own expense. Columbus regarded this an infringement
upon his rights, and on his return to Spain he protested, but to little

In 1498 Columbus sailed on a third voyage, taking some two hundred
colonists. On the way he discovered the mainland of South America near
the Orinoco River, and, farther west, valuable pearl fisheries. During
his absence a civil war had occurred in Española, and, at the end of two
years of trouble with the contending factions, Columbus was sent to
Spain in chains by Bobadilla, a royal commissioner, who remained to
govern in his place. The charges against Columbus were dismissed, but he
was not restored to his rule in the Indies. In 1502 Nicolás de Ovando
was sent to replace Bobadilla, taking with him 2500 new colonists.

Spread of settlement in the West Indies.--After 1496 Santo Domingo
became the chief town of Española and the seat of Spanish rule in
America. In rapid succession posts and mining camps were established in
various parts of the island, and by 1513 there were seventeen chartered
towns in Española alone. Santo Domingo at that time had a population of
fifteen hundred persons. It was some fifteen years after the settlement
of Española before the other islands began to be occupied, attention
being first given to making cruises along the southern mainland. Ovando
began the conquest of the other islands, however, and Diego Columbus,
his successor, prosecuted the work with more vigor. In 1508 Ponce de
León was sent to conquer Porto Rico, and in 1511 the present city of San
Juan was founded. The settlement of Jamaica was begun in 1509 by
Esquivel, under orders of Diego Columbus. Several towns were soon
established, and a shipyard opened. In 1537 Jamaica became a possession
of the family of Columbus, with the title of Marquis till 1557, then of
Duke of La Vega. In 1508 Ocampo circumnavigated Cuba and in 1511
Velasquez began the conquest of the island. Santiago was founded in
1514 and Havana a year later. Thus the West Indies became the nursery of
Spanish culture and institutions in America.

[Illustration: The Development of the West Indies, 1492-1519.]

Gold mining was important in Española for a time, but the mines were
soon exhausted. In all the islands cotton, sugar, and cattle raising
soon acquired some proportions, but the native population rapidly
decreased, negro slaves were expensive, and rich profits attracted the
settlers to the mainland; consequently, after the first quarter century
the islands declined in prosperity and Porto Rico was for a time
actually abandoned.


The Casa de Contratación.--For ten years Fonseca remained at the head of
American affairs, being in effect colonial minister. In 1503 the Casa de
Contratación or House of Trade was established at Seville, to direct
commerce, navigation, and all related matters of the Indies. In charge
of the Casa was a board of officials, including factors, treasurer,
auditor, and notary. They maintained a warehouse for receiving all goods
and treasure going to or from the islands. They were required to keep
informed of the needs of the Indies, assemble and forward supplies,
organize trading expeditions, and instruct and license pilots. Later on
a professorship of cosmography was established for the purpose of
instructing pilots, who were required to keep diaries of their voyages.
This provision resulted in the accumulation of a vast amount of
historical and geographical information in the government archives, much
of which is still extant.

The Council of the Indies.--Spanish America was a possession of the
sovereigns of Castile, as heirs of Queen Isabella, under whose patronage
America had been discovered. At first, legislative and political matters
relating to the Indies had been considered by the sovereigns in
consultation with Fonseca and other personal advisors, but to supervise
these matters a new board was gradually formed. In 1517 it was formally
organized, among the members being Fonseca and Peter Martyr, the
historian. In 1524 the board was reorganized as the Council of the
Indies. This body was the supreme legislative and judicial authority,
under the king, of Spanish-America. The Casa de Contratación was
subordinate to the Council, which likewise supervised all civil and
ecclesiastical appointments in the colonies. Usually some of the members
of the Council had served in the Indies.

The governors-general and the audiencia.--Ovando ruled in Española until
1509, when Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, after a struggle for his
hereditary rights, was made admiral and governor-general of the Indies.
Complaint against Diego's administration led to the establishment at
Santo Domingo of a superior court with appeals from the decisions of the
governor-general. This was the germ of the Audiencia of Santo Domingo,
which, for a time, was the administrative head of the greater part of
the Indies. By decree of September 14, 1524, the Audiencia was formally
established, with a president, four judges, a fiscal, a deputy
grand-chancellor, and other officers.

The towns.--In the early sixteenth century the colonial towns showed
some political activity. In 1507 the municipalities of Española sent
delegates to Spain to petition for the rights enjoyed by Spanish towns.
The request was granted, and, among other privileges, fourteen towns
were granted coats-of-arms. Conventions of delegates from the towns were
often held in these early days, to consider common needs and to draw up
memorials to the home government. In 1530 Charles V decreed that such
conventions should not be held without his consent, and the tendency
thereafter was toward stronger absolutism and away from local political
life. But there never was a time when the right of petition was not
freely exercised, and with great effect on actual administration. In the
sixteenth century the towns sometimes elected proctors to represent them
before the Council of the Indies. In the seventeenth century they
sometimes employed residents of Spain for this purpose.

In the colonial towns, both Spanish and native, there was some degree of
self-government. Each Spanish town had its _cabildo_ composed of
_regidores_. In 1523 the _regidores_ were made elective, but the
tendency was to secure the office by purchase or inheritance, as was the
case in Spain. The functions of the _cabildos_ were similar to those of
a New England town council, embracing legislation, police matters, care
of highways, sanitation, and analogous functions.

Emigration.--The notion sometimes voiced that Spain did not "colonize"
America is unfounded. Emigration to America was encouraged by subsidies
and other means, and in early days large colonies were sent by
government authority. It has been seen, for example, that on his first
three voyages Columbus took over about 100, 1500, and 200 colonists
respectively, and that Ovando took 2500. During the entire sixteenth
century the emigration to America averaged from 1000 to 2000 persons per
year. In general, emigration was restricted to Spaniards of undoubted
orthodoxy, hence Jews, Moors, and recent converts were excluded.
Naturalization was relatively easy, however, and by means of it many
foreigners were admitted. Portuguese, for example, were numerous in the
Indies, especially among the seamen. Charles V adopted the liberal
policy of opening the Indies to subjects of all parts of his empire, but
Philip II returned to the more exclusive practice. Later on, as the
trade monopoly broke down, it became necessary to admit foreign traders
to American ports, but they were required to return within specified

Married Spaniards emigrating from Spain were urged or even required to
take their families but the emigration of unmarried Spanish women was
discouraged. Intermarriage of Spaniards with native women was favored by
the authorities and, as a large majority of the immigrants were single
men, the practice was common, either with or without formal sanction. An
effort to supply the lack of women by sending white slaves to the
islands failed, and in 1514 marriage with Indian women was approved by
royal order. With the opening of Mexico and Peru the island colonies
were in danger of depopulation. To prevent this from happening,
migration to the mainland was forbidden under heavy penalties
(1525-1526), and the recruiting of new conquering expeditions in the
islands was prohibited. To secure settlers for Española, in 1529
attractive feudal lordships were offered to founders of colonies.

Agriculture.--Agriculture in the West Indies was encouraged by all means
available. Duties on imports were remitted for a term of years. In 1497
the sovereigns ordered a public farm established to provide loans of
stock and seed, to be paid back by colonists within a term of years.
Free lands were granted to settlers, with a reservation of the precious
metals to the crown. Special orders were given for mulberry and silkworm
culture. These efforts to promote agriculture in the West Indies,
however, were made largely nugatory by commercial restrictions and the
superior attractions of the mainland.

Indian policy.--Columbus found Española inhabited, it was estimated, by
a quarter of a million of Indians, and the other islands similarly
populated. He was instructed to treat the natives well and to do all in
his power to convert them. The sovereigns frequently repeated these
orders, and commanded that the natives be treated as free men and paid
for their work. But the shortage of a labor-supply and the relative
position of the two races led quickly and almost inevitably to the
practical enslavement of the weaker.

Encomiendas.--Following the rebellion of 1495, the subdued natives were
put under tribute in the form of specified amounts of products,
commutable to labor. In 1497 a practice was begun of allotting lands to
Spaniards, the forced labor of the natives going with the land.
Complaint being made by priests and seculars that the Indians could
neither be made to work, nor be taught or converted without restraint,
in 1503 it was ordered that they should be congregated (_congregados_)
in permanent villages and put under protectors (_encomenderos_), who
were obliged to teach and protect them, and were empowered to exact
their labor, though for pay and as free men. This provision contained
the essence of the encomienda system, which was designed to protect and
civilize the native, as well as to exploit him. But there was always
danger that the former aim would yield to the latter, and, contrary to
royal will, the condition of the natives fast became one of practical

Depopulation of the islands.--Moreover, in a very short time the islands
became nearly depopulated of natives. Many were slain in the wars of
conquest and during rebellions, or died of starvation while in hiding.
Perhaps a greater number died of smallpox, measles, and other diseases
brought from Europe. The result was that by 1514 the native population
of Española was reduced to 14,000. A similar reduction of native
population occurred in the other islands as they were successively

Indian slavery.--Indian slavery was not generally allowed in theory.
But the Lesser Antilles, the Bahamas, and Florida were found to be
inhabited by hostile cannibals, who were regarded as fair prize for
enslavement. As early as 1494 Columbus suggested that permission be
given to sell Caribs. In 1498 he took a cargo of six hundred of them to
Spain. Soon it became an accepted legal principle that cannibals and
rebellious Indians could be enslaved. The idea was encouraged by the
lack of Spanish laborers, and by the disappearance of the native
population of Española. Slave-hunting was soon extended, therefore, to
the coasts of Florida, Pánuco, and other parts of the mainland. The
practice was continued, as the frontier advanced, to the eighteenth
century when, for example, Apaches of Texas and Pawnees of Kansas were
often sold to Work on plantations in Louisiana or Cuba.

Las Casas.--Numerous prominent Spaniards in the Indies early opposed
encomiendas on moral grounds. Among them the most aggressive was Father
Bartolomé de las Casas. He had come to the Indies as a layman, had held
an encomienda after becoming a priest, but in 1514 had renounced it. In
the following year he went to Spain, secured the appointment of a
commission of Geronymite friars to enforce the laws regarding Indians in
the islands, and was himself made Protector of the Indians. In 1516 he
returned to Española, but, being dissatisfied with the work of the
commission, he returned to Spain, where he favored negro slavery as a
means of sparing the natives. In 1521 he tried to found a Utopian colony
on Tierra Firme, to furnish an humane example, but through unfortunate
circumstances it failed completely.


Voyages toward the South.--The discovery by Columbus (1498) of pearls on
the southern mainland, combined with the Portuguese successes in India,
gave new incentive to voyages, and within the next few years many
thousands of miles of coastline of South and Central America were
explored in the interest of trade, discovery, and international rivalry.
In 1499 Ojeda explored from near Paramaribo to the Gulf of Maracaibo. In
1500 Pinzón and DeLepe sailed north to the Pearl Coast from points near
8° and 10° south, respectively, and Bastidas made known the coast from
the Gulf of Maracaibo to Nombre de Diós, on the Isthmus of Panamá. The
chain of discoveries was carried in 1502 from the north shore of
Honduras to Nombre de Diós by the fourth voyage of Columbus, made
primarily in search of a strait through the troublesome lands which he
had discovered. In 1504 La Cosa and Vespucius, during a trading voyage
on the Gulf of Urabá, ascended the Atrato River two hundred miles by a
route which has since been proposed as an interoceanic canal. Meanwhile
numerous other voyages were made to the Pearl Coast for commercial
purposes. They added little more to geographical knowledge, but led to
colonization on the southern mainland.

Portuguese competition.--Spanish efforts to find a passage to the Indian
Ocean by going to the southward were stimulated by the Portuguese
voyages in the same direction. In 1500 Cabral, on his way to India, took
possession for Portugal at a point near 18° south latitude on the
Brazilian coast. In the following year a Portuguese expedition, in which
Americus Vespucius was pilot, explored the coast from 5° to 32° south
latitude, discovering the La Plata River on the way. It was to this
voyage of Vespucius, made in the interest of Portugal, that America owes
its name. First applied to South America, it was soon extended to the
northern continent. A Portuguese voyage made in 1503 by Jaques, in
search of a passage to the East, is said to have reached 52° south.

Establishment of the Portuguese Empire in the East.--Gama's voyage was
promptly followed by the founding of Portuguese colonies in the East.
The chief actor in this work was Alburquerque, who accompanied an
expedition to India in 1503 and became viceroy in 1509, an office which
he held until his death in 1515. During his rule the Portuguese
established themselves at Goa, which gave them control of the Malabar
coast, and at Malacca, from which point they were able to control the
trade of the Malay Peninsula and the Spice Islands. Ormuz was captured,
making them supreme in the commerce of the Persian Gulf. In succeeding
years they acquired Ceylon and established trading settlements in Burma,
China, and Japan.

Continued quest for a strait.--These Portuguese successes were an
incentive to further Spanish efforts to find the strait. In 1506 Vicente
Yáñez Pinzón, accompanied by Juan de Solís, in search of a passage
explored the Gulf of Honduras and eastern Yucatán from Guanajá Islands,
the western limit of Columbus's voyage, to the Island of Caría. In 1509
Solís, in the service of Spain, reached 42° south, while in search of
the desired route. The discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa in 1513
aroused Spain to renewed efforts to find the strait. Exploration was at
once undertaken on the southern shores of Panamá, and in 1515 Solís
again was sent down the Brazilian coast. Reaching the La Plata River, he
was killed and eaten by the savages.

Magellan and Elcano.--The solution of the problem of the southern strait
was left for Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese who had seen service in
the Far East. Returning to Portugal, he proposed to the king the opening
of a route to the East by going west. His offer being refused, like
Columbus he turned to Spain, where his plan found favor. Sailing with
five vessels in 1519, he discovered the Straits of Magellan and crossed
the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines, where he was killed in 1521. Part
of the crew, led by Elcano, continued round the world and reached Spain
in September, 1522, after one of the most remarkable voyages in all

The mapping of the Gulf coast.--Meanwhile the outlines of the Gulf of
Mexico had been made known, and by 1525 the continued search for the
strait and efforts to settle on the mainland had carried Spanish,
explorers nearly the whole length of the North Atlantic coast. In 1508
Ocampo had circumnavigated Cuba. Sailing from Porto Rico in 1513 Juan
Ponce de León, who was interested in slave-hunting and exploration,
discovered and coasted the Peninsula of Florida.

Four years later Córdova, under a license from Velásquez, governor of
Cuba, explored Yucatán, finding signs of large cities and of wealth. The
reports aroused new interest in the mainland, and Velásquez sent out
Grijalva, who coasted the shore from Yucatán to Pánuco River, securing
on the way twenty thousand dollars' worth of gold. To take advantage of
Grijalva's discoveries, Velásquez organized another expedition and put
it in charge of Hernando Cortés. Garay, governor of Jamaica, also sent
out an expedition, under Pineda, with instructions to seek new lands and
look for a strait. Sailing north to the mainland in 1519, Pineda
completed the mapping of the Gulf by coasting from Florida to Vera Cruz
and back. On the way west he discovered the Mississippi River, which he
called Río del Espíritu Santo. On the strength of Pineda's discoveries,
Garay now secured a patent to the northern Gulf shore, and undertook to
colonize the province of Amichel.

The North Atlantic coast.--The exploration of the North Atlantic coast
soon followed. In 1513 De León had rounded the Peninsula of Florida.
Eight years later Gordillo, sailing from Española in the employ of
Ayllón, and Quexos, a slave hunter whom Gordillo met on the way, reached
the mainland at 33° 30', near Cape Fear in a region called Chicora.
Ayllón in 1523 secured a patent authorizing him to seek a strait in the
north and found a colony. In Ayllon's employ, Quexos in 1525 coasted
north perhaps to 40°. In the same year Stephen Gómez, under contract to
seek a northern strait, descended the coast from Nova Scotia to Florida.
Over the northern part of his route he had been preceded by the English
explorer John Cabot (1497). With the return of Gómez the entire Atlantic
shore from the Straits of Magellan to Nova Scotia had been explored by
expeditions made in the name of Spain.


A Double Movement.--Having subdued the islands and run the eastern
coastline, the Spaniards proceeded to take possession of the mainland.
To the southward they were attracted by trade, rumors of gold, and the
hope of finding a strait leading to the East. To the westward they were
drawn by the semi-civilized Nahuas and Mayas, who lived in substantial
towns, possessed accumulated wealth, had a stable population used to
hard labor, and were worth exploiting. The advance into the interior was
a double movement, one proceeding north from a base on the Isthmus of
Panamá, the other radiating in all directions from the Valley of Mexico.

Two Civilizations.--The Nahuas occupied Mexico south of a line drawn
roughly from Tampico through Guadalajara to the Pacific Ocean. The Mayas
lived principally in Yucatán and Guatemala. The Nahuas had acquired
much of their culture from the Mayas, and the cultural areas overlapped.
These peoples had several features in common. They lived in substantial
pueblos, or towns, and practiced agriculture by means of irrigation,
raising extensively maize, beans, potatoes, and tobacco. Maguey was a
staple crop in the Valley of Mexico and henequén in Yucatán. Mayas and
Nahuas both lacked important domestic animals. They were dominated by a
powerful priesthood and practiced slavery and human sacrifice.

Maya Characteristics.--Certain features distinguished the two
civilizations. The Mayas had imposing architectural structures devoted
to religion, notably at Palenque, Uxmal, and Chichén Itza. They had made
considerable advance toward written records in the form of ideograms.
More than 1500 Maya manuscripts, written on henequén, have been
preserved but are as yet in the main undeciphered.

The Nahuas.--The Nahuas had made remarkable progress in astronomical
calculations, and their worship was closely connected with the planetary
system. The most notable religious monuments were the pyramids which are
widely scattered over the country. Some of these, it is believed, are of
Maya origin. Calendars of great perfection had been devised, the famous
Calendar Stone now preserved in the National Museum at Mexico being one
of the rare treasures of archæology. The Nahuas had achieved a more
highly developed agriculture than the Mayas, had a stronger military and
political organization, and larger and better constructed towns. Of
these the most notable was Mexico (Tenochtitlán). It was built in a lake
in the center of the great valley of Anáhuac, and had a population of
perhaps 60,000 when the Spaniards came.

Nahua History.--The Nahuas had come from the north about the time when
the Germanic tribes were overrunning southern Europe. According to their
own traditions the first Nahua tribe, the Toltecs, entered the Valley of
Mexico in 596 A.D., and were overpowered by the barbarians whom they
found there, but civilized them. In succeeding centuries they were
followed by other Nahua tribes, whose names are now borne by numerous
cities in the Valley of Mexico. Among the late comers were the Aztecs,
who, according to tradition, founded their lake-city in 1325 A.D. Their
military stronghold was the crag of Chapultepec, where the presidential
mansion of Mexico now stands.

The Triple Alliance.--Among the numerous cities or pueblos built by
these struggling tribes four emerged into prominence. First
Atzcapotzalco, then Tezcuco, then Mexico acquired supremacy. Placing
itself at the head of a triple alliance (Mexico, Tezcuco, and Tacuba),
Mexico in the fifteenth century engaged in a series of conquests which
carried the Aztec power to the Gulf of Mexico, to the Pacific Ocean, and
well into the Maya regions of Central America. War became a national
impulse, closely identified with the religion of which human sacrifice
was a central feature. The "empire" was but a military overlordship,
however, and had for its chief objects tribute and human beings for

The hegemony was not secure, nor did it embrace all of the
semi-civilized peoples. The Tarascans and other tribes to the west had
resisted its power, and shortly before the advent of the Spaniards the
Tlascalans to the east had defeated the Aztecs in battle. At the coming
of the Europeans the "empire" was losing its hold. The subject peoples
were becoming more restless under the burden of tribute; and the ruler,
Montezuma II, was a superstitious fatalist. The Spanish conquerors
arrived at the opportune moment for success.


Castilla del Oro.--At the same time that the islands other than Española
were being occupied, beginnings of settlement were made in Central
America. In 1503 Christopher Columbus had attempted to establish a
colony on the Veragua coast, but had failed. After several successful
trading voyages had been made, however, two colonies were planned for
the southern mainland. Ojeda received a grant called Urabá, east of the
Gulf of Darién, and Nicuesa obtained a grant called Veragua, lying west
of that Gulf. Ojeda founded a colony at San Sebastián (1509), which was
shortly afterward moved to Darién, where Vasco Nuñez de Balboa soon
became the leading figure and governor _ad interim_ (1511). Nicuesa's
colony was founded at Nombre de Diós (1510), but it did not flourish.
The Darién region became known as Nueva Andalucía, and in 1513 the
whole southern mainland, excepting Veragua, Honduras and Yucatán, to the
west and Paria, to the east, was reorganized into one grand jurisdiction
called Castilla del Oro, and made independent of Española.

Balboa.--Hearing of gold and a sea toward the south, Balboa led a band
of men in 1513 across the Isthmus of Panamá and discovered the Pacific
Ocean. The discovery was an important factor in leading to Magellan's
great voyage, already recounted, and it set in motion a wave of
explorations both up and down the Pacific coast, and led to the conquest
of Peru. Balboa had made enemies, and he fell under the suspicion of the
new governor of Castilla del Oro, Pedrárias de Ávila, who arrived at
Darién in 1514 with a colony of fifteen hundred persons; but a
conciliation occurred, and in 1515 Balboa was made Adelantado of the
Island of Coíba, in the South Sea. To explore that water he built
vessels on the north coast and had them transported across the Isthmus
on the backs of Indians. The vessels proved unseaworthy, and while
Balboa was building two more at the Isle of Pearls, he was summoned by
Pedrárias, charged with treason, and beheaded (1519).

Exploration on the South Sea.--Balboa was succeeded by Espinosa in
charge of the southern coast. He at once began plundering raids westward
by land, seeking gold and slaves. The South Sea now became the chief
center of interest, and, to provide a better base, in 1519 Pedrárias
founded Panamá, moved his capital thither, refounded Nombre de Diós, and
opened a road across the Isthmus between the two places.

Rapidly now the conquerors and explorers, under Pedrárias, pushed their
way westward, by water and by land. With two of the vessels built by
Balboa, in 1519 Espinosa sent an expedition under Castañeda which
reached the Gulf of Nicoya, some five hundred miles from Panamá. In 1522
Andrés Niño and Gil González Dávila fitted out a joint expedition,
planning to sail west one thousand leagues, to seek spices, gold, and
silver. After sailing one hundred leagues westward, González proceeded
west by land, while Niño continued with the fleet. González reached and
conquered the country bordering on the Gulf of Nicoya and Lake
Nicaragua, places so named from local chieftains. Niño sailed west to
Fonseca Bay, thus coasting the entire length of Nicaragua. When the
commanders returned to Panamá they reported thirty-two thousand
baptisms, and presents in gold and pearls worth more than $112,000.

[Illustration: The Development of Central America, 1509-1543.]

The Conquest of Costa Rica and Nicaragua.--These profitable explorations
stimulated renewed interest, and were followed by conquest and
settlement in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. González desired to return at
once to occupy the country which he had explored, and, meeting hindrance
from Pedrárias, he went to Española to organize another expedition,
while awaiting royal consent. Meanwhile Pedrárias set about conquering
Nicaragua for himself. With funds borrowed from Francisco Pizarro and
others, he equipped a small expedition and sent it under Francisco
Hernández de Córdova. One of the commanders was Hernando de Soto, who
later became famous in Peru and Florida. Proceeding westward, in 1524
Córdova founded Bruselas, on the Gulf of Nicoya, and parceled out the
natives among the settlers. Continuing into Nicaragua, he founded the
cities of León and Granada. In the struggle which followed, Bruselas was
abandoned and the settlement of Costa Rica proceeded slowly.

González in 1524, having secured royal permission, entered Honduras from
the northeast, with an expedition destined for Nicaragua. De Soto, sent
against him by Córdova, was easily subdued, but González was defeated by
the agents of Cortés, who was now engaged in the conquest of Mexico. In
Nicaragua Córdova revolted against Pedrárias and was executed. In 1527
Pedrárias became governor of Nicaragua, where he ruled till 1531. During
all these wranglings the Indians were the chief sufferers. They were
granted in encomienda, employed as beasts of burden, or branded and sold
as slaves in Panamá, Peru, or the West Indies.

Guatemala, San Salvador, and Honduras.--Meanwhile the north-moving
conquerors who went out from Panamá had met and struggled in Guatemala,
San Salvador, and Honduras with the companions of Cortés, moving
southward from Mexico. The history of the conquest of these disputed
regions, therefore, becomes a part of the story of the exploits of
Cortés and his lieutenants, recounted below.

Exploration of San Juan River.--One of the acts which relieve the bloody
story of the career of Pedrárias was the sending in 1529 of an
expedition under Estete to find the outlet to Lake Nicaragua. Estete
descended the San Juan River until a glimpse was had of the sea, but
hostile Indians prevented him from reaching it. It was believed that the
lake and river drained a country rich with gold, and explorations
continued. In 1536 the San Juan, with tributary branches, was explored
by Alonso Carrero and Diego Machuco, under orders from the new governor
of Nicaragua. Soon the lake and river became the principal highway from
Nicaragua to the Atlantic Ocean, and to the Porto Bello fairs.

The Dukedom of Veragua.--It was a long time after Nicuesa's failure in
1510 before another attempt was made to settle Veragua, one reason being
that the region was tenaciously claimed by the heirs of Columbus. In
1535 Alonso Gutiérrez was made governor of Veragua, as agent of the
widow of Diego Columbus, but misfortune attended his efforts to found a
colony. Shortly afterward (1537) the discoverer's grandson, Luis, was
made Duke of Veragua; several attempts to colonize it failed, however,
and in 1556 the region was surrendered for a small pension.

Continued struggle in Central America.--These conquests were but the
beginning of a long struggle of the Spaniards with the natives in
Central America. The first stages of the conquest were over by the
middle of the sixteenth century, but many parts of the country were
still unconquered at the end of the seventeenth. Some tribes, indeed,
are unsubdued and uncivilized to this day.


The revolt of Cortés.--In the very year of the founding of Panamá
Hernando Cortés entered Mexico. The return of the expeditions of Córdova
and Grijalva to the Mexican coast had caused excitement in Cuba.
Governor Velásquez prepared an expedition to follow them up, and
appointed Cortés to lead it. Becoming distrustful of his lieutenant,
Velásquez sent messengers to recall him, but Cortés set forth,
nevertheless. In defiance of the governor, on February 18, 1519, he left
Cuba, a rebel, with eleven vessels, some six hundred men, and sixteen
horses. Proceeding to Tabasco and up the coast, he founded Vera Cruz,
by whose _cabildo_ he was chosen captain-general and _justicia mayor_,
and his position was thus given the color of legality. By this act
Cortés placed himself under the immediate protection of the king.

The march to Mexico.--On the way and while at Vera Cruz Cortés had
learned that the Aztec "empire" was honeycombed with dissension, and
that the subject peoples were burdened with tribute and filled with
hatred for Montezuma, the native ruler at the city of Mexico. He
therefore assumed the rôle of deliverer, and the Indians rallied to his
standard. At Cempoalla he connived at a revolt against Montezuma's tax
gatherers. Scuttling his ships and thus cutting off all chance for
retreat, in August he set out for Mexico. His march was a succession of
audacious deeds. At Cempoalla he threw down heathen idols and imprisoned
the chiefs. At Tlascala he was attacked by several thousand warriors,
but his genius changed them into allies in his train. At Cholula,
discovering a conspiracy, he raked the streets with cannon shot and
burned the leaders at the stake. In triumph he entered the great pueblo
of Tenochtitlán or Mexico. While lodged as a guest of Montezuma in the
center of the city, he seized the Aztec ruler and held him prisoner.

The loss and recapture of the city.--In the spring of 1520 Cortés
learned that Pánfilo de Narváez had arrived at Vera Cruz with nearly a
thousand men, under orders from Velasquez to arrest him. Leaving Pedro
de Alvarado in charge, he hastened to the coast, won over most of
Narváez's men, and then hurried back to Mexico. During his absence the
Aztecs had revolted, through the rashness of Alvarado. Soon after the
return of Cortés the natives rose again, killed Montezuma, and replaced
him by Cuauhtemoc, a more vigorous leader. Cortés now sought safety in
flight, but during the night retreat he lost more than half his men.
This "unfortunate night" became known as "Noche Triste." But the defeat
was only temporary. Raising new allies, Cortés conquered the towns round
about Mexico, built a fleet at Tlascala, launched it on Lake Tezcuco,
besieged the city, and by a combined attack, by land and water, on
August 13, 1521, he recaptured Mexico, the most important native town in
all America.

Cortés's contest with Velásquez.--Knowing that Velásquez would oppose
him, Cortés, while at Vera Cruz in 1519, had at once sent agents,
bearing rich presents, to represent him at the court of Charles V. Then
began a three-year contest with the agents of the Cuban governor. The
delay was fortunate for Cortés, for in the course of it he won favor by
his remarkable feats of conquest. Through the influence of Fonseca,
Velásquez secured the appointment of Cristóbal de Tápia, an official of
Española, as governor of New Spain, to take charge of the government and
investigate Cortés. But Cortés got rid of him as he had disposed of
Narváez. Arriving at Vera Cruz in December, 1521, Tápia was met by a
council of delegates from the conqueror and practically driven from the
country, on the ground that new orders were expected from the king.

Cortés made Governor and Captain-General.--Before this Cortés had sent
Avila to the Audiencia of Santo Domingo to obtain its favor. Scarcely
had Tápia been ejected when Avila returned with tentative authority for
Cortés, subject to royal approval, to continue his conquests and to
grant encomiendas. This greatly strengthened Cortés's position. Having
succeeded so well in Española, Avila was now sent to Spain. Here he
triumphed also, for on October 15, 1522, the emperor approved the acts
of Cortés and made him governor and captain-general of New Spain. The
victory of Cortés was as complete as the discomfiture of Velásquez and

Mexico rebuilt. Encomiendas granted.--The work of conquest on the
mainland was accompanied by the evolution of government and the
establishment of Spanish civilization, just as had been the case in the
West Indies during the earlier stages of the struggle. Wherever the
Spaniards settled, they planted their political, religious, economic,
and social institutions. Mexico was rebuilt in 1522 as a Spanish
municipality, Pedro de Alvarado, the most notable of Cortés's
lieutenants, being made first _alcalde mayor_. In the regions subdued
the principal provinces were assigned to the conquerors as encomiendas.
Much of the actual work of control was accomplished through native
chiefs, who were assigned Spanish offices and held responsible for good
order and the collection of tribute. This method was later adopted by
the British in India.

[Illustration: The Development of Southern Mexico, 1519-1543.]


The semi-civilized tribes.--With the fall of the city the first stage of
the conquest had ended. Within the following decade most of the
semi-civilized tribes of southern Mexico and Central America were
brought under the dominion of Spain. During this period Spanish
activities were directed from the Valley of Mexico to the eastward,
southward and westward. From the south came rumors of gold and reports
of the South Sea, while to the north, among the barbarian tribes, there
was little, at this stage of the conquest, to attract the conquerors.

Factors in the conquest.--Several factors explain the marvelous rapidity
with which Spanish rule was extended. The conquerors were looking for
gold and accumulated treasure; not finding it in one place they hastened
to another, led off by any wild tale of riches. The fame of the
Spaniards preceded them and paralyzed resistance. They were everywhere
aided by great armies of allies, eager to help destroy their hated
enemies. Finally, Cortés, himself a genius, was assisted by an able body
of lieutenants; in the spread of the conquest Cortés remained the
central figure, but the actual work fell mainly to Orozco, Alvarado,
Olid, Sandoval, Chico, Avalos, Montejo and other subordinates.

Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, and Tehuantepec.--In the fall of 1520 Sandoval, in
search of gold and to punish rebellious Indians, invaded southern Vera
Cruz with a handful of soldiers, aided by thirty thousand Indian allies.
To hold the district he founded the towns of Medellin and Espíritu
Santo. Before the expulsion of Cortés from the city, goldseekers had
been sent to Oaxaca and Tehuantepec and were well received, but the
"Noche Triste" was followed by a reaction. Orozco was sent, therefore,
to subdue Oaxaca, which he reported to be rich in gold. In 1522 an
attack by hostile neighbors called Alvarado to Tehuantepec. Gold was
found, and as the district bordered on the South Sea, settlements were
formed to hold it.

Olid in Michoacán.--The same year, 1522, marks the extension of Spanish
rule into Michoacán, the territory of the hitherto independent
Tarascans. The cacique Tangaxoan visited Cortés and made submission, and
in return Olid was sent to found a settlement at Pátzcuaro on Lake
Chápala. Before the end of the year part of the settlers moved to the
seacoast and settled at Zacatula, in the modern state of Guerrero, where
a post had been established.

Colima and Jalisco.--From Michoacán the conquest at once spread north
into Colima and Jalisco. Gold being reported in Colima, Avalos and
Chico, lieutenants of Olid entered the country, but were defeated by the
natives. Thereupon Olid followed, subdued the mountain region by force,
and founded the town of Colima (1524), which became a base for new
advances. On his return to Mexico, Olid brought samples of pearls from
Colima, and reports of an Amazon Island ten days up the coast, where
there were said to be great riches. To investigate these reports, in
1524 Francisco Cortés was sent north. He reached Río de Tololotlán, and
secured the allegiance of the "queen" of Jalisco, but found little gold
and no Amazon Island.

Amichel and Pánuco.--In 1522 the Huasteca country, to the northeast,
came under the control of Cortés. It was three years before this that
Pineda, as representative of Garay, governor of Jamaica, had visited the
region. Garay applied for a grant of a province called Amichel,
extending from Florida to Mexico, and set about colonizing it. In 1520,
before the patent was secured, a party of his men met disaster near
Pánuco River. Hearing of Garay's operations, in 1522 Cortés led forty
thousand allies into the country, subdued it, and founded San Estéban,
on Pánuco River. In 1523 Garay led a colony to the same region, but
found himself forestalled by Cortés, by whom he was sent to Mexico,
where he soon died. The rivalry of the Spaniards encouraged an Indian
revolt, but Sandoval, as agent of Cortés, put down the disturbance with
extreme cruelty. In 1527 the Pánuco district, under the name of Victoria
Garayana was separated from Mexico, Nuño de Guzmán being made governor,
while the region called Florida, further north, was assigned to Pánfilo
de Narváez. Guzmán's rule of six months was characterized by attempts to
extend conquests northward into Narváez's territory, by wars with the
Huasteca chieftains, and by constant slave-hunting raids, through which
the country was nearly depopulated.

Alvarado in Guatemala and San Salvador.--By this time the conquests of
Cortés and his lieutenants had extended into Central America, where they
encountered, the agents of Pedrárias. In 1522 embassies from the large
cities of Utatlán and Guatemala had visited Cortés and made submission.
In the following year Alvarado, with four hundred Spaniards and twenty
thousand allies, entered the region and conquered the Quichés and
Cakchiquels. This task partially completed, he continued south and
extended his conquests into San Salvador (1524).

Olid and Casas in Honduras.--Cortés believed that Honduras was rich, and
that a strait lay between it and Guatemala. Moreover, Gil González and
the agents of Pedrárias had begun to operate there. Consequently, at the
same time that Alvarado went to Guatemala, Olid was despatched to
Honduras. Reaching there in 1524 he tried to imitate his master's
example by making a conquest for himself. He succeeded in defeating
González, as has been seen, but was in turn beheaded by Francisco de las
Casas, who was sent by Cortés to overthrow him. During this struggle the
city of Trujillo was founded.

The march of Cortés to Honduras.--In doubt as to the wisdom of sending
Las Casas after Olid, in October, 1524, Cortés set out for Honduras in
person, with about one hundred and forty Spaniards and three hundred
Indians in his train, the latter led by three famous Aztec chiefs. In
his rear was driven a herd of swine. The route lay through southern Vera
Cruz, Tabasco, and Chiapas, to Golfo Dulce, his way being obstructed by
vast morasses, swollen streams, and flint-strewn mountains. In a single
province fifty bridges had to be constructed in a journey of as many
miles. In Chiapas it became necessary to bridge with trees a channel
five hundred paces wide. On the way the Aztec chieftains, including the
noble Cuauhtemoc, being charged with conspiracy, were hanged, an act
which is variously characterized as a "necessary punishment" and a "foul
murder." Leaving his cousin, Hernando Saavedra, in command as
captain-general in Trujillo, Cortés sent his men home by way of
Guatemala and returned by sea to Mexico in May, 1526. After attempting
for two years to explore on the South Sea, in 1528 he went to Spain to
refute his enemies, chief of whom was Nuño de Guzmán, now president of
the recently established Audiencia of Mexico. He returned two years

Yucatán.--The conquest of Yucatán was begun in 1527 by Francisco de
Montejo, an agent of Cortés. Initial success was followed by native
revolts, and it was 1541 before the conquest was made secure. There were
frequent rebellions thereafter, but never again united resistance.

Las Casas in Guatemala.--Thus far the conquest had been one of force.
But now an example of the power of gentleness was furnished by Father
Las Casas, the Dominican friar who had opposed encomiendas so vigorously
in Española. About 1532 he entered Nicaragua as a missionary, where he
attacked the ill-treatment of the Indians. Being opposed by the
governor, in 1536 he went to Guatemala. Shortly before this he had
written a treatise to prove that conversion by force was wrong, and that
only persuasion should be used. To test his views he was granted sole
control for five years of a hostile region known as "the Land of War,"
and by mild means he and his companions soon converted the district into
a land of True Peace (Vera Paz), as it is still called.

Guzmán in Sinaloa.--While Cortés was in Spain Guzmán, fearing his own
downfall, and hoping to save himself by offering new provinces to the
king, undertook the conquest of northern Jalisco and of Sinaloa. Leaving
Mexico in December, 1529, with ten thousand allies, he marched through
Michoacán and Jalisco, leaving behind a trail of fire and blood, for
which he has ever since been execrated. Part of Sinaloa was explored,
and Culiacán was founded as an outpost in 1531. The region subdued by
Guzmán was named Nueva Galicia, of which the conqueror became governor
and Compostela the capital.

Buffer province of Querétaro.--At the coming of the Spaniards the
country north of the valley of Mexico had never been conquered by the
Aztecs. The Spaniards, in turn, adopted the policy of entrusting its
subjugation to native caciques, treating the region as a buffer Indian
state. The leading figure in the conquest was a Christianized Otomi
chief, named Nicolás de San Luis. By Charles V he was made a knight of
the Order of Santiago and a captain-general in the army. Another Otomi
cacique who played a similar though less conspicuous part was Fernando
de Tapia. The most notable event in the conquest was the reduction of
Querétaro in 1531. For thirty years San Luis served the Spaniards in the
control of the Querétaro border.

The Mixton War.--The first half century of expansion toward the north
was closed by a widespread native uprising in Nueva Galicia which for a
time checked advance in that direction and even caused a contraction of
the frontier. Guzmán had left Nueva Galicia in a deplorable condition.
After several minor uprisings, the rebellious natives broke forth in
1541, during the absence of Governor Coronado and his army in New
Mexico. The Indians refused to pay tribute, killed their encomenderos
and the missionaries, destroyed the crops, and took refuge in the
_peñoles_ or cliffs of Mixton, Nochistlán, Acatic, and other places near
Guadalajara. The defence fell to Cristóbal de Oñate, lieutenant governor
of Nueva Galicia. Pedro de Alvarado, who chanced to arrive from
Guatemala at Navidad with a force of men, led them against Nochistlán
and lost his life in the encounter. Viceroy Mendoza at last took the
field with four hundred and fifty Spaniards and thirty thousand allies,
and crushed the revolt.



De León.--While some conquerors were struggling in Central America,
Mexico, and Peru, others were trying to subdue the vast northern region
called Florida. In 1514 Juan Ponce de León secured a patent to colonize
Florida and Bimini, which he had explored in the previous year. Instead
of proceeding to the task, however, he engaged in a war against the
Caribs, and it was not until 1521 that he attempted to carry out his
project. In that year he led a colony of two hundred men to the
Peninsula, landed on the west coast, and tried to establish a
settlement. But he was attacked by natives, and driven back to Cuba,
mortally wounded.

Ayllón's colony on the Carolina coast.--To carry out his contract to
colonize Chicora, in July, 1526, Ayllón sailed from Española with six
vessels and a colony of five hundred men and women, Dominican friars,
and supplies, prepared to find a new home in Carolina. But the
experiment was doomed to be another failure. Landing was first made on
the river called the Jordan, perhaps Cape Fear River. On another
stream; perhaps the Peedee, the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape was
begun. But supplies gave out, and at the end of two years Ayllón died
(October, 1528). Quarrels ensued, and in midwinter the survivors, only
about one hundred and fifty now, returned to Santo Domingo.

Narváez.--At the same time the conquest of Florida was attempted by
Pánfilo de Narváez, the man who had been sent to Vera Cruz to arrest
Cortés. In 1526 he secured a patent to the lands of Ponce de León and
Garay. Raising a colony of six hundred persons in Spain, in 1528 he
reached Florida, landing near Tampa Bay. Hearing of a rich province
called Apalachen (Apalache), he sent his vessels along the coast and
himself marched up the peninsula at the head of three hundred men to
find the Promised Land. He found the place sought near modern
Tallahassee, but it proved to be a squalid Indian village of forty huts.
A few weeks having been spent in exploration and warfare, Narváez went
to the coast near St. Marks Bay, built a fleet of horse-hide boats, and
set out for Pánuco. After passing the mouth of the Mississippi a storm
arose, and all were wrecked on the coast of Texas.

Cabeza de Vaca.--In a short time most of the survivors of Narváez's
party died of disease, starvation, and exposure, or at the hands of the
savages. Having passed nearly six years of slavery among the Indians,
Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, the treasurer of the colony of Florida, with
three companions, escaped westward, crossed Texas, Coahuila, Chihuahua,
and Sonora, and in 1536 reached Culiacán, the northern outpost of
Sinaloa, after a most remarkable journey.

De Soto.--Vaca went to Spain (1537) to apply for the governorship of
Florida, but it had already been conferred on Hernando de Soto, who had
taken a prominent part in the conquest of both Central America and Peru.
In 1539 De Soto reached Florida with a colony of six hundred persons.
Landing at Tampa Bay, as Narváez had done, he soon set out to look for a
rich province called Cale. This was the beginning of an expedition
lasting nearly four years, during which the Spaniards were led on by
tales of gold and treasure from one district to another, hoping to
repeat the exploits of Cortés and Pizarro. As he passed through the
country De Soto imitated those captains by capturing the chiefs,
holding them as hostages, and compelling them to provide food and men to
carry the baggage. Going to Apalachen he wintered there, meanwhile
discovering Pensacola Bay. From Apalachen he went to the Savannah River,
thence northwest to the North Carolina Piedmont, south toward Mobile
Bay, northwest to the Mississippi near modern Memphis, westward across
Arkansas into Oklahoma, thence down the Arkansas River to its mouth,
where he died, in May, 1542, being buried in the Mississippi.

Moscoso in Arkansas and Texas.--De Soto's followers, led by Luis de
Moscoso, now set out for Pánuco, crossing Arkansas to the Red River,
then turning southwest through eastern Texas, perhaps reaching the
Brazos River. Giving up the attempt by land, they returned to the
Mississippi, built a fleet of boats, descended the river, and skirted
the Texas coast, reaching Pánuco in 1543. Thus ended the fourth attempt
to colonize Florida.


Cortés on the South Sea and in California.--Another line of advance
toward the northern interior had been made by way of the Pacific slope.
The discovery of the South Sea was followed immediately by exploration
along the western coast. Balboa himself had begun that work, before his
death in 1519. Espinosa had reached Nicaragua in 1519, and three years
later Niño had reached Guatemala. By this time Cortés had also begun
operations on the South Sea by building a shipyard at Zacatula, hoping,
to discover a strait, find rich islands and mainland, reach India by way
of the coast, and open communication with the Moluccas. In 1527 he sent
three vessels under Saavedra across the Pacific: The operations of a new
fleet built by him were hindered by the Audiencia of Mexico, but in 1532
he sent an expedition north under Hurtado de Mendoza, which reached Río
Fuerte in northern Sinaloa. In the following year another expedition
sent by Cortés, under Jiménez discovered Lower California, which was
thought to be an island and where pearls were found. The discovery of an
island with pearls confirmed the geographical ideas of Cortés, and in
1535 he himself led a colony to La Paz, but within a few months it was
abandoned. This was the first of a long series of efforts to colonize

[Illustration: Explorations in the Northern Interior, 1513-1543.]

Friar Marcos discovers Cíbola.--Interest in the north country, both in
Spain and America, was greatly quickened by the arrival of Cabeza de
Vaca in Mexico after his journey across the continent. He had seen no
great wonders, but he had heard of large cities to the north of his
path, and it was thought that they might be the famed Seven Cities. The
viceroy took into his service the negro Stephen, one of Vaca's
companions, and sent him with Friar Marcos, a Franciscan missionary, to
reconnoitre. In March, 1539, they set out with guides from Culiacán.
Going ahead, Stephen soon sent back reports of Seven Cities, called
Cíbola, farther on. Friar Marcos hastened after him, and reached the
border of the Zuñi pueblos in western New Mexico, where he learned that
Stephen had been killed. Returning to the settlement, he reported that
Cíbola was larger and finer than Mexico. This story, of course, was the
signal for another "rush," like that to Peru a few years before.

Ulloa rounds the peninsula of California.--Rivalry between Cortés and
the viceroy regarding exploration was now keen, and about the time of
the return of Fray Marcos, Cortés, hoping to forestall his competitor,
sent three vessels north to explore under Francisco de Ulloa. One of the
vessels was lost, but with two of them Ulloa succeeded in reaching the
head of the Gulf of California, and learned that California was a
peninsula. Descending the Gulf he proceeded up the outer coast of
California to Cabo del Engaño.

The contest for leadership.--While Ulloa's voyage was still in progress,
Cortés hurried to Spain to present his claim of exclusive right to
conquer the country discovered by Fray Marcos and Ulloa. He never
returned to Mexico. Other contestants arose. The agents of De Soto, who
at the time was in Florida, claimed Cibola as a part of the adelantado's
grant. Guzmán claimed it on the basis of explorations in Sinaloa. Pedro
de Alvarado claimed it on the ground of a license to explore north and
west, for which purpose he had prepared a fleet.

The Coronado expedition.--But the royal council decided that the
exploration should be made on behalf of the crown, in whose name the
viceroy had already sent out an expedition under Francisco Vásquez
Coronado, governor of Nueva Galicia. To coöperate with Coronado by
water, Alarcón was sent up the coast from Acapulco with two vessels.

In February, 1540, Coronado left Compostela with some two hundred
horsemen, seventy foot soldiers, and nearly one thousand Indian allies
and servants. So eager were the volunteers that it was complained that
the country would be depopulated. The expedition was equipped at royal
expense with a thousand horses, fine trappings, pack-mules, several
cannon, and with droves of cattle, sheep, goats, and swine for food.
From Culiacán Coronado went ahead with about one hundred picked men and
four friars. Following behind their leader, the main army moved up to
Corazones, in the Yaqui River valley, where the town of San Gerónimo was
founded and left in charge of Melchor Díaz.

Zuñi, Moqui, the Colorado, and the Rio Grande.--In July Coronado reached
the Zuñi pueblos, which he conquered with little difficulty. But the
country was disappointing and the expedition resulted only in
explorations. These, however, were of great importance. At Culiacán
Alarcón procured a third vessel, then continued to the head of the Gulf,
and ascended the Colorado (1540) eighty-five leagues, perhaps passing
the Gila River. Shortly afterward Melchor Díaz went by land from San
Gerónimo to the Colorado to communicate with Alarcón, but failed and
lost his life. During the journey, however, he crossed the Colorado and
went some distance down the Peninsula of California.

Hearing of the Moqui pueblos, to the north of Zuñi, in July Coronado
sent Tobar to find them, which he succeeded in doing. Shortly afterward
Cárdenas went farther northwest and reached the Grand Canyon of the
Colorado. Moving to the Rio Grande, Coronado visited the pueblos in its
valley and camped at Tiguex above Isleta. In the course of the winter
the Indians revolted and were put down with great severity.

Gran Quivira.--Meanwhile Coronado heard of a rich country northeastward
called Gran Quivira, and in April, 1541, he set out to find it. Crossing
the mountains and descending the Pecos, he marched out into the
limitless buffalo-covered plains, the "Llanos del Cíbola," inhabited by
roving Apaches. Near the upper Brazos he turned north, crossed the Texas
Panhandle and Oklahoma, and reached Quivira in eastern Kansas. It was
probably a settlement of Wichita Indians. Disappointed, and urged by
his men, Coronado now returned to Mexico. Three fearless missionaries
remained to preach the gospel, and soon achieved the crown of martyrdom.
Coronado had made one of the epochal explorations of all history.

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico.--Coronado found large parts of New
Mexico and adjacent regions inhabited by Indians who dwelt in
substantial towns (pueblos) and possessed a civilization similar to that
of the Aztecs. Their terraced dwellings, which were also fortifications,
were built of stone or adobe, and were several stories high. The
inhabitants lived a settled life, practiced agriculture by means of
irrigation, and raised cotton for clothing. They were constantly beset
by the more warlike tribes all about them, and were already declining
under their incursions. At the time of the conquest there were some
seventy inhabited pueblos, whose population may have been from 30,000 to
60,000. The principal pueblo regions were the upper Rio Grande, the
upper Pecos, Ácoma, and the Zuñi and Moqui towns. Remains of prehistoric
pueblos occupy a much wider range in the Southwest, and are now the
scene of important archaeological research.


Alvarado's fleet.--Shortly after Coronado left New Mexico, two important
expeditions were despatched by Viceroy Mendoza to explore in the
Pacific. Magellan's voyage had been a signal for a bitter conflict
between Spain and Portugal in the East, in which Portugal long had the
upper hand. After the failures of Loaisa (1525) and Saavedra (1527)
Charles V sold Spain's claims on the Moluccas to Portugal, but continued
to claim the Philippines. In spite of former disasters to eastern
expeditions, both Cortés and Pedro de Alvarado planned discoveries in
the South Sea. In 1532 Alvarado made a contract for the purpose, but was
led off by the gold "rush" to Peru. In 1538 he obtained a new grant,
authorizing him to explore "in the west toward China or the Spice
Islands," or toward the north at the "turn of the land to New Spain."
Early in 1539 he left Spain with equipment nor a fleet, which he
transported across Honduras and Guatemala on the backs of natives. On
hearing of the discoveries of Fray Marcos, he hastened north with his
fleet, but stopped in Mexico, where he and Mendoza, who had already sent
out Coronado, made an agreement, as mutual insurance, to divide the
profits of their respective explorations. Before continuing his
expedition Alvarado was killed in the Mixton War (1541). This left the
fleet in Mendoza's hands, and with it he carried out Alvarado's plans by
despatching two expeditions, one up the California coast, the other
across the Pacific.

Cabrillo and Ferrelo.--The coast voyage was conducted by Juan Rodríguez
Cabrillo, and was especially designed to look for a northern strait.
Leaving Navidad in June, 1542, Cabrillo explored the outer coast of the
Peninsula, discovered San Diego Bay, reached Northwest Cape (latitude
38°31'), descended to Drake's Bay, and then returned to the Santa
Barbara Channel, where he died. Sailing north again in 1543, his pilot,
Ferrelo, reached the Oregon coast (42 1/2°), returning thence to
Navidad. Cabrillo and Ferrelo had explored the coast for more than
twenty-three degrees, but had missed both San Francisco and Monterey

Villalobos.--The other expedition was led by López de Villalobos, who
was instructed to explore the Philippines and to reach China, but not to
touch at the Moluccas. Sailing in November, 1542, he took possession of
the Philippines, but, being forced to leave on account of native
hostility, he was captured by the Portuguese. Villalobos died in the
Moluccas, where the enterprise went to pieces. The expeditions of
Coronado, De Soto, Cabrillo, and Villalobos brought to an end a
remarkable half century of Spanish expansion in North America and in the
Pacific Ocean.


Cortés as administrator.--Cortés was not a mere conqueror. He appointed
officers, and issued general ordinances affecting nearly all lines of
activity. Encomenderos were required to equip themselves for defense and
to promote agriculture. Cortés himself became a great planter, notably
at Oaxaca. He introduced agricultural implements, opened a port at Vera
Cruz, and established markets in Mexico City. In 1523 the king had
forbidden encomiendas, but Cortés made so strong a protest on the
grounds of policy and royal interest that the order was withdrawn.

Royal officials arrive.--In 1524 a corps of royal officials arrived to
take the places of those appointed by Cortés. Estrada came as treasurer,
Salazar as factor, Albórnoz, as contador, and Chirinos as veedor. They
came empowered to interfere in the government of Cortés, especially in
matters of finance, a policy quite in keeping with the general Spanish
practice of setting one officer to watch another.

The powers of Cortés curtailed.--The new officials were not slow to make
trouble for Cortés. While he was in Honduras his enemies set about
undermining him, both in Mexico and Spain. Salazar and Chirinos usurped
authority, persecuted the conqueror's partisans, confiscated his
property, and spread reports that he was dead. At last the friends of
Cortés rebelled, overthrew the usurpers, Salazar and Chirinos, and sent
for Cortés to return from Honduras. In May, 1526, he reached Vera Cruz.
Two years of investigation and persecution by other crown officials

In response to complaints in Spain, Luis Ponce de León was sent early in
the same year as governor and to hold a _residencia_ of Cortés, while
the latter's jurisdiction as captain-general was lessened by the
appointment of Nuño de Guzmán as governor of Pánuco. Ponce de León died
in July, leaving Aguilar as governor. Aguilar died early in 1527 and
Estrada became governor. He interfered with Cortés's explorations in the
South Sea, and banished him from Mexico City as dangerous, but the
breach was soon healed when both were threatened by the usurpations of
Guzmán. It was at this time that Cortés, finding his position
unbearable, went to Spain for redress and to answer charges.

The first Audiencia of New Spain.--In view of the disturbed conditions
in New Spain, in 1528 Charles V created an Audiencia or supreme court
for Mexico, and empowered it to investigate the disorders and hold the
_residencia_ of Cortés. It was composed of four _oidores_ and a
president. To the latter office was appointed Nuño de Guzmán. He proved
to be an extreme partisan against Cortés, and so avaricious that he soon
won the hatred of almost everyone except a few favorites. The old
friends of Cortés stood by him and he secured the support of Bishop

Cortés made Marquis of the Valley.--The arrival of Cortés in Spain
caused his detractors to slink from sight, and he was conducted to court
with almost royal honors. In consideration of his brilliant services, in
1529 he was granted twenty-two towns, with twenty-three thousand
vassals, with full civil and criminal jurisdiction and rentals for
himself and his heirs. With these honors he was given the titles of
Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, captain-general of New Spain, and
governor of such islands as he might still discover in the South Sea. In
1530 he returned to New Spain, where he was acclaimed by the people,
though opposed by the Audiencia.

The second Audiencia.--The abuses of the first Audiencia led to its
replacement in 1530 by a new corps of judges, of whom the president was
Sebastián Ramirez de Fuenleal. The oidores appointed were Salmerón,
Maldonado, Ceynos, and Quiroga. They were especially instructed to hold
the _residencias_ of their predecessors, restore the estates of Cortés,
and consider the abolition of encomiendas. To replace control by
encomenderos, local magistrates called _corregidores_ were introduced. A
few of these functionaries were appointed, but the colonists raised such
a cry that little change was accomplished, and the Audiencia confined
itself, in this particular, to checking abuses of the encomienda system.
Quiroga later became bishop and civilizer of Michoacán, where he is
still gratefully remembered.

The viceroyalty established.--The difficulties of government and the
spread of conquests made closer centralization necessary, and New Spain
was now made a viceroyalty. The first incumbent of the office of viceroy
was Antonio de Mendoza, a nobleman of fine character and ability. He
arrived in 1535. As viceroy he was president of the Audiencia, governor,
and captain-general, personally representing the king in all branches of

The Audiencias of Panamá and Guatemala.--Alvarado served as governor and
captain-general of Guatemala through appointment by Cortés till 1528,
when he was commissioned directly by the emperor. Though frequently
absent, he continued in office till his death in 1541. In 1537 Panamá
and Veragua were erected into the Audiencia of Panamá, which was later
attached to the viceroyalty of Peru, because the commerce of Peru
crossed the Isthmus. Six years later the Audiencia of the Confines of
Panamá and Nicaragua was established. After various changes, by 1570
Guatemala became the seat of an Audiencia embracing all of Central
America except Panamá, Veragua, and Yucatán.

The New Laws.--Las Casas and others continued to oppose the encomienda
system. In 1539 the great missionary returned to Spain to conduct the
fight. While there he wrote his celebrated works called _The Destruction
of the Indies_ and the _Twenty Reasons_ why Indians should not be
enslaved. His pleadings were not in vain, for in 1542 the Council issued
a new Indian code called the _New Laws_, which provided that encomiendas
should be abolished on the death of the present holders. But so great
was the opposition that in 1545 the vital clauses of the ordinance were
repealed. In Peru the attempt to enforce the laws even led to bloodshed.

Mendoza sent to Peru.--Viceroy Mendoza continued to rule for fifteen
years. He proved to be a wise, able, and honest administrator, who tried
to improve the condition of both the colonists and the helpless natives.
He prohibited the use of the Indians as beasts of burden. In 1536 he
established the printing press in Mexico, the first book published on
the continent appearing in 1537. In that year he founded the college of
Santa Cruz de Tlatelalco for the education of noble Indians. He opened
roads from Mexico to Oaxaca, Tehuantepec, Acapulco, Michoacán, Colima,
Jalisco, and other distant points. In 1550 he was sent to rule in
troubled Peru, where the Spaniards were duplicating the brilliant
exploits of Cortés and his followers.



Armstrong, E., _The Emperor Charles V._; Bourne, E.G., _Spain in
America_, Ch. I; Chapman, Charles E., _A History of Spain_, 1-246,
especially Chapters X-XXII; Cheyney, E.P., _European Background of
American History_, Ch. V; Hume, M.A.S., _Spain, its Greatness and
Decay_; Hume, M.A.S., _The Spanish People_; Lane-Poole, S., _The Moors
in Spain_; Lowery, W., _Spanish Settlements within the present limits of
the United States_, 1513-1565, pp. 79-101; Merriman, R.B., _The Rise of
the Spanish Empire_; Prescott, W.H., _Ferdinand and Isabella_; Haring,
C.H., _Trade and Navigation between Spain and the Indies in the Time of
the Hapsburgs_.


Altolaguirre y Davale, D. Angel de, _D. Pedro de Alvarado, Conquistador
de Guatemala y Honduras_; _Vasco Nuñez de Balboa_; Bancroft, H.H.,
_Central America_, I, 183-247, 321-412, 478-511; Bourne, E.G., _Spain in
America_, 20-53; 115-132; Fiske, John, _The Discovery of America_, I,
465-512, II, 184-212; Fortier, A., and Ficklen, J.R., _Mexico and
Central America_, 1-102; Guardia, R.F., _History of the Discovery and
Conquest of Costa Rica_; Guillemand, F.H.H, _Life of Magellan_; Helps,
Arthur, _The Spanish Conquest_, I, 89-142, 193-320; Lowery, Woodbury,
_Spanish Settlements within the present Limits of the United States_,
102-122; Richman, L.B., _The Spanish Conquerors_, 64-91, 139-154;
Wright, L.A., _The early History of Cuba_, 1492-1586.


Bancroft, H.H., _Central America_, I, 522-643; Díaz del Castillo,
Bernal, _True History of the Conquest of New Spain_; Fortier and
Ficklen, _Mexico and Central America_, 181-238; Helps, Arthur, _Life of
Cortés_; _Life of Las Casas_; _The Spanish Conquest_, III, 23-67,
164-289; McNutt, F.A., _Cortés and the Conquest of Mexico_, 43-67; _The
Letters of Cortés to Charles V._; Prescott, W.H., _The Conquest of
Mexico_, Bks. II-IV; Bolton, H.E., The Spanish Borderlands; Means, P.A.,
_History of the Spanish Conquest of Yucatán and of the Itzas_.


Bancroft, H.H., _History of California_, I, 64-81; Bandelier, A.D.F.,
_The Gilded Man; Journey of Cabeza de Vaca (Trail Makers' Series)_;
Blair and Robertson, _The Philippine Islands_, I-II; Bolton, H.E.,
_Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542-1706 (Original Narratives
Series)_, 1-39; Bourne, E.G., _Spain in America_, 158-174; _Narratives
of the Career of Hernando de Soto (Trail Makers' Series)_; Brittain,
Alfred, _Discovery and Exploration_, 343-361; Hodge, F.W., and Lewis,
T.H., _The Spanish Explorers in the Southern United States, 1528-1543
(Original Narratives Series)_; Irving, Theodore, _The Conquest of
Florida_; Lowery, Woodbury, _Spanish Settlements within the present
Limits of the United States_, 130-350; Richman, L.B., _California under
Spain and Mexico_, 3-11; Schafer, Joseph, _Pacific Coast and Alaska_,
3-23; Winship, G.P., _The Coronado Expedition_ (Bureau of American
Ethnology, _14th Report_, Part I.); _The Journey of Coronado (Trail
Makers' Series)_, Richman, I.B., _The Spanish Conquerors_, 91-139.




Philip's inheritance.--Charles V's stormy reign came to a close in 1556,
when he abdicated in favor of his son, Philip II, who inherited Spain
with its colonies, Naples, Milan, Franche Comté, and the Netherlands.
The imperial office and the Hapsburg possessions went to Charles's
brother, Ferdinand I.

The Protestant movement.--The Protestant movement, which began in
Germany and Switzerland, spread into France, England, Scotland, the
Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries. The Catholic church saw
itself in danger of losing the religious supremacy in Europe, and put
forth all its power to check it. Its three great agencies in the
Counter-Reformation were the Council of Trent, the Jesuits, and Philip

The Revolt of the Netherlands.--The Spanish king devoted all his
resources to stamping out Protestantism in the Netherlands, France, and
England. To the wealthy Dutch burghers Philip was a foreigner; they
resented the quartering of his soldiers and they objected to his regent,
the duchess of Parma, the king's half sister. The Inquisition had been
introduced into the Netherlands by Charles V. and it became more active
under his son. In 1566 the Dutch nobles headed a revolt, which was
furthered by the Protestant preachers. The Duke of Alva was sent with an
army to suppress it. William of Orange and other leaders fled the
country, as did many Flemish weavers. Alva established a special court
which became known as the Council of Blood; a reign of terror followed,
thousands being executed. William of Orange, known as the Silent, in
1568 collected a small army and began the struggle for independence.
After many years of warfare the Protestant provinces in the north gained
their autonomy.

The Defeat of the Armada.--In France the Protestant leader, Coligny,
attempted to unite both Catholics and Protestants in a national war
against Spain. This was frustrated by the Guises. Later, when they
intrigued to place Mary Queen of Scots upon the English throne, Philip
entered into their designs, but was prevented from giving much
assistance by the revolt in the Netherlands. The English retaliated by
raiding the Spanish Main. The culmination of the struggle was the defeat
of the Spanish Armada, in 1588, which freed England from the danger of
invasion. In Spain Philip carried out his policy of expelling the rest
of the Moors, the most industrious and enlightened of his subjects, and
by rigorously pushing the work of the Inquisition.

Spanish weakness.--The reign of Philip II had witnessed a vast change in
Europe. England had become a Protestant country. In France the wars of
religion had culminated by Henry IV ascending the throne. In the
Netherlands the northern half had risen into an independent state.
Portugal had become a Spanish province. In Spain the expulsion of the
Moors, the constant drain upon the country to carry on Philip's foreign
enterprises, and the commercial losses inflicted by the English, had
weakened the country to such an extent that it could no longer be looked
upon as preëminent in Europe. Nevertheless, the Spanish colonies
continued to develop and expand. The story of that expansion is the
subject of this chapter.

Luis de Velasco, second viceroy (1551-1564).--Viceroy Mendoza was
succeeded by Luis de Velasco, a member of a noble Castilian family, who
took possession in Mexico in 1551 and ruled till 1564. Velasco installed
his rule by releasing 160,000 natives from forced labor in the mines. To
put down disorder and protect the natives in 1552 he established in
Mexico the Tribunal de la Santa Hermandad. A year later the royal
University of Mexico was founded, the first in North America. During
Velasco's rule the great canal of Huehuetoca for draining the City of
Mexico was begun, 6000 Indians being employed in the work. Velasco was
an expansionist, and vigorously promoted the colonization of Florida,
the Philippines, and Nueva Vizcaya.

Martin Cortés, second Marquis of the Valley.--At the same time with
Velasco came Martin Cortés, son of the conqueror, and second Marquis of
the Valley of Oaxaca. He possessed city property in Mexico, Oaxaca,
Toluca, and Cuernavaca, and his estates were the richest in New Spain.
Other encomenderos looked to him as their protector against the royal
officials and induced him to conspire for an independent crown. He
yielded, but with six others was arrested in 1568. Two of the
conspirators were executed, Cortés and the rest being sent to Spain.

Expansion of the frontiers.--Having exploded for the time being some of
the notions of great wonders in the far distant interior, the Spanish
pioneers fell back on the established frontiers, and by a more gradual
and rational process extended them northward, much as the English a
century later slowly pushed their settlements from the Atlantic
shoreline across the Tidewater and up into the Piedmont.

On the Atlantic seaboard Spanish outposts were advanced from the West
Indies into what are now Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and,
momentarily, into Virginia. In Mexico, missions, mines, farms, and stock
ranches advanced northward in regular succession or side by side.
Between the return of Coronado and the end of the century the frontiers
of actual occupation moved forward, roughly speaking, from Guadalajara,
Querétaro, and Pánuco, to a line drawn irregularly through the mouth of
the Rio Grande westward to the Pacific, with many large spaces, of
course, left vacant to be filled in by subsequent advances. The Spanish
pioneers, like those of England and France, recorded their home
attachments by the place names given their new abodes, and thus the
whole northern district of Mexico was comprised within the three
provinces of New Galicia, New Vizcaya, and New León. During the same
period the Philippine Islands had been occupied as an outpost of Mexico.

The Adelantados.--The latter sixteenth century was still within the age
of the _adelantados_, when the development of the Spanish frontiers was
left largely to men of means, obligated to bear most of the expense of
conquering and peopling the wilderness, in return for wide powers,
extravagant titles, and extensive economic privileges. As types of these
proprietary conquerors of the period there stand out Ibarra in Nueva
Vizcaya, Menéndez in Florida, Legazpi in the Philippines, Carabajal in
Nuevo León, and Oñate in New Mexico. The period likewise was still
within the age of the _encomienda_, when the right to parcel out the
natives was inherent in the privilege of conquest. With the turn of the
century the custom practically ceased, a fact which sharply
distinguishes Florida and New Mexico from the later frontier Spanish
provinces of Texas, California, and Louisiana.

A new spirit.--The age of wanton bloodshed, too, had largely passed. The
New Laws, promulgated in 1543, stood for a new spirit, and royal
authority had by now become somewhat established on the frontiers. In
proportion as the _encomenderos_ were discredited for their abuses and
as their power over the Indians was checked, a larger and larger place
was found on the frontier for the missionaries, to whom passed much of
the actual work of subduing and controlling the natives.


Audiencia and diocese of Nueva Galicia.--In 1544 Compostela became the
seat of the new diocese of Nueva Galicia. Four years later the new
Audiencia of Nueva Galicia was established there. About 1550 Guadalajara
became the seat of both jurisdictions, and the judicial and
ecclesiastical capital of all the country to the north and northeast, a
position which it long occupied. The Audiencia district was subdivided
into _corregimientos_, each under an alcalde, subject to the Audiencia.
Within the _corregimientos_ were Indian _partidos_, each under a native
alcalde, subject to the encomenderos or the missionaries.

The Zacatecas mines.--In spite of the check caused by the Mixton War,
northward expansion in Mexico was soon stimulated by the discovery of
rich mines, and by the ambitions of the new viceroy. Mines developed in
southern Nueva Galicia were soon eclipsed by those of Zacatecas, which
were opened in 1548 by Juan de Tolosa, Cristóbal de Oñate, Diego de
Ibarra, and Baltasar Treviño. These men soon became the richest in
America, and Zacatecas the first mining town in New Spain. The fame of
the "diggins" spread, and other parts of the country were for a time
nearly depopulated by the rush of miners.

Francisco de Ibarra.--Inspired by the "boom" at Zacatecas, the Audiencia
of Nueva Galicia planned to subdue the districts of Sinaloa and Durango.
Ginés Vázquez de Mercado, sent for this purpose in 1552, wasted his
energies in a fruitless search for a fabled mountain of pure silver, and
was defeated by the Indians near Sombrerete. Martin Pérez, sent by the
Audiencia to the same district in 1558, came into conflict with
Francisco de Ibarra, agent of the viceroy. In 1554 Ibarra began a series
of explorations by means of which, in the course of eight years, he and
his men opened in northern Zacatecas the mines of San Martin, San Lucas,
Sombrerete, Chalchuites, Aviño, Fresnillo, and other places. To make
these expeditions, he equipped himself at his own or his uncle's expense
with soldiers, horses, Negro slaves, Indian servants, and droves of
stock for food. He attracted miners and settlers by furnishing them with
outfits and by giving them free use of mineral deposits.

Nueva Vizcaya founded.--In 1558 Velasco planned to send Ibarra northward
to pacify a region called Copala, but his departure was delayed by the
sending of the De Luna expedition to Florida. In 1562 Ibarra was made
governor and captain-general of a new province called Nueva Vizcaya,
comprising the unconquered districts beyond Nueva Galicia, to which
Zacatecas remained attached. In the following year he founded Nombre de
Diós and Durango, the latter of which became and long remained the
military capital of all the northern country. In the same year Rodrigo
del Rio de Losa was sent with soldiers and miners to open the mines of
Indé, and of Santa Barbara and San Juan in southern Chihuahua. The
shortage of Indian labor in the mines there resulted by 1580 in slave
hunting raids down the Conchos River and across the Rio Grande into
modern Texas.

Ibarra on the Pacific slope.--Amid extreme hardships in 1564 Ibarra
crossed the mountains to the westward, and conquered Topia, which he had
hoped would prove to be "another Mexico." Disappointed in this, he spent
two or three years in developing Sinaloa. Beyond Culiacán, on the Río
Fuerte (then called Río Sinaloa) he founded the Villa of San Juan. From
here with new recruits from Mexico and Guadalajara, in June, 1567, he
set out northward. Ascending the Yaqui valley, at Zaguaripa he defeated
the very Indians who had destroyed Coronado's town of San Gerónimo.
Crossing the sierra eastward, he emerged on the plains at the river and
ruined pueblo of Paquimé (Casas Grandes) in northern Chihuahua. Turning
back along the eastern slope of the Sierras, he recrossed them, with
terrible hardship, into the lower Yaqui valley. Returning to Chiametla,
he died about 1570, after twenty years of exploring, mining,
colonizing, and administration. He was one, of the ablest of the second
generation of colonizers in New Spain.

[Illustration: The Advance into Northern Mexico, 1543-1590.]

Development of Nueva Vizcaya.--Shortly after Ibarra left Sinaloa the
Indians of San Juan revolted, drove out the encomenderos, and murdered
the friars; the settlement was therefore moved to the Petatlán (Sinaloa)
River, and named San Felipe. In the last decade of the century a
presidio and an Aztec-Tlascaltec colony were founded at San Felipe, and
Jesuit missions were planted in the vicinity. East of the mountains, in
Durango and southern Chihuahua, mining, stock raising, and agriculture
developed side by side. In 1586, for example, Diego de Ibarra branded
33,000 head of cattle, and Rodrigo del Rio, then governor, 42,000 head.
Several new mining districts were opened before the end of the century.
In 1574 Nueva Galicia and Nueva Vizcaya (including Zacatecas and
Sinaloa) had a population of 1500 Spanish families, perhaps 10,000
persons living in some thirty settlements, about half of which were
mining camps. Guadalajara had a population of one hundred and fifty
families and Culiacán about thirty. The Franciscan missionaries had
played an important part in the founding of Nueva Vizcaya. They
accompanied or went before the explorers and established themselves at
the principal mining camps and towns. In 1590 the custodia of San
Francisco de Zacatecas embraced ten monasteries east of the Sierras. In
1591 the Jesuits entered the province.

Querétaro, Guanajuato, and Aguas Calientes.--For twenty years after the
battle at Querétaro (1531) the Chichimec border was left practically
unsettled, under the control of native leaders. But the need of
communication with the Zacatecas veins made its complete subjugation
necessary, and Viceroy Velasco undertook the task. In or about 1550 the
town of Querétaro was founded, and Silao three years later. The
marvelous Guanajuato mines were now opened; in 1554 the city of Santa Fé
de Guanajuato was founded; and shortly afterward rich veins were opened
at Aguas Calientes. These "strikes" caused "rushes," just as those in
Zacatecas had done, but they were offset by others in Durango, where
Ibarra was operating. To secure further the roads to the mines, new
towns and presidios were established along the way, and thus San Miguel
el Grande (Allende), San Felipe, Santa Maria de Lagos, Aguas Calientes,
Ojuelos, Portezuelos, Jérez, and Celaya came into being. To supplement
the presidios, strong houses (_casas fuertes_) were provided as camping
stations for travelers and silver trains, and parties were equipped with
fortified wagons or movable strong houses.

San Luis Potosí and Southern Coahuila.--For some time the region of
Charcas, now called San Luis Potosí, was a sort of No-man's-land between
the westward, eastward, and northward moving columns of frontiersmen. It
was the home of the powerful but savage Guachichiles. The definite
conquest of the region, already known to explorers and missionaries, was
begun about 1550 by Francisco de Urdiñola, who operated under Velasco's
orders, and who is said to have reached the vicinity of Saltillo and
Monterey. The settlement of the district soon followed. Matehuala was
founded in 1550, San Gerónimo in 1552, Charcas in 1564, and the San
Pedro mines about 1568. By 1576 San Luis Potosí, the site of rich ores,
had become a villa, and before long was the seat of an _alcaldía mayor_.

Mining developments spread northeastward from Zacatecas to Mazapil and
Saltillo. By 1568 Mazapil was the seat of an _alcaldía mayor_, under the
Audiencia of Nueva Galicia. In that year Francisco del Cano, sent by the
"very magnificent alcalde mayor," went north and discovered the "Lake of
New Mexico," perhaps Laguna de Parras. In 1575 Francisco de Urdiñola,
son of the former conqueror, is said to have settled sixty families at
Saltillo, within the jurisdiction of Nueva Vizcaya. As early as 1582 a
Franciscan monastery was established there, and in 1592 Saltillo was
created a villa.

The Tlascaltecan colonies.--Querétaro had been the scene of one
interesting experiment in utilizing the natives as agents of control; in
San Luis Potosí another was now tried. As a means of reducing the great
central region, the plan was devised of planting in it colonies of
Tlascaltecan Indians, to defend the settlers and to teach the rude
tribes the elements of civilization. The Tlascaltecans had proved their
loyalty in the days of Cortés, and this loyalty was insured by their
exemption from tribute and by other privileges. The practice of using
them as colonists in San Luis Potosí seems to have been begun as early
as 1580. In 1591 four hundred families were sent northward, most of
them being distributed at various places in modern San Luis Potosí, but
eighty families were established at Saltillo in a separate pueblo called
San Estéban. Thence in later days little colonies were detached to all
parts of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Texas.

Parras; Urdiñola the Younger.--In 1594 Jesuits from Durango founded the
mission of Santa Maria de Parras, and shortly afterward a colony of
Spaniards and Tlascaltecans was established there. Of this district
Urdiñola the Younger, lieutenant-governor of Nueva Vizcaya, became the
magnate. He opened mines, subdued Indians, established immense ranches,
and was veritable feudal lord. His principal hacienda was at Patos, but
he had others, as at Parras and Bonanza. In 1594 he secured a commission
to conquer New Mexico which was subsequently rescinded. A female
descendant of his became the wife of the first Marquis of San Miguel de
Aguayo, a title created in 1682 and long held by the leading men of the
northeastern frontier.

Nuevo León.--A new jurisdiction was now carved out on the Gulf coast. In
1579 Luis de Carabajal, a Portuguese of Jewish extraction, secured a
patent naming him governor and captain-general of the Kingdom of Nuevo
León, a region extending two hundred leagues north and west from Pánuco,
and delimiting Nueva Vizcaya and Nueva Galicia on the north and east.
Carabajal's was the first conquistador's patent issued for New Spain
based on the general ordinance of 1573 regulating new conquests. He was
made governor and alguacil-mayor "for two lives," with a salary of
20,000 pesos and two encomiendas for himself. He had authority to grant
encomiendas, and was obligated to make new conquests and settlements.
Raising two hundred men in Spain and Mexico, he established headquarters
for a time at Pánuco, whence he made exploring, gold hunting, and slave
hunting expeditions.

León and Monterey.--Discovering minerals in the Sierra de San Gregorio,
near the Rio Grande, in (or by) 1583, Carabajal founded there the city
of León (now Cerralvo). Securing other families from Saltillo, in 1584
he founded San Luis, near the later Monterey, and appointed Castaño de
Sosa alcalde mayor. Slave hunting expeditions from León proved so
profitable that soon two hundred or more adventurers were attracted to
the place, for the slaves found ready market at the mines of the
interior. When the viceroy checked the abuse, León was gradually
abandoned. With another colony from Saltillo, Carabajal founded Nuevo
Almadén, near the present Monclova. While thus engaged he was charged
with heresy, arrested, and condemned by the Inquisition together with
almost his entire family. In 1596 Luis de Montemayor,
lieutenant-governor of the province, founded Monterey with families from
León and Saltillo. Three years later Montemayor was made governor,
directly under the viceroy. In 1603 a Franciscan monastery was founded
at Monterey, and became a new missionary center. Conflicts of
jurisdiction between Nuevo León and Nueva Vizcaya became chronic and a
serious hindrance to prosperity.


Fray Luís Cancer.--Meanwhile Florida and the Philippines had been
conquered and colonized. Shortly after Coronado returned from New
Mexico, the Moscoso party reached Pánuco. Viceroy Mendoza, in spite of
previous failures, was willing to try his hand in ill-fated Florida, and
he offered to equip Moscoso and his men for another attempt, but they
declined. Florida had been "running with the blood of Indians," but Fray
Luís Cancer, a disciple of Las Casas, offered to try to subdue it by
peaceful methods. With a royal license he equipped a vessel at Vera
Cruz, and with a few companions went in 1549 to Florida to convert the
natives. He was murdered by them, however, and his companions returned.

De Luna and Villafañe.--But Florida was thought to be rich, especially
at Coca, in northern Alabama, and new attempts at settlement were made.
In 1558 the new viceroy was ordered to colonize Santa Elena, the scene
of Ayllón's failure on the Carolina coast, and some other point not
specified, the missionary work to be entrusted to the Dominicans. In the
following year, therefore, Velasco sent Tristán de Luna, Coronado's
second in command, from Vera Cruz with thirteen vessels and 1500
soldiers and colonists. Of the six captains three had been with De Soto,
a fact which indicates the continuity of frontier interests.

The expedition landed at Pensacola Bay. Three vessels sent on to Santa
Elena were storm-driven and returned to Vera Cruz. Establishing a
garrison at Pensacola (Ichuse), De Luna moved about a thousand colonists
inland to Nanipacna on the Alabama River, whence an expedition was sent
north to Coça. In 1560 the colony returned to Pensacola, where De Luna
was replaced by Villafañe, who had been sent with supplies from Mexico.
In the following year Villafañe went with most of his colony to Santa
Elena, but failed to make a settlement, and the Pensacola garrison was
soon withdrawn. In view of these repeated disasters, in 1561 Philip II
declared that for the present no further attempt should be made to
colonize Florida.

The French in Florida.--Notwithstanding this decision, there were
reasons why Florida should be occupied. The route of the treasure and
merchant ships lay through the Bahama channel, and French and English
pirates had begun to attack them. To lessen the danger, vessels were
ordered to go in company, and as early as 1552 a fleet of war vessels
was sent to escort them to Havana. But a port was needed to give aid
against the pirates, as well as to provide refuge from the violent
storms on the Florida coast. Moreover, the French were operating on the
northern Atlantic, and it was feared that they would occupy this region.

This fear was realized in 1562 when Jean Ribaut led a French Huguenot
colony to Port Royal, South Carolina. The colony miserably failed, but
in 1564 another, led by Laudonnière, settled on St. John's River and
built Fort Caroline. Just as Laudonnière was about to abandon the place,
Ribaut arrived with a third colony, bearing instructions to fortify a
position that would enable him to command the route of the Spanish
treasure fleets.

Menéndez de Avilés, and the expulsion of the French.--Philip decided now
to eject the French and colonize Florida, and entrusted the task to
Menéndez de Avilés, a great naval officer. He was made adelantado of
Florida, and promised a private estate twenty-five leagues square, or
some 300,000 acres. In return he agreed to take a colony of five hundred
persons to Florida, build at least two fortified towns, and expel
foreign "settlers and corsairs." In September, 1565, Menéndez reached
Florida and founded St. Augustine. Ten days later he marched overland
against Fort Caroline, surprised and captured it, and mercilessly slew
most of its defenders. On the spot the garrison of San Mateo was

[Illustration: Spanish Florida.]

Menéndez's relentless deed caused an outburst of indignation in France,
and perhaps only Catherine's reliance on Philip in her troubles with the
Huguenots prevented war. Vengeance was left to a private individual,
Dominique de Gourgues. Getting up an expedition ostensibly to trade, in
1567 he went to Florida, and slew the garrison at San Mateo. The
prisoners taken were hanged "not as Spaniards" but "as traitors,
robbers, and murderers."

New settlements in Florida.--Menéndez planned great things. He would
fortify the Bahama Channel, occupy Santa Elena and Chesapeake Bay, and
in the latter seek the northern strait. As a base for expanding toward
Pánuco, he would occupy the Bay of Juan Ponce, and he had great hopes of
agricultural prosperity.

To carry out these plans, active steps were taken. Before Menéndez
returned to Spain in 1567, several new Spanish posts were founded
between the point of the peninsula and South Carolina. San Mateo was
reoccupied. At Charlotte Bay Menéndez made an alliance with the
much-feared Chief Carlos by marrying his sister, and founded there the
presidio of San Antonio. Other garrisons were established on the
peninsula at Ays, Santa Lucía, Tocobaga, and Tegesta. At Santa Elena, in
South Carolina, Menéndez founded the colony of San Felipe, and in Guale
(northern Georgia) he founded a presidio.

Explorations in the Alleghanies.--In November, 1566, Menéndez sent Juan
Pardo from Santa Elena "to discover and conquer the interior country
from there to Mexico," to join the two frontiers. Going northwest, he
reached the snow covered Alleghanies in western North Carolina,
established two garrisons on the way, and returned. Boyano, left at one
of the garrisons, made expeditions into the mountains, and in 1567
marched southwest to Chiaha near Rome, Georgia. Being joined there by
Pardo, they set out "in the direction of Zacatecas and the mines of San
Martin," in Mexico, but were turned back by Indian hostility. On his way
to San Felipe Pardo left two garrisons, which were soon massacred by

The Jesuit missions in Florida.--In 1566 Menéndez secured three Jesuit
missionaries for Florida. Another band arrived in 1568, and went to
Santa Elena, Orista, and Guale, where they founded missions. At first
they were successful, but in 1570 they were driven out by native
opposition. By this time the garrison at Tocobaga had been massacred and
those at San Antonio and Tegesta withdrawn on account of Indian

The Virginia mission.--Father Segura, the Jesuit superior, now
transferred his efforts to Chesapeake Bay, whither he went in 1570 with
six missionaries. They founded a mission, perhaps on the Rappahannock,
but soon all were slain. In 1571 Menéndez went in person to avenge the
outrage. Two years later his nephew explored the entire coast from the
Florida Keys to Chesapeake Bay. In 1573, the year before his death,
Menéndez's grant was extended west to Pánuco.

Franciscans on the Georgia coast.--The martyrdom of Father Segura and
his band caused the Jesuits to abandon the field for Mexico, but in 1573
Franciscans began work in the province. Twenty years later (1593) twelve
more arrived under Father Juan de Silva. From the central monastery at
St. Augustine they set forth and founded island missions all up the
Florida and Georgia coast, on Amelia, Cumberland, St. Simon, San Pedro
and Ossabua islands. Fray Pedro Chozas made inland explorations, and
Father Pareja began his famous work on the Indian languages. Owing to an
Indian uprising in 1597 the missions were abandoned for a time, but were
soon restored as a check against the English, who now entered Virginia.


The Spanish trade monopoly.--The French had been expelled from Florida,
and the coast occupied up to Port Royal Sound, but freebooters continued
to prey on treasure and merchant vessels. Spain undertook to preserve
the trade and wealth of the Indies as an absolute monopoly. All trade
must be conducted by Spaniards in Spanish vessels, from specified
Spanish ports to specified American ports. This monopoly was
objectionable not only to the traders of other nations but to the
Spanish colonists as well. To this economic grievance was added the
bitter hatred felt by Protestant Frenchmen, Englishmen and Dutchmen for
Catholic Spain, whose subjects were regarded as lawful prey.

The merchant fleets.--To prevent the plundering of commerce in the
Indies, by French, English, and Dutch, Spain was forced to adopt a
system of fleets sailing periodically and protected by convoys of armed
galleons. After 1561 it became unlawful for vessels to sail alone to the
Indies, except under special circumstances. Two fleets left Spain each
year, one for Tierra Firme and Nombre de Diós (later Porto Bello) and
the other for Vera Cruz. In the later sixteenth century the Nombre de
Diós fleet comprised as many as forty armed galleons, but thereafter the
number was much smaller, as foreigners cut into Spanish trade. The Vera
Cruz fleet comprised fifteen or twenty merchantmen convoyed by two
galleons. At Nombre de Diós goods and treasure from Peru and Chile were
taken on. At Vera Cruz were gathered the exports from New Spain, the
cargo from the Manila galleon brought overland from Acapulco, and the
ten or twelve million dollars of royal revenues from the mines and

The freebooters.--This arrangement was an improvement, but French,
Dutch, and English freebooters hung in the wake of the fleets to plunder
any vessel which fell behind the galleons, while smuggling and
town-sacking grew in frequency with the growing jealousy and hatred of
Spain. The prototype of the English freebooters was John Hawkins, whose
fleet was destroyed by the Spaniards at Vera Cruz in 1567. More famous
was Francis Drake, who in 1585, during his third marauding expedition,
went to the West Indies with twenty-five vessels, captured Santo
Domingo, held Cartagena for ransom, and in May, 1586, sacked and burned
St. Augustine, Florida. Hawkins and Drake were only two of a score of
English freebooters who in the later sixteenth century harried Spanish
commerce and plundered the coast towns. In the list are the names of
Oxenham. Raleigh. Grenville. Clifford, Knollys, Winter, and Barker. The
last exploit of the century was Clifford's capture of San Juan, Porto
Rico, in 1598.

The English in the north Atlantic.--The voyages of Frobisher. Davis, and
Gilbert in the northern Atlantic between 1576 and 1587, in search of the
northwest passage, caused uneasiness for the security of Florida and of
the northern strait. Equally disturbing were the efforts of Raleigh and
his associates to colonize Roanoke Island and Guiana.

Decline of the West Indies.---The raids of the freebooters, the
restrictions placed on commerce, the decline of mining and of the native
population, and the superior attractions of Peru, Central America, and
Mexico, had greatly reduced the prosperity of the West Indies. In 1574
Española had ten towns with 1000 Spanish families, and 12,000 negro
slaves. The native population had dwindled to two villages. Santo
Domingo, seat of the Audiencia and of the archdiocese, had seven hundred
families. Cuba was less prosperous than Española, and population was
still declining. The island had eight Spanish towns with a total
population of some three hundred families and about an equal number of
Indians. Santiago, once with a population of one thousand families, now
had thirty. Havana, somewhat larger, was the residence of governor and
bishop. Jamaica had three Spanish settlements and no Indians. Porto
Rico, with three Spanish towns, had a population of some two hundred and
eighty families, of whom two hundred lived at San Juan. The principal
industries in all of the islands were sugar and cattle raising. There
being no Indians in the West Indies now, there were no encomiendas.


A new attempt in the East.--At the same time that Menéndez was
establishing the province of Florida, the right wing of the Indies,
Legazpi was conquering the Philippines, the left wing. The principal
result of the Villalobos expedition (1542) had been to give the name of
the Philippines to the Lazarus, or Western Islands. For nearly two
decades thereafter nothing was done to advance the interests of Spain in
the Far East, but Portuguese profits in the spice trade were tempting to
both sovereign and subject, and the king set about making a new effort
to share in these advantages.

The obvious base for such a trade was Mexico, and in 1559 Philip ordered
Velasco to equip two vessels for discovery in the western islands, to
test the chance for profits and the possibility of a return voyage
across the Pacific. This order was issued just at the time when Spain
was attempting to occupy the Carolina coasts, with a view, in part, to
finding a northern strait leading to the Spice Islands. Thus were all
these widely separated enterprises unified.

The Legazpi expedition.--To lead the expedition, Miguel López de Legazpi
was chosen, with Fray Andrés de Urdaneta as chief navigator. The
spiritual work was entrusted to Urdaneta and a band of Augustinians.
Owing to many delays it was November, 1564, when the fleet left Navidad.
In February, 1565, seven months before Menéndez reached Florida, Legazpi
reached the Philippines. Three of the vessels were sent back with
Urdaneta on board to discover a return route to New Spain. Instead of
sailing east against wind and current, he turned northward beyond the
trade belt, and entered that of the westerly winds. After a long and
hard voyage he reached the American continent off the northern
California coast, which he descended to Mexico. At last the Spaniards
had discovered a way to return from the East safe from the Portuguese

Meanwhile Legazpi had occupied Cebú. Portuguese resistance caused a
removal to Panay, but in 1571 Cebú was reoccupied and Manila founded. In
the previous year Legazpi had received a commission as adelantado of the
Islands, subject to the viceroy of Mexico. When Legazpi died in 1572 the
conquest of the principal islands had been effected and with little
bloodshed. In 1583 the Audiencia of Manila was established, subordinate
to Mexico.

The Manila galleon.--In 1580 Portugal was united with Spain, and, until
1640, when Portugal regained her independence, Manila was an important
center for the commerce of the combined Spanish and Portuguese colonies.
A regular trade was established from Manila to Mexico and Spain, but was
restricted to one or two annual galleons each way between Manila and

New interest in the California coast.--The development of the Philippine
trade, the necessity of protecting it from other nations, continued
interest in the Northern Mystery, and the opening of pearl fisheries in
the Gulf of California, led to renewed exploration of the northern
Pacific coasts and to renewed attempts to settle and develop California.

The regular course of the east-bound Manila galleon lay along the path
marked out by Urdaneta northeastward from Manila to about latitude 42,°
thence across the Pacific to the American continent off Cape
Mendocino, and down the coast to Acapulco. The voyage was arduous. By
the time the vessels reached the American coast half of the
scurvy-afflicted crew and passengers were dead, and the vessels needed
repairs. Hence a port of call was gravely needed for the Manila

The Strait of Anian.--Moreover, Spanish interests in the Pacific, were
insecure. The Portuguese were no longer rivals, but French and English
freebooters were active on the Atlantic and might venture upon the
Pacific. Besides, there was the fear that the French, English, or Dutch,
operating in the northern Atlantic, would discover the Strait of Anian
and secure control of the direct route to the Spice Islands, just as
Portugal had monopolized the African route.

Drake and Cavendish.--These fears were made realities in 1579 when Drake
appeared on the California coast. In 1577 he had passed through the
Straits of Magellan. Reaching the Pacific with only one vessel of the
five with which he had started, he proceeded up the coast of South
America, plundering as he went. In the harbour now known as Drake's Bay,
just north of San Francisco, he refitted, claiming the country for
England and calling it New Albion. Drake then sailed to the East Indies,
obtained a cargo of spices, crossed the Indian Ocean, rounded the Cape
of Good Hope, and reached Plymouth in November, 1580. He claimed to have
discovered the Strait of Anian, and this further disturbed the minds of
the Spaniards. For his daring voyage he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth.

In 1586 Thomas Cavendish followed Drake's course. Reaching the point of
California, he plundered the Manila galleon, the Santa Ana, and burned
it to the water's edge. The voyages of Drake and Cavendish were soon
followed by the formation of the British East India Company (1600) and
by conflicts with the Spanish merchants in the Orient. In the wake of
the English came the Dutch, who had passed the Straits of Magellan
before the end of the sixteenth century.

Gali and Cermeño.--With the needs of the Pacific coast in, view. Viceroy
Moya Contreras (1584-1585) instructed Francisco de Gali to explore the
northwestern coasts of America on his return from Manila in the galleon.
Nothing came of Gali's orders, and Moya's successor discouraged further
exploration. The second Viceroy Velasco (1590-1595), however, took up
Moya's plan, and in 1595 Sebastian Rodríguez Cermeño undertook to carry
out the project on his return from Manila. He was wrecked at Drake's
Bay, however, and his crew made their way to Mexico in an improvised
craft. The plan of reconnoitering the coast with laden Manila galleons
was now given up for one of exploring in light vessels sent out from the
ports of Mexico.

Vizcaíno's colony.--Royal interest in the protection of California was
now combined with private interest in the pearl-fisheries of the Gulf of
California. Occasional expeditions had been made for this purpose since
the days of Cortés and Alarcón. In 1595 Sebastián Vizcaíno, who had been
engaged in the Manila trade, and, indeed, had been on the _Santa Ana_
when it was captured by Cavendish, secured a contract authorizing him to
gather pearls, in return for subduing and colonizing California. Leaving
Acapulco late in 1596 with three vessels and a good-sized company, he
established a colony at La Paz and explored some distance up the Gulf.
But disaster soon followed, and early in 1597 the survivors returned to

Vizcaíno's exploring expedition.--Vizcaíno attributed his failure to
ignorance of the seasons, and proposed making another attempt at
settlement and pearl fishing. While this question was being discussed,
the king in 1599 ordered the outer coast of California explored again,
with a view to finding a port for the Manila galleons. To conduct the
expedition Vizcaíno was chosen. Leaving Acapulco in May, 1602, with
three vessels, he ran all the coasts covered by Cabrillo and Ferrelo
sixty years before. At Magdalena Bay, Cerros Island, San Diego Bay, and
Santa Catalina Island extensive explorations were made. The capital
event of the expedition, however, was the exploration of the Bay of
Monterey (probably entered by Cermeño) and its designation as the
desired port. One of the vessels reached Cape Blanco, but San Francisco
Bay was missed, as before.

Plans to Occupy Monterey Bay.--Plans were now made for occupying the
port of Monterey, but delays ensued and a new viceroy concluded that a
port in the mid-Pacific was more needed than one on the California
coast. Accordingly, in 1611 Vizcaíno was sent to explore certain islands
called Rica de Oro and Rica de Plata, but the expedition failed.


Renewed exploration of New Mexico.--The expansion of Nueva Vizcaya and
renewed activities on the Pacific coast in the later sixteenth century
stimulated a new advance into New Mexico. Coronado's expedition had
proved disappointing, and for four decades no further explorations had
been made in the region. Nevertheless, the tales of great cities had not
been forgotten, and in the meantime a new line of approach to New Mexico
had been opened by way of the central plateau. By 1580 mines and
missions had reached Santa Bárbara, while slave hunting expeditions had
descended the Conchos to the Rio Grande. Through reports given by the
outlying tribes, a new interest in the Pueblo region was aroused.

Rodríguez and Espejo.--To follow up these reports, with a view to
missionary work, trade, and exploration, an expedition was organized at
Santa Bárbara in 1580 by Fray Augustin Rodríguez, a Franciscan lay
brother, and Francisco Sánchez Chamuscado. In the next year the party of
three friars and nine soldiers and traders descended the Conchos River,
ascended the Rio Grande to the Pueblo region, visited the buffalo
plains, Ácoma, and Zuñi, and returned, leaving two friars at Puaray, one
having been killed. In the following year a rescue and trading party was
led to New Mexico over the same trail by Fray Bernaldino Beltrán and
Antonio de Espejo. The friars had already been slain by the natives, but
before returning Espejo went to Zuñi, Moqui, and western Arizona, where
he discovered mines, returning to Santa Bárbara by way of the Pecos

Plans to colonize New Mexico.--The expeditions of Rodríguez and Espejo
aroused new zeal for northern exploration and settlement, and there were
dreams now, not only of conquering New Mexico, but of going beyond to
colonize Quivira and the shores of the Strait of Anian. The king ordered
a contract made for the purpose, and soon there was a crowd of
applicants for the honor. While these men were competing for the desired
contract, Castaño de Sosa in 1590 led a colony from Nuevo León up the
Pecos to the Pueblos and began their conquest, but was soon arrested and
taken back. Some three years later two men named Leyva and Gutiérrez de
Humana led an unlicensed expedition from Nueva Vizcaya to New Mexico,
whence Gutiérrez went to northeastern Kansas, and apparently reached the
Platte River.

Oñate and the founding of New Mexico.--The contract to colonize New
Mexico was finally assigned in 1595 to Juan de Oñate, son of Cristóbal,
one of the founders of Zacatecas. In accordance with the ordinances of
1573 he was made governor, adelantado, and captain-general, granted
extensive privileges, lands, and encomiendas, while his colonists were
given the usual privileges of first settlers (_primeros pobladores_). It
was February, 1598, when Oñate left northern Nueva Vizcaya with his
colony. It included one hundred and thirty soldiers, some with their
families, a band of Franciscans under Father Martinez, and more than
seven thousand head of stock. Previous expeditions had followed the
Conchos, but Oñate opened a more direct route through El Paso. Without
difficulty he secured the submission of the tribes, settled his colony
at San Juan, and distributed the friars among the pueblos.

Oñate's explorations.--Having established his colony, Oñate turned to
exploration in the east and the west. In the fall of 1598 Vicente
Zaldivar was sent to the Buffalo Plains, while the governor set out for
the South Sea. At Moqui he turned back, but Marcos Farfán continued west
with a party, and staked out mining claims on Bill Williams Fork. Ácoma
rebelled at this time and as a punishment was razed. In 1599 Zaldivar
was sent to the South Sea and seems to have reached the lower Colorado.
Early in 1601 Oñate, with seventy men, descended the Canadian River and
crossed the Arkansas to an Indian settlement called Quivira, apparently
at Wichita, Kansas. During Oñate's absence most of the colonists
deserted, but they were brought back, with reinforcements. Still bent on
reaching the South Sea, in 1604 Oñate descended Bill Williams Fork and
the Colorado to the Gulf of California, where he got the idea that
California was an island. He had reëxplored most of the ground covered
by Coronado and had opened new trails. But he had lost the confidence
and support of the authorities, and in 1608 resigned and was displaced
by a royal governor.

Santa Fé founded.--In 1609 Santa Fé was founded and became the new
capital. This event, which occurred just a hundred years after the
occupation of Darién, may be regarded as the culmination of a century of
northward expansion.

[Illustration: New Mexico in Oñate's Time (From Bancroft, _Arizona and
New Mexico_, p. 137).]


Population and industries.--The heroic age of Spanish colonization had
now passed. The surprising results achieved in the New World during the
first eighty years, not counting the work of exploration, are set forth
in a description of the colonies in 1574 written by López de Velasco,
official geographer. At that time there were in North and South America
about two hundred Spanish towns and cities, besides numerous mining
camps, haciendas, and stock ranches. The Spanish population was 32,000
families, or perhaps from 160,000 to 200,000 persons. Of these about
five-eighths lived in North America. In the two Americas there were 4000
encomenderos, the rest being mainly miners, merchants, ranchers, and
soldiers, with their families. The population included 40,000 negro
slaves, and a large element of mulattoes and mestizos. About 1,500,000
male Indians paid tribute, representing a population of 5,000,000. In
many parts occupied by Spaniards there were no encomiendas, for the
Indians had died out. Mining, commerce, cattle ranching, grain and sugar
raising had been established on a considerable scale.

Cities and towns.--Before the end of the sixteenth century most of the
present-day state capitals and other large cities in Spanish North
America had been founded. Mexico City had a population of over 2000
Spanish families (perhaps 15,000 persons), Santo Domingo, Puebla, and
Guatemala 500 families each, Trinidad (in Guatemala) and Panamá 400
each, Oaxaca 350, Zacatecas 300, Toluca, Zultepec, Vera Cruz, Granada,
Chiapas, and Nombre de Diós 200 each, Guadalajara and San Salvador 150
each, and many others lesser numbers.

Administrative divisions.--Spanish America was now divided into two
viceroyalties, New Spain and Peru. New Spain included all of the
American mainland north of Panamá, the West Indies, part of the northern
coast of South America, the Islas del Poniente, and the Philippines. It
comprised the four audiencias of Española, Mexico, Guatemala, and Nueva
Galicia, the Audiencia of Panamá being a part of the viceroyalty of
Peru. The four northern audiencia districts were subdivided into
seventeen or eighteen gobiernos or provinces, corresponding closely to
the modern states. The provinces were divided into _corregimientos_
embracing Indian _partidos_. North America embraced twelve dioceses and
the two archdioceses of Santo Domingo and Mexico.

Churches and monasteries.--Many fine churches, some of them still
standing, had been built in the larger towns. The Franciscans,
Dominicans, and Augustinians were well established in New Spain, and the
Jesuits had just begun their work. The friars were subject to their
chapters and the Jesuits to their general in Spain. The Franciscans
already had four provinces in New Spain, the Dominicans and Augustinians
only one each. Hundreds of monasteries had been established, especially
wherever there were Indians in encomienda. The expense of erecting them
was borne jointly by king, encomenderos, and Indians.

The Universities.--"Enthusiasm for education characterizes the earliest
establishment of the Spanish colonies in America. Wherever the priests
went, a school was soon established for the instruction of the natives
or a college for its clericals who were already at work as well as for
those who were soon to take holy orders. From the colleges sprang the
universities which, in all the Spanish dominions, were founded at a very
early date for the pursuit of the 'general studies' which were at that
time taught in the great peninsular universities of Alcalá and
Salamanca. Half a century before Jamestown was founded by the English,
the University of Mexico was conferring degrees upon graduates in law
and theology. Before the seventeenth century closed, no less that seven
universities had been erected in Spanish America, and their graduates
were accepted on an equality with those of Spanish institutions of like
grade." (Priestley.)



Chapman, Charles E., _A History of Spain_, Chapter XXXIII; Gayarré,
C.E.A., _Philip II of Spain_; Hume, M.A.S., _Philip II of Spain_; Hume,
M.A.S., _Spain, Its Greatness and Decay_; Hume, M.A.S., _The Spanish
People_; Lea, H.C., _A History of the Inquisition of Spain_; Merriman,
R.B., _The Rise of the Spanish Empire_; Prescott, W.H., _History of the
Reign of Philip the Second_; Cheyney, E.P., _European Background of
American History_, Chapter X.


Bancroft, H.H., _History of Mexico_, II, chs. 22, 24, 34; _North Mexican
States and Texas_, I, ch. 5; Cavo, Andrés, _Tres Siglos de Mexico_;
Coroléu, José, _America, Historia de su Colonización_; Frejes, Fr. F.,
_Conquista de los Estados_; Gonzales, J.E., _Colleción de Noticias_;
_Historia de Nuevo León_; León, A., _Historia de Nuevo León_; Mota
Padilla, M., _Historia de Nueva Galicia_, ch. 23; Ortega, Fr. Joseph,
_Apostólica Afanes_.


Hamilton, P.J., _The Colonization of the South_, chs. 1-2; Lowery,
Woodbury, _Spanish Settlements_, I, ch. 8, II; Shea, J.G., _The Catholic
Church in Colonial Days_, pp. 100-183.


Bancroft, H.H., _Arizona and New Mexico_, 74-146; Bandelier, A.D.F.,
_Final Report of Investigations among the Indians of the Southwestern
United States_ (Papers of the Archæological Institute of America,
III-IV); Benavides, Memorial on New Mexico (Mrs. E.E. Ayer, trans.);
Bolton, H.E., ed., _Spanish Exploration in the Southwest_, 135-278;
Davis, W.H.H., _Spanish Conquest in New Mexico_, 234-407; Farrand,
Livingston, _The Basis of American History_, 176-187; Lummis, C.F.,
_Spanish Pioneers in the Southwest_, 125-143; Prince, L.B., _Historical
Sketches of New Mexico_, 149-166; Twitchell, R.E., _Leading Facts of New
Mexican History_, I, 7-45, 252-333; Vulagrá, Gaspar de, _Historia de
Nuevo Mexico_.


Barrows, D.P., _A History of the Philippines_; Blair and Robertson,
_Philippine Islands_, II, 23-330; Bolton, H.E., _Spanish Exploration in
the Southwest_, 41-133; Carrasco y Guisasola, Francisco, _Documentos
Referentes al Reconocimiento de las Costas de las Californias_; Hittell,
T.H., _History of California_, I, 79-111; Richman, L.B., _California
under Spain and Mexico_, 12-24; Robertson, J.A., "Legazpi and Philippine
Island Colonization," in American Historical Association, _Rpt., 1907_,
I, 145-165; Zárate, Salmerón, "Relation," in _Land of Sunshine_, XI,
336-346, XII, 39-48, 104-114, 180-187.




Mediæval France and the Italian wars.--The history of Mediæval France is
largely the story of the struggle of the French kings to overthrow the
feudal nobility and to perfect the governmental machinery of absolutism.
The process which began with the accession of Hugh Capet in 987 was
practically completed by the end of the reign of Louis XI, in 1483.
During the reigns of Charles VIII, Louis XII, and Francis I, the great
ambition of the French monarchs was to get control of Italy, a policy
which brought them into conflict with Spain. The wars were barren of
results as far as conquests in Italy were concerned, but the dangers to
which France was exposed united the French people into a great nation,
which was destined to be the leading continental power.

The religious wars.--The Reformation spread into France, Calvinism being
the form of Protestantism which there took root. Calvin's religious
system had three distinguishing features: (1) the church was to be
independent of any temporal power, (2) laymen and ministers were to join
in the government of the church, and (3) a strict moral discipline was
to be enforced. This program was distinctly democratic, and was certain
to come into conflict with the absolutism of the crown. France became
divided into two great parties. The Huguenots, as the French Protestants
were called, were found mainly among the rich burghers of the towns and
the nobles of the country districts, their chief power being in
southwestern France. They were also strong in Dauphiné and Normandy.
Their great leaders were Coligny and the Bourbon princes, the most
distinguished of whom was Henry of Navarre. The Catholic party was
headed by the Guises and Catherine de Medici. The kings during this
period were mere puppets, who were used by the leaders to further their
political ends.

War broke out in 1562 and continued with occasional intermissions until
1596. The most important events were the assassination of Francis of
Guise in 1563, the ascendency of Coligny, during which he tried to unite
the nation in a war against Spain, the massacre of St. Bartholomew's in
1572, the organization of the Catholic League headed by Henry of Guise,
his assassination in 1588, and the murder of Henry III the following
year, which made the way clear for Henry of Navarre to ascend the
throne. In 1593 he accepted Catholicism. The last resistance in France
was overcome in 1596, but war with Philip II continued two years longer.
In 1598 Henry issued the Edict of Nantes, which secured toleration to
the Huguenots.

Reforms of Henry IV.--During the religious wars, the nobles had regained
some of their former power, and the ravages of war had almost ruined the
industries of the country. Henry set to work to repair these conditions.
The lesser nobles were forced to submit and the privileges of the more
powerful were purchased. The king's great minister, Sully, carried out
many of the economic reforms. The land tax called the _taille_, which
rested most heavily upon the peasants, was more equitably distributed,
and the hunting privileges of the nobles were decreased. New lines of
agriculture were introduced, marshes were reclaimed, and restrictions on
the marketing of grain were removed. The king encouraged manufactures,
especially of the more expensive fabrics, glass, and metal work.
Commerce was stimulated by securing safe transportation along the post
roads, by a system of canals connecting the Seine and the Loire, and by
commercial treaties with foreign states. Attempts were also made to
stimulate commerce and colonization by the formation of mercantile
companies, and from this period date the first successful French
colonies in America.

Richelieu.--Henry IV was assassinated in 1610, and his son, who ascended
the throne as Louis XIII, was a child of nine years. During the regency
of his mother, Mary de Medici, the nobles again became turbulent, the
Huguenots revolted, and the policy of hostility toward Spain was
reversed. The regent was under the influence of favorites who looted the
treasury. Under such conditions a strong leader was greatly needed; the
man of the hour was Richelieu. In 1624 he was placed in control of
public affairs, and for the next twenty years practically ruled France.
His policy aimed to make France the first power in Europe. To accomplish
this he worked at home to strengthen the power of the crown. Abroad he
aimed to weaken the power of the Hapsburgs, to extend the boundaries of
France, and to build up a colonial empire.

The chief steps by which his policy was carried out were as follows: La
Rochelle, the great Huguenot stronghold, was captured and the power of
the Protestants was curbed effectually; the intrigues of Mary de Medici
were thwarted; an alliance was made with Sweden, and to weaken the
Hapsburgs the power of France was used to assist the Protestants in
Germany in the Thirty Years' War; a navy was built and important ports
were fortified; to extend commerce and colonies, colonial enterprises
were entrusted to exclusive corporations. During the administration of
Richelieu the French hold upon eastern Canada was strengthened,
settlements were made in Guiana and the West Indies, and an attempt was
made to occupy Madagascar.

The Council of State.--The work of strengthening the crown at the
expense of the nobility was continued. The power of the nobles was
maintained by their fortified castles and by their position as governors
of provinces. An edict was issued for the destruction of all but the
frontier fortifications. Most of the work of administration was centered
in the _conseil d'état_, or council of state, which was the highest
judicial tribunal. It also issued edicts, made peace or war, determined
the amount and method of taxation, and acted as a high court of justice.
In appearance this body was supreme, but in reality the power centered
in the king and the chief minister, the other ministers being merely
advisers. Local administration was taken from the nobles and was placed
almost wholly in the hands of _intendants_, who were officers of
justice, police, and finance.

Mazarin.--Richelieu died in November, 1642, and Louis XIII a few months
later. Louis XIV was a child of five years and his mother, Anne of
Austria, became regent. Mazarin, who was probably secretly married to
her, was to rule France during the troubled minority of the king. It was
a period of civil and foreign war, in which the minister found no time
to devote to the development of colonies. The importance of the period
lies in the fact that the great nobles were effectually quelled, that
the absolutism of the crown was completely established, and that France
proved herself superior to the power of Spain and the Hapsburgs. When
Louis XIV took the reins of power in 1661 he was the most absolute and
most powerful monarch in Europe.

Colbert.--Colonial development during the reign of Louis XIV was due
mainly to Colbert, who was given charge of the finances, of the navy,
and of the colonies. The finances had become deranged under Mazarin, and
Colbert attacked the abuses. To stimulate commerce and manufactures, he
established a protective system, furnished governmental aid to
companies, and granted monopolies. The royal navy and mercantile marine
were greatly increased. To develop foreign trade, corporations were
granted monopolies of the commerce of the West Indies, the East Indies,
Senegal, and Madagascar. Colonies were fostered by paternalistic
regulations. The system of Colbert, as time proved, was founded on
mistaken principles, for monopoly and overregulation stifled the growth
of trade and of the colonies. Although a vast area was brought under
control, the colonies never attracted a large population, or were
allowed a free growth of institutions.


First French voyages.--The first Frenchmen who visited America appear to
have been Norman and Breton fishermen, who engaged in fishing off the
Newfoundland coast perhaps as early as 1500. Sailors from Dieppe also
visited the coasts of North and South America. Vague accounts have come
down to us of attempts to explore the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1506 and
1508, and of an unsuccessful colony on Sable Island in 1518. The first
expedition under the government sanction was that of the Florentine,
Verrazano, sent out by Francis I in 1524. The details of the voyage are
somewhat obscure. He probably explored the coast from Cape Fear to

Cartier and Roberval.--The wars between Francis I and Charles V
prevented the French king from giving further attention to exploration
until 1534, when Cartier was sent out with two ships from St. Malo. He
sighted land on the Labrador coast, passed through the straits of Belle
Isle, and explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence, locating the Bay of
Chaleurs, Cape Gaspé, and Anticosti Island, thence returning to France.

In 1535 he again visited America in search of a passage to China. He
sailed along the northern shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and entered
the mouth of the river, soon becoming convinced that the passage did not
lead to the Far East. He stopped at the site of Quebec and later
proceeded to the La Chine rapids, and to a hill which he named Montreal.
He wintered at Quebec where twenty-five persons died of scurvy. The
return to France was made the following summer.

Exploration was again interrupted by the wars, and it was not until 1541
that Cartier's third expedition sailed. Francis I had granted a
commission to Roberval, a Picardy nobleman, as viceroy and
lieutenant-general in Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador, and neighboring
lands, this being the first time that the name Canada was officially
used. In the king's proclamation Canada was mentioned as the extremity
of Asia. The objects of the expedition were discovery, settlement, and
conversion of the Indians. Cartier was appointed captain-general. He
sailed in 1541, but Roberval remained in France to collect supplies and
materials for defence. Cartier wasted six weeks in Newfoundland and then
proceeded to Quebec, where the winter was spent in great hardship.

The colonists started to return to France, but at St. Johns,
Newfoundland, they met Roberval, who ordered them to return to Quebec.
Cartier, however, disobeyed, and returned to France. Roberval proceeded
to Quebec, where habitations were erected and the forts of Cartier
repaired. Supplies, however, ran short, and during the following winter
a third of the settlers died. A mutiny threatened and Roberval checked
it with great harshness. After lingering a little longer, the
unfortunate remnant returned to France. In 1543 Francis I declared the
Western Sea to be open to his subjects, but advantage of it was not
taken, and it was over a half century before another attempt was made to
colonize in the St. Lawrence Valley.

[Illustration: Cartier's Explorations, 1534-1542.]

Ribaut and Laudonnière.--The next colonizing efforts were of Huguenot
origin, and were made at the suggestion of Coligny. In 1555 an attempt
was made to found a colony in Brazil, but it was destroyed by the
Portuguese. When Coligny developed his plan for an attack upon Spain, he
determined to found a colony in the region then known as Florida. A
Huguenot from Dieppe named Jean Ribaut was placed in command of the
expedition, which set sail from Havre in 1562. Land was seen not far
from the site of St. Augustine; they sailed northward and planted a
settlement on Port Royal Sound, where thirty men were left. Ribaut
explored the coast as far as the fortieth degree and returned to France.
Misfortune beset the colonists, and after great suffering they built a
rude vessel and succeeded in getting back to Europe.

In 1564 a large expedition was sent out under Laudonnière, which erected
Fort Caroline on St. John's River. Dissensions and starvation played
havoc with the colony, and when the English Captain John Hawkins offered
to sell them a ship and provisions, they eagerly embraced the
opportunity. When they were about to depart, Ribaut with seven vessels
and six hundred soldiers hove in sight, and the idea of returning to
France was abandoned.

Philip II learned of the French colony, probably from Catherine de
Medici, and in 1565 sent an expedition of nineteen vessels and fifteen
hundred men under Menéndez to destroy it. Ribaut's fleet was found near
the mouth of the river but the larger craft escaped and Menéndez,
finding the rest in a secure position, proceeded southward about fifty
miles and founded St. Augustine.

Ribaut followed but failed to attack, and shortly afterwards a hurricane
dispersed the fleet. Taking advantage of the misfortune, Menéndez
marched overland and surprised and captured Fort Caroline, putting most
of the prisoners to the sword. A little later Ribaut and his followers
fell into the hands of Menéndez, and most of them were put to death. To
avenge the butchery, the Chevalier de Gourgues, at his own expense,
fitted out three small ships in 1567 and attacked the Spanish forts on
the St. John's. They were captured and the garrisons slain. His force
being too small to risk an attack on St. Augustine, De Gourgues returned
to France, and Florida ceased to be a scene of French activity.


Colonization renewed.--The scene of the next colonization by the French
was the region about the Bay of Fundy. After the religious wars, in
1598, the Marquis de la Roche landed two shiploads of colonists on Sable
Island. Going in search of a site on the mainland, he encountered severe
storms and returned to France. Five years later the survivors were

The fur monopoly.--In 1600 a partnership was formed between Pontgravé, a
St. Malo mariner, and two Huguenot friends of Henry IV, Chauvin, a
merchant of Harfleur, and Sieur de Monts, the associates being granted a
fur-trading monopoly. A settlement was made at Tadoussac, on the lower
St. Lawrence, but it did not prosper; two trading voyages, however,
proved profitable. Shortly afterward the company was reorganized, the
king making De Chastes, the governor of Dieppe, his representative. An
expedition commanded by Pontgravé was sent out in 1603. Associated with
him was Samuel de Champlain, who had already gained fame by a voyage to
Spanish America and by his writings. A profitable trade in furs was
carried on, and the St. Lawrence was explored as far as the La Chine
rapids. Champlain also examined the Acadian coast as far as the Bay of

Port Royal.--Upon the return of the traders, De Chastes having died, the
king issued a patent to De Monts granting him viceregal powers and a
trade monopoly between the fortieth and forty-sixth degrees. Settlements
were to be founded and the savages were to be instructed in
Christianity. In 1604 De Monts and Champlain sailed for Acadia. An
unsuccessful attempt at settlement was made at St. Croix Island and
later the survivors moved to Port Royal. De Monts then returned to
France to defend his rights against those who objected to his patent,
and Champlain busied himself with the exploration of the New England
coast, on one expedition rounding Cape Cod. In 1607 it became known that
De Monts's patent had been revoked, and Champlain returned to France.

Acadia, 1610-1632.--In 1610 Poutrincourt reëstablished Port Royal and
soon afterward his son, Biencourt, was placed in command. The coast was
surveyed as far as the Kennebec. Pontgravé had a trading post at St.
John, and this Biencourt captured. In 1613 Port Royal was taken and
burned by a Virginia expedition under Argall, but was soon rebuilt. In
1623 or 1624 Biencourt died and his lieutenant, Charles de la Tour,
succeeded him. Before his powers could be confirmed, Acadia, in 1628,
fell into English hands, but was restored in 1632.

Charnisay and La Tour.--Isaac de Rezilly was sent to receive the
submission of the English, being shortly afterward succeeded by
Charnisay. La Tour soon afterward received from the company of New
France a grant at the mouth of the St. John's River, where he built Fort
St. Jean. A civil war broke out in which La Tour finally secured aid
from Boston. For a time he was successful, but Charnisay obtained help
from France and La Tour was defeated. From 1645 to 1650 Charnisay was
supreme in Acadia. Upon his death La Tour was made governor and
lieutenant-general, and the animosities of the past were dissipated by
his marriage to Charnisay's widow.

English Rivalry.--In 1654 an English fleet captured the French forts,
and Acadia remained under English rule until 1667, when it was restored
to France by the treaty of Breda.


The founding of Quebec.--In 1608 De Monts obtained a renewal of his
patent for one year, and, after consulting Champlain, he decided to
found a settlement at Quebec. Champlain was appointed his lieutenant
with full powers, and with two vessels he arrived at Quebec on July 3. A
storehouse and dwelling were built surrounded by a palisade and ditch.
Of the twenty-eight men who began the settlement, only eight survived
the first winter, but considerable reinforcements arrived in the spring.
In the summer of 1609 Champlain accompanied a war party of Algonquins
and Hurons up the Richelieu River to the lake which bears his name,
where a successful attack was made upon the Iroquois. The consequences
of this act were far reaching, for from that time the Iroquois
confederation was hostile to the French, crippling the colony for many

A new company formed.--De Monts's exclusive privileges were not renewed,
but he was allowed to retain his position of king's representative.
Seeing no chance for profit, he withdrew from further activities in the
New World. Another company was at once formed, composed of traders of
Rouen and St. Malo. Champlain was retained by the new company.

Champlain's explorations.--In 1613 Champlain explored the Ottawa River
to a point about one hundred miles above the modern capital of Canada.
In 1615 four Recollet friars were induced to come to Quebec, this being
the beginning of missionary activities in New France. The same year
Champlain joined a Huron war party, passed up the Ottawa to Lake
Nipissing, thence by the French River to Georgian Bay, being the first
white man to find the way which eventually became the regular fur
trader's route to the interior. Lake Ontario was also seen and crossed
for the first time on this expedition. Fur trading was actively carried
on, but because of dishonest dealings the company gradually lost
influence with the Indians, a condition which also hampered the
missionaries. As the Recollets met with little success, in 1625 the
Jesuits were induced to send out five representatives, thus beginning
the activities of that order in New France.

The Company of the Hundred Associates.--In spite of all the efforts
which had been made, the financial results were trifling. So badly were
affairs going that Richelieu determined to change the organization; in
1627 he established the Company of the Hundred Associates, who were to
send out annually from two to three hundred settlers and a sufficient
number of clergy to meet the needs. The company was to possess all lands
between Florida and the Arctic Circle, and from Newfoundland as far west
as it was able to take possession. With the exception of the cod and
whale fisheries, the company was granted a complete monopoly of trade.

The English occupation.--Before the company could land colonists,
difficulties arose between France and England, and a fleet of privateers
under Captain David Kirke raided the French possessions off Gaspé,
capturing eighteen vessels which were carrying colonists and supplies to
Quebec; after destroying the settlements in Acadia, Kirke sailed for
England. The following year he landed at Tadoussac and sent three
vessels to Quebec to demand its surrender. The place capitulated and
over a hundred of the inhabitants were sent to England. Upon their
arrival, it was found that peace had been made. Negotiations were
terminated in 1632, Canada and Acadia being restored to France.

Last years of Champlain. Nicolet.--Upon his return Champlain immediately
repaired the buildings at Quebec, and established a fort at Three Rivers
to protect the Hurons against the Iroquois. From time to time Champlain
had heard of a great waterway in the west. Believing that it might be a
route to China, in 1634 he sent Nicolet on an exploring expedition.
Nicolet passed up the Ottawa, traversed Georgian Bay, and reached Sault
Ste. Marie. He then explored the south shore of the upper peninsula of
Michigan, and reached the southern extremity of Green Bay. From the
Winnebagoes he learned of a "great water" three days' journey toward the
south. After visiting the Illinois country, he returned without having
reached the Mississippi. In 1635 Champlain died; there was no master
mind to direct operations, and the colony languished.

The Jesuits.--The first Jesuit superior was Father Le Jeune, who in 1632
was stationed at Quebec in the residence of Notre Dame des Anges, the
parent establishment of the missions of New France. Le Jeune ministered
to the Algonquins of the neighborhood. In 1633 Bréboeuf headed a group
of missionaries to the Huron villages at the southern end of Georgian
Bay, and in 1641 a mission was founded at Sault Ste. Marie, but it was
not permanent. Pestilence and the war parties of the Iroquois gradually
destroyed the Hurons; the Jesuits toiled amid scenes of famine, disease,
and death, several succumbing to the hardships, others suffering
martyrdom. So constant were the attacks of the Iroquois, that in 1649 it
was determined to establish a more sheltered mission on the Island of
St. Joseph in Georgian Bay. The missions on the mainland being destroyed
by the Iroquois, and the Hurons having been greatly reduced in numbers,
in 1650 the Jesuits abandoned that region. Attempts to establish
missions among the Iroquois also failed completely at this time. In the
settlements the Jesuits were the most important social factor, until
1665 practically controlling the life of the people. At Quebec they
established schools for Huron and French boys, and at their suggestion
the Ursulines opened a convent. Private endowments made possible a
school for girls near Quebec and a hospital at Montreal.

[Illustration: The French in Canada, 17th Century.]

The founding of Montreal.--For the purpose of founding an evangelical
colony, a group of religious persons at Paris formed an association
called the Association of Montreal. The island on which the city now
stands was purchased, and in 1641 De Maisonneuve, with a Jesuit priest
and thirty-seven laymen, sailed from La Rochelle. After taking formal
possession of the island, the party wintered at Quebec, and the
following spring founded the town of Montreal.

The New Company.--The Hundred Associates not having fulfilled their
agreement regarding settlers, and the colony having proved a financial
failure, an arrangement was made in 1645 between the company and the
inhabitants acting as a corporation, henceforth known as the New
Company. The old company retained its governmental rights, but the fur
trade was thrown open to the New Company on condition that it would
assume the expenses of civil administration, defence, and religion, that
it would bring in twenty settlers annually, and would pay to the old
company a thousand pounds of beaver skins every year.

Coureurs de bois.--Up to this time the fur trade had been carried on
mainly at the settlements, but after the New Company was formed a larger
number of men began to frequent the forests, giving rise to the type
known as _coureurs de bois_. These were of two classes, those who merely
traded with the Indians for peltries, and those who attached themselves
to native tribes. This latter class lapsed into barbarism and became a
lawless element which gave great annoyance to the officials. Later a
third class of traders appeared when the governors were allowed to grant
licenses to frequent the forests. Great abuses crept into the fur trade,
large quantities of spirits being sold to the Indians, who were roundly
cheated when intoxicated. It was the intention of the French government
to restrict the trade to the settlements, but the officials usually
winked at violations of the law, and some of them shared in the illicit
trading. The most famous of the fur traders of this period were Radisson
and Groseilliers, who, in 1658-1659 and possibly earlier, traded and
explored in the country at the western end of Lake Superior.


A centralist system established.--As complaints arose regarding the last
governmental arrangements, the king changed the form of control,
creating a council to consist of the governor, any ex-governor who might
be in the country, and the superior of the Jesuits, who was later to
give way to a bishop when one was appointed; these were to select for
membership two inhabitants, or three if no ex-governor was in the
colony. Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers were each to select a syndic,
who could hold office for three years and could deliberate with but
could not vote in the council. The centralist system, which Mazarin was
perfecting in France, was thus established in Canada.

Laval.--New France had been attached to the archbishopric of Rouen, and
De Queylus, a Sulpician priest at Montreal, had acted as vicar-general
for the whole colony. His followers hoped that he would be created
bishop, but instead, in 1659 a Jesuit, the Abbé Laval, was appointed
vicar-apostolic and Bishop of Petraea _in partibus_. After a spirited
contest with De Queylus, Laval was successful in establishing his
supremacy, the power of the Jesuits thus being assured.

War with the Iroquois.--The following year witnessed a serious Iroquois
outbreak. News arrived that twelve hundred warriors had gathered to wipe
out the settlements. A young nobleman, popularly known as Dollard,
conceived the quixotic scheme of intercepting a large force of Iroquois
who had wintered on the Ottawa. With sixteen enlisted men and a few
Hurons and Algonquins he proceeded to a palisade at the great rapids of
the Ottawa, and there met the Indians. Dollard and his followers were
slain to a man, but so stubborn had been their resistance that the
Iroquois retired to the forests and New France was saved. A regiment was
sent out to protect the colony, forts were established along the
Richelieu, and two expeditions were sent into the Iroquois country, the
result being that a peace was made with the Indians which lasted for
several years. Later an expedition was sent to the outlet of Lake
Ontario to impress the savages with the power of France.

The West India Company.--In 1663 the company of New France surrendered
its rights to the king, who created a council to consist of the
governor, bishop, and five councillors chosen by them jointly. The
following year, at the suggestion of Colbert, he chartered a new
corporation known as the West India Company, to which was given a
monopoly of all the trade of New France and the west coast of Africa,
with the privilege of nominating the governor of Canada. The office of
intendant was also created to act as a check upon the governor. This
official was to act as a legal and financial officer who was to report
directly to the crown. The first intendant was Talon, who was a
prominent figure for several years. The governor who was the military,
political, and administrative agent of the king, the intendant, and the
bishop were the real rulers of New France. Their divided authority and
jealousies later led to frequent disputes, which greatly retarded the
development of the colonies.

Talon.--It was Talon who first realized the possibilities of New France.
To promote commerce he built a vessel which he despatched to the West
Indies with a cargo of fish, staves, and lumber. He planned an overland
road to Acadia and urged the occupation of the Hudson River Valley,
projects, however, which were not realized. At Quebec he erected a
brewery and tannery. Young women were brought from France as wives for
the colonists and soldiers, and bounties were offered for the birth of
children. In 1666 the total population was 3418; five years later it had
increased to 6000.

Seignorial grants.--To aid in colonization and protection Talon
established a type of feudalism. Along the Richelieu River as high up as
Chambly and along the St. Lawrence from the neighborhood of Montreal to
a point several miles below Quebec, most of the lands were portioned
out. The majority of these seignorial grants were made to officers of
the regiment of Carrigan, which had been stationed in Canada. Discharged
soldiers were settled on the grants as tenant farmers. The seignorial
holdings varied in size from half a league to six leagues on the river
and extended back from half a league to two leagues. The buildings of
the seigniory were the "mansion," which was usually a log house, a fort,
chapel, and mill. The poverty of the proprietor, however, frequently
prevented the erection of some of the buildings, the mill sometimes
being lacking or serving the double duty of fort and mill; on other
grants chapel, mill, and fort were never built. In the more exposed
localities the houses of the tenants were built together in palisaded
villages. On other grants the dwellings lined the shore, forming what
were called _cotes_. Near Quebec Talon laid out a model seigniory and
three model villages, each village being provided with a carpenter,
mason, blacksmith, and shoemaker. But the settlers did not profit by the
example and continued to build near the rivers. With the exception of
Talon's villages, one could have seen nearly every house in Canada by
paddling a canoe up the St. Lawrence and the Richelieu. One of the most
famous seigniories in Canada was that of the Le Moyne family.


The Company of St. Christopher.--In 1625 a small brigantine commanded by
Pierre d'Esnambuc and Urbain de Roissey, "the pirate of Dieppe," sailed
to the West Indies. After escaping from a Spanish galleon near Jamaica,
they proceeded to St. Christopher, where a settlement was begun. The
following year the Company of St. Christopher was formed, and three
vessels with over five hundred men set sail from France in 1627, but
only half of them survived the voyage. Two settlements were formed, one
at each end of the island, the English having already occupied the
middle. In 1628 and 1629 about five hundred more were sent out, and in
the latter year ten vessels were despatched to defend the colonists. In
spite of this a Spanish fleet broke up the settlements; the fugitives
fled to St. Martin, and after a vain attempt to settle Antigua and
Montserrat, most of them returned to St. Christopher, which had been
abandoned by the Spanish. Only three hundred and fifty survived.

Santo Domingo.--A few of them went to the northern coast of Santo
Domingo, whence they carried on buccaneering enterprises against the
Spaniards. After the Spanish attack the company did little to assist,
and the colony was left to its own devices. Trade with the Dutch
immediately sprang up and the settlers began to make a profit from

Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Tortuga.--In 1634 the Company of St.
Christopher was bankrupt, and the following year it was reorganized as
the Company of the Isles of America. Guadeloupe and Martinique were
immediately occupied. In 1640 the English were expelled from Tortuga,
and the island was occupied by Levasseur, who soon broke loose from the
control of the company and conducted a pirate haven. Several of the
smaller islands were also occupied. The French West Indies soon
attracted a considerable immigration, in 1642 the population being
estimated at more than seven thousand. The tobacco business not
continuing profitable, sugar began to take its place as the staple
product. Due mainly to the clash of authority among officials, a
condition which led to anarchy, by 1648 the company was bankrupt.

Other Islands occupied.--Between 1649 and 1651 the various islands were
sold to proprietors who ruled them until 1664. Between 1648 and 1656
settlements were made on St. Martin, St. Bartholomew, St. Croix, The
Saints, Marie Galante, St. Lucia, and Granada, and by 1664 the French
flag floated over fourteen of the Antilles. The sugar business proved to
be exceedingly profitable and cultivation of the cane made slave-labor
desirable. Population increased rapidly, in 1655 the whites numbering
about fifteen thousand and slaves being almost as numerous. During the
period of the proprietors there was little restriction on commerce, most
of the carrying trade passing into the hands of the Dutch.

The Crown assumes control.--Colbert became controller-general of the
finances in 1662, one of his functions being the control of the
colonies. He determined to send a representative to assert the king's
authority; in 1663 De Tracy was made lieutenant-general in all the
French colonies and was given supreme executive and judicial powers. The
following year he sailed with De La Barre who was about to establish a
colony at Cayenne. De Tracy soon established the king's authority and
corrected abuses in the West Indies, and then proceeded to Quebec, where
he remained until 1667.

[Illustration: The Caribbean Area in the Seventeenth Century.]

The West India Company.--In 1664 Louis chartered the great company which
was granted the mainland of South America from the Orinoco to the
Amazon, the island of Cayenne, the French West Indies, Newfoundland,
Acadia, Canada, the rest of the mainland of North America as far south
as Florida, and the African coast from Cape Verde to the Cape of Good
Hope. Former proprietors were to be compensated, and with the
exception of the fisheries of Newfoundland, the company was to have a
monopoly of trade and colonization for forty years. After considerable
opposition the company succeeded in establishing its authority in the
islands, but the war which broke out in 1666 between France, and England
and Holland proved disastrous, a French fleet which was sent to protect
the Antilles being destroyed by the English. Colbert assisted the
company financially, but it failed to become a profitable undertaking
and in 1674 was dissolved. The inhabitants, however, continued to
prosper, mainly because of the increasing number of independent
merchants who traded with the islands and the growing importance of the
sugar industry.


Two Lines of Approach.--The French had now established themselves firmly
in the lower St. Lawrence basin and in the Caribbean area. From these
two bases they now proceeded to the Mississippi Valley and the northern
Gulf littoral. From the St. Lawrence they made their way over the
portages to the tributaries of the Father of Waters. From the West
Indies the Gulf of Mexico served as a highway.

Occupation of the upper lakes.--After the failure of the Huron missions,
the Jesuits extended their field of operations to the shores of Lake
Superior and Lake Michigan. The mission at Sault Ste. Marie was revived;
in 1665 La Pointe mission near the western end of Lake Superior was
established by Father Allouez, who was succeeded by Marquette four years
later. Between 1670 and 1672 St. Ignace, at Michillimackinac, and St.
Xavier on Green Bay (at De Pere) were established. In 1670 Talon
despatched Saint Lusson to take possession of the Northwest; at a
meeting of the tribes at Sault Ste. Marie the following year the
sovereignty of the king over that region was proclaimed. Albanel was
also sent to open communication between the St. Lawrence and Hudson Bay.

Marquette and Joliet.--In 1672 Count Frontenac became governor and
lieutenant-general of New France. Shortly after his arrival at Quebec,
at the suggestion of Talon, he sent the fur trader Joliet to find the
Mississippi. At Michillimackinac he met the missionary Marquette, who
decided to accompany him. On May 17, 1673, they started westward; after
reaching Green Bay, they followed the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the
Mississippi, which they descended to the mouth of the Arkansas, just at
the time when Father Larios was founding Spanish missions near the Rio
Grande. Being convinced that the Mississippi emptied into the Gulf of
Mexico, and fearing that they might fall into the hands of the
Spaniards, they determined to turn back. The return was by the
Mississippi, the Illinois, and Chicago rivers and the western shores of
Lake Michigan. Father Marquette returned to work among the Illinois, but
was soon forced by illness to abandon the field. On his way north he
died at the site of Ludington. His work among the Illinois was taken up
by others, among them being Fathers Allouez and Hennepin.

Fort Frontenac.--While Joliet and Marquette were exploring the
Mississippi, the governor was engaged in founding Fort Frontenac, on the
northern shore of the outlet of Lake Ontario, near modern Kingston, his
purpose being to overawe the Iroquois, and to divert their trade and
allegiance from the English. With the governor was La Salle, who later
became commandant of the new fort.

Frontenac's quarrels.--Shortly after Frontenac became governor the king
again changed the form of government. The council was increased to seven
members who held office directly from the king. Its chief function was
judicial. A minor court called the _prévôté_, having original
jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases, was reëstablished, appeals
being taken from the _prévôté_ to the council. Frontenac, who was of an
imperious nature and exceedingly jealous of his authority, quarreled
with the officials and clergy of Montreal, with Laval who had recently
been made Bishop of Quebec, with the new intendant Duchesneau, and with
the council. Regulation of the fur trade and questions of authority were
the fruitful sources of disagreement. Under such conditions the colony
did not advance rapidly. As Le Sueur says in his life of Frontenac, "The
great trouble in Canada was that it was an overgoverned country.... What
these people needed in the first place was freedom to seek their living
in their own way, and secondly, an extremely simple form of government."
The constant bickering finally exhausted the patience of the home
government, and in 1682 both Frontenac and Duchesneau were recalled.

La Salle's fur trade monopoly.--During Frontenac's administration La
Salle was engaged in the exploration of the Illinois country and the
Mississippi. Having secured a royal patent to build forts and engage in
the fur trade in the interior, La Salle, with a party which included
Tonty, an Italian soldier of fortune, and the Recollet Hennepin, erected
a fort at Niagara Falls and built a vessel called the _Griffon_, on
which in 1679 they sailed up the lakes to Green Bay. The boat was sent
back with a cargo of furs, but never reached its destination. The shores
of Lake Michigan and the Illinois country were explored and Fort
Crêvecœur was erected near the site of Peoria. From there Accau and
Hennepin were sent to explore the upper Mississippi. La Salle then
returned to Fort Frontenac, crossing lower Michigan and following Lake
Erie and Lake Ontario.

Exploration of the Mississippi.--While La Salle was gone, Tonty occupied
Starved Rock, later known as Fort St. Louis, but a mutiny and an
Iroquois invasion forced the French to return to Green Bay, so that when
La Salle returned he found the country abandoned. After a fruitless
search, he heard from the Indians of Tonty's whereabouts and hastened
north to meet him. Together they returned to Fort Frontenac. Nothing
daunted, they again sought the Mississippi. On December 21, 1681, they
were again at Fort Miami, at the mouth of the St. Joseph River. On
February 6, 1682, they reached the Mississippi, and arrived at its mouth
in April, when they took formal possession of the great valley, naming
it Louisiana in honor of the king. By the end of September they were
back at Fort Miami, and in 1683 the leader returned to Quebec.

La Salle's Colony on the Gulf.--La Salle now planned a colony at the
mouth of the Mississippi River, as a means of developing the fur trade,
controlling the Mississippi Valley, providing a base for commanding the
Gulf, and, in case of war, for attack on the coveted mines of New Spain.
France and Spain were on the verge of war, and in 1683 French buccaneers
three times sacked the Spanish settlement of Apalache. La Salle's
proposals were favored, therefore, by Louis XIV. In the summer of 1684
La Salle left France with a colony of some four hundred people. In the
autumn he reached the West Indies, the ketch _St. François_ having been
captured by the Spaniards on the way. Continuing the voyage in November,
La Salle missed the mouth of the Mississippi and landed on the Texas
coast at Matagorda Bay. Tonty descended the Mississippi to coöperate
(1686), but did not find his chief. On the way he built a small post on
the Arkansas.

[Illustration: La Salle's Colony on the Texas Coast, 1684-1689.]

Failure.--The expedition rapidly went to pieces. One vessel was wrecked
in landing, and Beaujeu, the naval commander, returned to France with a
second, and part of the men and supplies. La Salle moved his colony
inland to the Garcitas River, near the head of the Lavaca Bay, where he
founded Fort St. Louis, and then began a series of expeditions
northeastward in the hope of finding the Mississippi River. While
engaged in exploring, the last of his vessels was wrecked. Through
desertion and sickness the colony rapidly dwindled. On his third
expedition northeastward, in 1687, La Salle reached the Hasinai (Cenis)
Indians, east of the Trinity River. On his fourth expedition he was
murdered by his companions near the Brazos River. The remainder of his
party, led by Joutel, made their way to the Arkansas post and to Canada.
In the fall of 1689 Tonty, in an effort to rescue La Salle's colonists,
descended the Mississippi River, and made his way to the Cadodacho and
Hasinai villages. Meanwhile the colony on the Gulf had been completely
wiped out by an Indian massacre which occurred early in 1689. La Salle's
occupation of Matagorda Bay later became a basis of the claim of the
United States to Texas.

Explorers in the Southwest.--The failure of La Salle's colony did not
put an end to exploration in the Southwest. Interest in a passage to the
South Sea was perennial, and no tale of Spanish treasure was too
guttering to find credence on the French frontier. Mathieu Sagean told
of a golden country of the Accanibas, and Baron La Hontan of a Long
River. The _coureurs de bois_ were ever led west and southwest in their
fur trading operations. The result was that in this western country
traders from Canada roamed far and wide at an early date. A Canadian is
known to have reached the Rio Grande overland before 1688 and by 1694
Canadian traders were among the Missouri and Osage tribes.

The upper Mississippi--Duluth.--While La Salle was operating in the
Illinois country, others were at work in northern Wisconsin and
Minnesota. In 1678 Duluth, a cousin of Tonty, left Montreal for the
west. For several years he traded among the tribes west of Lake
Superior. Hearing in 1680 that Frenchmen were near, he went in search of
them, and found Accau and Hennepin, who had explored the upper
Mississippi. Duluth went to France, where he secured a license to trade
with the Sioux. In 1683 he returned to Wisconsin with thirty men,
proceeded to the north shore of Lake Superior, and built forts near Lake
Nipigon and Pigeon River. The highway from Brulé River to the St. Croix
became known as Duluth's Portage. In 1686 he erected a temporary fort
near Detroit to bar the English traders.

Le Sueur.--Between 1683 and 1700 Le Sueur, a prominent fur trader,
operated in Minnesota and Wisconsin. In 1683 he was at St. Anthony's
Falls. The Fox Indians of Wisconsin opposed the passage of the French to
the Sioux and practically cut off their trade route. For this reason Le
Sueur protected the Brulé-St. Croix highway. To effect this, in 1693 he
built a fort at Chequamegon Bay, on the south shore of Lake Superior,
and another on the Mississippi near the mouth of the St. Croix. This
post became a center of commerce for the western posts. In 1697 Le Sueur
was in France, where he secured permission to work copper mines near
Lake Superior. In 1699 he went from France to Louisiana with Iberville.
Thence, with twenty-nine men, he ascended the Mississippi to Blue River,
Minnesota, and built Fort L'Huiller (1700) at Mankato, where he traded
with the Sioux.

Perrot.--In 1685 Nicholas Perrot, who had been in Wisconsin as early as
1665, and had acquired great influence over the western tribes, was made
"commander of the west" and sent among the Sioux. In 1686 he built Fort
St. Antoine on the Mississippi near Trempealeau, Wisconsin. Other posts
established by him were Fort Perrot on the west side of Lake Pepin, Fort
Nicholas at Prairie du Chien, and one farther down the Mississippi near
the Galena lead mines, which he discovered and worked.

The Illinois and Detroit.--In the Illinois country the French Jesuits
labored from the time of Marquette, among his successors being Fathers
Allouez and Hennepin. In 1699 a Sulpician mission was established at
Cahokia and in 1700 the Jesuits moved down the Illinois River to
Kaskaskia. A year later Detroit was founded to protect the route from
Lake Erie to Lake Huron, cut off English trade with the Indians, and
afford a base for the Illinois trade. Missionaries entered the region of
the lower Mississippi and the lower Ohio, where Tonty and other
Frenchmen maintained a considerable trade.

Traders on the Tennessee.--Because of Iroquois control of the country
south of the Great Lakes and as far as the Tennessee River, the French
in La Salle's time had little knowledge of the Ohio and its tributaries.
At that period the Shawnee of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers were
declining under Iroquois attacks. On the upper Tennessee lived the
Cherokees. In spite of the Iroquois, however, by the end of the century
several _coureurs de bois_ of Canada had ascended the Ohio and Tennessee
Rivers, crossed the divide, and descended the Savannah River into South
Carolina, in defiance of the government, which tried to maintain a trade
monopoly. Their activities brought them into rivalry with the English on
the Carolina frontier.

Couture and Bellefeuille.--Among these pathfinders was Jean Couture, who
had been left by Tonty at the Arkansas post. As early as 1693 he
deserted the French colony and made his way overland to the English. In
1699 he was on the Savannah, where he proposed to lead the English to
certain mines in the west. Returning, he led a party of English traders,
sent by Governor Blake of South Carolina, up the Savannah, and down the
Tennessee and Ohio, in an attempt to divert the western trade from
Canada to the English. In February, 1700, they reached the Arkansas
River, where they were met by Le Sueur on his way up the river to
Minnesota. At the request of Iberville, the new governor of Louisiana,
the government now permitted Illinois traders to sell their peltry in
Louisiana, to prevent them from earning it over the mountains to the
English. In 1701 a party of Frenchmen under Bellefeuille and Soton
crossed the mountains to South Carolina, and attempted to open up trade.
Returning they descended the Mississippi and visited Biloxi. It was now
proposed, in order to stop the road to Carolina, that posts be
established on the Miami and the lower Ohio. For this purpose Juchereau
de St. Denis established a post at Cairo in 1702. Through the
establishment of Louisiana and the opening of trade with Canada, this
danger was largely averted.



Baird, C.W., _Huguenot Emigration_; Brevoort, J.C., _Verrazano the
Navigator_; Channing, Edward, _History of the United States_, I, 90-112;
De Costa, B.F., _Verrazano the Explorer_; French, B.F., _Historical
Collections of Louisiana and Florida_, 117-362; Hamilton, P.J., _The
Colonization of the South_, 27-41; Hart. A.B., _Contemporaries_, I,
102-112; Leacock, Stephen, _The Mariner of St. Malo_; Lescarbot, Marc,
_History of New France_; Munro, W.B., _Crusaders of New France_, 11-32;
Murphy, H.C., _Voyage of Verrazano_; Parkman, Francis, _The Pioneers of
France in the New World_, 1-228; Shea, J.G., in Winsor, _Narrative and
Critical History_, II, 260-283; Tracy, F.B., _Tercentenary History of
Canada_, I, 20-37; Winsor, Justin, _Cartier to Frontenac_, 1-47; Biggar,
H.P., _The Precursors of Jacques Cartier_.


Biggar, H.P., _Early Trading Companies of New France_; Bourne, E.G.,
_Voyages and Explorations of Champlain (Trail Makers' Series)_;
Champlain, Samuel, _Œuvres_ (Laverdière, ed.); Colby, C.W., _The
Founder of New France_; Dionne, N.E., _Champlain_; Grant, W.L., _Voyages
of Champlain (Original Narratives Series)_; Kingsford, William, _The
History of Canada_, I, 147-294; Le Sueur, W.D., _Frontenac_, 1-60;
Marquis, T.G., _The Jesuit Missions_; Parkman, Francis, _Old Régime in
Canada_, 3-168; _Pioneers of New France_, 324-454; _The Jesuits in North
America_; Thwaites, R.G., _France in America_, 10-48; Tracy, F.B.,
_Tercentenary History of Canada_, I, 41-279; Winsor, Justin, _From
Cartier to Frontenac_, 77-183; Munro, W.B., _Crusaders of New France_.


Chapais, Thomas, _The Great Intendant_; Haring, C.H., _The Buccaneers in
the West Indies in the XVII Century_; Mims, S.L., _Colbert's West India
Policy_; Munro, W.B., _The Seigneurs of Old Canada_; Parkman, Francis,
_The Old Régime_, 169-330.


Bolton, H.E., "The Location of La Salle's Colony on the Gulf of Mexico,"
in _Mississippi Valley Historical Review_, II, 165-182; Charlevoix,
P.F.X., _Histoire Générale de la Nouvelle France_ (J.G. Shea, trans.):
Cox, I.J., _Journeys of La Salle (Trail Makers' Series)_; Folwell, W.W.,
_Minnesota_, 59-65; Hamilton, P.J., _The Colonization of the South_,
187-196; Kellogg, L.P., ed., _Early Narratives of the Northwest
(Original Narratives Series)_: Le Sueur, W.D., _Frontenac_, 61-169; Ogg,
F.A., _The Opening of the Mississippi_, 59-163; Parish, J.C., _The Man
with the Iron Hand_; Parkman, Francis, _La Salle and the Discovery of
the Great West_; Phelps, Albert, _Louisiana_, 6-20; Shea, J.G.,
_Exploration of the Mississippi Valley_; Thwaites, R.G., _France in
America_, 48-71; _Wisconsin_, 40-71; Winsor, Justin, _Cartier to
Frontenac_, 183-295.




Periods of English activities.--While the French were colonizing Canada
and the West Indies, and the Spaniards were opening mines and ranches in
northern Mexico, the English were founding still more vigorous
settlements on the Atlantic seaboard, in the islands, and in the region
of Hudson Bay.

The history of English activities in America before 1783 may be divided
into four periods: (1) The Tudor epoch (1485-1603), which was a period
of commercial expansion, exploration, and attempted colonization; (2)
the Stuart and Cromwellian era (1603-1689), the period of colony
planting; (3) the international struggle for territory (1689-1763); and
(4) the struggle of a part of the English colonists for independence

Henry VII.--When Henry Tudor ascended the throne of England a new era
was ushered in. The continental possessions except Calais had been swept
away in the Hundred Years' War. The Wars of the Roses had broken the
power of the feudal barony, and the middle class Englishman had become
the most important political element in the nation. The general form of
the constitution had become fixed, the functions of the three branches
of the government, the king and his council, parliament, and the courts,
having become fairly well defined. The work of Henry Tudor was to
restore the finances, to build up commerce and industry, to keep England
at peace, and at the same time, by a series of marriage alliances and by
adroit diplomacy to raise England to her former position as a great
European power. He also built up the kingship at the expense of a
subservient parliament.

The English Reformation.--During the three succeeding reigns, England
played little part in exploration. While Spain was founding her vast
colonial empire, the attention of Englishmen was centered on the
European situation created by Charles V and on the great religious
controversy, which resulted in the break with Rome and the establishment
of the Anglican church.

Queen Elizabeth.--With the accession of Queen Elizabeth a new situation
arose. To the Catholic powers, Elizabeth had no right to the throne of
England. Philip II of Spain hoped to restore the country to the Catholic
fold; his first wife was Queen Mary of England, and under his influence
a short-lived Catholic reaction had been produced; if Elizabeth could
now be induced to turn Catholic and marry Philip, England might be won
back to the Roman church. Elizabeth, however, followed an independent
course, dangling before the eyes of the Spanish ambassador the
possibility of a marriage with Philip, while perfecting the organization
of the Anglican church, increasing her hold upon the affections of her
subjects, strengthening her treasury, army, navy, and defences, and
stimulating industry and commerce. Her path was beset with additional
difficulties, for the powerful Catholic party in France was intriguing
to place Mary Stuart, the queen of Scotland, on the English throne. To
weaken her foes, Elizabeth aided the Huguenots, assisted the Dutch in
their war against Spain, and connived with English mariners to raid the
Spanish Main. In 1588 the patience of Philip was exhausted, and he
sought to humble the haughty queen by sending the Invincible Armada
against England. A running fight occurred in the Channel and several of
the galleons were sunk or driven on shore. The Armada entered the roads
of Calais but a great storm shattered the fleet. Of the original one
hundred and thirty vessels only one-third returned to Spain. The defeat
of the Armada marks a turning point in Spanish and English history. From
that time Spain was thrown on the defensive and her power on the
continent gradually declined, though her colonies continued to expand.
England followed up her success by taking the offensive; an era of
greater commercial activity followed, and she soon entered upon her rôle
of a colonizing nation.


John Cabot.--The discovery of new lands in the west soon became known in
England, and when the Venetian citizen, John Cabot, applied for letters
patent to go on a western voyage, Henry VII readily complied. In May,
1497, his single ship with eighteen men set sail from Bristol and
crossed the north Atlantic. It is impossible to state with certainty
what part of the coast was visited, but it appears to have been in the
neighborhood of Cape Breton Island. The idea that Sebastian Cabot
accompanied his father is generally rejected by the best authorities.
The importance of the voyage lies in the fact that it was used at a
later date to strengthen the English claim to a large part of North
America. The following year John Cabot sailed for the new found land but
never returned.

The Newfoundland fisheries.--Cabot's voyage had another important
result. He had discovered a convenient trade route to the fisheries of
Newfoundland, and English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese fishing
vessels soon swarmed the region. English ships are thought to have
traded there regularly after 1502. Expeditions are known to have been
made thither in 1527 and 1536, and before 1550 fishing fleets went from
southern England to Newfoundland every spring and autumn.

The Muscovy Company.--The latter half of the Tudor period witnessed the
formation of great companies which reached out for foreign trade. In
1553 a group of London merchants decided to make an attempt to reach
China and the East Indies by a northern route. Under the command of
Willoughby and Chancellor, three ships sailed along the Norway coast and
rounded the North Cape. Willoughby and the crews of two of the ships
perished on the coast of Lapland, but Chancellor entered the White Sea
and penetrated to Moscow, where he was promised trading privileges by
Ivan the Terrible. In 1555 the merchants who were interested in the
expedition were granted a royal charter, the company being familiarly
known as the Muscovy Company. Annual fleets were despatched to the White
and Baltic seas; warehouses were established at various points in
Russia, and the agents of the company extended their activities to the
Caspian Sea, to Bokhara, and to Persia. In 1580 the Turks cut them off
from the region outside of European Russia. Occasional unsuccessful
attempts were also made by the company to reach China by the northern
route. In 1579 the Eastland Company, a rival organization, was chartered
to trade in the Baltic, and developed an extensive trade in Poland.

The Levant Company.--English merchants also turned their attention to
the Mediterranean to renew a trade which had formerly been of some
importance. In 1581 a charter was issued to the Levant Company, which
engaged in trading with the Turkish ports along the southern and eastern
shores of the Mediterranean. The same year a charter was granted to the
Venetian Company and in 1592 the two were combined as the Levant
Company. Among those interested in the Mediterranean commerce were Sir
Thomas Smythe and Sir Walter Raleigh, both of whom were important
figures in the colonization of Virginia. Other groups of merchants
opened trade with Morocco, and the Senegambia and Guinea coasts. In all
of these enterprises Englishmen were reaching out for the trade with the
East Indies, which had long been monopolized by the Portuguese. In 1581,
the year in which the Levant Company was chartered, Portugal was
incorporated with Spain, and hostility to that power added another
incentive to reach the East.


John Hawkins.--Among those interested in the African trade was William
Hawkins, who filled the important positions of mayor of Plymouth and
member of parliament. He made three voyages to Guiana and Brazil. His
son, John Hawkins, became one of the most famous mariners of his time.
In 1562 he sailed for Africa to obtain slaves, which he disposed of in
Española. In 1564-1565 he engaged in a second voyage which resulted in
great profit. A third voyage in 1567-1568 ended disastrously. The
Spanish government had sent a fleet to stop the traffic; but in spite of
it he forced an entrance to the West Indian ports and disposed of his
cargo. Being driven by a storm into the harbor of Vera Cruz, he was
attacked by a Spanish fleet and but two of the English vessels escaped.

Drake and Cavendish.--Francis Drake, a nephew of John Hawkins, had
accompanied him on his third expedition and had suffered the loss of his
investment. He soon began a series of reprisals. In 1572 he made an
unsuccessful attack on Nombre de Diós and ascended the Chagres River
where he waylaid a train of mules laden with bullion. The example set by
him was frequently followed by raids of English mariners in the
following decade. In 1577 another fleet sailed under Drake's command.
After capturing several Spanish and Portuguese vessels on the African
coast, the fleet crossed the Atlantic and attempted to pass through the
Straits of Magellan. Only one vessel reached the Pacific. Drake
proceeded up the western coast, plundering as he went. In a harbor known
as Drake's Bay, north of San Francisco Bay, he refitted, and claimed the
California region for the queen, calling it New Albion. He then sailed
to the East Indies where a cargo of spice was obtained. From Java, Drake
crossed the Indian Ocean, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and proceeded
to England, entering the harbor of Plymouth in November, 1580, having
completed the first English circumnavigation of the globe. In 1586
Thomas Cavendish followed almost the same course, plundered the Spanish
commerce in the Pacific, and in 1588 completed the circumnavigation of
the world. Besides Hawkins, Drake, and Cavendish a score of English
mariners engaged in raiding the Spanish Main. They were assisted
financially by the queen and by many of her councillors who considered
the raiding of Spanish commerce good business as well as good state

East Indian trade.--A party of English merchants had also succeeded in
penetrating from the Syrian coast to India. The report of their journey
and the voyages of Drake and Cavendish stimulated the desire to open
trade with the Far East. The result was that in 1591 an expedition was
fitted out which rounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached Ceylon,
India, and the Malay Peninsula. Reports of the successes of the Dutch in
the East Indies increased the interest of the English merchants, and in
1600 the East India Company was formed.


Frobisher.--The unsuccessful attempts of the Muscovy Company to reach
the East by a northeast passage led to the search for a northwestern
route. The great exponent of the idea was Martin Frobisher. After vainly
seeking many years for a patron who would furnish funds, in 1574 he
received the support of Michael Lock, a member of the Muscovy Company,
and the following year a royal license was granted to undertake the

In June, 1576, Frobisher sailed from England in command of three small
vessels, only one of which reached America. The vessel passed along the
Labrador coast, crossed the entrance of Hudson Strait, and coasted
Baffin Land, entering the inlet now known as Frobisher's Bay. Upon his
return to England, Frobisher took back a large stone, which an assayer
claimed contained gold. In consequence the queen and many influential
men subscribed liberally for another voyage. The Company of Cathay was
formed which was to have a monopoly in all lands to the westward where
Englishmen had not traded before. Expeditions in search of gold were
sent out under Frobisher in 1577 and 1578, but the rocks which were
brought back proved to be worthless.

Gilbert.--Among those interested in the search for a northwest passage
was Raleigh's half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who believed that a
colony might be established on the American coast. In 1578 he obtained a
six-year monopoly of discovery and settlement in America. A fleet was
equipped, but being twice scattered by storms, the attempt was
abandoned. In 1583 Gilbert made a second venture. Arriving at St. Johns,
Newfoundland, Gilbert informed the crews of the fishing fleet of his
commission, and took possession in the name of Elizabeth. On the return
voyage the _Squirrel_ with Gilbert and all on board was lost in a storm
just north of the Azores.

Davis.--In 1584 John Davis, Walter Raleigh, and others were granted a
charter to explore a route to China and to trade in lands which might be
discovered. Command of an expedition was given to Davis, who sailed from
Dartmouth in 1585. The southern coast of Greenland was explored and
Davis Strait was crossed, but the illusive opening was not found. In
1586 and 1587 Davis sought the passage but without success.


Raleigh and the attempted colonization of Virginia.--England's struggle
with Spain for empire did not end with an attack on her fleets and her
colonies. Men soon arose who dared to dispute Spain's monopoly by
planting colonies in the lands claimed by His Catholic Majesty. The
leader in the enterprise was Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1584 he received a
patent similar to that of Gilbert. Two vessels were soon despatched
under Amadas and Barlowe. They followed the southern route by the
Canaries and the West Indies, and finally landed on Roanoke Island,
taking possession of that region, which was named Virginia in honor of
Elizabeth, a name which was soon applied to the country from the Spanish
settlements to Newfoundland. In April of the following year Grenville
commanded a second expedition which took out the first colonists, who
made a settlement on Roanoke Island. In 1586 supply ships were sent out,
but they found the settlement deserted. Wearied by the hard winter, the
settlers had accepted an offer from Sir Francis Drake, who had been
raiding in the Caribbean, to carry them back to England.

In 1587 another group of colonists including almost a hundred men,
seventeen women, and several children, was sent out under Governor John
White and landed at Roanoke. White returned to England, but owing to the
naval war with Spain and other difficulties he was unable to go to
Virginia again until 1591, when he found only deserted ruins. News of
the English intrusion caused alarm on the Spanish frontier, and the
governor of Florida in person led a counter expedition up the coast as
far as Chesapeake Bay. To this day the fate of the Roanoke colony is a
mystery, but light on the matter may yet be shed by the Spanish

Raleigh's Orinoco expedition.--The discoveries of the Spaniards in
Mexico and Peru spurred the Englishman to attempt to find similar lands
of treasure. A story became current that in the interior of South
America on the upper waters of the Amazon and the Orinoco was a great
kingdom, which contained a powerful city called Manoa. It was also
believed that in the interior there was a mountain of sapphire and a
land ruled by female warriors called Amazons. After the failure of the
Roanoke enterprise, Raleigh became interested in this land of wonders,
and in 1594 sent a vessel to the Guiana coast to obtain information. The
following year Raleigh himself made an exploration of the delta of the
Orinoco and ascended the main stream a considerable distance. But the
city of Manoa proved elusive, supplies ran short, and the expedition
returned to England.



Bourne, E.G., _Spain in America_, 54-61; Channing, Edward, _History of
the United States_, I, 33-42; Fiske, John, _Discovery of America_, II,
2-15; Markham, C.R., _Columbus_, 226-233; Olson, J.E., ed., _The
Northmen, Columbus and Cabot_.


Cheyney, E.P., _A History of England from the Defeat of the Armada to
the Death of Elizabeth_, I, 309-348, 375-422, 433-459; Cunningham,
William, _The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern
Times--The Mercantile System_, 214-279; Scott, W.R., _The Constitution
and Finance of English, Scottish and Irish Joint-Stock Companies to
1720_, II, 3-11, 36-52, 83-89; Tilby, A.W., _The English People
Overseas_, I, 38-43.


Buchan, J., _Sir Walter Ralegh_; Channing, Edward, _History of the
United States_, I, 115-140; Cheyney, E.P., _A History of England from
the Defeat of the Armada to the Death of Elizabeth_, I, 349-374,
423-459; Corbett, J.S., _Drake and the Tudor Navy; Sir Francis Drake_;
Hume, M.A.S., _Sir Walter Ralegh_; Nuttall, Zelia, _New Light on Drake_;
Payne, E.J., _Elizabethan Sea-men_; Scott, W.R., _The Constitution and
Finance of English, Scottish and Irish Joint-Stock Companies to 1720_,
II, 76-82, 241-245; Tilby, A.W., _The English People Overseas_, I,
24-38; Woodward, W.H., _A Short History of the Expansion of the British
Empire_, 17-63; Wood, W., _Elizabethan Sea-Dogs_.




James I.--When James Stuart came to the throne, he had an exalted idea
of the kingship, believing that he ruled by divine right. The Tudors had
wielded almost absolute power, the privy council overshadowing
parliament. James naturally intended to rule in a similar manner, and
resented any legislative action which tended to decrease his
prerogative. He also stood as a staunch supporter of the English church.
His foreign policy was based upon a sincere desire for peace. With this
in view he ended the war with Spain and projected a marriage between his
son and a Spanish princess. In the latter part of James' reign, when the
Thirty Years' War broke out, the king hoped to become the arbiter of
Europe. Though he failed in this, he at least had the satisfaction of
keeping his country out of war.

Charles I.--The Parliamentarians who had nursed their wrath during the
reign of James, soon clashed with his successor. Charles I was a man of
staunch self-righteousness, who had little of pliability and much of
stubbornness in his nature. His idea of the royal prerogative was fully
as exalted as that of his father. From the beginning of the reign, king
and parliament clashed. When a war, which broke out with France and
Spain, went badly, the unpopularity of the king increased. When he
summoned parliament in 1628 to ask for supplies, he found that body
unwilling to comply with his demands until he had signed the Petition of

The experience which the king had with parliament determined him to rule
without it, and from 1629 to 1640 he carried on a personal government.
Acting through his privy council, the king ruled England. His chief
difficulty was to secure sufficient revenue to carry on the government.
Ancient feudal laws were resurrected and put into force. So long as no
extraordinary emergency arose the king was able to carry on the
government. During this period the religious controversy was also
becoming acute, the tyranny of Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury,
constantly adding fuel to the fire. Puritans and Parliamentarians found
a common ground of opposition. When the king attempted to force the
English prayer book and church organization on the Scotch Prebysterians,
war broke out. Charles found it necessary to summon parliament,
whereupon he found religious and political opponents united against him.


Early experiments.--During the reigns of the first two Stuarts a
colonial administrative policy was developed. With James I permanent
settlements began. They were regarded as dependent upon the crown rather
than as an integral part of the state. The king created a Council of
Virginia which was to have general control over settlements between 34°
and 45° north latitude. But the council was short lived and the privy
council soon became the center of the colonial system. The connecting
links between the settlers and the crown were the corporations which
were granted jurisdiction over more or less definite areas. Both king
and parliament claimed to have jurisdiction over the colonies, but the
first two Stuarts were able to keep control in their hands.

The privy council in charge.--The charters of the commercial companies
could be annulled by the courts in suits brought by the crown. Such was
the method followed when the charter of the Virginia Company was
revoked; the work of administration then passed into the hands of the
privy council. As this council was large and its duties numerous, the
actual work was usually done by committees, such a committee being
appointed to look after Virginia. Late in the reign of James I the crown
also appointed commissioners to examine the state of the colony, and
report on a form of government.

Policy of Charles I.--Under Charles I, though the commissioners
continued to attend to some business, most of the work of administration
devolved upon the privy council. In 1631 the commission was revived, but
in 1634 it was superseded by another at whose head was Archbishop Laud.
This was made up of the highest officers of church and state, and it was
given jurisdiction over all dependencies. Its chief acts required the
approval of the crown, and as this could only be obtained through the
privy council, it was responsible to that body. A standing committee of
the privy council for foreign plantations was also appointed, the
membership of this committee and the commission headed by Laud being
identical. Sub-committees composed of men of lower rank but who had
expert knowledge of colonial affairs were also appointed to assist the
higher bodies.

Special administrative bodies.--From time to time special bodies were
created for aiding the development of commerce and industry. In 1622
James constituted a council of trade for investigating commerce,
shipping, and industry. Charles I, in 1625, created a similar council,
but it did not become very active, and soon its duties devolved upon a
committee of the privy council, which investigated all phases of
economic activity, the regulation of the tobacco industry of Virginia
being one of the important subjects which occupied its attention.


Opposition of the Early Stuarts to Spain.--The settled policy of Spain
was to maintain a territorial and commercial monopoly in all the lands
west of the line of the treaty of Tordesillas. During the reign of
Elizabeth, the mariners of England had struck at Spanish commerce and
had made unsuccessful attempts at colonization; in the reigns of the
first two Stuarts, serious attempts were made by Englishmen to wrest
from the Spanish colossus some of his island possessions, and to occupy
Guiana and portions of North America. The attitude of James I toward
these enterprises depended upon the state of his negotiations with
Spain. In 1604 a treaty was signed which brought the long war between
the countries to an end. By the treaty the English crown surrendered the
right of trade to the Indies. The English mariners snapped their fingers
at the treaty and continued to visit the Indies, either running the
chance of being taken as pirates, or registering their vessels under the
flags of Holland or Savoy. The difficulties besetting this trade led
some of the merchants to invest their capital in enterprises of

[Illustration: Settlements in Virginia, 1634.]

The charter of 1606.--Between 1602 and 1606 several voyages were made to
America, the most important being that of George Weymouth, who visited
the New England coast in 1604; his favorable report greatly stimulated
the desire to plant colonies. In April, 1606, a charter was drawn up
which provided for two companies; one composed of men from London,
familiarly known as the London Company, which was to operate between the
thirty-fourth and forty-first degrees of latitude; the other made up of
men from Plymouth, Bristol, and Exeter, known as the Plymouth Company,
which was to plant colonies between the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth
degrees. Each company was to have control of fifty miles both north and
south of its first settlement, a hundred miles out to sea, and a hundred
miles inland. Neither was to settle within one hundred miles of the
other. Each company was to have a council of thirteen persons, and each
was to have the right to mine gold, silver, and copper; the king was to
receive one-fifth of all the precious metals and one-fifteenth of the
copper. No import duties were to be levied for seven years. The charter
also provided that the Christian religion was to be spread among the
natives. Colonists who went to the New World were guaranteed all the
privileges of Englishmen.

Founding of Jamestown.--In August, 1606, Henry Challons was sent ahead
in the _Richard_ to select a site for the London Company, but was
captured off Florida by a Spanish fleet and taken a prisoner to Seville.
In December, three vessels, which belonged to the Muscovy Company, the
_Susan Constant_, the _Godspeed_, and the _Discovery_, sailed for
Virginia under the command of Sir Christopher Newport. They followed the
southern route by the Canaries and the West Indies, arriving in
Chesapeake Bay in May, 1607. Of the hundred and twenty colonists who had
embarked, sixteen died during the voyage. Sealed instructions had been
sent for the government and management of Virginia. When opened, they
disclosed the names of the members of the council, a body possessed of
executive, legislative, and judicial powers, presided over by a
president. A site was to be selected on an island in a navigable river,
marshy or heavily wooded ground to be avoided. Contrary to instructions,
the site selected was on a swampy peninsula, located near the mouth of
the James River. Near the western end of the peninsula a triangular log
fort was laid out. The settlement was in the district known to the
Spaniards as Axacan, and not far from the site of the Jesuit mission
founded in 1570. While the fortification was being built, Newport
explored the James River as far as the site of Richmond. While he was
gone, the Indians attacked the fort but were driven off. Besides the
fortification, a church and storehouse were erected. In July Newport
sailed for England, taking with him worthless specimens of rock which
were believed to contain gold.

Early difficulties.--Shortly after the departure of Newport the
colonists began to suffer from famine, malaria, and Indian attacks.
President Wingfield husbanded the stores left by Newport, an action
which angered the settlers, and he was soon deposed. John Smith was sent
to secure food from the Indians, and succeeded in obtaining a
considerable supply. When Newport returned in January, 1608, he found
only forty survivors. During 1608 and 1609 the little settlement was
barely able to hold its own. The few additional settlers who came merely
offset the ravages of disease and starvation. During this period John
Smith appears to have been the chief factor in keeping the colony alive.
So precarious had conditions become by May, 1609, that he dispersed the
colonists in groups, one being sent to live among the Indians, another
to fish at Point Comfort, and a third to obtain oysters. In July a
vessel commanded by Samuel Argall arrived with supplies, bringing the
news that the first charter had been repealed and a new one granted.

Charter of 1609.--The lack of success in the original venture had caused
those interested to make an effort to enlarge the company. The
incorporators of the charter of 1609 were fifty-six of the guilds and
companies of London, and six hundred and fifty-nine persons, among whom
were included twenty-one peers, ninety-six knights, eleven professional
men, and fifty-three captains. The new company was to have the land two
hundred miles north and two hundred miles south of Point Comfort and
stretching from sea to sea west and northwest, and the islands within
one hundred miles of the coast. The government was vested in a council,
which was given power to appoint its own officers, to make laws for the
government of the colony, and to take in new stockholders. The English
church was established as the religion of the colony.

The starving time.--In June, 1609, nine vessels commanded by Newport
sailed from England with the new governor, Sir Thomas Gates, and about
five hundred emigrants. Beset by pestilence and storms, many died on the
voyage, about four hundred being landed at Jamestown in August. The
vessel carrying the governor was stranded in the Bermudas, and he did
not arrive at Jamestown until May, 1610. There he found the colonists in
a frightful condition, dissensions among the officers, Indian attacks,
disease, and starvation having brought the colony to the brink of
destruction. Gates decided to give up the ill-fated attempt, and taking
all the settlers on board, sailed down the James River, but met a vessel
bearing the news that a new governor, Lord Delaware, had arrived at
Point Comfort with supplies and a hundred and fifty emigrants. Gates
immediately returned to Jamestown. Of the nine hundred persons who had
been landed in Virginia during the first three years, only one hundred
and fifty were alive upon the arrival of Delaware.

Spanish resistance.--Spain regarded the Jamestown colony as an intruder,
and both Spaniards and Englishmen considered it as a menace to Spain's
northern outposts, and to her merchant fleets, which passed close by on
their homeward voyage. Dale remarked that the settlement "wyll put such
a byt in our ainchent enemyes mouth as wyll curb his hautynes of
monarchie." Zúñiga, Spanish ambassador to England, urged that "such a
bad project should be uprooted now, while it can be done so easily."

At Jamestown fear of a Spanish attack was almost constant, and Newport
sought aid in England lest the "all devouring Spaniard lay his ravenous
hands" upon the infant colony. Spanish resistance had already been felt
by way of vigorous diplomatic protest and through the capture of the
_Richard_ in 1606. In 1609 a Spanish expedition was sent to Jamestown
under Captain Ecija, commander of the garrison at St. Augustine. On July
24 Ecija entered Chesapeake Bay. Concluding that the settlement was too
strong to capture with one small vessel, he withdrew, but on his way
down the coast he conferred with the Indian tribes, and sent a
delegation of natives overland to spy upon the English. On Ecija's
return to St. Augustine another native delegation was sent to Virginia
from Florida by Governor Ybarra. The success of these embassies has been
inferred from the Indian massacres at Jamestown in the following winter.
Two years later another Spanish expedition was sent to Jamestown.
Captures were made on both sides and the episode was followed by a
demand at the English settlement for reinforcements.

Zúñiga continued to urge the destruction of the colony, but Philip III
temporized, allured by the hope of an English alliance and encouraged by
his informants to believe that the struggling colony would fail through
misery. Instead of dying out, however, as time went on Virginia waxed
stronger, and soon became a base for attacks on Spanish commerce, as had
been predicted. The founding of Jamestown in Axacan was the first
English nibble at the Spanish mainland possessions, a process which
continued for a century and a half.

Delaware's governorship.--Delaware remained in Virginia less than a
year, during which period new colonists arrived, the settlement at
Jamestown was rebuilt, the Indians were driven from Kecoughtan, and
forts Charles and Henry were established at the mouth of the James
River. An expedition was also sent to the falls in search of a gold
mine, but it found none. Delaware was unable to check the ravages of
disease, and during the summer a hundred and fifty died. The governor
left the colony in March, 1611, but remained in office until his death
in 1618, during which period the government was administered by deputy

Dale's strong hand.--Sir Thomas Dale was left in charge. He was a
brusque old soldier who had seen service in the Netherlands, and during
his administration, the colony was governed by military law. The men
were forced to work like slaves, and those who rebelled were punished
with the greatest severity, several captured runaways being burned at
the stake. The Indians along the James and York rivers were attacked;
Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhatan, was captured, and the hostage was
used to force that powerful chief to make peace. Hearing of the French
occupation of Acadia, Dale sent Captain Argall to destroy the

Charter of 1612.--During the administration of Dale, a change was made
in the charter, the powers of the council being considerably enlarged.
The Bermudas were also placed under its jurisdiction. The rights in the
islands, however, were subsequently sold to some of the members of the
London Company, who obtained a charter in 1614 under the name of the
Somers Island Company.

Change in the management of the company.--Sir Thomas Smythe had been the
moving spirit of the company, but in spite of his efforts, the colony
had proved a financial failure, and he was willing to let others carry
on the enterprise. The central figure in the company after 1618 was Sir
Edwin Sandys. Smythe had realized that it was necessary to change the
communal form of ownership to one of landed proprietorship, and had
issued instructions that fifty acres of land be assigned to every person
who would transport one person to the colony. This policy was carried
out by Sandys, and the "old colonists" were allowed to obtain larger
tracts of land.

House of Burgesses.--In April, 1619, Sir George Yeardley assumed control
as governor of Virginia. He brought out instructions by which the
inhabitants of each place and plantation were to elect two burgesses,
who were to meet at Jamestown in a general assembly. This first
representative assembly in America met in the church at Jamestown on
July 30. It was composed of the governor, councilors, and twenty-two
burgesses. At the first session, the assembly sat in the two-fold
capacity of law makers and court of law.

Agricultural development.--The original instructions had provided that
the products of labor should belong to the community instead of to the
individual, an arrangement by which the slothful profited at the expense
of the industrious. During the first season, only four acres were
cleared and planted. The insufficiency of the supply of grain made it
necessary to depend upon the Indians for maize. In 1608 John Smith
succeeded in getting forty acres of land broken, and the following year
this was planted to maize. Just before the arrival of Delaware, the
attempts at agriculture were abandoned, the colonists relying for
subsistence on roots, herbs, nuts, berries, and fish. Delaware
immediately set to work to right conditions, the hours of labor being
set from six to ten in the morning, and from two to four in the

When Dale took charge he forced the men to plant seed and assigned to
each a garden. Livestock had been imported, and were allowed to roam at
large in the woods. Dale erected a blockhouse on the mainland to protect
them, and warned the settlers against letting stock wander. Henrico was
selected as the site for another settlement and the town site of seven
acres he caused to be fenced in. Other palings back of the settlement
were erected and within the fenced areas corn was planted. On the south
side of the river fences were built which protected a circuit of twelve
miles, the enclosed land being used for a hog range. The lands of the
Indians near the mouth of the Appamatox River were seized, fenced, and
planted with maize.

In 1612 the cultivation of tobacco began, the first tobacco planter
being John Rolfe, who had married Pocahontas. Tobacco soon became the
only export, its cultivation absorbing the economic fife of the colony.
To make certain of the food supply, Dale commanded that no one should be
permitted to plant tobacco until he had planted two acres of grain. To
encourage industry, Dale allowed some of the "old colonists" to lease
three acres. He also put in force a rule that every man with a family
who arrived in the colony should be provided with a house free of rent,
tools, and livestock, and with subsistence for himself and family for
the first year. If he confined himself to the planting of grain and
vegetables, he was given twelve acres of fenced land. At the time of
Dale's departure in 1616 there were three hundred and fifty inhabitants
settled at Henrico, Bermuda, West and Shirley Hundreds, Jamestown,
Kecoughtan, and Dale's Gift.

Immigration.--In 1619 twenty negroes were brought into Virginia, the
first blacks to be introduced. Up to this time there were few women in
the colony, but the company succeeded in sending over several ship-loads
of unmarried women. Upon arrival there was à speedy courtship, and the
lucky swain gladly paid a hundred and twenty pounds of the best tobacco
for the cost of transportation. In general the type of settler was
excellent, but in the later years of the company convicted felons and a
large number of waifs and vagabonds from the streets of London were
sent. The emigrants who had no capital were usually indented servants,
the terms of indenture varying from two to seven years.

Growth of large estates.--In this early period began the formation of
great estates. The company retained twelve thousand acres for itself. As
new officers were created lands were set aside to support them. The
treasurer, marshal, and cape merchant were each granted fifteen hundred
acres, the physician and secretary five hundred acres each. The large
estates were worked by tenants, the number on each estate being fixed by
the company. Grants of large tracts were also made to groups of
capitalists who agreed to bring out settlers.

The Indian massacre of 1622.--The reaching out for new lands for tobacco
culture resulted in encroachment upon the fields of the Indians. Angered
by this the Indians suddenly attacked the outlying plantations, killing
between three and four hundred persons, nearly one-fourth of the entire
population. The planting of the crops was interrupted and a winter of
hardship followed. When the Indian maize crop was nearly ripe, the
settlers retaliated, almost exterminating the natives along the lower
courses of the James and York rivers.

Crown regulation of the tobacco industry.--To free himself from
parliamentary control and to regulate industry, James I granted
monopolies to private individuals. Royal commissioners were appointed to
inspect the tobacco and to prevent smuggling, and planting in England
was prohibited. In 1620 the London Company petitioned the king to do
away with the tobacco monopoly and as a result the London and Bermuda
companies were allowed to import fifty-five thousand pounds annually.
The companies immediately attempted to ship Virginia tobacco to Holland;
this led to a dispute with the privy council and the matter was
discussed in parliament, where Sandys defended the right of free
shipment. The dispute was settled by a compromise, by which the
companies agreed to ship the entire product to England, and no
restriction was placed upon the amount which they might import.

Neither side was entirely pleased with the arrangement and in November,
1622, an agreement was reached by the Lord Treasurer and the companies.
The companies were given the sole right for seven years to import
tobacco into England and Ireland; they were to pay into the royal
exchequer the net proceeds of one-third of all tobacco imported; no
tobacco was to be planted in England and Ireland, and a small amount of
Spanish tobacco was to be imported for three years. Like previous
arrangements, this did not meet with the approval of all, and it was
annulled in 1623, the companies being allowed the exclusive right to
import tobacco into England and Ireland, except a small amount of
Spanish tobacco, and to pay a duty of nine pence a pound.

End of the London Company.--The king had looked with scant favor upon
the administration of Sandys, for popular government was not to the
liking of James. Friction between the king and the company also added to
the royal displeasure. James, who was personally opposed to the use of
tobacco, was also trying to please the Spanish court, which made
frequent protests against the Virginia enterprise. Internal dissensions
also disturbed the company, a group headed by Sir Thomas Smythe being
opposed to the Sandys faction. Royal commissioners were appointed to
examine the condition of affairs, and as a result of their report, in
1624 the charter of the London Company was annulled, the colony passing
under the direct control of the crown.

Increase of population by 1625.--When Charles I came to the throne
Virginia contained about twelve hundred inhabitants, of whom nearly five
hundred were servants, and about a hundred were children. They were
scattered through nineteen settlements, the largest being Elizabeth
City, which contained two hundred and fifty-seven inhabitants. Jamestown
had thirty-three houses and a population of one hundred and

Population in 1635.--By 1635 the population had increased to five
thousand. The country had been divided into shires, which later were
called counties. The six counties along the James River contained about
four thousand inhabitants; Charles River County on the York River five
hundred, and Accomac County on the opposite side of the bay four
hundred. By 1640 the population had increased to seven thousand five

Tobacco lands.--The most desirable lands for tobacco were the bottoms
along the streams. Tobacco exhausted the soil rapidly, three years
being the usual life of a field. This made it necessary for the planter
to take up new lands and increased his desire for larger holdings. Land
patents were issued for large tracts, usually of from one hundred to
three hundred acres, although many obtained patents for a thousand

Charles I and the tobacco business.--Charles was opposed to the tobacco
business, but he realized that it was necessary to the colony. The king
favored Virginia by reducing the duty on tobacco and excluding the
Spanish leaf from England and Ireland. But in 1627, when parliament had
not granted adequate supplies to the crown, he renewed the monopoly. To
put it in force, a proclamation was issued which forbade the annual
importation of more than fifty thousand pounds of Spanish tobacco,
prohibited the growing of the plant in England and Ireland, and made
London the only port of entry. As the colonists objected to the
monopoly, the king issued another proclamation, which provided that no
colonial tobacco should be imported without special license and should
be delivered to tobacco commissioners, who were to have the sole right
of disposing of the product. The price was to be fixed by agreement
between the shippers and commissioners. Efforts were made to have the
colony engage in the production of more substantial commodities, the
planters being commanded to produce pitch, tar, potash, timber, iron,
and salt, to plant vines and grain, and to search for minerals. The
efforts of the king, however, were but partially successful, and tobacco
remained the great staple. It had also become the medium of exchange,
and though attempts were made to introduce a metallic currency, they did
not succeed, in spite of the fact that the fluctuating price of the
staple made financial transactions difficult.

Harvey's tobacco policy.--In 1630 Governor Harvey commenced his
administration. He immediately began to encourage the planting of grain
and the raising of stock. The low price of tobacco at this time assisted
him, and in 1631 the colony was able to export a large quantity of
grain. Efforts were also made to improve the quality of tobacco. A law
of the colonial legislature of 1632 provided for five points of
inspection. Storehouses were built where inspectors examined the stock
and condemned the poorer qualities. The number of plants to be raised by
each family was limited to two thousand, and not more than nine leaves
were allowed to be taken from a plant. In 1633 the number of plants per
family was reduced to fifteen hundred. English merchants trading to the
colonies purchased a considerable amount of tobacco, which they took in
exchange for other commodities, for which they charged abnormally high
prices. To right this and to increase the royal revenues, in 1634 the
king again renewed the monopoly. When Governor Harvey attempted to
contract for the crop, an acrimonious debate ensued. This, coupled with
the fact that the governor attempted to assist Lord Baltimore's
colonists, caused the council illegally to depose the governor.

Continued efforts to enforce the monopoly.--The king continued to make
efforts to enforce the monopoly. In 1638 he issued another proclamation,
stating that it was necessary to regulate tobacco planting, to decide
how much was to be imported, and to handle the product. The colony as
usual objected. Owing to the troublous times in England, the
proclamation was not strictly enforced and much tobacco was sold to
other than government agents.


Calvert's attempted settlement in Newfoundland.--The northern end of
Chesapeake Bay was soon occupied by a rival tobacco colony, the
proprietary province of Lord Baltimore. In 1609 George Calvert became a
stockholder of the Virginia Company, and ten years later was made
secretary of state by James I. His new office gave him an opportunity to
begin an independent colony. In 1620 he bought the southeastern
peninsula of Newfoundland from Sir William Vaughan, to whom it had
previously been granted, and the following year sent out a few
colonists. In 1623 the king granted him a charter for his colony, which
was called Avalon. Two years later Calvert resigned the secretaryship.
In spite of the fact that he had recently become a Catholic, he was
raised to the Irish peerage with the title of Baron of Baltimore. In
1627 he visited Newfoundland with his family, but the inclemency of the
climate convinced him of the undesirability of Avalon.

Application for land in Virginia.--In 1629 Baltimore applied for a grant
in Virginia, to which colony he immediately proceeded. There he met
with a cold reception and shortly departed for England, where he made
every effort to obtain a charter. The Virginians opposed him strongly,
but in April, 1632, his suit was successful and the grant was made.
George Calvert died the same month and the charter was drawn in the name
of his son Cecilius.

[Illustration: Settlements In Maryland, 1634.]

The charter.--The province was named Maryland in honor of Henrietta
Maria, the wife of Charles I. In general it extended from the fortieth
parallel to the southern bank of the Potomac River, and from the
meridian which crossed the source of that river to the Atlantic; but the
description of boundaries was so indefinite, because of the lack of
precise geographical knowledge, that many disputes soon arose over
ownership of territory.

The government of Maryland was modeled upon that of the Palatinate of
Durham, a feudatory on the border of Scotland in which the bishop had
almost absolute powers; but the lord proprietor of Maryland was
restricted by several clauses in the charter. He was given the right to
ordain, make, and enact laws, provided they were approved by the freemen
of the province, or by a majority of them, or by their delegates, and
were not contrary to the laws of England. Baltimore was given very large
judicial powers, such as the creation of courts and the pardoning of
criminals. He was also given the right to make ordinances, provided they
did not deprive any person of use, limb, or property. The proprietor
could collect taxes, make grants of lands, and create manors, over which
the lord of the manor would have the rights of a feudal baron. The
proprietor was also given control of ecclesiastical matters such as the
power of appointing ministers and founding churches, which were "to be
dedicated and consecrated according to the Ecclesiastical Laws of our
Kingdom of England." The charter did not prohibit him from permitting
the establishment of other churches, an omission which Baltimore used to
assist the Catholics. The proprietor's motives, however, were not
entirely religious; he no doubt desired to found an asylum for people of
his own faith, but he was also a keen business man and desired to
increase his worldly goods.

The first settlers.--In October, 1633, Baltimore sent two small vessels,
the _Ark_ and the _Dove_, to Maryland. On board there were about twenty
gentlemen, most of whom were Catholics, and probably two hundred
laborers, the majority of whom were Protestants. Among the influential
members were the governor, Leonard Calvert, the brother of Lord
Baltimore, and the two councilors who were to assist him in the
government. Three Jesuit priests accompanied the expedition, which
arrived at the mouth of the Potomac in March, 1634. The site for a
settlement was selected nine miles up St. George's River, a small stream
which flows into the north side of the Potomac near its mouth, the place
being named St. Mary's. The location was favorable, for it was
surrounded by fields cleared by the Indians. The tribes in the
neighborhood had been at war with the Susquehannas, and were glad to
sell their lands and move across the Potomac.

Trouble with Virginia.--William Claiborne had been the principal
opponent of George Calvert, when he attempted to obtain the charter for
Maryland. In 1631 Claiborne had established a settlement on Kent Island
in Chesapeake Bay, which fell within the bounds of Maryland. In 1634
Governor Calvert informed Claiborne that he would not molest the
settlement, but that the owner of Kent Island must be considered as a
tenant of the proprietor. Claiborne laid the matter before the Virginia
council, which decided that the Maryland charter infringed upon the
rights of Virginia. A miniature war followed which was ended by a
decision of the king, who ruled that the Virginia charter of 1609 had
become null when the crown took over the colony in 1624, and that Kent
Island belonged to Maryland.

Religious, economic, and social life.--The religious life of the colony
was greatly influenced by the presence of the Jesuits. Father White and
his colleagues labored incessantly to convert the Protestant colonists
and to establish missions among the Indians. In 1641 the Catholics made
up about one-fourth of the population but included most of the
influential families. The economic life of the colony developed much
like that of Virginia, although unaccompanied by the great hardships of
the James River settlements. Nor did the Indians prove as troublesome,
although from 1639 to 1644 an expedition was sent against them each
year. Tobacco cultivation became the principal occupation. The
plantations developed along the rivers and the shore of the bay, for
many years extending but a few miles inland. The manors usually
contained from one thousand to two thousand acres, although a few
contained five thousand acres or more, the lords of the manors being
granted lands in proportion to the number of colonists they provided.
Many of the large grants were later divided, and small proprietors
increased in number. There was practically no town life, the seat of
government containing only a few houses. There were few mills and no
factories. Few roads were built, the water courses and the bay affording
the principal means of communication.

The government.--Cecilius Calvert never visited the colony, but he
appointed all the important officers, who resided in the province. The
chief of these was the governor, to whom the proprietor delegated most
of his powers. He was at the head of military affairs. As chancellor he
was the keeper of the seal and issued patents for land, commissions for
office, and other legal documents. As chief magistrate he appointed
officers for the preservation of peace and the administration of
justice, and had power to issue and enforce ordinances, to establish
ports, fairs and markets, to remit fines, and pardon all offenses except
high treason. He could summon the legislative assembly, prepare bills
for its consideration, assent to the laws, and dissolve the assembly. He
also acted as chief justice. Leonard Calvert occupied the position until
1647. Assisting the governor was a council. In 1636 it contained three
members, but was gradually increased in size in later years. Before this
body the governor brought matters of importance, such as the creation of
offices, establishment of courts, granting of pardons, levying of taxes,
issuing of ordinances, and military expeditions.

The legislative assembly at first was made up of all the freemen, but as
the colonists took up more distant lands, a custom of giving proxies
grew up. The first assembly met in 1635, but about all that is known of
it is that it attempted to initiate legislation, to which the proprietor
objected. The second assembly, which met in 1638, consisted of the
governor and council, freemen especially summoned by the governor,
freemen present of their own will, and proxies. The governor presented a
code approved by the proprietor, but it was rejected by the assembly.
The same year the proprietor temporarily yielded the right of initiating
legislation, authorizing the governor to consent to laws enacted by the
assembly until the proprietor could examine them. In 1639 the local
divisions, which were called hundreds, sent representatives. This
assembly fixed its own membership, which was to be composed of
councilors, persons especially summoned, and burgesses elected in
hundreds. The assembly sat at times as a law court, but most of the
cases were brought before the governor and his councilors, who acted as
associate justices, or before the local courts.


The Somers Islands Company.--Almost simultaneously with the occupation
of the Atlantic seaboard, the English had been establishing vigorous
colonies in the islands adjacent to North America. In 1609 a Virginia
supply ship commanded by Sir George Somers was wrecked on one of the
Bermuda Islands. Upon his return to England, he interested people in
the islands and in 1612 the Somers Islands Company was formed, most of
the stockholders being members of the Virginia Company.

Settlement and economic development of the Bermudas.--Settlers were
immediately sent out and the colony prospered from the first. In 1614 it
contained six hundred persons. Fortifications were built, some tobacco
was shipped, and a land survey begun which was completed in 1617. By
1625 the population had increased to between two and three thousand and
a larger supply of tobacco was being produced than in Virginia. As in
the James River settlements, there was considerable opposition to the
government monopoly of tobacco, and in 1628 a petition against it was
addressed to the crown. In 1631 the privy council decreed that only a
moderate amount of tobacco should be planted, and the company succeeded
in getting a complete monopoly of the trade. The low price of tobacco at
that time caused the colonists to devote themselves less exclusively to
that business, and corn, potatoes, hogs, fowls, and fruit were produced
in such quantities that the islands were able to export large amounts to
the colonies on the mainland. The cedar forests also began to be
utilized for ship-building. With the growth of the mainland colonies,
the Bermudas became of relatively less economic importance, but they
continued to be considered an important naval base.

Representative government.--The Bermudas were the second English colony
to receive representative government. Besides the governor and council
there was a general assembly, the first being held but a year after the
establishment of the Virginia house of burgesses.

[Illustration: The Bermudas.]


For a hundred years the Caribbean had been a Spanish sea. Hardy English
mariners had frequently penetrated it, but always at their peril, and
they had never seriously injured the Spanish colossus. To gain a
foothold on its shores and to appropriate a portion of the commerce of
tropical America became powerful forces in English activities.

Expeditions.--During the closing years of the reign of Elizabeth, many
English ships visited the coast of Venezuela to procure salt, and after
the treaty of 1604 with Spain, to obtain tobacco. Several attempts
were also made to explore and colonize Guiana. In 1604 Captain Charles
Lea planted a colony on the Wyapoco, but in two years abandoned the
enterprise. During 1606-1607 Sir Thomas Roe traded along the Guiana
coast and explored the swamps of the Cuyuni and Wyapoco. In 1608 Robert
Harcourt and two associates received a patent to lands between the
Amazon and Essequibo rivers. Harcourt with ninety-seven men landed in
Guiana, but after a sojourn of three years he returned to England. Part
of the settlers remained and scattered among the Indians. Harcourt
attempted to obtain more capital, and in 1616 another expedition was
sent out but without success.

Raleigh's last attempt.--Since the first year of the reign of James I,
Raleigh had been imprisoned on a charge of conspiring against the king.
But in 1616 he was released, and having obtained a commission as
admiral, sailed for Guiana the following year with a fleet of fourteen
vessels. Attacked by the Spaniards, he lost several vessels and returned
to England, where, upon complaint of the Spanish ambassador, Gondomar,
he was again imprisoned and soon after executed.

North's expedition.--In 1620 an attempt was made to reorganize Raleigh's
company, and Captain Roger North was sent with one hundred and twenty
men to Guiana, where they joined the remnant of Harcourt's colonists.
But the attempt again failed because of opposition of the Spanish


The English occupation.--In a great half circle at the eastern end of
the Caribbean are the Lesser Antilles. After the failures on the South
American coast, the English grasped these outposts of the tropics and,
side by side with the French, were soon firmly established across one of
the principal highways of Spanish commerce. In 1623 St. Christopher was
temporarily occupied and was actually settled in 1625. The same year
(1625) Sir William Courten started the first colony in Barbados. In 1627
Lord Carlisle received a grant which covered the Caribbees, and the
following year the Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery also obtained rights
to Trinidad. Tobago, and Barbados. In the contest between the claimants
Carlisle won. He ejected Courten's settlers and established his own
colonists. In 1628 Nevis was occupied. The following year the settlers
on St. Christopher and Nevis were evicted by the Spaniards, but upon the
retirement of the fleet the colonists returned to their plantations. In
1632 settlements were made on Antigua and Montserrat. As in the
Bermudas, tobacco became the leading crop, but later the production of
sugar cane superseded it. Barbados soon contained 6,000 inhabitants and
in 1639, when Virginia had a total population of about 7,000, there were
20,000 planters in the islands governed by Carlisle. In the Lesser
Antilles the proprietary form of government prevailed for half a


The Puritan leaders.--During the great struggle between king and
parliament, several of the merchant princes were on the Puritan side.
One of the most powerful of these was Robert Rich, Lord Warwick. He had
been an active member of the Virginia and Somers Islands companies, of
the Guinea and Guiana companies, and of the Council of New England.
Closely associated with Warwick were Lord Saye and Sele, Lord Brooke,
Sir Nathaniel Rich, and John Pym. As the parliamentary contest increased
in intensity, these leaders decided to plant a Puritan colony in the

The Providence Island Company.--The site selected was on one of the
Mosquito Islands off the coast of Nicaragua. In 1629 a company was
formed which was granted the greater part of the Caribbean Sea, from
Haiti to the coast of Venezuela and to the mainland of Central America.
Besides Jamaica, then in the possession of Spain, the Caymán Islands
fell within these limits. The English fleet which was sent out in 1630
temporarily occupied Tortuga, where colonists from Nevis had recently
arrived, and the company asked that this island be included in the
patent. The request was granted, but the English were able to hold the
island only until 1635 when they were driven out by the Spaniards. The
islands along the Mosquito coast were occupied by the company, and a
project was formed to colonize the mainland. In 1635 Providence Island
was unsuccessfully attacked by a Spanish fleet, but in 1641 the
Spaniards succeeded in overcoming the colony, thus for the time ending
English operations on the Central American coast.



Becker, Carl, _The Beginnings of the American People_, pp. 65-80; Beer,
G.L., _The Origins of the British Colonial System_, 78-175; Brown,
Alexander, _Genesis of the United States; The First Republic in
America_; Bruce, P.A., _Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth
Century_, I, 189-330; _Institutional History of Virginia in the
Seventeenth Century_, II, 229-262; Channing, Edward, _History of the
United States_, I, 143-224; Doyle, J.A., _English Colonies in America_,
I, 101-184; Eggleston, Edward, _The Beginners of a Nation_, 25-97;
Fiske, John, _Old Virginia and her Neighbors_, I, 40-222; Hamilton,
P.J., _Colonization of the South_, 55-119; MacDonald, William, _Select
Charters Illustrative of American History_, 1-23; Osgood, H.L., _The
American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century_, I, 23-97; Scott, W.R.,
_The Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish, and Irish
Joint-Stock Companies to 1720_, II, 246-289; Tyler, L.G., _England in
America_, 34-103; Tyler, L.G., ed., _Narratives of Early Virginia_;
Wertenbaker, T.J., _Virginia under the Stuarts_, 1-84; Johnston, Mary,
_Pioneers of the Old South_; Flippin, P.S., _The Royal Government in
Virginia, 1624-1775_.


Brown, W.H., _Maryland_, 1-50; Channing, Edward, _History of the United
States_, I, 241-268; Doyle, J.A., _English Colonies in America_, I,
275-296; Eggleston, Edward, _Beginners of a Nation_, 220-257; Fiske,
John, _Old Virginia and her Neighbors_, I, 255-275; Hall, C.C., ed.,
_Narratives of Early Maryland_; MacDonald, William, _Select Charters_,
53-59; Mereness, N.D., _Maryland as a Proprietary Province_; Osgood,
H.L., _The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century_, II, 58-79;
Tyler, L.G., _England in America_, 118-132.


Beer. G.L., _The Origins of the British Colonial System_, 12-20;
Cunningham, William, _The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in
Modern Times_, I, 331-339: Lucas, C.P., _A Historical Geography of the
British Colonies_, II, 5-14, 43-50; Newton, A.P.. _The Colonizing
Activities of the English Puritans_, 13-282; Scott, W.R., _The
Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish, and Irish Joint-Stock
Companies to 1720_, II, 259-299, 327-337; Tilby, A.W., _Britain in the
Tropics_, 44-50.




The Puritans.--While the planting of colonies on the shores of
Chesapeake Bay and on the Caribbean islands was in progress, other
settlements were being formed in New England by English Separatists and
Puritans. By the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth the Anglican church
was firmly established, but it was not long before groups within the
church began to show dissatisfaction. At first protests were made
against some of the ceremonies and formulas of the service. After 1570
the Puritans, as they were derisively called, began to object to the
episcopal form of government and to advocate the Presbyterian or
Calvinistic system, which was based upon the idea of a representative
form of church government. During the later years of the reign the
Puritans laid more and more stress on morals. They believed that life
should be sternly ascetic, that the Sabbath should be kept strictly, and
that pleasures and extravagance should be suppressed.

The Independents.--Most of the Puritans had no wish to withdraw from the
church, but desired to reform it. A more radical group, however, who
became known as Independents, looked upon the national church as an
unholy institution contrary to scripture. They wished to reëstablish the
church as it was believed to be in the days of the Apostles. There were
several groups of Independents or Separatists, the various groups being
named after their leaders, the followers of Robert Brown being known as
Brownists, those of Henry Barrow as Barrowists. They met in small groups
which were called conventicles. The English church, through the Court of
High Commission, proceeded with considerable severity against the
Puritans, whom they attempted to make conform, but against the
Separatists they showed no mercy, breaking up the conventicles,
imprisoning many, and hanging some of the leaders.

James I and the Non-Conformists.--Soon after James I became king, the
Puritans presented a petition asking for changes in the church. The king
called the Hampton Court Conference that he might hear the views of the
various parties. James soon found that many of the Puritans believed in
presbyteries, a form of government with which he had had unpleasant
experiences in Scotland, and he angrily ended the conference. Shortly
afterward, because of the so-called "Gunpowder Plot," the king became
convinced that he was personally in danger. From this time on he
supported the Anglican church. Severe laws were passed against the
Catholics, and the laws against Non-Conformists were enforced with
greater vigor.


Failures of the Plymouth Company.--The Plymouth Company, which received
its charter in 1606, took immediate measures to occupy its territories.
In that year two unsuccessful attempts were made to found colonies. The
information brought back, however, so interested the company that
another expedition was fitted out the following year. Colonists were
landed at the mouth of the Kennebec River; but great hardships were
experienced during the winter, and in the spring the discouraged
settlers abandoned the enterprise.

Activity on the New England Coast, 1607-1619.--No successful settlement
in New England was made until 1620, but in the meantime the coast was
frequently visited. In 1613 Captain Argall attacked the French
settlements at Mount Desert, Port Royal, and St. Croix. The following
year John Smith explored and mapped the New England coast. In 1615 he
was made Admiral of New England by the Plymouth Company and he attempted
to found a colony, but it proved a failure. Several fishing and trading
voyages were also made under the direction of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, an
influential member of the Plymouth Company.

The Council for New England.--The failure of the company to plant a
colony led Gorges and others who were still interested to petition for a
new charter; on November 13, 1620, the document passed the seals
incorporating the Council for New England, which was given jurisdiction
over the territory from 40° to 48° north latitude.

Origin of the Pilgrims.--The first permanent settlement in New England
was not the work of the Council, but of a group of Independents.
Separatist congregations were located at Scrooby, Gainsborough, and
Austerfield, villages in Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire.
In the Scrooby congregation were three men of unusual ability, Pastor
John Robinson, Elder William Brewster, and William Bradford. To avoid
persecution many Separatists had migrated to Amsterdam, and there in
1608 Robinson and his followers gathered, removing later to Leyden. From
time to time a few others joined them, among the late comers being John
Carver and Miles Standish. Most of the congregation found the making of
a livelihood among the Dutch extremely difficult. In spite of this, some
of them enrolled in the University of Leyden and Brewster set up a
printing press from which appeared several theological works.

Reasons for removal from Holland.--By 1617 the leaders determined to
seek new lands. Bradford in his _History of Plymouth Plantation_ gives
the following reasons for removal: (1) Daily life was so hard in Holland
that few cared to emigrate there and in consequence the congregation did
not grow; (2) many were growing old, and there was fear that the
congregation would soon break up; (3) life was too hard for the
children, and in addition many were slipping away, some becoming
soldiers and sailors; it was also found that the morals of the young
were endangered in the gay city of Leyden; (4) it was hoped to spread
the gospel in remote lands. In addition, intermarriage with the Dutch
had begun and it was evident that the little community would soon lose
its English identity.

Removal to America.--Guiana, New Netherlands, and Virginia were
discussed as possible places for settlement, the last named being the
final choice. A patent was obtained from the Virginia Company, and John
Carver was made governor. Seven thousand pounds were raised by Thomas
Weston and other merchant adventurers to back the enterprise. A portion
of the Leyden congregation sailed for England, and at Southampton met
with others from London, who had determined to join them. The company,
including Carver, Brewster, Bradford, and Standish, left England in the
_Mayflower_ and the _Speedwell_, but the latter proving unseaworthy,
about twenty abandoned the enterprise. The _Mayflower_ arrived at Cape
Cod in November, 1620.

The Mayflower Compact.--As the region was outside of the jurisdiction of
the Virginia Company, the colonists on their own initiative drew up what
is known as the Mayflower Compact, by which they combined into a civil
body politic, and agreed to enact such just and equitable laws as were
for the general welfare of the colony. After the signing of the compact,
Governor Carver was confirmed in his office. The Mayflower Compact marks
the origin of the English colony based upon a social compact the basis
of which was the will of the colonists rather than that of the
sovereign. Of a similar nature were Rhode Island, Connecticut, New
Haven, and New Hampshire in their inception, and in the latter half of
the eighteenth century, when the frontiersman had crossed the mountains
and freed himself from the restraints of the tidewater governments, the
social compact became the basis of western state making.

Settlement at Plymouth.--Exploring parties were sent along the shores of
Massachusetts Bay, and Plymouth was selected as the site for the colony,
but the classic story of the landing on Plymouth Rock is now known to be
only a romance. From the first, settlers suffered exceedingly. Bradford
describes the situation as follows: "But that which was most sadd and
lamentable was, that in 2. or 3. moneths time halfe of their company
dyed, espetialy in Jan: and February, being the depth of winter, and
wanting houses and other comforts; being infected with the scurvie and
other diseases...; so as ther dyed some times 2. or 3. of a day, in the
foresaid time; that of 100 and odd persons, scarce 50. remained. And of
these in the time of most distres, ther was but 6. or 7. sound persons."

Indians, fur trade and maize.--The region which the Pilgrims had
selected for their first settlement was almost deserted by the Indians,
many of them having been swept away by a plague. At some distance to the
southward lived the Wampanoags, whose chief was Massasoit. Shortly after
the arrival of the Pilgrims an Indian named Squanto, who previously had
been carried to Europe by one of Smith's captains, appeared in the
settlement. Squanto prevailed upon Massasoit to come to Plymouth, where
a treaty of peace was made which lasted for fifty years. This led to the
opening of a fur trade, which became the chief source of wealth for the
colony. Squanto proved to be of great service, teaching the settlers the
planting of maize and instructing them in hunting and fishing. Carver
died in the spring of 1621, and William Bradford was elected governor, a
position which he held almost continually until 1657. In the fall the
_Fortune_, poorly provisioned, arrived with thirty-five settlers, an
influx which led to another winter of hardship. The boat also brought a
patent from the Council for New England.

"Weston's rude fellows."--In May, 1622, sixty-seven persons arrived,
having been sent out by Thomas Weston, who had obtained a grant from the
Council for New England. Later they moved to Wessagusset, where they
lived a turbulent life. In 1623 the Indians to the northward planned to
exterminate the Wessagusset settlers, who appealed to Plymouth for aid.
Captain Miles Standish led a force against the Indians, who were so
severely punished that peace was established.

Expansion of Plymouth.--At first the wealth of the colony was held in a
common stock. Bradford determined to assign a tract of land to each
family, an experiment which greatly stimulated industry. From this time
the colonists were never in danger of starvation, and in a few years
they were able to pay off their debts to the English merchants. To
increase the fur trade, posts were established on Buzzard's Bay, on the
Kennebec River, at Penobscot, and at Machias Bay, the two latter posts,
however, being soon broken up by the French. A group of traders who
established themselves at Merry Mount under Thomas Morton shocked the
austere people of Plymouth, who in 1628 broke up Morton's establishment.
A trade was opened with the Dutch, and in 1636 a fur trading post was
established on the Connecticut River. In 1624 there were one hundred and
eighty settlers in the Plymouth colony, and in 1630 only three hundred;
but after that the number increased rapidly, by 1642 the population
being three thousand.

Government of the colony.--The first governor exercised executive and
judicial powers, and the same powers were vested in Bradford and an
assistant. The number of assistants was increased in 1624 to five and
in 1633 to seven. The freemen composed the legislative body, which was
called the General Court, one of its sessions being devoted annually to
the election of officers. In 1638 a representative system was
introduced, Plymouth being allowed four delegates and other towns two
each. Legally every freeman could vote, but in practice the suffrage was
restricted to church members. Pastors and elders were elected by the
adult males of each congregation, and attendance at church meetings was
vigorously enforced.


Land grants and settlements.--While Plymouth was developing, the Council
for New England was attempting to settle the New England coast. The
region from the Bay of Fundy to Narragansett Bay was divided among
twenty patentees. Captain John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges procured
a patent to lands between the Kennebec and Merrimac rivers; Mason
received lands between Salem and the Merrimac; Sir Robert Gorges ten
miles of coast lands along "the north east side of Boston Bay," and Lord
Sheffield and Lord Edward Gorges extensive tracts to the south of Sir
Robert Gorges's lands. Lord Warwick also received lands on Massachusetts
Bay. The grantees obtained the assistance of English merchants, who, in
1623 established small settlements at Portsmouth and Dover, within the
present state of New Hampshire, and at Saco Bay, Monhegan Island, and
Casco Bay, within the modern state of Maine. Sir Robert Gorges made an
unsuccessful attempt to plant a settlement at Weymouth, and a group of
Dorchester merchants planted a settlement on Cape Ann.

Lyford, Oldham, and Morton.--In 1624 a group of colonists, including a
minister named John Lyford, arrived at Plymouth. There he joined with
John Oldham to get control of the government. They were banished from
the colony and went to Weymouth, where they joined with Roger Conant and
others, and moved to Nantasket. The following year, on the invitation of
the Dorchester men, Lyford, Conant, and Oldham moved to Cape Ann. This
angered the Plymouth people, who had obtained a tract on Cape Ann from
Lord Sheffield. Difficulties over fishing rights soon developed, and
Miles Standish was sent to the cape with a troop of soldiers. A
compromise was effected, but the Plymouth men soon abandoned the
enterprise. The Dorchester men found little profit in the business and
in 1626 most of them departed. Oldham returned to Plymouth. Conant and
three others remained, but shortly afterward removed to Naumkeag, the
modern Salem. In 1625 a settlement was established a little north of
Weymouth, where Thomas Morton became the leader. He established the
Episcopalian service, set up a May-pole which became the scene of
gaiety, and engaged in the fur trade, but Plymouth men soon broke up the

The Canada and Laconia companies.--When war broke out between England
and France in 1628, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason
organized the Canada Company to conquer the French fur-trading colonies
of Acadia and Canada, and in 1629 a fleet under Captain Kirke captured
the French colonies, but in 1632 they were restored to France. The Maine
proprietors also attempted to tap the fur trade of the Lake Champlain
region and accordingly, in 1629, obtained a grant embracing the lake
country and a thousand acres of sea coast land, the territory being
known as Laconia. A governor was appointed and attempts made to
penetrate the fur country in the interior, but the efforts proved


Rev. John White's association.--The Reverend John White of Dorchester
interested people in Lincolnshire and London, and formed an association,
which, through the assistance of Warwick, in 1628 procured a patent for
lands between the parallel which passed three miles north of the source
of the Merrimac to that which passed three miles south of the head of
the Charles River, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In September,
1628, John Endicott with about fifty followers arrived at Salem.

The Massachusetts Bay Company.--Trouble for the new association was
brewing in England. Members of the Gorges family attempted to interfere
with the new settlement, and Morton and Oldham joined with them. The new
association, however, succeeded in defeating the former patentees, and
in March, 1629, a royal charter was obtained which confirmed the grant
made to Endicott and his partners. The new corporation was called the
"Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in New England." The
administration was placed in the hands of a governor, deputy governor,
and eighteen assistants, who were to be elected annually by the freemen
or members of the corporation. Four times a year the officers and
freemen were to meet in a general court at which new freemen might be
admitted to membership, subordinate officers might be appointed, and
laws and ordinances enacted. On June 27, 1629, five ships with about
four hundred settlers arrived at Salem.

The Cambridge agreement.--At this time Laud had begun his persecution of
the Puritans and the king had started on his career of personal
government. Under these circumstances the Puritan leaders looked to the
New World for an asylum. John Winthrop, a wealthy gentleman of Groton in
Suffolk, who had been a follower of Warwick in parliament, now became
interested in the Massachusetts enterprise. Winthrop and several
prominent men of Cambridge met and agreed to emigrate to New England
provided the charter and government might be legally transferred to
America. The company decided to transfer the government. Winthrop was
made governor, and Thomas Dudley deputy governor.

The "Great Migration."--In June, 1630, eleven ships anchored at Salem
and before the winter six more arrived, bringing in all over a thousand
people. They found Endicott's followers in a deplorable condition. About
one-fourth had died during the previous winter; many of the survivors
were sick and there was a shortage of provisions. The new arrivals had
brought only a limited supply and for the first year famine stalked in
the land. The dreary prospect caused about a hundred of the newcomers to
return immediately to England. Winthrop and most of his followers
removed to Charlestown. By December two hundred had died. Believing that
the inadequate water supply at Charlestown was the main cause of
sickness, the settlers began to scatter, and before the new year
settlements had been started at Dorchester, Boston, Watertown, Roxbury,
Mystic, and Lynn.

The hardships endured by the followers of Endicott and Winthrop
prevented many from coming during 1631 and 1632, but in 1633 a new wave
of migration set in. Laud became arch-bishop in that year and began a
rigorous enforcement of the laws against nonconformists. Many ministers
with their congregations in consequence migrated. By the end of 1634
there were nearly four thousand settlers in Massachusetts. The migration
continued until the outbreak of war in 1642, by which time the
population had increased to about sixteen thousand.

The form of government.--The charter vested the government in the
governor, deputy governor, assistants, and freemen of the company but
not more than twelve of the colonists were legally eligible to
membership in the general court. Before disembarking this little group
decided that each of the assistants should exercise the same powers as
an English justice of the peace. The colony was to be governed by the
common law of England, which was to be supplemented by biblical law. At
the first general court, held at Boston, October 19, 1630, one hundred
and nine men applied for admission as freemen of the corporation. This
Winthrop and his associates hesitated to grant, but finally they agreed
to admit them, allowing them to elect assistants, but not to hold
office. It was also provided that in future no person should be admitted
as a freeman unless a member of some church within the colony. Though
Winthrop and his followers at first claimed to be members of the Church
of England, the necessities of the frontier soon asserted themselves,
and each community became a political, economic, and a religious unit.

The New England towns.--The New England towns were based upon the idea
of group settlement and wherever New Englanders migrated the local
organization was reproduced. As Professor Osgood says, "The settlement
of a town normally began with the laying out of a village plot and the
assignment of home lots. This to an extent determined the location of
highways, of the village common, and of some of the outlying fields. On
or near the common the church was built, and in not a few cases the site
that was chosen for this building went far toward determining the entire
lay-out of the town. The idea of a home lot was a plot of ground for a
dwelling-house and outbuildings, for a dooryard and garden, and usually
also an enclosure for feeding cattle and raising corn."

The first settlers located wherever they pleased, but the Massachusetts
general court soon took over the superintendence of town founding and
prescribed more or less definitely the boundaries of each town. The
grants were made in tracts of thirty-six square miles or more. Within a
town there were many common fields which were handled by associated
proprietors. The fields were surrounded by common fences and were
cultivated by a joint system. The herds were also held in common. The
original grantees and their legal heirs or successors made up the
commoners or proprietors. Originally the town and the proprietors were
approximately the same. An important function of the town meeting was in
allotting land. Soon each community began to receive newcomers who were
freemen but not proprietors. At first the proprietors were in control,
but as the freemen increased in number frequent struggles occurred over
the arrangement of town lands.

[Illustration: Principal Settlements in Massachusetts, 1630.]

The meeting house was the center of local life. There the town meeting
was held and there the people repaired on the Sabbath. In early days the
military stores and equipment were usually kept in the edifice and the
men attended service with arms in hand. The town constructed and took
care of the meeting house and the minister was supported by taxation.
One of the early acts of each town was to establish a school, the
meeting house frequently being used as a school-house.

A representative system introduced.--The governor and assistants soon
found their power challenged. In 1632 a tax was voted for fortifying
Newtown, the modern Cambridge. The tax caused considerable grumbling,
and the general court decided that, in future, the governor and
assistants should be advised in matters of taxation by two delegates
from each town, and that all magistrates should be elected by the entire
body of freemen. In 1634 a committee of two freemen from each town
demanded larger rights. The result was a representative system, each
town sending representatives according to its size to meet with the
general court. This system was in no sense a popular government, the
franchise continuing to be restricted to a limited number of church
members, the leaders of whom were distinctly aristocratic.

The struggle with Laud.--The patentees who had been deprived of their
rights found a ready listener in Archbishop Laud, who disliked the
Puritan commonwealth growing so lustily on the shores of Massachusetts
Bay. Grounds for accusation were found in the fact that the
Massachusetts magistrates expelled those who disagreed with their
religious ideas. Complaints were filed with the privy council by Gorges
and Mason, but a committee of the council in 1633 made a report which
was favorable to the colony. In 1634 the attack was renewed, and this
time with better success, for the king appointed the Commission for
Foreign Plantations, headed by Laud, to take over the general
supervision of all the colonies. Immediately a demand was made for the
charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Governor Dudley and the
assistants replied that the charter could not be returned except by
order of the general court, which was not in session. They immediately
fortified Castle Island, Dorchester, and Charlestown.

In 1635 the coast of New England was reapportioned, Sir Ferdinando
Gorges receiving the lands in Maine between the Penobscot and the
Piscataqua, Mason receiving New Hampshire and northern Massachusetts as
far as Cape Ann, and Lord Edward Gorges from Cape Ann to Narragansett
Bay. The same year the Council for New England resigned its charter, and
the king decided to seize the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company.
The pecuniary difficulties of the king, the destruction of a boat which
was built by Mason and Gorges, and the death of Mason combined to help
the colony. Though the charter was again demanded in 1638 by the lord
commissioners, the general court refused to recognize the order, and the
increasing difficulties of the king made it possible for the
Massachusetts authorities to continue their independent course.



Roger Williams.--The power of the Massachusetts magistrates was
exercised to maintain the ideal of a biblical commonwealth, whose
principles were expounded by John Cotton of the Boston church. Those who
did not agree were in danger. Among the dissenters was Roger Williams, a
brilliant young student from Cambridge, who arrived at Boston in 1631,
where he was invited to become one of the ministers. He refused to
commune with those who had not broken with the English church and
repaired to Salem where he was invited to become the minister, but the
general court prevented his ordination. Williams soon departed for
Plymouth, where he devoted much time to the study of the Indians. He
concluded that the title to land belonged to the natives and that the
king had no right to grant it away, a view which somewhat disturbed
Brewster and Bradford.

He returned to Salem where, during the illness of Skelton, the pastor,
he occasionally preached; when Skelton died, Williams became the teacher
of the organization. In his sermons he argued that church and state
should be separate, and denied the right of the magistrates to regulate
churches. He also considered it a sin to follow the forms of the
established church. When the colony was attacked by Laud, the general
court ordered that a new oath of fidelity be taken. Williams objected to
enforced oaths, as he thought that they obliged wicked men to perform a
religious act, thus invading the freedom of the soul.

Providence plantation.--To punish Salem for harboring Williams, title to
its lands on Marble Neck was refused by the general court and the town
was denied the right of representation. Endicott yielded but Williams
remained obdurate. In a letter to the churches he protested against the
arbitrary act. Williams was summoned before the magistrates and in
October, 1635, was sentenced to banishment. The sentence was not
immediately enforced and at Salem he continued to be the center of a
group of Separatists, who proposed to remove in the spring to the shores
of Narragansett Bay. This again alarmed the magistrates, and they
decided to send Williams to England. Hearing of the project, he fled
from his persecutors and found refuge among the Narragansett Indians. He
was warned away from the territory of Plymouth, and in June, 1636,
settled at Providence, where he soon had a considerable following, this
being the first settlement in Rhode Island.

Title to the land was obtained from the Indians. As the Providence
people were outside of any special jurisdiction, they established a
government on democratic lines. Church and state were kept separate, no
one being forced to support religion. In 1640 an agreement was drawn up
which served as a form of government for several years. The governing
body was composed of five men called disposers, who were chosen four
times in each year. They disposed of the land and managed the common
stock. The freeholders retained the right to ratify or disavow, in
general meetings, the acts of the disposers. There was a lack of a
strong executive and judiciary. Disputes were usually settled by
arbitration, but as there was no authority to enforce the settlement,
disorders frequently occurred.

Anne Hutchinson.--No sooner had Williams been driven from Massachusetts
Bay Colony than a second controversy shook the commonwealth. In the
congregation of John Cotton was Mrs. Anne Hutchinson. She became popular
by ministering to the sick, and began to hold meetings for women, where
the sermons were discussed. Mrs. Hutchinson assumed the roll of teacher,
discussing the questions of "a covenant of works" and "a covenant of
grace," By the covenant of works she referred to the practice of the
Catholic church, which considered penance, confession, and pilgrimages
as means of salvation. By a covenant of grace she meant that condition
of mind of Protestant Christians which found peace in the thought of the
holiness of Christ. She believed that the divine spirit existed in every
true Christian. John Cotton and her brother-in-law, John Wheelwright,
were held up as examples of those who lived in the covenant of grace. To
many of the Boston leaders it seemed as if Mrs. Hutchinson claimed to be
inspired, and they feared that her teachings would endanger the
authority of the church.

The Boston congregation split into two factions. In Mrs. Hutchinson's
party was Governor Harry Vane. On the other side were John Winthrop and
the pastor, John Wilson. Cotton attempted to remain neutral but favored
the Hutchinsonian party. The question soon became a bitter political
quarrel between Winthrop and Vane. At the election in 1637 Vane was
defeated. Without the support of the chief executive the followers of
Mrs. Hutchinson soon lost power. A synod of ministers was held at
Cambridge to root out the heresies. Cotton succeeded in making his peace
with the magistrates, but Wheelwright was banished, as was Mrs.
Hutchinson. She was allowed to remain in the colony during the winter,
but early in the spring of 1638 Winthrop ordered her to depart.

Settlements on Rhode Island.--She found a temporary asylum at
Providence, but soon went to the island of Aquidneck, afterward called
Rhode Island, where she joined her husband and some of her friends. The
little group of nineteen settlers constituted themselves a body politic,
electing William Coddington chief magistrate. Many emigrants joined the
people of Portsmouth and in 1639 a new settlement was founded at


Early claimants.--One of the patentees who had received lands from the
Council of New England was the Earl of Warwick, whose grant covered a
large part of the Connecticut Valley. In 1631 he transferred his rights
to Lord Saye and Sele, Lord Brooke and others, who contemplated founding
a Puritan colony, but for several years they did nothing to settle their
domain. In 1633 the Dutch erected a fort where Hartford now stands, and
shortly afterward men from Plymouth built a trading post ten miles
farther up the river. In 1635 the English patentees, wearied with the
Providence Island project, sent out settlers under John Winthrop, Jr.,
who erected Fort Saybrook at the mouth of the river. Scarcely were the
cannon in place when a Dutch vessel appeared, but finding the English
strongly posted, the Dutch made no attempt to take possession.

The migration of 1635-36.--A more important movement came from
Massachusetts. Congregations from Watertown, Dorchester, and Cambridge,
desiring better lands, migrated to the rich Connecticut Valley. The
first Dorchester men arrived at Windsor in the summer of 1635. In June,
1636, the Rev. Thomas Hooker led the Cambridge people to Hartford, the
rest of the Dorchester congregation joined those already at Windsor, and
the people of Watertown settled at Wethersfield. By the end of 1636
eight hundred people were living in the three towns. Another
congregation from Roxbury settled at Springfield.

The Pequot War.--The Pequot Indians saw with chagrin the increasing
numbers of the whites. The settlers also angered them by purchasing
lands from the Mohegans, and ignoring the Pequot chiefs. In 1633 the
Pequots had murdered a Virginia sea-captain named Stone, and Governor
Winthrop had inquired concerning the homicide. In 1634, fearing the
Dutch and the Narragansetts, the Pequots had sought an alliance with
Massachusetts Bay Colony. As a price of forgiveness for Stone's murder
and for protection, Winthrop demanded heavy tribute. In 1636 John
Oldham, who had come to collect the tribute, was murdered at Block
Island. Though the Pequots were probably not guilty, Endicott led a
force against them, destroying several wigwams and seizing considerable
maize. Angered by the raid, the Pequots attempted to form an alliance
with the Narragansetts, but Williams prevented it, and in the ensuing
war Mohegans and Narragansetts fought on the white man's side. In the
spring of 1637 Pequots attacked Wethersfield. A general court was
immediately convened at Hartford to take measures for protection, and an
expedition was sent against the Pequot fort on the Mystic River, where
the defenders were exterminated. Another stronghold to the westward was
also destroyed. A remnant of the tribe was wiped out near New Haven by
Connecticut and Massachusetts troops and the captives were made slaves,
some being retained in New England, others being shipped to the West
Indies. The Indian menace was thus removed and the settlers were free to
push farther into the wilderness.

"The Fundamental Orders."--In 1639 Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield
formed a constitution, which provided that the freemen were to hold two
general meetings each year. At one of these meetings the governor and
assistants were elected, who, with four representatives from each town,
were to make up a general court with legislative and judicial powers.

New Haven.--The successful issue of the Pequot War opened the
Connecticut Valley to another important migration. This was led by Rev.
John Davenport and Theophilus Eaton, who had come to New England to
plant a colony on purely theocratic lines. In 1638 they founded New
Haven, and the following year drew up a form of government. Citizenship
was restricted to church membership and an annual general court of
freemen was to elect a governor and assistants, who were to conduct all
governmental affairs, the only restriction on their authority being the
law of Moses. Guilford, Milford, and Stamford sprang up in the
neighborhood, and each adopted a similar form of government.

Settlement of Long Island.--English settlements also appeared on Long
Island. In 1632 Sir Edmund Plowden obtained a grant from Charles I of
Long Island and a portion of the adjoining coasts. Three years later the
Council for New England assigned Long Island to Sir William Alexander.
In 1640 settlers from New Haven obtained a title to Long Island from
Alexander's representative and settled at Southold. Others from
Massachusetts attempted a settlement opposite Manhattan, but, being
driven away by the Dutch, moved to Southampton at the eastern end of the



Andrews, C.M., _The Fathers of New England_, _passim_; Becker, Carl,
_The Beginnings of the American People_, 80-124.


Adams, C.F., _Three Episodes of Massachusetts History_, I, 1-182; Arber,
Edward, _The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers_; Bradford, William, _History
of Plymouth Plantation_; Channing, Edward, _History of the United
States_, I, 271-321; Cheyney, E.P., _European Background of American
History_, 216-239; Dexter, Morton, _The England and Holland of the
Pilgrims_; _The Story of the Pilgrims_; Doyle, J.A., _The Puritan
Colonies_, I, 11-81; Eggleston, Edward, _The Beginners of a Nation_,
98-181; Fiske, John, _The Beginnings of New England_, 60-87; Griffis,
W.E., _The Pilgrims in their Three Homes_; Neal, D., _History of the
Pilgrims_; Osgood, H.L., _The American Colonies in the Seventeenth
Century_, I, 98-137; Palfrey, J.G., _History of New England_, I,
101-238; Tyler, L.G., _England in America_, 148-182; Weeden, W.B.,
_Economic and Social History of New England_, I, 8-45; Young, Alexander,
_Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers_; Usher, R.G., _The Pilgrims and
Their History_.


Buffington, A.H., "New England and the Western Fur Trade, 1629-1675," in
Colonial Society of Massachusetts, _Publications_, XXVIII, 160-192;
Channing, Edward, _History of the United States_, I, 322-351; Doyle,
J.A., _The Puritan Colonies_, I, 83-112; Eggleston, Edward, _Beginners
of a Nation_, 188-215; Ellis, G.E., _The Puritan Age and Rule_; Fiske,
John, _The Beginnings of New England_, 88-111; Johnson, Edward,
_Wonder-Working Providence_; Newton, A.P., _The Colonizing Activities of
the English Puritans_; Osgood, H.L., _The American Colonies in the
Seventeenth Century_, I, 141-199, 424-467; Palfrey, J.G., _History of
New England_, I, 283-405; _A Compendious History of New England_, I,
91-133; Tyler, L.G., _England in America_, 183-209; Weeden, W.B.,
_Economic and Social History of New England_, I, 47-164; Winthrop, John,


Channing, Edward, _History of the United States_, I, 362-411; Doyle,
J.A., _The Puritan Colonies_, I, 113-199; Eggleston, Edward, _Beginners
of a Nation_, 266-346; Osgood, H.L., _The American Colonies in the
Seventeenth Century_, I, 224-254, 301-370; Richman, I.B., _Rhode Island,
a Study in Separatism_, 13-61; _Rhode Island, its Making and its
Meaning_, 3-62; Tyler, L.G., _England in America_, 210-264; Weeden,
W.B., _Early Rhode Island_.




Attitude of the colonies during the Puritan Revolution.--The personal
rule of Charles I came to an end in 1641 and for eight years England was
convulsed with civil war. During the struggle both Royalists and
Parliamentarians claimed jurisdiction over the colonies, but neither was
able to exert authority, and each colony followed its own course. The
New England settlements were largely Puritan and naturally sided with
parliament. In Maryland two factions formed, one Protestant, the other
in favor of the Catholic proprietor. Virginia and the West Indies were
almost entirely on the king's side. Incapable of rendering assistance,
they attempted to maintain neutrality until the contest in England was

The Bermudas and expansion in the West Indies.--In the Bermudas the
colonists were divided, but the company leaders were Puritans. In 1643
the Independents seceded from the established Church, and two years
later parliament granted freedom of worship in the islands. Religious
feeling in the Bermudas led to a migration to a new asylum. In 1646
Captain William Sayle, who had been governor, led a colony to Segatoo,
one of the Bahamas, which he now called Eleutheria, in allusion to the
aim of the project. Later on Bermudans conducted extensive salt works in
the Turks Islands in spite of frequent attacks by the Spaniards.

The Commonwealth, 1649-1653.--The military party, dominated by Cromwell,
drove from parliament all those who hesitated to execute the king, the
remnant being known as the Rump Parliament. It named a Council of State
which was to carry on the executive work. The Commonwealth proceeded at
once to overthrow its enemies outside of England. Rebellions in Ireland
and Scotland were ruthlessly put down; the navy was greatly
strengthened, and Admiral Sir George Ayscue was sent to the West Indies
and Virginia to overthrow the Royalists. Friction with the Dutch had
been growing for some time, due mainly to rivalry for the commerce of
the East and West Indies and the growing trade of the Dutch along the
Atlantic seaboard. Navigation laws were passed in 1650 and 1651 which
were intended to deprive the Dutch of the trade of England and her
possessions. War followed in 1652 and lasted for two years with varying

Colonial administration during the Commonwealth.--Colonial
administration was carried on by various committees of parliament or of
the Council of State. On March 2, 1650, the Council of State ordered
that the entire council or any five of the members, should be a
Committee for Trade and Plantations. In 1652 the Council of State
appointed a standing committee of Trade, Plantations, and Foreign
Affairs of which Cromwell and Vane were members. Special committees were
also appointed from time to time to handle special colonial business or
committees already in existence discussed matters referred to them.

Acquisition of Jamaica.--In December, 1653, Cromwell was made Lord
Protector for life and in 1654 the war with the Dutch was brought to a
close. To divert attention from home affairs Cromwell desired a foreign
war. West Indian expansion had brought England into close contact with
Spain. The aggressive acts of the latter against the Providence Island
Company and the intercepting of English ships, gave a ready excuse for
reprisals. Admiral Penn sailed from England on Christmas Day, 1654, in
command of a large fleet to attack the Spanish. An attempt to gain a
footing in Española was a complete failure, but Jamaica proved to be an
easy prize and became a permanent English possession.

Colonial administration during the Protectorate.--The Council of State
lost most of its powers and became simply the advisory council of
Cromwell. The committee system of the council was continued. In 1655 a
special committee for Jamaica was appointed, and about the same time a
Committee for Foreign Plantations. The Protector also obtained the
assistance of a body of officers and merchants to advise regarding
colonial affairs.


The period from 1640 to 1660 was one of practical independence for the
New England colonies. This neglect and freedom from interference gave
rise to three distinct developments: the formulation of provincial codes
of law, the confederation of the colonies and of settlements within
colonies, and territorial expansion.

[Illustration: Settled areas in New England, about 1660.]

The Massachusetts Body of Liberties.--The first of the colonial codes to
be formulated was the Massachusetts Body of Liberties adopted by the
general court in 1641. It provided for the protection of the private and
political rights of the individual, methods of judicial procedure,
rights of women, children, servants, foreigners, and strangers, the
protection of animals, and the rights of the churches. Death penalties
were specified, the capital crimes being the worshiping of false gods,
witchcraft, blasphemy, murder, manslaughter, kidnaping, bearing false
witness, and treason. Provision was also made for trial by jury. The
code was amended from time to time, arson, cursing or smiting of
parents, burglary, and highway robbery being added to the fist of
capital crimes. The Massachusetts code became the basis of the
Connecticut code of 1650 and the New Haven code of 1656.

Causes of federation.--The development of self-government was fostered
not only by neglect on the part of England, but also by the necessity of
protection. Being hedged in on the north by the French and on the west
by the Dutch, and with hostile Indian tribes encircling the English
frontiers, the various groups of settlements were in danger.
Massachusetts was strong enough to protect herself, but the settlements
in the Connecticut Valley and on Long Island were menaced by the Dutch
and Indians.

One of the fruitful causes of dispute between New England and the Dutch
was the fur-trade. The choicest hunting grounds to the west were
possessed by the Dutch and Swedes. To obtain a foothold on the Delaware,
the upper Connecticut, and the Hudson became a settled economic policy
of several of the New England colonies and was a potent factor in the
formation of the New England Confederation. To exploit the Delaware
River trade a company was formed at New Haven and in 1641 a settlement
was made at Varkens Kill on the site of modern Salem, New Jersey, and
later another post was established at the mouth of the Schuylkill, above
the Dutch and Swedish forts. The Dutch, probably assisted by the Swedes,
destroyed the Schuylkill fort, and the settlement at Varkens Kill did
not prosper, most of the settlers dying or removing to New Haven.
Massachusetts also attempted to obtain a share in the Delaware trade. In
1644 prominent merchants of Boston formed a company, but when their
pinnace appeared in the Delaware, it was turned back by the Dutch, and
shortly afterwards a small group of Boston traders were severely handled
by the Indians.

The New England Confederation.--For several years plans for a
confederation had been discussed, but the Dutch war against the Indians
in 1642 and the struggle between De la Tour and D'Aulnay in Acadia
brought matters to a head. At the general court which met at Boston on
May 10, 1643, commissioners from Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut,
and New Haven signed a compact, Rhode Island and the settlements in
Maine being excluded. The government of the confederation was placed in
the hands of two commissioners from each of the four colonies. Internal
affairs were not to be interfered with, but the confederation was to
determine matters of war and foreign relations. Expenses were to be
assessed on the colonies according to population. A vote of six
commissioners was necessary to determine matters, the three small
colonies thus being able to override Massachusetts. The confederation
contained two serious defects which eventually led to its abandonment.
The central government had no authority over individuals, and the equal
vote of each colony violated the principle of representative government,
Massachusetts having no more power then her weaker neighbors.

Work of the Confederation.--No incident occurred to require action on
the part of the confederation until 1645, when the Narragansetts
attacked the Mohegans. A force of three hundred men was raised by the
confederation, an action which brought the Narragansetts to terms
without hostilities. When a society for the propagation of the faith was
incorporated in England to assist the missionary efforts of John Eliot
and Thomas Mayhew, the commissioners handled the funds. When questions
of boundaries and customs arose, they were settled by the commissioners.
When Massachusetts assisted De la Tour against D'Aulnay, the
commissioners exerted their influence to keep the colony from
interfering in French affairs. In 1650 a treaty was made between
Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor, and the commissioners, with the result
that the Dutch retained their fort at Hartford, but were otherwise
excluded from the Connecticut Valley and the eastern part of Long
Island. The English were granted the right of colonization on the
Delaware, but when New Haven men attempted to found a settlement, they
were turned back by the Dutch and the confederation failed to take
action. When hostilities broke out between the Dutch and English in
1651, the three smaller colonies desired war, but the Massachusetts
general court refused, and when Cromwell's fleet appeared at Boston in
1654 on its way to attack the Dutch settlements, Massachusetts continued
her opposition. Possible complications were averted by the treaty of
peace. The action of Massachusetts in the relations with the Dutch so
weakened the confederation that it soon ceased to be an important factor
in New England history.

The Puritan movement into New Hampshire.--Massachusetts took advantage
of the disturbed conditions in England to absorb the territory to the
northward. In 1629 Mason had obtained a second patent for a tract
extending sixty miles inland and lying between the Merrimac and
Piscataqua rivers, which he named New Hampshire, and Mason and Gorges
obtained title to lands between the Merrimac and Kennebec. In 1631 the
two patentees and others obtained a tract of twenty thousand acres which
included the Portsmouth settlement. In 1633 the English merchants who
had founded Dover sold their shares in the settlement to Lord Saye and
Sele, Lord Brooke, and others, a transaction which was followed by a
Puritan migration. The same noblemen also obtained title to the
Portsmouth settlement. During the Hutchinsonian controversy, Wheelwright
and others found refuge at Dover, but shortly afterward established
themselves at Exeter. Massachusetts claimed that the New Hampshire
settlements fell within her boundaries, and in 1641, upon the suggestion
of Lord Saye and Sele and Lord Brooke, extended her jurisdiction over
Portsmouth and Dover. In 1643 Exeter also came under the protection of

The incorporation of Maine with Massachusetts.--Several conflicting
patents to lands in Maine were issued between 1630 and 1645. Few
settlers came, the only new group of importance being the three towns of
Georgiana (York), Welles, and Kittery on the Piscataqua. Massachusetts
claimed that her charter entitled her to the Maine region, and in 1639
took the first step toward ownership by purchasing a tract on the
Androscoggin River. When the region about Saco and Casco bays became a
matter of dispute between rival patentees in 1644, the case was referred
to the Massachusetts general court, but no decision was reached. When
referred to the English commissioners for plantations, the Gorges
estate lost most of its property, being left only the settled region
near the Piscataqua. In 1647 Gorges died and the settlers were left
without guidance. Two years later the three towns declared themselves a
body politic. In 1651 Massachusetts asserted her claim to the Maine
region, and the Royalists there found themselves powerless. The
following year the Massachusetts authorities ordered the survey of the
Merrimac and established civil government at York. In 1653 all the
settlements in southern Maine accepted the jurisdiction of
Massachusetts. The settlements about Casco Bay refused to submit until
1658, when they also acknowledged the authority of Massachusetts.

Massachusetts hopes to obtain the trade on the Hudson.--In 1657 the
general court of Massachusetts declared that the fur-trade ought to be
controlled by the commonwealth and in the following year a report was
made which showed that fur-trading privileges at Springfield, Concord,
Sudbury, Lancaster, Groton, Marlborough, and Cambridge were farmed out
to various individuals. In 1659 a company was formed whose main purpose
was to obtain access to the fur-trade of the upper Hudson, but it failed
to carry out the project.

Connecticut.--In the Connecticut colony the period from 1640 to 1660 was
one of expansion and consolidation. Southampton and East Hampton on Long
Island, and on the mainland Farmington, Saybrook, New London, and
Norwalk were brought under the jurisdiction of the colony.

New Haven.--In the New Haven colony the danger from the Dutch and
Indians in 1643 brought about a union of the isolated units. A
constitution was adopted which restricted the suffrage to church
membership. Minor cases were to be judged in each town, and a governor,
deputy-governor, and three associates were to judge the more important
cases. No provision for trial by jury was made. The general court,
consisting of the magistrates and two deputies from each of the towns,
was to meet at New Haven twice a year to enact laws. In 1649 Southold on
Long Island, in 1651 Bradford, and in 1656 Greenwich were added to the
New Haven confederation.

Rhode Island.--Admission to the New England Confederation was denied to
the Narragansett Bay settlements. Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport
had all been founded by outcasts from Massachusetts, and a fourth
settlement of a similar nature was founded at Shawomet, now Warwick, in
1643 by Samuel Gorton. The danger from powerful and grasping neighbors
caused Williams to seek a patent to the lands about Narragansett Bay,
and on March 14, 1644, a patent was granted which allowed the
inhabitants of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport to form their own
government. The Warwick settlers were asked to join the others.

In 1647 a code remarkable for its mildness was adopted, and by 1650 the
government had been formed. The legislative powers were vested in a
general court composed of six representatives from each town, the
presiding officer of which was called a president. In executive matters
he was to be aided by an assistant from each town. Provision was also
made for a treasurer, sergeant, general recorder, attorney-general, and
solicitor-general. The president and assistants acted as a court for
important cases, which were to be tried by jury. The legislative body
and the court made the circuit of the towns. The initiative and
referendum were introduced, each settlement having the right to propose
legislation, and acts of the general court were referred to the towns
for ratification or rejection. Membership in a particular church was not
made the basis of citizenship as in the other New England colonies. The
disturbing element in Rhode Island at this time was Coddington. In 1651
he obtained from the Council of State a commission as governor of the
islands in Narragansett Bay, but his power was short-lived, for the
following year Williams obtained a revocation of the Coddington patent
and in 1654 was elected president of the confederation.


Virginia Loyalists.--During the civil war Virginia remained loyal to the
king. The large plantation owners, who were almost all members of the
Established Church, were in control of the house of burgesses. The small
landowners made up the minority. In this class were a few Puritans and
many freemen who had formerly been indented servants. Their sympathies
were on the side of parliament. Sir William Berkeley, who was appointed
in 1642, was a staunch supporter of the king. His administration seems
to have been tempered with justice, and he showed little of the
arbitrary attitude which appeared in his later career.

Opechancanough's War.--The chief event in Berkeley's administration was
the Indian war of 1644. The plantations had gradually spread up the
James and Rappahannock, encroaching upon the Indian lands. The chief
Opechancanough planned to massacre the whites. On April 18 the outlying
settlements were attacked and five hundred people were massacred. The
governor led several expeditions against the Indians, their crops and
villages were destroyed, and their chief became a captive. While in
captivity he was foully murdered. The Indians sued for peace, and in a
treaty acknowledged the rights of the white man to all the lands between
the York and the James as far as the falls.

Berkeley's struggle with the Commonwealth.--When the news of the death
of Charles I reached Virginia, Berkeley proclaimed Charles II as king
and the assembly declared it high treason to question his right to
Virginia. Parliament decided to punish the colony by blockading it.
Berkeley, nowise daunted, delivered a defiant address to the assembly,
which warmly supported him. The blockade proved a failure, for Dutch
traders sailed unmolested into Chesapeake Bay. A group of Virginia
parliamentarians visited England and demanded that Berkeley be
overthrown. The Council of State responded by sending out a fleet to
subdue both Barbados and Virginia. Commissioners were also sent to
Virginia to persuade the colony to submit peaceably. In the spring of
1652 when the fleet appeared in the James River, it found the governor
prepared for resistance. The commissioners intervened, and by offering
lenient terms, bloodshed was avoided. It was agreed that the colony
should "voluntarily" acknowledge the authority of the Commonwealth, that
the Virginians should have as free trade as the people of England, and
that taxation was to be in the hands of the house of burgesses. Neither
Berkeley nor his councilors were to be compelled to take the oath of
allegiance for a year, and the use of the Book of Common Prayer was
permitted for a similar length of time. Berkeley retired from the
governorship but remained in the colony.

[Illustration: Settled Areas in Virginia and Maryland, 1660.]

Government under the commonwealth.--The burgesses and commissioners
proceeded to remodel the government. The house of burgesses was made
the chief governing body, with unlimited powers except the veto of the
English government. It was to elect the governor and council, specify
their duties and remove them if they proved unsatisfactory. All
officials were also appointed by the burgesses.

A period of prosperity.--The kingless period was one of prosperity for
Virginia. In 1649 the colony contained about 15,000 people; in 1666 the
population was estimated at 40,000. This great migration was recruited
from various classes: Cavaliers who sought refuge after the death of the
king, people who fled from the horrors of civil war, prisoners who were
sent as indented servants, gentlemen, tradesmen, and laborers, all found
room in the abundant lands of tide-water Virginia.

Maryland during the civil war.--During the first part of the civil war,
Lord Baltimore leaned toward the royalist side, but in the colony there
was a strong Protestant element, augmented by this time by Puritans from
Virginia. In 1645 they got control and expelled the Jesuits. The
following year Governor Calvert, who had been in England, returned and
reëstablished his authority, but his rule was shortlived, for he died in

Puritan rule in Maryland.--Fearing that he would be deprived of
Maryland, Baltimore veered to the parliamentary side and appointed as
governor William Stone, a prominent Virginia planter, and invited
Virginia Puritans to settle in his territory. This was followed by a
religious toleration act passed by the Maryland assembly in 1649.
Baltimore's trimming, however, did not save him from trouble, for in
1650, when the Commonwealth expedition was sent out, the commissioners
were instructed to reduce all the Chesapeake Bay plantations. For a time
Stone was left in authority, but in 1654 he was deposed and the
government was placed in the hands of a council, at the head of which
was a Puritan, William Fuller. In the ensuing assembly the Royalists and
Catholics were barred. Baltimore ordered Stone to recover his authority
by force, but he was defeated and imprisoned by the forces of Fuller,
and four of his followers executed. Baltimore appears to have
ingratiated himself with Cromwell, for in 1657 he was restored to



Channing, Edward, _History of the United States_, I, 414-420; Doyle,
J.A., _The Puritan Colonies_, I, 220-319; Frothingham, Richard, _The
Rise of the Republic_, 33-71; James, B.B., _The Colonization of New
England_, 119-157; Mathews, L.K., _The Expansion of New England_, 31-34;
Osgood, H.L., _The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century_, I,
392-423; Palfrey, J.G., _A Compendious History of New England_, I,
247-268; Tyler, L.G., _England in America_, 266-281, 297-317.


Beer, G.L., _The Origins of the British Colonial System_, 340-424;
Browne, W.H., _Maryland_, 72-104; Channing, Edward, _History of the
United States_, I, 485-507; Doyle, J.A., _Virginia, Maryland, and the
Carolinas_, 207-228, 314-327; Hamilton, P.J., _The Colonization of the
South,_ 118-122; Mereness, M.D., _Maryland as a Proprietary Province_;
Osgood, H.L., _The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century_, II,
58-87; Tyler, L.G., _England in America_, 105-117, 140-148; Wertenbaker,
T.J., _Virginia under the Stuarts_, 85-114.




Commercial expansion of the Netherlands.--During the reign of Philip II
occurred the revolt in the Netherlands. Spanish political and commercial
restrictions, and the establishment of the Inquisition, united the great
commercial cities, the nobles, and the common people of the northeastern
provinces in a rebellion which did not cease until the Hollanders had
secured virtual independence by the truce of 1609. During the struggle
Dutch ships raided the Spanish and Portuguese trade routes. As early as
1577 a trade to the White Sea was begun. Soon Dutch ships were trading
to Italy and the Baltic, and by 1598 they had extended their commerce to
Alexandria, Tripoli on the Syrian coast, and Constantinople, to the Cape
Verde Islands and the Guinea coast. The desire to reach India influenced
Dutch statesmen to attempt to find a northeast passage. Between 1594 and
1597 four expeditions were sent out; they failed to find the passage but
gained considerable knowledge of Nova Zembla and Spitzbergen.

East Indian trade.--For years Dutch sailors had been employed by the
Portuguese and were well acquainted with the routes to India and
America. In 1596 a company was organized to open a trade with the Far
East; their fleet sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, stopped at
Madagascar, and then proceeded to Java and the Moluccas, returning home
the next year. Several companies were immediately formed, and in 1598
twenty-two vessels sailed by the Cape of Good Hope route for the East,
and Olivier van Noort passed through the Straits of Magellan and
circumnavigated the earth. In 1602 the States General chartered the
United East India Company. Several fleets were despatched and succeeded
in gaining a foothold in Ceylon and along the coasts of India, in Java,
the Moluccas, and various other places. The traders met with great
opposition from the Portuguese and Spaniards, but when peace was made in
1609 the Dutch were given the right of trading to Spanish ports outside
of Europe, and they soon firmly established their power in the Far East
where they absorbed much of Portugal's commerce.

Henry Hudson.--The East India Company hoped to find a shorter route to
India and in 1609 employed an English mariner, Henry Hudson, to search
for a northwest passage. Meeting with ice and storms, he headed his
ship, the _Half Moon_, toward the west. Sighting land at Newfoundland,
he examined the New England coast, rounded Cape Cod, and sailed to
Virginia and southward. Turning north, he probably ran into Chesapeake
Bay, certainly entered Delaware Bay, and then sailed northward to what
is now New York harbor. The Hudson River was explored to a point above
Albany and friendly relations with the Iroquois were established. The
East India Company, however, was making such handsome profits in the
East that the furs of New Netherlands failed to attract it.

The Cape Horn route discovered.--The Dutch were still hopeful of finding
another route to India, and when Jacques le Maire quarreled with the
directors of the East India Company, he planned to form a separate
corporation and seek a route south of the Straits of Magellan. The
people of Hoorn assisted him in fitting out two vessels which were
placed under the command of William Corneliaz Schouten. On the long
voyage the smaller vessel was destroyed, but Schouten with the larger
one in 1616 discovered Cape Horn.

Dutch activities in the Hudson River region, 1610-1621.--The Hudson
River region was visited by traders in 1610-1611, and in 1612 Dutch
merchants sent Christianson and Block to Manhattan Island to engage in
the fur trade. In 1613 Cornelius May was also sent over. The next year
Fort Nassau, later named Fort Orange, was built near the present site of
Albany. An extensive exploration of the coast was also made, Block
sailing along the northern shore of Long Island, examining the lower
waters of the Connecticut River, and exploring Narragansett Bay and Cape
Cod. The result of these activities was the formation, in 1614, of the
New Netherlands Company, which was given the monopoly of the trade
between the fortieth and forty-fifth parallels. An important fur trade
was rapidly developed in the Hudson Valley and exploration of the coast
was continued. In 1616 Hendrickson examined Delaware Bay, and in 1620
the same region and Chesapeake Bay were visited by May. The southern
extremity of New Jersey still bears the name of the Dutch explorer.

The West India Company.--One of the most enterprising Dutch merchants
was William Usselincx, who had long hoped to profit by the opening of
West Indian trade. The idea was opposed by the East India Company and by
some of the Dutch statesmen, especially Olden Barnevelt, who feared that
it would bring about new difficulties with Spain. In spite of this,
Dutch vessels appeared in Guiana and the Antilles, and in 1613
settlements were attempted in Guiana at Essequibo and Berbice. In 1618
Olden Barnevelt fell from power and Usselincx immediately became active
in the formation of a company. In 1621 the West India Company was
chartered, receiving a monopoly of Dutch trade for twenty-four years on
the coast of Africa as far as the Cape, and for America and the islands
east of New Guinea. Usselincx, believing that the directors had too much
power and the shareholders too little, and desiring a colonizing rather
than a trading corporation, severed his connection with the company and
departed for Sweden, where he interested Gustavus Adolphus in commercial

Dutch settlements in Brazil, Guiana, and the Antilles.--Settlements were
now established by the "Beggars of the Sea" all the way from Brazil to
Hudson River, and there were prospects that the Caribbean Sea would
become a Dutch instead of a Spanish lake. Brazil was the most important
base. Bahía, taken in 1624, lost in 1625, and recaptured in 1627 by the
celebrated Piet Heyn, was again lost, but by 1637 Olinda, Recife and
Pernambuco had been captured in spite of determined resistance. Prince
Maurice of Nassau now took possession of Brazil from Bahía to the Amazon
River, and established there a Dutch state, with its capital at
Mauritiópolis. In spite of liberal Dutch rule, however, and of an
alliance now with Holland against Spain (1641), the Brazilians arose,
and after years of heroic fighting expelled the intruders (1661).
Meanwhile the Dutch had established colonies in Guiana at Berbice,
Aprouage, and Pomeroon, as well as at Essequibo. In the Antilles they
had settlements at Curaçao, Buen Aire, Aruba (1634), St. Eustatius, Saba
(1635), and St. Martin (1638). During the same period the West India
Company had established a flourishing colony on the northern mainland
and called it New Netherlands.


Activities of the company.--Licenses were at once granted to several
traders, who in 1622 visited the Hudson, Delaware, and Connecticut
rivers and trafficked with the Indians as far east as Buzzard's Bay.
Thirty families of Walloons, Protestants from Flanders, were sent over
in 1623, these being the first colonists. Most of them settled on
Manhattan Island, at Brooklyn, and on Staten Island. A few migrated to
the vicinity of Fort Orange near Albany, and others settled near the
present site of Gloucester on the Delaware, where a new fort named
Nassau was erected. Other settlers soon followed; the fur trade was
developed; and by 1625 the success of the colony seemed assured.

Government of the colony.--The West India Company was governed by a
board of directors called the College of Nineteen; of these eight were
from Amsterdam, and to them was given the control of New Netherlands. In
the colony the chief officer was the director-general. To assist him was
a council invested with local legislative, executive, and judicial
powers, subject to the supervision and appellate jurisdiction of the
Amsterdam directors. There were two minor officials, the "koopman"
acting as commissary, bookkeeper, and secretary, and the "schout-fiscal"
as an attorney and sheriff.

Administration of Peter Minuit.--In 1626 Peter Minuit became the
director-general. One of his first acts was to secure a title to
Manhattan Island by purchasing it from the Indians at the nominal price
of twenty-four dollars' worth of goods. A fort, the location of which is
known to-day as The Battery, was immediately constructed. Near by was
built the stone counting house with a thatched roof, and thirty bark
houses straggled along the east side of the river, the meager beginnings
of a great metropolis. Fearing for the safety of the little groups of
settlers at Fort Orange and Fort Nassau, Minuit brought them to New
Amsterdam, leaving only a few soldiers and traders at Fort Orange.

[Illustration: Van Der Donck's Map of New Netherland, 1656.]

Minuit's preparations for defence were not confined to fortifying the
land. Conscious of foreign danger, inspired perhaps by the victories
which Heyn was just now winning over Spaniards and Portuguese in the
southern waters, and aided by two Belgian shipbuilders, the governor
built and launched the _New Netherland_, a vessel of eight hundred tons
and carrying thirty guns. The ship cost more than had been expected, and
the bills were severely criticized by the West India Company.

The patroon system.--The returns from the southern raids made the small
income from New Netherlands appear paltry, and the company decided to
attempt an extensive colonization with a view to larger profit. A type
of feudalism known as the patroon system was decided upon. The company
reserved Manhattan Island, but other regions were opened to settlement.
Each patroon was to receive lands four leagues along one side of a
navigable river or two leagues on both sides and extending "so far into
the country as the situation of the occupiers will permit," provided
that within four years he settled fifty people over fifteen years of age
upon his lands. Patroons were forever to "possess and enjoy all the
lands lying within the aforesaid limits, together with the fruits,
rights, minerals, rivers, and fountains thereof," and were to have
complete control over "fishing, fowling, and grinding."

The fur trade was reserved by the company, but the patroons were allowed
to trade on the coast from Newfoundland to Florida and to ship goods to
neutral powers; they could also engage in fishing and the making of
salt. They were to satisfy the Indians regarding land titles and were
given the right to establish their own courts, from which appeal might
be made to the director-general and his council. The colonists were
exempt from taxation for ten years, but they could not leave the service
of the patroon without his consent. The system was not intended to
exclude other colonists who might come over and take up as much land as
they could improve, but no colonists were to "be permitted to make any
woolen, linen or cotton cloth, nor weave any other stuffs there."
Patroons and colonists were "to find out ways and means whereby they
may support a Minister and Schoolmaster." The company promised to defend
the colonists and to endeavor to supply them "with as many Blacks as
they conveniently can."

The patroons.--While the details of the charter were being discussed,
several directors took advantage of the intended system to secure large
grants. Samuel Godyn and Samuel Blommaert and several associates secured
practically all of what is now Delaware and that part of the Jersey
shore extending twelve miles north from Cape May and twelve miles
inland. Kiliaen van Rensselaer obtained the lands about Fort Orange,
comprising what is now a large part of Albany and Rensselaer counties.
Michael Pauw received title to Staten Island and the region where Jersey
City is now situated. Godyn and Blommaert sent colonists to Swannendael
on the present site of Lewiston, but they were massacred by the Indians,
the colonization of the grant was abandoned, and in 1635 the company
purchased the lands of the patroons on the Delaware. In 1637 Pauw sold
his holdings to the company. The Van Rensselaer tract remained in the
possession of that family until after the American Revolution.
Jealousies in the company, due to the securing of patroonships by some
of the directors, and to the fact that the patroons attempted to obtain
a share in the fur trade, and that Minuit appeared to be working in the
interest of the great land holders, led to the recall of the

Attempts to secure the frontiers.--The new director-general was Wouter
van Twiller. He had been a clerk in the West India Company's warehouse
at Amsterdam, and probably owed his appointment to the fact that he was
married to a niece of Van Rensselaer. One of his first acts was to
secure possession of the Delaware. In 1633 a tract along the Schuylkill
was purchased from the Indians and a trading house was erected, the
first in the present state of Pennsylvania. In 1635 a party of
Virginians attempted to gain a foothold on the Delaware, but were
expelled. On the Connecticut the Dutch had profited by the fur trade,
but had never sent colonists to that region. In 1633 lands were
purchased from the Indians, and Fort Good Hope was built at modern
Hartford, but the Puritan migration soon secured the Connecticut Valley
for the English.

Reforms.--Van Twiller and other officials appear to have profited by
securing extensive land holdings on the islands at the mouth of the
Hudson, Governor's Island deriving its name from the fact that Van
Twiller owned it. Complaints began to be heard in the Amsterdam chamber
and in 1637 Van Twiller was removed from office, his successor being
William Kieft, who arrived in 1638. The new director-general immediately
set about correcting abuses. Illicit fur trading and the sale of
firearms to the Indians were prohibited. The Amsterdam chamber removed
some of the trade restrictions and made easier the acquisition of land.
The result was a considerable increase in the number of settlers, who
came not only from the Netherlands, but from New England and Virginia as
well. Restrictions on manufactures were abolished and the Dutch Reformed
Church was established.

Difficulties.--Kieft's administration was beset by difficulties. In the
Connecticut Valley and on Long Island the English settlements were
increasing, and on the Delaware the Swedes had gained a footing. In the
colony a disastrous Indian war brought devastation and ruin. The Indians
on the lower Hudson and on Long Island had watched the growing
settlements with alarm, an alarm which turned to resentment when they
found the Iroquois supplied with firearms from Fort Orange, a privilege
which was denied to them at New Amsterdam. Kieft increased the
ill-feeling by demanding a contribution of corn, fur, and wampum. He
also accused the Raritans of attacking fur trading vessels, and sent an
expedition to punish them. In 1641 the Indians retaliated by killing
several settlers.

Kieft and the twelve men.--Kieft promptly called together the settlers,
who chose a committee of twelve to advise the director-general. Much to
his disappointment, they counseled delay. In January, 1642, he again
summoned the twelve, who consented to send an expedition against the
Indians, provided Kieft should command it. At the same time they
demanded that the council should contain at least five members and that
the inhabitants should be allowed greater freedom of trade. To these
demands Kieft assented grudgingly, and to save further embarrassment,
dissolved the committee. An expedition was sent against the Indians, but
it accomplished nothing.

Indian hostilities, 1643-1645.--Early in 1643 the Mohawks attacked the
river Indians who sought refuge near New Amsterdam. Kieft determined to
attack the fugitives, and eighty of them were massacred. The Long Island
Indians were also plundered. Aroused by these acts, the Indians united
and attacked the settlers. The colonists who escaped fled to Fort
Amsterdam. A lull occurred in the fighting while the Indians planted
their crops, but hostilities were soon renewed. Kieft again summoned the
people and a committee of eight Was chosen who counseled war. Settlers
and servants of the company were drilled, and fifty English also
enlisted. A series of expeditions were despatched against the Indians,
whose villages were ruthlessly destroyed. In 1645 treaties were made
with the various tribes, and the long war came to an end. One of the
incidents of the war was the building of a wall across the lower end of
Manhattan Island. It is from this that Wall Street takes its name.

Stuyvesant, 1647.--Both in New Amsterdam and the Netherlands Kieft was
blamed for the war. The West India Company decided to remove him, and
Peter Stuyvesant, the director of Curaçao, was appointed to succeed him.
The first important act of Stuyvesant was to organize the council.
Police regulations were made to control Sabbath-breakers, brawlers, and
the sale of liquors. The court of justice was also organized, but the
director-general required that his opinion be asked in all important
cases, and reserved the right to preside in person when he saw fit.

Popular representation.--While Kieft was director-general, he had
appealed to the people on several occasions. In answer to the public
demand for representation, the council recommended to Stuyvesant that it
be granted. Accordingly, the director-general ordered an election at
which eighteen were chosen, from whom Stuyvesant and the council
selected nine. The nine were to advise and assist, when called upon, in
promoting the welfare of the province, and were to nominate their
successors. The director-general retained the right to preside at

Struggle for municipal rights.--The trade restrictions of the West India
Company were irksome to the people of New Amsterdam, who hoped to right
conditions by obtaining a larger share in the government. After
considerable trouble with Stuyvesant, the nine men submitted to the
States General a remonstrance setting forth their grievances and a
memorial suggesting remedies. They asked that the States General
establish a citizens' government, that colonists be sent over, and that
the boundaries of New Netherlands be definitely established. The
Amsterdam chamber opposed the petitioners, but in 1652 it decided to
make concessions. The export duty on tobacco was removed, the cost of
passage to New Netherlands was reduced, and the colonists were allowed
to procure negroes from Africa. A "burgher" government was allowed for
New Amsterdam, the citizens being allowed a schout, two burgomasters,
and five schepens, who were to form a municipal court of justice. They
were not to be popularly elected, however, Stuyvesant being allowed to
appoint the members. No sooner were municipal rights granted to New
Amsterdam than the settlements at the western end of Long Island
demanded a larger share in government. A convention was held at the
capital to formulate grievances. This was brought to an end by
Stuyvesant, but a little later municipal rights were granted to several
of the towns.

A provincial assembly.--In 1664, during the war between England and the
Dutch, so great was the alarm at New Amsterdam, that a provisional
assembly was elected, composed of two delegates from each of the Dutch
settlements, twenty-four representatives in all. Little was accomplished
by this body, however, for shortly afterward the colony passed into
English hands.

Economic development.--During the administration of Stuyvesant the
material prosperity of New Netherlands steadily increased. He found New
Amsterdam a town with straggling fences and crooked streets, and
containing about five hundred people. Under his supervision it took on
the appearance of a well-kept Dutch town. In 1656 it contained a hundred
and twenty houses and a thousand people. By 1660 it had three hundred
and fifty houses. By 1664 the population increased to fifteen hundred.
The area of settlement in New Netherlands had gradually expanded,
covering Manhattan and Staten islands, the opposite Jersey shore, the
western end of Long Island, both banks of the lower Hudson, a
considerable district about Ft. Orange, and scattering settlements on
the Delaware. The chief source of wealth was the fur trade which was
carried on largely with the Iroquois who were friendly to the Dutch and
hostile to the French. In 1656 Ft. Orange alone exported thirty-five
thousand beaver and otter skins, but soon afterward the trade began to
decline and agriculture increased in importance. When the province
passed into English hands, the population had reached ten thousand.


Swedish territorial and commercial expansion.--In the first half of the
seventeenth century Sweden rose to the position of a first class power.
When Gustavus Adolphus ascended the throne in 1611, Sweden was at war
with Denmark, Russia, and Poland. After defeating each power, the king
entered the Thirty Years' War as the champion of Protestantism, his
victorious career coming to an untimely end at Lützen. Until 1654
Christina was queen but the real ruler was Oxenstierna, who piloted
Sweden through the closing years of the war and secured advantageous
terms in the treaty of peace. From 1648 until 1654, Sweden enjoyed
peace, but the frivolities of the court ruined the possibilities of
greatness and the decline began. Charles X became king in 1654, and his
brilliant but disastrous military ventures reduced his country to a
third-rate power. At the beginning of the period of Swedish greatness,
her commerce was confined to the Baltic, but when nearly all the lands
on its shores had been acquired, Swedish statesmen looked forward to a
wider commerce, a policy which brought them into rivalry with Holland
and England. Numerous trading companies were formed, among the most
important being the African and Russian companies, and the various
organizations which operated on the Delaware River and in the West

Usselincx.--The attention of Sweden was drawn to the Delaware by
Usselincx, the promoter of the Dutch West India Company, who had left
Holland in disgust and who hoped to interest the Swedes. In 1624 he laid
his plans before Gustavus Adolphus; this resulted in the granting of a
charter to The South Company to establish trade "for Asia, Africa,
America and Magellanica." Usselincx experienced great difficulty in
raising money, and the directors ruined his schemes by diverting the
capital to commercial enterprises in Sweden. In 1629 the company was
reorganized and an attempt was made to trade with Spain, but this ended
in disaster. Usselincx continued his endeavors, and in 1633 The New
South Company was organized, but this like its predecessors came to

The New Sweden Company.--The settling of the Swedes on the Delaware was
directly due to the Dutchmen, Samuel Blommaert and Peter Minuit.
Blommaert held out the idea that the West Indies would be a market for
Swedish copper; Minuit that the Delaware region offered a place for the
fur trade and colonization. Several other Dutch merchants were
interested, and half of the capital of the Swedish company was furnished
by Hollanders. By 1637 the company was organized and the first
expedition set sail.

Fort Christina.--The two vessels arrived in the spring of 1638, lands
were purchased from the Indians, fur trade opened, and a fort
established on Christina Creek two miles from the Delaware. The Dutch at
Ft. Nassau protested, but were too weak to oust the newcomers. In 1640
two boats arrived with settlers and goods, large tracts of land at
various points on both sides of the bay and river as far as Trenton were
purchased, and farms and tobacco plantations were started.

Governor Printz.--In 1642 the company was reorganized, the Swedish
government taking part of the stock, the Dutch being eliminated. At the
request of the Swedish council of state Johan Printz, a prominent
officer in the army, became governor, a post which he filled until 1653.
He erected Ft. Elfsborg and established his capital at New Gothenborg,
where a fort was built. A blockhouse was also erected on the Schuylkill,
other vantage points were occupied, and the Swedes soon secured the fur
trade of the Delaware. From the first the weakness of the Swedish
project was the lack of colonists, a few hundred being the total
migration in the first ten years. In 1644 there were only one hundred
and twenty men and a few women and children in the colony. During the
next five years not a vessel arrived, and when Printz retired in 1653
there were only two hundred people in the colony.

[Illustration: New Sweden.]

End of Swedish power on the Delaware.--Stuyvesant determined to get
control of the river trade. In 1651 he went to the Delaware with a
considerable force. In spite of protests from Printz, lands were
purchased from the Indians, and Ft. Casimir was built near the present
site of New Castle, the other Dutch forts being abandoned. In 1653 the
Swedish crown planned to help New Sweden. In the spring of 1654 about
three hundred and fifty colonists were sent over under John Rising. He
immediately seized Ft. Casimir. At Ft. Christina a town was laid out,
new tracts were purchased from the Indians, and lands were assigned to
the colonists. The action of the Swedes in seizing Ft. Casimir angered
Stuyvesant, and he urged the West India Company to occupy New Sweden. In
September, 1655, a Dutch fleet appeared in the Delaware, and the forts
surrendered, thus ending the colony of New Sweden.


Boundary treaty with New England.--On the eastern frontier Stuyvesant
had another difficult problem. English settlers were crowding into the
Connecticut Valley and onto Long Island. In 1647 Stuyvesant informed the
New England officials that the Dutch claimed all lands between the
Connecticut and Delaware rivers, but the New Englanders ignored the
claim. In 1650 Stuyvesant visited Hartford, where commissioners were
appointed who agreed that Long Island should be divided by a line
running along the western part of Oyster Bay; that on the mainland the
fine was "to begin at the west side of Greenwich Bay, being four miles
from Stamford and so to run a northerly line twenty miles up into the
country, and after as it shall be agreed by the two governments of the
Dutch and New Haven; provided the said line come not within ten miles of
Hudson's River;" and that the Dutch were to keep their holdings at

The end of Dutch rule.--In 1659 Massachusetts asserted her claim to a
sea to sea grant, and in 1662 the charter of Connecticut extended the
bounds of the colony to the Pacific. In 1663 Stuyvesant visited Boston
to attempt a settlement of existing difficulties, but to no avail, and
upon his return he found that some of the Long Island settlements west
of the line claimed to be under the jurisdiction of Connecticut. Dutch
commissioners were sent to Hartford, but without result, and the
following year Connecticut asserted her rights to the whole of Long
Island. In 1664 Charles II granted to his brother, James, the Duke of
York, the whole of Long Island and all the lands from the Connecticut
River to Delaware Bay. A fleet was despatched to New Amsterdam, which
surrendered without bloodshed, and Dutch rule in North America came to
an end three years after it had failed in Brazil.



Blok, P.J., _History of the People of the Netherlands_, III, 267-303;
Brodhead, J.R., _History of the State of New York_, I; Channing, Edward,
_History of the United States_, I, 438-484; Fiske, John, _The Dutch and
Quaker Colonies in America_, I; Goodwin, M.W., _Dutch and English on the
Hudson_; Innes, J.H., _New Amsterdam and its People_; Jameson, J.F.,
ed., _Narratives of New Netherlands_; Janvier, T.A., _Dutch Founding of
New York_; MacDonald, William, _Select Charters_. 43-50; O'Callaghan,
E.B., _History of New Netherlands_; Roberts, E.H., _New York_, I,
10-119; Van Loon, H.W., _The Golden Book of the Dutch Navigators_.


Acrelius, Israel, _History of New Sweden_ (Pennsylvania Historical
Society, Memoirs, XI); Holm, T.C., _Description of the Province of New
Sweden_ (Pennsylvania Historical Society, _Memoirs_, VII); Johnson,
Amandus, _The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware_; Keen, G.B., in
Winsor, _Narrative and Critical History_, III, 469-495.




The Restoration.--In 1660 Charles II was restored to the English throne
and ruled until 1685, when his brother, James, the Duke of York, became
king, ruling until deposed in 1688. In England the period was
characterized by a reaction against Puritanism and the firm
establishment of the English church. Abroad the Restoration was an era
of commercial and colonial expansion. On the coasts of Asia, Africa, and
America, the great trading companies were active, and powerful English
nobles strove for possessions beyond the seas. To this era belong the
occupation of New Netherlands, the founding of the Carolinas, the
Jerseys, and Pennsylvania, and the establishment of the Hudson's Bay Fur
Company. The activities of Englishmen led to clashes with rival
commercial peoples, especially the Dutch, with whom two naval wars were
fought in which England maintained her supremacy upon the seas. In the
handling of her colonies previous to the Restoration, her efforts had
been largely experimental. Under the later Stuarts colonial management
was molded into a system. In private life Charles II was a man of
pleasure. In his dealings with parliament he was tenacious, but when
pushed to extremities, he preferred to yield rather than to "go again on
his travels.". In matters which affected the material prosperity of his
country the king was a hard-headed man of business, warmly supporting
commercial and colonial enterprises.

The Mercantilist system.--The economic theory of the time was expressed
in the Mercantilist system. The welfare of the state was the main object
of statesmen; this they believed required a full treasury, a large
population, and extensive shipping. Specie was looked upon as the
principal form of wealth; therefore exports must exceed imports so that
coin would flow into the realm. In order that it might have a large
amount of goods to sell, the state desired to import raw materials,
which could be manufactured and exported. The ideal colony was to be a
source of supply of raw materials, and was to be a market for goods of
the mother country, but was not to be a manufacturing competitor. The
state policy was shaped to shut out the foreigner and to build up the
productivity of the colonies.

Attitude toward emigration.--The desire for a larger population in
England caused statesmen to view emigration with disfavor. During the
period the number going to the colonies was relatively small. The
government, however, encouraged the emigration of Scotch, Irish, and
Huguenots, and sent over many political prisoners, non-conformists, and
criminals. Many of those who emigrated were too poor to pay for their
passage and bound themselves for a period of years, a form of temporary
bondage known as indenture. Many servants and children were also
kidnaped and sent to the colonies. Because the colonies in the West
Indies and the South mainly produced raw materials and used slave labor,
thus drawing relatively less population from England, they were looked
upon with the greater favor by the home government. The northern
colonies produced little except fish, furs, and naval stores, which
could be of use to England. The free labor system of the North was
likely to drain the population of England. For these reasons the
northern colonies were looked upon with scant favor.

Navigation Act of 1660.--During the Cromwellian period, parliament had
asserted the right to legislate for the colonies and the restored
Stuarts accepted the principle. In 1660 a new navigation act was passed
which was intended to give English shipping an advantage over
competitors, especially the Dutch. The act provided that goods carried
to or from English possessions in America, Africa, or Asia, must be
carried in English, Irish, or colonial vessels. Under penalty of
forfeiture, cargoes of sugar, tobacco, indigo, and several other
products could not be shipped to any ports except in England, Ireland,
or some English colony.

Staple Act of 1663.--Under the navigation act of 1660 alien merchants
could send foreign goods to the colonies in English ships. To obviate
this the Staple Act was passed, which, with a few exceptions, such as
Portuguese wines, salt, and horses, prohibited the importation into the
colonies of goods which had not been loaded in England.

Plantation Duties Act of 1673.--Under the previous acts goods shipped
from colony to colony escaped paying duties. In 1673 an act was passed
which imposed duties on sugar, tobacco, and many other products of
intercolonial trade.

Imperial defence.--The burden of defence of the empire against foreign
powers fell upon England. Ships of the navy were stationed in the West
Indies, Chesapeake Bay, and at Boston to protect the colonies, and
suppress piracy and illegal trade. The buccaneers of the West Indies
were brought under control. The Barbary pirates also were frequently
attacked, and convoys for merchant vessels and fishing fleets were often
furnished. Garrisons were usually stationed in Barbados, Jamaica, and
St. Kitts, but on the mainland soldiers were not regularly maintained.

The fiscal system.--By the civil war parliament made good its contention
that it alone had the right to levy taxes. In 1660 a general taxation
act was passed by which Charles II was granted for life the income from
tonnage and poundage; the former being a duty on imported wines, the
latter a five per cent duty on imports and exports, whose valuation was
fixed in a book of rates. To compensate the colonies somewhat for the
resulting higher prices, a preferential system was introduced. By this
system the valuation of the principal products of the colonies was made
lower than on the same products coming from foreign countries.


Council for Foreign Plantations.--The work of enforcing the laws
devolved upon the crown and privy council. The accumulation of business
and the specialized knowledge required in colonial matters made it
desirable to have a body created which might handle the business in a
more efficient manner. Accordingly in December, 1660, a Council for
Foreign Plantations was commissioned. Members of the council were to
inform themselves regarding the colonies, were to introduce a more
uniform system of government, and were to see that the navigation acts
were enforced.

Council of Trade.--From the English standpoint the colonies were mainly
commercial enterprises. To foster commerce a Council of Trade was
created. The work of the two bodies was to sift the mass of business so
that matters of first importance only might come before the privy
council. Lack of authority interfered with the interest of the members
of the minor councils; the sessions became less and less frequent, and
by 1665 both had ceased.

Council for Trade and Plantations.--Supervision of the colonies again
devolved upon a committee of the privy council. In 1667 Clarendon fell
and the small group known as the Cabal came into power. The following
year the privy council was reorganized, four standing committees being
constituted, one of which had charge of trade and plantations. The need
of experts, however, continued to be felt, and in 1668 a new Council of
Trade was appointed. In 1670 the Council for Plantations was also
revived, and in 1672 the two councils were consolidated as the Council
for Trade and Plantations. The council prepared preliminary drafts of
instructions to governors, examined colonial legislation, and
investigated questions which arose.

Lords of Trade.--Executive powers remained in the privy council, and
this necessarily curbed the Council for Trade and Plantations, which was
purely an advisory body. In 1674 the latter council was abolished, and
the following year the king again committed its work to the Committee
for Trade and Plantations of the privy council. This committee, known
henceforth as the Lords of Trade, was a permanent body with its own
clerks. William Blathwayt soon became the secretary and for twenty years
he held the position. The efficiency of the body and the development of
the colonial policy was due more to him than to any other person. The
Lords of Trade prepared the instructions to governors, supervised the
development of the colonies, examined colonial questions, and enforced
the navigation laws.

The Admiralty.--After the Restoration the Duke of York was appointed
Lord High Admiral of England and in 1662 his powers were extended to the
colonies. Cases concerning vessels seized for violating some of the
clauses of the commercial laws were tried in admiralty courts which were
established in the crown colonies, deputies were appointed by the
admiral to attend to the business, and ships were stationed in the
colonies to seize illegal traders.

Governors and customs officials.--In the colony the chief executive
officer was the governor. He was expected to enforce the trade laws, but
outside of the crown colonies there was great, laxity in this regard.
The work of enforcing the navigation laws was usually entrusted by the
governor to a clerk called the naval officer but at a later period these
officials were appointed by the crown. The right of collection of the
English customs was leased to certain individuals who were known as
farmers of the customs. They frequently complained that the governors
were remiss in enforcing the navigation laws. Accordingly, the farmers
of the customs were allowed to send, at their own expense, officers who
would attend to the collection of duties. The farming system was soon
abandoned and commissioners of customs were appointed, who sent out
collectors, usually one to each colony. To examine the collector's
accounts and act as a check upon him, officials called comptrollers were
placed in most of the colonies, and in 1683 a superintendent for all the
colonies, called the surveyor-general of the customs, was appointed. The
activities of these officials led to considerable friction with colonial
governors and proprietors, who resented the interference of the customs


Effect of the trade laws.--In 1660 Sir William Berkeley began his second
administration, which proved to be as unsuccessful as his first
administration had been successful. Economic distress and arbitrary
misrule beset Virginia for sixteen years, culminating in a popular
outbreak known as Bacon's rebellion. The navigation acts fell heavily
upon the tobacco planters, who were deprived of the Dutch trade. The
population at the same time rapidly increased. In 1671 the inhabitants
numbered about forty thousand, and nearly doubled in the next decade.
The increasing population meant an increasing acreage of tobacco. The
price of tobacco fell, while freight rates increased and imported goods
went up in price. To alleviate the situation the assembly passed several
acts to encourage new industries, but the planters held to their one
great staple. Several attempts were made to limit the production of
tobacco, a policy in which the Virginians asked the people of Maryland
and the Albemarle district to the south to coöperate, but the efforts
failed. The act of 1673 worked an added injury, for it deprived the
planters of the New England market.

Wars and other misfortunes.--The wars with Holland increased the
economic distress. In 1667 a Dutch fleet entered the James River,
captured an English frigate, and destroyed several trading vessels. Soon
afterward a hurricane destroyed hundreds of houses and ruined the crops.
In the winter of 1672-1673 a disease carried off fifty thousand cattle,
more than half of all the stock in Virginia. A second Dutch raid in 1673
destroyed a large part of the tobacco fleet.

Governmental abuses.--Berkeley was a firm believer in the divine right
of kings, and looked with disfavor upon any interference from the
people. To him it seemed fitting that, as the king's representative, he
should control every branch of governmental activity. His council was
entirely subservient and he gained control of the house of burgesses by
controlling the county elections through dishonest officials. In 1670
the assembly limited the franchise to freeholders; thus depriving the
poor of voting. In the counties the justices of the peace were appointed
by the governor. They exercised judicial, executive, and legislative
functions. The county courts settled the more important suits and the
individual justices determined minor cases. The courts also levied the
direct taxes, which were very heavy. In addition, the local church
divisions were governed by vestries which were selected by the governor.
These bodies levied the taxes to pay the church expenses. The whole
machinery of government was thus controlled by the governor. The form of
taxation aggravated the situation. Instead of a property tax, which
would throw the burden upon the great landholders, the poll-tax was the
usual method of raising money, the poor man thus having to pay as much
as the wealthy. There was also much bad judgment displayed in the use of
public funds. In a period of low prices and overproduction, the heavy
expenditures proved a serious burden, and discontent gradually developed
into rebellion.

Proprietary grants.--The action of the English government also alarmed
the colonists. In 1660 an attempt was made to renew the old Virginia
Company. Berkeley visited England to prevent it and his mission proved
successful. In 1649 the king had granted the region between the Potomac
and the Rappahannock rivers to several of his supporters, and after the
Restoration they leased their rights to Sir Humphrey Hooke and two
others. In 1669 the grant was renewed. The Virginia assembly immediately
sent agents to England to obtain the annulment of the patent or to allow
the colony to purchase the tract. Before a settlement was made the king
in 1673 granted the whole of Virginia to the Earl of Arlington and Lord
Culpeper with full proprietory rights for thirty-one years. The assembly
was greatly alarmed and directed its agents to seek the annulment of
this patent also. The matter was finally settled by an arrangement with
the proprietors by which they agreed to relinquish the patent provided
the colony paid them the quit-rents and assured them the escheated
property. The agents then asked the government that they be assured that
no portion of the colony would be granted in future to any proprietors
and that taxation would not be imposed without the consent of the house
of burgesses. Before a settlement was reached Bacon's rebellion

Indian war.--The spark that kindled the rebellion was an Indian war. The
Senecas, pressing upon the Susquehannas, forced them into Maryland and
Virginia, where they committed depredations in the summer of 1675. The
settlers retaliated by killing several Indians. The Susquehannas joined
with the native tribes and harried the frontiers. Berkeley sent Colonel
John Washington in command of several hundred men to join the
Marylanders against an Indian fort on the Potomac, but after several
weeks of fighting the red men escaped. This was followed by renewed
depredations. Early in 1676 the governor prepared a second expedition
but suddenly abandoned the project. In March the assembly met and
decided to wage a defensive war. Forts were to be built upon the upper
waters of the rivers and heavy taxes were demanded to pay for them.

Bacon's rebellion.--The people were greatly incensed at the policy, and
demanded that the assembly be dissolved and a free election held. The
frontiersmen also demanded that they be allowed to go against the
Indians. Both of these demands the governor stubbornly refused. A
rebellion immediately broke out in Charles City County, and Nathaniel
Bacon, of Henrico, a member of Berkeley's council, was induced to lead
it. The governor was asked to grant Bacon a commission to proceed
against the Indians. Without waiting for the governor's decision, Bacon
led his men against the Pamunkeys. Bacon's act angered Berkeley, who
refused the commission and ordered Bacon and his men to lay down their
arms. This they refused to do and retired beyond the frontier, where
they destroyed an Indian stronghold on an island in the Roanoke River.
Berkeley issued a proclamation declaring Bacon's acts disloyal and
rebellious. To obtain popular support he dismantled the forts, dissolved
the assembly, and called an election.

Bacon was elected in Henrico County and an armed guard accompanied him
to the capital. Berkeley's troops fired upon Bacon's sloop, but that
night Bacon entered the town to consult with friends. He was discovered,
and eventually captured and brought before the governor, who, in view of
the popular clamor, became lenient, granting him a pardon and promising
him a commission as general. As the commission was not forthcoming,
Bacon collected several hundred men and marched upon Jamestown, which he
entered without opposition, and forced Berkeley to sign the commission
and to write a letter to the king justifying Bacon's acts. The assembly
now passed several bills which struck at the governor's power, and
repealed the act which restricted the franchise to freeholders.

The burgesses had just completed their work when news came that the
Indians were again on the warpath, and Bacon hastened with his
volunteers to the frontier. No sooner was he gone than the governor
began to enlist troops to proceed against the popular leader. Hearing of
this Bacon returned and Berkeley fled to the eastern shore of Chesapeake
Bay. Bacon was now in full control of the larger part of the colony. To
justify his acts he took the oath of allegiance, imposed it upon his
followers, and called an election. He then organized two expeditions,
one against the governor, the other against the Indians. An English ship
was seized and two hundred men were sent to capture Berkeley, but the
governor's followers surprised the crew and captured the leaders.
Berkeley then returned to Jamestown. While these events were occurring,
Bacon marched against the Indians and captured a stronghold of the
Pamunkeys. He then captured Jamestown and burned it, soon afterward
retiring into Gloucester County, where he was taken sick and died. In a
few months the people wearied of anarchy, many of the leaders
surrendered, and Berkeley was again in control.

Berkeley's revenge.--In June, 1676, Berkeley had tendered his
resignation to the king. Charles decided to allow him to retain the
title of governor, but to have him return to England, leaving the
government to a lieutenant-governor, Colonel Jeffreys being appointed.
He was assisted by two commissioners, Berry and Moryson. A general
pardon for the rebels was also drawn up. Berry and Moryson arrived in
the colony and found the governor intractable. Jeffreys, with about a
thousand troops, arrived soon afterward, but instead of asserting his
authority, he allowed Berkeley to ignore the pardon proclamation and
many were hung. Knowledge of Berkeley's disobedience reached the king,
who ordered him to return to England at once, but before the order
arrived Berkeley had embarked. He died soon after reaching England, and
Lord Culpeper was appointed governor, but he did not reach Virginia
until 1680.

Culpeper and Howard.--In the meantime the commissioners investigated the
causes of the rebellion, and in July, 1677, Berry and Moryson took their
report to England where it was laid before the privy council. Jeffreys,
who was left in control, had little authority, and the government again
fell into the hands of Berkeley's friends. Culpeper arrived in 1680, but
he proved to be a weak individual who spent most of his time in England
and did little when in the colony. In 1684 a new governor, Lord Howard
of Effingham, proceeded at once to curb the powers of the house of
burgesses. The right of appealing cases from the lower courts to the
assembly was denied, henceforth the governor and council being the final
court of appeal. The right of the king to annul laws passed by the
assembly was also asserted in spite of violent opposition. The session
of 1685 proved a stormy one. An attempt was made to take the power of
taxation away from the assembly. The king, who had taken over the
proprietory rights of Arlington and Culpeper, demanded that the
quit-rents be paid in specie instead of tobacco. This the burgesses
violently opposed, but they finally compromised by agreeing to pay
somewhat less than the governor had demanded. A "bill of ports" was
introduced which was intended to fix the points at which ships might
load and unload. Another violent struggle occurred. Finally, on
recommendation of the governor, the king dissolved the assembly. Lord
Howard unseated several members and appointed the clerk of the assembly.
The governor also collected certain fees, an act which the burgesses
claimed was an encroachment upon the power of taxation. The colony was
nearing another rebellion. In 1688 the assembly drew up a statement of
grievances, which they sent to the king, but by the time it reached
England James II had been driven from the throne and Effingham was soon


Conditions in Maryland.--Economic conditions in Maryland were similar to
those in Virginia, the navigation laws affecting the colony in a similar
manner, the price of tobacco falling continually after 1660 for many
years. Political discontent also manifested itself, but the religious
element played a larger part in Maryland than in Virginia. No widespread
rebellion occurred, however, for Baltimore's government was more
temperate than that of Berkeley, the settlements were more compact,
frontier dangers were less acute, and no popular leader of great ability
arose to lead the malcontents.

Charles Calvert's administration.--After the turmoil of the Cromwellian
period, the Restoration brought comparative security to the proprietor
of Maryland, who succeeded in ingratiating himself with Charles II. In
1675 Charles Calvert succeeded to the proprietorship. Previously for
several years he had personally directed the governorship and had worked
conscientiously to bring about prosperity in the colony. He was less
tactful than his father and was exceedingly strong-willed. He placed his
relatives in the important positions, restricted the suffrage, and
frequently summoned to the assembly only half of the elected delegates,
thus keeping out influential opponents. In 1676, while Baltimore was in
England, a few malcontents attempted an uprising, but Notley, the acting
governor, overthrew and hanged two of the leaders, nipping the rebellion
in the bud. The proprietor and assembly continued to have difficulties,
but in the main Baltimore succeeded in maintaining his power. He also
had trouble with William Penn over the northern boundary, and with the
Lords of Trade over the right of collecting the customs. Baltimore's
Catholic leanings naturally made him support James II. When that monarch
was driven from the throne, a miniature bloodless revolution occurred in
Maryland. An Association for the Defense of the Protestant Religion was
formed. In July, 1689, the leaders seized St. Mary's and held a
representative assembly. But to their chagrin, William and Mary restored
the old colonial system, and Baltimore was soon back in power.


Massachusetts and the king.--During the Cromwellian period the New
England colonies had followed their own devices, but when Charles II
came to the throne, they could not expect to pursue their independent
course. To forestall trouble, Massachusetts hastened to acknowledge the
king's authority, and none too soon, for numerous complaints had been
lodged against her. The most forceful of these came from the Quakers. In
1655 Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, two Quaker missionaries, had landed in
Barbados, the first of that sect to come to the colonies. The following
year they went to Boston from which they were promptly expelled. Rhode
Island proved hospitable. Those who had believed in Anne Hutchinson's
"covenant of grace" found the Quaker idea of the "inner fight" an
acceptable doctrine. From Rhode Island Quakers frequently penetrated the
neighboring colonies which took violent means to expel them. The
Massachusetts persecution reached its height in 1660 when three Quakers
were hanged, one of them being Mary Dyer, a former friend of Anne
Hutchinson. This high-handed proceeding reached the ear of the king, who
was in no amiable frame of mind toward the Puritan colonists, who were
believed to be sheltering two of the regicides. He accordingly ordered
the Boston authorities to send Quakers to England for trial, but
Massachusetts sent representatives to England, who succeeded in getting
the king to grant the colony free hand in dealing with Quakers. Charles
also confirmed the Massachusetts charter, but changed the basis of
voting from church membership to a property qualification.

The Connecticut charter.--Connecticut fared well with Charles II. When
the king's messengers visited the colony in search of the regicides,
they were given assistance, while New Haven aided the fugitives in
escaping. The results of this were soon apparent. In 1661 when
Connecticut sent Governor John Winthrop to England to obtain a charter,
he was graciously received and the following year the document was
issued. It provided for a popularly elected governor, a deputy-governor,
council, and assembly. The boundaries were described as "All that part
of our Dominions ... bounded on the East by the Narrogancett River,
commonly called Narrogancett Bay..., and on the North by the lyne of the
Massachusetts Plantation, and on the South by the Sea, and ... from the
said Narrogancett Bay on the East to the South Sea on the West parte,
with the Islands thereunto adjoyneinge." The boundaries included a part
of the territory of Rhode Island and the whole of New Haven, and
entirely ignored the Dutch possessions in the Hudson Valley. New Haven
protested violently, but in 1664, when the king granted the lands
between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers to the Duke of York, the New
Haven towns submitted to Connecticut rather than be annexed to New York.

The Rhode Island charter.--Fearful that Charles II might divide her
territory among her neighbors, Rhode Island hastened to proclaim the
king and petitioned that she be granted a charter. The Rhode Island
representative protested against the inclusion of Narragansett Bay
territory in Connecticut and the difficulty was adjusted by fixing the
boundary at the Pawtucket River, which was renamed the Narragansett. The
form of government was similar to that of Connecticut, but in Rhode
Island religious freedom was established.

The royal commissioners.--In 1664, when the English government had
determined upon the seizure of New Netherlands, commissioners were sent
to America. Respecting New England, their duties were to settle boundary
questions, to consider local disputes, and to see how the colonies
might be made more profitable. The commissioners visited Boston in July,
1664, where they obtained troops and demanded the repeal of the law
which restricted the franchise to church membership. After the conquest
of New Netherlands, three of them returned to New England. They were
well received in Connecticut and Rhode Island. Plymouth at this time was
attempting to obtain a charter, and the commissioners suggested that the
colony might have its lands confirmed without cost if it would receive a
royal governor, an offer which was declined? In Boston their reception
was stormy, the Massachusetts authorities denying that the commission
had any right of jurisdiction. Nicolls, the fourth commissioner, soon
arrived and the debates continued, but without result. The king rebuked
Massachusetts for its lack of respect, but took no immediate steps to
coerce the colony.

The frontier on the eve of King Philip's War.--In 1675 the Penobscot
marked the most northern settlement. Along the coasts and in the lower
valleys of the short New England streams settlements had been planted.
Eastern Massachusetts and Plymouth contained numerous towns. In Rhode
Island the island was fairly well-settled, but with the exception of
Providence and Warwick, the mainland had attracted few. Other
settlements were located near the mouth of the Thames, and in the valley
of the Connecticut as far up as Northfield. The coast lands of western
Connecticut had also been occupied. The total population of New England
did not exceed fifty thousand. The lands beyond the fringe of settlement
were occupied by powerful Indian tribes, which could muster about
thirty-five hundred fighting men.

Causes of the war.--The encroachment of the frontiers on the Indian
hunting ground was the primary cause of the war, but other events were
contributory. By 1660 the fur trade had declined, fish and lumber having
become the important exports. This trade brought in silver, and wampum
ceased to be the medium of exchange. With the passing of furs and
wampum, the Indian became less and less useful to the white man, who
looked upon him with contempt. The christianizing of the Cape Cod
Indians by the Reverend John Eliot and other missionaries was viewed
sullenly by the Wampanoags, who saw in it an attempt to weaken their
power. Massasoit, Sachem of the Wampanoags, died in 1662, leaving two
sons, called by the whites Alexander and Philip. The sudden death of
Alexander gave rise to a belief among the Indians that he had been

The war.--In the summer of 1675, outbreaks occurred in Rhode Island, and
a settler was killed. An expedition was immediately sent against the
Wampanoags, but Philip succeeded in escaping with his followers. The
Nipmucks attacked Deerfield, Northfield. Springfield, and Hatfield,
spreading terror in the Connecticut Valley. Believing that the
Narragansetts were about to enter the war, Massachusetts, Plymouth, and
Connecticut joined forces, and in December attacked their stronghold.
After a bloody battle they captured it and dispersed the tribe. The
survivors joined the other hostiles and harried the frontiers as far
north as the Maine settlements. In April, 1676, Chief Canonchet, of the
Narragansetts, was captured and shot, and the following month the
Indians were decisively defeated near the falls of the Connecticut.
After that the Indian confederation broke up and effective resistance
came to an end in August with the death of Philip. The power of the
tribes was broken and the way cleared for the advancement of the

Complaints against Massachusetts.--The independent course which
Massachusetts had followed in her dealings with the home government had
irritated Charles and the privy council, but the fall of Clarendon and
the Dutch war of 1673 had kept the king from taking action against the
headstrong colony. Complaints continued to be made. The heirs of Mason
and Gorges claimed that Massachusetts had usurped their rights; London
merchants complained that the colony was evading the navigation acts by
carrying tobacco and sugar directly to Europe from other colonies; lack
of respect for the king's authority, the exercising of powers not
warranted by her charter, and numerous other complaints were lodged
against her.

Edward Randolph.--In 1676 the king sent Edward Randolph to Massachusetts
with an order that the colony send agents to England within six months
to answer the Mason and Gorges claims an order which was tardily
fulfilled. He was also empowered to collect information which might be
useful to the Lords of Trade. Randolph was not well received, being
looked upon as an agent of the Mason and Gorges heirs. When he
complained to Governor Leverett of the violation of the navigation laws,
the governor boldly asserted that parliament had no power to legislate
for Massachusetts, and denied that appeals might be made to the king.
Randolph returned to England convinced that a change of government was

In 1678 Randolph was appointed collector of the customs, but he did not
arrive in Boston until the following year. In the meantime the
Massachusetts title to New Hampshire had been examined. Randolph bore a
letter from the king which commanded the colony to give up its
jurisdiction over both New Hampshire and Maine. The former command
Massachusetts immediately obeyed, but the latter was ignored as the
agents of Massachusetts had recently purchased the Gorges title.

Annulment of the charter.--As collector of the customs Randolph's course
was beset with difficulties, and his reports were filled with complaints
of frequent violations of the navigation acts. In 1681 he returned to
England and advised that the charter of Massachusetts be abrogated and
that all the New England colonies be united under one administrative
head. Randolph soon returned to the colony, but the friction continued
and his complaints became more and more violent. The king and the Lords
of Trade finally wearied of the strong-willed colony, legal action was
taken, and in 1684 the charter was annulled.

Temporary government.--The annulment of the charter did not bring about
an insurrection in Massachusetts, for the colonial leaders realized that
the protection of the mother country was necessary to preserve them from
being conquered by the French. While the Lords of Trade were considering
a form of government, a temporary plan was put in operation. Joseph
Dudley was made president, Randolph secretary, and a council was
appointed, but no provision was made for a legislative assembly. To
enforce the laws of trade, in 1686 an admiralty court was established.

Affairs in New Hampshire.--Since New Hampshire was separated from
Massachusetts, affairs in the northern colony had been going badly. A
president and council had been established, but when Randolph attempted
to enforce the trade laws, he had met with difficulties. The colonists
also objected to paying quit-rents to the Mason heirs. In 1682 Edward
Cranfield was appointed governor and was soon at loggerheads with the
people over the Mason right, and in 1685 he left the colony in disgust.

Dominion of New England.--The Lords of Trade for some time had been
considering the advisability of consolidating the New England colonies
in order to cut down expense, to make the enforcement of the navigation
acts more effective, and to bring the colonies into a closer dependence
on the crown. When James became king, the plan was put into operation.
In the new form of government the central figure was a governor-general
who was to be assisted by a council, but no provision was made for a
popular assembly.

Edmund Andros.--Andros, the former governor of New York, was appointed
governor-general and arrived at Boston in December. 1686. In a
businesslike manner he organized his government. Boston was made the
seat of power. Andros acted as commander of the army and Vice-admiral,
and exercised the pardoning power. With the advice and consent of the
council he made laws, levied taxes, and administered justice. He also
made land grants and collected quit-rents. He demanded that Plymouth,
Rhode Island, and Connecticut surrender their charters. Plymouth and
Rhode Island complied and their representatives were admitted to the
council, but Connecticut temporized. Finally Andros visited the obdurate
colony, dissolved the government, and admitted representatives to his
council. The charter, however, according to Connecticut tradition, was
hidden in an oak tree and never left the colony. In 1688 the Lords of
Trade determined to bring all the territory from the St. Croix and the
St. Lawrence to the Delaware under the supervision of Andros.

Overthrow of Andros.--The system aroused the anger of the colonists, who
looked upon the governor-general as a tyrant. Mutterings of discontent
grew louder and louder, and when news reached Massachusetts that James
II had fled from England, the people of Boston rose in revolt, seized
the fortifications and royal frigate, and imprisoned Andros and
Randolph. A council was established, a convention was summoned, and the
old charter government was reëstablished. Connecticut and Rhode Island
also restored the charter governments.



Andrews, C.M., _Colonial Self-Government_, 1-40; Beer, G.L., _The Old
Colonial System_, I, 1-315; "The Commercial Policy of England toward the
American Colonies," in Columbia University, _Studies in History,
Economics, and Public Law_, III, Pt. 2, pp. 29-54; Channing, Edward,
_History of the United States_, II, 1-13; Egerton, H.E., _A Short
History of British Colonial Policy_, 66-80; MacDonald, William, _Select
Charters_, 106-115, 119-120, 133-136; Osgood, H.L., _The American
Colonies in the Seventeenth Century_, III, 143-241.


Andrews, C.M., _Colonial Self-Government_, 202-251; Andrews, C.M., ed.,
_Narratives of the Insurrections_, 11-141, 299-314; Channing, Edward,
_History of the United States_, II, 80-91, 209-213; Fiske, John, _Old
Virginia and her Neighbors_, II, 45-107, 131-173; Osgood, H.L., _The
American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century_, III, 242-308;
Wertenbaker, T.J., _Virginia under the Stuarts_, 115-259.


Andrews, C.M., _Colonial Self-Government_, 41-73, 252-287; Andrews,
C.M., ed., _Narratives of the Insurrections_, 165-297; Andrews, C.M.,
_The Fathers of New England_; Channing, Edward, _History of the United
States_, II, 65-79, 155-203; Doyle, J.A., _The Puritan Colonies_, II,
190-276; Ellis, G.W., and Morris, J.E., _King Philip's War_; Fiske,
John, _The Beginnings of New England_, 199-278; James, B.B., _The
Colonization of New England_, 213-295; Osgood, H.L., _The English
Colonies in the Seventeenth Century_, III, 309-335, 378-443; Palfrey,
J.G., _Compendious History of New England_, II, 1-20; _History of New
England_, III, chs. 3, 7-9, 12-14.




The period of the later Stuarts was remarkable for colonial expansion.
New Netherlands was acquired, the Jerseys, Pennsylvania, and the
Carolinas were founded, the Hudson's Bay Fur Company was formed, and new
settlements were made in the West Indies.

Causes of the attack upon the Dutch.--In 1664 New Netherlands was
seized. This was not an isolated event but was a part of a general plan
to weaken Dutch power. England had three main objects: to cripple the
Dutch carrying trade, to get control of the slave trade, and to obtain
New Netherlands, an acquisition which would give geographical unity to
the colonies on the Atlantic seaboard. The navigation acts were weapons
against the carrying trade. The African Company was organized to strike
at the slave trade.

The African Company.--During the first half of the seventeenth century,
the Dutch had obtained a monopoly of the trade in slaves to the Spanish
and Portuguese colonies in America. To break this monopoly the African
Company was formed in 1660, headed by the Duke of York. During the next
two years the Dutch vigorously opposed the English Company, soon
convincing its officers that it must be organized on a larger scale if
it would succeed. In 1663 the Company of Royal Adventurers trading to
Africa was organized, being granted the coast from Sallee to the Cape of
Good Hope. Vessels sent to the African coast encountered such opposition
that in 1664 a squadron was sent to protect them and succeeded in
capturing several Dutch forts, but Admiral DeRuyter soon recaptured

Seizure of New Netherlands, 1664.--At the same time England prepared to
seize New Netherlands, a territory which she had always claimed. The
king granted to the Duke of York the northern part of Maine, Long
Island, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and New Netherlands. The Duke in
turn granted the Jerseys to Carteret and Lord Berkeley. A royal
commission was despatched to America with three war vessels and several
hundred men. At Boston the expedition was reinforced and then proceeded
to New Amsterdam, which surrendered without a struggle. One member of
the commission went to the Delaware and took possession. In the Treaty
of Breda (1667) the English were given important slave trading
privileges, their conquests between the Hudson and the Delaware were
confirmed, and Lord Willoughby's colony of Surinam was ceded to the
Dutch, who had captured it in the course of the recent war.

Administration of Nicolls.--Nicolls was made governor and his
administration was conducted with tact and firmness. In dealing with
Connecticut he insisted upon the Duke's right to Long Island. In New
Netherlands several Dutch place names were changed, New Amsterdam
becoming New York, and Ft. Orange, Albany. The right of property was not
disturbed; judicial districts were organized; and to New York City he
granted a charter which provided for a mayor, aldermen, and sheriff,
whom he appointed. Nicolls drew up a code, known as the Duke's Laws,
which was a combination of portions of the codes of Massachusetts and
New Haven, Dutch customs, and original ideas. Religious toleration was
allowed, and landholding was made the basis for voting. The lack of a
representative assembly was a noticeable feature, which led to discord
when taxes were demanded.

Representative government demanded.--Lovelace became governor in 1668,
and during his administration of five years friction increased, but he
managed to maintain his authority. In 1673 when war broke out between
England and Holland, New York was captured by the Dutch, but the
following year it was restored to the English. Edmund Andros was then
appointed governor. He informed the proprietor of the desire for a
representative assembly, but James stubbornly refused. In 1681, when
James neglected to renew the customs duties, the merchants refused to
pay them. Because of the resulting loss of revenue Andros was ordered to
England, and during his absence the disaffection greatly increased.
Thomas Dongan was appointed governor in 1682. He was instructed to call
a representative assembly to advise the governor and council regarding
taxation and law making. In October, 1683, seventeen representatives met
at New York and drew up a Charter of Franchises and Liberties. This was
sent to the Duke, who signed it, but when he became king he rejected it.

Dongan's administration.--Dongan administered the province of New York
with marked ability. He granted a new charter to New York City by which
the mayor, recorder, and sheriff were appointed by the governor, and the
aldermen were popularly elected. He maintained the boundaries of the
province against the claims of Penn on the west and Connecticut on the
east. In 1684 he made a treaty with the Iroquois, and henceforth they
sided with the English in the great international struggle for trade and

Leisler's rebellion.--When James II attempted to consolidate all of the
northern provinces under one head New York was included. But when the
king was overthrown, Jacob Leisler led a rebellion and drove out
Nicholson, the royal representative. Leisler summoned a convention which
gave him dictatorial powers. He maintained authority until 1691, when
Henry Sloughter arrived as governor. Leisler surrendered, but was tried
and hanged.


Settlements in the Jerseys.--When the Jerseys passed into the hands of
Carteret and Berkeley, there were two settled areas, one of Dutch origin
about Bergen, Hoboken, and Wiehawken, the other of Dutch, Swedish, and
Finnish settlements on the Delaware. When Nicolls came to New York he
was not aware that part of the province had been granted to others. He
immediately sought to bring in settlers; about two hundred people,
descendants of New Englanders, moved from Long Island to the
neighborhood of what was later known as Elizabethtown. Others, most of
whom were Quakers, settled at Middletown and Shrewsbury under a special
grant from Nicolls.

Government in East New Jersey.--In 1665 Philip Carteret, probably a
brother of the proprietor, arrived with a governor's commission. With
him were about thirty persons, most of whom were French people from the
Island of Jersey. Elizabethtown was made the capital. Carteret brought
with him a plan of government, which provided that the governor was to
choose a council of not less than six, nor more than twelve members. The
freemen were to choose twelve representatives, who were to join with the
governor and council in law-making. When local divisions were
established each division was to elect a representative to an assembly,
which would then take the place of the twelve. The assembly could pass
laws subject to certain restrictions, create local divisions,
incorporate towns, erect forts, provide for a militia, wage war,
naturalize foreigners, and perform many other acts. Religious liberty
and property rights were carefully protected. The enforcement of laws,
appointment of officers, and pardoning power were left in the hands of
the governor and council.

Difficulties with New Englanders.--During 1666 many families from the
Connecticut Valley migrated to East New Jersey, most of them settling on
the Passaic River, Bradford and Guilford being founded. Newark was also
settled. The settlers drew up a form of government copied from New
Haven, which restricted the franchise to membership in the
Congregational church. In April, 1668, the first assembly was called by
Carteret, but the people from Middletown and Shrewsbury did not send
delegates. To a session held in October these towns sent
representatives, but they were not allowed to sit in the meeting. A
quarrel ensued between the governor and assembly, which soon adjourned
and did not convene again for seven years. In 1670, when Carteret
attempted to collect quit-rents, the settlers refused to pay, and for
two years the colony was in turmoil. Middletown and Shrewsbury, acting
under their original patent from Nicolls, set up an independent
government, but the governor refused to recognize it and was sustained
by the proprietors, who, however, granted some concessions, whereupon
the difficulties subsided.

The Quakers in West New Jersey.--In 1672 George Fox, the founder of the
Quaker sect, crossed New Jersey and visited the Quakers in the eastern
part. To this visit Penn's interest in the region may be traced. In 1674
Berkeley disposed of his share of the colony to two Quakers, Edward
Byllynge and John Fenwick, this transaction being due to a desire on the
part of the Society of Friends to establish an independent colony.
Byllynge and Fenwick became involved in a dispute over property rights,
and William Penn was made arbiter. Penn awarded one-tenth to Fenwick,
who, after considerable litigation, accepted it. Byllynge shortly
afterward conveyed his holdings to Penn, Lawrie, and Lucas, who soon
acquired Fenwick's interests. In 1676 Carteret and the Quaker
proprietors fixed the line of demarcation between East and West New
Jersey. It was to run from the most southwardly point of the east side
of Little Egg Harbor to the point where the Delaware River crossed the
forty-first parallel. The Quaker migration to West New Jersey began in
1675, when Fenwick led a group to Salem. In 1677 two hundred and thirty
more settled at Burlington. During the next two years eight hundred
arrived, and by 1681 nearly fourteen hundred had come to the colony. In
every case title to the soil was obtained by purchase from the Indians.

[Illustration: The Delaware River Region. (From Fisher, _The Quaker
Colonies_, in the Series, "The Chronicles of America," Yale University

Government of West New Jersey.--The original Burlington colonists
brought with them a body of laws which have been described as "the
broadest, sanest, and most equitable charter draughted for any body of
colonists up to that time." No doubt Penn played the principal rôle in
the draughting. It provided for a board of commissioners to be appointed
by the proprietors and an assembly chosen by the people, which was to
have full rights of making laws if they were not contrary to the charter
or the laws of England. The charter provided for public trials by jury
and assured the right of petition. Capital punishment was prohibited.

Trouble with the Duke of York.--After the expulsion of the Dutch in
1674, the Duke of York attempted to regain control of the Jerseys and
refused to recognize the validity of Berkeley's sale to Byllynge. When
Andros became governor of New York he attempted to assert the authority
of James over the Jerseys, but the courts refused to uphold the claims
of the Duke, and in 1680 he finally gave up the struggle.

Later history of West New Jersey.--In 1680 Byllynge obtained a title to
West New Jersey from the Duke of York and the charter of 1677 was put
into effect, with the exception that the executive was vested in a
single person instead of in commissioners. In 1687 Byllynge died and
Daniel Coxe, a London merchant, acquired his properties. Burlington was
made the capital, and Coxe bent his efforts to make it a commercial
center. In 1688 the colony was placed under the jurisdiction of Andros
as a part of the northern administrative unit which included New York
and New England, but Coxe was restored to his rights after the
dethronement of James, though he soon sold out to the West New Jersey

Later history of East New Jersey.--In 1682 Philip Carteret resigned, and
the board of trustees who controlled the estate of Sir George Carteret
sold East New Jersey to William Penn and eleven other Quakers. Shortly
afterwards twelve others were taken into the company, several of whom
were Scotch Presbyterians. In 1683 the twenty-four men received a deed
from the Duke of York. Under these proprietors the colony prospered, and
population increased rapidly. In 1688 the province came under royal
jurisdiction and it was annexed to New York, but after the revolution it
was restored to the proprietors.


The Quaker faith.--The Reformation produced many religious sects. Writh
the breaking down of one authoritative church and the substitution of
the idea that any one might read and interpret the Bible, religious
groups began forming. Among the numerous sects were the Quakers, the
followers of George Fox. Seventeenth century religion was based upon the
fundamental idea that the universe was dualistic, natural and
supernatural. The question on which men split was how the chasm was to
be bridged. Most of the Protestant sects believed that the crossing was
made by a definite revelation of the word of God. Fox believed "that it
was bridged by the communication of a supernatural Light given to each

The coming of the Quakers.--Most of the seventeenth century religious
sects, once in power, were as intolerant as the Catholics had been. The
Quaker was looked upon with disfavor and persecution was his lot. In
America he hoped to find an abiding place. Between 1655 and 1680 Quakers
appeared in nearly all the colonies. Fox came to America in 1671 and in
the course of the following year visited the Quaker communities from
Barbados to Rhode Island.

Penn obtains lands on the Delaware.--The desire to obtain lands where
they would be in complete control was long in the minds of the Quaker
leaders. In 1680 William Penn petitioned for lands along the Delaware
north of Maryland, in payment of a debt of 16,000 pounds. In spite of
his faith Penn stood well at court, and on March 4, 1681, the charter of
Pennsylvania was signed. The extent of the grant was defined as follows:
"All that Tract or parte of land in America, with all the Islands
therein conteyned, as the same is bounded on the East by Delaware River,
from twelve miles distance, Northwarde of New Castle Towne unto the
three and fortieth degree of Northerne Latitude if the said River doeth
extend soe farre Northwards; But if the said River shall not extend soe
farre Northward, then by the said River soe farr as it doth extend, and
from the head of the said River the Easterne Bounds are to bee
determined by a Meridian Line, to bee drawne from the head of the said
River unto the said three and fortieth degree, The said lands to extend
westwards, five degrees in longitude, to bee computed from the said
Eastern Bounds, and the said lands to bee bounded on the North, by the
beginning of the three and fortieth degree of Northern latitude, and on
the South, by a Circle drawne at twelve miles, distance from New Castle
Northwards, and Westwards unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of
Northerne Latitude; and then by a streight Line westwards, to the Limitt
of Longitude above mentioned."

Both the northern and southern boundaries caused future disputes. Penn
claimed as far north as the forty-third parallel, while New York
insisted on the forty-second, a difference which was settled a century
later in favor of New York. On the south the boundaries conflicted with
the claims of Baltimore. In 1682 the question was further complicated by
a grant to Penn from the Duke of York of the territory on the western
shore of Delaware Bay. The difficulty was finally settled in 1760, and
seven years later two surveyors, Mason and Dixon, ran the present line
between Maryland and Pennsylvania at 39° 44', and erected the present
boundaries of the state of Delaware.

Powers of the proprietor.--By the charter Penn was made a proprietor,
having the right to make laws with the advice and consent of the
freemen. The proprietor was given power to execute the laws, issue
ordinances, appoint judges and magistrates, pardon criminals except in
cases of treason and willful murder, erect municipalities, and grant
manors. The form of government in the colony was left to the proprietor.
Laws had to be sent to the privy council for approval, but if action
were not taken within six months, they were valid. The king reserved the
right of hearing appeals. The navigation laws were to be enforced, and
if damages accrued from non-enforcement and were not settled within a
year, the king had the right to take over the government of the colony
until payment was made.

The founding of Philadelphia.--Penn published a prospectus of his colony
which was widely circulated, and drew up a body of conditions and
concessions which dealt with the division and settlement of the province
and with Indian relations. In 1681 he sent to America as deputy-governor
his cousin, William Markham, who received the allegiance of the settlers
already within the colony. Shortly afterward the first body of colonists
arrived bearing instructions to lay out a town. The site of Philadelphia
was surveyed the following year, a symmetrical plan being adopted which
made Penn's capital the best-arranged city in colonial America.

The "frame of government."--The government devised by Penn consisted of
"the Governor and freemen of the said province, in form of a Provincial
Council and General Assembly, by whom all laws shall be made, officers
chosen, and publick affairs transacted." An elective council was to
consist of seventy-two persons "of most note for their wisdom, virtue
and ability." This body, with the governor, was to prepare and propose
all bills, and together they were to share executive powers. They were
to erect courts of justice, elect county officers, provide schools, and
perform numerous other duties. The assembly, which was to consist at
first of not more than two hundred members, was to be elected annually.
Its chief business was to consider and pass upon bills prepared by the
governor and council.

Penn's first sojourn in the province.--Penn arrived on the ship
_Welcome_ in the fall of 1682 and immediately called an election for an
assembly, in this case ignoring the details of the frame of government.
The first assembly annexed the territory on the western shore of
Delaware Bay, naturalized foreigners, and adopted a set of laws proposed
by the proprietor, which provided for liberty of conscience, a strict
code of morals, and for capital punishment for treason and murder only.
Penn inspected his province, watched the building of Philadelphia, and
visited New York, Maryland, and West New Jersey. He also held several
meetings with the Indians, entering in June, 1683, into a treaty with
them which had the salutary effect of keeping Pennsylvania free from
Indian war. The number of representatives provided for in the frame of
government proving too large, a new frame was drawn up by which the
council was reduced to eighteen and the lower house to thirty-six

Penn's activities in England.--In August, 1684, Penn went to England to
obtain a settlement of his disputes with Baltimore and to aid the
persecuted Quakers. His claim to the Delaware tract was confirmed and he
secured the release from English jails of more than twelve hundred
Quakers. In 1688 he also succeeded in keeping his province from being
incorporated within the jurisdiction of Andros.

Friction in the colony.--The political peace for which Penn had hoped
was soon disturbed. Friction over the right to initiate legislation
broke out between the council and assembly. Trouble with one of the
justices also occurred. Hoping to quiet affairs, Penn took away the
executive powers of the council and appointed a commission of five
councillors who were to compel all to do their duty. As trouble
continued, he did away with the commission and appointed Captain
Blackwell, a Puritan, to act for him. This choice proved unfortunate,
for the Puritan could not get along with the Quakers. In despair, Penn
recalled Blackwell and allowed the council to select its own executive.
The council again assumed the governorship, and chose Thomas Lloyd
president. Friction also existed between the settlers along the shore of
Delaware Bay and those in the river settlements, a difficulty which
eventually led to the separation of Delaware from Pennsylvania.

Growth of the colony.--In spite of frictions the colony prospered. When
Penn acquired his province, it contained about a thousand Swedes,
Finns, and Dutch, and a few Quakers. By 1685 the population had
increased to more than eight thousand, made up of diverse elements;
Quakers, mostly from central and southwestern England and from Wales,
Mennonites from the Rhineland, Swedes, Scotch, Irish, and French.
Philadelphia soon boasted a tannery, sawmill, and kiln; linen
manufacture began; and the colony entered upon a prosperous
intercolonial trade in flour, staves, and horses. A weekly post and a
school were established, and a printing press installed. It was evident
that Penn's "holy experiment" had justified itself.


Reorganization in the Bermudas.--Complaints by the settlers against the
rule of the Somers Islands Company in the Bermudas had been common since
its foundation. As time went on it became composed of men who had little
interest in the colony. The settlers, on the other hand, grew in numbers
and independence. Under the circumstances, in the general reorganization
by the later Stuarts, the company was dissolved, and in 1679 the
Bermudas became a crown colony.

Reorganization in the West Indies.--Down to 1671 the English Caribbean
island possessions were all included in one government within the
Carlisle grant. In that year they were separated into two governments,
St. Kitts, Nevis. Montserrat, Antigua, Barbuda, Anguilla and "all other
the Leeward islands" to the north of French Guadeloupe were separated
from Barbados and the Windward Islands, and erected into the government
of the Leeward Islands, the islands to the south of Guadeloupe being
formed into the government of the Windward Islands. The Leeward Islands
were put under one governor-in-chief, each island being given a deputy
governor, council, assembly, and courts. In 1689 the islands together
were granted a general assembly, which first met in 1690.

New settlements in the West Indies.--During the period of the later
Stuarts the Leeward Islands extended their influence among the smaller
islands to the northwest In 1665 a buccaneering expedition from Jamaica
captured St. Eustatius and Saba. In 1666 settlers from the Bermudas
settled on New Providence, one of the Bahamas, and elected a governor.
Four years later six of the Carolina proprietors secured a patent to
the island but did little toward colonizing it. In 1672 Tortola was
taken from the Dutch and added to the Leeward Islands.

Unrest in Barbados.--The first important movement to settle Carolina
came from Barbados, the most populous of the English colonies. A spirit
of unrest pervaded the island. During the Commonwealth it had been a
refuge for both Cavaliers and Roundheads, and the newcomers had taken up
lands without securing titles. When the Stuarts were restored, the
former proprietors attempted to regain their possessions. A lively
controversy ensued. The king settled it by establishing his authority in
the island, but levied a tax of four and one-half per cent. on its
products to be applied to satisfy in part the claims of the proprietors,
an arrangement which pleased no one. The navigation acts also
considerably interfered with the trade of the island which had
previously been carried on largely with the Dutch. As a result many
settlers were anxious to leave. Between 1643 and 1667 at least twelve
hundred Barbadians went to fight or settle in Jamaica, Tobago, St.
Lucia, Trinidad, Surinam, New England, Virginia, or Carolina.


The Carolina coast.--From the James River region to the Spanish
settlements in Florida, stretched a vast territory, which, with the
single exception of a settlement on the Chowan River, was unoccupied by
white men when Charles II came to the throne. After Raleigh's
ill-starred venture it had received little attention until 1629, when
Sir Robert Heath obtained a patent to lands between 31° and 36° north
latitude, but he did nothing to improve the territory. The coasts were
occasionally visited by mariners, but there is no definite knowledge of
any settlement until 1653, when colonists from Virginia appear to have
started a settlement at Albemarle on the Chowan River. About 1660 some
New Englanders inspected the Cape Fear River mouth but departed soon

The charters.--In 1660 Sir John Colleton, a prominent resident of
Barbados, went to England where he became a member of the Council for
Foreign Plantations. He soon interested Anthony Ashley Cooper, later
known as Lord Ashley, in the Carolinas. In 1663 a charter was granted
to eight proprietors, Cooper, Clarendon, Craven, Albemarle, Carteret,
Lord Berkeley, Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley. The territory granted
extended from the thirty-sixth to the thirty-first parallel and from sea
to sea. Over this region the proprietors were given practically the same
rights as Baltimore possessed in Maryland. In 1665 a second patent was
granted to the proprietors, extending the boundaries to 36° 30' on the
north and to 29° on the south.

The fundamental constitutions.--The philosopher, John Locke, drew up a
constitution for the province. It provided for a high official called
the palatine, and minor officials designated as admiral, chamberlain,
chancellor, constable chief justice, steward, and treasurer. The
province was to be divided into counties, and each county into
seigniories, baronies, and precincts. On these divisions were to be
based the ranks of the nobility to be designated as land-graves,
caciques, and lords of manors. An elaborate system of courts was
provided; also a grand council and a parliament. This archaic feudal
document is of interest mainly as a study in the political philosophy of
the time, but it was of little real importance as it was totally
unsuited to the needs of a frontier community. It was never put in force
except in certain minor particulars, the settlers themselves soon
solving their problems of government in their own way.

Beginnings of settlement.--In 1663-1664 an expedition from Barbados
examined the Carolina coast, and in 1665 Sir John Yeamans conducted a
group of settlers to the mouth of Cape Fear River. Yeamans soon returned
to Barbados and the settlers, left to their own devices, in 1667
abandoned the settlement, most of them going to Albemarle, Virginia, and
Boston. In 1669 vessels carrying ninety-two colonists sailed from
England to Barbados, where Sir John Yeamans, who had been appointed
governor, joined them. They then proceeded to the Bermudas, where
Yeamans handed over the authority to William Sayle and abandoned the
expedition. The colonists under Sayle then went to Port Royal, but
finally settled on the Ashley River, where they laid out old Charles
Town (1670). Political strife soon developed, owing mainly to the
incompetence of the aged executive. In 1671 he died and Joseph West was
chosen governor by the people.

[Illustration: The Southern Colonies, 1607-1735. (From Johnston,
_Pioneers of the Old South_, in the Series, "The Chronicles of America,"
Yale University Press).]

Plans of the proprietors.--In 1670 the proprietors obtained a grant of
the Bahamas and planned to build up trade between the island and
mainland settlements. They also planned to improve the Charles Town
settlement and in 1671 secured settlers from Barbados. Yeamans came over
and claimed the governorship, but West succeeded in keeping the office
for several months. In 1672 Yeamans was again appointed governor, but he
managed things so badly that in 1674 West was reappointed and remained
governor for eight years.

Development of the Charles Town region.--Colonists came in considerable
numbers; in 1672 there were about four hundred people in the colony, and
by 1685 the population had increased to about twenty-five hundred. Among
the immigrants were a hundred French Protestants, and a colony of Scots
who settled at Port Royal in 1683. Other colonists came from Barbados
and many from western England. In 1680 the seat of government was moved
from old Charles Town to the junction of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers.
After 1680 settlements began to expand into the back country. This soon
brought on the inevitable Indian war, which continued intermittently for
three years. In 1685 the Spaniards raided the settlements, burning many
houses, and the following year destroyed the Scotch settlement at Port

Unrest at Charleston.--During West's administration the colony was not
greatly disturbed by political difficulties, the proprietors making
little attempt to enforce the Locke constitution. The colony was
governed by a popularly elected "parliament," which chose a council of
five men. The chief executive was the governor commissioned by the
proprietors. From 1682 to 1689 proprietary interference increased,
bringing the colony to the verge of rebellion. The colonial parliament
had steadily refused to confirm the constitution. During 1682 it was
revised by the proprietors, more power being placed in the hands of the
people, but still the colonists refused to confirm it. This irritated
the proprietors, who retaliated by introducing a new form of land
tenure, which required the colonists to pay a cash quit-rent. When James
II came to the throne, Governor Morton demanded that they swear
allegiance to the king and accept the constitution, whereupon twelve
members of the parliament refused and were excluded. The colonists also
took with ill grace the attempt to collect the customs. In 1688 the
governor and council found themselves at complete loggerheads with
parliament, and legislation stopped. James Colleton, the governor,
proclaimed martial law. This led to an open rebellion, and in 1691
Colleton was expelled, but the proprietary power was soon restored.

The Albemarle colony.--During these troublous times the Albemarle
settlement was slowly developing. The colony was mainly recruited from
Virginia, but there was also a considerable influx of Quakers. In 1682
the Albemarle settlement contained about twenty-five hundred
inhabitants. When an attempt was made in 1677 to collect the customs and
to shut off the New England trade, about a hundred colonists led by John
Culpeper rebelled and imprisoned Miller, who was the collector of
customs and acting governor. They also arrested the president of the
assembly and all but one of the deputies. The proprietors removed Miller
from office and appointed Seth Sothell governor, but the people soon
drove him from the colony. The turbulence did not quiet down until the
appointment of Governor Ludwell, who from 1691 resided at Charleston,
Albemarle being governed henceforth by a deputy.


By now English explorers and fur traders had crossed the Alleghanies. As
early as 1648 Governor Berkeley was preparing an expedition to the
southwest, where red capped Spaniards riding "long eared beasts," came
to trade with the natives. Twenty-five years later (1673) two
Virginians, James Needham and Gabriel Arthur, reached the Cherokees on
the Upper Tennessee. To these mountain dwellers on the "western waters"
the Englishmen were a novel sight, but they had long been acquainted
with the Spaniards and possessed "some sixty Spanish flintlocks," and
among them lived Spanish mulatto women. Before the end of the century
South Carolina traders had established the "Chickasaw Trail" through the
Creek and Chickasaw country, and had crossed the Mississippi. In
1699-1700 Carolinians ascended the Savannah, descended the Tennessee,
Ohio, and Mississippi to the mouth of the Arkansas. Frontiersmen had
gone northwest as well as southwest, and before the end of the century
had begun to make their way among the Indians on both sides of the upper
Ohio River.


Continued search for the Northwest Passage.--Some of the same men who
represented the Carolinas now extended English enterprises to the region
of Hudson Bay. The English search for the Northwest Passage had not
ended with the sixteenth century. Henry Hudson, who in 1609 had explored
Hudson River in an attempt to find the passage, made further attempts in
the following year. Finding his way in the _Discovery_ through Hudson
Strait, he wintered at the southern extremity of James Bay. He paid
dearly for his discoveries, for he was cast adrift by mutinous followers
and perished. In Hudson's wake went numerous explorers, backed by
syndicates of merchants and sometimes with royal support, still seeking
the passage. In 1612 Button crossed Hudson Bay and entered the mouth of
Nelson River. At the same time a company was formed to seek the passage.
In 1616 Bylot and Baffin discovered Baffin Bay, and in 1631 Foxe made
new discoveries in Fox Channel. Denmark also entered the field of
northwestern discovery and in 1619-1620 Jens Munck explored Hudson Bay,
wintering at Churchill Harbor.

Radisson, Groseilliers, and Gillam.--The primary purpose of the
foregoing voyages had been to find a passage to the Far East. They were
followed, after an interval, by trading enterprises. The operations of
the French fur traders. Radisson and Groseilliers, have been mentioned
previously. Having been imprisoned and fined for illicit trading, they
left Canada, went to New England, and got up an expedition to Hudson Bay
to gather furs. Sailing in 1664 with Captain Zachariah Gillam, they
reached Hudson Strait but not the bay. After another failure in 1665,
they met Sir George Carteret whom they interested in their project.
Going to England, through Carteret's influence they organized a company
among whose stockholders were the Duke of York, Prince Rupert, Carteret,
the Duke of Albemarle, and the Earls of Craven, Arlington, and
Shaftesbury, several of whom were already influential in colonial
enterprises. In 1668 the company again sent Gillam to Hudson Bay, where
he built Charles Fort on Rupert's River, and traded profitably in furs.
The part played by Radisson and Groseilliers in this enterprise became a
basis for French claims to the Hudson Bay region.

[Illustration: Hudson's Bay Company Posts.]

Hudson's Bay Company.--The return of Gillam to London in 1669 was
followed by the formation of a new Company. On May 2, 1670, Charles II
issued a royal charter to "The Governor and Company of Adventurers of
England trading into Hudson's Bay." The Company was made absolute
proprietor with a complete monopoly of all trade of the Hudson Bay
basin. The government was centered in a governor, deputy-governor, and
committee of seven, who were empowered to make laws and were given
judicial and military authority. They lost no time in establishing
posts, and by 1685 there were trading houses at Albany River, Hayes
Island, Rupert's River, Port Nelson, Moose River, and New Severn.

Trading methods.--Ships were fitted out annually in London with
merchandise, and brought back rich cargoes of furs. In contrast with the
French traders and with the English of the Atlantic seaboard colonies,
the Hudson's Bay Company did not penetrate the interior, but depended
upon the natives to bring their peltry to the posts on the Bay. In the
spring, therefore, after the break-up of the ice, Crees, Chipewyans, and
Eskimos came down the rivers in fleets of canoes laden with furs, traded
them for merchandise, and returned for another season's hunt. In London
the furs were sold at auction at the Company's headquarters, where the
annual fair took on the nature of a social function. Gradually the
markets widened, agents being sent to establish trade with Holland,
Russia, and other parts of Northern Europe. Profits were large, the
dividend in 1690 being seventy-five per cent. of the original stock.

French Rivalry.--The success of the English aroused the jealousy of the
French traders in the St. Lawrence Valley, and there ensued a rivalry
which constituted one of the important episodes of the intercolonial
wars which now occurred. In the contest Radisson, who had aided in the
formation of the Company, played fast and loose between the English and
the French. Before the end of the century French rivalry in the
interior, beyond Lake Superior, did much to shake the "H.B.C." from its
exclusive, seaboard policy. By 1691 Henry Kelsey, an employe of the
Company, had made an expedition to the Winnipeg district.



Andrews, C.M., _Colonial Self-Government_, 74-100, 273-287; Andrews,
C.M., ed., _Narratives of the Insurrections_, 315-401; Brodhead, J.R.,
_History of New York_, II; Channing, Edward, _History of the United
States_, II, 31-60, 203-209; Doyle, J.A., _The Middle Colonies_, 78-223;
Fiske, John, _Dutch and Quaker Colonies_, II, 1-98, 168-208; New York
Historical Society, _Collections_, 1st Series, I, 307-428; Osgood, H.L.,
_The English Colonies in the Seventeenth Century_, II, 119-168; Winsor,
Justin, _Narrative and Critical History_, III, 385-411.


Andrews, C.M., _Colonial Self-Government_, 101-128, 162-201; Channing,
Edward, _History of the United States_, II, 31-62, 94-130; Clarkson,
Thomas, _Memoirs of Pennsylvania_; Doyle, J.A., _The Middle Colonies_,
287-350, 379-410; Fiske, John, _Dutch and Quaker Colonies_, II, 115-194;
Fisher, Sidney, _The Quaker Colonies_; Hodgkin, Thomas, _George Fox_;
Holder, C.F., _The Quakers in Great Britain and America_, 169-217;
Janney, S.M., _Life of Penn_; Jones, R.M., _The Quakers in the American
Colonies_, 357-371, 417-436; MacDonald, William, _Select Charters_,
139-149, 171-204; Osgood, H.L., _The English Colonies in the Seventeenth
Century_, II, 169-197, 252-276; Sharpless, Isaac, _A Quaker Experiment
in Government; Two Centuries of Pennsylvania History_, 17-77; Smith,
Samuel, _The History of the Colony of Nova-Cæsaria or New Jersey_,
35-207; Tanner, E.P., _The Province of New Jersey_, 1-147; Whitehead,
W.A., _East Jersey under the Proprietary Governments_.


Andrews, C.M., _Colonial Self-Government_, 129-161; Andrews, C.M., ed.,
_Narratives of the Insurrections_, 143-164; Ashe, S.A., _North
Carolina_, I; Channing, Edward, _History of the United States_, II,
13-25; Hamilton, P.J., _Colonization of the South_, 133-135; McCrady,
Edward, _The History of South Carolina under the Proprietary
Government_, I, 1-209; Osgood, H.L., _The American Colonies in the
Seventeenth Century_, II, 200-225; Ramsay, David, _South Carolina_.


Burpee, Laurence J., _The Search for the Western Sea_, 64-95; Bryce,
George, _The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company_, 1-55;
Laut, Agnes, _The Conquest of the Great Northwest_, I, 1-255; Laut,
Agnes, _The Adventurers of England on Hudson Bay_; Willson, Beckles,
_The Great Company_, 1-181; Winsor, J., _Narrative and Critical
History_, VIII, 1-34.


Alvord and Bidgood, _First Explorations of the Trans-Alleghany Region
... 1650-1674_; Crane, V.W., "The Tennessee River as the Road to
Carolina," in _Miss. Valley Hist. Rev._, III, 3-18.



At the close of the Stuart period the English mainland colonies
stretched along the Atlantic coast from Pemaquid to Port Royal. The
settlements nestled close to the coasts, in the tide-water region, or
along the lower waters of the navigable streams. The total population
probably did not exceed 225,000, one-half of whom were in Massachusetts
and Virginia. At the same period Barbados alone contained over 50,000
white settlers and more than 100,000 slaves.


Population.--New England contained some 80,000 white inhabitants. About
5,000 were in New Hampshire; Massachusetts, including the Maine and
Plymouth settlements, contained about 55,000; Rhode Island probably
5,000, and Connecticut about 17,000. By far the larger part were of
English stock, although there were a few Huguenots, Scotch, Irish, and
Jews. The settled area extended from the Pemaquid region along the coast
in an almost unbroken line to the New York border. In Maine the settled
region seldom extended more than ten miles back from the coast, and
between Casco and Saco bays there were large unsettled tracts. In New
Hampshire the frontier line ran back from the coast fifteen to thirty
miles and eastern Massachusetts was settled fifty miles inland. All of
Rhode Island except some tracts in the southern part had been occupied.
Portions of northeastern and northwestern Connecticut were wilderness,
but in the Connecticut Valley the settlers had begun to occupy the
valley lands just to the north of the Massachusetts line.

Agriculture.--The mass of the population was agricultural. The clearing
of the land and the securing of a food supply were the natural pursuits
of the new communities. The small farm was the prevailing type, as
neither climate, crops, nor soil were suitable for the large plantation.
Corn, wheat, fruits, and vegetables were the principal agricultural
products, and cattle, swine, sheep, and poultry were raised for domestic

Furs and fish.--The forests and the sea were the principal sources of
New England prosperity. In the early part of the century the fur trade
was an important factor, but by the end of the century it had
considerably decreased. As it declined the fishing business increased.
On the Newfoundland banks the boats of the New Englanders were the most
numerous. The catch of cod and mackerel was dried and salted, and became
a leading export.

Lumbering and ship-building.--The uncleared back country was a continual
source of profit. Logging became a regular winter pursuit. From the
felled timber were produced lumber, staves, shingles, masts, and spars.
The fishing business conducted close to a lumbering region led to
ship-building, and almost every seacoast town engaged in the industry.
Most of the boats were small, swift-sailing craft, used in the fisheries
or in the coasting and West Indian trade. So well-built were they that
the New Englander found a ready market in the West Indies for vessel as
well as cargo.

Commerce.--Fish, furs, and lumber were the principal products which the
New Englanders produced for outside consumption. Most of the carrying
business was conducted by Massachusetts men, although Rhode Island also
handled a considerable trade. The navigation laws were intended to keep
commerce in the hands of English merchants, but in spite of them
colonial vessels kept up a coast-wise trade, and shipped fish, lumber,
and staves to the West Indies and Madeira. Return vessels brought wine,
rum, molasses, sugar, cotton, and wool. The greater part of New England
commerce was handled through Boston, although Salem and Newport were
rivals. Newport traders carried on a large slave traffic from Guinea and
Madagascar, but most of their cargoes were sold in the West Indies.

Manufactures.--In Massachusetts and Connecticut manufacturing for the
home market developed at an early date. Grist and saw-mills, tanneries,
glass and pottery works, brick yards, and salt works were commonly found
in the tide-water region, and at least two iron works were in operation
in Massachusetts before 1700. Every village had its cobbler and
blacksmith, and the housewives did the spinning and weaving. Most of the
people wore homespun, but finer fabrics were also in demand, and at an
early date the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods on a more
elaborate scale was undertaken in Massachusetts.

Standard of living.--Practically all New Englanders were free settlers,
but a limited number of indented servants and a few hundred slaves were
intermixed with the population. In the regions near the coast the
standard of living had materially improved. In the larger towns the
inhabitants enjoyed even a degree of luxury in dress and table, and the
log huts of the first settlers had almost disappeared, frame, shingled,
and even brick houses having taken their place. Most of the houses of
the well-to-do had a second floor, attic, and lean-to. Every community
had its meeting house, and in 1670 Boston had three places of worship.
As the traveler passed into the back country, he found roads growing
poorer and poorer, gradually deteriorating into mere trails. The
clearings and log cabins became less and less frequent until he finally
reached the wilderness, which was penetrated only by the hunter and
trader. When the settlements extended a considerable distance from the
coast, they were usually along a navigable stream, the indispensable
means of communication in a newly settled community.

Social standards.--Daily life was simple and devoid of ostentation, but
in the older communities social lines were rigidly drawn. An austere
aristocracy ruled. Admitted to the inner circle were the descendants of
the early leaders or of families of rank in England, Oxford and
Cambridge men, and those who were selected through natural worth to fill
high positions in church and state. Intelligence and piety were more
potent factors than wealth in the attainment of position. Of
professional men the ministers held an exalted place, exerting a
powerful influence socially, religiously, and politically. There were
few doctors and lawyers, the latter being looked upon as undesirable
trouble makers.

[Illustration: Settled Areas in New England and on Long Island, about

Religion.--Throughout New England, except in Rhode Island, church and
state were united, the Congregational church being in the ascendency.
Though in 1660 Charles II commanded that the Anglican church be
tolerated in Massachusetts, the authorities resisted its introduction,
and not until 1686 was an Episcopalian church established in Boston. In
Connecticut there were a few Presbyterians and Quakers. In Rhode Island
the Baptists and Quakers were the most important element.

Superstitions.--The seventeenth century Puritan was intolerant and
superstitious. Men must conform or be persecuted. Signs and portents
were believed in, and strange and often filthy concoctions and ointments
were administered at the suggestion of midwives or knowing housewives.
Belief in witchcraft was usual both in Europe and America, and such
learned men as Increase and Cotton Mather, prominent clergymen of
Boston, wrote treatises to prove its truth. The Massachusetts laws
recognized it as a capital offense. In 1692 occurred the famous outbreak
at Salem in which nineteen innocent persons were executed.

Education.--In the English colonies New England took the lead in
provision for popular education. Men who believed that the Bible was the
source of authority naturally thought that every man should have
sufficient intellectual training to enable him to read the word of God.
In 1635 the first Latin grammar school in the English colonies was
started at Boston, and several other towns soon followed the example. In
1647 Massachusetts enacted a general education law which required every
town of fifty or more freeholders to appoint a teacher to instruct
children to read and write. Every town of one hundred or more
freeholders was required to support a Latin grammar school which would
prepare students for college. Connecticut and New Haven soon followed
the lead of Massachusetts. In Rhode Island and Plymouth each community
was allowed to follow its own course. In Rhode Island the few schools
were usually private enterprises. In Plymouth the first public school
was not opened until 1671. Higher education was not neglected, Harvard
being founded in 1636. In that year Massachusetts voted £400 toward the
support of a college. Two years later John Harvard bequeathed his
library and one-half of his estate for the erection of a college, and
Harvard College came into existence. For many years it was devoted
mainly to the training of religious leaders, and its curriculum
reflected the classical viewpoint of the great English universities.

Literature.--The literature of the first century of New England was
permeated with a gloomy religious viewpoint, but it was not lacking in
dignity or power. It reflected the sternness of standards and purpose of
the founders, who saw little of the humor, or of the lighter side of
existence. The strongest of the writings were the histories, the best
being the _History of Plymouth_ by Governor Bradford and _The History of
New England_ by Governor Winthrop. Of less interest to the present day
mind are the controversial religious tracts and sermons of Roger
Williams and Cotton Mather, or the crude poetry of Mrs. Anne Bradstreet.


Population.--Economically and socially New York and East New Jersey were
closely related. At the end of the Andros régime the population of New
York was probably 18,000, and that of East New Jersey about 10,000. More
than half of the New Yorkers were Dutch. The rest were mainly English,
but there were some Huguenots and a few Jews. The settled area covered
almost all of Long Island and the Hudson Valley to a point a few miles
north of Albany. Most of the population of East New Jersey was along the
coast opposite New York harbor. The English predominated, but there was
a sprinkling of Dutch, Scotch, and Huguenots.

Industry in New York.--During the first decades of the Dutch occupation
of the Hudson Valley the fur trade had been almost the only business,
but after 1638 many settlers came who began general farming. Lumbering
also developed. The general lines of industry thus begun were carried on
after the English occupation. The fur trade was greatly stimulated by
Dongan and it was probably the chief source of wealth in the colony.
Population increased slowly. The advantageous position of New York
attracted shipping, and the merchants developed a commerce with the West
Indies and the Dutch possessions in the Caribbean to which were shipped
bread stuffs, pease, meat, and horses. The returning vessels brought
wine, rum, molasses, and various tropical products. To England the New
Yorkers shipped furs, oil, and naval supplies in return for manufactured

[Illustration: Settled areas in the Middle Colonies about 1700.]

A contemporary description of New York.--Governor Dongan wrote
concerning the province in 1687: "The principal towns within the Govermt
are New York Albany & Kingston at Esopus. All the rest are country
villages. The buildings in New York & Albany are generally of stone &
brick. In the country the houses are mostly new built, having two or
three rooms on a floor. The Dutch are great improvers of land. New York
and Albany live wholly upon trade with the Indians England and the West
Indies.... I believe for these 7 years last past, there has not come
over into this province twenty English Scotch or Irish familys. But on
the contrary on Settled Areas in the Middle Colonies Long Island the
people about 1700 encrease soe fast that they complain for want of land
and many remove from thence into the neighboring province."

Religion and education in New York.--Regarding religion Dongan wrote.
"Every Town ought to have a Minister. New York has first a Chaplain
belonging to the Fort of the Church of England; secondly, a Dutch
Calvinist; thirdly a French Calvinist; fourthly a Dutch Lutheran--Here
bee not many of the Church of England; few Roman Catholicks; abundance
of Quakers preachers men & Women especially; Singing Quakers, Ranting
Quakers, Sabbatarians; anti-sabbatarians; Some Anabaptists some
Independents; some Jews; in short of all sorts of opinions there are
some, and the most part of none at all.... The most prevailing opinion
is that of the Dutch Calvinists." This description applied to religious
conditions in New York City, then as now a cosmopolitan place. On Long
Island, where New Englanders were predominant, the Congregational church
held sway, while in the Hudson Valley, where most of the settlers were
Dutch, the Dutch Reformed church was in the ascendency. The Dutch had
maintained elementary schools, but when the English occupied the
country, most of the school-masters left, and little was done by the
authorities to stimulate education. Such schools as existed were
established by the local communities.

Large estates.--During the Dutch régime many large estates had been
created, the most important being the patroonship of Van Rensselaer
about Albany. Although the other patroons had surrendered their rights,
the Dutch governors, officials, and merchants had acquired vast estates,
which continued in their families after the English occupation. The
English governors followed the example, and several large holdings were
created, the most famous of these being the Livingston manor on the east
bank of the Hudson below the Van Rensselaer tract.

Conditions in East New Jersey.--The people of East New Jersey came
mainly from New England and Long Island, and they built up a miniature
New England, each village being an entity surrounded by tributary farm
lands. Garden truck, fish, oysters, and fruits were the principal
products. The proprietors hoped to develop commerce, but the Duke of
York's restrictions throttled it, and East New Jersey was forced into
the position of a supply station for New York. Gawen Laurie, the
deputy-governor, described conditions as follows in 1684: "There is
great plenty of oysters, fish, fowl; pork is two pennies the pound, beef
and venison one penny the pound, a whole fat buck for five or six
shillings; Indian corn for two shillings and six pence per bushel, oats
twenty pence, and barley two shillings per bushel: We have good brick
earth, and stones for building at Amboy, and elsewhere: The country farm
houses are built very cheap: A carpenter, with a man's own servants,
builds the house; they have all materials for nothing, except nails,
their chimnies are of stones; they make their own ploughs and carts for
the most part, only the iron work is very dear: The poor sort set up a
house of two or three rooms themselves, after this manner; the walls are
of cloven timber, about eight or ten inches broad, like planks, set one
end to the ground, and the other nailed to the raising, which they
plaster within; they build a barn after the same manner, and these cost
not above five pounds a piece; and then to work they go: Two or three
men in one year will clear fifty acres, in some places sixty, and in
some more: They sow corn the first year, and afterwards maintain
themselves; and the increase of corn, cows, horses, hogs and sheep comes
to the landlord;... the servants work not so much by a third as they do
in England, and I think feed much better; for they have beef, pork,
bacon, pudding, milk, butter and good beer and cyder for drink; when
they are out of their time, they have land for themselves, and generally
turn farmers for themselves."

Religion and education in East New Jersey.--Another letter of the same
date says: "There be people of several sorts of religions, but few very
zealous; the people, being mostly New-England men, do mostly incline to
their way; and in every town there is a meeting-house, where they
worship publickly every week: They have no publick laws in the country
for maintaining publick teachers, but the towns that have them, make way
within themselves to maintain them; we know none that have a settled
preacher, that follows no other employment, save one town, Newark."


Population.--The settlements along Delaware River and Bay formed an
industrial and social group. In 1700 the population numbered less than
20,000, from 12,000 to 15,000 being in Pennsylvania which included
Delaware. The interior of West New Jersey was unoccupied, the population
remaining close to the coast. From Barnegat to Cape May the settled area
was about ten miles wide. Along the eastern shore of the bay and river
the population belt widened to twenty-five or thirty miles. In
Pennsylvania and Delaware the settled area was continuous from the
mouth of the Lehigh River to the southern boundary of Delaware. Back
from the river the habitations extended for forty or fifty miles, but on
the bay shore none of the settlers were more than ten or fifteen miles
inland. The population of the Delaware region was composed of many
nationalities. West New Jersey contained many English, but the
descendants of the early Swedish and Dutch settlers were there in
considerable numbers. Pennsylvania contained about 1,000 Swedes, Dutch,
and Finns, the remnant of the early occupations. Penn's advertising and
reputation for philanthropy brought to his colony English, Germans,
Scotch, and Welsh.

Conditions in West New Jersey.--The following description of West New
Jersey, written in 1698, gives an excellent picture of the colony: "In a
few Years after [1675] a Ship from _London_, and another from _Hull_,
sail'd thither with more People, who went higher up into the Countrey,
and built there a Town, and called it _Burlington_ which is now the
chiefest Town in that Countrey though _Salem_ is the ancientest; and a
fine _Market-Town_ it is, Having several Fairs kept yearly in it;
likewise well furnished with good store of most Necessaries for humane
Support, as _Bread_, _Beer_, _Beef_, and _Pork_; as also _Butter_ and
_Cheese_, of which they freight several Vessels and send them to
_Barbadoes_, and other islands.

"There are very many fine _stately Brick-Houses_ built [at Salem], and a
_commodious Dock_ for _Vessels_ to come in at, and they claim equal
Privilege with _Burlington_ for the sake of Antiquity; tho' that is the
principal Place, by reason that the late Governor _Cox_, who bought that
Countrey of Edward _Billing_, encouraged and promoted that Town chiefly,
in settling his _Agents_ and _Deputy-governors_ there, (the same Favours
are continued by the _New-West-Jersey_ Society, who now manage Matters
there) which brings their Assemblies and chief Courts to be kept there;
and by that means it is become a very famous Town, having a great many
stately _Brick-Houses_ in it, (as I said before) with a great
_Market-House_...; It hath a noble and _spacious Hall_ over-head, where
their _Sessions_ is kept, having the Prison adjoining to it....

"A Ship of Four Hundred Tuns may sail up to this _Town_ in the River
_Delaware_; for I my self have been on Board a Ship of that Burthen
there: and several fine Ships and Vessels (besides Governour Cox's own
great Ship) have been built there.... There are _Water-Men_ who
constantly Ply their Wherry Boats from that Town to the City of
_Philadelphia_ in _Pensilvania_, and to other places. Besides there is
_Glocester-Town_, which is a very Fine and Pleasant Place, being well
stored with Summer Fruits, as _Cherries_, _Mulberries_, and Strawberries
whither Young People come from Philadelphia in the Wherries to eat
_Strawberries_ and _Cream_, within sight of which city it is sweetly
Situated, being but about three Miles distant from thence."

Economic conditions in Pennsylvania.--When Penn's colonists arrived they
found many farms under cultivation. Many of the new arrivals took up
farming, and the lower counties became a supply region for Philadelphia.
Under Penn's direction. Philadelphia soon became a trading center, and
as it grew Burlington declined. Furs and food-stuffs were exchanged for
manufactured articles from Europe, and for sugar and other West Indian
produce. With the exception of the making of coarse cloth and cordage,
there was little manufacturing. Practically all of the settlers were
freemen, although slavery and indenture gradually crept in. The standard
of living was higher than in most of the colonies, for Indian wars did
not disturb pursuits, the lands were fertile, and the climatic
conditions less rigorous than along the New England coast. Most of the
early accounts tell of well-built houses, and productive gardens and

Religion and education.--In church affiliation the Delaware River
country was a mixture. In West New Jersey were found Presbyterians,
Baptists, Quakers, and Lutherans. In Pennsylvania there were the same
denominations, but religiously and politically the Quakers were in the
ascendency. In 1695 an Episcopal church was established at Philadelphia,
but the Anglican church made slow progress along the Delaware. The Dutch
and Swedes had established schools under the direction of the ministers.
The Quakers were also keenly interested in education, and schools were
immediately established. In 1682 the West New Jersey assembly granted
three hundred acres for the support of a school at Burlington, and one
of the first acts of the Pennsylvania assembly was intended to begin
elementary education. In 1689 the Friends' Public School at
Philadelphia was founded and was open to all sects. But most of the
schools were founded by churches or private individuals.


The settled area.--The Chesapeake Bay country formed another economic
unit. By the end of the Stuart régime Maryland contained about 30,000
people, Virginia nearly 60,000, and North Carolina perhaps 3,000,
practically all of English extraction. From Cape Charles northward for
fifty miles the peninsula was settled. Then came an uninhabited region
until opposite Kent Island, where the settlements began again and
extended northward to the Pennsylvania line. On the western side of the
bay a population belt about twenty-five miles wide extended from the
northern boundary of Maryland as far as the Potomac. On the right bank
of the Potomac from a point ten miles above Alexandria to the place
where the river made its great bend to the eastward the plantations
covered a strip about five miles wide. From the great bend the frontier
ran almost straight south to the neighborhood of Richmond and then
gradually curved to the southeast, enclosing a settled area about
twenty-five miles wide on the south side of the James River.

[Illustration: Settled Areas in the Southern Colonies about 1700.]

The frontier line crossed the North Carolina boundary about forty miles
from the coast and ran southwestward to the Chowan River, which with the
northern shore of Albemarle Sound formed the limits of the settled
region of North Carolina, then politically united but economically and
socially separated from the Charleston district.

The plantations.--The Chesapeake Bay country was almost entirely devoted
to agriculture. The small land holdings of the early period were rapidly
disappearing and great plantations had taken their place. The average
land patent in Virginia in the last decades of the century gave title to
from six hundred to eight hundred acres, but many of the plantations
covered from ten thousand to twenty thousand acres. So plentiful was
land and so easily obtained that the planters preferred to take up new
acreage rather than resort to fertilization, the result being that the
plantations were widely scattered, an important factor in making each
estate a social and economic unit.

Tobacco.--The great staple was tobacco. The plantations were usually
located near a creek, river, or the bay shore. Each had its wharf or
flatboat from which the trader could load his vessel. Most of the crop
was shipped to England, and the price obtained determined the year's
prosperity or depression. The large plantation owner usually dealt with
some London house, which kept an open account with him, crediting his
tobacco against orders for the manufactured articles and luxuries which
the Virginia and Maryland gentlemen demanded.

Other industrial activity.--Some writers have held that there must have
been much poverty in the plantation country because of the uncertain
market for tobacco, but such statements do not take into account the
fact that the plantations produced an abundance of food products. Wheat,
oats, barley, and maize were grown in large quantities, the cereals
usually being planted after the third crop of tobacco. At times wheat
was exported. Almost every estate had its garden and orchard, and live
stock was abundant, horses, cattle, and hogs usually ranging in the
woods. So numerous did the hogs become that pork was an item of
exportation. New England coasting vessels ran into the rivers and took
on wheat, pork, and tobacco, which, were exchanged for West Indian
slaves, rum, and sugar. There was but little manufacturing. Cotton and
woolen cloths were made for home use, and brick-making was carried on to
a limited extent, but most of the manufactured articles were brought
from England.

The system of labor.--The large plantations were worked either by
indented servants or slaves. In 1671 Governor Berkeley estimated that
there were 6,000 white servants and 2,000 slaves in Virginia. By 1683
there were about 12,000 indented servants and perhaps 3,000 slaves, and
by the end of the century the slaves had probably doubled. In proportion
to population the indented servants and slaves in Maryland and North
Carolina were in similar ratio to the free white population.

Social position of the planter.--At the top of the social and political
structure of society was the planter, his position depending largely
upon his acreage. Already in Virginia and Maryland the "great-house" or
manor house had made its appearance, a rather unpretentious rambling
frame house with a brick chimney at either end, the splendor of which
was largely due to comparison with the quarters of the slaves. Articles
of luxury such as musical instruments, mirrors, brass fixtures,
silverware, table linen, and damask hangings were frequently found in
the houses of the wealthier planters. These were by no means typical,
for pewter was far more common than silver, and in the home of recently
released indented servants or small landholders there was little more
than bare necessity demanded.

Religion and education.--In religion there was less uniformity than in
industry. In Maryland probably three-fourths of the inhabitants belonged
to various dissenting sects. Most of the great landholders were members
of the Anglican church, but many were Catholics. Most of the Virginians
were Episcopalians, while in North Carolina the Quakers were
predominant. Popular education in the South was far below that of the
North. Public sentiment was against free schools, and the few secondary
educational institutions were conducted through private enterprise. The
planters frequently secured educated indented servants who acted as
tutors. In 1691 the Virginia legislature sent Dr. William Blair to
England to secure a charter for a college and the following year he
returned with it, this being the legal beginning of William and Mary


Population.--Economically and socially South Carolina was associated
with the West Indies rather than with the mainland colonies. At the
close of the seventeenth century the white population was about 5,500.
Most of the inhabitants came from Barbados, but other Caribbean Islands,
England, Ireland, the New England colonies, and France furnished
colonists. The settled area extended from the Santee to the mouth of the
Edisto, included several of the islands, and reached back from the coast
about fifty miles. The social and economic center was Charleston. In the
back country there were only two small towns, most of the people being
located on plantations along the rivers and on the islands. The
Barbadian planters had settled mainly on the Cooper River, Goose Creek,
and Ashley River, and on James, John's and Edisto Islands. Four or five
hundred Huguenots, most of whom had left their country because of the
revocation of the Edict of Nantes, had located on the Santee, where they
had received land grants aggregating over 50,000 acres, nearly half of
this being the property of two individuals, the other Huguenot estates
varying from 100 to 3,000 acres.

The plantations.--At the end of the century rice culture, which was
destined to furnish the most important staple, was in its infancy, and a
little silk and cotton were produced. The chief business of the planters
was the raising of cattle and hogs, corn, and pease. The Barbadians
brought in the economic system of the West Indies, which was based upon
slavery, and the harsh slave code of Barbados was adopted in the colony.
Accurate statistics regarding the number of slaves are inaccessible, but
an apparently authentic letter of 1708 states that in that year there
were 4,100 negro slaves and 1,400 Indian slaves in the colony, numbers
probably in excess of those in 1700, as it was the development of the
rice industry which made slaves highly profitable.

Commerce.--Charleston was the great market town. There the trader
stocked for the Indian trade, which, at the close of the century was the
chief source of wealth of South Carolina. Goods from Charleston are said
to have penetrated a thousand miles into the interior. To the West
Indies were shipped beef, pork, butter, tallow, and hides, rice and
pease, lumber, staves, pitch, and tar; returning vessels brought rum,
sugar, molasses, and other West Indian products. To England were shipped
furs, rice, silk, and naval stores, in return for manufactured goods.

Religion and education.--The Episcopalian was the established church of
the colony, and probably forty-five per cent. of the population belonged
to that denomination. An equal per cent. was divided between
Congregationalists and Presbyterians, and there were a few Baptists and
Quakers. No public school system had been established, but many of the
wealthier families employed tutors. A public library was started at
Charleston in 1698, but no institution of higher learning had been

Society.--Already in South Carolina an aristocratic society was forming
which was distinctly different from that of any other mainland colony.
When the Barbadians came they brought with them the social viewpoint of
the West Indian planter. As soon as the discovery was made that the
swampy river bottoms were adapted to rice and indigo, slavery received a
great impetus and the Barbadian social system was almost duplicated. In
no other colony was such a large part of the population concentrated in
a single city. In Charleston lived the merchants, and there the planter
built his town house and remained with his family a portion of the year.
The gathering of the wealthy classes developed a social atmosphere of
gaiety which was in marked contrast to the soberness of Boston or the
conservatism of Philadelphia.


Andrews, C.M., _Colonial Self-Government_, 288-336; _Colonial Folkways_;
Brodhead, J.R., _History of the State of New York_, II; Bruce, P.A.,
_Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century_; Burr, G.L.,
ed., _Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases_; Dexter, E.G., _A History of
Education in the United States_, 24-71; Dexter, F.B., "Estimates of
Population in the American Colonies," in American Antiquarian Society;
_Proceedings_, New Series, V, pt. 1; Eggleston, E., _The Transit of
Civilization_; Fiske, J., _Old Virginia and her Neighbors_, II, 174-269;
McCrady, E., _South Carolina under the Proprietary Government_, I,
314-363; Mereness, N.D., _Maryland as a Proprietary Province_; Smith,
S., _The History of the Colony of Nova Cæsaria, or New Jersey_; Walker,
W., _A History of the Congregational Churches in the United States_:
Weeden, W.B., _Economic and Social History of New England_, I; Phillips,
U.B., _American Negro Slavery_, 67-84, 98-114.





Decline of Spanish power in Europe.--After the reign of Philip II the
power of Spain steadily declined. The long period of hostility with the
Dutch and the war with Cromwell greatly weakened her power upon the sea.
The continental wars sapped her military strength and France superseded
her as the first power of Europe. Gradually Spain's continental
possessions slipped from her. The first loss was the Protestant
Netherlands. Nominally independent from 1609, their complete
independence was acknowledged in 1648. By the Treaty of the Pyrenees,
Roussillon became French territory, and the Spanish power in the
Rhineland and Italy had been practically annulled. In 1640 Portugal
threw off the Spanish yoke, and when Philip IV tried to reconquer it
(1661-1665), he failed completely. With Portugal, Spain lost Brazil and
the Portuguese colonies in the Far East.

Colonial expansion.--Nevertheless, the frontiers of the Spanish colonies
slowly expanded, and slowly Spain extended her laws, her language, and
her faith over lands and tribes more and more remote from the Mexican
capital, the struggle with the natives becoming sterner at each step in
advance. In the course of the seventeenth century northern Sinaloa and
Sonora were colonized; permanent missionary occupation, after many
failures, was effected in Lower California; southern, western, and
eastern Chihuahua were settled; the new province of Coahuila was
established athwart the Rio Grande, and a new and flourishing missionary
district was opened in western Florida. In the course of the century the
Spanish colonial frontiers began to clash with those of France and
England, on the mainland now as well as in the islands, and there ensued
a series of border struggles, all a part of the international conflict
for the continent. To restrain the encroaching French and English, Texas
was occupied temporarily and Pensacola permanently. The principal
setbacks on the borders were the loss of Jamaica to England (1655), the
contraction of the Florida frontier through the founding of Virginia and
the Carolinas, and the temporary loss of New Mexico through the Pueblo
Revolt in 1680. Thus the Spanish frontier line swung round as on a
pivot, the gains in the west being partly offset by the losses in the
east. Meanwhile the English, French, and Dutch occupied most of the
lesser islands of the Caribbean, which had been neglected by Spain. At
the same time, Spain's hold on her colonial commerce became more and
more precarious through the encroachments of her national enemies.


The governors.--The old days of the _adelantados_, with unlimited
powers, had passed, and the royal arm now reached the farthest outposts.
The secular government of the frontier provinces was almost wholly
military. A few villas or towns had their elective _cabildos_, or town
councils, and a modicum of self government. The official heads of the
provinces were the governors, who held office by royal appointment; _ad
interim_ governors might be appointed by the viceroys. Governors, like
other prominent officials, frequently purchased their offices, a
practice not confined at that time to Spanish America. The governor was
also _capitán general_ of his province, and his capital was usually at
the principal presidio or garrison. In these capacities he exercised
both civil and military authority. Under the governors there were
usually lieutenant-governors in the sub-districts, who as a rule
commanded the troops of some presidio.

The positions of governor and presidial commander were made attractive
largely by the opportunity which they afforded for making money in
addition to the fixed salaries. The payment of soldiers was made chiefly
in supplies, purchased by the governor and commanders, and charged to
the soldiers at enormous profits. Thus the post of governor or captain
was almost as much that of merchant as of soldier. Provincial
administration was often corrupt with "graft," as in English and French
America. Checks upon the governors were furnished through _visitas_ or
inspections, and through the _residencia_, or inquiry at the end of the
governor's term. As a rule the _residencia_ was formal, but sometimes it
was a serious matter.

Central control.--All important matters of frontier administration, such
as the founding of new colonies, presidios, or missions, or the making
of military campaigns, were referred by the governors to the viceroy of
Mexico. He in turn customarily sought the advice of the fiscal of the
_real audiencia_, and of the _auditor de guerra_. In case these two
functionaries disagreed, or in matters of unusual moment, a _junta de
guerra y hacienda_, composed of the leading officials of the different
branches of the central administration, was called. In all matters of
consequence the decisions of the viceroy were made subject to royal
approval, but it frequently happened that the act for which approval was
asked had already been performed. In ordinary affairs of provincial
administration the fiscal really controlled the government, for the
viceroy usually despatched business with a laconic "as the fiscal says."

Frontier Autonomy.--The government of New Spain was highly centralized
in theory, but the effects of centralization were greatly lessened by
distance. Through the right of petition, which was freely exercised, the
local leaders in the frontier provinces often exerted a high degree of
initiative in government, and, on the other hand, through protest and
delay, they frequently defeated royal orders.


The Missionaries on the frontiers.--In extending the sway of Spain, as
time went on a constantly larger part was played by the missionaries.
During the early days of the conquest the natives had been largely in
the hands of the _encomenderos_. But abuses arose and the encomienda
system was gradually abolished. Moreover, the wild tribes of the
northern frontier, unlike the Mayas and Aztecs, were considered hardly
worth exploiting. This left an opening for the missionary, and to him
was entrusted not only the work of conversion, but a larger and larger
share of responsibility and control. Since they served the State, the
missions were largely supported by the royal treasury, which was most
liberal when there was some political end to be gained.

The principal missionary orders.--Under these circumstances, in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, on the expanding frontiers of
Spanish America, missions became well-nigh universal. The work on the
northern borders of New Spain was conducted largely by Franciscans,
Jesuits, and Dominicans. The northeastern field fell chiefly to the
Franciscans, who entered Florida, New Mexico, Nuevo León, Coahuila,
Nuevo Santander, and Texas. To the northwest went the Jesuits, who,
after withdrawing from Florida, worked especially in Sinaloa, Sonora,
Chihuahua, Lower California, and Arizona. After the expulsion of the
Jesuits the Dominicans and Franciscans took their places.

The missions as civilizing agencies.--The missionaries were a veritable
corps of Indian agents, serving both Church and State. Their first duty
was to teach the Gospel. In addition they disciplined the savage in the
rudiments of civilized life. The central feature of every successful
Spanish mission was the Indian pueblo, or village. If he were to be
disciplined, the Indian must be kept in a definite spot where discipline
could be impressed upon him. The settled Indians, such as the Pueblo
Indians of New Mexico, could be instructed in their native towns, but
the wandering or scattered tribes must be assembled and established in
pueblos, and kept there by force if necessary. To make the Indians
self-supporting as soon as possible, and to afford them the means of
discipline, the missions were provided with communal lands for gardens,
farms, and ranches, and with workshops in which to practice the crafts.

Defence of the frontier.--The missionaries were highly useful likewise
as explorers and as diplomatic agents amongst the tribes. As defenders
of the frontier they held the allegiance of the neophytes and secured
their aid against savages and foreign intruders. Sometimes the mission
plants were veritable fortresses.

Missions designedly temporary.--Like the presidios, or garrisons,
missions were intended to be temporary. As soon as his pioneer work was
finished on one frontier the missionary was expected to move on to
another, his place being taken by the secular clergy and the mission
lands distributed among the Indians. The result, almost without fail,
was a struggle over secularization.


The Jesuit advance up the slope.--The advance up the Pacific coast
mainland was led throughout the seventeenth century by the Jesuit
missionaries, supported by presidial soldiers and small citizen
colonies. In 1591 the Jesuits entered Sinaloa. Beginning in the valley
of the Petatlan and Mocorito rivers, their progress was gradual but
steady, river by river, tribe by tribe, to the Fuerte, Mayo, Yaqui, and
Sonora valleys, till by the middle of the century they had nearly
reached the head of the last named stream.

Fathers Tapia and Pérez.--The first missionaries sent were Fathers
Gonzalo de Tapia and Martin Pérez, who began their work among the tribes
of the Petatlan and Mocorito rivers, near San Felipe, then the northern
outpost of Sinaloa. From time to time they were joined by other small
bands of missionaries. The natives were generally friendly at first,
here as elsewhere, and were assembled in villages, baptized, and taught
agriculture and crafts. Father Tapia was murdered in 1594 and was
succeeded as rector by Father Pérez. By 1604 there had been 10,000
baptisms, the Jesuits had a school for boys at San Felipe, and Father
Velasco had written a grammar in the native tongue. In 1600 regular
missionary work was begun in Topia. What was done there is a good
example of the way the Spaniards often uprooted native society by trying
to improve it. Villages were transplanted at will, the chiefs replaced
by alcaldes, and native priests suppressed.

Captain Hurdaide, defender of the Faith.--The year 1600 was marked also
by the appointment of Captain Diego Martinez de Hurdaide, as commander
of the presidio of San Felipe. By the Jesuits he was regarded as the
ideal defender of the Faith, and for a quarter of a century he and his
soldiers made way for and protected the missionaries in their northward

[Illustration: Sinaloa and Sonora in the Seventeenth Century (From
Bancroft, North Mexican States and Texas, 1208).]

Missions in the Fuerte valley.--The subjugation of the Suaques and
Tehuecos by Hurdaide opened the way for missions in the Fuerte River
valley in 1604. Among the founders was Father Pérez de Ribas, later
famed as the historian. The initial success of these missions was
remarkable, but it was followed by apostasy, revolts, an increase of
military forces, and wars of subjugation. This, indeed, was quite the
typical succession of events. Apostates fled to the Yaquis, who defeated
Hurdaide in three campaigns. Having shown their mettle, in 1610 the
Yaquis made peace and asked for missionaries. The Yaqui war was followed
by the establishment in 1610 of the new presidio of Montesclaros near
the site of the former San Juan. In spite of this new defence, the
Tehuecos, led by native priests, revolted. Hurdaide went to the rescue
in 1613 with forty soldiers and two thousand allies, restored order, and
reëstablished the missions.

In the Mayo and Yaqui valleys.--In the same year Father Méndez and some
companions advanced the mission frontier to the Mayo valley, where
success was gratifying. Four years later Fathers Pérez and Pérez de
Ribas founded missions among the Yaquis, where eight pueblos soon
flourished. By 1621 missions had reached the Nevomes and Sahuaripas in
the upper Yaqui River valley. A revolt among the Nevomes in 1622 was put
down by Hurdaide. The Mayo and Yaqui valleys were now made a separate

Several of the pioneers now left the scene. In 1620 Ribas went to Mexico
as provincial; in 1625 Father Pérez died, after thirty-five years, of
service, and in 1626 Hurdaide was succeeded by Captain Pérea. One of the
great monuments to the work of these Jesuit pioneers is Father Pérez de
Ribas's history, _The Triumph of the Faith_, published in 1644.

In the Sonora valley.--By 1636 Jesuit missions were extended to Ures, in
Sonora River valley, a step which was aided by the discovery of mines.
Pérea was made captain and justicia mayor of the Sonora district, called
Nueva Andalucía, and established his capital at the mining town of San
Juan. By 1650 mission stations had reached Cucurpe and Arispe in the
upper Sonora valley. Of the northern district the new rectorate of San
Francisco Xavier was now formed. In 1679 thirty missionaries in the
Mayo, Yaqui, and Sonora valleys were serving about 40,000 neophytes in
seventy-two pueblos.

Spanish settlements.--By the end of the seventeenth century Sinaloa had
passed beyond the frontier stage. The population of pure Spanish blood
numbered only six hundred families in 1678, but the half-caste Christian
population was much larger, there being twelve hundred persons of
Spanish or mixed blood at San Felipe alone. In Sonora the people of
Spanish or mixed blood numbered about five hundred families. Mining and
stock-raising were the principal and by no means inconsiderable
industries in both districts.


Pearl fishing and efforts to colonize.--Interest in California did not
cease with Vizcaíno's failures. On the contrary, private interest in the
pearl fisheries of the Gulf of California continued throughout the
seventeenth century, and the government endeavored to utilize it as
means of planting colonies. Numerous pearl fishing contracts were
granted on condition that the beneficiaries should establish
settlements. Other colonizing expeditions were fitted out at royal
expense. In nearly every case missionaries were sent with the settlers
to help to subdue and teach the Indians.

Iturbi's voyages.--In 1614 Thomas Cardona was granted a monopoly of
pearl fishing in both the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of California. A
year later Juan de Iturbi, in Cardona's employ, made a voyage to the
head of the Gulf, and like Oñate concluded that California was an
island. On his return one of his vessels was captured by the Dutch
freebooter Spillberg. In the following year Iturbi made another
successful voyage to the Gulf, though he again lost a vessel to
freebooters. The pirates in the Gulf in this century were known as the
Pichilingues. Iturbi's success inspired numerous unlicensed pearl
hunting voyages in the Gulf from the ports of Sinaloa, which were
attended by many abuses of the natives. California came now to be
commonly regarded as an island.

[Illustration: A Dutch Map Illustrating the Insular Theory of
California's Geography (1624-1625). (From Bancroft, North Mexican States
and Texas, I, 169).]

Later attempts.--In 1633 Francisco de Ortega, another contractor,
founded a colony at La Paz, but it was short-lived. Like failures were
experienced by Porter y Casante in 1648, by Piñadero in 1664 and 1667,
and by Lucenilla in 1668. The failures were due to the barrenness of the
country and to the fact that colonizing was made secondary to pearl
fishing. Somewhat more successful was Admiral Atondo y Antillón, with
whom a contract was made in 1679, the superior of the missionaries
being the Jesuit Father Kino. For two years (1683-1685) settlements
were maintained at La Paz and San Bruno, explorations were made, and
Kino achieved some missionary success, but in 1685 Atondo, like his
predecessors, abandoned the enterprise. No other serious attempt was
made until 1697, when the Jesuits took charge of California.


New Mexico isolated.--In the central plateau the infant colony of New
Mexico, as at first established, had been a detached group of
settlements, separated from Nueva Vizcaya by an uninhabited, area of
five or six hundred miles in breadth. But while the New Mexicans were
gradually making their way into the plains of western Texas,
missionaries, miners, and settlers were slowly advancing up the plateau
into Chihuahua, by way of the Conchos River and by the eastern slope of
the Sierra Madre.

Advance of settlement.--The Franciscans, in general, followed the
eastern half of the plateau, working among the Conchos tribes; the
Jesuits mainly followed the mountain slopes, among the Tarahumares.
Advance of settlement was marked by the founding of the town and
garrison of Parral, established in 1631-1632. By 1648 missions had been
established at San Pablo, Parral, San Gerónimo, San Francisco Borja,
Satevó, San Francisco de Conchos, San Pedro, Atotonilco, Mescomaha, and
Mapimî. Advance was interrupted by two savage Indian wars, in the decade
following 1644, in the course of which most of the missions in Chihuahua
were destroyed. As soon as peace was restored, however, both orders
reoccupied their abandoned establishments and founded new ones. By 1680
missionaries, miners, and settlers had reached Cusihuiriáchic, Janos,
and Casas Grandes, and the last named place had for some time been the
seat of an _alcaldía mayor_.

The Diocese of Guadiana.--As the frontier advanced new administrative
subdivisions were carved out. The official capital of Nueva Vizcaya was
still at Durango, but during the later seventeenth century the governor
resided much of the time at Parral, a point near the military frontier.
In 1620 the diocese of Guadiana, including Durango, Chihuahua, and New
Mexico was formed out of the northern portion of that of Guadalajara.


The missions.--Hopes of finding rich mines and fabulous treasures in New
Mexico had failed, and for a long time after Oñate's conquest that
province remained chiefly a missionary field, the only Spanish
settlement being Santa Fé, founded in 1609. By 1617 eleven churches had
been built and 14,000 natives baptized. Four years later the missions
were organized into the _custodia_ of San Pablo, under the Franciscan
province of the Holy Evangel of Mexico, whence came most of the
missionaries. The first custodian was Fray Alonso de Benavides, who
later, became bishop of Goa, in India. Besides Benavides, the best known
missionary of this period was Father Gerónimo de Zárate Salmerón, who
between 1618 and 1626 labored at Jémez, Cía, Sandía, and Ácoma.

New Mexico in 1630.--In 1630 Benavides made a famous report on New
Mexico. The only Spanish settlement was still Santa Fe, where lived two
hundred and fifty Spaniards and some seven hundred and fifty half-breeds
and Indian servants. The Indians of the province who were not personal
servants paid tribute of a yard of cotton cloth and two bushels of maize
each year, burdens which they resented and resisted. There were now
friars at work in twenty-five missions, which served ninety pueblos
comprising 60,000 Indians. At each mission there were schools and
workshops where the neophytes were taught reading, writing, singing,
instrumental music, and manual arts.

Expeditions to the east.--The subjugation of the pueblos did not exhaust
the energies of the conquerors and the friars, and they turned from time
to time to exploration. To the east they were interested in Quivira, the
"Seven Hills of the Aijados," and the Jumano Indians of the Colorado
River. In the pursuit of these objects they heard of the "kingdom of the
Texas" farther east. Missionary and trading expeditions were made to the
Jumanos in 1629 and 1632. At this time (1630) Benavides proposed opening
a direct route from the Gulf coast to New Mexico through the country of
the Quiviras and Aijados. In 1634 Alonso de Vaca is said to have led an
expedition three hundred leagues eastward to Quivira, apparently on the
Arkansas. In 1650 captains Martin and Castillo visited the Jumanos and
gathered pearls in the Nueces (probably the Concho) River. Four years
later the viceroy, interested in the pearls, sent another expedition,
under Guadalajara, to the same place. During the next thirty years small
parties of private traders frequently visited the Jumanos. In this way
western Texas became known to the Spaniards of New Mexico.

[Illustration: New Mexico in the Seventeenth Century (From Bancroft,
Arizona and New Mexico, p. 176).]

New Mexico in 1680.--Meanwhile the Spanish population of the province
had slowly increased till in 1680 there were over 2500 settlers in the
upper Rio Grande valley, mainly between Isleta and Taos. The upper
settlements were known as those of Río Arriba and the lower as those of
Río Abajo. The settlers were engaged principally in farming and cattle

The beginnings of El Paso.--As a result of the northward advance from
Nueva Vizcaya and of a counter movement from New Mexico, the
intermediate district of El Paso was now colonized. After several
unsuccessful attempts, in 1659 missionaries from New Mexico founded the
mission of Guadalupe at the ford (El Paso). Before 1680 Mission San
Francisco had been founded twelve leagues below, settlers had drifted
in, and the place had an _alcalde mayor_. To these small beginnings
there was now suddenly added the entire population of New Mexico.

The Pueblo revolt.--The Pueblo Indians, led by their native priests, had
long been restless under the burden of tribute and personal service, and
the suppression of their native religion. On August 9, 1680, under the
leadership of Popé, a medicine man of San Juan, they revolted in unison,
slew four hundred Spaniards, including twenty-one missionaries, and
drove the remaining 2200 Spaniards from the Pueblo district. Under
Governor Otermin and Lieutenant Garcia the settlers retreated to El
Paso. In 1681 Otermin made an attempt to reconquer the Pueblos, but it
proved futile and the El Paso settlement was made permanent and attached
to New Mexico. To hold the outpost a presidio was established there in

The La Junta missions and the Mendoza expedition to the Jumanos.--From
El Paso missions were extended in 1683 to the La Junta district, as the
junction of the Conchos and Rio Grande was called. Within a year seven
churches had been built for nine tribes, living on both sides of the Rio
Grande. At the same time Juan Dominguez de Mendoza and Fray Nicolás
López led an expedition from El Paso to the Jumanos of central Texas,
where they were to meet Tejas Indians from the east. On their return
Mendoza and López went to Mexico to appeal for a new outpost of
settlement among the Jumanos. This would probably have been established
had not attention been called to eastern Texas through the activities of
the French.

Indian uprisings.--The Pueblo revolt was followed by a general wave of
Indian resistance, and the late years of the century were marked by
raids all along the northern frontier, from Nuevo León to Sonora, in
the course of which mines, missions, haciendas, and towns were
destroyed, and travelers and merchant caravans raided. To defend the
frontier, in 1685 three new presidios were established at Pasage, El
Gallo, and Conchos, and two years later one was erected at Monclova. By
1690 two others were added at Casas Grandes and Janos in Chihuahua and
shortly afterward (1695) another at Fronteras in Sonora. In 1690 a
revolt in the Tarahumara country destroyed settlements in all
directions, and was put down only by the efforts of soldiers from all
the presidios from El Gallo to Janos.

Vargas and the reconquest of the Pueblos.--After expelling the
Spaniards, the Pueblos, under the lead of Popé, returned to their tribal
ways, and destroyed most of the signs of the hated Spanish rule. During
the next decade and a half several efforts were made to reconquer the
Pueblo region. Otermin was succeeded by Crúzate and he by Reneros, who
was in turn followed by Crúzate. In 1688 Crúzate led an expedition
against the Queres. At Cía six hundred apostates were killed in battle
and seventy captured and shot, or sold into slavery. In 1691 Diego de
Vargas Zapata Luján Ponce de León was made governor especially to
reconquer the Pueblos. In 1692 he led an expedition against them. As far
as Sandía the towns had already been destroyed. Santa Fé he found
fortified and occupied by Tanos, but they yielded without a blow, as did
all of the pueblos from Pecos to Moqui. Meanwhile the friars with him
baptized over two thousand native children.

A new colony.--Submission having been secured, in 1693 Vargas led a
colony of eight hundred soldiers and settlers to reoccupy the pueblo
region. But submission had been a hollow formality. The Tanos who held
Santa Fé were evicted only after a battle, at the conclusion of which
seventy warriors were shot and four hundred women and children enslaved.
At the mesa of San Ildefonso. Vargas met the combined resistance of nine
towns. A second siege in March, 1694, resulted in a repulse. In the
course of the summer the pueblos of Cieneguilla and Jémez were defeated,
and abandoned Taos was sacked and burned. A third attack on the mesa of
San Ildefonso was successful. Resistance now appeared to be over, the
pueblos were rebuilt, captives returned, missions reëstablished, and
the Spanish régime restored. A number of the pueblos were consolidated
and rebuilt on new sites. In 1690 the new Spanish villa of Santa Cruz de
la Cañada was founded with seventy families on the lands of San
Cristóbal and San Lázaro.

The conquest completed.--In 1696 a new revolt occurred, in which five
missionaries and twenty-one other Spaniards were killed, and Vargas
conducted another series of bloody campaigns, with partial success. In
the following year he was succeeded by Governor Cubero, who secured the
formal submission of the rest of the pueblos. The reconquest was now
complete and the Spanish rule secured.


The Nuevo León frontier.--While there had been definite progress
eastward from New Mexico during the first three-fourths of the
seventeenth century, and considerable contact between that province and
what is now the western half of Texas, from Nuevo León, on the natural
line of advance from Mexico to Texas, progress was slow. For nearly a
century the northeastern outpost on the lower Rio Grande frontier was
León (Cerralvo), founded in the later sixteenth century. Temporarily a
more northern outpost had been established in 1590 at Nuevo Almadén (now
Monclova), but it was soon abandoned. Again in 1603 and 1644 the place
was temporarily reoccupied, but without permanent success.

Zavala's rule, 1626-1664.--Hostile Indians troubled the border, and the
intrusions of English, French, and Dutch colonies into the Lesser
Antilles awakened fears for the safety of the western Gulf shores. In
1625 Nuevo León, therefore, was again entrusted to a _conquistador_,
when a contract similar to that of Carabajal in 1579 was made with
Martín de Zavala. At the same time the Florida missions 'were extended
west to the Apalache district. For thirty-eight years Zavala controlled
and governed the frontier with exemplary zeal, subduing Indians,
granting _encomiendas_, operating mines, founding new towns, and opening
highways to Pánuco and the interior. His most able lieutenant after 1636
was Alonso de León, one of the founders and first citizens of

Looking northward.--By the middle of the seventeenth century,
explorations beyond the Nuevo León frontier had been made on a small
scale in all directions. That they were not more extensive was due to
Indian troubles and the feebleness of the frontier settlements. To the
north the Spaniards were led short distances by a desire to establish
communication with Florida, by rumors of a silver deposit called Cerro
de la Plata (perhaps the later San Sabá mines), and in pursuit of
Indians. No doubt the Franciscan missionaries made many unrecorded
visits to the outlying tribes. In 1665 Fernando de Azcué led soldiers
from Saltillo and Monterey across the Rio Grande against the Cacaxtle
Indians. This is the first expedition to cross the lower Rio Grande from
the south of which we have any definite record.

The founding of Coahuila.--Another forward step was now taken with the
founding of the new province of Coahuila, a step made necessary by
Indian depredations. In 1670 Father Juan Larios, a Franciscan from
Guadalajara, began missionary work on the troubled frontier. In
1673-1674, aided by other missionaries and by soldiers from Saltillo, he
established two missions between the Sabinas River and the Rio
Grande.[1] In the course of this work Fray Manuel de la Cruz visited
tribes north of the Rio Grande. In 1674 Coahuila was made an _alcaldía
mayor_ of Nueva Vizcaya, with Antonio de Valcárcel as first _alcalde
mayor_. A colony was now established at thrice abandoned Almadén and
later became Monclova.

The Bosque-Lários expedition across the Rio Grande.--In 1675 Valcárcel
sent Fernando del Bosque and Father Larios on a tour among the tribes
north of the Rio Grande. In the following year (the very year when
Bishop Calderón was in Florida) the bishop of Guadalajara visited
Coahuila, and urged its further reduction, with a view to passing
beyond, to the settled Tejas Indians, across the Trinity River. In 1687
a presidio was established at Monclova, and Coahuila was made a
province, with Alonso de León, the younger, as first governor.

The college of the Holy Cross.--The development of Coahuila and Nuevo
León was given an impetus by the coming of a new group of Franciscan
friars from the recently founded missionary college of Santa Cruz at
Querétaro. Among these friars were Fathers Hidalgo, Massanet, and
Olivares, all of whom figured prominently in the later development of
the frontier. Beside the Querétaro friars, to the westward worked the
friars of the Province of Santiago de Xalisco with its seat at

[1] This was just at the time when Joliet and Marquette descended the
Mississippi River.


Plans to occupy the mouth of the Mississippi.--The aggressive policy of
the French, English, and Dutch in the West Indies, the raids of
freebooters on the Spanish settlements, the occupation of Carolina by
England, and the advance of the French into the Mississippi Valley
caused Spain great uneasiness for the northern Gulf Coast. As a
defensive measure missions had been extended to the Apalache district at
the same time that Nuevo León had been strengthened. In 1673 Joliet and
Marquette descended the Mississippi to the Arkansas, and in 1682 La
Salle explored it to its mouth. Four years earlier news had reached the
Spanish court that Peñalosa, a discredited ex-governor of New Mexico,
had proposed to attack New Spain in the name of France. Spanish
officials therefore at once planned to occupy the Bay of Espíritu Santo
(Mobile Bay, or perhaps the mouth of the Mississippi) and in 1695
Echagaray, an officer at St. Augustine, was ordered to explore it for
the purpose.

The search for La Salle's colony.--A few months later the authorities
learned with alarm that in November, 1684, La Salle had left France with
a colony to occupy the same spot. Immediately several expeditions were
sent out by land and sea to learn where La Salle had landed and, if
necessary, to occupy the danger point. In 1686 Marcos Delgado explored
west by land from Apalache to the neighborhood of Mobile Bay. In
1686-1688 five coastwise expeditions (under Barroto, Rivas, Iriarte,
Pez, and Gámara) explored the Gulf between Vera Cruz and Apalache. They
discovered the wrecks of La Salle's vessels at Matagorda Bay, and it was
concluded that the French expedition had been destroyed.

[Illustration: The Beginnings of Coahuila and Texas.]

Eastern Texas occupied.--While these coastwise voyages were being made,
Alonso de León was leading expeditions from Monterey and Monclova by
land. In 1686 he descended the Rio Grande to the coast. In 1687 and
again in 1688 he crossed the Rio Grande, and in the latter expedition
captured a stray Frenchman. Shortly afterward a party of soldiers and
Indians from far distant Nueva Vizcaya crossed the Upper Rio Grande to
seek out the French intruders. In 1689 De León succeeded in finding the
remains of La Salle's settlement near Matagorda Bay, a few weeks after
it had been destroyed by Indians. In the following year De León and
Father Massanet, one of the Coahuila missionaries, led an expedition
across Texas and founded two missions among the Asinai (Tejas) Indians,
on Neches River. Texas was now erected into a province and Domingo de
Terán made governor.

And then abandoned.--In 1691 Terán led an expedition designed to
strengthen the outpost on the Neches, explore and occupy the Cadodacho
country (near Texarkana) and, if time permitted, to reëxplore the coast
as far as Florida. He reached the Red River but accomplished little else
that was new. The Asinai Indians proved hostile, and in 1693 the
missionaries withdrew. The Texas project was now abandoned for a time,
and attention centered instead on western Florida, which was in danger
not only from the French, but also from the English in Carolina, who
were visiting the Georgia and Alabama Indians.


Intruding colonies in the West Indies.--In the early years of the
conquest Spain had occupied the larger West Indian islands--Cuba,
Española, Porto Rico, and Jamaica--but had neglected the lesser islands.
They thus became a field for colonization by Spain's enemies. In the
seventeenth century the subjects of Holland, France, and England began
to establish settlements in the West Indies, in the heart of the Spanish
sea, while England intruded in the northern mainland.

Between 1555 and 1562 the French had made unsuccessful attempts to
colonize Brazil, Carolina, and Florida. Between 1585 and 1595 Raleigh
had attempted to settle on Roanoke Island and in Guiana. In 1607
Jamestown was founded within Spanish dominions at Chesapeake Bay, and
Spain's possessions thus delimited on the north. Between 1609 and 1612
English settlers occupied the Bermudas. Between 1609 and 1619 English,
Dutch, and French all established posts in Guiana. In 1621 the Dutch
West India Company was incorporated for trade and settlement. Between
1623 and 1625 both English and French settled on St. Kitts (St.
Christopher). During the same period Barbados was settled by the
English, and Santa Cruz by English and Dutch. By 1632 English
settlements had been made at Nevis, Barbuda, Antigua, Providence Island,
and Montserrat. By 1634 the Dutch had established trading stations on
St. Eustatius, Tobago, and Curaçao, while in 1635 the French West India
Company began the settlement of Guadeloupe, Martinique, and other
Windward Islands.

Privateers.--Meanwhile French, Dutch, and English privateers swarmed the
Spanish waters. Early in the century Dutch ships harassed the coasts of
Chile and Peru. In 1628 Peter Heyn with thirty-one vessels pursued the
Vera Cruz fleet into Matanzas River, Cuba, and captured most of a cargo
worth $15,000,000. "It was an exploit which two generations of English
mariners had attempted in vain." After 1633 the Dutch West India Company
carried on active war against Spanish and Portuguese colonies. Within
two years it sent eighty ships and nine thousand men to American waters,
and its agents captured Bahía (Brazil), Pernambuco, and San Juan (Porto

English privateers in the early seventeenth century did their part. In
1642 Captain William Jackson, with a commission from the Earl of
Warwick, made a raid that reminds one of Drake. With eleven hundred men
he cruised the coast from Caracas to Honduras, plundering Maracaibo and
Trujillo on the way. Landing at Jamaica he captured Santiago and held it
for ransom.

Spanish retaliation.--The Spaniards often repaid these aggressions with
good interest, and frequent raids were made on the foreign colonies. In
1629 Toledo nearly destroyed the English and French settlements on St.
Kitts. Tortuga was several times assaulted. In 1635 a Spanish fleet made
a five days' attack on the English colony on Providence Island but was
beaten back. In 1641 Pimienta with two thousand men destroyed the forts
there and captured seven hundred and seventy colonists. Ten years later
a force of eight hundred men from Porto Rico destroyed the English
colony on Santa Cruz Island, killing the governor and over one hundred

The English conquest of Jamaica.--Thus far the English settlements had
been made chiefly on unoccupied islands. But in 1654 Cromwell sent an
expedition under Venables and Penn to gain Spanish territory by
conquest. They failed to take Santo Domingo but succeeded at Jamaica
(1655). Twice Spain attempted to recover the island but failed
(1657-1658), and in 1670 she acknowledged England's right to all her
island possessions.

The Danes and Brandenburgers.--Under their absolute monarch, Frederick
III, the Danes organized a West India Company, which in 1671 secured the
abandoned island of St. Thomas, using it as a planting colony and a
distributing center for Guinea slaves. Porto Rico and the Spanish
mainland were the principal Danish markets. Even the Brandenburgers,
during the latter days of the Great Elector (1685) secured a thirty-year
lease of a part of the Danish island of St. Thomas, with a view to using
it as a slave-trading station for supplying the Spanish colonies. But
the jealousy of other European powers, especially England, prevented
their securing a permanent foothold.


The Georgia missions restored.--After the massacre of 1597, the Florida
missions seem to have been practically abandoned for a time. But new
missionaries, requested by the governor in 1601, reoccupied the
abandoned sites, pushed farther up the coast, and entered the interior.
The settlement of Virginia by the English was followed by remonstrance
and a new wave of missionary activity. In 1612 Fray Luis de Oré came
with twenty-three friars and Florida was erected into the province of
Santa Elena, with the mother house at Havana. In less than two years the
new missionaries had established twenty mission residences among the
tribes, especially on the Guale (Georgia) coast. In 1612 was published
the first of Father Pareja's numerous books in the Timuquanan language.
By 1634 some thirty Franciscans were ministering to 30,000 converts in
forty-four missions and mission stations. The success was parallel to
that of the Franciscans in New Mexico at the same time.

The Apalachee and the Creek missions.--The simultaneous intrusion of the
English, French, and Dutch into the Caribbean waters was a new threat
at Spain's Gulf possessions, and it was followed by the advance of her
outposts into western Florida. Throughout the sixteenth century the
warlike Apalachees had resisted Spanish authority, but in 1633
successful missionary work was begun among them by the guardian of the
monastery of St. Augustine and one companion. Within two years they had
baptized five thousand natives. In 1638 the Apalachees revolted, but
they were defeated, and the presidio of San Luis was established among
them. This district now became one of the most important missionary
centers of Florida, missions being extended to the Creeks of western

The missions in 1647.--By 1647 St. Augustine was headquarters for fifty
Franciscans, who worked among the neighboring tribes. Northward a line
of ten missions extended up the Georgia coast to Chatuache near the
Savannah River. Toward the western interior, within a radius of one
hundred and fifty miles there were ten more, and toward the south four.
In the Apalachee district there were eight in eight large towns, with
three more on the way to St. Augustine. At these thirty-five missions
26,000 converted Indians were served.

The Apalachee revolt.--Just now, however, the prosperous Apalachee
missions suffered a severe blow. The chiefs, refusing to render personal
sendee and tribute, headed a rebellion in which several Spaniards were
slain. The governor led a campaign against them, several battles were
fought, and a number of chiefs hanged. The Indians were subdued, but
they were so embittered that the Franciscans abandoned the missions.

The English in the Carolinas.--In 1653 English settlers from Virginia
began to establish themselves in North Carolina, and in 1670 the English
settlement of South Carolina was begun near Charleston. This intrusion
into the old Spanish province of Santa Elena was viewed with alarm by
Spain, and, as always in the border Spanish colonies, the foreign danger
was followed by renewed missionary activity on the threatened frontiers.
Missionary work received an impetus in 1674 by the visitation of Bishop
Calderón, of Cuba, who spent eight months in a tour of Florida. In that
year and the next, five new missions were founded, and in 1676 Father
Moral took to Florida twenty-four additional missionaries. Six or more
missions were now in operation on the northern Georgia coast between
Jekyl Island and the Savannah River, besides those farther south.

English incursions and the Yamassee revolt.--Hostilities with the
English on the border began at once. In 1680 a force of three hundred
Indians and Englishmen invaded Santa Catalina Island and expelled the
garrison and mission Indians. Governor Marquez Cabrera sent soldiers to
build a fort, and asked the king for Canary Island families to hold the
country. The families were ordered sent (1681), but plans were changed
and the Indians of the northernmost missions were moved southward. The
Yamassees refused to move, joined the English, and aided them in a raid
on Mission Santa Catalina (1685). In the following year Spaniards sent
by Governor Marquez retaliated by sacking Carolina plantations and
carrying off negro slaves. Another expedition of the same year landed at
Edisto Island, burned the country residence of Governor Morton, and
destroyed Stuart Town (Port Royal).

The English among the Creeks.--The English now threatened the Spaniards
on another frontier. Fur traders from South Carolina had pushed south
and west across Georgia and were becoming active among the Creeks of
western Georgia and eastern Alabama. In 1685 Governor Marquez sent
Lieutenant Matheos, commander at Apalachee, with twenty soldiers and
four hundred allies to capture traders operating at Kawita, Kasihta, and
Kulumi, Creek towns on the Chatahootchee and Talapoosa Rivers. The
expedition failed but it was repeated, and Marquez called on the home
government for help.

Plans to occupy Pensacola.--It was just at this time that La Salle
formed his establishment in Texas. The combined danger from the English
and the French now made it necessary to protect the northern Gulf coast.
La Salle's intrusion was followed by the temporary Spanish occupation of
eastern Texas in 1690, already described. At the same time (1689) the
viceroy sent Andrés de Pez to Spain to urge the occupation of Pensacola
Bay (Santa Maria de Galve). The council approved the plan and authorized
the withdrawal from Texas. In 1693 Pez explored Pensacola and Mobile
bays with a view to settlement. Thus, in a sense, the defence of eastern
Texas was given up for the founding of Pensacola. A new French intrusion
was necessary, however, to bring about the permanent occupation of
either Texas or Pensacola.


Bancroft, H.H., _Arizona and New Mexico_, 146-224; Bolton, H.E.,
_Spanish Exploration in the Southwest_, 279-340; "The Spanish Occupation
of Texas, 1510-1690," in _Southwestern Historical Quarterly_, XVI, 1-26;
Cavo, Andres, _Tres Siglos de Mexico_; Chapman, C.E., _The Founding of
Spanish California_, 1-44; Clark, R.C., _The Beginnings of Texas_;
Coroléu, José, _America, Historia du Colonización_; Davis, W.H.H.,
_Spanish Conquest in New Mexico_, 276-407; Dunn, W.E., _Spanish and
French Rivalry in the Gulf Region_, 5-215; Frejes, Fr. F., _Conquista de
Los Estados_; Garrison, G.P., _Texas_, 10-19; Gonzales, J.E., _Colección
de Noticias; Historia de Nuevo León_; Hackett, C.W., "The Pueblo Revolt
of 1680," in Texas State Historical Association, _Quarterly_, XV,
93-143; Hughes, Anne, _Beginnings of Spanish Settlement in the El Paso
District_; Leon, A., _Historia de Nuevo León_; Ortega, Fr. Joseph,
_Apostólicos Afanes_; Portillo, Esteban, _Apuntes para la Historia de
Coahuila y Texas_; Prince, L.B., _Historical Sketches of New Mexico_,
176-220; Twitchell, R.E., _Leading Facts of New Mexico History_, I,
333-413; Villagrá, Gaspar de, _Historia de Nuevo Mexico_; Wright, L.A.,
_The Early History of Cuba_, ch. 17.



The impending conflict.--Before the close of the Stuart period, it was
evident that a great international struggle was at hand. Louis XIV of
France aspired to overshadow England, Austria, and Spain. The dependence
of the later Stuarts upon Louis temporarily delayed the outbreak of
hostilities, but when James II was driven from the English throne the
contest broke forth and continued intermittently until France was
humbled and England had become the foremost commercial and colonial


Sphere of French influence.--When Frontenac returned to France in 1682,
the French were predominant in Acadia, in the St. Lawrence Valley, in
the region of the Great Lakes, and in the Illinois country, and were
extending their power into the lower valley of the Mississippi. In the
West Indies they had secured a foothold. The missionary and the
fur-trader had been the instruments of interior expansion, the Indian
the source of wealth. To keep control of the natives and to win new
tribes to church and trade was the settled policy of France. The Abenaki
of Maine were between Acadia and Massachusetts and were friends of the
French. To the south of Lake Ontario were the Iroquois, the friends of
the English. In the upper lake region the various Algonquin tribes had
long been subservient to the French. Their furs were brought to Three
Rivers, Montreal, or Quebec, or were traded to the _coureurs de bois_.

The English policy.--To wrest the fur monopoly of the north from the
French was one of the mainsprings of Stuart policy. The establishment of
the Hudson's Bay Company posts, an alliance with the Iroquois, and the
attempt to gain control of the Huron region, thus cutting off the French
from the upper lakes and the Illinois country, were the means adopted
to carry out the policy. To defeat it was the problem of the governors
of New France. A similar conflict was in process in the southwest.

La Barre and the Iroquois, 1684.--The successor of Frontenac was La
Barre. Upon arrival he found conditions deplorable. A disastrous fire
had devastated Quebec and the Iroquois were on the warpath against the
Illinois, Hurons, Ottawas, and other "children of the French." La Barre
at first temporized with the Iroquois, but their depredations continued,
fostered by Dongan, the governor of New York. La Barre finally realized
that his policy was alienating the interior tribes and he determined
upon war. He gathered a force of Indians and French and entered the
Iroquois country where he was met by a deputation of Iroquois chiefs.
After an extended conference, instead of a war of extermination, peace
was ignominiously agreed upon, in spite of the fact that the Iroquois
refused to desist from war on the Illinois. In the meantime Duluth and
other leaders had brought five hundred warriors to Niagara, who arrived
at the rendezvous only to learn that peace had been made. With sullen
hatred in their hearts, the disappointed warriors returned to their
haunts. French influence in the region of the lakes had suffered a
severe blow.

Denonville and Dongan.--The king had determined upon the recall of La
Barre, and Denonville, "a pious colonel of dragoons," assumed the
governorship. He at once entered into a correspondence with Dongan. Both
governors lacked resources to carry out an effective campaign; both
resorted to Jesuit influence to obtain control of the Iroquois; and both
determined to build a fort at Niagara. Denonville, in addition, planned
to erect forts at Toronto, on Lake Erie, and at Detroit, and Duluth
actually erected a stockade at the lower end of Lake Huron. Dongan in
1685 eleven canoes to the upper lakes where a successful trade was
carried on. The following year a larger flotilla was despatched,
followed by an expedition which was intended to make a treaty of trade
and alliance with the lake Indians.

French attack on the Iroquois.--Dongan, however, received despatches
from England which led him to believe that his policy might not meet
with the entire approval of his government. He accordingly wrote a
conciliatory letter to Denonville, accompanied by a present of oranges.
Denonville replied, "Monsieur, I thank you for your oranges. It is a
great pity that they were all rotten." His sarcasm was the more
effective when it is known that eight hundred French regulars were in
the colony, and that as many more were on the way. In the spring of 1687
Denonville was prepared to strike. Leaving eight hundred regulars to
protect the settlements, he gathered two thousand men at Ft. Frontenac.
In addition Tonty and other post commanders had raised a considerable
force in the interior which captured the canoes sent by Dongan. The
combined forces of French and Indians, totaling nearly three thousand,
penetrated the country of the Sénecas, defeated them, and burned their
villages. But instead of completing the conquest of the Iroquois
country, Denonville led his forces to Niagara where a fort was erected,
and then returned to Montreal. The expedition served merely to set the
Iroquois hive buzzing, and to increase the influence of the English.

Iroquois reprisals.--The Iroquois soon began a war of reprisal, raid
after raid being made on the French settlements. Denonville's courage
seemed to be paralyzed. He sent an agent to Albany to make an
arrangement with Dongan, who insisted that Forts Niagara and Frontenac
be abandoned. Denonville hesitated until the summer of 1688, when Big
Mouth, an Onondaga chief, appeared at Montreal. An understanding was
reached by which the governor agreed to abandon Niagara and restore
captives, no provision being made for protection of the interior tribes.
A Huron chief, the Rat, hearing of the treaty, determined that the war
should continue. Ascertaining that a party of Onondagas were on their
way to the French settlements to complete the peace arrangements, the
Rat and his followers ambushed them. The attack had the desired effect,
the Iroquois concluding that the treaty was a ruse. An ominous peace
prevailed until the French believed that danger had passed. Suddenly in
the summer of 1689 a force of fourteen hundred Iroquois attacked the
settlements. Instead of retaliating, the frightened governor ordered the
abandonment of Ft. Frontenac. This was his last important act, for he
was recalled and Count Frontenac was sent to save the colony.

[Illustration: The Intercolonial Wars.]

The Hudson Bay posts.--While these events had been taking place, in the
far north another conflict was waged. No attempt was made to impede the
English on Hudson Bay until 1682, when Radisson and Groseilliers, now
turned French, with two vessels took possession of the English post at
the mouth of the Nelson River, but the Frenchmen soon transferred their
allegiance once more to the English. La Barre was instructed to check
English encroachments and to propose that neither nation establish new
posts. In 1685 a Canadian company was formed to trade in the north.
Denonville considered this an excuse for attacking the English. In 1686
a hundred men commanded by De Troyes, one of his lieutenants being
Iberville, the future founder of Louisiana, were sent overland to make
the attack. Fort Hayes, Ft. Rupert, and Ft. Albany were captured, Fort
Nelson being the only post left in English hands. French ascendency for
the time being was established on Hudson Bay.


William's accession precipitates war.--In spite of these conditions in
America, England and France at home had been at peace. It was of more
importance to Louis XIV to support a Catholic king of England than to
wage open war for the control of the Indian country. But with the
overthrow of James II the political situation in Europe was completely
changed. William of Orange ascended the throne of England, and Holland,
England, several of the German states, Austria, and Spain were welded
into a great coalition. Louis XIV championed the Stuart cause and the
War of the English Succession was on. In America the struggle is known
as King William's War; in Europe it is usually referred to as the War of
the Palatinate. In the course of it the Caribbean Sea was the scene of
constant conflict. The hostile zones on the mainland had been
established in the struggle for the fur trade--the lands of the Abenaki,
Iroquois, and upper lake tribes, and the Hudson Bay country.


Four years of war.--In 1689 the French inhabitants of St. Christopher
rose against the English inhabitants and expelled them from the island.
The French also broke up a Dutch station in Guiana. Early in 1690
England sent Commodore Wright to the West Indies. Convoying a large
fleet, his squadron reached Barbados on May 11. Being reinforced by
Barbadian troops he reoccupied St. Christopher, the reduction being
completed July 16. A few days later St. Eustatius surrendered to the
English. In 1690 Trinidad was also attacked by the French. In March,
1691, Wright attacked Guadeloupe but failed to take it or to capture the
French squadron under M. Ducasse. Commodore Ralph Wrenn took command of
the English fleet in January, 1692, and the following month fought an
indecisive battle near Jamaica with a superior French force. In that
year a great earthquake destroyed Port Royal, the English capital of
Jamaica. The refugees founded Kingston which eventually superseded Port
Royal as the seat of government.

Martinique, Santo Domingo, and Jamaica.--In 1693 nine vessels reinforced
the West Indian fleet and the combined forces, backed by Barbadian
troops, attacked Martinique, but failed to take it. In September of the
following year a squadron attacked Léogane, a French town in Santo
Domingo, but was repulsed. A French expedition from Santo Domingo also
desolated the southeastern coast of Jamaica but at Carlisle Bay was
beaten off by the colonial militia. In March, 1695, an English and
Spanish fleet attacked the French settlements in Santo Domingo and
succeeded in forcing the abandonment of Cape François and Port de Paix.

Cartagena and Petit Gouave.--In April, 1697, a great English fleet under
Vice-Admiral John Neville rendezvoused at Barbados to forestall a
rumored enterprise of the enemy. M. de Pointas had been sent with large
reinforcements to assist M. Ducasse. The combined French fleet attacked
Cartagena, took much booty, and eluded Neville. The English commander
visited Cartagena, which he found had again been despoiled by
buccaneers. He then despatched Captain Mees with nine vessels to burn
Petit Gouave, a mission which he accomplished.


The Maine frontier.--Andros had sent an expedition against the Abenaki
and had fortified the frontier, his most northern fort being at
Pemaquid, but with his fall the garrison had been reduced. During the
summer of 1689 the Indians destroyed Pemaquid and killed most of the
settlers in that region. Casco (Portland) was then attacked but was
relieved by a counter expedition.

The French attack.--In August Frontenac was sent to assume the
governorship of Canada. In New France he found despair and desolation.
He decided to send out three expeditions, one from Montreal into the
upper Hudson Valley, the others from Three Rivers and Quebec to raid the
New England frontier. The three expeditions started about February 1,
1690. The Montreal party surprised Schenectady, where sixty persons were
massacred. A party from Albany started in pursuit and succeeded in
killing about twenty of the retreating French and Indians. The Three
Rivers expedition attacked Salmon Falls, where thirty persons were
killed and about fifty made prisoners. A relief party from Portsmouth
caught up with the raiders at Wooster River, but after a spirited fight
the French and Indians escaped. Being reinforced by Indians they joined
the party from Quebec. The united force of four or five hundred men in
May attacked the fort and blockhouses on Casco Bay, killing or capturing
the garrison, massacring or carrying into captivity most of the
inhabitants, and burning the settlements.

Frontenac's Indian policy.--Frontenac also sent an expedition of one
hundred men to Michilimackinac to keep control of the upper lake
Indians. On the way an Iroquois war party was defeated at Sand Point on
the Ottawa River. The French victory and news of the successful raids on
the English frontier had far-reaching effects, for they kept the Hurons
and Ottawas in subjection.

The English defence.--The attack upon the English colonies was
well-timed, for confusion prevailed in New England and New York. Andros
had been overthrown and Leisler's rebellion was in full swing. Little
help could be expected from England, for James II, with French and Irish
aid, was battling to regain his throne. In May, 1690, the New England
colonies sent delegates to a congress at New York to determine on a
military policy. A two-fold attack was planned; a land expedition
against Montreal and a naval expedition against Quebec.

The Montreal fiasco.--The expedition against Montreal was placed under
Fitz-John Winthrop of Connecticut, who led his men as far as the
southern end of Lake Champlain. Here smallpox broke out, disagreements
with the Indians ensued, and provisions ran short. Winthrop soon
discovered that a descent on Montreal was impossible, and he
ingloriously led most of his men back to Albany. Captain John Schuyler,
however, with a small detachment proceeded northward and raided the
village of Laprairie near Montreal.

The capture of Port Royal.--While New England delegates were at New York
a preliminary expedition was sent against Acadia, Sir William Phips, a
New Englander who had achieved great renown and wealth by locating a
Spanish treasure ship which had been wrecked off the Bahamas, was placed
in command of seven vessels. On May 11, 1690, the fleet appeared before
Port Royal, which surrendered without a shot being fired. One of the
vessels under Captain Alden captured a French post on the Penobscot and
seized several settlements on the southern shore of Nova Scotia.

The expedition against Quebec.--In the meantime Massachusetts was
preparing for her great attempt on Quebec Thirty vessels were gathered,
but the fleet was short of ammunition, due to the fact that the French
had gained temporary control of the sea by defeating the English and
Dutch fleets at Beachy Head. The fleet commanded by Phips sailed from
Boston on August 9, 1690, but it was not until October 16 that it came
in sight of Quebec. The slow progress prevented a surprise and gave
Frontenac time to complete his defences. When Phips demanded that Quebec
surrender, he received a haughty refusal. Phips then attempted to
capture the town, but the plan was poorly executed, ammunition ran
short, and reinforcements poured into the city so rapidly that the
defenders soon outnumbered the English. A council of war was held, and
it was decided to abandon the undertaking. A week of intermittent
fighting had brought nothing but failure, which was made the more trying
by the loss of several vessels on the return voyage.

Frontenac's policy in 1691.--After the attack on Quebec, the war
developed into a desultory frontier conflict in which the French were
usually on the offensive. The Iroquois continued to raid the French
settlements, but they were soon severely chastised, when forty or fifty
warriors were surrounded at Repentigny, near Montreal, and killed or
captured. This event and the timely arrival of several French vessels
impressed an Ottawa deputation which had come to Quebec, and the French
power among the interior tribes was greatly strengthened.

Schuyler's expedition.--The English influence among the Iroquois was
waning; to reassert it an expedition under Peter Schuyler was sent from
Albany. It traversed Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and proceeded
toward Laprairie de la Madeleine where it was attacked by a superior
force. After stubborn fighting, Schuyler made an orderly retreat.

Acadia and the Abenaki.--In Acadia Phips had made the blunder of leaving
no garrison; the French accordingly reoccupied it. Deeming the location
of Port Royal too exposed, M. de Villebon, the lieutenant-governor of
Acadia, moved his headquarters to Naxouat on the St. John's River, from
which vantage point he was able to direct attacks on New England. In
February, 1692, a band of Abenaki wiped out the settlement at York, and
later unsuccessfully attacked Wells. Minor raids were also made on the
towns of central Massachusetts. To protect the frontier Phips ordered
the rebuilding of Fort Pemaquid and the erection of a fort at the falls
of the Saco. Scarcely were they completed, when Iberville, in command of
two French vessels, attacked Pemaquid but failed to capture it.

The Iroquois frontier.--The Iroquois continued to infest the region
between the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, but during 1692 and 1693
they were severely punished, and ceased to be an important factor in the
war. Frontenac then determined to reopen the fur trade. He accordingly
sent a detachment to Michilimackinac asking that furs be sent to
Montreal. In August, 1693, a flotilla of two hundred canoes arrived and
shortly afterward Tonty, with a large body of _coureurs de bois_ came to
discuss matters. Tonty soon returned to the Illinois country well
equipped to strengthen his hold on the natives. The fortifications at
Quebec were also remodeled. In 1695 Fort Frontenac was reëstablished and
the following year an expedition of over two thousand men was sent
against the Onondagas and Oneidas. They abandoned their villages and the
French destroyed their crops. Though no battle was fought the expedition
served its end, for the Iroquois were duly impressed by the power of the

The New England frontier.--In 1693 an English fleet from the West Indies
arrived at Boston and the idea of an expedition against Quebec was
revived, but there was so much sickness among the men that the plan was
abandoned. During 1693 and 1694 both English and French sought to
control the Abenaki, but in spite of a treaty made by Phips, the French
succeeded in holding their allies. In July, 1694, the Indians attacked
Durham, massacring over a hundred of the inhabitants, and a few days
later killed about forty people at Groton. Two years later Iberville
again appeared before Pemaquid and this time succeeded in capturing it.
He then sailed to Newfoundland, captured and burned St. Johns, and
plundered the settlements on the coast. The English retaliated by
burning the French settlement at Beaubassin but were repulsed at
Naxouat. In March, 1697, Haverhill was raided by the Indians, and in
February, 1698, after the treaty of peace, they attacked Andover. In the
last year of the war an attack upon Boston and New York by land and sea
was determined upon and a fleet set sail from France, but the treaty of
peace ended hostilities.


Operations of Iberville.--When the war opened, the French were in
control of the posts about James Bay, while Fort Nelson, commanding the
great interior water-ways, was in the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company.
In 1689 Fort Albany was captured by the English. The following year
Iberville recaptured it, but in 1692 it again passed out of French
hands. In 1694 the French government determined to assist the Compagnie
du Nord; Iberville, being sent to the bay with two frigates, captured
Fort Nelson. Two years later it was retaken by the English. In 1697
Iberville penetrated the bay, this time with five vessels. Becoming
separated from the rest of the fleet, Iberville encountered three armed
vessels of the Hudson's Bay Company. After a thrilling naval battle the
English were worsted, and the French once more took possession of Fort
Nelson. At the end of the war the only important post left in English
hands was Fort Albany.

The Peace of Ryswick.--In 1697 the war was brought to an end by the
peace of Ryswick, by which Louis XIV acknowledged William III as king
of England. The results of the fighting in America were ignored, the
powers agreeing to restore to each other all places taken in the war.
The ownership of the Abenaki and Iroquois lands, and of the Hudson Bay
country was left unsettled.


French expansion.--The peace of Ryswick was only a truce. France took
advantage of the peace to begin to establish her power in the
Mississippi Valley and to strengthen her hold upon the Northwest. In
1699 Biloxi was founded on the Gulf and in succeeding years France
brought under control most of the tribes of the lower Mississippi
Valley. In 1701 the French occupied Detroit to cut off the English from
one of the routes to the fur country, and strengthened their hold on the
Illinois country.[1]

The Spanish Succession.--Upon the death of Philip IV in 1665 the
incompetent Charles II came to the throne of Spain. Court intrigues
stimulated by France and Austria, and utter lack of statesmanship at a
time when France was reaching out in every direction, brought Spain to
the lowest point in her history. Fearing that she would pass under
French control, thereby destroying the balance of power in Europe,
William III of England sought to check French power by the so-called
Second Treaty of Partition, by which the Austrian Archduke Charles was
to inherit the crown of Spain upon the death of Charles II, Spanish
possessions in Italy were to go to the Dauphin of France, and Spanish
and Austrian possessions were never to be united. To this arrangement
France, Austria, and England agreed, but the treaty proved to be but a
scrap of paper. In 1700 Charles II died and his will designated Philip
of Anjou, a grandson of Louis XIV, as his heir.

England determines upon war.--War was not at once declared, for the
English people were slow to recognize the danger. But when French troops
occupied the border fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands, when French
edicts excluded British manufactures, when the English and Dutch trade,
especially the slave trade, was hampered in the Spanish colonies, and
when Louis XIV acknowledged the son of James II as king of England,
English statesmen were convinced that war was necessary. When Anne
ascended the throne in 1702, war was a foregone conclusion.

War zones in America.--The war areas were even more extensive in America
than in the War of the English Succession. In the South, the West
Indies, and the Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana frontiers, and in the
North, the New England border, Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay were
the scenes of conflict.

[1] For details see Chapter XV.


An indecisive struggle.--When William III became convinced that the war
was inevitable, he proposed to strike at Spanish commerce. In
furtherance of this policy a squadron was sent in 1701 to the West
Indies under Vice-Admiral John Benbow. In July, 1702, Benbow destroyed
or captured several vessels near Port-au-Prince, and supported by troops
under Major-General Hamilton, he occupied St. Christopher. The fleet in
August encountered that of Ducasse off Santa Marta to the northeast of
Cartagena and in a running fight which lasted several days the English
were worsted. In 1703 General Codrington attacked Guadeloupe but a
French reinforcement forced the English to retire. The same year a
combined French and Spanish force drove the English inhabitants from New
Providence and destroyed Fort Nassau, but it was soon reoccupied by the
English Vice-Admiral John Graydon who had been placed in command of the
West Indian fleet. Before his arrival several privateers had been
destroyed near the island of Santo Domingo and descents had been made on
St. Christopher and Guadeloupe. Graydon accomplished nothing and soon
sailed to Newfoundland, where his operations were also fruitless.

1705-1708.--During 1705 several prizes were taken and in 1706 the French
made a descent on St. Christopher. Their attack on the fort failed, but
they burned and plundered several plantations. Hearing that an English
fleet was expected, the French repaired to Nevis, which they occupied.
The English fleet under Commodore Kerr attacked Petit Gouave but failed
to capture it. In 1708 Commodore Charles Wager won an important
engagement when he attacked a Spanish fleet near. Cartagena. New
Providence was a second time attacked by the French and Spanish, which
led to the English abandonment of the island.

1711-1712.--In 1710 the Spaniards attacked the salt rakers on Turk's
Island but were driven off. In 1711 Commodore James Littleton attempted
to find the French fleet, which he located in the harbor of Cartagena.
Finding it too strong to attack, he loafed in the neighborhood, picking
up an occasional prize. Ducasse, who was convoying a fleet of Spanish
galleons, succeeded in getting them out of the harbor without being
observed and got them safely to Havana. A French squadron which made an
attempt against Antigua was driven into St. Pierre by the English fleet,
and a similar expedition against Montserrat was foiled. The following
year the French nearly ruined Berbice, a Dutch settlement in Guiana.


The southern border.--On the mainland the South Carolina settlements
formed the southern English frontier. The Spaniards occupied St.
Augustine, contiguous territory up the Georgia coast, Pensacola, and
intermediate points. To the west on the Gulf coast were the recently
established French settlements. In the interior lived the Apalachees,
Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws, and Chickasaws. To control the trade of the
Indians and use them as allies was the policy of English, Spanish, and
French alike. The first blow fell on the Apalachee. In 1702 a force of
Apalachicolas, allies of the English, destroyed the mission of Santa Fé
in the Apalachee district, and a Spanish force was met at the Flint
River by Englishmen and Creek allies, and driven back.

Siege of St. Augustine.--The next attack of the English was directed
against St. Augustine. Hearing of their plans, Governor Zuñiga sent to
Havana for reinforcements, abandoned the town of St. Augustine, and
provisioned the castle. The Carolina force of about twelve hundred
militia and Indians rendezvoused at Port Royal in September, 1702.
Colonel Robert Daniel, conducting the land forces, destroyed the mission
settlements on St. Mark's Island, captured the villages of St. Johns and
St. Marys, and plundered St. Augustine. Governor Moore conducted the
fleet, and the combined forces besieged the castle. Governor Zuñiga
bravely withstood the siege for fifty days, and when Spanish vessels
arrived, Moore destroyed his ships, burned St. Augustine, and retreated
to Carolina.

Destruction of the Apalachee Missions.--Moore was superseded as governor
by Sir Nathaniel Johnson, who immediately strengthened the
fortifications at and near Charleston. Moore, desiring to build up his
waning reputation, persuaded Johnson to send him against the Apalachee.
Setting out with a force of fifty Carolinians and a thousand Creek
allies, in January, 1704, he captured the Apalachee town of Ayubale,
burned the mission, and then defeated a force of Spaniards and
Apalachee. The Indian villages were next destroyed; of thirteen
Apalachee towns, each with its mission, only one was spared. When Moore
withdrew he carried off fourteen hundred Apalachee prisoners and slaves.

Spanish expedition against Charleston.--In 1706 the French and Spaniards
at Havana organized an expedition to attack Carolina. In August a
frigate and four sloops, after taking on men and supplies at St.
Augustine, sailed to Charleston and demanded its surrender. A small
landing party was repulsed; six Carolina vessels sallied out, and after
an engagement the enemy withdrew.

Indian policy of the French.--To use the Indian allies to prevent the
spread of English settlement was a fundamental of French policy.
Iberville, the founder of Louisiana, planned to obtain control of the
great interior rivers by establishing forts, and to weld the Indians
into an alliance with the French by treaties and by trade. He even
contemplated moving some of the tribes to points of greater commercial
vantage. He also believed that he could obtain the aid of several
thousand warriors in attacking Maryland, Virginia, and Carolina.
Realizing the danger, the English traders were active among the tribes.
In 1708, probably at the instigation of the English, the Cherokees,
Arikas, Catawbas, and Alabamas formed an alliance. Four thousand
warriors descended on the French settlements, but lack of leadership
destroyed the effectiveness of the attack and but little damage was

The Tuscarora War.--In 1711 the Tuscaroras, a North Carolina tribe, went
on the warpath and massacred about two hundred settlers. Virginia and
South Carolina sent aid, and in 1712 the Indians were defeated. The
Tuscaroras continued their depredations and in 1713 they were almost
annihilated. The remnant made their way to New York and were
incorporated with the Iroquois as a sixth nation.


Newfoundland and the New England frontier.--To deprive the French of the
profitable Newfoundland fisheries was the first endeavor of England in
the north. Captain John Leake arrived at St. Johns in August, 1702. He
cruised off Placentia Bay, making several small prizes and destroying
fishing craft. Before the end of October he had captured twenty-nine
sail, burned two vessels, and destroyed St. Peter's Fort. The New
England frontier was harried by the French and Abenaki. In 1699
Massachusetts had made a treaty at Casco Bay with the Maine Indians, but
the Jesuits soon brought them back to French allegiance. In 1703 a
second peace treaty was made with them, but within two months they were
on the warpath, almost wiping out the Maine settlements. In 1704 the
French and Indians surprised Deerfield in the Connecticut Valley,
killing about fifty and carrying off more than one hundred captives.
Almost every frontier settlement was attacked. Even Reading, Sudbury,
and Haverhill, within a short distance of Boston, were raided. To add to
the distress French privateers did serious damage to commerce and

Acadia.--The New Englanders retaliated with small counter raids, but
succeeded in inflicting little damage. It was finally determined to
strike at Acadia. An expedition was placed under Benjamin Church, a
veteran of King Philip's War. French settlements on the Bay of Fundy
were ravaged, but he failed to attack Port Royal. In 1707 an expedition,
recruited by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, was again
sent against Port Royal, but the stubborn defense discouraged the
attacking force and the siege was abandoned. English vessels under
Captain John Underwood raided the Newfoundland coast, destroying many
settlements and fishing craft.

Plan to conquer Canada.--The conquest of Canada was urged by many of the
colonial leaders, the most active of whom was Colonel Samuel Vetch, a
Scotchman who had formerly seen service in the English army. In 1709 his
plan was endorsed by the British government, and preparations were made
to send a large force against Quebec by sea and a land expedition
against Montreal. But after great efforts had been made by the New
England colonies and New York, the British regulars were diverted to
Portugal, and the conquest of Canada had to be abandoned.

Conquest of Acadia.--The following year a force of four thousand
colonials, commanded by Francis Nicholson, aided by British men-of-war
and a regiment of marines, attacked and captured Port Royal. Acadia
became the British province of Nova Scotia, and the name of its capital
was changed to Annapolis Royal. The following year the English again
raided the French fishing stations in Newfoundland.

Failure of Walker's expedition.--In 1710 a Tory ministry came into
power, its chief members being the Earl of Oxford and Viscount
Bolingbroke. They were opposed to carrying on the war in Europe,
believing that England's best policy lay in colonial undertakings. The
conquest of Canada became the great object. As before, the attack was to
be by land and sea. Under Nicholson the land force, composed mainly of
colonials and eight hundred Iroquois, prepared to attack Montreal. The
expedition against Quebec was entrusted to Admiral Sir Bovenden Walker
and General Sir John Hill; a court favorite. Seven of Marlborough's best
regiments, veterans of Oudenarde and Ramillies, were placed on
transports which were convoyed by a large fleet of war vessels. The
great force gathered at Boston, where it was reinforced by fifteen
hundred colonials. In August, 1711, the fleet entered the St. Lawrence,
but there it met disaster. Sailing too close to the northern shore, ten
vessels were wrecked on the reefs and shoals of the Egg Islands. Stunned
by the calamity, the faint-hearted commander gave up the enterprise.
News of the disaster reached Nicholson at Lake Champlain. His force was
not strong enough to accomplish the conquest alone, and the attack on
Montreal was abandoned.


The Hudson's Bay Company had been sadly crippled at the end of the War
of the English Succession. Its shares fell in value and most of the
original owners sold their holdings. The only post which the company
held was Fort Albany, and in 1704 this was unsuccessfully attacked by a
party of French and Indians. The same year an English frigate captured
the principal ship of the Compagnie du Nord, causing great hardship in
the French forts. The Hudson's Bay Company during the war frequently
petitioned the Board of Trade for assistance, but, as they received
none, they appealed directly to the queen. When the final treaty was
made, the Hudson Bay country was taken into account.


At the end of the war a series of agreements was drawn up by the various
powers. The treaties involving America dealt both with territory and
commerce. England obtained a recognition of her claims in the Hudson Bay
country and the possession of Newfoundland and Acadia. The claim of the
English to the Iroquois country was also admitted, and they were given
St. Christopher. Commercially the agreements dealt with the fisheries
and Spanish trade. The French were excluded from fishing on the Acadian
coast, but were allowed to keep Cape Breton Island and were given
certain fishing privileges on the Newfoundland coasts. An agreement with
Spain, known as the Asiento or contract, gave the English the exclusive
right for thirty years of bringing negroes into the Spanish possessions.
The English were also allowed to send an annual merchant ship of five
hundred tons burden to trade with Spanish ports.



Bryce, George, _The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company_,
1-46; Kingsford, William, _The History of Canada_, II, 36-107; Laut,
Agnes, _The Conquest of the Great Northwest_, I, 97-255; Le Sueur, W.D.,
_Count Frontenac_, 170-228; Lorin, Henri, _Le Comte de Frontenac_,
275-352; Parkman, Francis, _Count Frontenac and New France under Louis
XIV_, 72-183; Thwaites, R.G., ed., _The Jesuit Relations_, LXII-LXIV.


Bryce, George, _The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company_,
47-55; Clowes, W.L., _The Royal Navy_, II, 462-472, 492-495; Kingsford,
William, _The History of Canada_, II, 198-386; Laut, A.C., _The Conquest
of the Great Northwest_, I, 228-255; Le Sueur, W.D., _Count Frontenac_,
229-362; Lorin, Henri, _Le Comte de Frontenac_, 353-488; Manan, A.T.,
_The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783_, pp. 173-198;
Parkman, Francis, _Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV_,
184-427; Willson, Beckles, _The Great Company_, 182-197.


Clowes, W.L., _The Royal Navy_, II, chs. 23-24; Greene, E.B.,
_Provincial America_, 136-165; Kingsford, William, _The History of
Canada_, III; Crady, Edward, _The History of Carolina under the
Proprietary Government, 1670-1719_, pp. 364-548; Parkman, Francis, _A
Half-Century of Conflict_, I, 1-297; Shea, J.G., _Catholic Church in
Colonial Days_, 454-479; Hamilton, P.J., _Colonization of the South_,
ch. 15.




Applicants for La Salle's grant.--During the War of the Palatinate Louis
XIV showed little desire to develop La Salle's plan for a colony on the
Gulf. In the interim, however, a number of individuals proposed taking
up La Salle's work. In 1690 his brother, the Abbé Cavelier, strongly
urged that it be continued. In 1694 Tonty asked permission to carry out
the project. In 1697 De Louvigny, Captain of Marines in Canada, proposed
making an expedition against the Spanish mines by way of the Rio Bravo.
In the same year Sieur de Argaud, at Paris, sought a grant of the
territory between Florida and New Mexico, the Gulf and the Illinois
River. The control of the Gulf and the checking of the Spanish advance
were prominent among the arguments for all these projects.

Iberville.--But not until the treaty of Ryswick was signed did the king
again take up the plan. The founding of the proposed colony was then
entrusted to Iberville, a son of Charles Le Moyne, one of the great
seigniors of Canada. Iberville and his brother Bienville had already
distinguished themselves in their attacks upon the English on Hudson
Bay. Activities were hastened by reports that the English were preparing
to take possession of the mouth of the Mississippi. To forestall them,
Pontchartram, the Minister of Marine, in 1698 sent an expedition to the
Gulf of Mexico.

Pensacola founded by Spain.--News of Iberville's preparations reached
Madrid early in 1698, and again Spain proved that in an emergency she
could act. Assuming that Pensacola was the French objective, the viceroy
sent Andres de Arriola to intercept them, and in November he fortified
the place.

Biloxi founded by France.--The movement was timely. Two months behind
Arriola Iberville's fleet appeared before the harbor and demanded
admission (January, 1699). The request being politely refused, Iberville
established himself at Biloxi, after which he returned to France,
leaving Bienville in command. During Iberville's absence, the coast and
the lower courses of the Mississippi and Red Rivers were thoroughly
explored and friendly relations with the Indian tribes promoted. Shortly
afterward Iberville returned to the colony, and in 1702 the settlement
was moved to Mobile Bay where the Spaniards at Pensacola could be more
effectually checked, the new settlement being called St. Louis.

Alliance with the tribes.--An Indian policy was also developed. Tonty,
who had found it to his advantage to divert his fur trade to Louisiana,
was sent on a peace mission to the Chickasaws. This resulted in a
conference of Chickasaws and Choctaws at Mobile Bay, at which the
friendship and trade of those powerful tribes were assured. By alliances
with the interior tribes, Iberville hoped to be able eventually to check
and, if possible, annihilate the English settlements of Maryland,
Virginia, and Carolina. After the conference at Mobile Bay, Iberville
left the colony, and Bienville became the central figure in Louisiana.

Bienville's first administration.--The government of the colony was of a
military type. At the head was the governor, who was assisted by a
_commissaire_ who had charge of the stores. A council with judicial
powers was also established. Like Frontenac, Bienville was beset by many
difficulties, quarrels with officials and clergy being frequent. The
colony was threatened by an alliance of Cherokees, Choctaws, and other
tribes who were instigated to hostility by the English. In 1710 a new
site for St. Louis was selected, the settlement being located on the
present site of Mobile, and by that name it became known.

[Illustration: The French in Louisiana and the Far Northwest.]

Crozat.--The colony had not prospered, and the government desired to rid
itself of the expense of the establishment. In 1712 the king therefore
granted to Antoine Crozat, a wealthy merchant, a fifteen-year monopoly
of trade in the vast territory from Illinois to the Gulf and from the
Carolinas to New Mexico. He was also permitted to send a ship annually
to the Guinea coast for negro slaves. On the other hand, Crozat agreed
to send out two shiploads of settlers yearly. The executive powers were
vested in a council appointed by the king from nominations made by
Crozat; it consisted of a governor, intendant, and two agents of the
proprietor. The first governor was Lamothe Cadillac, the founder of
Detroit. At first a considerable number of colonists were sent over,
but the French commercial laws, the monopoly of Crozat, and the low
prices offered for peltries crippled the colony.

Natchitoches.--Cadillac attempted to open a trade with the Spanish
colonies. With this in view in 1713 St. Denis, the younger, was sent to
take possession of the Natchitoches country on the Red River and to open
an overland trade route across Texas into Mexico. A trading post was
established at Natchitoches, but the commercial results of the
expedition to Mexico were slight. St. Denis was arrested and the
Spaniards, alarmed at the French encroachments, began the permanent
occupation of Texas.

Fort Toulouse.--In 1714 Bienville built Fort Toulouse, on the Alabama
River, near the junction of the Coosa and Talapoosa Rivers, in the
country of the upper Creeks, Mandeville being made first commander. Fort
Toulouse was a depot where furs were bought from the Indians and floated
down the river to Mobile. Round about it the Jesuit missionaries worked
among the Creeks. The fort became the base for the control of these
tribes, and an outpost against the English of the Carolinas. When the
latter settled Georgia, feeling the menace of the French outposts, they
built Fort Okfuskee, on the Talapoosa River, fort miles away, and
induced the Creeks to destroy the Jesuit missions.

Natchez.--Difficulties arose with the Natchez Indians; in 1716 Bienville
was sent to subdue them, and Fort Rosalie was erected on the site of
Natchez. Cadillac was shortly afterward recalled. Crozat had found his
colony merely a bill of expense and in 1717 he surrendered his patent.
At that time there were about seven hundred Frenchmen in Louisiana.


The Mississippi Bubble.--When Crozat surrendered his patent John Law was
ushering in his era of speculation. Louisiana was taken over by the
Compagnie d'Occident, which was granted complete political and
commercial powers. The capital of the Company, amounting to one hundred
million livres, was divided into two hundred thousand shares. In 1719
the company received, in addition, a monopoly of the trade of Africa and
the Orient, and increased its capital by fifty thousand shares,
thenceforth being known as the Compagnie des Indies. Law made Louisiana
the center of his system, and represented the country as an earthly
paradise, fabulous in mines.

New Orleans founded.--Bienville was made governor and the capital was
established at New Biloxi. In 1718 New Orleans was laid out and named in
honor of the regent. A garrison was established at the Natchitoches
trading post, and Fort Chartres was built in the Illinois country.
Feudal seignories were not extended as in Canada, but extensive tracts
were granted to _concessionaires_, who agreed to bring out settlers. In
a short time many tracts had been granted on Red River, on the
Mississippi, and on the Yazoo. As colonists did not volunteer in
sufficient numbers, emigrants were secured from hospitals and jails, or
were spirited away from France. A few negro slaves had been previously
introduced, but Law's company brought large numbers; the first cargo,
landed in 1719, contained two hundred and fifty. With this introduction
of slavery, agriculture developed rapidly.

War with Spain.--At this time a brief period of war ensued between Spain
and France, due to the ambitions of Elizabeth Farnese and her advisor
Alberoni. An expedition from Mobile captured Pensacola, but it was soon
after retaken by the Spanish, who also attacked Mobile. Shortly
afterward the French again captured Pensacola, but at the end of the war
it was restored to Spain. At the same time the Spaniards were driven out
of eastern Texas and an expedition under Villazur was defeated by French
allies on the Platte River.

Growth of population.--In 1720 the Mississippi Bubble burst, stock in
Law's numerous enterprises fell rapidly, and the great financier left
France a ruined man. Though Louisiana ceased to be the center of the
financial system of France, the Company continued operations with
considerable success. The white population had increased to about five
thousand. New Orleans had a considerable population, and in 1722 it was
made the capital.

The government.--In order that the country might be better governed, it
was divided into the nine judicial departments of Biloxi, Mobile,
Alibamon, New Orleans, Yazoo, Natchez, Natchitoches, Arkansas, and
Illinois. The negro population increased so rapidly that there was
considerable fear of an uprising. To govern them, in 1724 a set of laws
known as the Black Code was promulgated by the governor. The legal
religion of the colony was decreed to be Catholic, and masters were to
give religious instruction to slaves. Intermarriage of whites and blacks
was prohibited. The slaves were forbidden to carry weapons or to gather
in assemblies. Masters were bound to clothe, protect, and give
subsistence to slaves, and negro families were not to be broken up by
sales. Masters were also responsible for acts of their slaves. The
crimes of those in bondage were punished by whipping, branding, or, in
extreme cases, by death. This code was the last important act of
Bienville, who shortly afterward returned to France. The central
government under the company was practically the same as that of Canada
in the time of Frontenac, and similar quarrels between governor and
intendant ensued. Ecclesiastically Louisiana was divided roughly into
three districts; the Mobile region was under the Carmelites, the Jesuits
ministered to those in the Illinois country and along the lower Ohio,
and the rest was under the Capuchins.

The Natchez War.--Owing to the French occupation of Natchez lands, the
tribe in 1729 formed a conspiracy, which embraced the Choctaws and other
tribes, for the purpose of exterminating the whites. In the first attack
two hundred and fifty French at Fort Rosalie were killed, and many women
and children taken into captivity. The Choctaws turned against the
Natchez. An army of French and Choctaws was collected, and finally
succeeded in dispersing the hostile tribe. A second expedition pursued
the fugitives, and the Natchez were so severely chastised that they
ceased to exist as a unit.


Bienville again governor.--The expense of the Natchez War convinced the
directors of the company that the Louisiana project could not be made a
paying investment, and in 1731 the king released them from their
charter. In 1731 the Company of the Indies withdrew from Louisiana and
it became a royal province. A council was organized to replace the
company and Bienville was again made governor.

The Chickasaw War: Fort Tombecbé.--After the Natchez War the remnant of
the tribe had fled to the Chickasaws. In 1736 Bienville made war on the
latter tribe, who had not only harbored the Natchez, but were in
alliance with the English and had formed a league to cut off French
activities along the Mississippi, Mobile, and Tombigbee Rivers.
Bienville led troops from Natchitoches, Natchez, Mobile, and New
Orleans, while D'Artaguette from the Illinois coöperated. As a base of
attack Fort Tombecbé was built on the Tombigbee River in the Choctaw
country. The expedition against the Chickasaws ended in disaster, but
Fort Tombecbé continued to be important as a base for the control of the
Choctaws, who were kept hostile toward Chickasaws and English. In 1740 a
second attempt was made. At Fort Assumption, on the site of Memphis, a
force of thirty-six hundred was gathered. The size of the army
frightened the Chickasaws, who sued for peace. The French, however,
failed to secure their friendship, and they remained allies of the

End of Bienville's rule.--In 1743 Bienville retired from the
governorship without having succeeded in making the colony a success.
The white population near the Gulf had declined to thirty-two hundred
and there were about two thousand slaves in the colony, while the
Illinois country contained about fifteen hundred people. During the
remaining twenty years of French rule in Louisiana the New Orleans
region showed but slight development.

The Illinois.--The Illinois district throve especially under the Company
of the Indies. At first the settlements had been governed from Canada,
but because of the Fox wars and difficulties of transportation, there
was little connection with Canada, and after 1717 the Illinois district
was attached to Louisiana. The settlement profited by the John Law
"boom" in 1719, eight hundred new colonists coming, chiefly from Canada
and New Orleans. In 1720 Fort Chartres, in 1723 St. Philippe, and ten
years later Prairie du Rocher, were established. Across the river St.
Genevieve and St. Charles were founded. Further east, the Wabash was
fortified to keep out the advancing English traders. In 1720 Ouiatanon
post was established at Lafayette. This post and Fort Miami, at Fort
Wayne, were attached to Canada, while Vincennes, founded in 1731,
belonged to Louisiana, as did Fort Massac founded later on the Ohio. The
dividing line between the districts was Terre Haute, or the highlands.
Ouiatanon was at the head of navigation on the Wabash for larger
pirogues. Here peltries for Canada were reshipped in canoes. Twenty
thousand skins a year were sent from Ouiatanon in the decade after 1720.

The Garden of New France.--The Illinois district became an important
agricultural center, whence large shipments of grain were made to
Detroit, the Ohio River posts, New Orleans, Mobile, and Europe. Negro
slaves were introduced and tobacco-raising was begun. At Kaskaskia there
was a Jesuit academy for white boys, and at Cahokia a Sulpician Indian

The Missouri lead mines.--During the rule of the Company of the Indies
lead mines were opened in Missouri, where lead had been early
discovered, especially on Maramec River. While governor, Cadillac had
made a personal visit to inspect them. Mining was begun on an important
scale by Renault, who received grants on the Missouri in 1723. He is
said to have taken to these mines two hundred miners from France, and
five hundred negroes from Santo Domingo. He was actively engaged in
mining until 1746.


French advance into the Far West.--Meanwhile the French explorers had
reached the Rocky Mountains. In or before 1703 twenty Canadians went
from the Illinois country toward New Mexico to trade and learn about the
mines. By 1705 Laurain had been on the Missouri and in 1708 Canadians
are said to have explored that stream for three hundred or four hundred
leagues. By 1712 salines were being worked in Missouri and settlers were
living about them. Under the Company of the Indies exploration and trade
were pushed for a time with vigor in the trans-Mississippi West, all
along the border from the Gulf of Mexico to Nebraska. From Natchitoches
French traders made their way among the tribes of eastern and northern
Texas, and sometimes reached the Spanish settlements. In 1717 St. Denis
the younger and several partners made a second trading expedition
overland from Mobile via Natchitoches to San Juan Bautista on the Rio
Grande. His goods being seized, he went to Mexico, where he was
imprisoned, though his goods were sold with profit. His associates, who
reached the border somewhat after him, made their way to Presidio del
Norte, disposed of their goods, and returned to Louisiana.

La Harpe on the Red River.--While St. Denis was in Mexico, Bénard de la
Harpe was sent to establish a post on the Red River above Natchitoches.
He was urged to inform himself concerning the source of the Red River
and the tribes near New Mexico, and to open commerce with the Spanish
provinces. In 1719 he established his post among the Cadodachos. Du
Rivage was sent up the Red River, and La Harpe made an expedition to the
Touacaras near the mouth of the Canadian River, where he proposed to
found a post as a base for trade with New Mexico, the Padoucas, and the

Du Tisné on the Osage and the Arkansas.--At the same time (1719) Du
Tisné was on the Missouri, Osage, and Arkansas rivers. He ascended the
Missouri River to the Missouri Indian village, on his way to the
Pawnees, but was unable to proceed. He returned to the Illinois, and
went to the Osage tribe on the Osage River. From there he continued
southwest to the Pawnees on the Arkansas. He made an alliance with the
Pawnees, bought Spanish horses from them, and established a French flag
in their villages. He was prevented by his hosts from going to the
Padouca, but he inquired about New Mexico.

La Harpe on the Gulf Coast.--In 1718 the company was ordered to occupy
the Bay of St. Bernard, discovered by La Salle. In 1719 and 1720
preliminary expeditions were made, and in 1721 La Harpe himself led an
expedition to a bay on the Texas coast, but he was expelled by the
Indians. The bay reached by him was the Bay of the Bidayes (Galveston
Bay) and not the St. Bernard of La Salle. La Harpe urged a new attempt,
to keep out the Spaniards, but the company abandoned the project.

La Harpe on the Arkansas.--After returning from the Gulf coast
expedition, La Harpe was sent from Mobile in December, 1721, to explore
the Arkansas River, with the idea of developing Indian trade, preventing
Spanish encroachment, and opening commerce with New Mexico. He ascended
the Arkansas about halfway to the mouth of the Canadian River, and on
his return recommended establishing posts at Little Rock, the mouth of
the Canadian, and the Touacara villages.

Bourgmont on the Missouri and Kansas Rivers.--In the years immediately
following the Spanish expedition under Villazur (1720), the French made
active efforts to communicate with New Mexico on the one hand, and to
forestall any hostile movement of the Spaniards on the other. Having
heard that Spaniards were preparing to return to avenge their defeat and
to occupy the Kansas River country, Bienville in 1722 ordered
Boisbriant, commander at the Illinois, to anticipate the Spaniards and
build a fort. The person sent was Bourgmont, who had lived among the
Missouris fifteen or more years, and had been made commander on the
Missouri. Late in 1723 he established Fort Orleans above the mouth of
the Grand River, in modern Carroll County, Missouri. From there in 1724
he went up the river among the Otos and Iowas, and then southwest to the
Padoucas in Western Kansas, taking with him Missouris, Osages, Kansas,
Otos, and Iowas. He made peace between these tribes and the Padoucas,
and arranged to send traders to the last named. A primary object was to
open a way to New Mexico. Shortly afterward Fort Orleans was destroyed
by an Indian massacre, and wars of the Foxes for several years
practically closed the lower Missouri.


The western fur trade.--For a decade and a half after the Bourgmont
expedition the French made no noteworthy western exploration. Meanwhile,
however, the traders quietly carried on their trade among the western
tribes. Important items in this trade were Indian captives, and mules
stolen from the Spaniards. French traders sometimes found a ready market
for goods smuggled into Spanish settlements on the northern frontier of
New Spain. From New Orleans, Opelousas, Natchitoches, Yatasi, Petit
Caddo, and Cadadocho posts they worked among the tribes of eastern and
northern Texas. By 1730 they had reached the lower Trinity to trade
among the Orcoquiza and Bidai tribes. Further north they traded with the
Asinai and Cadadochos, in the very face of the Spanish posts. By the
middle of the century they were well established among the Wichita
tribes of the Red River Valley, and northeastern Texas was virtually
under French control. The way to western Texas and the upper Red River
was barred by the hostile Apaches, but in 1753 Governor Kerlérec
proposed breaking through this strong barrier.

From the Arkansas post traders worked among the Quapaws and Jumanos, and
other tribes adjacent to the Arkansas River. From the Illinois, and from
lesser posts among the Osages, Missouris, and Kansas, traders worked
among these tribes, the Iowas, Otos, Pawnees of the Platte, and other
more northern bands of Indians.

Interest in New Mexico.--French voyageurs, _chasseurs_, and traders of
Louisiana and Canada continued to look with covetous eyes toward New
Mexico. To the adventurer it was a land promising gold and silver and a
path to the South Sea; to the merchant it offered rich profits in trade.
The natural avenues of approach to this Promised Land were the Red,
Arkansas, and Missouri Rivers. But there were obstacles to expeditions
bound for New Mexico. One was the jealous and exclusive policy of Spain,
which made the reception of such Frenchmen as might reach Santa Fé a
matter of uncertainty; another was the Indian barrier which stood in the
way. The Red River highway was effectually blocked by the Apaches,
mortal enemies of all the tribes along the lower valley; the Arkansas
and Missouri avenues were impeded by the Comanches for analogous
reasons. The Apaches and Comanches opposed the passage of the trader to
their foes with supplies of weapons. As the fur traders and official
explorers pushed rapidly west, one of their constant aims was to open
the way to New Mexico by effecting peace between the Comanche and the
tribes further east, an attempt at which had been made by Du Tisné and
Bourgmont at an earlier day.

The Mallet brothers.--After the cessation of the Fox wars, which had
closed the lower Missouri, traders again frequented the Pawnees and
Aricaras, and in 1734 one is known to have ascended the Missouri to the
Mandans, from whose villages a trade route was soon opened to western
Canada. In 1739 a party led by the Mallet brothers made their way, by
the Missouri and Platte Rivers, across Nebraska, Kansas, and Colorado to
Santa Fé. After a nine months' stay they returned, part going
northeastward to the Illinois and part down the Canadian and Arkansas to
New Orleans.

Fabry's attempt: Fort Cavagnolle.--The Mallet party had succeeded in
getting through the Comanche country to New Mexico and had returned
safely and with good prospects for trade. Immediately there was renewed
interest in the Spanish border on the part of both government officials
and private adventurers. At once, in 1741 Governor Bienville sent Fabry
de la Bruyère with members of the Mallet party to open a trade route to
New Mexico up the Canadian River, and to explore the Far West. He failed
to reach New Mexico. Fort Cavagnolle was established among the Kansas,
and the Arkansas route was made safe by effecting a much-desired treaty
(1746 or 1747) between the Comanches and their eastern enemies.

New expeditions to New Mexico.--The effect of this treaty was immediate,
and at once there were new expeditions to New Mexico by deserters,
traders, and official agents. In 1748 thirty-three Frenchmen were
reported among the Xicarillas. Early in 1749 a party led by Pierre
Satren reached Santa Fé by way of the Arkansas River, conducted by
Jumano and Comanche Indians. They were kept in New Mexico to work at
their trades. Early in 1750 another party arrived by way of the
Arkansas. They were ordered sent to Sonora to prevent their return to
Illinois. In the meantime peace had been made between the Comanches and
Pawnees, and in 1751 traders reached New Mexico by way of the Missouri.
In the same year Jean Chapuis led a party of nine from Illinois with a
commission from St. Clair, the commander of Fort Chartres. Arriving at
Santa Fé in 1752, via Platte River, he proposed a regular caravan trade
with military escort. The intruders were arrested and sent to Mexico,
where they languished in prison for many months, and were finally sent
to Spain.

The French advance through the Comanche country gives significance to
the proposal of Governor Kerlérec in 1753 to break through the Apache
barrier and open up a trade with Nuevo León, Coahuila, and New Mexico.
As a means of doing so he proposed securing an alliance between the
Apaches and their eastern enemies. These intrusions of Frenchmen into
New Mexico were closely bound up in their effect on Spanish policy, with
similar infringements upon the Texas border.


The Fox wars.--By the end of the seventeenth century Fox hostilities had
practically closed the Fox-Wisconsin trade route to the Mississippi.
Hostility was increased by the massacre of many Fox Indians at Detroit
in 1712. In 1715 De Lignery led a futile expedition against the tribe at
Green Bay. In the following year Louvigny with eight hundred men won a
partial victory at Butte des Morts, near Lake Winnebago. The European
war had now closed, and the Lake Superior posts--Green Bay, La Pointe,
Pigeon River, and Lake Nepigon--were reoccupied. The Fox-Wisconsin route
being closed, the western trade was divided between the Lake Superior
district and that of the Illinois.

The new Sioux posts.--A new movement into the Sioux country was
stimulated by the long standing desire to find a route to the Pacific.
In 1723 Father Charlevoix suggested finding it either by means of a line
of posts through the Sioux country or by way of the Missouri and over
the mountains. The former plan was adopted, and in 1727 Fort Beauharnois
was built on the west bank of Lake Pepin, with Perrière in command, and
with new missions in the vicinity. But, through another uprising of the
Fox Indians, the post was soon abandoned. New expeditions against the
Foxes and the Sauks, their allies, broke their resistance, and after
1733 the Fox-Wisconsin trade route to the Iowa and Minnesota country was
again open. After 1750 the Foxes were regular allies of the French in
their wars with the British.

The Vérendrye and the Post of the Western Sea.--The search for the route
to the Western Sea was taken up by Gaultier de Varennes (the elder La
Vérendrye), commander at Fort Nepigon, who planned a fine of posts
through the waterways northwest of Lake Superior. His movements were
stimulated by the activities of the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada, and
by those of the Spaniards in the Southwest. To pay the expenses of his
scheme he was granted a monopoly of the northwestern fur trade. In the
course of ten years he founded posts on Rainy Lake (St. Pierre, 1731),
Lake of the Woods (St. Charles, 1731), Lake Winnipeg (Maurepas, 1732),
Assiniboine River (La Reine), and on the Saskatchewan (Fort Dauphin,
1741). In 1742 La France had penetrated the Hudson's Bay Company
territory by crossing from Lake Winnipeg to York Factory.

From this line of posts the elder La Vérendrye turned his attention to
the upper Missouri, leading an expedition southwestward to the Mantannes
in 1738. Four years later his son, Pierre de Varennes, made another
expedition to the Mantannes, where they heard of bearded white men to
the west. Setting out southwestward, they visited the Cheyennes, Crows,
Little Foxes, and Bows. On January 1, 1743, when in the neighborhood of
the North Platte River, they saw the Rocky Mountains.

After Vérendrye died, his successor, Legardeur St. Pierre, extended the
line of posts up the Saskatchewan to the foot of the Rockies, where in
1752 he founded Fort La Jonquiere. The French had thus reached the
Rockies by way of nearly every important stream between the Red River
and the Saskatchewan.


Bolton, H.E., _Athanase de Mézières_, I, Introduction; _Texas in the
Middle Eighteenth Century_, 1-133; "French Intrusions into New Mexico,"
in _The Pacific Ocean in History_; Dunn, W.E., _Spanish and French
Rivalry in the Gulf Region of the United States, 1678-1702_: _The
Beginnings of Texas and Pensacola_; Fortier, Alcée, _History of
Louisiana_, I, 30-140; French, B.F., _Historical Collections of
Louisiana and Florida_; Gayarré, Charles, _History of Louisiana, French
Domination_; Hamilton, P.J., _Colonial Mobile; The Colonization of the
South_, 197-275; Heinrich, Pierre, _La Louisiane sous la compagnie des
Indies, 1717-1731_; King, Grace, _New Orleans; Sieur de Bienville_;
King, Grace, and Ficklen, John, _History of Louisiana_; LePage du Pratz,
_Histoire de la Louisiane_; Martin, F.X., _History of Louisiana_; Ogg,
F.A., _The Opening of the Mississippi_, 169-237; Parkman, Francis, A
Half-Century of Conflict, I, 298-368, II, 3-44; Phelps, Albert,
_Louisiana_, 20-105; Shea, J.G., _Exploration of the Mississippi
Valley_; _The Catholic Church in the United States_; Thwaites, R.G.,
_France in America_, 72-88; Villiers du Terrage, Marc de, _Les Dernières
Années de la Louisiane Française_, 1-48; Winsor, Justin, _The
Mississippi Basin_, 1-217; Burpee, Lawrence, _Pathfinders of the Great



The advance of the French into Louisiana and the Trans-Mississippi West
stimulated a new counter movement northeastward by the Spaniards from
Chihuahua, New Mexico, and Coahuila, and there ensued on the
Franco-Spanish border a contest for the control of Texas and all the
plains country as far north as the Platte River--a contest much like the
better-known "half-century of conflict" between the English and the
French on the other border. At the same time, the Spanish frontier
forged slowly northwestward into Lower California and southern Arizona.
On the other hand, the Florida frontier, which in the seventeenth
century had been pushed back by the English colonies of Virginia and the
Carolinas, was now still further contracted by the establishment of
French Louisiana and English Georgia, while in the West Indies and
Honduras Spanish rule suffered a like diminution through the continued
advance of the English, French, and Dutch. The _Asiento_ of 1713 with
Great Britain was a particularly hard blow at Spain's commercial
independence, and was made worse by England's gross violation of the


The Chihuahua mines.--In Nueva Vizcaya two notable forward steps north
were taken in the early eighteenth century. These were the opening of
the Chihuahua silver deposits and the advance down the Conchos valley.
In 1703-1704 rich ores were discovered near the recently founded mission
of Nombre de Diós. The mines proved to be among the best in America,
and, it has been estimated, produced silver worth from $50,000,000 to
$100,000,000 in the eighteenth century. Two _reales de minas_, Chihuahua
and Santa Eulalia, were established near by, and became the most
thriving centers on the northern frontier. By 1763 each had a
population of 5000, and the church at Chihuahua was one of the finest in
the new world.

Advance down the Conchos Valley.--At the same time the frontier advanced
down the fertile Conchos River Valley and across the Rio Grande into
western Texas. In 1715 the abandoned missions at La Junta were
reëstablished. Soon six missions were in operation and serving Indian
towns on both sides of the Rio Grande. For ten years they succeeded, and
then, in 1725, the Indians revolted and deserted. During the subsequent
years the padres made them occasional visits, while settlement pushed
down the Conchos Valley. In 1753 the La Junta missions were restored,
and in 1760 were protected by the new presidio of Belén.

The New Mexico border. Moqui and Zuñi resistance.--The reconquest of the
New Mexico pueblos had been effected by Vargas at the end of the
seventeenth century. The Moquis and Zuñis, however, stubbornly resisted
Spanish influence and harbored apostates. In 1726 and again in 1741 the
Moqui district was assigned to the Jesuits of Sonora, but they
accomplished little. Rivalry led to new Franciscan visits, and in 1742
the missionaries recovered more than four hundred Tigua fugitives who
had fled during the great revolt of sixty years before. In 1745 the
field was restored to the Franciscans, but they were unable to make
permanent establishments.

Xicarrilla and Navajo missions.--In 1733 a mission was founded near Taos
for the Xicarrilla Apaches who were hard pressed by the Comanches.
Between 1744 and 1750 efforts were made to convert the Navajo, but
without avail.

New settlements.--The population of New Mexico grew slowly but steadily.
In 1706 Governor Cubero founded the new villa of Albuquerque and
reëstablished La Cañada. In 1760 there were 7666 Spaniards in fourteen
settlements in the upper district and 3588 about El Paso. This was a
population larger than that of English Georgia at the same time. The
largest towns were Albuquerque (1814). La Canada (1515), and Santa Fé
(1285). At the same time the Christian Indians in the province numbered

Indian depredations.--New Mexico was constantly harassed by Navajos on
the west, Yutas and Comanches on the north, and Apaches on the east and
south. The main object of the savages was to steal stock and other
property, but they often shed human blood freely. On the basis of horses
and mules stolen in New Mexico, a regular trade was maintained by
Indians across the country to Louisiana. The exterior tribes attacked
the Pueblo Indians even more freely than the Spaniards. The Spanish
soldiery, with Indian allies, often retaliated with telling effect and
recovered stolen horses and mules. Captives taken were sold as slaves to
the settlers or in the interior. Yet there were truces between
campaigns, and by the middle of the century the Comanches and Yutas in
large numbers attended the annual Taos fair, where they sold skins and

Rumors of the French.--The French advance up the Missouri stimulated a
counter movement of the Spaniards of the New Mexico border. Before the
end of the seventeenth century wild rumors of the approaching French had
reached Santa Fé. Other interests, especially Indian relations,
furnished motives for northeastward expeditions early in the eighteenth
century. In 1706 Juan de Urribarri was sent by Governor Cubero "to the
unknown land of the plains" to ransom Christian captives from the
northern tribes. He crossed the Napestle (Arkansas) River, near the
present city of Pueblo, Colorado, and reached the Indian settlement of
El Cuartelejo, near the Colorado-Kansas border, where he heard new
reports of the French among the Pawnees.

Expeditions to the northeast and north.--The frequent campaigns against
the Indians were occasions for new exploration. In 1715 Juan Paez
Hurtado, with two hundred and fifty men, pursued Apaches into western
Texas. During the next four years several expeditions were made
northeast against Comanches and Yutas, in the course of which new
reports were heard of the French, who were now pushing up all the
western tributaries of the Mississippi. In 1719 a campaign against the
Yutas and Comanches led Governor Valverde across the Arkansas. In 1720
occurred the disastrous Villazur expedition to the Platte described
later. About 1750 Bustamente y Tagle pursued Comanches down the Arkansas
nearly to the Jumanos.

Explorers in Colorado.--Explorers also entered the Utah Basin. Juan
María Rivera, sent out by Governor Cachupín in search of ore, visited
and named the La Plata (Silver) Mountains, and continued to the junction
of the Uncompahgre River with the Gunnison (1765). In the following
year Nicolás de la Fora, writing in New Mexico, stated that the
Spaniards were acquainted with the country along the Cordillera de las
Grullas (in western Colorado) for a hundred leagues above Santa Fé. A
decade later (1779) Anza ascended the San Luis Valley, descended the
Arkansas River, and returned to Santa Fé over the mountains.


The Coahuila frontier.--In 1693 eastern Texas, after a temporary
occupation, had been abandoned, and the frontier fell back to Coahuila.
In the course of the next decade, however, it was gradually extended
until it crossed the Rio Grande. A most important factor in the work
were the Querétaro friars, who ever urged the government forward. By
1698 Boca de Leones and Lampazos had become the seats of flourishing
mines, missions, and ranches. Between 1699 and 1703 three missions and a
presidio had been established on the Rio Grande at San Juan Bautista,
below modern Eagle Pass. The site, being a great rendezvous and trading
place for the tribes, was known as the "Cádiz of the interior." Near
most of the missions small colonies of Spaniards and Tlascaltecans
settled. These missions served many Indians from beyond the Rio Grande,
and frequent expeditions were made into the outlying country.

Plans to reoccupy Texas.--During all this time the missionaries were
desirous of returning to the Asinai or Texas Indians, whom they had left
in '93, and with whom they had since maintained communication. In 1706
the governor of Coahuila urged the founding of a mission on the Rio Frio
as a means of securing the road to the Asinai. Three years later Fathers
Olivares and Espinosa made an expedition to the Colorado River, where
they hoped to meet the tribe. Father Hidalgo long made strenuous efforts
to get permission to return to his former charges, and Father Olivares
went to Spain to procure it. Frequent rumors of French incursions from
Louisiana were discussed in government circles, but it required an
actual danger to cause the government to act.

St. Denis in Mexico.--In 1714, led by two survivors of La Salle's
expedition, St. Denis made his expedition across Texas to trade. At San
Juan Bautista he was arrested and taken to Mexico, where it was
realized by the officials that a real menace had arisen. In a council of
war held on August 22, 1715, it was decided to reoccupy Texas with
missions, a garrison, and a small colony. Domingo Ramón, a frontier
officer, was put in charge of the expedition, and the missionary field
was assigned to the two Franciscan colleges _de Propaganda Fide_ of
Querétaro and Zacatecas. Of the missions of the former, Father Espinosa,
later known as the historian, was made president; of the latter the
president appointed was the still more renowned Father Antonio Margil.

Eastern Texas reoccupied.--In February, 1716, the expedition left
Saltillo, and in April it crossed the Rio Grande at San Juan Bautista.
In the party were nine friars, twenty-five soldiers, six women, and
enough other persons to make a total of sixty-five. They drove with them
more than 1000 head of cattle and goats, and an outfit for missions,
farms, and a presidio. A direct northeast route was followed, through
San Pedro Springs, where the city of San Antonio later grew up. By the
Asinai Indians they were given a warm welcome, and four missions were at
once founded near the Neches and Angelina Rivers. Near the latter stream
the presidio of Dolores was established. At the same time an attempt was
made to establish a mission on the Red River among the Cadodachos, but
it was frustrated by the Indians, who were under French influence.

A new base needed.--Eastern Texas had been reoccupied, but the outposts
there were weak and isolated. The French were trading among the
surrounding tribes; St. Denis was known to be planning another
commercial expedition to Mexico; and it was rumored that a large French
colony was to be established at the mouth of the Mississippi. This
prediction was verified by the founding of New Orleans in 1718. On the
other hand, Father Olivares urged advancing from the Rio Grande to the
San Antonio. These motives to action coincided with a more aggressive
Spanish policy toward the French since the death of Louis XIV, a policy
exemplified by the new viceroy Linares.

[Illustration: Texas in the 18th Century.]

San Antonio founded.--In a _junta de guerra_ held December 2, 1716, it
was therefore decided to establish posts on the San Antonio and among
the Cadodachos, while Ramón was to destroy the French establishments at
Natchitoches. The new enterprise was entrusted to Martin de Alarcón,
who was made governor of Texas and, before setting out, of Coahuila.
While the expedition was preparing, St. Denis reached the Rio Grande
(April, 1717), where his goods were confiscated. Going to Mexico, he was
there imprisoned. Meanwhile Ramón had reconnoitered Natchitoches, and on
his return early in 1717 two new missions were founded among the Ays and
Adaes, the latter being within seven leagues of Natchitoches, and
thenceforth a vital spot in the history of international frontiers.

Early in 1718 Alarcón left Coahuila with a colony of sixty-two persons,
besides the neophytes of mission San Francisco Solano, who were to be
transferred to the new site on the San Antonio River. Arrived there, a
mission, presidio, and town were founded, the beginnings of the modern
city of San Antonio. In the east Alarcón accomplished little more than
to displease the missionaries and to protest against La Harpe's new
French establishment among the Cadodachos.


Attack on Pensacola and Texas.--In January, 1719, as a result of
European complications, France declared war on Spain. The war extended
at once to the colonies, where a border contest ensued at various points
all the way from Pensacola to the Platte River. In the course of the
summer Pensacola was captured by the French of Mobile, recaptured by the
Spaniards, and again taken by Bienville and Serigney. In June, Blondel,
commander at Natchitoches, invaded eastern Texas, whence the Spanish
missionaries and garrison retreated to San Antonio without a struggle.
For two years thereafter the region was left unoccupied by Spain. While
waiting at San Antonio Father Margil in 1720 founded there a new mission
called San José, which later was called the finest in New Spain.

Spanish plans to fortify the Platte River.--In the course of the
campaigns against the Indians to the northeast of New Mexico, constantly
more disturbing reports had been heard of the French, who were now
making their way up all the western tributaries of the Mississippi. In
1719 Governor Valverde pursued Yutas and Comanches across the Napestle
(Arkansas) and heard that the French had settled on the Jesus Maria
(North Platte) River. New significance was attached to these reports
because of the outbreak of war between France and Spain a short time
before. Valverde warned the viceroy of the danger; wild rumors spread
through the northern provinces; and measures for defence were taken. In
1720, while plans were being made to recover Texas, the viceroy ordered
counter alliances made with the tribes northeast of New Mexico, a
Spanish colony planted at El Cuartelejo, in eastern Colorado, and a
presidio established on the Jesus Maria River, that is, in Nebraska or

Destruction of the Villazur Expedition.--Although a truce had already
been declared between France and Spain, Governor Valverde, perhaps in
ignorance of this fact, sent Pedro de Villazur in June, 1720, at the
head of one hundred and ten men to reconnoiter the French. Passing
through El Cuartelejo, in August he reached the Jesus Maria. Not finding
the French, he set out to return, but on the San Lorenzo (South Platte),
in northern Colorado, he was killed and his expedition cut to pieces by
Indians using French weapons. There are indications that tribes living
as far north as Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin took part in the attack, a
fact which illustrates the wide-reaching influence of these
international contests. The Spaniards charged the massacre to the
French, and there was a new panic on the frontier. But peace had been
restored between France and Spain, and, in spite of appeals from New
Mexico, the plans for advancing to El Cuartelejo and the Platte were

The Aguayo Expedition.--An offer to assist in the reconquest of Texas
was made by the Marquis of Aguayo, governor and the most prominent
figure of Coahuila. Abetted by Father Hidalgo, he had been interested in
a new attempt to discover Gran Quivira, and the Texas crisis seemed to
give him an opening. His offer was accepted, and before the end of 1720
he had raised, partly at his own expense, eight companies of cavalry,
comprising over five hundred men and five thousand horses. By his
instructions he was expected to reoccupy and strengthen the abandoned
posts and occupy Cadadachos, on the Red River, and Bahía del Espíritu
Santo on the Gulf.

Eastern Texas reoccupied.--The Marquis left Monclova in November, 1720,
shortly after Villazur's defeat on the Platte. From the Rio Grande in
January, 1721, he sent Captain Ramón with forty soldiers to take
possession of Bahía del Espíritu Santo, to which a supply ship was sent
from Vera Cruz. This was shortly before La Harpe attempted to reoccupy
the place for the French. Because of swollen streams, Aguayo made a wide
detour to the north, crossing the Brazos near Waco. Peace had been
declared in Europe, and at the Neches he was met by St. Denis, who
agreed to permit an unresisted reoccupation of the abandoned posts. It
was learned here that St. Denis had recently assembled Indian allies
with a view to seizing Bahía del Espíritu Santo and San Antonio, in
coöperation, no doubt, with La Harpe.

Proceeding east, between August and November Aguayo reëstablished the
six abandoned missions and the presidio of Dolores, and added a presidio
at Los Adaes, facing Natchitoches, and garrisoned it with one hundred
men. To this last act Bienville made vigorous protest. On the return to
San Antonio the weather was so severe that of five thousand horses only
fifty were left when Aguayo arrived in January, 1722. After establishing
there another mission and rebuilding the presidio, he took forty
additional men to La Bahía, and erected a presidio on the site of La
Salle's fort. Having thus completed his work, he returned to Monclova.

Texas won for Spain.--Aguayo's expedition fixed the hold of Spain on
Texas. He left ten missions where there had been but seven, two hundred
and sixty-eight soldiers instead of sixty or seventy, and four presidios
instead of two, two of them being at strategic points. Since 1718 Texas
and Coahuila had been under the same governor, but now Texas was made
independent, with its capital at Los Adaes (now Robeline, Louisiana)
where it remained for half a century. The Medina River now became the
western boundary of Texas. In 1726 the La Bahía establishment was moved
to the lower Guadalupe River.


Rivera's inspection of the frontiers.--In the years 1724-1728 a general
inspection of the frontier defences of New Spain was made by Pedro de
Rivera, ex-governor of the province of Tlascala. His remarkable journey
of 3082 leagues began at the City of Mexico on November 21, 1724, and
ended there on June 9, 1728. The northern line of military outposts at
this time ran from Fronteras through Janos, El Paso, Santa Fé, Conchos,
Monclova, San Juan Bautista, Cerralvo, San Antonio, Bahía del Espíritu
Santo, Dolores, and Los Adaes. On the whole Rivera found the presidios
in fair condition, but encountered many abuses. His reforms in the main
were in the direction of retrenchment. This was particularly true
regarding Texas, and in 1729 the post on the Angelina was suppressed and
the forces of others reduced.

San Antonio strengthened.--Rivera's policy of retrenchment was strongly
opposed by the missionaries; among the Indians of eastern Texas they had
had little success, and when the garrison of Dolores was withdrawn the
Querétaran friars moved their three missions to San Antonio, where they
were reëstablished in 1731 and where their ruins still stand. In the
same year a colony of Canary Islanders was established beside the
presidio and missions, and formed into the Villa of San Fernando. There
were now at San Antonio five missions, a presidio, and a municipality.
Texas was now definitely formed in outline; Spain had maintained her
claim as against France, and had established three centers of
occupation, Los Adaes, Bahía del Espíritu Santo, and San Antonio.

The Apache Wars.--For a decade and a half after the founding of the
Villa of San Fernando the province of Texas underwent little expansion.
From the beginning of San Antonio its inhabitants were subjected to
raids by the Eastern Apaches, who also infested the highways. To check
their outrages occasional campaigns were made into their country by the
soldiery, supported by contingents of mission Indians. Notable among the
forays were those of Captain Flores (1723), Governor Bustillo (1732),
Captain José Urrutia (1739), and his son Captain Thoribio Urrutia
(1745). These expeditions served not only to punish the enemy and
recover stolen horses and mules, but to capture slaves as well, and to
make known the northwestern frontier. In the course of them the
Spaniards learned of mineral deposits in the Llano River country.

The work of the missionaries.--In spite of Apache hostilities, the
missionaries on the San Antonio and the Guadalupe made some progress.
The leading figures of the period were Fathers Santa Ana and Dolores y
Viana, presidents. No new missions were founded in the fifteen years'
interval, but the friars improved their buildings and farms, and sought
new neophytes in regions constantly more remote from the mission
centers. At the mission of San Antonio de Valero alone no less than
forty bands or tribes were represented by the baptisms between 1731 and

The Tonkawa missions.--During the next fifteen years the frontiers of
Texas were expanded in all directions. Between 1745 and 1749 Fathers
Viana and Santa Ana founded three missions on the San Xavier (San
Gabriel) River, in the Tonkawa country, and in 1751 a presidio was
established there. But quarrels ensued, the location proved unsuitable,
and the missions were abandoned, efforts now being transferred to the
Apache country.

The Apache missions.--Under pressure from the southward moving
Comanches, the Lipan-Apaches had ceased their hostilities and asked for
missions. Minerals had been found near the Llano River, and
communication with New Mexico was desired. Accordingly, with the aid of
a munificent gift by Don Pedro de Terreros, in 1757 a great plan for
reducing the Apaches by means of missions was launched. A presidio and
mission had scarcely been founded on the San Sabá, however, when the
mission was destroyed by the Comanches and their allies (1758). In the
following year Colonel Parrilla, with a force of some six hundred men,
raised in various parts of northern New Spain, set out to punish the
offenders. At the fortified village of the Taovayas, on the Red River,
where French influence was predominant, he was routed and driven back.
The Apache mission was now transferred to the Upper Nueces, and for
several years the San Sabá post sustained incessant war with the
northern tribes.

Nuevo Santander.--Wars with England and Indian hostilities now made
imperative the colonization of the Gulf coast between the San Antonio
River and Tampico--the eastern portion of Nuevo León--and in 1746 the
district was erected into a new colony called Nuevo Santander. Colonel
José de Escandón, a distinguished officer of Querétaro, was put in
charge of the enterprise, and the missionary work was entrusted to the
Zacatecan friars. Within the next three years the entire region was
explored by Escandón and his lieutenants and a number of colonies were
planned. In 1749 Escandón led a colony of more than three thousand
people from Querétaro, and in a short time established them in more than
twenty settlements, most of which persist to-day. North of the Rio
Grande the principal ones were Laredo and Dolores, but ranching soon
spread as far as the Nueces River. The post and mission of La Bahía were
now moved to the lower San Antonio River and a new mission for the
Karankawa (Rosario) was established near by. Though legally in Nuevo
Santander, this district was administered as a part of Texas, and by
1775 the Texas-Nuevo Santander boundary was officially moved west to the


The Texas-Louisiana boundary question.--The proximity of Los Adaes and
Natchitoches had furnished numerous grounds for irritation between Texas
and Louisiana. French traders engaged in contraband trade, and the
international boundary was uncertain. In 1735, when Natchitoches was
moved from the island in the Red River to the west bank of the stream, a
quarrel ensued. After several years of bickering, the Arroyo Hondo was
tentatively adopted as the international boundary in that region.

Meanwhile French traders had invaded the coast tribes and monopolized
the Indian trade of northern Texas. In 1750 the military strength of
Louisiana was considerably augmented, and it was reported in Mexico that
the new arrivals were for the western Louisiana frontier. These
conditions again brought forward the quiescent boundary question, which
was inconclusively discussed in Spanish circles for several years. While
the higher authorities debated, residents on the frontier generally
agreed on the Arroyo Hondo. In 1754 the King of Spain declared that
"boundaries between the Spaniards and the French in that region have
never been a subject of treaty nor is it best at present that they
should be."

The New Mexico border.--By this time renewed French intrusions into New
Mexico were becoming alarming. The return of the Mallet party (1739)
and the peace between the Comanches and their eastern enemies (ca. 1746)
were followed by the arrival in New Mexico of trading parties from
Canada and Louisiana under Fébre, Chapuis, and others. A more vigorous
policy was now adopted and the recent comers were arrested and sent to
Spain. The intrusion into New Mexico found an echo in far western
Sonora, where in 1751 the French advance was given by a prominent
official as a reason for Spanish haste to occupy the Colorado of the

The lower Trinity fortified.--The more stringent policy toward intruders
was extended to Texas, where a new outpost was established to ward off
French aggression. In the fall of 1754 traders on the lower Trinity were
arrested and sent to Mexico, and in 1756-1757 the region was defended by
a presidio (San Agustín) and a mission east of the stream among the
Orcoquiza Indians. Thus another point on the Texas-Louisiana frontier
was occupied and defended by Spain. The site was disputed by Governor
Kerlérec, of Louisiana, who proposed a joint boundary commission. The
offer was rejected and the viceroy of Mexico, on the contrary, proposed
a Spanish post on the Mississippi "to protect the boundaries." With his
proposal he sent to Spain a map showing Texas as extending to the
Mississippi. Thus the region in dispute extended from the Trinity to the
Mississippi, at least.


The Jesuits.--The occupation of Texas was contemporaneous with the
advance into Pimería Alta (northern Sonora and southern Arizona) and
Lower California. The work of the indefatigable Jesuits on the northern
frontier of New Spain is admirably illustrated by that of Father Kino
and his companions in this region.

Kino.--After the failure of Atondo's enterprise in California in 1685,
Father Eusebio Kino entered northern Sonora, arriving in March, 1687,
just at the time of La Salle's death in Texas. Mission Dolores, founded
by him in the upper Sonora Valley, became his headquarters for
twenty-four years of exploration, ranching, and missionary work among
the upper Pimas, between the Altar and Gila Rivers.

Explorations in Arizona.--In the Altar Valley Kino and his companions
founded a number of missions, which were destroyed during the revolt in
1695 and then rebuilt. In 1691, accompanied by Father Salvatierra, who
later went to California, Kino descended the Santa Cruz River to the
village of Tumacácori. Three years later, by the same route, he reached
the Casa Grande on the Gila. In 1697, with a military escort from
Fronteras (Corodéguachi), he again went to the Casa Grande, this time by
way of the San Pedro River. In the following year he was again on the
Gila, whence he returned across the Papaguería (the country of the
Pápagos) by way of Sonóita, Caborca, and the Altar Valley. In 1699 he
went to the Gila by way of Sonóita and the Gila Range, and then ascended
the Gila.

A land route to California.--The current view still was that California
was an island, but during the last journey Kino returned to the
peninsular theory. If this were true, he reasoned, it would be possible
to find a land route over which to send supplies to Salvatierra's
struggling missions just established in Lower California. To test his
views he made several more journeys, crossing the lower Colorado in 1701
and reaching its mouth in 1702. He was now convinced that California was
a peninsula. In 1705 was published his map of Pimería Alta, setting
forth this view.

Missions and ranches in Arizona.--Meanwhile Kino and his companions had
pushed the missionary frontier to the Gila and the Colorado. Kino's
exploring tours were also itinerant missions, in the course of which he
baptized and taught in numerous villages. During his career in Pimería
Alta he alone baptized 4000 Indians. In 1700 he founded the mission of
San Xavier del Bac, and within the next two years those of Guebavi and
Tumacácori, all in the valley of the Santa Cruz River, and within the
present Arizona. To support his missions, near them he established
flourishing stock ranches, thus making the beginnings of stock raising
in at least twenty places still existing in northern Sonora and southern

[Illustration: Father Kino's Map of Pimería Alta (Bancroft, Arizona and
New Mexico, p. 360).]

Decline of the missions.--The power of Spain was now at its lowest ebb,
funds were scarce, and Kino's last days were to him a time of stagnation
and disappointment. To a certain extent royal support was transferred
for the time being to the missions in Lower California. After Kino's
death in 1711 stagnation became decline, few new missionaries were sent,
and northern tours became infrequent or ceased altogether. Officials and
frontier leaders often planned to advance the frontier of settlement to
the Colorado River, but other interests interfered.

Revival after 1732.--A visit by the bishop of Durango in 1725, the
military inspection of that frontier by Rivera in 1726, and a royal
decree of 1728 gave new life to the moribund missions. New missionaries
arrived in 1732, the northern missions were reoccupied, and journeys to
the Gila were renewed after 1736 by Fathers Keller and Sedelmayr.

The Arizonac mines.--Interest in the northern frontier was accentuated
at this time by a temporary mining excitement at Arizonac in the upper
Altar Valley, where in 1736 silver nuggets of astonishing size were
discovered. There was a "rush" to the place, and considerable wealth was
found, but in 1741 the surface veins were exhausted and the camp was
abandoned. The mining incident furnished an occasion for new plans to
advance to the Gila. But Indian troubles in Sinaloa and Sonora
interfered. These troubles, on the other hand, served to advance the
military frontier by the founding of two presidios at Pitiqui
(Hermosillo) and Terrenate in 1741.

Keller and Sedelmayr.--After much discussion, in 1741 the Moqui district
was assigned to the Jesuits, who now tried to reach that region. In 1743
Keller crossed the Gila, but was driven back by the Apaches. In 1744
Sedelmayr ascended the Colorado to Bill Williams Fork. In the following
year the Moquis were again assigned to the Franciscans.

Plans to occupy the Gila and Colorado.--Sedelmayr now turned his
attention to exploring the lower Gila and Colorado Rivers, and his
Order, particularly Father Escobar, the provincial, urged the occupation
of these valleys, both as a means of support for Lower California, and
as a base for advance to Moqui and Alta California. In 1748 Father
Consag of California explored the Gulf to its head in the interest of
this plan. Royal interest was aroused also by the entry of the French of
Louisiana into New Mexico and the need of protecting California. In 1744
and 1747, therefore, the king approved advancing to the Gila. Five
years later, especially because of emphatic reports of the French
advance toward the Pacific Ocean, the king seriously considered
occupying the Bay of Monterey.

The Pima Revolt.--The new viceroy, Revillagigedo, was occupied with
founding Nuevo Santander and other absorbing tasks, while new Indian
wars in Sonora made advance impossible. In 1750 a war of extermination,
led by Governor Diego Parrilla, was begun on the Seris and lasted
several years. In 1751 a revolt occurred among the northern Pimas. At
Caborca and Sonóita the missionaries were slain, over one hundred
settlers were killed on the Arizona border, and missions and ranches
were abandoned. The uprising was suppressed by Parrilla without great
difficulty; most of the missions were reoccupied; and for greater
security two new presidios were founded, at Altar, near Caborca, and at
Tubac near San Xavier del Bac. Thus, each uprising helped to advance the
military frontier.

Continued obstacles to advance.--For twenty years more the question of
advance to the Colorado was subordinate to that of good order and
settled conditions in Sonora, necessary preliminaries to advance. The
Pima War was followed by a bitter quarrel between Governor Parrilla and
the Jesuits. The Seris made constant trouble, and when attacked
retreated safely to Cerro Prieto. Apache wars on the northern border
were even more severe, and many settlements in Sonora and Nueva Vizcaya
were destroyed by them. Nevertheless, within the protection of the
presidios several small Spanish settlements grew up, as at Terrenate,
Guebavi, Santa Bárbara, Buenavista, Tubac, Saric, Altar, and San
Ignacio. The Jesuits continued to appeal, and others, pointing out the
danger from advancing Russians, English, and French, urged the
settlement of Alta California. But Spain was occupied elsewhere.

The northwestern frontier in 1763.--Sinaloa and Sonora had been detached
from Nueva Vizcaya in 1734, when the province of Sinaloa was erected.
Both were still within the diocese of Durango. By 1763 Sinaloa and
Ostimuri (southern Sonora) had ceased to be frontier regions. Most of
the missions had been secularized, the Indians had become assimilated,
and there was a considerable white population. In Sinaloa there were six
towns with white and mixed populations ranging from 1000 to 3500 each.
In Ostimuri, the part of Sonora south of Yaqui River, there were five
towns with populations ranging from 300 to 3400. In the Sonora Valley
there was a string of mining towns and small Spanish settlements
extending as far north as Fronteras. In Pimería Alta there were eight
missions and several Spanish settlements, the latter aggregating, with
the garrisons, nearly 1500 persons. In all of the frontier settlements
there was a large element of mulattoes and mestizoes.


California assigned to the Jesuits.--While Kino and his successors were
struggling to advance the frontiers of Pimería Alta, another band of
Jesuits founded missions and opened trails nearly the whole length of
the Peninsula of Lower California, and made explorations northward with
a view to meeting the mainland group at the Colorado River. After
repeated failures to occupy the Peninsula, the government of Spain
turned it over to the Jesuits, with full military and civil authority,
as in Paraguay. The missions depended at first mainly on private alms,
and in a short time $47,000 were subscribed. This was the beginning of
the famous Pious Fund of California.

Salvatierra and his companions.--In 1697 Juan Maria Salvatierra, who had
been a missionary in Sinaloa, entered the Peninsula with a handful of
soldiers, and began work at Loreto, opposite Guaymas, which became the
supply base. Missionary work was attended by unusual difficulties,
because of the sterility of the country. More than once the abandonment
of California was prevented only by the aid of Father Kino, who drove
cattle hundreds of miles to Guaymas and shipped them across the Gulf.
Transportation was difficult, and many precious cargoes were wrecked. By
the time of Salvatierra's death in 1717 he, Picolo, Juan de Ugarte and
their companions had planted five missions in the middle region of the
Peninsula, and had made extensive explorations, north, south, and across
California to the Pacific. In 1701 Salvatierra had explored with Kino in
quest of a land route from Sonora. In 1721 Father Ugarte in the same
interest explored the Gulf to its head.

Development in the South.--Salvatierra's death was followed by more
liberal royal aid and private alms, and by more rapid mission
extension, particularly in the South. The importance of this step was
enhanced by making San Bernabé a stopping place for the Manila galleon.
By 1732 Fathers Guillen, Tamaral, and Taraval had explored the west
coast as far as Cedros Island. A widespread Indian rebellion in 1734,
attended by the martyrdom of Fathers Carranco and Tamaral, caused the
founding of the presidio of San José del Cabo, which protected the Cape,
but by 1748 Indian disturbances had greatly reduced the southern

The Jesuits, fearful of interference in their work, as a rule opposed
Spanish settlements, presidios, and the development of industries in the
Peninsula. In 1716, 1719, 1723, and later, the government urged the
founding of forts and colonies on the western coast, with a view to
protecting and advancing the frontier, but the Jesuits usually objected,
and the settlements were not founded. The Indian revolt, war with
England in 1739, Anson's raid on the coast in 1742, and the westward
advance of the French toward the Pacific Coast, increased the anxiety,
and in 1744 new orders were given looking to the defence of the
Peninsula, but nothing came of them.

By 1750 the exclusive policy of the Jesuits had given way to some
extent, pearl fishing was again permitted, private trading vessels came
from time to time, and the Manila galleon stopped regularly at San José.
Mines were opened in the South, and around them a small Spanish and
mixed breed population grew up, La Paz becoming the principal center.

Missions in the North.--The conditions which had stimulated efforts to
advance to the Gila by the mainland after 1744, had a corresponding
effect on California development. Sterile California needed overland
communication with a mainland base. It was with this need in view that
in 1746 the Jesuit provincial, Escobar, sent Father Consag to reëxplore
the Gulf, whose head he reached shortly before Sedelmayr descended the
Colorado to the same point.

The Colorado-Gila base was not supplied, but with new private gifts and
royal aid, the Jesuits on the Peninsula pushed northward. Santa
Gertrudis (1752), San Francisco Borja (1762), and Santa Maria (1767)
were the last Jesuit foundations, while Father Link's land journey to
the head of the Gulf in 1766 was the final step in Jesuit explorations.



Arricivita, _Crónica Serafica y Apostólica_, 321-442; Bancroft, H.H.,
_North Mexican States and Texas_, I, 391-406, 600-617: Bolton, H.E.,
_Athanase De Mézières_, I, 1-66; "The Native Tribes about the East Texas
Missions," in Tex. State Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_, XI, 249-276; "The
Location of La Salle's Colony on the Gulf of Mexico," in _The
Mississippi Valley Historical Review_, II, 165-182; Bolton, H.E., ed.,
_Spanish Exploration in the Southwest_, 281-422; Bonilla, Antonio, in
Tex. State Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_, XIII, 1-78; Buckley, E., "The
Aguayo Expedition into Texas and Louisiana, 1721-1722," in Tex. State
Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_, XV, 1-65; Clark, R.C., _The Beginnings of
Texas_; Cox, I.J.. "The Early Settlers of San Fernando," in Tex. State
Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_, V, 142-161; "The Louisiana-Texas Frontier,"
in Tex. State Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_, X, 1-76; "The Southwestern
Boundary of Texas," in Tex. State Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_, VI. 81-103;
De León, A., "Itinerary," in Tex. State Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_, VIII,
199-224; _Historia de Nuevo León_, 310-348; Dunn, W.E.. "Apache
Relations in Texas, 1718-1750," in Tex. State Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_,
XIII, 198-274; "The Apache Mission on the San Saba," in _Southwestern
Historical Quarterly_, XVIII, 370-415; Espinosa, Isidro, _Chrónica_,
1-10, 41-158, 206-227; Garrison, G.P., _Texas_, 20-96; Manzanet, in Tex.
State Hist. Assoc., _Quarterly_, III, 252-312; Parkman, Francis, _La
Salle and the Discovery of the Great West_, chs. 20-29.


Alegre, Xavier, _Historia de la Compañía de Jesus_, III; Bancroft, H.H.,
Arizona and New Mexico, 344-407; _History of the North Mexican States_,
I, 237-274, 548-580, 660-691; Bolton, H.E., Kino's _Historical Memoir of
Pimería Alta_, especially Vol. I, 27-65; Bolton, H.E., ed., _Spanish
Exploration in the Southwest_, 425-463: Chapman, C.E., _The Founding of
Spanish California_, 1-67; Ortega, José, _Apostólicos Afanes_, libros
II-III; Richman, I.B., _California under Spain and Mexico_, 42-61.


Alegre, Xavier, Historia de la Compañía de Jesus, III, 91-309; Bancroft,
H.H., History of the North Mexican States. I, 276-304, 407-466, 476-491;
Bolton, H.E., Kind's Historical Memoir, consult Index under
"California," "Picólo," and "Salvatierra"; Engelhardt, Fr. Zephyrin,
Missions and Missionaries of California, I. 61-600: Hittell, T.E.,
History of California, I, 148-308; North, A.W., Mother of California,
1-78; Richman, I.B., California under Spain and Mexico, 1-41; Venegas,
Migual, Natural and Croit History of California, I, 215-455, II, 1-213.




The colonization of North America by the English was not complete with
the founding of the seaboard settlements, but continued in a series of
steps westward. At each step American society has returned to simple
frontier conditions, under which it has been free to try out new
experiments in democracy. Each stage of advance has made its special
contribution to our institutions.

In a broad way these steps in the westward movement have corresponded
with great physiographic areas. The seventeenth century had witnessed
the occupation of the Tidewater region, between the coast and the Fall
Line. Within that area there had been established two types of society
which now projected themselves westward. The New England type was
democratic, corporate, theocratic, and industrial, and here the township
became the unit of local government. The Southern type, based on a
plantation system, staple crops, and dependent labor, was aristocratic,
individualistic, and expansive. Here the county became the unit of local
government. Intermediate between these types was the society of the
middle Tidewater. In spite of these special characteristics, due chiefly
to American environment, Tidewater society at the end of the century was
still largely European in thought and feeling.

The first half of the eighteenth century witnessed the movement of
settlement into the next great physiographic region, the Piedmont, or
the area lying between the Fall Line and the Appalachian Mountains.
Here, under frontier conditions, was formed a society farther removed
from that of Europe, and further modified by American conditions.

This westward movement was the resultant of numerous factors. To the
frontier people were attracted by cheap land and unlimited opportunity.
From the Tidewater settlements emigrants were driven by increase of
population, scarcity of good land, and class conflicts. The less
prosperous everywhere, and in the South indented servants who had served
their rime, were glad to begin life anew on the frontier. Prosperous
planters whose estates had been exhausted by tobacco sought the
Piedmont, and left their former lands to become "old fields."
Speculation in frontier lands became a passion, and while John Law
floated his Mississippi Bubble in Louisiana, New England deacons and
Virginia aristocrats alike built hopes of fortune on tracts purchased
for a song on the border. The movement to the frontier was stimulated in
some cases by intercolonial and international rivalry; thus the
settlement of Georgia was at once a philanthropic experiment and a
defensive movement against Spain. Of larger consequence than the
emigrants from the Tidewater settlements were the new arrivals from
Europe, who came in tens of thousands, attracted by cheap land and
opportunity or driven by economic, political, or religious unrest.

Trails to the Piedmont had been opened by furtraders, who, even in the
seventeenth century, had made their way into the wilderness in all
directions: by official explorers, like Governor Spotswood; and by the
Southern cattlemen who had established "cowpens" at long distances
beyond the frontiers of settlement. The Indian barrier was removed at
the turn of the century by a series of frontier wars, which either
evicted the natives or broke their resistance. Of these the chief
examples are King Philip's War in New England, the Susquehannah War in
Virginia, the Tuscarora War in North Carolina, and the Yamassee War in
South Carolina. The process of expansion, however, involved further
struggles with the Indians, and border conflicts with French neighbors
on the north and Spanish neighbors on the south.

Under these influences the migration took place and by the middle of the
century a continuous back-country settlement had been formed, all the
way from Maine to Georgia. New England industries were coastwise, the
Piedmont was rough and stony, and expansion was consequently slow. But
the open spaces were nearly all filled in, to the northern boundary of
Massachusetts, while long spurs of settlement were pushed up the rivers
into Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, where French rivalry was
encountered. In New York settlement was retarded by the practice of land
leasing instead of sales, a relic of the patroon system. Nevertheless a
narrow ribbon of settlement pushed up the Mohawk from Albany nearly to
Oneida Lake, while the lower Hudson River settlements widened out toward
Pennsylvania and into New Jersey.

[Illustration: Mainland Regions occupied by the English, 1700-1760.]

Into the Southern Piedmont the movement was a double one. Some newcomers
and many old settlers crossed the Tidewater and pushed over the Fall
Line. But for the Germans, Swiss, and Scotch-Irish, Philadelphia was the
chief port of entry and the main distributing point. Thence some pushed
up the Delaware into New Jersey and northeastern Pennsylvania; others
west into the valleys east of the Kittatiny Range. Those who followed,
finding the lands occupied, and meeting here the mountain barrier to the
westward march, moved south across the Susquehannah and up the
Shenandoah Valley, whence they turned eastward into the Piedmont of
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and even of Georgia. The
Scotch-Irish in general kept nearest the outward frontier and became
_par excellence_ the Indian fighters.


English policy.--After the War of the Spanish Succession the English
government was keenly alive to the necessity of defending the colonial
frontiers. Although the period has been characterized as one of
"salutary neglect" on the part of the home government, nevertheless the
frontier defences were greatly strengthened. Soon after the signing of
the Treaty of Utrecht, the English government became aware of French
activities in Louisiana, and advice was sought from several colonial
governors as to the best means of checking French and Spanish advance. A
policy of defence was soon developed. It included the erection of forts,
exploration of the mountain passes, alliances with Indian tribes,
development of trade, reorganization of the incompetent proprietary
government of the Carolinas, the establishment of the buffer colony of
Georgia, and the encouragement of the settlement of the back country by
the Germans and Scotch-Irish.

Acadia and the Maine border.--A strange apathy regarding Acadia was
shown by the English government. A small garrison was maintained at
Annapolis, but the Acadians continued loyal to the French, and French
priests and officials from Cape Breton Island and Canada continued to
exert influence over them. The Maine border was strongly held. English
settlers again appeared on the lower Kennebec and forts were erected at
Augusta and at the falls of the Androscoggin. Somewhat later Ft.
Richmond was built on the Kennebec. English activity alarmed the Abenaki
and the French soon influenced them to go on the warpath. From 1720 to
1725 a border war continued, but after much bloodshed on both sides the
Indians sought peace.

The New York border.--On the New York border, efforts of the French to
bring the Iroquois into alliance aroused the English and in 1727
Governor Burnet erected a fort at Oswego. Owing to petty strife between
New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and between New York and New Jersey,
funds were not provided for a fortification on Lake Champlain, an
oversight which gave the French an opportunity to erect a fort at Crown

Pennsylvania and Virginia.--In 1716 Governor Spotswood of Virginia led
an expedition to the Blue Ridge and entered the Shenandoah Valley. In
his subsequent report he advised the making of settlements on Lake Erie
and the securing of the mountain passes. The proposals were not carried
out, but soon the back country was settled by Germans and Scotch-Irish,
who formed a stronger barrier of defence than walls and palisades.


Separation of the Carolinas.--Economically the Carolinas had been
drifting apart. Between the Albemarle and Cape Fear districts lay a
primeval wilderness two hundred miles in width. The northern district
was devoted to the production of naval stores and tobacco, the southern
more to rice culture. Politically the governments had been practically
separate almost from the beginning, the governor being located at
Charleston and a deputy governor being appointed for the north. In 1713
the proprietors appointed Charles Eden as governor of North Carolina,
and from this time the two provinces were practically separate.

The Yamassee War.--Between the South Carolina and Spanish settlements
lived the Yamassee Indians. In the War of the Spanish Succession they
had remained faithful to the English, but by 1715 they were won over by
the St. Augustine officials. The French at Mobile were also working on
the Creeks and Cherokees, and a confederation was formed whose object
was the destruction of the South Carolina settlements. The war began on
April 15, 1715, the Yamassee beginning the attack without the assistance
of their allies, and the plantations and settlements were assailed all
along the border. Martial law was immediately proclaimed in the
province, volunteers were organized, and calls for assistance were sent
to North Carolina, Virginia, New England, and England, the two former
responding with men and ammunition. Several bloody engagements were
fought which turned in favor of the Carolinians. The Yamassees received
reinforcements and renewed their incursions, but Governor Craven showed
such a superior force that the Indians fled beyond the Edisto and were
subsequently driven far back into the interior.

Overthrow of the proprietors.--The responsibility of defence against
Indians, and pirates who infested the coast devolved upon the settlers,
the proprietors showing little ability to assist. The assembly now took
matters in its own hands and changed the method of elections, so that
many large landholders were practically disfranchised. The acts were not
approved by the proprietors and the slumbering discontent in the
province soon approached rebellion. The situation was made worse by the
refusal of the proprietors to allow the distribution of the Yamassee
lands, and by an order that tracts be set aside for themselves. Rumors
spread that another Spanish invasion threatened and Governor Johnson
sought means of meeting it, but when he asked advice as to how funds
might be raised, he was informed that the duty which had been imposed
after the Yamassee War was still in force and that other legislation was
unnecessary. The colonists answered the governor's call to arms but soon
showed that they were against him. When Johnson refused to act in the
name of the king instead of the proprietors, he was set aside. The
proprietary government had been in ill favor with the English government
for some time. Its incompetence in the Yamassee War had convinced the
Board of Trade that a change was necessary, and it upheld the popular
movement. In 1729 an act of parliament established royal governments in
both North and South Carolina.


The debatable land.--In the great triangle formed by the Carolinas,
Florida, and southeastern Louisiana, English, Spanish, and French came
into close proximity. The international boundaries had never been
satisfactorily defined and each power strove to acquire control of the
powerful Indian tribes of the interior, thereby gaining territory and
trade. To protect the border and to aid the Charleston traders, in 1716
the Carolinians established a fort on the Savannah River, and from 1721
to 1727 maintained Ft. King George on the Altamaha. In 1730 Sir
Alexander Cuming was sent on a mission to the Cherokees, on which he
succeeded in obtaining an acknowledgment of English supremacy,
considerably strengthening the English position.

Azilia.--The need of a buffer colony on the southern border was long
realized by English statesmen. In 1717 a project was launched which gave
promise of fulfillment. Sir Robert Montgomery secured from the Carolina
proprietors a grant of the lands between the Savannah and Altamaha
Rivers which was called the Margravate of Azilia. Plans for its
settlement were drawn up and an attempt made to obtain colonists, but
Sir Robert failed to attract settlers and the grant lapsed.

Oglethorpe.--It remained for James Oglethorpe to carry out the project.
Oglethorpe had seen considerable military service, and for thirty years
was a member of the House of Commons, in the latter capacity advocating
an aggressive policy against Spain. Possessed of broadly humanitarian
sympathies, he became interested in ameliorating the conditions of
imprisoned debtors. He conceived the idea of planting a barrier colony
on the southern frontier, which would serve the two-fold purpose of
protecting Carolina against Spanish and Indian attacks, and of offering
a place of refuge for the debtor class. In 1732 he secured a charter
conveying to himself and a group of interested persons the land between
the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers and extending westward from their head
waters to the sea.

The government.--The government was of the proprietary type, but the
proprietors were not to receive any profits individually; financial
reports and legislation were to be submitted to the crown for approval.
The proprietorship was limited to twenty-one years, after which the
province was to become a royal colony. Religious liberty was guaranteed
to all but Catholics; provision was made to prevent large land holdings;
slavery was prohibited, a restriction which was subsequently removed;
the importation of rum was forbidden, as was trade with the Indians
without a license.

Savannah.--In the autumn of 1732 about one hundred men, women, and
children were sent to America, arriving at Charleston in January, 1733.
A treaty was made with the Creeks who surrendered most of their coast
lands and the town of Savannah was immediately laid out. The colony was
soon strengthened by German and Scotch immigration. In 1737 a fort was
established at Augusta and a town grew up which soon developed an
important trade with the Cherokees.

Measures of defence.--The Scotch were settled near the mouth of the
Altamaha. In 1736 Ft. Frederica was established on St. Simon's Island at
the mouth of the river, and military posts were built between the
Altamaha and the St. John's Rivers. This encroachment aroused the ire of
the Spanish government, which demanded Oglethorpe's recall, but instead,
while in Europe, he was given permission to raise a regiment of troops
for the protection of Georgia, and upon his return he visited the
Creeks, with whom he renewed the former alliance.


In 1600 the population of the English colonies on the continent of North
America was only two hundred thousand; fifty years later it had
increased to a million, and by 1760 another half million had been added.
In part this was due to natural increase, but a large population came
from the influx of Europeans other than English, the two principal
immigrant peoples being the Germans and the Scotch-Irish.

The German migration.--The causes of the German migration are to be
found in the disturbed condition of Germany. Religious persecution,
political oppression, and economic distress caused by wars and bad
seasons, each played its part in the movement. Most of the immigrants
came from southwestern Germany, especially from the Palatinate,
Württemberg, and Baden, and from Switzerland. The first period of
migration, dating from 1683 to 1710, was characterized by a small
movement of persecuted sects; but after 1710 an ever-increasing
migration took place in which the religious, political, and economic
causes blended.

[Illustration; Principal Areas of German Settlement before 1763.]

The early migration to Pennsylvania.--The first German settlement in the
English colonies may be traced directly to William Penn's visit to the
Rhineland in 1677. A group of pietists from Frankfort-on-the-Main
purchased fifteen thousand acres of Penn's land and in 1683 sent over a
young lawyer, Francis Daniel Pastorius, as advance agent, who became the
recognized leader of the Pennsylvania Germans. He was soon followed by a
considerable number of emigrants. More land was purchased and the
settlement of Germantown begun. In 1684 a group of Labadists settled on
the Bohemian River in the present state of Delaware. Every year a few
people joined the original group at Germantown. The most important
addition was in 1694 when forty Rosicrucians under John Kelpius settled
on the banks of the Wissahickon.

The migration to New York.--Not until 1710 did the great flood of
migration begin. In 1707 a portion of the Palatinate was devastated. The
following year sixty-one homeless people led by Joshua von Kocherthal
made their way to London. The Board of Trade sent them to New York,
where Governor Lovelace gave them lands on the Hudson, where they began
the town of Newburg. Religious persecution, political oppression, the
devastation of Württemberg and a part of the Palatinate, and a hard
winter caused a great exodus in 1709. In May of that year the Germans
began to arrive in London, and by October the numbers had swelled to
thirteen thousand. About thirty-five hundred were sent to the colonies.
Six hundred and fifty were settled at Newbern near the mouth of the
Neuse River in North Carolina, and about three thousand were sent to New
York, where Governor Hunter hoped to settle them on lands where tar and
pitch could be produced. The story goes that in London the Palatines had
met a delegation of Indian chiefs who had promised them lands on the
Schoharie, a branch of the Mohawk. Instead of being sent there, however,
many were placed on lands along both sides of the Hudson near
Saugerties. The colony on the west side was called West Camp, and
contained about six hundred people. The East Camp, which was located on
the manor of Robert Livingston, received nearly twelve hundred; it was
here that difficulties occurred. The attempts to produce tar and pitch
failed, and the colonists demanded that they be moved to the Schoharie.
After much bickering with the governor, in 1712 and 1713 many of the
people from East Camp moved to the Schoharie; but their troubles did not
end, for the question of land title brought them into disputes with
certain landowners from Albany. Some of the Palatines moved again, many
taking up lands in the Mohawk Valley between Ft. Hunter and Frankfort,
while others in 1723 and 1727 migrated to Pennsylvania, settling in
Berks County.

The later Pennsylvania migration.--The harsh treatment in New York and
the kind reception of Germans in Pennsylvania made the Quaker colony a
favorite place for their coming. Between 1710 and 1727 from fifteen to
twenty thousand entered Pennsylvania and settled in Lancaster, Berks,
and Montgomery counties. Between 1727 and 1740 the arrivals numbered
about fifty-seven thousand, and between 1741 and 1756 about twenty
thousand. Many of the newcomers settled in Philadelphia, and neighboring
counties, but the desire for cheap land carried a large number into the
fertile valleys of the Susquehanna, Lehigh, and Shenandoah. In the words
of Professor Faust, "They ... pushed northward and westward to Lehigh,
Northampton, and Monroe counties, and to Lebanon and Dauphin; reaching
the Susquehanna they crossed and settled the counties of York,
Cumberland, and Adams, then following the slopes of the mountains they
went southward through Maryland into Virginia, ascending the Shenandoah
Valley and settling it from Harpers Ferry to Lexington, Virginia. Using
this main avenue for their progress, they settled in North Carolina and
Virginia and later in Kentucky and Tennessee. Pennsylvania, therefore,
was the distributing center for the German immigrations, whence German
settlers spread over all the neighboring provinces."

New Jersey.--As early as 1707 several members of the German Reformed
Church appear to have settled in Morris County, and later spread into
Somerset, Bergen, and Essex counties. Later groups, mainly of Lutherans
or German Reformed, settled in Hunterdon, Somerset, Morris, Sussex, and
Warren counties, and there were scattered settlements elsewhere.

Maryland.--A few Germans came to Maryland before 1730, but with the
founding of Baltimore in that year a considerable German migration
began, enterprising Germans from Pennsylvania finding the new town a
place for their capital and energy. At about the same time the Germans
were settling in western Maryland. In 1729 Germans from Pennsylvania
settled about ten miles north of the modern town of Frederick, and soon
many German settlements dotted Frederick and neighboring counties.

Virginia.--The first Germans in Virginia were skilled iron-workers from
Westphalia, brought in by Governor Spotswood to operate his iron works
which were located on the Piedmont Plateau at Germanna, in modern Orange
County. The settlers at Germanna afterward migrated to Germantown near
the Rappahannock and to Madison County. A far more important movement
was the migration into the Shenandoah Valley. The northern part was
settled almost entirely by Germans, but in the southern part they formed
only a small part of the population. The first of the settlers came from
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 1726 or 1727, settling near Elkton.
They were soon followed by others, among them Joist Hite at the head of
sixteen families from York, Pennsylvania, who settled at the site of
Winchester. In 1734 Robert Harper founded Harper's Ferry. The most
remote settlements were located in the Alleghanies within the present
state of West Virginia; one on Patterson's Creek, another on the south
branch of the Potomac, and a third on the New River, which with the
Greenbrier forms the Great Kanawha. Thus the frontier had already
reached the "Western Waters."

North Carolina.--As already noted, the first migration of Germans into
North Carolina was connected with the Palatine movement of 1710; the
lands of Baron Graffenried on which they settled being at the confluence
of the Neuse and Trent Rivers. In the following year the Tuscaroras went
on the warpath; about sixty of the newcomers were slain and their
settlement destroyed. The Tuscaroras eventually were incorporated with
the Iroquois Confederation and the settlers took advantage of the
removal to occupy their lands, soon spreading over a large part of what
is now Craven County. About 1745. Germans from Pennsylvania began to
arrive in the western part of North Carolina, taking up lands along the
Yadkin River. Not until 1750 did the immigrants become numerous. By the
time of the Revolution there were important German settlements in
Stokes, Forsyth, Guilford, Davidson, Rowan, and Cabarrus counties.

South Carolina.--In South Carolina the first German colonists settled in
or near Charleston. In 1732 a settlement was made in Beaufort County and
German villages soon dotted both sides of the Edisto and Congaree Rivers
in Orangeburg and Lexington counties and spread out toward the Georgia
boundary, Baden, Württemberg, Switzerland, and discontents from Maine
furnishing most of the South Carolina Germans.

Swiss migration to Carolina and Pennsylvania.--With the exception of
Graffenried's project, no large enterprise for bringing Swiss settlers
to America was launched until 1725, when Jean Purry of Neufchatel began
to advertise for Swiss Protestants to found a colony in Carolina. In
1732 Purry succeeded in establishing Purrysburgh, which soon had several
hundred inhabitants. Crop failures in Switzerland coupled with heavy
taxation and a dislike for foreign military service caused a large
number to migrate between 1730 and 1750. Although accurate statistics
are lacking, recent investigation shows that during the eighteenth
century probably twenty-five thousand Swiss emigrated to Pennsylvania
and the Carolinas.

Georgia.--In 1731 thirty thousand Protestants of Salzburg were exiled.
Some of them made their way to England and eventually became settlers in
the newly-constituted colony of Georgia. The first ones arrived at
Savannah in 1734 and moved to lands on the Savannah River about forty
miles from its mouth, naming their settlement Ebenezer. Others soon
followed. Oglethorpe wished some of them to settle about the fort on St.
Simon Island, but they objected to bearing arms and were allowed to go
to Ebenezer. Others, who had no religious scruples regarding war, were
settled at Frederica. The settlers from Ebenezer soon moved down the
river eight miles to New Ebenezer, across the river from Purrysburgh. By
1741 over twelve hundred Germans had come to Georgia.

New England and Nova Scotia.--A small number of Germans made their way
to New England. The head of the movement was Samuel Waldo, who became
interested in lands on the shores of Broad Bay in Maine. In 1740 forty
families from Brunswick and Saxony founded Waldoborough. In 1749-1750
Massachusetts made an effort to increase German immigration by setting
aside lands for their use. One of these districts was near Fort
Massachusetts in modern Franklin County and extended beyond into what is
now Vermont. Three years later the first German settlers entered the
region. In 1751 Joseph Crellius brought over twenty or thirty families
who founded Frankfort, subsequently called Dresden, on the Kennebec
River. It has been estimated that fifteen hundred Germans entered New
England in 1752-1753, but many of them moved subsequently to South
Carolina. Another group settled at Braintree near Boston, but by 1760
they had all moved to the Maine settlements. During 1750-1753 occurred a
considerable German migration to Nova Scotia, sixteen hundred settling
in Lunenburg County. In the latter year the English Government checked
the movement, which was deflected to New England, and the settlements at
Broad Bay and on the Kennebec were considerably enlarged.


Causes of the Scotch-Irish migration.--Of equal importance with the
German migration was that of the Scotch-Irish from Ulster. The causes of
the migration to America were both religious and economic. The
Presbyterianism of the Scotch found scant favor with the English
authorities. The efforts to enforce uniformity, and the various
religious laws of the reign of Charles II and Anne were especially
obnoxious to Presbyterians. Though few migrated because of them, they
left a feeling of injury, which, coupled with industrial hardships,
brought about the great migration to America. English restrictive
legislation was also an important factor. Laws prohibiting the
importation into England of Irish stock and dairy products, acts
excluding Irish vessels from American trade and prohibiting direct
importation to Ireland from the colonies, and the act of 1699
prohibiting the exportation of Irish wool worked great hardships on the
people of Ulster. The enforced payment of tithes to support the
Episcopalian clergy touched both the purse and the conscience of the
Scotch-Irish. But more important than any of these was the tenant system
In 1714-1718 many of the original leases expired and the landlords
doubled or trebled the rents. This is the chief explanation of the great
acceleration of the movement to America which began in 1714. No doubt
the natural business instinct of the Scotch people, and occasional
crop failures, such as the potato famine in 1725. 1740-1741, also
hastened many who otherwise might have lingered in Ulster.

[Illustration: The Areas Largely Populated by the Scotch-Irish before

Seventeenth century migration.--In 1612 the Rev. George Keith, a
Scotchman, went to Bermuda, the first dissenting minister in the English
colonies. In 1652 Cromwell sent about two hundred and fifty Scotch
prisoners to New England. Before 1669 a considerable number of Scotch
and Scotch-Irish settled on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay and by
1680 some Scotch Presbyterians were located near Norfolk. In 1683
Scottish colonists landed at Port Royal and Charleston, and others
founded Stuartstown. In 1684 and 1685, many Scotch dissenters sought
refuge in East New Jersey, the beginning of a movement which eventually
made New Jersey one of the strongholds of Presbyterianism.

The great migration.--Dining the early years of the eighteenth century a
few Scotch-Irish made their way to America, but not until after the
close of the War of the Spanish Succession did the movement assume large
proportions. The tide of immigration which set in brought the
Scotch-Irish to every colony. Many of them found homes in the tide-water
lands among the older settlements, where vast areas were still thinly
settled, but a larger number sought the frontier.

New England.--Between 1714 and 1720 fifty-four vessels brought
Scotch-Irish immigrants to Boston. The large influx of foreigners began
to alarm the authorities. When over five hundred arrived at Boston in
the summer of 1718, a shortage of provisions threatened. To place the
immigrants on a self-supporting basis was highly desirable. In addition
the more remote settlements needed protection. The plan was accordingly
adopted of sending the Scotch-Irish to the frontier. About fifty miles
from Boston was the post of Worcester containing about two hundred
people. Soon its population was doubled by Scotch-Irish. Others came and
Worcester became the distributing point for interior settlement. In 1731
Pelham was started thirty miles to the westward, and two years later
Colerain, twenty miles farther in the wilderness, was formed. In 1741
Warren and Blandford were incorporated. From western Massachusetts the
settlers turned northward, following the Connecticut Valley, forming
settlements in Windsor, Orange, and Caledonia counties in Vermont and in
Grafton County in New Hampshire.

While Worcester was being settled, other immigrants sought lands in
Maine. Thirty families were landed at Falmouth on Casco Bay, another
group settled on the Kennebec near its mouth, and by 1720 several
hundred families had settled on the Kennebec or the Androscoggin, but
soon afterward Indian troubles caused a large part of them to move to
New Hampshire Or Pennsylvania. In 1719 Nuffield on the site of modern
Manchester was founded. When the town was incorporated in 1722 its name
was changed to Londonderry. It became the distributing point for
Scotch-Irish in that region; from there Rockingham, Hillsboro, and
Merrimack counties in New Hampshire were settled. Emigration spread over
into Vermont, joining that from Worcester, and pushed on to the north
and west. Still other Scotch-Irish settlements were formed later in
Maine. A hundred and fifty families from Nova Scotia in 1729 settled at
Pemaquid and Samuel Waldo induced a few to settle on the St. George at
Warren. Connecticut and Rhode Island also received an infusion of
Scotch-Irish blood but in a much less degree than the northern frontier.

New York.--About 1718 large numbers of Scotch-Irish came to New York,
most of them settling in Orange and Ulster counties. In 1738 John
Lindsay and three associates obtained an extensive land grant in Cherry
Valley in modern Otsego County. Many settlers were induced to come from
Londonderry, New Hampshire, and from Scotland and Ulster, but the
exposed position prevented a great influx in succeeding years.

Pennsylvania.--As in the German movement, in the Scotch-Irish migration
the largest number came to Pennsylvania. The earliest comers appear to
have settled on either side of the Pennsylvania-Maryland line in the
Susquehanna Valley. The exact date of their arrival is uncertain, but a
church had been organized as early as 1708. About 1720 the immigrants
began working up the Delaware River, settling in Bucks County and
spreading over into Northampton County. Another stream of immigrants
passed up the Susquehanna Valley, settling along the creek bottoms on
the east side of the river, their chief centers being in Chester,
Lancaster, and Dauphin counties in Pennsylvania, and in Cecil County,
Maryland. Before 1730 the settlers pushed over into Cumberland County,
Pennsylvania, which gave them access to the valleys of the interior.
They spread into Franklin, Adams, and York counties and the later
movement carried them southward into the great valleys.

The Southern Piedmont--By 1735 or earlier, the Scotch-Irish began moving
into the Shenandoah Valley. Some of them remained in Maryland and the
most eastern counties of what is now West Virginia, but most of them,
moved into Virginia, taking up the lands west of the Blue Ridge
Mountains. Many went through the passes and made their homes in the
Piedmont region to the east of the Blue Ridge. The movement was greatly
stimulated by the fact that several large land grants were made to
various Pennsylvanians and Virginians, who encouraged the settlement of
their lands. The early records of the Scotch-Irish in the southern
Piedmont give us little exact data, but between 1740 and 1760 scattered
settlements were made along the frontier from Virginia to Florida. In
North Carolina the lands between the Yadkin and Catawba Rivers were
settled. By 1750 the vanguard appeared in the western part of South
Carolina, and a few years later in the upland country of Georgia.


By the middle of the century results of great significance had come
about. All the way from New England to Georgia a back country society
had been formed, with characteristics in many ways distinct from that of
the Tidewater settlements. A large portion of the settlers, particularly
south of New York, were of non-English stock, and had brought with them
diverse notions; but, under the influence of frontier environment, they
had been moulded, together with the English stock, into a more or less
homogeneous mass. In the main the settlers were persons of slender
means, and lived hard, frontier lives. They tilled small farms with
their own hands, and indentured servitude and slave-holding were
consequently unimportant. Society, on the whole, was democratic,
individualistic, tolerant, and self-reliant. In spite of this
homogeneity of the frontier, the original traits of the settlers
persisted, and can still be found in the Pennsylvania "Dutch" or in the
Scotch Presbyterians of the Southern Piedmont.

Being distinct in character and interests, the Piedmont and Tidewater
clashed at many points, and thus arose "sectional" contests between the
East and the West, a feature which has marked American development down
to the present. The simple back country constituted a debtor society, in
need of an expanding credit; the coast was more aristocratic and more
capitalistic. The East attempted to dominate politics, legislation, and
administration. The West resisted, and before the Revolution contests
arose in nearly every colony. In many instances the back country won;
its victories are reflected in the provisions for religious toleration
and in the democratic tendencies of the new state constitutions formed
during and after the Revolution.

There were other important consequences from the settlement of the back
country. In spite of divergent interests, there were bonds of union
between the East and the Wrest. The new settlements furnished a market
for eastern goods and provided commodities in exchange, and thus
lessened the dependence of the coast upon Europe. Attended by Indian
wars and border hostilities with French and Spanish neighbors, the
westward movement had created a fighting frontier. At the same time, by
bringing the international frontiers into conflict, it had prepared the
way for the final struggle between France and England in America.

It was the southern Piedmont which furnished leaders for the
southwestward movement in the succeeding generations. Says Turner:
"Among this moving mass, as it passed along the Valley into the
Piedmont, in the middle of the eighteenth century, were Daniel Boone,
John Sevier, James Robertson, and the ancestors of John C. Calhoun,
Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson, James K. Polk, Sam
Houston, and Davy Crockett; while the father of Andrew Jackson came to
the Piedmont at the same time from the coast. Recalling that Thomas
Jefferson's home was in this frontier, at the edge of the Blue Ridge, we
perceive that these names represent the militant expansive movement in
American life. They foretell the settlement across the Alleghanies in
Kentucky and Tennessee; the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark's
transcontinental exploration; the conquest of the Gulf Plains in the War
of 1812-15; the annexation of Texas; the acquisition of California and
the Spanish Southwest. They represent, too, frontier democracy in its
two aspects personified in Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln. It was a
democracy responsive to leadership, susceptible to waves of emotion, of
a 'high religious voltage'--quick and direct in action."



Channing, Edward, _History of the United States_, II, 341-365;
Dickerson, O.M., _American Colonial Government_, 326-332; Fiske, John,
_Old Virginia and her Neighbors_, II, 383-389; Greene, E.B.. _Provincial
America_, 181-184, 249-262; Hamilton, P.J., _The Colonization of the
South_, 291-308; Jones, C.C., _The History of Georgia_, I, 67-313;
Kingsford, William, _The History of Canada_, III, 121-201: McCrady,
Edward. _A History of South Carolina_, I, 531-680; Parkman, Francis, _A
Half-Century of Conflict_, I, 183-271, II, 53-56; McCain, J.R., _Georgia
as a Proprietary Province_.


Bernheim, G.D., _German Settlements in North and South Carolina_;
Bittinger, L.F., _The Germans in Colonial Times_, 11-183; Cobb, S.H.,
_The Story of the Palatines_; Faust, A.B.. _The German Element in the
United States_, I, 30-262; "Swiss Emigration to the American Colonies in
the Eighteenth Century," in _The American Historical Review_, XXII,
21-44; Jones, C.C., _The History of Georgia_, I, 163-173. 208-214;
Kuhns, O.. _The German and Swiss Settlements of Colonial Pennsylvania_,
1-192; Wayland, J.W., _The German Element of the Shenandoah Valley of


Campbell, Douglas, _The Puritan in Holland, England, and America_, II,
460-485; Ford, H.J., _The Scotch-Irish in America_, 1-290; Hanna, C.A.,
The _Scotch-Irish_, II, 6-126; Turner, F.J., "The Old West,"' in Wis.
Hist. Soc., _Proceedings, 1908_.




Population and settled area.--By 1760 the population of the English
continental colonies was probably 1,650,000; of these the New England
colonies contained about a half-million, the middle group about four
hundred and fifty thousand, and south of the Mason-Dixon line there were
about seven hundred thousand. Nearly half of the inhabitants were in
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Virginia. The bulk of the population
still clung to the coastal regions, but the rivers had pointed the way
to the interior; many of the valleys were occupied for a considerable
distance, and the Germans and Scotch-Irish had penetrated the great
valleys of the central and southern Appalachians. Practically the whole
of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut had been occupied; to
the northward extended three narrow lines of settlement, one along the
New Hampshire and Maine coast as far as the Penobscot and extending
fifty miles up the Kennebec, another reaching up the Merrimac for sixty
miles into central New Hampshire, and a third following the Connecticut
for fifty miles above the northern Massachusetts line. Long Island was
almost entirely settled, as was the Hudson Valley to a point a little
above Albany, and the lower Mohawk Valley had been settled. New Jersey,
except in the central part and a small section of the eastern coast, was
occupied. Eastern Pennsylvania, the lower valley of the Susquehanna, and
adjacent valleys were peopled, as was the western shore of Delaware Bay.
Maryland and Virginia were settled up to the mountains and had
overflowed into the valleys of the Blue Ridge. In North Carolina the
settlements extended back for a hundred and fifty miles or more from the
coast and as far south as the valley of the Cape Fear River. In the back
country of North and South Carolina and Georgia the valleys were
occupied and the population had flowed over onto the eastern slopes of
the Appalachians. The coast lands of South Carolina and Georgia as far
as the Altamaha and the lowlands along the Pedee, Santee, and Savannah
Rivers were occupied for a hundred miles from the coast.

The older settled areas were below the Fall Line. There the industrial
and social life was less in a state of flux than along the
ever-advancing frontier. The economic tendencies in the coast country
were already fixed and showed little change until machines and
transportation worked an industrial revolution early in the nineteenth
century. The social life was also comparatively stable and was so to
remain until the Revolutionary War.

Manufacturing and mining.--During the colonial period manufacturing made
little progress, due mainly to the abundance of cheap land and English
restrictions. The colonists depended mainly upon England for
manufactured goods. Nevertheless, manufacturing made some headway,
especially in the North, where agricultural pursuits brought less profit
than in the South. The coarser fabrics, linen, hats, and shoes were
produced for the local markets. Mining was also beginning, iron mines
having been developed in New England. Pennsylvania, Maryland, and
Virginia, and at least one copper mine was worked in New Jersey.
Ironworks were established in the neighborhood of the mines and supplied
many of the local needs. In 1750 an act was passed by parliament which
allowed colonial pig-iron to be imported into England and bar-iron to
enter the port of London. The manufacture of rum was an important
northern industry.


Farming.--During the colonial period the great mass of the people were
engaged in agriculture. In New England, where soil and climate were less
favorable than in the South, the small farm with diversified crops was
the prevailing type. The supply of labor was limited and wages
relatively high. Under such conditions, the farmer, his sons, and the
"hired man" worked the place, and by dint of industry made a living. The
New England farmer was more nearly self-sufficient that any other class,
a condition which no doubt increased his feeling of independence. The
products of the farm were usually adequate for local needs but
furnished practically nothing for exportation.

Lumbering and ship-building.--The New England forests continued to be a
source of wealth. Lumber was produced in large quantities and
ship-building was carried on extensively in the coast and river towns,
the craft being of a somewhat larger type than formerly, vessels of five
hundred tons burden frequently leaving the ways. The English navy and
merchant marine obtained large quantities of masts and spars from New

The fisheries.--The importance of the fisheries increased greatly after
the War of the Spanish Succession. From the Newfoundland banks were
derived the chief products for foreign trade. Almost every coast town
had its fishing fleet, Gloucester alone boasting nearly a hundred
vessels. The cod was the most important catch, but as the century
progressed whaling became a more and more important industry.

Commerce.--With the West Indies the New Englanders carried on an
extensive trade, lumber, fish, and rum being exchanged for sugar,
molasses, and other tropical products. Rum was also an important factor
in the slave trade, which was carried on mainly by the Rhode Islanders,
who exchanged the products of the distilleries for negroes on the Guinea
Coast and in the West Indies. These in turn were traded to the southern
colonies for tobacco, rice, indigo, and naval stores. From the profits
of southern commerce and from fish, lumber, and naval stores, the New
Englanders were able to purchase English textiles, hardware, glass, and
other manufactured articles. The chief port was Boston which contained
about twenty thousand inhabitants.


Intensive farming was at its best in the middle colonies, which were the
great producers of provisions. Live stock, cereals, fruit, and
vegetables were raised in large quantities, the animal products and
grain furnishing the chief products for exportation. Lumber and furs
were also important items of commerce.

New York.--An observant English traveler who visited New York in 1760,
gives the following excellent description of the colony: "The province
in its cultivated state affords grain of all sorts, cattle, hogs, and
great variety of English fruits.... The people ... export chiefly grain,
flour, pork, skins, furs, pig-iron, lumber, and staves.... They make a
small quantity of cloth, some linen, hats, shoes, and other articles of
wearing apparel. They make glass also, and wampum; refine sugars, which
they import from the West Indies; and distil considerable quantities of
rum." He also noted that the New Yorkers were engaged in ship-building.
The Indian traffic was mainly carried on through Albany. The foreign and
coastwise trade was concentrated at New York, a city with a population
of sixteen or seventeen thousand.

New Jersey.--New Jersey was fortunate in having an historian who has
left us an excellent account of the province. Samuel Smith's history
gives the following description: "Almost the whole extent of the
province adjoining on the atlantick, is barrens, or nearly approaching
it; yet there are scattering settlements all along the coast, the people
subsisting in great part by raising cattle in the bog undrained meadows
and marshes, and selling them to graziers, and cutting down the
cedars.... Another means of subsistence along the coast, is the plenty
of fish and oysters, these are carried to New-York and Philadelphia
markets.... The lands in general, (perhaps something better than two
thirds of the whole) are good, and bear wheat, barley, or anything else
suitable to the climate, to perfection. As the province has very little
foreign trade on bottoms of its own, the produce of all kinds for sale,
goes chiefly to New-York and Philadelphia; much of it is there purchased
for markets abroad; but some consumed among themselves."

Pennsylvania and Delaware.--Agriculture was the mainstay of the people
of Pennsylvania and Delaware. The thrifty Quakers, Germans,
Scotch-Irish, and Swedes who formed the bulk of the population, produced
large quantities of grain and live-stock. The surplus was brought to
Philadelphia, a well-built city of nearly twenty thousand inhabitants.
Peter Calm has left the following picture of its industrial life:
"Several ships are annually built of American oak in the docks.... The
town carries on a great trade both with the inhabitants of the country
and to other parts of the world, especially to the West Indies, South
America, and the Antilles; to England, Ireland, Portugal, and to
several English colonies in North America. Yet none but English ships
are allowed to come into this port. Philadelphia reaps the greatest
profits from its trade to the West Indies: for thither the inhabitants
ship almost every day a quantity of flour, butter, flesh, and other
victuals, timber, plank, and the like. In return they receive either
sugar, molasses, rum, indigo, mahogany, and other goods, or ready
money.... They send both West India goods and their own products to
England; the latter are all sorts of woods, especially walnut, and oak
planks for ships; ships ready built, iron, hides, and tar.... Ready
money is likewise sent over to England; from whence in return they get
all sorts of goods there manufactured, viz: fine and coarse cloth,
linen, iron ware, and other wrought metals, and East India goods; for it
is to be observed, that England supplies Philadelphia with almost all
stuffs and manufactured goods which are wanted here. A great quantity of
linseed goes annually to Ireland, together with many of the ships which
are built here. Portugal gets wheat, flour, and maize which is not
ground. Spain sometimes takes some corn. But all the money which is got
in these several countries, must immediately be sent to England, in
payment for the goods which are got from thence, and yet those sums are
not sufficient to pay all the debts."


The tobacco colonies.--Maryland, Virginia, and the northeastern part of
North Carolina continued to be devoted largely to the raising of
tobacco. Except on the frontiers the small farms had disappeared, having
been, absorbed by great landholdings. Many of the plantations covered
thousands of acres, but probably not more than a tenth of the land was
under cultivation. The tobacco crop was extremely exhaustive to the
soil, and when the land had been cropped until its productivity
decreased, wheat or corn were usually planted, or it was turned into
pasturage. The tangled thicket soon sprang up and in the wilderness
ranged cattle and hogs. The breeding of horses was attended to with
care, for horse-racing and fox-hunting were favorite diversions among
the planters, but the cattle and hogs were of inferior quality. The
great article of commerce was tobacco, but grain, pork, and lumber were
also exported. From the Madeiras the planters received wines and from
the West Indies rum, sugar, molasses, and slaves. Most of the
manufactured articles came directly from England. In spite of the
considerable trade, no large towns had sprung up, the plantation
continuing to be the economic and social unit of the tobacco colonies.

The industries of North Carolina were more diversified than those of the
other southern colonies as is shown by the following statement from
Edmund Burke's _Account of the European Settlements in America_:
Exported from all the ports of North Carolina in 1753:

Tar                                  61,528    barrels
Pitch                                12,055    ditto
Turpentine                           10,429    ditto
Staves                              762,330    no.
Shingles                          2,500,000    no.
Lumber                            2,000,647    feet
Corn                                 61,580    bushels
Peas, about                          10,000    ditto
Pork & Beef                           3,300    barrels
Tobacco, about                          100    hogsheads
Tanned leather about                  1,000    hundred weight
Deer skins, in all ways, about       30,000

Besides a very considerable quantity of wheat, rice, bread, potatoes,
bees-wax, tallow, candles, bacon, hogs lard, some cotton, and a vast
deal of squared timber of walnut and cedar, and hoops and headings of
all sorts. Of late they raise indigo, but in what quantity I cannot
determine, for it is all exported from South Carolina. They raise
likewise much more tobacco than I have mentioned, but this, as it is
produced on the frontiers of Virginia, so it is exported from thence.
They export too no inconsiderable quantity of beaver, racoon, otter,
fox, minx, and wild cat skins, and in every ship a good deal of live
cattle, besides what they vend in Virginia.

The rice country.--The great staple of South Carolina was rice, which
was grown upon the marshy lands. A limited amount was also produced in
North Carolina and Georgia. The unhealthfulness of the rice fields,
coupled with the large profits from the business, were factors which
made negro slavery seem desirable. In 1733 the whites in South Carolina
numbered about seven thousand, in 1748 about twenty-five thousand, and
in 1765 about forty thousand, but this increase was due largely to the
great migration to the back country. Between 1753 and 1773 it is
estimated that about forty-three thousand slaves were brought into the

Indigo.--In 1741 or 1742 Miss Elizabeth Lucas, the daughter of the
governor of Antigua, planted some indigo seed on the Lucas plantation
near Charleston. From this beginning the indigo business rapidly
developed. In 1747 the colony produced 134,118 pounds; in 1754 over
200,000 pounds were exported, and shortly before the Revolution over
1,000,000 pounds were shipped annually.

Commerce.--Charleston was the commercial center. Its white population
was about five thousand in 1760 and it contained about an equal number
of negroes. In the summer and autumn the population increased, as the
planters' families stayed in the metropolis to escape the
unhealthfulness of the back country. Hundreds of vessels were engaged in
the South Carolina trade, the products being shipped to the northern
colonies and to the West Indies, to Holland, Portugal, the
Mediterranean, and England. From the profits the planters purchased the
necessities and luxuries of English manufacture, the wines of Portugal
and Madeira, and the rum, sugar, molasses, and slaves of the West

Georgia.--In 1760 Georgia contained about six thousand whites and
thirty-five hundred negroes. Industry was diversified, as is shown by a
report of Governor Wright of 1766 which says: "Our whole time and
strength ... is applied in planting rice, corn, peas, and a small
quantity of wheat and rye, and in making pitch, tar, and turpentine, and
in making shingles and staves, and sawing lumber and scantling, and
boards of every kind, and in raising stocks of cattle, mules and
hogs...." In addition there was considerable fur trade, for which
Augusta was the center.


Free labor.--The preponderance of agriculture and the abundance of cheap
land made a continual demand for laborers. The climatic and soil
conditions determined the labor system of each area. In the north the
small farm was usually tilled by the owner and his sons, aided by hired
help especially during harvest time. The men of a neighborhood
frequently combined to do important pieces of work, such as clearing
land, house-building, haying, harvesting, and corn-husking.

Indented servants.--The great plantations of the south demanded large
forces of laborers, and there the bond servants and slaves formed the
important elements of the laboring classes. The indented servants were
of two classes, voluntary and involuntary. The voluntary servants were
those who, for transportation and maintenance, willingly bound
themselves to a master for a term of years. In the seventeenth century
the usual term had been seven years, but in the eighteenth the demand
for labor was so strong that the limit was usually four years. At the
end of the term of service the servant either worked for hire or "took
up" land. Many moved to the frontier where they soon became prosperous

The involuntary bond servants were paupers, disorderly persons, and
criminals. The harsh penal laws of England at that time recognized three
hundred capital crimes. Imprisonment for debt and for political offenses
swelled the numbers in confinement. To relieve the situation
parliamentary acts were passed which allowed the commutation of the
death penalty to a service of fourteen years in the colonies, and seven
years in place of branding and whipping. We have no data for exact
numbers of indented servants, but a careful student of industrial life
in the colonies has estimated that they probably constituted one-half of
all English immigrants, the middle colonies, Maryland, and Virginia,
receiving the larger numbers.

Slavery.--In the seventeenth century negro slavery was of minor
importance in the mainland colonies, but as the plantation system
developed slaves became an ever-increasing element. In the New England
colonies and Pennsylvania they were used principally as house servants.
In New York and New Jersey they formed from eight to ten per cent. of
the population. It has been estimated that in 1760 there were four
hundred thousand slaves south of Pennsylvania. In Maryland they
constituted about thirty per cent. of the population, probably forty per
cent. in Virginia, and sixty per cent. in South Carolina.


Near the coast.--Colonial society in the older settled regions was
aristocratic rather than democratic This was due mainly to English
customs and traditions, to an increasing wealth and corresponding
raising of the standard of living, to the strength of the religious
institutions, and to the colonial system, which provided for a
considerable body of officials. In New England the ruling classes were
the clergy and the selectmen, who occupied the important places both in
the church and in political use; the official class, at the head of whom
was the governor; and a third group, the merchants, who usually were not
admitted to the governor's circle, and who were apt to voice their
social disapprobation in their influence upon legislation. In New York
and eastern New Jersey the great landholders and the official group
controlled politics and society. In western New Jersey and Pennsylvania
the Quakers were politically, socially, and commercially the
preponderant element. In the South the plantation owners formed an
aristocracy whose social lines were drawn with distinctness.

The frontier.--In contrast to the tide-water country, frontier society
was distinctly individualistic and democratic. The Scotch-Irish and
Germans had flocked to the mountain country. There they had built their
cabins, made their clearings in the forest, and lived a life free from
the conventions of the longer settled communities. Hunting, fur-trading,
lumbering, and cattle raising were their chief pursuits. The danger from
Indian attack was a constant menace, and personal bravery and
resourcefulness were strongly marked characteristics. With it all they
were a religious people, the Presbyterians and Pietists being

The Anglican church.--The religious lines marked out in the seventeenth
century were followed in the eighteenth with one notable exception,
namely, the growth of the Anglican church. This was due mainly in the
first instance to the efforts of the Bishop of London who sent
commissaries to America, the first being James Blair who was sent to
Virginia in 1689, and the second Thomas Bray, who in 1695 was sent to
inquire into the state of the colonial church. The result of Bray's
inquiry was the founding in 1701 of the Society for Propagating the
Gospel. At the time of its foundation nearly all of the Episcopal
churches were in Virginia and Maryland. In 1759 Thomas Sherlock, the
Bishop of London, reported that, "at least one half of the Plantations
are of the established Church.... This is the case of So. Carolina, N.
Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Jamaica, Barbadoes, Antegoa, Nevis, and
the rest of the Caribbee Islands. On the other side--Pennsylvania is in
the hands and under the governmt of the Quakers, and New England and the
adjoining Colonies are in the hands of the Independents. But in some of
them are great numbers of Churchmen."

The Great Awakening.--The eighteenth century witnessed a great change in
the New England churches. After a hundred years the early enthusiasm of
the Puritan church had subsided, and though its doctrine had changed but
slightly, a marked change in emphasis had taken place. Conversion was
still considered a divine work, but the belief had become current that
the soul could be put in touch with the spirit of God by prayer,
scriptural study, regular church attendance, participation in the Lord's
Supper, a moral life, and having been born of parents who belonged to
the church, by "owning the covenant." Against these views Jonathan
Edwards rebelled. In 1734 at Northampton, Edwards preached a series of
sermons in which he defended the doctrine of justification by faith
alone. He pleaded for immediate repentance and denied that good deeds
would lead to salvation. The religious revival, started at Northampton,
soon spread throughout Connecticut, and reverberated in Boston. At the
height of the movement George Whitefield, the friend of the Wesleys,
after preaching in Georgia and South Carolina, in 1740 visited New
England where thousands were converted. By 1744 the movement had
somewhat spent itself, and when Whitefield arrived at Boston for a
second preaching tour he found that a reaction had set in. The followers
of Edwards and Whitefield had come to be known as the "New Light" party,
while the reactionaries formed the "Old Light" party. Two generations
later this led to the separation of the Congregational body into the
"Orthodox" and "Unitarian" groups.

Colleges.--Religion played a large part in eighteenth century education.
William and Mary College, founded in Virginia in 1691 under Anglican
influence, was the only institution of advanced learning in the South.
Yale, founded in 1701 under strong clerical influence, became the seat
of orthodox Calvinism. Harvard also came on apace, in 1721 and 1727
establishing professorships in divinity and natural philosophy. Through
the influence of Presbyterian ministers, in 1746 the College of New
Jersey was granted a charter. King's College, now Columbia University,
founded in New York in 1754, was made possible by the efforts of Dean
Berkeley. In 1755, largely through the instrumentality of Benjamin
Franklin, the first college was founded in Pennsylvania, the institution
being freer from religious influence than any other colonial college.


West Indian planters.--In the British West Indies, the production of
sugar profoundly influenced social and economic conditions. The West
Indian planter with his vast estate worked by slaves had crowded out the
small landholder. He represented the capitalistic class, belonged to the
Anglican church, and held views similar to those of the rural
aristocracy of the mother country. It has been customary for historians
to paint a roseate picture of life on the West India plantations, and no
doubt there were many pretentious homes and many of the planters were
possessed of great wealth. But it is a striking fact that a large
percentage of the owners spent much of their time in England where their
reckless living gave a false impression of West Indian prosperity.
Slavery fostered industrial waste, and coupled with a tropical climate,
produced a manner of fife which undermined character; drinking,
gambling, immorality, and sloth were common vices. Earthquakes and
hurricanes frequently devastated the islands, the numerous wars
destroyed shipping and cargoes, and slave insurrections were a constant
terror. Churches, schools, and newspapers were sadly inadequate.
Codrington College in Barbados, the only notable school in the islands,
had but fifty students. Children of the planters were frequently sent to
England to be educated, but they there acquired a point of view which
made plantation life distasteful and tended to swell the large group of
absentee landlords.

Barbados and the Leeward Isles.--During the seventeenth century most of
the British sugar came from Barbados and the Leeward Isles, but lack of
fertilization and slave labor had brought about deterioration on the
estates, and during the eighteenth century both population and
productivity were on the decline. In 1762 the white population of
Barbados was about 18,000 and the blacks numbered 70,000. In 1736 the
island produced 22,769 hogsheads of sugar, while during 1740-1748 the
average annual production was 13,948 hogsheads. In 1744, Antigua, St.
Christopher, Nevis, and Montserrat contained a total of about 11,000
whites and 60,000 slaves. As the lands became less productive, the
planters attempted to make up the loss by increasing the number of
slaves, a method which probably aggravated the condition.

Jamaica.--In the eighteenth century, Jamaica was the West Indian
frontier. There could be found large tracts of unoccupied land suitable
for sugar culture. In spite of this the population increased slowly;
this was mainly due to slave insurrections which were frequent until
1739, to the fact that there was a constant migration of small
landholders from the British West Indies, and to a depressed sugar
market. The Island of Jamaica contained 3,840,000 acres; in 1754, 1620
planters had under cultivation 1,671,569 acres. The demand for slaves
was keener than in any other British sugar island. During 1702-1775 it
has been estimated that the planters purchased about 5,000 negroes a
year from the slave traders.

A contemporary description of Jamaica.--Leslie described the island
customs in 1740 as follows: "The Gentlemens Houses are generally built
low, of one Story, consisting of five or six handsome Apartments,
beautifully lined and floored with mahogany, which looks exceeding gay;
they have generally a Piazza to which you ascend by several Steps, and
serves for a Screen against the Heat.... The Negroes have nothing but a
Parcel of poor miserable Huts built of Reeds, any of which can scarce
contain upwards of two or three.

"The common Dress here is none of the most becoming, the Heat makes many
clothes intolerable, and therefore the Men generally wear only Thread
Stockings, Linen Drawers, and Vest, a Handkerchief tied around their
Head, and a hat above. ... The negroes go mostly naked, except those
who attend Gentlemen.... The Laidies are as gay as any in _Europe_,
dress as richly, and appear with as good a Grace.... Learning is here at
the lowest Ebb; there is no publick School in the whole Island, neither
do they seem fond of the Thing.... The Office of a Teacher is looked
upon as contemptible, and no Gentlemen keeps Company with one of that
Character; to read, write, and cast up Accounts is all the Education
they desire, and even these are but scurvily taught.... The Gentlemen,
whose Fortunes can allow, send their children to Great Britain. ... The
Laidies read some, dance a great deal, coquet much, dress for Admirers,
and at last, for the most Part, run away with the most insignificant of
their humble Servants. Their Education consists entirely in acquiring
these little Arts."

Emigration.--There was a constant migration of small landholders from
the British West Indies to the French and Dutch islands, to Guiana and
to the North American colonies. Several acts were passed whose object
was to increase the number of colonists, but they had little effect, for
the small landowners could not compete with the great slave proprietors.
The colonists with small capital preferred to start where lands were
cheaper and where social fines were not so tightly drawn.

Illicit trade.--The largest market for northern goods was found in the
West Indies. Here was a field which required the products of the
temperate zone. As Pitman observes, "Its demands upon Northern
lumbermen, stock-raisers, and farmers, furnish a powerful incentive for
the clearing and settlement of the continent." In spite of legal
restrictions the Yankee skipper plied his trade. The planters of the
sugar islands believed that the Molasses Act would restore their
prosperity, but they soon found that natural economic laws were stronger
than parliamentary enactments and that the northern sea-captain smuggled
as of old. A considerable inter-island trade which ignored nationality
was also carried on. St. Eustatius and the Virgin Isles became important
smuggler havens, and even when war was in progress, the British
Americans did not hesitate to supply their enemies with provisions and
lumber in exchange for sugar, rum, and molasses.



Bassett, J.S., ed., _The Writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover in
Virginia, Esqr_.; Bogart, E.L., _The Economic History of the United
States_, 53-104; Burke, Edmund, _An Account of the European Settlements
in America_, II, 145-273; Burnaby, Andrew, _Travels through the Middle
Settlements in North America_; Callender, G.S., _Selections from the
Economic History of the United States_, 6-84; Clark, V.S., _History of
Manufactures in the United States, 1607-1860_, 73-214; Cross, A.L., _The
Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies_; Dexter, F.B., "Estimates
of Population," in Am. Antiquarian Society, _Proceedings_, 1887; Fiske,
John, _Old Virginia and her Neighbors_, II, 174-369; Greene, E.B.,
_Provincial America_, 270-342; Hart, A.B., _Contemporaries_, II,
224-311; Johnson, E.R., and others, _History of Domestic and Foreign
Commerce of the United States_, I, 84-121; Kalm, Peter, _Travels in
North America_, in Pinkerton, _Travels_, XIII, 374-700; McCrady, Edward,
_The History of South Carolina under the Royal Government, 1719-1776_,
pp. 376-540; Smith, Samuel, _The History of the Colony of Nova Cæsaria,
or New Jersey_, 419-509; Weeden, W.B., _Economic and Social History of
New England_, II, 449-713; Andrews, C.M., _Colonial Folkways_; Phillips,
U.B., _American Negro Slavery_, 67-114.


Edwards, Bryan, _History of the West Indies_; Gardner, W.J., _History of
Jamaica_; Long, Edward, _History of Jamaica_; Pitman, Frank W., _The
Development of the British West Indies, 1700-1763_; Phillips, U.B.,
_American Negro Slavery_, 46-66.



Before 1689 English colonial administration had been largely a personal
matter with the king. Royal control had been exercised through the Privy
Council assisted by advisory committees, boards and commissioners, after
1674 the most important of these bodies being the Lords of Trade.
Between 1689 and 1714 colonial administration underwent fundamental
changes both in theory and organization. By the end of the reign of Anne
it had become largely departmental and official rather than personal,
and Parliament had begun to take a somewhat larger hand in running
affairs than during the former period. The Board of Trade, a body
independent of the Privy Council, replaced the Lords of Trade in 1696
and for a time was the chief agency in the direction of colonial
affairs. It lacked executive authority but conducted routine business
and gathered information on which the Privy Council, Parliament, and the
departments of the treasury, admiralty, and war acted. Under the
Hanoverians the Secretary of State for the Southern Department became
the colonial minister and the Board of Trade lost much of its
importance. In America the principal agents of imperial control were the
royal governors, judges, customs officials, and naval and military


The system as William found it.--When William III ascended the throne,
the later Stuart colonial system had not been perfected. It had been
characterized by the principles that the authority of the crown should
be strengthened at the expense of the colonial legislatures, that
commerce should be regulated by the imperial administration, and that
larger governmental units should take the place of the multiplicity of
colonies. The colonial governments had gradually evolved toward a common
type, composed of governor and council representing the crown or
proprietor, and a legislature in which the council acted as an upper
house while the lower elective house represented the interests of the

Committee on trade and plantations.--William III at first adopted the
machinery of colonial administration as he found it, continuing the
committee of the privy council on trade and plantations, but he
appointed new members, including leading ministers from both the Whig
and Tory parties. The navigation laws were continued in force, and
Edward Randolph was retained as surveyor general of the customs.

Governmental changes in New England---In the colonies several changes
were introduced, the most striking being in New England. The idea of a
consolidated New England was abandoned. The charters of Rhode Island and
Connecticut were restored, and New Hampshire was established as a royal
province. In 1691 Massachusetts, Plymouth, Maine, and Acadia were
consolidated into the Province of Massachusetts Bay, but the immediate
reconquest of Acadia by the French made the new charter inoperative in
that region.

Massachusetts charter of 1691.--The form of government established in
the Province of Massachusetts Bay was a compromise between the old
independent form of earlier days and the type of the royal colony. The
charter provided for a governor, deputy-governor, and secretary, to be
appointed by the crown; a council of twenty-eight; and a lower house
composed of freeholders, elected by the people. The general court
composed of the governor, council, and lower house, was given the power,
after the last Wednesday in May, 1693, of selecting annually the members
of the council, at least eighteen of whom were to be from the old colony
of Massachusetts, four from New Plymouth, and three from Maine.
Legislation which met the approval of the governor was sent to the king
in council, who within three years of the passage of the act, could
disallow or nullify the colonial legislation. Laws not disallowed within
three years remained in force.

New York.--The Leisler rebellion in New York complicated the problem of
reorganization. Instead of Leisler being countenanced, New York, shorn
of New Jersey, was again made a royal colony, with a government composed
of governor, council, and elected assembly. Governor Henry Sloughter
arrived on March 19, 1691, and the first assembly met on April 9. It
promptly repealed the Duke's Laws, and voted that the revenues be made
payable to the receiver-general, a crown appointee, and that issuance of
funds be made by the governor's warrant, an action which made the
governor for the time being independent and paved the way for future
disputes. Sloughter died in July, 1691, and in August, 1692, Colonel
Benjamin Fletcher arrived to assume the governorship, Richard
Ingoldesby, an appointee of the council, having acted as governor in the

Virginia.--In Virginia the revolution was effected without violence.
Lord Howard of Effingham continued in the governorship but remained in
England, Sir Francis Nicholson, who had been deposed in New York, being
sent out as governor in 1690. Though he resisted the calling of an
assembly, popular clamor forced his hand. A new capital city called
Williamsburg was immediately laid out.

The Jerseys.--No settled policy regarding the proprietary governments
was followed by William. Instead of attempting to readjust them after
some formulated plan, each colony was dealt with as an individual unit
with its own problem. In the Jerseys William restored the proprietors.
Little authority was exercised by them, however, until 1692, when Andrew
Hamilton was sent out as governor of both East and West New Jersey, a
distinct step toward consolidation into a single province.

Pennsylvania.--The marked favor with which James II looked upon Penn
placed the Pennsylvania proprietor under William's suspicion. Charges of
misgovernment on the part of Penn's appointees, bickerings in the colony
between the upper and lower counties, controversies among the Quakers,
claims of religious intolerance, and the set attitude of the Quakers
against war, made an accumulation of troubles for the proprietor. In
1692 he was deprived of his government, Benjamin Fletcher being sent
over as governor. Fletcher introduced the royal colony type of
government, selecting a council and summoning an elective assembly from
both the upper and lower counties. When Fletcher demanded appropriations
to assist in the war, the assembly proved factious, claiming that the
governor was violating the chartered rights of the colony. Fletcher was
unable to overcome the constitutional objections and withdrew to New
York, sending a deputy to the colony to represent him. Penn in the
meantime had been pressing his claims, and having succeeded in
convincing the king of his loyalty, in 1694 was restored to his rights.

Maryland.--The Catholicism of Baltimore placed him under the ban of the
government, in spite of the fact that he hastened to proclaim the new
sovereigns. A rebellion against the proprietor gave ample excuse for the
crown to take over the government of the colony. Baltimore was left in
possession of his territorial rights, retaining the quit-rents,
ownership of vacant lands, and his share of the customs, but the
government was taken from him. In 1692 Sir Lionel Copley came over as
royal governor, a council was selected from the anti-Baltimore party,
and an assembly was convened. The assembly established the Episcopal
church and divided the counties into parishes. Copley died in 1693, and
for a brief period Sir Edmund Andros was governor, but Francis Nicholson
soon succeeded him, and transferred the capital from St. Mary's to

The Carolinas.--The proprietors of the Carolinas fared better. Though
there was much opposition to them in the colonies, they succeeded in
ingratiating themselves with William and were left in undisturbed
possession. In 1691 the Charleston and Albermarle districts were united
under a single government, Philip Ludwell, who in 1689 had been
appointed governor of the district north and east of Cape Fear, being
made governor of the whole of Carolina.


The Board of Trade.--As the war progressed, the enforcement of the
navigation laws became more and more difficult; piracy and smuggling
increased, and the Dutch obtained a larger part of the carrying trade
than formerly. The complaints of English merchants were voiced in the
House of Commons, where an insistent minority demanded a reorganization
of the machinery of colonial administration and a revision of the
navigation laws. William was opposed to the creation of a new board by
parliament, considering that such action would be an encroachment upon
the prerogative of the crown. The parliamentary bill was dropped, and
in May, 1696, the king organized the Board of Commissioners for Trade
and Plantations. Instead of being a committee of the privy council, the
new board was an independent organization. It was composed of nominal
and real members. The nominal members were the chief officers of state
who seldom attended meetings. The working members of the board were
eight non-ministerial paid officials, among those first commissioned
being John Locke and William Blathwayt, the efficient secretary of the
old committee.

The board had general supervision of colonial trade and government,
gathered information, and reported on colonial affairs to the king or to
parliament. Instructions to royal governors were draughted by them and
they made nominations in cases of vacancy in the colonial service. They
examined colonial legislation with a view to its confirmation or
disallowance, listened to complaints, examined the accounts of the
colonial treasuries, and attended to many minor matters. The board was
in reality a clearing house for colonial administration; it examined,
reported, and recommended, but it could not execute. During the reigns
of William and Anne, its recommendations carried great weight, but its
importance gradually declined as the cabinet system developed.

The secretaries of state.--Of William's ministers, those to whom
colonial affairs were usually entrusted were the two secretaries of
state, one or the other attending to the work. Governors usually
corresponded directly with the secretaries. Questions which involved
foreign countries, questions of defence, Indian outbreaks, and
violations of the navigation acts were usually handled by the
secretaries without being referred to the Board of Trade.

The privy council.--The privy council continued to be the executive
center of the system. Recommendations which were read before it were
usually referred to a committee of the whole, and upon the decision of
this committee the council acted. As Dickerson says, "The whole
machinery ... for colonial administration included a Board of Trade to
investigate, gather facts, and make recommendations; a committee of the
Privy Council to act as a board of review and a court of appeals, both
administrative and legal; and the privy council, meeting with the king,
before which all final actions of importance were registered."

The Board of Trade and other departments of government.--The
commissioners of the customs worked in close touch with the Board of
Trade. The bodies were mutually helpful in collecting information. The
admiralty and the treasury were also necessarily in close touch with the
Board of Trade as was the Bishop of London. Many members of the Board of
Trade occupied seats in parliament and prepared bills which affected the
colonies. The board members also furnished information to parliament
concerning trade and colonial matters.

Evasion of the trade laws.--The earlier navigation laws had not been
thoroughly enforced. Most of the customs officials and some of the
governors exerted themselves to enforce the laws, and several ships were
fitted out to stop illicit traffic, but many of the officials were
negligent, and several of them no doubt profited by non-enforcement of
the laws. When arrests were made convictions proved difficult, for the
juries were in sympathy with the law-breakers. In 1693 a Scotch
commercial company was organized with the object of trading to India and
Africa. This alarmed the English East India and the Royal African
companies. The complaints of the customs officials and individual
merchants, when reinforced by these powerful corporations, resulted in
the passage of "An Act for preventing Frauds and regulating abuses in
the Plantation Trade," a law familiarly known as the Navigation Act of

Navigation Act of 1696.--The act provided that after March 25, 1698, no
goods should be imported into or exported from any English colony in
Asia, Africa, or America, or be carried from or to any colony, or
England, Wales, or Berwick-upon-Tweed, except in ships built by English
subjects and navigated by English masters, with three-fourths of the
crews English subjects. Exception was made of prizes condemned in the
admiralty courts, and, for three years, of ships which were under
contract to deliver supplies to the English navy. All ships engaged in
colonial trade were made subject to the same rules of search and the
same penalties for violations as prevailed in England. No vessel was
allowed to engage in colonial trade until one or more of the owners had
registered the vessel and taken a prescribed oath. The Lord Treasurer,
Commissioners of the Navy, and Commissioners of the Customs were allowed
to appoint customs officers for any place which they saw fit. Forfeiture
of vessel and cargo was the penalty for breach of the law, one-third of
the proceeds to go to the crown, one-third to the governor of the
colony, and one-third to the informant who brought the suit. Governors
or commanders-in-chief of the colonies were required to take oath to
enforce the acts of trade, under penalty of a fine of a thousand pounds
and removal from office. Naval officers in the customs service were
required to give ample security to the Commissioners of the Customs in
England. In order to secure convictions, the act provided that in cases
arising under the navigation laws, only natives of England, Ireland, or
persons born in the English colonies could serve on juries. Those having
land grants were forbidden to dispose of any lands to foreigners without
an order in council, and the crown reserved the right to approve the
nomination of governors in the proprietary colonies. Any colonial act at
variance with the navigation laws was declared null and void.

Woolen Act of 1698.--The frequent interruptions of trade during the War
of the English Succession caused the New Englanders to manufacture many
woolen goods. In order to retain a monopoly for English manufacturers,
in 1698 an act was passed forbidding the colonists to ship wool or
woolen products from one colony to another.

Admiralty courts.--The Navigation Act of 1696 presupposed the
establishment of admiralty courts in the colonies. The continental
colonies were soon organized into two admiralty districts, New England,
New York, and after 1702 New Jersey comprising the northern, and the
rest the southern district. At a later period the districts were
subdivided. In these courts there were no juries, a fact which made the
admiralty courts exceedingly unpopular.

The Piracy Act.--Piracy had long existed, especially in the West Indies,
and though stringent measures were taken to suppress it, the black flag
still floated over many a pirate craft. Madagascar became a favorite
haven, and from its harbors went forth the sea rovers to prey upon the
East and West Indiamen. In many ports of the American colonies they were
able to dispose of their booty, while officials closed their eyes or
shared in the profits. Of the pirates of the period, the best known is
Captain Kidd, about whose name has clustered much of fable and romance.
The Navigation Act of 1696 made smuggling more difficult, and out and
out piracy increased greatly after the passage of the act. To protect
the merchant ships and make the navigation laws more effective, in 1700
an act was passed which provided that piracy and other felonies
committed on the high seas might be tried in special colonial courts
created by the crown.

The "Charter of Privileges" and the formation of Delaware.--Near the
close of the reign of William III the government of Pennsylvania was
changed. In 1701 in the hope of quieting dissension in Pennsylvania,
Penn consented to the "Charter of Privileges," which was passed by the
council and assembly. The proprietor continued to appoint the governor
and councillors, but the assembly was henceforth composed of four
representatives from each county who were elected by the freemen. The
assembly was allowed to elect its own officers and to initiate
legislation. Delaware was allowed to have its own assembly but remained
under the jurisdiction of the proprietor.

New Jersey.--The policy of bringing all the colonies to a common type
was evidenced by various attempts to send governors to the chartered and
proprietary colonies, but in the end the attempts were abandoned.
Various bills were introduced in parliament to make all the colonies
royal, but they failed except in the case of New Jersey. The position of
the proprietors in East and West New Jersey had always been precarious,
and in 1702 they surrendered their rights to the crown. The two colonies
were consolidated into the single colony of New Jersey, the royal type
of government being established, Governor Cornbury of New York being
commissioned as the first royal executive.


Cabinet development.--During the reign of Anne the cabinet system was
gradually evolving. The privy council continued as the legal advisory
body of the crown, but a small group of ministers, the forerunner of the
modern cabinet, was in control Colonial affairs were placed definitely
in the hands of the secretary of state for the southern department. The
Board of Trade continued, but as the cabinet system developed, it became
less important, the secretary of state for the southern department and
parliament gradually encroaching upon the activities of the board. The
union with Scotland in 1707 profoundly affected the commercial system,
for after the union the Scots were no longer excluded from colonial

Commercial legislation.--In 1705 another important act of trade was
passed which added rice, molasses, and various naval stores to the fist
of enumerated articles which must be shipped to England. To offset these
new restrictions, bounties were to be given on naval stores produced in
the colonies and shipped to England and in 1707 colonial seamen were
exempted from impressment in the royal navy. During the reign of William
III the Bank of England was established and the financial system was
completely renovated. No definite money system had been established in
the colonies; Spanish coins were in common use, but they had no fixed
value, a condition which greatly hampered commerce. In 1707 parliament
passed an act which imposed penalties for taking foreign coins at a rate
above the legal ratio. The colonial post-office was also reorganized.
Before 1689 each colony had regulated its postal offices. In 1692 a
patent for twenty-one years was issued to Thomas Neale to establish
colonial post-offices; Neale's deputy, Andrew Hamilton of New Jersey,
obtained the support of several of the colonial governments in
establishing postal rates, but the arrangements were lacking in
uniformity. In 1710 parliament passed an act reorganizing the
post-office of the entire realm. In the colonies a post-office was to be
established in New York and at other convenient points in each of the
colonies on the continent and in each of the Leeward Isles.

Disallowance and appeals.--During the reigns of William III and Anne the
crown was constantly seeking to harmonize the colonial and home
governments, both in legislation and administration. The chief crown
instrument for achieving harmony was the right of royal disallowance of
colonial legislation. By 1692 it had been established in the royal
provinces and in Pennsylvania. In 1702 it was extended to New Jersey,
and at various times during the reign of Anne laws of chartered
colonies were disallowed, although such action was of doubtful legality.
The unity of the English court system was maintained by insistence that
cases involving individuals in the colonies might be appealed to the
privy council When the colonies attempted to restrict the right,
colonial legislation was disallowed.

Causes of friction.--The constitutional development in England which
followed the Revolution of 1688 was reflected in the colonies, where
each lower house was a miniature house of commons representing the will
of the enfranchised people, while the governors and proprietors were
considered as representatives of the royal will. Struggles between the
governor and assembly occurred in almost every colony, the most common
causes of quarrel being the control of elections and of the purse, and

Control of elections and the purse.--In several of the colonies the
popular control of elections was maintained either by specific
statements in the charters or by legislative enactment. In Virginia the
burgesses in 1692 declared themselves the sole judges of the
qualifications of their members. The Massachusetts charter provided for
annual elections, and the same right was given to Pennsylvania in 1701.
Legislative acts in the Carolinas secured biennial elections. The most
potent factor in limiting the power of governors was the control of
taxation by the lower house. That money raised by direct taxation should
be disbursed by the representatives of the people was a growing idea.
The assemblies frequently fixed salaries, refused to provide for fixed
civil lists, specified how much should be drawn and spent, and limited
grants for governors to annual appropriations. Massachusetts was the
most insistent on her rights, but each of the colonies in one way or
another sought to curb the executive.

Appointments.--The appointment of administrative officers by the
assemblies became more and more frequent. The theory that the
representatives of the people should control taxation and disbursements
naturally led to the assertion of the right to appoint financial
officers, and by 1715 in most of the colonies the treasurer was
appointed by the assembly. The colonies also maintained agents in
England who guarded their interests.


Whig ascendency.--The peaceful establishment of George I on the English
throne marked the downfall of the Tory party. To keep England at peace
and at the same time to maintain the balance of power in Europe was the
difficult task which the Whig statesmen performed, in the main
successfully. To build up English industry and commerce on mercantilist
principles was the basis of the Whig economic system.

Establishment of the Cabinet system.--The statesmen who had placed a
Hanoverian on the throne did not propose to surrender the powers of
government. The king, ignorant of English speech and English politics,
soon learned that a Whig-made king was also a Whig-ruled king. During
the two previous reigns a small group of men within the privy council
had invariably directed affairs of state. This group had gradually come
to represent the majority in parliament, an arrangement which became a
definitely established principle, the ministerial group forming the
cabinet. From 1714 to 1721 no one man dominated, but the financial
crisis, brought about by the bursting of the South Sea Bubble, gave the
great financier, Robert Walpole, his opportunity. As First Lord of the
Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer, for twenty years he maintained
his leadership, the first of the prime ministers.

The Secretary of State for the Southern Department.--In the evolution of
the cabinet system the machinery of colonial government also changed.
Under the Whig régime the Board of Trade, which, since 1696 had been the
chief instrument of colonial control, soon became of secondary
importance, the Secretary of State for the Southern Department being
recognized as the responsible head of the colonial system. Until 1724 no
one held the office long enough to develop a colonial policy, but in
that year the Duke of Newcastle was appointed to the position, which he
held for twenty-four years. Newcastle is generally regarded as an
inefficient administrator, a politician who found the colonial system a
convenient place to reward supporters. In his hands was the power of
appointment of colonial governors and other important officials; many of
them proved to be excellent officials, but others were corrupt or
incapable. Jealous of his authority and fearful of entrusting power to
others, Newcastle attempted to attend to the mass of colonial business,
with the result that it was frequently neglected.

The Board of Trade.--The Board of Trade necessarily lost in power. When
the Whigs came in office, they made a clean sweep of the board. The new
members were usually friends of the ministers or indigent members of the
house of commons, most of whom were ignorant of colonial affairs. The
board became mainly an information bureau. At a later period, when
Newcastle became prime minister, it regained some of its former prestige
under the able leadership of Halifax.

The privy council.--During the reign of Anne the deliberative work of
the privy council had been transacted largely by a committee, the
council formally approving business settled in committee. This became
the uniform rule under George I. Petitions, complaints, and memorials
were, usually referred to the Board of Trade for investigation and
report, and then considered by a committee, of which the Secretary of
State for the Southern Department was invariably a member. Colonial laws
were also referred to the board for examination, while appeals were
usually handled by a committee of the council. The crown continued to
disallow colonial legislation, but exercised the right less frequently
under the first two Georges than under William and Anne.

Attitude toward colonial governments.--As compared with earlier periods,
little was done to reorganize colonial governments. Though plans for
doing away with the charters of Rhode Island and Connecticut were
frequently discussed, no action was taken, but in the proprietary
colonies changes occurred. In Maryland the Baltimore family was restored
to power, and in Pennsylvania the Penn family was confirmed in its
rights. In the Carolinas the colonists had grown weary of proprietary
neglect in defending the colonies against the Indians, Spanish, and
French. Revolutionary movements occurred which resulted in the overthrow
of proprietary power and in the complete separation of North and South
Carolina, a government of the royal type being established in each

Trade laws.--During the Walpole period the mercantilist economic
theories were still the basis of trade regulation. The colonies
continued to be looked upon as a base of supply for raw material. Their
industrial and commercial activities were not to interfere with those of
English manufacturers and shippers. To prevent smuggling, to provide for
the treasury, and at the same time foster the resources of the colonies,
were the difficult tasks of Walpole and his colleagues.

Naval stores.--The wars of William and Anne had caused a great demand
for naval stores, and their production in the colonies had been
encouraged. During that period England had drawn her greatest supply
from the Baltic countries. But the defeat of Sweden in her wars with
Russia meant a decline of English influence in the Baltic, and England
turned to the colonies for her ship supplies. In 1721 a new bounty act
was accordingly passed to encourage the colonial supply, and the best
hemp from the colonies was allowed to come into England free of duty.
Eight years later the bounties on pitch, turpentine, and tar were
somewhat lessened, the encouragement still being sufficient to give the
producers a decided advantage over their competitors, the Carolinas
being the principal gainers in the business. In 1731 the drawback on
unwrought hemp exported from England to the colonies was removed, an act
which also appears to have favored the colonial trade. The production of
hemp, however, did not flourish in America as did that of other naval
stores. In 1721 copper was placed upon the enumerated list, but every
effort to include iron was defeated until 1750. In line with the policy
of stimulating the production of naval stores was a provision that
timber from the colonies could be imported into England duty free, the
result being that New England became the source of supply for masts both
in the navy and the mercantile marine.

Furs and hats.--The fur business in the Atlantic seaboard colonies had
steadily declined, and the government wished to build it up. To
accomplish this beaver and other peltry were placed on the enumerated
list, but the duties payable in England were materially decreased. Much
of the beaver was used in the colonies in the manufacture of hats. As
this was an important English industry, in 1732 an act was passed which
stopped the exportation of hats from the colonies and restricted their

Rice.--The rice industry had been introduced in Carolina about 1688, and
found an important market in Portugal and Spain. Rice being placed on
the enumerated list in the reign of Anne, the colonies soon lost the
market. To rectify this, in 1730 Carolina was allowed to send rice
direct to countries south of Cape Finisterre. Five years later Georgia,
and somewhat later the West Indies, were allowed the same privilege.
American rice immediately regained its place in the trade of southern
Europe and also found a market in Holland and Germany.

The Molasses Act.--The great staple of the West Indies was sugar. In its
production the English Islands had surpassed the French colonies, a
condition which was due to the restrictive measures of the French
government. But in 1717 France adopted a liberal policy toward her
colonies and the production of sugar increased to such an extent that
the English sugar-producing islands experienced a financial depression.
The thrifty colonial traders from the mainland, especially from New
England, took advantage of the low price of French and Dutch sugar,
molasses, and rum. To bolster up the West Indian planters and to prevent
the trade with foreign colonies, in 1733 the Molasses Act was passed,
imposing prohibitory duties on molasses, sugar, and rum imported into
the continental colonies from other than English possessions. But in
spite of the act the trade continued, and but little effort was made to
enforce the law.

Constitutional principles.--During the period from 1714 to 1740 the
constitutional rights of the people in the colonies were defined more
clearly than before. In 1720 the principle was established that the
common law applied to the colonies as well as to England, but the
question of whether English statute law extended to the colonies was not
satisfactorily settled. The writ of habeas corpus was usually granted
under the common law. Progress was also made toward gaining the freedom
of the press. After a struggle in Massachusetts in 1721 the right of the
governor to censor books was abridged. In 1735 Zenger, a New York
publisher, was tried for libel. The court held that it should decide the
libellous nature of the statements made, and that the jury should
determine the fact of publication. Zenger's lawyer argued that the jury
must decide on whether or not the publication was libellous. On this
ground he won his suit, thereby greatly strengthening the power of the

Increasing power of assemblies.--English colonial policy does not appear
to have aroused serious opposition. Each colony had its political
parties, but no question arose which welded together any group of
colonies, or of classes in various colonies. As in the earlier period
there were frequent quarrels between the assemblies and the governors,
control of finance being the most usual cause of friction. The governors
demanded fixed salaries, while the assemblies insisted on making
temporary grants. The assemblies also ignored the necessity of the
governor's warrant in drawing money, and insisted that the councils
should not amend money bills. In these controversies the governors were
usually bested, and by the close of the Walpole régime, the principle
was well defined that the assemblies should control the purse.

Paper money.--Closely allied to the question of control of taxation and
the governor's salary was that regarding the issuance of paper money. A
shortage of coin was usual, and the issuance of paper money was the
remedy by which the assemblies and banks attempted to provide a medium
of exchange. In general the governors opposed such issues as financially
unsound, but their actions were frequently misunderstood and were
considered tyrannous.

Friction between colonies.--The difficulties between the executives and
the assemblies might have developed into a general opposition to English
control had it not been for the quarrels between colonies over
boundaries and trade laws. Boundaries were based upon charters, which in
many cases were conflicting and almost every colony had chronic disputes
with its neighbors. The trade laws of one colony frequently
discriminated against its neighbors, the natural result being
retaliatory legislation. The English government was often called in as
umpire, but its decisions seldom met with the approval of both parties.


Andrews, C.M., _The Colonial Period_, 128-154; Beer, G.L., "The
Commercial Policy of England toward the American Colonies," in Columbia
University, _Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law_, III, No.
2; Bingham, H., "Early History of the Scots Danen Company," in _The
Scottish Historical Review_, January, April, July, 1906; Briscoe, N.A.,
"The Economic Policy of Robert Walpole," in Columbia University,
_Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law_, XXVII, No. 1; Channing,
Edward, _History of the United States_, II, 217-281; Dickerson, O.M.,
_American Colonial Government, 1697-1765_; Egerton, H.E., _A Short
History of British Colonial Policy_, 114-152; Greene, E.B., _Provincial
America_, 166-207; _The Provincial Governor in the English Colonies of
North America_; Root, W.T., _The Relations of Pennsylvania with the
British Government, 1696-1765_; Pitman, Frank W., _The Development of
the British West Indies, 1700-1763_, pp. 127-333.




Spanish dynastic ambitions.--From 1715 to 1739 the relations of England
and Spain were frequently strained, due to the clashing of commercial
and colonial interests, or to the ambitions of Spanish rulers. Philip V
hoped to become the king of France. His second wife, Elizabeth Farnese,
was ambitious to secure territories in Italy for her sons, the elder,
Don Carlos, being destined to play an important part in Italian and
Spanish history. The Spanish minister, Alberoni, devoted himself to
building up Spanish influence in Italy.

The Triple and Quadruple Alliances.--Her Italian policy brought Spain
into discord with the Emperor Charles VI, as the House of Austria hoped
to remain the dominant factor in Italy. In 1717 Austrian acts in the
Milanese provoked hostilities. Spanish forces immediately occupied
Sardinia and the following year Sicily. The same year an alliance had
been made between England, France, and Holland, and in 1718 Austria
joined the alliance. Austrian troops were sent to Italy, a Spanish fleet
was defeated by the English Admiral Byng, and in 1719 a French army
crossed the Spanish frontier. Spain was brought to terms and Alberoni
was dismissed. But before definite terms could be arranged, France
opened negotiations with Spain and French influence was greatly
strengthened. The war between Spain and France extended to their North
American colonies, with important consequences, as has been set forth in
an earlier chapter.

Spanish-Austrian alliance.--From 1721 to 1724 Elizabeth Farnese depended
on the French alliance to attain her ends. But France made no effort to
dislodge the English from Gibraltar, and Spanish merchants complained of
English smugglers in the colonies. Furthermore, Don Carlos had not been
established in Italy. To bring about the desired ends, in 1725 an
alliance between Spain and Austria was formed. This was made possible by
the ambitions of the Emperor Charles VI, who had been unable to obtain
the adhesion of England, Holland, and France to the Pragmatic Sanction.
He also hoped to secure a part of the Oriental trade by the formation of
the Ostend East India Company, an enterprise which ran counter to
English, Dutch, and French interests. Spain immediately demanded from
England the cession of Gibraltar. The reply was the formation of the
League of Hanover between England, France, and Prussia, the last named
power, however, soon deserting its allies. Hostilities began in 1726
when an English fleet blockaded Puerto Bello and in 1727 the Spanish
besieged Gibraltar. Austria was unprepared for war. Powerful parties in
England and France did not favor it, and a considerable faction in Spain
opposed the Austrian alliance. In consequence a peace was patched up.
The operations of the Ostend Company were suspended for seven years, and
the siege of Gibraltar was abandoned.

The treaty of Seville.--Abandoned by Austria, Elizabeth Farnese turned
to England and Holland. A treaty was made which provided that the
privileges of the Ostend Company be revoked, that England's former
rights of trade in the Spanish colonies be renewed, that Spain abandon
her claims to Minorca and Gibraltar, and that the succession of Don
Carlos to the Italian duchies be guaranteed. The Austrian emperor was
furious, but was pacified by a recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction on
the part of England and Holland. In 1731 Don Carlos became Duke of Parma
and Placenzia and was assured the succession to Tuscany.

French and Spanish alliance.--Walpole was not inclined to strengthen
Spanish influence in Italy, so the shifty queen abandoned England and
brought about an alliance with France. This was made possible by
commercial difficulties in the colonies, and by the fact that French and
English colonial interests were approaching a collision. The alliance of
France and Spain was not disclosed, however, until 1739. In 1733 the War
of the Polish Succession broke out; in the struggle England remained
neutral, but France and Spain took an active part against Austria. At
the end of the war Naples and Sicily were united under the rule of Don
Carlos and the great ambition of Elizabeth Farnese was attained.

Commercial relations of Spain and England, 1715-1739.--By the treaty of
Utrecht England had gained the right to supply the Spanish colonies with
slaves and to send an annual cargo of five hundred tons to Spanish
ports. English merchants were not satisfied with this paltry trade, and
smuggling increased. Spanish coast guard ships seized many of the
English traders, who received rough handling by the Spanish officials.
During 1738 and 1739 public opinion in England became more and more
inflamed against Spain. A paper presented to parliament in 1738 showed
that in recent years fifty-two vessels had been plundered by the
Spaniards, and that British seamen had been harshly treated. The most
famous case was that of Thomas Jenkins, who declared that a coast guard
captain had captured him, cut off his ears, and insolently remarked,
"Carry this home to the King, your master, whom, if he were present, I
Would serve in like fashion." Attempts to settle difficulties by
diplomacy failed, and by the summer of 1739 it became evident that war
was at hand. On July 10 George II issued a proclamation authorizing
reprisals and letters of marque against Spanish commerce. England
declared war on October 23, and Spain on November 28.


Puerto Bello, Cartagena, and Chagres.--As soon as war appeared
inevitable, orders were despatched to Jamaica to make reprisals and
Admiral Edward Vernon, in command of nine war vessels, was sent to the
West Indies. Hearing that the Spanish galleons would rendezvous at
Cartagena and then sail to Puerto Bello, where bullion was waiting to be
exchanged for merchandise, Vernon determined to attack Puerto Bello. On
November 22, 1739, the place was captured and the fortifications
demolished. On March 6 and 7, 1740, Cartagena was bombarded, and a part
of the fleet then attacked and captured Chagres.

The Georgia frontier.--While these events were taking place, Oglethorpe
was taking measures to strengthen the Georgia frontier. Hearing that the
Spanish and French were tampering with the Indians, he visited Kawita,
the principal Lower Creek village, where a conference was held with
chieftains of many tribes, who acknowledged the sovereignty of George
II. Upon his return to Augusta, Oglethorpe was visited by Chickasaw and
Cherokee chiefs, who made complaint against the traders, but he
succeeded in appeasing them. By these conferences the frontier was made
safe from Indian depredations in the coming war. As soon as Oglethorpe
received information that a state of war existed, he recruited his
forces and sent runners to the Indian villages asking for a thousand
warriors to coöperate against the Spaniards. Fortifications were
strengthened and vessels patrolled the coast. In November, 1739, word
came that the settlement on Amelia Island had been attacked. In
retaliation the Spaniards were driven from their outposts on the St.
John's. On January 1, 1740, Oglethorpe proceeded against Fort Picolata
on the St. John's River, surprised and captured it, and shortly
afterward Fort San Francisco de Papa, only twenty-one miles from St.
Augustine, was reduced but later abandoned.

Attack on St. Augustine.--Oglethorpe determined to make an attempt to
capture St. Augustine. He repaired to Charleston, where he succeeded in
getting the assembly to pass an act to contribute five hundred men and a
schooner. The mouth of the St. John's River was to be the rendezvous for
the Carolina and Georgia troops. The Indians were asked to send forces
to Frederica. Oglethorpe also obtained the coöperation of nine small
vessels of the British fleet. Without waiting for a complete
concentration of his forces, he entered Florida in May, 1740, and soon
captured the Spanish outposts. He then concentrated his forces and moved
against St. Augustine. Oglethorpe expected to capture it by a combined
sea and land attack, but the fleet failed to coöperate and a siege had
to be instituted. The city was closely invested until June 14, when a
sortie succeeded in recapturing one of the outposts. A ship of war which
had been guarding the Matanzas River was withdrawn and the Spaniards
took advantage of the opportunity to land reinforcements and supplies
from Havana. After a consultation between the naval and military
commanders, Oglethorpe decided to give up the undertaking.

Spanish and English preparations.--The Spaniards, alarmed by English
activities, in July, 1740, sent out a large squadron under Admiral Don
Rodrigo de Torres. France was persuaded to proclaim her close alliance
with Spain and she made known her decision not to allow England to make
conquests or new settlements in the West Indies, but the death of the
Emperor Charles VI determined her to stay out of the war for the time
being. When news of Torres' fleet reached England, twenty large vessels,
several frigates and small craft, and many transports carrying nine
thousand troops were sent to the West Indies, where they arrived in
December. "A fleet such as had never before been assembled in the waters
of the New World was now at the disposal of the British commander."
Commodore George Anson was also despatched around Cape Horn to the
Pacific to prey upon Spanish commerce.

English failures.--In March, 1740, the English fleet anchored before
Cartagena. From March 9 to April 11 the city was besieged, but lack of
harmony between the commanders of the land and sea forces, and general
mismanagement coupled with sickness among the besiegers, contributed to
one of the most striking failures in English naval history. After
destroying the works which had been taken, the expedition sailed for
Jamaica and shortly afterward eleven of the heavier vessels and five
frigates were withdrawn from the West Indian station. The English
ministry also hoped to conquer Cuba, but an attack on Santiago failed as
dismally as that on Cartagena. In 1742 the capture of Panamá by an
overland expedition from Puerto Bello was planned, but after again
occupying Puerto Bello the scheme was found to be impossible of
attainment. The only success of the year was the occupation of Roatan
Island off Honduras Bay. In October Vernon returned to England, leaving
Oglethorpe in command of the West Indian station. An expedition along
the Venezuelan coast failed as completely as other English ventures on
the Spanish main.

The Georgia frontier, 1742-1743.--The failures of the English made it
possible for the Spanish to assume the offensive, and forces estimated
at about five thousand, besides a large fleet, were collected at St.
Augustine for an attack upon Georgia. The Spanish attack was launched
against the fortifications on St. Simon Island, but the spirited
defence disheartened the invaders and they soon withdrew to St.
Augustine. In March of the following year Oglethorpe retaliated by a
descent on Florida and drove the Spanish within their defences at St.
Augustine, but being too weak to attack the city, withdrew again to


France enters the war.--The European situation had developed along lines
by 1743 which brought France into an offensive alliance with Spain. In
1740 the Emperor Charles VI died and his daughter Maria Theresa became
Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. Portions of her
domains were coveted by Prussia and France. Prussia seized Silesia; this
was followed by a French attack, and the War of the Austrian Succession
was on. England and Holland feared that France might annex the Austrian
Netherlands. France found a ready ally in Spain, and the conflict which
had been waged between England and Spain since 1739, by 1743 had
developed into a great European war.

French attack on Acadia.--Events in Europe and the Mediterranean were
far more important in bringing the struggle to a conclusion than those
in America, but it is beyond the scope of this work to deal with them.
During the peace the French had fortified Louisbourg on Cape Breton
Island, making it one of the strongest fortifications in America. The
governor of Cape Breton decided to attempt to regain Acadia and sent out
an expedition which captured Canso. After destroying the town the French
proceeded to Annapolis. The place was saved, however, by the vigilance
of the Massachusetts authorities, Governor Shirley and the assembly
having despatched a body of volunteers, who arrived before the enemy.

Capture of Louisbourg.--Governor Shirley then proposed to the assembly
the quixotic scheme of capturing Louisbourg. Nearly four thousand
volunteers from Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts were
assembled and placed under the command of William Pepperel of Kittery,
Maine. Each of the New England colonies furnished war vessels and
transports, and Commodore Peter Warren was sent from the West Indies
with several ships of war. In April, 1745, the great flotilla appeared
before Louisbourg and the place was soon invested by land and sea. After
one of the most remarkable sieges in American history, in which the
untrained colonials acquitted themselves with bravery and efficiency, on
June 28 the place surrendered.

Border warfare, 1746-1748.--The success at Louisbourg encouraged the
colonists to attempt the conquest of Canada. All of the colonies as far
south as Virginia furnished men, and the Duke of Newcastle promised a
large force of regulars. But the English troops were diverted to Europe
and the plan came to naught. The failure of the projected conquest
spurred the French colonists to attack the outlying settlements; from
Acadia to the New York border, bands of French and Indians harried the
frontier. Grand Pré and Fort Massachusetts were captured but were soon
reoccupied. Until the close of the war, the New England borders were
harassed by frequent raids. The New York and Pennsylvania frontiers were
protected, mainly through the influence of the Indian agent, William
Johnson, who kept the Mohawks friendly, and the Pennsylvania interpreter
Conrad Weiser, whose policy of favoring the Iroquois land claims in
Pennsylvania at the expense of the Delawares held the powerful New York
confederation on the English side.

French and English naval activity, 1745-1746.--In March, 1745, a large
French fleet under De Caylus was sent to the West Indies. As soon as the
English ministry heard of this, Vice-Admiral William Rowley was sent out
with large reinforcements. Though De Caylus's fleet was not engaged, on
October 31 Rowley fell in with another squadron of war vessels and
supply ships, and captured or destroyed thirty out of forty sail. In
1746 France made an attempt to regain Cape Breton and Acadia. Under
D'Anville a fleet of eleven large war vessels, several frigates and
small craft, and transports carrying thirty-five hundred troops, arrived
off the Acadian coast but the fleet was shattered by a storm, and the
enterprise was abandoned.

Decisive battles off Cape Finisterre.--In 1747 another French fleet was
sent out to recapture Cape Breton, but an English fleet under Anson and
Warren intercepted it off Cape Finisterre and nearly every French vessel
was captured. Later in the year France despatched a fleet to the West
Indies convoying over two hundred merchantmen, but near the scene of
the former battle a second great engagement occurred in which the
English were again victorious. These two great victories completed the
destruction of the French fighting navy.

Knowles's attack on the Spanish, 1748.--Early in 1748 Rear-Admiral
Charles Knowles attacked and captured Port Louis on the southern shore
of Española. In April he bombarded Santiago de Cuba. In September an
engagement with a Spanish fleet took place off Havana, but he succeeded
in capturing only one vessel.

The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.--The long war was drawing to an end,
neither side having attained unqualified success. In the Peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle, signed in October, 1748, all conquests were restored.
The peace was but a truce. Both England and France realized it and both
put forth efforts to strengthen and extend their colonial possessions.


Acadia.--Acadia, the upper valley of the Ohio, and the Cherokee country
were debatable territories. To insure English possession of Acadia, Lord
Halifax, the president of the Board of Trade, insisted upon the
strengthening of the peninsula of Nova Scotia. In 1749 twenty-five
hundred emigrants were sent over and the city of Halifax was founded.
Three years later the English population had increased to four thousand.
Edward Cornwallis was installed as governor, and the usual form of crown
colony government established. Fort Lawrence was erected on the isthmus.
Since many of the Acadians had failed to be neutral in the last war,
Cornwallis asked that they again take the oath of allegiance, a request
which was refused, and three or four thousand emigrated rather than
swear allegiance. The policy of France regarding Acadia was to restrict
its boundaries to the peninsula of Nova Scotia, to incite the Indians to
make depredations, and to keep the Acadians loyal to the French king.
Fort Beauséjour on the isthmus was converted into a formidable fortress
and Louisbourg was greatly strengthened.

English activities on the Ohio.--Victories on the sea in the recent war
had made it possible for English merchants to undersell their French
rivals. From Albany and Oswego officials and traders worked in unison
to keep the friendship of the Iroquois. From his estate on the Mohawk,
William Johnson, a nephew of Admiral Warren, exerted great influence
over the neighboring tribes, an influence which was to increase as the
years went by. To the southward the frontiersmen grasped the opportunity
for profit, and soon the Ohio country was frequented by many traders
from Virginia and Pennsylvania. They penetrated to the Indian villages
as far as the Mississippi and even into the country beyond. The
principal trading centers were Pickawillany in the Miami confederacy,
Logstown on the Ohio, and Venango on the Alleghany. Settlers also began
to cross the mountains; in 1748 Virginia frontiersmen made a settlement
at Draper's Meadow on the Greenbrier River.

The Ohio Company.--In 1744, at a council held at Lancaster,
Pennsylvania, the Iroquois granted to the English the control of the
country north of the upper Ohio. By subsequent agreements title was
obtained to lands south of the river. In 1749 definite action was taken
to occupy the territory. The project was launched by Virginia, partly to
check the western pretensions of Pennsylvania. A charter was granted
conveying a half-million acres on the upper Ohio to a group of Virginia
and English gentlemen, among the stockholders being several of
Washington's relatives. The grantees agreed to build a fort on the Ohio
and within seven years to settle a hundred families on their lands. In
the same year the Loyal Company secured a grant of 800,000 acres in the
West. In 1750 Christopher Gist, a well-known fur trader, was sent by the
Ohio Company to explore as far as the Falls of the Ohio, the site of
modern Louisville. During 1750-1751 he traversed portions of what are
now Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. His
favorable report stimulated activity; a trading house was built at
Wills' Creek where Cumberland, Maryland, now stands, and a trail was
blazed to the junction of Redstone Creek and the Monongahela, the
primitive beginning of the Cumberland Pike. A few Virginians immediately
settled at the western terminal of the trail.

The French frontier strengthened.--In general the Iroquois had been
faithful to the English, but the French continued their efforts to gain
the support of the powerful confederation. An Iroquois mission was
established near Montreal, and in 1748 Father Piquet founded the mission
of La Presentation at modern Ogdensburg. To divert trade from Oswego, in
1749 Fort Rouillé was built where Toronto now flourishes. A new post was
established at the Niagara portage, Detroit was strengthened, and a
garrison stationed at Sault Ste. Marie. The Marquis de la Galissonière,
the governor of Canada, saw the danger of the English occupation of the
Ohio country. In 1749 he despatched a force under Céloron de Bienville
to take possession. The expedition passed from Lake Erie to Chautauqua
Lake and proceeded southward to the Alleghany, where the work of taking
formal possession began. The procedure was to proclaim French
sovereignty, to nail to a tree a sheet of tin bearing the arms of
France, and to bury at the foot of the tree a leaden plate which stated
that the land along the Ohio and its tributaries belonged to the King of
France. Many Indian villages in the Ohio Valley were visited and several
plates buried, but wherever Céloron went he found evidences that the
tribes were friendly to the English. At the Great Miami the last plate
was buried, and the party proceeded to the French post on the Maumee and
then returned to Canada.

French occupation of the upper Ohio.--In May, 1749, the Marquis de la
Jonquiére was appointed governor general. He was instructed to get rid
of Oswego by inciting the Iroquois to attack it. Jonquiére found his
government permeated with dishonesty, the intendant Bigot having used
his official position to fatten the purses of himself and friends. The
governor was powerless to occupy the Ohio country, having neither
soldiers nor money sufficient for the enterprise. When he ordered
Céloron to attack Pickawillany, that officer refused because of
disaffection among the neighboring Indians. But help came from an
unexpected quarter. A young French trader from Green Bay named Charles
Langlade gathered two hundred and fifty Ottawas and Ojibways and
destroyed the Miami village. Jonquiére died in 1752; his successor, the
Marquis Duquesne, proved to be of sterner stuff. In 1753 he sent an
expedition of fifteen hundred men to occupy the Ohio country. Fort
Presq'Isle was erected and a road was cut to French Creek, where Fort
LeBoeuf was built The French planned to build another fort at the forks
of the Ohio, but sickness and the lateness of the season interrupted
their operations.

Washington's mission, 1753.--Dinwiddie, the lieutenant-governor of
Virginia, realized the import of the French advance. He warned the home
government which authorized him to demand the departure of the enemy,
and in case of refusal, to drive them out by force. He at once sent an
embassy to protest. The bearer of the message was George Washington, a
surveyor who had barely reached the age of twenty-one. Guided by
Christopher Gist, he proceeded to the forks of the Ohio, then to
Logstown where parleys were held with the Indians, and later to Venango.
Washington was civilly received but was told that the French intended to
keep possession of the Ohio. He then proceeded to Fort LeBoeuf, where he
was told that Dinwiddie's letter would be sent to Duquesne and that in
the meantime the commander would remain at his post. It was evident that
force must be employed if the Ohio country was to become English

The southern frontier.--The back country of the Carolinas and Georgia
was the land of the hunters, cowboys, and Indian traders. The
headquarters of the Georgia traders was Augusta, while those of South
Carolina had a place of deposit at the residence of Peter St. Julien
near Dorchester. From there the caravans followed the Congaree trail or
that which led to the Chickasaw. French agents were continually working
among the interior tribes and in 1753 a war broke out between the Creeks
and Cherokees. Governor Glen of South Carolina called the Indians to
conferences and finally succeeded in maintaining peace for the time
being. The governor then visited the lower Cherokee and purchased a
tract of land on which Fort Prince George was built, one hundred and
seventy miles above Augusta on the Savannah River.


Virginia prepares to attack the French.--When Dinwiddie heard the French
reply, he prepared for war. From the house of burgesses he demanded men
and money, and messengers were sent to the Catawbas, Cherokees,
Chickasaws, and the Iroquois of the Ohio Valley asking them to join in a
war against the French. Dinwiddie also appealed to the governors of
Pennsylvania, North and South Carolina, Maryland, and New Jersey for men
and he asked the governors of New York and Massachusetts to make a
demonstration against Canada to distract forces from the Ohio. The
replies proved disappointing. The only outside troops which immediately
came were a company of regulars from South Carolina sent by royal order.
Two companies of regulars from New York arrived too late to be of

Washington's first campaign.--Three hundred provincial troops were
raised in Virginia and placed under Joshua Frye, with Washington second
in command. A few backwoodsmen were sent forward in February, 1754, to
build a fort at the forks of the Ohio, but were captured by a body of
French and Indians. The prisoners were released and brought back the
news of their mishap. The French demolished the fortification and built
a stronger one which they named Fort Duquesne. Washington pushed on
toward the west with a portion of the troops and by the middle of May
reached the Great Meadows. Hearing that a party of French were scouting
in the neighborhood, Washington, with forty men surprised them, captured
twenty-two, and killed ten.

The death of Frye gave Washington the command. Realizing the imminence
of an attack, he constructed a rude fortification at Great Meadows,
which he called Fort Necessity, and here the rest of the Virginia troops
and the regulars from South Carolina were concentrated. From Ft.
Duquesne a force variously estimated at from five hundred to seven
hundred men under Coulon de Villiers, was despatched to attack
Washington's forces, now reduced to about three hundred and fifty
effectives. The fortifications proved to be badly constructed and poorly
located, and ammunition ran short. In a few hours fifty or sixty men had
fallen, and when Villiers proposed terms of surrender it was evident
that they must be accepted. "Not an English flag now waved beyond the
Alleghanies," and the red warriors of the West and even many of the
Iroquois flocked to the standards of France.

Apathy of the colonial legislatures.--Even Washington's defeat did not
greatly arouse the colonial assemblies. After much delay Virginia voted
twenty thousand pounds, Pennsylvania a paltry five hundred pounds for
presents to the Indians, New York five thousand pounds, Maryland six
thousand. In Massachusetts Governor Shirley used a rumor that the French
were seizing places in the back country to obtain a large grant. He also
sent eight hundred men to build two forts on the Kennebec. The southern
colonies appear to have taken no action.

The Albany convention.--The encroachments of the French showed the
necessity of adopting some plan of defence. In June, 1754,
representatives from New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the New
England colonies met at Albany. The Indian chiefs stated their
grievances and were sent away soothed but hardly satisfied. The
representatives then took up the subject of defence. A plan of union,
chiefly the work of Franklin, was proposed, but when it was submitted to
the colonies they unanimously rejected it. The Board of Trade then
formulated a plan of union for military purposes only, but events were
occurring which made it necessary to take immediate action. The plan was
laid aside, and the board suggested the appointment of a
commander-in-chief over all the forces in America, a suggestion which
was eventually put into effect.

Preparations for war.--In Europe, England and France were nominally at
peace. At the head of the English ministry was the Duke of Newcastle,
who maintained his control of a parliamentary majority by corruption
rather than by statesmanship. Fortunately for England, she had a fleet
which was far more numerous than that of her opponent. The strength of
France lay in her army which was nearly ten times as strong as that of
her rival. Major-General Edward Braddock, a former governor of
Gibraltar, stubborn, irascible, and little given to taking advice, was
sent to Virginia with two regiments, which embarked at Cork in January,
1755. As soon as the French heard of this, eighteen men-of-war with
three thousand soldiers were sent to Canada, followed shortly by nine
more war vessels. The English immediately sent twelve vessels under
Admiral Boscawen in pursuit, followed shortly by seven more, but only
two of the French vessels were captured.

The council of governors.--Braddock summoned the governors for a
consultation and they met in April, 1755, at Alexandria in Virginia.
Those who responded were the governors of Virginia, North Carolina,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York, and Massachusetts. William Johnson was
also at Alexandria but was not in the council. A four-fold attack was
planned. Braddock was to attack Fort Duquesne; Shirley was to strike at
Niagara; Johnson to attack Crown Point; and Lieutenant-Colonel Monckton
was to proceed against Beauséjour.

Braddock's campaign.--After great difficulty in obtaining wagons and
supplies, Braddock moved toward the frontier. In May his forces,
composed of about two thousand men, were gathered at Fort Cumberland. At
Little Meadows, thirty miles from Fort Cumberland, Braddock left the
heavy baggage and marched on, though slowly, to attack Fort Duquesne. On
July 9 when the forces were about seven miles from the fort they began
to march along a rough path through the forest. As the English advanced
forces were crossing a ravine they were attacked by the French and
Indians, who spread out on either side and fought from behind trees,
while the English regulars wheeled into line and returned the fire. The
bravery and discipline of the English regulars proved of little avail
against the invisible enemy and they soon broke and fled. Braddock
hastened up with the second division, but the troops retreating from the
front threw them into hopeless confusion. Braddock realized that his
force was in danger of annihilation and ordered a retreat. As he fell
back he received a mortal wound. Washington, left in command, extricated
the troops as best he could and once more led back the sorry remnant of
a defeated force.

The harrying of the frontiers.--With the defeat of Braddock, the
frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia were left almost
defenceless. Washington could muster barely fifteen hundred men to
protect a mountainous frontier nearly four hundred miles long. No
assistance was offered by Pennsylvania, whose Quaker representatives,
religiously opposed to war, quarreled with the governor over raising
money for defence, in every revenue bill asserting the right to tax the
lands of the proprietor, a course in which the governor was unable to
acquiesce. The deadlock between governor and assembly continued for
months, while Indian war bands killed hundreds of settlers. The back
country of Virginia was also a scene of massacre and rapine. Under
Washington's supervision a plan of defence was devised. Blockhouses
were built at advantageous points along the frontier, the most important
being Fort Ligonier near the Alleghany River, Fort Chiswell in the
Shenandoah Valley, Fort Bird on the Holston River, and Fort Loudoun on
the Little Tennessee. Fort Cumberland protected the upper Potomac.

[Illustration: The Western English Frontier (From Thwaites, France in
America, opposite p. 256 [Harpers]).]

Operations in Acadia.--While the war was going badly on the western
frontier Nova Scotia was the scene of victory. In June Monckton with two
thousand colonials landed at Fort Lawrence and soon captured Fort
Beauséjour. Fort Gaspereau and a fortification at the mouth of the St.
John were also occupied. Then followed one of those tragic dramas of
war, the removal of the Acadians. They had constantly been in sympathy
with France and many of them had broken their neutrality in the recent
conflict. When they were again asked to take the oath of allegiance they
stubbornly refused. Fearing their defection in case the French attempted
to reconquer the peninsula, their deportation was ordered. Over six
thousand were sent away, many being placed in the mainland English
colonies; others went to Louisiana and the West Indies, and still others
to Canada and France. One shipload of the unfortunates landed in Texas
and fell into the hands of the Spaniards.

The Crown Point campaign.--For the advance against Crown Point about
three thousand men from the New England colonies and New York were
brought together at Albany under William Johnson. It was not until
August that they encamped at the southern end of Lake George. The
slowness of Johnson's movements had given the French ample time for
preparation. Baron Dieskau with thirty-four hundred men had been sent to
Crown Point. He now moved southward with a part of his force to a point
almost east of the English camp. In the first engagement Dieskau scored
a success. He then rashly attacked the English camp, but his forces
suffered heavily, were finally routed, and the commander captured. After
the battle Johnson, who was wounded, decided not to attempt to capture
Crown Point.

The Niagara campaign.--Governor Shirley undertook the reduction of
Niagara. With two regiments of colonials and five hundred New Jersey men
he advanced to Oswego. But there Shirley found himself checkmated, for
the French had sent fourteen hundred men to Fort Frontenac and had
brought twelve hundred from Fort Duquesne to Niagara. If Shirley
attacked, he would be in danger of forces from Fort Frontenac cutting
his line of communications. After a summer of inactivity he left a
garrison of seven hundred men at Oswego and abandoned the campaign.

The diplomatic revolution.--In 1756 the old alignment of England and
Austria against Prussia, France, and Spain changed. Since the War of the
Austrian Succession, Maria Theresa had bided her time, until she could
recover Silesia. With the aid of her great minister, Kaunitz, she
succeeded in forming new alliances, France, Russia, Austria, and some of
the minor German states uniting against Frederick the Great. To protect
Hanover, the hereditary possession of George II, England made an
alliance with Prussia, and thus became a participant in the Seven Years'
War. Although a state of war with France had existed in India and
America, neither power had made a declaration of war. But there was no
longer need for subterfuge; England declared war on May 18, 1756, and
France on June 9.

French preparations.--Already France had despatched to America the
Marquis de Montcalm to take command of the forces, with the Chevalier de
Levis as second in command. Almost from the first Montcalm was beset
with difficulties. Vaudreuil, who had taken Duquesne's place as
governor-general, was a colonial, jealous of any official from France, a
man lacking in decision, desirous of appearing as the mainspring of
success, but ever ready to blame failure upon others. The Intendant
Bigot was entirely venal, a man of low morality, who feathered his nest
regardless of the public danger. Montcalm's command contained three
thousand French regulars in Canada and eleven hundred at Louisbourg, two
thousand trained colonials, and about fifteen thousand militia. The
Indian allies furnished varying numbers.

English preparations.--Upon his return from Oswego Shirley planned a new
offensive, which included attacks upon Ft. Duquesne, the Lake Ontario
and Lake Champlain defences, and the settlements above Quebec. This was
approved by a war council at Albany, but the colonies refused to embark
in such an extensive scheme and the attack on Ft. Duquesne and Quebec
had to be abandoned. John Winslow was commissioned to lead the troops
against Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and Shirley proposed to command
against the Ontario strongholds. But before the plan could be executed
Shirley was superseded by Colonel Daniel Webb, who in turn was followed
by General James Abercromby, with the understanding that Loudoun was
soon to take command.

The fall of Oswego.--While the colonial forces were slowly preparing to
take the offensive, Montcalm struck at Oswego. A three days' siege made
the forts untenable and the place surrendered on August 14, 1756,
sixteen hundred prisoners being taken. Montcalm then returned to
Ticonderoga, where his garrison of five thousand men defied Loudoun, who
dared not attack him. The year had been one of dismal disasters for the
English: Oswego fallen, the Ticonderoga attack abandoned, the frontiers
from Maine to South Carolina harried by Indian war, Minorca captured by
the French, and Calcutta fallen to Sur'a ah Dowlah.

Pitt becomes the moving spirit.--Newcastle's mismanagement raised a
popular outcry and in November, 1756, he resigned. The Duke of
Devonshire became Prime Minister, but Pitt was the strong man of the new
cabinet. He was not in the king's favor, however, and, by April, 1757,
was forced out of office. In July a new ministry was formed. "To
Newcastle was given the name of Prime Minister, to Pitt the reality.
With the control of foreign affairs as Principal Secretary of State he
was also to have control of the war." He saw that England's opportunity
was on the seas and in the colonies.

Louisbourg and Ft. William Henry.--At the advice of Loudoun an attack on
Louisbourg had been planned. A part of the troops were withdrawn from
the northern frontier and in June eleven or twelve thousand men were
gathered at Halifax, where they were joined by a squadron under
Vice-Admiral Holburne. The news that Louisbourg had been heavily
reinforced alarmed Loudoun and he returned to New York. Holburne cruised
off Louisbourg, hoping to attack the French, but his fleet was shattered
by a storm. Loudoun had left an insufficient force to defend the Lake
George region. Montcalm, ever on the alert to take advantage of the
blunders of the enemy, descended from Ticonderoga and attacked Fort
William Henry at the southern end of the lake. After a three days'
bombardment the English force of about two thousand surrendered. On the
continent the British had failed dismally. An attempt to capture
Rochefort had been unsuccessful and the Duke of Cumberland had conducted
an inglorious campaign in Germany. The only great British successes of
the year were in India where Calcutta and Chandernagore were captured
and the battle of Plassey was won.

Preparations and plans, 1758.--By 1758 Pitt, ably seconded by Admiral
Anson, had brought the army and navy to a high standard. A squadron was
sent to watch Brest, flying squadrons attacked several French ports, a
fleet was maintained in the Mediterranean to prevent the fleet at Toulon
from getting into the Atlantic, and small squadrons were sent to India,
to the African coast, and the West Indies. The army was raised to a
hundred thousand. In America Loudoun was superseded by Abercromby,
Major-General Amherst was sent over, and twenty thousand provincial
troops were put in the field. A three-fold offensive was planned. Forbes
with about seven thousand men was to attack Fort Duquesne; Abercromby
and Howe with fifteen thousand men were to clear the French from Lake
Champlain, and Amherst with twelve thousand regulars aided by a powerful
fleet under Admiral Boscawen was to attack Louisbourg.

Capture of Louisbourg.--Boscawen and Amherst rendezvoused at Halifax and
on June 1, 1758, over a hundred and fifty vessels appeared before
Louisbourg. Gradually the English forces encompassed the fortress. The
French sunk several war vessels in the harbor mouth to prevent the
entrance of the English fleet, but in the course of the bombardment
three of the remaining French vessels caught fire and two others were
destroyed by a night attack. The defences were battered down one by one
and on July 26 Ducour, the French commander, offered to capitulate and
six thousand prisoners of war passed into English hands.

Abercromby's defeat.--While the English were besieging Louisbourg,
Abercromby led his army of fifteen thousand against Ticonderoga.
Montcalm was in command of the French fortress, which was garrisoned by
less than four thousand men. The English army crossed Lake George on a
great flotilla, and on July 6 was within four miles of Ticonderoga.
Abercromby foolishly thought that the fortifications could be rushed
with the bayonet and on July 8 the attempt was made. The French fire
mowed down the charging ranks with frightful slaughter. A desultory
fight continued, followed by a second charge which also failed, and
Abercromby, after losing nearly two thousand men, decided to retreat. In
October Amherst took command of the forces which were encamped at the
southern end of Lake George, but the season was too far advanced to
attempt another great offensive in that region until spring.

Forts Frontenac and Duquesne.--The French forces on Lake Ontario had
been weakened by withdrawals. Taking advantage of this, in August
Lieutenant-Colonel Bradstreet led twenty-five hundred men against Fort
Frontenac. The feeble garrison of one hundred soon surrendered, and the
fort and ships in the harbor were destroyed. Lake Ontario was now in the
hands of the English, and French control on the upper Ohio was
weakening. General Forbes gathered a force of six or seven thousand men
and advanced toward Fort Duquesne. Upon the approach of the English in
November, the French destroyed the fortifications and scattered to the
various western posts which they still possessed.

Kerlérec and the southern Indians.--That the English did not carry the
war into the Southwest was due in no small part to the Indian policy of
Kerlérec, the governor of Louisiana. The Creeks and Choctaws were
traditionally favorable to the French, but their loyalty was always
strained by the superior quality of English goods. Kerlérec made annual
visits to Mobile to distribute presents, and prevented the Choctaws from
threatened defection. Through his influence, in 1755 and again in 1757
the Creeks expelled Englishmen sent to establish posts among them, and
murdered English traders. In 1757 Fort Massac was built on the Ohio to
prevent an English expedition descending that stream or the Cumberland.
At the same time the Shawnees returned to French allegiance.

The Cherokee War.--For three years Kerlérec intrigued with the Cherokees
and succeeded in winning them over. He soon incited them to attack the
settlements and many depredations occurred. In October, 1759, Governor
Lyttleton of South Carolina, after a show of force, patched up a truce,
but shortly afterward the Cherokees surrounded Fort Prince George and
killed the commander and two others. The garrison then massacred Indian
hostages within the fort, and immediately the southern frontier was
ablaze with war. Hostilities assumed such proportions that it was
necessary, early in 1760, for Amherst to send twelve hundred men to
assist the colony. An expedition under Colonel Montgomery destroyed many
Cherokee villages, but Montgomery's orders did not allow him to remain
long in the colony, and in August he departed for New York. The
Cherokees then captured Fort Loudoun. In 1761 an expedition of
twenty-six hundred Highlanders and colonials under Colonel Grant was
sent against the Indians. The heart of the Cherokee country was
penetrated and the Indians were forced to sue for peace.

Operations in the West Indies.--Late in 1758 British reinforcements were
sent to the West Indies to attempt the capture of the French island
possessions, twenty-five vessels being gathered under Commodore John
Moore. In January an attempt was made to take Martinique, but the French
force of ten thousand regulars and militia prevented the occupation.
During the following months Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, the Saintes, La
Désirade, and Petit Terre surrendered to the English.

The campaigns of 1759.--Four expeditions against the French in North
America were planned for 1759; one under Prideaux against Niagara, a
second under Stanwix against settlements on Lake Erie, and a third under
Amherst against Ticonderoga and Crown Point. The fourth under
Vice-Admiral Saunders and Major-General Wolfe was directed against

Niagara captured.--Prideaux arrived before Niagara in July. In the
attack the general was accidentally killed and Sir William Johnson took
command. He defeated a relieving force and the fort surrendered. The
fall of Niagara made it unnecessary for Stanwix to proceed, and he
devoted his energies to the building of Fort Pitt, on the site of modern

The fall of Quebec.--While Amherst was slowly moving toward Lake
Champlain, the more important operations were proceeding against Quebec.
The rendezvous was at Louisbourg. There were gathered nine thousand
troops, thirty-nine men-of-war, ten auxiliaries, twenty-six transports,
and a hundred and sixty-two other craft, manned by eighteen thousand
men. In June the vast armament sailed up the St. Lawrence to attack the
strongest fortification on the continent. For the defence of the city
Montcalm was able to muster an army of seventeen thousand, four thousand
of whom were French regulars. The city occupies a promontory which juts
into the St. Lawrence. Behind it are the Plains of Abraham, a plateau
with almost perpendicular cliffs. To the eastward flows the River St.
Charles. Between the St. Charles and the Montmorency stretched the
fortified French camp. The only weak place in the defence was Point
Levis across the river. This Montcalm had wished to fortify but had been
overruled by Vaudreuil.

On June 26 the fleet approached the city and Point Levis was immediately
occupied. Then began a series of attacks upon the French positions below
the city, but every assault was repulsed and frequently with heavy loss.
It became evident that the French encampment could not be taken and the
plan of attack was changed. The fleet, which formed a screen for land
operations on the southern shore, had gradually succeeded in getting
several vessels above the city, intercepting supplies and
reinforcements. At a council of war an attack above the city was
determined upon. Wolfe withdrew his forces from the Montmorency and they
were transferred to a point above the town. This movement was covered by
the movement of the ships, which continually passed up and down the
river as if to make a landing. On September 12 Saunders bombarded the
French camp below the city. Montcalm, completely deceived, hurried
reinforcements to that quarter. Before dawn of September 13 Wolfe landed
his first detachment at the foot of the cliffs two miles above the city.
Up the steep side clambered a small party, who overcame the guard at the
top. By sunrise forty-five hundred men had mounted to the Plains of
Abraham. Montcalm made a desperate effort to regain the position but the
battle went in favor of the English. Both Wolfe and Montcalm were
killed. On September 17 the British troops entered Quebec, the key to
the St. Lawrence.

Important naval operations.--Elsewhere the English were equally
successful. In 1758 Sénégal and Gorée on the African coast had been
captured, and in 1759 on the coast of India a French fleet was bested
and abandoned the East Indian waters. Rodney destroyed a French fleet at
Havre, Boscawen in August completely defeated the French Mediterranean
fleet, and Hawke in November annihilated the channel fleet in a great
battle near Quiberon Bay.

The French fail to recapture Quebec.--Although Quebec had fallen the
French still had a formidable force in the field. The troops were
withdrawn from Lake Champlain and new levies were raised. By April,
1760, Levis had gathered an army of eleven thousand men and he proceeded
boldly to attempt the recapture of Quebec. A hard winter had greatly
reduced the effectiveness of the English garrison and General Murray was
able to meet the French with only three thousand men. On April 18
occurred the second battle on the Plains of Abraham. The artillery saved
the English and the attack failed. An English fleet soon blocked the St.
Lawrence and the possibility of aid from France was at an end.

The capture of Montreal.--The last important Canadian stronghold was
Montreal, and here Vaudreuil and Levis made their final stand. Three
English armies were sent against the place. Murray ascended the St.
Lawrence, Haviland advanced from Lake Champlain, and Amherst with eleven
thousand men proceeded from Lake Ontario down the St. Lawrence. The
French, weakened by desertions and discouraged by defeats, offered
little resistance; on September 8 articles of capitulation were signed
and the struggle for New France was practically ended. Forts Miami,
Detroit, Mackinac, and St. Joseph soon surrendered; of the mainland
colonies Louisiana alone remained in the possession of France and this
also she was destined to lose.

George III becomes king.--The year 1760 also saw the breaking of French
power in India. Colonel Eyre Coote decisively defeated Count Lally at
the battle of Wandewash and the next year Pondicherry was captured,
putting an effectual end to French influence in the Carnatic. When
English success was at its height George III ascended the throne of
England. He opposed the war of conquest which Pitt was waging, desiring
to break the power of the Whig oligarchy which long had dominated
English politics. In 1761 Pitt resigned but the king was unable to bring
the struggle to an immediate close, for Charles III of Spain renewed the
family compact with France, and Spain entered the war.

Operations in the West Indies and the Philippines.--Against the new
antagonist England's sea power was overwhelmingly superior. In 1761
Rodney was sent to take command in the West Indies. He found Dominica
already in English hands. Rodney immediately ordered the blockade of
Martinique and in February, 1762, the island was surrendered. Shortly
afterward Granada, the Grenadines, and St. Lucia were occupied. Admiral
Pocock was sent out with reinforcements, and a great fleet of
fifty-three war vessels, besides transports and other craft, with an
army of fifteen thousand proceeded against Havana. In June the place was
invested by land and sea. On July 30 Moro Castle was carried by storm,
and on August 13 the city surrendered. Nine ships of the line and loot
to the value of £3,000,000 fell into English hands. The extinguishment
of French power in India made it possible to turn attention to the
Philippines, and a squadron under Draper was sent against Manila. The
place was feebly garrisoned and quickly surrendered, the capitulation
taking place on October 5.

The Peace of Paris.--France, Spain, and England were ready for peace. At
the decisive moment Russia had turned to the side of Prussia, and
Austria was unable to continue the war alone. France made overtures to
England for peace, and on November 3, 1762, the preliminaries were
signed. The definitive treaty between England, France, and Spain was
signed at Paris on February 10, 1763. France surrendered to England
Canada, St. John's, Cape Breton, and all that part of Louisiana which
was east of the Mississippi except the Island of Orleans. France
retained certain fishing rights on the Newfoundland banks and was given
the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. She also obtained Martinique,
Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, and St. Lucia. Belle Isle and Gorée were
restored to France, but England kept Sénégal. Minorca was restored to
England. In Asia English conquests were restored to France but no
fortifications were to be erected by her in Bengal. The preliminary
agreements had arranged matters with Spain. In exchange for Havana,
Florida was ceded to England. Manila was eventually restored to Spain as
the news of the capture did not arrive until the preliminaries had been
signed. Louisiana had been an expensive province, and Louis XV gladly
surrendered all the territory west of the Mississippi and the Isle of
Orleans to Spain as a compensation for the losses of his ally. France
was virtually eliminated from America. England and Spain stood out as
the world's great colonizing powers.



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50-138, 263-289; Jones, C.C., _The History of Georgia_, I, 314-369;
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254-279; McCrady, E., _The History of South Carolina under the Royal
Government, 1719-1776_, pp. 187-229; Parkman, F., _A Half-Century of
Conflict_, II, 33-256; Thwaites, R.G., _France in America_, 105-123;
Walton, J.S., _Conrad Weiser and the Indian Policy of Colonial
Pennsylvania_, 9-121; Wood, W., _The Great Fortress_; Shea, J.G.,
_Catholic Church in Colonial Days_, 470-479.


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R.R., _Wolfe and Montcalm_; Channing, Edward, _A History of the United
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Kingsford, W., _The History of Canada_, III, 387-568, IV.; Lucas, C.P.,
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of Colonial Pennsylvania_, 121-381; Wood, W., _The Passing of New
France; The Winning of Canada_; Corbett, J.S., _England in the Seven
Years' War_; Wrong, G.M., _The Conquest of New France_.


SPAIN (1763-1783)


Effect of the Seven Years' War.--The outcome of the Seven Years' War
caused several readjustments in Spanish North America. It left Spain in
a position where she must restore her colonial power or sink to the rank
of a third rate nation. Renewed war with England was regarded as
inevitable. Florida was lost, and was poorly compensated for, it was
thought, by western Louisiana. The French barrier having been removed,
Spain's hold on Louisiana and the Pacific Slope was threatened by the
English, advancing both through Canada and from the thirteen colonies.
On the Pacific Slope the Russians seemed even more threatening than the
English. Added to all this, northern New Spain was overrun by
increasingly hostile tribes. Poor and unprepared though she was,
therefore, Spain was forced to get ready for another war with England,
occupy Louisiana and Alta California, strengthen the frontier defences
of New Spain against the Indians, and explore or reëxplore the northern

The Reforms of Charles II.--All these demands could be met only by the
most heroic measures; and these were applied by the energetic Charles
III. This king, a Bourbon, had come to the throne in 1759, after a long
and forceful reign as King of Naples. By the time of his accession,
Spain had already profited much by the Bourbon reforms which from time
to time had been instituted since the opening of the century, but the
national revenue was still small, commerce stagnant, the army and navy
weak, and colonial administration corrupt. Now came the new demands
entailed by the outcome of the great war. To make the program of defence
possible, it was necessary to provide revenue. This could be done only
by increasing commerce and reforming the fiscal administration of the

Commercial reforms.--Commercial reforms were outlined in a series of
decrees enacted between 1764 and 1778. The ends at which they aimed are
indicated by the deliberations of the _junta_ held in 1765. This body
condemned especially the monopoly enjoyed by Cadiz, delays due to the
flota system, the export duties on Spanish goods, restrictions upon
intercolonial commerce, the smuggling habit, and the English monopoly of
the slave carrying trade.

Reforms of José de Gálvez.--To carry out the reforms in New Spain King
Charles sent José de Gálvez, who, as _visitador general_, was entrusted
with a complete overhauling of the administration. The special function
of Gálvez was to increase the revenues from New Spain. The amount
collected had been limited by crude fiscal methods and by corrupt
officials. Gálvez laid a heavy hand upon "graft," and devised new
sources of revenue. Conspicuous among the latter was the tobacco
industry, which he made a royal monopoly.

Explorations on the Gulf coast.--One of the first steps toward
readjustment of the frontier to the new situation was a series of
explorations looking to the defence of the northern coast of the Gulf of
Mexico against rumored dangers from the English, now in possession of
Florida. To this end, in 1766 Colonel Escandón and Colonel Parrilla
explored the Nuevo Santander and Texas coasts between Tampico and
Matagorda Bay.

Rubí's tour.--To inspect and report on the northern outposts of New
Spain, the Marqués de Rubí was commissioned. Leaving Mexico in March,
1766, he passed through the frontier establishments from Sonora to the
borders of Louisiana. He found the whole northern frontier infested with
warlike tribes, especially the Apaches and Comanches, who committed
depredations all the way from the Gila to central Texas. Rubí
recommended rearranging the northern posts so as to form a cordon of
fifteen, extending from Altar in Sonora to La Bahía in Texas. Regarding
Texas he recommended that the Comanche harassed district of San Sabá and
all of the establishments on the Louisiana border be abandoned, and that
a war of extermination be made against the Eastern Apaches, relying for
the purpose on the aid of their enemies. In 1772 most of the Rubí
recommendations were adopted in the form of a "New Regulation of
Presidios." To Hugo O'Conor, as _comandante inspector_, fell the task of
arranging the line of presidios.

Expulsion of the Jesuits.--For reasons which need not be discussed here,
in 1767 the king of Spain expelled the Jesuits from all of the Spanish
dominions. This caused a general shifting of the missionary forces, the
places of the Jesuits in the northeastern provinces being taken by the
Franciscans. The temporalities were at first put in the hands of soldier
commissioners, but were soon turned over to the Franciscan missionaries.
To Pimería Alta were sent Franciscans from the College of the Holy Cross
of Querétaro. To Lower California went members of the College of San
Fernando of Mexico, the president being Junípero Serra, already
distinguished for work in Sierra Gorda.

Gálvez in Lower California.--In 1768 the visitor, Gálvez, was called to
California and Sonora. In California he restored the temporalities to
the missionaries, consolidated the Indian pueblos, and tried to
stimulate Spanish colonization and mining, but without great success. It
was while on the Peninsula, too, that he organized the expedition to
occupy Alta California.

Gálvez in Sonora.--To end the Indian disturbance which for many years
had been menacing Sinaloa and Sonora, Gálvez sent Colonel Domingo
Elizondo at the head of eleven hundred men. The war began in 1768. After
a year of futile campaigns, chiefly against Cerro Prieto, the landing
place of the enemy, Gálvez himself took command for a time, with little
better results. Elizondo was restored to the command, and for another
year the war continued. By dint of guerrilla warfare, presents, and
coaxing, by the middle of 1771 the rebels were pacified and settled in

The Provincias Internas.--Prominent among the plans of Gálvez were the
establishment of the intendant system in New Spain, the erection of the
northern provinces into an independent commandancy general, and the
establishment there of one or more bishoprics. The project of a separate
government for part or all of the northern provinces had often been
considered. It was felt that the viceroy was overworked, and too far
from the frontier to understand its needs. The demand was sectional,
based on regional interests. In 1760 a separate viceroyalty had been
proposed, but Gálvez favored a military commandancy general. In 1776,
after he became Minister of the Indies, his ideas were put into effect.
Nueva Vizcaya, Sinaloa, Sonora, the Californias, Coahuila, New Mexico,
and Texas were put under the military and political government of a
comandante general of the Interior Provinces, directly responsible to
the king and practically independent of the viceroy, the Audiencia of
Guadalajara retaining its judicial authority. Chihuahua became the
capital, except for a short time when Arispe was the seat of government
(1780-1782). The first _comandante general_ (1776-1783) was Teodoro de
Croix, brother of Viceroy Croix, and himself later viceroy of Peru. By
writers on California history, with attention fixed on the West, he has
been regarded as incompetent.

New dioceses in the North.--In 1777 the Diocese of Linares was created
to embrace the northeastern provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo León, Nuevo
Santander, and Texas. Two years later was formed the Diocese of Sonora,
to include Sinaloa, Sonora, and the two Californias.

The intendancies.--The primary purpose of the intendancies was to
provide for the fiscal administration. A French institution, the system
had been established in Spain in 1749 with satisfactory results. In 1764
the intendancy of Havana was established, likewise with good results. In
1768 the system was tentatively established in Sonora. At that time
Gálvez favored eleven intendancies, dependent on the viceroy as
superintendent general of revenues. The plan was not put into general
operation until 1786, when Gálvez was Minister of the Indies.

The captaincy-general of Havana.--Up to the middle of the eighteenth
century the audiencia and captaincy-general of Santo Domingo comprised
all of the West Indies and Venezuela. Though nominally within the
district, Florida was a separate captaincy-general, dependent directly
on the Council of the Indies for judicial and military affairs. In other
respects it was subject to the Viceroy of Mexico. As a result of the
English war, in 1764 Havana was made the seat of an independent
captaincy-general and of an intendancy. In 1795 the Audiencia of Santo
Domingo was moved to Havana.


The Russian advance.--Spain had long been uneasy about upper California
because of the activities of the English, Dutch, and French. Now the
advance of the Russians seemed more threatening, and caused the long
contemplated step to be taken. In the seventeenth century the Russians
had crossed Siberia and opened up trade with China. In the early
eighteenth century large portions of northern Asia were conquered by
Russia in the interest of the east-moving fur traders. Before he died
Peter the Great set on foot the project of sending an expedition to seek
the northern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic by going east. In
pursuance of this task Vitus Bering made his stupendous expeditions into
the Pacific (1725-28, 1733-41), in the second of which he discovered
Bering Strait, coasted the American mainland, and made known the
possibilities of profit in the fur trade.

Fur trade on the Aleutian Islands.--Bering's voyage was followed by a
rush of fur traders to the Aleutian Islands. Companies were formed,
vessels built at the port of Okhotsk, and posts established within a few
years on Bering, Unalaska, Kadiak, and other islands, for a distance of
nearly a thousand miles. The principal market for furs was China. The
fur trade was attended by wanton slaughter of animals and harsh
treatment of natives, who sometimes rebelled, as at Unalaska in 1761.

Decision of Spain to occupy Alta California.--Though Russian activities
were as yet confined largely to the Aleutian Islands, the Spanish
government feared that they would be extended down the coast. Moreover,
there was a growing friendship between Russia and England, Spain's chief
enemy. But these dangers, like others discussed during three centuries,
might have resulted in nothing but correspondence had there not been on
the northern frontier of New Spain a man of action, clothed with full
authority to act. This man was the visitor-general, José de Gálvez. On
January 23, 1768, Grimaldi, royal minister, sent the viceroy orders to
resist any aggressions of the Russians that might arise. This order,
which coincided with the views of the visitor and the viceroy, reached
Gálvez while on his way to California.


The Portolá expedition.--While settling affairs in the Peninsula Gálvez
organized the expedition. It was designed to establish garrisons at San
Diego and Monterey, and to plant missions, under their protection, to
convert and subdue the natives. The command was entrusted to Governor
Portolá, and the missionary work to Father Junípero Serra, president of
the California missions. The enterprise was carried out in 1769 by joint
land and sea expeditions. The _San Carlos_ under Captain Vicente Vila
and the _San Antonio_ under Captain Juan Pérez conducted a portion of
the party, while the rest marched overland from Lower California, under
Captain Rivera and Governor Portolá.

San Diego founded.--By the end of June all but one vessel had arrived at
the Bay of San Diego. While Vila, Serra, and some fifty soldiers
remained to found a mission and presidio there, Portolá led others to
occupy the port of Monterey. Following the coast and the Salinas Valley,
he reached Monterey Bay, but failed to recognize it. Continuing up the
coast he discovered the present San Francisco Bay and then returned to
San Diego.

Monterey founded.--At San Diego affairs had gone badly. Many persons had
died, provisions were scarce, and Portolá decided to abandon the
enterprise. Persuaded by Serra, he deferred the day of departure, and
new supplies came. Another expedition to Monterey was successful, and
the presidio and mission of San Carlos were founded there in 1770.

Plans for expansion.--At last the long talked of ports of San Diego and
Monterey had been occupied. But the newly found port of San Francisco,
further north, needed protection, the large Indian population called for
more missions, settlers were lacking, and permanent naval and land bases
were necessary. One by one these matters were considered and adjusted.
To assist in the plans for expansion Serra went to Mexico in 1772 and
made many recommendations. The temporary naval base at San Blas was made
permanent, and thereafter played an important part in the development of
California. The new foundations were assured support from the Pious
Fund, and in 1771 and 1772 three new missions were founded--San
Antonio, San Gabriel, and San Luis Obispo. In 1772 California was
divided, the peninsula being assigned to the Dominicans. Politically the
two Californias were continued under one governor, with his residence at
Loreto, Fages being replaced as commander in the north by Rivera y

[Illustration: Alta California Settlements.]

A land route to California.--The next step was the opening of a land
route from Arizona to California, and was the work especially of two
frontier leaders. When the Franciscans in 1768 took the place of the
Jesuits in Pimería Alta, Father Francisco Garcés was sent to San Xavier
del Bac, the northern outpost. He at once began to make visits to the
Gila, and in 1771 alone he crossed the Yuma Desert from Sonóita, and the
California Desert to the foot of the western Sierras. Encouraged by
these discoveries, Captain Anza of Tubac offered to open a land route to
Monterey. The plan was approved by the viceroy, and in 1774 Anza, with
Garcés as guide and with twenty soldiers, made the expedition, with
great hardships but with notable success.

San Francisco founded.--The opening of the land route from Sonora
facilitated the occupation of the port of San Francisco. Plans for its
occupation had been discussed ever since its discovery by Portolá.
Meanwhile the region had been throughly explored from Monterey as a
base. In December, 1774, Anza was ordered to lead a soldier colony from
Sonora to occupy the port, and plans were made for a mission. Enlisting
some two hundred and fifty persons, Anza assembled them at Tubac, and in
October set out for California. Descending the Santa Cruz and Gila
Rivers to the Colorado, thence he followed his former trail to Monterey,
where he arrived in March, 1776. Aided by Father Font, he reëxplored the
Bay region, selected sites for a presidio and mission, and returned to
Sonora. In September the presidio and in October the mission of San
Francisco were founded.

A route from New Mexico.--The Sonora base for California was not
altogether satisfactory and some thought that New Mexico would serve
better. Among the latter was Father Garcés, and by a most remarkable
exploration he put his views to the test. He accompanied Anza's second
expedition to the Gila-Colorado junction, but from there set out to
explore a new route. Ascending the Colorado to the Mojave tribe, near
Needles he turned west and crossed the Mojave Desert. It was his plan to
go straight to San Luis Obispo, but his guides refused, and he threaded
Cajón Pass to Mission San Gabriel. From there he continued through Téjon
Pass into the San Joaquin Valley, descended it to the Tulare region,
emerged through an eastern pass, probably the Tehachapi, and recrossed
the desert to the Mojaves. Thence he continued east to the Moquis,
reaching Oraibe on July 2. Here he was given a cold reception, so he
turned back to the Yumas.

Exploration by Escalante and Domínguez.--Shortly after Garcés returned,
a party set out from Santa Fé to attempt reaching Monterey by a more
northern route. The party consisted of Fathers Domínguez and Escalante,
Captain Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco, and nine soldiers. Leaving Santa Fé
on July 29, 1776, they went northward into Colorado, followed the
western line across the San Juan, Dolores, Grand and Colorado Rivers,
turned westward to Utah Lake and south past Sevier Lake. In October,
concluding that it was too late to attempt to cross the Sierras, they
returned eastward to Moqui, Zuñi, and Santa Fé. Thus had another great
feat of exploration resulted from the attempt to find land connection
with California.

Spanish Pueblos.--California still lacked the civil element to make it
complete in outline, and this was now provided. In 1777 Governor Neve
moved his capital from Loreto to Monterey, where he received orders from
the viceroy to take steps toward founding colonies of settlers, as a
means toward making the province self-supporting. Neve therefore
proceeded to establish two Spanish pueblos.

San José.--With fourteen families from Monterey and San Francisco, in
1777 Lieutenant Moraga founded the Pueblo of San José in the Santa Clara
Valley, near the head of San Francisco Bay, and near by the mission of
Santa Clara was founded. The pueblo was established according to the
general laws of the Indies. Five years later titles were issued to those
settlers who had fulfilled their contracts.

Los Angeles.--The second pueblo was located beside Mission San Gabriel,
in the southern part of the province. To procure colonists Rivera y
Moneada was sent in '79 to Sinaloa and Sonora. Recruiting fourteen
families, Rivera sent them overland by way of Loreto and the Peninsula.
Rivera himself, with forty-two soldiers, went with nearly a thousand
head of horses and mules over the Anza route by way of the Gila
junction, where he and part of his men were massacred. The settlers
reached their destination, and in September, 1781, the Pueblo de los
Angeles was founded, with eleven families comprising forty-six persons.

Plans for a new outpost.--The old question of advancing the Sonora
frontier northward to provide missions for the Pirnas and Yumas, and a
halfway station on the road to California, had been much discussed ever
since Anza's exploration in '74. Opinions varied as to the best
location, one proposing the Gila-Colorado junction, another the middle
Gila, another the Colorado above the Yumas, and another even the Moqui

Mission-Pueblos at Yuma.--But the weight of opinion was with the
Gila-Colorado junction. The chief advocate of this location was the Yuma
chief Ollyquotquiebe. In 1776 he went with Anza to Mexico City to ask
for a mission and a presidio, made submission for his tribe, and was
baptized as Salvador Palma. In the following year the king ordered the
petition granted. Delays ensued and Palma became impatient. In 1779
Fathers Garcés and Díaz were sent, with a small garrison, to Palma's
village. Their slender outfit of presents and supplies was
disappointing, and the Yumas were dissatisfied. In the following year,
at Croix's order, two missions were founded west of the Colorado, at the
junction, but not of the usual type. Instead of a presidio, ten families
were settled near each mission to serve as a protection to the
missionaries and an example to the neophytes, who were to five among the
settlers instead of in an Indian pueblo.

The massacre.--Trouble soon ensued, and in July, 1781, while Rivera y
Moncada was on his way to found Los Angeles, the Yumas, led by Palma,
massacred Father Garcés, his three companions, Rivera and his men, and
most of the settlers. The women and children were spared. The experience
at the Yuma missions is a pointed commentary on the need of soldiers to
control mission Indians, and on the wisdom of the usual Spanish custom
of separating the neophytes from the settlers. For his part in the plan
Croix has been severely criticized, but it must be remembered that at
the time he needed every soldier available for the Apache wars, and that
the Yumas had much vaunted their friendship.

The Yumas punished.--Learning of the massacre, in September, 1781, Croix
sent Pedro Fages to the scene with one hundred and ten men from Pitic
and Altar. In the course of two journeys he ransomed some seventy-five
captives. In the following year Captain Romeu of Sonora, made a campaign
against the Yumas, killed or captured nearly two hundred, and recovered
over one thousand horses. But the massacre put an end for the time being
to the long series of efforts to establish the Yuma outpost, and
practically closed the Anza route to California.

The Santa Barbara Channel occupied.--From the first Father Serra had
been anxious to found a group of missions among the numerous Indians
along the Santa Barbara Channel, but there had been a lack of funds and
soldiers. The reduction of these tribes was important also from a
military standpoint, because they held a strategic position on the coast
and on the road to the north. With the coming of more soldiers in 1781
the desired step was taken, and in 1782 Mission San Buenaventura and the
presidio of Santa Barbara, and in 1786 Mission Santa Barbara were

With the occupation of this district California was complete in outline.
There were four presidios, each occupying a strategic position and
protecting a group of missions. In the succeeding years new missions
were planted in the interior valleys, till the total reached twenty-one.
They became marvellously prosperous, converting and giving industrial
training to thousands of Indians, and acquiring great wealth in farms
and herds. In 1784 Father Serra, the master spirit of the missions,


English and Russian activities.--Continued rumors of Russian and English
activities had by now led to a new series of explorations which gave
Spain claim to the Pacific Coast for nearly a thousand miles beyond the
points reached by Cabrillo and Vizcaíno. In 1773 came rumors that an
English expedition was about to attempt to pass through the Northern
Strait to California, and that Russia was planning an expedition from
Kamtchatka to the American coast.

Pérez.--Accordingly, in 1774 Viceroy Bucarely sent Juan Pérez north in
the _Santiago_ with orders to take formal possession of the country as
far as 60°. Sailing from San Bias, and taking on Fathers Crespi and Peña
at Monterey as diarists, Pérez sailed to 55°, exploring Nootka Sound on
the way.

Heçeta and Bodega.--Pérez having failed to reach 60°, another expedition
was sent from San Bias in 1775 in two vessels, under Heçeta and Bodega y
Quadra. Heçeta reached 49°, discovering Trinidad Bay and the mouth of
the Columbia River on the way (1776). Bodega, in his thirty-six foot
schooner, reached 58°, and on the way discovered Bodega Bay.

Arteaga and Bodega.--No Russians had been found, but news had come of
the preparations being made by the English captain, James Cook, for a
voyage to the northwest coast in search of the strait. Accordingly,
another expedition was ordered by the King of Spain to explore to 70°.
Through delays it was 1779 before Arteaga and Bodega, in the _Favorita_
and the _Princesa_, left San Blas. Meanwhile Cook had made his famous
voyage to Nootka Sound. Arteaga's expedition reached 60°, where it was
forced to return because of scurvy among the crews.


The cession.--On October 9, 1762, Louis XV offered western Louisiana,
with New Orleans, to Charles III, king of Spain, both as a compensation
for the loss of Florida, and to put an end to the constant
Franco-Spanish friction over contraband trade. Charles at first rejected
the gift, but reconsidered, and the treaty of cession was signed on
November 3, the day of the signature of the preliminaries of the peace
with England.

The state of the province.--With Spain's small means and great
responsibilities, the gift was not very tempting, and Spain was not
eager to take possession of it. The ceded district embraced New Orleans
and the western watershed of the Mississippi River. The principal
settlements lay along the Mississippi and Missouri, as far as the Kansas
post, and along the lower Red River, as far as the Cadadacho post. The
bulk of the population lay between Pointe Coupée and New Orleans, where
there were over 7000 persons, of whom nearly two-thirds were colored
settlements in the lower district were La Balize, Attakapa, Opelousas,
Avoyelle, and Natchitoches. On the way to the Missouri district were the
post opposite Natchez and the Arkansas settlement. Near or on the
Missouri were St. Charles and Ste. Genevieve. Farther in the interior
were slender trading posts, such as St. Louis among the Cadadacho, a
post on the Osage, and Ft. Cavagnolle, near the mouth of the Kansas
River. The total population of the province ceded to Spain was estimated
at from 8250 to 11,500, over half of whom were colored.

Industries.--Rice, indigo, tobacco, and grain were cultivated in small
quantities, but there was little stock raising. For horses, mules, and
cattle dependence was placed upon trade with the Indians and the
Spaniards of the West, much of which trade was contraband. The principal
industries of the province were the fur trade and commerce with
Illinois. The paper money issued during the recent war, of which there
was nearly a million unredeemed, had depreciated to 25 per cent, of its
face value.

Dissatisfaction with the transfer.--It was not till September, 1764,
that the cession was known in New Orleans. The news caused consternation
and protest. Some of the inhabitants of Illinois, left under English
rule, moved across the Mississippi River to La Clede's recently founded
fur-trading post of St. Louis. When, in 1765, the British took
possession of Fort Chartres, Captain St. Ange, in charge of the latter
place, moved with his garrison to St. Louis, where he continued to rule
until Spanish possession was taken. Some French settlers from the more
southern districts moved across the Mississippi or to New Orleans. There
the feeling was intense. In January, 1765, the inhabitants held a
meeting and sent a delegate, Jean Milhet, to France to remonstrate, but
without avail, for after months of waiting he failed even to get an
audience with the king.

Ulloa expelled.--At last, in March, 1766, Don Antonio de Ulloa arrived
at La Balize as Spanish governor. The choice was not a happy one, for
although a distinguished scientist and naval officer, Ulloa had an
unpleasant and inflexible personality which made him unpopular. In July
he reached New Orleans, with ninety soldiers. But the French militia
refused to serve him, and Aubry was left in command. Bickerings and
dissatisfaction followed. The colonists demanded the redemption of the
depreciated paper money at face value; the recently arrived Acadians,
who had become indentured servants, made constant complaint, until at
last redeemed by Ulloa.

Ulloa did not confine his efforts to New Orleans, but established
Spanish garrisons at several interior posts and issued ordinances
regarding the Indian trade. In the spring of 1766, with Aubry, he
visited the settlements between New Orleans and Natchitoches, and sent
an officer to report on the best means of defending the upper posts
against the English. In 1767 he sent Captain Francisco Ruí to establish
posts on the lower Missouri at St. Charles and Bellefontaine.

The prohibition of trade with France, promulgated in October, 1768;
caused a veritable insurrection in New Orleans, and Ulloa was expelled
from the province. His departure was followed by a removal of the
Spanish garrisons from the Missouri and elsewhere in the interior, and
there was an interregnum of several months, during which Aubry governed.

O'Reilly.--Charles III now sent a man made of sterner stuff. He was
Alexandro O'Reilly, an officer who had served with distinction in
Europe, had reorganized the defences of Havana after the recent war, and
was now recalled to cope with the situation in Louisiana. With 4500
regulars he reached Balize in July, 1769. There was renewed excitement.
Some talked of independence and others of joining the English colonies;
but Aubry counselled against resistance and the disturbance subsided.

His coup d'état.--King Charles had demanded nothing more severe than the
sending of the leaders of the opposition to France, but O'Reilly was not
so mild. By a ruse he arrested a number of prominent citizens, executed
five and imprisoned others. For this violent deed he has become known as
"The Bloody O'Reilly." If the government of Charles III had been imbued
with a full sense of its responsibility, it would never have left
unpunished such a violation of the fundamental rules of justice.

The Spanish régime installed.--For thirty-four years Louisiana remained
under Spanish rule, and during that time it prospered as never before.
O'Reilly governed for a year or more with great vigor, not as governor,
but as special commissioner to establish Spanish authority. Possession
was taken of the interior posts, and by the end of 1770 the Spanish
flag had been raised at Ste. Genevieve, the last place to haul down the
French emblem. Having accomplished his coup d'état, O'Reilly was
conciliatory, and appointed numerous old French officers, like Villiers
and De Mézières, to important positions. After authority had been
established, the military force was reduced to 1200 men. Spanish law was
installed, although the French Black Code was retained. New Orleans was
given a cabildo with direct appeal to the Council of the Indies instead
of to the Audiencia of Santo Domingo. Louisiana was put under a
governor, the first incumbent being Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga. Each of
the principal subdistricts was put under a Lieutenant-governor, Pedro
Piernas going to St. Louis, Villiers to the Arkansas Post (now Fort
Carlos III), and Athanase De Mézières at Natchitoches. Until 1771
Louisiana was an independent _gobierno_ directly dependent on the
Council of the Indies. In 1771 it was attached for military purposes to
the captaincy-general of Havana, and for judicial matters to the
Audiencia of Santo Domingo. In 1795 it was attached to the Audiencia of
Havana. After 1783 West Florida and Louisiana were put under one
governor. Later the province was divided into Upper and Lower Louisiana.

Unzaga and Gálvez.--Unzaga ruled till 1776, and proved popular,
particularly since he shut his eyes to English smuggling in the lower
Mississippi River. Unzaga's successor, Bernardo de Gálvez, nephew of the
visitor, son of the viceroy, and himself a viceroy later, was a
remarkable man. He too, was popular; he married a French wife, and
stimulated tobacco raising by pledging himself to buy each year eight
hundred pounds of tobacco.

Encouragement of commerce.--Trade regulations, as promulgated by Ulloa
in 1766, restricted all trade to Spanish vessels, and certain specified
Spanish ports. Under these conditions English smugglers very soon
monopolized the trade of the lower Mississippi, and made their way among
the tribes of the Gulf coast. This contraband Unzaga tacitly permitted
for the good of the colony. In 1776 an agreement was made with France by
which Louisiana was permitted to trade with the French West Indies,
under the supervision of two French commissioners resident in New
Orleans. Gálvez now promptly seized eleven English vessels and the
commerce of the colony passed largely into the hands of the French. In
1778 the produce of the colony was admitted to any of the ports of
France or the United States, and to any of the ports of Spain to which
the commerce of any of the colonies was admitted. The exportation of
furs was encouraged by exemption from duty for a period of ten years.
English trade in Louisiana was now completely ruined. Under Spanish rule
population grew steadily and by 1803 had reached about 50,000. After the
American Revolution efforts were made to counter-colonize against the
American advance.

[Illustration: The Spanish Frontier in the Later Eighteenth Century.]

The English danger.--The principal military problems of the new
government were to keep the English out and to keep the Indians quiet.
Already English traders were entering the tribes west of the
Mississippi, ascending the Missouri and the Arkansas, and reaching the
borders of Texas overland, or ascending its rivers from the Gulf of
Mexico. Trade in Pawnee and Spanish horses extended to the English
seaboard colonies, Governor Patrick Henry being among the purchasers of
thoroughbred Spanish stock. To keep out the English, defence was
concentrated on the Mississippi and efforts made to control the Indian

Eastern Texas abandoned.--On the other hand, since Louisiana belonged to
Spain, the defences of eastern Texas, and the weak missions which they
protected, were now withdrawn. At the same time the few settlers, some
five hundred in number, who lived on the border, were evicted and taken
to San Antonio. But they demurred, sent their Creole leader Gil Ybarbo
to Mexico to represent them, and were allowed in 1774 to settle on the
Trinity River. Five years later, taking advantage of a flood and Indian
raids, and led by Ybarbo, they moved to Nacogdoches (1779), and from
there scattered eastward toward their former homes.

The fur trade continued.--Louisiana was Spain's first colony previously
occupied by Europeans, and in it many departures were made from her
traditional system. As a means of controlling the Indians of Louisiana,
Spain utilized the corps of French traders already among the tribes,
instead of attempting to use the mission as a means of control, as was
being done at the same time in California. A regular system of licensed
traders was installed, vagabonds and unlicensed persons were driven from
the tribes, presents were annually distributed, and medals of merit
were given to friendly chiefs. St. Louis, the Arkansas post, and
Natchitoches became important centers for the fur trade and for
distributing presents. To St Louis tribes went to receive presents from
the Illinois country, the upper Mississippi, and the upper Missouri. To
remove them from English influence, tribes were induced to cross the
Mississippi to settle.

De Mézières.--One of the most difficult problems which confronted Spain
was the control of the Red River tribes, which had been friendly to the
French but hostile to the Spaniards. It was now necessary to win them
over to Spanish allegiance. This was accomplished by Athanase de
Mézières, lieutenant-governor at Natchitoches. He installed French
traders, drove out vagabonds, expelled English intruders, called in the
hostile Red River tribes to make treaties, and himself made a series of
notable tours among them. In 1770 he held a great council at the
Cadodacho post, where the Cadodacho chief Tin-hi-ou-en was mediator. Two
years later he made an expedition through the Asinai, Tonkawa, and
Wichita tribes, reaching the upper Brazos River, and going thence to San
Antonio. His excellent report first made northern Texas well known to
Spanish officials.

Croix's plans for a war on the Apaches.--It was in 1776 that the
northern provinces of New Spain were put under a _comandante general_
with his capital at Chihuahua. The first comandante, Teodoro de Croix,
arrived at the frontier in 177 7. As his first great task he set about
checking Indian hostilities, particularly those of the Apaches on the
Texas-Coahuila frontier. The essence of his plan was to unite the Red
River and the eastern Texas tribes (the Nations of the North) and
_chasseurs_ from Louisiana, commanded by Gálvez, with the soldiery of
the Interior Provinces, commanded by Croix, in a joint war of
extermination against the eastern Apaches.

Set aside by the American Revolution.--To consider the matter Croix held
a council of war at San Antonio in January, 1778. The arrangement of
details with the Indians was left to De Mézières. In 1778 he made a tour
of the upper Red River, and in the following year again visited the
Texas tribes. Spain soon afterward entered the American war, Gálvez was
unable to leave Louisiana, and the conduct of the Apache War was left
for the time being to Juan de Ugalde, governor of Coahuila.

Communication with Santa Fé and the Upper Missouri.--The explorations of
De Mézières were soon followed by the opening of routes from Santa Fé to
San Antonio, Natchitoches, and St. Louis. In this work the chief
pathfinder was Pedro Vial. Just as the American Pike in his southwestern
exploration (1807) was preceded by Vial and his associates, so Lewis and
Clark, in their ascent of the Missouri River (1804), were anticipated by
the agents of Glamorgan's fur trading and exploring company, who
operated from St. Louis to the country of the Mandans (1794-1797).



Addison, Joseph, _Charles the Third of Spain_; Altamira y Crevea,
Rafael, _Historia de España_, IV; Chapman, C.E., _The Founding of
Spanish California_, ch. IV; Danvila y Collado, Manuel, _Reinado de
Carlos III_; Desdevises du Desert, Gaston, _L'Espagne de l'Ancien
Régime_; Ferrer del Rio, Antonio, _Historia del Reinado de Carlos III_;
Hume, M.A.S., _Spain: Its Greatness and Decay_; Priestley, H.L., _José
de Gálvez, Visitor-General of New Spain_; Rousseau, François, _Règne de
Charles III d'Espagne, 1750-1788_; Scelle, G., _La Traite Négrière aux
Indes de Castille_; Viollet, A., _Histoire des Bourbons d'Espagne_.


Academy of Pacific Coast History, _Publications_, I-III; Bancroft, H.H.,
_History of California_, I, 110-480; Chapman, C.E., _The Founding of
Spanish California_; Eldredge, Z.S., _The Beginnings of San Francisco_,
I, 31-170; Engelhardt, Fr. Zephyrin, _Missions and Missionaries of
California_, I, 289-385; II, 3-414; Hittell, T.H., _History of
California_, I, 300-429; 441-452; 509-540; Norton, H.K., _Story of
California_, 1-103; Palou, Fr. Francisco, _Relación Histórica de la Vida
[de] ... Serra_; Richman, I.B., _California under Spain and Mexico_,


Bolton, Herbert E., _Athanase de Mézières and the Louisiana-Texas
Frontier_, I, 66-122; Gayarré, C., _History of Louisiana_, III, 1-617;
Hamilton, P.J., _The Colonization of the South_, 423-445; 447-456;
Houck, L., _The Spanish Régime in Missouri_, I-II; Mason, E.C., "The
March of the Spaniards across Illinois," in _Magazine of American
History_, XV. 457-470; Robertson, J.A., _Louisiana under the rule of
Spain. France, and the United States_; Shepherd, W.R., "The Cession of
Louisiana to Spain," in _The Political Science Quarterly_, XIX, 439-458;
Teggart, F.J., "Capture of St Joseph, Michigan, by the Spaniards in
1781," in _The Missouri Historical Review_, V, 214-228; Thwaites, R.G.,
_France in America_, 281-295.




Amherst's plan for defence.--While the Spaniards were occupying western
Louisiana the British were organizing the country ceded by France and
Spain east of the Mississippi, in Canada, and in the West Indies. In
1763 the Secretary of War asked General Amherst, commander-in-chief in
America, for a plan of defence of the British possessions. In response
he drew up a "Plan of Forts and Garrisons prepared for the security of
North America" which reveals England's outlook upon her newly acquired
territory. It provided for ten regiments of approximately seven hundred
and fifty men each. The stated purposes were: (1) to keep the king's new
subjects in Canada and Louisiana "in due subjection," (2) to keep the
old provinces "in a state of Constitutional Dependence upon Great
Britain," (3) to command the respect of the Indians, (4) to prevent
encroachments of the French or Spaniards, (5) and to protect the
colonies in case of war. The regiments were to be distributed in posts
along the St. Lawrence, about the Great Lakes, in the Illinois country,
along the lower Mississippi, and in Nova Scotia, South Carolina,
Georgia, and the Floridas.

Purposes regarding the West.--Regarding the interior posts the
particular aims expressed were to keep open the navigation of the St.
Lawrence and the Great Lakes, maintain communication between Canada and
the Gulf of Mexico, hold the western tribes in check, and guard against
French or Spanish intrusion. A post at St. Augustine was especially
desirable as a defence against Spain, and Pensacola and Mobile would
command the commerce of the Gulf as well as the tribes of the Alabama
Basin. The lower Mississippi posts were essential to control the
Chickasaws. A post at Crown Point was not only needed to maintain a
winter highway to Canada, but might also be useful to suppress
disaffection in the maritime colonies, "who already begin to entertain
some extraordinary Opinions, concerning their Relations to and
Dependence upon the Mother Country."

The Proclamation of 1763.--In October, 1763, the king issued a
proclamation creating, within the newly acquired territory, four
distinct provinces, Quebec, East Florida, West Florida, and Grenada, and
providing a form of government for them. Quebec comprised the Valley of
the St. Lawrence from the western end of Anticosti Island to the 45th
parallel and Lake Nipissing. Labrador, Anticosti, and the Magdalen
Islands were attached to Newfoundland. St. Johns, Cape Breton, and the
lesser adjacent islands were attached to Nova Scotia.

East Florida extended to Appalachicola River, and was bounded on the
north by St. Mary's River and a line from the head of that stream to the
junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. The district between St.
Mary's and Altamaha Rivers, formerly in dispute between Spain and
England, was attached to Georgia. West Florida was the district south of
latitude 310 and between the Appalachicola River and the Isle of
Orleans. The Island of Grenada, the Grenadines, St. Vincent's, and
Tobago were erected into the Government of Grenada.

Crown colonies created.--These new jurisdictions were made crown
colonies. For each a governor was to be appointed, with power to call
assemblies, "in such Manner and Form as is used and directed in the
Colonies and Provinces in America which are under our immediate
Government." Until such assemblies should meet, the governors, with
their executive councils, were empowered to erect courts, having appeals
to the privy council.

The Indian reservation.--For the time being all British possessions on
the continent not included in the foregoing jurisdictions, or within the
Territory of Hudson Bay, and all lands west or north of the streams
flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, were reserved as crown lands for the
use of the Indians. No colony might grant lands within this Indian
reservation, and settlers were requested to move out. The considerable
French settlements in the reserve were ignored.

Until 1755 the English government had managed its Indian affairs through
the different colonies, but the results were far from satisfactory. In
that year the government assumed political control over the Indians,
creating a southern and a northern department, and appointing a
superintendent for each. In 1761 the purchase of Indian lands was taken
out of the hands of the colonies.

[Illustration: The New British Possessions, 1763-1783.]

Regulation of Indian trade.--The acquisition of extensive territories in
1763 called for new trade regulations. The proclamation had created an
Indian reserve and opened trade to all duly licensed subjects. In the
following year Lord Hillsborough drew up a general plan for the
management of Indians and the fur trade. It safeguarded the rights of
the Hudson's Bay Company and provided for the continuation of the two
superintendents, with three deputies for the northern and two for the
southern district. In the North all trade must be conducted at regularly
established posts, and in the South at the Indian towns. All traders
must be licensed, must trade at schedule prices, and must have no
dealings with Indians except at the prescribed places. By 1768 the plan
had proved too expensive, and the management of the fur trade was
restored to the individual colonies.


The West Florida posts.--On August 6, 1763, Colonel Prévost took
possession of Pensacola, which became the capital of West Florida.
Shortly afterwards Mobile was occupied by Major Robert Farmar. The
French troops there withdrew to New Orleans, as did some of the people,
but most of the latter remained. Fort Tombecbé, renamed Fort York, was
given a garrison of thirty men, for the express purpose of keeping the
Choctaws hostile to the Chickasaws, but was abandoned in 1768. The
French among the Choctaws moved across the Mississippi into Spanish
territory, but continued to trade with the tribe.

The boundary and the river forts.--In 1764 the northern boundary of West
Florida was moved north to 32° 28' to take in the Natchez settlements,
and to make room for the land speculators who were seeking land grants
on the lower Mississippi. A garrison was placed at Natchez (Fort
Panmure). In connection with efforts to keep the Mississippi open and to
establish navigation through the Iberville River, Fort Bute was bunt
near the latter stream in 1766. These Mississippi posts were designed
also to prevent French and Spanish smuggling among the Choctaws. But
there was English smuggling likewise, and to stop it Spanish posts were
later built on the other bank of the river. In 1769 the troops of most
of the English posts were withdrawn to St. Augustine, but there was a
protest at once. Pensacola drew up a memorial, and immigrants recently
arrived at the Mississippi demanded protection. O'Reilly had just come
to New Orleans, and it was feared that he might have designs on West
Florida. In 1770, therefore, most of the troops were restored, and a new
garrison was established at Manchac.

Indian agents and fur magnates.--The possession of West Florida proved
an important asset to Great Britain in the control of the southwestern
Indians, especially during the Revolution. John Stuart, Superintendent
for the Southern Department, made his headquarters at Pensacola, but
Mobile was the real center of control for the whole Southwest. Subagents
convened at Mobile a great congress of all the tribes and effected an
alliance with them, and soon afterward the Indian lands about Mobile
were ceded to the English. The military authorities encouraged
inter-tribal dissensions, and the Creeks and Choctaws were frequently at
war, in which the Chickasaws sometimes joined. According to the general
system, the fur trade of the Southwest was opened to all traders having
a government license and a proper bond. The fur magnates at Mobile were
the house of Swanson and McGillivray, who by 1777 had a branch house at
Fort Bute, which conducted trade with the Illinois. At Pensacola Panton,
Leslie, and Company, the largest business house, became an important
factor in the trade and in the management of the tribes.

Politics and government.--West Florida was accorded a governor, council,
and assembly. Governor George Johnstone arrived at Pensacola in October,
1764, but the first assembly was not elected until 1766. Mobile,
Pensacola, and Campbell Town were electoral precincts at first, and
after 1778 Natchez and Manchac were represented. The brief political
experiences of the province were as interesting as those of the older
colonies in early days. The governor and assembly frequently quarreled.
In 1772 Governor Chester prorogued that body and for six years got along
without it. More harmful than these quarrels were the factional disputes
between the civil and military officials.

Development of West Florida.--When England took possession, Pensacola
consisted of some forty thatched huts and small barracks, all enclosed
within a palisade, but it was rebuilt, and practically dates from
British rule. Mobile remained largely French, and was reduced in size
by the emigration to New Orleans. British rule gave impetus to Mobile's
commerce, and by 1776 the port was paying £4000 a year to the London
custom house alone.

Immigration.--Efforts were made also to secure immigrants for West
Florida. In 1763 the Board of Trade put an advertisement regarding land
grants in the London Gazette, and in 1764 Governor Johnstone issued a
circular to attract settlers. In 1765 or 1766 a colony from North
Carolina went by sea and settled about Natchez and Baton Rouge.
Speculators obtained large grants of land about Natchez as early as
1767, among them being Daniel Clark, later a great figure at New
Orleans. Before the Revolution numerous settlers arrived from England,
the West Indies, and most of the mainland colonies, including New
England. Most of them settled on the Mississippi River between Manchac
and Natchez. In 1772 three hundred persons from Virginia and the
Carolinas are said to have been established on the lower Mississippi,
and three or four hundred families were expected that summer. As a
result, the Mississippi posts were repaired and civil government
established. In 1775 a considerable immigration from New England was led
by General Lyman. About the same time Colonel Putnam led a company from
New England to the Yazoo district. In 1777, according to the botanist
Bartram, more than half of the population of Mobile were people who had
come from the northern colonies and Great Britain.

During the Revolution West Florida was a refuge for Loyalists. In
November, 1776, Mathew Phelps led a colony of New Englanders to the
lower Mississippi. Highland soldiers defeated in North Carolina that
year took refuge in the province. Loyalists from Georgia and South
Carolina settled on the Tombigbee River and Mobile Bay, and others from
the same colonies settled on the Tensaws Bayou.

East Florida under British rule.--In East Florida, St. Augustine became
the capital and the chief military post. St. Marks on the Gulf was
occupied for military purposes and the posts of Matanzas, Picolata, and
Mosquito were also maintained for a time. The military of both East and
West Florida were under the general command at Pensacola. James Grant
was made first governor. In East Florida there was no assembly till
1781. Difficulties between military and civil authorities prevailed as
in West Florida.

At the time of the British occupation, St. Augustine was a small Spanish
town with adobe houses and narrow streets. Under British rule East
Florida prospered. Harbors were improved, and highways were constructed,
one being built from St. Mary's River to St. Augustine. In 1766 some
forty families went from the Bermudas to Mosquito Inlet to engage in
ship-building. In the following year Dr. Turnbull brought fifteen
hundred indentured colonists from the Mediterranean region and settled
them at New Smyrna. In 1776 the indentures were cancelled and the
settlers moved to St. Augustine, where their descendants still five.
During the Revolution East Florida, like West Florida, became a Mecca
for southern Loyalists.


Plans to occupy the Illinois country.--By the end of 1761 British troops
had taken possession of all the lake posts from Niagara to Green Bay,
besides Venango, Miamis, and Ouiatanon further south. In July, 1763,
orders were sent by the Governor of Louisiana for the evacuation of the
Illinois posts, and boats were prepared at Fort Pitt for sending four
hundred English troops to relieve the French garrisons. But the
conspiracy of Pontiac delayed the complete transfer of this region for
nearly three years.

The conspiracy of Pontiac.--Early in the war the tribes north of the
Ohio had ravaged the Virginia and Pennsylvania frontiers, but after 1758
they had been quiet, although they did not like the English. They feared
eviction from their lands, English traders had proved arrogant and
dishonest, and General Amherst was attempting a policy of economy in
presents, in spite of the criticism of the better informed Indian
agents. Pontiac, head chief of the Ottawas, organized a general revolt,
embracing the Algonquins, some of the tribes of the lower Mississippi,
and some of the Iroquois. By a simultaneous assault in May, 1763, all
but three northwestern posts--Detroit, Fort Pitt, and Niagara--fell
almost without a blow. At Presq'Isle, Le Boeuf, Venango, Mackinac,
Sandusky, St. Josephs, and Ouiatanon, there were massacres, and the
garrison fled from Green Bay.

Failure of the Loftus expedition.--It being impracticable now to send
troops to the Illinois country by way of the Ohio, this was attempted by
an expedition up the Mississippi Major Loftus was sent from Mobile with
three hundred and fifty men to occupy Fort Massac, Kaskaskia, and Fort
Chartres. In February, 1764, he left New Orleans, but when two hundred
and forty miles up the river, at Rocher à Davion, he was attacked by
Tunica Indians, whereupon he abandoned the expedition and returned to

Peace.--While Colonel Bradstreet reoccupied the Lakes, General Gage,
Amherst's successor, resorted to conciliation, and a series of peace
embassies were sent to the Illinois country from Mobile and from the
northern garrisons. The submission of the Ohio tribes, failure of hopes
for aid from New Orleans, and news of the transfer of western Louisiana
to Spain, led Pontiac to negotiate at Ouiatanon in 1765 with George
Croghan. At Detroit Croghan secured peace with all the western tribes.
Thomas Stirling then descended the Ohio with a detachment and in October
occupied Fort Chartres. "Thus, after nearly three years of fighting and
negotiating, British forces were in possession of the last of the French
posts in the West."

Establishment of government.--In accordance with the Treaty of Paris a
proclamation of General Gage guaranteed the inhabitants the free
exercise of the Catholic religion. Settlers were allowed to sell their
lands and emigrate, or to become British subjects on taking the oath of
allegiance. The inhabitants of Kaskaskia and other places asked and
received an extension of the time for decision to March, 1766. Many of
them emigrated to St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve, or to New Orleans. The
Proclamation of 1763 made no provision for civil government in the
Indian reserve, and local administration was left to the military
authorities and Indian agents. The French people were dissatisfied, and
many misunderstandings arose between them and the English settlers and
officers. By 1770 the complaint took the form of a demand for civil
government, which was provided in 1774 by the Quebec Act.


Western schemes.--Before the French and Indian War grants had been made
by the British government of lands beyond the Alleghanies, and
settlement on the back lands had been favored as a means of opposing,
the French and of extending British trade. During the war the frontiers
of settlement were contracted, but, in anticipation of victory, new
grants were sought and new schemes proposed. Not only were lands
desired, but prominent men proposed new colonial governments west of the
mountains. Nearly all of the proposals involved territory in the Ohio
Valley. After the Albany Congress of 1754 Franklin urged the formation
of two barrier colonies in the West. In 1756 Thomas Pownall, ex-governor
of New Jersey, made a similar proposal. About the same time Samuel
Hazard of Philadelphia promoted the formation of a Presbyterian colony
to embrace most of the Ohio Valley and extending across the Mississippi.
In 1757 the Greenbrier Company secured 100,000 acres of land on the
western waters.

The victory over the French stimulated new speculative and colonizing
schemes for the West both in England and America. In June, 1763, the
Mississippi Company was formed, composed of prominent Virginians,
including Colonel George Washington and Richard Henry Lee. A memorial to
the king was drawn asking for 2,500,000 acres on both sides of the lower
Ohio, quit rent free for twelve years, and protection by royal forts, on
condition of settling two hundred families. Late in 1763 a pamphlet
published in Edinborough, Scotland, proposed a colony named Charlotiana,
to include the country between the Wabash, Ohio, Mississippi, and the
Great Lakes. About the same time Charles Lee proposed a colony on the
Illinois and another on the Ohio.

Effect of the Proclamation.--The Proclamation of 1763 closing the
Trans-Alleghany country to settlement seems to have checked for a time
the schemes for speculation. The Proclamation contained an implied
promise that the boundary would be revised, while it was well known that
influential politicians in England favored the opening of the West. New
schemes for western lands, therefore, were not long suppressed. In 1766
William Franklin, governor of New Jersey, launched a plan for two
colonies, one at Detroit, the other on the lower Ohio. Through the aid
of Benjamin Franklin, father of the governor, the Ohio country was
favored by the Board of Trade, but in 1768 the plan dropped from sight.
Meanwhile many other land companies were formed.

A policy of expansion adopted.--The policy of the ministry regarding the
West was vacillating, and more so, no doubt, because of the pressure of
conflicting interests. But in 1768 the ministry decided on a definite
plan for western settlement, the principle being that expansion should
be gradual and under control of imperial agents, who should purchase
land from the Indians as needed. Johnson and Stuart, Indian
superintendents, had already made tentative arrangements for revising
the proclamation line. In 1765 the Six Nations ceded their claims to
lands between the Ohio and the Tennessee. Stuart, by a series of
treaties, secured a line from the southern boundary of Virginia to the
St. Mary's River. Florida, thence along the tidewater line to the
Appalachicola River. West of that point the line was not completed, but
important cessions were made along the Mobile coast. In 1768 the former
lines were ratified, and Stuart, in two treaties with the Cherokees and
Creeks (October, November, 1768), secured the extension of the line to
the mouth of the Kanawha River on the north and to the Choctaw River on
the south. At Fort Stanwix in 1768 the Iroquois ratified essentially
their cession of 1765. The lines did not correspond, since the Iroquois
cession included Western Tennessee and Kentucky, which were not within
the other cessions. Meanwhile the southern line was modified by the
treaty of Lochaber by running it west along the southern boundary of
Virginia to the Holston River, thence direct to the mouth of the
Kanawha. The purpose of the change was to take in the recently formed
Watauga settlement.

Vandalia.--Having extinguished the Indian titles, it was now possible to
found a new colony back of Pennsylvania and Virginia, and such a project
was put on foot. Samuel Wharton of Philadelphia formed a company for the
purpose of purchasing part of the lands. The company included some of
the leading men in England and America, among them being Benjamin
Franklin and Thomas Walpole. Official aid was enlisted by including two
members of the ministry. In 1769 the purchase was made, and, in spite of
Lord Hillsborough's opposition, by 1775 the project of a new and
separate province named Vandalia had been approved by king and council.
The outbreak of the Revolution set the plan aside. Had it been carried
out it would have cut Virginia off from her back lands. The Quebec Act
of 1774 operated in the same direction, by attaching the Northwest to
Quebec. Virginia therefore resisted. Governor Dunmore opposed the
Vandalia colony, made grants of land both within and beyond it, and
joined a company which purchased Indian lands north of the Ohio.


Western settlements before 1763.--But it was the backwoodsmen, and not
the corporations, who opened the Trans-Alleghany country. Before the war
a few settlements had been made on the western waters, In 1748 Draper's
Meadows, on the Greenbrier, in West Virginia, were settled. Between 1750
and 1752 a settlement was made by the Ohio Company at Redstone on the
Monongahela. By 1758 several small settlements had been made on the
Holston, Watauga, and Cheat Rivers. But during the war these western
settlements were abandoned, and the frontier pushed eastward a hundred
miles or more.

The westward movement after the war.--The French and Indian War was
scarcely over when the westward movement began again, regardless of
proclamations or the deliberations of the Board of Trade. In 1760 Daniel
Boone, from the Yadkin in North Carolina, "cilled a bar" on the Watauga
River. Between 1761 and 1765 Wallen annually led hunters to the west. In
1765 Croghan surveyed the Ohio River, and the next year James Smith and
others explored the Tennessee. In 1767 Finley was in Kentucky, and
Stoner, Harrod, and Lindsay were at French Lick (the site of Nashville).
In 1767 and 1770 Boone was "prospecting" for Judge Richard Henderson, a
land speculator of North Carolina. At the same time Mansker led a party
down the Cumberland and on to Natchez. By this time others had wandered
far beyond the Mississippi and were causing the Spanish officials

The hunters, traders, and prospectors were followed by surveyors and
settlers. The chief participants in the movement were from the middle
region and the South: Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North
Carolina. Prominent among the pioneers on the western waters were the
Scotch-Irish who had settled the back country of the older colonies and
stood waiting at the western passes.

The Appalachian barrier.--To reach the Mississippi Valley the
frontiersman was forced to pass the Appalachian barrier, extending from
Maine to Georgia. The easiest pass through it, by way of the Hudson and
Mohawk Rivers, was impeded by the Six Nations who stood between the
western frontier of settlement and the vacant lands beyond. Farther
south the barrier was traversed by a series of interlocking rivers,
flowing in opposite directions, whose valleys afforded trails. The
Susquehannah led to the Alleghany, the Potomac to the Monongahela, the
James and Roanoke to the Great Kanawha, the Great Pedee, the Yadkin, and
Catawba to the head waters of the Tennessee. A series of longitudinal
valleys on the eastern front of the southern Appalachians gave access
from Virginia and North Carolina to the upper Tennessee, from whose
valley an easy pass was found to Kentucky by way of Cumberland Gap.

The Indian barrier.--The Iroquois Confederacy, though friendly, was a
retarding force to the northern stream of emigration. The Algonquin
tribes north of the Ohio had been friendly with the French, and after
the French and Indian War they favored the French traders rather than
those from the seaboard colonies. At the southern end of the
Appalachians westward expansion was retarded by the strong confederacies
of the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws. The region between
the Ohio and the Tennessee was the "dark and bloody ground" between the
northern and southern tribes, but permanently inhabited by neither. It
was this region which was opened to settlement by the Indian cessions
between 1768 and 1770. The cessions were followed immediately by a
movement of settlers into the area.


The North Carolina Regulators.--The movement across the mountains was
stimulated by a popular upheaval in the back country of North Carolina.
Shortly before 1740 the Scotch-Irish and German migration reached North
Carolina and by 1765 the lands along the headwaters of the Yadkin, Haw,
Neuse, Tar, Catawba, and Deep Rivers had been occupied. Many English and
Welsh also had settled in the same region. Between the Piedmont and the
coastal plain was a sparsely settled country of pine forests. "Cut off
... from the men of the east, the men of the 'back country' felt no more
sympathy for the former than they received from them." The coast country
controlled the legislature and the courts. The men of the West
complained that they were forced to pay excessive taxes, that the
sheriffs were dishonest, and fees extortionate. An additional grievance
was the scarcity of money. During 1765-1767 the frontiersmen began to
organize and from 1767 to 1771 the back country was in a state of
rebellion. Lawyers were seized and whipped, and the Hillsboro court was
broken up. In 1771 the Regulators were defeated by Governor Tryon's
troops in the battle of the Alamance and the rebellion soon subsided.
During those troubled years many had sought new homes in the western

The Watauga settlement.--Permanent settlement was made in eastern
Tennessee in 1769. In that year a band of pioneers moved down the valley
from Virginia and settled on the Watauga River, a branch of the
Tennessee, thinking that they were still in Virginia. A short time
afterward they were joined by settlers from North Carolina, within whose
bounds the colony proved to be. Two able leaders soon emerged. James
Robertson, a backwoodsman and a "mighty hunter," went to Watauga in 1770
and took thither a colony of sixteen North Carolina families in 1771. A
year later arrived John Sevier, a Virginian of Huguenot extraction. Like
Robertson, he was an able Indian fighter and a leader of men.

The Watauga Association.--Finding themselves outside of Virginia and
beyond the reach and protection of the North Carolina administration,
the settlers, like the Pilgrim Fathers in a similar situation, reverted
to the social compact--familiar to Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and to
back-country North Carolinians who had "regulated" horse stealing--and
formed a government for themselves. In 1772 a convention of the settlers
created an independent government called the Watauga Association. It
had a written constitution, vesting the administration in an executive
committee of five, two of whom were Sevier and Robertson. This committee
exercised most of the powers of sovereignty, making treaties,
administering justice, granting lands, and making war on the Indians. In
1776 the Watauga Association, realizing the need of help, petitioned the
Council of North Carolina to extend its government over the new
settlements, and in 1777 they were organized as Washington County.


The surveyors and first settlers.--Settlement had also begun in what is
now Kentucky. Ahead of the settlers went the prospectors and surveyors,
who descended the Ohio and the Kanawha to select and survey lands. In
1770 and 1772 George Washington explored lands in what is now
northeastern Kentucky. In 1773 the McAfees led a party of surveyors down
the Ohio, crossed Kentucky, and returned over the Cumberland Mountains.
In the following year several parties of surveyors and land hunters were
sent by Virginia officials to lay out bounty lands for soldiers. Others
went without official sanction. One party was led by John Floyd from
Fincastle County, Virginia, who descended the Kanawha and Ohio to the
Falls, crossed Kentucky, and returned by Cumberland Gap. During his
expedition he surveyed lands for George Washington, Patrick Henry, and
others. Attempts at settlement had already been made. In 1773 Daniel
Boone led a colony from North Carolina toward Kentucky, but was driven
back by Indians. The next year Harrod, of Virginia, founded a settlement
in Kentucky called Harrodsburg, but it was broken up by Indians, whose
hostilities drove out all settlers and land hunters.

Indian ravages.--The border war which now occurred was the culmination
of a long series of troubles between the frontiersmen of Pennsylvania
and Virginia, and the Indians of the Ohio Valley. The Delawares had been
pushed over the Pennsylvania Mountains to the Muskingum and Tuscarawas
Rivers. Among them settled the Moravian missionaries, who formed them
into Christian towns and kept them peaceful when others were hostile.
The Shawanee had been pushed north to the Scioto River, whence they
marauded the Virginia border. Behind them were the hostile tribes who
had taken part in Pontiacs War. Through 1773 an Indian uprising was
threatening, and preparations were made in the westernmost settlements
of Virginia. Early in 1774 many settlers fled from the Holston and
Clinch Valleys. Minor outrages being committed along the Ohio, alarm,
spread, and in April there was a retreat across the Monongahela, which
was crossed by more than a thousand refugees in a single day.

Lord Dunmore's War.--Governor Dunmore now prepared for war, which, there
is some ground for thinking, he helped to bring on as a means of
strengthening Virginia's claims to the Northwest. To warn the surveyors
and settlers Colonel Preston, lieutenant-sheriff and surveyor of
Fincastle County, Virginia, sent Boone and Stoner through Kentucky. They
went as far as the Falls of the Ohio, and saved most of the men on the
frontier. The governor organized a campaign, himself leading the
Virginia regulars down the Ohio, while the frontier levies were led by
Colonel Andrew Lewis. They were to meet at the mouth of the Great
Kanawha. When Lewis reached that point he was attacked before the
arrival of Dunmore by the Indians under Chief Cornstalk, whom he
defeated. Thereupon the Indians sued for peace with Dunmore, who had
entered their country north of the Ohio. In the following October a
treaty was made at Fort Pitt which kept the northern Indians quiet
during the first two years of the Revolution and made it possible to
settle Kentucky.

Henderson and Transylvania.--Harrodsburg was now refounded by Virginians
(1775) who constituted the majority of the settlers. Henderson, the
North Carolina land speculator, formed a land company, called the
Transylvania Company. To improve his title in 1775 he made a treaty with
the Overhill Cherokees paying them £10,000 for their claims to lands
along and between the Cumberland and the Kentucky. Boone, with a party
of thirty men, was sent ahead to clear a road for Henderson's colony
from the Holston River to the Kentucky (1775). It became the famous
highway known as the Wilderness Road. Henderson followed with his
colony, founded Boonesborough, built a fort, and opened a land office,
naming his colony Transylvania. He attempted to set up in the
wilderness a modified proprietary régime. Having established his colony,
he called a convention; the delegates made laws which Henderson
approved, and a compact was formed between the delegates and proprietors
defining the irrespective rights. The proprietors retained control by
reserving to themselves the veto power.

Transylvania absorbed by Virginia.--Henderson's procedure was regarded
as illegal, and he was denounced by the governors of both Virginia and
North Carolina. When the Revolution broke out the proprietors sent a
delegate to the Continental Congress and appealed to that body for
protection, but, largely through Virginia's influence, the delegation
was rejected. The Virginia settlers in Kentucky, led by Harrod, opposed
Henderson's claim to lands, appealed to Virginia, and sent George Rogers
Clark to the assembly. Virginia asserted sovereignty over Kentucky, and
stormy times continued till 1777, when Kentucky with her present
boundaries was organized as Kentucky County, Virginia.


Westsylvania.--While Henderson was founding Transylvania another region
west of the mountains was being settled and was struggling for
independent statehood. Emigrants from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia,
and other states had crossed the mountains and settled on the
tributaries of the upper Ohio in what are now western Pennsylvania, West
Virginia, and eastern Ohio. By the middle of 1776 there were said to be
25,000 families on the tributaries of the Ohio above the Scioto River.
But the land which they occupied was in dispute between Virginia and
Pennsylvania, and the Indiana and Vandalia Companies, and the settlers
took up the struggle, quarreling over land titles and jurisdiction. The
disorders prevented effective organization against the Indians. Shortly
after the Declaration of Independence the settlers memorialized
Congress, asking independent statehood as a "sister colony and
fourteenth province of the American confederacy," under the name of
Westsylvania, whose boundaries they described, but the request was not

The Cumberland settlement.--Robertson was the type of frontiersmen
desirous to be ever on the move. In 1779 he prospected at French Lick,
returned to Watauga, raised a colony, and in the fall led it forth. The
women and children were conducted by Donelson down the Tennessee and up
the Cumberland, while Robertson, guided by Mansker, led the men
overland. Nashborough, now Nashville, was founded at the Cumberland
Bend, and other stations were occupied along the river. In 1780 a
convention formed an "Association" much like that of Watauga, but after
three years of independence the district became Davidson County, North


The French people.--At the time of the conquest the Canadian people
numbered about 65,000 living in the St. Lawrence Valley, with several
thousand scattered among the western posts. The settlers were in the
main a frugal, industrious, unlettered, religious people. They were of
two distinct classes, the gentry and the peasant tenants. After the war
there was a considerable emigration to France of the official, noble,
and commercial classes, leaving chiefly cultivators of the soil and fur
traders. By 1775 the population had grown to perhaps 90,000, chiefly
through natural increase of the French. By 1784 the population was

The British settlers.--The conquest left in the province and attracted
to it later a small body of British settlers but by 1775 they did not
number more than five or six hundred. Most of them lived in the towns of
Quebec and Montreal, and engaged in business, especially in the fur
trade, many as agents for English houses, others being independent
merchants. When Hillsborough restored seignorial tenure, many of them
acquired seigniories, though they continued to live by trade.

Military rule.--British rule in Canada began with the capitulation of
Montreal in September, 1760. General Amherst was made governor-general,
with lieutenant-governors at Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers. From
that time to the enforcement of the Proclamation of 1763 Canada was
under military rule. But French law and customs were followed in the
main, and there was little discontent.

Civil government established.--Civil government was established in
August, 1764. The governor was assisted by an executive council composed
of the lieutenant-governor, chief justice, and eight citizens. The
government provided by the Proclamation of 1763 was unsuited to a
population almost wholly French, professing the Catholic religion, and
living under laws and customs of their own. The Proclamation provided
for an assembly, but none was held in Quebec because the French people
would not take the test oath, and the British settlers were too few in
numbers to warrant an assembly representing them alone. Uncertainty
existed regarding tithes and the future status of the Catholic Church.
The Proclamation contemplated the establishment of British law, but
practice was uncertain. The French inhabitants were not politically
ambitious, but the British were aggressive in their demands for an
assembly and the uniform establishment of English law.

The Quebec Act.--Under these circumstances a change of system was deemed
necessary. It was provided by the Quebec Act of 1774, the first
parliamentary legislation for Canada. The act maintained the privileges
of the Catholic clergy, tithes from Catholic subjects being continued.
French civil procedure was established, with some exceptions, but
English criminal procedure was enforced. Provision was made for an
appointive executive council with powers to make ordinances for the
province, but no provision was made for a provincial assembly.

Boundaries extended.--The population of the Illinois country was similar
to that of Quebec. The French _habitants_ there had been demanding civil
government, and it had been complained by the Montreal traders that the
prosperity of Canada had been impaired by cutting off the western posts.
Therefore the boundaries of Quebec were extended to include the region
between the Ohio River and the Upper Mississippi. By the Proclamation of
1763 Labrador east of River St. John's, Anticosti, and the Magdalens,
had been attached to Newfoundland. Labrador now began to develop
commerce with the interior and the North and with Newfoundland.
Opposition to the fishing admirals of Newfoundland caused these three
districts to be annexed to Quebec in 1774.

Not intended as a blow at liberty.--The Quebec Act was regarded in the
other colonies as a blow at popular liberties and as an encroachment
upon colonies whose chartered boundaries extended into the Northwest. It
was in fact an administrative act intended primarily as a means of
providing for the interests of the great body of the inhabitants, the
French. The attachment of the Ohio country to Quebec, however, checked
the natural spread of settlement from the seaboard colonies, and the
act, on the other hand, prevented the assimilation of the French people
by the English in Canada.

The Loyalists in Canada.--During the American Revolution a considerable
number of Loyalists crossed into Canada and settled at the border posts.
Many others joined the British army against the Americans. At the close
of the war some of the border counties of New York were almost
depopulated. In 1783 there were in the Montreal district seventeen
hundred Loyalists at seventeen posts, not counting enlisted men. Of
those who migrated after the revolution the greater number at first
settled in Nova Scotia. By the end of 1784 the number there exceeded
28,000 and caused the forming of the new province of New Brunswick. Over
three thousand went to Cape Breton Island, and three times that number
to the interior of Canada. Thirteen hundred settled at Kingston and
formed the nucleus of Upper Canada, which was separated from Lower
Canada in 1791. More important than this, the Revolution determined the
course of Canadian history. In order not to be absorbed by the United
States, Canada was forced into unswerving loyalty to the British Empire.


Supervision of the fur trade.--The fur trade of Quebec under the new
régime was supervised according to the principles of the Proclamation of
1763. The most fundamental fact was that the French monopolistic system
was discontinued, except at certain "King's posts" in the lower St.
Lawrence Valley. The trade was open to any duly licensed subject,
superintendents were established at the posts, local courts were erected
in the interior, and settlement limited to the immediate neighborhood of
the posts in order not to drive away the fur bearing animals.

The French traders ruined.--The conquest had destroyed the French fur
trading organization. Under the mercantile system then in vogue,
supplies and markets had now to be sought in England. The French
merchants were ruined, and the entire trade of the Great Lake region was
thrown into the hands of the British traders. The French _coureurs de
bois_, however, remained in the country, and, in the employ of the
British, continued to be the backbone of the fur gathering business in
the interior.

The rush to the interior.--As early as 1761 British traders of Montreal
began to enter the field left vacant by the French. Pontiac's War caused
a suspension of their activities, and during it British traders were
plundered and murdered. By 1765, however, there was a new rush to the
interior, though it was 1771 before they could safely trade in the most
remote posts on the Saskatchewan. In the meantime the Indians had
learned to take their furs to the posts on Hudson Bay or down the

Extent of operations.--The American Revolution destroyed the western fur
trade of the seaboard colonies and threw the commerce of the entire
Northwest into the hands of the Quebec and Montreal traders. By the
close of the war they were conducting operations on both sides of the
Great Lakes, in the Illinois country, beyond the upper Mississippi, on
the Winnipeg, Saskatchewan, Churchill, and Athabasca Rivers, to the
neighborhood of Great Slave Lake. They traded on the Assiniboine, and
may have reached the Missouri by that route.

Management of the trade.--During and after the Revolution the value of
the furs annually sent from Montreal and Quebec to London was probably
$1,000,000. The trade centered mainly in Montreal. In London great
mercantile establishments throve by the commerce. At Montreal other
great houses were founded. Detroit and Michillimackinac were interior
supply posts, where branch houses or lesser merchants conducted
business. Wintering partners and clerks went with the fleets of batteaux
into the far interior, but most of the common hands or _engagés_ were
French and half-breed _coureurs de bois_, just as in the case of the
Spanish fur trade in Louisiana. The entire business was conducted on the
credit system.

The fur magnates.--Many of the fur magnates were Scotchmen. Among the
Montreal merchants of importance in this period were Alexander Henry,
Benjamin and Joseph Frobisher, James Finlay, and Peter Pond. Henry was
one of the earliest in the West. Finlay is said to have been among the
first on the Saskatchewan River. The Frobishers were leading traders on
the Saskatchewan and Churchill. Pond was probably the pioneer on the
Athabasca, having wintered there in 1778-1789.

The Northwest Company formed.--The free access of all licensed traders
to the interior resulted in reckless competition in regions remote from
the military posts. Acts of violence were committed and Indians were
involved in the contest. Besides the grave disadvantages of competition,
there were obvious advantages of combination. In 1779, therefore, nine
enterprises were consolidated for one year. The success caused the
arrangement to be repeated, and finally in 1783-1784 the Northwest
Company was organized and became permanent. This company soon
monopolized the larger part of the Montreal trade, and became the great
rival of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Advance of Hudson's Bay Company.--After the Peace of Utrecht the
Hudson's Bay Company had returned to an era of prosperity. Urged on by
French competition, by 1700 expeditions inland had been made by Kelsey
(1691) and Sanford, and Henley House had been built a hundred and fifty
miles inland from Fort Albany; and by 1720 other minor inland
expeditions had been made by Macklish and Stewart, but in the main the
Company had held to the shores of the Bay. Instead of sending employees
inland, as did the French, reliance was placed on furs brought by the
Indians to the posts, all of which were close to the Bay. The monopoly
enjoyed was a cause of jealousy among British merchants, and critics
arose, notably Arthur Dobbs, who charged that the Company had failed in
its obligation to seek the northwest passage and explore the interior.
Coerced by criticism, between 1719 and 1737 the Company made some
explorations, but little was accomplished.

Hearne's explorations.--After 1763 criticism of the Company was
reinforced by the rise of the Montreal trade, and new explorations
northwestward were undertaken. After two unsuccessful attempts in 1769
and 1770 to reach the Coppermine River overland, in December, 1770,
Samuel Hearne set out from Fort Prince of Wales to seek "a North-West
Passage, copper-mines, or any other thing that may be serviceable to the
British nation in general, or the Hudson's Bay Company in particular."
Going west, then north, on July 18, 1771, Hearne reached the mouth of
the Coppermine River near latitude 68°, where he took formal possession
of the Arctic Ocean for the Company. Returning by way of Lake Athabasca,
which he discovered and crossed, he reached his fort on June 30, 1772.

Rival posts in the interior.--Hearne's explorations were indicative of a
new policy. Coerced by the aggressive Montreal traders, the Company now
pushed into the interior in a struggle for the mastery. Side by side the
two, companies placed rival forts on all the important streams from the
Hudson Bay to the Rockies and from the Red River of the North to Great
Slave Lake.


Alden, G.H., _New Governments west of the Alleghanies before 1780_;
Alvord, C.W., "Virginia and the West: An Interpretation," in _The
Mississippi Valley Historical Review_, III, 19-38; _The Critical Period,
1763-1765_; _The Mississippi Valley in British Politics_; Alvord, C.W.,
and Carter, C.E., editors, _The New Régime, 1765-1767_; Bassett, J.S.,
"The Regulators of North Carolina," in American Hist. Assoc., _Annual
Report, 1894_, pp. 141-212; Bourinot, J.G., _Canada under British Rule,
1760-1905_ (G.W. Wrong revision), chs. 2-3; Bryce, George, _The
Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company_, chs. 8-13; Carter,
C.E., _Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 1763-1774_; "The
Beginnings of British West Florida," in _The Mississippi Valley
Historical Review_, IV, 314-341; Coffin, Victor, _The Quebec Act_;
Hamilton, P.J., Colonial Mobile, chs. 23-31; The Colonisation of the
South, chs. 20-21; Henderson, A., "Richard Henderson and the Occupation
of Kentucky, 1775," in _The Mississippi Valley Historical Review_, I,
341-363; Hinsdale, B.A., _The Old Northwest_, ch. 8; Howard, G.E.,
_Preliminaries of the Revolution, 1763-1775_, ch. 13; Roosevelt,
Theodore, _The Winning of the West_, I-II; Siebert, W.H., "The Loyalists
in West Florida and the Natchez District," in _The Mississippi Vauey
Historical Review_, II, 465-483; Stevens, W.E., "The Organization of the
British Fur Trade, 1760-1800," in _The Mississippi Valley Historical
Review_, III, 172-202; Thwaites, R.G., _Daniel Boone_; Thwaites, R.G.,
and Kellogg, L.P., editors, _Documentary History of Dunmore's War_,
1774, Introduction; Turner, F.J., "Western State-Making in the
Revolutionary Era," in _American Historical Review_, I, 70-87, 251-269;
Wallace, S., _The United Empire Loyalists_; Winsor, Justin, _The
Westward Movement_, 38-100; Wood, W., _The Father of British Canada_;
Davidson, G.C., _The North West Company_.





Nature of the causes.--While British statesmen were working out a system
of government for the newly acquired domains, in the empire forces of
disintegration were at work which brought on the American Revolution.
The causes of that convulsion cannot be traced to a group of events or
laws. Through a long period social, political, and economic forces were
at work which gradually brought thirteen of the mainland colonies into
open rebellion. Because this opposition is more evident after the French
and Indian War, and because the economic is the most obvious phase of
the struggle, historians have sometimes concluded that the laws passed
by parliament between 1763 and 1776 were the cause of the Revolution.
The policy pursued by the British government no doubt hastened it, but
alone does not account for it.

A mixed population.--For more than a century the colonies had been
receiving new elements which were producing a society in many respects
different from that of England. America had been the recipient of many
of the radicals, the down-trodden, and the discontented from the mother
country. The acquisition of New Netherlands had brought under British
control a considerable number of Dutch, Swedes, and Finns. The Huguenot
migration which followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes had added
another element. The German and Scotch-Irish influxes had brought in
thousands. Welsh, Scotch, Irish, and Jews were also to be found in the
colonies. America, then as now, was a melting pot of the nations.

Lack of American nationality.--Influenced largely by climatic and
physiographic conditions, distinct industrial systems had developed. In
the northern colonies the small farm prevailed, in the South the
plantation system. The North produced the seamen, fishermen, and
merchants, while few of the southerners were seafarers. The frontier
with its foreign elements, its scattered settlements, and freedom from
restraint had produced a society which differed from the tide-water
region. The fur-trader, the cattleman, the lumberman, and the small
farmer were distinctly different in speech, dress, habits, and point of
view from the Boston merchant, the Philadelphia Quaker, or the Virginia
planter. Separatist tendencies were stronger than those of coalescence.
A Virginian was a Virginian and not an American. There was little in
common between the New Englander and the southern planter, or between
the people of the Hudson Valley and the Quakers.

Class distinctions.--In individual colonies society was continually
growing in complexity. Though the great mass of the population continued
to be rural, town life was becoming an important factor. Members of an
aristocracy, of which the governor was usually the central social
figure, were inclined to rear their heads above their fellows. The
merchants and lawyers, ever increasing in numbers, found themselves
outside the social pale of the official aristocracy, a source of silent
mortification which was a real force in producing radicals.

Evolution of English society.--English as well as American society had
also undergone a rapid evolution. Puritan England had passed away; the
Stuarts, the Hanoverians, and foreign conquests had transformed the
viewpoint of the Englishman. Little was there in common between John
Milton and Horace Walpole, or between a Cromwell and a Newcastle. The
sudden greatness that had come through the Seven Years' War well-nigh
turned the heads of Englishmen. To acquire wealth, to wield power, and
to live gaily seemed to be the ideals of the upper class Englishman of
the reign of George III. The colonial who still considered the mother
country as the traditional England of Magna Carta, the Puritan
Revolution, and the Bill of Rights, had as little understanding of a
Townshend as had a Townshend a comprehension of the colonial.

The assemblies control the purse.--The governmental institutions of the
colonies had gradually evolved toward a common type, whose constituent
parts were the governor, council, and assembly, the governor and
council, except in Connecticut and Rhode Island, representing imperial
or proprietary authority, and the assembly the will of the colonial
inhabitants. The power of the assemblies to control the purse had been
steadily growing, until the colonies considered the principle
established both by precedent and by inherent rights guaranteed by the
English constitution. By controlling the budgets and the salaries of the
governors, the assemblies held the whip hand over the executives.

English and colonial ideas of representation.--The meaning of the term
representation differed in England and the colonies. To the Englishman
parliament represented the British Empire and legislated for the whole
of it, allowing the colonies to handle local matters within their
chartered rights. Parliament was regarded as representing the three
estates or classes of society, rather than individuals. The idea that
every Englishman was represented by a man in whose selection he had had
a voice had not become a part of the English political system. Members
of parliament were frequently chosen in rotten boroughs. A few thousand
men at most chose the entire parliamentary body. The king's ministers,
selected from the party which could command a majority in the House of
Commons, directed public policy and enforced their will upon a
subservient commons. In America the suffrage was usually restricted by a
property or church qualification, but every member of an assembly
actually represented a colonial community and a known constituency. When
the colonial orator declared for no taxation without representation, he
was talking in the terms of a system that had grown up in America, but
which England did not begin to adopt until the Reform Bill of 1832.

The causes of the development of nationalism.--French political
philosophers and observant travelers had predicted that the removal of
French power from America would cause the colonies to seek independence.
Franklin ridiculed the idea, for he believed that colonial jealousies
were too strong to allow united action, a view which was also held by
Pitt. After the French and Indian War the English government, by
enforcing and extending the colonial system, quickened public opinion,
overthrew separatist tendencies, and brought many of the colonists to
think and act together in opposition to English policy. When this was
attained, a national consciousness had come into existence which
gradually developed into open rebellion.

Illicit traffic during the French and Indian War.--Since the reign of
Anne England had not enforced the trade laws strictly. The Molasses Act
of 1733 had been practically a dead letter from the date of its passage
and the other navigation acts had been frequently violated. Smuggling
was winked at by governors and customs officials, who in many cases
profited from the traffic. During the French and Indian War the colonies
traded extensively with the French West Indies. This was especially
galling to England, whose chief weapon against France was control of the
seas. Though the colonies in 1756 were forbidden to trade with the
French, the colonial skippers evaded the command by shipping goods to
the Dutch ports of Curaçoa and St. Eustatius, or to the French West
Indies. In 1757 parliament forbade the exportation of food stuffs from
the colonies to foreign ports, but the colonials continued to make
shipments to the French or Dutch colonies and to bring back cargoes of
molasses, sugar, and rum. To stop Dutch trade with the French colonies,
Dutch merchant vessels were seized. As the English navy gradually
isolated or captured the French West Indies, the colonials found a new
method of circumventing the regulations by shipping to Monte Cristi, a
Spanish port in Española near the French boundary. A commerce of less
importance but of similar nature was also maintained with Florida and
Louisiana. In 1760, when the English navy had gained the upper hand, the
illicit commerce diminished but did not entirely cease. When Spain
entered the war a considerable increase occurred. The naval and military
authorities did all in their power to end the traffic with the enemy,
for they considered that its continuance meant a prolongation of the

Writs of assistance.--To prevent smuggling English officials resorted to
the issuance of writs of assistance. These were general search warrants
which enabled the holder to search any house, ship, or other property
where smuggled goods might be stored. The writs naturally aroused great
opposition among the merchants, who claimed that they were illegal. In
1761 when the Boston customs officers applied for the writs, the
merchants objected to them. When the merchants' cause was presented
before the Massachusetts Supreme Court, James Otis argued that the
writs, being general, were illegal and struck at the liberty of the
individual. "No acts of parliament can establish such a writ.... An act
against the constitution is void." The courts upheld the legality of the
writs but Otis's speech did much to arouse and formulate public opinion.

The Parson's Cause.--In Virginia Patrick Henry performed a similar
function in formulating public opinion. The speech which made him the
leader of the Virginia radicals was delivered in connection with a suit
brought by one of the Virginia clergy. Tobacco was the medium of
exchange in the Old Dominion and ministers were paid annually 17,000
pounds of tobacco. In 1755 and 1758, the burgesses passed acts which
allowed debts to be redeemed at two pence for each pound of tobacco.
This worked a hardship upon the ministers, who naturally desired the
benefit of the high price of tobacco to compensate them for the hard
years when prices were low. The acts were disallowed by the crown in
1759, and the ministers attempted to recover their losses. In a suit
brought in 1763 by Reverend James Maury, Patrick Henry appeared for the
vestry. Realizing the weakness of his legal position, Henry resolved to
carry the jury by an emotional attack upon the king's prerogative. He
argued that the act of 1758 was a law of general utility consistent with
the original compact between ruler and ruled, upon which government was
based, and that the king, by disallowing this salutary act, became a
tyrant and forfeited his right to the obedience of his subjects.


Economy and reform.--At the end of the French and Indian War, England
was burdened with a staggering debt. To build up the resources of the
empire, increase the revenues, and protect the dominions were the
objects of the ministers of George III. In this program the colonies
were expected to play their part. The Bute Ministry planned to enforce
the navigation acts, to tax the colonies directly, and to use the
colonial revenue to support an army in America. The powers of the
admiralty courts were immediately enlarged and commanders of war
vessels were authorized to act as customs officials. Soon after
Grenville came into office (April, 1763), he ordered customs collectors
who were lingering in England to proceed at once to their colonial
stations and he instructed the governors to enforce the trade laws

Trade encouragement during 1764-1765.--To encourage commerce several
important provisions were made during 1764 and 1765. To stimulate the
fur business the old duties were abolished and an import duty of only
one pence a skin and an export duty of seven pence were levied. To
stimulate hemp and flax production bounties were paid on those products
shipped from the colonies to England. The bounty on indigo was somewhat
reduced but was still sufficient to protect the planters. The duties on
whale fins were repealed to the great benefit of Massachusetts. The rice
business was stimulated by allowing Georgia and the Carolinas to ship
without restrictions to the southward.

The Sugar Act.--Grenville's beneficial measures were more than offset by
the Sugar, Colonial Currency, Stamp, and Quartering Acts. The Sugar Act
"was a comprehensive measure, whose openly expressed aim was, in the
first place to raise a colonial revenue, and in the second to reform the
old colonial system both in its administrative and in its economic
features." The act confirmed and modified the Molasses Act of 1733. The
duty on sugar shipped to the British colonies was raised but that on
molasses was lowered. To injure the French island trade, the importation
of foreign rum or spirits and commerce with Miquelon and St. Pierre were
forbidden. Oriental and French textiles, Portuguese and Spanish wines,
and coffee, if brought directly to the British colonies, were taxed
heavily, but if shipped from England the duty was low. To protect South
Carolina a duty was imposed upon foreign indigo shipped to the colonies.
With a few exceptions no drawbacks were henceforth to be allowed, and
revenues derived from the Sugar Act were to be paid into the royal
exchequer. They were to be kept separate from other moneys and were to
be used only for the protection of the British colonies in America.

Stringent regulations were provided for the enforcement of the Sugar
Act and other navigation laws. At the option of the informer or
prosecutor, penalties for breach of the trade laws might be recovered in
any court of record in the district where the offence was committed or
in any admiralty court in America. The accused was required to give
security for costs if he lost his suit, but if he won his case, he was
not entitled to costs if the judge certified that the grounds of action
seemed probable. Furthermore in the Molasses Act which was now
confirmed, the burden of proof was placed upon the owner or claimant.

Every shipmaster was required to give a bond to land only enumerated
goods at European ports north of Cape Finisterre and to possess a
certificate from the customs collector at the point of loading. West
Indian goods not properly certified were to be treated as foreign goods.
Vessels cleared from British ports must contain only goods loaded in
Great Britain. This, however, did not apply to salt and Irish linen.
Breaches of these regulations subjected the law breaker to severe

Regulation of Colonial Currency.--Another important measure was the
Colonial Currency Act. Lack of specie had compelled the issuance of
colonial paper money, and though Massachusetts had retired such issues
in 1749, most of the colonies were still suffering from depreciated and
unstable currency. To protect the English merchant, parliament passed
the Colonial Currency Act which prevented colonists from paying their
debts to the home country in depreciated currency and stopped the issues
of unsound money. The act caused a shortage of the medium of exchange at
the time that the colonists were deprived of the West Indian commerce
which had supplied them with specie to settle balances in London. The
act produced embittered feeling which paved the way for greater

Colonial protests.--When it became known in the colonies that the
Ministry intended to enforce a more rigid policy which included the
levying of internal taxes by parliamentary enactment, vigorous protests
were made. Memorials, resolutions, and addresses poured in upon the
king, lords, commons, and Board of Trade, and numerous pamphlets
appeared which presented the economic and constitutional viewpoint of
the colonists.

The Massachusetts protest.--The Boston town meeting urged the assembly
to use its influence to protect the rights of the colonies and in its
instructions to the Boston representatives the principles were stated
that there should be no taxation without representation and that
colonials were entitled to full rights of Englishmen. It was also
suggested that other injured colonies should be asked to coöperate in
seeking redress. A committee of the assembly presented a memorial
drafted by Otis which contained the additional principle that parliament
had no right to alter the constitution. The memorial was sent to the
Massachusetts agent in England with instructions to urge the repeal of
the Sugar Act and to protest against the proposed Stamp Act. A committee
of correspondence headed by Otis was authorized to inform the other
colonies of the action of Massachusetts and to seek their coöperation.
As the action had been taken by the assembly without the consent of the
council, the governor was soon petitioned to call the general court. He
complied and a petition was drawn which temperately protested.

The Rhode Island protest.--Before the Sugar Act was passed a
remonstrance was prepared in Rhode Island, which was to be presented to
the Board of Trade if three other colonial agents would coöperate.
Committees of correspondence were also formed in various towns. After
the passage of the act the committee of correspondence of which Governor
Hopkins was a member sent out a circular letter protesting against the
Sugar Act and the proposed Stamp Act, In November, 1764, the assembly
sent a petition to the king in which the principle was stated that an
essential privilege of Englishmen was that they should be governed by
laws made by their own consent.

Connecticut protest.--In Connecticut Governor Fitch, at the suggestion
of the assembly, prepared an address to parliament which protested
against the proposed Stamp Act or any other bill for internal taxes.
This and the governor's book of _Reasons Why the British Colonies in
America should not be Charged with Internal Taxes by Authority of
Parliament_ were sent.

New York protest--In March, 1764, the New York merchants presented to
the council a memorial against the renewal of the Molasses Act. In
October the assembly appointed a committee of correspondence and sent
statements of grievances to the king and the lords, and a petition to
the commons. In the petition the significant statement was made that
the loss of colonial rights was likely to shake the power of Great

Pennsylvania's protest.--The Pennsylvania assembly considered that
parliament had no right to tax the colony. Jackson, the colonial agent,
was instructed to remonstrate against the proposed Stamp Act and to
endeavor to secure the repeal or modification of the Sugar Act. Franklin
was sent over to assist Jackson.

Maryland and Virginia.--In Maryland the governor prevented the meeting
of the assembly, but the Virginia council and burgesses prepared an
address to the king, a memorial to the lords, and a remonstrance to the
commons. The Virginians claimed the rights and privileges that their
ancestors had had in England and laid down the fundamental principle of
no taxation without representation.

The Carolinas.--North Carolina protested strongly and in South Carolina
the assembly appointed a committee which instructed the colonial agent
to complain of the laws of trade. The instructions also declared that a
Stamp Act would violate the inherent right of every British subject to
be taxed only by his own consent or by his representatives. The governor
prorogued the assembly before a vote could be taken upon the committee's
action, but the instructions, nevertheless, were sent.

The Stamp Act.--In spite of colonial protests Grenville pursued his
policy, the appeals of the colonies being rejected under the rule that
petitions against money bills should not be received, and in March,
1765, parliament passed the Stamp Act. By its provisions stamps were to
be placed on commercial and legal documents, pamphlets, newspapers,
almanacs, playing cards, and dice. The enforcement of the act was placed
under the management of English commissioners who were empowered to
appoint persons to attend in every court or public office in the
colonies to see that the law was enforced. For infringements of the law
there were heavy penalties which might be collected through the
admiralty courts if the informer or prosecutor so elected. Certain cases
of forging and counterfeiting were punishable by death. The revenue
derived from the Stamp Act was to be paid into the exchequer to be used
for colonial defence.

Quartering Act.--The ministry intended to establish an army of 10,000
men in the colonies and the annual Mutiny Act of 1765 authorized the
sending of such troops as might be deemed necessary. This was followed
by the Quartering Act As "_the publick houses and barracks, in his
Majesty's dominions in America, may not be sufficient to supply quarters
for such forces: and whereas it is expedient and necessary that
carriages and other conveniences, upon the march of troops ... should be
supplied for that purpose_," it was enacted that, if colonial barracks
were insufficient, officers and troops were to be quartered in public
hostelries. If more room were needed, vacant buildings were to be
rented. Troops were to be supplied with fire, candles, vinegar, salt,
bedding, cooking utensils, and small quantities of beer, cider, or rum.
Persons giving houses for troops and furnishing supplies were to be
reimbursed by the province. The colonies were to furnish conveyances at
rates fixed by the act, but if the expense exceeded the rate, the
province had to make up the deficit.

Colonial opposition.--To the colonies the Stamp Act, the Quartering Act,
and the extension of admiralty jurisdiction were unconstitutional.
Trials in the admiralty courts had always been looked upon with
disfavor, as they violated the right of trial by jury. The new
regulation allowing alleged violators of the trade laws to be taken to
Halifax for trial was looked upon as a dangerous innovation. The
Quartering Act was viewed as a violation of the constitutional principle
that troops were not to be quartered upon the people. The provisions of
the law were especially aggravating to New York which, because of the
strategic position of the colony, would have to bear an undue part in
the support and transportation of troops. But the Stamp Act aroused the
greatest furor. All of the elements of discontent united against an act
which encroached upon the right of the assemblies to control taxation.
Indirect taxation was not looked upon as taxation. To the colonial
economists the navigation acts were merely trade regulations and the
right of parliament to regulate commerce was fully recognized. But a
direct tax imposed by parliament to support an obnoxious soldiery set in
motion the forces of discontent and produced a unity of opposition which
surprised the ministers of George III.

The Virginia Resolutions.--Virginia took the lead in opposition. On May
29, 1765, the burgesses resolved themselves into a committee of the
whole to consider the steps necessary to be taken in consequence of the
Stamp Act. Patrick Henry, the "rustic and clownish youth of the terrible
tongue," introduced a series of resolutions which boldly challenged the
British government. The preamble stated that, as the House of Commons
had raised the question of how far the general assembly had power to
enact laws for laying taxes and imposing duties payable by the people of
Virginia, the House of Burgesses, to settle and ascertain the same to
all future time, resolved: (1) that the first adventurers and settlers
of Virginia brought with them and transmitted to their posterity and to
other English subjects who had come to five in the colony all the rights
of the people of Great Britain; (2) that these were granted to them by
two charters of James I; (3) that taxation of the people by themselves
or by their representatives was a distinguishing characteristic of
British freedom without which the ancient constitution could not exist;
(4) that the people of Virginia had uninterruptedly enjoyed the right of
being governed by their own assembly in matters of taxes and internal
police, a right which had never been forfeited and had been constantly
recognized by the kings and people of Great Britain. (5) Therefore it
was resolved that the general assembly had the sole right and power to
lay taxes and impositions upon the inhabitants of Virginia, and that
every attempt to vest such power in any other person or persons had a
tendency to destroy British as well as American freedom; (6) that the
inhabitants of Virginia were not bound by any law or ordinance designed
to impose any tax upon them other than those imposed by the general
assembly; (7) and that any person who maintained that Virginians were
bound to obey such laws not imposed by the assembly should be deemed an
enemy of the colony.

The resolutions precipitated an acrimonious debate in which the
democratic members of the western counties supported Henry against the
aristocratic leaders. The committee of the whole appears to have adopted
the resolutions, but on the following day the burgesses rejected the
preamble and the last two resolutions, the other five being passed by a
slender majority. Henry then left the assembly and the following
morning the conservatives expunged from the record the fifth resolution.
The manuscript of the entire series, except the third resolution which
was omitted by error, was already on its way to the other colonies and
was widely published. "Beyond question the Virginia resolves mark an
important crisis in the impending revolution."

Resistance and violence.--In June the Massachusetts general court, at
the suggestion of Otis, sent a circular letter to the other colonial
assemblies asking them to send delegates to meet at New York in the
following October to consider the danger from the Stamp Act. Before the
delegates met fierce opposition appeared in nearly every colony.
Remonstrances came from towns, counties, and assemblies. Newspapers and
pamphlets inveighed against the act, and non-importation agreements were
made in many localities. Associations called "Sons of Liberty" sprang
up. At first they worked secretly, but they soon announced their
committees of correspondence which worked to unify the opposition.

In Boston occurred riots of greater violence than in any other place. On
August 14 the stamp distributor's effigy was hung on the "Liberty Tree,"
and after other demonstrations, that night a mob demolished a building
which it was believed the collector was erecting for an office. On
August 26 the houses of two of the customs officials were sacked and the
house of Chief Justice Hutchinson was pillaged and destroyed. At Newport
the stamp distributor and a sympathizer found it necessary to seek
safety on a British man-of-war. Scenes of violence occurred in the other
colonies and the stamp distributors resigned with more haste than


The Stamp Act Congress.--The Stamp Act Congress met at New York on
October 7, 1765. Nine colonies were represented, Virginia, North
Carolina, Georgia, and New Hampshire failing to send delegates.
Prominent among those in attendance were John Dickinson of Pennsylvania,
John Rutledge and Christopher Gadsden of South Carolina, and James Otis
of Massachusetts. On October 19 a declaration of rights and grievances,
originally drafted by Dickinson, was adopted. In the declaration the
argument was presented that the colonies were entitled to the inherent
rights and liberties of native-born Englishmen, one of which was that no
taxes were to be imposed upon them except by their own consent or by
their representatives. The colonists were not and from their local
circumstances could not be represented in the House of Commons, their
only representatives being those in the colonies who alone had the
constitutional right to impose taxes upon them. All supplies to the
crown being free gifts of the people, it was unreasonable and
inconsistent with the principles and spirit of the British constitution
for the people of Great Britain to grant to the king the property of the
colonists. Trial by jury was an inherent right of every British subject
in the colonies, but the Stamp Act and other laws, by extending the
jurisdiction of the admiralty courts, had a tendency to subvert the
rights and liberties of the colonists. The duties imposed by recent acts
of parliament would be burdensome and grievous, and from the scarcity of
specie the payment of them would be impracticable. The recent
restrictions would make it impossible to purchase the manufactures of
Great Britain. The right to petition the king or either house of
parliament was also asserted. By an address to the king and by
applications to both houses of parliament, they endeavored to procure
the repeal of the Stamp Act, of clauses in recent acts which increased
admiralty jurisdiction, and of recent acts placing restrictions on
American commerce.

Repeal of the Stamp Act.--In July, 1765, Grenville fell from power, but
not because of opposition to the Stamp Act. The Marquis of Rockingham, a
man of moderate ability, was selected to form the new cabinet. The
question of the repeal of the Stamp Act came up in parliament early in
1766. During the debate in the commons on February 13, Franklin, then
agent for Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, was questioned regarding the
colonial attitude, and he made it clear that the Stamp Act could not be
enforced. The American cause was strengthened by the powerful support of
Pitt and by the protests of English merchants and manufacturers who were
losing trade through colonial boycotts. After a momentous debate, the
act was repealed.

The Declaratory Act.--Although parliament had given ground it did not
surrender, for in the Declaratory Act of March 18, 1766, it asserted its
right to tax the colonies. The act declared that the colonies were
subordinate unto and dependent upon the crown and parliament, and that
the king by and with the consent of parliament had full power and
authority to make laws to bind the colonies in all cases. All
resolutions, votes, orders, and proceedings in the colonies denying the
power and authority of parliament to make laws imposing taxes and
regulations were declared null and void.

Other legislation.--The Quartering Act was then renewed, but with
certain changes to make it more effective. The imposts on textiles which
had previously been collected in America were henceforth to be collected
at the point of exportation. The duty on molasses was changed from three
pence a gallon on the foreign product to one penny a gallon on all
molasses brought to the continental colonies.

Colonial rejoicing.--The Declaratory and other acts attracted little
attention in America, where there was great rejoicing over the repeal of
the Stamp Act. The constitutional principles for which the colonists had
contended had in no wise been conceded, but to the colonist his point
seemed won. He was soon to be rudely awakened.


Townshend.--In July, 1766, Rockingham fell from power and the
Pitt-Grafton Ministry was formed. Unfortunately for the colonies, Pitt
was in ill-health and took little part in shaping policies. The strong
man of the cabinet was Charles Townshend. He was fully in sympathy with
Grenville's ideas, and was responsible for a new series of irritating

Suspension of the New York assembly.--Trouble had arisen in New York
over the enforcement of the Quartering Act. In June, 1766, in reply to
Governor Moore's request that provision be made for the expected troops,
the assembly excused itself from compliance but intimated that about
£4000 then in the treasury might be used. Later the assembly passed an
act making provision for one year for a thousand men and one company of
artillery. When a request was made for full compliance with the
Quartering Act, the assembly refused. On December 19 it was prorogued,
and on June 15, 1767, was suspended by act of parliament.

Colonial customs commissioners.--Another act provided for a board of
commissioners of customs to be established in America. The preamble
stated that, as the colonial customs officials had found it inconvenient
to apply to the commissioners in England for directions when
difficulties arose, and as colonial shippers were greatly delayed in
carrying on business, commissioners were to be stationed in America.
Five commissioners were appointed with headquarters at Boston.

Revenue acts.--A new revenue act was passed "for making a more certain
and adequate provision for defraying the charge of the administration of
justice and the support of civil government, in such provinces where it
shall be found necessary, and toward further defraying the expenses of
defending, protecting, and securing" the dominions in America. Duties
were imposed upon glass, red and white lead, painter's colors, tea, and
paper. Drawbacks were allowed on coffee and cocoanuts, but chinaware was
no longer subject to drawback. Writs of assistance were declared legal.
By another act a drawback for five years was granted on tea reëxported
from England to Ireland or the colonies.

Dickinson's "Farmer's Letters."--The Townshend Acts were received with
alarm throughout the colonies. "Awed by the suddenness and magnitude of
the peril, the colonial leaders acted with circumspection and rare
self-control." The most powerful statement of the colonial viewpoint
came from John Dickinson whose "Farmer's Letters" were read throughout
the colonies, were published in London, translated into French, "and
were read by everybody in the two capitals of civilization who read
anything more serious than a playbill." Dickinson recognized the
vagueness of the constitutional relations of the colonies to the mother
country. He urged that a spirit of compromise should prevail and that no
abstract theory of sovereignty should be pushed to its logical
conclusions. He admitted that parliament possessed legal authority to
regulate the trade of the empire, but the recent attempts to raise a
revenue he considered a most dangerous innovation. "Great Britain claims
and exercises the right to prohibit manufactures in America. Once admit
that she may lay duties upon her exportations to us, for the purpose of
levying money on us only, she then will have nothing to do but to lay
those duties on the articles which she prohibits us to manufacture, and
the tragedy of American liberty is finished."

"I would persuade the people of these Colonies ... to exert themselves
in the most firm, but the most peaceable manner, for obtaining relief.
If an inveterate resolution is formed to annihilate the liberties of the
governed, English history affords examples of resistance by force."

"Let us consider ourselves as ... freemen, ... _firmly bound together_
by the _same rights_, _interests_, and _dangers_ ... What have these
colonies to _ask_, while they continue free; Or what have they to
_dread_, but insidious attempts to subvert their freedom?... They form
one political body, of which each _colony_ is a _member_."

The Massachusetts protest--In Massachusetts the Townshend Acts were
received by a public which was already irritated by the untactful course
of Governor Bernard. Soon after the repeal of the Stamp Act he had
negatived the election of Otis as speaker of the assembly, and when that
body retaliated by refusing to reelect certain members of the council,
the governor had refused to accept six members elected by the popular
party. Difficulties had also arisen when the governor demanded
compensation for those who had suffered by the Stamp Act riots and when
he demanded compliance with the Quartering Act.

The first protest of Massachusetts against the Townshend Acts was on
October 28, 1767, when the Boston town-meeting renewed the
non-importation agreement The General Court convened on December 30 and
shortly afterward the acts were read in the assembly and referred to a
committee for consideration. The committee drafted a letter to the
colonial agent which reviewed the arguments against taxation and
protested against the Townshend Acts. A petition to the king and letters
to members of the ministry were also prepared. A circular letter to the
assemblies in the other colonies, drawn by Samuel Adams, was adopted on
February 11, 1768.

The circular letter stated that it seemed necessary that the
representatives of the several assemblies should act in harmony "upon so
delicate a point" as the recent imposition of duties and taxes. The
argument regarding taxation without representation was restated, and
objection was made to the payment of the salaries of governors and
judges by the crown, to the large powers of appointment given to the
commissioners of the customs, and to the Quartering Act. Denial was made
that independence was in the minds of the Massachusetts representatives
and the letter closed with an expression of confidence in the king.
Several of the colonies sent sympathetic replies and Virginia issued a
circular letter to the other colonies calling upon them to unite with
Massachusetts in her petition for redress.

Hillsborough's reply.--When the Massachusetts protests reached England,
they came before a ministry which was prejudiced by letters from royal
officials in America. Lord Hillsborough, who had recently been appointed
to the newly created position of colonial secretary, laid the
Massachusetts protests before the cabinet. On April 21 he sent letters
to all the colonial governors, with the exception of Bernard, ordering
them to ignore the Massachusetts circular letter. If the assemblies took
notice of it, they were to prorogue or dissolve them. Bernard was
commanded to require the Massachusetts assembly to rescind its action
and to declare its disapprobation of its recent action. The
Massachusetts assembly refused and the other assemblies commended its

The customs officials defied.--Acts of violence soon occurred. The
warship _Romney_ was anchored in Boston harbor and the captain angered
the people by impressing seamen, one of whom was rescued. On the same
day the sloop _Liberty_, owned by John Hancock, arrived with a cargo of
Madeira wine. The customs collector was locked up by the crew while the
cargo was landed and a false entry made. The _Liberty_ was seized and
moored under the guns of the _Romney_. A riot then occurred; the houses
of two of the customs officials were damaged and a boat belonging to the
controller was burned. The officials fled to the _Romney_ and later took
refuge in Castle William. The Boston town-meeting requested the removal
of the war vessel, but the governor refused on the ground that such
action would be beyond his jurisdiction. At Newport a revenue cutter
was burned and at Providence a coat of tar and feathers was
administered to a customs official.

Action of the Boston town-meeting and the Massachusetts
convention.--Before the occurrence of these riotous acts, the ministry
had determined to send troops to Boston. When this became known, the
town-meeting assembled in Faneuil Hall and resolved that the inhabitants
defend their rights, and they were called upon to provide themselves
with arms. When the governor refused to summon the assembly, the
selectmen called a convention of delegates from the Massachusetts towns.
Ninety-six towns responded. The governor refused to recognize the
convention, but it remained in session for six days and did not adjourn
until a statement of grievances had been formulated. On September 28,
1768, the day of adjournment, two regiments arrived at Boston.

Prisoners accused of treason to be tried in England.--The rebellious
acts of Massachusetts were condemned by parliament which also advised
the enforcement of the statute of Henry VIII which allowed the
government to bring to England for trial persons accused of treason
committed outside of the kingdom. This aroused a storm of protest. In
Virginia the burgesses adopted resolutions which asserted that the right
of taxation was vested in the House of Burgesses, that petitioning the
sovereign was an undoubted privilege of the colony, and that it was
lawful and expedient to procure the concurrence of other colonies "in
dutiful addresses, praying the royal interposition in favour of the
violated rights of America;" that trials for treason or for any felony
or crime committed in the colony should be held in the courts of that
colony, and that the sending of suspected persons beyond the sea for
trial was derogatory of the right of trial by a jury of the vicinage and
deprived the accused of summoning witnesses. The resolutions were sent
to the other assemblies. When the governor dissolved the burgesses, the
members met in a private house and drew up a non-importation agreement.
Other assemblies approved the Virginia resolutions and non-importation
agreements were signed throughout the colonies.

Departure of Bernard.--Massachusetts continued to be the center of
unrest. The unpopularity of Governor Bernard increased when it became
known that he was collecting evidence against Samuel Adams. The public
ire grew more intense when some of the governor's letters to the
Ministry were published. The council drew up charges against him and the
assembly petitioned for his recall. In July, 1770, he voluntarily
departed, leaving Hutchinson in charge.

The Boston "Massacre."--The troops remained in Boston where they were
heartily detested. Difficulties between soldiers and townspeople became
more and more frequent and in March, 1770, there was a serious
collision. On the fifth a sentinel at the custom house was pelted with
snow balls, and when he called for aid the guard came to his assistance.
A soldier was knocked down, shots were fired by the guard, and several
citizens were killed or wounded. Preston, the commanding officer of the
guard, surrendered to the civil authorities, and the privates were
placed under arrest. The selectmen demanded the withdrawal of the troops
to Castle William and Hutchinson hesitatingly complied. When the
soldiers were brought to trial, they were defended by John Adams and
Josiah Quincy, who obtained acquittal for all but two who were lightly


Partial repeal of the Townshend Acts.--The Townshend Acts had proved a
complete failure. Exports from England to America had dropped from
£2,378,000 in 1768 to £1,634,000 in 1769. The customs were yielding
little revenue while the colonial military establishment had become
extremely expensive. In addition the colonies had been brought close to
rebellion. Lord North, who became Prime Minister on January 31, 1770,
hoped to end the commotions in America which had been so injurious to
English merchants and manufacturers. He accordingly obtained a repeal of
the duties on paints, glass, and paper, but at the suggestion of the
king, the tea tax was retained in order to maintain the principle that
parliament had the right to tax the colonies. The economic result of the
repeal was immediately evident, for in 1770 the English exports to
America reached nearly two million pounds sterling and during the next
year more than doubled.

Arbitrary attitude of the governors.--The public, however, was kept in a
state of agitation by the arbitrary acts of the governors who reflected
the royal will. In Georgia the governor vetoed the assembly's choice for
speaker, provoking a controversy which ended in the dissolution of the
assembly. In South Carolina the governor was in frequent quarrels with
the assembly, first over the salaries of the judges, then regarding the
veto of an appropriation but, and finally over convening the assembly at
Beaufort instead of at Charleston. Virginia was irritated by the royal
instructions which forbade the governor to assent to any law which would
prohibit or obstruct the importation of slaves. In Maryland the governor
by proclamation revived a law regulating fees which had expired by
limitation, an action which was looked upon as an assertion of the right
to levy taxes.

In Massachusetts the General Court, which was to have met at Boston in
January, 1770, was called to meet at Cambridge on March 15. The assembly
objected to the change of time and place and demanded a copy of
Hutchinson's instructions, but he refused to comply. The assembly would
do no business while thus constrained to hold its sessions away from
Boston, and declared that the people and their representatives had a
right to withstand the abusive exercise of the crown's prerogative.
Under protest the assembly finally proceeded to business, but another
difficulty immediately arose when the colonial troops were removed from
Castle William which was then garrisoned by the regulars. In July, 1771,
Hutchinson, who had recently been appointed governor, vetoed a bull
which provided for the salaries of the crown officials, an action which
called forth a protest from the assembly which held that royal
instructions were thus given the force of law. The following year the
assembly was informed that henceforth the salaries of the governor and
judges would be paid by the crown.

The Gaspee affair.--In Rhode Island an event occurred in 1772 which had
far-reaching influence. The numerous inlets and islands of Narragansett
Bay made smuggling easy, and revenue vessels, though constantly on the
alert, experienced great difficulty in detecting the illicit traders.
The revenue boats _St. Johns_ and _Liberty_ were destroyed by men from
Newport and the customs officials were annoyed by suits to recover
vessels and cargoes which they had seized; Admiral Montagu accordingly
ordered that seized vessels be sent to Boston. To Rhode Islanders
Dudington, the commander of the _Gaspee_, was especially obnoxious.
According to Trevelyan, "He stopped and searched vessels without
adequate pretext, seized goods illegally, and fired at the market boats
as they entered Newport harbour. He treated the farmers on the islands
much as the Saracens in the Middle Ages treated the coast population of
Italy, cutting down their trees for fuel, and taking their sheep when
his crew ran short of meat." The injured parties made their voices
heard, and the case was laid before the Admiral, who approved the
conduct of his subordinate officer, and announced that, "as sure as any
people from Newport attempted to rescue a vessel, he would hang them as
pirates." On June 9 the _Gaspee_ ran aground seven miles below
Providence and during the night the vessel was boarded, Dudington was
wounded, he and his crew were put on shore, and the vessel was burned.
The act of violence aroused the British government and orders were sent
to the governor of Rhode Island, the admiralty judge at Boston, and the
chief justices of Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York to act as a
commission of inquiry. The commission held sessions in January and May,
1773, but failed to obtain any evidence.

Local committees of correspondence.--The arbitrary acts of the crown
officials, the extension of the royal prerogative, and the _Gaspee_
affair made possible the organization of the radical elements in the
colonies. In Massachusetts opposition centered in Samuel Adams, "the man
of the town meeting," who put forth pamphlet after pamphlet which struck
at the encroachments upon colonial rights. "While he restated the old
argument against the right of parliament to tax, he closely examined the
foundations of the claim of the ministers to govern by royal
instructions. He had grasped the idea that the king, lords, and commons,
as well as the colonies, were subject to the authority and bound by the
limitations of constitutional law." In the assembly, in the town
meeting, through the press, on the street, among the sailors, fishermen,
and ropemakers, he advocated the necessity of union. During the contest
over the salaries of the crown officials, Adams seized the opportunity
to put his ideas into tangible form. On November 2, 1772, in the Boston
town meeting he moved that a committee of twenty-one be appointed to
state the rights of the colonists, particularly of Massachusetts, and to
communicate and publish the same to the Massachusetts towns and to the
world as the sense of Boston "with the infringements and violations
thereof that have been or ... may be, made; also requesting of each town
a free communication of their sentiments on this subject." By January,
1773, more than eighty towns in Massachusetts had committees.

"The Boston committee of correspondence has been likened to a political
party manager. It provided for regular meetings, consulted with similar
bodies in the vicinity, stimulated the spread of committees in
surrounding towns, kept up a correspondence with them, prepared
political matter for the press, circulated it in newspapers and
broadsides, matured political measures, created and guided public
sentiment--in short, heated the popular temper to the boiling point of
revolution and then drew from it the authority to act."

Standing committees of correspondence.--Aroused by the _Gaspee_ inquiry,
the Virginia burgesses on March 12, 1773, adopted resolutions which
provided for a standing committee of correspondence and inquiry whose
business was "to obtain the most early and authentic intelligence of all
such acts and resolutions of the British Parliament, or proceedings of
Administration, as may relate to or affect the British colonies in
America, and to keep up and maintain a correspondence and communication
with our sister colonies, respecting these important considerations; and
the result of such their proceedings, from time to time, to lay before
this House." The committee was also instructed to obtain information
regarding "the principles and authority on which was constituted a court
of inquiry, said to have been lately held in Rhode Island, with powers
to transmit persons accused of offences committed in America to places
beyond the seas to be tried." The speaker was instructed to transmit to
the speakers of the different assemblies of the British colonies on the
continent copies of the resolutions, that they might lay them before
their assemblies and request them to appoint a person or persons to
communicate from time to time with the committee of the burgesses.

The Virginia suggestion was first acted upon by the Rhode Island
assembly, which on May 15 informed Virginia of the appointment of a
committee of correspondence. Before the close of the month the
assemblies of Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts had
appointed similar committees. The South Carolina assembly acted in July,
Georgia in September, Maryland and Delaware in October, and North
Carolina in December. The New York assembly appointed its committee on
January 20, 1774, and New Jersey on February 8. The Pennsylvania
assembly dissolved without taking action.

The committees did not prove to be active agents, because (1) "there was
little or nothing for them to do;" (2) they "were chosen from members of
the assembly, all of whom were desirous of going home when the assembly
adjourned"; (3) "the assembly committees were extremely cautious about
acting on their own authority." "However, the choice of such committees
was not entirely without result. The popular assembly in each colony
received preliminary testing. Constitutional questions were raised and
discussed, and arguments disseminated.... More important still had been
the demonstration that a body could be created which might continue to
act in successful opposition to the crown when the royal governors
dissolved or prorogued the assemblies."


Attempted relief of the East India Company.--During this period George
III and his ministers took the fatal step of attempting to force tea
upon the colonies. The colonists had refrained from using tea which paid
a duty and had supplied themselves with smuggled tea from France,
Sweden, and Holland. At this time the East India Company was on the
verge of bankruptcy, a condition due in part to the loss of American
customers. In the company's warehouses a vast amount of tea had
accumulated. As a measure of relief the directors of the company advised
the repeal of the tea duty, but "a course which went direct to the point
was not of a nature to find favor with George the Third and his
Ministers." Instead they allowed the company a drawback of the entire
tea duty in England, but the tea was to be subject to the three penny
tax payable in the colonies.

The tea arrives.--George III was soon to learn that he could not force
tea down colonial throats. Late in 1773 several tea-laden ships arrived
at American ports. In Charleston the agents of the company resigned, and
when the duty was not paid, the collector seized the tea and stored it
in a damp cellar. In Philadelphia a public meeting resolved that the
duty on tea was illegal and persons who assisted in its being landed
were declared public enemies. Under pressure of public opinion the
consignees resigned and the captain of the tea vessel wisely decided not
to unload his cargo. "When New York learned that the tea-ships allotted
to it had been driven by a gale off the coast, men scanned the horizon,
like the garrison of Londonderry watching for the English fleet in Lough
Foyle, in their fear lest fate should rob them of their opportunity of
proving themselves not inferior in mettle to the Bostonians."

The Boston Tea Party.--The Massachusetts people had recently been
greatly irritated by certain private letters of Hutchinson, Oliver, and
Paxton. The letters had been obtained in England by Franklin and had
been sent under the seal of secrecy to some of the Massachusetts leaders
who, however, published them. Before the excitement subsided three
tea-laden vessels arrived at Boston. Hutchinson refused to allow the
ships to leave until regularly cleared and this could not be done until
the entire cargo had been unloaded. A mass meeting held in the Old South
Church resolved that the tea should not be landed, and when the governor
ordered the dispersal of the meeting, the bearer of the proclamation met
with insult. Neighboring towns agreed to assist Boston, with force if
necessary, and a guard watched the vessels to see that none of the tea
was landed. On December 17 the cargo would be seized by the collector
for non-payment of duty. On the evening of December 16, fifty or sixty
men disguised as Indians boarded the tea ships, rifled the chests, and
threw the contents into the bay.

The course of Massachusetts.--The British government was being sorely
tried by Massachusetts. On January 29, 1774, a petition of the general
court for the removal of Hutchinson and Oliver came before the Privy
Council Committee for Foreign Plantations. The petition was pronounced a
seditious document. Franklin was summoned before the committee, was
charged with intercepting letters, and was dismissed from the deputy
postmaster-generalship. Soon after the Boston Tea Party, the assembly
voted to impeach Justice Oliver for accepting a salary from the crown.
In retaliation Hutchinson dissolved the assembly and soon left the


The intolerable acts.--The revolutionary acts which were taking place in
America, especially those in Massachusetts, caused deep concern in
England. Pitt and Burke favored conciliation as the only means of
preserving the empire, but the king insisted upon repression. The
ministry speedily adopted a legislative program to punish Massachusetts,
and parliament legalized the ministerial policy by passing the so-called
intolerable acts.

Boston Port Act.--The first of these acts closed the port of Boston from
June 1, 1774, until such time as "it shall be made to appear to his
Majesty, in his privy council, that peace and obedience to the laws
shall be so far restored in the said town of Boston, that the trade of
_Great Britain_ may safely be carried on there, and his Majesty's
customs duly collected." The king was not to open the port until the
inhabitants of Boston had given full satisfaction to the East India
Company and to the revenue officers and others who had suffered by the
recent outbreaks.

Massachusetts Government Act.--By the "regulating act" the people of
Massachusetts were deprived of most of their chartered rights. After
July 1, 1774, the council was to be appointed by the king instead of by
the assembly. The governor was to appoint and remove, without the
consent of the council, all judges of the inferior courts, the attorney
general, provosts, marshals, and other officers belonging to the council
or courts of justice. Sheriffs were also appointed by the governor but
could not be removed without the consent of the council. The chief
justice and judges of the superior court were to be appointed by the
governor, but were to hold their commissions during the king's pleasure,
and they could not be removed unless by order of the crown. Grand and
petit juries were to be summoned by the sheriffs instead of being chosen
in town meetings. Except for elections, town meetings were to be called
only by consent of the governor and discussion was to be limited to
subjects stated in the leave. The people were still allowed to elect the

Administration of Justice Act--The third act provided, "That if any
inquisition or indictment shall be found, or if any appeal shall be sued
or preferred against any person, for murther, or other capital offence,
in the province of the _Massachusetts Bay_, and it shall appear, by
information given upon oath to the governor.., that the fact was
committed by the person against whom such inquisition or indictment
shall be found, or against whom such appeal shall be sued or
preferred..., either in the execution of his duty as a magistrate, for
the suppression of riots, or in the support of the laws of revenue, or
in acting in his duty as an officer of revenue, or in acting under the
direction and order of any magistrate, for the suppression of riots, or
for the carrying into effect the laws of revenue, or in aiding and
assisting in any of the cases aforesaid; and if it shall also appear, to
the satisfaction of the said governor ... that an indifferent trial
cannot be had within the said province, in that case, it shall and may
be lawful for the governor ... to direct, with the advice and consent of
the council, that the inquisition, indictment, or appeal, shall be tried
in some other of his Majesty's colonies, or in _Great Britain_." The act
also made it possible to transport witnesses to the scene of the trial.

Quartering Act, June 2, 1774.--The fourth law was entitled "An act for
the better providing suitable quarters for officers and soldiers in his
Majesty's service in North America." It provided that, if any officers
or soldiers should be without quarters for twenty-four hours after a
proper demand had been made, the governor might order that uninhabited
houses, outhouses, barns, or other buildings be made fit for quarters.
The law was to remain in force until March 24, 1776. Though the act was
general in its terms, in reality it was intended "to facilitate the
establishment of a temporary military government in Massachusetts." Of
ominous import was the appointment of General Gage as governor of

The Quebec Act.--The Quebec Act which extended the province of Quebec to
the Ohio River also aroused the anger of Massachusetts, New York,
Connecticut, and Virginia, as it deprived those colonies of large tracts
of western lands which they claimed under their ancient charters. It was
not intended as a coercive act, but was so considered in the colonies.


Call for a congress.--On May 10 a copy of the Port Act was received in
Boston. On the twelfth the committee of correspondence met with eight
neighboring committees and recommended non-intercourse with Great
Britain. The other colonies were asked to follow the same course. While
this was taking place the four additional regiments which Gage had
called for began to arrive and on June 1, 1774, the port was blocked by
men-of-war. Boston began to receive money and supplies from other towns
and colonies, and a new impetus was given to the formation of committees
of correspondence. Committees in New York and Philadelphia recommended
the appointment of delegates to a general congress. The Virginia
burgesses resolved to set aside June 1 as a day of fasting and prayer.
The governor dissolved the house, but the burgesses assembled on May 27
at the Raleigh Tavern and adopted a resolution calling for a congress.
Copies of the resolution were sent to the other assemblies.

On June 17 the Massachusetts assembly resolved, "That a meeting of
committees from several colonies ... is highly expedient and necessary,
to consult upon the present state of the colonies, and the miseries to
which they are and must be reduced by the operation of certain acts of
Parliament respecting America, and to deliberate and determine upon wise
and proper measures, to be by them recommended to all the colonies, for
the recovery and establishment of their just rights and liberties, civil
and religious, and the restoration of union and harmony between Great
Britain and the colonies, most ardently desired by all good men:
Therefore, resolved, that the Hon. James Bowdoin, Esq., the Hon. Thomas
Cushing, Esq., Mr. Samuel Adams and Robert Treat Paine, Esqrs., be
appointed a committee ... to meet with such committees or delegates from
the other colonies as have been or may be appointed, either by their
respective houses of burgesses or representatives, or by convention, or
by the committees of correspondence appointed by the respective houses
of assembly, in the city of Philadelphia, or any other place that shall
be judged most suitable by the committee, on the 1st day of September
next; and that the speaker of the house be directed, in a letter to the
speakers of the house of burgesses or representatives in the several
colonies, to inform them of the substance of these resolves."

Meeting of the First Continental Congress.--Every colony but Georgia
responded to the call. In September over fifty delegates assembled in
Carpenters' Hall at Philadelphia. Among them were John and Samuel Adams
of Massachusetts, John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, Richard Henry Lee,
Patrick Henry and George Washington of Virginia, Roger Sherman of
Connecticut, John Jay of New York, and Edward and John Rutledge of South
Carolina. "The congress of 1774 was not thought of by the people as a
congress in the modern legislative sense. It was rather a convention of
ambassadors of subordinate, but distinct communities which had found it
needful to take counsel of one another regarding a crisis in their
common relations to the parent state, in order, if possible, to adopt
some common plan of action. It was essentially an advisory or
consultative body. In another aspect it may be regarded as the
completion of the revolutionary party organization of which the basis
was laid in the committees of correspondence."

The Suffolk Resolves approved.--The delegates were soon divided into
well-defined groups; the radicals led by Samuel Adams wanted resistance,
the conservatives headed by Joseph Galloway favored compromise. The
radicals succeeded in getting Congress to approve the resolves recently
drawn up in the Suffolk County convention in Massachusetts. The resolves
declared that no obedience to the recent acts of parliament was due from
Massachusetts, advised that no money be turned into the treasury by the
tax-collectors until the restoration of the constitution, denounced as
enemies the king's councillors who had not resigned, and threatened
armed resistance. Congress published these resolves with its resolutions
commending the course of Boston.

A plan of union.--The conservatives favored a plan of union proposed by
Galloway, which provided for a crown appointed president-general and a
council of deputies chosen every three years by the legislatures. The
acts of the council were to be subject to parliamentary veto and acts of
parliament relating to the colonies might be vetoed by the council. The
plan was defeated by a narrow margin.

The Declaration and Resolves.--On September 7 a committee of two from
each colony had been appointed to draw up a statement of the rights of
the colonies, instances of their violation, and means of restoring them.
Agreement on the committee's report was reached on October 14. The
declaration of grievances thus adopted complained that parliament had
imposed taxes upon them and under various pretences, but in fact for the
purpose of raising revenue, had established a board of commissioners
with unconstitutional powers, and had extended the jurisdiction of the
admiralty courts, not only for collecting duties, but for trial of
causes arising merely within the body of a county. Complaint was also
made that judges had been made dependent on the crown for salaries, that
standing armies had been kept in times of peace, and that the removal to
distant places for trial of prisoners charged with treason and certain
other crimes had been legalized. The intolerable acts were described as
"impolitic, unjust, and cruel, as well as unconstitutional." Other
complaints were the dissolution of assemblies when they attempted to
deliberate on grievances, and treating with contempt petitions for

Congress accordingly resolved that the inhabitants of the English
colonies in North America were "entitled to life, liberty and property:
and they had never ceded to any foreign power whatever, a right to
dispose of either without their consent;" that they were entitled to the
same rights as their ancestors; "that the foundation of English liberty,
and of all free government, is a right in the people to participate in
their legislative council: and as the English colonies are not
represented ... in the British parliament, they are entitled to a free
and exclusive power of legislation in their several provincial
legislatures, where their right of representation can alone be
preserved, in all cases of taxation and internal policy, subject only to
the negative of their sovereign." For the mutual interests of both
countries they consented to parliamentary regulation of external
commerce. The right of trial by their peers of the vicinage, rights
confirmed by royal charters and secured by provincial codes, and the
right of assembly and petition were asserted. Keeping of a standing army
in time of peace without the consent of the legislature of the colony
where the army was kept was declared illegal. The exercise of
legislative power by a crown appointed council was declared
"unconstitutional, dangerous and destructive to the freedom of American

"All and each of which the ... deputies, in behalf of themselves, and
their constituents, do claim, demand, and insist on, as their
indubitable rights and liberties; which cannot be legally taken from
them, altered or abridged by any power whatever, without their own
consent, by their representatives in their several provincial

The acts passed by parliament since 1763 to which they were opposed were
then enumerated. "To these grievous acts and measures, Americans cannot
submit, but in hopes their fellow subjects in Great-Britain will, on a
region of them, restore us to that state, in which both countries found
happiness and prosperity, we have for the present, only resolved to
pursue the following peaceable measures: 1. To enter into a
non-importation, non-consumption, and non-exportation agreement or
association. 2. To prepare an address to the people of Great-Britain,
and a memorial to the inhabitants of British America: and 3. To prepare
a loyal address to his majesty, agreeable to resolutions already entered

Non-importation, non-consumption, and non-exportation.--By commercial
restrictions the delegates hoped to force the British government to
change its policy. On September 22 Congress voted to request colonial
merchants and others not to place orders for British goods and to delay
or suspend orders already sent until Congress could make known its
policy. Five days later it resolved that from December 1 there should be
no importation of goods from Great Britain or Ireland, or of British or
Irish make, and that such goods be neither used nor purchased. On
September 30 it was resolved that exportation to Great Britain. Ireland,
and the British West Indies ought to cease after September 10, 1775,
unless grievances were redressed, and a committee was appointed to
formulate a plan for the enforcement of non-importation,
non-consumption, and non-exportation.

The Association.--On October 20 the delegates adopted the "Association"
which provided that after December 1 British or Irish goods, East India
tea, molasses, syrups, paneles, coffee, and pimento from the British
plantations or from Dominica, wines from Madeira or the Western Islands,
and foreign indigo should not be imported into British America. It was
agreed that slaves should not be imported or purchased after December 1,
and slave traders were not to be allowed to rent vessels or purchase
goods. Non-exportation was not to be put into force until September 10,
1775, but if redress had not been obtained by that time, American goods
would be cut off from Great Britain, Ireland, or the West Indies. Rice,
however, might be exported to Europe. Congress agreed to encourage
frugality, economy, and industry, to promote agriculture, the arts, and
manufactures, especially of wool, and to discourage extravagance and
dissipation. Merchants and manufacturers were not to raise prices. A
committee in each county, city, and town was to observe the conduct of
persons, and if violations of the Association were discovered, the truth
was to be published in the newspapers. If any colony did not accede to
the Association, intercourse with that colony was to be cut off.

Attempts to obtain coöperation of other Colonies.--Congress also made an
effort to obtain the cooperation of neighboring colonies by an address
to the people of Quebec and by letters to the inhabitants of St. Johns,
Nova Scotia, Georgia, and East and West Florida. A memorial to the
people of British America, an address to the people of Great Britain,
and a petition to the king were also prepared. May 10, 1775, was set as
the date for the assembly of another congress, and on October 26 the
First Continental Congress dissolved.

North's conciliatory resolution.--In January, 1775, parliament began
consideration of the petition to the king and other papers relating to
America. Chatham moved the withdrawal of the troops from Boston but the
motion was defeated. On February 1 he presented a plan of conciliation
based upon mutual concessions, but this was also rejected. On February
20 Lord North undertook the unexpected rôle of conciliator by a
resolution which was considered in committee of the whole and passed by
the commons a week later. The resolution provided "that when the
Governour, Council, and Assembly, or General Court, of any ... colonies
in _America_, shall propose to make provision ... for contributing their
proportion to the common defence, (such proportion to be raised under
the authority of the General Court, or General Assembly, of such
Province or Colony, and disposable by Parliament,) and shall engage to
make provision also for the support of the Civil Government, and the
Administration of Justice, in such Province or Colony, it will be
proper, if such proposal shall be approved by his Majesty and ...
Parliament ... to forbear, in respect of such Province or Colony, to
levy any Duty, Tax, or Assessment, or to impose any farther Duty, Tax,
or Assessment, except only such Duties as it may be expedient to
continue to levy or to impose for the regulation of commerce; the nett
produce of the Duties last mentioned to be carried to the account of
such Province or Colony respectively."

The Restraining Act.--The effect of North's resolution was nullified by
the Restraining Act, which, in spite of Burke's powerful speech on
conciliation, became law on March 13. This act confined the commerce of
the New England colonies to Great Britain, Ireland, and the British West
Indies, and prohibited the New Englanders from fishing in the northern
fisheries, until "the trade and commerce of his Majesty's subjects may
be carried on without interruption." In April the act was extended to
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and South
Carolina. The British government thus closed the door of conciliation
and made the American Revolution inevitable.


Adams, J., _Works_, II, 337-517; Adams, S., _Writing_, II-III; Becker,
C.L., _Beginnings of the American People_, 202-253; Beer, G.L., _British
Colonial Policy, 1754-1765_, 72-315; Bigelow, J., _The Life of Benjamin
Franklin_, II, 7-337; Channing, E., _A History of the United States_,
III, 29-154; Dickinson, J., _Writings_, in Historical Society of
Pennsylvania, _Memoirs_, XIV, 307-406; Doyle, J.A., "The Quarrel with
Great Britain, 1761-1776," in _Cambridge Modern History_, VII, 148-208;
Fisher, S.G., _The Struggle for American Independence_, I, 1-300;
Frothingham, Richard, _The Rise of the Republic_, 158-455; Henry, W.W.,
_Patrick Henry_, I, 24-357; Howard, G.E., _Preliminaries of the
Revolution_; Hutchinson, P.O., _The Diary and Letters of his Excellency
Thomas Hutchinson_, I; Johnson, E.R., _History of Domestic and Foreign
Commerce of the United States_, I, 84-121; _Journals of the Continental
Congress_, I (Worthington C. Ford, ed.); Lecky, W.E.H., _History of
England in the Eighteenth Century_, III, 290-460; Lincoln, C.H., _The
Revolutionary Movement in Pennsylvania, 1760-1776_; MacDonald, William,
_Select Charters_, 272-396; Trevelyan, G.O., _The American Revolution_,
Part I, 1-253; Tyler, M.C., _Literary History of the American
Revolution_, I; _Patrick Henry_, 32-134; Van Tyne, C.H., _The American
Revolution_, 3-24; Becker, C.L., _The Eve of the Revolution_; Eckenrode,
H.J., _The Revolution in Virginia_; Schlesinger, A.M., _The Colonial
Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776_.




Enforcement of the Association.--The Association adopted by the
Continental Congress was approved throughout the colonies. In county and
town meetings, in assemblies, provincial congresses, or special
conventions, the patriot party expressed its approval. Though the New
York assembly refused to sanction the proceedings of Congress, the
committee of correspondence and many counties chose inspection
committees. In Georgia the patriots had a difficult time, but when the
provincial congress assembled at Savannah in March, 1775, forty-five of
the deputies ratified the Association and local inspection committees
were formed.

Military preparations.--Throughout the colonies military preparations
were in progress. In October, 1774, Charles Lee wrote from Philadelphia
to an English nobleman, "Virginia, Rhode Island and Carolina are forming
corps. Massachusetts Bay has long had a sufficient number instructed to
become instructive of the rest. Even this Quakering province is
following the example." In December the provincial convention of
Maryland recommended that all males between the ages of sixteen and
fifty should form themselves into military companies. Delaware made
provision for the arming and drilling of militia. Connecticut ordered
the towns to double their military supplies, and Rhode Islanders seized
forty-four cannon from the Newport batteries.

Whigs, neutrals, and Tories.--In spite of the military ardor thus
displayed, public opinion was by no means a unit. In general the people
were divided into three groups, patriots, neutrals, and Loyalists. Among
the patriots, or Whigs as they were called, was a small group of
ultra-radicals who favored independence. A great majority of the Whigs
stood for strenuous opposition to British policy but not for
independence. The neutrals in the main presented three shades of
opinion: those with patriot sympathies but who were still wavering,
those who were indifferent or were religiously opposed to violence, and
those who had Loyalist leanings but had not made a definite decision.
The third great group was composed of Loyalists or Tories. These were
not all of like mind, one portion being openly in favor of the king but
not ready to take up arms, the rest being openly belligerent. As the
Revolution progressed shadings within groups gradually disappeared,
wavering neutrals linked themselves with patriots or Loyalists, and
sections became distinctly Whig or Tory.

Even before the adoption of the Association, ill feeling showed itself.
As Howard says, "Tarring and featherings was becoming the order of the
day.... Loyalists were bitterly stigmatized as Tories and traitors, and
the cause of liberty was sullied by acts of intolerance and
persecution." Channing says, "The story of tarring and featherings,
riotings and burnings becomes monotonous, almost as much so as the
reading of the papers that poured forth from counties, towns,
conventions, meetings, congresses, and private individuals."

Revolution in Massachusetts.--The people of Massachusetts refused to
submit to the Regulating Act. The "mandamus" councillors were threatened
with violence and either declined the appointment or resigned, and the
courts were unable to sit. On September 1, 1774, Gage sent soldiers to
seize some powder stored near Boston and a rumor spread that the war
ships had fired on Boston. The militia began to gather from neighboring
counties, and Israel Putnam summoned the Connecticut militia to march to
the assistance of Boston.

Gage refused to allow the meeting of the assembly called for October 5,
but most of the representatives met at Salem where they declared
themselves a provincial congress. A few days later the congress moved to
Concord and then to Cambridge. It appointed a committee of safety which
was empowered to call out the militia, and other committees attended to
the collecting of stores and general defence. After the gathering of the
second provincial congress on February 1, 1775, the committee of safety
under the leadership of John Hancock and Joseph Warren was authorized to
distribute arms.

Lexington.--On April 18 the watchful patriots discovered that British
troops were preparing for an expedition, and William Dawes and Paul
Revere were sent to spread the alarm. Soon after dawn of April 19 the
British troops approached Lexington where they found sixty or seventy
minutemen under arms. When they did not obey the order to lay down their
arms and disperse, a shot was fired, followed by a volley which killed
eight and wounded ten of the colonials. The regulars went on to Concord
where another encounter occurred at the old North Bridge where the
British had stationed a guard. After destroying some stores, the troops
started back toward Boston. By this time the militia had gathered, and
the incensed farmers and villagers from behind trees, rocks, and fences
poured in a deadly fire which did not slacken until the soldiers were
relieved at Lexington by troops under Lord Percy. When the march was
resumed the battle began again, nor did it cease until the weary
soldiers reached Charlestown.

[Illustration: Boston with Environs During the Revolution (Based on map
in G.O. Trevelyan, _The American Revolution_, Part I, at end).]

Boston besieged.--The news of Lexington started thousands of New England
volunteers toward Boston. John Stark led the New Hampshire men; Israel
Putnam left his plow in the furrow to lead the Connecticut volunteers;
and Nathanael Greene headed the Rhode Islanders. The volunteer forces in
a few weeks were reinforced by large bodies of colonial troops. The
Massachusetts congress voted to raise thirteen thousand six hundred men,
and it called upon the other New England colonies to bring the army up
to thirty thousand. The Rhode Island assembly voted to raise fifteen
hundred men, and Connecticut six thousand, two-thirds of whom were to be
sent to the aid of Boston. Gage, who had been reinforced with troops
under Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne, found his army of six or seven
thousand veterans shut up in Boston by an undisciplined and poorly
organized force, which, however, outnumbered him three or four to one.

Bunker Hill.--The city was open to attack from Dorchester Heights and
the Charlestown hills. To forestall the British, the colonials decided
to occupy Bunker Hill. On the night of June 16 Colonel William Prescott
was sent to fortify the position. For reasons which are not entirely
clear, he led his men to Breed's Hill where a redoubt was constructed.
When dawn disclosed the fortification, the warships and batteries opened
fire. Prescott asked for reinforcements and small detachments came to
his assistance. A British council of war was called. Clinton suggested
the seizure of the causeway on Charlestown neck, a movement which would
have cut off the colonial force from the mainland. But Gage and Howe,
underestimating the fighting ability of their opponents, foolishly
insisted upon a frontal attack. Twice the British were repulsed with
staggering losses, but during the third charge the colonials exhausted
their ammunition and were forced to retreat, first to Bunker Hill and
then back to their own lines. Though the colonials technically had
suffered a defeat, great was the rejoicing over the battle, for colonial
troops had proven their prowess against the British regulars and had
taken a toll of two for one.

Ticonderoga and Crown Point--While the troops were gathering about
Boston, it occurred to Benedict Arnold that Ticonderoga would be an easy
prize. He submitted his ideas to Warren and the committee of safety, who
authorized him to proceed with not over four hundred men to reduce the
fort. On the way to Boston Arnold had divulged his thoughts to certain
Connecticut friends who immediately organized an expedition with the
same object. Ethan Allen and others from the Hampshire grants had also
conceived the idea of capturing the fortress and were on the march when
joined by Arnold, who had gone forward ahead of his troops. Immediately
the question of rank arose and after considerable discussion Allen and
Arnold agreed to command jointly for the time being.

On May 10 Ticonderoga surrendered without a struggle and this was
followed by an easy conquest of Crown Point and Ft. George. By this time
Allen completely ignored his colleague, but the arrival of about a
hundred of Arnold's men gave him his opportunity. Having captured a
British schooner Arnold decided to make a raid on St. Johns. The town
was easily captured and a British sloop fell into the hands of the
audacious colonial. The operations supplied the Whig army with much
needed artillery and stores, and it opened the way for operations in

Rebellion in Virginia.--Virginia at the same time was in a state of
rebellion. The second revolutionary convention assembled at Richmond in
March, 1775, and Patrick Henry boldly sounded the call to arms. The
governor, Lord Dunmore, in alarm ordered the removal of the gunpowder
from the magazine at Williamsburg and soon several thousand armed men
made ready to march on the capital. When some of the leaders hesitated,
Henry placed himself at the head of an armed band and marched toward
Williamsburg. The governor discreetly agreed to pay for the powder, but
two days later (May 6, 1775) issued a proclamation charging the people
"not to aid, abet, or give countenance to the said Patrick Henry, or any
other persons concerned in such unwarrantable combinations." In May a
legal assembly was called but the members appeared in arms, and an
attempted conciliation failed when it became known that a trap was
prepared to kill any one who tampered with the magazine. Fearful of the
mob, the governor fled to a war vessel.

The Mecklenburg Resolves.--The news of Lexington aroused every colony.
South Carolina immediately raised two regiments. In North Carolina some
of the frontiersmen held a meeting at Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, and
passed resolutions that crown commissions in the colonies were null and
void, and that colonial constitutions were suspended. They also made
governmental regulations until Congress could provide laws for them. The
original resolutions were destroyed and afterward were reproduced from
memory in the form of the so-called "Mecklenburg Declaration of
Independence" of May 20. Reliable historians now reject the authenticity
of this document, but the original resolves were undoubtedly genuine.


The delegates.--The Second Continental Congress assembled at
Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, all but Georgia and Rhode Island being
represented. On May 13 Lyman Hall, representing St. John's parish,
Georgia, arrived, but not until July 20 was notice received that Georgia
had acceded to the Association and appointed delegates. Stephen Hopkins,
the first Rhode Island delegate to appear, arrived May 18. Peyton
Randolph of Virginia was elected president, but he found it necessary to
leave Congress on May 24, and John Hancock was chosen president. Most of
the delegates had been in the first Congress; among the new members was
Benjamin Franklin, who had recently returned from England; Thomas
Jefferson was elected to represent Virginia in the place of Peyton

Nature of the work of Congress.--The conservative Whigs were still in
the majority. They favored another petition to the king, but the state
of war was recognized by all and Congress shouldered the responsibility
of directing the Revolution as a defensive war. The early activities of
Congress were devoted mainly to the raising, organizing, and equipping
of the armies, to building and equipping a fleet, to perfecting the
organization of the Revolution, to protecting the frontiers and
obtaining alliances with the Indians, to enforcing the Association, to
justifying the Revolution and seeking aid outside of the thirteen
colonies, and to seeking redress from the British crown.

Military preparations.--Congress worked strenuously to raise troops and
to obtain munitions and other stores. Efforts were made to stimulate
recruiting, to perfect the organization of the militia, and to hasten
the assembling of forces. The manufacture of cannon, guns, and gunpowder
was encouraged and attempts were made to increase the supplies of lead,
nitre, and salt. Congress recommended to the various assemblies and
conventions that they provide sufficient stores of ammunition for their
colonies and that they devise means for furnishing with arms such
effective men as were too poor to buy them.

Organization of the army.--The armies already in the field were
recognized by Congress. On June 14 a committee was appointed to draft
rules for the army and on the following day Washington was appointed to
command the continental forces. Arrangements were soon made for the
appointment of four major-generals, eight brigadier-generals, and minor
officers. The first major-generals were Artemus Ward, Charles Lee,
Philip Schuyler, and Israel Putnam, Schuyler being placed in command of
the New York department. Rules and regulations for the army were also
adopted and provision was made for the establishment of a hospital.

Organization of the navy.--For the protection of the coasts Congress at
first depended upon the efforts of individual colonies, recommending
that they make provision, by armed vessels or otherwise, for the
protection of their harbors and navigation on their coasts. Colonial
vessels were utilized to capture British transports, but it soon became
evident that a navy under congressional control would be more effective.
During October, 1775, Congress decided to fit out four vessels and on
November 28 adopted rules for the regulation of the navy. On December 13
provision was made for the building of thirteen war craft and on the
twenty-second officers were appointed. Ezek Hopkins was made
commander-in-chief of the fleet; the captains were Dudley Saltonstall,
Abraham Whipple, Nicholas Biddle, and John B. Hopkins. Among the
first-lieutenants was John Paul Jones.

Prizes and privateers.--On November 25 Congress adopted regulations
regarding prizes, and advised the legislative bodies to erect admiralty
courts or to give to the local courts admiralty jurisdiction. It also
provided "That in all cases an appeal shall be allowed to Congress, or
such person or persons as they shall appoint for the trials of appeals."
In March, 1776, Congress resolved "That the inhabitants of these
colonies be permitted to fit out armed vessels to cruize on the enemies
of these United Colonies." In April Congress adopted a form of
commission and instructions to commanders of privateers, and decided to
issue letters of marque and reprisal.

First steps in financing the Revolution.--The financing of the
Revolution was one of the most difficult tasks confronting Congress. The
first step in raising money was taken on June 3, 1775, when a committee
was appointed to borrow £6,000 to purchase gunpowder. A committee was
also appointed to bring in an estimate of money necessary to be raised.
On June 22 Congress resolved to emit $2,000,000 in bills of credit and
pledged the "confederated colonies" for their redemption. Once embarked
upon the perilous course of paper finance, issue followed issue in rapid
succession. At first the promissory notes passed readily, but they soon
began to depreciate and eventually became worthless. Nevertheless they
carried the Revolution through its most trying years.

Establishment of a post office.--The need of "speedy and secure
conveyance of intelligence from one end of the Continent to the other"
was recognized and a committee was appointed to consider the
establishment of posts. On July 26 the post office was established,
Benjamin Franklin being elected Postmaster General. He was authorized to
establish "a line of posts ... from Falmouth in New England to Savannah
in Georgia, with as many cross posts as he shall think fit."

An Indian policy adopted.--Control of the Indians was vital for the
safety of the frontier. It was felt that if the British ministry should
induce the tribes to commit hostile acts, the colonies would be
justified in entering into alliances with Indian nations. It was hoped
that the Iroquois might be kept neutral. "Talks" were prepared, goods
to be used as presents were purchased, and money was provided. The
frontier was laid off into three departments which were placed under
commissioners. The Six Nations and tribes to the north of them were in
the northern department; tribes between the Iroquois and the Cherokee
were in the middle department; and the Cherokee and Indians south of
them were in the southern department.

Enforcement of the Association.--Congress continued the policy of trade
restriction. On May 17 it resolved that exports to Quebec, Nova Scotia,
the Island of St. Johns, Newfoundland, Georgia except St. John's parish,
and to East and West Florida, must cease, and that supplies must not be
furnished to the British fisheries. After Georgia appointed delegates,
the colony was admitted to the Association. On June 2 Congress resolved
that no bill of exchange, draught, or order of any British officer
should be honored, and that no money, provisions, or other necessaries
be furnished the British army or navy.

On June 26 Congress resolved that, as attempts were being made to divide
the people of North Carolina and defeat the Association, it was
recommended to that colony to associate for the defence of American
liberty and to organize the militia, Congress offering to provide pay
for a thousand men in the colony. On July 4 a resolution was adopted
that the restraining acts were "unconstitutional, oppressive, and
cruel," and that commercial opposition should be made to them.

As doubts had arisen with respect to the true spirit and construction of
the Association, on August 1 Congress defined it as follows: "Under the
prohibition ... to export to, or import from, the Islands of Great
Britain and Ireland, this Congress intends to comprise all exportation
to, and importation from, the islands of Jersey, Guernsey, Sark,
Alderney, and Mann, and every European island and settlement within the
British dominions: and that under the denomination of the West Indies,
this Congress means to comprehend all the West India islands, British
and foreign, to whatever state, power, or prince belonging, or by
whomsoever governed, and also the Summer islands, Bahama Islands,
Berbicia and Surinam on the Main, and every island and settlement within
the latitude of the southern line of Georgia and the Equator."

The necessity of obtaining supplies forced Congress to make special
provisions for the importation of munitions of war. On July 15, 1775, a
resolution was adopted that "every vessel importing Gun powder, Salt
petre, Sulphur, provided they bring with the sulphur four times as much
salt petre, brass field pieces, or good muskets fitted with Bayonets,
within nine Months from the date of this resolution, shall be permitted
to load and export the produce of these colonies, to the value of such
powder and stores aforesd, the non-exportation agreement
notwithstanding." On November 2 Congress adopted a resolution to close
the ports until March 1, but from time to time special provisions were
made for the exportation and importation of goods. The delegates
frequently discussed the question of opening the ports, as shown by John
Adams's _Autobiography_ which says: "This measure ... labored
exceedingly, because it was considered as a bold step to independence.
Indeed, I urged it expressly with that view, and as connected with the
institution of government in all the States, and a declaration of
national independence." On April 6, 1776, the ports were opened to world
commerce except trade with Great Britain and her possessions.

Letter to the people of Canada.--The congressional leaders hoped to
strengthen their resistance by obtaining the coöperation of the
Canadians. A letter "to the oppressed inhabitants of Canada" was
approved on May 29. Congress condoled with them "on the arrival of that
day, in the course of which, the sun could not shine on a single freeman
in all your extensive dominion.... By the introduction of your present
form of government, or rather present form of tyranny, you and your
wives and your children are made slaves.... We are informed you have
already been called upon to waste your lives in a contest with us.
Should you, by complying in this instance, assent to your new
establishment [the Quebec Act], and a war break out with France, your
wealth and your sons may be sent to perish in expeditions against their
islands in the West Indies. We yet entertain hopes of your uniting with
us in the defence of our common liberty."

Attempts to influence public opinion in the British Empire.--Congress
hoped by appeals to the inhabitants of the British Isles to arouse
public opinion, thereby bringing pressure to bear upon a Ministry and
subservient parliament which had shown themselves to be irresponsible
and tyrannous. Addresses to the people of Great Britain and Ireland were
accordingly prepared. A letter to the Lord Mayor, aldermen, and liveries
of London was drawn up expressing thanks "for the virtuous and
unsolicited resentment you have shown to the violated rights of a free
people." A letter of friendship was sent to the assembly of Jamaica and
a communication regarding commerce was sent to Bermuda.

Statement to the army.--On July 6 Congress approved a declaration
setting forth the causes and necessity of taking up arms, which was to
be published by Washington upon his arrival at Boston. The declaration
presented the usual arguments regarding constitutional rights and gave
an account of the progress of events. That independence was desired was
denied in the following words: "We have not raised armies with ambitious
designs of separating from Great Britain, and establishing independent
states. We fight not for glory or for conquest.... In our own native
land, in defence of the freedom that is our birth right,... and for the
protection of our property ... we have taken up arms."

Petition to the king.--The radicals believed that a war of independence
could not be avoided, but the conservatives restrained them, hoping that
the force of public opinion, a bold show of resistance, and commercial
restrictions would change the ministerial policy. Another direct appeal
to the king was decided upon and on May 29 resolutions were adopted,
"that with a sincere design of contributing by all the means in our
power, not incompatible with just regard for the undoubted rights and
true interests of these colonies, to the promotion of this most
desirable reconciliation, an humble and dutiful petition be presented to
his Majesty." The petition, signed on July 8, was couched in respectful
terms as the following quotation shows: "We ... beseech your Majesty,
that your royal authority and influence may be graciously interposed to
procure us relief from our afflicting fears and jealousies, occasioned
by the system before mentioned, and to settle peace through every part
of your dominions, with all humility submitting to your Majesty's wise
consideration whether it may not be expedient for facilitating those
important purposes, that your Majesty be pleased to direct some mode, by
which the united applications of your faithful colonists to the throne,
in pursuance of their common councils, may be improved into a happy and
permanent reconciliation; and that, in the mean time, measures may be
taken for preventing the further destruction of the lives of your
Majesty's subjects; and that such statutes as more immediately distress
any of your Majesty's colonies may be repealed."

Reply to Lord North.--As several of the colonies were desirous of
knowing the congressional attitude toward Lord North's conciliatory
resolution, on July 31 Congress adopted a formal report which closed
with the following statement: "When the world reflects how inadequate to
justice are these vaunted terms; when it attends to the rapid and bold
succession of injuries, which have been aimed at these colonies, when it
reviews the pacific and respectful expostulations, which ... were the
sole arms we opposed to them; when it observes that our complaints were
either not heard at all, or were answered with new and accumulated
injury,... when it considers the great armaments with which they have
invaded us, and the circumstances of cruelty with which they have
commenced and prosecuted hostilities; when these things we say, are laid
together and attentively considered, can the world be deceived into an
opinion that we are unreasonable, or can it hesitate to believe with us,
that nothing but our own exertions may defeat the ministerial sentence
of death or abject submission."

Stubborn attitude of the government.--George III and his ministers had
gained no wisdom from the rebellious attitude in America. The petition,
which had been entrusted to Richard Penn, reached London on August 14,
but not until a week later did Lord Dartmouth, the secretary for the
colonies, consent to look at a copy of the document and not until
September was it presented to the king. On August 23 George III
published a proclamation which declared the Americans rebels, and after
his examination of the petition, the king saw no reason for revising it.
At the next session of parliament acts were passed which prohibited
trade with the thirteen colonies, ordered the seizure and confiscation
of ships engaged in trade with them, and permitted British commanders
to impress sailors from seized vessels.

The German mercenaries.--A reorganization of the cabinet had forced the
amiable Dartmouth out of the colonial office, his successor being Lord
George Germaine. Lord Rochford was made secretary of state for the
southern department, and Lord Suffolk was retained in the northern
department to which office fell the business with Germany. The British
army was sadly in need of recruits. In Scotland the men of Argyllshire
and Inverness-shire readily entered the army for colonial service, but
in Ireland and England the people showed little enthusiasm for a war
which was intended to subdue their freedom-loving brethren over the
seas. To raise the necessary troops the king turned to the continent. An
attempt to obtain the use of the Scotch troops which had long been in
Dutch service failed and Catherine II refused to furnish Russian
infantry, but in Germany British overtures met with better success. The
Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, the Duke of Brunswick, and some other needy
princes were willing to sell the services of their subjects for British
gold. During the war over thirty thousand mercenaries were hired in
Germany for service in America. In the words of Lecky, "The conduct of
England in hiring German mercenaries to subdue the essentially English
population beyond the Atlantic, made reconciliation hopeless, and the
Declaration of Independence inevitable."


Burning of Falmouth.--Events were also taking place in America which
were convincing the public that the war for independence must be fought
to the bitter end. In October, 1775, four British war vessels sailed
into the harbor of Falmouth, now known as Portland, and set fire to the
town. Three-fourths of the dwellings were destroyed and a thousand
unoffending people were made homeless.

The Canadian campaign.--The efforts of Congress to enlist the Canadians
in the colonial cause did not meet with success and the invasion of
Canada was determined upon. Two forces were sent northward. One under
Richard Montgomery was to proceed by the Lake Champlain route, seize
Montreal, and then march to Quebec. The other under Benedict Arnold was
to go up the Kennebec and down the Chaudière, and join the other force.
Montgomery captured Montreal and then made a juncture with Arnold. On
December 31 an attack was made on Quebec, but Montgomery was killed,
Arnold was wounded, and the forces were repulsed. But in spite of
terrible sufferings in his army, Arnold kept Quebec in a state of
blockade the rest of the winter.

Siege of Boston.--When Washington arrived at Cambridge, he found a
disorganized army which was short of food, ammunition, and uniforms, and
without hospital service. Fortunately the British did not take advantage
of the situation, and gradually the commander brought order out of
chaos. By March, 1776, Washington was prepared to make an offensive
move. Taking advantage of the fact that the British had not fortified
Dorchester Heights, on the night of March 4 colonial troops seized the
position which commanded Boston. On the seventeenth the British army,
accompanied by about a thousand Loyalists, sailed for Halifax.

Fighting in Virginia and North Carolina.--While Washington was besieging
Boston, Lord Dunmore was making reprisals along the Virginia rivers.
After the defeat of some of his Loyalist supporters at Great Bridge, the
governor caused the burning of Norfolk on January 1, 1776. North
Carolina was also torn by civil war. Governor Martin had been driven
from the colony, and from the refuge of a war vessel commissioned Donald
McDonald to collect an army of Loyalists in the central and western
counties. He also appealed to Sir Henry Clinton for aid. With a force of
sixteen hundred men McDonald marched toward the coast, but on February
27, 1776, he was met by patriot forces at Moore's Creek and his Loyalist
army was practically annihilated. When Clinton's fleet appeared off the
coast, ten thousand North Carolina militia were ready to meet him.
Clinton lingered for a time off Cape Fear and then sailed to Charleston
where he hoped to arouse the Loyalists of the coasts and the German
settlers of the interior.

Defence of Charleston.--Edward Rutledge with six thousand militia
prepared to defend the city. Colonel Moultrie, with his forces back of
rude fortifications on Sullivan's Island, made ready to defend the
harbor. On June 28 the fleet attacked. Most of the British shot buried
themselves in the palmetto logs and banks of sand from behind which
Moultrie's men poured a fire which wrought havoc on the crowded decks.
An attempt to make a landing proved a failure and Charleston was saved.


The people not united.--Up to 1774 the majority of Americans were not
united in opposition to British policy, but acts of violence and
retaliation, the meeting of Congress, and the organization of
revolutionary committees, brought about a rapid crystallization of
public opinion. Loyalty to Great Britain was the normal state. The Whigs
were the nullifiers and eventually the secessionists. That they were
able to perfect an organization and carry on a successful rebellion has
obscured the fact that they were in reality but an active minority. The
masses were indifferent or were loyal supporters of Great Britain. It is
impossible to estimate accurately the number of Loyalists; they varied
with localities and fluctuated with the fortunes of war. Some historians
estimate them as a third of the population, others as one-half.

The Tory element in the colonies.--The great Loyalist stronghold was New
York. There the moderate Tories had controlled the situation for several
years. They had favored the assembling of the First Continental
Congress, but when that body adopted the Association, they opposed it.
After the battle of Lexington the Whigs grew in power and succeeded in
setting up a provincial congress. But several counties remained
Loyalist, and until the occupation of New York City by British troops a
state of civil war existed in the province. After that event the British
lines furnished a refuge for Tories from all the colonies.

Next to New York Pennsylvania contained the largest Tory element. There
the Quakers, the proprietary interests, and a large German population
combined to oppose the Whig movement. In New Jersey, Maryland, and
Delaware, the Tory element was so numerous that only with the greatest
difficulty did the Whigs obtain the support of those colonies for
independence. In New England the Loyalists were not powerful. In
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island they formed an
insignificant part of the population, but in the region which afterward
became the state of Vermont and in Connecticut they were numerous enough
to be a menace.

In the South, Virginia was dominated by the Whigs. The impolitic acts of
Lord Dunmore had alienated all but a small element of the population.
The Scotch merchants of Norfolk and many planters had supported the
governor, but his reprisals on the coast, his proclamation offering
freedom to negroes and indented servants who would enlist, and the
burning of Norfolk destroyed the Tory power in the province. North
Carolina, which had recently been torn by the War of the Regulators was
probably about equally divided, and in South Carolina and Georgia the
farmers and cattlemen of the interior were usually Loyalists; but the
British naval demonstrations and the defeat of Tory bands did much to
win converts to the Whig cause in the three southern colonies.

A classification of the Loyalists.--The Loyalists, or Tories as they
were called in derision, have been classified by Professor Van Tyne as
the office holders whose incomes depended upon the existing régime;
those whose friends were among the official class or who depended upon
that class for preferment; the majority of the Anglican clergy; the
conservative people of all classes, especially the wealthy merchants,
the aristocracy of culture, of dignified professions and callings, and
of hereditary wealth, and those who held office by virtue of wise
selection; the king worshipers, who were moved by theory of government
rather than by concrete facts; the legality Tories who believed that
parliament had a constitutional right to tax the colonies; the religious
Tories whose dictum was fear God and honor the king; and the factional
Tories who were influenced by family feuds and political animosities.

The religious division.--The religious factor was one of the most
important causes of division. An Anglican bishopric for the colonies had
long been contemplated and the dissenting churches believed that the
ministry was about to urge its establishment. In New England where the
Congregational church was in the ascendency and in those sections where
the Presbyterians and Baptists were powerful, the establishment of an
episcopate was especially feared. Already the Anglican church numbered
three hundred parishes in America. Throughout the colonies it was the
church of the official class and in the South it was the church of the
aristocracy. The southern Episcopalians were divided on the paramount
political questions, but in New York the religious and political parties
coincided. New York politics for many years had been factional, the De
Lanceys who were Episcopalians being leaders in invariable opposition to
the Livingstons who were Presbyterians. Both in New York and Connecticut
those of the Episcopal faith were almost invariably Loyalists.

The Tory argument.--The Tories believed in no taxation without
representation, but they differed with the Whigs in their interpretation
of the word representation. The Tories accepted the English meaning
which was based upon the idea that a man enjoyed representation not by
the fact that he had voted for a member of parliament but by his
belonging to one of the three great estates of the nation, each estate
being represented in parliament. They admitted that this was an
imperfect type of representation, but it was the ancient constitutional
type. They believed that the relationship of the colonies to the mother
country should be defined more clearly, but they did not believe that
the Whigs had a right to demand a fundamental change in the constitution
of the British Empire.

Moses Coit Tyler has pointed out that the other Tory arguments were
based upon questions of expediency, (1) Was it expedient to reject the
taxing power of parliament? (2) Was separation from the empire
expedient? The Whigs argued that parliamentary taxes might become
confiscatory. The Tories replied that parliament recognized the
principle that all parts of the empire should be taxed equitably and
justly, and that a powerful minority, which counted among its members
Fox and Burke, were bent upon protecting the colonies. The Tories could
see no reason for separation. They pointed out that until the beginning
of 1776 the Whigs had consistently disavowed the idea of independence.
Why then this sudden change? The Tories believed that concessions were
about to be made which would make separation unnecessary and

Persecution of the Loyalists.--After Lexington the Loyalists became
intolerable to the Whigs. They must show their allegiance to the
patriot cause or suffer the consequences. The favorite method of
persecution was tarring and feathering, but riding the Tory on the
liberty pole or ducking occurred frequently. Under the direction of the
revolutionary committees freedom of speech was suppressed and the
liberty of the press was destroyed. Any one who opposed the Association
was considered an enemy; he must agree or be persecuted. When the
Loyalists attempted to form counter associations, they were met with
stern methods of repression. Whig clergymen held conferences in Loyalist
communities to try to convert them, and obdurate places were visited by
armed bands. When the Tories attempted to arm, their leaders were

Congress attempts to control the Loyalists.--The Loyalists were lacking
in organization, and when the governors were driven from the colonies,
they lost their natural leaders. When calls for aid came from the
deposed officials, many Tories formed bands and attempted to coöperate
with the British forces. So serious was the situation that Congress, as
early as October, 1775, recommended to the revolutionary governments
that they arrest every person who might endanger the colonies or "the
liberties of America." On December 30 a congressional committee reported
that the Tories of Tryon County, New York, had collected arms and
munitions, and that several Loyalists had enlisted in British service.
Orders were issued to General Schuyler to seize the stores, disarm the
Tories, and apprehend their leaders.

Congress extends the olive branch.--Congress hoped to win over a large
part of the Loyalists and on January 2, 1776, it passed a pacific
resolution which stated that as certain honest, well-meaning, but
uniformed people had been deceived by ministerial agents, it recommended
to the various committees and friends of American liberty to treat such
persons with kindness and attention, to view their errors as proceeding
from want of information, to explain to them the true nature of the
controversy, and to try to convince them of the justice of the American
cause. The colonial governments were instructed to frustrate the
machinations of enemies and restrain wicked practices. It was the
opinion of Congress that the more dangerous ones should be placed in
custody, and to accomplish this the local authorities were given the
right to call to their aid the continental troops.

The Queen's County Tories.--Immediately afterward Congress learned that
the Tories of Queen's County, New York, were especially troublesome.
Congress accordingly decided that they should be put outside of the
protection of the United Colonies, that all trade and intercourse with
them should cease, and that none of them should be allowed to travel or
reside outside of that county without a certificate from the
revolutionary government of New York. Violators of this provision were
to be imprisoned for three months and lawyers were forbidden to try
causes for them. Troops were sent into the county.

Disarming of the Loyalists.--A congressional committee which had under
consideration the defence of New York, on March 14 advised the disarming
of the Loyalists on Staten Island. Congress immediately ordered that
eight thousand men be sent to the defence of New York and recommendation
was made to all the colonies to disarm all persons "notoriously
disaffected to the cause of America," or who refused to associate to
defend, by arms, the United Colonies. The confiscated arms were to be
used in arming troops.


The colonies advised to form temporary governments.--Up to the beginning
of 1776 the Whigs disavowed the purpose or desire for independence. But
in spite of the view of the conservatives, Congress had been forced to
assume the direction of the war and had been called upon to advise
several of the colonies regarding the course to be pursued in organizing
their governments. In answer to an inquiry from Massachusetts, Congress
replied that no obedience was due to the parliamentary act altering the
charter, and that the governor and lieutenant-governor were to be
considered absent and the offices vacant. As there was no council, the
provincial convention was advised to write letters to the inhabitants of
the places which were entitled to representation in the assembly,
requesting them to choose representatives; and when the assembly was
chosen, it was to elect councillors, "which assembly and council should
exercise the powers of Government, until a Governor, of his Majesty's
appointment, will consent to govern the colony according to its
charter." New Hampshire was advised to call a full and free
representation of the people who might establish such a form of
temporary government as would "produce the happiness of the people and
most effectually secure peace and good order in the province" during the
dispute with Great Britain. Similar advice was given to South Carolina
and Virginia.

Paine's "Common Sense."--The attitude of the British government, the
events on the Canadian frontier and about Boston, and the burning of
Falmouth and Norfolk, fanned the flames of rebellion to a white heat.
When Tom Paine issued his pamphlet _Common Sense_, "the first open and
unqualified argument in championship of the doctrine of American
Independence," he found a receptive audience. The pamphlet held up to
scorn the idea of kingship, argued that the security and happiness of
the British people were due to their character and not to their
constitution, asserted that the British colonial system was based upon
English self-interest, and that only injuries and disadvantages would
result from continued allegiance to Great Britain. Reconciliation, Paine
argued, would result in the ruin of America, because England, ruled by
self-interest, would still be the governing power, because any
arrangement which might be obtained would be a temporary expedient, and
because nothing but independence would keep the peace of the American
continent. From every point of view, independence, he declared, was
necessary. "The period of debate is closed. Arms, as the last resort,
must decide the contest.... By referring the matter from argument to
arms, a new era for politics is struck; a new method of thinking hath
arisen. All plans, proposals, and so forth, prior to the nineteenth of
April ... are like the almanacs of last year." The pamphlet met with
immediate success. It was read throughout the colonies and convinced
thousands that independence was necessary.

The independence movement in the three southern colonies.--Early in 1776
three southern colonies took definite steps toward independence. In
February a small revolutionary group in Savannah instructed delegates to
agree to any measure for the general good which might be adopted by
Congress. In March South Carolina gave similar instructions, and on
April 12 the provincial congress of North Carolina instructed its
delegates to concur with representatives from other colonies in
declaring independence. In spite of the action of South Carolina, the
colony was probably unconvinced of the necessity of separation from
Great Britain until the Charleston hostilities.

Congress advises the colonies to suppress the authority of Great
Britain.--On May 10 Congress recommended to the various assemblies and
conventions that where no sufficient government had been established,
such governments as would best conduce to the happiness and safety of
the people and of America in general should be established. Five days
later Congress adopted a preamble to this resolution which contained the
significant statement that the exercise of every kind of authority under
the British crown should be suppressed and all the powers of government
exerted under the authority of the people of the colonies.

The German mercenaries.--On May 21 Congress received copies of the
treaties which Great Britain had made with the Duke of Brunswick, the
Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, and the Count of Anhalt-Zerbst, by which they
agreed to furnish about seventeen thousand troops to be used against the
rebellious colonies. These treaties were immediately published and were
a potent force in bringing some of the wavering colonies to instruct
their delegates for independence.

Lee's Resolution.--In Virginia a convention was called to form a new
government, and on May 15 the Virginia delegates in Congress were
instructed to propose independence. Accordingly on June 7 Richard Henry
Lee moved in Congress "That these United Colonies are, and of right
ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from
all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection
between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally
dissolved. That it is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual
measures for forming foreign alliances. That a plan of confederation be
prepared and transmitted to the respective Colonies for their
consideration and approbation."

The debate on the resolution.--A declaration of independence at that
time was opposed by James Wilson, Robert R. Livingston, John Dickinson,
Edward Rutledge, and others. They declared that they were friends of the
measure but thought that it should be postponed until the people
demanded it. The middle colonies, they thought, "were not yet ripe for
bidding adieu to British connection, but ... were fast ripening." They
argued that a declaration which was not unanimous would cause foreign
powers either to refuse to make alliances with the colonies or to insist
upon hard terms. It was believed that a successful termination of the
New York campaign would make alliances possible on excellent terms.

John Adams, Lee, Wythe, and others argued for an immediate declaration.
They saw no reason for waiting for every colony to express itself. They
argued that a declaration of independence alone could bring about
desired alliances. Without it the colonies would never know whether or
not aid could be obtained from France or Spain. It was pointed out that
the New York campaign might not be successful and that an alliance ought
to be made while affairs bore a hopeful aspect. If an alliance were made
at once with France, she might assist in cutting off British supplies
and might divert enemy forces by an attack on the British West Indies.
It was also pointed out that an immediate alliance would assist the
people, who were in need of clothing and money.

Committees appointed.--It was decided to get the consent of the colonies
before issuing the declaration, but a committee composed of Thomas
Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R.
Livingston was appointed to prepare the document. Congress also decided
to appoint committees to formulate a plan of confederation and to draft
a form of treaties.

New England takes formal action.--The New England colonies had favored
independence for some time. They now took formal action. In May Rhode
Island instructed its delegates to agree to any acts which would hold
the colonies together. In June Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New
Hampshire instructed their delegates to support Lee's resolution.

The independence movement in the middle colonies.--The middle colonies
still stood out and Congress made great efforts to induce them to give
their support. After a hard struggle with Governor William Franklin, on
June 22 the provincial congress of New Jersey authorized its delegates
to agree to independence. Pennsylvania had been held back by the
Quakers, Germans, and proprietary interests. When the conservative
assembly refused to sanction independence, a vast crowd assembled in
Philadelphia and voiced its displeasure. The Loyalists were terrorized
and a patriot convention was formed which agreed to favor independence.
Delaware formed a new government but failed to instruct its delegates
regarding independence. In Maryland the provisional government induced
Governor Eden to leave the colony and a special convention called by the
council of safety gave the delegates the desired instructions. New York
failed to express itself in favor of the great measure.

The Declaration of Independence.--On July 1 Lee's motion was debated in
Congress, John Adams speaking for an immediate declaration of
independence and Dickinson for delay. When the debate closed, nine
states voted in the affirmative. Pennsylvania and South Carolina opposed
immediate action; the Delaware vote was a tie, and the New York
delegates were excused from voting. The final vote was postponed until
the next day. The arrival of Rodney of Delaware gave the vote of that
state for the Declaration. Dickinson and Morris did not appear and the
other delegates from Pennsylvania voted in the affirmative. The South
Carolina delegates, influenced by news that a great British fleet was
off New York, took matters in their own hands and voted for
independence. New York alone stood out.

The congressional committee had entrusted the preparation of the
Declaration to Thomas Jefferson. After it had undergone the fire of
criticism, on the evening of July 4 the document was approved by twelve
states. On the following day copies signed by President Hancock and
Secretary Thomson were sent to the various assemblies. The other
signatures were added later. Although the New York delegates had not
voted for the Declaration, on July 9 the New York provincial congress
approved it, completing the long chain of states which stretched along
the Atlantic seaboard from Nova Scotia to East Florida.

Contents of the Declaration.--This immortal document begins by setting
forth certain "self-evident truths" concerning the rights of mankind and
the nature of government. Then follow in nearly thirty paragraphs a list
of charges against King George III, and a review of the efforts of the
colonies to obtain redress. The last paragraph declares, in the
resounding words of Lee's Resolution, "That these United Colonies are,
and of right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are
absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all
political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and
ought to be totally dissolved." A new nation had been born.



Bolton, C.K., _The Private Soldier under Washington_; Channing, Edward,
_History of the United States_, III, 155-206; Fiske, John, _The American
Revolution_, I, 100-197; Greene, F.V., _The Revolutionary War_, 1-27;
_Journals of the Continental Congress_ (Worthington C. Ford, ed.),
II-VI; Lecky, W.E.H., _History of England in the Eighteenth Century_,
III, 461-500; Smith, J.H., _Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony_, I,
107-165; Trevelyan, G.O., _The American Revolution_, I, 254-390; Van
Tyne, C.H., _The American Revolution_, 24-49; Winsor, Justin, _Narrative
and Critical History_, VI, 1-274; Adams, C.F., _Studies Military and
Diplomatic_, 1775-1865, pp. 1-21.


Flick, A.C., _Loyalism in New York_ (Columbia University, _Studies in
History_, etc., XIV, No. 1.); Tyler, M.C., "The Party of the Loyalists
in the American Revolution," in _The American Historical Review_, I,
24-45; Van Tyne, C.H., _The Loyalists in the American Revolution_;
Wallace, S., _The United Empire Loyalists_.


Friedenwald, H., _The Declaration of Independence_; Hazelton, J.H., _The
Declaration of Independence_; Trevelyan, G.O., _The American
Revolution_, II, 133-171; Van Tyne, C.H., _The American Revolution_,
50-101; Becker, C.L., _The Eve of the Revolution_, 200-256.




Preparations to defend New York.--After the evacuation of Boston it was
realized that New York would be a probable point of attack and great
exertions were made to put it in a state of defence. Washington arrived
on April 13, 1776; his troops, delayed by bad roads, came straggling in,
and new levies began to arrive, the army being gradually augmented until
it numbered about twenty thousand men. But the effective fighting force
was several thousand less, for disease was ever present. Furthermore the
raw recruits were poorly trained and equipped, and there were not enough
artillerymen to man the batteries. The only cavalrymen who appeared were
a small force from Connecticut and these, for reasons best known to
himself, Washington did not retain in service. The defences were
strengthened by works at Paulus Hook on the Jersey shore, and others on
Governor's Island and at Red Hook on Long Island. Eleven redoubts were
erected on Manhattan Island along the battery and up to a point opposite
Hell Gate, and the hamlet of Brooklyn was fortified with seven redoubts.
Obstructions were placed in the Hudson and a second line of defence was
established at Forts Washington and Lee. Many historians point out that
New York should have been abandoned, for Washington's army was too small
to cope with the British, the Tories were certain to keep the enemy
informed of the movements, the defences were not powerful enough to
control the water approaches, and an active enemy could run by the
defenses and land troops in the rear of the American army. To make the
situation worse, the line of hills on Long Island, known as Brooklyn
Heights, commanded New York. To occupy them it was necessary to divide
the army, and in case of defeat, the defenders would be separated by a
difficult channel from the main army on Manhattan Island. As Trevelyan
observes, Washington "placed, and kept, his troops in a position where
they were certain to be defeated, and where, when defeated, they would
most probably be surrounded and destroyed."

The British plan.--The British government hoped to annihilate the armies
and cut off New England from the other colonies. By occupying New York
and sending converging armies, one from the north, the other up the
Hudson, the government believed that it could accomplish its purpose.
Large reinforcements were sent to Quebec, and during July and August,
1776, British forces were concentrated on Staten Island and a great
fleet assembled. The first forces to arrive at New York were those under
General Howe which he brought from Halifax. Large reinforcements under
Admiral Lord Howe and forces under Clinton and Cornwallis augmented the
army until it numbered about thirty thousand men.

An attempt at conciliation.--Lord Howe hoped that peace could be made,
and soon after his arrival, he addressed a letter to "George Washington,
Esquire," but the epistle, which failed to recognize the position of the
commander-in-chief, was returned. A personal envoy from Lord Howe also
met with a rebuff. The British admiral had prepared a circular letter to
several of the royal governors setting forth his authority as
commissioner and stating the conciliatory terms sanctioned by the
cabinet. These contained a mere promise of pardon to those who returned
to allegiance and assisted in the restoration of tranquillity. In fact
John Adams was marked out for a halter, but this was not divulged. The
letters fell into the hands of Congress which ordered that they be
published "that the good people of these United States may be informed
of what nature are the commissioners, and what the terms, with the
expectation of which, the insidious court of Britain has endeavoured to
amuse and disarm them...."

Battle of Long Island.--General Howe finally decided to attack the
American position on Long Island. On the twenty-second and twenty-third
of August twenty thousand troops and forty cannon were disembarked at
Gravesend Bay, six or seven miles south of Brooklyn, but not until the
evening of the twenty-sixth did the British advance. Washington had been
misinformed as to the size of the landing force and had stationed only
nine thousand men on Long Island. These were under General Nathanael
Greene, but stricken by illness, he was forced to retire from the
command on August 23, and Sullivan who succeeded him was superseded by
Putnam on the twenty-fifth. Washington spent the twenty-sixth on the
island and superintended the disposition of the forces.

The chief line of defence was the densely wooded Brooklyn Heights which
were crossed by several roads. One ran up from Gravesend near the coast;
four miles to the eastward two wagon roads from Flatbush penetrated the
heights; three miles farther east a highway ran from the village of
Jamaica. About five thousand men were sent to defend the Gravesend and
Flatbush roads but Jamaica Pass was neglected. The British frontal
attacks met with stubborn resistance from the forces of Stirling and
Sullivan, but their valor was useless for a large British force pushed
along the Jamaica road and got in the rear of the American positions. A
portion of the army succeeded in getting back to the Brooklyn
intrenchments, but Sullivan and Stirling with about eleven hundred men
were captured and several hundred were killed.

The withdrawal from Brooklyn.--Howe, who remembered the disastrous
frontal attack at Bunker Hill, decided not to attack the Brooklyn
defences until supported by the fleet, which was held back by an adverse
wind. His caution saved the American army. Washington saw that Brooklyn
was untenable and he secretly planned to evacuate it. A brave show of
force was made by bringing over three regiments and by keeping up a
fusillade while water craft were being collected. Favored by a
subsidence of the storm and by a fog, during the night of the
twenty-ninth the entire army was successfully withdrawn.

Harlem.--After the battle of Long Island the British commissioners made
overtures to Congress and a committee composed of Franklin, Edward
Rutledge, and John Adams went to Staten Island for a conference, but it
failed completely. There was nothing to do but to fight it out. That
Manhattan Island should have been abandoned immediately after the defeat
at Brooklyn Heights has been maintained by strategists, but Congress
hesitated to evacuate New York City and Washington does not appear to
have insisted upon a withdrawal. As Trevelyan observes, "It is equally
difficult to explain satisfactorily why Howe was so long about
landing..., and why Washington was so slow in evacuating the city." On
September 10 Hancock informed Washington that Congress did not desire to
have him hold the city longer than he thought proper. Washington
immediately acted. The removal of stores was hastened and most of the
troops were withdrawn to Harlem Heights about halfway up the island, but
Putnam was left in the city with some infantry and artillery, and five
brigades were posted at points along the eastern shore. Not until
September 13 did the British begin the movement for the occupation of
Manhattan Island. On that day and the next several war vessels moved up
into the East River and at eleven o'clock on the morning of the
fifteenth British forces landed at Kip's Bay. There the American troops
disgraced themselves by slight resistance followed by a confused flight.
Howe neglected to follow up his initial success; had he done so he could
have cut off the garrison of New York, but his procrastination allowed
Putnam's force to rejoin the main army. Not until four in the afternoon
did the British commence "a stately progress northward" and not until
the next morning did they attack the American position. This time
Washington's troops behaved well and the British were checked.

White Plains.--For four weeks the British army remained in front of the
American position at Harlem. Howe finally decided upon his plan of
campaign; leaving a force to protect New York City, on October 12 he
moved his main army to the Westchester Peninsula with the object of
getting on the flank and rear of the American army, and cutting off its
supplies from the east; war ships were sent up the Hudson to cut off a
retreat into New Jersey. After his landing on the peninsula Howe's
movements were very slow and it was not until October 25 that he took up
a position a few miles south of White Plains, The dilatory movement had
given Washington the opportunity of moving his army to the mainland, and
when Howe finally arrived near White Plains, he found the American army
blocking his advance.

The British commander had just been heavily reinforced and his
overwhelming army should have made short work of Washington's forces,
but again Howe failed to win a decisive victory. On October 28 he
ordered a general engagement and the first assault drove in the American
outposts. A mile to the west of the main position was Chatterton's Hill
which was held by fourteen hundred men. Against this hill Howe sent
eight regiments. Five which advanced for a frontal attack were checked
and the defenders only retired when outflanked by the other three. A
general engagement did not develop and on October 31 Washington retired
to a line of heights somewhat back of his former position.

[Illustration: Northern New Jersey, New York and Its Environs during the
Revolution (Based on map in G.O. Trevelyan, _The American Revolution_,
Part II, Vol. I, at end).]

The withdrawal from Quebec.--While Washington's army rested at White
Plains, heartening news came from the north; and especially good news it
was, for during the summer the reports from the Canadian border had been
filled with stories of defeat and distress. Congress had made great
efforts to reinforce the army before Quebec, but on May 1 when General
Thomas arrived to take command, he had found less than two thousand men
assembled and half of them were in the hospitals. Within a week the
first British reinforcements arrived and Carleton took the offensive.
Thomas was forced to fall back to Sorel and the Americans were driven
from their camp near Montreal.

The army falls back to Crown Point.--On June 5 General John Sullivan
arrived at Sorel with three thousand troops. As Thomas had died of the
smallpox Sullivan took command. He determined to attack Three Rivers but
the surprise failed and his troops were routed. On June 14 an English
fleet carrying Carleton's army came up the river. Sullivan immediately
broke up his camp and retired to Crown Point, where for the time being
he was out of reach of the enemy, for Carleton's vessels were of too
deep draft to navigate the Sorel River. But disease proved to be more
dangerous than the British, for smallpox and dysentery carried off the
men by hundreds.

Ticonderoga becomes the base.--General Philip Schuyler was in command of
the northern department with headquarters at Albany and General Horatio
Gates was now in charge at Crown Point. In July Gates withdrew most of
the depleted force to Ticonderoga. Large numbers of troops were sent
north so that by August the garrison numbered thirty-five hundred.
Arnold equipped a fleet of small vessels which he hoped would delay if
it would not check the British advance.

Valcour Island.--During the summer Carleton's shipyard at St. Johns was
busy building the fleet which would give him control of Lake Champlain.
On October 4 Carleton advanced with an army of twelve thousand men.
Arnold started with his fleet manned by only five hundred men to harass
the advance. He ran into the narrow channel between Valcour Island and
the western shore and there on October 11 encountered the light advance
craft of the British fleet. For five hours he held his own. During the
night he withdrew his shattered boats to an island twelve miles to the
south where he attempted to repair the damage. On October 13 when the
fog lifted, it disclosed the British fleet. Arnold immediately sent off
his best vessels and with his crippled ships stayed to fight. One vessel
struck its colors but Arnold ran his flag ship and four gondolas into a
creek and burned them. He then hastened to Ticonderoga where he
displayed tremendous energy in strengthening the fortifications. The
spirited fight on the lake, the strength of the American position, and
the lateness of the season convinced Carleton that it was useless to
continue the operations. On November 3 he evacuated Crown Point and
began the withdrawal to Canada. Washington was thus relieved from the
danger of an enemy from the north.

Tactical movements.--Before he was aware of Carleton's withdrawal, Howe
had determined to force Washington's army into the open. He sent a force
of Hessians to occupy the northern end of Manhattan Island and on
November 5 moved his main army to Dobb's Ferry on the Hudson, from which
vantage point he could strike at Fort Washington, advance toward Albany,
or threaten Philadelphia. Washington's position was endangered and the
situation was made doubly precarious by the fact that his army was being
depleted by desertions and by the termination of enlistments. To
counteract the British movement he sent one corps to Hackensac in New
Jersey, and Heath's division was stationed at Peekskill to protect the
Hudson. Charles Lee was left at White Plains with about seven thousand
men subject to future orders.

Forts Washington and Lee.--The British moved next against Forts
Washington and Lee, which, garrisoned by about five thousand men, were
under the supervision of General Greene. They ought to have been
abandoned, but Washington unfortunately left the decision to his
subordinate who believed that they could be held. On November 16
overwhelming forces advanced against Fort Washington which was obliged
to surrender. Cornwallis secretly sent six thousand troops across the
Hudson and on November 20 advanced against Fort Lee. He all but
surprised it and Greene, with the greatest difficulty, succeeded only in
saving the garrison.


Retreat to the Raritan.--The fall of the forts had added greatly to the
difficulty of the situation, for Washington's army was in danger of
being enveloped. To avert disaster he determined to retreat into New
Jersey. He accordingly crossed the Passaic and moved to Newark. The
forces under Lee were ordered to join the retreating army, but that vain
and conceited officer, who had visions of becoming commander-in-chief as
soon as Washington was eliminated, refused to obey orders. On November
28 Washington marched out of Newark and as his rear guard left the town
the advanced guard of the British entered it. The American army pushed
on to New Brunswick where it found a temporary haven behind the Raritan.
On December 1 Cornwallis's troops reached the river, but there he was
halted by an order from Howe not to advance until he arrived with

Expedition against Rhode Island.--A week later Howe came up with a
single brigade. Instead of concentrating his troops to crush the remnant
of Washington's army, the British commander decided to send two
divisions to conquer Rhode Island. They easily occupied the island but
it was a fruitless venture for "several thousand Royal troops were
thenceforward locked up in a sea-girt strip of land no larger than the
estate of many an English Lord-Lieutenant."

Retreat across the Delaware.--Washington's army was constantly reduced
by desertion and sickness, and the New Jersey people failed to rally to
his assistance. It has been estimated that not a hundred men enlisted
during the retreat across the state. The people of New Jersey paid
dearly for their indifference, for during the winter they were
constantly subjected to indignities from the Hessians who were billeted
upon them. Among the atrocious acts was the pillaging of Princeton
College. Taking advantage of British inactivity, Washington prepared to
retire beyond the Delaware, from New Brunswick having ordered the
collection of boats for many miles along the river front. Covering his
retreat with fourteen hundred of his best troops under Stirling, the
army and stores were landed on the Pennsylvania shore. When the British
troops arrived on the eastern bank, they were forced to halt, for not a
boat was available and the short-sighted Howe had failed to provide his
army with pontoons.

To the British commander the campaign was over and he prepared to go
into winter quarters, fancying that the rebellion was practically
crushed and that the spring campaign would be a mere parade. The Whig
use appeared to be lost and gloomy forebodings and grumblings of
discontent took the place of declamation and heroics. On December 10
Congress resolved to defend Philadelphia but two days later it adjourned
and hied away to Baltimore. Washington's lack of authority had
frequently hampered his military operations, but this difficulty was now
removed, for before adjournment Congress resolved, that until otherwise
ordered, Washington was to have full power to direct operations.

Washington's army reinforced.--The dispirited army which crossed the
Delaware was soon strongly reinforced. After many days of inaction,
General Lee had left his camp at White Plains with the intention, as he
grandiloquently put it, of reconquering New Jersey. After the retreat of
Carleton, Schuyler had sent seven battalions under Sullivan to assist
Washington, but Lee succeeded in getting control of four of them. On
December 13 he was captured at a tavern at Baskingridge. As soon as
Sullivan heard of it, he started the troops for the Delaware and on the
twentieth of December joined Washington. Four other battalions from
Schuyler's army arrived shortly afterward and General Mifflin brought in
a goodly body of Pennsylvania militia. Before Christmas the army
numbered eight thousand.

Position of the Hessians.--To the east of the Delaware was a Hessian
division under Colonel Von Donop, Colonel Rail being stationed at
Trenton with three regiments. Rail had taken to measures to strengthen a
naturally weak position; highways converged to the north of the village
and artillery stationed at the junction could sweep the streets.
Scouting parties and spies informed Washington that Rail's troops were
scattered through the town and that the place was practically without

Trenton.--Washington determined to strike. With the greatest secrecy he
perfected his plans. One body of troops under Cadwalader was to attack
Von Donop's position at Bordentown and Ewing with a thousand men was to
strike at troops stationed on Assumpink Creek, while Washington with
Greene and Sullivan in command of twenty-four hundred men and eighteen
cannon were to advance against Trenton from the north. During a furious
tempest on Christmas night Washington succeeded in crossing the
Delaware, but Ewing failed to get over and Cadwalader crossed too late
to coöperate. At four in the morning Washington's troops began the weary
march toward Trenton. While the valiant army was toiling over the frozen
roads, the Hessians were sleeping off the effects of their Christmas
wassail. At 8:15 the American forces drove in the Hessian outposts.
Aroused from his bed Rail tried to make a stand, but the streets were
raked with round shot and the sharpshooters fired relentlessly into the
huddled Hessians, several hundred of whom fled across the Assumpink
Creek bridge and escaped to Bordentown. Rail tried to rally his men but
fell mortally wounded. When Sullivan cut off the retreat to the south
and Greene ordered up his reserves, resistance ended. Nine hundred
prisoners, a thousand muskets, six field pieces, and a large quantity of
stores fell into the hands of the successful commander. But not in terms
of men and guns should the battle of Trenton be judged. Its importance
lies in the fact that Washington had won a clean cut victory when the
Whig cause was tottering and by that victory had raised the drooping
spirits of a despairing nation.

Movements of the armies.--When the news of Trenton reached New York, it
roused the British from their fancied security. Lord Cornwallis at the
head of eight thousand men proceeded by forced marches toward the west.
Washington had determined to hold a position east of the Delaware, and
on December 30 he again crossed the river and by January 2, 1777, had
assembled five thousand men and forty pieces of artillery just below
Trenton. As Cornwallis approached the American position, he realized the
costliness of a frontal attack, and decided that as soon as his forces
assembled he would attempt a flanking movement from Allentown.

Princeton, January 3, 1777.--Washington saw the danger and decided on a
daring plan. On the night of January 2 all was activity in the American
camp. Sentinels challenged, infantry moved about in the light of the
camp fires, and the sound of pick and shovel was plainly audible to the
British. But in the darkness to the rear another kind of activity was in
progress. Cannon, stores, and baggage were being silently moved to
Bordentown and Burlington, and at one in the morning the bulk of the
army began a stealthy march which at daybreak brought them out within a
mile and a half of Princeton. Three of Cornwallis's regiments had
remained there during the night and were now under way. Suddenly the
first of these troops under Colonel Mawhood found themselves confronted
by the American advance guard. The British charged bravely, scoring an
initial success, but Washington's presence in front of his lines
steadied the troops and they soon forced a retreat. Sullivan then led
the advance against the two remaining regiments, which were driven
through and beyond Princeton, leaving three hundred prisoners in
Washington's hands. The roar of the guns brought the unwelcome tidings
to Cornwallis that the American army had escaped, had cut across his
rear, and had defeated three of his crack regiments.

Morristown.--Five miles beyond Princeton Washington turned to the north
and soon established his army in a powerful position at Morristown where
they remained in security the rest of the winter. Howe made no attempt
to dislodge his opponent, but concentrated ten thousand troops in camps
at New Brunswick and Perth Amboy. The Jersey people had been cured of
their Toryism; supplies poured into the American camp, while the British
experienced the greatest difficulty in securing fuel and food, and by
March 1 were reduced to a ration of salt provisions and "ammunition
bread." When Washington reached Morristown he had about four thousand
men and during the winter his army did not increase, but he made the
most of the opportunity to drill his men and perfect his organization.
Throughout the country men were drilling for the spring campaign, powder
mills were being built, and lead mines were being opened. The greatest
shortage was in muskets, but fortunately these were obtained from

Middlebrook.--In May, 1777, everything was in readiness and Washington