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Title: Advanced Toy Making for Schools
Author: Mitchell, David M.
Language: English
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Instructor Manual Arts
Willson Junior High School, Cleveland, Ohio


The Manual Arts Press
Peoria, Illinois

Copyright 1922
David M. Mitchell
12 B 22

Printed in United States of America


Toys are today regarded as educational factors in the life of boys and
girls. New toys come into demand at frequent intervals in the growth and
mental development of the child. On account of the unfailing interest on
the part of the pupils in toys and because of the unlimited educational
possibilities contained in toy making, this work is rightfully taking an
increasingly important place in the manual arts program in the schools.

This book is the outgrowth of toy-making problems given to junior-high
and high-school pupils. The author claims no originality for some of the
toys. However, most of them have been originated or improved upon in the
author's classes.

While it is entirely satisfactory to have any of the toys mentioned in
this book made as individual projects, they are here offered as suitable
group projects or production projects, and it is hoped that the
suggested form of shop organization for production work as treated in
Part I is flexible enough so that the plan can be applied to most any
shop conditions.

The drawings of toys in Part II will suggest a variety of articles which
may be used in carrying out the production work.

Of course, the success of organizing and conducting classes for this
kind of work depends largely upon the instructor. He must know
definitely what he is trying to get done. He must adopt and pursue such
methods of dealing with both the members of the class and the material
as will contribute directly towards the desired end.

Toy making carried on by the so-called productive plan, if handled
properly, will bring out many of the essentials of an organization
typical of the commercial industries. Together with its educational
possibilities and its power to attract the attention of those engaged in
this activity, toy making will rightfully take its place alongside other
important subjects offered in a complete industrial arts course.

The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to William E.
Roberts, supervisor of manual training, Cleveland Public Schools, for
valuable suggestions and inspiration; to Joseph A. Shelley, Jersey City,
N. J., for suggestions on finishing kiddie car wheels; to the Eclipse
Air Brush Company, Newark, N. J., for valuable information and
photographs of air brush equipment; and to the American Wood Working
Machinery Co., for the use of the illustrations showing the operation of
the turning lathe, universal saw, and other woodworking machines.

                                                        D. M. MITCHELL

Cleveland, Ohio, 1921.




  CHAPTER I. PRODUCTIVE WORK                                        11

    1. Suggested plan for shop organization. 2. Grouping
    of students. 3. The time clerk and tool-room clerk.
    4. Recording attendance. 5. Time cards. 6. Using time
    card. 7. Grading students. 8. Preliminary discussion and
    preparation for shopwork. 9. Bazaars, toy sales, etc.

  CHAPTER II. COLORING TOYS                                         21

    10. Sanitation emphasized. 11. Preparation of surfaces.
    12. Application of water colors. 13. Analine water stains.
    14. Formulas for analine water stains. 15. Oil stains.
    16. Shellacking. 17. Varnishing. 18. Points on Varnishing.
    19. Colored varnish. 20. Another suggestion for finishing.
    21. Use of paint. 22. Ingredients of good paint.
    23. Application of paint. 24. Preparation of surface.
    25. Tinting materials. 26. Mixing paints. 27. Paint formulas.
    28. Formulas for making tinted paint. 29. Enameling.
    30. The dipping method. 31. Polishing by tumbling. 32. Care of
    brushes. 33. Paint application by means of compressed air.
    34. Uses of pneumatic sprayers. 35. Construction of pneumatic
    painting outfit. 36. Special attachments for different surfaces.
    37. Cleaning pneumatic machines. 38. Directions for cleaning
    machine. 39. Directions for operating pneumatic equipment.
    40. Preparing colors.


    41. Economy in selecting material. 42. Qualities of
    different woods used.

  CHAPTER IV. USE OF JIGS AND FIXTURES                              43

    43. Value of jigs and fixtures. 44. Cutting small wheels.
    45. Turning wheels. 46. Use of wheel cutter. 47. Use of
    coping saw. 48. Cutting sharp corners. 49. Removing the
    saw-blade from frame. 50. Making heavy wheels. 51. Designs
    for wheels. 52. Cutting wheels on band-saw. 53. Boring
    holes in wheels.


    54. Importance of machine operations. 55. Operating the
    lathe. 56. Face plate turning. 57. The universal saw.
    58. The hand jointer. 59. The sander.



  Plate  1. Fox and Geese Game                                      64
    "    2. Ring Toss                                               65
    "    3. Baby's Cart                                             66
    "    4. Hay Cart                                                67
    "    5. Horse Head                                              68
    "    6. Horse on Wheels                                         69
    "    7. Kido Kar Trailer                                        70
    "    8. Auto Roadster                                           71
    "    9. Auto Racer                                              72
    "   10. Passenger Car                                           73
    "   11. Milk Wagon                                              74
    "   12. Table for Doll House                                    75
    "   13. Chair and Rocker                                        76
    "   14. Buffet                                                  77
    "   15. Toy Wheel-Barrow                                        78
    "   16. Horse Barrow                                            79
    "   17. Doll's Carriage                                         80
    "   18. Noah's Ark                                              81
    "   19. "Bean Bag" Game Board                                   82
    "   20. Child's Swing No. 1                                     83
    "   21. Child's Swing No. 2                                     84
    "   22. Doll's Bed, No. 1                                       85
    "   23. Doll's Bed, No. 2                                       86
    "   24. Adjustable Stilts                                       87
    "   25. Scooter                                                 88
    "   26. Steering Coaster                                        89
    "   27. Kido Kar                                                90
    "   28. Kid Kar Junior                                          91
    "   29. Pony Kar                                                92
    "   30. Duplex Speedster                                        93
    "   31. Rock-a-Doodle                                           94
    "   32. Sled                                                    95
    "   33. "Sturdy Flyer" Sled                                     96
    "   34. Ducky Loo                                               97
    "   35. Duck Rocker                                             98
    "   36. Jitney                                                  99
    "   37. Junior Roadster                                        100
    "   38. Details of Junior Roadster                             101
    "   39. Senior Coaster                                         102
    "   40. Details of Senior Coaster                              103
    "   41. Auto-Kar                                               104
    "   42. Choo-Choo-Kar                                          105
    "   43. Teeter-Totter                                          106
    "   44. Teeter Rocker                                          107
    "   45. Checker Board                                          108
    "   46. Child's Costumer                                       109
    "   47. Baby's Chair                                           110
    "   48. Children's Sand Box                                    111
    "   49. Sand Box No. 2                                         112
    "   50. Doll's House No. 1                                     113
    "   51. Doll's House No. 2                                     114
    "   52. Doll's House No. 2                                     115
    "   53. Dumb Bell & Indian Club                                116
    "   54. Bats                                                   117


Where the work is to be done on the so-called productive basis, it is of
utmost importance that, before starting, the classes should be so
organized as to allow the work to be carried on in the most efficient,
progressive manner. The form of shop organization suggested in this book
is recommended. However, the instructor may, particularly if he has had
good practical shop experience, employ other methods of organization
that are just as good and possibly even better for his particular class
and the conditions under which he has to work.

It is also of great importance that the instructor should acquaint
himself with the processes involved in the making of each toy before
allowing the class to begin it. This may be accomplished by the making
of a sample of the contemplated project, carefully analyzing its
different parts and arranging the operations in a logical sequence.
This phase of the work may be done during class discussions and
demonstrations at which time the different jigs and fixtures needed for
progressive production may also be developed.

The different methods of coloring toys have been suggested with the hope
that the student will gain a realization of the importance of finishing,
from both the artistic and the practical point of view. The application
of paint by means of compressed air is the latest development in the
coloring of toys, and an equipment in the school shop illustrating the
principles of compressed air as applied to productive finishing of toys,
is a step forward in making school shops function as they should.

The working drawings in this book should serve as suggestions. They have
been so constructed as to be free from unnecessary technicalities, and
to leave as much opportunity as possible for the exercise and
development of the student's judgment.

It will be found that toy making offers itself readily to the desired
co-operation and correlation with other departments in the school. For
instance, the art department may aid with the designing and color scheme
to be used on toys; the general metal shop may help in the making of
necessary metal parts: the mechanical drawing department can co-operate
in the making of working drawings; the mathematics department can figure
the costs of production, etc., etc.

It is hoped that the purpose of this book is not merely to set forth a
few plans and drawings for the construction of toys, but to give the
work the broadest possible application; creating a constructive
influence on the minds of the students, in which case it will also act
as a means of bringing into closer relationship their life outside of
school with the work in school.






#1. Suggested Plan for Shop Organization.#--While it is entirely
satisfactory to have any of the toys mentioned in this book made as
individual projects, they are here offered as suitable group projects or
production projects. Production work may be defined as work done by a
class to turn out a number of similar projects that have a marketable
value, with the aid of jigs, fixtures, and other means of duplication,
illustrating the industrial or practical application to the tasks in
hand, Figs. 1, 2, and 3. This does not mean, however, that the school
shops be transformed into a factory in the full sense of the word. It
should differ from a factory in that the education of the student is the
major part of the product, while in the factory production is the
foremost aim.

In doing work by the productive plan two important problems will present
themselves at the outset; first, the time element; and second,
industrial or practical application to the tasks in hand.

A brief explanation of the plan of organization in one of the author's
classes will attempt to show how nearly these problems can be solved.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Material for toys, prepared on a large scale]

#2. Grouping of Students.#--Classes are divided into groups of between
four and six boys, with a boy foreman appointed at the head of each
group. The foreman is held responsible for the work turned out by his
boys. He is to see that they understand just what is to be done and how
it is to be done. All the group foremen are directly responsible to the
general foreman who in turn is responsible to the instructor. The
general foreman is to act as an inspector of finished work after it has
received the group foreman's O.K. He is also held responsible for the
condition of the shop during his class hour. This includes looking after
all material, the manner in which stock is put away after class, and
adherence to all shop rules that have been adopted to help in the
efficiency of shop procedure.

[Illustration: Fig. 2. A large order of toys partly constructed]

#3. The Time Clerk and Tool-Room Clerk.#--A "_Time Clerk_" is appointed
to take charge of the time cards. He is also held responsible for all
the clerical work that is to be done in the shop.

A _Tool-Room Clerk_ is appointed to take charge of the shop tool room.
He is to keep check of all tools given out and taken in. His spare time
should be devoted to the care of tools.

If possible, each boy in the class should be given an opportunity to act
in each capacity that has been created, so that he may get the most
varied experience in shop procedure. This will necessitate the changing
of boys from one group to another; the changing of foremen, clerks,
etc., at intervals which will of course be governed by the size of the
class and the number of hours devoted to the work.

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Milk wagons completed by the production method]

#4. Recording Attendance.#--Boys, upon entering the shop, register their
presence at the Time-Card Rack, Fig. 4. This is done by turning the time
card shown in Fig. 5, so that the back side, which has the word present
printed at top, is exposed. The time clerk then inspects the cards and
notes those that have not been turned, and records the absences. He then
fills in the date and passes the cards out to the boys in the shop.
Toward the latter part of the period, a few minutes time is given the
boys to fill in the necessary data on the time card.

The time cards are then collected by the time clerk and put into a box
where the time cards of all the classes are kept. In the meantime the
time clerk puts back into the time rack the cards of the incoming class.
This duty is performed by the time clerks of all the classes, thereby
necessitating the use of only one time card rack.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. The time-card rack.]

#5. Time Cards.#--Referring to the time card mentioned in Fig. 5 it will
be seen that the workman's shop number is filled in at the top. Then
under the heading of "Woodworking Department" are two horizontal rows of
items which need very little explanation. Following are three columns
headed "Operation," "Assignment," and "Time." Below the word "Operation"
are set down the various operations undertaken in the woodworking
department, with several vacant spaces provided where other and special
operations can be filled in. It will also be noticed that "Operations"
are divided into two kinds, machine work and bench work. The
instructor's glance at the time card will tell him at once what phase of
the work the boy has been employed in and will help him in apportioning
the work so that the boy is offered a varied experience.

#6. Using Time Card.#--For shops that are not equipped with the kind of
machines marked on the illustrated card, it would be well to omit the
names of machines in the "operation" column. The instructor may then
fill in the operation whatever it may be.

Under the heading "Assignment" and against the operation which is to be
undertaken by the student, the instructor writes in the name of the part
to be made. This is the student's assignment and it should be read by
him at the time he records his presence at the time-card rack upon
entering the shop.

In making assignments, the instructor may find it rather difficult to
keep up with large classes of boys. This difficulty may be overcome by
making an assignment to an entire group instead of to each boy. For
example, in a class of twenty-five that would probably be divided into
five groups, the instructor may make the assignment to the foreman of
each group and each foreman in turn can inform the boys of his group as
to the nature of the assignment. The boys can then enter the assignment
on their time cards at the end of the period when the time spent on the
job at hand is also recorded.

The student's shop number, name, and grade should be filled in by the
time clerk who can get out a number of cards for each student in advance
and these are kept ready for use by the instructor. The instructor can
then mark the project and the job number together with the student's
assignment. At the same time he estimates the journeyman's time and rate
and enters them in the space provided.

The time card in Fig. 5, is 3½ inches by 9 inches, made of three-ply
bristol board. All worker's cards are printed on white colored bristol
while those of the foremen are of blue colored bristol. This plan is for
the instructor's convenience to be able to pick out the foremen's time
cards at a glance.

In the triple column under the heading "TIME" is provided room for the
date and spaces in which the student can write the time in minutes spent
on the various operations on that date. The triple columns on each side
of the card allow of the cards being used for six days. If a job lasts
longer than six days another card should be used marking them No. 1 and
No. 2, respectively, in the space marked "Card No." Both cards should be
fastened and kept together.

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Time card]

Effort should always be made to have all the assignments short (less
than six days) so that the student's record may be computed at the end
of each week by the time clerk.

#7. Grading Students.#--The next four spaces contain in condensed form,
the information itemized in other parts of the card. This, together with
other information set down by the instructor, is the vital material
sought for.

The item A "Journeyman's Time" is very easily recorded by the
instructor. It is arrived at in the same way as in making out the
estimate for any piece of work and can be recorded almost at once. The
main purpose here is to set for the student a standard of time on which
to work.

The item B is the rate in points per hour, based on the journeyman's

The item C is the total of the student's time added together from the
various spaces under "Time."

Item D "Quality Decimal" is the quality of the student's job expressed
in the form of a decimal, with 100% as the maximum. This mark should be
filled in by the instructor when the student completes his job.

The next item, the number of points the student earns is found by the
formula Points = (A×B)D

  Points earned per hour = ((A×B)D)/C

For example, a student receives an assignment to cut to thickness,
width, and length, sixty chair legs. The size of the legs he is to get
from the job blueprint. He spends 60 minutes a day, for three days,
making a total of 180 minutes or 3 hours. The time it would take a
journeyman to do the same job is estimated at 2 hours. The rate
adopted is at 80 points per hour; the journeyman therefore earns
A×B = 2×80 = 160 Points. The quality of the student's job is graded by
the instructor as 75%. The number of points the student earns is found
by the formula Points = (A×B)D = (2×80).75 = 120 Points. To find the
number of points the student earns per hour, divide 120 points by the
number of hours it took the student to complete the job, which equals
120÷3 = 40, the number of points the student earns per hour. However,
if the student would be graded 100%, he would earn the same number of
points as the journeyman. But of course, he would have done it in three
hours where the journeyman has earned the same number of points in two
hours. It will readily be seen that this scheme offers the student an
everlasting incentive to equal the journeyman's record.

Having obtained the points on the time card or assignment card as it may
be called, these are then transferred to a monthly accomplishment sheet
as shown in Fig. 6, which is provided for all the students in all

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Monthly accomplishment sheet]

The total number of points for each boy, group, and class can then be
easily obtained. These totals can be put up in poster form and hung on
the shop's bulletin board, showing the standing of each boy, group, and
class. It is surprising the amount of interest and competition that can
be aroused; everyone working for the highest honors, unconsciously, with
a competitive spirit that will bring out considerable thought and effort
to the matter of handling material for maximum production.

#8. Preliminary Discussion and Preparation for Shopwork.#--Of course, no
time card or assignment-record scheme can hope entirely to eliminate the
necessary preliminary discussions and preparation. The author has found
it of material help to meet the foremen of all the classes at hours
other than their regular class hour and discuss such topics as "Securing
Cooperation," "Instructing Workers," "Maintaining Cleanliness and
Order," "Records and Reports," "Inspecting Work," "Routing Material Thru
Shop," "Care of Stock," etc.

Details regarding construction and assembling should be worked out by
the instructor beforehand, and also developed with the class as the work
progresses. Care should be taken that plans are carefully made regarding
the storage of stock and unfinished parts.

The old saying, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure," is an
old one, but a good one.

#9. Bazaars, Toy Sales, Etc.#--The plan of selling toys, that are made
in the school shop, to the boys and girls of the school is a plausible
one. It can very easily be accomplished in the form of bazaars,
exhibitions, or school toy sales.

The writer has had a number of samples of different toys made and put on
exhibition, and orders taken, requiring a deposit on each order. These
were then turned in to the shop department and the toys made on the
productive plan.

The boys in the shop would receive school checks, Fig. 7, for the total
number of points that they earned for the semester. These checks could
then be used by them towards the purchasing of any of the toys that were
put on sale; a certain number of points required for the purchase of
different toys.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Credit check, based on number of points carved]

This plan was made possible by adding on to the number of orders
received an additional number equal to the number of boys in the shop.
For example, twenty-four orders for toy milk wagons were received by a
class of twenty-four boys. Then instead of making twenty-four toy milk
wagons we doubled the number and made forty-eight of them. The price
that was figured on for the twenty-four orders would more than cover the
cost of material for the other twenty-four articles that the boys would
be able to buy with their earned checks.



#10. Sanitation Emphasized.#--All application of color to toys should
carry with it a realization that toys are meant primarily for children
and that all paints should therefore be free from poisonous compounds.

All paints used should be of good quality so that it will not come off
easily to discolor the hands or tongues of children who cannot resist
the temptation of sticking everything possible into their mouths.

#11. Preparation of Surfaces.#--Wooden toys may be finished quite bright
and in various colors.

Before applying the color it is absolutely necessary that every part of
the toy has been thoroly sanded. Where sanding is done by machine, care
should be taken not to sand the wood too much. Many difficulties may
arise from too much as well as from too little sanding. In hand sanding,
the use of a block 2½" × 3½", to which is glued a piece of cork,
is recommended.

#12. Application of Water Colors.#--Toys may be colored by the use of
different materials and by various methods. Kalsomine colors, opaque
water colors, variously known as show card colors, liquid tempera, and
letterine,--all come under the heading of water colors. All but the
kalsomine may be obtained in small jars and ready for use. Kalsomine
colors come in powder form in various colors and may easily be prepared
by mixing with water and a little glue to bind the parts together. They
are much cheaper than the ordinary forms of transparent and opaque water
colors. They may be applied with the ordinary water color brushes.

After a coat of water color has been applied to the toy, it may be
necessary to remove the rough parts with very fine sand paper. Care
should be taken not to "cut thru" when sanding.

To preserve and protect the water color on the toy a coat of white
shellac may be applied. If a more durable finish is desired a coat of
good clear varnish over the shellac will serve the purpose.

#13. Analine Water Stains.#--For general finishing of toys analine water
stains will produce excellent results. They are known for their ability
to penetrate the wood deeply and the ease with which any shade can be
produced. Water stain raises the grain of the wood more than any other.
This makes it necessary to sandpaper down the raised grain until smooth
and then proceed with the shellacking and varnishing until the desired
results are obtained.

In preparing analine water stains, only analines that are soluble in
water are used. Place an ounce of the analine to a quart of hot or
boiling water, pouring the water over the dye-stuff and stirring
meanwhile with a wooden paddle or stick. Soft water is the best. In
about an hour the dye may be filtered thru a piece of fine woven cloth.
As metal is apt to discolor the dye, it is better to use a glass
container. If the prepared solution is too strong it may be diluted in
more water. Use hot water for diluting the stain.

The work with water stain must be done quickly in order to obtain a
uniform coloring on the surface. Water stains are used a great deal
where the dipping process is employed in the finishing of toys. A hot
dipping stain is preferable to a cold dipping stain, first, because it
penetrates more readily and second, because it dries quicker.

#14. Formulas for Analine Water Stains.#--(Stock Solutions).

_Red_: Rose benzol five parts, water ten parts.

_Rose Red_: Dissolve 3 oz. Rose Bengal in 5 pints of water.

_Blue_: (a) Dissolve 1 oz. of the best indigo carmine in 8 oz. of
water. (b) Prussian blue dissolved in water.

_Dark Blue_: Dissolve 3 oz. Bengal blue in 3½ pints of boiling water,
and stir and filter the fluid in ten minutes time.

_Green_: Mix Prussian blue and raw sienna in such proportions as will
give the desired color. Mix in water.

_Brown_: Dissolve 3 oz. of Bismark brown in ½ gal. of water.

_Yellow_: Auramine 4 parts, sulphate of soda 10 parts, mixed in water.

_Black_: Nigrosine black, four ounces, dissolved in one gallon of
boiling water.

When wanted for use, these analines may be diluted with water. The rule
is, an ounce of analine to the gallon of water to form a working stain.
Or to a pint of the stock solution, as it is called, you may add three
pints of water.

#15. Oil Stains.#--It will be found that quicker work can be done with
oil stain than with water colors. For that reason, oil stains are also
used a great deal as a dipping stain. In preparing oil stains, the best
mineral or earth pigments to dissolve with turpentine are Van Dyke
brown, chrome green, burnt and raw sienna, and lamp black.

#16. Shellacking.#--There are two kinds of shellac, orange and white.
The white shellac is orange shellac that has been bleached. The purpose
of shellac as commonly understood is to give a quick coat over the
stain. The thin coat formed serves as a protector for the stain and also
as an undercoater for the following coat of varnish. In this way at
least one coat of varnish is eliminated and a great deal of time saved
because the shellac dries within a few minutes. To thin shellac use
denatured alcohol.

On cheaper toys a coat of shellac only may be used as a covering for the
color stain. If orange shellac is used it will be found that it effects
the color of the stain used. White shellac also produces a slight change
in color and for this reason many working with toys will use a good
clear varnish instead.

#17. Varnishing.#--Two or three coats of varnish will produce a very
durable finish. The first coat of varnish ought not be quite as heavy as
the succeeding coats. If the varnish is of extra heavy body it should be
reduced slightly for the first coat. The best varnish reducer is thin
varnish. To prepare this reducer, take one part varnish (the same
varnish to be reduced), and two parts of turpentine. Shake these
together well and let stand twenty-four hours before using. This will
reduce the consistency of the varnish without tearing down the body as
pure turpentine would. The first coat of varnish should be allowed to
dry thoroly before the second coat is applied.

Oil varnishes made from good hard gums, pure linseed oil, and
turpentine, are the most valuable. In using turpentine to thin varnish
care should be taken that adulterated turpentine is not used. To play
the game safe it is advisable to use a little benzine, for it will not
injure the varnish, but will evaporate entirely, and not flatten the
varnish as turpentine does.

#18. Points on Varnishing.#--(1) The less varnish is worked under the
brush the better its luster. (2) Use clean brush and pot, and clean
varnish. See that the surface is clean before beginning to varnish. (3)
Allow a coat of varnish plenty of time for drying until it becomes hard.

#19. Colored Varnish.#--Colored varnish is that in which a proportion of
varnish is added to the pigment and thinned. The base is usually an
earth color such as ochre, sienna, venitian red, Van Dyke brown, umber,
lamp black, etc.

With this the work can be done in one coat. This method of finishing is
usually employed on the cheaper class of toys where it isn't advisable
to apply an expensive finish.

#20. Another Suggestion for Finishing.#--Tint a gallon of benzine or
gasoline with chrome green, chrome yellow, and vermilion, ground in
Japan until the desired shade is obtained. This formulae is especially
good for dipping purposes.

#21. Use of Paint.#--Although paint can be bought ready prepared and in
any color, as has been stated, it is advisable to have the students mix
their own colors and choose their own color scheme.

#22. Ingredients of good Paint.#--The best paints are usually made by
mixing together white lead, linseed oil, pigment of the desired color
(colors ground in oil), and a drier.

While white lead is sufficient as the pigment for white paint, a better
result is obtained by mixing zinc oxide with the white lead. These two
substances have the convenient property of balancing each other's
disadvantages. For instance, zinc oxide has a tendency to crack and to
peal, which is overcome by the tougher coating formed by the white lead.
Again, when white lead is exposed to light and weathering, it becomes
chalky, which fault is remedied by the property possessed by zinc oxide,
of remaining hard.

The linseed oil used is obtained from flaxseed by pressing the thoroly
ground seed. About twenty-three gallons of oil can be obtained from one
bushel of the seed. By boiling the oil with lead oxide or manganese
oxide it can take more oxygen from the air, and thereby its drying
powers are increased.

Driers are substances that absorb oxygen from the air and give part of
it to the oil. The raw linseed oil absorbs the oxygen from the air very
slowly, but the addition of turpentine is a great aid in overcoming this

To insure the best results in painting, one must first consider the kind
and condition of the surface to be painted, and to what use the toy will
be put; then decide on the proper composition and consistency of the

#23. Application of Paint.#--In applying the paint to the toy the first
coat should be thinned. This will act as a primer or undercoat for the
succeeding coats of paint. Care should be taken that plenty of time is
allowed between coats for the paint to dry thoroly. Three coats of paint
will produce a good finish.

#24. Preparation of surface.#--All woodwork must be sanded and thoroly
dry before any paint is applied. Care should be taken to see that all
knots and sappy streaks shall be covered with a coat of orange shellac.
Then apply the first coat.

After the priming coat of paint is thoroly dry, putty up all knot holes,
dents, cracks, and other defects in the surface with a pure linseed oil
putty composed of equal parts of white lead and whiting. When putty is
dry, proceed with the other coats.

#25. Tinting Materials.#--Formulas for making tints are to be followed
only in a general way. Make some allowance for slight variations in the
strength and tone of different makes of colors. Chromes and ochres vary
noticeably. Weigh out your color and add it gradually, not all at once,
noting the effect as you go. When you reach the desired shade, stop,
regardless of what the formula calls for. Turpentine and dark driers
will slightly alter shades. Make allowance for this.

#26. Mixing Paints.#--Faulty mixing, even with the best of materials, is
not likely to make durable paint. The important thing is to give the
lead and oil a chance to incorporate themselves in that close union
which they always make if allowed to do so. The following directions
give best results. The order is important.

(1) Break up the white lead with a paddle, using only enough oil to
bring it to the consistency of colors in oil.

(2) Add your colors for tinting. Coloring matter added after the paint
has been thinned is likely to break up in lumps which leave streaks
when brushed out.

(3) Put in drier.

(4) Add remainder of oil, stirring well.

(5) Last of all, put in turpentine.

Thinners help only the flow of the paint never the quality.

To strain paint thru cheese cloth before using will be a safeguard
against lumpy colors and streakiness. Paint also spreads further if

#27. Paint Formulas.#--As most toys are exposed to the weather a great
deal, the following formulas are recommended. These take no account of
tinting materials.

(a) Priming Coat:

  25 pounds pure white lead
  1 gallon pure raw linseed oil
  ½ gallon pure turpentine
  ¼ pint drier, free from rosin

(b) Body Coat:

  25 pounds pure white lead
  3/8 gallon pure raw linseed oil
  3/8 gallon pure turpentine
  ¼ pint drier, free from rosin

(c) Finishing Coat:

  25 pounds pure white lead
  1 gallon pure raw linseed oil
  ¼ pint pure turpentine
  ¼ pint drier.

One must exercise his own discretion in using a larger or smaller
quantity of oil according to whether the wood is oil absorbing, as white
pine, poplar, and basswood, or less permeable, as yellow pine, cypress,
spruce, and hemlock.

#28. Formulas for Making Tinted Paint.#--Any color or tint may be
obtained by varying the addition of tinting colors. These tinting colors
are called "colors in oil." The colors should be added to the white lead
before the paint is thinned.

To twenty-five pounds of white lead ground in oil add colors in oil as

  Medium Blue Slate      3½ oz. lamp black

  Gray Blue              ¼ oz. lamp black
                         1 oz. Prussian blue
                         ¼ oz. medium chrome green

  Dark Drab              5 lbs. French ochre
                         ½ lb. lamp black
                         ¼ lb. Venitian red

  Dark Slate             2 oz. lamp black
                         3 oz. medium chrome yellow

  Dark Lilac             1 oz. lamp black
                         5 oz. Venitian red

  Lilac                  ½ oz. lamp black
                         1½ oz. Venitian red

  Forest Green           1½ oz. lamp black
                         8 lbs. light green
                         5 oz. medium chrome yellow

  Buff                   1½ lb. French ochre
                         3/8 oz. Venitian Red

  Cream                  5 oz. French ochre

  Sea Green              3/8 oz. lamp black
                         ½ oz. medium chrome green
                         1¼ oz. medium chrome yellow

Where tinting colors are used in sufficiently large quantities to alter
the consistency of the paint, add one-half as much linseed oil and
turpentine, by weight, as you add tinting material.

#29. Enameling.#--When using enamel as a finish for toys, care should be
taken that the surface of the toy is in proper condition. To obtain good
results proceed as follows: Give the wood a coat of shellac. Sand
lightly and dust. The following coat should consist of part of white
paint and one part of the enamel to be used. This coat should be
slightly tinted with the finishing color, if the finishing coat is not
white. Allow twenty-four hours for drying thoroly; then sand with
No. OO sand paper. Next apply a coat of enamel of the color desired for
the finished work. (Enamels may be tinted with colors ground in oil.)

Should the enamel not work freely, add a spoonful of benzine to a gallon
of enamel. Turpentine may also be used as a thinner for enamel.

A better finish of enamel consists of two coats of paint before applying
the enamel. This gives it a stronger body and of course makes it more

Because of its durability and for sanitary reasons enamel is the most
desirable finish for toys. Its glossy finish is attractive and very
appealing to children.

#30. The Dipping Method.#--When a considerable quantity of toys is to be
finished, the problem to be faced will be the cost of application of the
paint rather than the cost of the paint itself. The dipping process,
(immersing the material to be covered) is found to be the most
successful, especially in toy making, where so many small parts are

Many of the small pieces made can be subjected to the dipping process at
quite a saving of time and labor, with probably better results than
where the application of paint or stain is done with a brush.

The success of the dipping process depends on the arrangement adopted
for holding the toys while the actual dipping is done and while they are
drying. Here the exercise of a little ingenuity on the part of the
students and teacher, will overcome most difficulties.

Supposing that a number of checkers, or handles, or small wheels are to
be stained. A dipping frame as shown in Fig. 8 could very easily be
prepared. You will notice the screen tray (which is removable), and the
tin sheet which slopes towards the container. The small pieces to be
stained can be handled in wire baskets with mesh just small enough so
that the pieces will not fall thru.

The wire basket is then immersed in the container and worked up and
down, so that the liquid will penetrate and touch all pieces. It is then
pulled up and swung over the screen tray, where the contents of the wire
basket is dumped. Here, the superfluous paint will drip off on the tin
sheet, which, because of its slope, will cause the superfluous paint to
flow back in to the container. Fig. 9 shows the dipping frame in use.

The screen tray can be removed and placed in a rack to allow for further
drying. Several trays could then be made and a rack to hold them could
very easily be constructed.

The paint used for dipping purposes must so be prepared that too much
does not run off or too much stay on, for this is surely one way to
spoil the work. It should be thinned to the right consistency and care
should be taken that the thinners used are of the best quality.

Where larger pieces of work are to be dipped, wire attachments could be
devised and each part hung separately over the dipping frame until ready
to be placed in a rack. If the wire attachment forms a hook on one end,
it will be possible to hang up the toy until drained and dried. In
removing the toy from the paint it should be drawn out very slowly so
that the surface of the paint may be left as smooth as possible.

Where one desires line effects on toys, these may be lined in afterwards
with a small size striping brush or sign painter's pencil.

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Dipping frame]

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Using the dipping frame]

#31. Polishing by Tumbling.#---Excellent results in polishing large
quantities of small pieces, may be obtained by tumbling. The material to
be polished should be thoroly dry. The parts are then placed in a
tumbler as shown in Fig. 10. Cut up paraffine wax into small pieces,
using about one-fourth pound to each tumbler full of toys. Allow these
to tumble several hours. This will distribute the wax evenly over the
parts and produce a polished surface.

The tumbler as shown in Fig. 10 is turned by hand, altho it could very
easily be placed in a lathe, where one is available.

#32. Care of Brushes.#--A suitable place should be provided for brushes
that are not in use. A tin-lined keeper is recommended. Brushes should
be suspended so that their bristles will not touch the bottom of the
keeper, and have the liquid in which they are kept come well up over the
bristles, so that none of the paint or varnish may dry in the butt of
the brush.

#33. Paint Application by Means of Compressed Air.#--In recent years,
great advancement has been made in the application of paint by means of
compressed air. The early use of pneumatic painting equipment was
confined almost exclusively to the application of finishing materials
such as japans, enamels, lacquers, varnishes, etc., on manufactured
products. But in the past few years improvements have been made which
eliminate all of the difficulties originally experienced and make
possible the use of this method for interior and exterior painting, such
as buildings, ships, etc.; and at present, a large portion of factory
maintenance work is done in this manner. Excessive fumes have been
eliminated and all materials can be applied without removing the
volatile thinners, solvents, binders, etc., thru air reduction. This is
brought about thru the use of low pressure and the perfection of
ingenious patent nozzles and other improvements.

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Tumbler for polishing small pieces]

#34. Uses of Pneumatic Sprayers.#--Pneumatic paint sprayers, or air
brushes, are extensively used in the manufacture of toys, furniture,
automobile bodies, sewing machines, telephones, electrical equipment; in
fact, very nearly all manufactured products, as well as on ships,
structural steel and iron work, bridges and buildings.

The speed of the air brush is very great compared with hand-brush work.
Usually, an air-brush operator will accomplish as much in one hour as a
hand or bristle-brush worker will in one day; and it is possible to
obtain an even coating, free from sags, runs or brush-marks and better
results are obtained than with the hand brush method. A film of paint
can be applied in one operation equal to two hand-brush coats, as it is
not necessary to reduce paints by thinning as much for air brush
application, in a great many instances, as is the usual practice for
hand-brushing. The air sprayer can also reach places inaccessible to the
hand brush, and a perfect coat can be applied over rough, uneven
surfaces, which could not be obtained by hand-brushing.

In considering pneumatic painting equipment, the most important thing to
be kept in mind is the proper application of materials. This can be
successfully accomplished only thru the use of compressed air at low
pressures. By this is meant using only sufficient main-line air to lay
the paint, enamel, varnish or whatever finish may be used, on the
object. Excessive pressure results in fumes, waste of material and air
reduction taking place. By air reduction is meant the removal of the
more volatile solvents, thinners, binders, etc., thru evaporation, and
the material thus loses its adherent and coherent properties.

Both types of air-brush equipment illustrated here require three cubic
feet of air per minute to operate and the pressure necessary depends on
the density, consistency or viscosity of the material used. For example,
undercoaters, japans, etc.; require from twelve to fifteen pounds of
pressure to apply perfectly; while enamels and varnishes take from
eighteen to twenty-five pounds. Water stains require about five pounds
of pressure.

#35. Construction of Pneumatic Painting Outfit.#--A pneumatic painting
outfit for finishing work consists essentially of an air brush, either
of the attached-container type or the gun-type with separate paint
tank, and a small compressor of sufficient capacity to operate the air
brush, which can be belt-driven from shafting or direct connected. An
exhaust hood with fan, for the removal of fumes, is advisable where the
operation is reasonably continuous and especially where lacquers are
used. The paint, ready for application, is poured into the tank; and the
compressed air line leads to the tank with a branch line for air and
paint from the tank to the nozzle of the gun type of machine; while only
the air line is required with the attached-container type.

The air hose used is 5/16" in diameter while the paint or fluid hose is
the same size. The paint hose is made of a special compound to resist
the action of the thinners, solvents, etc., used in the paint; and it is
important to have this correct, so that the lining will not disintegrate
and clog the air brush or gun.

Fig. 11 shows a five-gallon container type. It will be noticed that the
fluid connection is nearest the nozzle and that the air connection is at
the bottom of the grip.

#36. Special Attachments for Different Surfaces.#--A cone nozzle is
furnished for painting irregular surfaces and a fan nozzle for wide,
flat work. Adjusting and locking the nozzle regulates the degree of
atomization. The jets of the fan nozzle are depressed to prevent being
knocked out of alignment. Final regulation of the flow of material is
made on the back of the gun, independent of the pressure on the material
container. A wide variety of adjustment is possible with this positive

The first pull on the trigger gives air only, which can be used for
dusting ahead of the work; and as the trigger is released, the air valve
closes last, which prevents clogging and dripping. When adjustments have
been made the trigger action is the only moving part of the machine.
Figs. 12 and 13 show the five-gallon container type in actual use.

#37. Cleaning Pneumatic Machines.#--It is not necessary to take the gun
apart nor disconnect the hose to clean the machine. Thinner can be run
thru the device without loss by placing a small can of reducer of the
last material used in the machine, and forcing it thru in the usual

[Illustration: Fig. 11. A five-gallon air brush outfit]

#38. Directions for Cleaning Machine.#--Close right-hand Air Valve and
open release valve. Unscrew air nozzle a few turns. Obstruct outlet with
thumb and pull trigger. Spraying pressure is thus forced thru gun and
fluid hose and the material backed into the container. It is advisable
frequently to run thinner thru the machine as follows: (1) Place small
can of thinner in center of container directly beneath fluid tube. (2)
Replace cover and tighten wing-nuts. (3) Close left-hand air valve and
open right-hand air valve. Pressure on container will force thinner thru
the machine and clean perfectly without loss. Do not use spraying
pressure in cleaning. The thinner can be used again for either cleaning
or thinning purposes.

[Illustration: Fig. 12. Using pneumatic paint sprayers]

#39. Directions for Operating Pneumatic Equipment.#--

1. Attach main-line air hose to air filter.

2. Attach fluid hose to connection marked "Fluid" on tank and to the
front connection near air nozzle on hand-piece.

[Illustration: Fig. 13. A five-gallon outfit in actual use]

3. Attach air hose to connection marked "Air" on cover and to the handle
connection on hand-piece.

4. Thoroly mix and strain material so that it is entirely free from
skins, lumps, and foreign materials.

5. Tighten wing-nuts until paint container is air-tight.

6. See that release valve is closed. Then open right-hand air valve,
turn fluid-pressure regulator until gage shows 5 lbs. pressure in
container. Pull trigger and use fluid regulator on gun to control the
flow. If material is heavy, increase pressure in container.

[Illustration: Fig. 14. Attached container type of sprayer]

7. Open left-hand air valve and turn spraying pressure regulator until
sufficient pressure (5 lbs. to 25 lbs.), is obtained to lay the material

8. Make final adjustment of the flow of material with fluid regulator on
back of hand-piece and get proper spray by adjusting the air nozzle.

9. Spraying pressure and pressure in the container depends upon the
density of the material used and the size of the surface to be coated. A
little experimenting on the part of the operator will determine the best
pressure to use. When the fan nozzle is used, 3 to 5 lbs. more pressure
should be applied to the material container and from 5 to 8 lbs. more
atomizing or spraying pressure used.

Fig. 14 shows a complete attached container which operates on
identically the same principles as the type shown in Fig. 11. It
consists of a 1½ pint container, reducing outfit, compressor, and air
tank. The 1½ pint container as shown in Fig. 15 is supplied complete
with two fluid tips, gasket, agitator tube, cup-holder, hose union, and
six feet of air hose.

The reducing outfit in Fig. 16 consists of a regulative valve, an air
gage, and an air filter, complete with connections and fittings. This
outfit is for the purpose of maintaining an even low spraying pressure.

Regulated pressure is applied to the air-tight material container,
raising the coating material to the nozzle where only sufficient
main-line pressure is used to lay the coating on. The spraying pressure
necessarily depends on the density, consistency and viscosity of the
material used.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. A one and one-half pint container and parts]

For fine finishing work, where the quantity of materials used each day
is not great, or where the colors are changed frequently, the attached
container type is recommended.

#40. Preparing Colors.#--The three primary colors are red, blue and
yellow. With the three primary colors at hand, almost every variety of
color desirable for ordinary use can be easily prepared. Fig. 17 shows a
color chart.

  Red mixed with yellow will result in orange.
  Red mixed with blue will result in purple.
  Yellow mixed with blue will result in green.

The colors obtained by mixing any two primaries are called secondary
colors. Therefor the secondary colors are orange, purple and green.

Orange mixed with purple will result in brown.

Orange mixed with green will result in olive.

Purple mixed with green will result in slate.

The colors obtained by mixing any two secondaries are called tertiary

The tertiary colors are brown, olive and slate.

Of course different tones of each color can be made up by mixing unequal

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Reducing outfit]

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Chart showing proportions required for standard



#41. Economy in Selecting Material.#--Economic use of materials should
be encouraged at all times. Toy making offers an excellent opportunity
where economy may be taught in the most practical way.

Where toys are to be painted, more than one kind of wood may be used in
the same toy and thereby using up small pieces of wood that would
otherwise be called scrap. Yet, it is not advisable to sacrifice the
strength and durability of the whole toy for the sake of using up a
piece of scrap wood which weakens the particular part of the toy where
it is used. For that, in the long run, is not economy.

#42. Qualities of Different Woods Used.#--The following are some of the
common woods used in toy making.

Maple: hard, fine grained, compact, tough, used for wheels, axles,
handles, dowel rods, etc.

Ash: white, strong, open grained, easily worked; used for bodies of
coasters, wheels, axles, oars, etc.

Oak: hard, firm and compact, strong and durable, hard to work.

Birch: moderately hard and heavy, even grained; difficult to split, but
easily worked.

Chestnut: resembles oak in appearance, is much softer, moderately hard,
course grained, not strong, but durable.

Cypress: moderately hard, very fine and close grained, virtually
indestructable; known as "the wood eternal".

Basswood: white, light, soft, tough, closed grained, easily worked, not
strong, but durable; used for almost any part of a toy where much
strength is not required.

White Pine: very light, soft, close and straight grained, inferior; easy
to work.

Yellow Pine, yellowish, grain noticeable, harder than white pine,

Tulip (yellow poplar): light, soft, close and straight grained; tougher
than many woods equally soft, compact, not very strong or durable,
easily worked.

Spruce: straight growing, light, straight and even in grain, tough,
elastic, easy to work.



#43. Value of Jigs and Fixtures.#--The use of jigs, fixtures, and other
labor-saving devices is an important factor in illustrating industrial
and practical applications in the school shop. It is advisable to let
each group of boys work out its own jig or fixture for the particular
job they have on hand.

The three most common forms of jigs are cutting jigs, boring jigs, and
assembling jigs. The important reasons for the use of such devices are:
(1) They illustrate the speed of output in shop work. (2) They give the
student a good idea of machine operation. (3) They help in making the
parts interchangeable. (4) They offer an opportunity for getting first
hand information on cutting edge tools and their proper uses. (5) They
show the boy the value of the use of jigs in factory work.

The toys illustrated in this book have many simple operations, such as
cutting stock to length, drilling holes, surfacing, etc., that can be
easily done by the use of the proper fixtures.

For that reason toys are desirable projects to be made by the productive
plan. Fig. 18 shows the use of a jig and the miter box.

#44. Cutting Small Wheels.#--A circle of the desired size wheel may be
laid out on the wood with the aid of a compass, and cut in the outline
with a coping saw or band saw. Of course, it would take quite a long
time by this method to make the small wheels in large quantities and
besides the result would not be as good as when the wheels are made by

#45. Turning Wheels.#--Another way to produce wheels is to turn a
cylinder to the required diameter, on the turning lathe. Then cut the
cylinder on the circular saw into required thicknesses of wheels
desired. This method is recommended for quick work.

[Illustration: Fig. 18. Production of toys by use of jigs]

If it is desired to round the end of wheels the operation can be done by
leaving the cylinder in the lathe and applying the broad side of the
skew chisel as shown in Fig. 33. The wheels may then be polished with a
cloth after they have been sanded and while rotating in the lathe as
shown in Fig. 34. In sanding, use first a fairly course grade of
sandpaper, No. 1 or 1½ and afterwards a fine grade, No. O or OO.
Before applying the cloth the wood may be varnished lightly while the
lathe is not running, taking care to wipe off all the surplus varnish.
The varnish will assist in giving the surface a fine polish when the
cloth is applied. For further explanations of the use of the turning
lathe, see Sec. 55.

#46. Use of Wheel Cutter.#--Still another method of making small wheels
is by use of the wheel cutter as shown in Fig. 19. This wheel cutter may
be used in the ordinary bit brace. Good results may be obtained where
the wheels are made out of thin, soft wood.

This wheel cutter is known on the market as a leather washer cutter. If
one cannot be obtained it can easily be made in the school machine shop
at a small cost. Fig. 20 shows a drawing of a wheel cutter.

You will notice that the blade can be adjusted to cut any diameter

#47. Use of Coping Saw.#--Where a band saw is not included in the shop
equipment, many articles such as animal forms and small wheels could
very easily be cut out with a coping saw.

[Illustration: Fig. 19. Wheel cutter in use]

A saw board, as shown in Fig. 21 should be fastened to a table top with
an iron clamp; or, a saw board made to fasten in a vise may also be

[Illustration: Fig. 20. Details of a wheel cutter which may be made in

When cutting out the toy part, the coping saw should be held in a
vertical position as shown in Fig. 22, and in an up-and-down motion,
with short fast strokes, following the outline carefully. Cut on the
line. Do not press hard on the saw for the blade is very thin and can
very easily be broken, but it should last a long time if used correctly.

[Illustration: Fig. 21. Clamping the saw board to the bench]

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Correct method of holding coping saw]

#48. Cutting Sharp Corners.#--When cutting a sharp turn in the wood with
the coping saw, care should be taken not to twist the saw blade out of
shape. Upon reaching the sharp turn, continue the up-and-down motion,
but without doing any cutting; turn the wood very slowly until you have
made the complete turn, then continue with the sawing and follow the
rest of the outline carefully.

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Removing the saw-blade]

#49. Removing the Saw-Blade from Frame.#--To remove the saw-blade from
the frame, place the head of the frame against the table top as shown in
Fig. 23. Pressing down on the handle will release the saw-blade. When
inserting the blade into the frame the same method may be followed,
being careful that the teeth of the saw-blade point toward the handle of
the frame. The blade may be put in the end or the side slots of the
frame, using the side slots only when the end slots will not serve the

#50. Making Heavy Wheels.#--In turning heavier wheels that are to be
used for coasters, kiddie cars, etc., the work is done with the head
stock only, the wood being supported by the screw-center chuck or face

In turning the wheel the first step is the scraping cut as shown in Fig.
24. This cut is properly made with the concave chisel held in such a
position as to give a light scraping cut. Care should be exercised not
to allow the chisel to extend too deeply, otherwise the material will
chip with the grain.

After the desired circumference has been obtained the surface should be
worked to the desired form as shown in Fig. 25. This is accomplished by
using the lathe rest, set at right angles with the bed or parallel with
the face plate. The illustration in Fig. 26 shows the use of the
dividers in marking off the position of the various corrugations in the
wheel that is being turned. The sanding should be done while the wheel
is in the lathe. Use first a fairly course grade of sand paper and
afterwards a fine grade, No. O or OO.

#51. Designs for Wheels.#--Suggestions for wooden toy wheels are shown
in Fig. 27. Those numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 are plain wooden
wheels varying in design only. No. 8 and 9 are re-enforced with zinc and
large iron washers. No. 10 shows a segment of an iron pipe fitted in the
center of the wheel to prevent wearing away of material. No. 11 shows a
spoke wheel. The spokes are made of dowel rods; these fitting into a hub
that can easily be turned out on the lathe. No. 13 shows a wheel built
in segments which is then cut out on the band saw to resemble a standard
spoke wheel. The rim is 1/8" steel, fastened to spokes with very small

[Illustration: Fig. 24. Making heavy wheels. The scraping cut]

#52. Cutting Wheels on Band-Saw.#--A circle of the required size wheel
may be marked off on the wood with a compass, then cut in the outline on
the band-saw. This method will leave square corners and will be more or
less out of truth with the center of the wheel. To true up and smooth
the outside of the wheel the lathe attachment as shown in Fig. 28 can be
easily prepared. This attachment consists of a block _A_ fastened to the
lathe bed with a single bolt, and a stop _B_ fastened to the upper face
of the block _A_. The carriage _C_ is a loose piece the same thickness
as the stop _B_ and is provided with a dowel rod to fit the central hole
in the wheel. This dowel rod is so located that when the edge of the
carriage _C_ is tight against the edge of the stop _D_, the distance
from the center of the dowel rod to the face of the abrasive material
on the disk, will be equal to the radius of the finished wheel.

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Smoothing the side of wheels]

The wood is cut out on the band saw a scant 1/16" over-size in diameter,
and is then placed on the dowel rod in the carriage _C_ which is held
flat on block _A_ while the edge of the blank is brought in contact with
the grinding disc face by pushing the carriage forward with the left
hand while the blank is slowly revolved with the right. This grinding is
continued until the edges of stop _B_ and carriage _C_ will remain in
contact during a complete revolution of the wheel blank. During this
grinding process, the carriage should be moved back and forth from the
edge to the center of the grinding disc so that the wear on the abrasive
material may be equalized.

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Using dividers to mark for cuts]

A similar device used for chamfering the edges of the blanks is also
shown in Fig. 28, as it looks when viewed from the front of the lathe.
The preceding description will suffice for this as the same system of
lettering has been used. It differs only in that block _A_ is made to
set at an angle of 45 degrees instead of being level.

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Many ways of making wheels for toys]

[Illustration: Fig. 28. Simple attachments which may be made for lathe]

Grinding discs may be made either of metal or wood. Metal is preferable
but a hardwood disc fastened to a metal face plate will answer very
well. There are many methods of fastening the abrasing material to the
disc but the most convenient way is by the use of stick belt dressing.
The disc is coated with dressing by holding the stick against it as it
revolves and the abrasive is applied before the dressing has set. A pair
of dividers or trammels is used to cut the abrasive material to the same
diameter as the disc and it should be warmed on the uncoated side before
it is applied. It sticks tightly to the disc but is easily removed and
replaced with fresh material in a few minutes.

#53. Boring Holes in Wheels.#--The center holes in wheels may be bored
with bit and brace, but better results are obtained if the holes are
bored in the lathe. A drill chuck fitted to the live spindle and a
drilling pad for the tail stock spindle will be required to do this job
efficiently. The tail stock is locked fast and the wheel to be drilled
is placed against the drilling pad and fed up to the revolving bit by
turning the tail spindle feed wheel. This method will produce a cleaner
hole and one that is square with the wheel face.



#54. Importance of Machine Operations.#--A fair understanding of what is
the correct position to take at some of the principal machines such as
the lathe, universal saw, jointer, and sander, is very important to the
student in the wood-working department. Such knowledge is of special
importance to the one engaged in toy making, where every knowledge of
use of machines, is put to the test.

[Illustration: Fig. 29. The roughing cut]

[Illustration: Fig. 30. The sizing cut]

Sufficient examples are given to enable the student to arrive at a fair
understanding of the correct postures.

#55. Operating the Lathe.#--The lathe is perhaps one of the most
important machines used in toy making. It lends itself to unlimited
varieties of work and for that reason is really indispensible in the

[Illustration: Fig. 31. The paring cut]

In Fig. 29 the student is preparing to take the _roughing cut_ in
turning a cylinder. This operation consists of removing the corners of
the square piece and is done with the tool known as the _gouge_.

After the roughing cut has been taken, calipers set to the diameter
desired will determine the depth of the next cut, _sizing cut_. The
illustration in Fig. 30 shows the student performing this operation with
the _cut-off tool_.

[Illustration: Fig. 32. Using the cut-off tool]

When the correct dimension has been found, the next step in the process
of turning a cylinder is the _paring cut_ or finishing cut, Fig. 31.
This is done with the _skew_ or _bevel chisel_. A very thin shaving is
removed by this operation.

The ends are then cut by using the cut-off tool as shown in Fig. 32. It
is merely taking a slice off the end. If a very thin slice is to be
removed, it is usually made by the long point of the skew chisel. If it
is more than a quarter of an inch it should be _sized_ and then removed
by the skew.

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Making convex surfaces]

If it is desired to round the end of a piece or to produce a convex
surface the operation can be done by applying the broad side of the skew
chisel, as in Fig. 33.

#56. Face Plate Turning.#--The preceding paragraphs describe the process
of turning when the piece is supported between the live and the dead
centers. The processes shown in Figs. 24, 25 and 26, illustrate the
character of the work done with the head stock only when the piece is
supported by the screw-center chuck or face plate.

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Polishing wood in lathe]

The first step in face plate turning is the scraping cut, Fig. 24. This
cut is properly made with the concave chisel held in such a position as
to give a light scraping cut. Care should be exercised not to allow the
chisel to extend too deeply, otherwise the material will chip with the
grain. After the desired circumference has been obtained the surface
should be smoothed with the skew chisel.

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Cutting off stock]

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Fluting on circular saw]

Fig. 25 shows the student modeling a rosette, using the rest, set at
right angles with the bed or parallel with the face plate. Prior to the
modeling a shearing cut should be taken with the skew chisel to face
off the material to an even surface.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Cutting with special fence]

The illustration in Fig. 26 shows the use of the dividers. The student
is marking off to a uniform scale the position of the various
corrugations in the rosette he is turning.

#57. The Universal Saw.#--The operations that can be performed on the
universal saw are so many that no attempt will be made to illustrate
them all here. But enough are given to show the characteristic
operations involved in cross-cutting, ripping, and dadoing,--the three
basic uses of a circular saw.

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Grooving, or ripping special work]

It is a more dangerous tool than the lathe and the guard should be kept
over the saw at all times, except of course, in dadoing when it can not
be used.

Figs. 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, illustrate the basic uses of a circular saw.

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Cutting segments]

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Surfacing board on jointer]

#58. The Hand Jointer.#--The great variety of work that can be done on a
hand jointer depends very largely upon the knowledge and skill of the
operator. It lends itself to so many operations, that the student gains
much in knowledge and efficiency.

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Cutting bevels on jointer]

The five operations shown in Figs. 40, 41, 42, 43 and 44, give a fair
idea of the scope of work that is usually accomplished on a hand jointer
and show something of the method by which the work should be done.

The jointer is another tool where the use of the guard should never be

#59. The Sander.#--The sander is an interesting machine in the school
shop for on it considerable "forming" can be done as with the lathe,
altho its prime use is to make smooth or polish.

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Jointing the edge]

In Fig. 45 the boy at the left is forming a mitre while the one on the
right is smoothing surface.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Rabetting on the jointer]

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Cutting miter joints]

[Illustration: Fig. 45. The machine sander in operation]



  [Illustration: PLATE 1

  [Illustration: PLATE 2

  [Illustration: PLATE 3

  [Illustration: PLATE 4

  [Illustration: PLATE 5
  _Horse Head_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 6
  For Milk Wagon_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 7

  [Illustration: PLATE 8

  [Illustration: PLATE 9

  [Illustration: PLATE 10

  [Illustration: PLATE 11

  [Illustration: PLATE 12
  _Toy Furniture For Doll House_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 13
  _Toy Furniture For Doll House_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 14
  _Toy Furniture For Doll House_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 15

  [Illustration: PLATE 16

  [Illustration: PLATE 17

  [Illustration: PLATE 18

  [Illustration: PLATE 19

  [Illustration: PLATE 20

  [Illustration: PLATE 21

  [Illustration: PLATE 22

  [Illustration: PLATE 23

  [Illustration: PLATE 24

  [Illustration: PLATE 25

  [Illustration: PLATE 26

  [Illustration: PLATE 27

  [Illustration: PLATE 28

  [Illustration: PLATE 29

  [Illustration: PLATE 30

  [Illustration: PLATE 31

  [Illustration: PLATE 32

  [Illustration: PLATE 33
  _"Sturdy Flyer" Sled_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 34

  [Illustration: PLATE 35

  [Illustration: PLATE 36

  [Illustration: PLATE 37

  [Illustration: PLATE 38
  _Details of JUNIOR ROADSTER_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 39

  [Illustration: PLATE 40

  [Illustration: PLATE 41

  [Illustration: PLATE 42

  [Illustration: PLATE 43

  [Illustration: PLATE 44

  [Illustration: PLATE 45

  [Illustration: PLATE 46

  [Illustration: PLATE 47

  [Illustration: PLATE 48

  [Illustration: PLATE 49
  _SAND BOX #2_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 50
  _DOLL'S HOUSE-#1_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 51
  _DOLL'S HOUSE-#2_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 52
  _DOLL'S HOUSE-#2_]

  [Illustration: PLATE 53

  [Illustration: PLATE 54



  Auto kar, Plate 41, 104

  Auto racer, Plate 9, 72

  Auto Roadster, Plate 8, 71


  Bats, base ball, Plate 54, 117

  Bazaars, toy sales, etc., 19

  Bed, doll's, Plates 22, 23, 85, 86

  Boring holes in wheels, 53

  Brushes, care of, 31

  Buffet, Plate 14, 77


  Car, baby's, Plate 36, 99

  Car, passenger, Plate 10, 73

  Cars, auto, motor, choo-choo, Plates 41, 42, 104, 105

  Cart, baby's, Plate 3, 66

  Cart, hay, Plate 4, 67

  Carriage, dolls, Plate 17, 80

  Chair & rocker, Plate 13, 76

  Chair, baby's, Plate 47, 110

  Checker board, Plate 45, 108

  Check, credit, Fig. 7, 20

  Coasters, Plates 26, 37, 39, 89, 101, 103

  Coloring toys, 21
    Sanitation emphasized, 21
    Preparation of surfaces, 21
    Application of water colors, 21
    Analine water stains, 22
    Formulas for analine water stains, 22
    Oil stains, 23
    Shellacking, 23
    Varnishing, 23
    Points on varnishing, 24
    Color varnish, 24
    Use of paint, 24
    Dipping method, 28, 30
    Polishing by tumbling, 31
    Paint application by compressed air, 31

  Colors, preparing, 39

  Color chart, Fig. 17, 41

  Contents, Table of, 5

  Coping saw, use of, 45

  Correlation, 7

  Costumer, child's, Plate 46, 109


  Doll's house, Plates 50, 51, 52, 113, 114, 115

  Dipping frame, 29

  Drawings for toys, 63

  Dumb bell, Plate 53, 116


  Enameling, 27


  Foremen, shop, 11

  Fox & geese game, Plate 1, 64

  Furniture, doll, 75, 76, 77


  Game board, "Bean Bag," Plate 19, 82

  Game board, "Fox & Geese," Plate 1, 64

  Grading students, 17


  Horse head, Plate 5, 68

  Horse on wheels, Plate 6, 69

  House, doll's, Plates 50, 51, 52, 113, 114, 115


  Indian club, Plate 53, 116


  Jigs & fixtures, 43

  Jointer, hand, 59


  Kiddie kars, Plates 27, 28, 29, 90, 91, 92


  Lathe, operating the, 54, 55, 56, 57


  Machines, operating of woodworking, 54


  Noah's ark, Plate 18, 81


  Organization, plan for shop, 11


  Paint, use of, 24
    Ingredients of, 24
    Application, 25
    Preparation of surface, 25
    Tinting materials, 25
    Mixing, 25
    Formulas, 26
    Formulas for tinted paint, 26
    Enameling, 27

  Plan for shop organization, 11
    Grouping students, 11
    Time clerk, 13
    Tool-room clerk, 13
    Recording attendance, 14
    Time-card rack, 14
    Time cards, 15
    Grading students, 17
    Accomplishment sheet, 18
    Preparation for shop work, 19

  Pneumatic equipment, 36

  Preface, 3

  Productive work, 11


  Ring toss, Plate 2, 65

  Rocking chair, Plate 13, 76

  Rocker, duck, Plate 35, 98

  Rocker, ducky loo, Plate 34, 97

  Rock-a-doodle, Plate 31, 94


  Sand box, Plates 48, 49, 111, 112

  Sander, 60, 62

  Saw, universal, 58

  Scooter, Plate 25, 88

  Sleds, Plates 32, 33, 95, 96

  Sprayer, pneumatic air, 31, 33, 34

  Sprayer, directions for operating, 36

  Speedster, duplex, Plate 30, 93

  Stain, oil, 23

  Stain, analine water, 22

  Stilts, adjustable, Plate 24, 87

  Suggestions to teachers, 7

  Swing, child's, Plates 20, 21, 83, 84


  Table for doll house, Plate 12, 75

  Teeter-totter, Plate 43, 106

  Teeter-rocker, Plate 44, 107

  Time clerk, 13

  Time cards, 15

  Tool-room clerk, 13

  Toy sales, 19

  Trailer, kido-kar, Plate 7, 70

  Tumbler, drawing of, 32

  Tumbling, polishing by, 31, 32


  Varnishing, 23

  Varnish, colored, 24

  Varnishing, points on, 24


  Wagon, milk, Plate 11, 74

  Water colors, 21

  Wax polishing, 31

  Wheel-barrow, toy, Plate 15, 78

  Wheel-barrow, horse design, Plate 16, 79

  Wheel cutter, 45, 46

  Wheels, cutting small, 43

  Wheels, designs, Fig. 27, 49, 51

  Wheels, turning, 43

  Woods used in toy making, 42

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "Advanced Toy Making for Schools" ***

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