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Title: Lancelot of the Laik - A Scottish Metrical Romance
Author: Skeat, Walter W. (Walter William), 1835-1912 [Editor]
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber’s Note:

This e-text includes characters that require UTF-8 (Unicode) file
encoding, including:

  ſ  (long “s”)
  Ȝȝ (yogh)
  m̅  (m with over-line; the equivalent “n” form is shown as
      ñ with tilde for better font support)
  ǽ  (æ with accent, only in the Glossary)

There are also a few letters with macron (“long” mark). If any of these
characters do not display properly--in particular, if the diacritic
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quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, make sure your text
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You may also need to change the default font. As a last resort, use the
Latin-1 version of the file instead.

Unlike most EETS productions, this book was printed with long “s” (ſ).
The editor’s Introduction says:

  We find, in the MS., both the long and the twisted _s_ (ſ and s).
  These have been noted down as they occur, though I do not observe
  any law for their use. The letter “ß” has been adopted as closely
  resembling a symbol in the MS., which apparently has the force of
  double _s_, and is not unlike the “_sz_” used in modern German

An italic form of þ (thorn) was apparently not available to the printer.
In the modern parts of this e-text, the letter has been italicized when
context seems to warrant it. In the poem, all italics--representing
expanded contractions or abbreviations--are shown with {braces} as
“se{n}t” or “{and}”. Other italics are shown conventionally with
_lines_. To reduce visual clutter, italics in folio numbers (“1 _b_”)
are unmarked. The change in labeling from “21, 21b” to “22a, 22b”
appears to be accidental.

Large initial letters in the primary texts are marked with leading
double ++ as “++Messire”, “++Maist{er}”. The random variation between
capital and lower-case letters after an initial is as in the original.
Superscripts are shown with ^ alone. Unless otherwise noted, the
superscripting continues to the end of the word.

In the Glossary, ȝ (yogh) is alphabetized as z.

In the printed book, some line numbers were moved or omitted for reasons
of space; they have been silently regularized. Sidenotes giving folio
numbers are shown as printed. Other sidenotes have been moved to the
nearest convenient sentence break or major punctuation. Where practical,
footnotes are grouped together, preferably before headnotes, stanza
breaks (random) or decorative capitals. Headnotes have been moved to
agree with the text, and will generally not coincide with printed page

Except for footnotes and similar, all brackets [] are in the original.
Conversely, except for the indented stanzas at ll. 699-719, all blank
lines within the poem were added by the transcriber.]

  The Romans
  Lancelot of the Laik.

  Dublin:       William Mcgee, 18, Nassau Street.
  Edinburgh:    T. G. Stevenson, 22, South Frederick Street.
  Glasgow:      Ogle & Co., 1, Royal Exchange Square.
  Berlin:       Asher & Co., Unter Den Linden, 11.
  Boston, U.S.: Dutton & Co.
  New York:     C. Scribner & Co.; Leypoldt & Holt.
  Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co.


  A Scottish Metrical Romance,
  (About 1490-1500 A.D.)

  From a Manuscript in the Cambridge University Library,

  with an
  Introduction, Notes, and Glossarial Index,


  Late Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge;
  and Translator of the Songs and Ballads of Uhland.

  [Second and Revised Edition, 1870.]

  Published for the Early English Text Society,
  By N. Trübner & Co., 60, Paternoster Row.

  John Childs and Son, Printers.



A former edition of the present poem was printed for the Maitland Club,
in 1839, and edited by Joseph Stevenson, Esq. It has saved me all
trouble of transcription, but by no means, I am sorry to say, that of
correction. Those who possess the older edition will readily perceive
that it differs from the present one very frequently indeed, and that
the variations are often such as considerably to affect the sense. Many
of the errors in it (such as _casualtyee_ for _casualytee_, _grone_, for
_gone_, _reprent_ for _repent_) are clearly typographical, but there are
others which would incline me to believe that the transcription was too
hastily executed; several passages being quite meaningless. Near the
conclusion of Mr Stevenson’s preface we read: “The pieces which have
been selected for the present volume[P1] are printed with such errors of
transcription as have crept into them by the carelessness of the
scribe;” a statement which certainly implies that there was no intention
on his part of departing from the original. Yet that he sometimes
unconsciously did so to such an extent as considerably to alter (or
destroy) the sense, the reader may readily judge from a few examples:--

    [Footnote P1: The volume contains other poems besides “Sir


  26.     fatil (_fatal_),      fatit (_fated_).
  285.    unarmyt (_unarmed_),  enarmyt (_fully armed_).
  682.    can here,             cam nere.
  700.    rendit (_rent_),      vondit (_wounded_).
  764.    refuse (_refusal?_),  reprefe (_defeat_).
  861.    felith (_feeleth_),   ſetith (_setteth_).
  1054.   vyt,                  ry{ch}t.
  1084.   speiris,              spuris.
  1455.   cumyng (_coming_),    cunyng (_skill_).
  1621.   he war,               be war (_beware_).
  1641.   promyß,               punyß (_punish_).
  2010.   ane desyne,           medysyne.
  2092.   born,                 lorn (_lost_).
  2114.   havin,                harm.
  2142.   Hymene (!),           hyme (_him_).
  2219.   such,                 furth (_forth_).
  2245.   al so y-vroght,       al foly vroght.
  2279.   chichingis (!),       thithingis (_tidings_).
  2446.   love,                 lore (_teaching_). Etc.

Several omissions also occur, as, _e.g._, of the word “off” in l. 7, of
the word “tressore” in l. 1715, and of four whole lines at a time in two
instances; viz., lines 1191-4, and 2877-80. It will be found, in fact,
that the former text can seldom be safely quoted for the purposes of
philology; and I cannot but think Mr Stevenson’s claim of being accurate
to be especially unfortunate; and the more so, because the genuine text
is much simpler and more intelligible than the one which he has given.

The original MS. is to be found in the Cambridge University Library,
marked Kk. 1. 5. It formerly formed part of a thick volume, labelled
“Tracts;” but these are now being separated, for greater convenience,
into several volumes. The MS. of “Lancelot” has little to do with any of
the rest as regards its subject, but several other pieces are in the
same hand-writing; and, at the end of one of them, an abstract of
Solomon’s proverbs, occur the words, “Expliciunt Dicta Salamonis, per
manum V. de F.”[P2] This hand-writing, though close, is very regular,
and my own impression certainly is that the scribe has almost always
succeeded in preserving the sense of the poem, though there is much
confusion in the dialectal forms, as will be shewn presently.

    [Footnote P2: See Mr Lumby’s editions of “Early Scottish Verse”
    and “Ratis Raving,” both edited for the E.E.T.S. from this MS.
    Only the latter of these is in the hand-writing of V. de F.]

The present text is as close a fac-simile of the MS. as can be
represented by printed letters, every peculiarity being preserved as far
as practicable, even including the use of _y_ for _þ_ (or _th_); so that
the reader must remember that _yow_ in l. 94 stands for _thow_, and
_yis_ in l. 160 for _this_, and so on; but this ought not to cause much
difficulty. The sole points of difference are the following:

1. In the MS. the headings “Prologue,” “Book I.” etc., do not occur.

2. The lines do not always begin (in the MS.) with a capital letter.

3. The letters _italicized_ are (in the MS.) represented by signs of
contraction. One source of difficulty is the flourish over a word, used
_sometimes_ as a contraction for _m_ or _n_. I have expanded this
flourish as an _m_ or _n_ wherever such letter is manifestly required;
but it also occurs where it is best to attach to it no value. In such
instances, the flourish occurs most frequently over the last word in a
line, and (except very rarely) only over words which have an _m_ or _n_
in them. It would thus seem that their presence is due to the fact of
the scribe wanting employment for his pen after the line had been
written, and that the flourish therefore appears over certain words, not
so much because the _n_ is _wanting_ in them, as because it is _there
already_. Such words have a special attraction for the wandering pen.
Still, in order that the reader may know wherever such flourishes occur,
they have all been noted down; thus, in l. 46, the stroke over the _n_
in “greñ” means that a long flourish occurs drawn over the whole word,
and the reader who wishes to expand this word into “gren{e}” or
“gren{n}” may easily do it for himself, though he should observe that
the most usual form of the word is simply “gren,” as in lines 1000,

In a few nouns ending in _-l_, the plural is indicated by a stroke drawn
through the doubled letter; as in _perillis_, _sadillis_, etc.; and even
the word _ellis_ (else) is thus abbreviated.

4. I am responsible for all hyphens, and letters and words between
square brackets; thus, “with-outen” is in the MS. “with outen;” and
“knych[t]ly” is written “knychly.” Whenever a line begins with a capital
letter included between two brackets, the original has a blank space
left, evidently intended for an illuminated letter. Wherever illuminated
letters actually occur in the MS., they are denoted in this edition by
large capitals.

5. We find, in the MS., both the long and the twisted _s_ (ſ and s).
These have been noted down as they occur, though I do not observe any
law for their use. The letter “ß” has been adopted as closely resembling
a symbol in the MS., which apparently has the force of double _s_, and
is not unlike the “_sz_” used in modern German hand-writing. It may be
conveniently denoted by _ss_ when the type “ß” is not to be had, and is
sometimes so represented in the “Notes.”

6. The MS. is, of course, not punctuated. The punctuation in the present
edition is mostly new; and many passages, which in the former edition
were meaningless, have thus been rendered easily intelligible. I am also
responsible for the headings of the pages, the abstract at the sides of
them, the numbering of the folios in the margin, the notes, and the
glossary; which I hope may be found useful. The greatest care has been
taken to make the text accurate, the proof-sheets having been compared
with the MS. _three times_ throughout.[P3]

    [Footnote P3: This refers to the edition printed in 1865. In
    executing the present reprint, the proof-sheets have been once
    more compared with the MS., and a very few insignificant errors
    have been thus detected and rectified.]


The poem itself is a loose paraphrase of not quite fourteen folios of
the first of the three volumes of the French Romance of Lancelot du Lac,
if we refer to it as reprinted at Paris in 1513, in three volumes, thin
folio, double-columned.[P4] The English poet has set aside the French
Prologue, and written a new one of his own, and has afterwards
translated and amplified that portion of the Romance which narrates the
invasion of Arthur’s territory by “le roy de oultre les marches, nomme
galehault” (in the English _Galiot_), and the defeat of the said king by
Arthur and his allies.

    [Footnote P4: “As to the Romance of Sir Lancelot, our author
    [Gower], among others on the subject, refers to a volume of which
    he was the hero; perhaps that of Robert de Borron, altered soon
    afterwards by Godefroy de Leigny, under the title of _Le Roman de
    la Charrette_, and printed, with additions, at Paris by Antony
    Verard, in the year 1494.

  For if thou wilt the bokes rede
  Of Launcelot and other mo,
  Then might thou seen how it was tho
  Of armes,” etc. (GOWER: _Confessio Amantis_, Book iv.)

_Quoted from_ Warton’s English Poetry, vol. ii., p. 234, _ed._ 1840.
I quote this as bearing somewhat on the subject, though it should be
observed that _Le Roman de la Charrette_ is not the same with _Lancelot
du Lac_, but only a romance of the same class. Chaucer also refers to
Lancelot in his Nonnes Prestes Tale, l. 392; and it is mentioned in the
famous lines of Dante (_Inf._ v. 127)--

  “Noi leggevamo un giorno per diletto
  Di Lancilotto, come amor lo strinse,” &c.]

The Prologue (lines 1-334) tells how the author undertook to write a
romance to please his lady-love; and how, after deciding to take as his
subject the story of Lancelot as told in the French Romance, yet finding
himself unequal to a close translation of the whole of it, he determined
to give a paraphrase of a portion of it only. After giving us a brief
summary of the earlier part by the simple process of telling us what he
will _not_ relate, he proposes to begin the story at the point where
Lancelot has been made prisoner by the lady of Melyhalt, and to take as
his subject the wars between Arthur and Galiot, and the distinction
which Lancelot won in them; and afterwards to tell how Lancelot made
peace between these two kings, and was consequently rewarded by Venus,

  “makith hyme his ladice grace to have” (l. 311).

The latter part of the poem, it may be observed, has not come down to
us. The author then concludes his Prologue by beseeching to have the
support of a very celebrated poet, whose name he will not mention, but
will only say that

  “Ye fresch enditing of his laiting toung
  Out throuch yis world so wid is yroung,” etc.[P5] (l. 328.)

    [Footnote P5: He does not necessarily imply that the poet invoked
    was still alive; and we might almost suppose Petrarch to be meant,
    who was more proud of his Latin poem called “Africa” than of his
    odes and sonnets. See Hallam’s Literary History (4 vols.), vol.
    i., p. 85. But this is pure conjecture.]

The first Book introduces us to King Arthur at Carlisle.[P6] The king is
visited by dreams, which he imagines to forebode misfortune; he
therefore convokes all his clerks, and inquires of them the meaning of
the dreams, proposing to hang them in the event of their refusal. Thus
strongly urged, they tell him that those on whom he most relies will
fail him at his need; and when he further inquires if this evil fate can
be averted, they answer him very obscurely that it can only be remedied
by help of the water-lion, the leech, and the flower; a reply which the
king evidently regards as unsatisfactory. Soon after an aged knight,
fully armed, enters the palace, with a message from King Galiot,
requiring him to give “tribute and rent.” Arthur at once refuses,
somewhat to the astonishment of the knight, who is amazed at his
hardihood. Next arrives a message from the lady of Melyhalt, informing
Arthur of the actual presence of Galiot’s army. We are then momentarily
introduced to Lancelot, who is pining miserably in the lady’s custody.
Next follows a description of Galiot’s army, at sight of the approach of
which King Arthur and his “niece,” Sir Gawain, confer as to the best
means of resistance. In the ensuing battle Sir Gawain greatly
distinguishes himself, but is at last severely wounded. Sir Lancelot,
coming to hear of Sir Gawain’s deeds, craves leave of the lady to be
allowed to take part in the next conflict, who grants him his boon on
condition that he promise to return to his prison. She then provides for
him a red courser, and a complete suit of red armour, in which guise he
appears at the second battle, and is the “head and comfort of the
field;” the queen and Sir Gawain beholding his exploits from a tower.
The result of the battle convinces Galiot that Arthur is not strong
enough at present to resist him sufficiently, and that he thus runs the
risk of a too easy, and therefore dishonourable, conquest; for which
excellent reason he grants Arthur a twelvemonth’s truce, with a promise
to return again in increased force at the expiration of that period. Sir
Lancelot returns to Melyhalt according to promise, and the lady is well
pleased at hearing the reports of his famous deeds, and visits him when
asleep, out of curiosity to observe his appearance after the fight.

    [Footnote P6: But the French has “Cardueil.” See l. 2153.]

In the Second Book the story makes but little progress, nearly the whole
of it being occupied by a long lecture or sermon delivered to Arthur by
a “master,” named Amytans, on the duties of a king; the chief one being
that a king should give presents to everybody--a duty which is insisted
on with laborious tediousness. Lines 1320-2130 are almost entirely
occupied with this subject, and will be found to be the driest part of
the whole narrative. In the course of his lecture, Amytans explains at
great length the obscure prophecy mentioned above, shewing that by the
water-lion is meant God the Father, by the leech God the Son, and by the
flower the Virgin Mary. Though the outline of a similar lecture exists
in the old French text, there would seem to be a special reason for the
length to which it is here expanded. Some lines certainly seem to hint
at events passing in Scotland at the time when the poem was composed.
Thus, “kings may be excused when of tender age” (l. 1658); but when they
come to years of discretion should punish those that have wrested the
law. Again we find (l. 1920) strong warnings against flatterers,
concluding (l. 1940) with the expression,

  “Wo to the realme that havith sich o chans!”

Such hints may remind us of the long minorities of James II. and James
III.; and, whilst speaking on this subject, I may note a somewhat
remarkable coincidence. When King Arthur, as related in Book I., asks
the meaning of his dream, he is told that it signifies that “they in
whom he most trusts will fail him” (l. 499); and he afterwards laments
(l. 1151) how his “men fail him at need.” Now when we read that a story
is current of a prophetess having told James III. that he was destined
to “fall by the hands of his own kindred,”[P7] and that that monarch was
in the habit of consulting _astrologers_[P8] (compare l. 432) as to the
dangers that threatened him, it seems quite possible that the poem was
really composed about the year 1478; and this supposition is consistent
with the fact that the hand-writing of the present MS. copy belongs to
the very end of the fifteenth century.

    [Footnote P7: Tytler’s History of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1841), vol.
    iv., p. 216.]

    [Footnote P8: The French text does not say anything about
    “astronomy.” We may especially note the following lines, as _not_
    being in the French, viz., lines 1473-1496, 1523-1542, 1599-1644,
    1658-1680, and the long passage 1752-1998.]

Towards the end of the Second Book, we learn that the twelvemonth’s
truce draws near its end, and that Sir Lancelot again obtains permission
from the lady to be present in the approaching combat, choosing this
time to be arrayed in “armys al of blak” (l. 2426).

In the Third Book Galiot returns to the fight with a host thrice as
large as his former one. As before, Gawain distinguishes himself in the
first encounter, but is at length so “evil wounded” that he was “the
worse thereof evermore” (l. 2706). In the second combat, the black
knight utterly eclipses the red knight, and the last thousand (extant)
lines of the poem are almost wholly occupied with a description of his
wonderful prowess. At the point where the extant portion of the poem
ceases, the author would appear to be just warming with his subject, and
to be preparing for greater efforts.

In continuance of the outline of the story, I may add that the French
text[P9] informs us how, after being several times remounted by Galiot,
and finding himself with every fresh horse quite as fresh as he was at
the beginning of the battle, the black knight attempted, as evening
fell, to make his way back to Melyhalt secretly. Galiot, however, having
determined not to lose sight of him, follows and confronts him, and
earnestly requests his company to supper, and that he will lodge in his
tent that night. After a little hesitation, Lancelot accepts the
invitation, and Galiot entertains him with the utmost respect and
flattery, providing for him a most excellent supper and a bed larger
than any of the rest. Lancelot, though naturally somewhat wearied,
passes a rather restless night, and talks a good deal in his sleep. Next
day Galiot prays him to stay longer, and he consents on condition that a
boon may be granted him, which is immediately acceded to without further
question. He then requests Galiot to submit himself to Arthur, and to
confess himself vanquished, a demand which so amazes that chieftain that
he at first refuses, yet succeeds in persuading Lancelot to remain with
him a little longer. The day after, preparations are made for another
battle, on which occasion Lancelot wears Galiot’s armour, and is at
first mistaken for him, till Sir Gawain’s acute vision detects that the
armour really encases the black knight. As Lancelot now fights on
Galiot’s side, it may easily be imagined how utter and complete is the
defeat of Arthur’s army, which was before victorious owing to his aid
only; and we are told that Arthur is ready to kill himself out of pure
grief and chagrin, whilst Sir Gawain swoons so repeatedly, for the same
reason, as to cause the most serious fears to be entertained for his
life. At this sorrowful juncture Lancelot again claims his boon of
Galiot, who, in the very moment of victory, determines at last to grant
it, and most humbly sues for mercy at the hands of Arthur, to that
king’s most intense astonishment. By this very unexpected turn of
affairs, the scene of dolour is changed to one of unalloyed joy, and
peace is immediately agreed upon, to the satisfaction of all but some
true-bred warriors, who preferred a battle to a peace under all
circumstances. Not long after, Galiot discovers Lancelot with eyes red
and swollen with much weeping, and endeavours to ascertain the reason of
his grief, but with small success. After endeavouring to comfort
Lancelot as much as possible, Galiot goes to visit King Arthur, and a
rather long conference takes place between them as they stand at Sir
Gawain’s bedside, the queen being also present. In the course of it,
Galiot asks Arthur what price he would pay to have the black knight’s
perpetual friendship; to which Arthur replies, he would gladly share
with him half of everything that he possessed, saving only Queen
Guinevere. The question is then put to Gawain, who replies that, if only
his health might be restored, he would wish to be the most beautiful
woman in the world, so as to be always beloved by the knight. Next it is
put to Guinevere, who remarks that Sir Gawain has anticipated all that a
lady could possibly wish, an answer which is received with much
laughter. Lastly, Arthur puts the question to Galiot himself, who
declares that he would willingly, for the black knight’s sake, suffer
that all his honour should be turned into shame, whereat Sir Gawain
allows himself to be outbidden. The queen then obtains a brief private
conference with Galiot, and prays him to obtain for her an interview
with the black knight, who promises to do what he can to that end. He
accordingly sounds the black knight upon the subject, and, finding him
entirely of the same mind, does all he can to promote their
acquaintance, and is at last only too successful; and at this point we
may suppose the Scottish Romance to have stopped, if indeed it was ever
completed. For some account of the Romance of Lancelot, I may refer the
reader to Professor Morley’s English Writers, vol. i., pp. 568-570, and
573; to “Les Romans de la Table Ronde,” par M. Paulin Paris; and to the
Prefaces to the “Seynt Graal,” edited by Mr Furnivall for the Roxburghe
Club, 1861, and “La Queste del Saint Graal,” also edited by the same for
the same club in 1864. In the last-named volume short specimens are
given from thirteen MSS. at Paris, ten of which contain the Romance of
Lancelot. There are also manuscript copies of it in the British Museum,
viz., MSS. Harl. 6341 and 6342, Lansdowne 757, and MS. Addit. 10293.

    [Footnote P9: See Appendix.]


In coming to discuss the dialect, we find everywhere traces of
considerable confusion; but it is not at all easy to assign a
satisfactory reason for this.[P10] Certain errors of transcription soon
shew that the scribe had before his eyes an older copy, which he
mis-read. Thus, in l. 433, we find “set,” where the older copy must have
had “fet,” and which he must have mis-read as “ſet;” and again, in lines
2865, 2883, he has, by a similar confusion between “f” and “ſ,” written
“firſt” instead of “fift.” It is most probable that the older copy was
written in the Lowland Scottish dialect (the whole tone of the poem
going to prove this), as shewn by the use of _ch_ for _gh_, as in
_bricht_ for _bright_, (unless this be wholly due to the scribe); by the
occurrence of plurals in _-is_, of verbal preterites and passive
participles in _-it_, and of words peculiarly Scottish, such as _syne_
(afterwards), _anerly_ (only), _laif_ (remainder), _oft-syss_
(oft-times), etc. Moreover, the Northern _r_ is clearly indicated by the
occurrence of such dissyllables as _gar-t_, 2777, _lar-g_, 2845,
_fir-st_, 2958, 3075; with which compare the significant spellings
_harrmful_, 1945, and _furrde_, 2583. But, on the other hand, it would
appear as if either the author or the copyist had no great regard for
pure dialect, and continually introduces Southern and Midland forms,
mixing them together in an indiscriminate and very unusual manner. We
find, for example, in line 1765,

  “Be{ith} larg and iff{is} frely of thi thing,”

the Scottish form _iffis_ (give) and the Southern _beith_ in close
conjunction; and we find no less than six or seven forms of the plural
of the past tense of the verb “to be;” as, for example, _war_ (3136),
_veir_ (818), _ware_ (825), _waren_ (3301), _veryng_ (2971), _waryng_
(443), etc. If we could suppose that the scribe was not himself a
Scotchman, we might in some measure account for such a result; but the
supposition is altogether untenable, as the peculiar character of the
handwriting (resembling that found, not in English, but in _French_
MSS.) decides it to be certainly Scottish; as is also evident from the
occurrence, in the same hand-writing, of a Scotticised version of
Chaucer’s “Flee from the press.”

    [Footnote P10: For many valuable remarks upon the dialect of the
    poem I am indebted to Mr R. Morris.]

The best that can be done is to collect a few instances of

1. The broad Northumbrian forms _a_, _ane_, _baith_, _fra_, _ga_,
_haill_, _hame_, _knaw_, _law_, _sa_, _wat_, although occasionally
retained, are also at times changed into _o_, _one_, _boith_, _fro_,
_go_, _holl_, _hom_, _know_, _low_, _so_, and _wot_. Thus, at the end of
l. 3246, we find _haill_, which could not have been altered without
destroying the rime; but in l. 3078, we find it changed, in the middle
of the line, into _holl_. In l. 3406, we find _sa_, but only three lines
further on we find _so_ twice.

So, too, we not only find _tane_ (taken), _gais_ (goes), but also the
forms _tone_ and _goß_. See lines 1071, 1073.

2. The true plural form of the verb is shewn by lines 203, 204,

  “Of quhois fame and worschipful dedis
  Clerkis into diuerß bukis _redis_,”

where alteration would have ruined the rime utterly; and the same
termination (_-is_) is correctly used in the imperative mood, as,

          ----“ſo _giffis_ ws delay” (l. 463);

  “And of thi wordis _beis_ trew and stable” (l. 1671);

but the termination _-ith_ is continually finding its way into the poem,
even as early as in the fourth line,

  “_Uprisith_ arly in his fyre chare;”

and in the imperative mood also, as,

  “_Remembrith_ now it stondith one the poynt” (l. 797).

The most singular point of all, however, is this--that, not content with
changing _-is_ into _-ith_ in the 3rd person singular, the scribe has
done the same even in the 2nd person, thus producing words which belong
to no pure example of any distinct dialect. Observe the following

  “O woful wrech, that _levis_ in to were!
  To schew the thus the god of loue me sent,
  That of thi seruice no thing is content,
  For in his court yhoue [= thou] _lewith_ in disspar,
  And vilfully _sustenis_ al thi care,
  And _schapith_ no thinge of thine awn remede,
  Bot _clepith_ ay and _cryith_ apone dede,” etc. (ll. 84-90).

Here _levis_ is altered into _lewith_, not only unnecessarily, but quite
wrongly. For similar mistakes, see ll. 1019, 1369, 1384, 2203. For
examples of correct usage, see ll. 1024, 1337, 1796, 2200, 2201.

3. But the terminations which are used in the most confused manner of
all are _-en_, _-yne_, and _-ing_ or _-yng_. Thus we find the
non-Scottish infinitives, _telen_ (494), _makine_ (191); the constant
substitution of _-ing_ for _-and_ in the present participle;[P11]
a confusion between the past participial ending _-ine_ (more correctly
_-yn_), and the present ending _-and_, thus producing such forms as
_thinkine_ (34), and _besichyne_ (418); and also a confusion between
_-ing_ and the past participial ending _-en_, as _fundyng_ for _funden_
(465), _fallyng_ for _fallen_ (1217, 1322, 3267), _swellyng_ for
_swollen_ (1222), and _halding_ for _halden_ (2259). We even find _-ing_
in the infinitive mood, as in _awysing_ (424), _viting_ (to know, 410),
_smyting_ (1326), _warnnyng_ (1035), _passing_ (2148), _ſchewing_
(2736), etc.; and, lastly, it occurs in the plural of the indicative
present, instead of the Midland _-en_; as in _passing_ (1166), _biding_
(2670), and _levyng_ (3304).[P12]

    [Footnote P11: We find the true forms occasionally, as _obeisand_
    (641), _plesand_ (1731), _thinkand_ (2173), _prekand_ (3089), and
    _fechtand_ (3127). Compare the form _seruand_ (122).]

    [Footnote P12: “The Scottish pronunciation of _-ing_ was already,
    as it still is, _-een_; and the writer, knowing that the correct
    spelling of _dwellin_, for example, was _dwelling_, fancied also
    that _fallen_, _halden_ (Sc. _fallyn_, _haldyn_) were _fallyng_,
    _haldyng_. Lyndesay and Gawain Douglas often do the same. Compare
    _gardinge_ (l. 50), _laiting_ (l. 327).” --J. A. H. Murray.]

It may safely be concluded, however, that the frequent occurrence of
non-Scottish infinitives must not be attributed to the copyist, since
they are probably due rather to the author; for in such a line as

  “Of his desir to viting the sentens” (l. 410),

the termination _-ing_ is required to complete the rhythm of the line.

In the same way we must account for the presence of the prefix _i-_, as
in the line

  “Quharwith that al the gardinge was I-clede” (l. 50).

This prefix never occurs in vernacular Scottish; but we may readily
suppose that this and other numerous Southern forms of words are due (as
in Gawain Douglas and Lyndesay) to the author’s familiarity with
Chaucer’s poems, as evinced by the similarity of the rhythm to
Chaucer’s, and by the close resemblance of several passages. Compare,
for instance, the first seventy lines of the Prologue with the opening
passages of “The Flower and the Leaf,” and “The Complaint of the Black
Knight;” and see notes to ll. 432, 1608. Indeed, this seems to be the
only satisfactory way of accounting for the various peculiarities with
which the poem abounds.

Mr J. A. H. Murray, in his remarks printed in the preface to Mr Lumby’s
edition of “Early Scottish Verse,” comes to a similar conclusion, and I
here quote his words for the reader’s convenience and information.
“There is no reason, however, to suspect the scribe of _wilfully_
altering his original; indeed, the reverse appears manifest, from the
fact that the ‘Craft of Deyng’ has not been assimilated in orthography
to ‘Ratis Raving,’ but distinctly retains its more archaic character;
while in ‘Sir Lancelot,’ edited by Mr Skeat for the Early English Text
Society, from the handwriting of the same scribe, we have a language in
its continual Anglicisms quite distinct from that of the pieces
contained in this volume, of which the Scotch is as pure and unmixed as
that of the contemporary Acts of Parliament. With regard to the
remarkable transformation which the dialect has undergone in Sir
Lancelot, there seems reason, therefore, to suppose that it was not due
to the copyist of the present MS., but to a previous writer, if not to
the author himself, who perhaps affected _southernism_, as was done a
century later by Lyndesay and Knox, and other adherents of the English
party in the Reformation movement. The Southern forms are certainly
often shown by the rhyme to be original, and such a form as _tone_ for
_tane_ = taken, is more likely to have been that of a Northerner trying
to write Southern, than of a Southern scribe, who knew that no such word
existed in his dialect. The same may be said of the _th_ in the second
person singular. A Scotch writer, who observed that Chaucer said _he
liveth_, where he himself said _he lyves_, might be excused for
supposing that he would also have said _thou liveth_ for the Northern
_thow lyves_; but we can hardly fancy a Southern copyist making the

4. We find not only the Northumbrian forms _sall_ and _suld_, but also
_shall_, _shalt_, and _shuld_.

5. As regards pronouns, we find the Scottish _scho_ (she) in l. 1169;
but the usual form is _sche_. We find, too, not only the broad forms
_thai_, _thair_, _thaim_, but also _thei_ (sometimes _the_), _ther_, and
_them_. As examples of forms of the relative pronoun, we may quote
_who_, _quho_, _whois_, _quhois_ (whose), _quhom_, _qwhome_ (whom),
_quhat_, _qwhat_ (what), and _whilk_, _quhilk_, _quhich_, _quich_,
_wich_ (which). _Wich_ is used instead of _who_ (l. 387), and we also
find _the wich_, or _the wich that_, similarly employed. The nominative
_who_ does not perhaps occur as a _simple_ relative, but has the force
of _whoso_, or _he who_, as _e.g._, in l. 1102; or else it is used
interrogatively, as in l. 1172.

6. Many other peculiarities occur, which it were tedious to discuss
fully. It may suffice, perhaps, to note briefly these following. We find
both the soft sound _ch_, as in _wich_, _sich_, and the hard sound _k_,
as in _whilk_, _reke_ (reach), _streke_ (stretch), etc.; which are the
true Northern forms.

_Mo_ is used as well as _more_.

_Tho_ occurs for _then_ in l. 3184; and for _the_ in l. 247.

_At_ occurs as well as _that_; _atte_ as well as _at the_, 627, 1055.

The short forms _ma_ (make), _ta_ (take), _sent_ (sendeth), _stant_
(standeth), are sometimes found; the two former being Northumbrian.

_Has_ is used twice as a _plural_ verb (ll. 481, 496).[P13]

    [Footnote P13: “The plural in Scottish always ends in _-s_ after a
    noun or when the verb is separated from its pronoun; we still say
    _the men hes_, _the bairns sings_, _them ’at cums_, not _have_,
    _sing_, _come_. Notice the frequent use of _th_ for _t_, as in
    l. 497, _Presumyth_ = _presumit_, presumed, it being presumed.”
    --J. A. H. Murray. [Or, _presumyth_ may be the pl. imperative, as
    in _Remembrith_ (l. 797), already noticed. --ED.] ]

_Ȝha_ (yes) occurs in l. 2843; but we also meet with _ȝhis_, or _yis_;
with reference to which Mr Morris writes:-- “The latter term was not
much in favour with the people of the North. Even now _yes_ sounds
offensive to a Lancashire man. ‘Hoo cou’d naw opp’n hur meawth t’ sey
_eigh_ (yea) or _now_ (no); boh simpurt on sed _iss_; th’ dickons iss
hur on him too. --_Tim Bobbin._’” In fact, the distinction between _ȝha_
and _ȝhis_, which I have pointed out in _William of Palerne_ (Glossary,
s.v. _ȝis_), viz., that _ȝha_ merely assents, whilst _ȝhis_ shews
that the speaker has an opinion of his own, is in this poem observed.
Thus, in l. 2843, _ȝha_ = “yes, I admit that I do;” but in l. 514, _yis_
= “yes, but you had better do so;” in l. 1397, _ȝhis_ = “yes, indeed I
will;” and in l. 3406, _ȝis_ = “yes, but I cannot accept your
answer.”[P14] The true distinction between _thou_ and _ye_ (_William of
Palerne_, Pref. p. xli) is also generally observed. Thus the Green Bird,
in the Prologue, considers the poet to be a fool, and calls him _thou_;
but the clerks, in addressing Arthur (l. 498) politely say _ye_. And
again, Amytans, when rebuking Arthur, frequently calls him _thou_,
without any ceremony. Cf. ll. 659, 908, 921, 2839, &c.

    [Footnote P14: “This _ȝis_ is the common form in the Scottish
    writers, though _ay_ is largely the modern vernacular.” --J. A. H.

As regards the vocabulary, we find that some Northumbrian terms have
been employed, but others thrown aside. Thus, while we find the
Northumbrian words _thir_ (these), _traist_ (trust), _newis_ (neives,
fists), _radour_ (fear), etc., we do not, on the other hand, meet with
the usual Scottish word _mirk_, but observe it to be supplanted by
_dirk_ (l. 2471). So, again, _eke_ is used in the sense of _also_,
instead of being a verb, as more usual in Northern works. We may note,
too, the occurrence of _frome_ as well as _fra_, and the Scottish form
_thyne-furth_ (thenceforth) in l. 2196.

The spelling is very various. We find even four forms of one word, as
_cusynace_, _cusynece_, _cusynes_, _cwsynes_; and, as examples of
eccentric spelling, may be quoted _qsquyaris_ (squires, l. 3204), whilst
in l. 3221 we find _sqwar_.

Both in the marginal abstract and in the notes I have chiefly aimed at
removing minor difficulties by explaining sentences of which the
construction is peculiar, and words which are disguised by the spelling.
For the explanation of more uncommon words, recourse should be had to
the Glossarial Index.

[Transcriber’s Note:

Most of the French text was printed as a single continuous block, except
where decorative initials mark new paragraphs. It has been broken up to
accommodate the sidenotes.]



As it seems impossible to do justice to the story of Lancelot without
giving due attention to the famous French Romance, and since a portion
of the French text is really necessary to complete even that fragment of
it which the Scottish author proposed to write, the following extracts
have been made with the view of shewing (1) the general outline of the
earlier part of the story, (2) the method in which the Scottish author
has expanded or altered his original, and (3) the completion of the
story of the wars between Arthur and Galiot.[A1]

    [Footnote A1: The extracts are from the Paris edition of 1513,
    3 vols. folio, a copy of which is in the King’s Library in the
    British Museum. There are also two other editions in the Museum,
    one in the Grenville Library, 3 vols. Paris, 1494, folio; the
    other in one folio volume, Paris, 1520.]

I. Headings of the chapters of the French Romance, from its commencement
to the end of the wars with Galiot.

[The commas are inserted by the present editor, and the expansions
marked by italics.]

  ¶ Cy commence la table du premier volume de la table ro{n}de
  lancelot du lac.

[Sidenote: Claudas, king of Scotland, deprives king Ban and king Boort
of their lands.]

  ¶ Comment apres la mort de vterpandragon roy du royaulme de
  logres, & apres la mort aramon, roy de la petite bretaigne, le roy
  claudas de la terre Descosse mena guerre contre le roy ban de benoic
  et le roy boort de gauues ta{n}t quil les desherita[A2] de leurs
  terres.  Fueillet.    i.

    [Footnote A2: See ll. 1447-1449.]

[Sidenote: Claudas besieges Ban in the Castle of Trible.]

  ¶ Comment le roy claudas assiegea le chasteau de trible
  auquel estoit le roy ban de benoic, et comment ilz parlementerent
  ensemble.  f.    i.

[Sidenote: King Ban, his wife, and his son Lancelot repair to the court
of Arthur.]

  ¶ Comment le roy ban de benoic, accompaigne de sa femme et
  de son filz lancelot, auecq{ue}s vng seul escuyer, se partirent du
  chasteau de trible pour aller querir secours deuers le roy Artus a
  la grant bretaigne.  Fueillet    ii.

[Sidenote: The Castle of Trible is treacherously given up to Claudas.]

  ¶ Comment apres ce que le roy ban fut party de son chasteau
  de trible, le seneschal a qui il auoit baille la garde trahit ledit
  chasteau, et le liura es mains du roy claudas.  Fueillet.    ii.

[Sidenote: King Ban dies of grief, and Lancelot is taken away by the
lady of the lake.]

  ¶ Comment le roy ban mourut de dueil quant il veit son
  chasteau ardoir et brouyr. Et comment la dame du lac emporta son
  filz lancelot.[A3]  Fueillet.    iiii.

    [Footnote A3: Lines 215, 220.]

  ¶ Comme{n}t la royne helaine, apres que le roy fut mort et
  elle eut perdu son filz, se rendit nonnain en labbaye du monstier
  royal.  Fueillet.    v.

[Sidenote: The two sisters, widows of kings Ban and Boort, retreat to a

  ¶ Comment le roy de gauues mourut | & co{m}ment la Royne sa
  femme, pour paour de claudas, sen partit de son chasteau pour aller
  au monstier royal, ou sa seur estait rendue, et comment ses enfans
  Lyonnel et Boort luy furent ostez.  Fueillet    vi.

  ¶ Comment la royne de Gauues, apres que son seigneur fut
  mort et que elle eut perdu ses deux enfans, se vint rendre au
  monastere ou estoit sa seur la royne de benoic.  Fueillet    vi.

[Sidenote: Merlin’s love for the lady of the lake.]

  ¶ Comment merlin fut engendre du dyable: Et comment il fut
  amoureux de la dame du lac.  Fueillet    vii.

[Sidenote: Sir Farien secretly nourishes the two sons of king Boort, and
is made seneschal to king Claudas.]

  ¶ Comme{n}t le cheualier farien, qui auoit tollu a la royne
  de Gauues ses deux enfans, les emporta en sa maison | et les feist
  nourrir vne espace de temps. Et comment le roy claudas fut amoureux
  de la femme du dict Farien | et pource le fist son seneschal.
    Fueillet    viii.

[Sidenote: Claudas accuses Sir Farien of treason.]

  ¶ Comment le roy claudas fist appeller son cheualier farien
  de trahison par ladmonnesteme{n}t de sa femme, disant quil gardoit
  les deux enfans du roy boort de gauues.  Fueillet.    viii.

[Sidenote: Claudas, in disguise, visits Arthur’s court.]

  ¶ comment le roy claudas en maniere de cheualier estrange, se partit
  du royaulme de gauues pour aller en la grant bretaigne a la court du
  roy artus pour veoir sa puissa{n}ce & son gouuernement.
    Fueillet    x.

[Sidenote: The lady of the lake informs Lancelot that he is a king’s

  ¶ Comment la dame du lac bailla a lancelot vng maistre pour
  linstruyre comme il appartenoit a filz de roy.  Fueillet    xii.

  ¶ Comme{n}t la royne helaine alloit faire chascun io{u}r son
  dueil au lieu ou son seigneur mourut | et de la alloit au lac ou
  elle perdit son filz.  Fueillet    xv.

  ¶ Comment le bon Religieux qui auoit dit nouuelles a la
  royne helaine de son filz lancelot, print conge de elle, et sen vint
  au roy artus en la grant bretaigne.  Fueillet    xvi.

[Sidenote: The lady of the lake seeks to deliver the sons of king

  ¶ Comment la dame du lac enuoya sa damoyselle a la court du
  roy claudas, pour delyurer les deux enfans au roy boort que claudas
  tenoit en prison.  Fueillet    xvii.

  ¶ Comment farien, seneschal du roy claudas par le
  comma{n}dement de son seigneur, alla querir en prison les deux filz
  au roy de Gauues.  Fueillet    xviii.

[Sidenote: Lyonnel and Boort wound king Claudas, and slay his son

  ¶ Comment les deux enfans au roy de gauues blecerent le roy
  claudas, & occire{n}t dorin son filz | et comment la damoyselle du
  lac les emmena en semblance de deux leuriers.  fueil.    xix.

  ¶ De la grant ioye et du grant honneur que la dame du lac
  fist aux deux enfans quant elle les veit en sa maison.
    Fueillet    xx.

[Sidenote: Claudas bewails his son’s death.]

  ¶ Comment le roy claudas mena tres grant dueil pour la mort
  de dorin son filz que boort auoit occis.  Fueillet    xx.

  ¶ Comment farien et le peuple de la cyte de gauues
  sesmeure{n}t contre le roy claudas a cause que il vouloit faire
  mourir les deux filz au roy boort de gauues.  Fueillet.    xxi.

[Sidenote: Farien saves Claudas’ life.]

  ¶ Comment le roy claudas se partit de gauues | et comment
  ceulx dudit lieu le vouloient occire, se neust este farien le bo{n}
  cheualier.  f.    xxiii.

  ¶ Comment le roy claudas se deffendit vaillamment contre
  ceulx de Gauues qui le vouloyent occire.  Fueillet.    xxv.

  ¶ Comment lyonnel et boort perdirent le boire et le manger
  pource quilz ne scauoyent nouuelles de leur maistres | lesquelz
  estoyent demourez auec le roy claudas | & comment la dame du lac
  enuoya vne sie{n}ne damoyselle a gauues pour les amener.
    Fueillet.    xxvii.

[Sidenote: Leonce and Lambegues go to seek Lyonnel and Boort.]

  ¶ Comment, par le conseil des baro{n}s de gauues: leonce &
  lambegues sen allerent auecques la damoyselle pour veoir leurs
  seigneurs lyonnel et boort.  Fueillet    xxviii.

  ¶ Comment la dame du lac sen retourna apres ce quelle eut
  monstre a leonce et a lambegues les enfa{n}s du roy de gauues leurs
  seign{eu}rs, et comment lesditz cheualiers sen retournere{n}t a
  gauues.  Fueillet    xxx.

[Sidenote: Claudas meditates revenge.]

  ¶ Comment le roy claudas retourna a gauues, po{u}r soy
  venger de la honte quon luy auoit faicte, et pour la mort de son
  filz.  Fueil.    xxxi.

  ¶ Comment lappointement fut fait entre le roy claudas et les
  barons, par le moyen de farien et lambegues son nepueu.
    fueillet.    xxxiii.

[Sidenote: Death of Farien.]

  ¶ Comme{n}t farien | sa femme, et son nepueu lambegues sen
  partirent pour aller veoir lyonnel et boort, qui estoyent au lac | &
  comment farien mourut.  Fueillet    xxxv.

[Sidenote: The widow of king Boort sees her children and Lancelot in a
vision, and dies.]

  ¶ Comment les deux roynes menerent saincte vie au monstier
  royal | et comment celle de gauues veit ces deux enfans & lancelot
  en aduision | et comment elle trespassa de ce siecle.
    Fueillet.    xxxv.

[Sidenote: Arthur holds a tournament, and Banin, son of king Ban, is the

  ¶ Comment le roy artus assembla le iour de pasques tous ses
  barons, & tint grant court a karahes, et comment banin le filleul au
  Roy ban emporta le pris du behourdys celluy iour.
    Fueillet.    xxxvi.

[Sidenote: The lady of the lake sends Lancelot to Arthur to be knighted,
and provides for him white armour.]

  ¶ Comment la dame du lac se pourpensa de mener lancelot au
  roy artus pour le faire cheualier,[A4] et elle luy bailla armes
  blanches, et partit du lac a tout quarante cheualliers pour le
  conuoyer.  Fueillet    xxxvii.

    [Footnote A4: Line 223.]

[Sidenote: Of the wounded knight who came to Arthur’s court.]

  ¶ Comment vng cheuallier naure, lequel auoit vne espee
  fichee en la teste et deux tronco{n}s de lance parmy le corps,[A5]
  vint a la court du roy artus | et comment la dame du lac le mena
  deuant le roy artus, et luy prya quil le fist cheualier.
    Fueillet    xxxix.

    [Footnote A5: Lines 237-245.]

[Sidenote: Lancelot is knighted.]

  ¶ Comment messire yuain, a qui le roy Artus auoit
  recomma{n}de lancelot, alla faire sa requeste audit roy artus, que
  le lendemain il fist ledit lancelot cheualier, et comment ledit
  lancelot defferra le cheualier naure.[A6]  Fueillet.    xli.

    [Footnote A6: Lines 249-252.]

[Sidenote: How the white knight defended the lady of Nohalt,]

  ¶ Comment la dame de noehault[A7] enuoya deuers le roy
  artus, luy supplier q{u}il luy enuoyast secours contre le Roy de
  norhombellande qui luy menoit guerre. Et comment Lancelot requist au
  roy artus quil luy donnast congie dy aller | & il luy octroya.
    Fueillet      xlii.

    [Footnote A7: Line 255.]

[Sidenote: and won the battle for her.]

  ¶ Co{m}ment le nouueau cheualier aux armes blanches vainquit
  la bataille pour la dame de noehault.  Fueillet    xliii.

  ¶ Comment lancelot apres ce quil se fut party de la dame de
  noehault, se co{m}batit auec vng cheualier qui lauoit mouille.
    Fueillet    xlv.

[Sidenote: How Lancelot conquered the “Sorrowful Castle.”]

  ¶ Comment lancelot conquist vaillamme{n}t par sa force et
  proesse le chasteau de la douloureuse garde q{ue} nul aultre ne
  pouoit conquerre.[A8]  Fueillet    xlv.

    [Footnote A8: Lines 257-259.]

[Sidenote: How Arthur hears of it, and sends Gawain to see if it is

  ¶ Comment les nouuelles vindrent au roy artus que la
  douloureuse garde estoit conquise par la cheualier aux armes
  blanches | Et le roy y enuoya messire gauuain pour en scauoir la
  verite.  Fueillet    xlviii.

[Sidenote: Gawain is imprisoned, and supposed to be dead.]

  ¶ Comment messire Gauuain fut mys en prison | et comment le
  roy et la royne entrerent en la premiere porte de la | et la veirent
  des tu{m}bes ou il y auoit escript que monseigneur gauuain estoit
  mort, et plusieures aultres cheualiers.  Fueillet.    xlix.

[Sidenote: Lancelot hears of Gawain’s imprisonment,]

  ¶ Comment vne damoyselle de lhostel de la dame du lac feist
  assauoir au cheuallier blanc que monseigneur gauuain & ses
  compaigno{n}s estoyent emprisonnez par celluy qui auoit este
  seigneur de la douloureuse garde.  Fueillet    l.

[Sidenote: and delivers him and his companions.]

  ¶ Comme{n}t le blanc cheualier se combatit encontre celluy
  qui auoit este seigneur de la douloureuse garde, q{u}i tenoit en
  prison messire gauuain et ses compaignons.[A9]  Fueillet.    l.

    [Footnote A9: Lines 263, -4.]

  ¶ Comment le cheuallier blanc emmena le cheualier conquis en
  vng hermitaige. et comment ledit cheualier conquis luy rendit audit
  hermitage gauuain & ses compaignons.  f.    lii.

[Sidenote: Gawain returns to Arthur and his Queen at Douloureuse Garde.]

  ¶ Comment messire gauuain et ses compaignons sen vindre{n}t
  par deuers le roy artus qui estoit a la douloureuse garde. Et
  comment le roy et la royne furent ioyeulx quant ilz les virent.
    Fueillet.    liii.

[Sidenote: Lancelot hears of the war to come between Arthur and Galiot.]

  ¶ Comment le cheuallier blanc retourna a labbaye ou il auoit
  laisse ses escuyers | et comment il sceut lassemblee qui deuoit
  estre entre le roy artus et le roy doultre les marches, & co{m}ment
  il conquist le cheualier qui disoit mieulx aymer le cheualier qui
  auoit naure que celluy qui lauoit este.[A10]  Fueillet.    liiii.

    [Footnote A10: See ll. 244, -5.]

[Sidenote: Gawain goes to seek the white knight,]

  ¶ Comment messire gauuain se mist en queste pour trouuer le
  blanc cheuallier.[A11] Et comment la meslee dentre les gens au roy
  des cent cheualiers et les gens de la dame de noehault fut appaisee.
    Fueillet    lv.

    [Footnote A11: Line 267.]

[Sidenote: who is wounded in the battle against Galiot by the

  ¶ Comment le blanc cheualier vainquit lassemble dentre les
  deux roys | et comme{n}t il fut naure du roy des cent cheualiers.
    Fueillet.    lvi.

[Sidenote: Arthur and Queen Genure return home.]

  ¶ Comme{n}t apres que le cheualier qui auoit gangne le
  tournoyement dentre le roy doultre les marches sen fut alle, le roy
  artus & la royne genieure se partirent pour aller en leurs pays.
    Fueillet    lvii.

  ¶ Comment messire gauuain se combatit a brehain-sans-pitie,
  et le rua par terre. et co{m}ment apres ilz sen allerent a la
  douloureuse garde: & comment les deux pucelles que messire Gauuain
  menoit luy furent tollues.  Fueillet.    lviii.

[Sidenote: Lancelot ends the adventures of the “Sorrowful Castle.”]

  ¶ Comment lancelot print congie de son mire | et comment il
  mist a fin les aduentures de la douloureuse garde.
    Fueillet    lx.

[Sidenote: Lancelot is again victorious in the combat between Arthur and

  ¶ Comment messire gauuain recouura les deux pucelles qui luy
  auoyent este tollues, Et comment lancelot vainquit la seconde
  assemblee dentre le roy artus & le roy doultre les marches.
    Fueillet    lxi.

[Sidenote: Gawain returns to Arthur’s court.]

  ¶ Comment messire gauuain retourna a la court du roy artus
  apres la seconde assemblee dentre le roy artus & le roy doultre les
  marches, et comment lancelot vainquit le cheualier qui gardoit le
  gue.  Fueillet    lxiii.

[_Here begins the Scotch Translation._]

[Sidenote: Arthur’s evil dreams.]

  ¶ Comment le roy Artus songea plusieurs songes | et apres
  manda tous les saiges clercs de son royaulme pour en scauoir la
  signifiance.[A12]  Fueillet    lxiiii.

    [Footnote A12: Lines 363-527.]

[Sidenote: Galiot defies Arthur.]

  ¶ Comment le roy doultre les marches, nomme gallehault,
  enuoya deffier le roy artus[A13] | et comment Lancelot occist deux
  geans empres kamalot.[A14]  Fueillet    lxv.

    [Footnote A13: Lines 540-592.]
    [Footnote A14: Line 280.]

[Sidenote: Lancelot is assailed by forty knights, and imprisoned by the
lady of Melyhalt.]

  ¶ Comment lancelot occist vng cheualier q{u}i disoit moins
  aymer le cheualier naure que celluy qui lauoit naure.[A15] | et
  comment il fut assailly de .xl. cheualliers, et mys en prison de la
  dame de mallehault.[A16]  Fueillet    lxviii.

    [Footnote A15: Lines 233-252.]
    [Footnote A16: Lines 281-292.]

[Sidenote: Lancelot, released from prison, is again victorious against

  ¶ Comment gallehault assembla au roy artus vng iour durant
  que lancelot estoit en prison[A17] | et comment le lendemain
  lancelot fut deliure de prison[A18] | et vainquit lassemblee dentre
  les deux roys.[A19]  Fueillet    lxvii.

    [Footnote A17: Lines 634-894.]
    [Footnote A18: Lines 895-974.]
    [Footnote A19: Lines 975-1138.]

[Sidenote: Arthur is reproved by Amytans, and Galiot proposes a truce
for a year.]

  ¶ Comment le roy artus fut reprins de ses vices, et moult
  bien conseille par vng cheualier qui suruint en son ost[A20] | Et
  comment gallehault donna tresues au roy Artus iusques a vng an.[A21]
    Fueillet    lxix.

    [Footnote A20: Lines 1275-2130.]
    [Footnote A21: Lines 1543-1584.]

[Sidenote: Lancelot returns to the lady of Melyhalt.]

  ¶ Comment lancelot, apres ce quil eut vaincu lassemblee,
  retourna en la prison de la dame de mallehault[A22] | et comment
  elle le congneut, a son cheual et par les playes quil auoit, que
  cestoit celluy q{u}i auoit vaincu lassemblee.[A23]
    Fueillet    lxxii.

    [Footnote A22: Lines 1139-1152.]
    [Footnote A23: Lines 1181-1274.]

[Sidenote: Gawain, with 39 comrades, departs to seek the red knight.]

  ¶ Comment messire gauuain, soy quarantiesme de compaignons,
  se mist en queste pour trouuer le cheuallier qui auoit porte lescu
  vermeil a lassemblee dentre le roy artus et Gallehault.[A24]
    Fueillet    lxxii.

    [Footnote A24: Lines 2161-2256.]

[Sidenote: The lady of Melyhalt accepts Lancelot’s ransom.]

  ¶ Comment la dame de mallehault mist a rancon le cheuallier
  quelle tenoit en prison, et le laissa aller quant elle veit quelle
  ne peult scauoir son nom.[A25] fu.  lxxiii.

    [Footnote A25: Lines 2347-2442.]

[Sidenote: The truce ended, Galiot again attacks Arthur.]

  ¶ Co{m}ment messire gauuain et ses compaignons retournerent
  de leur queste[A26] | et comme{n}t apres les treues faillies
  galehault vint assembler co{n}tre le roy artus, & tous ses gens en
  fure{n}t moult troublez.[A27]  fu.      lxxiiii.

    [Footnote A26: Lines 2504-2530.]
    [Footnote A27: Lines 2531-3268.]

[Sidenote: Galiot gains over the black knight.]

  ¶ Comment gallehault suyuit le cheuallier aux noires
  armes,[A28] & fist tant par belles parolles quil lemmena en son ost,
  dont le roy artus et tous ses gens en furent moult troublez.
    Fueillet    lxxviii.

    [Footnote A28: Lines 3343-3487.]

[Sidenote: Lancelot induces Galiot to submit to Arthur.]

  ¶ Co{m}ment lancelot par sa prouesse conquist tout, et fist
  tant que gallehault crya mercy au roy artus.  fu.    lxxix.

[Sidenote: The Queen and Lancelot meet.]

  ¶ Co{m}ment gallehault fist tant que la royne vit lancelot |
  & co{m}ment ilz se arraisonnerent ensemble.  fu.    lxxxi.

[Sidenote: The Queen knows Lancelot from his adventures that he tells

  ¶ Co{m}ment la royne co{n}gneut lancelot apres ce q{u}il eut
  longuement parle a elle, & quil luy eut co{m}pte de ses aduentures.
  & co{m}ment la premiere acointance fut faicte entre la royne &
  la{n}celot p{ar} le moyen de galehault.  fu.    lxxxii.

[Sidenote: Galiot becomes acquainted with the lady of Melyhalt.]

  ¶ Co{m}ment la premiere acointance fut faicte de galehault &
  de la dame de malehault par le moyen de la royne de logres, &
  co{m}me[nt] lancelot & galehault sen alloyent esbatre & deuiser
  auecques leurs dames.  fu.    lxxxiiii.

II. The Chapter of the French romance from which the translator has
taken the beginning of his First Book is here given, in order to shew in
what manner he has treated his original. It begins at Fol. lxiii. _a_,
col. 1.

[Sidenote: Arthur’s evil dreams.]

  Comment le roy artus so{n}gea plusieurs songes, et apres manda tous
  les sages clercz de son royaulme pour en scauoir la signifiance.

[Sidenote: King Arthur being at Cardueil, his knights are annoyed at
meeting with no adventures.]

  ++OR dit le compte que le roy artus auoit longueme{n}t seiourne a
  cardueil. Et pource ny auenoit mie gra{nde}ment de aduentures, il
  ennuya mo{u}lt aux compaignons du Roy de ce q{u}ilz auoient si
  longuement seiourne, & ne veoient riens de ce quilz souloyent veoir.
  Principallement keu le seneschal en fut trop ennuye Et en parloit
  moult souuent, et disoyt deua{n}t le roy que trop estoit ce seio{ur}
  ennuyeulx, & trop auoit dure.

[Sidenote: Sir Kay counsels that they should go to Camelot.]

  Le roy luy demande “Keu | q{ue} vouldriez vous que no{us} feissons?”
  “Certes,” fait keu, “ie conseilleroye que nous allissions a kamalot
  | car la cite est plus aduantureuse q{ue} vous ayez | et la nous
  verrions souuent et orrions choses de merueilles que nous ne voyons
  pas icy. Nous auons seiourne ia icy plus de deux moys, et oncques ne
  y veismes gueres de choses aduenir.”

[Sidenote: The king consents to go;]

  “Or alons donc,” fait le roy, “a Kamalot, puis que vous le

[Sidenote: but the same night dreams that all his hair falls off, which
delays him.]

  Lendemain deust partir le roy | mais la nuyct luy aduint vne
  merueilleuse aduenture. Il songa q{ue} tous les cheueulx de sa teste
  cheoie{n}t, et to{us} les poilz de sa barbe, dont il fut moult
  espouente. Et p{ar} ce demoura encores en la ville.

[Sidenote: The third night after he dreams that all his fingers fall off
except his thumbs.]

  La tierce nuyt apres il songa q{ue} il luy estoit aduis q{ue} tous
  les dois luy cheoie{n}t fors les poulces, & lors fut pl{us} esbahy
  que deuant.

[Sidenote: Again, that all his toes fall off except his great toes.]

  ++A Lautre nuyct songea il q{ue} to{us} les ortelz des piedz luy
  cheoient fors les poulces. de ce fut si trouble que plus ne peult.

[Sidenote: The Queen and his chaplain disregard the dreams;]

  “Sire,” fait son chappelain a q{u}i il lauoit dit, “ne vous chaille
  | car songes ne so{n}t pas a croire;” le roy le dit a la royne, et
  elle respo{n}d tout ainsi q{ue} luy auoit fait so{n} chappelain.

[Sidenote: but Arthur sends for his bishops, archbishops, and their
wisest clerks;]

  “En verite,” dist il, “ie ne laisseray pas la chose ainsi” | il fait
  mander ses euesques et archeuesques q{u}ilz soie{n}t a luy au .ix
  iour ensuyuant a kamalot, & q{u}ilz amainent auec eulx tous les plus
  sages clercz quils po{u}rroient auoir et trouuer.

[Sidenote: whom he imprisons till they shall tell him what the dreams

  A tant se part de cardueil & sen va par les chasteaulx et par les
  citez | tant q{ue} au neufniesme iour est venu a kamalot, et aussi
  sont venus les clercz du pays. Il leur demande co{n}seil de son
  songe, _et_ ilz elise{n}t dix des plus sages: le roy les fist bien
  enserrer, et dist que iamais nen sortiroient de priso{n} deuant
  quilz luy auroient dit la signifiance de son songe.

[Sidenote: After trying for nine days, they fail.]

  Ilz esprouuerent la force de le{u}r scie{n}ce par neuf iours, et
  puis vindre{n}t au roy, & dirent quilz nauoient riens trouue.
  “Ai{n}si maist dieu,” dit le roy, “ia ainsi neschapperez.”

[Sidenote: They twice obtain a delay of three days.]

  Et ils demande{n}t respit iusques au troisiesme iour ensuyuant, et
  il leur donne. Les .iii iours passez, ilz reuiennent deuant le roy,
  et dient que ilz ne peuent riens trouuer | et dema{n}dent encores
  autre delay | et ilz ont. Et de rechief vindrent pour demander
  aultres troys iours de dilacion, ainsi que le roy auoit so{n}ge de
  tierce nuyt en tierce nuyt. “Or sachez,” fait le roy, “q{ue} iamais
  plus nen aurez.”

[Sidenote: The king threatens to slay them.]

  Quant vint au tiers iour ilz dirent quilz nauoient rien trouue; “ce
  ne vault rien,” fait le roy, “ie vous feray tous destruire se vous
  ne me dictes la verite;” et ils dirent. “Sire nous ne vous en
  scairions que dire.” Lors se pense le roy quil leur fera paour de

[Sidenote: Five are to be burnt, and five hung.]

  Il fait fair vng grant feu, & commanda en le{u}rs presences que les
  .v. y fusse{n}t mis, et que les autres cinq soyent penduz | mais
  priueeme{n}t deffent a ses baillifz quilz ne les menassent que
  iusques a la paour de mourir.

[Sidenote: The five who are to be hung, having the cords round their
necks, offer to speak out.]

  Quant les ci{n}q qui furent menez aux fourches euerent les cordes
  entour leurs colz, ils eurent paour de mourir, et dirent, que se les
  aultres cinq le vouloyent dire, ilz le diroyent. La nouuelle vint au
  .v. que len menoit ardre | et ilz dire{n}t que, se les autres le
  vouloyent dire, ils le diroyent | ils furent amenez ensemble
  deua{n}t le roy, et les plus sages dirent

[Sidenote: They stipulate not to be held as liars if their
interpretations fail.]

  | “sire, nous vous dirons ce q{ue} no{us} auons trouue | mais nous
  ne vouldrions mie que vous nous tenissiez a menteurs se il ne
  aduenoit | car nous vouldrions bien quil nen fust rien, et voulons,
  comment quil en aduiengne, que vous nous asseurez q{ue} ia mal ne
  no{us} en aduiendra;” et il leur promet.

[Sidenote: The dreams mean that he will lose his land and his honour.]

  Lors dist lung de eulx qui pour tous parla. “Sire, sachez que ceste
  terre et tout honneur vo{us} conuie{n}dra perdre et ceulx en qui
  plus vous fiez vous fauldront; telle est la substa{n}ce et
  signifiance de voz songes.”

[Sidenote: Arthur asks if anything can avert such fate.]

  De ceste chose fut le roy moult effraye, “Or me dictes,” fait il,
  “sil est chose qui me{n} peult garantir.” “Certes,” fait le maistre,
  “nous auons veu une chose | Mais cest si grande merueille que on ne
  le pourroyt penser, et ne la vo{us} oso{n}s dire.” “Dictes,” fait
  il, “seurement | car pis ne me pouez vous dire que vous mauez dit.”

[Sidenote: He is told, “nothing, except the savage lion and the leech
without medicine, by help of the counsel of the flower.”]

  “Sire, riens ne vous peult garder de perdre tout honneur terrien
  fors le lyon sauluaige, et le mire sans medecine, par le co{n}seil
  de la fleur, & se no{us} semble estre si grande folie que nous ne
  losions dire | Car lyon sauluaige ne y peult estre, ne mire sans
  medecine | ne fleur qui parlast |” le roy est moult entreprins de
  ceste chose: mais plus en fait belle chiere que le cueur ne luy

[Sidenote: Arthur goes to the chase.]

  Ung iour alla le roy chasser au boys bien matin | et mena auec luy
  messire gauuain, keu le seneschal, et ceulx qui lui pleust. Si
  laisse icy le compte a parler de luy, et retourne a p{ar}ler du
  cheualier dont messire Gauuain aporta le nom en court.

[Sidenote: Lancelot on his wanderings.]

  ++QVant[A29] le cheuallier qui lasse{m}blee auoyt vaincu se partast
  de la ou il se combatist a son hoste, il erra toute io{u}r sa{n}s
  autre aduanture trouuer. Il se logea la nuyt chiez une veufue dame a
  lyssue dune forest a cinq lieues angleches pres de kamelot.

[Sidenote: He meets an esquire, and asks him, “what news?”]

  Le cheualier se leua matin, et erra, luy et ses escuyers et sa
  damoyselle, tant q{u}il encontra vng escuyer. “Varlet,” fait il,
  “scez tu nulles nouuelles?”

[Sidenote: “The queen,” he says, “is at Camelot.”]

  “Ouy,” fait il, “ma dame la royne est icy pres a kamalot.” “quelle
  royne” fait il “Le fe{m}me au roy artus,” fait lescuyer.

[Sidenote: Lancelot goes on till he sees a large house, a lady, and her

  Le cheuallier sen part, et cheuauche tant quil treuue vne maison
  forte, et voit vne dame en son surcot, qui regardoit les prez et la
  forest | & auoit auec elle vne damoiselle.

[Sidenote: He regards her fixedly.]

  Le cheuallier se arreste, et regarde la dame moult longuement tant
  quil oublie tout autre chose. Et maintenant passa vng cheuallier
  arme de toutes armes, qui luy dist.

[Sidenote: An armed knight, passing, asks him what he is regarding so

  “Sire cheualier, que attendez vous?” et celluy ne respo{n}d mot |
  car il ne la pas ouy. Et le cheualier le boutte, et luy demande quil

[Sidenote: He replies, that he looks at what pleases him.]

  “Je regarde,” fait il, “ce q{ue} me plaist: Et vous nestes mie
  courtois, qui de mo{n} penser me auez iecte.”

[Sidenote: The knight asks if he knows who the lady is, and he replies
that he knows it is the queen.]

  “Par la foy que vous deuez o dieu,” fait le cheuallier estrange,
  “scauez vous bien qui la dame est que vous regardez?” “Je le cuyde
  bien scauoir,” fait le bon cheualier. “Et q{u}i este elle,” fait
  lautre. “Cest ma dame la royne.” “Si maist dieu, estrangement la
  congnoissez, deables vous font bien regarder dames.” “Pourquoy,”
  faict il. “Pource que vous ne me oseriez suyuir par deuant la Royne
  la ou ie yroye.” “Certes,” faict le bon cheuallier, “se vous osiez
  aller la ou ie vous oseray suyuir, vous aurez passez de couraige
  tous les plus gra{n}s oseurs qui oncques furent.” A tant sen part le
  cheualier. Et le bon cheualier va apres.

[Sidenote: The stranger takes Lancelot home to lodge with him, and he is
well entertained.]

  Et quant ilz ont vne piece alle, lautre luy dist, “vous
  he[r]bergerez ennuyt auec moy, et le matin ie vous meneray la ou ie
  vous diz;” et le bon cheuallier luy demande sil conuient ainsi
  faire. “Oy” | fait il. Et il dist que donc lottroyera il.
  Il geut la nuyt chez le cheualier sur la riuiere de kamalot, et fut
  moult bien herberge, et sa pucelle | et ses escuyers.

    [Footnote A29: There is no trace of the rest of this chapter in
    the Scottish poem.]

  III. Our last extract will shew exactly where the Scottish poem
  suddenly ceases, and how the story was probably continued. For the
  latter purpose, four chapters of the French Romance are added beyond
  the point where the Scotch ends; and it is possible (judging from
  lines 306-312 of the Prologue) that the author did not intend to go
  very much further. The passage begins, in the French copy, at Fol.
  lxxvii. _b_, col. 1; and, in the Scotch poem, at l. 3427.

  Lors descent de son cheual, et la baille au cheualier.

[Sidenote: Galiot gives Lancelot his own horse, and gives orders to his
own men.]

  Et celluy si y monte sans arrest. Et gallehault monta sur vng autre,
  et vient a son conroy | Si prent auec soy les dix mille, et dit
  quilz voisent assembler deuant; “et vous,” fait il au roy vend,
  “viendres apres, si ne assemblerez mie si tost comme ceulx cy seront
  assemblez | mais quant les derrains de ceulx de dela seront venus,
  vous assemblerez, & moy mesmes vous iray querir.”

[Sidenote: He commands the trumpets to be sounded.]

  A tant amaine les dix mille pour assembler,[A30] Et qua{n}t il fut
  entre en la bataille il fist sonner ses busines tant q{ue} tout en
  retentissoit.[A31] Quant le noir cheuallier les ouyt venir, si luy
  sembla que gra{n}t effort de gens eut la, si se retrait vng pou vers
  les siens, et les appella entour luy, & leur dist.

[Sidenote: Lancelot harangues his men.]

  “Seigne{u}rs, vous estes tous amys du roy. Or y perra co{m}me{n}t
  vo{us} le ferez.”[A32]

[Sidenote: Sir Yvain comforts Arthur’s soldiers.]

  Et messire yuain, qui les vit venir, dist a ses gens, “Or soyes tous
  asseurs q{ue} no{us} ne perdro{n}s au iourdhuy p{ar} force de
  gens.”[A33] Et ce disoit il pource quil cuidoit q{ue} les gens
  gallehault fussent tous venus.[A34]

    [Footnote A30: Line 3432.]
    [Footnote A31: Lines 3435-3440.]
    [Footnote A32: Lines 3441-3476.]
    [Footnote A33: Lines 3477-3480.]
    [Footnote A34: Lines 3481-3484.]

  ++QVant les .x.m. de gallehault sassemblerent, si fut gra{n}de la
  noise, et moult en abbatent a le{u}r venir | mais qua{n}t messire
  yuain vint, si reco{n}forta mo{u}lt les gens du roy artus | et
  to{us} les fuyans retourne{n}t auec luy.

[Sidenote: Galiot orders charge.]

  Et gallehault sen va arriere a son conroy, et commande q{ui}lz
  cheuauchent fermement | et quilz se frappent es gens du roy
  artus[A35] de telle maniere[A36] que nul dentreulz ne demeure a
  cheual “Vous estes to{us} frays. Or y perra comment vous le ferez.”
  A tant cheuauchent les conroys deuers le{u}rs ge{n}s, Car ilz
  auoyent ia du pire.

[Sidenote: Galiot’s reserve arriving, his men awhile prevail.]

  Et quant le conroy de Gallehault fut venu, si changa moult laffaire
  | Car moult y auoyt grant effort de gens. Et fut a le{ur} venue le
  cheualier noir mis a terre.[A37] Et aussi les six compaigno{n}s qui
  toute iour auoyent este pres de luy.[A38]

[Sidenote: Galiot again remounts Lancelot.]

  Lors vint gallehault, qui le remonta sur le cheual mesmes ou so{n}
  corps seoit.[A39] Et si tost comme il fut mo{n}te, il sen reuint a
  la meslee aussi frays comme il auoit le io{u}r este. Et qua{n}t il
  vint aux coups donner, tous ceulx qui le veoyent sen
  esmerueilloyent, Ainsi dura la bataille iusques a la nuyt.

[Sidenote: Night arriving, the hosts retreat.]

  Et quant il vint au soir ilz se departirent | et toutesfoys les gens
  du roy Artus en eurent du meilleur.

[Sidenote: Lancelot tries to depart unobserved, but is followed by
Galiot, who prays him to lodge with him for that night.]

  Le bon cheualier se departit de lost le plus coyement quil
  peut,[A40] et sen alla par vng chemin entre les prestz et vng
  tertre, et cuyda que nul ne le veist | mais Gallehault sen print
  tres bien garde, et picqua tant son cheual qui luy fut au deuant par
  vne adresse, et le vint rencontrer au pied du tertre. Si le salue,
  et dit ‘que dieu le co{n}duit.’ Et celuy le regarde en trauers, et
  luy a a moult grant peine re{n}du son salut. “Bel amy,” fait
  galehault, “qui estes vous?” “Sire,” fait il, “ie suis vng
  cheualier, ce pouez vo{us} veoir.” “Certes,” fait galehault,
  “cheualier estes vous meilleur qui soit | & vous estes lhomme du
  monde que plus ie vouldroye honnourer,[A41] et si vous suis venu
  prier que vous herbergez ceste nuyt auec moy.” Et il luy dist ainsi
  co{m}me sil ne lauoit huy veu, “Qui estes vous, sire, q{u}i me auez
  prie de me he[r]berger?” “Je suis gallehault, le sire de ces gens
  icy, vers qui vous auez au iourdhuy gara{n}ty le royaulme de logres,
  leq{ue}l ie eusse ia conquis se ne fust vostre corps.” “Comme{n}t”
  (fait il) “vous estes ennemy de monseigneur le roy artus, et me
  priez de herberger? |

[Sidenote: Lancelot at first refuses, till Galiot agrees to do whatever
Lancelot may require of him, and promises to entertain him sumptuously;]

  Auec vo{us} ne herbergeray ie mie en ce point.” “Haa sire,” faict
  gallehault, “plus feray ie pour vous, et si nay mye a commencer. Et
  ie vous prie que vous y herbergiez par tel conuena{n}t que ie feray
  tout ce que me scaurez requerre.” A tant se arresta le cheuallier,
  et dist a gallehault; “Sire, vo{us} promettez assez | mais ie ne
  scay co{m}ment il est du re{n}dre” | et gallehault luy dist.
  “Sire, se vous he[r]bergez ennuyt auec moy, ie vous donneray tout ce
  que vous oserez diuiser de bouche, et bien vo{us} en feray seur,”

[Sidenote: whereupon they return together to Galiot’s camp.]

  Et lors luy fiance, & apres luy promet bailler bons plaiges; Ado{n}c
  sen vo{n}t tous deux en lost.

    [Footnote A35: Lines 3485, 6.]
    [Footnote A36: Line 3487 _and last_.]
    [Footnote A37: Compare lines 3365-3368.]
    [Footnote A38: Lines 3369, 70.]
    [Footnote A39: Compare lines 3391-3426.]
    [Footnote A40: Compare line 1140.]
    [Footnote A41: Compare lines 2845-8.]

  ¶ Comment gallehault suyuit le cheuallier aux noires armes,
  et fist tant par belles parolles q{u}il le{m}mena en son ost, do{n}c
  le roy artus & tous ses gens en furent moult troublez.

[Sidenote: Gawain, seeing Lancelot with Galiot, tells the Queen that now
they are all lost;]

  ++MEssire gauuain auoyt veu aller le cheuallier au noir escu, & le
  eust voulentiers suiuy sil eust peu mo{n}ter a cheual. Lors regarde
  contre val la riuiere, et voit gallehault et le cheuallier noir qui
  retournoyent pour venir a lost, et dist a la royne, “Haa dame, or
  pouons nous bien dire que nous sommes gens perdus | regardez que
  gallehault a conquis par scauoir,” Et elle regarde, & voyt q{ue}
  cest le cheuallier noir q{ue} gallehault emmaine; si en est tant
  iree quelle ne peut dire mot.

[Sidenote: and swoons away more than three times.]

  Et messire gauuai{n} se pasme en pou dheure pl{us} de trois fois. Le
  roi artus vint leans | et ouyt le cry q{ue} chascun disoit, “il est
  mort, il est mort.” Si vint a luy, et lembrassa, et commenca a
  plorer mo{u}lt tendrement. Et reuient monseigneur Gauuain de

[Sidenote: He tells Arthur that his time of misfortune is come;]

  Et quant il veit le roy artus, il commence a le blasmer, et dit.
  “Ores est venu le terme que les clercz vous disrent.

[Sidenote: for their protector is lost.]

  Regardez le tresor que vous auez huy perdu. celluy vous toldra terre
  qui toute iour la vous a garantie par son corps, et se vo{us}
  fussiez preudhomme vous leussiez retenu, ainsi comme a fait le plus
  preudhomme qui viue, qui par cy deuant lemmaine.”

[Sidenote: Arthur also sees Galiot, and is deeply grieved, but tries to
comfort his nephew.]

  Lors voit le roy gallehault, qui emmenoit le cheuallier, dont il a
  tel dueil que a pou quil ne est cheut | mais de plorer ne se peut
  tenir, et toutesfois faict il la plus belle chere q{u}il peut pour
  son nepueu reconforter. Et si tost q{ue} il vit en la salle, il fist
  gra{n}t dueil | aussi fist chascun preudhomme.

[Sidenote: Galiot and Lancelot arrive at Galiot’s camp, and Lancelot
asks to speak with the two men whom Galiot most trusts.]

  ++TAnt sont allez gallehault et le cheualier quilz sont venus empres
  lost, Adonc luy dist le cheualier, “Sire, ains que ie entre dedans
  vostre ost, faictes moi p{ar}ler aux deux pl{us} preudhommes que
  vous ayez et esquelz vous fiez le plus.” Et gallehault lottroye.
  Lors sen va en son tref, et prent deux des hommes du mo{n}de ou plus
  il se fie, et leur dist, “Venez auec moy et vous verrez le plus
  riche homme du monde.” “Comme{n}t,” font ilz, “nestes vous mie le
  plus riche qui soit au monde?”

[Sidenote: Galiot takes him to the “first-conquest” king and the king of
a hundred knights, and Lancelot repeats to them his compact with Galiot,
and takes their pledge that they will forsake Galiot if he breaks his
agreement, and will go with himself (Lancelot).]

  “Nenny,” dist il | “mais ie le seray ains que ie dorme.” Ces deux
  estoyent le roy premier conquis | et le roi des cent cheualliers.
  Qua{n}t ilz virent le cheuallier, si lui firent moult grant ioye |
  Car ilz le congneurent bien par ses armes. Et le cheuallier leur
  demanda qui ilz estoient | et ilz se nommerent sicomme vous auez ouy
  | et il leur dist. “Seigneurs, vostre sire vous faict moult grant
  honneur | Car il dit que vous estes les deux hommes du monde que
  plus il ayme, et entre luy et moy a vne conuenance que ie vueil que
  vous oyez | Car il ma fiance que pour en nuyt herberger auec luy me
  donnera ce que ie luy vouldray demander.” Et gallehault dist | “vous
  dictes verite.” “Sire,” faict le cheuallier, “ie vueil encores auoir
  la seurte de ses hommes.” Et gallehault dist, “Dictes moy
  co{m}me{n}t.” “Ilz me fianceront,” fait le cheuallier, “q{ue} se
  vous me faillez de co{n}uenant, ilz vous guerpiront et sen viendront
  auec moy la ou ie diray,” Et gallehault dit que ainsi le veult | et
  il le fait fia{n}cer. Lors appella gallehault le roy premier
  co{n}quis a vne part, et luy dist. “Allez auant & dictes a mes
  barons quilz assemblent maintenant a monstre si honnorablement comme
  ilz pourront, et gardez que en mon tref soient to{us} les deduys que
  le{n} pourra trouuer en tout lost.”

[Sidenote: Galiot orders all kinds of entertainments to be brought to
his tent.]

  Lors sen va celluy au ferir des esperons, & fist le commandement de
  son seigneur. Et gallehault tient le cheualier aux parolles, luy &
  son seneschal, tant que le commandeme{n}t fust fait.

[Sidenote: Twenty-eight kings, beside dukes and counts, come to the
feast, and honour Lancelot as the flower of the knighthood of the

  Si ne demoura gueres que encontre eulx vindrent deux cens barons qui
  tous estoient ho{m}mes de gallehault, .xxviii. roys, et les autres
  estoient ducz et contes; la fut le cheuallier telleme{n}t honnoure
  que oncques si grant feste ne fut pour vng homme mescongneu comme
  le{n} fit pour luy a celle fois | et disoie{n}t grans & petis, “Bien
  viengnez, la fleur de la cheualerie du monde” | et il en auoit grant
  honte. Ainsi vindrent iusques au tref de gallehault, si ne
  po{u}rroient estre comtez les deduys et les instrumens qui leans

[Sidenote: Lancelot is richly attired, and nobly served.]

  A telle ioye fut receu, et qua{n}t il fut desarme, gallehault luy
  fit apporter vne robe mo{u}lt riche, et il la vestit. quant le
  ma{n}ger fut prest, ilz se assirent a table, et furent noblement
  seruis, et le cheualier fut mo{u}lt honnoure.

[Sidenote: After supper four beds are prepared, one larger than the
rest, for Lancelot.]

  ++APres manger co{m}manda gallehault a faire quatre litz desquelz
  lung estoit plus grant que les aultres. Quant les litz furent si
  richeme{n}t atournez, gallehault maine le cheuallier coucher. Et
  dist. “Sire, vous gerrez icy;” “Et qui gerra de la?” fait le
  cheualier. “Quattre sergens,” faict gallehault, “qui vous seruiront
  | Et ie iray en vne chambre par dela, affin que vous soyez icy plus
  en paix.” “Haa, Sire, pour dieu,” faict il, “ne me faictes gesir
  plus ayse que ces aultres cheualiers | car tant ne me deuez a
  vilennir.” “Nayez garde,” faict galehault, “Car ia pour chose que
  vous faciez pour moi vo{us} ne serez tenu a villain.”

[Sidenote: Galiot awhile departs, and Lancelot falls asleep.]

  A ta{n}t sen part gallehault. Et le cheuallier commence a penser au
  grant honneur que gallehault luy faisoit. Si lenprise moult | puis
  se coucha, et tantost il sendormit | car moult estoit las;

[Sidenote: Galiot then returns, and lies near Lancelot, and hears how
his guest murmurs in his sleep.]

  Et qua{n}t gallehault sceut quil fut endormy, le plus coyement quil
  peut se coucha en vng autre lit empres luy | et es deux aultres litz
  se coucherent deux cheualiers, et nestoyent en la chambre que eulx
  quatre, sans plus. La nuyt se plaint moult le cheualier en son
  dormant, et gallehault loit bien, car il ne dormoit gueres. Ains
  pensa toute la nuyt a le retenir.

[Sidenote: Next day they go to hear mass, and Lancelot then demands his
arms, wishing to depart.]

  Lendemain le cheualier se leua et alla ouyr messe; et ia estoit
  gallehault leue | car il ne voulut mie que le cheualier laperceust.
  Quant ilz vindrent du monstier, le cheualier demanda ses armes, &
  gallehault dema{n}de pourquoy. Et il dist quil sen vouloit aller. Et
  gallehault luy dist. “Beau doulx amy, demourez | et ne cuydez mye
  que ie vous vueille deceuoir. Car vous noserez ia riens dema{n}der
  que vous nayez. Et sachez q{ue} vous pourriez bien auoir compagnie
  de plus riche homme que ie suis | mais vous ne laurez iamais a homme
  qui plus vous ayme.” “Sire,” faict le cheuallier, “ie demoureray
  donc puis quil vous plaist.

[Sidenote: Galiot induces him to stay, but again promises to do for him
whatever he asks.]

  Car meilleure compaignie que la vostre ne pourroye ie mye auoir |
  Mais ie vous diray presenteme{n}t le don pourquoy ie demoureray auec
  vous | et se ie ne lay, ie ny demoureray ia.” “Sire,” fait
  gallehault, “dictes seurement et vous laurez, se cest chose que ie
  puisse acomplir;”

[Sidenote: Lancelot then demands that Galiot shall submit himself to

  Et le cheuallier appella ses deux plaiges et dist deuant eulx, “Je
  vous demande,” fait il, “q{ue} si tost que vous serez au dessus du
  roy artus, que vous luy alliez crier mercy si tost comme ie vous en
  semondray.” Quant gallehault lentent, si en est tout esbahy, et
  co{m}mence a penser. Et les deux roys luy dirent. “A quoy pensez
  vous icy endroit, de penser nauez mestier | car vous auez tant couru
  que vous ne pouez retourner.”

[Sidenote: Galiot is confounded, and ponders, but then grants Lancelot’s

  “Comment,” faict Gallehault, “cuydez vous que ie me vueille repentir
  | se tout le mo{n}de estoit mien si luy oseroye ie bien do{n}ner.
  mais ie pensoye a vng seul mot quil a dit | mais ia dieu ne maist,”
  dist il, “se vous nauez le don | car ie ne pourroye riens faire
  po{u}r vous ou ie peusse auoir honte. Mais ie vous prye que ne me
  tollez vostre compagnie pour la donner a aultruy;” et le cheualier
  luy creanca. Ainsi demoura | et ilz se asseirent au manger qui
  estoit appreste. Si font moult grant ioye par tout lost du cheualier
  qui est demoure.

[Sidenote: Lancelot remains with him another night.]

  Ainsi passerent celle nuyt. Lendemain gallehault et son compaignon
  allerent ouyr messe, et gallehault luy deist | “Sire, il est huy
  iour dassembler; voullez vous armes porter?” “Ouy,” dist il. “donc
  porterez vous les miennes,” fait gallehault, “pour le commencement.”
  Et il dist quil les porteroit voulentiers | “mais vous ne porterez
  armes,” feist il a gallehault, “si non comme mon sergent?” “Non,”
  dist il. Lors firent apporter les armes, & armerent le cheuallier du
  fort haulbert, & des chausses qui trop estoyent longues & lees;

[Sidenote: Next day, the hosts are again armed for battle.]

  Lors se armerent les gens de gallehault. et pareillement les gens du
  roy Artus, & passerent les lices de telz y eut. Touteffoys le roy
  auoyt deffendu que nul ne les passast. Si y eut de bonnes ioustes en
  pou dheure | si se assemblerent tous les ostz deuant la lice, &
  commencerent a faire armes. Le roy artus estoit a son estandart, et
  auoit commande que ilz menassent la royne a sauluete se la
  descomfiture tournoit sur eulx | quant tous les ostz furent
  assemblez et le bon cheualier fust arme, si cuida chascu{n} que ce
  fust gallehault, & disoyent tous.

[Sidenote: Lancelot is at first mistaken for Galiot; but is recognized
by Gawain.]

  “Voicy gallehault, voicy gallehault” | messire gauuain le
  co{n}gneust bien & dist. “Ce nest mye gallehault | ains est le
  cheualier aux armes noires, le meilleur cheualier du mo{n}de” |

[Sidenote: Arthur’s men cannot stand against Lancelot.]

  & si tost comme ilz furent assemblez, oncques ne se tint le roy
  Artus ne ses ge{n}s depuis que le cheualier y fut arriue | et trop
  se desco{n}fortoyent du bon cheualier q{u}i contre eulx estoit, si
  fure{n}t menez iusques a la lice. car trop estoient grans gens auec
  gallehault. au partir des lices ce tindrent vne piece et souffrirent
  lo{n}gueme{n}t | mais le souffrit ny peut riens valoir. Grant fut le
  meschief des gens au roy artus. et dit le compte q{ue} le cheualier
  neust mie moins de peine de tenir les gens de gallehault que ilz ne
  passassent oultre la lice quil auoit de chasser les gens au roy
  Artus. Et nompourtant moult les auoit supportez | & il les eut mis
  oultre a force sil eust voulu | mais il demoura emmy le pas pour les
  aultres detenir.

[Sidenote: Lancelot calls upon Galiot to keep his compact.]

  Lors regarda tout entour de luy, et commenca a hucher | “gallehault,
  gallehault.” et gallehault vient gra{n}t alleure, et dist. “bel amy,
  que voulez vous?” “quoy,” faict il, “ie vueil que mon conuenant me
  tenez;” “Par ma foy,” fait gallehault, “ie suis tout prest de
  lacomplir puis quil vous plaist.”

[Sidenote: Galiot rides forward, and finds Arthur ready to kill himself
for grief, the Queen being escorted away by a guard of forty knights,
and Gawain wishing to die.]

  Lors picque le cheual des esperons & vient iusques a lestandart ou
  le roy artus estoit, q{u}i faisoit si tresgrant dueil que a peu quil
  ne se occioit pource quil estoit desconfit. Si estoit ia la royne
  mo{n}tee, et lemmenoyent quarante cheualliers. Et monseigneur
  gauuain, que on vouloit emporter en lictiere | mais il dit q{u}il
  aymeroit mieulx mourir en ce point que veoir toute cheualerie morte
  et honnye: si se pasma tellement que len cuydoit bien que il mourust

[Sidenote: How Lancelot makes Galiot cry mercy to Arthur.]

  ¶ Comment lancelot par la prouesse conquis tout, et fist
  tant que galehault cria mercy au roy artus.

  ++QVant le cheualier veit gallehault prest dacomplir son
  co{n}uenant, il iura bien que oncques si loyal compaignon ne fut
  trouue. Il en a telle pytie quil en souspire moult fort, & dit entre
  ses dens.

[Sidenote: Galiot demands to see King Arthur, and, at sight of him,
dismounts, kneels to him, and submits himself to him humbly.]

  “Haa dieu, q{u}i pourra ce desseruir?” & gallehault cheuauche
  iusq{ue}s a lestandart et demande le roy artus. Il vient auant
  mo{u}lt dolent & esmaye comme celluy q{u}i tout honneur et toute
  ioye terrienne cuyde auoir perdue; Et quant gallehault le voit, si
  luy dit. “sire, roy artus, venez auant, & nayez paour | car ie vueil
  a vous parler.” et qua{n}t le roy louyt, il sesmerueille moult que
  ce peult estre; Et de si loing comme galehault le voit venir, il
  descend de son cheual et se agenouille, et dit. “Sire, ie vous viens
  faire droit de ce que ie vous ay meffait; si men repens, et me metz
  en vostre mercy.”

[Sidenote: Arthur, overjoyed, praises God.]

  ++QVant le roy lentend, il a merueilleusement gra{n}t ioye, et lieue
  les mains vers le ciel, louant Dieu de ceste aduanture | et se le
  roy fait bonne chere, encores la faict meilleure Gallehault. et il
  se lieue de genoulx, & sentrebaisent, en font moult grande chere
  lung a lautre. lors dist Gallehault | “sire, faictes vostre plaisir
  de moy | car ie metz en vostre saisine mon corps pour en faire ce
  que il vous plaira.

[Sidenote: Galiot, first asking Arthur’s leave, dismisses his troops to
their tents.]

  Et sil vo{us} plaist, ie yray retraire mes gens arriere, & puis
  reuiendray a vous incontinent.” “Allez doncq{ue}s,” fait le roy |
  “car ie vueil parler a vous.” A tant sen part gallehault & reuient a
  ses gens | & les en faict aller. Et le roy enuoya apres la royne,
  qui sen alloit faisant grand dueil. et les messages cheuauchent tant
  que ilz lattaingnent | et sont venus a elle, & luy comptent la ioye
  que aduenue leur est. Et elle ne le peult croire tant q{ue}lle voy
  les enseignes que le roy luy enuoye. ta{n}t coururent les nouuelles
  que monseign{eu}r gauuain le sceut, lequel en eut grant ioye sur
  tous les aultres, et dist au roy.

[Sidenote: The Queen and Sir Gawain rejoice greatly.]

  “Sire, comment a ce este?” “Certes, ie ne scay,” fait il: “mais ie
  croy que telle a este le plaisir de nostre seigneur.” moult est
  grande la ioye, & moult se esmerueille chascun co{m}ment ce peult
  estre aduenu. Gallehault dist a son compaignon. “que voulez vous que
  ie face? iay fait vostre commandement; & le roy ma dit que ie
  retourne | mais ie vous conuoyeray aua{n}t iusques a voz tentes.”
  “Haa sire,” fait le cheualier, “aincoys vous irez au roy & luy
  porterez le plus grant honneur que vous pourrez.

[Sidenote: Lancelot prays Galiot not to reveal where he is, and they
return to their tents.]

  Et tant auez fait pour moy que ie ne le pourroye desseruir | mais
  tant vous prye, pour dieu | et pour lamour que vous auez a moy, que
  nul ne sache ou ie suis” | ainsi sen vont parlant iusq{ue}s a leurs
  tentes. chascun scait que la paix est faicte | mais plusie{ur}s en
  sont dolens | car mieulx aymassent la guerre que la paix. lors sont
  descenduz les deux compaignons, et si tost quilz furent desarmez,
  Gallehault print vne de ses meilleures robbes pour aller a la court.
  et feist cryer par tout son ost q{ue} chascun sen allast, fors tant
  seullement ceulx de son hostel.

[Sidenote: Galiot commits his guest to the care of the two kings, and
departs to speak with Arthur.]

  Apres appella les deux roys, et leur baille son compaignon, & leur
  commande quilz facent autant de luy comme de son corps mesmes.
  A tant monte Gallehault, et sen va a la court du roy artus. Et le
  roy luy vint alencontre, et la royne qui ia estoit retournee, & la
  dame de malehault auec plusieurs dames & damoyselles.

[Sidenote: Arthur and Galiot go together to the tower where Gawain lies

  A tant vont en la bretesche ou monseigneur gauuain gisoit malade. et
  quant il sceut que gallehault venoit, il sefforce de belle chere
  faire, comme celluy qui oncques mes ne lauoit veu de si pres.

[Sidenote: Gawain welcomes Galiot.]

  lors luy dist | “bien soyez vous venu comme de celluy dont ie
  desiroye moult lacointance | car vous estes lhomme du monde qui plus
  doibt estre prise & ayme a droit de toutes gens. Et ie cuyde que nul
  ne scait si bien congnoistre preudho{m}me co{m}me vous & bien y a
  paru.” Ainsi parle messire gauuain a gallehault, & il luy demande
  comment il luy est | et Gauuain dist. “Jay este pres de mort. mais
  la grant amour qui est entre vous & le roy ma guery.”

[Sidenote: The Queen, the King, and Gawain rejoice at Galiot’s coming,
but he, soon after, departs to see Lancelot for a short time, promising
to return.]

  Moult font grant ioye le roy artus & la royne & monseigneur gauuain
  de la venue de gallehault | et tout le iour ont parle de amour et
  daccointance. Mais du noir cheualier ne tiennent ilz nulles parolles
  | ains passent le iour a resiouyr lung lautre ta{n}t quil vint au
  vespre. Lors demande gallehault congie de ses gens aller veoir.
  Et le roy le luy do{n}ne | “mais vous reuiendrez,” fait il,
  “inco{n}tinent;” et gallehault le luy octroye | si senreuient a son
  compaignon & luy demande comment il a depuis fait | et il luy
  respondit que bien; “Sire,” fait gallehault, “comment feray ie |: le
  roy ma moult prie que ie retourne a luy, & il me feroit mal de vous
  laisser en ce point.”

[Sidenote: Lancelot tells Galiot to do whatever Arthur wishes.]

  “Haa, sire cheualier, po{u}r dieu mercy, vous ferez ce q{ue}
  monseigneur le roy vouldra. car iamais a plus preudhomme que il est
  ne eustes accointance. Mais ie vueil que vous me donnez vng don.” Et
  gallehault luy dist.

[Sidenote: He charges Galiot again not to ask his name, but to tell him
about Arthur.]

  “Demandez ce quil vous plaira | car ie ne vous escondiroye iamais;”
  “Sire,” fait il, “ie vous remercye. Vous me auez donne que vous ne
  me demanderez mon nom deuant q{ue} ie le vous diray.” “Et ie men
  tiendray a tant puis q{ue} vous le voulez,” dit gallehault. “Et ne
  doubtez pas que ce eust este la premiere chose que ie vous eusse
  demande, si men tairay a tant.” Lors luy demanda de laccointance du
  roy artus | mais il ne no{m}me mie la royne | et gallehault dit que
  “le roy est moult preudhomme, & moult me poyse que ie ne lay congneu
  pieca | Car moult en feusse amende |

[Sidenote: Galiot praises the Queen, and Lancelot sheds tears.]

  mais ma dame la royne est sy vaillante que oncques plus honneste
  dame ne vey.” et quant le cheualier ouyt parler de la royne, si se
  embronche et commence a souspirer durement. et gallehault le regarde
  et se esmerueille moult pource q{ue} les larmes luy cheoyent des
  yeulx, si commence a parler daultre chose.

[Sidenote: Lancelot asks Galiot to return to Arthur, and to report to
him all the conversation.]

  ++QVant ilz ont longuement parle ense{m}ble, le cheualier noir luy
  dist. “Allez, si ferez a monseigneur le roy compaignie, et si
  escoutez sy vouz orrez de moy nulles parolles, & vous me compterez
  demain ce que vous aurez ouy.” “Voulentiers, sire,” faict gallehault
  | lors le accolle, et dit aux roys. “Je vous baille en garde cest
  homme comme le cueur de mon ventre.” Ainsi sen va gallehault & le
  cheuallier demeure en la garde de deux preu[d]hommes du pays de
  Gallehault | mais il ne fault mye demander sil fust honnore | car
  len faisoit assez plus pour luy quil neust voulu.

[Sidenote: Lancelot sleeps with the two kings in Galiot’s tent;]

  celle nuyt geurent les deux roys au tref gallehault pour lamour du
  cheualier & luy firent entenda{n}t quilz ny coucheroye{n}t mye | &
  ilz le firent coucher ainsi que Gallehault auoit fait lautre nuyt.

[Sidenote: but awakes at midnight, and makes a great moaning.]

  Au commencement dormit le cheualier mo{u}lt fort, et qua{n}t vint a
  mynuit si comme{n}ca a soy tourner, et commenca a faire vng dueil si
  gra{n}t que tous ceulz qui entour luy estoyent sen esueillerent. Et
  en son refrain disoit souuent. “Haa chetif, que pourray ie faire?”
  Et toute nuyt demena tel deuil. Au matin se leuerent les deux roys
  le plus coyement quilz peurent | & moult se merueillent quil pouoit

[Sidenote: Galiot comes to see after Lancelot, finds him with his eyes
red and swoln, and conjures him to tell him what the matter is.]

  daultre part fut gallehault leue, & vint a son tref veoir son
  compaignon. Il demande aux deux roys que son compaignon fait. Et ilz
  luy dient quil auoit toute nuyt mene grant dueil. Lors entre en la
  chambre ou il estoit, et si tost comme il le ouyt venir il essuye
  ses yeulx; Ado{n}c gallehault, cuidant que il dormist, saillist
  dehors de la cha{m}bre incontinent; apres le cheualier se leua.
  Et gallehault vit que il auoit les yeulx rouges et enflez. Adonc le
  prent par la main, et le tyre a part, et luy dist. “Beau doulx
  compaignon, po{ur}quoy vous occiez vous ainsi? dont vous vient ce
  dueil que vous auez toute nuyt demene, & le desplaisir que vous
  auez? Je vous prye pour dieu que vous me diez la cause, et ie vous
  ayderay se nul homme mortel y peult co{n}seil mettre;”

[Sidenote: Lancelot cries bitterly, and says that it is his heart, which
has all the dread that it is possible for mortal heart to have.]

  & commence a plourer si durement comme sil veist mort la chose du
  mo{n}de que mieulx aymast. Lors est gallehault moult a malayse et
  luy dit, “Beau doulx compaignon, dictes moy vostre mescheance | car
  il nest nul homme au monde, sil vous auoit riens forfait, que ie nen
  pourchassasse vostre droit.” Et il dist que nul ne luy a riens
  meffait. “beau doulx amy, pourquoy menez vous doncq{ue}s si gra{n}t
  dueil? Vous poise il que ie vous ay fait mon maistre & mo{n}
  compaignon?” “Haa,” fait il, “vous auez assez plus fait pour moy que
  ie ne pourroye desseruir, ne riens du mo{n}de ne me met a malaise
  que mon cueur, qui a toute paour que cueur mortel po{u}rrait auoir.
  Si doubte moult que vostre grant debonnairete ne me occie.” De ceste
  chose est gallehault moult a malayse, si reconforte son compaignon.

[Sidenote: They go to Mass, and Lancelot declares his belief that the
Bread is the Body of Christ.]

  Apres allerent ouyr masse. Quant vint q{ue} le prestre eut fait
  trois parties du corps de nostre seigneur, gallehault se trait
  auant, et tient son compaignon par la main, & luy monstre le corps
  de nostre seigneur que le prestre tenoit entre ses mains; Puis luy
  dist. “doncques ne croyez vous pas bien que cest le corps de nostre
  saulueur?” “Voirement le croy ie bien,” fait le cheualier. Et
  gallehault luy dist. “beau doulx amy, or ne me mescreez mye que ces
  trois parties de chair que ie vois en semblance de pain, ia ne feray
  en ma vie chose q{ue} ie cuyde q{u}i vous ennuye: mais toutes les
  choses que ie scauray qui vous plairont, pourchasseray a mon
  pouoir.” “sire,” fait il, “grant mercys.”

[Sidenote: After Mass, Lancelot bids Galiot go again to Arthur.]

  A tant se taisent iusques apres la messe | et lors demanda
  gallehault a son compaignon quil fera; “Sire,” fait il, “vous ne
  laisserez mie le roy en ce poi{n}t | ains yrez luy faire
  compaignie.” “Sire,” faict il, “grant mercys;” A tant sen part de
  luy, si le rebaille aux preudhommes de la court du roy artus. si
  fo{n}t de luy grant signeurie sicomme ilz peuent.

[Sidenote: After dinner the King and Queen visit Gawain, and he asks
Galiot who made peace between him and Arthur.]

  ++ET quant vint apres disner, sy furent le roy & la royne &
  gallehault appuyez au lict de messire gauuain, tant q{ue} messire
  gauuain dist a gallehault. “Sire, or ne vous poise dune chose que ie
  vous dema{n}deray.” “Certes,” fait galehault, “non fera il.” “sire,
  celle paix qui fut entre vous & mon oncle, par qui fut elle, par la
  chose au monde q{u}i plus vous aymez?”

[Sidenote: “A knight,” says Galiot. “But what knight?” asks Gawain.]

  “Sire,” fait il, “vous me auez tant coniure que ie le vous diray.
  Vng cheualier la fist.” “Et qui est le cheualier?” fait messire
  gauuain. “Si maist dieu,” fait gallehault, “ie ne scay.” “Qui fut
  celluy aux noires armes?” deist messire gauuain. “Ce fut,” fait il,
  “vng cheualier;” “Tant,” fait il, “en pouez vo{us} bien dire | mais
  acquitter vous conuient.” “Je me suis acquite de ce que me
  coniurastes. Ne plus ne vous en diray ores | ne rien ne vous en
  eusse ores dit, se vous ne me eussiez coniure.”

[Sidenote: “The Black Knight,” answers the Queen; “show him to us.”]

  “Par dieu,” faict la royne, “ce fut le cheuallier noir | mais
  faictes le nous monstrer.” “Qui | moy, dame?” faict gallehault, “ie
  le vous puys bien monstrer sicomme celluy qui rie{n}s nen scait!”
  “Taisez vous,” fait la royne, “il est demoure auec vo{us}, & hier
  porta voz armes.”

[Sidenote: “I cannot,” says Galiot; “he is not from my country;”]

  “Dame,” fait il | “il est vray | mais ie ne le vys oncques puis que
  ie party du roy a la premiere fois.” “comment,” fait le roy, “ne le
  cognoissiez vous mye | ie cuydoye que il fust de vostre terre.” “Si
  maist dieu, non est,” fait gallehault. “certes,” fait le roy, “ne de
  la myenne non est il mye.” |

[Sidenote: and Galiot will not disclose the knight’s name, but asks
Arthur if he ever saw a better knight, and what he would give to know
him henceforth.]

  Moult tindrent longuement gallehault a parolle le roy et la royne
  pour auoir le nom du cheualier | mais plus nen peurent traire. et
  messire gauuain craint quil ne ennuye a gallehault, si dist au roy.
  “Or en laissez a tant le parler. certes le cheualier est preudhomme,
  & pleust a dieu que ie luy ressemblasse.” Moult loe messire gauuain
  le cheualier. Si en ont la parolle laissee | et gallehault la
  recommence et dit. “Sire, veistes vous oncques meilleur cheuallier
  que celluy au noir escu?” “certes,” fait le roy, “ie ne vy oncques
  cheualier de qui ie aymasse mieulx laccointance po{u}r cheualerie;”
  “Non,” | fait gallehault. “Or me dictes,” faict gallehault, “par la
  foy que vous deuez a ma dame q{u}i cy est, combien vous vouldriez
  auoir donne pour auoir son accointance a tousioursmais?”

[Sidenote: “Half of all I have, except my wife,” Says Arthur.]

  “Si maist dieu,” faict il, “ie luy partiroye la moytie de tout ce
  que ie po{u}rroye auoir, fors seullement de ceste dame.” “Certes,”
  fait gallehault, “assez y mettriez.

[Sidenote: “And what would you give, Gawain?”]

  Et vous, messire gauuain, se dieu vous doint sante que tant desirez,
  quel meschief en feriez vous pour auoir compaignie a si preudhomme?”
  Et qua{n}t messire gauuain lot, si pense vng petit comme celluy qui
  ne cuyde iamais auoir sante.

[Sidenote: “I should like to turn woman if he would love me all his

  “Se dieu me donnoit la sante que ie desire | ie vouldroye
  ore{n}droit estre vne des plus belles dames du monde, par conuenant
  quil me aymast to{us} les iours de sa vie.” “par ma foy,” fait
  gallehault, “assez y auez mis.” “Et vous, madame, quel meschef
  feriez vous par conuena{n}t que vng tel cheualier fust tousiours en
  vostre seruice?”

[Sidenote: “I can offer no more than Gawain,” says the Queen.]

  “par dieu,” fait elle, “messire gauuain y a mis toutes les offres
  que dame y peult mettre.” Et mo{n}seigneur gauuain & tous aultres se
  commencerent a rire. “Gallehault,” fait messire gauuain, “qui tous
  nous auez adiurez par le serment que ie vous co{n}iuray, ores qui
  vouldriez vous y auoir mys?”

[Sidenote: “Well,” says Galiot, “I would turn all my honour into shame,
for his sake.”]

  “Si maist dieu,” faict gallehault, “ie y vouldroye auoir tourne mon
  honneur a honte, par tel si q{ue} ieusse a tousioursmais vng si bon
  cheualier en ma compaignie.” “Sy maist dieu,” faict messire gauuain,
  “plus y auez mys que nous.”

[Sidenote: So Gawain concludes that it was the Black Knight who brought
about the peace.]

  et lors se pensa messire gauuain que cestoit le noir cheualier qui
  le paix auoit faicte | car pour luy auoit tourne son honneur a
  honte, quant il veit quil estoyt au dessus. Et le dist gauuain a la
  royne, & se fut la cause do{n}t gallehault fut plus prise; Moult
  tindrent longuement parolles du cheualier.

[Sidenote: The Queen walks away with Galiot, tells him she loves him
much, and prays him to let her see the Black Knight.]

  et la royne sadressa, et dist quelle sen voulloit aller vers la
  bretesche pour veoir les prez, et gallehault la conuoye: si le print
  la royne par la main & luy dist. “Gallehault, ie vous ayme moult, &
  il est vray que vous auez le cheualier en vostre baillie, & par
  aduenture il est tel que ie le congnois bien; si vous prie si cher
  que vous auez mamour, que vous faciez tant que ie le voye.” “Dame,”
  fait gallehault, “ie nen ay encores nulle saisine | & ne le vy puis
  que la paix fut faicte de moy & du roy.

[Sidenote: He promises to do all he can for her;]

  Et se il estoit or en mon tref, si y conuiendroit il aultre voulente
  q{ue} le vostre & que la mienne. Et bien saichez que tant me auez
  coniure q{ue} ie mettray tout le pouoir que ie pourray. co{m}ment
  vous pourrez parler a luy?”

[Sidenote: and the Queen says, “I shall be sure to see him if you try,
for he is in your custody. Send and get him.”]

  “se vous en faictes vostre pouoir,” fait elle, “ie le verray bien, &
  ie men attens a vous, et faictes tant que ie soye vostre a
  tousiours: car cest vng des hommes du monde que ie verroye plus
  voulentiers.” “Dame,” fait il, “ie en feray mon pouoir.” “Grant
  mercys,” fait elle. “Or gardez que ie le voye au plus tost que vous
  pourrez | car il est en vostre baillie, ie le scay bien | et se il
  est en vostre terre, enuoyez le querre.” Atant sen part gallehault &
  sen vient au roy.

[Sidenote: Arthur wishes Galiot’s people and his own to be brought
nearer to one another.]

  Et mo{n}seigneur gauuain & le roy lui dient. “gallehault, ie suis
  deliure de mes gens, ores faictes approcher voz ge{n}s des nostres,
  ou ie feray approcher les nostres des vostres | Car nous sommes a
  priuee mesgnie.” “Sire,” faict gallehault, “ie feray approcher les
  miens daultre part de cest riuiere si que mon tref sera endroit le
  vostre, et sera vne nef appareillee en quoy nous passerons dicy la
  et de la icy.” “Certes,” fait le roy, “moult auez bien dit.”

[Sidenote: Galiot returns to Lancelot, tells him what the King, Gawain,
and the Queen have said of him, and asks him what answer he shall give
the Queen.]

  ++LOrs sen va Gaillehault en sa tente, et trouue son compaignon
  mo{u}lt pensif. Il luy demande co{m}ment il a puis fait; Et il dist,
  “bien, se paour ne me mestriast.” et gallehault dist, “de quoy auez
  vous telle paour?” “que ie ne soye co{n}gneu,” dist il. “or nen ayez
  mie paour, car vous ny serez ia congneu, se vostre voulente ne y
  est;” Lors luy compte les offres que le roy et messire gauuain ont
  faict pour luy, et ce que la royne dit | et comment la royne la tenu
  a grant parlement de le veoir | et comme il luy respondit. “et
  saichez que elle na de nully si tres grant desir de veoir comme de
  vous. Et mo{n}seigneur la Roy ma prye que ie face mes gens approcher
  | car nous sommes trop loing lung de lautre. Or me dictes que vous
  voulez que je face | car il est en vostre plaisir.” “Je loue que
  vous facez ce que monseign{eu}r le roy vous prye;” “Et a ma dame que
  respondray ie, beau doulx amy?” “Certes,” fait il, “ie ne scay.”
  Lors commence a souspirer.

[Sidenote: Lancelot sighs, and says, “Whatever you advise.”]

  Et gallehault luy deist. “Beau doulx amy, ne vous esmayez point |
  mais dictes moy comment vous voulez quil soit | car bien saichez
  quil sera ainsi comme vous vouldrez | et ie aymeroye mieulx estre
  courrouce a la moytie du monde que a vous tout seul. ores me dictes
  quil vous en plaist.” “Sire,” faict ledit cheualier, “ce que vous me
  louerez | car ie suis en vostre garde desormais.”

[Sidenote: “There will be no harm in seeing her,” answers Galiot.]

  “Certes,” fait gallehault, “il me semble que pour veoir ma dame la
  royne il ne vous peult empyrer.”

[Sidenote: Lancelot says the matter must be managed secretly; and they
agree that Galiot shall tell the Queen he has sent to seek for

  Lors apperceut galehault assez de son penser, & le tient si court
  quil luy octroye ce quil demande | “mais il conuiendra,” faict il,
  “que il soyt faict celeement, que nul ne le saiche | fors moy et
  vous.” Et gallehault dit que il ne se soulcye point. “Or dictes,”
  (fait le cheualier a gallehault,) “a ma dame que vous me auez enuoye
  querre.” “Sur moy en laissez le surplus,” dit Gallehault. Lors sen
  part a tant, et commanda ses trefz a tendre la ou il auoit en
  conuenant au roy | et son seneschal fist son commandement.

[Sidenote: How Guinevere and Lancelot meet and talk.]

  ¶ Comment gallehault fist tant que la royne veit Lancelot,
  Et comment ilz se araisonnerent ensemble, et parlerent de plusieurs

[Sidenote: The Queen asks Galiot what he has done for her.]

  ++A Tant sen partit gallehault & sen vient au tref du roy, & si tost
  comme la royne le voit, si luy courut a lencontre, & luy dema{n}de
  comment il auoit exploycte la besongne. “dame,” faict il, “ie en ay
  fait tant que ie craing que lamour de vostre pryere ne me tolle la
  chose du monde que ie ayme plus.” “Sy maist dieu,” faict elle, “vous
  ne perderez riens par moy que ie ne vous rende ou double | mais que
  y pouez vo{us},” fait elle, “perdre?” “Celluy mesmes que vous
  demandez,” fait gallehault | “Car ie doubte quil ne se courrouce, et
  que ie ne le perde a tousiours.” “Certes,” faict elle, “ce ne
  pourray ie pas rendre | mais ia par moy ne le perderez, se dieu
  plaist. Et touteffoys dictes moy quant il viendra” |

[Sidenote: “Sent to seek for your knight,” says he.]

  “dame,” fait il, “quant il pourra | car ie lay enuoye querre, et
  croy que il ne demourra mye longuement.” De leur conseil entendit
  ung peu la dame de mallehault qui sen prenoit garde et nen faisoit
  mye semblant.

[Sidenote: Galiot returns to his men, and tells his Seneschal to bring
Lancelot when he sends for him.]

  Lors sen partit gallehault et vient a ses gens qui estoyent logez la
  ou il auoit commande.

  ++QVant il fut descendu, il parla a son Seneschal et luy deist |
  “quant ie vous enuoyeray querir, venez a moy, vous & mon compaignon
  en ce lieu la.” Et le roy des cent cheualiers, qui son seneschal
  estoit, dist que mo{u}lt voulentiers feroit son commandement & son

[Sidenote: Galiot then goes back to the Queen, says he thinks she will
see her knight that evening, and appoints to meet her in an Orchard

  Lors salua Gallehault son compaignon, et sen retourna a la court. Et
  quant la royne veit gallehault qui estoit venu, elle luy dist que il
  gardast bien et loyaulment ce quil luy auoit promis. Et il luy dist
  | “dame, ie cuyde que vous verrez ennuyt ce que vous auez tant
  desire.” Quant elle ouyt ce, si en fut moult ioyeuse, et moult luy
  ennuya ce iour pour sa voulente acomplir du desir q{ue} elle auoit
  de parler a celuy ou toutes ses pensees estoyent. Lors luy deist
  Gallehault, “nous yrons apres soupper en ce vergier la aual” | et
  elle luy octroye.

[Sidenote: After supper the Queen goes to the Orchard, and Galiot sends
for his Seneschal and the Knight, who come.]

  Quant ce vint apres souper, si appelle la royne | la dame de
  mallehault | et dame Lore de cardueil, une sienne pucelle, et sen
  vont tout droit la ou gallehault auoyt dit | et gallehault prent ung
  escuyer et luy dist. “Va et dy a mon seneschal que il viengne la ou
  ie luy commanday.” Et celuy y va. Apres ne demoura guaires que le
  seneschal y vint, luy et le cheualier. Ilz estoye{n}t tous deux de
  grant beaulte; Quant ilz approchere{n}t, si congneut la dame de
  mallehault le cheualier comme celluy que elle auoyt eu maint iour en
  sa baillie. Et pource quelle ne vouloit mye que il la congneut, se
  embroncha, et ilz passent oultre. le seneschal les salue. Et
  gallehault dit a la royne. “Dame, lequel vous semble il que se
  soit?” | et elle dit.

[Sidenote: The Queen at first cannot think that either is the black
knight, but one is so bashful that she fixes on him, seats him by her,
smiles on him, says she has so longed to see him, and now he must tell
her who he is. “I don’t know,” he answers.]

  “Certes, ilz sont tous deux beaulx cheualliers | mais ie ne voy
  corps ou il puisse auoir tant de prouesse que le noir cheualier
  auoit.” “or saichez, dame, que cest lung de ces deux” | a tant sont
  venuz auant, et le cheuallier tremble si que a peine peult saluer la
  royne, & la royne sen esmerueille. lors se agenouillent eulx deux,
  et le cheualier la salue | mais cest moult pourement | car moult
  estoit honteux. Lors se pense la royne que cest il. Et gallehault
  dit au seneschal. “allez, si faictes a ces dames compaignie.” Et
  celluy fait ce que son sire luy comma{n}de. A doncq{ue}s la royne
  prent le cheualier par la main & le assiet iouxte elle. Sy luy fait
  moult beau semblant & dit en riant. “Sire, moult vo{us} auons
  desire, tant que, dieu mercy et gallehault, vous voyons. et
  nonpourtant encores ne croy ie mye que ce soit celluy que ie demande
  | & gallehault ma dit que cestes vous | & encores vouldroye scauoir
  qui vous estes par vostre bouche mesmes, se vostre plaisir y
  estoit.” Et celuy dit que il ne scait | et oncques ne la regarda au
  visaige. Et la royne ce esmerueille que il peult auoir, tant quelle
  souspeconne une partie de ce quil a.

[Sidenote: Galiot leaves the two to themselves, and the Queen asks the
knight, “Are not you he who wore the black armour, and overcame

  Et gallehault, qui le voigt si honteux, pense quil veult dire a la
  royne son penser seul a seul. lors sen vient messire gauuain celle
  part, et fait rasseoir les damoyselles pour ce que leuees sestoient
  encontre luy. Puis commence{n}t a parler de maintes choses. Et la
  Royne dit au cheuallier, “Beau sire, pourquoy vous celez vous de
  moy? Certes il ne y a cause pourquoy; nestes vo{us} mie celluy qui
  porta les noires armes, et qui vainquist lassemblee?” “Dame, nenny”
  | “et nestes vous pas celluy qui porta lendemain les armes a
  gallehault?” “Dame, ouy;” “Do{n}c estes vous celluy qui vainquistes
  lassemblee qui fut faicte le premier iour par deuer{s} nous et
  par[A42] deuers Gallehault?”

[Sidenote: “No, I am not,” saith he, refusing to praise himself.]

  “Dame, non suis.” Quant la royne ot ainsi parler le cheualier, a
  donc appercoit elle bien quil ne veult mie congnoistre quil eust
  vaincue lassemblee, si len prise mieulx la royne | car quant vng
  homme se loe luy mesmes, il tourne son honneur a honte | et quant
  aultruy le loe, adonc il est mieulx prise.

[Sidenote: “Then who made you a knight, and when?”]

  “Or me dictes,” fait la royne a lancelot | “q{ui} vous fist
  cheuallier?” “Dame,” fait il, “vous;” “Moy?” fait elle, “Et quant?”

[Sidenote: “You, at Kamalot, when the pieces of a spear were drawn out
of the wounded knight, and you girded on my sword, thus knighting me,
and I went away to help the Lady of Noehault, and sent you two damsels.]

  “Dame,” fait il, “vous remembrez vous point quant vng cheuallier
  vint a Kamalot, lequel estoyt naure de deux troncons de lance au
  corps, et dune espee parmy la teste, et que vng varlet vi{n}t a
  co{ur}t en vng vendredy, et fut cheualier le dymenche, et deffera le
  cheuallier?” “De ce,” fait elle, “me souient il bien | et se dieu
  vous aist, feustes vous ce q{ue} la dame du lac amena en court vestu
  dune robe blanche?” “Dame, ouy.” “Et pourquoy dictes vous donc que
  ie vous fis cheuallier?” “Dame,” fait il, “ie dys vray | Car la
  coustume est telle que nul ne peut estre cheuallier sans ceindre
  espee. Et celluy de qui il tient lespee, le faict cheuallier; de
  vous la tiens ie. Car le roy ne la me donna onques. Pour ce dis ie
  que vous me feistes cheualier.” De ce est la royne mo{u}lt ioyeuse |
  “ou vous en allastes vous au partir de co{ur}t?” “Dame, ie men allay
  pour secourir la dame de noehault;” “Et durant ce temps me mandastes
  vous riens?” “Dame, ouy | ie vo{us} enuoyay peux pucelles.” “Il est
  vray,” dist la royne. “Et quant vous partistes de noehault,
  trouuastes vous nul cheuallier qui se reclamast de moy?”

[Sidenote: Then I met a man, who said he was your knight, and I fought
him (for which I crave your pardon).]

  “Dame, ouy; vng qui gardoit vng gue, et me dist que descendisse de
  dessus mon cheual et le vouloit auoir, et ie luy demanday a qui il
  estoit | et il dist a vous. Puis luy demanday apres, qui le
  commandoyt. Et il me dist quil nauoyt nul commandement que le
  sie{n}. Et adoncques remys le pied en lestrief et remontay |
  Car ie estoye ia descendu | et luy dis que il ne lauoyt point, et me
  combatis a luy. Et ie scay bien que ie vous fis oultraige, si vous
  en crie mercy” | “Certes a moy ne en feistes vous point | Car il
  nestoyt mye a moy | et luy sceuz mauluais gre de ce quil ce reclama
  de moy. Mais or me dictes on vous en allastes la?”

[Sidenote: After that I took the Sorrowful Castle, and there I saw you
thrice, last when you thought you had lost Gawain and his companions,
and I helped to deliver him from prison.”]

  “Dame, ie men allay a la douloureuse garde” | “& qui la conquist?”
  “Dame, ie y entray” | “et ne vous y viz ie oncques.” “Ouy, plus de
  troys foys.” “Et en quel temps?” fist elle. “Dame,” fist il, “vng
  iour que ie vous demanday se vous vouliez leans entrer; Et vous
  deistes ouy | et estiez moult esbahye par semblant.” “Et quel escu
  portiez vo{us}?” “Dame, ie portay a la premiere foys vng escu blanc
  a vne bande de belif vermeille. Et lautre foys vng ou il y auoyt
  deux bendes” | “Et vous vys ie plus?” “Ouy, la nuyt que vous cuidiez
  auoir perdu messire Gauuain et ses co{m}paignons, et que les gens
  cryoyent que le{n} me prenist; Je vins hors a tout mon escu a troys
  bendes.” “Certes,” faict elle, “ce poise moy | car se on vous eust
  detenu, tous les enchantements feussent demourez | Mais or me
  dictes, fustes vous ce qui iettastes messire Gauain de prison?”
  “Dame, ie y ayday a mon pouoir.” “Certes,” faict elle, “en toutes
  les choses q{ue} vous me dictes ie nay trouue si non verite.

[Sidenote: The Queen asks the knight who was in the turret above his
room there.]

  Mais or me dictes qui estoit en vne tournelle dessus la chambre

[Sidenote: “A damsel whom I never dishonoured, but I asked her not to
leave till she saw my messenger or me, which I then forgot, and kept her
there a very long time.”]

  “Dame, cestoyt vne pucelle que ie ne villennay oncques | Car ma dame
  du lac la me auoyt enuoyee | si me trouua en ceste tournelle | il
  fut assez qui la honnora pour moy. Quant ie ouy nouuelles de
  monseigneur Gauuain, si en fut mo{u}lt angoisseux, et men party de
  la Damoyselle qui auecques moy debuoit venir, et luy priay que elle
  ne se remuast tant que elle eust mon messaige ou moy. Si fus si
  surprins de tresgrant affaire que ie loubliay | et elle fut plus
  loyalle uers moy que ie ne fus courtois vers elle | car oncques ne
  se remua iusques a ce q{ue}lle eut mes enseignes, et ce fut grant
  piece apres.”

    [Footnote A42: The original has _pat_.]

[Sidenote: How the Queen knew Lancelot.]

  Comment la royne congneut Lancelot apres q{u}il eut lo{n}guement
  parle a elle, et q{u}il luy eut compte de ses adue{n}tures. Et
  comment la premiere acointance fut faicte entre lancelot et la royne
  genieure par le moyen de gallehault.

[Sidenote: When she heard of this damsel the Queen knew it must be
Lancelot, and asks him if he was the knight whom Daguenet took.]

  ++QVant la royne eut parle de la damoiselle, si scait bien q{ue}
  cest La{n}celot. Si luy enquist de toutes les choses q{ue}lle auoit
  ouy de luy, et de toutes le trouua vray disa{n}t; “Or me dictes,”
  fait elle, “vous vy ie puis?”

[Sidenote: He answers “Yes;” and that two rascals killed his horse, and
Ywain gave him another.]

  “Ouy, dame, telle heure que vo{us} me eustes bie{n} mestier | car
  ieusse este noye a kamalot se ne eussiez vous este.” “Comment!
  feustes vous celluy que daguenet le fol print?” “Dame, prins fus ie
  sans faulte.” “Et ou alliez vous?” “Dame, ie alloye apres vng
  cheuallier.” “Et vous combatistes vous a luy” | “dame, ouy.” “Et
  dillec ou allastes vous?” “Dame, ie trouuay deux grans villains que
  me occirent mo{n} cheual | mais messire yuain, qui bonne aduenture
  ayt, men donna vng.”

[Sidenote: “Ah, then your name is Lancelot,” says she, “and for what
lady or damsel did you do such feats of arms the day before yesterday?”]

  “Ha, ha,” fait elle, “ie scay bien qui vous estes; Vous auez nom
  lancelot du lac.” Il se taist. “Par dieu,” faict elle, “pourneant le
  celez | long temps a que messire Gauuain apporta nouuelles de vostre
  nom a co{ur}t;” Lors luy compta comment messire yuain auoit compte
  que la damoyselle auoit dit | cest la tierce. “Et anten quelles
  armes portastes vous?” “Vnes vermeilles.” “Par mo{n} chef cest
  verite. Et auant hier pourquoy feistes vo{u}s tant darmes comme vous
  feistes?” Et il commenca a souspirer. “Dictes moy seurement | Car ie
  scay bien que pour aulcune dame ou damoyselle le feistes vous, et me
  dictes qui elle est, par la foy que vous me deuez.”

[Sidenote: “For you, Lady; and for you I broke the three lances that
your maiden brought me for you had made me your _friend_, and said I was
your knight in all lands, and bid me adieu as your own sweet friend.]

  “Haa, dame, ie voy bien quil le me conuient dire, cestes vo{us}.”
  “Moy?” faict elle. “Voire, dame.” “Pour moy ne ro{m}pistes vous pas
  les troys lances que ma pucelle vous porta?” “Car ie me mis bien
  hors du mandement, dame; ie fis pour elle ce q{ue} ie deuz, et pour
  vous ce que ie peux.” “Et combien a il que vous me aymez tant?” “Des
  le iour que ie fus tenu pour cheuallier, et ie ne lestoye mye” |
  “Par la foy que vous me deuez, dont vindrent ces amours que vous
  auez en moy mises?” “dame,” fait il, “vous le me feistes faire qui
  de moy feistes vostre amy, se vostre bouche ne me a me{n}ty.” “Mon
  amy!” faict elle, “comment?” “Dame,” fait il, “ie vins deuant vous
  quant ie eu prins congie monseigneur le roy | si vous commanday a
  dieu, et dis que ie estoye vostre cheuallier en tous lieux. Et vous
  me dictes que vostre amy et vostre cheuallier voulliez vous que ie
  feusse. Et ie dys, “a dieu! dame.” Et vous distes “a dieu! mon beau
  doulx amy!”

[Sidenote: That word has never left me, but always been my strength and

  Ce fut le mot qui preudhomme me fera, se ie le suis, ne oncques puis
  ne fus a si grant meschef que il ne men remembrast. Ce mot ma
  conforte en to{us} mes ennuys. Cest mot ma de tous maulx guary. Cest
  mot ma fait riche en mes pouretez;” “Par ma foy,” fait la royne, “ce
  mot fut en bo{n}ne heure dict | et dieu en soyt aoure | ne ie ne le
  prenoye pas acertes comme vous feistes, et a maint preudhomme ay ie
  ce dict ou ie ne pensay oncques riens que le dire.

[Sidenote: “Oh, but that was only an ordinary compliment,” says
Guinevere, to tease him.]

  Mais la coustume est telle des cheualliers que font a mainte dame
  semblant de telles choses dont a gueres ne leur est au cueur.” Et ce
  disoit elle po{ur} veoir de combien elle le pourroit mettre en

[Sidenote: This grieves Lancelot so that he nearly faints, at which
Galiot is greatly grieved, tells the Queen that Lancelot is the
gallantest and truest of men, and prays her to have mercy on him.]

  Car elle veoit bien quil ne pretendoit a autre amour que a la sienne
  | mais elle se delectoyt a sa malaisete veoir, et il eut si grant
  angoisse que par vng pou q{u}il ne se pasma | & la royne eut paour
  quil ne cheist, si appella gallehault, et il y vint acourant. Quant
  il voyt q{ue} son compaigno{n} est si courrouce, si en a si gra{n}t
  angoisse q{ue} plus ne peut. “Haa, dame,” fait gallehault, “vous le
  nous pourrez bien tollir, et ce seroit trop grand do{m}maige.”
  “Certes, sire, se seroit mo{n};” “Et ne scauez vous pour qui il a
  tant fait darmes?” faict gallehault. “Certes, nenny,” faict elle |
  “mais, se il est veoir ce qui ma este dict, cest pour moy;” “Dame,
  se maist dieu, bien len pouez croire | car aussi comme il est le
  plus preudho{m}me de tous les hommes | aussi est son cueur plus vray
  que tous aultres.” “Voireme{n}t,” fait elle, “diriez vous quil
  seroit preudhomme se vous scauiez quil a fait darmes puis quil fut
  cheuallier.” Lors luy compte tout ainsi co{m}ment vous auez ouy |
  “et saichez quil a ce faict seullement pour moy,” fait elle. Lors
  luy prie gallehault, & dist. “Pour dieu, dame, ayez de luy mercy, et
  faictes pour moy ainsi comme ie fis pour vous quant vous men

[Sidenote: “What mercy?” says she;]

  “Quelle mercy voulez vous que ien aye?” “Dame, vous scauez que ie
  vous ayme sur toutes, et il a fait po{u}r vous plus que oncques
  cheualier ne fist po{u}r dame, et sachez que la paix de moy et de
  monseign{eu}r neust ia este faicte se neust il este.”

[Sidenote: “there is nothing he can ask of me that I will not do; but he
will not ask.”]

  “Certes,” faict elle, “il a plus faict pour moy que ne pourroye
  desseruir, ne il ne me pourroyt chose requerre dont ie le peuisse
  esconduyre | mais il ne me requiert de riens | ains est tant
  melencolieux que merueilles.” “Dame,” fait gallehault, “auez en
  mercy; il est celluy qui vo{us} ayme plus que soy mesmes. Si maist
  dieu, ie ne scauoye riens de sa voulente quant il vint, fors quil
  doubtoit de estre congneu, ne oncques plus ne men descouurit.” “Je
  en auray,” fait elle, “telle mercy comme vous vouldrez.” “Dame, vous
  auez fait ce que ie vous ay requis; aussi doy ie bien faire ce q{ue}
  vous me requerez.” Se dit la royne, “il ne me requiert de riens.”

[Sidenote: “He does not dare,” answers Galiot, “but I will ask for

  “Certes, dame,” fait gallehault, “il ne ose | car le{n} ne aymera ia
  riens par amo{ur}s que len ne craigne | mais ie vous en prie pour
  luy, & se ie ne vous en priasse, si le deussiez vo{us} pourchasser.
  Car plus riche tresor ne pourriez vous conquester.”

[Sidenote: “Then I will grant it,” says Queen Guinevere. Galiot prays
her to give Lancelot her love, and become his loyal lady all her life.]

  “Certes,” fait elle, “ie le scay bien et ie en feray tout ce que
  vous commanderez.” “Dame,” fait Gallehault, “grant mercy. Je vous
  prie que vous luy donnez vostre amour, et le retenez pour vostre
  cheuallier a tousiours, et deuenez sa loyalle dame toute vostre vie
  | et vous le aurez fait plus riche que se vo{us} luy auiez donne
  tout le monde.”

[Sidenote: She promises to be Lancelot’s, and that she will do
everything she is told.]

  “Certes,” faict elle, “ie luy ottroye que il soyt mien | et moy
  toute sienne, et que par vous soyent amendez tous les meffaitz.”
  “Dame,” faict Gallehault, “grant mercy. Or conuient il commencement
  de seruice;” “Vous ne deuiserez riens,” fait la royne, “que ie ne

[Sidenote: “Then kiss Lancelot before me,” says Galiot.]

  “Dame,” faict il, “grant mercy | donc baisez le deuant moy pour
  commencement de vrayes amours.”

[Sidenote: This Guinevere agrees to do, if Lancelot wishes it.]

  “Du baiser,” faict elle, “ie ne voy ne lieu ne temps | et ne doubtez
  pas,” faict elle, “que ie ne le voulsisse faire aussi voullentiers
  quil feroit | mais ces dames sont cy qui mo{u}lt se merueillent
  q{ue} no{us} auons tant fait, si ne po{ur}royt estre que ilz ne le
  vissent. Nompourtant, se il veult, ie le baiseray voullentiers.” Et
  il en est si ioyeulx que il ne peult respondre si non tant quil

[Sidenote: Galiot says there is no doubt about Lancelot’s wish;]

  “Dame,” faict il, “grant mercy” | “dame,” faict Gallehault, “de son
  vouloir nen doubtez ia | Car il est tout vostre, bien le saichez, ne
  ia nul ne sen apperceuera; Nous troys serons ensemble ainsi comme se
  nous conseillions” | “Dequoy me feroye ie pryer” | faict elle |
  “plus le vueil ie que vous.” Lors se trayent a part, et font
  semblant de conseiller.

[Sidenote: and as he is bashful, the Queen takes him by the chin, and
kisses him before Galiot. (The Lady of Mallehault sees her.)]

  La Royne voyt que le cheuallier nen ose plus faire, si le prent par
  le menton, et baise deuant Gallehault assez longuement. Et la dame
  de Mallehauli (_sic_) sceut de vray que elle le baisoyt. Lors parla
  la Royne qui moult estoyt sage & vaillant dame.

[Sidenote: Guinevere tells Lancelot that she is his, but charges him to
keep the matter secret, and Galiot too.]

  “Beau doulx amy,” faict elle, “tant auez faict que ie suys vostre;
  Et moult en ay grant ioye. Or gardez que la chose soyt celee. Car
  mestier en est. Je suys une des Dames du monde dont len a greigneur
  bien dict, Et se ma renommee empiroyt par vous, il y auroyt layde
  amour et villaine | et vous, Gallehault, ie vous prye que mon
  honneur gardez | Car vous estes le plus saige | Et se mal men
  venoyt, ce ne seroyt si non par vous; Et se ien ay bien et ioye,
  vous me lauez donnee.”

[Sidenote: Galiot promises this, and asks Guinevere to make Lancelot his
companion for ever.]

  “Dame,” faict Gallehault, “il ne pourroyt vers vous mesprendre, et
  ien ay bien faict ce que vous me commandastes. Or vous prye que
  faciez ma voulente ainsi comme iay fait la vostre;” “Dictes,” fait
  elle, “tout ce quil vo{us} plaira hardyment | car vous ne me
  scauriez chose comma{n}der que ie ne face.” “Dame,” faict il, “donc
  mauez vous ottroye que ie seray son compaignon a tousiours.”
  “Certes,” fait elle, “se de ce vo{us} failloit, vous auriez mal
  employe la peine que vous auez prinse pour luy et pour moy.”

[Sidenote: She takes Lancelot’s hand, gives him to Galiot, and says she
has given him Lancelot of the Lake, son of King Ban.]

  Lors prent le cheuallier par la main, et dict. “Gallehault, ie vous
  donne ce cheualier a tousiours sans ce que iay auant eu, et vous le
  me creancez ainsi” | et aussi le cheualier luy creance | “scauez
  vous,” fait elle, “Gallehault, que ie vous ay donne lancelot du lac,
  le filz au roy ban de benoic;” Ainsi luy a fait le cheualier
  congnoistre, qui moult en a grant honte.

[Sidenote: This gives Galiot more joy than ever he had before, as he had
often heard how Lancelot was the gallantest knight in the world.]

  Lors a gallehault greigneure ioye quil neust oncq{ue}s | car il
  auoit maintesfois ouy dire, comme parolles vont, que cestoyt le
  meilleur cheualier et le plus preux du monde, et bien scauoit que le
  roy ban auoit este moult gentil ho{m}me, et moult puissant de amys
  et de terre.

  ++AInsi fut faicte la premiere acointance de la royne et de lancelot
  par gallehault | et Gallehault ne lauoit oncques congneu que de
  veue, et pource luy fait creancer q{u}il ne luy demanderoit son nom
  tant quil luy dist, ou autre po{ur} luy. Lors se leuerent tous
  troys, et il anuytoit durement.

[Sidenote: By the bright moonlight they recross the meads towards
Lancelot’s tent, and Galiot sends Lancelot there, while he conducts the
Queen to Arthur’s tent, and tells him they have only been looking at the
fields by themselves.]

  Mais la lune estoyt leuee, si faisoit cler | Si que elle luysoyt par
  toute la praerie | Lors sen retournerent a vne part contrement les
  prez droit vers le tref le cheualier, & le seneschal et gallehault
  vint apres luy & les dames ta{n}t q{u}ilz vindre{n}t endroit les
  te{n}tes de gallehault. Lors enuoya Gallehault son compaignon a son
  tref, et prent co{n}ge de la royne, et gallehault la conuoye iusques
  au tref du Roy. Et qua{n}t le roy les veyt, si demanda dont ilz
  venoyent. “Sire,” fait Gallehault, “nous uenons de veoir ces pres a
  si peu de compaignie comment vo{us} veez.” Lors se assient, et
  parlent de plusieurs choses; si sont la Royne et Gallehault moult

  ++AV chef de piece se leua la royne, et sen alla en la bretesche;
  gallehault la conuoya iusq{ue}s la.

[Sidenote: Galiot sees the Queen to her tower, and then takes leave of
Arthur and of Gawain, and goes to Lancelot’s bed.]

  Puis la comma{n}de a dieu, et dist quil sen yroit gesir auec son
  compaignon. “Bien auez fait,” dit la royne, “il en sera plus ayse” |
  A tant sen part gallehault, et vient au roy prendre congie, et dist
  quil ne luy desplaise, et que il yra gesir auec les gens pource quil
  ny auoyt geu de grant piece, et dist. “Sire, ie me doibz pener de
  faire leur voulente | car ilz me ayment moult.” “Sire,” fait messire
  gauuain, “vo{us} dictes bien, et len doit bien honnorer telz
  preudhommes q{u}i les a.” Lors sen part gallehault et vient a son
  compaignon; Ilz se coucherent to{us} deux en vng lict, et deviserent
  la une piece. Si nous laisserons ores a parler de gallehault & de
  son compaignon, et dirons de la royne qui est venu en la bretesche.

[Sidenote: Queen Guinevere goes to the window to think, and the Lady of
Mallehault asks her why four are bad company.]

  ++QVa{n}t gallehault fut party, la royne sen alla en vne fenestre,
  et comme{n}ce a penser a ce que plus luy plaisoyt. La dame de
  mallehault saprocha delle quant elle la vit seulle, et luy dist le
  plus priueement que elle peut. “Haa, dame! pourquoy ne est bonne la
  compaignie de quatre?”

[Sidenote: At first Guinevere will not hear this, but the Lady repeats
it; the Queen asks why she says it, and the Lady asks pardon, as perhaps
she has said too much.]

  La royne le ouyst bien, si ne dit mot, et fait semblant q{ue} riens
  nen ouyt. Et ne demoura gueres q{ue} la dame dist celle parolle
  mesmes; la royne lapella et dist. “Dame, pourquoy auez ce dit?”
  “Dame,” fait elle, “pardonnez moi, ie nen diray ores plus | car par
  aduenture en ay plus dit que a moy napartient | & le{n} ne se doit
  mi faire plus priuee de sa dame que len est | car tost en acquiert
  on hayne.”

[Sidenote: “No,” says Guinevere, “speak boldly out; I wish it.”]

  “Si maist dieu,” fait la royne, “vous ne me po{ur}riez rie{n}s dire
  do{n}t vous eussiez ma haine | ie vous tiens tant a saige et a
  courtoyse, que vous ne diriez riens qui fust encontre ma voulente |
  Mais dictes hardyment | Car ie le vueil, et si vous en prie.”

[Sidenote: “Then I must say that I think four very good company. I saw
the new acquaintance you made to-day, and know he is the man who loves
you most in the world.]

  “Dame,” fait elle, “donc le vous diray ie | Je dy que moult est
  bonne la compaignie de quatre; Jay huy veu nouueau accointement
  q{ue} vous auez faict au cheuallier qui parla a vous la bas en ce
  vergier. Et scay bien que cest la personne du mo{n}de qui plus vous
  ayme, et vous ne auez pas tort se vous laymez | car vous ne pourriez
  vostre amour mieulx employer;” “Comment,” fait la royne, “le
  congnoissez vous?”

[Sidenote: I kept him a year and a half in prison, and gave him both the
red and the black arms in which he won the tourneys;]

  “Dame,” fait elle, “telle heure a este ouen que ie vous en eusse
  bien peu faire refus comme vous en pouez ores faire a moy | car ie
  lay tenu vng an et demy en prison. Cest celluy qui vaincquit
  lassemblee aux armes vermeilles | & celle de deuant hier aux armes
  noires, les vnes & les autres luy baillay ie; Et quant il fut auant
  hier sur la riuiere pensif, et ie luy voulu mander q{ue} il fist
  vaillamment armes, ie ne le faisoye sinon pour ce que ie esperoye
  quil vous aymast; si cuydoye telle heure fust que il me aymast |

[Sidenote: and I thought then that he loved me, but he soon undeceived

  Mais il me mist tost hors de cuyder, tant me descouurit de son
  penser.” Lors luy compta co{m}ment elle lauoyt tenu en prison an et
  demy | et pourquoy elle lauoit prins.

[Sidenote: The Queen answers, “But tell me why four are better company
than three.”]

  “Or me dictes,” fait la royne, “quelle compaignie vault mieulx de
  quatre que de troys | car mieulx est vne chose celee par trois que
  par quatre.” “Certes non est cy endroit, et si vo{us} diray.

[Sidenote: “Because, though your knight loves you, he loves Galiot too,
and they will not stay here long, but you will; and if you have no one
else to tell your thought to, you will be forced to keep your faith to
yourself; but if you will let me be a fourth, we can comfort one

  Vray est que le cheualier vous ayme, et aussi fait il gallehault, et
  desormais se confortero{n}t lung lautre en quelque terre quilz
  soient. Car icy ne sero{n}t ilz pas longuement: et vous demourerez
  cy toute seule, et ne le scaura nul fors vous | ne si ne aurez a qui
  descouurir vostre pensee, si porterez ainsi vostre faix toute seulle
  | mais sil vo{us} pleust que ie fusse la quarte en la compaignie
  entre nous deux dames, nous solacierons ainsi co{m}me entre eulx
  deux cheualiers feront, si en seriez plus aise.” “Scauez vous,” fait
  la royne, “qui est le cheuallier?” “Se maist dieu,” fait la dame,
  “nen{n}y.” “Vous auez bien ouy co{m}ment il se couurit vers moy.”

[Sidenote: Queen Guinevere agrees to this with great joy, and tells the
Lady that the knight is Lancelot of the Lake.]

  “Certes,” faict la royne, “moult estes apparceuante, et moult
  conuiendroit estre sage qui vous vouldroit rien embler, & puis que
  ainsi est que vous lauez aperceu, et que vous me requerez la
  compagnie, vous laurez | mais ie vueil que vous portez vostre faix
  ainsi co{m}me ie feray le mie{n}.” “Dame,” faict elle, “ie feray ce
  que il vous plaira, pour ci haulte compaignie auoir.” “En verite,”
  faict la royne, “vous laurez | car meilleure compaignie que vous ne
  pourroye ie mye auoir,” “Dame,” fait elle, “nous serons ensemble
  toutes les heures quil vous plaira.” “Jen suys ioyeuse,” faict la
  Royne. “Et no{us} affermerons demain la compaignie de nous quattre.”
  Lors luy compte de Lancelot, comment il auoyt ploure quant il
  regarda deuers elle, “et ie scay que il vous congneut, et saichez
  que cest lancelot du lac, le meilleur cheuallier qui viue.” Ainsi
  parlerent longuement entre elles deux | et font moult grant ioye de
  le{ur} accointement nouueau.

[Sidenote: At night the ladies sleep together, and talk of their new
loves, the Lady of Mallehault saying that she never loved but one, and
then only in thought (and that was Lancelot).]

  Icelle nuyct ne souffrit oncques la Royne de logres que la dame de
  mallehault geust sinon auec elle | mais elle y geut a force. Car
  elle doubtoyt moult de gesir auec si riche dame; Quant elles furent
  couchees si commencerent a parler de leurs nouuelles amours; La
  royne demanda a la dame de mallehault selle a[y]me nulluy par
  amours, et elle luy dict que nenny. “Saichez, dame, que ie naymay
  oncques que vne foys, ne de celle amour ne fis ie que penser;” et ce
  dit elle de lancelot, quelle auoit tant ayme co{m}me femme pourroit
  aymer homme mortel | Mais elle nen auoit oncques aultre ioye eue,
  non pourtant ne dit pas que ce eust il este.

[Sidenote: The Queen thinks she will make the Lady and Galiot fall in
love with one another.]

  La royne pensa quelle feroyt ses amours de elle et de gallehault,
  mais elle nen veult parler iusques a ta{n}t quelle scaura de
  gallehault sil la veult aymer ou non | car autrement ne len
  requerroit elle pas.

[Sidenote: Next morning they go to Arthur’s tent and wake him, and then
return over the meadows where the meeting with Lancelot took place, and
the Queen tells the Lady of Mallehault all about it, and then praises
Galiot as the wisest and best man in the world.]

  Lendemain se leuerent matin elles deux, & allerent au tref du roy,
  qui gisoit la pour faire a monseigneur gauuain et aux aultres
  cheualiers compaignie. La royne sesueilla, & dist, “que moult estoyt
  mauluais qui a ceste heure dormoyt.” Lors se tournerent contreual
  les prez, et dames et damoyselles auec elles. Et ils allerent la ou
  laccointement damours auoyt este faict, et dict la Royne a la dame
  de mallehault toute laccointance de lancelot | et comme il estoit
  esbahy deuant elle, et riens ne luy laissa a dire. Puis commenca a
  louer gallehault, et dit que cestoit le plus saige homme et le plus
  vertueulx du monde; “Certes,” fait elle, “ie luy compteray
  lacointance de nous deux quant il viendra, et sachez que il en aura
  gra{n}t ioye. Or allo{n}s | car il ne demourra gueres quil ne

The rubric of the next chapter is as follows:

[Sidenote: How Galiot became acquainted with the Lady of Melyhalt.]

  ¶ Co{m}me{n}t la premiere acointa{n}ce fut faicte de gallehault et
  de la dame de malehault p{ar} le moye{n} de la royne de logres. Et
  comme{n}t lancelot & gallehault sen alloie{n}t esbatre et deuiser
  auec leurs dames.

It relates how Queen Guinevere requires Galiot to let her dispose of his
love as he had disposed of hers. To this he consents, and she commends
him to the Lady of Mallehault. Next, they arrange for the promised
_parlement de eulx quatre_; and the queen points out to Lancelot the
lady who had so many a day kept him in prison, i.e., the Lady of
Mallehault. At recognizing his old acquaintance, Lancelot feels somewhat
distressed, but is reassured by observing the new love-making between
her and Galiot. Seated in a wood, the four “demourerent grant piece, ne
oncq{ue}s ne tindrent parolles, fors tant seullement de accoller & de
baiser comme ceulx qui voulentiers le faisoyent.”

We next hear of Gawain’s recovery, and of the separation of the party of
four above spoken of. Galiot takes Lancelot home with him to his own
country, whilst the Lady of Mallehault remains for a time with the queen
and Arthur. When Lancelot is next spoken of, he is in Galiot’s country,
where we will now leave him.


  P. xxiii. _Descosse_ = _d’Écosse_, of Scotland. In Old French, words
  are frequently run together; thus we have _labbaye_ for _l’abbaye_,
  _sesmeurent_ for _s’émeurent_, etc. Also the letter _s_ is often
  replaced in modern French by an acute or circumflex accent; so that
  _Escosse_ = _Êcosse_; _chasteau_ = _château_, etc.
    The word _si_ often occurs below with a great variety of meanings,
      _viz._ I, he; and, also; so, thus; etc.

  P. xxiv. _baille_, given, entrusted.
    _brouyr_ (_brûler_), being burnt.
    _monstier_, monastery.
    _gauues_, so in the original throughout; _gaunes_ is used in other

  P. xxv. _auecques_ = _avec_, with.

  P. xxvi. _aduision_, vision.
    _behourdys_, tournament.
    _naure_, wounded.
    _deffera_ = _desferra_, un-ironed; it means that Lancelot drew the
      weapons out of the knight’s wounds.
    _deuers_, “Préposition relative au temps et au lieu dont on parle;
      près, vers, contre, proche; de _versus_.” Roquefort.
    _octroya_, permitted (authorized).
    _mouille_, _lit._ wetted; insulted.

  P. xxvii. _veirent_, saw.
    _escript_ (_écrit_), written.
    _lassemblee_, the gathering; _i.e._ the war, strife.
    _rua_, overthrew.

  P. xxviii. _mire_, physician.
    _gue_, ford, pass.
    _tresues_, a truce; spelt _treues_ on p. xxix.

  P. xxix. _esbatre_, to divert oneself. In modern French, _s’ébattre_.

  P. xxx. _orrions_, shall hear.
    _deust_ = _dût_.
    _cheoient_, from _cheoir_, to fall. Compare _chûte_.
    _poilz_, hairs.
    _esbahy_, amazed.
    _ortelz_, toes.
    _chaille_; from _chaloir_, to be anxious about.
    _dilacion_, delay.

  P. xxxi. _paour_, fear.
    _mire_, physician.
    _veufue_, old.

  P. xxxii. _cheuauche_, rides.
    _boutte_, buts, pushes.
    _iecte_ (_jeté_), cast.
    _cuyde_, I believe.
    _Si maist dieu_, so God aid me. Here _maist_ is put for _m’aist_.
    _oncques_, ever.
    _ennuyt_, this night, to-night.
    _lottroyera_, will grant him his request.
    _conroy_, troops.

  P. xxxiii. _derrains_ (_derniers_), last.
    _busines_, trumpets.
    _Or y perra_, now it will appear.
    _cuidoit_, believed; from the old verb _quider_.
    _cheuauchent_, ride.
    _ia_, already.
    _tertre_, a small hill.

  P. xxxiv. _adresse_, a cross-path.
    _huy_, just before; _lit._ this day. Lat. _hodiè_.
    _se pasme_, swoons.
    _leans_, thither.

  P. xxxv. _ores_, now.
    _huy_, to-day.
    _preudhomme_, a wise and prudent man.
    _lottroye_, permits him.
    _tref_, tent.
    _nenny_, no!
    _ains_, before.
    _guerpiront_, will leave.
    _deduys_, amusements, diversions.

  P. xxxvi. _leans_, there.
    _gerrez_, will lie.
    _las_, tired.
    _Ains_, but.

  P. xxxvii. _semondray_, shall ask.
    _esbahy_, amazed.
    _tollez_, take away.
    _creanca_, promised.
    _lees_, wide, full.
    _lices_, lists.

  P. xxxviii. _emmy le pas_, in the midst of the passage.
    _hucher_, to cry aloud.

  P. xxxix. _lieue_, lifts.
    _saisine_, disposal.
    _enseignes_, tokens.
    _aincoys_, first of all.

  P. xl. _oncques mes_, never.
    _a resiouyr_ (_réjouir_), in amusing.
    _escondiroye_, will refuse.
    _me poyse_, it troubles me.
    _pieca_, long ago.
    _se embronche_, covers his face.

  P. xli. _sen esueillerent_, awoke thereat.
    _Adonc_, then.
    _riens forfait_, anyway injured.

  P. xlii. _ne me mescreez mye que_, do not doubt me more than.

  P. xliii. _doint_, gives, were to give.

  P. xliv. _mesgnie_, properly the _suite_ or household of a prince; see
      Roquefort s.v. _magnie_ and _maignee_.
    _nef_, a boat.
    _loue_, advise.

  P. xlv. _vous esmayez_, afflict yourself.
    _courrouce_, wroth, displeased.

  P. xlvi. _vergier_, orchard.
    _aual_, below.
    _se embroncha_, she veiled herself, or, hid herself.
    _iouxte_, beside.

  P. xlvii. _maintes_, many.
    _ot_, heard.
    _len prise mieulx_, esteemed it better.
    _loe_, praises.
    _deffera_, dis-ironed, drew the weapons out of.
    _lestrief_, the stirrup.

  P. xlviii. _leans_ (_la dédans_), there.
    _belif_. We find in Cotgrave’s French Dictionary, “_Belic_, a kind
      of red or geueles, in Blazon.”
    _enseignes_, tokens, message.

  P. xlix. _mestier_, serviceable.
    _dillec_, thence.
    _pourneant_, for nothing, in vain.
    _voire_, truly.
    _commanday a dieu_, commended to God, bade farewell.

  P. li. _mestier en est_, there is need of it.
    _greigneur bien_, exceedingly well, very highly.

  P. lii. _greigneure_, greater.
    _anuytoit_, became night.
    _ie me doibz pener_, I ought to take pains.

  P. liii. _ouen_, this year.

  The Romans
  Lancelot of the Laik.


  [Sidenote: In April, when the fresh luminary upriseth,]
    ++THe ſoft morow ande The luſtee Aperill,                [Fol. 1.]
    The wynt{er} set, the stormys in exill,
    Quhen that the bry{ch}t {and} freſch illumynare
    Upriſith arly in his fyre chare                                  4
    His hot courß in to the orient,
  [Sidenote: and sendeth from his sphere his golden streams,]
    And frome h{is} ſpere his goldine ſtremis sent
    Wpone the grond, in man{er} off meſag,
    One eu{er}y thing to valkyne thar curage,                        8
    That natur haith set wnd{er} hire mycht,
    Boith gyrß, and flour, {and} eu{er}y luſty vicht:
    And namly thame that felith the aſſay
    Of lufe, to ſchew the kalendis of may,                          12
    Throw birdis ſonge w{i}t{h} opine wox one hy,
    That ſeſſit not one lufar{is} for to cry,
    Leſt thai forȝhet, throw ſlewth of Ignorans,
    The old wſage of lowis obſ{er}uans.                             16


  [Sidenote: and when I espy his bright face,]
    And from̅e I can the bricht face aſſpy,
    It deuit me no langare fore to ly,
    Nore that loue schuld ſleuth In to me finde,
  [Sidenote: I walk forth, bewailing my sad life.]
    Bot walkine furth, bewalinge in my mynde                        20
    the dredful lyve endurit al to longe,
    Sufferans in loue of ſorouful harmys ſtronge,
    The ſcharpe dais and the hewy ȝerys,
    Quhill phebus thris haith paſſith al h{is} ſperis,              24
    Vithoutine hope ore traiſtinge of comfort;
    So be such meine fatit was my sort.
    Thus in my ſaull Rolinge al my wo,
  [Sidenote: The sword of love carves my heart.]
    My carful hart carwing cañ In two                               28
    The derdful ſuerd of lowis hot diſſire;
    So be the morow set I was a-fyre
    In felinge of the acceß hot {and} colde,
    That haith my hart in ſich a fevir holde,                       32
    Only to me thare was noñe vthir eß
    Bot thinkine qhow I ſchulde my lady pleß.
    The ſcharp aſſay and ek the Inwart peine
    Of dowblit wo me neulyng{is} cañ conſtrein,                     36
    Quhen that I have remembrit one my tho{ch}t
  [Sidenote: My lady knoweth not how I am wobegone.]
    How sche, quhois bewte al my harm̅ haith wrocht,
    Ne knouith not how I ame wo begoñe,                     [Fol. 1b.]
    Nor how that I ame of hire ſ{er}uand{is} oñe;                   40
    And in my ſelf I cañ nocht fynde the meyne
    In to quhat wyß I ſal my wo compleine.
  [Sidenote: I walked thus in the field, and came to a well-beseen
    Thus in the feild I walkith to {and} froo,
    As tho{ch}tful wicht that felt of no{ch}t bot woo,              44
    Syne to o gardinge, that weß weil beſeñ,
    Of quiche the feild was al depaynt w{i}t{h} greñ.
    The tendyre and the luſty flour{is} new
    Up thrōue the greñ vpone thar ſtalk{is} grew                    48
    Aȝhane the ſone, and thare levis ſpred,
    Quharw{i}t{h} that al the gardinge was I-clede;
    That pryapus, in to his tyme before,
    In o luſtear walkith nevir more;                                52
  [Sidenote: It was closely environed with leaves.]
    And al about enweronyt and Icloſit
    One ſich o wyß, that none w{i}t{h}in ſuppoſit
    Fore to be ſeñ w{i}t{h} ony vicht thare owt;
    So dide the levis cloſ it[T1] all about.                        56
    Thar was the flour, thar was the queñ alpheſt,[T2]
    Ry{ch}t wering being of the ny{ch}t{is} reſt,
    Wncloſi{n}g gañe the crownel for the day;
  [Sidenote: The sun illumined the sprays;]
    The bry{ch}t ſone illumynit haith the ſpray,                    60
    The ny{ch}t{is} ſobir ande the moſt ſchowr{is},
    As criſtoll terys w{i}t{h}hong vpone the flour{is},
    Haith vpwarpith In the luſty aire,
    The morow makith soft, ameyne, and faire;                       64
  [Sidenote: the birds sang till the woods resounded;]
    And the byrd{is} thar my{ch}ty voce out-throng,
    Quhill al the wood reſonite of thar ſonge,
    That gret confort till ony vicht It wer
    That pleſſith thame of luſtenes to here.                        68
    Bot gladneß til the tho{ch}tful, eu{er} mo
    The more he ſeith, the more he haith of wo.
  [Sidenote: the garden was adorned with flowers.]

      [Footnote T1: MS. “cloſit.”]
      [Footnote T2: May we read “alcest”?]


    Thar was the garding w{i}t{h} the flour{is} ourfret,
    Quich is in poſy fore my lady set,                              72
    That hire Repreſent to me oft befor,
    {And} thane alſo; thus al day gan be ſor[T3]
    Of tho{ch}t my goſt w{i}t{h} torment occupy,                    75
    That I becam̅e In to one exaſy,                           [Fol. 2.]
    Ore ſlep, or how I wot; bot ſo befell
    My wo haith done my livis goſt expell,
    And in ſich wiß weil long I can endwr,
    So me betid o wondir aventur.                                   80
  [Sidenote: I fell there into an ecstasy or sleep,
  and saw in my dream a green bird, who said:]
    As I thus lay, Ry{ch}t to my ſpreit vas ſeñ
    A birde, yat was as ony lawrare greñ,
    A-licht, and ſayth in to hir bird{is} chere;

      [Footnote T3: MS. “beſor.”]


    “O woful wrech, that levis in to were!                          84
    To ſchew the thus the god of loue me ſent,
    That of thi ſ{er}uice no thing is content,
  [Sidenote: “The God of Love is discontent with thee.]
    For in his court yhoue lewith i{n} diſſpar,
    And vilfully suſtenis al thi care,                              88
    And ſchapith no thinge of thine awn remede,
    Bot clepith ay and cryith apone dede.
    Yhow callith the bird{is} be morow fro thar bour{is},
    Yhoue devith boith the erbis and the flour{is},                 92
    And clepit hyme vnfaithful king of lowe,
    Yow dewith hyme in to h{is} rigne abufe,
    Yhow tempith hyme, yhoue doith thi ſelf no gud,
    Yhoue are o moñ of wit al deſtitude.                            96
  [Sidenote: You are destitute of wit.]
    Wot yhoue no{ch}t that al liwis creatwre
    Haith of thi wo i{n} to h{is} hand the cwre?
  [Sidenote: Though you call on trees, your lady hears not.]
    And ſet yhoue clep one erbis and one treis,
    Sche her{is} not thi wo, nore ȝhit ſche ſeis;                  100
    For none may know the dirkneß of thi tho{ch}t,
    Ne blamyth h{er} thi wo ſche knowith no{ch}t.
    And It is weil accordinge It be so
    He ſuffir harme, that to redreß h{is} wo                       104
    Previdith not; for long ore he be ſonde,
    Holl of his leich, that ſchewith not h{is} vound.
  [Sidenote: Ovid says it is better to shew, than to conceal love.]
    And of owid ye autor ſchall yhow knaw
    Of lufe that ſeith, for to conſel or ſchow,                    108
    The laſt he clepith althir-beſt of two;
    And that is ſuth, and ſal be eu{er} mo.
    And loue alſo haith chargit me to ſay,                         111
    Set yhoue preſume, ore beleif, ye aſſay                 [Fol. 2b.]
    Of his ſ{er}uice, as It wil ryne ore go,
    Preſwme It not, fore It wil not be so;
    Al magre thine a ſ{er}uand ſchal yow bee.
  [Sidenote: As touching thine adversity, seek the remedy.”]
    And as tueching thine adu{er}ſytee,                            116
    Complen and sek of the ramed, the cwre,
    Ore, gif yhow likith, furth thi wo endure.”
    And, as me tho{ch}t, I anſuerde aȝaiñe
  [Sidenote: Then answered I:]
    Thus to the byrde, in word{is} ſchort and plane:               120
    “It ganyth not, as I have harde Recorde,
    The ſ{er}uand for to diſput w{i}t{h} ye lord;
  [Sidenote: “Love knows the reason of my wo.”]
    Bot well he knowith of al my vo the quhy,
    And in quhat wyß he hath me ſet, quhar I                       124
    Nore may I not, nore can I not attane,
    Nore to hir hienes dare I not complane.”
  [Sidenote: “Fool,” said the bird, “despair not;]
    “Ful!” q{uo}d the bird, “lat be thi nyß diſpare,
    For in this erith no lady is ſo fare,                          128
    So hie eſtat, nore of ſo gret empriß,
    That in hire ſelf haith viſdome ore gentrice,
    Yf that o wicht, that worthy is to be
    Of lovis court, ſchew til hir that he                          132
    Seruith hire in lovis hartly wyß,
    That ſchall thar for hyme hating or diſpiß.


  [Sidenote: the God of Love charges thee to speak out your love, or
  else to write thy plaint;]
    The god of love thus chargit the, at ſchort,
    That to thi lady yhoue thi wo Report;                          136
    Yf yhoue may not, thi plant ſchall yhov vrit.
    Se, as yhoue cane, be man{er} oft endit
    In metir, quhich that no ma{n} haith ſuſſpek,
    Set oft tyme thai contenyng gret effecc;                       140
    Thus one ſume wyß yhow ſchal thi wo dwclar.
    And, for thir ſedulis and thir billis are
    So gen{er}all, and ek ſo ſchort at lyte,
    And ſwme of thai{m} is loſt the appetit,                       144
  [Sidenote: write, then, some treatise for her to read;]
    Sum trety ſchall yhoue for yi lady ſak,
    That wnkouth is, als tak one hand and mak,
    Of love, ore armys, or of ſu{m} othir thing,
    That may hir one to thi Reme{m}bry{n}g brynge;                 148
    Qwich ſoundith Not one to no hewynes,                    [Fol. 3.]
    Bot one to gladneß and to luſteneß,
  [Sidenote: one that may please her and get her thanks.]
    That yhoue belevis may thi lady pleß,
    To have hir thonk and be one to hir eß;                        152
    That ſche may wit in ſ{er}uice yhow art one.
  [Sidenote: Farewell, and be merry.”]
    Faire weil,” q{uo}d ſche, “thus ſchal yhow the diſpone,
    And mak thi ſelf als mery as yhoue may,
    It helpith not thus fore to wex al way.”                       156
    W{i}t{h} that, the bird ſche haith hir leif tak,
  [Sidenote: Thereon I awoke, and wondered what it might mean.]
    For fere of quich I can onone to wak;
    Sche was ago, and to my ſelf tho{ch}t I
    Quhat may yis meyne? quhat may this ſig{n}ify?                 160
    Is It of troucht, or of Illuſioune?


    Bot finaly, as in concluſioune,
    Be as be may, I ſchal me not discharge,
    Sen It apperith be of lovis charg;                             164
    And ek myne hart noñe othir biſſynes
    Haith bot my ladice ſ{er}uice, as I geß;
  [Sidenote: I determined to take in hand this occupation.]
    Among al vther{is} I ſchal one honde tak
    This litil occupatioune for hire ſak.                          168
    Bot hyme I pray, the my{ch}ty gode of loue,
    That ſitith hie in to his ſpir abuf,
    (At {com}mand of o wyß quhois viſioune
    My goſt haith takin this opvnioune,)                           172
    That my lawboure may to my lady pleß
    And do wnto hir ladeſchip ſu{m} eß,
    So that my t{ra}uell be no{ch}t tynt, and I
    Quhat vther{is} ſay ſetith nothing by.                         176
  [Sidenote: I know it will but hurt my name, when men hear my feeble
    For wel I know that, be this world{is} fam̅e.
    It ſchal not be bot hurting to my nam̅e,
    Quhen that thai here my febil negligens,
    That empit is, and bare of eloquens,                           180
    Of diſcreſſiou{n}e, and ek of Retoryk;
    The metire and the cu{n}ing both elyk
    So fere diſcording frome p{er}fecciou{n}e;
  [Sidenote: I submit my poem to the correction of the wise;]
    Q{uhil}k I ſubmyt to the correcciou{n}e                        184
    Of yai{m} the quhich that is diſcret {and} wyß,
    And ent{er}it is of loue in the ſ{er}uice;
    Quhich knouyth that no lovare dare w{i}t{h}ſtonde,      [Fol. 3b.]
    Quhat loue hyme chargit he mot tak one honde,                  188
    Deith, or defam̅, or ony man{er} wo;
    And at this tyme w{i}t{h} me It ſtant ry{ch}t ſo,
  [Sidenote: for I dare not oppose Love’s command.]
    As I that dar makine no demande
    To quhat I wot It lykith loue co{m}mande.                      192
    Tueching his charg{is}, as w{i}t{h} al deſtitut,
    W{i}t{h}in my mynd ſchortly I conclud
    For to fulfyll, for ned I mot do ſo.


  [Sidenote: At last I thought of the story of “Lancelot of the

    Thane in my tho{ch}t rolling to and fro                        196
    Quhare that I my{hc}t ſu{m} wnkouth mat{er} fynde,
    Quhill at ye laſt it fell in to my mynd
    Of o ſtory, that I befor had ſene,
    That boith of loue and armys can conteñ,                       200
    Was of o kny{ch}t clepit lancelot of ye laik,
    The ſone of bane was, king of albanak;
    Of quhois fame {and} worſchipful dedis
    Clerk{is} in to diu{er}ß buk{is} red{is},                      204
  [Sidenote: of whom I here think to write something.]
    Of quhome I thynk her ſu{m} thing for to writ
    At louis charge, and as I cane, endit;
    Set me{n} tharin ſal by exp{er}iens
    Know my conſait, and al my negligens.                          208
  [Sidenote: But because my ignorance cannot comprehend the French
    Bot for that ſtory is ſo paſing larg,
    One to my wit It war ſo gret o charg
    For to tranſlait the romans of that kny{ch}t;
    It paſſith fare my cu{n}yng and my mycht,                      212
    Myne Ignorans may It not comp{re}hende;


  [Sidenote: I shall not tell how he was born;]
    Quharfor thare one I wil me not depend
    How he was borne, nor how his fad{er} deid
    And ek his mod{er}, nore how he was denyed                     216
    Eft{er} thare deth, p{re}ſumyng he was ded,
  [Sidenote: nor how he was nourished by the Lady of the Lake;]
    Of al ye lond, nore how he fra that ſtede
    In sacret wyß wnwyſt away was tak,
    And nwriſt w{i}t{h} ye lady of ye lak.                         220
  [Sidenote: nor how he was brought to Arthur’s court,]
    Nor, in his ȝouth, think I not to tell
    The aue{n}tour{is}, quhich to hyme befell;
    Nor how the lady of the laik hyme had
    One to the court, quhare that he kny{ch}t was mad;             224
    None wiſt his nome, nore how that he was tak             [Fol. 4.]
    By loue, and was Iwondit to the ſtak,
  [Sidenote: and pierced to the heart by the beauty of Wanore
    And throuch {and} throuch perſit to ye hart,
    That al his tyme he cout{h} It not aſtart;                     228
    For thare of loue he ent{er}it in ſ{er}uice,
    Of wanore throuch the beute and franchis,
  [Sidenote: for whose service he wrought many wonders;]
    Throuch quhois ſ{er}uice in armys he has vro{ch}t
    Mony wond{er}is, and p{er}ell{is} he has socht.                232
    Nor how he thor, in to his ȝoung curage,
  [Sidenote: nor how he made a vow to revenge a wounded knight,]
    Hath maid awoue, and in to louis rage,
    In the rewenging of o wondit kny{ch}t
    That cu{m}yne was in to the court that ny{ch}t;                236
  [Sidenote: who had a broken sword in his head, and a truncheon of
  a broken spear in his body;]
    In to his hed a brokin[T4] ſuerd had he,
    And in his body alſo my{ch}t me{n} see
    The tronſione of o brokine ſper that was,
    Quhich no ma{n} out dedenyt to aras;                           240
    Nor how he haith the wapnis out tak,
    And his awow apone this wis can mak,
    That he ſchuld hyme Reweng at h{is} poware
    One eu{er}y kny{ch}t that louith the hurtare                   244
    Bett{er} thane hyme, the quhich that vas Iwond.
    Throw quich awoue in armys hath ben founde
  [Sidenote: a vow which caused the death of many a wight warrior;]
    The deth of mo{n}y wereoure ful wicht;[T5]

      [Footnote T4: MS. “abrokin.”]
      [Footnote T5: The MS. wrongly transposes ll. 247 and 248.]

    For, fro tho wow was knowing of the kny{ch}t,                  248
    Thare was ful mony o paſage in the londe
    By me{n} of armys kepit to withſtond
    This kny{ch}t, of quhome thai ben al set afyre
    Thai{m} to reweng in armys of deſir.                           252
  [Sidenote: or how he and Sir Kay were sent to defend the lady of
    Nor how that thane in{con}tyne{n}t was ſend
    He and ſ{ir} kay togidd{er} to defend
    The lady of nohalt, nor how that hee
    Gou{er}nit hyme thare, nore in quhat degre.                    256
    Nor how the gret paſing vaſſolag
    He eſcheuit, thrōue the outragouß curag,
  [Sidenote: or how he conquered the Sorrowful Castle;]
    In conquiryng of the sorowful caſtell.
    Nor how he paſſith dou{n}e in the cauis fell,                  260
    And furth ye keys of Inchantme{n}t bro{ch}t,
    That al diſtroyt quhich that thare vas vro{ch}t.
  [Sidenote: or how he rescued Sir Gawane and his nine fellows;]
    Nore howe that he reſkewit ſ{ir} gawane,                [Fol. 4b.]
    W{i}t{h} h{is} ix falouß in to preſone tane;                   264
    Nore mony vthere diu{er}ß aduenture,
    Quhich to report I tak not in my cwre,
  [Sidenote: nor of the many “assemblies” Gawane held to find out
  his name;]
    Nor mony aſſemblay that gawane gart be maid
    To wit h{is} name; nor how that he hyme hade                   268
    Wnwiſt, and hath the worſchip {and} empriß;
    Nor of the kny{ch}t{is} in to mony[T6] diu{er}ß wyß
    Throuch his awoue that hath thare dethis found;

      [Footnote T6: We should perhaps omit “mony.”]

  [Sidenote: nor of his suffering caused by love’s wound;]
    Nor of the ſufferans that by louis wounde                      272
    He in his trawel ſufferith au{er} more;
    Nor in the quenis p{rese}ns how tharfor
  [Sidenote: nor how he was nearly drowned at Camelot;]
    By camelot, in to that gret Revare,
    He was ner dround. I wil It not declare                        276
    How that he was in louis hewy tho{ch}t
  [Sidenote: nor how he was brought to court by Dagenet;]
    By dagenet in to the court I-bro{ch}t;
    Nor how the kny{ch}t that tyme he cane p{er}ſew,
  [Sidenote: nor of the giants he slew at Camelot;]
    Nor of the gyant{is} by camelot he ſlew;                       280
    Nor wil I not her tell the man{er} how
    He ſlew o kny{ch}t, by nat{ur} of his wow,
  [Sidenote: nor how he slew a knight of Melyholt;]
    Off melyholt; nore how in to that toune
    Thar came one hyme o gret confuſione                           284
    Of pupil {and} [of] kny{ch}t{is}, al enarmyt,
  [Sidenote: and there defended himself against a crowd;]
    Nor how he thar haith kepit hyme wnharmyt;
    Nor of his worſchip, nor of h{is} gret prowes,
    Nor his defens of armys in the pres.                           288
  [Sidenote: whereupon the lady of Melyhalt prayed him to yield his
  sword to her; and kept him in her power.]
    Nor how the lady of melyhalt y{a}t ſche
    Came to the feild, and pray[i]th hyme that he
    As to o lady to hir[T7] his ſuerd hath ȝold,
    Nor how he was in to hir keping hold;                          292

      [Footnote T7: MS. “his.”]

    And mony vthir nobil deid alſo
    I wil report quharfor I lat ourgo.
  [Sidenote: Whoever likes, might make of these things a long story.]
    For quho thai{m} lykith for to ſpecyfy,
    Of one of thai{m} my{ch}t mak o gret ſtory;                    296
    Nor thing I not of his hye renōwn
    My febil wit to makin menſioune;
  [Sidenote: But I think to tell of the wars between Arthur and
    Bot of the wer{is} that was ſcharp {and} ſtrong,
    Richt p{er}ellouß, and hath enduryt long,                      300
    Of Arthur In defending of his lond                       [Fol. 5.]
    Frome galiot, ſone of the fair gyonde,
    That bro{ch}t of kny{ch}t{is} o paſing confluens;
  [Sidenote: wherein Lancelot won renown by his defence of Arthur;]
    And how lancelot of arthur{is} hol defens                      304
    And of the ver{is} berith the renowñ;
    And how he be the wais of fortou{n}e
  [Sidenote: and at last made peace between the two princes.]
    Tuex the two princ{is} makith the accorde,
    Of al there mortall wer{is} to concorde;                       308
  [Sidenote: I shall also tell how Venus rewarded him.]
    And how that venus, ſiting hie abuf,
    Reuardith hyme of trauell in to loue,
    And makith hyme his ladice grace to have,
    And thankfully his ſ{er}uice cane reſave;                      312
    This is the mat{er} quhich I think to tell.
    Bot ſtil he mot ry{ch}t w{i}t{h} the lady duell,
    Quhill tyme cu{m} eft that we ſchal of hy{m} ſpek.
  [Sidenote: My summary must end for the present.]
    This p{ro}ceß [now] mot cloſine beñ and ſtek;                  316
    And furth I wil one to my mat{er} go.


  [Sidenote: But I pray for the support of a very great poet,]
    Bot first I pray, and I beſek also,
    One to the moſt conpilour to ſupport,
    Flour of poyet{is}, quhois nome I wil report                   320
    To me nor to noñ vthir It accordit,
  [Sidenote: whose name I may not mention;]
    In to our rymyng his nam̅ to be recordit;
    For ſum ſuld deme It of preſumpſioune,
  [Sidenote: for our riming is but derision, when his excellence is
    And ek our rymyng is al bot deryſioune,                        324
    Quhen that reme{m}brit is his excellens,
    So hie abuf that ſtant in reu{er}ans.
    Ye freſch enditing of h{is} laiting toung
  [Sidenote: The world knows his eloquence in inditing Latin;]
    Out throuch yis world ſo wid is yroung,                        328
    Of eloquens, and ek of retoryk;
    Nor is, nor was, nore neu{er} beith hyme lyk,
  [Sidenote: and none can ever gladden the world like him:]
    This world gladith of h{is} ſuet poetry.
    His ſaul I blyß conſeruyt be for-thy;                          332
  [Sidenote: to him be the thanks for my success.]
    And yf that ony lusty terme I wryt
    He haith the thonk y{er}of, {and} this endit.




  [Sidenote: When Titan, being in Aries, had apparelled the fields,]
    ++Quhen [that] tytan, withe his lusty heit,             [Fol. 5b.]
    Twenty dais In to the aryeit                                   336
    Haith maid his courß, and all with diu{er}ß hewis
    Aparalit haith the feldis and the bewis;
  [Sidenote: and birds began to make their bowers;]
    The bird{is} amyd the erbis {and} the flour{is},
    And one the branchis, makyne gone thar bour{is},               340
    And be the morow ſinging in ther chere
    Welcum to the luſty ſeſſone of the ȝere.
    In to this tyme the worthi conqueroure
  [Sidenote: king Arthur was at Carlisle.]
    Arthure, wich had of al this worlde the floure                 344
    Of cheuelry auerding to his crown,
    So paſing war his kny{ch}t{is} in renoune,
    Was at carlill; and hapy{n}nit ſo that hee
    Soiornyt well long in that faire cuntree.                      348
  [Sidenote: His knights, hearing of no adventure, were annoyed.]
    In to whilk tyme In to the court thai heire
    None awenture, for wich the knyght{is} weire
    Anoit all at the abiding thare.
    For-why, beholding one the ſobir ayre                          352
    And of the tyme the paſing luſtynes,
    Can ſo thir knyghtly hart{is} to encreß,
  [Sidenote: They therefore sent Sir Kay to pray the king to go to
    That thei ſhir kay one to the king haith ſende,
    Beſeiching hyme he wold wichſaif to wende                      356
    To camelot the Cetee, whare that thei
    Ware wont to heryng of armys day be day.
    The king forſuth, heryng thare entent,
    To thare deſir, be ſchort awyſment,                            360
  [Sidenote: The king proposed to do so on the morrow.]
    Ygrantid haith; and ſo the king p{ro}ponit
    And for to pas hyme one[T8] the morne diſponit.

      [Footnote T8: MS. “to pas one hyme one,” with first “one”
      lightly crossed out.]


    Bot ſo befell hyme [on] that nycht to meit
    An aperans, the wich one to his ſpreit                         364
  [Sidenote: That night he dreamt that his hair all fell off;]
    It ſemyth that of al his hed ye hore
    Of fallith and maid deſolat; wharfore
    The king therof was pensyve in his mynd,
    That al the day he couth no reſting fynde,                     368
  [Sidenote: which made him delay his journey.]
    Wich makith hyme his Iorneye to delaye.
    And ſo befell apone the thrid day,
    The bricht ſone, paſing in the weſt,
    Haith maid his courß, and al thing goith to Reſt;              372
  [Sidenote: Again he dreamt, that his bowels fell out, and lay beside
    The king, ſo as the ſtory can dewyß,
    He thoght aȝeine, apone the ſamyne wyß,
    His vombe out fallith vith his hoil syde                 [Fol. 6.]
    Apone the ground, {and} liging hyme beſid;                     376
    Throw wich anon out of his ſlep he ſtert,
    Abaſit and adred in to his hart.
  [Sidenote: He told the queen, who answered, “No man should respect
  vain dreams.”]
    The wich be morow one to the qwen he told,
    And ſhe aȝeine to hyme haith anſuer ȝolde;                     380
    “To dremys, ſ{ir}, ſhuld no man have Reſpek,
    For thei ben thing{is} weyn, of non affek.”
    “Well,” q{uo}d the king, “god grant It ſo befall!”


  [Sidenote: The king next shewed his dream to a clerk,]
    Arly he roß, and gert one to hyme call                         384
    O clerk, to whome that al his hewynes
    Tweching his drem ſhewith he expreß,
  [Sidenote: who said, “Sir, such things testify nothing.”]
    Wich anſuer yaf and ſeith one to the kinge;
    “Shir, no Record lyith to ſuch thing;                          388
    Wharfor now, ſhir, I praye yow tak no kep,
    Nore traiſt in to the vanyteis of slep;
    For thei are thing{is} that aſkith no credens,
    But cauſith of ſum maner influe{n}s,                           392
    Empriß of thoght, ore ſup{er}fleuytee,
    Or than ſum othir caſualytee.”
  [Sidenote: “Yet,” replied he, “I shall not leave it so.”]
    “Ȝit,” q{uo}d the king, “I ſal no{ch}t leif It so;”
    And furth he chargit meſinger{is} to go                        396
    Throgh al his Realm, w{i}t{h}outen more demande,
  [Sidenote: He bade all the bishops and clergy come to Camelot
  within twenty days.]
    And bad them ſtratly at thei ſhulde comande
    All the biſhopes, and makyng no delay
    The ſhuld appere be the tuenty day                             400
    At camelot, with al thar hol clergy
    That moſt expert war, for to certefye
    A mat{er} tueching to his goſt be nyght;
    The meſag goith furth with the l{ett}res Right.                404

    ++The king eft ſone, w{i}t{h}in a litill ſpace,
    His Iornay makith haith frome place to place,
  [Sidenote: He goes to Camelot, and finds the clerks assembled.]
    Whill that he cam to camelot; and there
    The clerk{is} all, as that the chargit were,                   408
    Aſſemblit war, and came to his preſens,
    Of his deſir to viting the ſentens.
    To them that war to hyme moſt ſpeciall
    Furth his entent ſhauyth he al hall;                           412
  [Sidenote: He discloses all to the ten that are most expert,]
    By whois conſeil, of the worthieſt
    He cheſith ten, yclepit for the beſt,
    And moſt expert and wiſeſt was ſuppoſit,                       415
    To qwhome his drem all hail he haith diſcloſſit;        [Fol. 6b.]
    The houre, the nyght, and al the c{er}cumſtans;
  [Sidenote: and beseeches them to explain the dreams.]
    Beſichyne them that the ſignifycans
    Thei wald hyme ſhaw, that he my{ch}t reſting fynde
    Of It, the wich that occupeid his mynde.                       420
  [Sidenote: One of them asks for nine days to advise upon the
    And one of them with[T9] al ther holl aſſent
    Saith, “ſhire, fore to declare our entent
    Vpone this matere, ye wil ws delay
    Fore to awyſing one to the ix day.”                            424
    The king ther-to grantith haith, bot hee
  [Sidenote: The king complies, but shuts them up in a strong place.]
    In to o place, that ſtrong was and hye,
    He cloſith them, whare thei may no whare get,
    Vn to the day, the wich he to them set.                        428
    Than goith the clerk{is} ſadly to awyß
    Of this mat{er}, to ſeing in what wyß
    The king{is} drem thei ſhal beſt ſpecefy.
  [Sidenote: The masters of astronomy fetch their books,]
    And than the maiſtris of aſtronomy                             432
    The book{is} longyne to ther artis set;[T10]
    Not was the buk{is} of arachell forget,
    Of nembrot, of danȝhelome, thei two,
    Of moyſes, {and} of herynes all soo;                           436
  [Sidenote: and calculate the disposition of the planets.]
    And ſeking be ther calcolaciou{n}e
    To fynd the planet{is} diſpoſiciou{n}e,
    The wich thei fond ware wond{er} ewill yſet
    The ſamyne nyght the king his ſweuen met.                      440

      [Footnote T9: MS. “saith with” (with a very slight scratch
      through “saith”).]
      [Footnote T10: So in MS. Read “fet.”]


    So ner the point ſocht thei have the thing,
  [Sidenote: They found the matter heavy for the king, and doubted if
  they should tell him so.]
    Thei fond It wond{er} hewy to the king,
    Of wich thing thei waryng in to were
    To ſhew the king, for dreid of his danger.                     444
    Of ane accorde thei planly haue p{ro}ponit
    No worde to ſhow, and ſo thei them diſponit.
  [Sidenote: Being sent for,]
    The day is cu{m}yng, and he haith fore them ſent,
    Beſichyne them to ſhewing ther entent.                         448
  [Sidenote: they all spake, “Sir, we can find no evidence.”]
    Than ſpak they all, and that of an accorde;
    “Shir, of this thing we can no thing Recorde,
    For we can noght fynd in til our ſciens
    Tweching this mater ony ewydens.”                              452
  [Sidenote: “Ere we part,” quoth the king, “ye shall witness
    “Now,” q{uo}d the king, “and be the glorius lorde,
    Or we depart ye ſhall ſum thing recorde;
    So pas yhe not, nor ſo It ſall not bee.”
    “Than,” q{uo}d the clerk{is}, “grant ws dais three.”           456
  [Sidenote: He grants them three days more.]
    The wich he grantid them, and but delay,                 [Fol. 7.]
    The term paſſith, no thing wold the ſay,
    Wharof the king ſtondith heuy cherith,
    And to the clerk{is} his viſag ſo apperith,                    460
    That all thei dred them of the king{is} myght.
  [Sidenote: They pray for a further delay of three days.]
    Than ſaith o clerk, “s{ir}, as the thrid nyght
    Ye dremyt, ſo [now] giffis ws delay
    The thrid tyme, and to the thrid day.”                         464
    By whilk tyme thei fundyng haith the ende
    Of this mater, als far as ſhal depend
    To ther ſciens; yit can thei not awyß
    To ſchewing to the king be ony wyß.                            468
  [Sidenote: They still refuse to declare their thought.]
    The day is cum, the king haith them beſocht,
    But one no wyß thei wald declar ther thoght;
    Than was he wroth in to his ſelf and noyt,
  [Sidenote: The king vows to destroy them;]
    And maid his wow that thei ſhal[T11] ben diſtroyt.             472
    His baronis he co{m}mandit to gar tak
    Fyve of them one to the fir-ſtak,
    And vther fyue be to the gibbot tone;
    And the furth w{i}t{h} the king{is} charg ar gone.             476
  [Sidenote: but secretly charges his knights not to harm them.]
    He bad them in to ſecret wyß that thei
    Shud do no harm, but only them aßey.
    The clark{is}, dredful of the king{is} Ire,
    And ſaw the p{er}ell of deth and of the fyre,                  480
    Fyve, as thei can, has grantit to record;
    That vther herde and ben of ther accorde;
    And al thei ben yled one to the king,
  [Sidenote: They yield at last, and say,]
    And ſhew hyme thus as tueching of this thing.                  484

      [Footnote T11: MS. “ſhat.”]


    “Shir, ſen that we conſtrenyt ar by myght
    To ſhaw that wich[T12] we knaw no thing aricht;
    For thing to cum preſeruith It allan
    To hyme the wich is euery thing c{er}tañ,                      488
    Excep the thing that til our knawleg hee
    Hath ordynat of certan for to bee;
    Therfor, ſhir king, we your magnificens
    Beſeich It turne till ws to non offens,                        492
  [Sidenote: “Hold us not as liars, though it happen not as we say.]
    Nor hald was no{ch}t as lear{is}, thoght It fall
    Not in this mat{er}, as that we telen ſhall.”
    And that the king haith grantit them, {and} thei
    Has chargit one, that one this wiß ſall ſeye.                  496
    “Preſumyth, ſhir, that we have fundyne so;
  [Sidenote: You must forego all earthly honour;]
    All erdly honore ye nedis[T13] moſt for-go,
  [Sidenote: and those on whom you most rely, will fail you.”]
    And them the wich ye moſt affy in-tyll                  [Fol. 7b.]
    Shal failye ȝow, magre of ther will;                           500
    And thus we haue in to this matere founde.”
    The king, quhois hart was al wyth dred ybownd,
    And aſkit at the clerk{is}, if thei fynde
    By there clergy, that ſtant i{n} ony kynde                     504
  [Sidenote: The king asks if his destiny can be altered.]
    Of poſſibilitee, fore to reforme
    His deſteny, that ſtud in ſuch a forme;
    If in the hewyne Is preordynat
    On ſuch o wiß his honor to tranſlat.                           508
    The clerk{is} ſaith, “forſuth, and we haue ſene
  [Sidenote: They reply, that the matter is dark.]
    O thing whar-of, if we the trouth ſhal meñ,
    Is ſo obſcure and dyrk til our clergye,
    That we wat not what It ſhal ſignefye,                         512
    Wich cauſith ws we can It not furth ſay.”
    “Yis,” q{uo}d the king, “as lykith yow ye may,
    For wers than this can nat be ſaid for me.”

      [Footnote T12: MS. “wich that.”]
      [Footnote T13: MS. “nediſt;” but see l. 518.]


  [Sidenote: A master says, there is no help but in the true watery
  lion, and in the leech, and in the flower.]
    Thane ſaith o maiſtir, “than ſuthly th{us} finde we;           516
    Thar is no thing ſal ſucour nor reſkew,
    Your worldly honore nedis moſt adew,
    But throuch the watrye lyone {and} ek fyne,
    On throuch the liche {and} ek the wattir ſyne,                 520
  [Sidenote: God knows what this should mean.]
    And throuch the conſeill of the flour; god wot
    What this ſhude meñ, for mor ther-of we not.”
    No word the king anſuerid ayane,
    For al this reſone thinkith bot i{n} weyne.                    524
  [Sidenote: The king shews no outward grief,]
    He ſhawith outwart his contenans
    As he therof takith no greuans;
  [Sidenote: but is not rid of anxiety all night.]
    But al the nyght it paſſid nat his thoght.
    The dais courß w{i}t{h} ful deſir he ſocht,                    528
    And furth he goith to bring his mynd i{n} reſt
  [Sidenote: Next day he goes to the forest.]
    W{i}t{h} mony O knyght vn to the gret foreſt;
    The rachis gon wn-copelit for the deire,
    That in the wodis makith nois {and} cheir:                     532
    The knycht{is}, w{i}t{h} the grewhund{is} in aweit,
    Secith boith the planis and the ſtreit.
  [Sidenote: The chase.]
    Doune goith the hart, doune goith the hynd alſo;
    [In to the feld can ruſching to and fro][T14]                  536
    The ſwift grewhund, hardy of aſſay;
    Befor ther hedis no thing goith away.
    The king of hunting takith haith his ſport,
  [Sidenote: The king returns.]
    And to his palace home he can Reſort,                          540
    Ayan the noon; and as that he was set
  [Sidenote: As they sit at meat, an aged knight enters, fully armed.]
    Vith all his noble knyght{is} at the met,                [Fol. 8.]
    So cam ther in an agit knyght, {and} hee
    Of gret eſſtat ſemyt for to bee;                               544
    Anarmyt all, as tho It was the gyß,
    And thus the king he ſaluſt, one this wiß,

      [Footnote T14: A line must here be lost, but there is nothing
      to shew this in the MS. The inserted line is imitated from
      l. 3293.]


  [Sidenote: The knight’s message is that king Galiot bids Arthur to
  yield to him his kingdom.]
    ++“Shir king, one to yow am y ſende
    Frome the worthieſt that i{n} world is kend,                   548
    That leuyth now of his tyme and age,
    Of manhed, wiſdome, {and} of hie curag,
    Galiot, ſone of the fare gyande;
    And thus, at ſhort, he bid{is} yow your londe                  552
    Ye yald hyme our, w{i}t{h}out Impedyment;
    Or of hyme holde, and if tribut and rent.
    This is my charge at ſhort, whilk if youe leſt
    For to fulfill, of al he haith conqueſt                        556
    He ſais that he moſt tendir ſhal youe hald.”


  [Sidenote: The king refuses.]
    By ſhort awys the king his anſuer yald;
    “Shir kny{ch}t, your lorde wondir hie pretendis,
    When he to me ſic ſalutatioune send{is};                       560
    For I as yit, in tymys that ar gone,
    Held neu{er} lond excep of god alone,
    Nore neu{er} thinkith til erthly lord to yef
    Trybut nor rent, als long as I may lef.”                       564
  [Sidenote: The knight replies, that his lord bids him defiance, and
  will invade his land in a month;]
    “Well,” q{uo}d the kny{ch}t, “ful ſor repentith me;
    Non may reciſt the thing the wich mone bee.
    To yow, ſ{ir} king, than frome my lord am I
    With diffyans ſent, and be this reſone why;                    568
    His purpos Is, or this day moneth day,
    With all his oſt, planly to aſſay
    Your lond, w{i}t{h} mony ma{n}ly man of were,
  [Sidenote: not to return till he has conquered;]
    And helmyt kny{ch}t{is}, boith with ſheld {and} ſpere;         572
    And neu{er} thinkith to retwrn home whill
    That he this lond haith conqueſt at his will;
  [Sidenote: and he intends to possess queen Vanour.]
    And ek vanour the quen, of whome that hee
    Herith report of al this world that ſhee                       576
    In fairhed and in wertew doith excede,
    He bad me ſay he think{is} to poſſede.”
  [Sidenote: Arthur returns his defiance.]
    “Schir,” q{uod} the king, “your meſag me behuf{is}
    Of reſone and of curtaſy excuſß;                               580
    But tueching to your lord {and} to his oſt,
    His powar [and] his meſag and his boſt,
    That pretendith my lond for to diſtroy,
    Thar-of as ȝit tak I non anoye;                                584
    And ſay your lord one my behalf, when hee               [Fol. 8b.]
    Haith tone my lond, that al the world ſhal see
    That It ſhal be magre myne entent.”
  [Sidenote: The knight departs, lamenting Arthur’s adventurous
    With that the kny{ch}t, w{i}t{h}outen leif, is went,           588
    And richt as he was paſing to the dure,
    He ſaith, “a gode![T15] what wykyt aduenture
    Apperith!” w{i}t{h} that his hors he nome,
    Two knicht{is} kepit, waiting h{is} outcome.                   592

      [Footnote T15: MS. “agod^e.”]

    The kni{ch}t is gon, the king he gan Inquere
    At gawan, and at other kny{ch}t{is} sere,
  [Sidenote: Arthur asks Gawane who Galiot is.]
    If that thei knew or eu{er} hard recorde
    Of galiot, and wharof he wes lorde;                            596
    And ther was non among his kny{ch}t{is} all
    Which anſuerd o word in to the hall.
    Than galygantynis of walys raſe,
  [Sidenote: Galygantynis of Wales replies,]
    That trauelit in diu{er}ß lond{is} has,                        600
    In mony kny{ch}tly aue{n}tur haith ben;
    And to the king he ſaith, “ſ{ir}, I haue sen
    Galiot, which is the fareſt kny{ch}t,
  [Sidenote: that Galiot is the tallest knight by half a foot of all
  he ever saw; that he is wise, liberal, humble,]
    And hieſt be half a fut one hycht,                             604
    That eu{er} I saw, and ek his me{n} accordith;
    Hyme lakid no{ch}t that to a lord recordith.
    For viſare of his ag is non than hee,
    And ful of larges and humylytee;                               608
  [Sidenote: courageous, and under xxiv years of age.]
    An hart he haith of paſing hie curag,
    And is not xxiiij ȝer of age,
    And of his tyme mekil haith conquerit;
  [Sidenote: Ten kings obey him.]
    Ten king{is} at his {com}mand ar ſterit.                       612
    He v{i}t{h} his me{n} ſo louit is, y geß,
    That hyme to pleß is al ther beſynes.
    Not ſay I this, ſ{ir}, in to ye entent
    That he, nor none wnd{er} the firmame{n}t,                     616
    Shal pouere haue ayane your maieſtee;
    And or thei ſhuld, this y ſey for mee,
    Rather I ſhall kny{ch}tly in to feild
    Reſaue my deith anarmyt wnd{er} ſheld.                         620
    This ſpek y leſt;”--the king, ayan the morn,
  [Sidenote: The king goes again to the chase.]
    Haith varnit huntar{is} baith with hund {and} horne,
    And arly gan one to the foreſt ryd,
    With mony manly knyght{is} by h{is} ſid,                       624
    Hyme for to ſport and comfort w{i}t{h} the dere,
    Set contrare was the ſeſone of y^e yere.
  [Sidenote: He likes boar-hunting best.]
    His moſt huntyng was atte wyld bore;
    God wot a luſtye cuntree was It thoore,             628  [Fol. 9.]
    In the ilk tyme! weil long this noble king
    In to this lond haith maid his ſuiornyng;


  [Sidenote: A messenger comes from the lady of Melyhalt,]
    Frome the lady was send o meſinger
    Of melyhalt, wich ſaith one this maner,                        632
    As that the ſtory ſhewith by recorde:

    ++“TO yow, ſ{ir} king, as to hir ſou{er}an lorde,
    My lady hath me chargit for to ſay
    How that your lond ſtondith i{n} affray;                       636
  [Sidenote: to say that Galiot has entered Arthur’s land,]
    For galiot, ſone of the fare gyande,
    Enterit Is by armys in your land,
    And ſo the lond and cuntre he anoyth,
    That quhar he goith planly he diſtroyth,                       640
    And makith al obeiſand to his honde,
  [Sidenote: and has conquered all but two castles belonging to his
    That nocht is left wnconqueſt i{n} that lond,
    Excep two caſtell{is} longing to hir cwre,
    Wich to defend ſhe may no{ch}t long endure.                    644
    Wharfor, ſ{ir}, in word{is} plan {and} ſhort,
    Ye mon diſpone your folk for to ſupport.”


  [Sidenote: The king promises not to delay, and inquires the number
  of the foe.]
    “Wel,” q{uod} the king, “one to thi lady ſay
    The neid is myne, I fall It not delay;                         648
    But what folk ar thei ne{m}myt for to bee,
    That in my lond is cu{m}yne in ſich degree?”
  [Sidenote: “A hundred thousand,” is the reply.]
    “An hundreth thouſand boith vith ſheld {and} ſpere
    On hors ar armyt, al redy for the were.”                       652
    “Wel,” q{uo}d the king, “and but delay this ny{ch}t,
    Or than to morn as that the day is lycht,
  [Sidenote: The king says he will set off that very night.]
    I ſhal remuf; ther ſhal no thing me mak
    Impedyme{n}t, my Iorney for to tak.”                           656
    Than ſeith his kny{ch}t{is} al w{i}t{h} one aſſent,
  [Sidenote: His knights advise him to wait till he has raised an
    “Shir, that is al contrare our entent;
    For to your folk this mater is wnwiſt,
    And ye ar here our few for to reciſt                           660
    Ȝone power, and youre cuntre to defende;
    Tharfor abid, and for your folk ye send,
    That lyk a king and lyk a weriour
    Ye may ſuſten in armys your honoure.”                          664
    “Now,” q{uod} the king, “no langer that I ȝeme
    My crowne, my ſepture, nor my dyademe,
    Frome that I here, ore frome I wnd{er}ſtand,
    That ther by fors be entrit in my land                         668
    Men of armys, by ſtrenth of vyolens,
  [Sidenote: He refuses to wait longer than till the morrow.]
    If that I mak abid or reſydens
    In to o place langar than o ny{ch}t,
    For to defend my cuntre {and} my ry{ch}t.”                     672
    The king that day his meſage haith furth sent           [Fol. 9b.]
    Throuch al his realme, and ſyne to reſt is went.

    ++Up goith the morow, wp goith the bry{ch}t day,
    Wp goith the sone in to his freſh aray;                        676
    Richt as he ſpred his bemys frome northeſt,
  [Sidenote: The king arises next morning without delay,]
    The king wpraß w{i}t{h}outen more areſt,
    And by his awn conſeil and entent
    His Iornaye tuk at ſhort awyſment.                             680
    And but dulay he goith frome place to place
    Whill that he cam nere whare[T16] the lady was,
  [Sidenote: and reaches a plain by the river side,]
    And in one plane, apone o reuer ſyde,
    He lichtit doune, and ther he can abide;                       684
    And yit w{i}t{h} hyme to batell fore to go
  [Sidenote: having only seven thousand with him.]
    Vij thousand fechter{is} war thei, {and} no mo.

      [Footnote T16: MS. “whare that,” with slight scratch through

  [Sidenote: Lancelot, having been imprisoned by the lady of
    ++This was the lady, of qwhome befor I tolde,
    That lancilot haith in to hir kepinge holde;                   688
    But for to tell his paſing hewyneſſe,
    His peyne, his ſorow, and his gret diſtreſſe
    Of preſone and of loues gret ſuppris,
    It war to long to me for to dewys.                             692
    When he reme{m}brith one his hewy charge
    Of loue, wharof he can hyme not diſcharge,
    He wepith and he ſorowith in his chere,
    And euery nyght ſemyth hyme o yere.                            696
    Gret peite was the ſorow that he maad,
  [Sidenote: laments his fate.]
    And to hyme-ſelf apone this wiß he ſaade:


  [Sidenote: Lancelot’s lament; his pleasure is gone;]
    ++“Qwhat haue y gilt, allace! or qwhat deſ{er}uit?
    That thus myne hart ſhal vondit ben {and} carwit               700
      One by the ſuord of double peine and wo?
      My comfort and my pleſans is ago,
    To me is nat that ſhuld me glaid reſeruit.

  [Sidenote: he curses his natal day;]
    I curß the tyme of myne Natiuitee,                             704
    Whar in the heuen It ordinyd was for me,
      In all my lyue neu{er} til haue eeß;
      But for to be example of diſeß,
    And that apperith that eu{er}y vicht may see.                  708

  [Sidenote: he has never spent a single day free from anxiety,]
    Sen thelke tyme that I had ſufficians
    Of age, and chargit thoght{is} ſufferans,
      Nor neu{er} I {con}tinewite haith o day
      With-out the payne of thoght{is} hard aſſay;                 712
    Thus goith my youth in tempeſt {and} penans.

  [Sidenote: and is now in prison; and invokes Death.]
    And now my body is In preſone broght;
    But of my wo, that in Regard is noght,                  [Fol. 10.]
      The wich myne hart felith euer more.                         716
      O deth, allace! whi hath yow me forbore
    That of remed haith the ſo long beſoght!”

  [Sidenote: Thus the smart of love’s sorrow pricketh him.
  He is kept by her from the exercise of knighthood;
  and there we let him dwell.]
    Thus neu{er}emore he ſeſith to compleine,
    This woful knyght that felith not bot peine;                   720
    So prekith hyme the ſmert of loues ſore,
    And eu{er}y day encreſſith more and more.
    And with this lady takine is alſo,
    And kepit whar he may no whare go                              724
    To haunt knychthed, the wich he moſt deſirit;
    And, thus his hart w{i}t{h} dowbil wo yfirite,
    We lat hyme duel here with the lady ſtill,
    Whar he haith laiſere for to compleine his fyll.               728


  [Sidenote: Meanwhile, Galiot besieged a castle.]
    ++And galiot in this meyne tyme he laie
    By ſtrong myght o caſtell to aſſay,
    With many engyne and diu{er}ß wais ſere,
    For of fute folk he had a gret powere                          732
    That bowis bur, and vther Inſtrument{is},
  [Sidenote: His army had pavilions, tents, and iron-wheeled
    And with them lede ther palȝonis {and} ther te{n}t{is},
    With mony o ſtrong chariot and cher
    With yrne qwhelis and barris long {and} ſqwar;                 736
    Well ſtuffit with al maner apparell
    That longith to o ſege or to batell;
    Whar-with his oſt was cloſit al about,
    That of no ſtrenth nedith hyme to dout.                        740
  [Sidenote: When he heard of Arthur’s coming,]
    And when he hard the cu{m}yne of the king,
    And of his oſt, and of his gaderyng,
    The wich he reput but of febil myght
    Ayanis hyme for to ſuſten the ficht,                           744
    His conſell holl aſſemblit he, but were,
  [Sidenote: he assembled his council,]
    Ten knight{is} with other lord{is} ſere,
    And told theme of the cu{m}ing of the king,
    And aſkit them there conſell of that thing.                    748
  [Sidenote: who thought it would degrade him, to fight in proper
  person against so few.]
    Hyme thoght that it his worſchip wold degrade,
    If he hyme ſelf in p{ro}pir p{er}ſone raide
    Enarmyt ayane ſo few menye
    As It was told arthur[{is}] fore to bee;                       752
    And thane the kyng-An-hund{er}eth-kny{ch}t{is} cold,
    (And ſo he hot, for neu{er}more he wolde
    Ryd of his lond, but In his cu{m}pany
    O hundyre knyght{is} ful of chiuellry).                        756


  [Sidenote: The king of a hundred knights (Maleginis) undertakes
  the exploit;]
    He ſaith, “shir, ande I one hond [may] tak,            [Fol. 10b.]
    If It you pleß, this Iorney ſhal I mak.”
    Quod galiot, “I grant It yow, but ye
    Shal firſt go ryd, yone kny{ch}t{is} oſt {and} see.”           760
    With-outen more he ridith our the plan,
    And ſaw the oſt and is returnyd ayañ;
    And callit them mo than he hade ſen, for why
    He dred the reprefe of his cumpany.                            764
  [Sidenote: who reconnoitres Arthur’s host, and says it is 10,000
  strong: whereon Galiot charges him to take the same number.]
    And to his lord apone this wys ſaith hee,
    “Shir, ten thouſand y ges them for to bee.”
    And galiot haith chargit hyme to tak
    Als fell folk, and for the feld hyme mak.                      768
    And ſo he doith and haith them wel Arayt;
    Apone the morne his banaris war diſplayt.

    ++Up goth the trumpet{is} with the clariou{ni}s,
    Ayaine the feld blawen furth ther ſownis,                      772
  [Sidenote: Galiot’s host set out.]
    Furth goth this king w{i}t{h} al his oſt anon.
    Be this the word wes to king arthur gone,
    That knew no thing, nor wiſt of ther entent,
  [Sidenote: Arthur’s host don their armour.]
    But ſone his folk ar one to armys went;                        776
    But arthur by Report hard saye
  [Sidenote: Arthur, hearing that Galiot is unarmed, will not arm
    How galiot non armys bur that day,
    Wharfor he thoght of armys nor of ſheld
    None wald he tak, nor mak hyme for the feld.                   780
  [Sidenote: but calls Gawane, and tells him how to order his
    But gawane haith he clepit, was hyme by,
    In qwhome Rignith the flour of cheuelry;
    And told one what man{er}, and one what wyß
    He ſhuld his batelles ordand and dewys;                        784
    Beſeching hyme, [hyme] wiſly to for-see
    Aȝaine thei folk, wich was far mo than hee.
    He knew the charg and paſſith one his way
    Furth to his horß, and makith no dulay;                        788
    The clariou{n}is blew and furth goth al onoñ,
  [Sidenote: Gawane and his men cross over the water at the ford.]
    And our ye watt{er} and the furd ar goñe.


    Within o playne vpone that other ſyd
    Ther gawan gon his batellis to dewide,                         792
    As he wel couth, and set them i{n} aray,
    Syne with o manly contynans can ſay,
  [Sidenote: He harangues his men.]
    “Ye falowis wich of the round table beñ,
    Through al this erth whois fam is hard {and} ſen,              796
    Reme{m}brith now It ſtondith one the poynt,
    For why It lyith one your ſperis poynt,[T17]
    The well-fare of the king and of our londe;             [Fol. 11.]
    And ſen the ſucour lyith in your honde,                        800
    And hardement is thing ſhall moſt awaill
    Frome deth ther men of armys in bataill,
    Lat now your ma{n}hed and your hie curage
    The pryd of al thir multitude aſſuage;                         804
    Deth or defence, non other thing we wot.”
  [Sidenote: Maleginis and all his host come over the plain, and
  Gawane sends a company against them.]
    This freſch king, that maleginis was hot,
    With al his oſt he cu{m}myne our the plañ,
    And gawan ſend o batell hyme agañ;                             808
    In myde the borde,[T18] and feſtinit in the ſtell
    The ſperithis poynt, that bitith ſcharp {and} well;
  [Sidenote: But they were all too few; wherefore Gawane sends
  a second company;]
    Bot al to few thei war, and my{ch}t no{ch}t leſt
    This gret Rout that cu{m}myth one ſo faſt.                     812
    Than haith ſ{ir} gawan ſend, them to ſupport,
    One othir batell with one kny{ch}tly sorte;
  [Sidenote: then a third; then a fourth; and then sets out himself,
  to resist the 10,000.]
    And ſyne the thrid, and ſyne the ferde alſo;
    And ſyne hyme-ſelf one to the feld can go,                     816
    When that he ſauch thar latt{er} batell ſteir,
    And the ten thouſand cu{m}myne al thei veir;
    Qwhar that of armes prewit he so well,
    His e{n}nemys gane his mortall [ſtrokis] fell.                 820

      [Footnote T17: At the bottom of this page appears for the
      first time a catchword, which is-- “The wel fare.”]
      [Footnote T18: Or “berde.”]


  [Sidenote: He goes among them in his courage,]
    He goith ymong them in his hie curage,
    As he that had of knyghthed the wſage,
    And couth hyme weill {con}ten i{n} to on hour;
    Aȝaine his ſtrok reſiſtit non armour;                          824
  [Sidenote: and many other of Arthur’s knights perform wonders.]
    And mony kny{ch}t, that worth ware and bolde,
    War thore with hyme of arthur{is} houſhold,
    And knyghtly gan one to the feld them bere,
    And mekil wroght of armys In to were;                          828
    S{ir} gawan than vpone ſuch wyß hyme bure,
  [Sidenote: Maleginis goeth to discomfiture, and 7,000 of his men
    This othere goith al to diſcu{m}fitoure;
    Sewyne thouſand fled, {and} of the feld thei go,
    Whar-of this king in to his hart was wo,                       832
    For of hyme ſelf he was of hie curage.
    To galiot than ſend he in meſag,
    That he ſhuld help his folk for to defende;
  [Sidenote: Galiot sends him 30,000 more.]
    And he to hyme hath xxx^te thousand sende;                     836
    Whar-of this king gladith in his hart,
    And thinkith to Reweng all the ſmart
    That he to-for haith ſuffirit and the payne.           [Fol. 11b.]
  [Sidenote: His folk return across the field as thick as hail.]
    And al his folk returnyt Is ayayne                             840
    Atour the feld, and cu{m}myne thilk as haill;[T19]
    The ſwyft horß goith firſt to the aſſall.
    This noble knyght that ſeith the g{r}ete forß
    Of armyt men, that cu{m}myne vpone horß,                       844
    To-giddir ſemblit al his falowſchip,
    And thoght them at the ſharp poynt to kep,
    So that thar harm̅ ſhal be ful deir yboght.
    This vthere folk with ſtraucht courß hath ſocht                848
    Out of aray atour the larg felld;
    Thar was the ſtrok{is} feſtnit i{n} the ſhelde,
    Thei war Reſauit at the ſper{is} end.
  [Sidenote: Arthur’s folk receive them manfully.]
    So arthur{is} folk can manfully defend;                        852
    The formeſt can thar lyues end conclude,
    Whar ſone aſſemblit al the multitude.
    Thar was defens, ther was gret aſſaill,
    Richt wond{er}full and ſtrong was y^e bataill,                 856
  [Sidenote: but sustain much pain,]
    Whar arthur{is} folk ſuſtenit mekil payn,
    And kny{ch}tly them defendit haith aȝaine.

      [Footnote T19: MS. “thilk as (Rayne) haill,” as if it were at
      first intended to find a rime to “ayayne.”]


  [Sidenote: and cannot endure against so many.]
    Bot endur thei my{ch}t, apone no wyß,
    The multitude and ek the gret ſupp{ri}ß;                       860
    But gawan, wich that ſetith al h{is} payn
    Vpone knyghthed, defendid ſo aȝaine,
    That only in the manhede of this knyght
    His folk reIoſit them of his gret myght,                       864
    And ek abaſit hath his ennemys;
    For throw the feld he goith in ſuch wyß,
    And in the preß ſo ma{n}fully them ſ{er}uith,
  [Sidenote: Gawane carves helmets in two, and smites heads off
    His ſuerd atwo the helmys al to-kerwith,                       868
    The hed{is} of he be the ſhoud{er}is ſmat;
    The horß goith, of the maiſt{er} deſolat.
    But what awaleth al his beſynes,
    So ſtrong and ſo inſufferable vas the preß?                    872
  [Sidenote: but his men recross the ford to go to their lodges.]
    His folk are paſſit atour the furdis ilkon,
    Towart ther bretis and to ther luges gon;
    Whar he and many worthy knyght alſo
    Of arthur{is} houß endurit mekill wo,                          876
    That neu{er} men mar in to armys vroght
    Of manhed, ȝit was It al for noght.
    Thar was the ſtrenth, ther was the paſing myght         [Fol. 12.]
  [Sidenote: Gawane fights alone till night,]
    Of gawan, wich that whill the dirk nyght                       880
    Befor the luges faucht al hyme aloñ,
    When that his falowis entrit ware ilkoñ,
    On arthur{is} half war mony tan and ſlan;
  [Sidenote: when Galiot’s folk return home.]
    And galot{is} folk Is hame ret{u}rnyd aȝaine,                  884
    For it was lait; away the oſtis ridith,
    And gawan ȝit apone his horß abidith,
    W{i}t{h} ſuerd in hond, when thei away var gon,
    And so for-wrocht hys ly{m}mys ver ilkon,                      888
    And wondit ek his body vp and doune,
  [Sidenote: Gawane swoons upon his horse.]
    Vpone his horß Right thore he fel in ſwoune;
    And thei hyme tuk {and} to his lugyne bare,
  [Sidenote: The king and queen fear he has brought himself to
    Boith king and qwen of hyme vare i{n} diſpare;                 892
    For thei ſuppoſit, throw marwellis that he vroght,
    He had hyme-ſelf to his confuſiou{n}e broght.


      [T]his[T20] was nere by of melyhalt, the hyll,
    Whar lanſcelot ȝit was w{i}t{h} the lady ſtill.                896
    The kny{ch}t{is} of the court [can] paſing hom̅e;
    This ladiis kny{ch}t{is} to hir palice com,
    And told to hir, how that the feld was vent,
  [Sidenote: The lady of Melyhalt hears of Gawane’s deeds;]
    And of gawan, and of his hardyme{n}t,                          900
    That merwell was his manhed to behold;
  [Sidenote: and Lancelot also,]
    And ſone thir tithing{is} to the kny{ch}t vas told,
    That was with wo and hewyneſs oppreſt;
    So noyith hyme his ſuiorne and his reſt,                       904
  [Sidenote: who sends for a knight to take a message to the lady;]
    And but dulay one for o kny{ch}t he send,
    That was moſt ſpeciall with the lady kend.
    He comyne, and the kny{ch}t vn to hyme ſaid,
    “Diſpleß yow not, ſ{ir}, be ȝhe not ill paid,                  908
    So homly thus I yow exort to go,
    To gare my lady ſpek o word or two
    With me, that am a carful p{re}ſonere.”[T21]
    “S{ir}, your co{m}mande y ſhall, w{i}t{h}outen were,           912
    Fulfill;” and to his lady paſſit hee
    In lawly wyß beſiching hir, that ſhe
    Wald grant hyme to pas at his requeſt,
    Vnto hir kny{ch}t, ſtood wnd{er} hir areſt;                    916
    And ſhe, that knew al gentilleß aright,
  [Sidenote: who comes to his chamber.]
    Furth to his chamber paſſit wight[T22] the licht.

      [Footnote T20: See note to this line.]
      [Footnote T21: MS. “preson{er}ere.”]
      [Footnote T22: Read “with” (?).]

    ++And he aroß and ſaluſt Curtaſly                      [Fol. 12b.]
  [Sidenote: Lancelot beseeches her to appoint his ransom,]
    The lady, and ſaid, “madem, her I,                             920
    Your preſoner, beſekith yow that ȝhe
    Wold merſy and compaſſione have of me,
    And mak the ranſone wich that I may yeif;
    I waiſt my tyme in presou{n}e thus to leife.                   924
    For why I her on be report be told,
    That arthur, with the flour of his houſholde,
    Is cu{m}myne here, and in this cuntre lyis,
    And ſtant In danger of his ennemyis,                           928
    And haith aſſemblit; and eft this ſhalt bee
    Within ſhort tyme one new aſſemblee.
    Thar-for, my lady, y youe g{ra}ce beſech,
    That I mycht pas, my Ranſon for to fech;                       932
  [Sidenote: presuming that some of Arthur’s knights will pay it.]
    Fore I p{re}ſume thar longith to that ſort
    That louid me, and ſhal my nede ſupport.”


    ++“Shire kny{ch}t, It ſtant no{ch}t in ſich dugree;
  [Sidenote: She replies that she does not want a ransom, but has
  imprisoned him for his guilt.]
    It is no ranſone wich that cauſith me                          936
    To holden yow, or don yow ſich offens;
    It is your gilt, It is your wiolens,
    Whar-of that I deſir no thing but law,
    W{i}t{h}out report your awñ treſpas to knaw.”                  940
    “Madem, your pleſance may ye wel fulfill
    Of me, that am in p{re}ſone at your will.
  [Sidenote: He prays for pardon,]
    Bot of that gilt, I was for til excuß,
    For that I did of werrey nede behwß,                           944
    It tuechit to my honore and my fame;
    I mycht no{ch}t lefe It but hurting of my nam,
    And ek the knycht was mor to blam than I.
    But ye, my lady, of your curteſſy,                             948
    Wold ȝe deden my Ransou{n}e to reſaue,
  [Sidenote: and begs for liberty:]
    Of preſone ſo I my libertee myght haue,
    Y ware ȝolde eu{er}more [to be] your knyght,
    Whill that I leif, w{i}t{h} al my holl myght.                  952
    And if ſo be ye lykith not to ma
  [Sidenote: or at least to be allowed to go to the next battle,]
    My ra{n}ſone, [madem,] if me leif to ga
    To the aſſemble, wich ſal be of new;
  [Sidenote: under a promise to return at night.]
    And as that I am feithful kny{ch}t {and} trew,                 956
    At ny{ch}t to yow I ent{er} ſhall aȝaine,
    But if that deth or other lat c{er}tañ,
    Throw wich I [may] have ſuch Impediment,
    That I be hold,[T23] magre myne entent.”           960  [Fol. 13.]

      [Footnote T23: MS. “behold.”]


  [Sidenote: She consents, if he will specify to her his name.]
    “S{ir} kny{ch}t,” q{uo}d ſhe, “I grant yow leif, w{i}t{h}thy
    Your name to me that ȝe wil ſpecify.”
    “Madem, as ȝit, ſutly I ne may
    Duclar my name, one be no man{er} way;                         964
  [Sidenote: He refuses for the present.]
    But I p{ro}myt, als faſt as I haue tyme
    Conuenient, or may vith-outen cryme,
    I ſhall;” and than the lady ſaith hyme tyll,
    “And I, ſchir kny{ch}t, one this condiſcione will              968
  [Sidenote: She grants him leave, under the proposed condition.]
    Grant yow leve, ſo that ye obliſt bee
    For to Return, as ye haue ſaid to me.”
    Thus thei accord, the lady goith to reſt,
    The ſone diſcending cloſit in the veſt;                        972
    The ferd day was dewyſit for to bee
    Betuex the oſt{is} of the aſſemblee.

    ++And galiot Richt arly by the day,
    Ayane the feld he can h{is} folk aray;                         976
  [Sidenote: Galiot assembles 40,000 fresh men.]
    And fourty thouſand armyt me{n} haith he,
    That war not at the othir aſſemble,
    Co{m}mandit to the batell for to gon;
    “And I my-ſelf,” q{uod} he, “ſhal me diſpone                   980
    On to the feild aȝaine the thrid day;
    Whar of this were we ſhal the end aſſay.”

  [Sidenote: Arthur also provides his men for the field.]
    ++ANd arthur{is} folk that come one eu{er}y ſyd,
    He for the feld can them for to p{ro}uide,                     984
    Wich ware to few aȝaine the gret affere
    Of galiot ȝit to ſuſten the were.
  [Sidenote: The knights of Melyhalt join him.]
    The kny{ch}t{is} al out of the cete roß
    Of melyholt, and to the ſemble gois.                           988
  [Sidenote: The lady secretly provides Lancelot with a red courser,
  and a shield and spear, both red also.]
    And the lady haith, in to ſacret wyß,
    Gart for hir kny{ch}t and preſon{er} dewyß
    In red al thing, that ganith for the were;
    His curſeir red, ſo was boith ſcheld {and} ſpere.              992


    {And} he, to qwham the preſone hath ben ſmart,
    With glaid deſir apone his curſour ſtart;
  [Sidenote: He rides towards the field, and halts in a plain by the
    Towart the feld anon he gan to ryd,
    And in o plan houit one reu{er} syde.                          996
    This kny{ch}t, the wich that long haith ben i{n} cag,
  [Sidenote: Lancelot is encouraged, seeing the blithe morn, the mead,
  the river, the green woods, and the knights and banners.]
    He grew in to o freſch {and} new curage,
    Seing the morow bly{th}full and amen,
    The med, the Reuer, and the vodis gren,                       1000
    The kny{ch}t{is} in [ther] armys them arayinge,
    The baner{is} ayaine the feld diſplayng,               [Fol. 13b.]
    His ȝouth in ſtrenth and in p{ro}ſperytee,
    And ſyne of luſt the gret aduerſytee.[T24]                    1004
    Thus in his tho{ch}t reme{m}bryng at the laſt,
  [Sidenote: Casting his eyes aside, he sees the queen looking over
  a parapet.]
    Eft{er}ward one ſyd he gan his Ey to caſt,
    Whar our a bertes[T25] lying haith he sen
    Out to the feld luking was the qwen;                          1008
    Sudandly with that his goſt aſtart
  [Sidenote: Love catches him by the heart.]
    Of loue anone haith caucht hyme by the hart;
    Than ſaith he, “How long ſhall It be so,
    Loue, at yow ſhall wirk me al this wo?                        1012
    Apone this wyß to be Infortunat,
    Hir for to ſ{er}ue the wich thei no thing wate
    What ſufferance I in hir wo endure,
    Nor of my wo, nor of myne aduenture?                          1016
    And I wnworthy ame for to attane
    To hir p{rese}ns, nor dare I noght complane.
  [Sidenote: He counsels his heart to help itself at need,]
    Bot, hart, ſen at yow knawith ſhe is here,
    That of thi lyue and of thi deith is ſtere,                   1020
    Now is thi tyme, now help thi-ſelf at neid,
    And the dewod of eu{er}y point of dred,
  [Sidenote: to forego cowardice,]
    That cowardy be none In to the señ,
    Fore and yow do, yow knowis thi peyne, I weyn;                1024
    Yow art wnable eu{er} to attane
    To hir mercy, or cum be ony mayne.
  [Sidenote: and to deserve her thanks or die.]
    Tharfor y red hir thonk at yow diſſerue,
    Or in hir p{rese}ns lyk o kny{ch}t to ſterf.”                 1028

      [Footnote T24: May we read “diuerſytee”?]
      [Footnote T25: MS. “abertes.”]


  [Sidenote: Confused with a heavy thought,]
    With that confuſit w{i}t{h} an hewy tho{ch}t,
    Wich ner his deith ful oft tyme haith hyme ſo{ch}t,
    Deuoydit was his sprit{is} and his goſt,
    He wiſt not of hyme-ſelf nor of his oſt;                      1032
  [Sidenote: he [sits] on his horse as still as stone.]
    Bot one his horß, als ſtill as ony ſton.
    When that the kny{ch}t{is} armyt war ilkon,
  [Sidenote: The bugles are blown, and the knights are ready on
  horseback, 20,000 in number.]
    To warnnyng them vp goith the bludy ſown,
    And eu{er}y knyght vpone his horß is bown;                    1036
    Twenty thouſand armyt men of were.
    The king that day he wold non armys bere;
    His batell{is} ware devyſit eu{er}ilkon,
  [Sidenote: They are forbidden to cross the fords, but cannot
  be restrained.]
    And them forbad out our the furd{is} to gon.                  1040
    Bot frome that thei ther ennemys haith sen,
    In to ſuch wys thei cout{h} them noght ſuſteñ;
    Bot ovr thei went vithouten more delay,          [Fol. 14.]
    And can them one that oy{er} sid aſſay.                       1044
  [Sidenote: The red knight still halting by the ford, a herald
  seizes his bridle, and bids him awake.]
    The red kny{ch}t ſtill in to his hewy thoght
    Was hufyng ȝit apone the furd, {and} noght
    Wiſt of hime ſelf; with that a harrold com,
    And ſone the kny{ch}t he be the brydill nom,                  1048
    Saying, “awalk! It is no tyme to ſlep;
    Your worſchip more expedient vare to kep.”
    No word he ſpak, ſo prikith hyme the ſmart
    Of hevynes, that ſtood vnto his hart.                         1052
  [Sidenote: Two shrews next approach; one takes his shield off his
    Two ſcrewis cam with that, of quhich [that] oñ
    The kny{ch}t{is} ſheld ry{ch}t frome his hals haith toñ;
  [Sidenote: the other casts water at his ventayle, which causes him
  to wink, and arouse himself.]
    That vthir watt{er} takith atte laſt,
    And in the kny{ch}t{is} wentail haith It caſt;                1056
    When that he felt the vatt{er} that vas cold,
    He wonk, and gan about hyme to behold,
    And thinkith how he ſum-quhat haith myſgoñ.
    With that his ſpere In to his hand haith ton,                 1060
  [Sidenote: He goes to the field, and sees the first-conquest king.]
    Goith to the feild w{i}t{h}outen vordis more;
    So was he vare whare that there cam before,
    O manly man he was in to al thing,
    And clepit was the ferſt-conquest king.                       1064
    The Red kny{ch}t w{i}t{h} [the] ſpur{is} ſmat the ſted,
    The tother cam, that of hyme hath no drede;
  [Sidenote: They meet.]
    With ferß curag ben the kny{ch}t{is} met,
    The king his ſpere apone the kny{ch}t hath set,               1068
    That al in peciß flaw in to the felde;


  [Sidenote: The red knight, though shieldless, overthrows his foe.]
    His hawbrek helpit, ſuppos he had no ſcheld.
    And he the king in to the ſcheld haith ton,
    That horß and man boith to the erd ar gon.                    1072
  [Sidenote: The shrew restores his shield.]
    Than to the kny{ch}t he cu{m}myth, that haith tan
    His ſheld, to hyme deliu{er}ith It ayane,
    Beſiching hyme that of his Ignorance,
    That knew hyme nat, as takith no grewance.                    1076
    The kny{ch}t h{is} ſche[l]d but mor delay haith tak,
    And let hyme go, and no thing to hyme ſpak.
    Than thei the[T26] wich that ſo at erth haith ſen
  [Sidenote: The men of the first-conquest king come to the rescue.]
    Ther lord, the ferſt-conqueſt king, y meñ,                    1080
    In haiſt thei cam, as that thei var agrevit,
    And manfully thei haith ther king Releuit.

      [Footnote T26: MS. “thei,” altered to “thee,” which is still

      [A]nd Arthuris folk, that lykith not to byde,
    In goith the spur{is} in the ſted{is} syde;                   1084
    To-giddir thar aſſemblit al the oſt:                   [Fol. 14b.]
    At whois meting many o kny{ch}t was loſt.
  [Sidenote: The battle was right cruel to behold.]
    The batell was richt crewell to behold,
    Of kny{ch}t{is} wich that haith there lyvis ȝolde.            1088
    One to the hart the ſpere goith throw the ſcheld,
    The kny{ch}t{is} gaping lyith in the feld.
    The red kny{ch}t, byrnyng in loues fyre,
    Goith to o kny{ch}t, als ſwift as ony vyre,                   1092
    The wich he perſit throuch {and} throuch the hart;
  [Sidenote: The red knight loses his spear, but draws his sword,
  and roams the field like a lion.]
    The ſpere is went; w{i}t{h} that anon he ſtart,
    And out o ſuerd in to his hond he tais;
    Lyk to o lyone in to the feld he gais,                        1096
    In to his Rag ſmyting to and fro
    Fro ſum the arm, fro ſum the nek in two,
    Sum in the feild lying is in ſwou{n},
  [Sidenote: Some he cleaves to the belt.]
    And sum his ſuerd goith to the belt al douñe.                 1100
    For qwhen that he beholdith to the qwen,
    Who had ben thore his manhed to haue sen,
    His doing in to armys and his myght,
    Shwld ſay in world war not ſuch o wight.                      1104
  [Sidenote: His fellows take comfort from his deeds,]
    His falouſchip siche comfort of his dede
    Haith ton, that thei ther ennemys ne dreid;
    But can them-self ay manfoly conten
    In to the ſtour, that hard was to ſuſten;                     1108
  [Sidenote: though Galiot’s host was a surpassing multitude.]
    For galyot was O paſing multitude
    Of prewit men in armys that war gude,
    The wich can w{i}t{h} o freſch curag aſſaill
    Ther ennemys that day In to batell;                           1112
  [Sidenote: Had it not been for the manhood of the red knight,
  Arthur’s folk had been in peril.]
    That ne ware not the vorſchip {and} manhede
    Of the red kny{ch}t, in p{er}ell and in dreid
    Arthur{is} folk had ben, vith-outen vere;
    Set thei var good, thei var of ſmal powere.                   1116


  [Sidenote: Gawane is led to the parapet,]
    And gawan, wich gart bryng hyme-ſelf befor
    To the bertes, set he was vondit sore,
    Whar the qwen vas, and whar that he my{ch}t see
    The manere of the oſt and aſſemble;                           1120
    And when that he the gret manhed haith sen
  [Sidenote: and saith to the queen, that none ever did better than
  yon red knight.]
    Of the red kny{ch}t, he ſaith one to the qwen,
    “Madem, ȝone knyght in to the armys Rede,
    Nor neu{er} I hard nore ſaw in to no ſted                     1124
    O kny{ch}t, the wich that in to ſchortar ſpace
    In armys haith mor forton nore mor grace;
    Nore bettir doith boith with ſper and ſcheild,
    He is the hed and comfort of our feild.”          1128  [Fol. 15.]
  [Sidenote: The queen prays for Lancelot.]
    “Now, ſ{ir}, I traiſt that neu{er} more vas ſen
    No man in feild more knyghtly hyme {con}ten;
    I pray to hyme that eu{er}y thing hath cure,
    Saif hyme fro deth or wykit aduenture.”                       1132
  [Sidenote: The field was perilous on both sides,]
    The feild It was ry{ch}t p{er}ellus and ſtrong
    On boith the ſydis, and continewit long,
  [Sidenote: from early morn till the sun had gone down.]
    Ay from the ſone the varld{is} face gan licht
    Whill he was gone {and} cu{m}yne vas the nycht;               1136
    And than o forß thei my{ch}t It not aſſtart,
    On eu{er}y ſyd behouit them depart.
  [Sidenote: Every knight then returns home, and the red knight
  privily goes back to the city.]
    The feild is don and ham goith eu{er}y kny{ch}t,
    And prevaly, unwiſt of any wicht,                             1140
    The way the red kny{ch}t to the cete taiis,
    As he had hecht, {and} in h{is} chambre gais.
    When arthure hard how the kny{ch}t Is gon,
    He blamyt ſore his lordis eu{er}ilk-one;                      1144
    And oft he haith remembrit in his thoght,
  [Sidenote: Arthur, seeing the multitude of Galiot’s men, recalls
  his dream, saying,]
    What multitud that galiot had broght;
    Seing his folk that ware so ewil arayt,
    In to his mynd he ſtondith al affrayt,                        1148
    And ſaith, “I traiſt ful ſuth It ſal be founde
    My drem Richt as the clerk{is} gan expounde;
  [Sidenote: “My men now fail me at need.”]
    For why my men failȝeis now at neid,
    My-ſelf, my londe, in p{er}ell and in dreide.”                1152


  [Sidenote: Galiot tells his council]
    And galiot vpone hie worſchip set,
    And his conſell anon he gart be fet,
    To them he ſaith, “with arthur weil ȝe see
    How that It ſtant, and to qwhat degre,                        1156
    Aȝanis ws that he is no poware;
  [Sidenote: that there is no honour in conquering Arthur,]
    Wharfor, me think, no worſchip to ws ware
    In conqueryng of hyme, nor of his londe,
    He haith no ſtrenth, he may ws not vithſtonde.                1160
    Wharfor, me think It beſt is to delay,
  [Sidenote: and proposes a twelvemonth’s truce.]
    And reſput hyme for a tuelmoñeth day,
    Whill that he may aſſemble al his myght;
    Than is mor worſchip aȝanis hyme to ficht;”                   1164
    And thus concludit thoght hyme for the beſt.
    The very kny{ch}t{is} paſſing to there Reſt;
    Of melyholt the ladeis kny{ch}t{is} ilkone
    Went home, and to hir p{rese}ns ar thei gon;                  1168
  [Sidenote: The lady of Melyholt asks her knights who hath won
  most honour.]
    At qwhome ful ſone than gan ſcho to Inquere,
    And al the maner of the oſt{is} till spere;
    How that It went, and in what man{er} wyß,
    Who haith moſt worſchip, {and} who is moſt to pryß?           1172
    “Madem,” q{uod} thei, “O kny{ch}t was In the feild,    [Fol. 15b.]
  [Sidenote: They reply, that a red knight had exceeded all others.]
    Of Red was al his armour and his ſheld,
    Whois manhed can al otheris to exced,
    May nan report in armys half his deid;                        1176
    Ne wor his worſchip, ſhortly to conclud,
    Our folk of help had ben al deſtitud.
    He haith the thonk, the vorſchip in hyme lyis,
    That we the feld defendit in ſich wyß.”                       1180
  [Sidenote: The lady wonders if her prisoner is meant.]
    The lady thane one to hir-ſelf haith tho{ch}t,
    “Whether Is ȝone my p{re}ſonar, ore noght?
    The ſuthfaſtneß that ſhal y wit onon.”
    When euery wight vn to ther Reſt war gon,                     1184


  [Sidenote: She calls her cousin,]
    She clepith one hir cwſynes ful nere
    Wich was to hir moſt ſpeciall and dere,
    And ſaith to hir, “qwheyar if yone bee
    Our preſoner, my consell Is we see.”                          1188
  [Sidenote: who takes a torch, and they go to the stable,]
    With that the maden In hir hand hath ton
    O torche, and to the ſtabille ar thei gon;
  [Sidenote: and find his steed wounded.]
    And fond his ſted lying at the ground,
    Wich wery was, ywet w{i}t{h} mony wounde.                     1192
    The maden ſaith, “vpone this horß is ſen,
    He in the place quhar strok{is} was hath beñ;
    And ȝhit the horß It is no{ch}t wich that hee
    Furt{h} w{i}t{h} hyme hade;”--the lady ſaid, “p{er} dee,      1196
    He vſyt haith mo horß than one or two;
  [Sidenote: Next they view his armour,]
    I red one to his armys at we go.”
    Tharwith one to his armys ar thei went;
  [Sidenote: and find his hauberk rent, and his shield frushed all
  to naught.]
    Thei fond his helm, thei fond his hawbrek rent,               1200
    Thei fond his ſcheld was fruſchit al to no{ch}t;
    At ſchort, his armour In sich wyß vas vro{ch}t
    In eu{er}y place, that no thing was left haill,
    Nore neu{er} eft accordith to bataill.                        1204
  [Sidenote: They think he has well used his armour.]
    Than ſaith the lady to hir cuſyneß,
    “What ſal we ſay, what of this mat{er} geß?”
    “Madem, I ſay, thei have no{ch}t ben abwsyt;
    He that them bur ſchortly he has them vſyt.”                  1208
    “That may ȝe ſay, ſuppos the beſt that lewis,
    Or moſt of worſchip in til armys prewis,
    Or ȝhit haith ben in ony tyme beforñ,
    Had them in feld in his maſt curag borñ.”                     1212
  [Sidenote: They next visit the knight himself,]
    “Now,” q{uo}d the lady, “will we paß, and see
    The kny{ch}t hyme-self, and ther the ſut{h} may we
    Knaw of this thing.” Incontynent them[T27] boith        [Fol. 16.]
    Thir ladeis vn to his chambre goith.                          1216
  [Sidenote: who was now asleep.]
    The kny{ch}t al wery fallyng was on ſlep;
    This maden paſſith In, {and} takith kep.
  [Sidenote: The lady’s cousin observes his breast and shoulders
  bloody, his face hurt, and his fists swollen.]
    Sche ſauch his breſt w{i}t{h} al his ſchowd{er}is bare,
    That bludy war and woundit her and thare;                     1220
    His face was al to-hurt and al to-ſchent,
    His newis ſwellyng war and al to-Rent.
    Sche ſmylyt a lyt, and to hir lady ſaid,
    “It ſemyth weill this kny{ch}t hath ben aſſaid.”              1224

      [Footnote T27: “then” (?).]


  [Sidenote: The lady next observes him,]
    The lady ſauch, and rewit in hir thoght
    The kny{ch}t{is} worſchip wich that he haith vroght.
  [Sidenote: and is smitten to the heart by the dart of love,]
    In hire Reme{m}brance loues fyre dart
    W{i}t{h} hot deſyre hir ſmat one to the hart;                 1228
    And then a quhill, w{i}t{h}-outen word{is} mo,
    In to hir mynd thinking to and fro,
    She ſtudeit ſo, and at the laſt abraid
  [Sidenote: and prays her cousin to draw aside, while she kisses
  the knight.]
    Out of hir tho{ch}t, and ſudandly thus ſaid,                  1232
    “W{i}t{h}-draw,” q{uod} ſhe, “one ſyd a lyt[T28] the lyght,
    Or that I paß that I may kyß the knyght.”

      [Footnote T28: MS. “alyt.”]


  [Sidenote: Her cousin reproves her,]
    “Madem,” q{uod} ſche, “what is It at ȝe meñ?
    Of hie worſchip our mekill have ȝe señ                        1236
    So sone to be ſupp{ri}ſit w{i}t{h} o thoght.
  [Sidenote: lest the knight should awake.]
    What is It at ȝhe think? p{re}ſwm ȝe noght
    That if yon kny{ch}t wil walkin, and p{er}ſaif,
    He ſhal yarof no thing bot ewill conſaif;                     1240
    In his entent Ruput yow therby
    The ablare to al ly{ch}tneß and foly?
    And blam the more al vther{is} in h{is} mynd,
    If your gret wit in ſich deſire he fynde?”                    1244
  [Sidenote: The lady replies.]
    “Nay,” q{uod} the lady, “no thing may I do
    For ſich o kny{ch}t may be defam me to.”
  [Sidenote: Her cousin next argues the point;]
    “Madem, I wot that for to loue yone kny{ch}t,
    Conſidir his fame, his worſchip, and h{is} my{ch}t;           1248
    And to begyne as worſchip wil dewyß,
    Syne he ayaine my{ch}t lowe yow one ſuch wyß,
    And hold yow for his lady and his loue,
    It war to yow no maner of Reprwe.                             1252
  [Sidenote: “What if he loves another?”]
    But quhat if he appelit be and thret
    His hart to lowe, and ellis whar y-ſet?
    And wel y wot, madem, if It be so,
    His hart hyme sal not ſuffir to loue two,                     1256
    For noble hart wil have no dowbilneß;                  [Fol. 16b.]
    If It be ſo, ȝhe tyne yowr low, I geß;
    Than is your-ſelf, than is your loue Refuſit,
    Your fam is hurt, your gladneß is concluſit.                  1260
    My conſell is, therfore, you to abſten
    Whill that to yow the werray Ry{ch}t be ſeñ
    Of his entent, the wich ful ſon ȝhe may
    Have knawlag, If yow lykith to aſſay.”                        1264
  [Sidenote: She persuades the lady to return to her chamber,
  without further delay.]
    So mokil to hir lady haith ſhe vroght
    That at that tyme ſhe haith Ret{ur}nyt h{ir} tho{ch}t,
    And to hir chambre went, w{i}t{h}outen more,
    Whar loue of new aſſaith hir ful sore.                        1268
    So well long thei ſpeking of the kny{ch}t,
  [Sidenote: Her cousin labours to expel her love for Lancelot from
  her thoughts, but her labour is in vain.]
    Hir cuſynace hath don al at ſhe my{ch}t
    For to expel that thing out of hir tho{ch}t;
    It wil not be, hir labour Is for no{ch}t.                     1272
    Now leif we hir In to hir neweſt pan,
    And to arthur we wil retwrn agañ.




  [Sidenote: Night.]
    ++The clowdy nyght, wndir whois obſcure
    The reſt and quiet of euery criatur                           1276
    Lyith ſauf, quhare the goſt w{i}t{h} beſyneß
    Is occupiit, w{i}t{h} thoghtfull hewynes;
    And, for that tho{ch}t furth ſchewing vil h{is} my{ch}t,
    Go fare-wel reſt and quiet of the ny{ch}t.                    1280
  [Sidenote: Arthur cannot rest.]
    Artur, I meyne, to whome that reſt is no{ch}t,
    But al the ny{ch}t ſuppriſit is with tho{ch}t;
    In to his bed he turnyth to and fro,
    Remembryng the apperans of his wo,                            1284
    That is to ſay, his deith, his confuſioune,
    And of his realme the opin diſtruccioune.
    That in his wit he can no thing p{ro}wide,
    Bot tak his forton thar for to abyd.                          1288
  [Sidenote: The sun goeth up.]
    Vp goith the ſon, vp goith the hot morow;
    The thoghtful king al the ny{ch}t to ſorow,
    That ſauch the day, vpone his feit he ſtart,            [Fol. 17.]
  [Sidenote: Arthur goeth forth.]
    And furth he goith, diſtrublit in his hart.                   1292
    A quhill he walkith in his penſyf goſt,
  [Sidenote: He hears that a clerk has arrived,]
    So was he ware thar cu{m}myne to the oſt
    O clerk, with whome he was aqwynt befor,
    In to his tyme non bett{er} was y-bore;                       1296
    Of qwhois com he gretly vas Reioſit,
    For in to hyme ſum comfort he ſuppoſit;
  [Sidenote: between whom and himself there was a hearty affection.]
    Betuex them was one hartly affeccioune.
    Non ord{er}is had he of Relegioune,                           1300
    Fam{us} he was, and of gret excellence,
  [Sidenote: He was expert in the seven sciences,]
    And ry{ch}t exp{er}t in al the vij. ſcience;
    Contemplatif and chaſt in gou{er}nance,
  [Sidenote: and was named Amytans.]
    And clepit was the maiſt{er} amytans.                         1304
    The king befor his palȝou{n}e one the gren,
    That knew hyme well, {and} haith his cu{m}myn ſeñ,
  [Sidenote: Arthur welcomes him.]
    Velcu{m}myt hyme, and maid hyme ry{ch}t gud chere,
    And he agan, agrewit as he were,                              1308
  [Sidenote: He recks nothing of Arthur’s salutation.]
    Saith, “nothir of thi ſaloſing, nor the,
    Ne rak I no{ch}t, ne charg I no{ch}t,” q{uo}d hee.
  [Sidenote: The king inquires what trespass he has committed.]
    Than q{uod} the king, “maiſt{er}, {and} for what why
    Ar ȝe agrewit? or quhat treſſpas have I                       1312
    Co{m}mytit, ſo that I ſhal yow diſples?”


  [Sidenote: He replies, “It is not against me, but against thyself.]
    Quod he, “no thing It is ayane myn eß,
    But only {con}trare of thi-ſelf alway;
    So fare the courß yow paſſith of the way.                     1316
  [Sidenote: Thy ship is almost drowned in the whirlpool.]
    Thi ſchip, that goth apone the ſtormy vall,
    Ney of thi careldis in the ſwelf it fall,
    Whar ſhe almoſt is in the p{er}ell drent;
    That is to ſay, yow art ſo far myſwent                        1320
    Of wykitneß vpone the vrechit dans,
    That yow art fallyng in the storng[T29] vengans
  [Sidenote: That is, God’s wrath shall soon devour thee.]
    Of goddis wreth, that ſhal the ſon deuour;
    For of his ſtrok approchit now the hour                       1324
    That boith thi Ringe, thi ceptre, {and} thi crovñ,
    Frome hie eſtat he ſmyting ſhal adoune.
    And that accordith well, for in thi tho{ch}t
  [Sidenote: Because thou knowest Him not, who set thee up in this
  high estate,]
    Yow knawith not hyme, the wich that haith the wro{ch}t,       1328
    And ſet the vp in to this hie eſtat
    From powert; for, as the-ſelwyne wat,
    It cu{m}myth al bot only of his myght,
    And not of the, nor of thi eld{er}is Richt                    1332
    To the diſcending, as in heritage,
  [Sidenote: though not begotten in spousage.]
    For yow was not byget in to spouſag.
    Wharfor yow aucht his biding to obſerf,                [Fol. 17b.]
    And at thy my{ch}t yow ſhuld hyme pleß {and} ſerf;            1336
    That dois yow nat, for yow art ſo confuſſit
    With this fals warld, that thow haith hyme Refuſit,
    And brokine haith his reul and ordynans,
    The wich to the he gave in gou{er}nans.                       1340

      [Footnote T29: So in MS. Is it necessary to alter it to


  [Sidenote: He made thee king,]
    He maid the king, he maid the gou{er}nour,
    He maid the ſo, and ſet in hie honour
    Of Realmys and of [diuerß] peplis ſere;
    Eft{er} his loue thow ſhuld them Reul {and} ſtere,            1344
    And wnoppreſſit kep in to Iuſtice,
    The wykit men and pwnyce for ther wice.
    Yow dois no thing, bot al in the {con}trare,
  [Sidenote: and thou sufferest thy people to fare ill.]
    And ſuffrith al thi puple to forfare;                         1348
    Yow haith non Ey but one thyne awn delyt,
    Or quhat that pleſing ſhall thyne appetyt.
    In the defalt of law and of Iuſtice,
    Wndir thi hond is ſufferyt gret ſuppriß                       1352
    Of fadirleß, and modirleß alſo,
    And wedwis ek ſuſtenit mekill wo.
  [Sidenote: The poor are oppressed.]
    With gret myſchef oppreſſit ar the pure;
    And thow art cauß of al this hol Iniure,                      1356
    Whar-of that god a raknyng ſal craf
    At the, and a ſore Raknyng ſal hafe;
    For thyne eſtat is gewyne to Redreß
    Thar ned, and kep them to ry{ch}twyneß;                       1360
    And thar is non that ther complant{is} her{is};
    The my{ch}ty folk, and ek the flattereris
    Ar cheif with the, and doith this oppreſſiou{n};
  [Sidenote: If they complain, it is their confusion.]
    If thai complen, It is ther confuſſiou{n}e.                   1364
    And daniell ſaith that who doith to the pure,
    Or fad{er}leß, or modirleß, EnIure,
    Or to the puple, that ilke to god doth hee;
    And al this harme ſuſtenit Is throw the.                      1368
    Yow ſufferith them, oppreſſith {and} anoyith;
    So yow art cauß, throw the thei ar diſtroyth;
    Than, at thi my{ch}t, god ſo diſtroys yow.
  [Sidenote: What wilt thou do, when God destroys sinners off the
  visage of the earth?]
    What ſhal he do aȝane? quhat ſhal yow,                        1372
    When he diſtroys by vengance of his ſuerd
    The ſynar{is} fra the vysag{is} of the Erde?
    Than vtraly yow ſhall diſtroyt bee;
    And that Richt weill apper{is} now of thee,                   1376
    For yow allon byleft art ſolitere;
  [Sidenote: Solomon saith, ‘Wo to him who is left alone! He hath
  no help.’]
    And the wyß salamon can duclar,
    ‘Wo be to hyme that is byleft alone,
    He haith no help;’ so Is thi forton goñe;         1380  [Fol. 18.]
    For he is callit, w{i}t{h} quhom that god is no{ch}t,
    Allone; and ſo thi wykitneß haith wro{ch}t
    That god hyme-ſelf he is bycu{m}myn thi fo,
  [Sidenote: Thou hast lost thy people’s hearts,]
    Thi pupleis hart{is} haith thow tynt alſo;                    1384
    Thi wykitneß thus haith the maid alon,
    That of this erth thi fortone Is y-goñ.
    Yow mone thi lyf, yow mone thi vorſchip tyne,
  [Sidenote: and shalt come to death that hath no end.”]
    And eft to deth that neu{er} ſhal haf fyne.”                  1388


    ++“Maist{er},” q{uo}d he, “of yowre beneuolens,
    Y yow beſech that tueching my{n} offens,
    Ȝhe wald wichſaif your conſell to me If
  [Sidenote: Arthur asks how he shall amend,]
    How I ſal mend, and ek her-eftir leif.”                       1392
    “Now,” q{uo}d the maiſter, “and I have m{er}well qwhy
    Yow aſkith conſail, and wil in non affy,
    Nor wyrk thar-by; and ȝhit yow may In tym,
    If yow lykith to amend the cryme.”                            1396
    “Ȝhis,” ſaith the king, “and ſuthfaſtly I will
  [Sidenote: and promises to fulfil his bidding.]
    Ȝour ordynans in eu{er}y thing fulfyll.”
    “And if the liſt at conſail to abide,
  [Sidenote: The master replies, “Thou must first dread the Lord.]
    The remed of thi harme to p{ro}uyde--                         1400
    Firſt, the begyning is of ſapiens,
    To dreid the lord and his mag{ni}ficens;
    And what thow haith in contrar hyme ofendit,
    Whill yow haith my{ch}t, of fre deſir amend it;[T30]          1404
  [Sidenote: Repent thy guilt.]
    Repent thi gilt, repent thi gret treſpaß,
    And remembir one goddis richwyſneß;
    How for to hyme that wykitneß anoyt,
    And how the way of ſynaris he diſtroit;                       1408
    And if ye lyk to ryng wnd{er} his peß,
    Ye wengans of his my{ch}ty hond yow ſeß,
    This ſchalt yow do, if yow wil be p{er}fit.
    Firſt, mone yow be penitent and contrit                       1412
    Of euery thing that tuechith thi conſiens,
    Done of fre will, or ȝhit of neglygens.
  [Sidenote: Thy need requireth full contrition.]
    Thi neid requirith ful contretioune,
    Princepaly with-out concluſioune;                             1416
    With humble hart and goſtly byſyneß,
    Syne ſhalt yow go deuotly the confeß
  [Sidenote: Confess to some holy confessor.]
    Ther-of vnto ſum haly confeſſour,
    That the wil conſail tueching thin arour;                     1420
    And to fulfill his will and ordynans,
  [Sidenote: Do penance, and amend all wrong.”]
    In ſatiſfaccione and doing of penans,
    And to amend al wrang and al Iniure,
    By the ydone til euery Creature;                              1424
    If yow can In to thi hart fynde,                       [Fol. 18b.]
    Contretioune well degeſt In to thi mynd.
    Now go thi weie, for if it leful were,
    Confeſſioune to me, I ſhuld It here.”                         1428

      [Footnote T30: MS. “amendit.”]


  [Sidenote: Arthur tries to remember every sin done since his years
  of innocence,]
    ++Than arthur, Richt obedient {and} mek,
    In to his wit memoratyvecan ſeik
    Of euery gilt wich that he can pens,
    Done frome he paſſith the ȝer{is} of Innocens;                1432
    And as his maiſter hyme commandit hade,
  [Sidenote: and made his confession with lamentable cheer.]
    He goith and his confeſſione haith he maad
    Richt deuotly with lementable chere;
    The man{er} wich quho lykith for to here                      1436
    He may It fynd In to the holl romans,
    Of confeſſione o paſing c{er}cumſtans.
    I can It not, I am no confeſſour,
    My wyt haith ewill conſat of that labour,                     1440
    Quharof I wot I aucht repent me ſore.
    The king wich was confeſſit, what is more,
    Goith and til his maiſt{er} tellith hee,
    How euery ſyne In to his awn degree                           1444
    He shew, that mycht occuryng to his mynde.
  [Sidenote: “Leftest thou aught behind,” quoth the master, “about
  Ban, king of Albanak, and his disinherited wife?”]
    “Now,” q{uo}d the maiſtere, “left thow aght behynde
    Of albenak the vorſchipful king ban,
    The wich that vas in to my ſ{er}uice ſlan,                    1448
    And of his wif diſheriſt eft alſo?
    Bot of ther ſone, the wich was them fro,
    Ne ſpek[T31] y not;”--the king in his entent
    Abaſyt was, and furt{h}w{i}t{h} is he went                    1452
  [Sidenote: The king again confesses, and returns,]
    Aȝane, and to his confeſſour declarith;

      [Footnote T31: MS. apparently has “srpek;” but a comparison
      with line 1543 shews that the apparent _r_ is due to the meeting
      of two slight flourishes belonging to the _s_ and _p_.]


    Syne to his maiſt{er} he ayane Reparith,
    To quhome he ſaith, “I aftir my cu{n}yng
    Your ordinans fulfillit in al thing;                          1456
    And now right hartly y beſeich and prey,
    Ȝhe wald w{i}t{h}ſchaif ſum thing to me ſay,
  [Sidenote: prays for comfort,]
    That may me comfort in my gret dreid,
    And how my men ar falȝet in my Neid,                          1460
  [Sidenote: and inquires about his dream.]
    And of my dreme, the wich that is ſo dirk.”
  [Sidenote: The master saith, “If thou art bound to work by my
    This maiſt{er} ſaith, “and thow art bound to virk
    [T32] ++AT my conſail, and if yow has maad
    Thi confeſſione, as yow before hath ſaid,                     1464
    And in thi conciens thinkith p{er}ſeuere,
    As I p{re}ſume that thow onon ſhalt here
    That god hyme-ſelf ſhal ſo for y^e p{ro}uide,
  [Sidenote: thou shalt abide in thy kingdom.]
    Thow ſhal Remayne and In thi Ring abyd.                       1468
    And why thi men ar falȝet At this nede,                 [Fol. 19.]
    At ſhort this is the cauß, ſhalt yow no{ch}t dred,
    Fore thow to gode was frawart and p{er}wert;
    Thi ryngne and the he tho{ch}t for to ſubwart;                1472
    And yow ſal knaw na power may reciſt,
    In contrar quhat god lykith to aſſi[ſ]t.

      [Footnote T32: This line (though it should not) begins with an
      illuminated letter.]


  [Sidenote: Strength of victory cometh from God only.]
    The vertw nore the ſtrenth of victory
    It cu{m}myth not of man, bot an{er}ly                         1476
    Of hyme, the wich haith eu{er}y ſtrinth; {and} than,
    If that the waiis pleſſit hyme of man,
    He ſhal have forß aȝane his e{n}nemys.
    A-ryght agan apone the ſamyne vyß,                            1480
  [Sidenote: Whoso displeases Him shall be subject to his enemies,
  as we read in the Bible concerning the Jews.]
    If he diſpleß vn to the lord, he ſhall
    Be to his fais a ſubiet or a thrall,
    As that we may In to the bible red,
    Tueching the folk he tuk hyme-ſelf to led                     1484
    In to the lond, the wich he them byhicht.
    Ay when thei ȝhed in to his ways Richt,
    Ther fois gon befor there ſuerd to no{ch}t;
  [Sidenote: When they wrought against Him, they were so full of
  fear that the sound of a falling leaf made a thousand flee.]
    And when that thei ayanis hyme hath vro{ch}t,                 1488
    Thei war ſo full of radur and diſſpare,
    That of o leif fleing in the air,
    The ſound of It haith gart o thouſand tak
    At onys apone them-ſelf the bak,                              1492
    And al ther manhed vterly foryhet;
    Sich dreid the lord apone ther hart{is} set.
    So ſhalt yow know no powar may w{i}t{h}ſtond,
    Ther god hyme-ſelf hath ton the cauß on hond.                 1496
  [Sidenote: Thine own offence is the reason why thy people fail
    And ye quhy ſtant in thyne awn offens,
    That al thi puple falȝhet off defens.
    And ſum ar falȝeing magre ther entent;
    Thei ar to quhom thow yewyne hath thi rent,                   1500
    Thi gret Reuard, thi richeß and thi gold,
    And cheriſſith and held in thi houſhold.
    Bot the moſt p{ar}t ar falȝheit the at wyll,
  [Sidenote: Thou hast shewn some of them unkindness,]
    To quhome yow haith wnkyndneß ſchawin till;                   1504
    Wrong and i{n}Iure, and ek defalt of law,
    And pwnyſing of qwhich that thei ſtand aw;
    And makith ſ{er}uice but reward or fee,
    Syne haith no thonk bot fre{m}mytneß of the.                  1508
    Such folk to the cu{m}myth bot for dred,
    Not of fre hart the for to help at nede.
    And what awalith owthir ſheld or ſper,
    Or horß or armoure according for ye were,                     1512
    Vith-outen man them for to ſtere and led?              [Fol. 19b.]
  [Sidenote: and a man that wanteth heart is dead.]
    And man, yow wot, that vantith hart is ded,
    That in to armys ſ{er}uith he of noght;
    A cowart oft ful mekil harm haith vroght.                     1516
    In multitude nore ȝhit in confluens
    Of ſich, is nowther manhed nore defens.
  [Sidenote: Thou hast so conducted thyself as to lose all thy
  people’s hearts.]
    And ſo thow hath the rewlyt, that almoſt
    Of al thi puple the hart{is} ben ylost;                       1520
    And tynt richt throw thyne awn myſgou{er}nans
    Of auerice and of thyne errogans.
  [Sidenote: What is a prince without honour?]
    What is o prince? quhat is o gou{er}noure
    W{i}t{h}outen fame of worſchip and honour?                    1524
    What is his my{ch}t, ſuppos he be A lorde,
    If that his folk ſal no{ch}t to hyme accorde?
  [Sidenote: Can he by himself sustain his kingdom, by serving his
  own appetite?]
    May he his Rigne, may he his holl Empire
    Suſten al only of his owne deſyre,                            1528
    In ſerwyng of his wrechit appetit
    Of awerice and of his awn delyt,
    And hald his men, wncheriſt, in thraldome?
  [Sidenote: His oppression of his people consumes his high estate,
  and makes other kings war on them.]
    Nay! that ſhal ſone his hie eſtat conſome.                    1532


    For many o kny{ch}t[T33] therby is broght ydoune,
    All vt{r}aly to ther confuſioune;
    For oft it makith vther king{is} by
    To wer on them In traſt of victory;                           1536
    And oft als throw his peple is diſtroyth,
    That fyndith them agrewit or anoyth;
  [Sidenote: God also punishes their vices.”]
    And god alſo oft w{i}t{h} his awn ſwerd,
    Punyſith ther wyſis one this erd.                             1540
    Thus falith not o king but gou{er}nans,
    Boith realme and he goith one to myſchans.”

      [Footnote T33: “king” (?).]


  [Sidenote: Meanwhile, the king of a hundred knights and the
  first-conquest king come from Galiot,]
    ++AS thai war thus ſpeking of this thinge,
    Frome galiot cam two kny{ch}t{is} to the king;                1544
    That one the king of hund{er}eth kny{ch}t{is} was;
    That other to nome the fyrst-co{n}queſt king[T34] has,
    At firſt that galyot conquerit of one.
    The n{er}eſt way one to the king thei gon,                    1548
    And vp he roß, as he that wel cout{h} do
    Honor, to quhome that It afferith to;
    And ȝhit he wiſt not at thei king{is} were;
    So them[T35] thei boith and vyt{h} ry{ch}t knyghtly cher      1552
    Reu{er}endly thei ſaluſt hyme, and thane
  [Sidenote: and the former delivers his message, to the effect that]
    The king of hund{er} knyght{is} he began
    And ſaid hyme, “ſ{ir}, to ȝow my lord ws ſende,
    Galiot, whilk bad ws ſay he wende,                1556  [Fol. 20.]
    That of this world the vorthieſt king wor ȝhe,
    Greteſt of men and of awtoritee.

      [Footnote T34: MS. “kinghe,” a spelling due to confusion with
      “knight.” See l. 1533.]


  [Sidenote: Galiot wonders at the feebleness of Arthur’s folk,]
    Wharof he has gret wond{er} that ȝhe ar
    So feble cu{m}myne In to his contrare,                        1560
    For to defend your cuntre {and} your londe,
    And knowith well ȝhe may hyme no{ch}t w{i}t{h}ſtonde.
    Wharfor he thinkith no worſchip to conquere,
    Nore in the wer{is} more to p{er}ſyuere;                      1564
    Conſiddir yowr wakneß and yowr Indegens,
    Aȝanis hyme as now to mak defens.
  [Sidenote: and is willing to grant a year’s truce,]
    Wharfore, my lord haith grantit by vs here
    Trewis to yhow and reſput for o ȝhere,                        1568
  [Sidenote: if Arthur will return to fight against him in a year’s
    If that yhow lykith by the ȝher{is} ſpace
    For to retwrn ayane In to this place,
    Her to manteine yhour cuntre and w{i}t{h}ſtond
    Hyme w{i}t{h} the holl power of yhour lond.                   1572
    And for the tyme the trewis ſhal endure,
    Yhour cuntre and yhour lond he will aſſurre;
    And wit ȝhe ȝhit his powar is no{ch}t here.
    And als he bad ws ſay yhow by the yhere,                      1576
  [Sidenote: and desires to have the red knight in his household.]
    The gud kny{ch}t wich that the Red armys bure
    And in the feild maid the diſcumfiture,
    The whilk the flour of kny{ch}thed may be cold,
    He thinkith hyme to haue of his houſhold.”                    1580
    “Well,” q{uo}d the king, “I have hard quhat yhe ſay,
    But if god will, and ek if that I may,
    In to ſich wyß I think for to withſtond,
    Yhour lord ſhall have no powar of my londe.”                  1584
  [Sidenote: Arthur rejoices at the truce,]
    Of this meſag the king Reioſing haß,
    And of the trewis wich that grantit was,
    Bot anoyt ȝhit of the kny{ch}t was he,
    Wich thei awant to have in ſuch dogre.                        1588
    Ther leif thei tuk; and when at thei war gon,
  [Sidenote: which the master attributes to God’s providence, and
  exhorts him, saying,]
    [T36] ++This maiſt{er} ſaith, “how lykith god diſpone!

      [Footnote T35: “then” (?).]
      [Footnote T36: The initial T is illuminated.]

    Now may yhow ſe {and} ſuth is my recorde;
    For by hyme now is makith this accord;                        1592
    And by non vthir worldly p{ro}videns,
    Sauf only grant of his bynewolans,
    To ſe if that the lykith to amend,
    And to p{ro}uid thi cuntre to defend.                         1596
    Wharfor yow ſhalt in to thi lond home fair,
    And gowerne the as that I ſhall declaire.
  [Sidenote: “First, serve God with humble heart, and let the wand
  of law pass through the land.]
    Firſt, thi god with humble hart yow ſerfe,             [Fol. 20b.]
    And his comand at al thi my{ch}t obſerf;                      1600
    And ſyne, lat paß the ilk bleſſit wonde
    Of lowe w{i}t{h} m{er}cy Iuſtly throw thi londe;
    And y beſeich--to quhome yow ſal direke
    The rewle vpone, the wrang{is} to correk--                    1604
    That yow be no{ch}t in thi electioune blynde;
    For writin It Is and yow ſal trew It fynde.
    That, be thei for to thonk or ell{is} blame,
    And towart god thi p{ar}t ſhal be the ſam̅;                   1608
    Of Ignorans ſhalt yow no{ch}t be excuſit,
    Bot in ther werk{is} ſorly be accuſit,
    For thow ſhuld eu{er} cheß apone ſich wyß
  [Sidenote: Thus shalt thou choose the ministers of justice.]
    The mi{ni}ſteris[T37] that rewll haith of Iustice:--          1612


    Firſt, that he be deſcret til wnd{er}ſtond
    And lowe and ek the mat{er} of the londe;
    And be of my{ch}t and ek Autoritee,
    (For puple ay {con}tempnith low degre,)                       1616
    And that of trouth he folow furth the way;
    That is als mych as he louyth trewth alway,
    And haitith al them the wich ſal pas therfro.
    Syne, that he god dreid and lowe al-so.                       1620
  [Sidenote: Avoid avaricious and wrathful men.]
    Of auerice be-war with the deſyre,
    And of hyme full of haſtynes {and} fyre;
    Be-war thar-for of malice and deſire,
    And hyme alſo that lowith no medyre;                          1624
    For al this abhomi{n}able was hold,
    When Iuſtice was in to the tymis olde.
    For qwho that is of an of thir by-know,
    The leſt of them ſubu{er}tith all the low,                    1628
    And makith It w[n]Iustly[T38] to p{ro}cede;

      [Footnote T37: MS. “mīſteris.”]
      [Footnote T38: MS. “w Iustly.”]


  [Sidenote: Eschew unfit men, for this shall be thy meed in the day
  of judgment.]
    Eſchew tharfor, for this ſal be thi meid
    Apone the day when al thing goith aright,
    Whar none excuß hidyng ſchal ye lyght;                        1632
    But he the Iug, that no man may ſuſſpek,
    Eu{er}y thing ful Iuſtly ſal correk.
    Be-war thar-w{i}t{h}, as before have I told,
    And cheß them wyſly that thi low ſhal hold.                   1636
    And als I will that it well oft be sen,
    Richt to thi-self how thei thi low {con}ten;
  [Sidenote: Be diligent to inquire how judgment is given.]
    And how the Right, and how the dom is went,
    For to Inquer that yow be delygent.                           1640
    And punyß for, for o thing ſhal yow know,               [Fol. 21.]
    The most treſpas is to ſubuert the low,
    So that yow be not in thar gilt accuſit,
    And frome the froit of bliſſit folk refuſit.                  1644
  [Sidenote: Visit every chief town throughout the bounds of thy
    And pas yow ſhalt to euery chef toune,
    Throw-out the boundis of thi Regioune
    Whar yow ſall be, that Iuſtice be Elyk
    With-out diuiſione baith to pur {and} ryk.                    1648
    And that thi puple have [ane] awdiens
    W{i}t{h} thar complant{is}, and alſo thi p{rese}ns;
    For qwho his eris frome the puple ſtekith,
    And not his hond in ther ſupport furth rekith,                1652
    His dom ſall be ful grewous & ful hard,
    When he ſal cry and he ſal no{ch}t be hard.
  [Sidenote: Give thine ears to the poor.]
    Wharfor thyne eris ifith to the pwre,
    Bot in redreß of ned, & not of i{n}Iure;                      1656
    Thus ſall thei don of Reſſone & knawlag.

  [Sidenote: Kings, while minors, may be excused; but, when
  of age, they must punish those that have wrested justice.]
    ++But king{is} when thei ben of tend{er} ag,
    Y wil not ſay I traſt thei ben excuſit,
    Bot ſchortly thei ſall be ſar accuſit,                        1660
    When ſo thei cum to yheris of Reſone,
    If thei tak not full contriſioune,
    And pwnyß them that hath ther low myſgyit.
    That this is trouth it may not be denyit;                     1664
    For vther ways thei ſal them not diſcharg,
    [Excep thei pwnyß them that have the charg][T39]
    One eſtatis of ther realm, that ſhold
    W{i}t{h}-in his ȝouth ſe that his low be hold.[T40]           1668
  [Sidenote: Temper justice with mercy.]
    And thus thow the, w{i}t{h} mercy, kep alway
    Of Iuſtice furt{h} the ilk bleſſit way.

      [Footnote T39: A blank space here occurs, just sufficient to
      contain one line.]
      [Footnote T40: MS. “behold.”]

  [Sidenote: Be true and stable in thy words.]
    ++And of thi wordis beis trew and ſtable,
    Spek not to mych, nore be not vareable.                       1672
    O king{is} word ſhuld be o king{is} bonde,
    And ſaid It is, a king{is} word ſhuld ſtond;
    O king{is} word, among our fad{er}is old,
    Al-out more p{re}cious & more ſur was hold                    1676
    Than was the oth or ſeel of any wight;
  [Sidenote: A king should be the very light of truth.]
    O king of trouth ſuld be the werray lyght,
    So treuth and Iuſtice to o king accordyth.
    And als, as thir clerk{is} old recordith,                     1680
    [T41] ++In tyme is larges and humilitee
    Right well according vnto hie dugre,
    And pleſſith boith to god and man al-so;
    Wharfor I wil, in{con}tine{n}t thow go,          1684  [Fol. 21b.]
    And of thi lond in euery p{ar}t abide,
    Whar yow gar fet and clep one eu{er}y ſid
    Out of thi cuntreis, and ek out of thi tovnis,
  [Sidenote: Invite thy dukes, earls, great barons, thy poor knights,
  and thy bachelors, and welcome them severally.]
    Thi duk{is}, erlis, and thi gret baronis,                     1688
    Thi pur kny{ch}t{is}, and thi bach[e]ler{is},
    And them reſauf als hartly as afferis,
    And be them-ſelf yow welcum them ilkon:
    Syne, them to glaid and cheris, thee diſpone                  1692
    With feſting and with humyll {con}tynans.

      [Footnote T41: The initial I is illuminated; rather because
      there is here a change of subject than because it begins a new


    Be not penſyve, nore proud in arrogans,
  [Sidenote: Keep company not with the rich man only, but with the
  poor worthy man also.]
    Bot w{i}t{h} them hold in gladnes cumpany;
    Not with the Rich nor myghty an{er}ly,                        1696
    Bot with the pure worthi man alſo,
    W{i}t{h} them thow ſit, w{i}t{h} them yow ryd and go.
    I ſay not to be our fameliar,
    For, as the moſt philoſephur can duclar,                      1700
  [Sidenote: Yet remember that familiarity breeds contempt.]
    To mych to oyß familiaritee
    Contempnyng bryngith one to hie dugre;
    Bot cherice them w{i}t{h} wordis fair depay{n}t,
    So with thi pupelle ſal yow the aquay{n}t.                    1704
  [Sidenote: Choose out of each district an aged knight to be thy
    Than of ilk cuntre wyſly yow enquere
    An agit kny{ch}t to be thi conſulere,
    That haith ben hold in armys Richt fam{us},
    Wyß and diſcret, & no thing Inwy{us};                         1708
    For there is non that knowith ſo wel, I-wyß,
    O worthy man as he that worthi Is.


  [Sidenote: When thou hast sojourned long in a place, then provide
  thee with plenty of horses, armour, gold, silver, and clothing;]
    When well long haith yow ſwiornyt i{n} a place,
    And well acqueynt the v{i}t{h} thi puple has,                 1712
    Than ſhalt thow ordand & p{ro}wid the
    Of horß and ek of armour gret plente;
    Of gold, and ſilu{er}, tressore, and cleithing,
    And euery Riches that lo{n}gith to o king;                    1716
  [Sidenote: and, before leaving, distribute gifts liberally.]
    And when the lykith for to tak thi leif,
    By largeß thus yow thi reward geif,
    First to the pure worthy honorable,
    That is til armys and til ma{n}hed able;                      1720
    (Set he be pur, ȝhit worſchip in hyme bidith);
  [Sidenote: Give to the poor worthy man the horse thou thyself
    If hyme the horß one wich thi-ſelwyne Ridith,
    And bid hyme that he Rid hyme for yhour ſak;
    Syne til hyme gold and ſilu{er} yow betak;                    1724
    The horß to hyme for worſchip and prowes,
    The treſor for his fredome and larges.
    If moſt of Riches and of Cheriſing;                    [Fol. 22a.]
    Eftir this gud kny{ch}t berith vitneſing.                     1728
  [Sidenote: Give to thy tenants and vavasours easy hackneys,
  palfries, and coursers.]
    Syne to thi te{n}nand{is} & to thi wawaſouris
    If eſſy haknays, palfrais, and curſouris,
    And robis ſich as pleſand ben and fair;
    Syne to thi lord{is}, wich at my{ch}ty aire,                  1732
  [Sidenote: Give to thy lords things strange and uncouth.]
    As duk{is}, erlis, princ{is}, and ek king{is},
    Yow if them ſtrang, yow if them vncout{h} thing{is},
    As diu{er}ß iowell{is}, and ek p{re}ciouß ſtonis,
    Or halk{is}, hundis, ordinit for the nonis,                   1736
    Or wantone horß that can no{ch}t ſtand in ſtāble;
    Thar gift{is} mot be fair and delitable.
    Thus, firſt vn to the vorthi pur yow if
    Giftis, that may ther pouerte Releif;                         1740
    And to the rich ift{is} of pleſans,
    That thei be fair, ſet no{ch}t of gret ſubſtans;
    For riches aſkith no thing bot delyt,
    And powert haith ay ane appetyt                               1744
    For to support ther ned and Indigens:
    Thus ſhall yow if and makith thi diſpens.
  [Sidenote: So, too, shall the queen give to maidens and ladies,]
    And ek the quen, my lady, ſhalt alſo
    To madenis and to ladeis, quhar ȝhe go,                       1748
    If, and cheriß one the ſamyne wyß;
  [Sidenote: for all thy welfare lies in liberality.]
    For in to largeß al thi welfar lyis.
    And if thy gift{is} with ſich {con}tinans
    That thei be ſen ay gifyne v{i}t{h} pleſans;                  1752
    The wyß man ſais, and ſuth it is app{ro}uit,
    Thar is no thonk, thar is no ift alowit,
    Bot It be ifyne In to ſich manere,
  [Sidenote: Remember that the giver should be as glad in his cheer
  as the receiver.]
    (That is to ſay, als glaid i{n} to his chere),                1756
    As he the wich the ift of hyme Reſauith;
    And do he not, the gifar is diſſauith.


    For who that iff{is}, as he not if wald,
    Mor p{ro}fit war his ift for to w{i}t{h}-hald;                1760
    His thonk he tynith, and his ift alſo.
    Bot that thow ifith, if w{i}t{h} boith two,
  [Sidenote: Give with both hand and heart at once;]
    That is to ſay, vith hart and hand atonis;
    And ſo the wyſman ay ye ift diſponis.                         1764
    Beith larg and iff{is} frely of thi thing;
  [Sidenote: for liberality is the treasure of a king.]
    For largeß is the treſour of o king,
    And not this other Iowell{is} nor this gold
    That is in to thi treſory with-holde.                         1768
    Who gladly iffith, be vertew of larges                 [Fol. 22b.]
  [Sidenote: Whoso gives liberally, his treasury increases.]
    His treſory encreſis of Richeſß,
    And ſal aȝañe the mor al-out reſawe.
  [Sidenote: For the receiver shall place his goods at the king’s
    For he to quhome he ȝewith ſall hawe,                         1772
    Firſt his body, ſyne his hart with two,
    His gudis al for to diſpone also
  [Sidenote: who shall gain, moreover, both worship and praise.]
    In his ſ{er}uice; and mor atour he ſhall
    Have O thing, and that is beſt of all;                        1776
    That is to ſay, the worſchip and the loß
    That vpone larges in this world furth goß.
    And yow ſhal knaw the lawbour & the preß
    In to this erth about the gret Richeß.                        1780
  [Sidenote: Is there any labour except for meat and clothing?
  All the remnant is for fame.]
    Is ony, bot[T42] apone the cauß we see
    Of met, of cloth, & of p{ro}ſperitee?
    All the remanant ſtant apone the name
    Of purches, furth apone this world{is} fame.                  1784
    And well yow wot, in thyne allegians
    Ful many Is, the wich haith ſufficians
    Of euery thing that longith to ther ned;                      1787
    What haith yow more, qwich [haith] them al to lede,
    For al thi Realmys and thi gret Riches,
    If that yow lak of worſchip the encreß?
    Well leß, al-out; for eft{er} thar eſtate
    Thei have vorſchip, and kepith It al-gat;                     1792
    And yow degradith al thyne hie dugree,
    That ſo ſchuld ſhyne In to nobelitee,
    Throuch wys and throw the wrechitneß of hart.

      [Footnote T42: MS. “Is ony bout bot;” “bout” being defaced.]


  [Sidenote: Knowest thou not what shall be thy part, when thou
  passest away from this world?]
    And knowis yow not what ſall be[T43] thi part,                1796
    Out of this world when yow ſal paß the courß?
    Fair well, I-wyß! yow neu{er} ſhall Recourß
    Whar no prince more ſhall the subiet[T44] have,
    But be als dep in to the erd y-grave,                         1800
  [Sidenote: Virtue and honour will alone remain.]
    Sauf vertew only and worſchip wich abidith;
    W{i}t{h} them the world apone the laif dewidith;
  [Sidenote: And if thy successor be liberal, he will be commended
  of the world;]
    And if he, wich ſhal eftir the ſucced,
    By larges ſpend, of quhich that yhow had dreid,               1804
    He of the world comendit is and priſit,
    And yow ſtant furth of euery thing diſpiſit;
    The puple ſaith and demyth thus of thee,
    “Now is he gone, a werray vrech was hee,                      1808
    And he the wich that is our king and lord
    Boith wertew haith & larges in accorde;
    Welcum be he!” and ſo the puple ſoundith.
    Thus through thi viß his wertew mor aboundith,   1812  [Fol. 23a.]
  [Sidenote: and his virtue will abound through thy vice.]
    And his vertew the more thi wice furth ſchawith.
    Wharfor ȝhe, wich that princes ben y-knawith,
    Lat not yhour vrechit hart so yhow dant,
    That he that cu{m}myth next yhow may awant                    1816
    To be mor larg, nore more to be co{m}mendit;

      [Footnote T43: MS. has “by.”]
      [Footnote T44: MS. has “subei^et.”]  [[superscript e only]]


  [Sidenote: Riches well spent are the best kept.]
    Best kepit Is the Riches well diſpendit.
    O ȝhe, the wich that king{is} ben, fore ſham
    Remembrith yhow, this world hath bot o naam̅                  1820
    Of good or ewill, eft{er} ȝhe ar gone!
    And wyſly tharfor cheſſith yhow the toñ
    Wich moſt accordith to nobilitee,
    And knytith larges to yhour hie degre.                        1824
    For qwhar that fredome In O p{ri}nce Ri{n}gnis,
    It bryngith In the victory of king{is},
    And makith realmys and puple boith to dout,
    And ſubect{is}[T45] of the cuntre al about.                   1828
  [Sidenote: Whoso will be a conqueror, let him not reck to give
    And qwho that thinkith ben o co{n}querour,
    Suppos his largeß ſumquhat pas myſour,
    Ne rak he nat, bot frely iffith ay;
    And as he wynyth, beis var al-way                             1832
    To mych nor ȝhit to gredy that he hold,
    Wich ſal the hart{is} of the puple colde.
  [Sidenote: Both love and fear spring from liberality.]
    And low and radour cu{m}myth boith two
    Of larges; Reid and ȝhe ſal fynd It ſo.                       1836
    Alex{ander} this lord the warld that wan,
    Firſt w{i}t{h} the ſuerd of larges he began,
  [Sidenote: Alexander gave so liberally,]
    And as he wynith ifith largely,
    He rakith No thing bot of cheuelry;                           1840
    Wharfor of hyme ſo paſſith the Renown,
  [Sidenote: that many cities desired to have such a lord,]
    That many o cetee, and many o ſtrang towñ
    Of his worſchip that herith the Recorde,
    Diſſirith ſo to haveing ſich o lorde;                         1844
  [Sidenote: and offered themselves peaceably to him, though they
  were manly men of war.]
    And offerith them w{i}t{h}-outen ſtrok of ſpere,
    Suppos that thei war manly men of were,
    But only for his gentilleß that thei
    Have hard; and ſo he louit was al-way                         1848
    For his larges, humilitee, and manhed,
    W{i}t{h} his awn folk, that neu{er}more, we Reid,
    For al his weris nor his gret trawell,                 [Fol. 23b.]
    In al his tym that thei hyme onys faill;                      1852
    Bot in his worſchip al thar beſynes
    Thei ſet, and lewith in to no diſtres;
    Whar-throw the ſuerd of victory he berith.

      [Footnote T45: Or “subett{is}.”]


  [Sidenote: Many princes bear the palm of victory, through
    And many prince full oft the palm werith,                     1856
    As has ben hard, by largeß, of before,
    In conqueringe of Rignis & of glore.
  [Sidenote: while miserliness hath made realms desolate.]
    And wrechitnes Richt ſo, in the contrar,
    Haith Realmys maid ful deſolat & bare,                        1860
    And king{is} broght doun from ful hie eſtat;
    And who that Red ther old buk{is}, wat
    The vicis lef, the wertew have in mynde,
    And takith larges In his awn kynd;                            1864
  [Sidenote: Choose the mean between prodigality and avarice.]
    A-myd ſtanding of the vicis two,
    Prodegalitee and awerice alſo.
    Wharfor her-of It nedith not to more,
    So mych ther-of haith clerk{is} vrit to-fore.                 1868
  [Sidenote: Whoso chooses to be liberal,]
    Bot who the wertw of larges & the law
    Sal cheß, mot ned conſidir well & knaw
  [Sidenote: must understand three things: the _amount he has_,
  to _whom_ he giveth, and the _fit time_ for giving.]
    In to hyme-ſelf, and thir thre wnd{er}ſtande,
    The ſubſtans firſt, the powar of his land,                    1872
    Whome to he iffith, and the cauß wharfore,
    The nedful tyme awatith eu{er}more.
    Kepith thir thre; for qwho that ſal exced
    His rent, he fallith ſodandly in nede.                        1876
  [Sidenote: (1) The king that becomes _indigent_ overthrows his
    And ſo the king, that on to myſt{er} drowis,
    His subiett{is} and his puple he our-thrawis,
    And them diſpolȝeith boith of lond and Rent;
    So is the king, ſo is the puple ſchent.                       1880
  [Sidenote: For the voice of the oppressed shrieketh up ceaselessly
  to heaven;]
    For-quhi the woice It ſcrik[i]th vp ful ewyne
    W{i}t{h}-out abaid, and paſſith to the hewyne,
    Whar god hyme-ſelf reſauith ther the crye
    Of the oppreſioune and the teranny,                           1884
  [Sidenote: and God smiteth down with the sword of vengeance.]
    And vith the ſuerd of wengans dou{n} y-ſmytith,
    The wich that caruith al to ſor, and bitith,
    And hyme diſtroyth, as has ben hard or this
    Of euery king that wirkith ſich o mys.                        1888
    For ther is few eſchapith them, It ſall
  [Sidenote: For God hath given the king the wand of justice:]
    Boith vpone hyme & his ſucceſſione fall;
    For he forſuth haith ifyne hyme the wond
    To Iuſtefy and Reull in pece his lond,           1892  [Fol. 24a.]
    The puple all ſubmytit to his cure;
    And he aȝan one to no creatur
    Save only ſhall vn to his gode obey.


    And if he paſſith ſo far out of the wey,                      1896
  [Sidenote: and if he oppresses them whom he should rule,]
    Them to oppreß, that he ſhuld reul & gid,
    Ther heritag, there gwdis to dewide,
    Ye, wnd{er} whome that he moſt nedis ſtond,
  [Sidenote: God shall stretch His mighty hand for correction.]
    At correccioune ſal ſtrek his my{ch}ty hond,                  1900
    Not euery day, bot ſhal at onys fall
    On hyme, mayhap, and his ſucceſcione all.
  [Sidenote: Herein, alas! is the blindness of kings.]
    In this, allace! the blynd{is} of the king{is},
    And Is the fall of princ{is} and of Rygnis.                   1904
    The moſt wertew, the gret Intellegens,
  [Sidenote: The blessed token of a king’s wisdom is for him to
  restrain his hand from his people’s riches.]
    The bleſſit tokyne of wyſdom and prudens
    Iſß, in o king, for to reſtren his honde
    Frome his pupleis Riches & ther lond.                         1908
    Mot euery king have this wice i{n} mynd
    In tyme, and not when that he ned fynde!
    And in thi larges beith war, I pray,
  [Sidenote: (2) Choose a _fitting time_.]
    Of nedful tyme, for than is beſt alway.                       1912
  [Sidenote: (3) Take care _to whom_ you give.]
    Awyß the ek quhome to that thow ſalt if,
    Of there fam, and ek how that thei leif;
  [Sidenote: Let not the virtuous and the vicious stand in the same
    And of the wertws and wicious folk alſo,
    I the beſeich dewidith well thir two,                         1916
    So that thei ſtond no{ch}t in[to] o degree;
    Diſcreccioune ſall mak the diu{er}ſitee,
    Wich clepith the mod{er} of al vertewis.


  [Sidenote: Beware of flattery.]
    And beith war, I the beſeich of this,                         1920
    That is to ſay of flatry, wich that longith
    To court, and al the king{is} larges fongith.
    The vertuouß man no thing thar-of reſauith,
    The flatterer{is} now ſo the king diſſauith                   1924
    And blyndith them that wot no thing, I-wyß,
    When thei do well, or quhen thei do o myß;
    And latith king{is} oft til wnd{er}ſtonde
    Thar vicis, and ek ye falt{is} of ther lond.                  1928
    In to the realme about o king Is holde
  [Sidenote: A flatterer is worse than a storm or a pestilence.]
    O flatterere were than is the ſtormys cold,
    Or peſtelens, and mor the realme anoyith;
    For he the law and puple boith diſtroyith.                    1932
  [Sidenote: Three things make flatterers in favour.]
    And in to principall ben ther three thing{is},         [Fol. 24b.]
    That cauſſith flattereris ſtonding w{i}t{h} the king{is};
  [Sidenote: First, the blind ignorance of kings.]
    And on, It is the blyndit Ignorans
    Of king{is}, wich that hath no gou{er}nans                    1936
    To wnd{er}ſtond who doith ſich o myß;
    But who that fareſt ſchewith hym, I-wyß,
    Moſt ſuffiſith and beſt to his pleſans.
    Wo to the realme that havith ſich o chans!                    1940
  [Sidenote: Secondly, where a king is vicious himself.]
    And ſecundly, quhar that o king Is
    Weciuß hyme-ſelf, he cheriſſith, ywys,
    Al them the wich that one to vicis ſoundith,
    Whar-throw that vicis and flattery ek aboundith.              1944
  [Sidenote: Thirdly, where the king is so foolish, that he knows
  their flattery, yet withdraws from reproving them.]
    The thrid, is the ilk ſchrewit harrmful wice,
    Wich makith o king w{i}t{h}in hyme-ſelf ſo nyce,
    That al thar flattry and ther gilt he knowith
    In to his wit, and ȝhit he hyme w{i}t{h}-drowith              1948
    Them to repref, and of ther vicis he wot;
    And this It is wich that diſſemblyng hot,
    That in no way accordith for o king.
    Is he not ſet abuf apone his Ri{n}gne,                        1952
    As ſou{er}ane his puple for to lede?
  [Sidenote: Why should a king spare to say the truth?]
    Whi ſchuld he ſpare, or quhom of ſchuld he dred
    To ſay the treuth, as he of Right is hold?
    And if ſo ware that al the king{is} wold,                     1956
    When that his leg{is} comytit ony wyce,
    As beith not to ſchamful, nore to nyce,
    That thei preſume that he is negligent,
  [Sidenote: He should reprove without dissembling, as it is fitting.]
    But als far as he thinkith that thei myß-went,                1960
    But diſſemblyng reprewith as afferis;
    And pwnice them quhar pwnyſing Requeris,
    Sauf only m{er}cy in the tyme of ned.
    And ſo o king he ſchuld his puple led,                        1964
    That no treſpaß, that cu{m}myth in his way,
    Shuld paß his hond wne-pwniſt away;
    Nore no good deid in to the ſamyn degree,
    Nore no wertew, ſuld wn-Reuardid bee.                         1968
  [Sidenote: Then flattery, that now is high, should be low.]
    Than flattry ſhuld, that now is he, be low,
    And wice from the king{is} court w{i}t{h}-drow;
    His miniſt{er}is that ſhuld the Iuſtice reull,
    Shuld kep well furt{h} of quiet & reull,                      1972
    That now, god wat, as It conſerwit Is,
    The ſtere is loſt, and al is gon amys;
    And vertew ſhuld hame to the court hyme dreß,          [Fol. 25a.]
    That exillith goith in to the wild{er}nes.                    1976


  [Sidenote: If a king thus stood like his own degree, his people
  would be virtuous and wise.]
    Thus if o king ſtud lyk his awn degree,
    Wertwis and wyß than ſhuld his puple bee,
    Only ſet by vertew hyme to pleß,
    And ſore adred his wiſdom to diſpleß.                         1980
    And if that he towart the vicis draw,
    His folk ſall go on to that ilk law;
    What ſhal hyme pleß that wil no{ch}t ell{is} fynd,
    Bot ther-apon ſetith al ther mynde.                           1984
  [Sidenote: Thus the rule of his people and kingdom standeth only
  in the king’s virtue.]
    Thus only in the wertew of o king
    The reull ſtant of his puple & his ringne,
    If he be wyß and, but diſſemblyng, ſchewis,
    As I have ſaid, the vicis one to ſchrewis.                    1988
    And ſo thus, ſ{ir}, It ſtant apone thi will
    For to omend thi puple, or to ſpill;
    Or have thi court of vertewis folk, or fullis;
  [Sidenote: Since thou art wholly master of the schools, teach them,
  and they shall gladly learn.”]
    Sen yow art holl maiſt{er} of the ſcoullis                    1992
    Teichith them, and thei ſal gladly leir,
    That is to ſay, that thei may no thing heir[T46]
    Sauf only wertew towart thyn eſtat;
    And cheriß them that wertews ben algait.                      1996
    And thinkith what that wertew is to thee;
    It pleſſith god, vphaldith thi degree.”
  [Sidenote: Arthur considers his counsel profitable.]
    “Maiſt{er},” q{uo}d he, “me think ry{ch}t profitable
    Yowr conſeell Is, and wond{er} honorable                      2000
    For me, and good; ry{ch}t well I have {con}ſauit,
    And in myne hart{is} Inwartneß reſauit.
    I ſhal fulfill and do yowr ordynans
    Als far of wit as I have ſuffiſans;                           2004
    Bot y beſeich yow, in til hartly wyß,
  [Sidenote: He beseeches him to expound his dream,]
    That of my drem ȝhe ſo to me dewyß,
    The wich ſo long haith occupeid my mynd,
  [Sidenote: how he shall only find help through the water-lion,
  the leech, and the flower.]
    How that I ſhal no man{er} ſucour fynd                        2008
    Bot only throw the wattir lyon, & ſyne
    The leich that is w{i}t{h}outen medyſyne;
    And of the conſell of the flour; wich ayre
    Wond{er}is lyk that no man can duclar.”                       2012

      [Footnote T46: Or, “leir.” MS. apparently has “leir,” corrected
      to “heir.”]


    ++“Now, ſ{ir},” q{uod} he, “and I of them al thre,
    What thei betakyne ſhal I ſchaw to the,
  [Sidenote: The master’s explanation.]
    Such as the clerk{is} at them ſpecifiit;
    Thei vſit no thing what thei ſignefiit.          2016  [Fol. 25b.]
  [Sidenote: The water-lion is the very God.]
    The wattir lyone Is the god werray,
    God to the lyone is lyknyt many way;
    But thei have hyme In to the wattir ſeñ,
    Confuſit were ther wittis al, y weñ;                          2020
  [Sidenote: The water is men’s fragility;]
    The wattir was ther awn fragelitee,
    And thar treſpas, and thar Inequitee
    In to this world, the wich thei ſtond y-cloſit;
    That was the wattir wich thei have ſuppoſit,                  2024
    That haith there knowlag maad ſo Inp{er}fyt;
    Thar ſyne & ek ther worldis gret delyt,
    As clowdy wattir, was eu{er}more betweñ,
  [Sidenote: whereby they see not the lion perfectly.]
    That thei the lyone p{er}fitly hath no{ch}t ſeñ;              2028
    Bot as the wattir, wich was y{er} awn ſyn{n}e,
    That eu{er}mor thei ſtond confuſit In.
  [Sidenote: Had men been always religious, they had seen the lion
  not in water, but clearly.]
    If thei haith ſtond in to religioñ clen,
    Thei had the lyone Not in watt{er} ſen,                       2032
    Bot clerly vp in to the hewyne abuf,
    Et{er}naly whar he ſhal not remufe.
    And eu{er}more in vatt{er} of ſyne vas hee,
    For-quhi It is Impoſſeble for to bee;[T47]                    2036
  [Sidenote: The world is enclosed in the darkness of their sin.]
    And thus the world, wich that thei ar In,
    Y-cloſit Is in dyrknes of ther ſyne;
    And ek the thikneß of the air betwen
    The lyone mad in vattir to be ſen.                            2040
    For It was no{ch}t bot ſtrenth of ther clergy
    Wich thei have here, and It is bot erthly,
    That makith them there reſou{n}s dewyß,
    And ſe the lyone thus in erthly wyß.                          2044
  [Sidenote: The lion is God’s son, Jesu Christ.]
    This is the lyone, god, and goddis sone,
    Ih{es}u criſt, wich ay in hewyne ſal won{n}e.
    For as the lyone of euery beſt is king,
    So is he lord and maiſt{er} of al thing,                      2048
    That of the bleſſit vyrgyne vas y-bore.
    Ful many a natur the lyone haith, quhar-fore
    That he to god reſemblyt is, bot I
    Lyk not mo at this tyme ſpecify.                              2052
    This is the lyone, thar-of have yow no dred,
    That ſhal the help and comfort In thi ned.

      [Footnote T47: “see”(?).]


    ++The ſentens here now woll I the defyne
  [Sidenote: The leech without medicine is also God.]
    Of hyme, the lech w{i}t{h}outen medyſyne,                     2056
    Wich is the god that euery thing hath vroght.
    For yow may know that vther Is It noght,               [Fol. 26a.]
  [Sidenote: Not as surgeons,]
    As ſurgynis and feſicianis, wich that delith
    W{i}t{h} mortell thing{is}, and mortell thing{is} helyth,     2060
  [Sidenote: whose art is in medicine,]
    And al thar art is in to medyſyne,
    As it is ordanit be the my{ch}t dewyne,
  [Sidenote: and in plaisters, drinks, and various anointments; who
  know the quality of the year, and the disposition of the planets.]
    As plaſt{er}is, drink{is}, and anouy{n}tme{n}t{is}[T48] ſeir,
    And of the qualyte watyng of the yher;                        2064
    And of the planet{is} diſpoſiciou{n}e,
    And of the naturis of compleccyoune,
    And in the diu{er}ß changing of hwmowr{is}.
    Thus wnd{er} reull lyith al there cwris;                      2068
    And yhit thei far as blynd man In the way,
    Oft quhen that deith thar craft liſt to aſſay.
    Bot god, the wich that is the ſou{er}an lech,
    Nedith no man{er} medyſyne to ſech;                           2072
    For ther is no Infyrmyte, nore wound,
    Bot as hyme lykith al is holl and ſound.
  [Sidenote: But God can heal infirmity of thought,]
    So can he heill Infyrmytee of thoght,
    Wich that one erdly medeſyne can noght;                       2076
  [Sidenote: and also the soul that goeth to confusion.]
    And als the ſaul that to confuſioune goith,
    And haith with hyme and vther p{ar}teis boith,
    His dedly wound god helyth frome the ground;
    On to his cure no medyſyne is found.                          2080
    This Is his my{ch}t that neu{er} more ſhall fyne,
    This is the leich w{i}t{h}outen medyſyne;
    And If that yhow at confeſſioune hath ben
    And makith the of al thi ſyn{n}is clen,                       2084
  [Sidenote: He shall be thy leech in all necessity.]
    Yow art than holl, and this ilk ſamyn is he
    Schall be thi leich In al neceſſitee.

      [Footnote T48: MS. “anoñytmēt{is},” or “anoūytmēt{is}.”]


    ++Now of the flour y woll to the diſcerñ:
    This is the flour that haith[T49] the froyt eterñ,            2088
    This is the flour, this fadith for no ſchour,
    This is the flour of euery flouris floure;

      [Footnote T49: The word, though indistinct, is almost certainly
      “haith.” Stevenson has “high;” but this gives no sense.]

  [Sidenote: The flower is she of whom the eternal fruit was born,]
    This is the flour, of quhom the froyt vas borñ,
    This ws redemyt eft{er} that we war lorñ;                     2092
    This Is the flour that eu{er} ſpryngith new,
    This is the flour that changith neu{er} hew;
  [Sidenote: the virgin that bore the Saviour,]
    This is the vyrgyne, this is the bleſſit flour
    That Ih{es}u bur is our salweour,                             2096
    This flour wnwe{m}myt of hir wirginitee;
    This is the flour of our felicitee,
    This is the flour to quhom ve ſhuld exort,
  [Sidenote: that ceaseth not to support us caitiffs,]
    This is the flour not ſeſſith to ſupport                      2100
    In prayere, conſell, and in byſſynes,
    Vs catifis ay In to our wrechitnes                     [Fol. 26b.]
    On to hir sone, the quich hir conſell herith;
    This is the flour that al our gladneß ſterith,                2104
  [Sidenote: through whose prayer are many saved.]
    Throuch whois prayer mony one is ſawit,
    That to the deth et{er}naly war reſawit,
    Ne war hir hartly ſuplicatioune.
    This is the flour of our ſaluatioune,                         2108
    Next hir sone, the froyt of euery flour;
    This is the ſam that ſhal be thi ſuccour,
    If that the lykith hartly Reu{er}ans
    And ſ{er}uice ȝeld one to hir excellens,                      2112
    Syne worſchip hir w{i}t{h} al thi byſſyneß;
    Sche ſal thi harm, ſche ſall thi ned redreß.
  [Sidenote: She shall so counsel the lion and the leech, that thou
  need not despair.]
    Sche ſall ſice conſell if one to the two,
    The lyone and the ſou{er}ane lech alſo,                       2116
    Yow ſall not Ned yi drem̅ for to diſpar,
    Nor ȝhit no thing that is in thi contrare.
    Now--q{uo}d the maiſt{er}--yow may well wnd{er}ſtand
    Tueching thi drem as I have born on hande;                    2120
    And planly haith the mat{er} al declarith,
    That yhow may know of wich yow was diſparith.
    The lech, the lyone, and the flour alſo,
    Yow worſchip them, yow ſerve them eu{er}mo;                   2124
    And ples the world as I have ſaid before;
    In gou{er}nans thus ſtondith al thi glore.
  [Sidenote: Do now as thou list, for all is in thy hand.]
    Do as yow liſt, for al is in thi honde,
    To tyne thi-ſelf, thi honore, and thi londe,                  2128
    Or lyk o prince, o {con}querour, or king,
    In honore and in worſchip for to Ringe.”


  [Sidenote: The king replies,]
      “Now,” q{uod} the king, “I fell that the ſupport
    Of yhour conſell haith don me ſich comfort,                   2132
  [Sidenote: that his heart is eased from fear;]
    Of euery raddour my hart is In to eß,
    To ȝhour {com}mand, god will, y ſal obeß.
    Bot o thing is yneuch wn to me,
  [Sidenote: but inquires if Galiot will win over the red knight,
  and what is his name.]
    How galiot makith his awant that he                           2136
    Shall have the kny{ch}t, that only by his honde
    And manhed, was defendour of my londe;
    If that ſhall fall y pray yhow tellith me,
    And quhat he hecht, and of quhat lond is hee?”                2140
    “What that he hecht yow ſhall no fory{er} know,
  [Sidenote: The master evades reply.]
    His dedis ſall her-eft{er}wart hyme ſchaw;
    Bot {con}trar the he ſhall be found no way.
    No more thar-of as now y will the ſay.”[T50]                  2144
    With that the king haith at his maiſtir tone           [Fol. 27a.]
  [Sidenote: The king and the host return home.]
    His leve, one to to his cuntre for to goñe;
    And al the oſt makith none abyde,
    To paſſing home anone thei can p{ro}wid;                      2148
    And to ſ{ir} gawane thei haith o lytt{er} maad,
    Ful ſore ywound, and hyme on w{i}t{h} them haade.

      [Footnote T50: At the bottom of the page is the catch-word,
      “With that the king.”]

      [T]he king, as that the ſtory can declar,
  [Sidenote: The king sojourns twenty-four days at Cardole, in Wales.]
    Paſſith to o Cete that was Right fair,                        2152
    And clepit cardole, In to walis, was,
    For that tyme than It was the n{er}eſt place,
    And thar he ſoiornyt xxiiijti days
    In ryall feſting, as the auttore ſays.                        2156
    So diſcretly his puple he haith cherit,
    That he thar hartis holy haith {con}querit.
  [Sidenote: Sir Gawan is healed in fifteen days.]
    And ſ{ir} gawan, helyt holl and ſound
    Be xv dais he was of euery wounde;                            2160
    Right blyt{h} therof in to the court war thei.


    And ſo befell, the xxiiij[T51] day,
  [Sidenote: The king becomes mournful, as he sits at the mess.]
    The king to fall in to o hewynes,
    Right ate his table ſiting at the meß;                        2164
  [Sidenote: Gawan rebukes him.]
    And ſ{ir} gawan cu{m}myth hyme before,
    And ſaid hyme, “ſ{ir}, yhour thoght is al to ſore,
    Conſid{er}ing the diu{er}ß kny{ch}t{is} ſere
    Ar of wncouth and ſtrang land{is} here.”                      2168
  [Sidenote: The king answers in “matalent,”]
    The king anſuert, as in to matalent,
    “S{ir}, of my tho{ch}t, or ȝhit of myne entent,
    Yhe have the wrang me to repref, for-quhy
    Thar lewith none that ſhuld me blam, for I                    2172
  [Sidenote: that he was thinking of the worthiest knight living;]
    Was thinkand one the worthieſt that lewyt,
    That al the worſchip In to armys prewyt;
    And how the thonk of my defens he had,
    And of the wow that galiot haith mad.                         2176
    But I have ſen, when that of my houſhold
    Thar was, and of my falowſchip, that wold,
    If that thei wiſt, quhat thing ſhuld me pleß,
    Thei wald no{ch}t leif for trawell nor for eß.                2180
    And ſum tyme It p{re}ſwmyt was & ſaid,
  [Sidenote: that he once had the flower of knighthood in his
  household, but now this flower is away.]
    That in my houſhold of al this world I had
    The flour of kny{ch}thed and of chevalry;
    Bot now thar-of y ſe the contrarye,                           2184
    Sen that the flour of kny{ch}thed is away.”
    “Schir,” q{uod} he, “of Reſone ſuth yhe ſay;
    And if god will, In al this warld ſo Round             [Fol. 27b.]
    He ſal be ſoght, if that he may he found.”                    2188

      [Footnote T51: MS. “xxviij,” altered to “xxiiij.”]


  [Sidenote: Gawan departs to seek Lancelot.]
    Than gawan goith w{i}t{h} o kny{ch}tly chere,
    At the hal dure he ſaith In this maner:
    “In this paſag who lykith for to wend?
    It is o Iorne moſt for to comend                              2192
    That In my tyme In to the court fallith,
    To knyght{is} wich that chewellry lowith
    Or trawell In to armys for to hant;
    And lat no kny{ch}t fra thyne-furt{h} hyme awant              2196
  [Sidenote: All the knights rise to go with him.]
    That it denyith;”--w{i}t{h} that onon thei roß,
    Al the kny{ch}t{is}, and frome the burdis goß.
    The king that ſauch In to his hart was wo,
  [Sidenote: Arthur reproves him.]
    And ſaid, “ſ{ir} gawan, nece, why dois yow ſo?                2200
    Knowis yow no{ch}t I myne houſhold ſuld encreß,
    In kny{ch}thed, and in honore, and largeß?
    And now yow thinkith mak me diſſolat
    Of kny{ch}t{is}, and my houß tranſulat,                       2204
    To ſek o kny{ch}t, and It was neu{er} more
    Hard ſich o ſemble makith o before.”
  [Sidenote: Gawan explains.]
    “S{ir},” q{uod} he, “als few as may yhow pleſß;
    For what I said was no thing for myne eß,                     2208
    Nor for deſir of falouſchip, for-why
    To paß alone, but cumpany, think I;
    And ilk kny{ch}t to paß o ſundry way;
    The mo thei paß the fewar eſchef thay,                        2212
    Bot thus ſhal pas no mo bot as yhow leſt.”
  [Sidenote: Arthur assigns him forty companions.]
    “Takith,” q{uod} he, “of quhom ȝhe lykith beſt,
    Fourty in this paſag for to go;”
    At this {com}mand and gawan cheſit ſo                         2216
    Fourty, quhich that he louit, & that was
    Richt glaid in to his falowſchip to pas.


  [Sidenote: These knights arm themselves,]
      [A]nd furth thei go, and al anarmyt thei
    Come to the king, w{i}t{h}outen more delay,                   2220
  [Sidenote: and bring the relics, whereon to swear to shew the
    The relyk{is} bro{ch}t, as was the man{er} tho,
    When any knyght{is} frome the court ſuld go.
    Or when the paſſit, or quhen thei com, thei ſwor
    The trouth to ſchaw of euery aduentur.                        2224
    S{ir} gawan knelyng to his falowis ſais,
    “Yhe lord{is}, wich that in this ſeking gais,
    So many noble and worthi kny{ch}t{is} ar ȝhe,
    Me think in wayne yhour t{ra}uel ſhuld no{ch}t be,            2228
    For aduentur is non so gret to pref,                   [Fol. 28a.]
    As I ſuppone, nor ȝhe ſal It eſſchef,
    And if ȝhe lyk as I that ſhal dewyß,
    Yhour oth to ſwer In to the ſamyne wyß                        2232
    Myne oith to kep;”--and that thei vnd{er}tak,
    How eu{er} ſo that he his oith mak
    It to conſerf, and that thei have all ſworñ.
    Than gawan, wich that was the king beforn,                    2236
  [Sidenote: Gawane swears not to return till he has found Lancelot,
  or evidence of him.]
    On kneis ſwore, “I ſal the ſuth duclar
    Of euery thing when I agan Repar,
    Nor neu{er} more aȝhane ſal I returñ,
    Nore in o place long for to ſuiorñ                            2240
    Whill that the kny{ch}t or verray evydens
    I have, that ſhal be toknis of credens.”
    His falouſchip abaſit of that thing,
    And als therof anoyt was the king,                            2244
  [Sidenote: Arthur reproves him for forgetting the coming day of
    Sayng, “Nece, yow haith al foly vroght
    And wilfulneß, that haith no{ch}t in thi thoght
    The day of batell of galot and me.”
  [Sidenote: Gawane says it must be so.]
    Q{uod} gawan, “Now non other ways ma be.”                     2248
  [Sidenote: Gawane and his fellow lace their helms, and take their
    Thar-w{i}t{h} he and his falowſchip alſo
    Thar halmys laſit, on to ther horß thei go,
    Syne tuk ther lef, and frome the court the fare,
    Thar names ware to long for to declar.                        2252
    Now ſal we leif hyme and h{is} cumpany,
    That in thar ſeking paſſith biſſely;
  [Sidenote: The story returns to the lady of Melyhalt.]
    And of the lady of melyhalt we tell,
    W{i}t{h} whome the kny{ch}t mot ned alway duell.              2256

      [T52] [O] day ſhe mayd hyme on to h{ir} p{re}ſens fet,
    And on o ſege be-ſid hir haith hyme ſet,
    “S{ir}, in keping I have yow halding long,”
    And thus ſche ſaid, “for gret treſpas & wrong,                2260
    Magre my ſtewart, in worſchip, and for-thi
    Ȝhe ſuld me thonk;”--“madem,” q{uod} he, “and I
    Thonk yhow ſo that eu{er}, at my mycht,
    Whar-ſo I paß that I ſal be yhour kny{ch}t.”                  2264

      [Footnote T52: Room is here left in the MS. for an illuminated
      letter, and a small “o” inserted as a note.]


  [Sidenote: She inquires Lancelot’s name.]
    “Grant mercy, ſ{ir}, bot o thing I ȝow pray,
    What that ȝhe ar ȝhe wold w{i}c{h}sauf to ſay.”
  [Sidenote: He refuses to tell.]
    “Madem,” q{uod} he, “yhour mercy aſk I, quhy
    That for to ſay apone no wyß may I.”                          2268
    “No! wil ȝhe not? non oy{er} ways as now
  [Sidenote: She vows to keep him in thrall till the day of combat;]
    Ȝhe ſal repent, and ek I mak awow
    One to the thing the wich that I beſt love,                   2271
    Out frome my keping ſal ȝhe not Remuf                  [Fol. 28b.]
    Befor the day of the aſſemblee,
    Wich that, o ȝher, is n{er}eſt for to bee;
    And if that ȝow haith pleſſit for to ſay,
    Ȝhe had fore me deliu{er}it ben this day;                     2276
  [Sidenote: and to go to the court to try and learn it.]
    And I ſal knaw, quhey{er} ȝhe wil or no,
    For I furt{h}-w{i}t{h} one to the court ſal go,
    Whar that al thithing{is} goith & cu{m}yth ſoñ.”
    “Madem,” q{uod} he, “yhour pleſance mot be doñe.”             2280
  [Sidenote: The knight retires.]
    W{i}t{h} that the kny{ch}t one to his chalm{er} goith,
    And the lady hir makith to be wroith
    Aȝanis hyme, but ſuthly vas ſche not,
    For he al-out was mor in to hir thoght.                       2284
    Than ſchapith ſhe aȝane the ferd day,
    And richly ſche gan hir-ſelf aray;
    Syne clepit haith apone her cuſynes,
  [Sidenote: Before going to the court,]
    And ſaith, “y will one to the court me dreß;                  2288
    And malice I have ſchawin on to ȝhon kny{ch}t,
    For-quhy he wold no{ch}t ſchew me quhat he hicht,
    Bot ſo, I-wyß, It is no{ch}t in my tho{ch}t,
    For worthyar non In to this erth is wro{ch}t.                 2292
  [Sidenote: she prays her cousin to take care of him.]
    Tharfor I pray, and hartly I requer
    Ȝhe mak hyme al the cu{m}pany and chere,
    And do hyme al the worſchip and the eß,
    Excep his honore, wich that may hym pleß;                     2296
    And quhen I cum deliu{er}ith hyme als fre
    As he is now;”--“ne have no dred,” q{uod} ſche.


      [T]he lady p{ar}tit, and hir lef hath ton,
    And by hir Iorne to the court Is gon.                         2300
  [Sidenote: The lady meets Arthur at Logris;]
    The king hapnit at logris for to bee,
    Wich of his realme was than the chef cete;
    And haith hir met, and In til hartly wyß
    Reſauit her, and welcu{m}myt oft-ſyß;                         2304
  [Sidenote: who brings her home to his palace;]
    And haith hir home one to his palice bro{ch}t,
    Whar that no dante nedith to be ſocht,
    And maid hir cher w{i}t{h} al his ful entent.
    Eft fupir one to o chalm{er} ar thei went,                    2308
    The king and ſche, and ek the quen al thre;
    Of hir tithand{is} at hir than aſkit hee,
  [Sidenote: and inquires what has brought her.]
    And what that hir one to the court had bro{ch}t?
    “S{ir},” q{uod} ſche, “I come[T53] not al for no{ch}t;        2312
  [Sidenote: She says she has a friend who has made a challenge,]
    I have o frend haith o dereyne ydoo,
    And I can fynd none able kny{ch}t tharto;              [Fol. 29a.]
    For he the wich that in the {con}trar Is
    Is hardy, ſtrong, and of gret kyne, I-wyß;                    2316
    Bot, It is ſaid, If I my{ch}t have w{i}t{h} me
    Ȝour kny{ch}t, quich in the last aſſemble
  [Sidenote: which the red knight could best maintain.]
    Was in the feld, and the red armys bur,
    In his manhed y my{ch}t my cauß aſſur;                        2320
    And yhow, ſ{ir}, richt hartly I exort
    In to this ned my myſt{er} to ſupport.”
    “Madem, by faith one to the quen I aw

      [Footnote T53: MS. “conne.”]


  [Sidenote: Arthur replies that Gawane is gone to seek him.]
    That I beſt loue, the kny{ch}t I neu{er} ſaw                  2324
    In nerneß by which that I hyme knew;
    And ek gawane Is gan hyme for to ſew
    W{i}t{h} other fourty kny{ch}t{is} In to cumpany.”
    The lady ſmylit at ther fanteſſy;                             2328
    The quen thar-w{i}t{h} p{re}ſumyt wel that ſche
  [Sidenote: The queen asks the lady if she knows where he is.]
    Knew quhat he was, and ſaid, “madem, If ȝhe
    Knowith of hyme what that he is, or quhar,
    We ȝhow beſech til ws for to declar.”                         2332
  [Sidenote: She replies no, and proposes to return.]
    “Madem,” q{uod} ſche, “now be the faith that I
    Aw to the king and yhow, as for no why
    To court I cam, but of hyme to Inquere;
    And ſen of hyme I can no tithing{is} here,                    2336
    Nedlyng{is} to-morn homwart mon I fair.”
  [Sidenote: Arthur prays her to stay.]
    “Na,” q{uod} the king, “madem, our ſon It waire;
    Ȝhe ſal remayne her for the qwenys ſak;
    Syne ſhal ȝhe of our beſt kny{ch}t{is} tak.”                  2340
    “S{ir},” q{uod} ſche, “I pray ȝow me excuß,
    For-quhy to paß nedis me behuß;
    Nor, ſen I want the kny{ch}t which I have ſo{ch}t,
    Wtheris w{i}t{h} me to have deſir I no{ch}t,                  2344
    For I of otheris have that may ſuffice.”
    Bot ȝhit the king hir prayt on ſich wyß,
  [Sidenote: She remains till the third day.]
    That ſche remanit whill the thrid day;
    Syne tuk hir leif to paſing hom hir way.                      2348
  [Sidenote: She is sumptuously entertained,]
    It nedis not the feſting to declar
    Maid one to hir, nor company nor fare;
    Sche had no kny{ch}t, ſche had no damyſeill,
    Nor thei richly rewardit war and well.                        2352
  [Sidenote: and returns home.]
    Now goith the lady homwart, and ſche
    In her entent deſyrus Is to ſee
    The flour of kny{ch}thed and of chevelry;
    So was he pryſit and hold to euery wy.                        2356


    ++The lady, which one to hir palace come,              [Fol. 29b.]
  [Sidenote: Soon after, she sends for Lancelot,]
    Bot of ſchort time remanith haith at home
    When ſche gart bryng, w{i}t{h}outen Recidens,
    W{i}t{h} grete effere this kny{ch}t to hir p{rese}ns,         2360
    And ſaid hyme; “ſ{ir}, ſo mekil have I ſo{ch}t
    And knowith that be-for I knew no{ch}t,
  [Sidenote: and proposes to ransom him,]
    That If yhow lyk I wil yhour Ransone mak.”
    “Madem, gladly, wil ȝhe wichſauf to tak                       2364
    Eft{er} that as my powar may atteñ,
    Or that I may p{ro}wid be ony meñ.”
    “Now, ſ{ir},” ſho ſaid, “forſut{h} It ſal be so,
  [Sidenote: on one of three conditions.]
    Yhe ſal have thre, and cheß yhow on of tho;                   2368
    And if yhow lykith them for to refuß,
    I can no mor, but ȝhe ſal me excuß,
    Yhe ned{is} mot ſuſten yhour aduentur
    Contynualy In ward for til endur.”                            2372
    “Madem,” q{uod} he, “and I yhow hartly pray,
    What that thei ſay[T54] ȝhe wald w{i}c{h}ſauf to ſay?”

      [Footnote T54: So MS. We should probably read “bee.”]

  [Sidenote: Either he must tell whom he loves,]
      “[T]he firſt,” q{uod} ſche, “who hath in to the cheñ
    Of low yhour hart, and if ȝhe may dereñ?                      2376
  [Sidenote: or declare his name,]
    The next, yhour nam, the which ȝe ſal not lye?
  [Sidenote: or say if he expects again to equal his former exploits.]
    The thrid, if eu{er} ȝhe think of cheualry
    So mekil worſchip to atten in feild
    Apone o day in armys wnd{er} ſcheld,                          2380
    As yat ȝhe dyd the ſamyne day, when ȝhe
    In red armys was at the aſſemblee?”
    “Madem,” q{uod} he, “is thar non vther way
    Me to redem, but only thus to ſay                             2384
    Of thing{is}, which that Rynyth me to blam,
    Me to awant my lady or hir name?
    But If that I moſt ſchawin furth that one,
    What su{er}te ſchal I have for to gone                        2388
    At libertee out of this dang{er} free?”
    “Schir, ſor to dred no myſt{er} is,” q{uod} ſhee;
    “As I am trew and fa{i}t{h}full woman hold,
    Ȝhe ſal go fre quhen one of thir is told.”                    2392
    “Madem, yhour will non vther ways I may,
  [Sidenote: He refuses to tell his lady’s name,]
    I mone obey; and to the firſt y ſay,
    [T55] [I]s, to declar the lady of myne hart,
    My goſt ſal rather of my breſt aſtart”--                      2396
    Whar-by the lady fayndit al for no{ch}t
    The lowe quhich long hath ben In to h{is} tho{ch}t--
  [Sidenote: or his own;]
    “And of my nam, ſchortly for to ſay,
    It ſtondith ſo that one no wyß I may.                         2400
    Bot of the thrid, madem, I se that I                   [Fol. 30a.]
    Mon ſay the thing that tuechith velany;
  [Sidenote: but declares that he trusts to do more than ever before;
  and requires his liberty.]
    For ſut{h} it is I traſt, and god before,
    In feld that I ſal do of armys more                           2404
    Than eu{er} I did, if I {com}mandit bee.

      [Footnote T55: A space is here left for an illuminated letter.]


    And now, madem, I have my libertee,
    For I have ſaid I neu{er} tho{ch}t to ſay.”
    “Now, ſ{ir},” q{uod} ſche, “when-eu{er} ȝhe wil ye may;       2408
  [Sidenote: She begs of him a boon;]
    Bot o thing Is, I yhow hartly raquer,
    Sen I have hold yhow apone ſuch maner
    Not as my fo, that ȝhe vald grant me till.”
    “Madem,” q{uod} he, “It ſal be as ȝhe will.”                  2412
    “Now, ſ{ir},” q{uod} ſche, “it is no thing bot ȝhe
  [Sidenote: that he will remain with her till the day of battle;]
    Remañ w{i}t{h} ws wn to the aſſemble,
    And euery thyng that In yhour myſt{er} lyis
    I ſall gar ordan at yhour awn dewyß;                          2416
    And of the day I ſhall yow c{er}tefy
    Of the aſſemble ȝhe ſal not pas therby.”
    “Madem,” q{uod} he, “It ſal be as yhow liſt.”
    “Now, ſ{ir},” q{uod} ſche, “and than I hald It beſt,          2420
    That ȝhe remañ lyk to the ſamyne dogre
    As that ȝhe war, yat non ſal wit that ȝhe
    Deliu{er}it war; and in to ſacret wyß
    Thus may ȝhe be; and now yhe ſal dewyß                        2424
  [Sidenote: and inquires what arms he would like to have made
  for him. He chooses black armour,]
    What armys that yhow lykyth I gar mak.”


    “Madem,” q{uod} he, “armys al of blak.”
    W{i}t{h} this, this kny{ch}t is to his chalm{er} goñ;
    The lady gan ful prewaly diſſpone                             2428
    For al that longith to the kny{ch}t, in feild;
    Al blak his horß, his armour, and his ſcheld,
  [Sidenote: which is provided.]
    That nedful is, al thing ſche well p{re}widith;
    And in hir keping thus w{i}t{h} hir he bidith.                2432
    Suppos of love ſche takyne hath the charg,
  [Sidenote: She keeps her love close,]
    Sche bur It clos, ther-of ſche vas not larg,
    Bot wyſly ſche abſtenit hir diſſir,
    For ell{is} quhat, ſche knew, he was afyre;                   2436
    Thar-for hir wit hir worſchip haith defendit,
  [Sidenote: being commended for discretion.]
    For in this world thar was nan mor co{m}mendit,
    Boith of diſcreccioune and of womanhed,
    Of gou{er}nans, of nurtur, and of farhed.                     2440
    This kny{ch}t w{i}t{h} hir thus al this whil mon duell,
  [Sidenote: The story returns to Arthur--]
    And furt{h} of arthur ſumthing wil we tell--

      [T]hat walkyng vas furt{h} in to his Regiou{n}is,
    And ſoiornyt in his ceteis and his townis,                    2444
    As he that had of viſdome ſufficyans.                  [Fol. 30b.]
  [Sidenote: who obeys the counsel of Amytans,]
    He kepit the lore of maiſt{er} amytans
    In ryghtwyſnes, In feſting and larges,
    In cheriſing cu{m}pany and hamlynes;                          2448
    For he was biſſy and was deligent,
  [Sidenote: and gives away largely;]
    And largly he iffith, and diſpent
    Rewardis, boith one to the pur & riche,
    And holdith feſt throw al the ȝher eliche.                    2452


    In al the warld paſſing gan his name,
    He chargit not bot of encreß and fam̅e,
    And how his puples hart{is} to empleß;
    Thar gladnes ay was to his hart moſt eß.                      2456
    He rakith not of riches nor treſſour,
    Bot to diſpend one worſchip & honour;
    He ifith riches, he ifith lond and rent,
    He cherißyth them w{i}t{h} word{is} eloquent,                 2460
  [Sidenote: and thus gains his people’s love.]
    So that thei can them vtraly p{ro}pone
    In his ſ{er}uice thar lyves to diſpone:
    So gladith them̅e his homely {con}tynans,
    His cheriſyng, his wordis of pleſans,                         2464
    His cumpany, and ek his mery chere,
    His gret rewardis, and his ift{is} ſere.
    Thus hath the king non vthir beſynes
    Bot cheriſing of kny{ch}t{is} and largeß,                     2468
    To mak hyme-ſelf of honour be {com}mend;
    And thus the ȝher he drywith to the ende.




  [Sidenote: The sun ascends in his altitude.]
    ++The long dirk paſag[T56] of the vint{er}, & the ly{ch}t
    Of phebus {com}prochit w{i}t{h} his my{ch}t;                  2472
    The which, aſcending In his altitud,
    Awodith saturñ w{i}t{h} his ſtormys Rude;
  [Sidenote: The soft dew falls down from heaven.]
    The ſoft dew one fra the hewyne doune valis[T57]
    Apone the erth, one hill{is} and on valis,                    2476
    And throw the ſobir & the mwſt hwmour{is}
    Vp nuriſit ar the erbis, and in the flouris
  [Sidenote: Nature decks the earth with various hues.]
    Natur the erth of many diu{er}ß hew
    Our-fret, and cled w{i}t{h} the tendir new.                   2480
    The birdis may them hiding in the grawis               [Fol. 31a.]
  [Sidenote: The birds may hide them from the hawk in the groves,
  and Scilla may ascend in the air.]
    Wel frome the halk, that oft ther lyf berevis;
    And scilla hie aſcending in the ayre,
    That euery vight may heryng hir declar                        2484
    Of the ſeſſone the paſſing luſtynes.
    This was the tyme that phebus gan hy{m} dreß
    In to the rame, and haith his courß bygown,
    Or that the trewis and the ȝher vas Rown,                     2488
  [Sidenote: The time of combat between Galiot and the king drew
    Which was y-ſet of galiot and the king
    Of thar aſſemble, and of thar meting.
    Arthur haith a xv dais before
    Aſſemblit al his barnag and more                              2492
    That weryng wnd{er} his ſubieccioune,
    Or louith hyme, or longith to his crown;
    And haith his Iornay tone, w{i}t{h}outen let,
  [Sidenote: Arthur goes to the appointed place.]
    On to the place the wich that was y-ſet,                      2496
    Whar he hath found befor hyme mony o kny{ch}t
    That cu{m}myng war w{i}t{h} al thar holl my{ch}t,
    Al enarmyt both w{i}t{h} ſpere & ſcheld,
    And ful of lug{is} plantith haith the feld,                   2500
    Hyme In the wer for to ſupport and ſerf
    At al ther my{ch}t, his thonk for to diſſerf.

      [Footnote T56: So MS. Should we read “pasith”?]
      [Footnote T57: So MS. It should be “falis.”]


    And gawan, which was in the ſeking ȝhit
    Of the gud kny{ch}t, of hyme haith got no wit,                2504
  [Sidenote: Gawane remembers the day,]
    Remembrith hyme apone the king{is} day,
    And to his falowis one this wys can ſay:
    “To ȝhow is knowin the mat{er}, in what wyß
    How that the king hath w{i}t{h} his e{n}nemys                 2508
    A c{er}tan day, that now comprochit nere,
    And one to ws war hewynes to here
    That he var in to p{er}ell or in to dreid,
    And we away and he of ws haith neid;                          2512
    For we but hyme no thing may eſchef,
    And he but ws in honore well may lef;
    For, be he loſt, we may no thing w{i}t{h}ſtond,
    Our-ſelf, our honore we tyne, & ek o{ur} lond.                2516
  [Sidenote: and proposes to his fellows to go to help the king.]
    Tharfor, I red we pas on to the king,
    Suppos our oth It hurt in to ſum thing,
    And in the feld w{i}t{h} hyme for til endur,
    Of lyf or deth and tak our aduentur.”                         2520
    Thar-to thei ar conſentit eu{er}ilkon,
    And but dulay the have thar Iorney toñe.
    When that the king them ſaw, in h{is} entent           [Fol. 31b.]
  [Sidenote: Arthur is well content at their coming,]
    Was of thar com Right wond{er} well {con}tent;                2524
    For he p{re}ſwmyt no thing that thei wold
  [Sidenote: not expecting them.]
    Have cu{m}myne, but one furt{h} to y{er} ſeking hold.
    And thus the kinghis oſt aſſemblit has
    Aȝane the tyme, aȝaine the day that vas                       2528
    Y-ſtatut and ordanit for to bee,
    And euery thing hath ſet in the dogre.

[Headnote: THE TRUCE ENDS.]

      [A]nd galiot, that haith no thing forȝhet
    The termys quhich that he befor had set,                      2532
  [Sidenote: Galiot also assembles his folk,]
    Aſſemblit has, apone his best maner,
    His folk, and al his other thing{is} ſere,
    That to o weryour longith to p{ro}uid,
    And is y-come apone the tothir ſyde.                          2536
  [Sidenote: doubling his army and artillery;]
    Whar he befor was one than vas he two,
    And al his vthir artilȝery also
    He dowblith hath, that m{er}well was to ſeñ;
  [Sidenote: and pitches on the green by the river.]
    And by the rewere ly{ch}tit one the greñ,                     2540
    And ſtronghar thane ony wallit toune
    His oſt y-bout ycloſit in Randoune.
    Thus war thei cu{m}myne apone ather ſyd
  [Sidenote: Before the truce is ended,]
    Be-for the tyme, them-ſelf for to p{ro}wid.                   2544
    Or that the trewis was complet & rwn,
    Men my{ch}t have ſen one euery ſid begwn
  [Sidenote: many combats are seen between lusty men;]
    Many a fair and knychtly Iup{er}ty
    Of luſty me{n}, and of ȝong chevalry,                         2548
    Diſyrus In to armys for to pruf;
    Sum for wynyng, ſu{m} cauſith vas for luf,
    Sum In to worſchip to be exaltate,
    Sum cauſit was of wordis he & hate,                           2552
    That lykit not ydill for to ben;
  [Sidenote: a hundred pair at once.]
    A hund{er}eth pair at onis one the gren.
    Thir luſty folk thus can thar tyme diſpend,
    Whill that the trewis goith to the ende.                      2556
  [Sidenote: The truce past,]
    The trewis paſt, the day is cu{m}myne onoñe,
    One euery ſyd the can them to diſpone;
    And thai that war moſt ſacret & moſt dere
  [Sidenote: Galiot’s friends inquire who shall fight on his side
  on the morrow.]
    To galiot, at hyme the can enquere,                           2560
    “Who ſal aſſemble one yhour ſyd to-morñe?
    To-ny{ch}t the trewis to the end is worne.”
    He anſuerit, “As yhit one to this were
    I ame awyſit I wil none armys bere,                           2564
    Bot If It ſtond of more Neceſſitee;                    [Fol. 32a.]
    Nor to the feld will pas, bot for to ſee
    Yhone kny{ch}t, the which that berith ſich o fame.”
  [Sidenote: He commands the first-conquest king to take 30,000 men.]
    Than clepit he the {con}quest king be name,                   2568
    And hyme {com}mandit xxx thouſand tak
    Aȝaine the morne, and for the feld hyme mak.
    And gawane haith, apone the toy{er} syde,
    Conſulit his Eme he ſchuld for them p{ro}wid,                 2572
    And that he ſchuld none armys to hyme tak
    Whill[T58] galiot will for the feld hyme mak.
    “I grant,” q{uo}d [he [T59]], “wharfor ȝhe mone diſpone
  [Sidenote: Gawane leads Arthur’s forces.]
    Yhow to the feld w{i}t{h} al my folk to-morne,                2576
    And thinkith in yhour manhed and curage
    For to reciſt ȝhone folk{is} gret owtrag.”

      [Footnote T58: MS. “Wihill.”]
      [Footnote T59: Omitted in MS.]

  [Sidenote: The day comes.]
      [T]he ny{ch}t is gone, vp goith the morow gray,
    The bry{ch}t ſone ſo cherith al the day:                      2580
    The kny{ch}t{is} gone to armys than, in haſt;
    One goith the ſcheild{is} and the helmys laſt;
  [Sidenote: Arthur’s men cross the ford.]
    Arthuris oſt out our the furrde thai ryd.
    And thai agane, apone the toy{er} syd,                        2584
  [Sidenote: Galiot’s men assemble in a vale.]
    Aſſemblit ar apone o luſty greyne,
    In to o waill, whar ſone thar my{ch}t be ſeyne
    Of kny{ch}t{is} to-gedder many o pair
    In to the feld aſſemblyng her & thair,                        2588
    And ſted{is} which that haith thar maſt{er} lorne;[T60]
    The kny{ch}t{is} war done to the erth doune borne.

      [Footnote T60: MS. has “borne.” We should read “lorne,” as in
      line 2092.]


  [Sidenote: Sir Esquyris, a manly knight,]
    S{ir} eſquyris, which was o manly kny{ch}t
    In to hyme-ſelf, and hardy vas & wy{ch}t;                     2592
    And in till armys gretly for to pryß,
    Ȝhit he was pure, he prewit wel oft-ſyß;
  [Sidenote: at that time of Galiot’s company,]
    And that tyme was he of the cu{m}panee
    Of galiot, bot eft{er}wart was hee                            2596
    W{i}t{h} arthur; and that day In to the feild
    He come, al armyt boith w{i}t{h} ſpere and ſcheld,
    W{i}t{h} ferß deſir, as he that had na dout,
  [Sidenote: attacks a band,]
    And is aſſemblit ewyne apone a rowt;                          2600
    His ſpere is gone, the kny{ch}t goith to the erd,
    And out onon he pullith haith o ſwerd;
  [Sidenote: and proves his manhood.]
    That day In armys p{re}wit he ry{ch}t well
    His ſtrenth, his manhed; arthuris folk thai fell.             2604


  [Sidenote: Then Galys Gwynans, brother of Ywan,]
    Than galys gwynans, w{i}t{h} o manly hart,
    Which broy{er} was of ywane the baſtart,
    He cu{m}myne Is onone one to the ſtour
    For {con}quering In armys of honour,             2608  [Fol. 32b.]
  [Sidenote: encounters him, and horse and man go all four to earth.]
    And cownt{er}it w{i}t{h} eſquyris hath so
    That[T61] horß and man, al four, to erth thai go;
    And ſtill o quhill lying at the ground.
    W{i}t{h} that o p{ar}t of arthur{is} folk thei found          2612
  [Sidenote: Arthur’s folk rescue Gwyans;]
    Till gwyans, and haith hyme ſone reſkewit.
    Aȝanis them til eſquyris thei ſewyt
  [Sidenote: thirty knights of Galiot’s arrive, and rescue Esquyris.]
    Of galiot{is} well xxx^ti kny{ch}t{is} & mo;
    Gwyans goith done, and vthir vij alſo,                        2616
    The wich war tone & eſqwyris relewit.
  [Sidenote: Next Ywan comes to the _mêlée_.]
    Than ywane the anterus, aggrewit,
    W{i}t{h} kyn{n}iſme{n} one to the melle ſo{ch}t.
    The hardy kny{ch}t{is}, that one thar worſchip tho{ch}t,      2620
    Cownt{er}it them In myddis of the ſcheld,
    Whar many o kny{ch}t was born doñ i{n} the feld;
  [Sidenote: Galiot’s men give way.]
    Bot thei wich ware on galiot{is} p{ar}t,
    So wnd{er}takand nor of ſo hardy hart                         2624
    Ne ware thei not as was i{n} ye {con}trare.
  [Sidenote: Gwyans is again rescued.]
    S{ir} galys gwyans was reſqwyt thare
    W{i}t{h} his falowis, and eſqwyris don bore.
    Thar al the batell{is} cam, w{i}t{h}outen more,               2628
    On ather p{ar}t, and is aſſemblit ſo
  [Sidenote: 50,000 men are assembled.]
    Whar fyfty thouſand war thei, & no mo.
  [Sidenote: 30,000 on Galiot’s side approach the river,]
    In o plane beſyd the gret Riwere
    Xxx thouſand one galiot{is} half thei vare;                   2632
  [Sidenote: and 10,000 on Arthur’s.]
    Of arthuris x thouſand and no mo
    Thei ware, and ȝhit thai {con}tenit them ſo
    And in the feld ſo manly haith borñ,
    That of thar fois haith the feld forſworñ.                    2636

      [Footnote T61: MS. has “than.”]


    The {con}queſt king, wich the p{er}ell knowith,
  [Sidenote: Gawane puts the conquest-king to flight.]
    Ful manly one to the feld he drowith;
    The lord ſ{ir} gawan, cou{er}it w{i}t{h} h{is} ſcheld,
    He ruſchit in myddis of the feld,                             2640
    And haith them ſo in to his com aſſayt,
    That of his manhed ware thei al affrait;
    No lang{er} my{ch}t thei {con}trar hyme endur,
    Bot fled, and goith one to diſcu{m}fiture.                    2644
  [Sidenote: Galiot, full of anger and grief, sends out a new band.]
    And galiot, wich haith the diſc{um}fit ſen,
    Fulfillit ful of ang{er} and of ten,
    In{con}tine{n}t he ſend o new poware,
    Whar-w{i}t{h} the feld{is} al our-cou{er}it ware              2648
    Of armyt ſted{is} bot{h} in plait and maill,           [Fol. 33a.]
    W{i}t{h} kny{ch}t{is} wich war reddy to aſſaill.
  [Sidenote: Gawane draws his men together, and shews them
  comfortable words.]
    S{ir} gawan, ſeing al the gret ſuppris
    Of fois cu{m}myng In to ſich o wys,                           2652
    Togiddir al his cumpany he drew,
    And confortable word{is} to them ſchew;
    So at the cu{m}myng of thar ennemys
  [Sidenote: They receive the foe in manly wise.]
    Thei them reſauf, in ſo manly wyß,                            2656
    That many one felith deithis wound,
    And wnd{er} horß lyith ſobing one the ground.
    This vther cu{m}myth in to gret deſir,
    Fulfillit ful of matelent and Ire,                            2660
    So freſchly, w{i}t{h} ſo gret o confluens,
    Thar ſtrong aſſay hath don ſich vyolens,
    And at thar come arthuris folk ſo led,
    That thai war ay abayſit and adred.                           2664
    Bot gawan, wich that, by this vorld{is} fame,
    Of ma{n}hed and of kny{ch}thed bur the name,
    Haith p{re}wit [hym] well be exp{er}iens;
    For only In til armys his defens                              2668
  [Sidenote: Gawane encourages his fellows,]
    Haith maid his falowis tak ſich hardyme{n}t,
    That manfully thei biding one the bent.
    Of his manhed war m{er}well to raherß;
    The kny{ch}tis throw the ſcheld{is} can he perß,              2672
    That many one thar dethis haith reſauit;
    None armour frome his my{ch}ty hond them ſauit,
  [Sidenote: though their foes are three to one;]
    Ȝhit ay for one ther ennemys wor thre.
    Long my{ch}t thei no{ch}t endur in ſuch dugree;               2676
    The preß it wos ſo creuell & ſo ſtrong,
    In gret anoy and haith {con}tinewit longe,
  [Sidenote: yet his men are forced to retreat to their tents.]
    That, magre them, thei ned{is} moſt abak
    The way one to thar lug{is} for to tak.                       2680
    S{ir} gawan thar ſufferith gret myſchef,
    And wond{er}is in his kny{ch}thed can he pref;
    His falouſchip haith m{er}well that hym ſaw,
    So haith his fois that of his ſuerd ſtud aw.                  2684
  [Sidenote: Arthur beholds the peril of the field, and sends Sir
  Ywan to help them,]
    King arthur, that al this whill beheld
    The dang{er} and the p{er}ell of the feld,
    S{ir} ywan w{i}t{h} o falowſchip he ſende,
    Them In that ned to help & to defend,                         2688
    Qwich fond them In to danger and in were,              [Fol. 33b.]
    And ent{er}it nere In to thar tentis were.
  [Sidenote: who finds Sir Gawane fighting on foot with only his
    S{ir} gawan fechtand was one fut At erde,
    And no defend, but only in his ſwerde,                        2692
    Aȝanis them bot{h} w{i}t{h} ſpere and ſcheld.
    Of galowa the kny{ch}t goith to the erde.[T62]

      [Footnote T62: Read “felde”?]


  [Sidenote: The battle was furious and wood.]
    Thar was the batell furyous and woud[T63]
    Of armyt kny{ch}t{is}; to the grownde thai ȝhud.              2696
    S{ir} ywane, that was a noble knyght,
    He ſchew his ſtrenth, he ſchew thar h{is} g{r}et my{ch}t,
    In al his tyme that neu{er} of before
    Off armys, nore of kny{ch}thed, did he more:                  2700
  [Sidenote: Sir Ywan rescues Sir Gawane,]
    S{ir} gawan thar reſkewit he of fors,
    Magre his fois, and haith hyme ſet one horß
    That frome the firſt {con}queſt king he wañ;
  [Sidenote: who was so evilly wounded, that he was the worse thereof
    Bot ſ{ir} gawan ſo ewill was wondit than,                     2704
    And in the feld ſupp{ri}ſit was ſo ſore,
    That he the werß thar-of was eu{er}more.
    Thar ſchew the lord ſ{ir} ywan h{is} curage,
    His manhed, & h{is} noble waſſolage;                          2708
    And gawan, in his doing, wald no{ch}t irk;

      [Footnote T63: MS. “woid,” but the “_i_” is undotted, and is
      therefore perhaps meant for the first stroke of a “_u_.”]


  [Sidenote: Darkness parts the combatants.]
    So al the day enduring to the dyrk
    Sal them, magre of thar deſyre, {con}ſt{r}en
    On ayar half fore [to] dep{ar}t in twen.                      2712
    And when that gawan of his horß vas toñ,
    The blud out of his noiß & mouth is goñ,
    And largly ſo paſſith euery wounde,
  [Sidenote: Sir Gawane swoons,]
    In ſwonyng thore he fell one to the ground:                   2716
    Than of the puple petee was to here
    The lemytable clamour, and the chere;
  [Sidenote: so that the king despairs of his “niece’s” life, and
  laments over him.]
    And of the king the ſorow and the care,
    That of his nec{is} lyf was in diſſpare.                      2720
    “Far well,” he ſais, “my gladnes, & my delyt,
    Apone kny{ch}thed far well myne appetit,
    Fare well of manhed al the g{r}et curage,
    Yow flour of armys and of vaſſolage,                          2724
    Gif yow be loſt!”--thus til his tent hyme bro{ch}t
  [Sidenote: The surgeons are sought,]
    W{i}t{h} wofull hart, and al the ſurryȝenis ſocht,
    Wich for to cum was reddy at his neid;
    Thai fond the lord was of his lyf i{n} dreid,                 2728
    For wondit was he, and ek wondit ſo,
  [Sidenote: who found he had two broken ribs, but no mortal wound.]
    And in his ſyd ware brokyne Ribys two.
    Bot no{ch}t for-thi the king thai maid beleif
    That at that tyme he ſhuld the deith eſchef.     2732  [Fol. 34a.]

      [O]ff melyhalt the ladyis kny{ch}t{is} were
    In to the feld, and can thir tithing{is} here,
  [Sidenote: The lady of Melyhalt’s knights tell her how the battle
    And home to thar lady ar thai went,
    Til hir to ſchewing eft{er} thar entent,                      2736
    In euery poynt, how that the batell ſtud
    Of galiot, and of his multitud;
  [Sidenote: and how Gawane bare him in the field, and of his wounds.]
    And how gawan hyme in the feld hath borñ,
    Throw quhoys ſwerd ſo many o kny{ch}t vas lorñ,               2740
    And of the kny{ch}tly wond{er}is that he wro{ch}t,
    Syne how that he one to his tent vas bro{ch}t.
    The lady hard, that lowit gawan so,
  [Sidenote: She weeps for him.]
    She gan to wep, in to[T64] hir hart vas wo.                   2744

      [Footnote T64: MS. “in in”; but “in to” is clearly meant.]


  [Sidenote: Lancelot requests to see the lady;]
    Thir tythyng{is} one to lancelot ar goñ,
    Whar-of that he was wond{er} wo-bygone,
    And for the lady haſtely he sent,
    And ſche til hyme, at his co{m}mand, Is went:                 2748
  [Sidenote: and inquires if Gawane is really likely to die.]
    He ſaluſt hir, and ſaid, “madem, Is trew
    Thir tithing{is} I her report of new
    Of the aſſemble, and meting of the oſt,
    And of ſ{ir} gawan, wich that ſhuld be loſt?                  2752
    If that be ſwth, adew the flour of armys,
  [Sidenote: He laments over him,]
    Now neu{er}more recou{er}yt be the harmys!
    In hyme was manhed, curteſſy, and trouth,
    Beſy trawell In kny{ch}thed, ay but ſleuth,                   2756
    Humilyte, [and] gentrice, and cwrag;
    In hyme thar was no man{er} of outrage.
  [Sidenote: first apostrophizing himself,]
    Allace! kny{ch}t, allace! what ſhal yow ſay?
    Yow may complen, yow may bewail the day                       2760
    As of his deith, and gladſchip aucht to ſes,
    Baith menſtraſy and feſting at the des;
    For of this lond he was the holl comfort,
    In tyme of ned al kny{ch}thed to ſupport!                     2764
  [Sidenote: and next blaming the lady for not having allowed him
  to be present in the battle.]
    Allace! madem, and I durſt ſay at ȝhe
    Al yhour beheſt not kepit haith to me,
    Whar-of that I was in to full belef
    Aȝañe this day that I ſchuld have my lef,                     2768
    And no{ch}t as cowart thus ſchamfully to ly
    Excludit in to cage frome chewalry,
    Whar othir kny{ch}t{is} anarmyt on thar ſtedis
    Hawnt{is} ther ȝhouthhed in to kny{ch}tly dedis.”             2772
    “S{ir},” q{uo}d ſche, “I red yhow not diſpleß,
    Ȝhe may In tyme her-eft{er} cum at es;                 [Fol. 34b.]
  [Sidenote: She promises he shall go to the next battle,]
    For the thrid day Is ordanit, & ſhal be
    Of the oſt{is} a new aſſemble,                                2776
    And I have gart ordan al the gere
    That longith to ȝour body for to were,
  [Sidenote: saying that his sable armour is ready.]
    Boith horß and armour In the ſamyne wyß
    Of ſable, ewyne aftir ȝhour awn dewyß;                        2780
    And yhe ſal her remayne one to the day;
    Syne may ȝhe paß, fore well ȝhe knaw the way.”
    “I will obey, madem, to yhour entent.”
    W{i}t{h} that ſche goith, and to hir reſt is went:            2784
  [Sidenote: In the morn she takes her leave, to go to the court.]
    One the morn arly vp ſche roß
    W{i}t{h}out delay, and to the kny{ch}t ſche gois,
    And twk hir lef, and ſaid that ſcho vald fare
    On to the court, w{i}t{h}-outen any mare.                     2788
  [Sidenote: He kneels, and thanks her often.]
    Than knelit he, and thankit hir oft-ſys,
    That ſche ſo mych hath done hyme of ge{n}triß,
    And hir byhecht eu{er}, at his myght,
    To be hir awn trew & ſtedfaſt kny{ch}t.                       2792
  [Sidenote: She goes unto the king,]
    Sche thonkith hyme, and ſyne ſche goith h{er} way
    On to the king, w{i}t{h}-owten more delay,
    Whar that i{n}[T65] honour w{i}t{h} king & qwen ſche ſall
    Ry{ch}t thonkfully reſauit be w{i}t{h}-all.                   2796
    Eft to ſ{ir} gawan thai hir led, & ſche
    Ryght gladly hyme deſyrit for to ſee,
  [Sidenote: and finds Sir Gawane quite different from what had been
  told her.]
    And ſche hyme fond, and ſche was glad tharfore,
    All vthir ways than was hir told before.                      2800
    The kny{ch}t, the wich in to hir keping vas,
  [Sidenote: The lady’s cousin cherishes Lancelot in her best manner.]
    Sche had {com}mandit to hir cuſſynece,
    Wich cheriſt hyme apone hir beſt manere,
    And comfort hyme, and maid hy{m} ry{ch}t gud chere.           2804

      [Footnote T65: MS. “w{i}t{h};” which is crossed out, and “i{n}”
      inserted above, rather minutely written.]


      [T]he days goith, ſo paſſith als the ny{ch}t,
  [Sidenote: The third day, the maiden goes to his chamber, and
  fastens on his armour.]
    The thrid morow, as that the ſone vas ly{ch}t,
    The kny{ch}t onon out of his bed aroß,
    The maden ſone one to his chalm{er} goß,                      2808
    And ſacretly his armour one hyme ſpent.
    He tuk his lef, and ſyne his way he went
  [Sidenote: He goes to the same green, beside the river, as before.]
    Ful prewaly, ry{ch}t to the ſamyne greñ
    One the rewere, whar he befor had ben,                        2812
    Ewyne as the day [he] the first courß hath maad.
    Alone ry{ch}t thar he howit, and abaade,
    Behalding to the bertes, whar the qweñ                 [Fol. 35a.]
  [Sidenote: He abides there alone, looking towards the parapet
  where he saw the queen.]
    Befor at the aſſemble he had señ                              2816
    Ry{ch}t ſo the ſone ſchewith furt{h} his ly{ch}t,
    And to his armour went is euery wy{ch}t;
  [Sidenote: The jousting begins.]
    One athir half the Iusting is bygon,
    And many o fair and knych[t]ly courß is rown.                 2820
  [Sidenote: The black knight still halts on his steed.]
    The blak kny{ch}t ȝhit howyns on his ſted,
    Of al thar doing takith he no hed,
    Bot ay, apone the beſynes of tho{ch}t,
    In beholding his ey dep{ar}tit no{ch}t.                       2824


  [Sidenote: The lady beholds him and knows him; but yet inquires
  who he is,]
    To quhom the lady of melyhalt beheld,
    And knew hyme by h{is} armour & h{is} ſcheld,
    Qwhat that he was; and thus ſche ſaid one hy{ch}t:
    “Who is he ȝone? who may he be, ȝhone kny{ch}t,               2828
    So ſtill that hovith and ſterith not his Ren,
    And ſeith the kny{ch}t{is} rynyng one the greñ?”
  [Sidenote: thus calling the attention of Gawane,]
    Than al beholdith, and in princypale
    S{ir} gawan beholdith moſt of all;                            2832
    Of melyha[l]t the lady to hyme maid
    In{con}tine{n}t, his couche and gart be had
    Be-fore o wyndew thore, as he my{ch}t se
    The kny{ch}t, the oſt, and al the aſſemble.                   2836
    He lukith furt{h}, and ſone the kny{ch}t hath ſen,
  [Sidenote: who saith to the queen:]
    And, but delay, he ſaith one to the qwen,
  [Sidenote: “Madam, remember that the red knight halted where yon
  knight halts.”]
    “Madem, if ȝhe remembir, ſo it was
    The red kny{ch}t in to the ſamyne place                       2840
    That wencuſt al [at] the first aſſemble;
    Whar that ȝone kny{ch}t howis, howit hee.”
  [Sidenote: “Why do you inquire?” she replies.]
    “Ȝha,” q{uod} the qwen, “ry{ch}t well remembir I;
    Qwhat is the cauß at ȝhe inquere, & quhy?”                    2844
    “Madem, of [al] this larg warld is he
  [Sidenote: “He is the knight, madam, whom I most desire to see.”]
    The kny{ch}t the wich I most deſir to ſee
    His ſtrenth, his ma{n}hed, his curag, and h{is} my{ch}t,
    Or do in armys that longith to o kny{ch}t.”                   2848


      [B]y thus, arthur, w{i}t{h} conſell well awyſit,
  [Sidenote: Arthur arranges his lines of battle.]
    Haith ordanit his batell{is}, and devyſit:
  [Sidenote: King Ydrus leads the first;]
    The firſt of them led ydrus king, & he
    O worthy man vas ne{m}myt for to bee.                         2852
  [Sidenote: Harwy the Reweyll, an aged knight, the second.]
    The ſecund led harwy the Reweyll,
    That in this world was kny{ch}t that had moſt feill
    For to p{ro}wid that longith to the were,
    One agit kny{ch}t, and well couth armys bere.                 2856

      [T]he thrid feld [he] deliu{er}it in the hond        [Fol. 35b.]
  [Sidenote: King Angus, a cousin of Arthur, leads the third.]
    Of ang{us}, king of ylys of ſcotlande,
    Wich cuſing was one to king arthur nere,
    One hardy kny{ch}t he was, w{i}t{h}outen were.                2860
  [Sidenote: King Ywons the fourth.]
    The ferd batell led ywons the king,
    O manly kny{ch}t he was In to al thing.
    And thus dewyſit ware his batell{is} ſere,
  [Sidenote: In every company are 15,000.]
    In euery feld xv thouſand were.                               2864

      [T]he fift[T66] batell the lord ſ{ir} ywan lede,
  [Sidenote: The lord Sir Ywan leads the rearguard.]
    Whois ma{n}hed was i{n} euery cu{n}tre dred,
    Sone he was one to wryne the kyng,
    Forwart, ſtout, hardy, wyß, and ȝhing;                        2868
    Xx thouſand in his oſt thai paſt,
    Wich ordanit was for to aſſemble laſt.
  [Sidenote: Galiot’s armies.]
      [A]nd galiot, apone the tothir ſyde,
    Ry{ch}t wyſly gan h{is} batell{is} to dewid.                  2872
  [Sidenote: Malenginys leads the first line;]
    The firſt of them led malenginys the king,
    None hardyar In to this erth lewyng;
    He neu{er} more out of his cuntre Raid,
    Nor he w{i}t{h} hyme one hund{er}eth kny{ch}t{is} hade.       2876

      [Footnote T66: MS. “firſt.” See l. 2870.]

  [Sidenote: the first-conquest king the second; Walydeyne the third;]
      [T]he ſecund the first-conqueſt king led,
    That for no p{er}ell of armys vas adred;
    The thrid, o king clepit walydeyne,
    He led, and was o manly kny{ch}t, but weyne.                  2880

  [Sidenote: Clamedeus the fourth;]
      [T]he ferd, king clamede{us} has,
    Wich that lord of far ylys was.
  [Sidenote: and King Brandymagus the fifth.]
    The fift[T67] batell, whar xl thouſand were,
    King brandymag{us} had to led and ſtere,                      2884
    O manly kny{ch}t, and prewit well oft-ſyß,
    And in his conſell wond{er} ſcharp & wyß.
  [Sidenote: Galiot bore no arms;]
    Galiot non armys bur that day,
    Nor as o kny{ch}t he wald hyme-ſelf aray,                     2888
  [Sidenote: but was arrayed as a servant in a habergeon with
  a “prekyne” hat, and a truncheon in his hand.]
    But as o ſ{er}uand in o habariowne,
    O prekyne hat, and ek o gret trownſciowñ
    In til his hond, and one o curſour ſet,
    The beſt that was in ony lond to get.                         2892
    Endlong the rewar men my{ch}t behold & ſee,
    Of kny{ch}t{is} weryne mony one aſſemble;
  [Sidenote: The black knight still remains looking towards the
    And the blak kny{ch}t ſtill he couth abyde,
    W{i}t{h}out remowyng, one the Riwer ſyde,                     2896
    Bot to the bartes to behold and ſee
    Thar as his hart deſyrit moſt to bee:

      [Footnote T67: MS. “firſt.”]


  [Sidenote: The lady says to the queen--]
    And quhen the lady of melyhalt haith ſeñ
    The kny{ch}t ſo ſtond, ſche ſaid one to the qweñ,      [Fol. 36a.]
  [Sidenote: “Madam, pray commend yourself to yon knight.”]
    “Madem, It is my conſell at ȝhe send                          2901
    One to ȝone kny{ch}t, ȝour-ſelf for to {com}mend,
    Beſeiching hyme that he wald wnd{er}tak
    This day to do of armys, for ȝour ſak.”                       2904
  [Sidenote: The queen replies]
    The quen anſuerit as that hir lykit no{ch}t,
    For othir thing was more In to hir tho{ch}t,
    “For well ȝhe ſe the p{er}ell how disio[i]nt,
    The adwentur now ſtondith one the point                       2908
    Boith of my lord his honore, and h{is} lond,
    And of his men, i{n}[T68] dang{er} how thai ſtond:

      [Footnote T68: Stevenson reads “the”; but “the” is crossed out,
      and “i{n}” written over it.]

  [Sidenote: that the lady and the rest may send a message, but that
  she will not herself take part in it.]
    Bot ȝhe, and ek thir vthere ladice may,
    If that yhow lykith, to the kny{ch}t gar ſay                  2912
    The meſag; is none that wil yhow let,
    For I tharof ſal no{ch}t me ent{er}met.”
    On to the quen ſcho ſaith, “her I,
    If ſo it pleß thir vthir ladice by,                           2916
    Am for to ſend one to the kny{ch}t {con}tent;”
    And al the ladice can thar-to aſſent,
    Beſeching hir the meſag to dewyß,
    As ſche that was moſt prudent & moſt wyß.                     2920
  [Sidenote: The lady sends a discreet maiden,]
    Sche grantit, and o madeñ haith thai tone,
    Diſcret, apone this meſag for till gone;
  [Sidenote: and Sir Gawane a squire, with two spears,]
    And ſ{ir} gawan a ſqwyar bad alſo,
    W{i}t{h} two ſperis one to the kny{ch}t to go.                2924
    The lady than, w{i}t{h}outen more dulay,
    Haith chargit hir apone this wyß to ſay:
  [Sidenote: to say that all the ladies, the queen alone excepted,
  commend them to the black knight,]
    “Schaw to the kny{ch}t, the ladice eu{er}-ilkone
    Ben In the court, excep the quen allon,                       2928
    Til hyme them haith reco{m}mandit oft-ſyß,
    Beſeching hyme of kny{ch}thed and gentriß,
    (Or if It hapyne eu{er}more that he ſhall
    Cum, quhar thai may, owther an or all,                        2932
    In ony thing awail hyme or ſupport,
    Or do hyme ony pleſans or comfort,)
  [Sidenote: and pray him to essay some deed of arms.]
    He wold wichſaif for loue of them this day
    In armys ſum manhed to aſſay;                                 2936
    And ſay, ſ{ir} gawan hyme the ſper{is} ſent;
    Now go, this is the fek of our entent.”
  [Sidenote: The damsel and squire]
    The damyſell ſche hath hir palfray tone,
    The sqwyar w{i}t{h} the ſperis w{i}t{h} hir goñ;              2940
    The n{er}eſt way thai paß one to ye kny{ch}t,          [Fol. 36b.]
  [Sidenote: repeat the message.]
    Whar ſche repete hir meſag haith ful ry{ch}t:


  [Sidenote: Sir Lancelot, finding the queen not in the message,]
    And quhen he hard, and planly wnd{er}ſtude,
    How that the quen not in the meſag ȝude,                      2944
  [Sidenote: was not content,]
    He ſpak no word, bot he was not {con}tent;
    Bot, of ſ{ir} gawan, glaid in his entent,
    He aſkit quhar he was, and of h{is} fair?
    And thai to hyme the man{er} can duclair;                     2948
  [Sidenote: but asks the squire to hold the two spears ready for
    Than the ſqwyar he prayth that he wold
    Paß to the feld, the ſperis for to hold.
    He ſaw the kny{ch}t{is} ſemblyng her and thare,
    The ſtedis Rynyng w{i}t{h} the ſadill{is} bare;               2952
    His ſpuris goith in to the ſtedis syde,
    That was ful ſwyft, and lykit not to byd;


    And he that was hardy, ferß, and ſtout,
  [Sidenote: He attacks a company of a hundred knights, slays the
    Furth by o ſyd aſſemblyng on a rout                           2956
    Whar that one hund{er}eth kny{ch}t{is} was, & mo;
    And w{i}t{h} the firſt has Recount{er}it so,
    That frome the deth not helpith hy{m} h{is} ſcheld,
    Boith horß and man is lying in the feld;                      2960
    The ſpere is gone, and al in pecis brak,
  [Sidenote: and with the stump of his spear bereaves two or three
  of their saddles.]
    And he the trunſcyoune in h{is} hand hath tak
    That two or thre he haith the ſadill{is} reft,
    Whill in his hond ſchortly no thing is left.                  2964
    Syne, to the ſquyar, of the feld is goñ,
  [Sidenote: He takes a new spear from the squire, and overthrows
  three knights.]
    Fro hyme o ſpere In to his hond haith ton,
    And to the feld returnyt he aȝayne:
    The firſt he met, he goith one the plan,                      2968
    And ek the next, and ſyne the thrid alſo;
    Nor in his hond, nore in his ſtrak was ho.
    His e{n}nemys that veryng In affray
    Befor his ſtrok, and makith rovm alway;                       2972
    And in ſich wyß ay in the feld he vro{ch}t,
    Whill that his ſperis gon var al to no{cht};
    Whar-of ſ{ir} gawan berith vitneſing
    Throw al this world that thar vas non levyng,                 2976
    In ſo ſchort tyme ſo mych of armys wro{ch}t.


  [Sidenote: His spears gone, he returns to his first position.]
    His ſperis gone, out of the feld he ſo{ch}t,
    And paſſit is one to the Rewere syde,
    Ry{ch}t thore as he was wont for to abyde;                    2980
    And ſo beholdyne In the ſamyne plañ,                   [Fol. 37a.]
    As to the feld hyme lykit no{ch}t aȝañ.
  [Sidenote: Sir Gawane says to the queen:]
    Sir gawan ſaw, and ſaith on to the quen,
  [Sidenote: “Madam, yon knight thinks himself despised, because you
  so specially excepted yourself in the message;]
    “Madem, yhone knycht diſponit [not],[T69] I weyñ,             2984
    To help ws more, fore he ſo is awyſit;

      [Footnote T69: “not” seems required.]

    As I p{re}ſume, he thinkith hyme diſpiſit
    Of the meſag that we gart to hyme mak;
    Yhowre-ſelf yhe have ſo ſpecialy out-tak,                     2988
    He thinkith ewill contempnit for to bee,
    Conſid{er}ing how that the neceſſitee
    Moſt prinſpally to yhowr ſupporting lyis.
    Tharfor my conſell is, yhow to dewyß,                         2992
    And ek ȝhowre-ſelf i{n} yhowr t{r}eſpas accuß,
  [Sidenote: ask him mercy, therefore, and excuse your guilt.]
    And aſk hyme mercy, and yhour gilt excuß.
    For well it oucht o prince or o king
    Til honore and til cheriß in al thing                         2996
    O worthi man, that is in kny{ch}thed p{re}wit.
    For throw the body of o man eſchevit
    Mony o wondir, mony one aduenture,
    That m{er}well war til any creature.                          3000
    And als oft-tyme is boith hard & ſen,
  [Sidenote: For often, by one knight’s prowess, have 40,000 been
  worsted by 5,000.]
    Quhar xl thouſand haith diſcu{m}fit ben
    Vith v thouſand, and only be o kny{ch}t;
    For throw his ſtrenth, his vorſchip, & h{is} my{ch}t,         3004
    His falowſchip ſich comfort of hym tais
    That thai ne dreid the dang{er} of thar fays.
    And thus, madem, I wot, w{i}t{h}outen were,
  [Sidenote: If yon knight will continue to help the king,]
    If that ȝhone kny{ch}t this day will p{er}ſywere              3008
    W{i}t{h} his manhed for helping of the king,
    We ſal have cauß to dred in to no thing.
    Our folk of hyme thai ſal ſich comfort tak,
    And ſo adred thar ennemys ſal mak,                            3012
    That ſur I am, onys or the ny{ch}t,
  [Sidenote: yon folk shall perforce take to flight.”]
    Of forß ȝhone folk ſal tak one them the fly{ch}t:
    Wharffor, madem, that ȝhe have gilt to mend,
    My conſell is one to ȝhon kny{ch}t ȝe ſend.”                  3016


  [Sidenote: She consents to send a message.]
    “S{ir},” q{uod} ſche, “quhat pleſſith yhow to do
    Ȝhe may dewyß, and I conſent thar-to.”
    Than was the lady of melyhalt {con}tent,
    And to ſ{ir} gawan in-to-{con}tynent                          3020
    Sche clepit the maid, wich that paſſit ar;             [Fol. 37b.]
  [Sidenote: A maiden is therefore sent to say,]
    And he hir bad the meſag thus duclar.
    “Say [to][T70] the kny{ch}t, the quen hir reco{m}mendith,
    And ſal correk in quhat that ſche offendith                   3024
    At his awn will, how ſo hyme liſt dewyß;
  [Sidenote: that the queen humbly exhorts him]
    And hyme exortith, in moſt humyll wyß,
    As eu{er} he will, whar that ſche can or may,
    Or powar haith hir charg, be ony way,                         3028
    And for his worſchip and his hie ma{n}hede,
  [Sidenote: to help in that need to preserve the king’s honour,
  and to deserve her thanks.]
    And for hir luf, to helpen i{n} that ned
    The king{is} honore, his land fore to preſerf,
    That he hir thonk for eu{er} may deſerf.”                     3032

      [Footnote T70: “to” seems required.]


    And four ſquyaris chargit he alſo
  [Sidenote: Sir Gawane also sends four squires with three horses
  and ten spears.]
    W{i}t{h} thre horß and ſperis x to go
    Furt{h} to the knycht, hyme prayng for his ſak,
    At his raqueſt thame in his ned to tak.                       3036

      [T]he maden furt{h} w{i}t{h} the ſqwyar{is} is went
    One to the kny{ch}t, and ſchawith y{ar} entent.
  [Sidenote: The message heard, he inquires about the queen,]
    Tho meſag hard, and ek ye preſent ſeñ,
    He anſwerit, and aſkith of the qwen;                          3040
  [Sidenote: and is told that from yon parapet she can witness his
    “S{ir},” q{uod} ſche, [“sche][T71] in to ȝhone bartiis lyis,
    Whar that this day yhour dedis ſal dewyß,
    Yhowr manhed, yhour worſchip, and affere,
    How ȝhe {con}teñ, and how yhe armys bere;                     3044
    The quen hir-ſelf, and many o lady to,
    Sal Iug{is} be, and vitnes how yhe do.”
    Than he, whois hart ſtant in o new aray,
  [Sidenote: He returns a message that he is the queen’s knight.]
    Saith, “damyceyll, on to my lady ſay,                         3048
    How eu{er} that hir lykith that it bee,
    Als far as wit or powar is in me,
    I am hir kny{ch}t, I ſal at hir {com}mand
    Do at I may, w{i}t{h}outen more demand.                       3052
    And to ſ{ir} gawan, for his gret gentriß,
    Me reco{m}mend and thonk a thouſand ſyß.”
    W{i}t{h} that o ſper he takith in his hond,
  [Sidenote: He stands in his stirrups; and seems to increase a foot
  in height.]
    And ſo in to his ſterapis can he ſtond                        3056
    That to ſ{ir} gawan ſemyth that the kny{ch}t
    Encreſyng gon o larg fut one hycht;
    And to the ladice ſaith he, and the qwen,
    “Ȝhon is the kny{ch}t that eu{er} I have ſen                  3060
    In al my tyme moſt kny{ch}tly of affere,
    And in hyme-ſelf gon fareſt armys bere.”

      [Footnote T71: A second “sche” is here required.]


  [Sidenote: Greatly encouraged,]
      [T]he kny{ch}t that haith Reme{m}brit in his tho{ch}t  [Fol. 38a.]
    The qwenys charg{is}, & how ſche hy{m} beſo{ch}t,             3064
    Curag can encreſing to his hart;
    His curſer lap, and gan onon to ſtart;
    And he the ſqwaris haith reqwyrit ſo,
    That thai w{i}t{h} hyme one to the feld wald go.              3068
  [Sidenote: without delay he crosses over the river to the field;]
    Than goith he one, w{i}t{h}outen mor abaid,
    And our the reuar to the feld he raid;
    Don goith his ſpere onone In to the Reſt,
  [Sidenote: and goes in wherever he sees most peril.]
    And in he goith, w{i}t{h}outen mor areſt,                     3072
    Thar as he ſaw moſt p{er}ell and moſt dred
    In al the feld, and moſt of help[T72] had ned,
    Whar ſemblyt was the firſt-{con}queſt king
    W{i}t{h} mony o kny{ch}t that was in his leding.              3076
  [Sidenote: He overthrows two knights.]
    The firſt he met, doune goith boith horß & man;
    The ſper was holl, and to the next he Rañ
    That helpit hyme his hawbrek nor h{is} ſcheld,
    Bot throuch and throuch haith perſit i{n} the feld.           3080

      [Footnote T72: MS. “held.”]


  [Sidenote: Sir Kay, Sir Sygramors, Sir Gresown, Sir Ywan, Sir
  Brandellis, and Gahers, all six in a race spur across the field
  with stretched spears,]
    S{ir} kay, the wich haith this encontyr ſen,
    His horß he ſtrekith our the larg gren,
    And ſ{ir} ſygramors ek the deſyrand,
    W{i}t{h} ſ{ir} greſown cu{m}myth at y{ar} honde,              3084
    Son of the duk, and alſua ſ{ir} ywan
    The baſtart, and ſ{ir} brandellis onan,
    And gaherß, wich that broyir was
    To gawan; thir ſex in a Raß                                   3088
    Deliu{er}ly com prekand our the feld{is}
    W{i}t{h} ſperis ſtraucht, and cou{er}it w{i}t{h} thar ſcheldis;
    Sum for love, ſum honor to purcheß,
  [Sidenote: and 100 knights after them.]
    And aftir them one hund{er}eth kny{ch}t{is} was,              3092
    In ſamyne will, thar manhed to aſſay.
    On his v falowis clepit than ſ{ir} kay,
  [Sidenote: Sir Kay exhorts them]
    And ſaith them, “ſ{ir}is, thar has ȝhond{er} ben
    A courß that neu{er}-more farar was ſen                       3096
    Maid be o kny{ch}t, and we ar cu{m}myn ilkon
    Only ws one [his] worſchip to diſpone;
    And neu{er} we in al our dais my{ch}t
    Have bet axampil than iffith ws ȝone kny{ch}t                 3100
  [Sidenote: to keep near the black knight, and follow his guidance
  all day.]
    Of well doing; and her I hecht for me
    Ner hyme al day, if that I may, to bee,
    And folow hyme at al [my] my{ch}t I ſall,
    Bot deth or vthir adwentur me fall.                           3104
    W{i}t{h} that thir ſex, al in one aſſent,
    W{i}t{h} freſch curag In to the feld Is went.
    The blak kny{ch}t{is} ſpere in pec{is} goñe,           [Fol. 38b.]
  [Sidenote: With a second spear, the black knight seeks the field,
  closely followed by the six.]
    Frome o ſqwyar oñe vthir haith he toñe,                       3108
    And to the feld onone he goith ful ry{ch}t;
    Thir ſex w{i}t{h} hyme ay holdith at y{ar} my{ch}t.
    And than bygan his wond{er}is in the feld;
    Thar was no helme, no hawbryk, nore no ſcheld,                3112
  [Sidenote: No knight nor armour can withstand him.]
    Nor yhit no kny{ch}t ſo hardy, ferß, nore ſtout,
    No ȝhit no man{er} armour my{ch}t hald owt
    His ſtrenth, nore was of powar to w{i}t{h}ſtond;
    So mych of armys dyde he w{i}t{h} his honde,                  3116
  [Sidenote: Every wight wonders at his deeds.]
    That euery wight ferleit of h{is} deid,
    And al his fois ſtondith ful of dreid.
    So beſely he can his tyme diſpend,
    That of the ſperis wich ſ{ir} gawan ſend,                     3120
  [Sidenote: He uses up all Gawane’s spears.]
    Holl of them all thar was not lewit oñe;
    Throw wich but m{er}cy to the deyth is gon
    Ful many o kny{ch}t, and many o weriour,
    That cout{h} ſuſten ful hardely o ſtour.                      3124
  [Sidenote: Two horses of his are killed, and he fights on foot.]
    And of his horß ſupp{ri}ſit ded ar two,
    One of his awn, of gawanis one alſo,
    And he one fut was fechtand one the gren,
    When that ſ{ir} kay haith w{i}t{h} his falowis ſeñ;           3128
  [Sidenote: The squire brings him a fresh horse;]
    The ſqwyar w{i}t{h} his horß than to hy{m} bro{ch}t;
    Magre his fois he to his courſeir ſo{ch}t
    Deliu{er}ly, as of o my{ch}ty hart,
  [Sidenote: he leaps into the saddle without stirrups.]
    W{i}t{h}out ſteropis in to his ſadill ſtart,                  3132
    That euery wycht beholding m{er}vell has
    Of his ſtrenth and deliu{er} beſynes.


  [Sidenote: Sir Kay asks who he is,]
    S{ir} kay, ſeing his horß, and how that thai
    War cled in to ſ{ir} gawanis aray,                            3136
    Aſkith at the ſquyar if he knewith
    What that he was, this kny{ch}t? & he hym ſchewith
  [Sidenote: but the squire cannot tell.]
    He wiſt no thing quhat that he was, nore hee
    Befor that day hyme neu{er} ſaw w{i}t{h} Ee.                  3140
    Than aſkith he, how and one quhat wyß
    On gawanis horß makith hyme ſich ſ{er}uice?
    The ſqw[y]ar ſaith, “forſuth y wot no more;
    My lord ws bad, I not the cauß quharfore.”                    3144
  [Sidenote: The black knight returns to the field.]
    The blak kny{ch}t, horſit, to the feld can ſew
    Als freſch as he was in the morow new;
  [Sidenote: The six comrades follow him.]
    The ſex falowis folowit hyme ilkone,
    And al in front on to the feld ar goñ;                        3148
    Ry{ch}t freſchly one thar ennemys thai ſoght,          [Fol. 39a.]
    And many o fair poynt of armys vroght.

  [Sidenote: Malangin’s host is discomfited by king Ydras; and
  retreats to join the second line, commanded by the Conquest-king;]
      [T]han hapnyt to king malangins oſt
    By ydras king diſcu{m}fit was, & loſt,                        3152
    And fled, and to the {con}queſt-king ar goñe,
    Thar boith the batell{is} aſſemblit In to one;
    King malengynis in to his hart was wo,
    For of hyme-ſelf no bett{er} kny{ch}t my{ch}t go;             3156
  [Sidenote: so that 40,000 are now opposed to 15,000 of Arthur’s.]
    Thar xl thouſand war thai for xv.
    Than my{ch}t the feld ry{ch}t p{er}ellus be ſen
    Of armyt kny{ch}t{is} gaping one the ground;
    Sum deith, and ſum w{i}t{h} mony a grewous wond;              3160
    For arthuris kny{ch}t{is}, that manly war and gud,
    Suppos that vthir was o multitude,
    Reſauit tham well at the ſperis end;
    But one ſuch wyß thai may not lang defend.                    3164


  [Sidenote: The black knight, knowing who is beholding him,]
    The blak kny{ch}t ſaw the dang{er} of the feld,
    And al his doing{is} knowith quho beheld,
    And ek reme{m}brith in to his entent
    Of the meſag that ſche haith to hyme ſent:                    3168
    Than curag, ſtrenth encreſing w{i}t{h} ma{n}hed,
    Ful lyk o kny{ch}t one to the feld he raid,
  [Sidenote: thinks to have his lady’s love, or die before her.]
    Thinking to do his ladice love to have,
    Or than his deth befor hir to reſave.                         3172
    Thar he begynyth in his ferß curag
    Of armys, as o lyoune in his rag;
    Than m{er}well was his doing to behold;
    Thar was no kny{ch}t ſo ſtrong, nor yhit ſo bold,             3176
    That in the feld befor his ſuerd he met,
    Nor he ſo hard his ſtrok apone hyme ſet,
    That ded or wondit to the erth he ſo{ch}t;
  [Sidenote: He works nothing but wonders;]
    For thar was not bot wond{er}is that he wro{ch}t.             3180
    And magre of his fois eu{er}ilkone,
  [Sidenote: and often passes alone through the field.]
    In to the feld oft tymys hyme aloñ
    Throuch and throuch he paſſith to & fro;
    For in the ward[T73] it was the man{er} tho                   3184
    That non o kny{ch}t ſhuld be the brydill tak
    Hyme to oreſt, nore cum behynd h{is} bak,
    Nor mo than on at onys one o kny{ch}t
    Shuld ſtrik, for that tyme worſchip ſtud ſo ry{ch}t.          3188
    Ȝhit was the feld ry{ch}t p{er}ellus and ſtrong
    Till arthuris folk, ſet thai {con}tenyt longe;
    Bot in ſich wyß this blak kny{ch}t can {con}ten,       [Fol. 39b.]
  [Sidenote: He fights in such wise as to encourage all who see his
    That thai, the wich that hath his manhed ſeñ,                 3192
    Sich hardyment haith takyne In his ded,
    Them tho{ch}t thai had no man{er} cauß of dred,
    Als long as he my{ch}t owthir ryd or go,
    At euery ned he them recomfort ſo.                            3196
  [Sidenote: Sir Kay and his fellows follow him all day.]
    S{ir} kay haith w{i}t{h} his falowis al the day
    Folowit hyme al that he can or may,
    And wondir well thai have in armys p{re}wit,
    And w{i}t{h} thar manhed oft thar folk relewit;               3200
    Bot well thai faucht in diu{er}ß placis ſere,
  [Sidenote: But at last they are nearly all overpowered by numbers.]
    W{i}t{h} multitud y{ar} folk confuſit were,
    That long in ſich wyß my{ch}t thai no{ch}t {con}teñ.

      [Footnote T73: Another spelling of _warld_, i.e. world, which
      occurs in the fuller form in l. 3212.]


  [Sidenote: Sir Kay sends Gawane’s squire with a message to Sir
  Harwy that he ought not to suffer the best knight that ever bore
  arms to be surprised,]
    S{ir} kay, that hath ſ{ir} gawans qſquyar{is} ſen,            3204
    He clepit hyme, and haith hyme prayt ſo,
    That to ſ{ir} harwy the rewell wil he go,
    And ſay to hyme, “ws think hyme ewil awyſit;
    For her throuch hyme he ſufferit be ſuppriſit                 3208
    The beſt kny{ch}t that eu{er} armys bur;
    And if it ſo befell of adwentur,
    In his defalt, that he be ded or lamyt,
    This warld ſal have hyme vtraly defamyt.                      3212
  [Sidenote: nor six knights of the Round Table to be discomfited.]
    And her ar of the round table alſo
    A falouſchip, that ſall in well and wo
    Abid w{i}t{h} hyme, and furt{h} for to endur
    Of lyf or deth, this day, thar adwentur;                      3216
    And if ſo fal diſcumfyt at thai bee,
    The king may ſay that wond{er} ewill haith he
    Contenit hyme, and kepit his honore,
    Thus for to tyne of chevalry the flour!”                      3220
  [Sidenote: The squire takes the message.]
    The ſqw[y]ar hard, and furt{h} his way Raid,
    In termys ſchort he al his meſag ſaid.
    S{ir} harwy ſaith, “y wytneß god, that I
    Neu{er} in my days comytit tratory,                           3224
    And if I now begyne In to myne eld,
    In ewill tyme fyrſt com I to this feld;
  [Sidenote: Sir Harwy says that Sir Kay shall have no cause to
  reprove him.]
    Bot, if god will, I ſal me ſon diſcharg.
    Say to ſ{ir} kay, I ſal not ber the charg,                    3228
    He ſal no mat{er} have me to rapref,
    I ſal amend this mys if that I lef.”
    The ſqwyar went and tellit to ſ{ir} kay;

  [Sidenote: Sir Harwy comes to support them;]
    ++And ſ{ir} harwy, in al the haſt he may,                     3232
    Aſſemblyt hath his oſt{is}, & onoñ
    In gret deſyre on the feld is gon                      [Fol. 40a.]
    Before his folk, and haldith furt{h} his way;
    Don goith his ſper, and ewyne before ſ{ir} kay                3236
    So hard o kny{ch}t he ſtrykith in his ten
    That horß and he lay boith apone the gren.
    S{ir} gawan ſaw the count{er} that he maad,
    And leuch for al the ſarues that he had:                      3240
  [Sidenote: and proves himself a better warrior than might have
  been expected of one so old.]
    That day ſ{ir} harwy prewyt in the feld
    Of armys more than longith to his eld,
    For he was more than fyfty yher of ag,
    Set he was ferß and ȝong in his curag;                        3244
    And fro that he aſſemblyt his bataill
  [Sidenote: Galiot’s folk are beaten.]
    Doune goith the folk of galot{is} al haill;
    For to w{i}t{h}ſtond thai war of no poware,
    And yhit of folk x thouſand mo thei vare.                     3248

  [Sidenote: King Valydone comes to support them.]
    ++Kyng valydone, that ſauch on ſuch o wyß
    His falowis dang{er}it w{i}t{h} thar ennemys,
    W{i}t{h} al his folk, being freß and new,
    Goith to the feld onon, them to reſſkew;                      3252
    Thar was the feld ry{ch}t p{er}ellus aȝañe,
    Of arthuris folk ful many on var ſlan.

  [Sidenote: Angus comes to aid Arthur’s men.]
    ++Bot angus, quhich that lykith not to bid,
    And ſaw the p{er}ell one the tother ſid,                      3256
    His ſted he ſtrok, and w{i}t{h} his oſt is gon
    Whar was moſt ned, and thar the feld has ton.

  [Sidenote: Clamedyus comes to aid Galiot’s men.]
    ++Kyng clamedyus makith non abaid,
    Bot w{i}t{h} his oſt one to the ſid he raid.                  3260


  [Sidenote: Ywons encounters Clamedyus.]
    ++And ywons king, that haith his cu{m}myn ſen,
    Encount{er}it hyme in myddis of the greñ.
    The aucht batell{is} aſſemblyt one this wiß;
  [Sidenote: Great clamour and lamentable cries on either side.]
    On ather half the clamore and the cryiß                       3264
    Was lametable and petws for til her,
    Of kny{ch}t{is} wich in diu{er}ß placis ſere
    Wondit war, and fallyng to and fro,
    Ȝhit galyot{is} folk war xx thouſand mo.                      3268

  [Sidenote: The black knight bids himself remember love’s power
  over him;]
    ++The blak kny{ch}t than on to hyme-ſelf he ſaid:
    “Remembir the, how yhow haith ben araid,
    Ay ſen ye hour that yow was makid kny{ch}t,
    W{i}t{h} love, aȝane quhois powar & whois my{ch}t             3272
    Yow haith no ſtrenth, yow may It not endur,
    Nor ȝhit non vthir erthly creatur;
  [Sidenote: and that only his lady’s mercy or his life’s end can
  amend him.]
    And bot two thing{is} ar the to amend,
    Thi ladice mercy, or thi lyvys end.                           3276
    And well yhow wot that on to hir p{re}ſens,
    Til hir eſtat, nor til hir excellens,                  [Fol. 40b.]
    Thi febilneß neu{er}more is able
    For to attan, ſche is ſo honorable.                           3280
    And ſen no way yow may ſo hie extend,


  [Sidenote: He counsels himself to strive for her thanks,]
    My verray conſell is, that yow pretend
    This day, (ſen yow becu{m}myne art hir kny{ch}t
    Of hir comand, and fechtit in hir ſy{ch}t),                   3284
    And well yow ſchaw, ſen yow may do no mor,
    That of reſone ſche ſal the thank tharfore;
  [Sidenote: and to be ashamed of every point of cowardice.]
    Of euery poynt of cowardy yow ſcham,
    And in til armys purcheß the ſum nam.”                        3288
    W{i}t{h} that of love in to o new deſir
  [Sidenote: Swift as a crossbow-bolt he seeks the field.]
    His ſpere he ſtraucht, and ſwift as any wyre
    W{i}t{h} al his forß the n{er}eſt feld he ſoght;
    His ful ſtrenth in armys thar he vroght,                      3292
    In to the feld ruſching to and fro,
    Doune goith the man, doune goith the horß also;
    Sum throw the ſcheld is perſit to the hart,
    Sum throw the hed, he may It not aſtart.                      3296
  [Sidenote: His sword carves the head from some, and cuts the arms
  of others in twain.]
    His bludy ſuerd he dreuch, that carwit ſo
    Fro ſum the hed, and ſum the arm in two;
    Sum in the feld fellit is in ſwoñ,
    Throw ſum his ſuerd goith to the ſadill doune.                3300
    His fois waren abaſit of his dedis,
    His mortell ſtrok ſo gretly for to dred Is;
  [Sidenote: When his foes see him, they leave the place for dread
  of death.]
    Whar thai hyme ſaw, w{i}t{h}in a lytall ſpace,
    For dreid of ded, thai levyng hyme the place,                 3304
    That many o ſtrok ful oft he haith forlorñ;
    The ſpedy horß away the kny{ch}t hath borñ.
    In to his wyrking neu{er}more he ſeſt,
    Nor non abaid he makith, nor areſt.                           3308
  [Sidenote: His knightly deeds assure his fellows.]
    His falowis, ſo in his kny{ch}thed aſſuryd,
    Thai ar reco{m}fort, thar manhed is recou{er}yt,
    And one thar fois ful ferſly thai ſoght,
    Thar goith the lyf of many o kny{ch}t to no{ch}t.             3312
    So was the batell wond{er}ful to tell,
    Of kny{ch}t{is} to ſe the multitud that fell,
  [Sidenote: It was pitiful to see the knights gaping upon the green.]
    That pety was til ony kny{ch}t to ſeñ
    The kny{ch}t{is} lying gaping on the gren.                    3316
    The blak kny{ch}t ay {con}tinewit ſo faſt,
    Whill[T74] many one, diſcumfit at the laſt,
    Are fled, and planly of the feld thei pas:             [Fol. 41a.]

      [Footnote T74: MS. “Whilk.”]


  [Sidenote: Galiot asks his men why they flee.]
    And galyot haith wondyr, for he was                           3320
    Of mor powar, and aſkit at them qwhy
    As cowart{is} thai fled ſa ſchamfully?
  [Sidenote: A knight replies, that whoever likes may go and see
    Than ſaith o kny{ch}t, ſor wondit in the brayne,
    “Who lykith, he may Retwrn aȝayne                             3324
    Frome qwhens we come, m{er}walis for to ſee,
    That in his tyme neu{er} ſich ſauch hee.”
  [Sidenote: Galiot asks, what marvels; and the knight tells him
  there is a knight who vanquishes all;]
    “Marwell,” q{uod} he, “that dar I boldly ſay
    Thay may be callit, and quhat thai ar, I pray?”               3328
    “Schir, in the feld forſuth thar is o kny{ch}t,
    That only throw his body and his my{ch}t
    Wencuſſith all, that thar may non ſuſten
    His ſtrokis, thai ar ſo fureows and ken.                      3332
  [Sidenote: who fares as a lion or a bear;]
    He farith as o lyone or o beyre,
    Wod in his rag, for ſich is his affere.
  [Sidenote: to whom the red knight hears no comparison.]
    Nor he the kny{ch}t in to the armys Red,
    Wich at the first aſſemble in this ſted                       3336
    Wencuſſith all, and had the holl renown,
    He may to this be no comp{ar}yſou{n}e,
    Fore neu{er} he ſeſith ſen the day vas goñ,
    Bot eu{er}more {con}tinewit in to one.”                       3340
  [Sidenote: Galiot says he will go and see.]
    Quod galiot, “in nome of god and we
    Al, be tyme, the ſuthfaſtneß ſal see.”


  [Sidenote: Galiot is armed, rallies the flyers, and encourages
  his men.]
      [T]han he in armys that he had is gon,
    And to the feld w{i}t{h} hyme aȝane hath ton                  3344
    Al the flear{is}, and foundyne [in][T75] ſich aray
    His folk, that ner diſcumfyt al war thay;
    Bot quhen thai ſaw cu{m}myne our the plan
    Thar lord, thai tuk ſich hardeme{n}t aȝañ,                    3348
  [Sidenote: They shout their war-cries.]
    That thar eſſenȝeis lowd thai gon to cry.
    He chargit tham to go, that ware hyme by,
    Straucht to the feld, w{i}t{h} al thar holl forß;
    And thai, the wich that ſparit not the horß,                  3352
    All redy war to fillyng his {com}mand,
    And freſchly went, w{i}t{h}owten more demand:
    Throw qwich thar folk recou{er}yt haith thar place,
  [Sidenote: All think a new host is coming.]
    For al the feld p{re}ſwmyt that thar was                      3356
    O new oſt, one ſuch o wyß thai ſoght;
  [Sidenote: Arthur’s folk determine rather to die than fly.]
    Whar arthuris folk had paſſith al to no{ch}t,
    Ne war that thai the bett{er} war ilkoñe,
    And at thai can them vtraly diſpoñe                           3360
    Rathar to dee than flee, in thar entent,               [Fol. 41b.]
    And of the blak kny{ch}t haith ſich hardyment;
    For at al p{er}ell, al harmys, and myſchef,
    In tyme of ned he can tham al ralef.                          3364

      [Footnote T75: The sense, but not the metre, requires “in.”]

      [T]har was the batell danger{us} & ſtrong,
    Gret was the pres, bat{h} perell{us} & throng;
  [Sidenote: The black knight is borne to the ground.]
    The blak kny{ch}t is born on to the ground,
    His horß hyme falyth, that fellith dethis wound.              3368
  [Sidenote: The six comrades go to the earth.]
    The vi falowis, that falowit hyme al day,
    Sich was the preß, that to the erth go thay;
    And thar in myd among his ennemys
    He was about encloſit one ſich wyß                            3372
  [Sidenote: None know where he is.]
    That quhare he was non of [his] falowis knew,
    Nor my{ch}t no{ch}t cum to help hyme, nore reſkew.
    And thus among his ennemys allon
  [Sidenote: He defends himself with his sword.]
    His nakid ſuerd out of his hond haith ton;                    3376
    And thar he p{re}wit his wertew & h{is} ſtrenth;
    For thar was none w{i}t{h}in the ſuerdis lenth
    That came, bot he goith to confuſioune.
  [Sidenote: No helm nor habergeon may resist his sword.]
    Thar was no helme, thar was no habirioune,                    3380
    That may reſiſt his ſuerd, he ſmytith so;
    One euery ſyd he helpith to and fro,
    That al about the compas thai my{ch}t ken;
    The ded horß lyith virſlyng w{i}t{h} the men.                 3384
    Thai hyme aſſalȝeing bot{h} w{i}t{h} ſcheld & ſpere,
  [Sidenote: He fares like a bear at the stake, that snubs the
  hardy hounds.]
    And he aȝane; as at the ſtok the bere
    Snybbith the hardy hound{is} that ar ken,
    So farith he; for neu{er} my{ch}t be ſen                      3388
    His ſuerd to reſt, that in the gret rout
    He rowmyth all the compas hyme about.


      [A]nd galiot, beholding his manhed,
  [Sidenote: Galiot wonders at his deeds;]
    W{i}t{h}in his-ſelf wond{er}ith of his ded,                   3392
    How that the body only of o kny{ch}t
    Haith ſich o ſtrenth, haith ſich affere & my{ch}t;
    Than ſaid he thus, “I wald not that throw me,
  [Sidenote: and says that such a knight shall not die on his
    Or for my cauß, that ſuch o kny{ch}t ſuld dee,                3396
    To conquer all this world that is ſo larg.”
    His horß than can he w{i}t{h} his ſpuris charg,
    A gret trunſioune In to his hond hath ton,
    And in the thikeſt of the preß is goñ,                        3400
  [Sidenote: He charges all his folk to cease;]
    And al his folk chargit he to ſeß.
    At his {com}mand thai levyng al the preß;
    And quhen he had departit all the rout,                [Fol. 42a.]
    He ſaid, “ſ{ir} kny{ch}t, havith now no dout.”                3404
    Wich anſwerit, “I have no cauß to dred.”
  [Sidenote: and assures the black knight that he will himself
  warrant him from all harm.]
    “Ȝis,” q{uod} he, “ſa eu{er} god me ſped,
    Bot apone fut quhill ȝe ar fechtand here,
    And yhow defendith apone ſich manere,                         3408
    So hardely, and ek ſo lyk o kny{ch}t,
    I ſal my-ſelf w{i}t{h} al my holl my{ch}t
    Be yhour defens, and varand fra al harmys;
    Bot had yhe left of worſchip In til armys,                    3412
    What I have don I wold apone no wyß;
    Bot ſen yhe ar of kny{ch}thed ſo to prys,
    Ȝhe ſal[T76] no man{er} cauß have for to dred:

      [Footnote T76: MS. “ſalt.”]


  [Sidenote: He offers him as many horses as he needs; and proposes
  that they shall never again part.]
    And ſet yhour horß be falit at this ned,                      3416
    Diſpleß yhow not, for-quhy ȝe ſal not want
    Als many as yhow lykith for to hawnt;
    And I my-ſelf, I ſal yhowr ſqwyar bee,
    And, if god will, neu{er} more ſal wee                        3420
  [Sidenote: He ’lights from his horse, and gives him to Lancelot,
  who thanks him.]
    Dep{ar}t;” w{i}t{h} that, anon he can to lycht
    Doune frome his horß, and gaf hyme to y^e kny{ch}t.
    The lord he thonkit, and the horß hath ton,
    And als ſo freſch one to the feld is gon,                     3424
    As at no ſtrok{is} he that day had ben.
    His falowis glad, one horß that hath hy{m} ſen,
    To galiot one vthir horß thai broght;
    And he goith one, and frome the feld he ſo{ch}t,              3428
  [Sidenote: Galiot returns to his host, and chooses a band of
  10,000 men.]
    And to the plan quhar that his oſt{is} were;
    And brandymagus chargit he to ſtere
    Eft{er} hyme, w{i}t{h}in a lytill ſpace,
    And x thouſand he takyne w{i}t{h} hy{m} haß.                  3432
    Towart the feld onon he can to Rid,
    And chargit them befor ye oſt to byd.
  [Sidenote: The trumpets, clarions, horns, and bugles are sounded.]
    Wp goith the trumpet{is}, and the claryownis,
    Hornys, bugill{is} blawing furt{h} thar ſownis,               3436
    That al the cuntre reſownit hath about;
  [Sidenote: Arthur’s folk despair.]
    Than arthuris folk var in diſpar & dout,
    That hard the noys, and ſaw the m{u}ltitud
    Of freſch folk; thai cam as thai war wod.                     3440


  [Sidenote: The sable knight, still fearless,]
      [B]ot he that was w{i}t{h}owten any dred,
    In ſabill cled, and ſaw the gret ned,
    Aſſemblyt al his falowis, and arayd;
  [Sidenote: harangues his men, saying,]
    And thus to them in manly t{er}mes ſaid:                      3444
    “What that ȝe ar I knaw not yhour eſtat,               [Fol. 42b.]
  [Sidenote: “I know not who ye are, but I know that ye ought to
  be commended.]
    Bot of ma{n}hed and worſchip, well I wat,
    Out throuch this warld yhe aw to be {com}me{n}dit,
    This day ȝe have ſo kny{ch}tly yhow defendit.                 3448
  [Sidenote: Ye see how your enemies, as night approaches, are
  striving to give you an outrage or a fright.]
    And now yhe ſee how that, aȝanis the ny{ch}t,
    Yhour ennemys p{re}tendit w{i}t{h} thar myght
    Of multitud, and w{i}t{h} thar new oſt,
    And w{i}t{h} thar buglis and thar wynd{is} boſt               3452
    Freſchly cu{m}myng In to ſich aray,
    To ifyne yhow one owtrag[T77] or affray.
    And now almoſt cu{m}myne Is the ny{ch}t,
  [Sidenote: Employ then your courage, so that the honour ye have
  won be not again lost.]
    Quharfor yhour ſtrenth, yhour curag, & yhovr my{ch}t          3456
    Yhe occupye in to ſo manly wyß,
    That the worſchip of kny{ch}thed & empryß
    That yhe have wonyng, and ye g{re}t renown
    Be not yloſt, be not ylaid doune.                             3460
    For one hour the ſufferyng of diſtreß,
    Gret harm It war yhe tyne the hie encreß
    Of vorſchip, ſ{er}uit al this day before.
    And to yhow al my conſell is, tharfore,                       3464
  [Sidenote: Resolve then to meet them sharply, without fear, so
  that they may feel the cold spear in their hearts.]
    W{i}t{h} manly curag, but radour, yhe p{re}tend
    To met tham ſcharply at the ſperis end,
    So that thei feil the cold ſperis poynt
    Out-throw thar ſcheld{is}, in thar hart{is} poynt.            3468
    So ſal thai fynd we ar no-thing affrayt;
    Whar-throuch we ſall the well leß be aſſayt.
  [Sidenote: Perhaps then the foremost will make the rest afraid.”]
    If that we met them ſcharply in the berd,
    The formeſt ſal mak al the laif afferd.”                      3472
    And w{i}t{h} o woyß thai cry al, “ſ{ir} kny{ch}t,
    Apone yhour manhed, and yhour gret my{ch}t,
  [Sidenote: They promise to stand firm.]
    We ſal abid, for no man ſhall eſchef
    Frome yhow this day, his ma{n}hed for to pref.”               3476
  [Sidenote: Sir Yvan also bids his men be comforted; for that they
  see all the strength of their enemies.]
    And to his oſt the lord ſ{ir} yvane ſaid,
    “Yhe comfort yow, yhe be no-thing affrayd,
    Ws ned no more to dreding of ſuppriß;
    We ſe the ſtrenth of al our ennemys.”                         3480
    Thus he ſaid, for he wend thai var no mo,
  [Sidenote: Sir Gawane, however, knew better.]
    Bot ſ{ir} gawan knew well It vas not ſo;
    For al the oſt{is} my{ch}t he ſe al day,
    And the gret hoſt he ſaw quhar y{a}t it lay.                  3484

      [Footnote T77: MS. “owtray.” See Glossary.]


  [Sidenote: Galiot also exhorts his men.]
      [A]nd galiot he can his folk exort,
    Beſeching them to be of good comfort,
                            And ſich encont{er}

[_The rest is wanting._]


[It may be observed, once for all, that the expression _in to_
repeatedly occurs where we should simply use _in_; and _one to_ is in
like manner put for _unto_. The ending _-ith_ (for _-ed_) is frequent in
the past tense, and _-it_ (also for _-ed_) in the past participle,
though this distinction is not always observed. A still more noticeable
ending is _-ing_ (for _-en_) in the infinitive. Observe further that the
letters _v_, _u_, and _w_ are perfectly convertible, and used quite
indiscriminately; so that _wpone_ means _upon_; _vthir_ means _uthir_,
i.e., _other_: _our_ is put for _over_; _vounde_ signifies _wound_,

Page 1, line 1. _The soft morow._ This nominative case has no verb.
A similar construction occurs in the first lines of Books II. and III.

4. _Uprisith--his hot courss_, Upriseth in his hot course; _chare_,

6. _sent_, sendeth; so also _stant_, standeth, l. 326.

8. _valkyne_, waken.

10. _gyrss_, grass.

11. _assay_, assault.

13. _wox_, voice.

17. _frome I can_, from the time that I did.

18. _It deuit me_, it availed me. Jamieson gives “_Dow_, 1. to be able;
A.S. _dugan_ (_valere_), to be able. 2. to avail; Teut. _doogen_.”

P. 2, l. 23. _hewy ȝerys_, heavy years.

24. “Until that Phœbus had thrice gone through his full circuits” (lit.
spheres). See the peculiar use of “pas” in other places.

26. “So, by such a manner, was my lot fated;” see l. 41.

28. _carving can_, did cut.

30. _be the morow_, by the morn.

36. _neulyngis_, newly, anew.

43. _walkith_, walked.

50. _I-clede_, y-clad, clad. Ch. has _clede_.

54. “No one within thought he could be seen by any wight outside.”

P. 3, l. 56. _clos it_, enclose it; the MS. has _closit_.

57. _alphest._ This reading of the MS. is an error for _alcest_. See
Chaucer, Prologue to Legend of good women, l. 511:

  “The gret{e} goodnesse of the quene Alceste,
  That turned was into a dayesye,”

Alceste being the contracted form of Alcestis.

59. _Wnclosing gane_, did unclose.

60. “The bright sun had illumined the spray, and had updrawn (upwarped)
into the lusty air the night’s soft (sober) and moist showers; and had
made the morning soft, pleasant, and fair.” With this difficult passage
we should compare l. 2477.

66. _Quhill_, until.

67. _till ony vicht_, to any wight.

69. _Bot gladness til the thochtful, euer mo_, etc., “But, as for
gladness to the melancholy man, evermore the more he seeth of it, the
more wo he hath.”

73. _represent_, represented (accented on the second syllable).

74. _Al day gan be sor_, etc., “All the day, my spirit began to dwell in
torment, through sorrow of thought;” _be sor_, by sorrow (A.S. sorh).

77. _Ore slep, or how I wot_, “Or sleep, ere I knew how.”

83. _A-licht_, alighted.

84. _levis in to were_, livest in doubt.

P. 4, l. 91. _be morow_, by morrow; at early morn.

99. _set_, although.

103. _weil accordinge_, very fitting.

105. _long ore he be sonde_, (It is) long ere he be sound.

108. _seith, for to consel_, saith, that as for concealing or shewing,

109. _althir-best_, lit. best of all; see Chaucer’s use of _alderfirst,

P. 5, l. 127. _lat be thi nyss dispare_, let be thy nice (foolish)

128. _erith_, earth.

134. _schall hyme hating_, shall hate him. The termination _-ing_ is
here the sign of the infinitive mood after the verb _shall_.

140. _Set_, although.

146. _tak one hand and mak_, undertake and compose; _trety_, treatise;
_vnkouth_, unknown, new.

151. _belevis_, believe will please thy lady.

160. _yis_, this.

P. 6, l. 161. _troucht_, truth.

163. _discharge_, release.

170. _spir_, sphere.

171. “At command of a wise (god from) whose vision,” etc. We sometimes
find in old English the adjective “a wise” used absolutely for “a wise
man.” See “Le Morte Arthur,” ed. F. J. Furnivall, l. 3318.

175. _tynt_, lost.

177. _be this worldis fame_. Here again, as in many other passages, “be”
expresses with relation to, as regards.

185. _yaim_, them.

191. _demande_, demur.

P. 7, l. 198. _Quhill_, until.

200. _conten_, treat; lit. contain.

202. Lancelot is here called the son of Ban, king of Albanak; so again
in l. 1447.

204. _redis_, read.

214. “I will not waste my efforts thereupon.”

219. _wnwyst_, unwist, unknown.

225. _nome_, name.

226. _Iwondit to the stak_, very deeply wounded; but there is no doubt
about the origin of the phrase. See Glossary.

228. _astart_, get rid of it, escape it.

P. 8, l. 240. _dedenyt to aras_, deigned to pluck out.

244. _hurtare_, hurter.

245. _Iwond_, wounded.

248. _ful wicht_, full nimble.

251. _of quhome_, by whom.

253. _send_, sent.

257. _pasing vassolag_, surpassing prowess.

260. “Passed down into the fell caves.”

264. _tane_, taken.

266. _cwre_, care.

P. 9, l. 267. _gart be maid_, caused to be made.

271. _awoue_, vow.

275. _in to that gret Revare_, in that great river.

284. _o gret confusione of pupil and knychtis_, al enarmyt, a great
medley of people and knights, all fully armed. Stevenson actually reads

294. _I wil report_; both here and in l. 320 we should almost expect to
find “_I nil report_;” i.e. I will not tell. It must mean, “I will tell
you why I omit to mention these things.” Compare lines 266, 320.

297. _thing_, think.

P. 10, l. 305. _veris_, wars.

306. _be the wais_, by the ways.

307. _Tuex_, betwixt; _accorde_, agreement.

314. _mot_, must.

316. _stek_, concluded.

319. _most conpilour_, very great composer.

320. “As to whose name I will only say, that it is unfit,” etc.

326. _stant_, standeth.

328. _yroung_, rung.

330. _beith_, shall be; observe the _future_ sense of _beith_ in this

331. _suet_, sweet.

332. “His soul in bliss preserved be on that account.”

334. _and this endit._ Whether _endit_ here refers to _inditing_ or
_ending_ is perhaps doubtful.


P. 11, l. 336. If by _aryeit_ is here meant the _sign_, not the
_constellation_ of Aries, the day referred to is April 1 or 2, according
to Chaucer’s “Astrolabie.”

338. _bewis_, boughs.

340. _makyne gone_, did make.

341. _in ther chere_, after their fashion. (For _chere_, see Glossary.)

345. _auerding to_, belonging to.

351. _Anoit_, annoyed.

352. _For why_, wherefore; so also _for-thi_, therefore.

354. _can_, began.

355. _sende_, sent.

358. _heryng_, hear (infin. mood). In the next line it occurs as a
present participle.

362. _to pas hyme_, to go, depart.

364. _meit_, to dream of; _aperans_, an appearance, apparition.

P. 12, l. 365. _hore_, hair.

375. _vombe_, womb; hence bowels.

377. _stert_, started.

384. _gert_, caused.

390. _traist_, trust.

397. _demande_, demur, delay.

398. _at_, that.

P. 13, l. 407. _whill_, until.

408. _the_, they.

410. _to viting_, to know.

412. _shauyth al hall_, sheweth all whole.

414. _chesith_, chooseth.

422. _shire_, sir.

424. _fore to awysing_, in order to take counsel.

432. All this about _astronomy_ (i.e. astrology) should be compared with
Gower; Conf. Amantis, lib. vii; ed. Pauli, vol. 3, pp. 133, 134.
Arachell, Nembrote, Moises, Hermes are there mentioned as astrologers.

433. The MS. has “set” (_not_ with a long _s_). Mr Stevenson has “fet,”
which would seem right.

P. 14, l. 435. _nembrot_, Nimrod; see _Genesis and Exodus_ (E.E.T.S.),
l. 659.

436. _herynes_, miswritten for _herymes_, i.e. Hermes.

439. “The which they found were wondrously evil set.”

440. _his sweuen met_, dreamed his dream.

443. _waryng in to were_, were in doubt.

444. _danger_, power to punish; compare Shakspere’s use of the word.

457. _but delay_, without delay.

459. _stondith heuy cherith_, stood heavy-cheered, was sad in his

465. _fundyng_, found.

466. _depend to_, depend upon.

P. 15, l. 475. _tone_, taken.

478. _assey_, test.

481. _record_, to tell out, speak.

487. _preseruith It allan_, is preserved alone.

499. _affy in-tyll_, rely upon.

500. _failye_, fail.

504. _there clergy_, their science.

P. 16, l. 519. “Through the watery lion, who is also faithful, and
through the leech and eke the water also, and through the counsel of the
flower.” It is very possible this passage is partly corrupt; l. 520
should certainly be (as may be seen from lines 2010, 2056),

  “And throuch the leich withouten medysyne.”

The meanings of lion, leech, and flower are fully explained, however, in
lines 2013-2120.

524. _weyne_, vain.

527. _passid nat his thoght_, left not his thoughts.

531. _rachis_, braches, dogs.

533. _grewhundis_, grayhounds.

536. This purely conjectural line is merely inserted to carry on the
sense. It is imitated from line 3293. In the next line we should read
“grewhundis,” rather than “grewhund.”

538. _Befor ther hedis_, before their heads.

P. 17, l. 545. “All armed, as was then the fashion.”

546. _salust_, saluted.

548. _kend_, known.

549. _leuyth_, liveth.

552. The rime requires “land,” as in l. 638.

553. _yald hyme our_, yield him over.

554. _if tribut_, give tribute.

566. _recist_, resist; _mone bee_, must be.

568. _be_, by.

569. _day moneth day_, ere this day month; comp. l. 1162.

P. 18, l. 577. _fairhed_, fair-hood, beauty.

587. _magre myne entent_, in spite of my intention.

591. _nome_, took.

593. _Inquere at_, inquire of.

596. _wes_, was.

599. _rase_, rose.

605. _accordith_, agree thereto.

606. _recordith_, belongith.

607. _visare_, wiser.

P. 19, l. 621. _This spek I lest_, this I list to speak.

622. _varnit_, warned.

626. “Though the season of the year was contrary.”

627. _atte_, at the.

629. _the ilk_, that (Scotch _thilk_).

632. _Melyhalt_, the name both of a hill, and of the town built upon it.

636. _affray_, terror.

642. _wnconquest_, unconquered.

643. _cwre_, care.

P. 20, l. 649. _nemmyt_, named.

652. _were_, war.

654. _or than to morn_, earlier than to-morrow.

660. _our few_, over few.

677. _northest_, north-east.

P. 21, l. 686. _fechteris_, fighters.

688. _holde_, held.

691. _presone_, prison.

697. _peite_, pity.

699. The metre of Lancelot’s lament is that of Chaucer’s “Cuckoo and
Nightingale,” and was very possibly copied from it. _Qwhat haue y gilt_,
what crime have I committed.

702. _ago_, gone.

703. _nat_, naught; _me glaid_, gladden me.

706. _til haue_, to have.

709. _Sen thelke tyme_, since that time.

P. 22, l. 718. _of remed_, for a remedy.

719. _sesith_, ceaseth.

723. _with this lady_, by this lady.

728. _laisere_, leisure.

731. _diuerss wais sere_, divers several ways.

733. _bur_, bore.

735. _cher_, car.

740. _dout_, to fear.

745. _but were_, without doubt. This expression often occurs.

P. 23, l. 751. _few menye_, small company; an oddly sounding expression
to modern ears.

753. _cold_, called.

754. _hot_, hight, was named.

755. _but in his cumpany_, unless he had with him.

757. _He saith_; the speaker is the captain of the hundred knights,
called in l. 806 _Maleginis_.

768. _als fell_, just as many.

777. _hard_, heard.

781. _clepit_, called.

P. 24, l. 793, _as he wel couth_, as he well knew how.

796. _sen_, seen.

800. _sen_, since.

806. _was hot_, was hight, was named.

809. _In myde the borde and festinit in the stell_, In the midst they
encounter, and fastened in the steel. See l. 850.

812. _Rout_, company.

815. _ferde_, fourth.

817. _sauch thar latter batell steir_, saw their last division stir.

P. 25, l. 820. _gane his mortall fell._ A word seems here omitted; if
after _mortall_ we insert _strokis_, the sense will be, “His enemies
began his mortall strokes to feel.”

825. _worth_, worthy. It would improve the metre to read _worthy_
(l. 875).

828. _In to were_, in war, in the strife.

829. _hyme bure_, bore himself.

839. _to-for_, heretofore.

841. _Atour_, i.e. _at over_, across.

842. _assall_, assault. The rime shews we should read _assaill_, as in
l. 855.

849. _socht atour_, made their way across. The use of _seke_ in Early
English is curious.

P. 26, l. 861. _setith his payn vpone_, devotes his endeavours to.

868. _al to-kerwith_, wholly cutteth in pieces.

880. _dirk_, dark.

883. _tan and slan_, taken and slain.

P. 27, l. 895. It frequently occurs in the MS. that a space is left at
the beginning of a line, and the first letter of the line is omitted. It
is evident that the intention was that the first letter should be
illuminated, and that this, after all, was not done. Here, for instance,
the T is omitted, as indicated by the square brackets. So also in
l. 1083, etc.

897. _pasing home_, go home.

899. _was vent_, had gone.

905. _dulay_, delay. So also _duclar_ for _declare_.

907. _comyne_, came.

908. _ill paid_, displeased.

909. _homly_, humbly. Stevenson reads _hourly_, but this is wrong; see
l. 914.

911. _carful_, full of care, unhappy.

912. _withouten were_, without doubt.

914. _lawly_, lowly.

918. _wight_, with (unusual, and perhaps wrong).

P. 28, l. 924. _leife_, live.

929. _eft_, after.

933. _thar longith_, there belongeth.

943. _I was for til excuss_, I had some excuse.

944. “Because I did behove (to do it), out of very need.”

946. _lefe it but_, leave it without.

953. _ma_, make.

954. _ga_, go.

955. _of new_, anew.

958. _But if that deth or other lat certan_, “Except it be owing to
death or other sure hindrance.”

P. 29, l. 960. _be hold_, be held. MS. _behold_. Stevenson suggested the
alteration, which is certainly correct.

961. _withthy_, on the condition that.

965. _promyt_, promise; _als fast as_, as soon as.

973. _ferd_, fourth.

982. “Where we shall decide the end of this war.”

P. 30, l. 997. _cag_, cage, prison.

999. _amen_, pleasant.

1000. _vodis_, woods.

1004. _lust_, pleasure (Ch.). But the line is obscure; unless we read

1009. “His spirit started (owing to the) love (which) anon hath caught
him,” etc.

1012. _at_, that.

1014. “(As to) whom they know not at all.”

1019. _sen at_, since that.

1022. _the dewod_, devoid thee.

1024. _and_, if.

1026. _be ony mayne_, by any mean.

P. 31, l. 1027. _y red_, I advise.

1035. _To warnnyng_, to warn.

1040. _our the furdis_, over the fords.

1044. _oyer._ So in MS.; the _y_ representing the old _th_ (_þ_); other.

1046. _hufyng_, halting.

1050. _worschip_, honour. “It were more expedient to maintain your

1058. _wonk_, winked.

1062. _vare_, aware.

P. 32, l. 1064. The meaning of “ferst-conquest” is “first-conquered”
(_conquest_ being Old Fr. for conquered). It is explained in l. 1547 as
having been a title given to the king whom Galiot first subdued.

1067. _ferss_, fierce.

1070. _suppos_, although.

1073. _he_; viz. the shrew.

1077. The MS. has “ſched.”

1080. _ymen_, I mean.

1095. _tais_, takes.

P. 33, l. 1109. _Galyot_ put for _Galiotes_, the genitive case-ending
being often omitted, after a proper name especially.

1110. _prewit_, proved, tried.

1129. _traist_, trust.

1131. _that euery thing hath cure_, that (of) everything hath care.

P. 34, l. 1135. “Aye from the time that the sun began to light the
world’s face, until he was gone.”

1137. _o forss_, perforce.

1141. _taiis_, takes.

1142. _hecht_, promised.

1151. _failȝeis_, fail.

1154. _fet_, fetched.

1156. _stant_, standeth.

1162. _resput_, respite.

1166. _very knychtis passing_, weary knights go.

P. 35, l. 1170. _till spere_, to inquire.

1177. _ne wor his worschip_, had it not been for his valour.

1187. _qwheyar_, whether. 1191-4. “And fond,” etc. These four lines are
now for the first time printed. They were omitted by Stevenson,
evidently by accident.

1196. _Per dee._ Fr. _par Dieu_: an oath common in old ballads,
generally in the form _pardy_.

1197. _vsyt_, used.

1198. “I advise that we go unto his arms” (armour).

1203. _haill_, whole.

P. 36, l. 1207. _abwsyt_, abused, i.e. made an ill use of.

1208. _vsyt_, used.

1209. _suppos the best that lewis_, even though (it were) the best that

1217. _on slep_, asleep. The prefix _a-_ in English is due to the Saxon

1221. _al to-hurt_, etc. See note in Glossary on the word _To-kerwith_.

1225. _sauch_, saw; _rewit_, rued, pitied.

1233. _one syd a lyt_, a little on one side.

1236. _our mekill_, over much.

P. 37, l. 1240. _yarof_, thereof.

1241. _ruput_, repute, think.

1242. _ablare_, abler, readier.

1253. Insert a comma after _thret_, and destroy that after _lowe_. The
meaning perhaps is, “But what if he be appealed to and threatened, and
(meanwhile) his heart be elsewhere set to love.” Observe that _and_ is
often the third or fourth word in the sentence it should begin. See
l. 2833.

1258. _ȝhe tyne yowr low_, you lose your love.

1260. _conclusit_, ended.

1265. _mokil_, much.

1268. _of new_, anew, again.

1273. _pan_, pain.


P. 38, l. 1279. _thocht_, anxiety.

1284. _apperans_, i.e. vision, as in l. 364.

1295. _aqwynt_, acquainted; Burns uses _acquent_.

1297. _com_, coming.

P. 39, l. 1316. “So far out of the way you go in your course.” Compare
l. 1797.

1317. “Thy ship, that goeth upon the stormy surge, nigh of thy revels
(i.e. because of thy revels) in the gulf it falls, where it is almost
drowned in the peril.”

1321. “In the wretched dance of wickedness.” See the curious uses of the
word “daunce” in Chaucer.

1323. _the son_, thee soon.

1330. _powert_, poverty; _as the-selwyne wat_, as thyself knows.

1334. _in to spousag_, in wedlock.

P. 40, l. 1343. The word _diuerss_ is required to complete the line; cf.
l. 731.

1352. _suppriss_, oppression.

1354. _wedwis_, widows.

1367. _that ilke_, that same.

1369. _sufferith_, makest to suffer.

P. 41, l. 1379. Eccles. iv. 9, 10.

1387. _yow mone_, thou must.

1392. _her-efter leif_, hereafter live.

1401. A comma is scarcely needed after “_sapiens_.” It means “The fear
of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.” Prov. ix. 10.

P. 42, l. 1409. _to ryng wnder his pess_, to reign under His peace, by
His permission. Roquefort gives _pais_, licence, permission.

1420. _arour_, error.

1427. _leful_, lawful.

P. 43, l. 1447. Ban, king of Albanak, was Lancelot’s father. See l. 202,

1474. The MS. has “aſſit.”

P. 44, l. 1491. _tak the bak apone themself_, turn their backs.

1500. _yewyne_, given.

1504. _till_, to; redundant.

1506. _stand aw_, stand in awe. So also in l. 2684. The same expression
occurs in _The Bruce_, iii. 62, ed. Pinkerton, p. 42, ed. Jamieson; and
also in _Havelok_, l. 277, where the word _in_, supplied from
conjecture, should be struck out.

P. 45, l. 1537. _throw his peple_, by his people.

1541. _Thus falith not_, etc., “Except wise conduct falleth to a king.”

1546. It may be right to retain the spelling of the MS.--“kinghe;” for,
though strange and unusual, it occurs again in l. 2527.

P. 46, l. 1556. _wende_, weened.

1560. _in to his contrare_, against him.

1568. _trewis_, truce.

1575. _his powar_, his chief army.

1576. _by the yhere_, by the ear, privately.

1579. _cold_, called; as in l. 753.

P. 47, l. 1597. _home fair_, go home.

1608. _And_; redundant in modern English. For many of the precepts given
by Amytans the author must have been indebted to Gower, or, at any rate,
to the author of the _Secreta Secretorum_. See Gower; Conf. Amantis; ed.
Pauli, lib. vii; vol. 3, pp. 152-159. And cf. Tyrwhitt’s note to the
Canterbury Tales, l. 16915; and Warton’s Hist. Eng. Poetry.

P. 48, l. 1628. _lest_, least; _low_, law. It requires care to
distinguish the two meanings of _low_, viz. _love_ and _law_.

1633. _Iug_, judge.

P. 49, l. 1660. _sar_, sorely.

1666. A line omitted. The inserted line is purely conjectural.

P. 50, l. 1704. _pupelle_, people.

1708. _Inwyus_, envious.

1716. _longith_, belongeth.

1717. _the lykith_, it likes thee, thou art pleased.

P. 51, l. 1724. _betak til hyme_, confer upon him.

1730. _essy_, easy.

1736. _for the nonis_, for the occasion. See White’s Ormulum.

1739. _vn to the vorthi pur yow if_, unto the worthy poor thou give.

1742. _set nocht of gret substans_, though not of great value.

1754. _alowit_, approved of.

P. 52, l. 1761. _tynith_, loseth.

1763. _atonis_, at once.

1771. _resawe_, receive.

1773. _with two_, also.

P. 53, l. 1791. _well less, al-out_, much less, altogether. The
punctuation hereabouts in Stevenson’s edition is very wild.

1795. _wys_, vice; _the wrechitness_, thy miserliness.

1797. _pass the courss_, go thy way.

1808. _vrech_, wretch; but here used instead of _miser_.

1812. _viss_, vice.

1814. _ben y-knawith_, are known (to be) (?).

1815. _dant_, daunt.

1822. _the ton_, the one.

P. 54, l. 1832. _beis var_, beware.

1834. _colde_, cool.

1852. _onys_, once.

1855. _whar-throw_, through which, whereby.

P. 55, l. 1864, _awn_, own. The metre requires the more usual form

1879. _dispolȝeith_, despoileth.

1881. _For-quhi_, wherefore. In this line the MS. has “scrikth.”

P. 56, l. 1899. _most nedis_, must needs. _Ye_ = _the_; i.e. The one,

1909. _Mot_, might.

1917. _in_ should be _into_, as elsewhere.

P. 57, l. 1940. _havith_, hath.

1950. _hot_, hight, is called.

P. 58, l. 1966. _wnepwnist_, unpunished.

1990. _omend_, amend; _spill_, destroy.

P. 59, l. 2011. _ayre_, are.

2012. _duclar_, declare; so also _dulay_ for delay.

2017. _the god werray_, the Very God.

P. 60, l. 2036. _For-quhi_, wherefore.

2040. _mad_, made.

2041. _clergy_, science.

2062. _be the mycht dewyne_, by the might divine.

P. 61, l. 2069. _far_, fare.

2079. _helyth frome the ground_, heals from the bottom; i.e.

2100. _not sessith_, who ceaseth not.

P. 62, l. 2107. _Ne war_, were it not for; _hartly_, hearty; it occurs
again four lines below.

2135. _yneuch_, enough. He means he will ask but one question more.

P. 63, l. 2148. _To passing home_, to go home.

2162. _the _xxiiij_ day_. The first _i_ in the MS. is like a “v” smudged
over; we should read “xxiiij,” as in l. 2155. The contraction is to be
read _four and twentieth_, not _twenty-fourth_; so also in l. 610.

P. 64, l. 2190. _hal dure_, hall door.

2192. _o iorne most for to comend_, a journey most to be commended.

2194. _lowith_, love.

P. 65, l. 2212. _the fewar eschef thay_, the less they achieve.

2229. “For no adventure will prove so great, that ye shall not achieve

2241. _whill_, until.

P. 66, l. 2247. _galot_; so in MS.

2265. _grant mercy_, great thanks; Fr. _grand merci_.

2267. _quhy_, because.

P. 67, l. 2279. _thithingis_, tidings; probably an error of the scribe
for _tithingis_. Stevenson has _chichingis_!

2284. _al-out_, altogether.

2304. _oft syss_, oft-times. See Glossary (_Syss_).

2306. _dante_, dainty.

2310. _tithandis_, tidings; compare l. 2279.

P. 68, l. 2323. _aw_, owe.

2328. _fantessy_, fancy, notion.

2334. _for no why_, for no reason.

2337. _mon I fair_, must I go.

2338. _our son It waire_, over soon it were.

2342. _For-quhy_, because.

P. 69, l. 2352. _nor_ has the force of _but_.

2366. _be ony men_, by any means.

2368. _on of tho_, one of them.

2375. _chen of low_, chain of love.

2376. _and if ȝhe may deren_, an if you may declare.

P. 70, l. 2409. _hartly raquer_, heartily require.

2416. _gar ordan_, cause to be provided.

P. 71, l. 2428. _prewaly disspone_, privily dispose.

2436. _ellis-quhat_; I suppose this means, “he was on fire _elsewhere_.”

2448. _hamlynes_, homeliness.

2452. _fest throw al the ȝher eliche_, feast through all the year alike.

P. 72, l. 2469. _commend_, commended.

2470. _he drywith_, he driveth, pursueth. The reading is not _drawith_,
as in Stevenson.


P. 73, l. 2471. This line is too long, and the sense imperfect; but
there is no doubt about the reading of the MS.

2474. _Awodith_, expels.

2475. _doune valis_, falls down; for it is evident that _valis_ is an
error for _falis_, the mistake having arisen from confusion with the
succeeding line.

2480. _cled_, clad.

2487. _bygown_, begun. In the next line Stevenson has _sown_; but the
true reading is _Rown_, run; as in l. 2820.

2492. _barnag_, baronage, nobility.

P. 74, l. 2522. _but dulay_, without delay; _the_, they.

2524. _thar com_, their coming.

2530. _in the dogre_, in its (due) degree.

P. 75, l. 2545. _Or that_, ere that.

2552. _he and hate_, high and hot.

2558. _the can_, they began.

P. 76, l. 2574. _hyme mak_, prepare himself; or perhaps simply, make
(for the field), go.

2582. _helmys last_; _last_ clearly means _laced_; see l. 2250.

2594. _Ȝhit_, although.

2599. _dout_, fear.

2600. _is assemblit_, made an attack. The peculiar use of _assemble_
must always be borne in mind.

2601. _erd_, earth.

P. 77, l. 2612. _found till gwyans_, go to Gwyans.

2614. _til esquyris thei sewyt_, after Esquyris they followed.

2619. _one to the melle socht_, made their way to the mêlée.

2627. _don bore_, borne down.

2630. Fifty thousand. It would appear that Galiot had 40,000, of whom
10,000 were held _in reserve_; so that in l. 2632 only 30,000 are
mentioned. See l. 2569, 2647.

P. 78, l. 2646. _ten_, sorrow, vexation.

2656. _resauf_, receive.

2663. _at thar come_, at their coming; _led_, put down.

2670. _biding one the bent_, abide on the grassy plain.

P. 79, l. 2679. “That, despite their efforts, they must needs retire.”

2684. _stud aw_, stood in awe; see note to l. 1506. 2693, 4. These lines
do not rime. But we should certainly read _felde_, _erde_ having slipped
in from confusion with l. 2691. The knight of Galloway goes _to the
field_, i.e. joins battle.

P. 80, l. 2712. _On ayar half_, on either side. The MS. omits _to_.

2713. _of_, off.

2714. _noiss_, nose.

2731. _Bot nocht forthi_, But not on that account.

P. 81, l. 2754. _harmys_, loss.

2761. _aucht to ses_, ought to cease.

2765. _at_, that.

2768. _my lef_, my leave, permission.

2770. _in to cage_, in prison.

P. 82, l. 2802. _commandit_, commended.

P. 83, l. 2819. _one athir half_, on either side.

2820. _rown_, run.

2821. _howyns_; an ungrammatical form; perhaps _howyng_ is meant.

2827. _one hycht_, on height; i.e. aloud.

2829. _sterith_, stirreth.

2833. “The lady of Melyhalt made (her way) to him, and immediately
caused his couch to be placed before a window.” Mr Stevenson reads,

  “Of Melyhalt the lady to hyme maid
  Incontinent his couche, and gart he[N1] had,” etc.

i.e. “The lady immediately made his bed for him,” etc.

2841. _wencust_, vanquished. After this word we should perhaps insert
“at,” as in l. 3336.

    [Footnote N1: But the MS. has “be;” also “melyhat” instead of

P. 84, ll. 2877-2880. These lines were printed by me for the first time,
four lines having been here again omitted by Mr Stevenson.

2880. _but weyne_, without doubt.

2884. _to led and stere_, to lead and direct.

P. 85, l. 2893. _Endlong_, along.

2894. _weryne_, were.

2913. _let_, hinder.

P. 86, l. 2925. _dulay_, delay; as in several other places.

2938. _fek_, effect.

2944. _ȝude_, went.

2947. _fair_, welfare.

P. 87, l. 2964. _Whill_, until.

2970. _ho_, stop, pause.

2971. _veryng In affray_, were in terror.

2972. _rovm_, room.

2978. _socht_, made his way.

2984. _disponit_, intends; but we must insert “not,” to complete the
sense and the metre.

P. 88, l. 2998. _eschevit_ (used passively), is achieved.

3003. _o knycht_, a single knight.

3005. _tais_, takes.

3006. _fays_, foes.

3013. _onys or the nycht_, once ere the night.

3015. _that ȝhe have gilt to mend_, to amend that in which ye have

P. 89, l. 3052. _Do at I may_, Do that which I can.

P. 90, l. 3065. This line is printed by Mr Stevenson,

  “Curag can [   ] encresing in[N2] his hart”;

but it is not clear that a word is wanting, for the metre is as complete
as in many other lines; whilst, as regards the sense, “the knycht” is
probably a nominative without a verb, and l. 3065 means, “Courage did
increase in his heart.” Or the reader may, if he pleases, insert “fele.”
Compare l. 3058.

3066. _lap_, leaped.

3079. Observe the omission of the word “neither” in this line.

3080. _persit_, pierced.

3086. _onan_, anon. A.S. _on-án_.

    [Footnote N2: MS. has “to.”]

P. 91, l. 3093. _In samyne will_, with like intent.

3100. _bet axampil_, better example.

3104. _bot_, unless; _me fall_, befall me.

3108. _one vthir_, another.

3120. _send_, sent.

3121. _lewit one_, left one.

3122. _but mercy_, without mercy.

P. 92, l. 3134. _deliuer besynes_, clever readiness.

3136. _aray_, livery.

3140. _Ee_, eye.

3146. _the morow new_, the early morning.

3160. _deith_, dead.

3162. _Suppos_, although.

P. 93, l. 3178. _Nor_; we now use _but_.

3184. _ward_; see Glossary. _tho_, then.

P. 94, l. 3200. _relewit_, relieved.

3201. _diuerss placis sere_; as _sere_ = _diuerss_, one of these words
is redundant. So in l. 3266.

3207. _ewil awysit_, ill advised.

3217. “And if it so happen, that they be discomfited.”

P. 95, l. 3240. _leuch_, laughed; _sarues_, service.

3246. _al haill_, all whole.

3248. _x thousand mo_, ten thousand, and more.

3259. _abaid_, delay.

3263. _aucht_, eight.

3265. _petws for til her_, piteous to hear.

P. 96, l. 3297. _dreuch_, drew.

3299. _fellit_, fallen.

3304. _levyng_, leave.

P. 97, l. 3307. _sest_, ceased.

3321. _askit at_, asked of.

3331. _Wencussith_, vanquisheth.

3340. _in to one_, continually; which is sometimes the sense of A.S.

P. 98, l. 3353. _to fillyng_, to fulfil.

3357. _soght_, came on; see Glossary.

3359. _Ne war_, etc., “Had it not been that they were, individually, the
better men.”

3364. _ralef_, relieve.

3368. _fellith_, feeleth.

P. 99, l. 3384. _virslyng_, wrestling, _i.e._ entangled with; a strong

3385. _assalȝeing_, assail.

3390. _rowmyth_, roometh, emptieth.

3403. _departit_, parted.

3404. _dout_, fear.

P. 100, l. 3412. _left_, failed.

3423. _The lord_, i.e. Galiot, as I suppose; Mr Stevenson has, “The

3430. _stere_, to stir, move, come.

P. 101, l. 3450. _pretendit_, endeavour.

3457. _occupye_, employ.

3461. _For one hour_, etc., “On account of suffering distress for one

3470. _the well less_, much less; see l. 1791.

3471. _berd_, beard.

3473. _o woyss_, one voice.

3475. _eschef frome yhow_, not, _win_ from you; but, _withdraw_ himself
from you. See Glossary.

P. 102, l. 3481. _wend thai var no mo_, thought they were no more.

3487. _And sich enconter_, and such encounter. These three words are
written at the bottom of the page as a catchword. The rest of the MS. is


[As many of the words occurring in “Lancelot” are well explained either
in Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary or in Roquefort’s “Glossaire de la
langue Romane,” I have frequently referred to these works by means of
the letters J. and R. Other abbreviations, as O.N. for Old Norse; Goth.
for Mœso-Gothic; Su.-G. for Suio-Gothic, etc., will be readily
understood. Ch. has also been used as an abbreviation for Chaucer. The
various French, Danish, German, and other words referred to in the
Glossary are merely added by way of illustration, to indicate in what
direction a word may be most easily traced up. To ensure accuracy as far
as possible, I have verified every foreign word by the aid of
dictionaries, referring for Gothic words to my own Glossary, edited for
the Philological Society; for Suio-Gothic words, to Ihre’s Glossarium;
for Icelandic words, to Egilsson; and for Old French words, to Roquefort
and Burguy. Whatever errors occur below may thus, I hope, be readily

  { Abaid, Abyde, } delay, tarrying, 1882, 2147, 3069, 3308.
    A.S. _abídan_, J.
  { Abasit, Abasyt, Abaysit, } abashed, humbled, dispirited,
      cast down, 378, 1452, 2664.
    Abasit of, dispirited by, 3301.
    R. _abaiser_.
  Abasit of (used passively), were dispirited by, 2243.
  Abraid, awoke, 1231;
    (Ch.) A.S. _on-bredan_.
  Abwsyt (abused), made an ill use of, 1207.
  Access, a fever; or better, a fit of the ague; Lat. _accessus
      febris_, (Wright’s Glossary), 31.
  Accorde, to agree with, 1526.
    Fr. _s’accorder_.
  Accordith, is suitable for, becomes, 1679, 1951;
      agree therewith, 605;
      is useful for, is fit for, 1204.
  According for, suitable for, 1512.
    R. _accordant_.
  Adred, terrified, 378, 2664.
    A.S. _on-drǽdan_, to dread.
  Affek, effect, 382.
    Cf. _Fek_.
  Afferd, afraid, 3472.
    A.S. _afered_, _afǽran_.
  Affere, warlike preparation, 985;
      aspect, bearing, 3043, 3334, 3394.
    See J., who makes it of Teutonic origin; but it may be no more than
      the O.Fr. _afeire, afaire_ = state, condition; as explained by
  Afferith, belongs to, suits, 1550.
  Afferis, is suitable, 1690, 1961.
    R. _aferer_.
  Affrait, terrified, from the verb _Affray_ (Ch.), 2462, 3469.
    R. _effraer_.
  Affray, terror, fright, 636, 3454.
    Fr. _effroi_.
  Affy in till, trust to, rely upon, 499, 1394.
    R. _affier_.
  Afyre, on fire, 30, 251;
      hence, used allegorically, in love, 2436.
  { Agrewit, Aggrewit, } aggrieved, vexed, 1308, 1538;
      angry, enraged, 2618.
    R. _agrever_.
  Ago, gone, 159.
    A.S. _of-gán_.
  Aire, are, 1732.
  Algait, Algat, always, 1996, 1792.
    Gothic _gatwô_, a street, way.
  Al magre thine, in spite of thee, 115.
    An expression compounded of A.S. _al_, wholly; _maugre_ (Fr. _mal
    grè_), ill-will, and _thine_ (A.S. _thín_, the gen. case of _thú_,
  Al-out, altogether, 1676, 1791, etc.
  Alowit, approved, 1754.
    Fr. _allouer_.
  Als, (1) as; (2) also.
  { Amen, Ameyne, } pleasant, 64, 999.
    Lat. _amœnus_.
  Anarmyt, fully armed, 545, 620, 2219, 2771.
    See _Enarmyt_.
  And, if, 1024, 1591;
      and if (= an if), if, 2376.
  Anerly, only, 1476, 1696.
    A.S. _ǽn-líc_.
  { Anoit, Anoyt, } annoyed, vexed, 351, 2244.
  Anoyt, annoyeth, 1407.
  Anterous, (for Aunterous, the shortened form of Aventurous),
      adventurous, 2618.
    Fr. _aventure_.
  Aparalit, apparelled, 338.
  Aperans, an appearance, a vision, 364.
    _So also_ Apperans, 1284.
  Apone, upon, 765, etc.
  Appetit, desire, 2722.
    Ch. has _appetite_ as a verb, to desire.
  Aqwynt, acquainted, 1295.
    Burns uses _acquent_.
  Aras, to pluck out, 240.
    Fr. _arracher_.
  Araid, disordered, afflicted, 3270.
    See _Araye_ in Halliwell. The examples there given shew that to
      _araye_ sometimes actually signifies to _disorder_.
  Arest, stop, delay, 678, 3072, 3308.
    Fr. _arrêt_.
  Arly, early, 4, 384, 975.
    A.S. _árlíce_.
  Artilȝery, implements of warfare, 2538.
    See R. _artillerie_. Compare 1 Samuel, xx. 40.
  Assay, (1) assault, trial, 11, 35, 112, 712;
      attack, 537, 2662.
    As a verb, to assault, attack, assail, 570, 1044.
    Fr. _assaillir_.
    (2) to essay, attempt, 2936;
      to test, 478, 982.
    Fr. _essaier_.
  { Assaid, Assayt, } assaulted, 1224, 2641.
  Assall, assault, attack, 842.
    We should perhaps read “assaill,” as in l. 855.
  Assalȝeing, assail (_3 pers. plural_), 3385.
  Assemblay, an assembling of knights for a combat, a tournament, 267.
  Assemble, a hostile meeting, combat, battle, 978, 3336.
    See J.
  Assemblyng, encountering, 2588.
  Assemblyng on, attacking, 2956.
  Assey, to test, 478.
    _See_ Assay.
  Astart, to start away from; hence to escape from, avoid, 228, 3296.
    Ch. has _asterte_.
  At, that, 1019, etc.
    Compare Dan. _at_; O.N. _at_.
  Atour, at over, i.e. across, 841, 849, 873;
      in excess, in addition, besides, 1775.
  Ather, either, 2629, 2819, 3264.
    A.S. _ǽgther_.
  Atte, at the, 627, 1055.
  Aucht, eight, 3263.
    Compare Ger. _acht_.
  Auentur, adventure, 601.
  Auer, ever, 273, etc.
  Auerding to, belonging to (?), 345.
    The sense seems to point to the A.S. _and-weardian_, to be present,
    Goth. _and-wairths_, present.
  Aventur, Auentoure, adventure, 80, 222.
  Aw, owe, deserve; the present tense of the verb of which _ought_
      is the past tense; 3447.
    A.S. _áh_, _áhte_.
  Awalk, awake, 1049.
    Goth. _wakan_. The form _awalk_ occurs in Dunbar,
      “_Awalk_, luvaris, out of your slomering.”
        (The Thistle and the Rose.)
  Awant, boast, 2136.
      As a verb, 1588;
      and as a reflective verb, 2196, 2386.
    Fr. _se vanter_. Ch. has _avante_.
  Awin, own, 89.
    A.S. _ágen_.
  Awodith, maketh to depart, 2474.
    See _Avoid_ in Nares’ Glossary, edited by Halliwell and Wright.
  { Awow, Awoue, } vow, 234, 242, 246.
    Ch. has _avowe_.
  Awys, consideration, advisement, 558.
  Awyß the, advise thee, consider, 1913.
  { Awyß, Awyſing, } to consider, 424, 429.
    Fr. _s’aviser_.
  Awysment, advisement, consideration, 360, 680.
  Ay, ever, continually, 1135, 1486.
    A.S. _á_.
  Ayar (_written instead of_ Athar), either, 2712.
  Ayre, are, 2011.
  { Ayanis, 744, Aȝanis, 1164, 2283, } against.
    A.S. _ongean_.
  Aȝane, Aȝeine, again, 3253, 380.

  Bachleris, bachelors; a name given to novices in arms or arts, 1689.
    See _bacheler_ in R.
  Banaris, banners, 770.
  { Bartes, 2897. Bartiis, 3041. } _See_ Bertes.
  Barnag, baronage, nobility, 2492.
    See _barniez_ in R.
  Batell, a battalion, division of an army, 784, 808, etc.
  Be, by.
    A.S. _be_.
  Behest, promise, 2766.
    A.S. _behæs_.
  Behufis, behoves, 579.
    A.S. _behófan_, often used impersonally.
  { Behuß, Behwß, } it behoves, it is necessary (to do), 944, 2342;
    apparently contracted from _behufis_.
  Beleif, _in phr._ ore belief = beyond belief, 112.
  Bent, a grassy plain (properly a coarse grass; in German, _binse_),
      2670. J.
  Bertes, a parapet, a tower, 1007, 1118, 2815.
    R. _bretesche_, from Low Latin _brestachia_.
  Betak til, to confer upon, 1724.
    A.S. _be-tǽcan_, in the sense, to assign.
  Betakyne, betoken, 2014.
    A.S. _be-tǽcan_, in the sense, to shew.
  Bewis, boughs, 338.
    A.S. _boh_.
  Billis, letters, 142.
    Fr. _billet_.
  Blindis, blindness (?), 1903.
  Borde, to meet in a hostile manner, encounter, 809.
    We find in R. _border_, to joust, fight with lances.
    Compare Fr. _aborder_, and Spenser’s use of _bord_. See _horde_
      in Burguy.
  Bot, (1) but; (2) without. In general, _without_ is expressed by
      _but_, and the conjunction by _bot_; but this distinction is
      occasionally violated.
  Bown, ready, prepared, 1036.
    O.N. _búinn_, past part. of _búa_, to prepare. Su.-G. _boa_,
      to prepare. J.
  Bretis, fortifications, forts, 874; “properly wooden towers or
      castles: _Bretachiæ_, castella lignea, quibus castra et oppida
      muniebantur, Gallis _Bretesque_. Du Cange.” Jamieson.
    See _Bertes_.
  Bukis, books, 434, 1862.
  Burdis, boards, i.e. tables, 2198.
    A.S. _bórd_, which means--1. a plank; 2. a table, etc.
  Bur, bore, 733, 778.
  But, without; common in the phrase _but were_, without doubt.
  But if, unless, except, 958.
  { Byhecht, Byhicht, } promised, 1485, 2791.
    A.S. _be-hǽtan_.
  Byknow, notorious for, known to be guilty of, 1627.
    Compare “I _know_ nothing _by_ myself” (1 Cor. iv. 4). Compare
    also Dan. _bekiende_, to make known.
  By, near at hand, 1535, 2916.

  { Cag, Cage, } cage, prison, 997, 2770.
  Can, an auxiliary verb, used nearly as we now use _did_.
  Careldis, plural of Careld, a merry-making, revel (?), 1318.
    “_Caraude_, réjouissance;” and “_Caroler_, danser, se divertir,
      mener une vie joyeuse.” Roquefort.
  Catifis, wretches, 2102.
    R. _caitif, captif_. Compare Ital. _cattivo_.
  Chalmer, chamber, 2281, 2308, 2427, 2808. J.
  { Chare, Cher, } chariot, 4, 735.
    R. _cher_.
  Charge, load, 693.
    Fr. _charge_; see _discharge_ in the line following (694),
    meaning to shake off a load.
  Chargit, gave attention to, 710, 2454.
    Fr. _se charger de_.
  Chen, chain, 2375.
  Cher, car, chariot, 735. See _Chare_.
  Chere, cheer, demeanour, 83, 341, 695;
      sad demeanour, outward grief, 2718.
    Fr. _chère_; compare Ital. _ciera_, the face, look.
      “_Wepinge_ was hyr mosté _chere_.”
        (Le Morte Arthur, l. 726.)
  Cheß, choose, 1611, 1636, 2368.
    A.S. _ceósan_; Ger. _kiesen_; Dutch _kiezen_.
  Clariouns, clarions, 771, 789.
  Clepe, to call, 90, 99.
    A.S. _clepan_.
  Clepit, callest, 93;
      called, 781.
  Clepith, is called, 1919.
  Clergy, science, knowledge, 504, 511, 2041.
    R. _clergie_.
  Closine, closed, concluded, 316.
  Closith, enclosed, shut up, 427.
  Cold, called, 753, 1579.
  Commandit, commended, 2802.
  Comprochit, approached, 2472, 2509.
  Conpilour, compiler, poet, 319.
  Conquest, conquered, 574;
    Fyrst-conquest, first conquered, 1545, etc.
  Conseruyt, preserved, 332.
  Conten (used as a reflective verb), to demean oneself valorously,
      to maintain one’s ground, 823, 1107, 1130.
    See R. “_contenement_, contenance, conduite, maintien, posture.”
  Contenit hyme, behaved himself, 3219;
    Contenit them, 2634.
  Contenyt, endured, 3190.
  Contretioun, contrition, 1415, 1426.
  Contynans, demeanour, 1693, 1747.
  Counter, encounter, attack, charge, 3239.
  Couth, could, 793.
    A.S. _cunnan_; past tense, _ic cúðe_.
  Cowardy, cowardice, 1023, 3287.
  Cownterit, encountered, 2609, 2621. J.
  Crownel, coronal, corolla of a flower, 59. J.
  { Cummyne, Comyne, } came, 807, 907.
  { Cumyne, 650, 1136, Cumyng, 447, Cummyng, 2498, } come (past part.).
  Cunyng, knowledge, 1455.
  { Cusynace, 1270, Cusynece, 2802, Cusynes, 2287, Cwsynes, 1185, }
  Cwre, care, 98, 266, 643.
    Lat. _cura_. (N.B. Though _Cwre_ = _cura_, yet _cura_ should be
      distinguished from A.S. _cearu_.)

  Danger, power to punish; “the power of a feudal lord over his
      vassals,” (Wright), 444.
    Also, power to injure, 3006.
    See R. _dangier_.
  Dans, (dance), in the phrase “wrechit dans,” evil mode of life, 1321.
    See Chaucer’s use of _daunce_; and compare--
      “I sai ȝow lely how thai lye
      Dongen doun alle in a _daunce_.”
    Lawrence Minot; quoted in Specimens of Early English, by
    R. Morris; p. 194.
  { Dede, 90, Ded, 3304, } death.
      Dan. _död_. A.S. _deáð_. O.N. _dauði_.
  Deden, deign, 949. J.
  Dedenyt, deigned, 240.
  Deid, died, 215.
  Deith, dead (past part.), 3160.
  Delitable, delightful, 1738.
    R. _delitable_.
  Deliuer, nimble, clever, 3134.
  Deliuerly, (cleverly), nimbly, lightly, 3089, 3131.
    R. _delivre_.
  Demande, demur, 191, 397, 3052, 3354.
    See R. “_demander_, contremander, changer, revoquer l’ordre donné.”
  Depart, to part, 3421.
    R. _departir_.
  Departit, parted, 3403.
  Depaynt, painted, 46, 1703.
    Fr. _dépeint_. Ch. _depeint_.
  Depend me, waste or consume (my powers), 214;
    possibly miswritten for _despend_.
    Cf. _Dispendit_.
    Depend to, to concern, appertain to, 466.
  Deren, to speak out, tell, 2376.
    R. _derainier_.
  Dereyne, a plea, 2313;
    “haith o dereyne ydoo,” hath appealed to trial by combat.
    R. _derainier_.
  Des, daïs, high table, 2762.
    R. _deis_; Lat. _discus_.
  Deuit, availed, 18. See note.
  { Devith, Dewith, } deafen, 92, 94.
    “Su.-G. _deofwa_; Icel. _deyfa_,” J.
    Compare Dan. _döve_. Burns has _deave_.
  Dewod the, devoid thyself, 1022.
  Deuoydit was = departed, 1031.
    Compare _Awodith_.
  Dewyß, to tell, narrate, 373.
  Discharg, to put aside one’s liability, 163, 1665.
  Diseß, lack of ease, misery, 707.
  Disiont (Disioint?), disjointed, out of joint; hence uncertain,
      hazardous, 2907.
    “Disjoint, A difficult situation.” Halliwell.
  Dispendit, spent, 1808.
    R. _despendre_.
  Dispens, expenditure, 1746.
    Fr. _dépense_.
  Dispolȝeith, despoileth, 1879.
  Dispone, to dispose, provide; or, as a reflective verb, to be
      disposed to do, to intend, 54, 446, 980, 1590, 2428, 2462.
  Disponit, declines (?); but much more probably, intends; and we
      must read “disponit not,” 2984.
  Dout, fear, 2599, 3404, 3438;
    (as a verb), to fear, 740, 1827.
    Ch. _doute_. R. _doubtance_.
  Drent, drowned, 1319.
    A.S. _drencan_.
  Dreß (as a reflective verb), to direct oneself, proceed, go, 1975,
      2288, 2486.
    Lat. _dirigere_.
  Drywith, drives; “he drywith to the end,” i.e. concludes, 2470.
  Duclar, declare, 3022.
  Dulay, delay, 681, 788, 2925.

  Effere, shew, pomp, 2360.
    Compare _Affere_.
  Efter, after, 217.
    A.S. _efter_.
  Eld, old age, 3225, 3242.
    A.S. _yldo_. Gothic _alds_.
  Elyk, Eliche, alike, 182, 2452.
  Eme, uncle, 2572.
    A.S. _eám_.
  Empit, emptied, empty, 180.
    A.S. _æmtian_.
  Empleß, to please, 2455. J.
  Empriß, worth, honour, 129, 269, 3458;
    _cf._ Romans of Partenay, l. 2013.
    Anxiety, oppression, 393.
    R. _emprindre_.
  Enarmyt, fully armed, 285, 751, 2499. J.
  Endit, indited, 138;
      indite, 206;
      inditing, poem (?), 334.
    If the meaning were, “this ends,” the form “endis” would be
      required; besides which, the rime shews that the _i_ is long;
      cf. ll. 138, 206.
  Endlong, along, 2893.
    A.S. _andlang_; Ger. _entlang_.
  Entent, intention, will, meaning, thoughts, 448, 1451, 1499, 2938.
    R. _entente_. Used by Chaucer.
  Entermet, to intermeddle with, to have do with, 2914.
    R. _entremetre_.
  Enweronyt, environed, 53.
  Erde, earth, 1072, 1540, 2601.
    Compare Ger. _erde_.
  Erdly, earthly, 498.
  Erith, earth, 128.
    A.S. _eorð_.
  Eschef (1. eschew), to shun, withdraw himself, 3475.
    R. _eschever_;
    (2. achieve), to accomplish, 2212, 2513.
    R. _eschavir_.
    Eschef deith, to die, 2732.
  Escheuit, achieved, 258.
  Eschevit, is achieved, 2998.
  { Eß, 174, Eeß, 706, } ease.
  Essenȝeis (ensigns), warcries, 3349, J.
    See also R. _enseigne_.
  Euerilkon, every one, 1039, etc.
  Exasy, extasy, 76. (Possibly miswritten.)
  Exortith, beseecheth, 3026.
  Extend, attain, 3281.

  Failȝeis, fail, (3 pers. plu. indicative), 1151.
  Fairhed (fairhood), beauty, 577.
    In A.S. _fægernes_, but in Dan. _förhed_.
  Fall, to happen, befall, 493, 2139.
    A.S. _feallan_; Dan. _falde_.
  Fallyng, fallen, 1217, 1322.
  Falowschip, used as we now use company, 1105, 2687, etc.
  Falȝeing, failing, 1499.
  Falȝet, Falȝheit, failed, 1460, 1469, 1498, 1503.
  Farhed, beauty, 2440.
    See _Fairhed_.
  Fayndit (feigned), dissembled, 2397.
  Fays, foes, 3006.
    A.S. _fáh_.
  Fechtand, fighting, 2691, 3127, 3407.
    Ger. _fechten_.
  Fechteris, fighters, 686.
  Feill, knowledge, skill, 2854. J.
    A.S. _félian_.
  Fek (effect), sum, amount, result, drift, 2938.
    Fr. _effet_.
  Fell, to feel, 820, 2131.
  Fellith, feeleth, 3368.
  Fell, many; als fell, as many, 768.
    A.S. _féala_; Gothic _filu_.
  Fell, horrible, 260.
    A.S. _fell_, cruel, fierce.
  Ferde, fourth, 815, 973, 2285.
    Compare Dan. _fierde_.
  Ferleit, wondered, 3117.
    A.S. _fǽr-líc_, sudden, fearful. Burns has _ferlie_.
  Fet, fetched, 433, 1154.
    A.S. _feccan_, past tense, _ic feahte_.
  Fongith, catcheth, seizeth, 1922.
    A.S. _fangan_; Goth. _fahan_.
  Forfare, to fare amiss, to perish, 1348.
    A.S. _for-faran_.
  Forlorn, lost, 3305.
    A.S. _forloren_; cf. Goth. _fra-liusan_.
  For-quhy; see _For-why_.
  { For-thi, For-thy, } (there-fore), on that account, 332, 2261, 2731.
    A.S. _forthý_; where _thý_ (Gothic _thê_) is the instrumental case
      of _se_, that.
  For-wrocht (for-wrought), over-worked, wearied out, 888.
    A.S. _forwyrcan_.
  { For-why, 798, 925, 2209, For-quhy, 2171, 2342, 2290, } for the
      reason that, because that.
  Found, to advance, go, 2612. J.
    A.S. _fundian_, to try to find, go forward.
  Franchis, generosity, 230.
    R. _franchise_.
  Fremmytneß, strangeness, alienation, 1508.
    A.S. _fremdnes_.
  Froit, enjoyment, 1644;
      fruit, 2088, 2109.
    R. _fruit_.
  Frome, from the time that, 17, 1432.
    Goth. _frums_, a beginning.
  Fruschit, broken, dashed in pieces, 1201.
    R. _frois_, broken; from the verb _froier_.
  { Fundyne, 497, Fundyng, 465, } found (past part.).
  Fyne, faithful, true, 519.
    See R. “_fine_, fidéle;” and “_fine_, foi.”
  Fyne, end, 1388, 2081.
    Fr. _fin_.

  Ganith, is suitable for, 991.
    Icel. _gegna_. J. Compare Dan. _gavne_.
  Ganyth, it; it profits; _used impersonally_, 121.
    R. _gaagner_.
  Gare, to cause, 910, 2416.
    Dan. _giöre_; Icel. _göra_.
  Gart, caused, 267, 2777.
  Gentilleß, 917, 1847.
    See _Gentrice_.
  { Gentrice, 130, 2757, Gentriß, 2790. } courtesy, nobleness.
    R. _gentilesse_.
  Gere, gear, equipment, armour, 2777.
    A.S. _gearwa_.
  Gert, 384.
    See _Gart_.
  Giffis, give thou, (lit. give _ye_, the plural being used in
      addressing the king), 463.
    A.S. _gifan_.
  Gifyne, given, 1752.
  Gilt, offended, done wrong, 699, 3015.
    A.S. _gyltan_.
  Grewhundis, greyhounds, 533, 537.
    “O.N. _grey_, _grey-hundr_, a bitch.” Wedgwood.
  Gowerne the, conduct thyself, 1598.
  Grawis, groves, 2481.
    Ch. _greves_.
  Gyrß, grass, 10.
    A.S. _gærs_.
  Gyß, guise, fashion, custom, 545.
    Ch. _gise_.

  Haade, had, 2150.
  Habariowne, habergeon, 2889.
    From _haubergeon_, the French form of Ger. _halsberge_.
    See _Hawbrek_.
  Habirioune, habergeon, 3380.
  Haill, whole, 3246.
    A.S. _hæl_.
  Haknay, an ambling horse for a lady, 1730.
    R. _hacquenée_.
  Half; _in the phrase_ on arthuris _half_, i.e. on Arthur’s _side_,
    Compare use of Germ. _halb_.
  Halk, a hawk, 1736, 2482.
    A.S. _hafoc_.
  { Hall, Hoil, Holl, Hail, } various spellings of Haill, whole.
  Hals, neck, 1054.
    A.S. _hals_. Goth. _hals_.
  Hant, to exercise, practise, 2191.
    Fr. _hanter_, lit. to frequent.
  { Hardement, 801, 2669, Hardyment, 900, 3362, } hardihood, boldness.
    R. _hardement_.
  Harrold, herald, 1047.
  Hate, hot, 2552.
  Havith, hath, 1940;
      have, 3404.
  { Hawbrek, 1070, 1200, Hawbryk, 3112, } hauberk, neck-defence;
    Ger. _hals-berge_, armour for the neck.
  Hawnt, to use, 3418.
    See _Hant_.
  Hawntis, exercise, 2772.
  He, high, 1969, 2552.
    A.S. _háh_.
  Hecht, hight, is called, 2140;
      was called, 2290.
  Hecht, to promise, 3101;
      promised (_past part._), 1142.
    A.S. _hátan_.
  Hedis, heads, 538, 869.
  { Hewy, 442, Heuy, 459, } heavy.
    A.S. _hefig_.
  { Hie, 550, Hye, 297, } high.
    See _He_.
  Hienes, highness, 126.
  Ho, pause, stop, cessation, 2970.
    According to J. radically the same with the verb _Houe_, or
      _How_ (see _Houit_). The Dutch, however, use _hou_, hold! from
      _houden_, to hold.
  Holl, whole, 106, 745.
  Hore, hair, 365.
      “Holȝe were his yȝen and vnder campe hores.”
    (Early English Alliterative Poems; _ed._ Morris. See Poem B.
      l. 1695.) The meaning of the line quoted is, “Hollow were his
      eyes, and under bent hairs.”
  Hot, hight, was called, 754, 806;
      is called, 1950.
    A.S. _hátan_ (neuter).
  Houit, delayed, tarried, halted, 996.
    “W. _hofian, hofio_, to fluctuate, hover, suspend,” Morris.
  Hovith, stays, halts, 2829.
  Howit, halted, 2814, 2842.
  Howyns, halts, tarries, 2821.
    Probably miswritten for “howyng.”
  Hufyng, halting, delaying, 1046.
  Hundyre, a hundred, 756, 1554.

  I, in, 332.
    Dan. _i_; Icel. _í_.
  Iclosit, y-closed; i.e. enclosed, shut in, 53.
  If, to give, 554.
    In lines 1718-1910 the word occurs repeatedly in several forms;
      as _iffis_, _iffith_, giveth; _iffis_, give ye (put for give
      thou); _ifyne_, given, etc.
  Ifyne, to give, 3454.
  Iftis, gifts, 1741.
    In the line preceding we have _giftis_.
  Ilk; the ilk (= thilk) that, 629, 1601.
    Literally, the ilk = the same.
    A.S. _ylc_. See 1367.
  Ilk, each, 2211, etc.
    A.S. _ælc_.
  Illumynare, luminary, 3.
  { Incontinent, Incontynent, } immediately, 253, 1215, 2647, 2834.
    Still used in French.
  In-to-contynent (= Incontinent), 3020.
  In to, used for “in;” _passim_.
  Iornaye, journey, 680.
  Irk, to become slothful, grow weary, tire, 2709.
    A.S. _eargian_.
  Iuperty, combat, 2547.
    Fr. _jeu parti_, a thing left undecided;
    hence the meanings, 1. strife, conflict; 2. jeopardy, as in Ch.
      See J.; and Tyrwhitt’s note to C. T. 16211.
  { Iwond, 245, Iwondit, 226, } wounded.
    We find in A.S. both _wúnd_ and _wúnded_.
  I-wyß, certainly, of a surety, 1709, 1925, 1938.
    A.S. _gewís_; Ger. _gewiss_. Often _wrongly_ interpreted to mean,
      _I know_.
    See _Wit_.

  Kend, known, 548, 906.

  Laif, the remainder (lit. what is _left_), 1802, 3472.
    A.S. _láf_. Burns has “the _lave_.”
  Lametable, lamentable, 3265.
    The omission of the _n_ occurs again in l. 2718, where we have
  Larges, liberality, 608, 1681, 1750.
    Fr. _largesse_.
  Larg, prodigal, profuse, 2434.
  Lat, impediment, 958.
    A.S. _lǽtan_, means (1) to suffer, (2) to hinder.
  Lat, to let, permit (used as an auxiliary verb), 803.
  Latith, preventeth, 1927.
  Lawrare, a laurel, 82.
    Ch. _laurer_.
  Learis, liars, 493.
  Led, put down, beat down, depressed, overpowered, 2663.
    It is the past tense of A.S. _lecgan_, to lay, to cause to submit,
      to kill.
  Lef, to live, 564, 3230.
  Leful, lawful, 1427.
  Legis, lieges, subjects, 1957.
    R. _lige_; Lat. _ligatus_.
  Leich, leech, physician, 106.
    A.S. _lǽce_; Dan. _læge_.
    See 520, 2056.
  Leif, to live, 952, 1392.
    A.S. _lybban_; Goth. _liban_.
  Leir, to learn, 1993.
    Comp. D. _leeren_.
  Lest, to list, to please, 555, 621.
    A.S. _lystan_.
  Lest, to last out against, sustain, 811.
    A.S. _lǽstan_.
  Lest, least, 1628.
  Let, hindrance, 2495.
  Leuch, laughed, 3240.
    A.S. _hlihan_, past tense _ic hloh_.
  Lewis, liveth, 1209.
  Lewith, left, deserted, 1854.
  Liging, 376.
    The sense requires _lay_, i.e. the _3rd p. s. pt. t. indic._,
      but properly the word is the present participle, _lying_.
  Longith, belongeth, 738, 1921, 2429, 2778.
    Compare Dan. _lange_, to reach.
  Longith, belonged, 3242.
  Longyne, belonging, 433.
  Lorn, lost, 2092;
      destroyed, 2740.
    See _For-lorn_.
  Loß, praise, 1777.
    Lat. _laus_. Ch. has _losed_, praised.
  { Low, Lowe, } (1) law, 1602, 1628, 1636, etc.
    (2) love, 29, 1620.
    It is sometimes hard to say which is meant.
    Compare Dan. _lov_, law; A.S. _luf_, love.
  Luges, tents, 874, 881, 2500, 2680.
    Fr. _loge_, _logis_; Ger. _laube_, a bower, from _laub_, foliage;
      Gothic _laúf_, a leaf.
  Lugyne, a lodging, tent, 891.
  Lyt, a little, 1233.
    At lyte, in little, used as an expletive, 143.

  Ma, short form of Make, 953.
  Maad, made, 697.
  Magre of, in spite of, 500, 960, 2679, 2702, 2711.
    Sometimes “magre” is found without “of.”
    Fr. _mal gré_.
  { Matalent, Matelent, } displeasure, anger, 2169, 2660.
    In both cases Mr Stevenson wrongly has _maltalent_. R. _maltalent,
  Mayne, 1026.
    See _Men_.
  Medyre, mediator (?), 1624.
    I am not at all sure of this word, but we find in R. many strange
      forms of “mediator,” such as _méener, méeisneres_, etc. In the
      Supplement to the “Dictionnaire de l’Academie” we find
      _mediaire_, qui occupe le milieu, from Low Lat. _mediarius_.
    N.B. In the MS. the “d” is indistinct.
    See _mediare_ in Ducange.
  Meit, to dream, 363.
    A.S. _mætan_.
  Mekill, much, 876, 1236.
    Mokil, 1265.
  Melle, contest, battle, 2619.
    Fr. _melée_, J.
  Memoratyve, mindful, bearing in remembrance, 1430.
    Fr. _mémoratif_.
  Men, mean, way; “be ony men” = by any means, 2366;
      so, too, “be ony mayne,” 1026.
    Fr. _moyen_.
  Men, to tell, declare, 510.
    A.S. _mænan_.
  Menye, a company, multitude (without special reference to number);
      whence “a few menye,” a small company, 751.
    Apparently from A.S. _menigu_; Ger. _menge_; but it may have
      nothing to do with the modern word _many_, and is more probably
      from the O.F. _maisnée_, a household.
  Met, dreamt, 440.
    See _Meit_.
  Meyne, 41.
    See _Men_.
  Misgyit, misguided, 1663.
    R. _guier_.
  Mo, more, 3187, etc.
    A.S. _má_.
  Mon, man, 96.
  Moneth, month, 569.
    A.S. _mónáð_; Goth. _menoth_.
  Morow, morning, 1, 30, 64, 341.
    Goth. _maúrgins_.
  Mot, must, 195.
    A.S. _ic mót_.
  Mys, a fault, 1888, 1937, 3230.
    A.S. _mis_. Do o myß, to commit a fault, 1926.
  Mysour, measure, 1830.
  Myster, need, 1877, 2322.
    Ch. _mistere_; R. _mester_; Lat. _ministerium_. Cf. Ital.

  Nat, naught, 703.
    Shortened from A.S. _ná wuht_, i.e. _no whit_.
  Nece, nephew, 2200, 2245, 2720.
    R. _niez_.
  Nedlyngis, of necessity, 2337, J.
    A.S. _neádinga_.
  Nemmyt, considered, estimated, 649, 2852.
    A.S. _nemnan_, to name, call.
  Ner, near, 441.
  Neulyngis, newly, again, 36, J.
    A.S. _níwe-líce_ (?).
  Newis, for Nevis, nieves, fists, 1222.
    Icel. _hnefi_. Dan. _næve_. Burns has _nieve_; Shakspeare _neif_.
  Noght, not, 1182.
  Noiß, nose, 2714.
    R. _néis_.
  Nome, name, 226, 320, 1546, 3341.
    Fr. _nomme_.
  Nome, took, 591, 1048.
    A.S. _niman_, past tense, _ic nám_.
  Northest, north-east, 677.
  Not (shortened from Ne wot), know not, 522, 3144.
    A.S. _nát_, from _nitan_ = _ne witan_.
  Not, naught, 720.
    See _Nat_.
  Noyith, annoyeth, 904.
    Fr. _nuire_. Lat. _nocere_.
  Noyt, annoyed, offended, 471.
  { Nys, Nyce, } (nice), foolish, 127, 1946.
    Fr. _niais_.

  O, a, an, _passim_; one, a single, 2998, 3003, 3393, etc.
  Obeisand, obedient, 641.
  Obeß, obey, 2134.
  Oblist, obliged, 969.
  Occupye, to use, employ, 3457;
      to dwell, 75.
    Lat. _occupare_.
  Of, with, 66.
  Oft-syß, oft-times, 2304, 2594, 2789, 2885, 2929.
    See _Syß_.
  On, and, 519.
    Possibly a mistake.
  One, on, often used for In; One to = unto.
  { Onan, Onone, Onon, } anon, 158, 1466, 2602, etc.
    The form “onan,” l. 3086, suggests the derivation of _anon_; viz.
      from A.S. _on-án_, in one; hence, forthwith, immediately.
  Onys, once, at some time or other, 3013;
      at onys, at once, 3187.
  { Opin, 1286, Opine, 13, } open.
  Or, ere, before, 77, 1887, 2545.
    A.S. _ǽr_.
  Ordand, to set in array, 784;
      to prepare, procure, 1713.
    R. _ordener_; Lat. _ordinare_.
  Ordan, to provide, 2416, 2777.
  Ordynat, ordained, 490.
    See l. 507.
  Orest (= Arest), to arrest, stop, 3186.
  Orient, east, 5.
  Oucht, it; it is the duty of (= Lat. _debet_), 2995.
    Strictly, we should here have had “it owes” (_debet_), not “it
      ought” (_debuit_).
    See _Aw_.
  Ourfret, over-adorned, decked out, 71, 2480.
    A.S. _frætwian_, to trim, adorn.
  Out-throng (= Lat. _expressit_), expressed, uttered, 65.
    A.S. _út_, out, and _þringan_, to press.
  Owtrag, outrage, 3454.
    R. _outrage_; Ital. _oltraggio_, from Lat. _ultra_.
    The MS. has _outray_, probably owing to confusion with _affray_
      in the same line.
    We find “owtrag” in l. 2578.
  Oyß, to use, 1701, J.

  Paid, pleased; ill paid, displeased, 908.
    Low Lat. _pagare_, to pay, satisfy.
  Palȝonis, pavilions, tents, 734;
    _plural of_
  Palȝoune, a pavilion, a tent, 1305.
    R. gives _pavillon_, a tent; cf. Low Lat. _papilio_, a tent.
  Pan, pain, 1273.
  Pas hyme, to pace, go, 362.
  Paß, to go, 1213.
  Pasing, pacing, departing, 371;
      surpassing, 303, 346, 689, etc.
  Pens, to think of, 1431.
    Fr. _penser_.
  Planly, at once, 3319.
    J. gives “Playn, out of hand, like Fr. _de plain_.” In the same
      line “of” = off.
  Plant, plaint, complaint, 137.
    Fr. _plainte_.
  Plesance, Plesans, pleasure, 941, 1939.
  Plessith, pleases, 68.
  Possede, to possess, 578.
    Fr. _posseder_.
  Poware, a power, a strong band of men, 2647. We now say _force_.
  Powert, poverty, 1330, 1744.
  Pref, to prove, 2229, 3476.
  Prekand, pricking, spurring, 3089.
    See the very first l. of Spenser’s _Faerie Queene_.
  Prekyne, 2890, showy(?), gaudy(?).
    J. gives “Preek, to be spruce; to crest; as ‘A bit _preekin_
      bodie,’ one attached to dress; _to prick_, to dress oneself.”
    Compare D. _prijcken_.
  Pretend, to attempt, aspire to, 3282, 3465.
    Fr. _prétendre_. So, too, in lines 559, 583.
  Pretendit, endeavour, attempt, 3442.
  Process, narration, 316.
    Wright gives “Proces, a story or relation, a process.” The writer
      is referring to his prologue or introduction.
  Promyt, to promise, 965.
  Proponit, proposed, 361, 445.
  Pupil, people, 285.
  Puple, people, 1367, 1498, 1520.
  { Pur, 1648, Pure, 1697, Pwre, 1655, } poor.

  Quh-. Words beginning thus begin in modern English with Wh. Thus,
      Quhen = when, etc.
  Quhilk (whilk), which, 184.
    A.S. _hwylc_ = Lat. _qualis_ rather than _qui_.
  Quhill, while, _used as a noun_, 1229, 1293.
    A.S. _hwíl_, a period of time.
  Quhill, until, 24, 198.
    See _Whill_.
  Quhy; the quhy = the why, the reason, 123, 1497.
  Qwhelis, wheels, 736.
    A.S. _hweol_.
  Qwheyar, whether, 1187.
  { Quhois, Qwhois, } whose, 171, 1297.

  Rachis, hounds, 531.
    Su-G. _racka_, a bitch, which from the v. _racka_, to race,
      course. Perhaps connected with _brach_.
  Radur, fear, 1489, J.
    From Su-G. _rædd_, fearful; Dan. _ræd_.
  { Raddour, 2133, Radour, 1835, 3465, } fear.
  Raid, rode, 3070, 3260, etc.
  Ralef, relieve, 3364.
  Ramed, remedy, 117.
    See _Remed_.
  Randoune, in, 2542.
    The corresponding line (l. 739) suggests that _in Randoune_ =
      _al about_, i.e. in a circuit. But if we translate it by “in
      haste,” or “in great force,” we keep nearer to the true
      etymology. In Ogilvie’s Imperial Dictionary, _s.v._ Random,
      we find the Nor. Fr. _randonnée_ explained to mean the “sweeping
      circuit made by a wounded and frightened animal;” but the true
      meaning of _randonnée_ is certainly _force, impetuosity_; see
      R., Cotgrave, etc. In Danish, _rand_ is a surrounding edge or
      margin; while in Dutch we find _rondom_ round about.
  Raquer, require, 2409.
  Raß, race, swift course, 3088.
    A.S. _rǽs_. Compare Eng. _mill-race_, and D. _ras_.
  Recidens, delay, 2359.
    R. _residier_, to defer.
  Recist, resist, 566, 660, 2578.
  Recounterit, met (in a hostile manner), encountered, 2958.
    Fr. _rencontrer_.
  Record, witness, testimony; hence value, 388.
    R. _record_.
  Recorde, to speak of, mention;
    hard recorde, heard say, 121, 595.
  Recorde, speak out, 454, 481.
    See R. _recorder_.
  Recordith, is suitable, belongs, 606.
  Recourse, to return, 1798.
    Lat. _recurrere_.
  Red, to advise, 1027, 1198.
    A.S. _rǽdan_; Goth. _rêdan_.
  Relewit (relieved), lifted up again, rescued, 2617.
    Fr. _relever_. J.
  { Remede, 89, Remed, 718, } remedy.
  Remuf, remove, 655.
  Report, to narrate, 266;
      to explain, 294;
      to state, 320.
  Reprefe, reproof, defeat, 764.
  Reput, he reputed, i.e. thought, considered, 743.
  Resauit, received, 2796.
  Resawit, received, kept, 2106.
    We should have expected to find “reseruit.”
  Resonite, resounded, 66.
  Resydens, delay, 670.
    See _Recidens_.
  { Revare, 275, Rewar, 2893, Rewere, 2812, } river.
  Reweyll, proud, haughty, 2853.
    R. _revelé_, fier, hautain, orgueilleux. Compare Lat. _rebellare_.
  Richwysneß, righteousness, 1406.
    A.S. _rihtwísnes_.
  { Rigne, 94, 1527, Ring, 1468, Ringe, 1325, } a kingdom.
    Fr. _régne_. Ch. _regne_.
  Rignis, kingdoms, 1858.
  Rignis, Rignith, reigneth, 1825, 782.
  Ringne, a kingdom, 1952.
  Rout, a company, a band, 812, 2956, 3403.
    Rowt, 2600.
  Rowmyth, roometh, i.e. makes void, empties, 3390.
    A.S. _rúmian_.
  Rown, run; _past part._ 2488, 2820.
  Rwn, run, 2545.
  Rygnis, kingdoms, 1904.
  Ryne, to run, 113. See 2952.
  Ryng, to reign, 1409, 2130.

  Sa, so, 3322, 3406.
    Dan. _saa_.
  Saade, said, 698.
  Salust, saluted, 546, 919, 1553, 2749.
    Ch. _salewe_.
  Salosing, salutation, 1309.
  Sar, sorely, 1660.
  Sauch, saw, 817, 1219, 1225.
    A.S. _ic seáh_, from _seón_.
  Schawin, shewn, 2387.
  Schent, disgraced, ruined, 1880.
    A.S. _scendan_; Dan. _skiænde_.
  Schrewit, accursed, 1945.
  Scilla, the name of a bird, also called Ciris, 2483.
    ----“plumis in avem mutata vocatur
    Ciris, et a tonso est hoc nomen adepta capillo.”
      --(Ovid, Met. viii. 150.)
  Screwis, shrews, ill-natured persons, 1053.
    More often used of males than females in old authors.
  Sedulis, letters, 142.
    R. _cedule_.
  Sege, a seat, 2258.
    Fr. _siége_.
  Semble, a warlike assembly, hostile gathering, 988, 2206.
  Semblit, assembled, 845.
    G. _sammeln_; from Goth. _sama_, _samana_.
  Semblyng, encountering, 2951.
    See _Assemble_.
  Sen, since, 709, 800, etc.
      Sen at, since that. In Piers Plowman we find _syn_.
  Septure, sceptre, 666.
  Sere, several, various, 594, 731, 746.
    “Su-G. _sær_, adv. denoting separation.” J. Cf. Lat. _se-_.
  Sess, to cease, 14, etc.
    Fr. _cesser_.
  Set, although.
  Sew, to follow up, seek, 2326.
    R. _suir_; Fr. _suivre_.
  Sew, to follow up, go, proceed, 3145.
    Sewyt, 2614.
  Shauyth, shewith, 412.
  Sice, such, 2115.
    Scotch, _sic_.
  Snybbyth, snubs, checks, 3387.
    Comp. D. _sneb_, a beak; _snebbig_, snappish.
  Sobing, sobbing, moaning, 2658.
  { Socht, Soght, } sought to go; and hence, made his (or their) way,
      proceeded, went, 2619, 3179, 3357, 3428.
  Sought one, advanced upon, attacked, 3149, 3311.
  Sought to, made his way to, 3130.
    A.S. _sécan_, past tense _ic sóhte_, to seek, approach, go towards.
  Sor, sorrow, anxiety, 74.
    A.S. _sorh_; Goth. _saúrga_.
  Sort, lot, fate, 26.
    Fr. _sort_.
  Sound, to be consonant with, 149.
    See Gloss. to Tyrwhitt’s Chaucer.
    Lat. _sonare_.
  Soundith, 1811. “So the puple soundith,” so the opinion of the
    people tends.
      “As fer as _souneth_ into honestee.”
        (Chaucer: _Monkes Prologue_.)
  Soundith, tend, 1943;
      tends, 149.
  Sown, sound, 1035.
    Fr. _son_.
  Sownis, sounds, 772, 3436.
  Spent, fastened, clasped, 2809.
    A.S. _spannan_, to clasp, join. Comp. Dan. _spænde_, to stretch,
      span, buckle together.
  { Spere, Spir, } sphere, 6, 170;
  speris, spheres, circuits, 24.
  Spere, to inquire, 1170.
    A.S. _spirian_, to track. Cf. G. _spur_.
  Sperithis, spear’s, 810.
  Spill, to destroy, ruin, 1990.
    A.S. _spillan_.
  Spreit, spirit, 81, 364.
  Stak, 226. J. gives “to the steeks, _completely_;” and this is the
      sense here.
    See Jamieson: s.v. “Steik.” Halliwell gives _stake_, to block up;
      also _steck_, a stopping place (cf. Shakespeare’s
      _sticking-place_, Macb. i. vii. l. 60). In the N. of France it
      is said of one killed or severely wounded, _il a eu son
      estoque_, he has had his belly-ful; from _estoquer_, to cram,
      satiate, “stodge.”
    Compare Ital. _stucco_, cloyed. It has also been suggested that
      _to the stak_ may mean to the _stock_, i.e. up to the hilt,
      very deeply.
  Start, started up, leapt, 994, 1094.
  Stede, stead, place, 218, 1124.
    A.S. _stede_.
  Steir, to stir, 817.
    A.S. _stirian_.
  Stekith, shuts, 1651.
    Ger. _stecken_. Burns has _steek_.
  Stek, shut, concluded, 316.
  Stell, steel, 809.
    Stell commonly means a stall, or fixed place; but the form
      _stell_ for _steel_ occurs; e.g. “Brounstelle was heuy and
      also kene.” _Arthur_, l. 97.
  { Sterapis, 3056, Steropis, 3132, } stirrups.
    A.S. _stí-rap_ or _stíge-ráp_, from _stígan_, to mount, and
      _ráp_, rope.
  Stere, ruler, arbiter, 1020;
      control, guidance, 1974.
  Stere, to rule, control, 1344, 2884,
    A.S. _stýran_.
  Stere, to stir, move, go, 3430.
    See _Steir_.
  Sterith, stirreth, 2829.
  Sterf, to die, 1028.
    A.S. _steorfan_.
  Sterit, governed, 612.
    A.S. _stýran_.
  Stert, started, 377.
  Stok, the stake to which a baited bear is chained, 3386.
  Stour, conflict, 1108, 2607, 3124.
    R. _estour_.
  Straucht, stretched out, 3090.
    A.S. _streccan_, past part. _gestreht_.
  Strekith, stretcheth, i.e. exciteth to his full stride, 3082.
  { Subiet, 1799, Subeitis, 1828, Subiettis, 1878, } subject;
  Sudandly, Sodandly, suddenly, 1009, 1876.
  Suet, sweet, 331.
  Suppris, (surprise), overwhelming power, 691, 860, 2651;
      oppression, 1352.
    Fr. _surprendre_, to catch unawares.
  Supprisit, overwhelmed, 1237, 1282;
      overpowered, 2705, 3208.
    Supprisit ded, suddenly killed, 3125.
  Surryȝenis, surgeons, 2726.
  Suth, sooth, true, 110.
    A.S. _sóð_.
  Suthfastnes, truth, 1183.
    A.S. _sóðfæstnes_.
  Sutly, soothly, truly, 963.
  Swelf, a gulf such as is in the centre of a whirlpool, a vortex,
      1318, J.
    A.S. _swelgan_, to swallow up.
  Sweuen, a dream, 440.
    A.S. _swefn_.
  Swth, sooth, true, 2753.
    See _Suth_.
  { Syne, 2026, Synne, 2029, } sin.
  Syne, afterwards, next. J. 45, 794, etc.
  Syß, times, 3054.
    A.S. _sið_.

  { Tais, 1095, 3005, Taiis, 1141. } takes. Abbreviated, as “ma” is
      from “make.”
    See _Ma_.
  Tane, taken, 264.
  Ten, grief, vexation, 2646, 3237.
    A.S. _teonan_, to vex.
  Tennandis, tennants, vassals holding fiefs, 1729.
    R. _tenancier_.
  Than, then, 3111.
  The, (1) they, (2) thee, (3) thy.
  Thelke, that, 709.
    See l. 629, where _the ilk_ occurs; and see _Ilk_.
  Thir, these, those, 2734, 2745, 2911, 3110, etc.
  Thithingis, tidings, 2279.
    A.S. _tidan_, to happen.
  Tho, then, 545, 2221;
      them, 2368.
  Thoore, there, 628. Thore, 1102.
  Thrid, third, 370, 2347, 2401.
    A.S. _þridda_.
  Throng, closely pressed, crowded, 3366.
    A.S. _þringan_.
  Til, to; til have, to have, 706.
  Tint, lost, 1384.
    See _Tyne_.
  Tithandis, tidings, 2310.
  Tithingis, tidings, 902, 2336.
  To, too, besides, 3045.
  Togidder, together, 254.
  To-kerwith, carves or cuts to pieces; al to-kerwith, cuts all to
      pieces, 868.
    A.S. _to-ceorfian_. The prefix _to-_ is intensive, and forms a
      part of the verb. See Judges ix. 53: “All to-brake his skull;”
      i.e. utterly brake; sometimes misprinted “all to break” (!).
  Ton, taken, 1054, 1071.
  Ton, one; the ton, the one, 1822.
    The tone = A.S. _þæt áne_.
  To-schent, disfigured, 1221.
    The intensive form of the A.S. verb _scendan_, to shame, destroy.
      In the same line we have _to-hurt_, and in the next line
      _to-rent_, words modelled on the same form. We find, e.g.,
      in Spenser, the forms _all to-rent_, _all to-brus’d_. (See the
      note on the prefix _To-_ in the Glossary to William of Palerne.)
  Tothir, the other, 2536.
    The tothir = A.S. _þæt oþere_, where _þæt_ is the neuter gender
      of the definite article. Burns has _the tither_.
  Toyer (= tother), the other;
    _y_ being written for the A.S. _þ_ (_th_), 2571, 2584.
  Traist, to trust, to be confident, 390, 1129, 1149, J.
    Trast, 1659.
  Traisting of (trusting), reliance upon, or expectation of, 25, J.
  { Translat, 508, Transulat, 2204, } to transfer, remove.
  Tratory, treachery, 3224.
    See R. _traïtor_.
  Trety, treatise, 145.
    Fr. _traité_.
  Trewis, truce, 1568, 2488, 2545.
  { Tronsione, 239, Trunscyoune, 2962, Trownsciown, 2890, }
      a truncheon, a stump of a spear.
    Fr. _tronçon_; from Lat. _truncus_.
    In the last passage it means a sceptre, _bâton_.
      “One hytte hym vpon the oldé wounde
      Wyth A tronchon of an ore;” (oar.)
      (Le Morte Arthur, l. 3071.)
  Troucht, truth, 161.
  { Tueching, 403, Tweching, 386, } touching.
  Tyne, to lose, 1258, 1387.
    Icel. _týna_.
  Tynith, loseth, 1761.
  Tynt, lost, 175, 1384, 1521.

  Unwist, unknown, 1140.

  Valis, falls; we should read “falis,” 2475.
  Valkyne, to waken, 8.
    See _Awalk_.
  Vall, billow, wave, 1317.
    Ger. _welle_, a wave; _quelle_, a spring; Icel. _vella_, to _well_
      up, boil. Cf. also A.S. _wæl_; Du. _wiel_; Lancashire _weele_,
      an eddy, whirlpool. So, too, in Burns:--
    “Whyles owre a linn the burnie plays,
      As thro’ the glen it wimpl’t;
    Whyles round a rocky scaur it stays,
      Whyles in a _wiel_ it dimpl’t.”
  Varand, to warrant, protect, 3411.
    R. _warandir_.
  Varnit, warned, 622.
  Vassolag, a deed of prowess.
    Pasing vassolag, surpassing valour, 257.
    R. has _vasselage_, courage, valour, valourous deeds, as
      indicative of the fulfilment of the duties of a _vassal_.
      We now speak of rendering _good service_.
  Vassolage, valour, 2724.
  Veir, were, 818.
  Veris, wars, 305.
    See _Were_.
  Veryng, were, 2971.
    A.S. _wǽron_.
  Vicht, a wight, a person, 10, 55, 67.
    A.S. _wiht_.
  Virslyng, wrestling, struggling, 3384.
    J. gives the forms _warsell, wersill_.
  Visare, wiser, 607.
  Viting, to know, 410.
    A.S. _witan_.
  Vncouth, lit. _unknown_; hence little known, rare, valuable, 1734.
    A.S. _uncúð_.
  Vodis, woods, 1000.
  Vombe, womb, bowels, 375.
    Goth. _wamba_.
  Vondit, wounded, 700.
  Vpwarpith, warped up, i.e. drawn up, 63.
    See Note to this line. It occurs in Gawain Douglas’s prologue to
      his translation of the 12th Book of the Æneid.
    Du. _opwerpen_, from Goth. _waírpan_, to cast.
  Vsyt, used, 1197, 1208.
  Vyre, a cross-bow bolt, 1092.
    R. _vire_; cf. Lat. _vertere_.

  Wald, would, 419, 470, etc.
  Walkin, to waken, wake, 1239.
    See _Awalk_.
  Wapnis, weapons, 241.
    A.S. _wǽpen_, or _wǽpn_.
  Ward, world, 3184.
    Grose’s Provincial Dictionary gives _Ward_ = world; and the
      omission of the _l_ is not uncommon; see _Genesis and Exodus_
      (E.E.T.S.), ll. 32, 1315.
  Wassolage, valour, 2708.
    See _Vassolag_.
  Wat, know, 512.
  Wawasouris, vavasours, 1729.
    A _Vavasour_ was a sub-vassal, holding a small fief dependent on
      a larger fief; a sort of esquire.
    R. _vavaseur_.
  Weil, very. Weil long, a very long time, 79.
    Comp. Ger. _viel_, J.
  Wencussith, vanquisheth, 3331;
      vanquished, 3337.
  Wencust, vanquished, 2841.
  Wend, (1) to go, 2191;
    (2) weened, thought, 3481.
  Wentail, ventaile, a part of the helmet which opened to admit air,
    R. _ventaile_; from Lat. _ventus_.
  Were, (1) war. Fr. _guerre_. R. _werre_, 308, etc.
    (2) doubt, 84, etc. “But were,” without doubt. A.S. _wǽr_,
      cautious, _wary_.
    (3) worse, 1930. Burns has _waur_.
  Wering, weary, 58.
    A.S. _wérig_.
  Werray, very, true, 1262, 2017.
  Werroure, warrior, 248.
  Weriour, warrior, 663.
  Wers, worse, 515.
  Weryng, were, 2493.
  Wex, to be grieved, be vexed, 156.
  Weyn, vain, 382, 524.
  Weyne, _in phr._ but weyne, without doubt, 2880.
    A.S. _wénan_, to ween, to suppose.
  Whill, until, 1136, J. Formed from A.S. _hwíl_, a period of time.
  Wice, advice, counsel, 1909.
    Shortened from Awys.
  Wichsaif, vouchsafe, 355, 1391.
  Wichsauf, _id._ 2364.
  Wicht, wight, person, 131.
  Wicht, strong, nimble, 248.
    “Su-G. _wig_” J. Sw. _vig_.
  Wight, with, 918. Possibly miswritten.
  Wist, knew, 225, 1047.
    See _Wit_.
  Wit, to know, 268.
    A.S. _witan_; pres. _ic wát_, past tense, _ic wiste_.
  Wit, knowledge, 2504.
  With, by, 723.
  Withschaif, vouchsafe, 1458.
  With-thy, on this condition, 961.
    See _For-thy_.
  Wnkouth, little known, 146.
    See _Vncouth_.
  Wnwemmyt, undefiled, 2097.
    A.S. _wam, wem_, a spot.
  Wnwyst, unknown, secretly, 219, 269.
  Wod (wood), mad, 3334, 3440.
    A.S. _wód_. Goth. _wôds_.
  Woid, mad, 2695. Perhaps we should read _woud_.
  Wonde, wand, rod, or sceptre of justice, 1601, 1891. J.
  Wonk, winked, 1058.
  Wonne, to dwell, 2046.
    A.S. _wunian_.
  Worschip, honour, 1158, 1164.
    A.S. _weorð-scipe_.
  Wot, know, 192, etc.
    See _Wit_.
  Wox, voice, 13.
    Lat. _vox_.
  Woyß, voice, 3473.
  Wrechitnes, misery, 2102;
      miserliness, niggardliness, 1795, 1859.
  Wy, reason; “to euery wy,” for every reason, on all accounts, 2356.
    Compare _Quhy_.
  Wycht, strong, nimble, 2592.
    See _Wicht_.
  Wynyth, getteth, acquireth, 1832.
  Wyre, a cross-bow bolt, 3290.
    See _Vyre_.
  Wys, vice, 1795.
    Wysis, 1540.

  Y, written for “th.” Thus we find “oyer” for “other,” etc. The
      error arose with scribes who did not understand either the
      true form or force of the old symbol þ.
  Yaf, gave, 387.
  Yald, yield, 553;
      yielded, 558.
    A.S. _gildan_.
  Yclepit, called, 414.
  Yef, give, 563.
  Yeif, give, 923.
  Yer, year, 610.
    Used instead of the plural “yeris,” as in l. 3243.
  Yewyne, given, 1500.
  Ygrave, buried, 1800.
    Comp. Ger. _begraben_.
  Yhere, ear, 1576.
  Yher, year, 2064.
    Used instead of “yheris,” 3243.
  Yhis, yes, 1397.
  Yis, yes, 514;
      this, 160.
  Ylys, isles, 2858, 2882.
  Ymong, among, 821.
  Yneuch, enough, 2135.
    A.S. _genog_.
  Yolde, yielded (to be), 951, 1088.
  Ystatut, appointed, 2529.
    Fr. _statuer_.
  Ywyß, certainly, 1798, 1942.
    See _Iwyß_.

  Ȝeme, to take of, regard, have respect to, 665.
    A.S. _géman_.
  Ȝere, year, 342.
  Ȝerys, years, 23, 1432.
  Ȝewith, giveth, 1772.
  Ȝha, yes, 2843.
    Ger. _ja_.
  Ȝhe, ye, 921.
    Observe that, as in this line, _ye_ (A.S. _ge_) is the _nominative_,
    and _you_ (A.S. _eów_) the _objective_ case.
  Ȝhed, went, 1486.
    Ch. has _yede_.
    A.S. _ic eóde_, past tense of _gán_, to go.
    Goth. _ik ïddja_, past tense of _gaggan_, to go.
  Ȝher, year, 2064, 2274.
  Ȝhing, young, 2868.
  Ȝhis, yes, 1397.
  Ȝhouth-hed, youth-hood, youth, 2772.
  Ȝhud, went, 2696.
    See _Ȝhed_.
  Ȝis, yes, 3406.
  Ȝolde, yielded, 291, 380, 951.
    A.S. _ic geald_, past tense of _gyldan_, to pay, to yield.
  Ȝude, went, 2944.
    See _Ȝhed_.


  Albanak, 202, 1447.
  Alexander, 1837.
  Alphest, 57.
  Amytans, 1304, 2446.
  Angus, 2858.
  April, 1.
  Arachell, 434.
  Aries, 336.
  Arthur (_passim_).

  Ban, 202, 1447.
  Bible, the, 1483.
  Brandellis, 3086.
  Brandymagus, 2884, 3430.

  Camelot, 275, 280, 357, 407.
  Cardole, 2153.
  Carlisle, 347.
  Christ, 2046.
  Clamedeus, 2881, 3259.

  Dagenet, 278.
  Daniel, 1365.
  Danȝelome, 435.

  Esquyris, 2591, 2609, etc.

  First-conquest king, 1064, etc.; 2568, etc.

  Gahers, 3087.
  Galiot (_passim_).
  Galys Gwyans, 2605, 2613, etc.
  Galygantynis, 599.
  Galloway, 2690.
  Gawane (_passim_).
  Gwynans or Gwyans. See _Galys_.
  Gyonde or Gyande, 302, 551, 637.

  Harwy, 2853, 3206, etc.
  Herynes (_i.e._ Hermes), 436.
  Hundred knights, king of, 1545, 1554.

  Jhesu, 2046, 2096.

  Kay, 254, 355, 3081, etc.

  Lady of the Lake, 220, 223.
  Lancelot (_passim_);
    appears as the _red_ knight, 991, etc.;
    as the _black_ knight, 2430, etc.
  Logris, 2301.

  Maleginis, 806.
    See _Malenginys_.
  Malenginys, 2873, 3151, 3155.
    See also _Hundred knights, king of_.
  May, 12.
  Melyhalt, 283, 895.
  Melyhalt, lady of (_passim_).
  Moses, 436.

  Nembrot (_i.e._ Nimrod), 435.
  Nohalt, 255.

  Phœbus, 24, 2472, 2486.
  Priapus, 51.

  Round Table, 795, 3213.

  Saturn, 2474.
  Scilla, 2483.
  Solomon, 1378.
  Sygramors, 3083.

  Titan, 335.

  Valydone, 3249.
    See _Walydeyne_.
  Vanore, 575.
    See _Wanore_.
  Virgin (Mary), 2049, 2087, etc.
  Venus, 309.

  Wales, 599, 2153.
  Walydeyne, 2879.
  Wanore, 230.
  Wryne, 2867.

  Ydrus, 2851, 3152.
  Ywan, 2606, 2618, etc.
  Ywons, 2861.


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Errors and Inconsistencies (noted by transcriber):

_The word “invisible” means that there is an appropriately sized blank
space, but the character itself is missing. In the two primary texts
(French and Scottish), errors in editorial punctuation have been
corrected, while other apparent errors are noted but not changed. For
the French text, it was assumed that Skeat’s word “commas” includes
“inverted commas” or quotation marks._

_The form “reflective” (for “reflexive”) is used consistently._

_In the primary text, the following unexpected forms are not
individually noted:_

  capital I at mid-sentence or mid-word
  non-final round s; final long s
  non-initial v; initial u
  word-final ſß (apparent “sss”)


  fancy a Southern copyist making the blunder.”  [blunder.’]
  between _thou_ and _ye_ (_William of Palerne_, Pref. p. xli)
    [_printed “William of Palerne” in roman (plain) type_]

_“Appendix”_ (French romance)

  [Footnote A16: Lines 281-292.]  [_missing ._]
  “Sire nous ne vous en scairions que dire.”  [_final . invisible_]
  “Certes,” fait le maistre, “nous auons veu une chose
    [_missing open quote before “nous”_]
  | ne fleur qui parlast |”
    [_printed as shown, with close quote after pipe_]
  “quelle royne” fait il “Le fe{m}me au roy artus,” fait lescuyer.
    [_missing . after “fait il”_]
  “scauez vous bien qui la dame est que vous regardez?”
    [_missing open quote_]
  que nul dentreulz ne demeure a cheual  [_final . missing_]
  “ne de la myenne non est il mye.”  [_final . invisible_]
  “Non,” | fait gallehault.  [_comma after “Non” invisible_]
  “Dame, ouy | ie vo{us} enuoyay peux pucelles.”
    [_printed as shown: error for “deux”_]
  fustes vous ce qui iettastes messire Gauain de prison?”
    [_text unchanged: elsewhere “Gauuain”_]
  [Sidenote: ... two rascals killed his horse, and Ywain gave him
    [_text unchanged: elsewhere “Yvain”_]
  “Et vous combatistes vous a luy”  [_no question mark_]
  Dame, vous scauez que ie vous ayme sur toutes
    [_printed as shown: error for “il vous ayme”?_]
  Et ie dys, “a dieu! dame.” Et vous distes “a dieu! mon beau
  doulx amy!”
    [_printed as shown: inner and outer quotes both use double
    quotation marks_]

_Notes to “Appendix”_

  P. xxiv. ... _brouyr_ (_brûler_), being burnt.
      [_printed “brûler” in roman (plain) type_]


  197  Quhare that I my{hc}t ſu{m} wnkouth mat{er} fynde,
    [_text unchanged: error for “my{ch}t”?_]
  297  Nor thing I not of his hye renōwn
    [_text unchanged: error for “think”?_]
  648  The neid is myne, I fall It not delay;
    [_text unchanged: error for “sall” (i.e. shall)?_]
  1360  Thar ned, and kep them to ry{ch}twyneß;
    [_text unchanged: error for “ry{ch}twyſneß”?_]
  1433  And as his maiſter hyme commandit hade,
    [_final “e” conjectural_]
  1641  And punyß for, for o thing ſhal yow know
    [_text unchanged: error for “ſor, for”?_]
  2016  [Fol. 25b.]  [_final . invisible_]
  2146-47  His leve, one to to his cuntre for to goñe;
  And al the oſt makith none abyde,
    [_text unchanged: error for “one to his”? (As printed, does not
    fit metre; another edition has “one to his”.)
    Missing syllable in second line?_]
  2308  Eft fupir one to o chalm{er} ar thei went,
    [_text unchanged: error for “ſupir”?_]
  [Footnote T60: ... “lorne,” as in line 2092.]  [_final . missing_]
  [Sidenote: Then Galys Gwynans, brother of Ywan,]
  2605  Than galys gwynans, w{i}t{h} o manly hart,
    [_sidenote text has “Than” as in body text; both have “Gwynans”
    instead of the usual “Gwyans”_]
  3104  Bot deth or vthir adwentur me fall.”
    [_close quote missing_]
  [3380]  [Sidenote: ... resist his sword.]  [_final . missing_]


  [Introductory paragraph]
  _vthir_ means _uthir_, i.e., _other_  [i.e,]
  P. 25, l. 820. ... “His enemies began his mortall strokes to feel.”
    [_spelling unchanged_]
  P. 33, l. 1109. _Galyot_ put for _Galiotes_
    [_illegible “t” in “Galyot” restored from body text_]
  P. 71 ... 2436. _ellis-quhat_
    [_text unchanged; body text has two words “ellis quhat”_];
  P. 84 ... 2884. _to led and stere_, to lead and direct.
    [_comma missing or invisible_]
  P. 90, l. 3065. ... “encresing in[N2] his hart”;
    [_original footnote tag has 1 for 2_]


  Borde ... See _horde_ in Burguy.
  Bretis ... Gallis _Bretesque_. Du Cange
    [_printed as shown, but cited text has “Bretesques”_]
  Dispolȝeith, despoileth, 1879.  [_final . missing_]
  Haill, whole, 3246.
    [_text reads “Heill”, but correctly alphabetized as “Haill”_]
  Ma, short form of Make, 953.  [Ma;]
  Resydens, delay, 670.  [delay 670.]
  { Subiet, 1799, Subeitis, 1828, Subiettis, 1878, } subject;
    [_printed as shown, but l. 1828 has “subectis” or (footnote)
  Valkyne, to waken, 8. / See _Awalk_.  [_final . missing_]
  Ȝhed, went, 1486. ... Goth. _ik ïddja_  [_text unchanged_]

_Index of Names_

  Aries, 336.  [_“e” invisible_]

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