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Title: Graceful Riding - A Pocket Manual for Equestrians
Author: Waite, S. C.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration]



[Illustration: Graceful Riding

  A

  POCKET MANUAL

  For Equestrians,

  BY S.C. Waite Esq^{RE}


  LONDON

  ROBERT HARDWICKE 192 PICCADILLY

  AND ALL BOOKSELLERS.]



  GRACEFUL RIDING.

  A
  POCKET MANUAL FOR EQUESTRIANS.


  ABRIDGED AND REVISED FROM "WAITE'S EQUESTRIAN'S MANUAL,"

  DEDICATED TO H.R.H. PRINCE ALBERT.

  BY

  S. C. WAITE, ESQ.

  LONDON:
  ROBERT HARDWICKE, 192, PICCADILLY:

  AND ALL BOOKSELLERS.

  1859.



PREFACE.


The Author's last publication, "The Equestrian's Manual," having met
with so kind a reception from the Press and the Public--one which he
looks upon with the greatest gratitude--has induced him to compile for
the use of Equestrians of both sexes the present little Work, in the
sincere hope that his humble efforts may, in some degree, aid in
obviating the many severe and often fatal accidents, the result, in most
instances, of inexperience in Horsemanship.

Should he have attained this end, and given some instruction to the
nervous and timid, or any to the experienced equestrian, he will feel
himself well repaid.



INTRODUCTION.


The science of Equitation has for many years been allowed, by the
testimony and strong recommendation of the most eminent of the faculty,
to be an accomplishment highly conducive and most beneficial to health;
assisting the blood in its proper circulation through the frame, on
which depends wholly good spirits, and freedom from bilious,
hypochondriacal, and nervous affections.

Parents should not neglect to have imparted to their children an art so
calculated for the development of grace and beauty in maturity, and,
above all other considerations, _one_ that so eminently guards against
the many diseases of this varying climate; diseases which are, in fact,
almost, if we may use the term, "indigenous" to the spring and summer of
life.

Physicians, of the past and present time, whose mere names should be
sufficient to procure every patronage, are in favour of the acquirement
of this most essential and elegant science. The skill necessary to
become a perfect rider, can only be obtained through the tuition of a
first-rate master; and, as far as the accomplishment can be explained
within the limits of a book, the Author has endeavoured to do so; but he
repeats there is much which cannot be written, and is only to be
acquired through personal tuition.

Lessons in the school _alone_ can seldom make a good rider. In it the
horse and the pupil become accustomed to the same monotonous routine day
after day; but when they emerge on the road it is found that the expert
rider of the _school_ is deficient in tact and skill; and, in fact, has
learnt but little. The nature of the animal will occasion this; changing
the scene of every-day objects in the school, for the great variety he
must meet on the road, gives an impetus to his hitherto dormant spirit;
then the rider will find that he must exert all the skill and judgment
he possesses to keep his horse under the proper control indispensable to
his safe guidance.

In conclusion, should this work contribute to the enlightenment of
ladies and gentlemen desirous of becoming _finished equestrians_, it
will have accomplished the end for which it was undertaken.



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.


PLATE I.

The first figure represents WAITE'S IMPROVED SEAT.

The position is on the same system as the Cavalry, but being more
_négligé_ in appearance, and much less constrained in feeling, although
equally correct, imparts a more elegant and graceful seat to the rider.

HEAVY DRAGOON.

HUSSAR.


PLATE II.

RACING.

HUNTING.

PARK.


PLATE III.

The first figure represents the GENERAL SEAT of Ladies on their saddles.

The second shows the position of a Lady when mounted according to Mr.
WAITE'S METHOD of tuition; by it a firm seat is gained on the saddle,
and consequently it is more secure than the usual seat; being also more
graceful and elegant in appearance, and giving the rider a superior
command over her horse, and obviating the danger of the habit-skirt
becoming entangled in the horse's legs.



PART I.


[Illustration]



CHARACTER AND MANAGEMENT OF THE HORSE, WITH DIRECTIONS FOR RIDING.


A knowledge of the general character and disposition of the horse is
really and absolutely necessary to his skilful management, from his
extremely nervous sensibility, his aptness to take the various
impressions of fear, affection, or dislike, to any of which he is
naturally very quickly disposed.

    "Reas'ning at ev'ry step he treads,
      Man yet mistakes his way;
    While meaner things by instinct led
      Are rarely known to stray."

Speaking in soothing terms to a horse, so that he may become familiar to
the voice, gives him confidence in his rider, which is of the _utmost
importance_. At all times more is to be accomplished with the animal by
gentle means than could possibly be done by harsh ones: kindness, or its
opposite, is speedily conveyed to and retained in his memory, which is
remarkably retentive. This mutual confidence is perfectly appreciated by
the Arabs. They invariably treat their horses with the greatest kindness
and affection; they are the Bedouins' beloved and stanch companions,
and on them is the Arabs' sole reliance in their predatory excursions;
they inhabit the same tent, and the neck of the horse is not
unfrequently the pillow of the Arab and his family; yet no accident ever
occurs; the kindness with which he is treated gives him an affection for
his master, a desire to please, and a pride in exerting every energy in
obedience to his command.

Bad habits are speedily acquired by the horse, and when once learned,
are very difficult to break him of.

_In nine cases out of ten they arise_ from the _stupidity, joined to the
brutality_, of an _idle, drunken, ill-tempered_ groom; _who, when out of
temper, invariably vents his rage_ upon the unoffending animal, which,
at last, to protect (or revenge) itself from the besotted tormentor,
acquires a habit of kicking and biting at every person and thing coming
within its reach, fearing that they are about to maltreat it.

Many horses are condemned as _vicious_, and actually are rendered so
through _timidity_ on the part of the _rider_.

The animal may be playful from rest, or a lively temper by nature; the
rider, _whose judgment_ may not enable him to _discriminate_ between
playfulness, nervousness, or vice, becomes alarmed, and, consequently,
loses his self-command; and, perhaps, not having learned the _correct
mode of using_ his _hands and reins_, in his _boisterous endeavours_ to
_save himself from falling_, imparts fear to his horse. The animal
naturally imagines he has been guilty of some great fault, and is
_fearful of punishment_; and should he _not be familiar with the voice
of his rider_, then a mutual struggle for safety takes place, and causes
an accident. The horse is _then_ condemned as "_vicious_," though the
rider was _alone_ in fault. The _same horse_, in the hands of an
_experienced_ horseman, would become as QUIET as ever. We often find
that really dangerous horses have been reclaimed by ladies riding them!
This is entirely owing to their using them _gently_, but firmly, and
speaking to them kindly; by these means confidence is imparted, and
makes them

    "All that a horse should be, which nought did lack
    Save a good rider on so proud a back."

A few minutes' riding will be sufficient to discover the nature and
temper of a horse, likewise what system of treatment has been pursued
towards him (which, in consequence, must be still followed).

There are very many persons who are considered good horsemen, who have
no fear, and will ride anything, or _at_ anything, yet have no idea,
beyond the mere fact of riding, whether the saddle, bridle, and
accoutrements are properly placed. The neglect of attending to these
matters has caused many serious accidents.

The _method_ of gracefully _holding_ and _using_ the _reins_ is _very
important_, although but _little understood_ or _attended_ to; in fact,
it seems but _a secondary_ consideration with Riding-masters, where it
should be a SINE QUA NON. One person may pull at a runaway horse with
all his strength, but to no purpose; another possessing that knowledge
shall be able to manage, and hold him with a pack-thread.

       *       *       *       *       *

RUNAWAY HORSES are most frequently made so by bad and timid riders, who
make use of a whip and spurs without having a _firm seat_. Such persons
are easily unseated on the horse shying, or jumping about in a playful
mood; then, in their endeavours to recover themselves, they slacken
their reins, and at the same time unintentionally goad him with their
spurs, or strike him with their whip. In clutching at the reins, the
horse becoming frightened, naturally increases his speed, until, from
the continued irritation of whip and spur, in the terrified horseman's
futile attempts to subdue him, the horse becomes maddened with terror
and excitement, and ultimately throws his rider.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHYING is often the result of skittishness or affectation at first. This
may be easily overcome and cured, at its commencement, by the judicious
treatment of the rider, in using firmness tempered with kindness;
avoiding all harsh measures, and passing the horse several times quietly
by the object which caused him to shy. A word, half-scolding,
half-encouraging, with a gentle pressure of the heel, or a slight touch
of the spur or whip, will convince him there is nothing to fear; and,
further, will give the animal _confidence_ in his rider on future
occasions.

       *       *       *       *       *

KICKING is a dangerous vice, and generally the result of an idle groom
or stable-boy playing with the horse, and pinching him on the loins; so
that, should any extraneous substance be in the padding of the saddle,
or the flaps of a coat touch him there, or even a hand be thoughtlessly
laid on his quarters, he immediately commences kicking to dislodge the
cause. Once succeeding, he has invariably recourse to the same remedy,
until the habit becomes confirmed.

There are many valuable horses ruined by thoughtlessness and
folly.--This is more frequently the case with animals of high courage.
In many instances, a _very trivial_ alteration in the adjustment of the
saddle or bridle, &c. (had the rider been properly instructed, and
therefore possessing the knowledge how such alterations should be made),
would have saved great danger and annoyance to the rider, and
_unnecessary_ pain to the horse.

       *       *       *       *       *

WHEN A HORSE IS KICKING, the rider should throw his body _well back_,
raise the horse's head, and apply the whip smartly over his shoulders.

Rearing is very dangerous, and most difficult to break. It is often
caused by the bit being too sharp for the horse, his mouth being tender,
or perhaps sore.

_When rearing_, the whole weight of horse and rider being thrown
perpendicularly on the animal's hind legs, the _most trifling_ check
from the rider's hand would cause him to fall backwards; the rider must
drop his hand as before, loosen the reins, and throw his whole weight on
his shoulders, at the same time catching him 'round the neck with his
right hand. These directions will much assist in bringing him down on
his feet again, and prevent the rider's body from falling backwards.

Unsteadiness in mounting is very often the consequence of the horse's
eagerness and anxiety to start. It is generally the fault with
thorough-bred, high-couraged, young and nervous horses. It is a most
annoying fault, especially with elderly and timid riders, many of whom
are frequently thrown before they can firmly seat themselves.

This is only to be cured by an active and good horseman, combined with
firm, though gentle and kind, usage; by approaching him gently and
patting him, mounting at the _first_ effort, and when seated,
restraining him, patting his neck, and speaking kindly to him, but, at
the same time, not allowing him to move until he is perfectly quiet. In
a few days he will be quite cured of his fault. Remember! _harshness
must never be used_ in this case, as great mischief may be done by such
a course, and the habit _will be confirmed_.

KINDNESS will succeed generally in most cases of vice; HARSHNESS _never
will_ in any!

The position of the saddle should be in accordance with the formation of
the horse's shoulders, and about a hand's breadth from them, so as not
in any way to interfere with or impede the _free action_ of the muscles.

The malposition of the saddle, particularly in horses with upright
shoulders, is the cause of many horses falling, from its pressing too
much on the shoulders, and by that means confining the action of the
muscles, which thus become benumbed, and lose their elasticity. A
partial deadening of the limbs having taken place, the horse, from want
of vitality in the legs, stumbles, and is unable, through the torpidity
of the muscles, to recover himself, and falls to the ground; in many
cases he has been known to fall as if shot.

The saddle should be wide, and roomy. The length of the stirrups should
be such as to give ease to both horse and rider; the latter ought at all
times to assimilate his movements in the saddle to those of the horse in
his stride.

A tight rein should always be avoided, because, if he carries his head
low, it tends to deaden his mouth, and teaches him the bad habit of
depending upon the bridle for support; in which case, he always goes
heavily in hand, and on his shoulders. The horse should at all times be
taught to go on his haunches.

If the horse naturally carries his head well, it is better to ride him
with a light hand, only just feeling his mouth.

    "With neck like a rainbow, erecting his crest,
    Pamper'd, prancing, and pleased, his head touching his breast;
    Scarcely snuffing the air, he's so proud and elate,
    The high-mettled racer first starts for the plate."

    OLD SONG.



ON PROPERLY FIXING THE BRIDLE, SADDLE, &c.


THE BRIDLE.

In fitting the bridle, THE CURB BIT should be placed so that the
mouth-piece be but one inch above the lower tusk,--in mares, two inches
above the corner tooth; THE BRIDOON touching the corner of the lips, so
as to fit easy, without wrinkling them; THE HEADSTALL parallel to the
projecting cheek-bone, and behind it; THE THROAT LASH should be
sufficiently long to fall just below the cheek-bone, and not lay over or
upon it; THE NOSE BAND should be placed low--but that must depend very
much on the size of the horse's mouth--and not buckled tight; THE CURB,
when properly fitted, should be flat and smooth in the hollow of the
lips, so as to admit one finger easily between.


THE SADDLE

should be placed in the middle of the horse's back, about a hand's
breadth, or four or five inches, from the shoulders, so as to give
perfect freedom to the action of the muscles of the shoulders.

THE GIRTHS must be laid evenly one over the other, and admit freedom for
one finger between the girth and the horse's belly. THE SURCINGLE should
fit neatly over the girths, and not be buckled tighter than they are.
The large ring of THE BREASTPLATE or MARTINGALE should be placed about
two inches above the sharp breast-bone, and should allow of the hand
being laid flat between it and the shoulders.


THE STIRRUPS.

In length they should be so that the bottom edge of the bar is about
three inches above the heel of the boot. The author always adopts the
following method for ascertaining the correct length of the stirrups,
viz.:--He takes up the stirrup-iron with the right hand, at the same
time placing the bottom of the stirrup-iron under the left arm-pit, he
extends the _left_ arm until the fingers of _that_ hand _easily touch_
the stirrup _buckles_; _this_ is a _sure criterion_ with most people.


ON MOUNTING.

In mounting, the horse should always be approached quietly on the near
(or left) side, and the reins taken up steadily. THE SNAFFLE (or
bridoon) rein first, then pass this rein along the palm of the left
hand, between the forefinger and thumb. THE CURB REIN must now be drawn
over the little finger, and both reins being held of an equal length,
and having an even pressure on the horse's mouth, must be laid over
each other, being held firmly in the hand, the thumb pressing hard upon
them to prevent them slipping through the fingers. Be particular that
the reins are not taken up too short, for fear it might cause the horse
to rear or run back; _they must be held neither too tight nor too
slack_, _but having an equal feeling of the horse's mouth_. Next take up
a handful of the mane with the right hand, bring it through the full of
the left hand (otherwise the palm), and twist it round the thumb. Take
hold of the stirrup with the right hand, the thumb in front. Place the
left foot in the stirrup as far as the ball of it, placing the right
hand on the cantle (or back part of the saddle), and, by a spring of the
right foot from the instep, the rider should raise himself up in the
stirrup, then move the hand from the cantle to the pummel, to support
the body while the right leg passes clearly over the horse's quarters;
the rider's right knee closes on the saddle and the body falls gently
into it. The left hand now quits the mane, and the second stirrup must
be taken without the help of eye or hand.

The left hand (the bridle hand) must be placed with the wrist rounded
outwards, opposite the centre of the body, and about three inches from
it, letting the right arm drop unconstrained by the side of the thigh.


POSITION IN THE SADDLE.

The rider must sit upright, and equally balanced in the middle of his
saddle, head erect, and his shoulders well thrown back, his chest
advanced, the small of his back bent forward, but without stiffness. The
hollow part of the arm should hang down straight from the shoulder, the
lower part square to the upper, the thighs well stretched down, the
_flat part_ to the saddle, so that the fore part of the knees may press
and grasp it. Let the legs hang down easily and naturally, close to the
horse's sides, with the feet parallel to the same, and the heels well
depressed; the toes raised from the instep, and as near the horse's
sides as the heels; the feet retained in the stirrups by an easy play of
the ankle and stirrup, the stirrup to be kept under the ball of the
foot, the joint of the wrist kept easy and pliable, so as to give and
take as occasion may require. _A firm and well-balanced position on
horseback is of the utmost importance_, it affects the horse in every
motion, and failure in this proves one of his greatest impediments, and
will naturally injure him in all his movements.

In riding, the hands and legs should act in correspondence in
everything, the latter being always held subservient to the former.

It is easy to discover those who have been thoroughly instructed in the
_manége_, by their firm, graceful, and uniform position in the saddle,
and their ready and skilful application of the aids or motions, and the
correct appliance of the bridle, hands, and legs; such being
_indispensable_ to the skilful guidance and control of the horse.



PART II.



ON THE REINS, &c.


The author most particularly wishes to impress upon his readers the
value of riding with DOUBLE REINS for safety sake, and in order to avoid
the numerous accidents arising from reins breaking, the tongues of
buckles giving way, and the sewing of the reins to their bits coming
undone. When there is but _one rein_, the rider is left quite at the
mercy of an affrighted and infuriated animal; where, had there been TWO,
he would still have sufficient command over the animal to prevent
accidents.

There is another equally urgent reason for riding with double reins,
viz., the continual use of the curb materially tends to deaden the
sensitiveness of the horse's mouth; from the constant and unavoidable
drag upon the single rein, especially if tender-mouthed, he is made
uneasy and fidgetty, causing him to throw his head about, and go
extremely heavy in hand, and frequently rear or run back, to the very
great danger and annoyance of his rider, particularly when happening in
a crowded drive.

It is very requisite to ride a horse occasionally _well up to the curb
bit_, and to _keep him well up to it_ with the whip and heel, so that
he may get used to _work on his haunches_. By this means he will be
thrown upon them, and, consequently, "go light in hand," the greater
weight being taken from off his forehand, by which his carriage and
general appearance is materially improved.

After many essays, the author has found the following method to be the
_most correct and_ SAFE for holding the reins, when using _one_ or
_both_ hands. By it the rider has a much firmer hold--or, in
professional parlance, "purchase"--upon the reins, in keeping them from
slipping, consequently, a greater command over the horse, and can more
readily allow either rein to slip should he desire to use but one.


FOR HOLDING THE REINS IN ONE HAND.

The reins should hang _untwisted_ from the bits.

The rider must take up the bridoon reins with his right hand, and pass
the second and third fingers of the bridle, or left, hand between them,
draw up the reins with the right hand, until the horse's mouth can be
felt, and then pass them between the forefinger and thumb. Next take up
the _curb reins_ (again with the right hand), and pass the little finger
of the bridle hand between them, draw them up, as before directed, with
the right hand, until the rider perceives there is an equal length and
feeling with the _bridoon_ reins. The _latter_ having _rather_ the
strongest pressure on the animal's mouth. This done, _lay them also
over_ between the forefinger and thumb, and press down the thumb firmly
upon them to keep them from slipping; the hand to be held with the wrist
rounded outwards, opposite the centre of the body, and about four inches
from it.

_The right arm_ should hang without restraint, and _slightly_ bent, by
the thigh, the whip being held about twelve inches from its head, with
the point turned _upwards_.


USING BOTH HANDS.

Take the bridoon reins between the second and third, and the curb reins
between the third and fourth, fingers of each hand, each rein having an
equal bearing on the horse's mouth; the hands are to be held about six
inches apart, with the wrists rounded outwards, and the thumbs pressing
firmly upon the reins, the elbows well down, and held near to the sides,
the whip held as directed above.


RIDING ON ONE REIN.

Take up THAT particular rein with the right hand, and pass the second
and third fingers of the bridle hand between them, then draw up the
reins, but be careful, in doing so, not to hold the horse too tight in
hand; the OTHER rein should hang down, having the little finger passed
between them, and the thumb also over them, so that they may be caught
hold of, and drawn up quickly on any sudden emergency; the loose reins
are to hang between those in use.


THE WHIP.

The whip being a requisite aid in the management and guidance of the
horse, should be used as an instrument of correction, and by no means to
be _played_ with, nor _flourished about_. When using the whip for
punishment, _scold_ at the same time; by this means, with a cross word
will be associated the idea of chastisement. However, far more can be
achieved by kindness than by any harsh measure; but when such instances
occur that it is _absolutely necessary_, never hesitate to _punish
well_, so that the animal may thoroughly understand that it is
_punishment_ that is meant for his fault--_not play_.

    "A man of kindness to his beast is kind,
    But brutal actions show a brutal mind:
    Remember He who made thee, made the brute,
    Who gave thee speech and reason, form'd him mute;
    He can't complain, but God's omniscient eye
    Beholds thy cruelty. He hears his cry.
    He was designed thy servant--not thy drudge;
    But know, that his Creator is thy Judge."

Colt-breaking by the Guachos is performed in the same mode as the
Kalmucks, with the lasso; the idea of being thrown, let a horse do what
he pleases, never occurs to a Guacho. According to them, a "good rider"
is a man who can manage an untamed colt, and one, if his horse should
fall, could alight unhurt upon his feet. At the moment of a horse
falling backwards they can slip quietly off, and, on the instant of his
rising, jump on him again. They never seem to exert muscular force, and
appear to ride very loosely, as if every moment they must fall off: yet
should his horse be suddenly frightened, the Guacho will start, and
take, simultaneously, fright with the horse. There is nothing done on
foot by the Guachos that cannot be done on horseback; even _mounted_
beggars are to be seen in the streets of Buenos Ayres and Mendoza. It is
not, therefore, surprising that, with such multitudes of horses, that
the people should all be riders, and excel all other nations in their
expertness and boldness in their management.

The Pampas and Prairie Indians, whose forefathers fled from the Spanish
horsemen, as if they were fatal apparitions, now seem to be part and
parcel of the horse. They affirm the proudest attitude of the human
figure is when a man bending over his horse, lance in hand, is riding
_at_ his enemy. The Guachos, who ride so beautifully, declare it is
utterly impossible to vie with mounted Indians; they have such a way of
urging on their horses by cries, and a peculiar motion of their bodies;
even were they to change horses, the Indians would beat them.

The Turks prefer the Turkman horse to the pure-blooded, slender Arabian.
In fact, from their trying mode of riding, the fine limbs of the Arab
could not stand the shock upon them, their favourite manoeuvre being
to make a dead stop when galloping at full speed. To accomplish this
feat, they use a very severe bit, which, of course, destroys the
_sensibility_ of their horses' mouths; while, on the contrary, the Arabs
use only a plain snaffle, which preserves all the sensitiveness of the
animals' mouths.

The Toorkman, or Turkman horses.--These are much esteemed by the
Persians. They are large and swift, and possess extraordinary powers of
endurance, though they are exceedingly awkward in appearance. Turkistan
is their native region, which lies north-east of the Caspian Sea; but
their tribes are widely dispersed over Persia, Asia Minor, and Syria.

The Persians are great admirers of horsemanship, and a bad rider affords
them infinite amusement. "An officer of an English frigate having gone
ashore to visit the envoy, and being mounted on a very spirited horse,
and a very bad rider, caused great entertainment to the Persian
populace. The next day the man who supplied the ship with vegetables,
and spoke a little English, said to the officer, 'Don't be ashamed, sir,
nobody knows you--bad rider! I tell them you, like all English, ride
well, but that time they see you very drunk!' We were much amused at
this conception of our national character. The Persian thought it would
have been _a reproach for a man of a warlike nation not to ride well_,
but none for a European to get drunk."[33-*]

     [33-*] _Vide_ "The Horse and his Rider."

The Syrian horses are reared with the utmost tenderness and care; they
are fondled and played with like children. The Syrian horse is equally
good on mountainous, or stony ground, as on the plain; he is
indefatigable, and full of spirit. The Timarli ride horses of the Syrian
breed, mostly from their possessing these inestimable qualifications.

The Neapolitan horse.--This horse is small, but compact and strong; the
head rather large; the neck short, and bull-shaped: the prototype of the
horses represented on the bassi-relievi of ancient Roman sculpture. He
is capable of living on hard fare, and undergoing great fatigue. He is
frequently vicious and headstrong; this is chiefly owing to his harsh
treatment; though very high-spirited, he would, with gentle usage,
become extremely docile and good tempered. The districts of Apulia,
Abruzzi, and parts of Calabria furnish this excellent animal. The
Neapolitans have taken extreme pains in the breeding of their horses;
they make great display of them in their streets during the Carnival,
and through Lent. The aristocratic families have excellent studs of
great spirit and beauty.



PART III.



ON THE PACES OF THE HORSE.


THE WALK.

Of all the paces, the walk is the easiest to the rider, _provided_ he
sits in the centre of his horse's back, as it consists of an alternate
depression of the fore and hind quarters.

The motion may be compared to the vibration of the beam of a pair of
scales. The walk should be light, firm, and quick; the knee must be
moderately bent, the leg should appear suspended in the air for an
instant, and the foot fall perfectly flat to the ground.

It is very difficult to confine young and mettlesome horses to a walk;
great good temper, with a firm light hand, are requisite to accomplish
this. When such horses change to a trot they should be _stopped for a
minute_ or two, and _then_ allowed to proceed again. If the animal
carries his head well, ride him with a moderately loose rein, raising
the hand when he tries to break into a trot.


THE TROT.

The trot is allowed, by professionals, to be the only just basis upon
which equestrians can ever attain a secure and graceful seat, combined
with confidence and firmness. The rider has more control over the
motions of his body in this pace than any other: in this the body is
well brought down into the saddle by its own weight, and finds its true
equilibrium. When the rider wishes to make his horse trot, let him ease
his reins and press the calves of his legs gently; when his horse is at
a trot, let him feel both his reins, raise his horse's forehand, and
keep his haunches well under him.


THE CANTER.

The rider must have a light and firm feeling of both reins to raise his
horse's forehand; at the same time, with a pressure of both calves, to
bring the animal's quarters well under him, having a double feeling of
the inward rein, and a strong pressure of the outward leg, to cause him
to strike off in unison.

At all times the horse should be taught to lead off with EITHER fore
leg; by doing so his legs will not be so much shaken, especially the off
fore leg, which is the one he most generally leads off on. This must be
the case when he is _continually throwing_ the greater part of his
weight upon the leading fore leg, as it comes to the ground, which
causes lameness of the foot, and strains the back sinews of the legs.
Being thoroughly taught to change his legs, the horse is better enabled
to perform long journeys, with facility and comfort both to himself and
his rider.


TURNING.

In the turn either to the right or left, the reins must be held quite
evenly, so that the horse may be immediately made to feel the aid of the
rider's hands; he (the rider) must then have a double feeling on the
inward rein, also retaining a steady feeling on the _outward_; the horse
being kept up to the hand by a pressure of both legs, the outward leg
being the stronger.


REINING BACK.

The rider should frequently practise reining back, which is of the
utmost service both to himself and his horse: by it, the rider's hand is
rendered firm and materially strengthened; and the pliancy of wrist so
essential to the complete management of the horse is achieved, likewise
causing the body of the rider to be well thrown back and his chest
expanded, thus forcing, and preserving, an _erect_ position in the
saddle. Also, the _carriage_ of the horse becomes greatly improved; his
head is maintained in its correct position, and he is compelled to work
correctly on his haunches.

_In_ "_reining back_," the horseman requires a light and steady feeling
of both reins, a pressure of both legs, so as to raise his horse's
forehand and keep his haunches _well under_ him, at the same time
_easing_ the reins, and _feeling them again_ after every step.


STOPPING.

None are thoroughly taught until quite AU FAIT in the stop. It is of
_far greater importance_ than may be _usually_ imagined. In the first
place, it shows the horse to be _well under_ COMMAND, especially when
the rider is able to do so _instantaneously_: it saves in the second
place, many serious and inevitable accidents from carriages, horsemen,
&c., such as crossing before suddenly pulling up, turning quickly round
a corner, or coming unawares upon the rider.

Care must be taken to make the STOP _steadily_; _not_ by a _sudden jerk_
upon the _bit_; by doing so the horse, if "tender mouthed," will be made
to rear and plunge. To make the horse stop properly, the bridle-hand
must be kept low, and the knuckles turned down. The rider's body must be
well thrown back; he must have a steady feeling of both reins, and,
_closing_ both legs for a moment, so keep his horse well up to hand. N.
B.--The rider's hands always must be eased as soon as halted.


LEAPING.

Much depends upon the manner of bringing a horse up to the leap; he
should be taken up straight and steady to it, with the reins held in
each hand--they must be kept low, with the _curb_-rein held loosely. The
rider's body should be kept erect, pliant, and easy in its movements. As
the animal is in the act of rising in his leap and coming again to the
ground, the rider's body must be well thrown back.

The sitting of a leap, _well_, is entirely dependent upon the proper
balance of the body; thereby the weight is thrown correctly into the
saddle, and thus _meets_ the horse's movements.


THE STANDING LEAP.

Let the rider take up his horse at an animated pace, halt him with a
light hand upon his haunches; when rising at the leap, the rider should
only just feel the reins, so as to prevent them becoming slack, when he
springs forward, yielding them without reserve; as, at the time, the
horse must be left quite at liberty. As the horse's hind feet come to
the ground, the rider must again collect him, resume his usual position,
and move on at the same pace. His body must be inclined forward as the
horse rises, and backwards as he alights.


FLYING LEAP.

The horse must not be hurried, but taken up at a brisk pace, with a
light and steady hand, keeping his head perfectly steady and straight to
the bar or fence. This position is the same as in the standing leap; and
the aids required are the same as for making a horse canter.

If held too tight in the act of leaping, the horse is likely to
overstrain himself, and fall. If hurried at a leap, it may cause him to
miss his distance, and spring too soon, or too late; therefore his pace
must be regulated, so that he may take his spring distant enough, and
proportionate to its height, so that he may clear it.

When nearing the leap the rider must sit perfectly square, erect,
pliant, and easy in the act of leaping; on arriving at the opposite side
of the leap, throw the body well back, and again have the horse well in
hand.


SWIMMING A HORSE.

The rider must take up and cross his stirrups, which will prevent the
horse from entangling himself or his rider; should he commence plunging
and struggling in the water, _then quite_ loosen the _curb_-reins, and
scarcely feel the bridoon; any attempt to guide the horse must be made
by the slightest touch of the rein possible.

The rider also must have his chest as much over the horse's withers as
he can, and throw his weight forward, holding on by the mane, to prevent
the rush of water from carrying him backwards.

Should a horse appear distressed, a person unable to swim may, with
great safety, hold firmly by the mane, and throw himself out flat on the
water; by those means he relieves the animal from his weight, and the
horse coming once more into his depth, the rider may again recover his
position in the saddle.


BOLTING, OR RUNNING AWAY.

This dangerous habit is to be found very generally in nervous and young
horses, who at the least noise, become alarmed, and try to escape;
quickening their pace, they break from a trot to a gallop, until
terrified with the impotent struggles of their riders to stop them, or
the sound of wheels behind them, they become maddened, and dash on in
their perilous career.

Once a horse finds he has succeeded in these efforts, on any recurrence
of noise or cause of affright, he will pursue the same course, to the
imminent peril of life, limb,--not only of the rider or driver,--but of
whoever or whatever he may chance to meet in his impetuous flight. The
habit at length becomes confirmed, and it is alone by the utmost nerve
and coolness, tempered with firmness and kindness, that we may hope
eventually to overcome the disease.

When a horse is known to have a disposition for running away, a firm,
steady hold should be kept over him, at the same time speaking
soothingly and encouragingly; but, at the least symptom, checking
sharply and scolding him, and never allowing him to increase his pace of
his own accord, as fear will oftentimes cause him at length to break
into a gallop.

Either in riding or driving, the reins should be held firmly, and the
horse had well in hand; but not by a constant pull to deaden the
sensitiveness of his mouth; taking care occasionally to ease the reins
and keep the mouth alive by a gentle motion of the bit, only just
loosening them, so that on any symptom of running away or bolting, they
may be caught up quickly, and the horse be well placed under command,
without frightening him.

By a little judicious management in this way, with patience, kindness
tempered with firmness, a cure in most cases will be completed in a
short time.

In riding and driving horses addicted to running away, be _very
particular_ that all portions of the horse furniture be sound and
strong, more _especially the reins_ and BITS.



PART IV.


[Illustration]



ADVICE TO LADIES.


Preparatory to a lady mounting her horse, she should carefully approach
to the shoulder. The quietest animal will sometimes kick on a person
coming suddenly to him from behind; but if neared in the manner
described, he cannot possibly contrive to bite or kick.

It is also correct to allow the horse to see his rider as much as
possible, as it obviates the fright occasioned by a person getting
suddenly on his back, that he has not previously seen coming to him.


THE HABIT.

Both the habit and _under_ garments should be full, as upon this so much
depends the requisite ease and graceful appearance. The habit should
not, however, be too long, as it is liable to become entangled in the
horse's legs. Sometimes serious and even fatal falls have occurred from
this cause, particularly if the horse falls to the ground, as the habit
cannot be speedily extricated from under him.

The author here strongly advises a lady _never_ to tuck her skirts tight
over the crutch of her saddle, but take pains to have them so easy, as
to be enabled on the instant to disengage _both_ skirts and knee. A
facility, _in this_, can only be acquired by _constant_ practice; and it
is of far greater importance to the lady equestrian to attain, than may
appear at the first glance. Had this _apparently slight_ attainment been
made a matter of _moderate_ consideration, many a parent need not have
had to deplore the _death or disfigurement_ of a beloved child.

When a lady has her habit drawn over the crutch of her saddle, and
tucked tightly in under her leg (for the purpose of keeping the skirt in
its proper position), she denies herself the full liberty of her knee,
and in case of accident, to be off the horse.

On the slightest warning, though _foreseen_, whatever the danger, the
_tightness_ of the lady's dress will not allow her to get her leg out of
its place, in time to make any effectual effort to save herself; also,
it is probable that the habit might get entangled in the pummel, and
she, frightened of course, would become unable to disengage her foot
from the stirrup (or shoe), in which case she inevitably experiences the
most appalling of all accidents,--_being dragged powerless, by a
terrified horse, a considerable distance along the road_.

Before closing this portion of his subject, the author is rejoiced that
the extremely dangerous and most unnecessary fashion of wearing "Habit
Brooches" is now no longer adopted,--things solely invented for "trade
purposes,"--and to any, and especially to a graceful horsewoman, a truly
ridiculous article to wear: never to be patronized by a lady, anxious
for her own safety and the feelings of her family and friends.

To illustrate this:--The position of a lady on horseback is greatly
limited, when compared to that of a gentleman; necessarily then, when
her skirt is confined by a "Habit Brooch," _all power_ must be taken
away, and _all chance_ of escape, when an accident occurs. A _very_
slight fall to the lady may be fatal, where, had she had the full
liberty of her skirt, it would have been very trivial. The _proper_
arrangement of the skirt of the riding-dress, to prevent its flying
about, entirely depends on the lady herself.


MOUNTING.

Two persons are absolutely necessary to assist a lady to mount; one to
keep the horse quiet, by standing in front of him, and holding the reins
close to the bit, _one rein in each hand_; the other is for assisting
her to mount. The lady, having regulated her habit, must stand
perfectly erect; her right hand; having the bridoon-rein hanging loosely
on the thumb, being placed upon the upright horn of the saddle (her whip
held between the thumb and forefinger), her right side towards and close
to it.

The second person, who is to assist the lady to mount, must now place
himself near to, and almost fronting her; having united his hands by
putting his fingers between each other, and stooping down near to the
ground, receives the lady's left foot, which should be placed firmly in
them, care being previously taken that no part of her skirt is under it.
The left knee should be kept as straight as possible, in order to give
additional purchase, while lifting her perpendicularly and gracefully
into the saddle. The lady must then place her left hand on his right
shoulder, and as he lifts her, _she must spring from the instep_, at the
same time guiding herself into the saddle with her right hand.

Having gained her saddle, the lady should take hold of her habit with
her right hand, close to the knee, and raise it sufficiently to allow of
the right knee dropping _well home_ into the crutch, and keeping it
there, as far as she possibly can, immovable.


RULES FOR GAINING THE CORRECT POSITION IN THE SADDLE.

Before a lady mounts she must endeavour to carry in her mind's eye the
_centre_ of her saddle. On _this centre_ she must, as nearly as
possible, place herself; and to assist her memory, she should take it
for a rule, to keep her eyes in a straight line between the horse's ears
when lifted into it. By these means, after a little practice, she will
not fail to drop almost insensibly into the correct position; the weight
of her body being thrown full into the centre of the saddle, rendering
her seat firm and easy to her horse and herself. For example:--should we
place a weight on one side of a table, the other side having nothing on
it as a balance, if it does not actually fall, it will become extremely
insecure and unsteady; but, on the contrary, if the weight be placed in
the centre, the table will be safe and steady, even if ricketty before;
therefore, if the lady does not sit "square" (that is, quite in the
centre) on her horse, she must inevitably throw all her weight to one
side, and thereby destroy her power over the horse, and instead of
giving him his correct action, render him unsafe, and shambling in his
gait.


THE POSITION IN THE SADDLE.

To obtain a correct position in the saddle, the lady must keep her head
erect, and her shoulders well thrown back, which will have the effect of
expanding the chest, and giving the requisite hollowness to the small of
the back. It is also most important that the rider should keep her body
from the waist to the bust very easy, in no way to be constrained, more
especially across the loins. By observing these directions, the lady
will be enabled to accommodate herself, without uneasiness, to the
motions of her horse.

When the upper portion of the body regulates itself by its _elasticity_
to the paces of the horse, there is this additional advantage,--let the
animal plunge or struggle as it may, if the rider keeps her knee
immovable in its place, her left foot in the stirrup (with the toe
turned in, which eminently assists her seat and balance), and preserves
her presence of mind, and overcomes any approach to nervousness, she
cannot be unseated.


THE ARMS.

They should hang _perfectly_ independent of the body, from the shoulders
near the sides, _yet quite_ free from having a constrained appearance.


THE LEGS.

The right leg from the hip to the knee should be kept down in the
saddle, and, as much as the rider possibly can, without moving. The lady
will materially assist herself in this object by drawing _the heel
backwards_. The left leg must hang steady, _yet_ not, by any means, rest
its weight in the stirrup, for in consequence of the muscles of the leg
being round, the foot will naturally turn outward, thus causing a
wavering, tottering seat, inclining the body too much out of balance,
and giving a disunited motion to the horse, and an ungraceful and
deformed appearance to the rider. To prevent this, the knee must be kept
firmly pressed to the saddle; and, as before remarked, by depressing the
heel, the toe will be naturally turned in.


THE STIRRUP.

The position of the foot in the stirrup is of great importance; upon it
depends much; keeping the correct balance of the body on the horse,
which consists in sitting perfectly square and erect, and preserving a
steady position in the saddle. In fitting the stirrup the lady ought to
have her length correctly arranged, which is done in the following
manner:--The stirrup leg must hang quite free from the hip-joint, the
knee being slightly bent, with the toes raised and turned in towards the
horse's side. Keep the foot fixed as immovable as possible in the
stirrup, allowing the pressure alone to come from the toes to the bridge
of the foot, which will have the effect of giving the elasticity and
regularity of movement required in the horse's quickened paces.

The _length_ of the stirrup must be made a matter of importance. On it,
in a very great measure, _depends_ a steady, firm seat.


THE STIRRUP TOO LONG.

In the lady's endeavours to retain her foot in the stirrup, her weight
must preponderate on the left side; if the stirrup be _too short_, it
necessarily gives a rolling motion to her body, destructive alike to
grace, elegance, and security of seat, and will prevent her seating
herself sufficiently back in her saddle.

  On the Reins (_vide_ p. 27).
  Holding the Reins in one hand (_vide_ p. 28).
  Using both hands (_vide_ p. 29).
  Riding on one rein (_vide_ p. 30).
  The Whip (_vide_ p. 30).


THE BRIDLE HAND.

The motion of the lady's hand must be confined to the _wrist_--as in
pianoforte playing--the action coming from _it alone_.

By the management of the reins, in concert with the yielding or
retraction of the wrists, the horse is guided in his paces. By this mode
the sensibility and goodness of his mouth is preserved; the beauty of
his action is developed; steadiness is combined with security in his
paces, and the safety of his rider is secured. The degree of command,
which the animal can be placed under, _entirely depends on the degree of
proficiency_ acquired in this branch.


GUIDING.

There are _four_ motions requisite in guiding a horse.

_To go forward._--Lengthen the reins, and give the animal his liberty.
For this purpose the lady's hand must be guided by the _action_ of her
wrist, and, at the same time, she must apply gently her whip. Here, it
is proper to remark, the lady's bridle, or left, hand must never be left
inactive, but, by practice, she must endeavour to understand the art of
_feeling the horse's mouth_; should the bridle hand _not_ be kept in
constant use this will never come easy to the rider, the hand will be
unsteady, and the horse will become the same.

_To go backward._--The reins must be shortened a little, the back of the
hand turned down, the little finger next the body; the weight of the
rider should be thrown back, with the little finger slightly pulled in
towards the waist, then the horse will readily step back.

_To turn to the right._--The hand must be turned upwards, which will
direct the little finger to the right. Throw the balance of the body
into the turn, by inclining the bust to the right and applying the whip,
which will cause the horse to move forward as he turns, obey the hand,
and cross his legs one over the other, correctly.

_To turn to the left._--Let the hand be turned down, so that the little
finger may be directed to the left; the bust must also be turned to the
left, and the hand up, with the left heel applied to his side, and the
whip to his right shoulder.


DISMOUNTING.

There is tact necessary in dismounting, in order that the lady may avoid
the _exposé_ and inelegance, attendant upon, as it were, being lifted
from the saddle in a groom's arms.

Previous to dismounting, the groom must stand by the horse's head,
holding the reins close to the bit, to keep him as steady as possible.

The lady having removed her foot from the stirrup, and passed her hand
down to free her skirt, etc., from all chance of catching to the saddle
or stirrup, should remove her knee out of the crutch; at the same time
taking the precaution to disengage the habit from that side. Then
holding the crutch with her right hand (the rein hanging loosely on the
thumb), and now placing her left hand on her groom's right arm, near the
wrist; his arm being extended for the purpose, she must spring lightly
and clear from the saddle, slightly inclining the bust towards the
horse's shoulder.

By this method the lady will quite disengage herself, and descend gently
to the ground.


MAXIMS TO BE ATTENDED TO.

Be particular to avoid nervousness and hurry, either in mounting or
dismounting.

Take time, and have everything correctly arranged before starting;
serious accidents have occurred frequently from being in haste to start
off.

Arrange the habit, length of stirrup, and have the saddle-bands and
buckles properly examined before the journey is begun, to prevent
having to stop on the road.

Be careful to keep the hand active, and watch the movements of the
horse; by this means the rider will never be thrown off her guard, and
will be prepared for every emergency.

Keep the horse's mouth always in play, so as to keep up its fine
feeling, _indispensable_ to his correct guidance.

Never allow the reins to hang loosely on the horse's neck, crutch, or
pummel of the saddle. This oversight frequently causes serious and fatal
accidents.

_Always_ use _double_ reins. Should one become useless, there is still
another to rely upon.

Before the author concludes, he begs to be allowed to _impress_ upon his
fair readers, that an _elegant_ and accomplished _equestrian_ becomes an
equally _graceful pedestrian_, from the improved carriage acquired from
proficiency in the former accomplishment.

To become an _elegant pedestrian_ is no mean task, nor is it an _easy_
one to accomplish. Yet it is of the utmost importance to a lady, _in
particular_, to master it. How often, in our experience through life,
have we met with a lovely face and perfect figure,--everything that
could constitute the perfection of female beauty, _while at rest_!--but
once in _motion_, the illusion is dispelled from a _bad carriage and
shuffling gait_, the perfect form becomes quite common-place. These two
destructives to beauty can be entirely eradicated by attention to the
following directions, and which apply equally to


WALKING AND RIDING.

Keep the bust and head _erect_; the shoulders _well thrown back_. The
motive power to proceed from the hips _alone_.

Perseverance in these few directions will soon give all that is required
for a graceful and healthy carriage.

Finally.--At all times _trust to your reins for security_, in cases of
danger. _Never_ grasp the pummel of the saddle. Never use a "Habit
Brooch."



REMARKS ON SADDLERY.


I have been quite surprised to see, in such a city as London, the
paucity of really good saddles. Most of them would disfigure any horse
they were put upon, with flaps of all shapes but the right.

To say how a saddle should be made, would be quite impossible, as it
solely depends on the horse and his rider; for instance, a thin and
sweepy saddle will not suit a horse with round, heavy shoulders, and
wide over his loins. Many imagine that cut-back saddles are less liable
to injure the rider, than ordinary ones; this is quite fallacious.

The saddle must have the head, or what is called, the pummel, to begin
upon; and the further _that_ can be carried forward the better; but the
nearer it is got under the seat, the more likely is it _to seriously
injure_ the rider.

In _side_-saddles there is great variety; but the requisites for a
_first-rate_ side-saddle, to my idea, and one I would not hesitate in
recommending, should be _length_ (_indispensable_), _a leaping-head_,
_no off-head_, and it should be cut as nearly level as possible. None,
I may say, can dispute my first remark, and _none_ who have ridden with
the leaping-head will ever after be _without it_.

There are those who say no, to the off-head being cut away, "for should
a lady become nervous, she could not steady herself so well as if the
head had been left on;" here I fully agree, but beg to say in reply,
that before a lady attempts the road or anywhere where she might be
placed in such a critical position, she must have her nerves so
strengthened through her equestrian education, that she need not look to
the off-head of her saddle for safety; her _point d'appui_ is the
leaping-head. When holding on by the off-head, the lady of course loses
_the use_ of one hand. Next, her horse may go where he pleases, for she
cannot get her hands down to have a good pull at his mouth. Then, in
hunting, the poor lady's wrists are everlastingly bruised by the
off-head, to say nothing of the danger of their being broken by it.


BRIDLES.

There is a great variety of bridles. Generally speaking, the plainer the
bridle the better, more especially for hunting and hacking; for the
former, let your bit be long in the check (_i.e._, in moderation), the
mouth-piece thick, having the bridoon the same, the _suaviter in modo_
being much more agreeable than the _fortiter in re_, to all animals. For
hack bridles, any fancy check may do, if the horse's head be
sufficiently handsome; but let me request my readers not to put a fancy
bridle on a coarse-bred, common horse.


THE THROAT LASH.

Simple as it may appear, it spoils the heads of all horses, as it is
usually made. It should be long enough to fall just below the
cheek-bone, and not to lay _on_ or _over_ it, as it makes the animal's
head look short and thick.


NOSE BAND.

Not as they were used in days past, _attached_ to bridle, but
_separate_. No one knows its efficacy when placed low, but those who
have tried it; its exact position will, of course, depend much on the
size of the mouth.


CHIN STRAP.

Some imagine this is not an indispensable thing to a bridle, either in
hunting or hacking, _but it is_, more especially in _Pelham's_. I have
seen a horse in tossing his head, throw the Pelham bit over on to his
face; had a chin strap been attached to the bridle, this could not have
happened.



THE EQUESTRIAN'S MANUAL.

(_Dedicated to H.R.H. Prince Albert._)

BY S. C. WAITE, ESQ.


OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

Standard.

Mr. Waite's book will put _every one_, who shall obey its instructions,
in the way of riding _well_; for it does as much as a book can to teach
the theory of the art. It is a book to be purchased and carefully read
by every one, not an experienced horseman, who purposes to ride or buy a
horse, and even the _experienced_ horseman will find in it _valuable_
information.


Morning Advertiser.

This work reflects high credit on Mr. Waite for its practical lucidity,
and the pleasing manner in which the instructions are imparted. His
directions for _curing_ the acquired _bad_ habits of horses, too often
the results of ill usage, or violence of ignorant grooms and
horse-breakers, are excellent. The position of the saddle, the proper
fixing of it and the bridle, the _best_ method of mounting, position in
the saddle (illustrated by diagrams), are carefully and sensibly treated
on. The third section, "Advice to Ladies," is novel, and the hints
_invaluable, not only to the fair sex, but to those who may have to
instruct them in the graceful art of Equitation_.


Morning Chronicle.

In bringing under notice a new book, practical and highly amusing, upon
the noble Art of Horsemanship, which has emanated from the pen of a
well-known and accomplished professor thereof, we have pleasure in
stating the reader will find in these pages excellent practical hints
and sound suggestions on the art of riding well; and, in the manner of
training and treating horses we sincerely concur with, and we honour and
respect Mr. Waite, when he so forcibly inculcates kindness and
gentleness, though combined with firmness, as essentials in the
education and treatment of the horse; hardships, cruelty, and neglect he
strongly deprecates.

The instructions in the proper seat and carriage on horseback, the
management of the whip and rein, are minutely explained, and of the
greatest utility. He is particularly attentive to the ladies, and
admitting the power they lose by their peculiar seat, he gives the best
recommendations for remedying the evil, as far as possible, by securing
an exactly central fix upon the saddle, the best form of which he
learnedly discusses. Speaking seriously, all fair riders ought, for
their own sake, to profit by his advice, the result of long experience.


Sunday Times.

Mr. Waite, an _experienced professor_ of the art, has given us a
hand-book, _in which_ will be found a great variety of instruction, by
which the equestrian will receive such directions for the management of
his horse, under a variety of circumstances, as must prove of _great
value_ to him.


Observer.

This work is _evidently_ the production of one who has acquired a
_thorough_ acquaintance with the subject, and who, moreover, possesses
the _rare advantage_ of communicating his instructions in a manner
peculiarly _ample_ and _clear_. We have seen _no_ other work in which
such a variety of information on the subject is embraced. The advice to
ladies is most valuable.



MR. S. C. WAITE,

AUTHOR OF "THE EQUESTRIAN'S MANUAL,"

(_Dedicated to H.R.H. Prince Albert,_)

With advice to purchasers of Horses, &c., and Originator of the Improved
Military Seat (obviating ruptures), and positions for Ladies and
Gentlemen on Horseback.--(Vide _Opinions of the Press, April, 1850._)


Mr. Waite has been requested by a numerous circle of personal friends to
submit to the notice of the public an ointment, proved to be invaluable
to the owners of racing and hunting establishments, breeders, farmers,
&c., for restoring hair on broken knees, and where it has been lost,
through accidents, disease, blistering, firing, &c., &c.; it is likewise
available for dogs in reproducing hair, bare from mange, scalds, burns,
and abrasions.

Mr. Waite obtained the above valuable recipe from the late celebrated
and eccentric character, Patrick Jones, of Dublin, familiarly known in
military and sporting circles, and throughout the kingdom, as "Old
Paddy," who, after an unfailing success in its use, in all parts of the
world (where called by his military duties), for a period verging on
eighty years (and by him obtained from his father), on his death-bed, in
1853, confided the secret to the present proprietor.

To be had in pots at 3_s._, 5_s._, 8_s._, and 17_s._ 6_d._, and in 8lb.
canisters for hounds after mange, &c., &c., at £4. 4_s._



TESTIMONIALS.


_From_ DR. BUNTING, _the great American Horse Tamer and Breaker_.

  2, ONSLOW TERRACE, BROMPTON,
  _May 22nd, 1859._

SIR,--I beg to certify that I have used your "Old Paddy Jones's
Ointment" for restoring hair on horses and dogs, in _numerous_ cases of
valuable horses, and in _no instance_ has it failed in its efficacy, and
I consider it to be invaluable to every establishment where horses and
dogs are kept. In future, I shall never be without it. Wishing you every
success,

  Believe me to be truly yours,
  J. G. BUNTING.

  S. C. WAITE, Esq.,
  _Brompton._


  PATENT AMERICAN BREAK OFFICE,
  MASON'S RIDING SCHOOL, BROMPTON,
  _July 7th, 1859._

SIR,--Having used your "Old Paddy Jones's Ointment" for restoring the
hair on horses and dogs, I have great pleasure in testifying to its
_good_ qualities in all the cases I have had in hand, and think it will
be a _great boon_ to all keeping either a horse or dog.

  I remain, Sir,
  Yours obediently,

  To S. C. WAITE, Esq.,        HENRY HURST.
  _Brompton._

  ROBERT HARDWICKE, PRINTER, 192, PICCADILLY.



Transcriber's Note


The following typographical errors were corrected.

  Page  Error
    37  mettle some changed to mettlesome
    51  that a gentleman changed to that of a gentleman





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