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Title: What Works: Schools Without Drugs
Author: Education, United States Department of
Language: English
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_What Works_


United States Department of Education
William J. Bennett, Secretary



August 4, 1986

Drug and alcohol abuse touches all Americans in one form or another,
but it is our children who are most vulnerable to its influence. As
parents and teachers, we need to educate ourselves about the dangers
of drugs so that we can then teach our children. And we must go
further still by convincing them that drugs are morally wrong.

Now, as more and more individuals and groups are speaking out, young
people are finding it easier to _say no_ to drugs. Encouraged by a
growing public outcry and their own strength of conviction, students
are forming peer support groups in opposition to drug use. It has been
encouraging to see how willingly young people take healthy attitudes
and ideas to heart when they are exposed to an environment that
fosters those values.

Outside the home, the school is the most influential environment for
our children. This means that schools must protect children from the
presence of drugs, and nurture values that help them reject drugs.

_Schools Without Drugs_ provides the kind of practical knowledge
parents, educators, students and communities can use to keep their
schools drug-free. Only if our schools are free from drugs can we
protect our children and insure that they can get on with the
enterprise of learning.

[Illustration: Signature of Nancy Reagan]


    "_It is a sad and sobering reality that trying drugs is no longer
    the exception among high school students. It is the norm._"

    --California Attorney General John Van De Kemp _Los Angeles
    Times_, April 30, 1986

    _When 13- to 18-year-olds were asked to name the biggest problems
    facing young people today, drugs led their list. The proportion of
    teens with this perception has risen steadily in recent years. No
    other issue approaches this level of concern._

    _Four out of five teens believe current laws against both the sale
    and the use of drugs (including marijuana) are not strict enough._

    --The Gallup Youth Surveys, 1985 and 1986

    "_Policy is useless without action! Drugs do not have to be
    tolerated on our school campuses. Policy to that effect is almost
    universally on the books. Drugs remain on campus because
    consistent, equitable and committed enforcement is lacking._"

    --Bill Rudolph, Principal, Northside High School, Atlanta, Georgia

    Testimony submitted to the U.S. Senate Committee on Special
    Investigations, July 1984

    "... _We have a right to be protected from drugs._"

    --Cicely Senior, a seventh-grader, McFarland Junior High,
    Washington, D.C.

William J. Bennett

Secretary of Education

The foremost responsibility of any society is to nurture and protect
its children. In America today, the most serious threat to the health
and well-being of our children is drug use.

For the past year and a half, I have had the privilege of teaching our
children in the classrooms of this country. I have met some outstanding
teachers and administrators and many wonderful children. I have taken
time during these visits to discuss the problem of drug use with
educators and with police officers working in drug enforcement across
the country. Their experience confirms the information reported in
major national studies: drug use by children is at alarming levels. Use
of some of the most harmful drugs is increasing. Even more troubling is
the fact that children are using drugs at younger ages. Students today
identify drugs as a major problem among their schoolmates as early as
the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades.

Drug use impairs memory, alertness, and achievement. Drugs erode the
capacity of students to perform in school, to think and act
responsibly. The consequences of using drugs can last a lifetime. The
student who cannot read at age 8 can, with effort, be taught at 9. But
when a student clouds his mind with drugs, he may become a lifelong
casualty. Research tells us that students who use marijuana regularly
are twice as likely as their classmates to average D's and F's, and we
know that drop-outs are twice as likely to be frequent drug users as

In addition, drug use disrupts the entire school. When drug use and
drug dealing are rampant--when many students often do not show up for
class and teachers cannot control them when they do--education
throughout the school suffers.

Drug use is found among students in the city and country, among the
rich, the poor, and the middle class. Many schools have yet to
implement effective drug enforcement measures. In some schools, drug
deals at lunch are common. In others, intruders regularly enter the
building to sell drugs to students. Even schools with strict drug
policies on paper do not always enforce them effectively.

_Schools Without Drugs_ provides a practical synthesis of the most
reliable and significant findings available on drug use by school-age
youth. It tells how extensive drug use is and how dangerous it is. It
tells how drug use starts, how it progresses, and how it can be
identified. _Most important, it tells how it can be stopped._ It
recommends strategies--and describes particular communities--that have
succeeded in beating drugs. It concludes with a list of resources and
organizations that parents, students, and educators can turn to for

This book is designed to be used by parents, teachers, principals,
religious and community leaders, and all other adults--and students--who
want to know what works in drug use prevention. It emphasizes concrete
and practical information. An earlier book, a summary of research
findings on teaching and learning called _What Works_, has already
proved useful to parents, teachers, and administrators. I hope this
book will be as useful to the American people.

This book focuses on preventing drug use. It should be emphasized that
the term drug use, as contained in the recommendations in the book,
includes the use of alcohol by children. Alcohol is an illegal drug for
minors and should be treated as such. This book does not discuss
techniques for treating drug users. Treatment usually requires
professional help; treatment services are included in the resources
section at the end of the book. But the purpose of the book is to help
prevent drug use in the first place.

The information in this book is based on the research of drug
prevention experts, and on interviews with parent organizations and
school officials working in drug prevention in all 50 States and the
District of Columbia. Although this volume is a product of the U.S.
Department of Education, I am grateful for the assistance the
Department received from groups and individuals across the country. It
was not possible to include all the information we gathered, but I wish
to thank the many groups that offered their help.

No one can be a good citizen alone, as Plato tells us. No one is going
to solve our drug problem alone, either. But when parents, schools, and
communities pull together, drugs can be stopped. Drugs have been beaten
in schools like Northside High School in Atlanta, profiled in this
book. Preventing drug experimentation is the key. It requires drug
education starting in the first grades of elementary school. It
requires clear policies against drug use and consistent enforcement of
those policies. And it requires the cooperation of school boards,
principals, teachers, law enforcement personnel, parents, and students.

_Schools are uniquely situated to be part of the solution to student
drug use._ Children spend much of their time in school. Furthermore,
schools, along with families and religious institutions, are major
influences in transmitting ideals and standards of right and wrong.
Thus, although the problems of drug use extend far beyond the schools,
it is critical that our offensive on drugs center in the schools.

My purpose in releasing this handbook, therefore, is to help all of
us--parents and children, teachers and principals, legislators and
taxpayers--work more effectively in combating drug use. Knowing the
dangers of drugs is not enough. Each of us must also act to prevent the
sale and use of drugs. We must work to see that drug use is not
tolerated in our homes, in our schools, or in our communities. Because
of drugs, children are failing, suffering, and dying. We have to get
tough, and we have to do it now.


A Plan for Achieving Schools Without Drugs


 1. Teach standards of right and wrong, and demonstrate these standards
through personal example.

 2. Help children to resist peer pressure to use drugs by supervising
their activities, knowing who their friends are, and talking with them
about their interests and problems.

 3. Be knowledgeable about drugs and signs of drug use. When symptoms
are observed, respond promptly.


 4. Determine the extent and character of drug use and establish a
means of monitoring that use regularly.

 5. Establish clear and specific rules regarding drug use that include
strong corrective actions.

 6. Enforce established policies against drug use fairly and
consistently. Implement security measures to eliminate drugs on school
premises and at school functions.

 7. Implement a comprehensive drug prevention curriculum for
kindergarten through grade 12, teaching that drug use is wrong and
harmful and supporting and strengthening resistance to drugs.

 8. Reach out to the community for support and assistance in making the
school's antidrug policy and program work. Develop collaborative
arrangements in which school personnel, parents, school boards, law
enforcement officers, treatment organizations, and private groups can
work together to provide necessary resources.


 9. Learn about the effects of drug use, the reasons why drugs are
harmful, and ways to resist pressures to try drugs.

10. Use an understanding of the danger posed by drugs to help other
students avoid them. Encourage other students to resist drugs,
persuade those using drugs to seek help, and report those selling
drugs to parents and the school principal.


11. Help schools fight drugs by providing them with the expertise and
financial resources of community groups and agencies.

12. Involve local law enforcement agencies in all aspects of drug
prevention: assessment, enforcement, and education. The police and
courts should have well-established and mutually supportive
relationships with the schools.



INTRODUCTION                                                  iv

WHAT CAN WE DO?                                              vii

CHILDREN AND DRUGS                                             1

    Extent of Drug Use                                         5
    _Fact Sheet: Drugs and Dependence_                         6
    How Drug Use Develops                                      7
    _Fact Sheet: Cocaine: Crack_                               8
    Effects of Drug Use                                        9
    Drug Use and Learning                                     10

A PLAN FOR ACTION                                             11

    What Parents Can Do
    Instilling Responsibility                                 13
    Supervision                                               15
    _Fact Sheet: Signs of Drug Use_                           16
    Recognizing Drug Use                                      17

    What Schools Can Do
    Assessing the Problem                                     19
    Setting Policy                                            21
    Enforcing Policy                                          23
    _Fact Sheet: Legal Questions on Search and Seizure_       24
    _Fact Sheet: Legal Questions on Suspension and
       Expulsion_                                             25
    _Fact Sheet: Tips for Selecting Drug Prevention
       Materials_                                             26
    Teaching About Drug Prevention                            27
    Enlisting the Community                                   29

    What Students Can Do
    Learning the Facts                                        31
    Helping Fight Drug Use                                    33

    What Communities Can Do
    Providing Support                                         37
    Tough Law Enforcement                                     39

CONCLUSION                                                    40


    Teaching About Drug Prevention                            44

    How the Law Can Help                                      49

    Resources                                                 59
    Specific Drugs and Their Effects                          59
    Sources of Information                                    67
    References                                                74

Acknowledgments                                               78

Ordering Information

    "_I felt depressed and hurt all the time. I hated myself for the
    way I hurt my parents and treated them so cruelly, and for the way
    I treated others. I hated myself the most, though, for the way I
    treated myself. I would take drugs until I overdosed, and fell
    further and further in school and work and relationships with
    others. I just didn't care anymore whether I lived or died. I
    stopped going to school altogether.... I felt constantly depressed
    and began having thoughts of suicide, which scared me a lot! I
    didn't know where to turn...._"

    --"Stewart," a high school student


[Illustration: _Chart 1_

  Percentage of 13-Year-Olds Who Have Used Marijuana, 1953-1982
  Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse Household Survey 1982]

Children and Drugs

Americans have consistently identified drug use among the top problems
confronting the Nation's schools. Yet many do not recognize the degree
to which their own children, their own schools, and their own
communities are at risk.

Research shows that drug use among children is 10 times more prevalent
than parents suspect. In addition, many students know that their
parents do not recognize the extent of drug use, and this leads them to
believe that they can use drugs with impunity.

School administrators and teachers often are unaware that their
students are using and selling drugs, frequently on school property.
School officials who are aware of the situation in their schools admit,
as has Ralph Egers, superintendent of schools in South Portland, Maine,
that "We'd like to think that our kids don't have this problem, but the
brightest kid from the best family in the community could have the

The facts are:

    · Drug use is not confined to certain population groups or to
      certain economic levels in our society; it affects our entire

    · Drugs are a serious problem not only in high schools, but now in
      middle and elementary schools as well.

    · All illegal drugs are dangerous; there is no such thing as safe
      or responsible use of illegal drugs.

    · Although drug trafficking is controlled by adults, the immediate
      source of drugs for most students is other students.

Continuing misconceptions about the drug problem stand in the way of
corrective action. The following section outlines the nature and extent
of the problem and summarizes the latest research on the effects of
drugs on students and schools.

[Illustration: _Chart 2_

Percentage of High School Seniors Who Have Used Cocaine

Source: Institute for Social Research 1986]

Extent of Drug Use

Drug use is widespread among American schoolchildren. The United
States has the highest rate of teenage drug use of any industrialized
nation. The drug problem in this country is 10 times greater than in
Japan, for example. Sixty-one percent of high school seniors have used
drugs. Marijuana use remains at an unacceptably high level; 41 percent
of 1985 seniors reported using it in the last year, and 26 percent
said they had used it at least once in the previous month. Thirteen
percent of seniors indicated that they had used cocaine in the past
year. This is the highest level ever observed, more than twice the
proportion in 1975.

Many students purchase and use drugs at school. A recent study of
teenagers contacting a cocaine hotline revealed that 57 percent of the
respondents bought most of their drugs at school. Among 1985 high
school seniors, one-third of the marijuana users reported that they
had smoked marijuana at school. Of the seniors who used amphetamines
during the past year, two-thirds reported having taken them at school.

The drug problem affects all types of students. All regions and all
types of communities show high levels of drug use. Forty-three percent
of 1985 high school seniors in nonmetropolitan areas reported illicit
drug use in the previous year, while the rate for seniors in large
metropolitan areas was 50 percent. Although higher proportions of
males are involved in illicit drug use, especially heavy drug use, the
gap between the sexes is lessening. The extent to which high school
seniors reported having used marijuana is about the same for blacks
and whites; for other types of drugs reported, use is slightly higher
among whites.

Initial drug use occurs at an increasingly early age. The percentage
of students using drugs by the sixth grade has tripled over the last
decade. In the early 1960's, marijuana use was virtually nonexistent
among 13-year-olds, but now about one in six 13-year-olds has used

Fact Sheet

Drugs and Dependence

Drugs cause physical and emotional dependence. Users may develop an
overwhelming craving for specific drugs, and their bodies may respond
to the presence of drugs in ways that lead to increased drug use.

    · Regular users of drugs develop _tolerance_, a need to take
      larger doses to get the same initial effect. They may respond by
      combining drugs--frequently with devastating results. Many
      teenage drug users calling a national cocaine hotline report
      that they take other drugs just to counteract the unpleasant
      effects of cocaine.

    · Certain drugs, such as opiates and barbiturates, create _physical
      dependence_. With prolonged use, these drugs become part of the
      body chemistry. When a regular user stops taking the drug, the
      body experiences the physiological trauma known as _withdrawal_.

    · _Psychological dependence_ occurs when drug taking becomes the
      center of the user's life. Among children, psychological
      dependence erodes school performance and can destroy ties to
      family, friendships, outside interests, values, and goals. The
      child goes from taking drugs to feel good, to taking them to
      keep from feeling bad. Over time, drug use itself heightens the
      bad feelings and can leave the user suicidal. _More than half of
      all adolescent suicides are drug-related._

    · _Drugs and their harmful side effects can remain in the body long
      after use has stopped._ The extent to which a drug is retained
      in the body depends on the drug's chemical composition, that is,
      whether or not it is fat-soluble. Fat-soluble drugs such as
      marijuana, phencyclidine (PCP), and lysergic acid (LSD) seek out
      and settle in the fatty tissues. As a result, they build up in
      the fatty parts of the body such as the brain. Such accumulations
      of drugs and their slow release over time may cause delayed
      effects (flashbacks) weeks and even months after drug use has

How Drug Use Develops

Social influences play a key role in making drug use attractive to

The first temptations to use drugs may come in social situations in the
form of pressures to "act grown up" and "have a good time" by smoking
cigarettes or using alcohol or marijuana.

A 1983 _Weekly Reader_ survey found that television and movies had the
greatest influence on fourth graders in making drugs and alcohol seem
attractive; other children had the second greatest influence. From the
fifth grade on, peers played an increasingly important role, while
television and movies consistently had the second greatest influence.

The survey offers insights into _why_ students take drugs. For all
children, the most important reason for taking marijuana is to "fit in
with others." "To feel older" is the second main reason for children in
grades four and five, and "to have a good time" for those in grades six
to twelve. This finding reinforces the need for prevention programs
beginning in the early grades--programs that focus on teaching children
to resist peer pressure and on making worthwhile and enjoyable
drug-free activities available to them.

Students who turn to more potent drugs usually do so after first using
cigarettes and alcohol, and then marijuana. Initial attempts may not
produce a "high"; however, students who continue to use drugs learn
that drugs can alter their thoughts and feelings. _The greater a
student's involvement with marijuana, the more likely it is the
student will begin to use other drugs in conjunction with marijuana._

Drug use frequently progresses in stages--from occasional use, to
regular use, to multiple drug use, and ultimately to total dependency.
With each successive stage, drug use intensifies, becomes more varied,
and results in increasingly debilitating effects.

But this progression is not inevitable. Drug use can be stopped at any
stage. However, the more involved children are with drugs, the more
difficult it is for them to stop. _The best way to fight drug use
is to begin prevention efforts before children start using drugs._
Prevention efforts that focus on young children are the most effective
means to fight drug use.

Fact Sheet

Cocaine: Crack

Cocaine use is the fastest growing drug problem in America. Most
alarming is the recent availability of cocaine in a cheap but potent
form called crack or rock. Crack is a purified form of cocaine that is

    · _Crack is inexpensive to try._ Crack is available for as little
      as $10. As a result, the drug is affordable to many new users,
      including high school and even elementary school students.

    · _Crack is easy to use._ It is sold in pieces resembling small
      white gravel or soap chips and is sometimes pressed into small
      pellets. Crack can be smoked in a pipe or put into a cigarette.
      Because the visible effects disappear within minutes after
      smoking, it can be used at almost any time during the day.

    · _Crack is extremely addictive._ Crack is far more addictive than
      heroin or barbiturates. Because crack is smoked, it is quickly
      absorbed into the blood stream. It produces a feeling of extreme
      euphoria, peaking within seconds. The desire to repeat this
      sensation can cause addiction within a few days.

    · _Crack leads to crime and severe psychological disorders._ Many
      youths, once addicted, have turned to stealing, prostitution,
      and drug dealing in order to support their habit. Continued use
      can produce violent behavior and psychotic states similar to

    · _Crack is deadly._ Cocaine in any form can cause cardiac arrest
      and death by interrupting the brain's control over the heart and
      respiratory system.

Effects of Drug Use

The drugs students are taking today are more potent, more dangerous,
and more addictive than ever.

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of drugs. Drugs
threaten normal development in a number of ways:

    · Drugs can interfere with memory, sensation, and perception. They
      distort experiences and cause a loss of self-control that can
      lead users to harm themselves and others.

    · Drugs interfere with the brain's ability to take in, sort, and
      synthesize information. As a result, sensory information runs
      together, providing new sensations while blocking normal ability
      to understand the information received.

    · Drugs can have an insidious effect on perception; for example,
      cocaine and amphetamines often give users a false sense of
      functioning at their best while on the drug.

Drug suppliers have responded to the increasing demand for drugs by
developing new strains, producing reprocessed, purified drugs, and
using underground laboratories to create more powerful forms of
illegal drugs. Consequently, users are exposed to heightened or
unknown levels of risk.

    · The _marijuana_ produced today is from five to 20 times stronger
      than that available as recently as 10 years ago. Regular use
      by adolescents has been associated with an "a motivational
      syndrome," characterized by apathy and loss of goals. Research
      has shown that severe psychological damage, including paranoia
      and psychosis, can occur when marijuana contains 2 percent THC,
      its major psychoactive ingredient. Since the early 1980s, most
      marijuana has contained from 4 to 6 percent THC--two to three
      times the amount capable of causing serious damage.

    · _Crack_, now becoming widely available, is a purified and highly
      addictive form of cocaine.

    · _Phencyclidine_ (_PCP_), first developed as an animal tranquilizer,
      has unpredictable and often violent effects. Often children do
      not even know that they are using this drug when PCP-laced
      parsley in cigarette form is passed off as marijuana, or when
      PCP in crystal form is sold as lysergic acid (LSD).

    · Some of the new _"designer" drugs_, slight chemical variations
      of existing illegal drugs, have been known to cause permanent
      brain damage with a single dose.

Drug Use and Learning

Drugs erode the self-discipline and motivation necessary for learning.
Pervasive drug use among students creates a climate in the schools
that is destructive to learning. Research shows that drug use can
cause a decline in academic performance. This has been found to be
true for students who excelled in school prior to drug use as well as
for those with academic or behavioral problems prior to use. According
to one study, students using marijuana were twice as likely to average
D's and F's as other students. The decline in grades often reverses
when drug use is stopped.

Drug use is closely tied to truancy and dropping out of school. High
school seniors who are heavy drug users are more than three times as
likely to skip school as nonusers. About one-fifth of heavy users
skipped 3 or more schooldays a month, more than six times the truancy
rate of nonusers. In a Philadelphia study, dropouts were almost twice
as likely to be frequent drug users as were high school graduates;
four in five dropouts used drugs regularly.

Drug use is associated with crime and misconduct that disrupt the
maintenance of an orderly and safe school conducive to learning. Drugs
not only transform schools into marketplaces for dope deals, they also
lead to the destruction of property and to classroom disorder. Among
high school seniors, heavy drug users were two-and-one-half times as
likely to vandalize school property and almost three times as likely
to have been involved in a fight at school as nonusers. Students on
drugs create a climate of apathy, disruption, and disrespect for
others. For example, among teenage callers to a national cocaine
hotline, 44 percent reported that they sold drugs and 31 percent said
that they stole from family, friends, or employers to buy drugs. A
drug-ridden environment is a strong deterrent to learning not only for
drug users, but for other students as well.


In order to combat student drug use most effectively, the entire
community must be involved: parents, schools, students, law enforcement
authorities, religious groups, social service agencies, and the media.
They all must transmit a single consistent message that drug use is
wrong, dangerous, and will not be tolerated. This message must be
reinforced through strong, consistent law enforcement and disciplinary

The following recommendations and examples describe actions that can be
taken by parents, schools, students, and communities to stop drug use.
These recommendations are derived from research and from the
experiences of schools throughout the country. They show that the drug
problem can be overcome.



Instilling Responsibility

_Recommendation #1_:

Teach standards of right and wrong and demonstrate these standards
through personal example.

Children who are brought up to value individual responsibility and
self-discipline and to have a clear sense of right and wrong are less
likely to try drugs than those who are not. Parents can help to instill
these ideals by:

    · Setting a good example for children and not using drugs themselves.

    · Explaining to their children at an early age that drug use is
      wrong, harmful, and unlawful, and reinforcing this teaching
      throughout adolescence.

    · Encouraging self-discipline through giving children everyday duties
      and holding them accountable for their actions.

    · Establishing standards of behavior concerning drugs, drinking,
      dating, curfews, and unsupervised activities, and enforcing them
      consistently and fairly.

    · Encouraging their children to stand by their convictions when
      pressured to use drugs.

  Northside High School,
  Atlanta, Georgia

Northside High School enrolls 1,400 students from 52 neighborhoods. In
1977, drug use was so prevalent that the school was known as "Fantasy
Island." Students smoked marijuana openly at school, and police were
called to the school regularly.

The combined efforts of a highly committed group of parents and an
effective new principal succeeded in solving Northside's drug problem.
Determined to stop drug use both inside and outside the school, parents
organized and took the following actions:

    · Formed parent-peer groups to learn about the drug problem and
      agreed to set curfews, to chaperone parties, and to monitor their
      children's whereabouts. They held community meetings to discuss
      teenage drug use with law enforcement agents, judges, clergy, and

    · Established a coalition that lobbied successfully for State
      antidrug and antiparaphernalia laws.

    · Offered assistance to the schools. The school acted on the parents'
      recommendations to provide drug prevention education to teachers,
      update its prevention curriculum, and establish a new behavior
      code. Parents also helped design a system for monitoring
      tardiness and provided volunteer help to teachers.

The new principal, Bill Rudolph, also committed his energy and
expertise to fighting the drug problem. Rudolph established a tough
policy for students who were caught possessing or dealing drugs.
"Illegal drug offenses do not lead to detention hall but to court," he
stated. When students were caught, he immediately called the police and
then notified their parents. Families were given the names of drug
education programs and were urged to participate. One option available
to parents was drug education offered by other parents.

Today, Northside is a different school. In 1984-85, only three
drug-related incidents were reported. Academic achievement has improved
dramatically; student test scores have risen every year since the
1977-78 school year. Scores on standardized achievement tests rose to
well above the national average, placing Northside among the top
schools in the district for the 1984-85 school year.



_Recommendation #2_:

Help children to resist peer pressure to use drugs by supervising
their activities, knowing who their friends are, and talking with them
about their interests and problems.

When parents take an active interest in their children's behavior, they
provide the guidance and support children need to resist drugs. Parents
can do this by:

    · Knowing their children's whereabouts, activities, and friends.

    · Working to maintain and improve family communications and listening
      to their children.

    · Being able to discuss drugs knowledgeably. It is far better for
      children to obtain their information from their parents than from
      their peers or on the street.

    · Communicating regularly with the parents of their children's
      friends and sharing their knowledge about drugs with other

    · Being selective about their children's viewing of television and
      movies that portray drug use as glamorous or exciting.

In addition, parents can work with the school in its efforts to fight
drugs by:

    · Encouraging the development of a school policy with a clear
      no-drug message.

    · Supporting administrators who are tough on drugs.

    · Assisting the school in monitoring students' attendance and
      planning and chaperoning school-sponsored activities.

    · Communicating regularly with the school regarding their children's

Fact Sheet

Signs of Drug Use

Changing patterns of performance, appearance, and behavior may signal
use of drugs. The items in the first category listed below provide
direct evidence of drug use; the items in the other categories offer
signs that may indicate drug use. For this reason, adults should look
for extreme changes in children's behavior, changes that together form
a pattern associated with drug use.

Signs of Drugs and Drug Paraphernalia

    · Possession of drug-related paraphernalia such as pipes, rolling
      papers, small decongestant bottles, or small butane torches.

    · Possession of drugs or evidence of drugs, peculiar plants, or
      butts, seeds, or leaves in ashtrays or clothing pockets.

    · Odor of drugs, smell of incense or other "cover-up" scents.

Identification with Drug Culture

    · Drug-related magazines, slogans on clothing.

    · Conversation and jokes that are preoccupied with drugs.

    · Hostility in discussing drugs.

Signs of Physical Deterioration

    · Memory lapses, short attention span, difficulty in concentration.

    · Poor physical coordination, slurred or incoherent speech.

    · Unhealthy appearance, indifference to hygiene and grooming.

    · Bloodshot eyes, dilated pupils.

Dramatic Changes in School Performance

    · Distinct downward turns in student's grades--not just from C's to
      F's, but from A's to B's and C's. Assignments not completed.

    · Increased absenteeism or tardiness.

Changes in Behavior

    · Chronic dishonesty (lying, stealing, cheating). Trouble with the

    · Changes in friends, evasiveness in talking about new ones.

    · Possession of large amounts of money.

    · Increasing and inappropriate anger, hostility, irritability,

    · Reduced motivation, energy, self-discipline, self-esteem.

    · Diminished interest in extracurricular activities and


Recognizing Drug Use

_Recommendation #3_:

Be knowledgeable about drugs and signs of drug use. When symptoms are
observed, respond promptly.

Parents are in the best position to recognize early signs of drug use
in their children. In order to prepare themselves, they should:

    · Learn about the extent of the drug problem in their community and
      in their children's schools.

    · Be able to recognize signs of drug use.

    · Meet with parents of their children's friends or classmates about
      the drug problem at their school. Establish a means of sharing
      information to determine which children are using drugs and who
      is supplying them.

Parents who suspect their children are using drugs often must deal with
their own emotions of anger, resentment, and guilt. Frequently they
deny the evidence and postpone confronting their children. Yet the
earlier a drug problem is found and faced, the less difficult it is to
overcome. If parents suspect their children are using drugs, they

    · Devise a plan of action. Consult with school officials and other

    · Discuss their suspicions with their children in a calm, objective
      manner. Do not confront a child while he is under the influence
      of drugs.

    · Impose disciplinary measures that help remove the child from those
      circumstances where drug use might occur.

    · Seek advice and assistance from drug treatment professionals and
      from a parent group. (For further information, consult the
      resources section, pages 59-73.)



Assessing the Problem

_Recommendation #4_:

Determine the extent and character of drug use and establish a means
of monitoring that use regularly.

School personnel should be informed about the extent of drugs in their
school. School boards, superintendents, and local public officials
should support school administrators in their efforts to assess the
extent of the drug problem and to combat it.

In order to guide and evaluate effective drug prevention efforts,
schools need to:

    · Conduct anonymous surveys of students and school personnel and
      consult with local law enforcement officials to identify the
      extent of the drug problem.

    · Bring together school personnel to identify areas where drugs are
      being used and sold.

    · Meet with parents to help determine the nature and extent of drug

    · Maintain records on drug use and sale in the school over time, for
      use in evaluating and improving prevention efforts. In addition
      to self-reported drug use patterns, records may include
      information on drug-related arrests and school discipline

    · Inform the community, in nontechnical language, of the results of
      the school's assessment of the drug problem.

  Anne Arundel County School District,
  Annapolis, Maryland

In response to evidence of a serious drug problem in 1979-80, the
school district of Anne Arundel County implemented a strict new policy
covering both elementary and secondary students. It features
notification of police, involvement of parents, and use of alternative
education programs for offenders. School officials take the following
steps when students are found using or possessing drugs:

    · The school notifies the police, calls the parents, and suspends
      students for 1 to 5 school days.

    · The special assistant to the superintendent meets with the students
      and parents. In order to return to school, students must state
      where and how they obtained the drugs. The students must also
      agree either to participate in the district's Alternative Drug
      Program at night, while attending school during the day, or to
      enroll in the district's Learning Center (grades 7-8) or evening
      high school (grades 9-12). Students, accompanied by their
      parents, must also take at least 5 hours of counseling. Parents
      are also required to sign a Drug/Alcohol Reinstatement Form.

    · If students fail to complete the Alternative Drug Program, they are
      transferred to the Learning Center or to evening high school.

    · Students are expelled if caught using or possessing drugs a second

Distribution and sale of drugs are also grounds for expulsion, and a
student expelled for these offenses is ineligible to participate in the
Alternative Drug Program.

As a result of these steps, the number of drug offenses has declined by
58 percent, from 507 in 1979-80 to 211 in 1984-85.


Setting Policy

_Recommendation #5_:

Establish clear and specific rules regarding drug use that include
strong corrective actions.

School policies should clearly establish that drug use, possession, and
sale on the school grounds and at school functions will not be
tolerated. These policies should apply to both students and school
personnel, and may include prevention, intervention, treatment, and
disciplinary measures.

School policies should:

    · Specify what constitutes a drug offense by defining (1) illegal
      substances and paraphernalia, (2) the area of the school's
      jurisdiction, for example, the school property, its surroundings,
      and all school-related events, such as proms and football games,
      and (3) the types of violations (drug possession, use, and sale).

    · State the consequences for violating school policy; as appropriate,
      punitive action should be linked with treatment and counseling.
      Measures that schools have found effective in dealing with
      first-time offenders include:

      --a required meeting of parents and the student with school
      officials, concluding with a contract signed by the student and
      parents in which (1) they acknowledge a drug problem, (2) the
      student agrees not to use drugs, and to participate in drug
      counseling or a rehabilitation program.

      --suspension, assignment to an alternative school, in-school
      suspension, after-school or Saturday detention with close
      supervision and demanding academic assignments.

      --referral to a drug treatment expert or counselor.

      --notification of police.

      Penalties for repeat offenders and for sellers may include
      expulsion, legal action, and referral for treatment.

    · Describe procedures for handling violations, including:

      --legal issues associated with disciplinary
      actions--confidentiality, due process, and search and
      seizure--and how they apply.

      --responsibilities and procedures for reporting suspected
      incidents that identify the proper authorities to be contacted
      and the circumstances under which incidents should be reported.

      --procedures for notifying parents when their child is suspected
      of or caught with drugs.

      --procedures for notifying police.

    · Enlist legal counsel to ensure that the policy is drafted in
      compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local laws.

    · Build community support for the policy. Hold open meetings where
      views can be aired and differences resolved.

  Eastside High School,
  Paterson, New Jersey

Eastside High School is located in an inner-city neighborhood and
enrolls 3,200 students. Before 1982, drug dealing was rampant.
Intruders had easy access to the school and sold drugs on the school
premises. Drugs were used in school stairwells and bathrooms. Gangs
armed with razors and knives roamed the hallways.

A new principal, Joe Clark, was instrumental in ridding the school of
drugs and violence. Hired in 1982, Clark established order, enlisted
the help of police officers in drug prevention education, and raised
academic standards. Among the actions he took were:

    · Establishing and enforcing strict penalties for breaking the
      discipline code. In reference to drugs, he stated emphatically,
      "If you're smoking or dealing, you're out." He acted on his
      warning, removing 300 students from the roll in his first year
      for discipline and drug-related violations.

    · Increasing the involvement of local police officers, known as the
      "Brothers in Blue," who visited the school regularly to speak to
      students about the importance of resisting drugs.

    · Raising academic standards and morale by emphasizing the importance
      of doing well, requiring a "C" average for participation in
      athletics, and honoring student achievements.

As a result of actions such as these, Eastside has been transformed.
Today there is no evidence of drug use in the school. Intruders no
longer have access to the school; hallways and stairwells are safe.
Academic performance has improved substantially: in 1981-82, only 56
percent of the 9th graders passed the State's basic skills test in
math; in 1984-85, 91 percent passed. In reading, the percentage of 9th
graders passing the State basic skills test rose from 40 percent in
1981-82 to 67 percent in 1984-85.


Enforcing Policy

_Recommendation #6_:

Enforce established policies against drug use fairly and consistently.
Implement security measures to eliminate drugs on school premises and
at school functions.

Ensure that everyone understands the policy and the procedures that
will be followed in case of infractions. Make copies of the school
policy available to all parents, teachers, and students, and take other
steps to publicize the policy.

Impose strict security measures to bar access to intruders and prohibit
student drug trafficking. Enforcement policies should correspond to the
severity of the school's drug problem. For example:

    · Officials can require students to carry hall passes, supervise
      school grounds and hallways, and secure assistance of law
      enforcement officials, particularly to help monitor areas around
      the schools.

    · For a severe drug problem, officials can use security personnel to
      monitor closely school areas where drug sale and use are known to
      occur; issue mandatory identification badges for school staff and
      students; request the assistance of local police to help stop
      drug dealing; and, depending on applicable law, develop a policy
      that permits periodic searches of student lockers.

Review enforcement practices regularly to ensure that penalties are
uniformly and fairly applied.

Fact Sheet

Legal Questions on Search and Seizure

In 1985, the Supreme Court for the first time analyzed the application
in the public school setting of the Fourth Amendment prohibition of
unreasonable searches and seizures. The Court sought to craft a rule
that would balance the need of school authorities to maintain order and
the privacy rights of students. The questions in this section summarize
the decisions of the Supreme Court and of lower Federal courts. School
officials should consult with legal counsel in formulating their

What legal standard applies to school officials who search students
and their possessions for drugs?

    The Supreme Court has held that school officials may institute a
    search if there are "reasonable grounds" to believe that the search
    will reveal evidence that the student has violated or is violating
    either the law or the rules of the school.

Do school officials need a search warrant to conduct a search for

    No, not if they are carrying out the search independent of the
    police and other law enforcement officials. A more stringent legal
    standard may apply if law enforcement officials are involved in the

How extensive can a search be?

    The scope of the permissible search will depend on whether the
    measures used during the search are reasonably related to the
    purpose of the search and are not excessively intrusive in light of
    the age and sex of the student being searched. The more intrusive
    the search, the greater the justification that will be required by
    the courts.

Do school officials have to stop a search when they find the object of
the search?

    Not necessarily. If a search reveals items suggesting the presence
    of other evidence of crime or misconduct, the school official may
    continue the search. For example, if a teacher is justifiably
    searching a student's purse for cigarettes and finds rolling
    papers, it will be reasonable (subject to any local policy to the
    contrary) for the teacher to search the rest of the purse for
    evidence of drugs.

Can school officials search student lockers?

    Reasonable grounds to believe that a particular student locker
    contains evidence of a violation of the law or school rules will
    generally justify a search of that locker. In addition, some courts
    have upheld written school policies that authorize school officials
    to inspect student lockers at any time.

Fact Sheet

Legal Questions on Suspension and Expulsion

The following questions and answers briefly describe several Federal
requirements that apply to the use of suspension and expulsion as
disciplinary tools in public schools. These may not reflect all laws,
policies, and judicial precedents applicable to any given school
district. School officials should consult with legal counsel to
determine the application of these laws in their schools and to ensure
that all legal requirements are met.

What Federal procedural requirements apply to suspension or expulsion?

    · The Supreme Court has held that students facing suspension or
      expulsion from school are entitled under the U.S. Constitution to
      the basic due process protections of notice and an opportunity to
      be heard. The nature and formality of the "hearing" to be
      provided depend on the severity of the sanction being imposed.

    · A formal hearing is not required when a school seeks to suspend a
      student for 10 days or less. Due process in that situation requires
      only that:

      --the school inform the student, either orally or in writing, of
      the charges and of the evidence to support those charges;

      --the school give the student an opportunity to deny the charges
      and present his or her side of the story;

      --as a general rule, the notice to the student and a rudimentary
      hearing should precede a suspension unless a student's presence
      poses a continuing danger to persons or property, or threatens to
      disrupt the academic process. In such cases, the notice and
      rudimentary hearing should follow as soon as possible after the
      student's removal.

    · More formal procedures may be required for suspensions longer
      than 10 days and for expulsions. In addition, Federal law and
      regulations establish special rules governing suspensions and
      expulsions of handicapped students.

    · States and local school districts may require additional

Can students be suspended or expelled from school for use, possession,
or sale of drugs?

    Generally, yes. A school may suspend or expel students in
    accordance with the terms of its discipline policy. A school policy
    may provide for penalties of varying severity, including suspension
    or expulsion, to respond to drug-related offenses. It is helpful to
    be explicit about the types of offenses that will be punished and
    about the penalties that may be imposed for particular types of
    offenses (e.g., use, possession, or sale of drugs). Generally,
    State and local law will determine the range of sanctions

(For a more detailed discussion of legal issues, see pages 49-58.)

Fact Sheet

Tips for Selecting Drug Prevention Materials

In evaluating drug prevention materials, keep the following points in

Check the date of publication.

Material published before 1980 may be outdated and even recently
published materials may be inaccurate.

Look for "warning flag" phrases and concepts.

These expressions, many of which appear frequently in "pro-drug"
material, falsely imply that there is a "safe" use of mind-altering
drugs: experimental use, recreational use, social use, controlled use,
responsible use, use/abuse.

"Mood-altering" is a deceptive euphemism for mind-altering.

    The implication of the phrase "mood-altering" is that only
    temporary feelings are involved. The fact is that mood changes are
    biological changes in the brain.

"There are no 'good' or 'bad' drugs, just improper use":

    This is a popular semantic camouflage in pro-drug literature. It
    confuses young people and minimizes the distinct chemical
    differences among substances.

"The child's own decision":

    Parents cannot afford to leave such hazardous choices to their
    children. It is the parents' responsibility to do all in their
    power to provide the information and the protection to assure their
    children a drug-free childhood and adolescence.

Be alert for contradictory messages.

Often an author gives a pro-drug message and then covers his tracks by
including "cautions" about how to use drugs.

Make certain the health consequences revealed in current research are
adequately described.

Literature should make these facts clear: The high potency of marijuana
on the market today makes it more dangerous than ever; THC, a
psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, is fat soluble and its
accumulation in the body has many adverse biological effects; cocaine
can cause death and is one of the most addictive drugs known to man.

Demand material that sets positive standards of behavior for children.

The message conveyed must be an expectation that children can say no to
drugs. The publication and its message must provide the information and
must support caring family involvement to reinforce the child's courage
to stay drug free.


Teaching About Drug Prevention

_Recommendation #7_:

Implement a comprehensive drug prevention curriculum from kindergarten
through grade 12, teaching that drug use is wrong and harmful and
supporting and strengthening resistance to drugs.

A model program would have these main objectives:

    · To value and maintain sound personal health.

    · To respect laws and rules prohibiting drugs.

    · To resist pressures to use drugs.

    · To promote student activities that are drug free and offer
      healthy avenues for student interests.

In developing a program, school staff should:

    · Determine curriculum content appropriate for the school's drug
      problem and grade levels.

    · Base the curriculum on an understanding of why children try drugs
      in order to teach them how to resist pressures to use drugs.

    · Review existing materials for possible adaptation. State and
      national organizations--and some lending libraries--that have an
      interest in drug prevention make available lists of materials.

In implementing a program, school staff should:

    · Include all grades. Effective drug education is cumulative.

    · Teach about drugs in health education classes, and reinforce this
      curriculum with appropriate materials in such classes as social
      studies and science.

    · Develop expertise in drug prevention through training. Teachers
      should be knowledgeable about drugs, be personally committed to
      opposing drug use, and be skilled at eliciting participation by

(For more detailed information on topics and learning activities to
incorporate in a drug prevention program, see pages 44-48.)

  Samuel Gompers Vocational-Technical High School,
  New York City

Samuel Gompers Vocational-Technical High School is located in the South
Bronx in New York City. Enrollment is 1,500 students; 95 percent are
from low-income families.

In June, 1977, an article in the _New York Times_ likened Gompers to a
"war zone." Students smoked marijuana and sold drugs both inside the
school and on the school grounds; the police had to be called in

In 1979, the school board hired a new principal, Victor Herbert, who
turned the school around. Herbert established order, implemented a drug
awareness program, involved the private sector, and instilled pride in
the school among students. Among the actions he took:

    · In cooperation with the police captain, Herbert arranged for the
      same two police officers to respond to all calls from Gompers.
      These officers came to know the Gompers students; eventually,
      students confided in the police about drug sales occurring near
      the school. Police also helped school staff patrol the school
      grounds and were stationed at a nearby park known for drug

    · Herbert stationed security guards and faculty outside each
      bathroom. He organized "hall sweeps" in the middle of class
      periods and no longer allowed students to leave the premises at
      lunch time.

    · Herbert established a drug education program for teachers,
      students, and parents that emphasized recognizing the signs of
      drug use. He also implemented other drug awareness programs that
      involved the police and community organizations.

    · He persuaded companies, such as IBM, to hire students for
      afterschool and summer work. Students had to be drug free to
      participate. This requirement demonstrated to students that
      employers would not tolerate drug use.

    · A computerized attendance system was installed to notify parents of
      their child's absence. Newly hired paraprofessionals, called
      "family assistants," worked to locate absentees and bring them
      back to school.

The results of Herbert's actions were remarkable. In 1985, there were
no known incidents of students using alcohol or drugs in school or on
school grounds, and only one incident of violence was reported. The
percentage of students reading at or above grade level increased from
45 percent in 1979-80 to 67 percent in 1984-85.

Enlisting the Community

_Recommendation #8:_

Reach out to the community for support and assistance in making the
school's antidrug policy and program work. Develop collaborative
arrangements in which school personnel, parents, school boards, law
enforcement officers, treatment organizations, and private groups can
work together to provide necessary resources.

School officials should recognize that they cannot solve the drug
problem alone. They need to get the community behind their efforts by
taking action to:

    · Increase community understanding of the problem through meetings,
      media coverage, and education programs.

    · Build public support for the policy; develop agreement on the goals
      of a school drug policy, including prevention and enforcement

    · Educate the community about the effects and extent of the drug

    · Strengthen contacts with law enforcement agencies through
      discussions about the school's specific drug problems and ways
      they can assist in drug education and enforcement.

    · Call on local professionals, such as physicians and pharmacists, to
      share their expertise on drug abuse as class lecturers.

    · Mobilize the resources of community groups and local businesses to
      support the program.



Learning the Facts

_Recommendation #9._

Learn about the effects of drug use, the reasons why drugs are
harmful, and ways to resist pressures to try drugs. Students can arm
themselves with the knowledge to resist drug use by:

    · Learning about the effects and risks of drugs.

    · Learning the symptoms of drug use and the names of organizations
      and individuals who are available to help when friends or family
      members are in trouble.

    · Understanding the pressures to use drugs and ways to counteract

    · Knowing the school rules on drugs and ways to help make the school
      policy work.

    · Knowing the school procedures for reporting drug offenses.

    · Knowing the laws on drug use and the penalties, for example, for
      driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol. Understanding
      how the laws protect individuals and society.

    · Developing skill in communicating their opposition to drugs and
      their resolve to say no.

  _R. H. Watkins High School of Jones County, Mississippi, has
  developed a pledge, excerpted below, which sets forth the duties and
  responsibilities of student counselors in its peer counseling

  Responsibility Pledge for a Peer Counselor, R. H. Watkins High School

    As a drug education peer counselor you have the opportunity to help
    the youth of our community develop to their full potential without
    the interference of illegal drug use. It is a responsibility you
    must not take lightly. Therefore, please read the following
    responsibilities you will be expected to fulfill next school year
    and discuss them with your parents or guardians.

  Responsibilities of a Peer Counselor

    Understand and be able to clearly state your beliefs and attitudes
    about drug use among teens and adults.

    Remain drug free.

    Maintain an average of C or better in all classes.

    Maintain a citizenship average of B or better.

    Participate in some club or extracurricular activity that
    emphasizes the positive side of school life.

    Successfully complete training for the program, including, for
    example, units on the identification and symptoms of drug abuse,
    history and reasons for drug abuse, and the legal/economic aspects
    of drug abuse.

    Successfully present monthly programs on drug abuse in each of the
    elementary and junior high schools of the Laurel City school
    system, and to community groups, churches, and statewide groups as

    Participate in rap sessions or individual counseling sessions with
    Laurel City school students.

    Attend at least one Jones County Drug Council meeting per year,
    attend the annual Drug Council Awards Banquet, work in the Drug
    Council Fair exhibit and in any Drug Council workshops, if needed.

    Grades and credit for Drug Education will be awarded on successful
    completion of and participation in all the above-stated activities.

    _____________________________    __________________________________
    Student's Signature              Parent's or Guardian's Signature


Helping Fight Drug Use

_Recommendation #10_:

Use an understanding of the danger posed by drugs to help other
students avoid them. Encourage other students to resist drugs,
persuade those using drugs to seek help, and report those selling
drugs to parents and the school principal.

Although students are the primary victims of drug use in the schools,
drug use cannot be stopped or prevented unless students actively
participate in this effort.

Students can help fight drug use by:

    · Participating in open discussions about the extent of the problem
      at their own school.

    · Supporting a strong school antidrug policy and firm, consistent
      enforcement of rules.

    · Setting a positive example for fellow students and speaking
      forcefully against drug use.

    · Teaching other students, particularly younger ones, about the
      harmful effects of drugs.

    · Encouraging their parents to join with other parents to promote a
      drug-free environment outside of school. Some successful parent
      groups have been started by the pressure of a son or daughter who
      was concerned about drugs.

    · Becoming actively involved in efforts to inform the community about
      the drug problem.

    · Starting a drug-resistance club or other activity to create
      positive, challenging ways for young people to have fun without
      drugs. Obtaining adult sponsorship for the group and publicizing
      its activities.

    · Encouraging friends who have a drug problem to seek help and
      reporting persons selling drugs to parents and the principal.

  Greenway Middle School,
  Phoenix, Arizona

Greenway Middle School is in a rapidly growing area of Phoenix. The
student population of 950 is highly transient.

Greenway developed a comprehensive drug prevention program in the
1979-80 school year. The program provides strict sanctions for students
caught with drugs, but its main emphasis is on prevention. Features

    · Teaching students about drugs in science classes; mini-units on
      why people use drugs and what treatment resources are available
      to drug users; distributing and discussing current literature on
      drugs; sponsoring a 1-day Prevention Fair in which community
      experts talk to students about drug prevention.

    · Enrolling students and staff in the "All Star" training program
      where they learn how to resist peer pressure, make decisions for
      themselves, and develop plans for personal and school

    · Providing counselor training for specially selected students; drug
      counseling for students who are using drugs.

Under Greenway's drug policy, first-time offenders who are caught using
or possessing drugs are suspended for 6 to 10 days. First-time
offenders who are caught selling drugs are subject to expulsion. The
policy is enforced in close cooperation with the local police

As a result of the Greenway program, drug use and disciplinary
referrals declined dramatically between 1979-80 and 1984-85. The number
of drug-related referrals to the school's main office decreased by 78
percent; overall, discipline-related referrals decreased by 62 percent.


  Project DARE,
  Los Angeles, California

The police department and school district have teamed up to create DARE
(Drug Abuse Resistance Education), now operating in 405 schools from
kindergarten through grade 8 in Los Angeles. Fifty-two carefully
selected and trained frontline officers are teaching students to say no
to drugs, build their self-esteem, manage stress, resist prodrug media
messages, and develop other skills to keep them drug free. In addition,
officers spend time on the playground at recess so that students can
get to know them. Meetings are held with teachers, principals, and
parents to discuss the curriculum.

Research has shown that DARE has improved students' attitudes about
themselves, increased their sense of responsibility for themselves and
to police, and strengthened resistance to drugs. For example, before
the DARE program began, 51 percent of fifth-grade students equated drug
use with having more friends. After training, only 8 percent reported
this attitude.

DARE has also changed parent attitudes through an evening program to
teach parents about drugs, the symptoms of drug use, and ways to
increase family communication. Before DARE, 32 percent of parents
thought that it was all right for children to drink alcohol at a party
as long as adults were present. After DARE, no parents reported such a
view. Before DARE, 61 percent thought that there was nothing parents
could do about their children's use of drugs; only 5 percent said so
after the program.

As a result of the high level of acceptance by principals, teachers,
the community, and students, DARE has spread from 50 elementary schools
in 1983 to all 347 elementary and 58 junior high schools in Los
Angeles. DARE will soon be fully implemented in Virginia.


Providing Support

_Recommendation #11_:

Help schools fight drugs by providing them with the expertise and
financial resources of community groups and agencies.

Law enforcement agencies and the courts can:

    · Provide volunteers to speak in the schools about the legal
      ramifications of drug use. Officers can encourage students to
      cooperate with them to stop drug use.

    · Meet with school officials to discuss drug use in the school,
      share information on the drug problem outside of school, and
      help school officials in their investigations.

Social service and health agencies can:

    · Provide volunteers to speak in the school about the effects of

    · Meet with parents to discuss symptoms of drug use and to inform
      them about counseling resources.

    · Provide the schools with health professionals to evaluate
      students who may be potential drug users.

    · Provide referrals to local treatment programs for students who
      are using drugs.

    · Establish and conduct drug counseling and support groups for

Businesses can:

    · Speak in the schools about the effects of drug use on

    · Provide incentives for students who participate in drug
      prevention programs and lead drug-free lives.

    · Help schools obtain curriculum materials for their drug
      prevention program.

    · Sponsor drug-free activities for young people.

Parent groups can:

    · Mobilize others through informal discussions, door-to-door
      canvassing, and school meetings to ensure that students get a
      consistent no-drug message at home, at school, and in the

    · Contribute volunteers to chaperone student parties and other

Print and broadcast media can:

    · Educate the community about the nature of the drug problem in
      their schools.

    · Publicize school efforts to combat the problem.

  Operation SPECDA,
  New York City

Operation SPECDA (School Program to Educate and Control Drug Abuse) is
a cooperative program of the New York City Board of Education and the
police department. It operates in 154 schools, serving students and
their parents from kindergarten through grade 12. SPECDA has two
aims: education and enforcement. Police help provide classes and
presentations on drug abuse in the schools. At the same time, they
concentrate enforcement efforts within a two-block radius of schools
to create a drug-free corridor for students.

The enforcement aspect has had some impressive victories. Police have
made 7,500 arrests to date, 66 percent in the vicinity of elementary
schools. In addition, they have seized narcotics valued at more than
$1 million, as well as $1 million in cash and 139 firearms.

SPECDA provides a simultaneous focus on education. Carefully selected
police officers team with drug abuse counselors to lead discussion
sessions throughout the fifth and sixth grades. The discussions
emphasize the building of good character and self-respect; the dangers
of drug use; civic responsibility and the consequences of actions; and
constructive alternatives to drug abuse.

Similar presentations are made in school assemblies for students from
kindergarten through grade 4 and in the junior and senior high
schools. An evening workshop for parents helps them reinforce the
SPECDA message.

An evaluation of participants in SPECDA demonstrates that a majority
of the students have become more aware of the dangers of drug use, and
show strong positive attitudes toward SPECDA police officers and drug
counselors. When interviewed, students have indicated a strengthened
resolve to resist drugs.


Tough Law Enforcement

_Recommendation_ #12:

Involve local law enforcement agencies in all aspects of drug
prevention: assessment, enforcement, and education. The police and
courts should have well-established and mutually supportive
relationships with the schools.

Community groups can:

    · Support school officials who take a strong position against drug

    · Support State and local policies to keep drugs and drug
      paraphernalia away from schoolchildren.

    · Build a community consensus in favor of strong penalties for
      persons convicted of selling drugs, particularly for adults who
      have sold drugs to children.

    · Encourage programs to provide treatment to juvenile
      first-offenders while maintaining tough penalties for repeat
      offenders and drug sellers.

Law enforcement agencies, in cooperation with schools, can:

    · Establish the procedures each will follow in school drug cases.

    · Provide expert personnel to participate in prevention activities
      from kindergarten through grade 12.

    · Secure areas around schools and see that the sale and use of
      drugs are stopped.

    · Provide advice and personnel to help improve security in the
      school or on school premises.


Drugs threaten our children's lives, disrupt our schools, and shatter
families. Drug-related crimes overwhelm our courts, social service
agencies, and police. This situation need not and must not continue.

Across America schools and communities _have_ found ways to turn the
tide in the battle against drugs. The methods they have used and the
actions they have taken are described in this volume. We know what
works. We know that drug use can be stopped.

But we also know that defeating drugs is not easy. We cannot expect
the schools to do the job without the help of parents, police, the
courts, and other community groups. Drugs will only be beaten when all
of us work together to deliver a firm, consistent message to those who
would use or sell drugs: a message that illegal drugs will not be
tolerated. It is time to join in a national effort to achieve schools
without drugs.



Teaching About Drug Prevention: Sample Topics and Learning Activities

_An effective drug prevention curriculum covers a broad set of
education objectives. This section presents a model program for
consideration by State and local school authorities who have the
responsibility to design a curriculum that meets local needs and
priorities. The program consists of four objectives, plus sample
topics and learning activities._

OBJECTIVE 1: To value and maintain sound personal health; to
understand how drugs affect health.

An effective drug prevention education program instills respect for a
healthy body and mind and imparts knowledge of how the body functions,
how personal habits contribute to good health, and how drugs affect
the body.

At the early elementary level, children learn how to care for their
bodies. Knowledge about habits, medicine, and poisons lays the
foundation for learning about drugs. Older children begin to learn
about the drug problem and study those drugs to which they are most
likely to be exposed. The curriculum for secondary school students is
increasingly drug-specific as students learn about the effects of
certain drugs on their bodies and on adolescent maturation.

Sample topics for elementary school:

    · The role of nutrition, medicine, and health care professionals
      in preventing and treating disease.

    · The difficulties of recognizing which substances are safe to eat
      or touch; ways to learn whether a substance is safe: consulting
      with an adult, reading labels.

    · The effects of poisons on the body; the effects of medicine on
      body chemistry: the wrong drug may make a person ill.

    · The nature of habits: their conscious and unconscious

Sample topics for secondary school:

    · Stress: how the body responds to stress; how drugs increase

    · The chemical properties of drugs.

    · The effects of drugs on the circulatory, digestive, nervous,
      reproductive, and respiratory systems. The effects of drugs on
      adolescent development.

    · Patterns of substance abuse: the progressive effects of drugs on
      the body and mind.

    · The drug problem at school, among teenagers, and in society.

    Children tend to be present-oriented and are likely to feel
    invulnerable to long-term effects of drugs. For this reason, they
    should be taught about the short-term effects of drug use--such as
    impact on appearance, alertness, and coordination--as well as
    about the cumulative effects.

Sample learning activities for elementary school:

    · Make a coloring book depicting various substances. Color only
      those items that are safe to eat.

    · Use puppets to dramatize what can happen when chemicals are

    · Write stories about what to do if a stranger offers candy,
      pills, or a ride.

    · Discuss options in class.

    · Try, for a limited time, to break a bad habit. The teacher
      emphasizes that it is easier not to start a bad habit than to
      break one.

Sample learning activities for high school:

    · Discuss the properties of drugs with community experts:
      physicians, scientists, pharmacists, or law enforcement officers.

    · Interview social workers in drug treatment centers. Visit an
      open meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous.
      These activities should be open only to mature students; careful
      preparation and debriefing are essential.

    · Research the drug problem at school, in the community, or in the
      sports and entertainment fields.

    · Design a true/false survey about drug myths and facts; conduct
      the survey with classmates and analyze the results.

    · Develop an accessible lending library on drugs, well stocked
      with up-to-date and carefully chosen materials.

    When an expert visits a class, both the class and the expert
    should be prepared in advance. Students should learn about the
    expert's profession and prepare questions to ask during the visit.
    The expert should know what the objectives of the session are and
    how the session fits into previous and subsequent learning. The
    expert should participate in a discussion or classroom activity,
    not simply appear as a speaker.

OBJECTIVE 2: To respect laws and rules prohibiting drugs.

The program teaches children to respect rules and laws as the
embodiment of social values and as tools for protecting individuals
and society. It provides specific instruction about laws concerning

Students in the early grades learn to identify rules and to understand
their importance, while older students learn about the school drug
code and laws regulating drugs.

Sample topics for elementary school:

    · What rules are and what would happen without them.

    · What values are and why they should guide behavior.

    · What responsible behavior is.

    · Why it is wrong to take drugs.

Sample topics for secondary school:

    · Student responsibilities in promoting a drug-free school.

    · Local, State, and Federal laws on controlled substances; why
      these laws exist and how they are enforced.

    · Legal and social consequences of drug use. Penalties for driving
      under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The relationship between
      drugs and other crimes.

Sample learning activities for elementary school:

    · Use stories and pictures to identify rules and laws in everyday
      life (e.g., lining up for recess).

    · Imagine how to get to school in the absence of traffic laws; try
      to play a game that has no rules.

    · Name things important to adults and then list rules they have
      made about these things. (This activity helps explain values.)

    · Solve a simple problem (e.g., my sister hits me; my math grades
      are low). Discuss which solutions are best and why.

    · Discuss school drug policies with the principal and other staff
      members. Learn how students can help make the policy work better.

    · Explain the connection between drug users, drug dealers, and
      drug traffickers and law enforcement officers whose lives are
      placed at risk or lost in their efforts to stop the drug trade.

Sample learning activities for secondary school:

    · Resolve hypothetical school situations involving drug use.
      Analyze the consequences for the school, other students, and the
      individuals involved.

    · Collect information about accidents, crimes, and other problems
      related to drugs. Analyze how the problem might have been
      prevented and how the incident affected the individuals involved.

    · Conduct research projects. Interview members of the community
      such as attorneys, judges, police officers, State highway patrol
      officers, and insurance agents about the effects of drug use on
      the daily lives of teenagers and their families.

    · Draft a legislative petition proposing enactment of a State law
      on drug use. Participate in a mock trial or legislative session
      patterned after an actual trial or debate. Through these
      activities, students learn to develop arguments on behalf of drug
      laws and their enforcement.

OBJECTIVE 3: To recognize and resist pressures to use drugs.

Social influences play a key role in encouraging children to try
drugs. Pressures to use drugs come from internal sources, such as a
child's desire to feel included in a group or to demonstrate
independence, and external influences, such as the opinions and
example of friends, older children, and adults, and media messages.

Students must learn to identify these pressures. They must then learn
how to counteract messages to use drugs and gain practice in saying
no. The education program emphasizes influences on behavior,
responsible decision-making, and techniques for resisting pressures to
use drugs.

Sample topics for elementary through high school:

    · The influence of popular culture on behavior.

    · The influence of peers, parents, and other important individuals
      on a student's behavior. How the need to feel accepted by others
      influences behavior.

    · Ways to make responsible decisions and deal constructively with
      disagreeable moments and pressures.

    · Reasons for not taking drugs.

    · Situations in which students may be pressured into using drugs.

    · Ways of resisting pressure to use drugs.

    · Benefits of resisting pressure to use drugs.

Sample learning activities for elementary through high school:

    · Describe recent personal decisions. In small groups, decide what
      considerations influenced the decision (e.g., opinions of family
      or friends, beliefs, desire to be popular) and analyze choices
      and consequences.

    · Examine ads for cigarettes, over-the-counter drugs, and alcohol,
      deciding what images are being projected and whether the ads are

    · Read stories about famous people who stood up for their beliefs
      in the face of opposition. Students can discuss how these people
      withstood the pressure and what they accomplished.

    · Give reasons for not taking drugs. Discuss with a health
      educator or drug counselor the false arguments for using drugs.
      Develop counter-arguments in response to typical messages or
      pressures on behalf of drug use.

    · Given a scenario depicting pressure to use drugs, act out ways
      of resisting (simply refusing, giving a reason, leaving the scene,
      etc.). Students then practice these techniques repeatedly.
      Demonstrate ways of resisting pressures, using older students
      specially trained as peer teachers.

    · Present scenarios involving drug-related problems (e.g.,
      learning that another student is selling drugs, a sibling using
      drugs; or being offered a drive home by a friend under the
      influence of drugs). Students practice what they would do and
      discuss to whom they would turn for help. Teachers should
      discuss and evaluate the appropriateness of student responses.

    · Discuss how it feels to resist pressures to take drugs. Hold a
      poster contest to depict the benefits derived both from not
      using and from saying no (e.g., being in control, increased
      respect from others, self-confidence).

OBJECTIVE 4: To promote activities that reinforce the positive,
drug-free elements of student life.

School activities that provide students opportunities to have fun
without drugs--and to contribute to the school community--build
momentum for peer pressure not to use drugs. These school activities
also nurture positive examples by giving older students opportunities
for leadership related to drug prevention.

Sample activities:

    · Make participation in school activities dependent on an
      agreement not to use drugs.

    · Ensure that drugs will not be available at school-sponsored
      activities or parties. Plan these events carefully to be certain
      that students have attractive alternatives to drug use.

    · Give students opportunities for leadership. They can be trained
      to serve as peer leaders in drug prevention programs, write
      plays, or design posters for younger students. Activities such
      as these provide youthful role models who demonstrate the
      importance of not using drugs. Youth training programs are
      available that prepare students to assist in drug education and
      provide information on how to form drug-free youth groups.

    · Form action teams for school improvement with membership limited
      to students who are drug free. These action teams campaign
      against drug use, design special drug-free events, conduct and
      follow up on surveys of school needs, help teachers with
      paperwork, tutor other students, or improve the appearance of
      the school. Through these activities, students develop a stake
      in their school, have the opportunity to serve others, and have
      positive reasons to reject drug use.


Federal law accords school officials broad authority to regulate
student conduct and supports reasonable and fair disciplinary action.
The Supreme Court recently reaffirmed that the constitutional rights
of students in school are not "automatically coextensive with the
rights of adults in other settings."[1] Rather, recognizing that "in
recent years ... drug use and violent crime in the schools have become
major social problems," the Court has emphasized the importance of
effective enforcement of school rules.[2] On the whole, a school "is
allowed to determine the methods of student discipline and need not
exercise its discretion with undue timidity."[3]

An effective campaign against drug use requires a basic understanding
of legal techniques for searching and seizing drugs and drug-related
material, for suspending and expelling students involved with drugs,
and for assisting law enforcement officials in the prosecution of drug
offenders. Such knowledge will both help schools identify and penalize
students who use or sell drugs at school and enable school officials
to uncover the evidence needed to support prosecutions under Federal
and State criminal laws that contain strong penalties for drug use and
sale. In many cases, school officials can be instrumental in
successful prosecutions.

In addition to the general Federal statutes that make it a crime to
possess or distribute a controlled substance, there are special
Federal laws designed to protect children and schools from drugs:

    An important part of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984
    makes it a _Federal crime to sell drugs in or near a public or
    private elementary or secondary school._ Under this new
    _"schoolhouse" law_, sales within 1,000 feet of school grounds are
    punishable by up to _double_ the sentence that would apply if the
    sale occurred elsewhere. Even more serious mandatory penalties are
    available for repeat offenders.[4]

    _Distribution or sale to minors_ of controlled substances is also
    a _Federal crime_. When anyone over age 21 sells drugs to anyone
    under 18, the seller runs the risk that he will receive up to
    _double_ the sentence that would apply to a sale to an adult. Here
    too, more serious penalties can be imposed on repeat offenders.[5]

By working with Federal and State prosecutors in their area, schools
can help to ensure that these laws and others are used to make
children and schools off-limits to drugs.

The following pages describe in general terms the Federal laws
applicable to the development of an effective school drug policy. This
handbook is not a compendium of all laws that may apply to a school
district, and it is not intended to provide legal advice on all issues
that may arise. School officials must recognize that many legal issues
in the school context are also governed, in whole or in part, by State
and local laws, which, given their diversity, cannot be covered here.
Advice should be sought from legal counsel in order to understand the
applicable laws and to ensure that the school's policies and actions
make full use of the available methods of enforcement.

Most private schools, particularly those that receive little or no
financial assistance from public sources and are not associated with a
public entity, enjoy a greater degree of legal flexibility with
respect to combating the sale and use of illegal drugs. Depending on
the terms of their contracts with enrolled students, such schools may
be largely free of the restrictions that normally apply to drug
searches or the suspension or expulsion of student drug users. Private
school officials should consult legal counsel to determine what
enforcement measures may be available to them.

School procedures should reflect the available legal means for
combating drug use. These procedures should be known to and understood
by school administrators and teachers as well as students, parents,
and law enforcement officials. Everyone should be aware that school
authorities have broad power within the law to take full, appropriate,
and effective action against drug offenders. Additional sources of
information on legal issues in school drug policy are listed at the
end of this handbook.


In some circumstances, the most important tool for controlling drug
use is an effective program of drug searches. School administrators
should not condone the presence of drugs _anywhere_ on school
property. The presence of any drugs or drug-related materials in
school can mean only one thing--that drugs are being used or
distributed in school. Schools committed to fighting drugs should do
everything they can to determine whether school grounds are being used
to facilitate the possession, use, or distribution of drugs and to
prevent such crimes.

In order to institute an effective drug search policy in schools with
a substantial problem, school officials can take several steps. First,
they can identify the specific areas in the school where drugs are
likely to be found or used. Student lockers, bathrooms, and "smoking
areas" are obvious candidates. Second, school administrators can
clearly announce _in writing_ at the _beginning_ of the school year
that these areas will be subject to unannounced searches and that
students should consider such areas "public" rather than "private."
The more clearly a school specifies that these portions of the
school's property are public, the less likely it is that a court will
conclude that students retain any reasonable expectation of privacy in
these places and the less justification will be needed to search such

School officials should, therefore, formulate and disseminate to all
students and staff a written policy that will permit an effective
program of drug searches. Courts have usually upheld locker searches
where schools have established written policies under which the school
retains joint control over student lockers, maintains duplicate or
master keys for all lockers, and reserves the right to inspect lockers
at any time.[6] While this has not become established law in every
part of the country, it will be easier to justify locker searches in
schools that have such policies. Moreover, the mere existence of such
policies can have a salutary effect. If students know that their
lockers may be searched, drug users will find it much more difficult
to maintain quantities of drugs in school.

The effectiveness of such searches may be improved with the use of
specially trained dogs. Courts have generally held that the use of
dogs to detect drugs on or in _objects_ such as lockers, ventilators,
or desks as opposed to persons, is not a "search" within the meaning
of the Fourth Amendment.[7] Accordingly, school administrators are
generally justified in using dogs in this way.

It is important to remember that any illicit drugs and drug-related
items discovered at school are evidence that may be used in a criminal
trial. School officials should be careful, first, to protect the
evidentiary integrity of such seizures by making sure that the items
are obtained in permissible searches, since unlawfully acquired
evidence will not be admissible in criminal proceedings. Second,
school officials should work closely with local law enforcement
officials to preserve, in writing, the nature and circumstances of any
seizure of drug contraband. In a criminal prosecution, the State must
prove that the items produced as evidence in court are the same items
that were seized from the suspect. Thus, the State must establish a
"chain of custody" over the seized items which accounts for the
possession of the evidence from the moment of its seizure to the
moment it is introduced in court. School policy regarding the
disposition of drug-related items should include procedures for the
custody and safekeeping of drugs and drug-related materials prior to
their removal by the police and procedures for recording the
circumstances regarding the seizure.

_Searching Students_

In some circumstances, teachers or other school personnel will wish to
search a student whom they believe to be in possession of drugs. The
Supreme Court has stated that searches may be carried out according to
"the dictates of reason and common sense."[8] The Court has recognized
that the need of school authorities to maintain order justifies
searches that might otherwise be unreasonable if undertaken by police
officers or in the larger community. Thus the Court held in 1985 that
school officials, unlike the police, do _not_ need "probable cause" to
conduct a search. Nor do they need a search warrant.[9]

Under the Supreme Court's ruling:

    · School officials may institute a search if there are "reasonable
      grounds" to believe that the search will reveal evidence that
      the student has violated or is violating either the law or the
      rules of the school.

    · The extent of the permissible search will depend on whether the
      measures used are reasonably related to the purpose of the
      search and are not excessively intrusive in light of the age and
      sex of the student.

    · School officials are not required to obtain search warrants when
      they carry out searches independent of the police and other law
      enforcement officials. A more stringent legal standard may apply
      if law enforcement officials are involved in the search.

_Interpretation of "Reasonable Grounds"_

Lower courts are beginning to interpret and apply the "reasonable
grounds" standard in the school setting. From these cases it appears
that courts will require more than general suspicion, curiosity,
rumor, or a hunch to justify searching a student or his possessions.
Factors that will help sustain a search include the observation of
specific and describable behavior or activities leading one reasonably
to believe that a given student is engaging in or has engaged in
prohibited conduct. The more specific the evidence in support of
searching a particular student, the more likely the search will be
upheld. For example, courts using a "reasonable grounds" (or similar)
standard have upheld the right of school officials to search:

    · A student's purse, after a teacher saw her smoking in a restroom
      and the student denied having smoked or being a smoker.[10]

    · A student's purse, after several other students said that she
      had been distributing firecrackers.[11]

    · A student's pockets, based on a phone tip about drugs from an
      anonymous source believed to have previously provided accurate

_Scope of the Permissible Search_

School officials are authorized to conduct searches within reasonable
limits. The Supreme Court has described two aspects of these limits.
First, when officials conduct a search, they must use only measures
that are reasonably related to the purpose of the search; second, the
search may not be excessively intrusive in light of the age or sex of
the student. For example, if a teacher believes she has seen one
student passing a marijuana cigarette to another student, she might
reasonably search the students and any nearby belongings in which the
students might have tried to hide the drug. If it turns out that what
the teacher saw was a stick of gum, she would have no justification
for any further search for drugs.

The more intrusive the search, the greater the justification that will
be required by the courts. A search of a student's jacket or bookbag
can often be justified as reasonable. At the other end of the
spectrum, strip searches are considered a highly intrusive invasion of
an individual's privacy and are viewed with disfavor by the courts
(although even these searches have been upheld in certain
extraordinary circumstances).

School officials do not necessarily have to stop a search if they find
what they are looking for. If the search of a student reveals items
that create reasonable grounds for suspecting that he may also possess
other evidence of crime or misconduct, the school officials may
continue the search. For example, if a teacher justifiably searches a
student's purse for cigarettes and finds rolling papers like those
used for marijuana cigarettes, it will then be reasonable for the
teacher to search the rest of the purse for other evidence of drugs.


If a student consents to a search, the search is permissible,
regardless of whether there would otherwise be reasonable grounds for
the search. To render such a search valid, however, the student must
give consent knowingly and voluntarily.

Establishing whether the student's consent was voluntary can be
difficult, and the burden is on the school officials to prove
voluntary consent. If a student agrees to be searched out of fear or
as a result of other coercion, that consent will probably be found
invalid. Similarly, if school officials indicate that a student must
agree to a search or if the student is very young or otherwise unaware
that he has the right to object, his consent will also be held
invalid. School officials may find it helpful to explain to students
that they need not consent to a search. In some cases, standard
consent forms may be useful.

If a student is asked to consent to a search and refuses, that refusal
does not mean that the search may not be conducted. Rather, in the
absence of consent, school officials retain the authority to conduct a
search when there are reasonable grounds to justify it, as described

_Special Types of Student Searches_

Schools with severe drug problems may occasionally wish to resort to
more intrusive searches, such as the use of trained dogs or urinalysis
to screen students for drug use. The Supreme Court has yet to address
these issues. The following paragraphs explain the existing rulings on
these subjects by other courts:

    · _Specially trained dogs._ The few courts that have considered
      this issue disagree as to whether the use of a specially trained
      dog to detect drugs on students constitutes a search within the
      meaning of the Fourth Amendment. Some courts have held that a
      dog's sniffing of a student is a search, and that, in the school
      setting, individualized grounds for reasonable suspicion are
      required in order for such a "sniff-search" to be held
      constitutional.[13] Under this standard, a blanket search of a
      school's entire student population by specially trained dogs
      would be prohibited.

      At least one other court has held that the use of trained dogs
      does not constitute a search, and has permitted the use of such
      dogs without individualized grounds for suspicion.[14] Another
      factor that courts may consider is the way that the dogs detect
      the presence of drugs. In some instances, the dogs are merely
      led down hallways or classroom aisles. In contrast, having the
      dogs actually touch parts of the students' bodies is more
      intrusive and would likely require specific justification.

      Courts have generally held that the use of specially trained
      dogs to detect drugs on objects, as opposed to persons, is not a
      search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment. Therefore,
      school officials may often be able to use dogs to inspect
      student lockers and school property.[15]

    · _Drug testing._ The use of urinalysis or other tests to screen
      students for drugs is a relatively new phenomenon and the law in
      this area is still evolving. The few courts that have considered
      this issue so far have not upheld urinalysis to screen public
      school students for drugs.[16] The permissibility of drug
      testing of students has not yet been determined under all
      circumstances, although drug testing of adults has been upheld
      in the criminal law setting.


A school policy may lawfully provide for penalties of varying
severity, including suspension and expulsion, to respond to
drug-related offenses. The Supreme Court has recently held that
because schools "need to be able to impose disciplinary sanctions for
a wide range of unanticipated conduct disruptive of the educational
process," a school's disciplinary rules need not be as detailed as a
criminal code.[17] Nonetheless, it is helpful for school policies to
be explicit about the types of offenses that will be punished and
about the penalties that may be imposed for each of these (e.g., use,
possession, or sale of drugs). State and local law will usually
determine the range of sanctions that is permissible. In general,
courts will require only that the penalty imposed for drug-related
misconduct be rationally related to the severity of the offense.

School officials should not forget that they have jurisdiction to
impose punishment for some drug-related offenses that occur off
campus. Depending upon State and local laws, schools are often able to
punish conduct at off-campus, school-sponsored events as well as
off-campus conduct that has a direct and immediate effect on school

_Procedural Guidelines_

Students facing suspension or expulsion from school are entitled under
the U.S. Constitution and most State constitutions to common sense due
process protections of notice and an opportunity to be heard. Because
the Supreme Court has recognized that a school's ability to maintain
order would be impeded if formal procedures were required every time
school authorities sought to discipline a student, the Court has held
that the nature and formality of the "hearing" will depend on the
severity of the sanction being imposed.

A formal hearing is not required when a school seeks to suspend a
student for 10 days or less.[18] The Supreme Court has held that due
process in that situation requires only that:

    · The school must inform the student, either orally or in writing,
      of the charges against him and of the evidence to support those

    · The school must give the student an opportunity to deny the
      charges and present his side of the story.

    · As a general rule, this notice and rudimentary hearing should
      precede a suspension. However, a student whose presence poses a
      continuing danger to persons or property or an ongoing threat of
      disrupting the academic process may be immediately removed from
      school. In such a situation, the notice and rudimentary hearing
      should follow as soon as possible.

The Supreme Court has also stated that more formal procedures may be
required for suspensions longer than 10 days and for expulsions.
Although the Court has not established specific procedures to be
followed in those situations, other Federal courts[19] have set the
following guidelines for expulsions. These guidelines would apply to
suspensions longer than 10 days as well:

    · The student must be notified in writing of the specific charges
      against him which, if proven, would justify expulsion.

    · The student should be given the names of the witnesses against
      him and an oral or written report on the facts to which each
      witness will testify.

    · The student should be given the opportunity to present his own
      defense against the charges and to produce witnesses or
      testimony on his behalf.

Many States have laws governing the procedures required for
suspensions and expulsions. Because applicable statutes and judicial
rulings vary across the country, local school districts may enjoy a
greater or lesser degree of flexibility in establishing procedures for
suspensions and expulsions.

School officials must also be aware of the special procedures that
apply to suspension or expulsion of handicapped students under Federal
law and regulations.[20]

_Effect of Criminal Proceedings Against a Student_

A school may usually pursue disciplinary action against a student
regardless of the status of any outside criminal prosecution. That is,
Federal law does not require the school to await the outcome of the
criminal prosecution before initiating proceedings to suspend or expel
a student or to impose whatever other penalty is appropriate for the
violation of the school's rules. In addition, a school is generally
free under Federal law to discipline a student when there is evidence
that the student has violated a school rule, even if a juvenile court
has acquitted (or convicted) the student or if local authorities have
declined to prosecute criminal charges stemming from the same
incident. Schools may wish to discuss this subject with counsel.

_Effect of Expulsion_

State and local law will determine the effect of expelling a student
from school. Some State laws require the provision of alternative
schooling for students below a certain age. In other areas, expulsion
may mean the removal from public schools for the balance of the school
year or even the permanent denial of access to the public school


To rid their schools of drugs, school officials will periodically need
to report drug-related crimes to police and to assist local law
enforcement authorities in detecting and prosecuting drug offenders.
In doing so, schools will need to take steps to ensure compliance with
Federal and State laws governing confidentiality of student records.

The Federal law that addresses this issue is the Family Educational
Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA),[21] which applies to any school that
receives Federal funding and which limits the disclosure of certain
information about students that is contained in education records.[22]
Under FERPA, disclosure of information in education records to
individuals or entities other than parents, students, and school
officials is only permissible in specified situations.[23] In many
cases, unless the parents or an eligible student[24] provides written
consent, FERPA will limit a school's ability to turn over education
records or to disclose information from them to the police. Such
disclosure is permitted, however, if (1) it is required by a court
order or subpoena, or (2) it is warranted by a health or safety
emergency. In the first of these two cases, reasonable efforts must be
made to notify the student's parents before the disclosure is made.
FERPA also permits disclosure if a State law enacted before November
19, 1974, specifically requires disclosure to State and local

Schools should be aware, however, that because FERPA only governs
information in education records, it does not limit disclosure of
other information. Thus, school employees are free to disclose any
information of which they become aware through personal observation.
For example, a teacher who witnesses a drug transaction may, when the
police arrive, report what he witnessed. Similarly, evidence seized
from a student during a search is not an education record and may be
turned over to the police without constraint.

State laws and school policies may impose additional, and sometimes
more restrictive, requirements regarding the disclosure of information
about students. Since this area of the law is complicated, it is
especially important that an attorney be involved in formulating
school policy under FERPA and applicable State laws.


_Lawsuits Against Schools or School Officials_

Disagreements between parents or students and school officials about
disciplinary measures usually can be resolved informally. Occasionally,
however, a school's decisions and activities relating to disciplinary
matters are the subject of lawsuits by parents or students against
administrators, teachers, and school systems. For these reasons, it is
advisable that school districts obtain adequate insurance coverage for
themselves and for _all_ school personnel for liability arising from
disciplinary actions.

Suits may be brought in Federal or State court; typically, they are
based on a claim that a student's constitutional or statutory rights
have been violated. Frequently, these suits will seek to revoke the
school district's imposition of some disciplinary measure, for
example, by ordering the reinstatement of a student who has been
expelled or suspended. Suits may also attempt to recover money damages
from the school district or the employee involved, or both, however,
court awards of money damages are extremely rare. Moreover, although
there can be no guarantee of a given result in any particular case,
courts in recent years have tended to discourage such litigation.

In general, disciplinary measures imposed reasonably and in accordance
with established legal requirements will be upheld by the courts. As a
rule, Federal judges will not substitute their interpretations of
school rules or regulations for those of local school authorities or
otherwise second-guess reasonable decisions by school officials.[25]
In addition, school officials are entitled to a qualified good faith
immunity from personal liability for damages for having violated a
student's Federal constitutional or civil rights.[26] When this
immunity applies, it shields school officials from any personal
liability for money damages. Thus, as a general matter, personal
liability is very rare, because officials should not be held
personally liable unless their actions are clearly unlawful,
unreasonable, or arbitrary.

When a court does award damages, the award may be "compensatory" or
"punitive." Compensatory damages are awarded to compensate the student
for injuries actually suffered as a result of the violation of his or
her rights and cannot be based upon the abstract "value" or
"importance" of the constitutional rights in question.[27] The burden
is on the student to prove that he suffered actual injury as a result
of the deprivation. Thus, a student who is suspended, but not under
the required procedures, will not be entitled to compensation if he
would have been suspended had a proper hearing been held. If the
student cannot prove that the failure to hold a hearing itself caused
him some compensable harm, then the student is entitled to no more
than nominal damages, such as $1.00.[28] "Punitive damages" are
awarded to punish the perpetrator of the injury. Normally, punitive
damages are awarded only when the conduct in question is malicious,
unusually reckless, or otherwise reprehensible.

Parents and students can also claim that actions by a school or school
officials have violated State law. For example, it can be asserted
that a teacher "assaulted" a student in violation of a State criminal
law. The procedures and standards in actions involving such violations
are determined by each State. Some States provide a qualified immunity
from tort liability under standards similar to the "good faith"
immunity in Federal civil rights actions. Other States provide
absolute immunity under their law for actions taken in the course of a
school official's duties.

_Nondiscrimination in Enforcement of Discipline_

Federal law applicable to programs or activities receiving Federal
financial assistance prohibits school officials who are administering
discipline from discriminating against students on the basis of race,
color, national origin, or sex. Schools should therefore administer
their discipline policies even-handedly, without regard to such
considerations. Thus, as a general matter, students with similar
disciplinary records who violate the same rule in the same way should
be treated similarly. For example, if male and female students with no
prior record of misbehavior are caught together smoking marijuana, it
would not, in the absence of other relevant factors, be advisable for
the school to suspend the male for 10 days while imposing only an
afternoon detention on the female. Such divergent penalties for the
same offense may be appropriate, however, if, for example, the student
who received the harsher punishment had a history of misconduct or
committed other infractions after this first confrontation with school

School officials should also be aware of and adhere to the special
rules and procedures for the disciplining of handicapped students
under the Education of the Handicapped Act, 20 USC § 1400-20, and
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 USC § 794.

(For legal citations, see reference section.)


_Specific Drugs and Their Effects_



All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental effects.
Several regularly observed physical effects of cannabis are a
substantial increase in the heart rate, bloodshot eyes, a dry mouth
and throat, and increased appetite.

Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short-term memory and
comprehension, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to perform
tasks requiring concentration and coordination, such as driving a car.
Research also shows that students do not retain knowledge when they
are "high." Motivation and cognition may be altered, making the
acquisition of new information difficult. Marijuana can also produce
paranoia and psychosis.

Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold
it in their lungs as long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the
lungs and pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke contains more
cancer-causing agents than tobacco.

Long-term users of cannabis may develop psychological dependence and
require more of the drug to get the same effect. The drug can become
the center of their lives.

  Type          What is        What does it            How is
                it called?     look like?              it used?
  Marijuana     Pot            Dried parsley mixed     Eaten
                Grass            with stems that       Smoked
                Weed             may include seeds
                Mary Jane
                Acapulco Gold
                Thai Sticks
  Tetrahydro-   THC            Soft gelatin capsules  Taken orally
    cannabinol                                        Smoked
  Hashish       Hash           Brown or black         Eaten
                                 cakes or balls       Smoked
  Hashish Oil   Hash Oil       Concentrated           Smoked--mixed
                                 syrupy liquid          with tobacco
                                 varying in color
                                 from clear to black



Immediate negative effects of inhalants include nausea, sneezing,
coughing, nose-bleeds, fatigue, lack of coordination, and loss of
appetite. Solvents and aerosol sprays also decrease the heart and
respiratory rates, and impair judgment. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause
rapid pulse, headaches, and involuntary passing of urine and feces.
Long-term use may result in hepatitis or brain hemorrhage.

Deeply inhaling the vapors, or using large amounts over a short
period of time, may result in disorientation, violent behavior,
unconsciousness, or death. High concentrations of inhalants can cause
suffocation by displacing the oxygen in the lungs or by depressing the
central nervous system to the point that breathing stops.

Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance,
and muscle fatigue. Repeated sniffing of concentrated vapors over time
can permanently damage the nervous system.

  Type          What is        What does it            How is
                it called?     look like?              it used?
  Nitrous       Laughing gas   Propellant for          Vapors inhaled
    Oxide       Whippets         whipped
                                 cream in aerosol
                                 spray can
                               Small 8-gram metal
                                 cylinder sold with
                                 a balloon or
                                 pipe (buzz bomb)
  Amyl          Poppers        Clear yellowish         Vapors inhaled
    Nitrite     Snappers         liquid in ampules
  Butyl         Rush           Packaged in small       Vapors inhaled
    Nitrite     Bolt             bottles
                Locker room
  Chlorohydro-  Aerosol        Aerosol paint cans      Vapors inhaled
  carbons         sprays       Containers of cleaning
  Hydrocarbons  Solvents       Cans of aerosol         Vapors  inhaled
                                 gasoline, glue,
                                 paint thinner



Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its immediate effects
include dilated pupils and elevated blood pressure, heart rate,
respiratory rate, and body temperature. Occasional use can cause a
stuffy or runny nose, while chronic use can ulcerate the mucous
membrane of the nose. Injecting cocaine with unsterile equipment can
cause AIDS, hepatitis, and other diseases. Preparation of freebase,
which involves the use of volatile solvents, can result in death or
injury from fire or explosion. Cocaine can produce psychological and
physical dependency, a feeling that the user cannot function without
the drug. In addition, tolerance develops rapidly.

Crack or freebase rock is extremely addictive, and its effects are
felt within 10 seconds. The physical effects include dilated pupils,
increased pulse rate, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, loss of
appetite, tactile hallucinations, paranoia, and seizures.

The use of cocaine can cause death by disrupting the brain's control
of the heart and respiration.

  Type          What is        What does it            How is
                it called?     look like?              it used?
  Cocaine       Coke           White crystalline       Inhaled
                Snow             powder, often           through
                Flake            diluted with            nasal
                White            other ingredients       passages
                Blow                                   Injected
                Nose Candy                             Smoked
                Big C
  Crack or      Crack          Light brown or          Smoked
    cocaine     Freebase rocks   beige pellets--or
                Rock             crystalline rocks
                                 that resemble coagulated
                                 soap; often packaged
                                 in small vials



Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated
blood pressure, dilated pupils, and decreased appetite. In addition,
users may experience sweating, headache, blurred vision, dizziness,
sleeplessness, and anxiety. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or
irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical
collapse. An amphetamine injection creates a sudden increase in blood
pressure that can result in stroke, very high fever, or heart failure.

In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling restless,
anxious, and moody. Higher doses intensify the effects. Persons who
use large amounts of amphetamines over a long period of time can
develop an amphetamine psychosis that includes hallucinations,
delusions, and paranoia. These symptoms usually disappear when drug
use ceases.

  Type          What is        What does it            How is
                it called?     look like?              it used?
  Amphetamines  Speed          Capsules                Taken orally
                Uppers         Pills                   Injected
                Ups            Tablets                 Inhaled
                Black Beauties                           through
                Pep Pills                                nasal
                Copilots                                 passages
  Metham-       Crank          White powder            Taken orally
  phetamines    Crystal Meth   Pills                   Injected
                Crystal        A rock which            Inhaled
                Methedrine       resembles a             through
                Speed            block of paraffin       nasal
  Additional    Ritalin        Pills                   Taken orally
  Stimulants    Cylert         Capsules                Injected
                Preludin       Tablets



The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of
alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but
somewhat larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait, and
altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression,
coma, and death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can
multiply the effects of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks.

The use of depressants can cause both physical and psychological
dependence. Regular use over time may result in a tolerance to the
drug, leading the user to increase the quantity consumed. When regular
users suddenly stop taking large doses, they may develop withdrawal
symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety to
convulsions and death.

Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be
physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms shortly
after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems also may

  Type          What is        What does it            How is
                it called?     look like?              it used?
  Barbiturates  Downers        Red, yellow, blue,      Taken orally
                Barbs            or red and blue
                Blue Devils      capsules
                Red Devils
                Yellow Jacket
  Methaqualone  Quaaludes      Tablets                 Taken orally
  Tranquilizers Valium         Tablets                 Taken orally
                Librium        Capsules



Phencyhdine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the neocortex, the
section of the brain that controls the intellect and keeps instincts
in check. Because the drug blocks pain receptors, violent PCP episodes
may result in self-inflicted injuries.

The effects of PCP vary, but users frequently report a sense of
distance and estrangement. Time and body movement are slowed down.
Muscular coordination worsens and senses are dulled. Speech is blocked
and incoherent.

Chronic users of PCP report persistent memory problems and speech
difficulties. Some of these effects may last 6 months to a year
following prolonged daily use. Mood disorders--depression, anxiety,
and violent behavior--also occur in later stages of chronic use, users
often exhibit paranoid and violent behavior and experience

Large doses may produce convulsions and coma, heart and lung failure,
or ruptured blood vessels in the brain.

Lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause illusions and
hallucinations. The physical effects may include dilated pupils,
elevated body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure,
loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and tremors.

Sensations and feelings may change rapidly. It is common to have a bad
psychological reaction to LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. The user may
experience panic, confusion, suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control.
Delayed effects, or flashbacks, can occur even after use has ceased.

  Type          What is        What does it            How is
                it called?     look like?              it used?
  Phencychdine  PCP            Liquid                  Taken orally
                Angel Dust     Capsules                Injected
                Loveboat       White crystalline       Smoked--can
                Lovely           powder                  be sprayed
                Hog            Pills                     on cigarettes,
                Killer Weed                              parsley, and
  Lysergic      Acid LSD       Brightly colored tablets  Taken orally
  Acid          Acid           Impregnated blotter paper Licked off
  Diethylamide  Green or Red   Thin squares of gelatin     paper
                Dragon         Clear liquid              Gelatin and
                White Lightning                            liquid can
                Blue Heaven                                be put in
                Sugar Cubes                                the eyes
  Mescaline     Mesc           Hard brown discs          Discs--chewed,
    and Peyote  Buttons        Tablets                     swallowed,
                Cactus         Capsules                    or smoked
                                                         Tablets and
  Psilocybin    Magic          Fresh or dried mushroom  Chewed and
                  mushrooms                               swallowed



Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that often is
followed by drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Users also may
experience constricted pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An overdose
may produce slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions,
coma, and possibly death.

Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is likely. The
use of contaminated syringes may result in diseases such as AIDS,
endocarditis, and hepatitis. Addiction in pregnant women can lead to
premature, stillborn, or addicted infants who experience severe
withdrawal symptoms.

  Type          What is        What does it            How is
                it called?     look like?              it used?
  Heroin        Smack          Powder, white to dark   Injected
                Horse            brown                 Inhaled
                Brown Sugar    Tar-like substance        through
                Junk                                     nasal
                Mud                                      passages
                Big H                                  Smoked
                Black Tar
  Methadone     Dolophine      Solution                Taken orally
                Methadose                              Injected
  Codeine       Empirin        Dark liquid varying     Taken orally
                  compound       in thickness          Injected
                  with         Capsules
                  Codeine      Tablets
                Tylenol with
                Codeine in
  Morphine      Pectoral        White crystals            Injected
                 syrup          Hypodermic tablets        Taken orally
                                Injectable solutions      Smoked
  Meperidine    Pethidine       White powder              Taken orally
                Demerol         Solution                  Injected
                Mepergan        Tablets
  Opium         Paregoric       Dark brown chunks         Smoked
                Dover's Powder  Powder                    Eaten
  Other         Percocet        Tablets                   Taken orally
  Narcotics     Percodan        Capsules                  Injected
                Tussionex       Liquid



Illegal drugs are defined in terms of their chemical formulas. To
circumvent these legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the
molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to produce analogs known
as designer drugs. These drugs can be several hundred times stronger
than the drugs they are designed to imitate.

The narcotic analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen in
Parkinson's disease--uncontrollable tremors, drooling, impaired speech,
paralysis, and irreversible brain damage. Analogs of amphetamines and
methamphetamines cause nausea, blurred vision, chills or sweating, and
faintness. Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and
paranoia. As little as one dose can cause brain damage. The analogs of
phencyclidine cause illusions, hallucinations, and impaired perception.

  Type          What is        What does it            How is
                it called?     look like?              it used?
  Analogs of    Synthetic      White powder            Inhaled
    Fentanyl      Heroin         resembling heroin       through
    (Narcotic)  China White                              nasal
  Analogs of    Synthetic      White powder            Inhaled
    Meperidine  Heroin                                   through
    (Narcotic)  MPTP (New                                nasal
                  Heroin)                                passages
                MPPP                                   Injected
  Analogs of    MDMA (Ecstasy, White powder             Taken orally
    Ampheta-      XTC, Adam,   Tablets                  Injected
    mines and     Essence)     Capsules                 Inhaled
    Metham-     MDM                                       through
    phetamines  STP                                       nasal
    (Hallucino- PMA                                       passages
    gens)       2, 5-DMA
  Analogs of    PCPy           White powder             Taken orally
    Phency-     PCE                                     Injected
    clidine     TCP                                     Smoked

_Sources of Information_



A national information and referral service that focuses primarily on
preventing drug addiction in children and adolescents. By referral to
the caller's "State networker" or a member group in the caller's
community, NFP also provides assistance to anyone concerned about a
child already using alcohol or drugs. Call between 9:00 am and 5:00 pm
(Eastern time).


A national resource and information center, Parents' Resource
Institute for Drug Education (PRIDE) refers concerned parents to
parent groups in their State or local area, gives information on how
parents can form a group in their community, provides telephone
consulting and referrals to emergency health centers, and maintains a
series of drug information tapes that callers can listen to,
free-of-charge, by calling after 5:00 pm.


A national information service that provides technical assistance to
individuals and groups wishing to start drug prevention programs.
Currently, the program focuses on the establishment of the "Just Say
No To Drugs" clubs.


NIDA Hotline is a confidential information and referral line that
directs callers to cocaine abuse treatment centers in the local
community. Free materials on drug abuse are also distributed in
response to inquiries.


A round-the-clock information and referral service. Reformed cocaine
addict counselors answer the phones, offer guidance, and refer drug
users and parents to local public and private treatment centers and
family learning centers.


The publications in the following list that are followed by an (a) or
(b) are available from these organizations:

    (a) National Federation of Parents for Drug-Free Youth (NFP), 8730
    Georgia Avenue, Suite 200, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Telephone
    tollfree nationwide 1-800-554-KIDS or, in the Washington, DC area,

    (b) Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education, Inc. (PRIDE),
    Woodruff Bldg., Suite 1002, 100 Edgewood Avenue, Atlanta, GA
    30303. Telephone tollfree nationwide 1-800-241-9746.

_Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Abuse_, by Donald I. MacDonald, 1984. A
200-page book on stages of drug involvement, drugs, diagnosis, and
treatment. The author, a pediatrician who experienced the problem in
his own family, addresses physicians and parents. Year Book Publishers,
35 East Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60601. Telephone 1-800-621-9262.
Paperback, $15.95.

_Courtwatch Manual_. A 111-page manual explains the court system, the
criminal justice process, Courtwatch activities, and what can be done
before and after a criminal is sentenced. Washington Legal Foundation,
1705 N Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036. Enclose $2.00 for postage and

_Drug Use Among American High School Students, College Students, and
Other Young Adults: National Trends Through 1985_, by Jerald G.
Bachman, Lloyd D. Johnson, and Patrick M. O'Malley, 1986. A 237-page
book reporting on trends in drug use and attitudes of high school
seniors, based on an annual survey conducted since 1975. The National
Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD 20857, ADM 86-1450. Single
copies are available free.

_Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs_, by Robert DuPont, Jr., 1984. A
330-page book describing the drug problem, the drug-dependence
syndrome, the gateway drugs, and ways that families can prevent and
treat drug problems. American Psychiatric Press Inc., paperback, $7.95

_Gone Way Down, Teenage Drug-Use Is a Disease_, by Miller Newton, 1981.
A 72-page book describing the stages of adolescent drug use. American
Studies Press, paperback, $2.95(a).

_How to Talk to Your Kids About Growing up Without Drugs and Alcohol._
A videotape that offers a practical, easy-to-follow approach to improve
family communications, particularly on the subject of adolescent drug
and alcohol use. It includes interviews with experts in the field.

_Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and Professionals_, by Joyce
Tobias, 1986. A 96-page handbook about adolescent drug and alcohol use,
the effects of drugs and the drug culture, stages of chemical use,
parent groups and their creation and maintenance, and resources
available to parents and professionals. PANDA Press, 4111 Watkins
Trail, Annandale, VA 22003. Telephone (703) 750-9285, paperback, $3.95
(volume discounts).

_Marijuana Alert_, by Peggy Mann, 1985. A 526-page book about
marijuana: the crisis, health hazards, and activities of parent groups,
industry, and government. McGraw-Hill Paperbacks, $15.95(a)(b).

_Not My Kid_, by Beth Polson and Miller Newton, 1984. A 224-page guide
for parents to aid in prevention, recognition, and treatment of
adolescent chemical use. It is especially strong on overcoming denial
and recognizing problems, with numerous personal vignettes. Avon
Paperback Books, #69997-4, $2.95; hardcover, $15.95(b).

_Parents, Peers and Pot_, by Marsha Manatt, 1979. A 96-page book that
recounts the evolution of the drug culture, the development of the
first parent peer group, actions for parents to take, and information
on marijuana. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, $3.00(b).

_Parents, Peers and Pot II: Parents in Action_, by Marsha Manatt, 1983.
A 160-page book that describes the formation of parent groups in rural,
suburban, and urban communities. U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, $1.00(b).

_Peer Pressure Reversal_, by Sharon Scott, 1985. A 183-page guidebook
for parents, teachers, and concerned citizens to enable them to provide
peer pressure reversal skills to children. Human Resource Development
Center, Amherst, MA, $9.95(a)(b).

_Pot Safari_, by Peggy Mann, 1982. For parents and teenagers.
Distinguished research scientists are interviewed on the subject of
marijuana. Woodmere Press, New York, NY, $6.95(a)(b).

_Strategies for Controlling Adolescent Drug Use_, by J. Michael Polich
et al., 1984. A 196-page book that reviews the scientific literature on
the nature of drug use and the effectiveness of drug law enforcement,
treatment, and prevention programs. The Rand Corporation, 1700 Main
Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138, paperback, $15.00.

_Team Up for Drug Prevention With America's Young Athletes._ A free
booklet for coaches that includes alcohol and drug information, reasons
why athletes use drugs, suggested activities for coaches, a prevention
program, a survey for athletes and coaches, and sample letters to
parents. Drug Enforcement Administration, Public Affairs Staff, 1405 I
Street, NW, Washington, DC 20537.


COMP CARE PUBLICATIONS. A source for pamphlets, books, and charts on
drug and alcohol abuse, chemical awareness, and self-help. Telephone

HAZELDEN EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS. A source for pamphlets and books on
drug abuse and alcoholism and curriculum materials for drug prevention.
Telephone 1-800-328-9000.


Education. The "School Team" approach offered in this program is
designed to develop the capability of local schools to prevent and
reduce drug and alcohol abuse and associated disruptive behaviors.
Five regional centers now provide training and technical assistance to
local school districts that apply. For information, write to the U.S.
Department of Education, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Education Program, 400
Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-4101.

develops media campaigns; reviews scientific findings; publishes
books, a quarterly newsletter, and education kits for physicians,
schools, and libraries; and produces films. 5820 Hubbard Drive,
Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone (301) 984-5700.

COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE, INC. This organization provides a
newsletter and emergency news flashes that give extensive information
on issues, ideas, and contacts. Provides a resource list and sells
many pamphlets. Membership is $15.00. 57 Conant Street, Room 113,
Danvers, MA 09123. Telephone (617) 774-2641.

FAMILIES IN ACTION. This organization maintains a drug information
center with more than 100,000 documents. Publishes _Drug Abuse
Update_, a 16-page newsletter containing abstracts of articles
published in medical and academic journals and newspapers throughout
the Nation. $10.00 for 4 issues. 3845 North Druid Hills Road, Suite
300, Decatur, GA 30033. Telephone (404) 325-5799.

NARCOTICS EDUCATION, INC. This organization publishes pamphlets,
books, teaching aids, posters, audiovisual aids, and prevention
magazines especially good for classroom use: WINNER for preteens and
LISTEN for teens. 6830 Laurel Street, NW, Washington, DC 20012.
Telephone 1-800-548-8700, or in the Washington, DC area, call

national umbrella organization helps parent groups get started and
stay in contact. Publishes a newsletter, legislative updates, resource
lists for individuals and libraries, brochures, kits, and a
_Training Manual for Drug-Free Youth Groups._ It sells many books
and offers discounts for group purchases. Conducts an annual
conference. Membership: Individual $15.00, Group $35.00 (group
membership offers tax-exemption). 8730 Georgia Avenue, Suite 200,
Silver Spring, MD 20910. Telephone: Washington, DC area 585-KIDS, or
toll-free HOTLINE 1-800-554-KIDS.

national resource and information center offers consultant services to
parent groups, school personnel, and youth groups, and provides a drug
use survey service. It conducts an annual conference; publishes a
newsletter, youth group handbook, and many other publications; and
sells and rents books, films, videos and slide programs. Membership
$8.00. Woodruff Bldg., Suite 1002, 100 Edgewood Avenue, Atlanta, GA
30303. Telephone 1-800-241-9746.

TARGET. Conducted by the National Federation of State High School
Associations, an organization of interscholastic activities
associations, TARGET offers workshops, training seminars, and an
information bank on chemical abuse and prevention. A computerized
referral service to substance abuse literature and prevention programs
will begin operating in 1987. National Federation of State High School
Associations, 11724 Plaza Circle, P.O. Box 20626, Kansas City, MO
64195. Telephone (816) 464-5400.

TOUGHLOVE. This national self-help group for parents, children, and
communities emphasizes cooperation, personal initiative, avoidance of
blame, and action. It publishes a newsletter and a number of brochures
and books and holds workshops across the country each year. P.O. Box
1069, Doylestown, PA 18901. Telephone (215) 348-7090.

U.S. CLEARINGHOUSES. (A publication list is available on request,
along with placement on mailing list for new publications. Single
copies are free.)

    National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA), P.O.
    Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone (301) 468-2600.

    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Room 10-A-43, 5600
    Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone (301) 443-6500.


To find programs, call your city or county substance abuse or mental
health agency, hospitals, schools, local hotlines listed in the yellow
pages, and the hotlines listed previously. It is best to visit
prospective programs and to talk with people who have completed the

This section lists several unique national adolescent programs that
illustrate the wide diversity of long-term intensive treatment
programs available at low cost.

PALMER DRUG ABUSE PROGRAM (PDAP). PDAP is a free program supported by
private donations and located mainly in southwestern, western, and
midwestern States. It accepts out-of-town clients. It is a long-term
out-patient counseling program with daycare capability based on the 12
steps of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). It uses recuperating users as peer
counselors. The program also maintains parent groups that may be
attended by parents who do not have children in the PDAP program.
National Office: 3300 North A Street, Building 8, Suite 204, Midland,
TX 79705. Telephone (915) 687-4311.

STRAIGHT INC. Located in selected States, primarily in the East and
Midwest, the program accepts out-of-town clients. The program is a
long term, highly structured outpatient program based on the 12 steps
of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). During the early phase of the program,
the new client lives in the home of another child advanced in the
program. This family system provides positive role modeling, close
supervision, and a 24-hour, drug-free environment at low cost.
National Office: Straight Inc. National Training and Development
Center, 3001 Gandy Blvd., P.O. Box 21686, St. Petersburg, FL 33742.
Telephone (813) 576-8929.

TEEN CHALLENGE. This Christian-oriented residential program has
facilities across the country and overseas. It serves young people
with a variety of behavior problems besides drug use. Occupational
skills are taught. National Office: Teen Challenge Training Center,
Inc., P.O. Box 198, Rehrersburg, PA 19550. Telephone (717) 933-4181.


_American Public School Law_, Alexander, Kern. 2d ed., St. Paul, MN:
West Publishing Company, 1985.

_Education Law_, Rapp, J. A. New York, NY: Matthew Bender and Company,
Inc., 1986. A comprehensive, frequently updated, four-volume, looseleaf
treatise on all issues of education law.

_The Journal of Law and Education_ includes articles on a wide range of
education issues and includes a section on recent developments in the
law. It is published quarterly by Jefferson Law Book Company, P.O. Box
1936, Cincinnati, OH 45201.

_The Law of Public Education_, Reuter, E. Edmund. 3d ed. Mineola, NY:
Foundation Press, 1985.

_School Law Bulletin_ is a quarterly magazine published by the
Institute of Government, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
Chapel Hill, NC 27514-6059.

_School Law News_ is a newsletter that describes recent developments in
the field. It is published by Capitol Publications, Inc., 1300 North
17th Street, Arlington, VA 22209.

_The Schools and the Courts_ contains briefs of selected court cases
involving elementary and secondary schools. It is published quarterly
by School Administration Publications, P.O. Box 8492, Asheville, NC

_Specialty Law Digest: Education Cases_ is a monthly compilation of
cases and comments published by the Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.,
Suite 204, 10301 University Avenue, NE, Blaine, MN 55433.

_West's Education Law Reporter_ reprints the full text of Federal and
State education law cases. Also included in this series are education
articles and comments selected from legal periodicals. It is published
by West Publishing Company, 50 W. Kellogg Blvd., P.O. Box 64526, St.
Paul, MN 55164-0526.


provides a national forum on the practical legal problems faced by
local public school districts and the attorneys who serve them. This
organization conducts programs and seminars and publishes monographs
on a wide range of legal issues affecting public school districts.
1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. Telephone (703) 838-NSBA.

periodic newsletters and monographs on legal issues, some of which
relate to school discipline and student behavior. 1904 Association
Drive, Reston, VA 22091. Telephone (703) 860-0200.

nonprofit, nonadvocacy organization that disseminates information
about current issues in school law. NOLPE publishes newsletters,
serials, books, and monographs on a variety of school law topics;
hosts seminars; and serves as a clearinghouse for information on
education law. 3601 Southwest 29th, Suite 223, Topeka, KS 66614.
Telephone (913) 273-3550.


Children and Drugs

Friedman, Alfred. "Does Drug and Alcohol Use Lead to Failure to
Graduate from High School?" _Journal of Drug Education_, Vol. 15(4),

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.
_Monitoring the Future Questionnaire Responses From the Nation's High
School Seniors._ Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan, Institute for
Social Research, forthcoming (and unpublished information).

Tobias, Joyce M. _Kids and Drugs._ Annandale, VA, Panda Press, 1986.

Extent of Drug Use

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.
_Monitoring the Future Questionnaire Responses From the Nation's High
School Seniors._ Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan, Institute for
Social Research forthcoming (and unpublished information).

Johnston, Lloyd D., Patrick M. O'Malley and Jerald G. Bachman. _Drug
Use Among American High School Students, College Students, and Other
Young Adults National Trends Through 1985._ Rockville, MD, National
Institute on Drug Abuse, 1986 (ADM 86-1450).

Miller, Judith D., Ira H. Cisin, and Herbert I. Abelson. _National
Survey on Drug Abuse Main Findings, 1982._ Rockville, MD, National
Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983 (ADM) 83-1263.

National Center for Juvenile Justice. _Delinquency in the United
States, 1982._ Pittsburgh, PA, National Council of Juvenile and Family
Court Judges, 1985.

National Police Agency of Japan _Drug Problems in Japan._ National
Police Agency of Japan, 1985.

O. Malley, Patrick M., Jerald G. Bachman, and Lloyd D. Johnston.
_Student Drug Use in America Differences Among High Schools._ Ann
Arbor, MI, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research,
(unpublished) preliminary draft.

Statistics Bureau, Management and Coordination Agency. _Japan
Statistics Yearbook, 1985_, 1985.

Washton, Arnold M., and Mark S. Gold. "Recent Trends in Cocaine Abuse A
View from the National Hotline, 800-COCAINE," _Advances in Alcohol and
Substance Abuse_, forthcoming.

How Drug Use Develops

Bolton, Iris M. "Educated Suicide Prevention," _School Safety._ Spring,

DuPont, Robert L. _Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs._ Washington, DC,
American Psychiatric Press, 1984.

Gold, Mark S., Linda Semlitz, Charles A. Dackis, and Irl Extein. "The
Adolescent Cocaine Epidemic," _Seminars in Adolescent Medicine_, Vol.
1(4). New York, NY, Thieme Inc., December, 1985.

Holzman, David. "Crack Shatters the Cocaine Myth," _Insight_. June 23,

Holzman, David. "Hot Line Taking 1,200 Calls a Day," _Insight_. June
23, 1986.

Jaffe, Jerome H. _Testimony before Subcommittee on Children, Family,
Drugs and Alcoholism._ February 20, 1986. Washington, DC, U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1986.

Mann, Peggy. _Marijuana Alert._ New York, NY, McGraw Hill, 1985.

Mills, Carol J., and Harvey L. Noyes. "Patterns and Correlates of
Initial and Subsequent Drug Use Among Adolescents," _Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology_, Vol. 52(2), 1984.

Morganthau, Tom, Mark Miller, Janet Huck, and Jeanne DeQuinne. "Kids
and Cocaine," _Newsweek_. March 17, 1986.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Cocaine Addiction It Costs Too
Much._ Rockville, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985.

Tobias, Joyce M. _Kids and Drugs._ Annandale, VA, Panda Press, 1986.

Weekly Reader Publications. _A Study of Children's Attitudes and
Perceptions About Drugs and Alcohol._ Middletown, CT, Xerox Educational
Publications, 1983.

Effects of Drug Use

Deadwyler, Sam A. "Correlating Behavior with Neural Activity An
Approach to Study the Action of Drugs in the Behaving Animal,"
_Neuroscience Methods in Drug Abuse Research_, Rockville, MD, National
Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985.

Mann, Peggy. _Marijuana Alert._ New York, NY, McGraw-Hill, 1985.

Tobias, Joyce M. _Kids and Drugs._ Annandale, VA, Panda Press, 1986.

Drug Use and Learning

Friedman, Alfred. Does Drug and Alcohol Use Lead to Failure to Graduate
from High School? _Journal of Drug Education_, Vol. 15(4), 1985.

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.
_Monitoring the Future Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High
School Seniors._ Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan, Institute for
Social Research, forthcoming (and unpublished information).

Niven, Robert G. "Marijuana in the School Clinical Observation and
Needs," _Marijuana and Youth._ Rockville, MD, National Institute on
Drug Abuse, 1982.

Washton, Arnold M. and Mark S. Gold. "Recent Trends in Cocaine Abuse A
View from the National Hotline, '800-COCAINE'". _Advances in Alcohol
and Substance Abuse_, forthcoming.

What Parents Can Do

American Association of School Administrators and the Quest National
Center. _Positive Prevention Successful Approaches to Preventing
Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use._ Arlington, VA, American Association of
School Administrators, 1985.

Fraser, M. W., and J. D. Hawkins. _Parent Training for Delinquency
Prevention A Review._ Seattle, WA, Center for Law and Justice,
University of Washington, 1982.

Manatt, Marsha. _Parents, Peers, and Pot II._ Rockville, MD National
Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

Mann, Peggy. _Marijuana Alert._ New York, NY, McGraw-Hill, 1985.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Drugs and the Family_. Rockville,
MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981 (ADM 83 1151).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Parents What You Can Do About Drug
Abuse--Get Involved._ Rockville, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse,
1983 (ADM 84 1267).

Tobias, Joyce M. _Kids and Drugs._ Annandale, VA, Panda Press, 1986.

What Schools Can Do

Adams, Tom, with Bernard R. McColgan, Steven E Gardner, and Maureen E.
Sullivan. _Drug Abuse Prevention and the Schools._ Rockville, MD,
National Institute on Drug Abuse, June, 1984 (unpublished paper).

_Assisting Athletes with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems._ Rockland,
ME, The State of Maine, March, 1986.

Hampshire Informed Parents, Inc. "Evaluation of Drug Literature".
Amherst, MA, Hampshire Informed Parents, Inc.

Hawley, R. _A School Answers Back Responding to Student Drug Use._
Rockville, MD, American Council for Drug Education, 1984.

Kennedy, Dorothy. "A Teacher, Help Me Stop Drug Abuse," _The Executive
Educator_. October, 1980, p. 23.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. _Prevention Plus
Involving Schools, Parents, and the Community in Alcohol and Drug
Education._ Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983 (ADM
83 1256).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Handbook for Prevention Evaluation._
Rockville, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981.

National School Boards Association. _Resolutions of the NSBA._
Alexandria, VA, National School Boards Association, April, 1986.

Pyramid Project. _School Drug Policy._ Berkeley, CA, Pacific Institute
for Research and Evaluation, July, 1986.

The Rand Corporation. _Teens In Action Creating a Drug Free Future for
America's Youth._ Rockville, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985
(ADM 85-1376).

Rubel, Robert J. _A Comprehensive Approach to Drug Prevention._ Austin,
TX, National Alliance for Safe Schools, 1984.

South Dakota High School Activities Association. _Chemical Health
School Athletics and Fine Arts Activities._ Pierre, SD, South Dakota
High School Athletics Association, 1968.

Strong, Gerald. "It's Time to Get Tough on Alcohol and Drug Abuse in
Schools," _The American School Board Journal_. February, 1983.

U.S. Department of Justice. _For Coaches Only How to Start a Drug
Prevention Program._ Washington, DC, Drug Enforcement Administration,

U.S. Department of Justice. _Team Up for Prevention._ Washington, DC,
Drug Enforcement Administration, 1984.

What Communities Can Do

Blizard, R. A. and R. W. Teague. "Alternatives to Drug Use An
Alternative Approach to Drug Education," _The International Journal
of the Addictions_, 1981, pp 371-375.

Evaluation and Training Institute. _Final Evaluation Report, 1984 85
Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)._ Los Angeles, CA,,
Evaluation and Training Institute, August, 1985.

Manatt, Marsha. _Parents, Peers, and Pot II._ Rockville, MD, National
Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse
Intervention Strategies._ Rockville, MD, National Institute on Drug
Abuse, 1983.

Teaching About Drug Prevention

Bausen, William B. and C. Kevin Molotte. _Well and Good._ Hollywood,
CA, Health Promotion Associates, 1984.

Ellickson, Phyllis L. and Gail Zellman. _Adapting the Social Influence
Model to Drug Prevention, The Project Alert Curriculum._ Paper
presented at annual meeting of the American Public Health Association,
Washington, DC, November, 1985.

Health Behavior Research Institute. _Project SMART._ Los Angeles, CA,
University of Southern California, 1982.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Adolescent Peer Pressure._
Rockville, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981 (ADM 84-1152).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Teaching Tools for Primary
Prevention._ Rockville, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, December,
1982 (unpublished paper).

New Hampshire State Department of Education. _K-12 Guidelines for
School Preventive Drug Education._ Concord, NH, The State of New
Hampshire, 1979.

How the Law Can Help

 [1] _Bethel_ v. _Fraser_, No. 84 1667, 54 USLW 5054, 5056 (July
7, 1986).

 [2] _New Jersey_ v. _TLO_, 105 S. Ct. 733,742 (1985).

 [3] 2 J. Rapp, _Education Law_, § 9 06[2] at 9-128 (1986).

 [4] _See_ 21 USC 845A.

 [5] _See_ 21 USC 845.

 [6] _See, e.g., Zamora_ v. _Pomeroy_, 639 F2d 662 (10th Cir. 1981)
(locker search conducted after trained police dog indicated presence
of marijuana inside).

 [7] _See, e.g., Horton_ v. _Goose Creek Independent School District_,
690 F2d 470, 476-77 (5th Cir. 1982) (en banc) (citing cases and so
holding), _cert. denied_, 463 U.S. 1207 (1983).

 [8] _New Jersey_ v. _TLO_, 105 S. Ct. at 744.

 [9] _Id._ at 743.

[10] _Id._ at 745 47.

[11] _Bahr_ v. _Jenkins_, 539 F Supp. 483, 488 (E.D. Ky., 1982).

[12] _Martens_ v. _District No. 220_, 620 F. Supp. 29 (N.D. 111, 1985).

[13] _See Horton_ v. _Goose Creek Independent School District_, 690 F2d
at 477 (1982), _Jones_ v. _Latexo Independent School District_, 499 F.
Supp. 223 (E.D. Tex., 1980).

[14] _See Doe_ v. _Renfrow_, 475 F. Supp. 1012 (N.D. Ind. 1979), _aff'd
in relevant part_, 631 F2d 91 (7th Cir.), _cert. denied_, 451 U.S. 1022

[15] _Horton_ v. _Goose Creek Independent School District_, 690 F2d at

[16] _See Odenheim_ v. _Carlstadt East Rutherford Regional School
District_, No. C-4305-85E (N.J. Super. Ct. Ch. Div. December 9, 1985),
_Anable_ v. _Ford_, Civ. No. 84 6033 (WD Ark. July 15, 1985),
_modified_, (WD Ark. September 6, 1985).

[17] _Bethel School District_ v. _Fraser_, 54 USLW at 5054 (July 7,

[18] _Goss_ v. _Lopez_, 419 U.S. 565 (1975).

[19] One of the leading cases is _Dixon_ v. _Alabama State Board of
Education_, 294 F2d 150 (5th Cir.), _cert. denied_, 368 U.S. 930

[20] _See_ Education of the Handicapped Act, 20 USC §§ 1400-20, and
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 USC § 794.

[21] _See generally_ 20 USC § 1232g and 34 C FR Part 99.

[22] The term "education records" is defined as records that are
directly related to a student and maintained by or for the education
agency or institution. The term does not include certain records
maintained by a separate law enforcement unit of an education agency.

[23] FERPA permits a school to disclose information from education
records to its own officials (including teachers) who have a legitimate
educational interest in the information. A school may determine in its
FERPA policy that one such interest is the need to decide on the
appropriateness of discipline.

[24] An eligible student is a student who is 18 or older or attending
an institution of postsecondary education.

[25] _See Board of Education_ v. _McCluskey_, 458 U.S. 966, 970-71
(1982) (per cunam), _see also Tarter_ v. _Raybuck_, 742 F2d 977, 983
(6th Cir. 1984), _cert. denied_, 105 S. Ct. 1749 (1985).

[26] _See Harlow_ v. _Fitzgerald_, 457 U.S. 800 (1982), _Wood_ v.
_Strickland_, 420 U.S. 308 (1975). Under these cases, officials will be
immune from personal liability so long as their conduct does not
violate clearly established constitutional or Federal statutory rights
of which a reasonable person should have known.

[27] _Memphis Community School District_ v. _Stachura_, No. 85-410, 54
USLW 4771 (June 25, 1986).

[28] _Carey_ v. _Piphus_, 435 U.S. 247 (1978).

Specific Drugs and Their Effects

Drug Enforcement Administration. _Drugs of Abuse._ U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1985.

Mann, Peggy. _Pot Safari A Visit to the Top Marijuana Research in the
U.S._ New York, NY, Woodmere Press, 1985.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Cocaine Use in America Epidemiologic
and Clinical Perspectives._ ADM 85-1414, 1985.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Drug Abuse and Drug Abuse Research._
ADM 85-1372, 1984.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Hallucinogens and PCP._ ADM 83-1306,

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Inhalants._ ADM 83-1307, 1983.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Marijuana._ ADM 83-1307, 1983.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _NIDA Capsules_, various issues.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Opiates._ ADM 84-1308, 1984.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Phencyclidine An Update._ ADM

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Sedative Hypnotics._ ADM 84-1309,

National Institute on Drug Abuse. _Stimulants and Cocaine._ ADM
84-1304, 1984.

_Newsweek._ March 17, 1986, page 58.

Tobias, Joyce. _Kids and Drugs._ Annandale, VA, Panda Press, May, 1986.


The following employees of the U.S. Department of Education assisted
in the preparation of this volume:

  Beverley Blondell
  Henry Bretzfield
  Ronald Bucknam
  Adriana de Kanter
  Elizabeth Farquhar
  Alan Ginsburg
  Gregory Henschel
  Daphne Kaplan
  Amy Katz
  Ross McNutt
  Valena White Plisko
  Sandra Richardson
  Daniel Schecter
  Amy L. Schwartz
  Barbara Vespucci
  John P. Walters


To obtain an additional copy of this handbook free of charge, please
call the Department of Education's tollfree number:


In the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, call 659-4854.

Or send your name and address to:

    Schools Without Drugs
    Pueblo, CO 81009

The Resources Section contains lists of recommended readings and
organizations to contact for information and help in combating student
drug use.

We welcome your comments on or questions about the material contained
in this handbook. Please contact the Department's Information Office
at 1-800-424-1616, or write to:

    Information Office
    U.S. Department of Education
    555 New Jersey Avenue, NW
    Washington, DC 20208

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