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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 5 - "Gassendi, Pierre" to "Geocentric"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 5 - "Gassendi, Pierre" to "Geocentric"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE GAUDEN, JOHN: "... and on the fact that it was admitted by
      Clarendon, who should have had means of being acquainted with the
      truth." 'should' amended from 'sould'.

    ARTICLE GAWAIN: "In the later Historia of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and
      its French translation by Wace, Gawain plays an important and
      'pseudo-historic' rôle." 'Geoffrey' amended from 'Goeffrey'.

    ARTICLE GAYA: "... and at which a religious fair is held each
      September, attended by 10,000 to 20,000 pilgrims." '20,000' amended
      from '20,0000'.

    ARTICLE GECKO: "The arrangement of the lamellae and pads differs
      much in the various genera and is used for classificatory
      purposes." 'classificatory' amended from 'classificactory'.

    ARTICLE GEDDES, ALEXANDER: "Although under ecclesiastical censures,
      he had never swerved from a consistent profession of faith as a
      Catholic; and on his death-bed he duly received the last rites of
      his communion." 'Although' amended from 'Athough'.

    ARTICLE GELSEMIUM: "It was first described in 1640 by John
      Parkinson, who grew it in his garden from seed sent by Tradescant
      from Virginia; at the present time it is but rarely seen, even in
      botanical gardens, in Great Britain." 'Britain' amended from
      'Britian'.

    ARTICLE GEM: "From the Byzantine period downward one peculiarity of
      gem-engraving becomes noticeable." 'peculiarity' amended from
      'peculiarty'.

    ARTICLE GENEALOGY: "... or that Bilhan points to an old clan
      associated with Reuben (Gen. xxxv. 22) or Edom (Bilhan, Gen. xxxvi.
      27), ..." 'Bilhan' amended from 'Bilhah'.

    ARTICLE GENTIANACEAE: "... bright blue corolla, is visited by
      bumble bees; and G. verna, with a still longer narrower tube, is
      visited by Lepidoptera." 'bumble' amended from 'humble'.

    ARTICLE GENTZ, FRIEDRICH VON: "... but partly supplemented in
      Österreichs Teilnahme an den Befreiungskriegen (Vienna, 1887) ..."
      'Österreichs' amended from 'Öesterreichs'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


             VOLUME XI, SLICE V

       Gassendi, Pierre to Geocentric



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  GASSENDI, PIERRE                  GEFLE
  GASTEIN                           GEGENBAUR, CARL
  GASTRIC ULCER                     GEGENSCHEIN
  GASTRITIS                         GEIBEL, EMANUEL
  GASTROPODA                        GEIGE
  GASTROTRICHA                      GEIGER, ABRAHAM
  GATAKER, THOMAS                   GEIJER, ERIK GUSTAF
  GATCHINA                          GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD
  GATE                              GEIKIE, JAMES
  GATEHOUSE                         GEIKIE, WALTER
  GATES, HORATIO                    GEILER VON KAISERSBERG, JOHANN
  GATESHEAD                         GEINITZ, HANS BRUNO
  GATH                              GEISHA
  GATLING, RICHARD JORDAN           GEISLINGEN
  GATTY, MARGARET                   GEISSLER, HEINRICH
  GAU, JOHN                         GELA
  GAUDEN, JOHN                      GELADA
  GAUDICHAUD-BEAUPRÉ, CHARLES       GELASIUS
  GAUDRY, JEAN ALBERT               GELATI
  GAUDY                             GELATIN
  GAUERMANN, FRIEDRICH              GELDERLAND (duchy)
  GAUGE                             GELDERLAND (province of Holland)
  GAUHATI                           GELDERN
  GAUL, GILBERT WILLIAM             GELL, SIR WILLIAM
  GAUL                              GELLERT, CHRISTIAN FÜRCHTEGOTT
  GAULT                             GELLERT
  GAUNTLET                          GELLIUS, AULUS
  GAUR (ruined city of India)       GELLIVARA
  GAUR (wild ox)                    GELNHAUSEN
  GAUSS, KARL FRIEDRICH             GELO
  GAUSSEN, FRANÇOIS SAMUEL LOUIS    GELSEMIUM
  GAUTIER, ÉMILE THÉODORE LÉON      GELSENKIRCHEN
  GAUTIER, THÉOPHILE                GEM
  GAUTIER D'ARRAS                   GEM, ARTIFICIAL
  GAUZE                             GEMBLOUX
  GAVARNI                           GEMINI
  GAVAZZI, ALESSANDRO               GEMINIANI, FRANCESCO
  GAVELKIND                         GEMISTUS PLETHO, GEORGIUS
  GAVESTON, PIERS                   GEMMI PASS
  GAVOTTE                           GENDARMERIE
  GAWAIN                            GENEALOGY
  GAWLER                            GENELLI, GIOVANNI BUONAVENTURA
  GAY, JOHN                         GENERAL
  GAY, MARIE FRANÇOISE SOPHIE       GENERATION
  GAY, WALTER                       GENESIS
  GAYA                              GENET
  GAYAL                             GENEVA (New York, U.S.A.)
  GAYANGOS Y ARCE, PASCUAL DE       GENEVA (Switzerland)
  GAYARRÉ, CHARLES ÉTIENNE ARTHUR   GENEVA CONVENTION
  GAY-LUSSAC, JOSEPH LOUIS          GENEVA, LAKE OF
  GAZA, THEODORUS                   GENEVIÈVE, ST
  GAZA                              GENEVIÈVE, OF BRABANT
  GAZALAND                          GENGA, GIROLAMO
  GAZEBO                            GENISTA
  GAZETTE                           GENIUS
  GEAR                              GENUS, STÉPHANIE DE SAINT-AUBIN
  GEBER                             GENNA
  GEBHARD TRUCHSESS VON WALDBURG    GENNADIUS II.
  GEBWEILER                         GENOA
  GECKO                             GENOVESI, ANTONIO
  GED, WILLIAM                      GENSONNÉ, ARMAND
  GEDDES, ALEXANDER                 GENTIAN
  GEDDES, ANDREW                    GENTIANACEAE
  GEDDES, JAMES LORRAINE            GENTILE
  GEDDES, SIR WILLIAM DUGUID        GENTILE DA FABRIANO
  GEDYMIN                           GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA and ORAZIO DE'
  GEE, THOMAS                       GENTILI, ALBERICO
  GEEL, JACOB                       GENTLE
  GEELONG                           GENTLEMAN
  GEESTEMÜNDE                       GENTZ, FRIEDRICH VON
  GEFFCKEN, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH      GEOCENTRIC
  GEFFROY, MATHIEU AUGUSTE



GASSENDI[1] [GASSEND], PIERRE (1592-1655), French philosopher, scientist
and mathematician, was born of poor parents at Champtercier, near Digne,
in Provence, on the 22nd of January 1592. At a very early age he gave
indications of remarkable mental powers and was sent to the college at
Digne. He showed particular aptitude for languages and mathematics, and
it is said that at the age of sixteen he was invited to lecture on
rhetoric at the college. Soon afterwards he entered the university of
Aix, to study philosophy under P. Fesaye. In 1612 he was called to the
college of Digne to lecture on theology. Four years later he received
the degree of doctor of theology at Avignon, and in 1617 he took holy
orders. In the same year he was called to the chair of philosophy at
Aix, and seems gradually to have withdrawn from theology. He lectured
principally on the Aristotelian philosophy, conforming as far as
possible to the orthodox methods. At the same time, however, he followed
with interest the discoveries of Galileo and Kepler, and became more and
more dissatisfied with the Peripatetic system. It was the period of
revolt against the Aristotelianism of the schools, and Gassendi shared
to the full the empirical tendencies of the age. He, too, began to draw
up objections to the Aristotelian philosophy, but did not at first
venture to publish them. In 1624, however, after he had left Aix for a
canonry at Grenoble, he printed the first part of his _Exercitationes
paradoxicae adversus Aristoteleos_. A fragment of the second book was
published later at La Haye (1659), but the remaining five were never
composed, Gassendi apparently thinking that after the _Discussiones
Peripateticae_ of Francesco Patrizzi little field was left for his
labours.

After 1628 Gassendi travelled in Flanders and Holland. During this time
he wrote, at the instance of Mersenne, his examination of the mystical
philosophy of Robert Fludd (_Epistolica dissertatio in qua praecipua
principia philosophiae Ro. Fluddi deteguntur_, 1631), an essay on
parhelia (_Epistola de parheliis_), and some valuable observations on
the transit of Mercury which had been foretold by Kepler. He returned to
France in 1631, and two years later became provost of the cathedral
church at Digne. Some years were then spent in travelling through
Provence with the duke of Angoulême, governor of the department. The
only literary work of this period is the _Life of Peiresc_, which has
been frequently reprinted, and was translated into English. In 1642 he
was engaged by Mersenne in controversy with Descartes. His objections to
the fundamental propositions of Descartes were published in 1642; they
appear as the fifth in the series contained in the works of Descartes.
In these objections Gassendi's tendency towards the empirical school of
speculation appears more pronounced than in any of his other writings.
In 1645 he accepted the chair of mathematics in the Collège Royal at
Paris, and lectured for many years with great success. In addition to
controversial writings on physical questions, there appeared during this
period the first of the works by which he is known in the history of
philosophy. In 1647 he published the treatise _De vita, moribus, et
doctrina Epicuri libri octo_. The work was well received, and two years
later appeared his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius,
_De vita, moribus, et placitis Epicuri, seu Animadversiones in X. librum
Diog. Laër_. (Lyons, 1649; last edition, 1675). In the same year the
more important _Syntagma philosophiae Epicuri_ (Lyons, 1649; Amsterdam,
1684) was published.

In 1648 ill-health compelled him to give up his lectures at the Collège
Royal. He travelled in the south of France, spending nearly two years at
Toulon, the climate of which suited him. In 1653 he returned to Paris
and resumed his literary work, publishing in that year lives of
Copernicus and Tycho Brahe. The disease from which he suffered, lung
complaint, had, however, established a firm hold on him. His strength
gradually failed, and he died at Paris on the 24th of October 1655. A
bronze statue of him was erected by subscription at Digne in 1852.

His collected works, of which the most important is the _Syntagma
philosophicum_ (_Opera_, i. and ii.), were published in 1658 by Montmort
(6 vols., Lyons). Another edition, also in 6 folio volumes, was
published by N. Averanius in 1727. The first two are occupied entirely
with his _Syntagma philosophicum_; the third contains his critical
writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Fludd and Lord Herbert, with
some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his
_Institutio astronomica_, and his _Commentarii de rebus celestibus_; the
fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, the
biographies of Epicurus, N.C.F. de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Copernicus,
Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of
ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, to all
which is appended a large and prolix piece entitled _Notitia ecclesiae
Diniensis_; the sixth volume contains his correspondence. The _Lives_,
especially those of Copernicus, Tycho and Peiresc, have been justly
admired. That of Peiresc has been repeatedly printed; it has also been
translated into English. Gassendi was one of the first after the revival
of letters who treated the _literature_ of philosophy in a lively way.
His writings of this kind, though too laudatory and somewhat diffuse,
have great merit; they abound in those anecdotal details, natural yet
not obvious reflections, and vivacious turns of thought, which made
Gibbon style him, with some extravagance certainly, though it was true
enough up to Gassendi's time--"le meilleur philosophe des littérateurs,
et le meilleur littérateur des philosophes."

  Gassendi holds an honourable place in the history of physical science.
  He certainly added little to the stock of human knowledge, but the
  clearness of his exposition and the manner in which he, like Bacon,
  urged the importance of experimental research, were of inestimable
  service to the cause of science. To what extent any place can be
  assigned him in the history of philosophy is more doubtful. The
  _Exercitationes_ on the whole seem to have excited more attention than
  they deserved. They contain little or nothing beyond what had been
  already advanced against Aristotle. The first book expounds clearly,
  and with much vigour, the evil effects of the blind acceptance of the
  Aristotelian dicta on physical and philosophical study; but, as is the
  case with so many of the anti-Aristotelian works of this period, the
  objections show the usual ignorance of Aristotle's own writings. The
  second book, which contains the review of Aristotle's dialectic or
  logic, is throughout Ramist in tone and method. The objections to
  Descartes--one of which at least, through Descartes's statement of it
  in the appendix of objections in the _Meditationes_ has become
  famous--have no speculative value, and in general are the outcome of
  the crudest empiricism. His labours on Epicurus have a certain
  historical value, but the want of consistency inherent in the
  philosophical system raised on Epicureanism is such as to deprive it
  of genuine worth. Along with strong expressions of empiricism we find
  him holding doctrines absolutely irreconcilable with empiricism in any
  form. For while he maintains constantly his favourite maxim "that
  there is nothing in the intellect which has not been in the senses"
  (_nihil in intellectu quod non prius fuerit in sensu_), while he
  contends that the imaginative faculty (_phantasia_) is the counterpart
  of sense--that, as it has to do with material images, it is itself,
  like sense, material, and essentially the same both in men and brutes;
  he at the same time admits that the intellect, which he affirms to be
  immaterial and immortal--the most characteristic distinction of
  humanity--attains notions and truths of which no effort of sensation
  or imagination can give us the slightest apprehension (Op. ii. 383).
  He instances the capacity of forming "general notions"; the very
  conception of universality itself (_ib._ 384), to which he says
  brutes, who partake as truly as men in the faculty called _phantasia_,
  never attain; the notion of God, whom he says we may imagine to be
  corporeal, but understand to be incorporeal; and lastly, the reflex
  action by which the mind makes its own phenomena and operations the
  objects of attention.

  The _Syntagma philosophicum_, in fact, is one of those eclectic
  systems which unite, or rather place in juxtaposition, irreconcilable
  dogmas from various schools of thought. It is divided, according to
  the usual fashion of the Epicureans, into logic (which, with Gassendi
  as with Epicurus, is truly _canonic_), physics and ethics. The logic,
  which contains at least one praiseworthy portion, a sketch of the
  history of the science, is divided into theory of right apprehension
  (_bene imaginari_), theory of right judgment (_bene proponere_),
  theory of right inference (_bene colligere_), theory of right method
  (_bene ordinare_). The first part contains the specially empirical
  positions which Gassendi afterwards neglects or leaves out of account.
  The senses, the sole source of knowledge, are supposed to yield us
  immediately cognition of individual things; phantasy (which Gassendi
  takes to be material in nature) reproduces these ideas; understanding
  compares these ideas, which are particular, and frames general ideas.
  Nevertheless, he at the same time admits that the senses yield
  knowledge--not of things--but of qualities only, and holds that we
  arrive at the idea of thing or substance by induction. He holds that
  the true method of research is the analytic, rising from lower to
  higher notions; yet he sees clearly, and admits, that inductive
  reasoning, as conceived by Bacon, rests on a general proposition not
  itself proved by induction. He ought to hold, and in disputing with
  Descartes he did apparently hold, that the evidence of the senses is
  the only convincing evidence; yet he maintains, and from his special
  mathematical training it was natural he should maintain, that the
  evidence of reason is absolutely satisfactory. The whole doctrine of
  judgment, syllogism and method is a mixture of Aristotelian and Ramist
  notions.

  In the second part of the _Syntagma_, the physics, there is more that
  deserves attention; but here, too, appears in the most glaring manner
  the inner contradiction between Gassendi's fundamental principles.
  While approving of the Epicurean physics, he rejects altogether the
  Epicurean negation of God and particular providence. He states the
  various proofs for the existence of an immaterial, infinite, supreme
  Being, asserts that this Being is the author of the visible universe,
  and strongly defends the doctrine of the foreknowledge and particular
  providence of God. At the same time he holds, in opposition to
  Epicureanism, the doctrine of an immaterial rational soul, endowed
  with immortality and capable of free determination. It is altogether
  impossible to assent to the supposition of Lange (_Gesch. des
  Materialismus_, 3rd ed., i. 233), that all this portion of Gassendi's
  system contains nothing of his own opinions, but is introduced solely
  from motives of self-defence. The positive exposition of atomism has
  much that is attractive, but the hypothesis of the _calor vitalis_
  (vital heat), a species of _anima mundi_ (world-soul) which is
  introduced as physical explanation of physical phenomena, does not
  seem to throw much light on the special problems which it is invoked
  to solve. Nor is his theory of the weight essential to atoms as being
  due to an inner force impelling them to motion in any way reconcilable
  with his general doctrine of mechanical causes.

  In the third part, the ethics, over and above the discussion on
  freedom, which on the whole is indefinite, there is little beyond a
  milder statement of the Epicurean moral code. The final end of life is
  happiness, and happiness is harmony of soul and body (_tranquillitas
  animi et indolentia corporis_). Probably, Gassendi thinks, perfect
  happiness is not attainable in this life, but it may be in the life to
  come.

  The _Syntagma_ is thus an essentially unsystematic work, and clearly
  exhibits the main characteristics of Gassendi's genius. He was
  critical rather than constructive, widely read and trained thoroughly
  both in languages and in science, but deficient in speculative power
  and original force. Even in the department of natural science he shows
  the same inability steadfastly to retain principles and to work from
  them; he wavers between the systems of Brahe and Copernicus. That his
  revival of Epicureanism had an important influence on the general
  thinking of the 17th century may be admitted; that it has any real
  importance in the history of philosophy cannot be granted.

  AUTHORITIES.--Gassendi's life is given by Sorbière in the first
  collected edition of the works, by Bugerel, _Vie de Gassendi_ (1737;
  2nd ed., 1770), and by Damiron, _Mémoire sur Gassendi_ (1839). An
  abridgment of his philosophy was given by his friend, the celebrated
  traveller, Bernier (_Abrégé de la philosophie de Gassendi_, 8 vols.,
  1678; 2nd ed., 7 vols., 1684). The most complete surveys of his work
  are those of G.S. Brett (_Philosophy of Gassendi_, London, 1908),
  Buhle (_Geschichte der neuern Philosophie_, iii. 1, 87-222), Damiron
  (_Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de philosophie au XVII^e siècle_),
  and P.F. Thomas (_La Philosophie de Gassendi_, Paris, 1889). See also
  Ritter, _Geschichte der Philosophie_, x. 543-571; Feuerbach, _Gesch.
  d. neu. Phil. von Bacon bis Spinoza_, 127-150; F.X. Kiefl, _P.
  Gassendis Erkenntnistheorie und seine Stellung zum Materialismus_
  (1893) and "Gassendi's Skepticismus" in _Philos. Jahrb._ vi. (1893);
  C. Güttler, "Gassend oder Gassendi?" in _Archiv f. Gesch. d. Philos._
  x. (1897), pp. 238-242.     (R. Ad.; X.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] It was formerly thought that _Gassendi_ was really the genitive
    of the Latin form _Gassendus_. C. Güttler, however, holds that it is
    a modernized form of the O. Fr. _Gassendy_ (see paper quoted in
    bibliography).



GASTEIN, in the duchy of Salzburg, Austria, a side valley of the Pongau
or Upper Salzach, about 25 m. long and 1¼ m. broad, renowned for its
mineral springs. It has an elevation of between 3000 and 3500 ft. Behind
it, to the S., tower the mountains Mallnitz or Nassfeld-Tauern (7907
ft.) and Ankogel (10,673 ft.), and from the right and left of these
mountains two smaller ranges run northwards forming its two side walls.
The river Ache traverses the valley, and near Wildbad-Gastein forms two
magnificent waterfalls, the upper, the Kesselfall (196 ft.), and the
lower, the Bärenfall (296 ft.). Near these falls is the Schleierfall
(250 ft.), formed by the stream which drains the Bockhart-see. The
valley is also traversed by the so-called Tauern railway (opened up to
Wildbad-Gastein in September 1905), which goes to Mallnitz, piercing the
Tauern range by a tunnel 9260 yds. in length. The principal villages of
the valley are Hof-Gastein, Wildbad-Gastein and Böckstein.

HOF-GASTEIN, pop. (1900) 840, the capital of the valley, is also a
watering-place, the thermal waters being conveyed here from
Wildbad-Gastein by a conduit 5 m. long, constructed in 1828 by the
emperor Francis I. of Austria. Hof-Gastein was, after Salzburg, the
richest place in the duchy, owing to its gold and silver mines, which
were already worked during the Roman period. During the 16th century
these mines were yielding annually 1180 lb. of gold and 9500 lb. of
silver, but since the 17th century they have been much neglected and
many of them are now covered by glaciers.

WILDBAD-GASTEIN, commonly called _Bad-Gastein_, one of the most
celebrated watering-places in Europe, is picturesquely situated in the
narrow valley of the Gasteiner Ache, at an altitude of 3480 ft. The
thermal springs, which issue from the granite mountains, have a
temperature of 77°-120° F., and yield about 880,000 gallons of water
daily. The water contains only 0.35 to 1000 of mineral ingredients and
is used for bathing purposes. The springs are resorted to in cases of
nervous affections, senile and general debility, skin diseases, gout and
rheumatism. Wildbad-Gastein is annually visited by over 8500 guests. The
springs were known as early as the 7th century, but first came into fame
by a successful visit paid to them by Duke Frederick of Austria in 1436.
Gastein was a favourite resort of William I. of Prussia and of the
Austrian imperial family, and it was here that, on the 14th of August
1865, was signed the agreement known as the Gastein Convention, which by
dividing the administration of the conquered provinces of Schleswig and
Holstein between Austria and Prussia postponed for a while the outbreak
of war between the two powers. It was also here (August-September 1879)
that Prince Bismarck negotiated with Count Julius Andrássy the
Austro-German treaty, which resulted in the formation of the Triple
Alliance.

  See Pröll, _Gastein, Its Springs and Climate_ (Vienna, 5th ed., 1893).



GASTRIC ULCER (ulcer of the stomach), a disease of much gravity,
commonest in females, and especially in anaemic domestic servants. It is
connected in many instances with impairment of the circulation in the
stomach and the formation of a clot in a small blood-vessel
(thrombosis). It may be due to an impoverished state of the blood
(anaemia), but it may also arise from disease of the blood-vessels, the
result of long-continued indigestion and gastric catarrh.

When clotting takes place in a blood-vessel the nutrition of that
limited area of the stomach is cut off, and the patch undergoes
digestion by the unresisted action of the gastric juices, an ulcer being
formed. The ulcer is usually of the size of a silver threepence or
sixpence, round or oval, and, eating deeply, is apt to make a hole right
through the coats of the stomach. Its usual site is upon the posterior
wall of the upper curvature, near to the pyloric orifice. It may undergo
a healing process at any stage, in which case it may leave but little
trace of its existence; while, on the other hand, it may in the course
of cicatrizing produce such an amount of contraction as to lead to
stricture of the pylorus, or to a peculiar hour-glass deformity of the
stomach. Perforation is in most cases quickly fatal, unless previously
the stomach has become adherent to some neighbouring organ, by which the
dangerous effects of this occurrence may be averted, or unless the
condition has been promptly recognized and an operation has been quickly
done. Usually there is but one ulcer, but sometimes there are several
ulcers.

The symptoms of ulcer of the stomach are often indefinite and obscure,
and in some cases the diagnosis has been first made on the occurrence of
a fatal perforation. First among the symptoms is pain, which is present
at all times, but is markedly increased after food. The pain is situated
either at the lower end of the breast-bone or about the middle of the
back. Sometimes it is felt in the sides. It is often extremely severe,
and is usually accompanied with localized tenderness and also with a
sense of oppression, and by an inability to wear tight clothing. The
pain is due to the movements of the stomach set up by the presence of
the food, as well as to the irritation of the inflamed nerve filaments
in the floor of the ulcer. Vomiting is a usual symptom. It occurs either
soon after the food is swallowed or at a later period, and generally
relieves the pain and discomfort. Vomiting of blood (haematemesis) is a
frequent and important symptom. The blood may show itself in the form of
a brown or coffee-like mixture, or as pure blood of dark colour and
containing clots. It comes from some vessel or vessels which the
ulcerative process has ruptured. Blood is also found mixed with the
discharges from the bowels, rendering them dark or tarry-looking. The
general condition of the patient with gastric ulcer is, as a rule, that
of extreme ill-health, with pallor, emaciation and debility. The tongue
is red, and there is usually constipation. In most of the cases the
disease is chronic, lasting for months or years; and in those cases
where the ulcers are large or multiple, incomplete healing may take
place, relapses occurring from time to time. But the ulcers may give
rise to no marked symptoms, and there have been instances where fatal
perforation suddenly took place, and where post-mortem examination
revealed the existence of long-standing ulcers which had given rise to
no suggestive symptoms. While gastric ulcer is to be regarded as
dangerous, its termination, in the great majority of cases, is in
recovery. It frequently, however, leaves the stomach in a delicate
condition, necessitating the utmost care as regards diet. Occasionally
the disease proves fatal by sudden haemorrhage, but a fatal result is
more frequently due to perforation and the escape of the contents of the
stomach into the peritoneal cavity, in which case death usually occurs
in from twelve to forty-eight hours, either from shock or from
peritonitis. Should the stomach become adherent to another organ, and
fatal perforation be thus prevented, chronic "indigestion" may persist,
owing to interference with the natural movements of the stomach.
Stricture of the pylorus and consequent dilatation of the stomach may be
caused by the cicatrization of an ulcer.

The patient should at once be sent to bed and kept there, and allowed
for a while nothing stronger than milk and water or milk and lime water.
But if bleeding has recently taken place no food whatever should be
allowed by the stomach, and the feeding should be by nutrient enemata.
As the symptoms quiet down, eggs may be given beaten up with milk, and
later, bread and milk and home-made broths and soups. Thus the diet
advances to chicken and vegetables rubbed through a sieve, to custard
pudding and bread and butter. As regards medicines, iron is the most
useful, but no pills of any sort should be given. Under the influence of
rest and diet most gastric ulcers get well. The presence of
healthy-looking scars upon the surface of the stomach, which are
constantly found in operating upon the interior of the abdomen, or as
revealed in post-mortem examinations, are evidence of the truth of this
statement. It is unlikely that under the treatment just described
perforation of the stomach will take place, and if the surgeon is called
in to assist he will probably advise that operation is inadvisable.
Moreover, he knows that if he should open the abdomen to search for an
ulcer of the stomach he might fail to find it; more than that, his
search might also be in vain if he opened the stomach itself and
examined the interior. Serious haemorrhages, however, may make it
necessary that a prompt and thorough search should be made in order that
the surgeon may endeavour to locate the ulcer, and, having found it,
secure the damaged vessel and save the patient from death by bleeding.

Perforation of a gastric ulcer having taken place, the septic germs,
which were harmless whilst in the stomach, escape with the rest of the
contents of the stomach into the general peritoneal cavity. The
immediate effects of this leakage are sudden and severe pain in the
upper part of the abdomen and a great shock to the system (collapse).
The muscles of the abdominal wall become hard and resisting, and as
peritonitis appears and the intestines are distended with gas, the
abdomen is distended and becomes greatly increased in size and ceases to
move, the respiratory movements being short and quick. At first, most
likely, the temperature drops below normal, and the pulse quickens.
Later, the temperature rises. If nothing is done, death from the septic
poisoning of peritonitis is almost certain.

The treatment of ruptured gastric ulcer demands immediate operation. An
incision should be made in the upper part of the middle line of the
abdomen, and the perforation should be looked for. There is not, as a
rule, much difficulty in finding it, as there are generally deposits of
lymph near the spot, and other signs of local inflammation; moreover,
the contents of the stomach may be seen escaping from the opening. The
ulcer is to be closed by running a "purse-string" suture in the healthy
tissue around it, and the place is then buried in the stomach by picking
up small folds of the stomach-wall above and below it and fixing them
together by suturing. This being done, the surface of the stomach, and
the neighbouring viscera which have been soiled by the leakage, are
wiped clean and the abdominal wound is closed, provision being made for
efficient drainage. A large proportion of cases of perforated gastric
ulcer thus treated recover.     (E. O.*)



GASTRITIS (Gr. [Greek: gastêr], stomach), an inflammatory affection of
the stomach, of which the condition of catarrh, or irritation of its
mucous membrane, is the most frequent and most readily recognized. This
may exist in an acute or a chronic form, and depends upon some
condition, either local or general, which produces a congested state of
the circulation in the walls of the stomach (see DIGESTIVE ORGANS:
_Pathology_).

_Acute Gastritis_ may arise from various causes. The most intense forms
of inflammation of the stomach are the toxic conditions which follow the
swallowing of corrosive poisons, such as strong mineral acids of alkalis
which may extensively destroy the mucous membrane. Other non-corrosive
poisons cause acute degeneration of the stomach wall (see POISONS).
Acute inflammatory conditions may be secondary to zymotic diseases such
as diphtheria, pyaemia, typhus fever and others. Gastritis is also
caused by the ingestion of food which has begun to decompose, or may
result from eating unsuitable articles which themselves remain
undigested and so excite acute catarrhal conditions. These give rise to
the symptoms well known as characterizing an acute "bilious attack,"
consisting in loss of appetite, sickness or nausea, and headache,
frontal or occipital, often accompanied with giddiness. The tongue is
furred, the breath foetid, and there is pain or discomfort in the region
of the stomach, with sour eructations, and frequently vomiting, first of
food and then of bilious matter. An attack of this kind tends to subside
in a few days, especially if the exciting cause be removed. Sometimes,
however, the symptoms recur with such frequency as to lead to the more
serious chronic form of the disease.

The treatment bears reference, in the first place, to any known source
of irritation, which, if it exist, may be expelled by an emetic or
purgative (except in cases due to poisoning). This, however, is seldom
necessary, since vomiting is usually present. For the relief of sickness
and pain the sucking of ice and counter-irritation over the region of
the stomach are of service. Further, remedies which exercise a soothing
effect upon an irritable mucous membrane, such as bismuth or weak
alkaline fluids, and along with these the use of a light milk diet, are
usually sufficient to remove the symptoms.

_Chronic Gastric Catarrh_ may result from the acute or may arise
independently. It is not infrequently connected with antecedent disease
in other organs, such as the lungs, heart, liver or kidneys, and it is
especially common in persons addicted to alcoholic excess. In this form
the texture of the stomach is more altered than in the acute form,
except in the toxic and febrile forms above referred to. It is
permanently in a state of congestion, and its mucous membrane and
muscular coat undergo thickening and other changes, which markedly
affect the function of digestion. The symptoms are those of dyspepsia in
an aggravated form (see DYSPEPSIA), of which discomfort and pain after
food, with distension and frequently vomiting, are the chief; and the
treatment must be conducted in reference to the causes giving rise to
it. The careful regulation of the diet, alike as to the amount, the
quality, and the intervals between meals, demands special attention.
Feeding on artificially soured milk may in many cases be useful. Lavage
or washing out of the stomach with weak alkaline solutions has been used
with marked success in the treatment of chronic gastritis. Of medicinal
agents, bismuth, arsenic, nux vomica, and the mineral acids are all of
acknowledged efficacy, as are also preparations of pepsin.



GASTROPODA, the second of the five classes of animals constituting the
phylum Mollusca. For a discussion of the relationship of the Gastropoda
to the remaining classes of the phylum, see MOLLUSCA.

  The Gastropoda are mainly characterized by a loss of symmetry,
  produced by torsion of the visceral sac. This torsion may be resolved
  into two successive movements. The first is a ventral flexure in the
  antero-posterior or sagittal plane; the result of this is to
  approximate the two ends of the alimentary canal. In development, the
  openings of the mantle-cavity and the anus are always originally
  posterior; later they are brought forward ventrally. During this first
  movement flexure is also produced by the coiling of the visceral sac
  and shell; primitively the latter was bowl-shaped; but the ventral
  flexure, which brings together the two extremities of the digestive
  tube, gives the visceral sac the outline of a more or less acute cone.
  The shell necessarily takes this form also, and then becomes coiled in
  a dorsal or anterior plane--that is to say, it becomes exogastric.
  This condition may be seen in embryonic _Patellidae, Fissurellidae_
  and _Trochidae_ (fig. 1, A), and agrees with the method of coiling of
  a mollusc without lateral torsion, such as _Nautilus_. But ultimately
  the coil becomes ventral or endogastric, in consequence of the second
  torsion movement then apparent.

  [Illustration: From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.

  FIG. 1.--Three stages in the development of Trochus, during the
  process of torsion. (After Robert.)

    A, Nearly symmetrical larva (veliger).
    B, A stage 1½ hours later than A.
    C, A stage 3½ hours later than B.
    f, Foot.
    op, Operculum.
    pac, Pallial cavity.
    ve, Velum.]

  The shell is represented as fixed, while the head and foot rotate from
  left to right. In reality the head and foot are fixed and the shell
  rotates from right to left.

  The second movement is a lateral torsion of the visceral mass, the
  foot remaining a fixed point; this torsion occurs in a plane
  approximately at right angles to that of the first movement, and
  carries the pallial aperture and the anus from behind forwards. If, at
  this moment, the animal were placed with mouth and ventral surface
  turned towards the observer, this torsion carries the circumanal
  complex in a clockwise direction (along the right side in dextral
  forms) through 180° as compared with its primitive condition. The
  (primitively) right-hand organs of the complex thus become left-hand,
  and vice versa. The visceral commissure, while still surrounding the
  digestive tract, becomes looped; its right half, with its proper
  ganglion, passes to the left side over the dorsal face of the
  alimentary canal (whence the name supra-intestinal), while the left
  half passes below towards the right side, thus originating the name
  infra-intestinal given to this half and to its ganglion. Next, the
  shell, the coil of which was at first exogastric, being also included
  in this rotation through 180°, exhibits an endogastric coiling (fig.
  1, B, C). This, however, is not generally retained in one plane, and
  the spire projects, little by little, on the side which was originally
  left, but finally becomes right (in dextral forms, with a clockwise
  direction, if viewed from the side of the spire; but counter-clockwise
  in sinistral forms). Finally, the original symmetry of the circumanal
  complex vanishes; the anus leaves the centre of the pallial cavity and
  passes towards the right side (left side in sinistral forms); the
  organs of this side become atrophied and disappear. The essential
  feature of the asymmetry of Gastropoda is the atrophy or disappearance
  of the primitively left half of the circumanal complex (the right half
  in sinistral forms), including the gill, the auricle, the osphradium,
  the hypobranchial gland and the kidney.

  In dextral Gastropods the only structure found on the topographically
  right side of the rectum is the genital duct. But this is not part of
  the primitive complex. It is absent in the most primitive and
  symmetrical forms, such as _Haliotis_ and _Pleurotomaria_. Originally
  the gonads opened into the kidneys. In the most primitive existing
  Gastropods the gonad opens into the right kidney (_Patellidae,
  Trochidae, Fissurellidae_). The gonaduct, therefore, is derived from
  the topographically right kidney. The transformation has been
  actually shown to take place in the development of Paludina. In a
  dextral Gastropod the shell is coiled in a right-handed spiral from
  apex to mouth, and the spiral also projects to the right of the median
  plane of the animal.

  [Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

  FIG. 2.--Four stages in the development of a Gastropod showing the
  process of body torsion. (After Robert.)

    A, Embryo without flexure.
    B, Embryo with ventral flexure of the intestine.
    C, Embryo with ventral flexure and exogastric shell.
    D, Embryo with lateral torsion and an endogastric shell.
    a, Anus.
    f, Foot.
    m, Mouth.
    pa, Mantle.
    pac, Pallial cavity.
    ve, Velum.]

  When the shell is sinistral the asymmetry of the organs is usually
  reversed, and there is a complete situs _inversus viscerum_, the
  direction of the spiral of the shell corresponding to the position of
  the organs of the body. _Triforis, Physa, Clausilia_ are examples
  of sinistral Gastropods, but reversal also occurs as an individual
  variation among forms normally dextral. But there are forms in which
  the involution is "hyperstrophic," that is to say, the turns of the
  spire projecting but slightly, the spire, after flattening out
  gradually, finally becomes re-entrant and transformed into a false
  umbilicus; at the same time that part which corresponds to the
  umbilicus of forms with a normal coil projects and constitutes a false
  spire; the coil thus appears to be sinistral, although the asymmetry
  remains dextral, and the coil of the operculum (always the opposite to
  that of the shell) sinistral (e.g. _Lanistes_ among Streptoneura,
  _Limacinidae_ among Opisthobranchia). The same, _mutatis mutandis_,
  may occur in sinistral shells.

  [Illustration: FIG 3.--Sketch of a model designed so as to show the
  effect of torsion or rotation of the visceral hump in Streptoneurous
  Gastropoda.

    A, Unrotated ancestral condition.
    B, Quarter-rotation.
    C, Complete semi-rotation (the limit).
    an, Anus.
    ln, rn, Primarily left nephridium and primarily right nephridium.
    lvg, Primarily left (subsequently the sub-intestinal) visceral
      ganglion.
    rvg, Primarily right (subsequently the sub-intestinal) visceral
      ganglion.
    cerg, Cerebral ganglion.
    plg, Pleural ganglion.
    pedg, Pedal ganglion.
    abg, Abdominal ganglion.
    bucc, Buccal mass.
    W, Wooden arc representing the base-line of the wall of the visceral
      hump.
    x, 'x, Pins fastening the elastic cord (representing the visceral
      nerve loop) to W.]

  The problem of the causes of the torsion of the Gastropod body has
  been much discussed. E.R. Lankester in the ninth edition of this work
  attributed it to the pressure of the shell and visceral hump towards
  the right side. He referred also to the nautiloid shell of the larva
  falling to one side. But these are two distinct processes. In the
  larva a nautiloid shell is developed which is coiled exogastrically,
  that is, dorsally, and the pallial cavity is posterior or ventral
  (fig. 2, C): the larva therefore resembles _Nautilus_ in the relations
  of body and shell. The shell then rotates towards the left side
  through 180°, so that it becomes ventral or endogastric (fig. 2, D).
  The pallial cavity, with its organs, is by this torsion moved up the
  _right_ side of the larva to the dorsal surface, and thus the left
  organs become right and vice versa. In the subsequent growth of the
  shell the spire comes to project on the right side, which was
  originally the left. Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor
  its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of
  the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is
  indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a
  complete reversal of the cleavage planes in sinistral as compared
  with dextral forms. The facts, however, strongly suggest that the
  original cause of the torsion was the weight of the exogastric shell
  and visceral hump, which in an animal creeping on its ventral surface
  necessarily fell over to one side. It is not certain that the
  projection of the spire to the originally left side of the shell has
  anything to do with the falling over of the shell to that side. The
  facts do not support such a suggestion. In the larva there is no
  projection at the time the torsion takes place. In some forms the
  coiling disappears in the adult, leaving the shell simply conical as
  in _Patellidae, Fissurellidae_, &c., and in some cases the shell is
  coiled in one plane, e.g. _Planorbis_. In all these cases the torsion
  and asymmetry of the body are unaffected.

  The characteristic torsion attains its maximum effect among the
  majority of the Streptoneura. It is followed in some specialized
  Heteropoda and in the Euthyneura by a torsion in the opposite
  direction, or detorsion, which brings the anus farther back and
  untwists the visceral commissure (see Euthyneura, below). This
  conclusion has shown that the Euthyneura do not represent an archaic
  form of Gastropoda, but are themselves derived from streptoneurous
  forms. The difference between the two sub-classes has been shown to be
  slight; certain of the more archaic Tectibranchia (_Actaeon_) and
  Pulmonata (_Chilina_) still have the visceral commissure long and not
  untwisted. The fact that all the Euthyneura are hermaphrodite is not a
  fundamental difference; several Streptoneura are so, likewise
  _Valvata, Oncidiopsis, Marsenina, Odostomia, Bathysciadium,
  Entoconcha_.

  _Classification._--The class Gastropoda is subdivided as follows:

    Sub-class I. Streptoneura.
       Order 1. Aspidobranchia.
          Sub-order 1. Docoglossa.
               "    2. Rhipidoglossa.
       Order 2. Pectinibranchia.
          Sub-order 1. Taenioglossa.
              Tribe 1. Platypoda.
                "   2. Heteropoda.
          Sub-order 2. Stenoglossa.
              Tribe 1. Rachiglossa.
                "   2. Toxiglossa.

    Sub-class II. Euthyneura.
       Order 1. Opisthobranchia.
          Sub-order 1. Tectibranchia.
              Tribe 1. Bullomorpha.
                "   2. Aplysiomorpha.
                "   3. Pleurobranchomorpha.
          Sub-order 2. Nudibranchia.
              Tribe 1. Tritoniomorpha.
                "   2. Doridomorpha.
                "   3. Eolidomorpha.
                "   4. Elysiomorpha.
       Order 2. Pulmonata.
          Sub-order 1. Basommatophora.
               "    2. Stylommatophora.
              Tribe 1. Holognatha.
                "   2. Agnatha.
                "   3. Elasmognatha.
                "   4. Ditremata.


Sub-Class I.--STREPTONEURA

In this division the torsion of the visceral mass and visceral
commissure is at its maximum, the latter being twisted into a figure of
eight. The right half of the commissure with its ganglion is
supra-intestinal, the left half with its ganglion infra-intestinal. In
some cases each pleural ganglion is connected with the opposite branch
of the visceral commissure by anastomosis with the pallial nerve, a
condition which is called dialyneury; or there may be a direct
connective from the pleural ganglion to the visceral ganglion of the
opposite side, which is called zygoneury. The head bears only one pair
of tentacles. The radular teeth are of several different kinds in each
transverse row. The heart is usually posterior to the branchia
(proso-branchiate). The sexes are usually separate.

The old division into Zygobranchia and Azygobranchia must be abandoned,
for the Azygobranchiate Rhipidoglossa have much greater affinity to the
Zygobranchiate _Haliotidae_ and _Fissurellidae_ than to the
Azygobranchia in general. This is shown by the labial commissure and
pedal cords of the nervous system, by the opening of the gonad into the
right kidney, and by other points. Further, the _Pleurotomariidae_ have
been discovered to possess two branchiae. The sub-class is now divided
into two orders: the Aspidobranchia in which the branchia or ctenidium
is bipectinate and attached only at its base, and the Pectinibranchia in
which the ctenidium is monopectinate and attached to the mantle
throughout its length.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--The Common Limpet (_Patella vulgata_) in its
  shell, seen from the pedal surface. (Lankester.)

    x, y, The median antero-posterior axis.
    a, Cephalic tentacle.
    b, Plantar surface of the foot.
    c, Free edge of the shell.
    d, The branchial efferent vessel carrying aerated blood to the
      auricle, and here interrupting the circlet of gill lamellae.
    e, Margin of the mantle-skirt.
    f, Gill lamellae (_not_ ctenidia, but special pallial growths,
      comparable with those of Pleurophyllidia).
    g, The branchial efferent vessel.
    h, Factor of the branchial advehent vessel.
    i, Interspaces between the muscular bundles of the root of the foot,
      causing the separate areae seen in fig. 5, c.]

  Order I. ASPIDOBRANCHIA.--These are the most primitive Gastropods,
  retaining to a great degree the original symmetry of the organs of the
  pallial complex, having two kidneys, in some cases two branchiae, and
  two auricles. The gonad has no accessory organs and except in
  _Neritidae_ no duct, but discharges into the right kidney.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Dorsal surface of the Limpet removed from its
  shell and deprived of its black pigmented epithelium; the internal
  organs are seen through the transparent body-wall. (Lankester.)

    c, Muscular bundles forming the root of the foot, and adherent to
      the shell.
    e, Free mantle-skirt.
    em, Tentaculiferous margin of the same.
    i, Smaller (left) nephridium.
    k, Larger (right) nephridium.
    l, Pericardium.
    lx, Fibrous septum, behind the pericardium.
    n, Liver.
    int, Intestine.
    ecr, Anterior area of the mantle-skirt over-hanging the head
      (cephalic hood).]

  Forms adapted to terrestrial life and to aerial respiration occur in
  various divisions of Gastropods, and do not constitute a single
  homogeneous group. Thus the _Helicinidae_, which are terrestrial, are
  now placed among the Aspidobranchia. In these there are neither
  branchia nor osphradium, and the pallial chamber which retains its
  large opening serves as a lung. Degeneration of the shell occurs in
  some members of the order. It is largely covered by the mantle in some
  _Fissurellidae_, is entirely internal in _Pupilia_ and absent in
  _Titiscaniidae_.

  The common limpet is a specially interesting and abundant example of
  the more primitive Aspidobranchia. The foot of the limpet is a nearly
  circular disk of muscular tissue; in front, projecting from and raised
  above it, are the head and neck (figs. 4, 13). The visceral hump forms
  a low conical dome above the sub-circular foot, and standing out all
  round the base of this dome so as completely to overlap the head and
  foot, is the circular mantle-skirt. The depth of free mantle-skirt is
  greatest in front, where the head and neck are covered in by it. Upon
  the surface of the visceral dome, and extending to the edge of the
  free mantle-skirt, is the conical shell. When the shell is taken away
  (best effected by immersion in hot water) the surface of the visceral
  dome is found to be covered by a black-coloured epithelium, which may
  be removed, enabling the observer to note the position of some organs
  lying below the transparent integument (fig. 5). The muscular columns
  (c) attaching the foot to the shell form a ring incomplete in front,
  external to which is the free mantle-skirt. The limits of the large
  area formed by the flap over the head and neck (ecr) can be traced,
  and we note the anal papilla showing through and opening on the right
  shoulder, so to speak, of the animal into the large anterior region of
  the sub-pallial space. Close to this the small renal organ (i, mediad)
  and the larger renal organ (k, to the right and posteriorly) are seen,
  also the pericardium (l) and a coil of the intestine (int) embedded
  in the compact liver.

  [Illustration: Fig. 6.--Anterior portion of the same Limpet, with the
  overhanging cephalic hood removed. (Lankester.)

    a, Cephalic tentacle.
    b, Foot.
    c, Muscular substance forming the root of the foot.
    d, The capito-pedal organs of Lankester (= rudimentary ctenidia).
    e, Mantle-skirt.
    f, Papilla of the larger nephridium.
    g, Anus.
    h, Papilla of the smaller nephridium.
    i, Smaller nephridium.
    k, Larger nephridium.
    l, Pericardium.
    m, Cut edge of the mantle-skirt.
    n, Liver.
    p, Snout.]

  On cutting away the anterior part of the mantle-skirt so as to expose
  the sub-pallial chamber in the region of the neck, we find the right
  and left renal papillae (discovered by Lankester in 1867) on either
  side of the anal papilla (fig. 6), but no gills. If a similar
  examination be made of the allied genus _Fissurella_ (fig. 17, d), we
  find right and left of the two renal apertures a right and left
  gill-plume or ctenidium, which here as in _Haliotis_ and
  _Pleurotomaria_ retain their original paired condition. In _Patella_
  no such plumes exist, but right and left of the neck are seen a pair
  of minute oblong yellow bodies (fig. 6, d), which were originally
  described by Lankester as orifices possibly connected with the
  evacuation of the generative products. On account of their position
  they were termed by him the "capito-pedal orifices," being placed near
  the junction of head and foot. J.W. Spengel has, however, in a most
  ingenious way shown that these bodies are the representatives of the
  typical pair of ctenidia, here reduced to a mere rudiment. Near to
  each rudimentary ctenidium Spengel has discovered an olfactory patch
  or osphradium (consisting of modified epithelium) and an olfactory
  nerve-ganglion (fig. 8). It will be remembered that, according to
  Spengel, the osphradium of mollusca is definitely and intimately
  related to the gill-plume or ctenidium, being always placed near the
  base of that organ; further, Spengel has shown that the nerve-supply
  of this olfactory organ is always derived from the visceral loop.
  Accordingly, the nerve-supply affords a means of testing the
  conclusion that we have in Lankester's capito-pedal bodies the
  rudimentary ctenidia. The accompanying diagrams (figs. 9, 10) of the
  nervous systems of _Patella_ and of _Haliotis_, as determined by
  Spengel, show the identity in the origin of the nerves passing from
  the visceral loop to Spengel's olfactory ganglion of the Limpet, and
  that of the nerves which pass from the visceral loop of _Haliotis_ to
  the olfactory patch or osphradium, which lies in immediate relation on
  the right and on the left side to the right and left gill-plumes
  (ctenidia) respectively. The same diagrams serve to demonstrate the
  streptoneurous condition of the visceral loop in Aspidobranchia.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--The same specimen viewed from the left front,
  so as to show the sub-anal tract (ff) of the larger nephridium, by
  which it communicates with the pericardium. o, Mouth; other letters as
  in fig. 6.]

  Thus, then, we find that the limpet possesses a symmetrically disposed
  pair of ctenidia in a rudimentary condition, and justifies its
  position among Aspidobranchia. At the same time it possesses a
  totally distinct series of _functional_ gills, which are not derived
  from the modification of the typical molluscan ctenidium. These gills
  are in the form of delicate lamellae (fig. 4, f), which form a series
  extending completely round the inner face of the depending
  mantle-skirt. This circlet of gill-lamellae led Cuvier to class the
  limpets as Cyclobranchiata, and, by erroneous identification of them
  with the series of metamerically repeated ctenidia of _Chiton_, to
  associate the latter mollusc with the former. The gill-lamellae of
  _Patella_ are processes of the mantle comparable with the plait-like
  folds often observed on the roof of the branchial chamber in other
  Gastropoda (e.g. _Buccinum_ and _Haliotis_). They are termed pallial
  gills. The only other molluscs in which they are exactly represented
  are the curious Opisthobranchs _Phyllidia_ and _Pleurophyllidia_ (fig.
  55). In these, as in _Patella_, the typical ctenidia are aborted, and
  the branchial function is assumed by close-set lamelliform processes
  arranged in a series beneath the mantle-skirt on either side of the
  foot. In fig. 4, d, the large branchial vein of _Patella_ bringing
  blood from the gill-series to the heart is seen; where it crosses the
  series of lamellae there is a short interval devoid of lamellae.

  [Illustration: Fig. 8.--A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface
  of the neck of _Patella_ through a, the rudimentary ctenidium
  (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c,
  the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion. (After Spengel.)

  B, Surface view of a rudimentary ctenidium of _Patella_ excised and
  viewed as a transparent object. (Lankester.)]

  [Illustration: Fig. 9.--Nervous system of _Patella_; the visceral loop
  is lightly shaded; the buccal ganglia are omitted. (After Spengel.)

    ce, Cerebral ganglia.
    c'e, Cerebral commissure.
    pl, Pleural ganglion.
    pe, Pedal ganglion. p'e, Pedal nerve.
    s, s', Nerves (right and left) to the mantle.
    o, Olfactory ganglion, connected by nerve to the streptoneurous
    visceral loop.]

  The heart in _Patella_ consists of a single auricle (not two as in
  _Haliotis_ and _Fissurella_) and a ventricle; the former receives the
  blood from the branchial vein, the latter distributes it through a
  large aorta which soon leads into irregular blood-lacunae.

  The existence of two renal organs in _Patella_, and their relation to
  the pericardium (a portion of the coelom), is important. Each renal
  organ is a sac lined with glandular epithelium (ciliated cell, with
  concretions) communicating with the exterior by its papilla, and by a
  narrow passage with the pericardium. The connexion with the
  pericardium of the smaller of the two renal organs was demonstrated by
  Lankester in 1867, at a time when the fact that the renal organ of the
  Mollusca, as a rule, opens into the pericardium, and is therefore a
  typical nephridium, was not known. Subsequent investigations carried
  on under the direction of the same naturalist have shown that the
  larger as well as the smaller renal sac is in communication with the
  pericardium. The walls of the renal sacs are deeply plaited and thrown
  into ridges. Below the surface these walls are excavated with
  blood-vessels, so that the sac is practically a series of
  blood-vessels covered with renal epithelium, and forming a meshwork
  within a space communicating with the exterior. The larger renal sac
  (remarkably enough, that which is aborted in other Anisopleura)
  extends between the liver and the integument of the visceral dome very
  widely. It also bends round the liver as shown in fig. 12, and forms
  a large sac on half of the upper surface of the muscular mass of the
  foot. Here it lies close upon the genital body (ovary or testis), and
  in such intimate relationship with it that, when ripe, the gonad
  bursts into the renal sac, and its products are carried to the
  exterior by the papilla on the right side of the anus (Robin, Dall).
  This fact led Cuvier erroneously to the belief that a duct existed
  leading from the gonad to this papilla. The position of the gonad,
  best seen in the diagrammatic section (fig. 13), is, as in other
  Aspidobranchia, devoid of a special duct communicating with the
  exterior. This condition, probably an archaic one, distinguishes the
  Aspidobranchia from other Gastropoda.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--Nervous system of _Haliotis_; the visceral
  loop is lightly shaded; the buccal ganglia are omitted. (After
  Spengel.)

    ce, Cerebral ganglion.
    pl.pe, The fused pleural and pedal ganglia.
    pe, The right pedal nerve.
    ce.pl, The cerebro-pleural connective.
    ce.pe, The cerebro-pedal connective.
    s, s', Right and left mantle nerves.
    ab, Abdominal ganglion or site of same.
    o, o, Right and left olfactory ganglia and osphardia receiving nerve
      from visceral loop.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--Nervous system of _Fissurella_. (From
  Gegenbaur, after Jhering.)

    pl, Pallial nerve.
    p, Pedal nerve.
    A, Abdominal ganglia in the streptoneurous visceral commissure, with
      supra- and sub-intestine ganglion on each side.
    B, Buccal ganglia.
    C, C, Cerebral ganglia.
    es, Cerebral commissure.
    o, Otocysts attached to the cerebro-pedal connectives.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--Diagram of the two renal organs (nephridia),
  to show their relation to the rectum and to the pericardium.
  (Lankester.)

    f, Papilla of the larger nephridium.
    g, Anal papilla with rectum leading from it.
    h, Papilla of the smaller nephridium, which is only represented by
      dotted outlines.
    l, Pericardium indicated by a dotted outline--at its right side are
      seen the two reno-pericardial pores.
    ff, The sub-anal tract of the large nephridium given off near its
      papilla and seen through the unshaded smaller nephridium.
    ks.a, Anterior superior lobe of the large nephridium.
    ks.l, Left lobe of same.
    ks.p, Posterior lobe of same.
    ks.i, Inferior sub-visceral lobe of same.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--Diagram of a vertical antero-postero median
  section of a Limpet. Letters as in figs. 6, 7, with following
  additions. (Lankester.)

    q, Intestine in transverse section.
    r, Lingual sac (radular sac).
    rd, Radula.
    s, Lamellated stomach.
    t, Salivary gland.
    u, Duct of same.
    v, Buccal cavity
    w, Gonad.
    br.a, Branchial advehent vessel (artery).
    br.v, Branchial efferent vessel (vein).
    bv, Blood-vessel.
    odm, Muscles and cartilage of the odontophore.
    cor, Heart within the pericardium.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.--Vertical section in a plane running right and
  left through the anterior part of the visceral hump of _Patella_ to
  show the two renal organs and their openings into the pericardium.
  (J.T. Cunningham.)

    a, Large or external or right renal organ.
    ab, Narrow process of the same running _below_ the intestine and
      leading by k into the pericardium.
    b, Small or median renal organ.
    c, Pericardium.
    d, Rectum.
    e, Liver.
    f, Manyplies.
    g, Epithelium of the dorsal surface.
    h, Renal epithelium lining the renal sacs.
    i, Aperture connecting the small sac with the pericardium.
    k, Aperture connecting the large sac with the pericardium.]

  The digestive tract of _Patella_ offers some interesting features. The
  odontophore is powerfully developed; the radular sac is
  extraordinarily long, lying coiled in a space between the mass of the
  liver and the muscular foot. The radula has 160 rows of teeth with
  twelve teeth in each row. Two pairs of salivary ducts, each leading
  from a salivary gland, open into the buccal chamber. The oesophagus
  leads into a remarkable stomach, plaited like the manyplies of a
  sheep, and after this the intestine takes a very large number of turns
  embedded in the yellow liver, until at last it passes between the two
  renal sacs to the anal papilla. A curious ridge (spiral? valve) which
  secretes a slimy cord is found upon the inner wall of the intestine.
  The general structure of the Molluscan intestine has not been
  sufficiently investigated to render any comparison of this structure
  of _Patella_ with that of other Mollusca possible. The eyes of the
  limpet deserve mention as examples of the most primitive kind of eye
  in the Molluscan series. They are found one on each cephalic tentacle,
  and are simply minute open pits or depressions of the epidermis, the
  epidermic cells lining them being pigmented and connected with nerves
  (compare fig. 14, art. CEPHALOPODA). The limpet breeds upon the
  southern English coast in the early part of April, but its development
  has not been followed. It has simply been traced as far as the
  formation of a diblastula which acquires a ciliated band, and becomes
  a nearly spherical trochosphere. It is probable that the limpet takes
  several years to attain full growth, and during that period it
  frequents the same spot, which becomes gradually sunk below the
  surrounding surface, especially if the rock be carbonate of lime. At
  low tide the limpet (being a strictly intertidal organism) is exposed
  to the air, and (according to trustworthy observers) quits its
  attachment and walks away in search of food (minute encrusting algae),
  and then once more returns to the identical spot, not an inch in
  diameter, which belongs, as it were, to it. Several million
  limpets--twelve million in Berwickshire alone--are annually used on
  the east coast of Britain as bait.

  Sub-order 1. _Docoglossa._--Nervous system without dialyneury. Eyes
  are open invaginations without crystalline lens. Two osphradia present
  but no hypobranchial glands nor operculum. Teeth of radula beam-like,
  and at most three marginal teeth on each side. Heart has only a single
  auricle, neither heart nor pericardium traversed by rectum. Shell
  conical without spire.

    Fam. 1.--_Acmaeidae._ A single bipectinate ctenidium on left side.
    Acmaea, without pallial branchiae, British. Scurria, with pallial
    branchiae in a circle beneath the mantle.

    Fam. 2.--_Tryblidiidae._ Muscle scar divided into numerous
    impressions. _Tryblidium_, Silurian.

    Fam. 3.--_Patellidae_. No ctenidia but pallial branchiae in a circle
    between mantle and foot. _Patella_, pallial branchiae forming a
    complete circle, no epipodial tentacles, British. _Ancistromesus_,
    radula with median central tooth. _Nacella_, epipodial tentacles
    present. _Helcion_, circlet of branchiae interrupted anteriorly,
    British.

    Fam. 4.--_Lepetidae._ Neither ctenidia nor pallial branchiae.
    _Lepeta_, without eyes. _Pilidium. Propilidium._

    Fam. 5.--_Bathysciadidae._ Hermaphrodite; head with appendage on
    right side; radula without central tooth. _Bathysciadium_, abyssal.

  Sub-order 2. RHIPIDOGLOSSA.--Aspidobranchia with a palliovisceral
  anastomosis (dialyneurous); eye-vesicle closed, with crystalline lens;
  ctenidia, osphradia and hypobranchial glands paired or single. Radula
  with very numerous marginal teeth arranged like the rays of a fan.
  Heart with two auricles; ventricle traversed by the rectum, except in
  the _Helicinidae_. An epipodial ridge on each side of the foot and
  cephalic expansions between the tentacles often present.

    Fam. 1.--_Pleurotomariidae_. Shell spiral; mantle and shell with an
    anterior fissure; two ctenidia; a horny operculum. _Pleurotomaria_,
    epipodium without tentacles. Genus includes several hundred extinct
    species ranging from the Silurian to the Tertiary. Five living
    species from the Antilles, Japan and the Moluccas. Moluccan species
    is 19 cm. in height.

    Fam. 2.--_Bellerophontidae._ 300 species, all fossil, from Cambrian
    to Trias.

    Fam. 3.--_Euomphalidae._ Also extinct, from Cambrian to Cretaceous.

    Fam. 4.--_Haliotidae._ Spire of shell much reduced; two bipectinate
    ctenidia, the right being the smaller; no operculum. Haliotis.

    Fam. 5.--_Velainiellidae_, an extinct family from the Eocene.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--_Halio tistuberculata._ d, Foot; i,
  tentacular processes of the mantle. (From Owen, after Cuvier.)]

    Fam. 6.--_Fissurellidae._ Shell conical; slit or hole in anterior
    part of mantle; two symmetrical ctenidia; no operculum.
    _Emarginula_, mantle and shell with a slit, British. _Scutum_,
    mantle split anteriorly and reflected over shell, which has no slit.
    _Puncturella_, mantle and shell with a foramen in front of the apex,
    British. _Fissurella_, mantle and shell perforated at apex, British.

    Fam. 7.--_Cocculinidae._ Shell conical, symmetrical, without slit or
    perforation. _Cocculina_, abyssal.

    Fam. 8.--_Trochidae._ Shell spirally coiled; a single ctenidium;
    eyes perforated; a horny operculum; lobes between the tentacles.
    _Trochus_, shell umbilicated, spire pointed and prominent, British.
    _Monodonta_, no jaws, spire not prominent, no umbilicus, columella
    toothed. _Gibbula_, with jaws, three pairs of epipodial cirri
    without pigment spots at their bases, British. _Margarita_, five to
    seven pairs of epipodial cirri with a pigment spot at base of each.

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.--_Scutum_, seen from the pedal surface.
  (Lankester.)

    o, Mouth.
    T, Cephalic tentacle.
    br, One of the two symmetrical gills placed on the neck.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.--Dorsal aspect of a specimen of _Fissurella_
  from which the shell has been removed, whilst the anterior area of the
  mantle-skirt has been longitudinally slit and its sides reflected.
  (Lankester.)

    a, Cephalic tentacle.
    b, Foot.
    d, Left (archaic right) gill-plume.
    e, Reflected mantle-flap.
    fi, The fissure or hole in the mantle-flap traversed by the
      longitudinal incision.
    f, Right (archaic left) nephridium's aperture.
    g, Anus.
    h, Left (archaic right) aperture of nephridium.
    p, Snout.]

    Fam. 9.--_Stomatellidae._ Spire of shell much reduced; a single
    ctenidium. _Stomatella_, foot truncated posteriorly, an operculum
    present, no epipodial tentacles. _Gena_, foot elongated posteriorly,
    no operculum.

    Fam. 10.--_Delphinulidae._ Shell spirally coiled; operculum horny;
    intertentacular lobes absent. _Delphinula._

    Fam. 11.--_Liotiidae_, shell globular, margin of aperture thickened.
    _Liotia_.

    Fam. 12.--_Cyclostrematidae._ Shell flattened, umbilicated; foot
    anteriorly truncated with angles produced into lobes. _Cyclostrema._
    _Teinostoma._

    Fam. 13.--_Trochonematidae._ All extinct, Cambrian to Cretaceous.

    Fam. 14.--_Turbinidae._ Shell spirally coiled; epipodial tentacles
    present; operculum thick and calcareous. _Turbo. Astralium. Molleria.
    Cyclonema._

    Fam. 15.--_Phasianellidae._ Shell not nacreous, without umbilicus,
    with prominent spire and polished surface. _Phasianella._

    Fam. 16.--_Umboniidae._ Shell flattened, not umbilicated, generally
    smooth; operculum horny. _Umbonium. Isanda._

    Fam. 17.--_Neritopsidae._ Shell semi-globular, with short spire;
    operculum calcareous, not spiral. _Neritopsis. Naticopsis_,
    extinct.

    Fam. 18.--_Macluritidae._ Extinct, Cambrian and Silurian.

    Fam. 19.--_Neritidae._ Shell with very low spire, without umbilicus,
    internal partitions frequently absorbed; a single ctenidium; a
    cephalic penis present. _Nerita_, marine. _Neritina_, freshwater,
    British. _Septaria_, shell boat-shaped.

    Fam. 20.--_Titiscaniidae._ Without shell and operculum, but with
    pallial cavity and ctenidium. _Titiscania_, Pacific.

    Fam. 21.--_Helicinidae._ No ctenidium, but a pulmonary cavity; heart
    with a single auricle, not traversed by the rectum. _Helicina.
    Eutrochatella. Stoastoma. Bourceria._

    Fam. 22.--_Hydrocenidae._ No ctenidium, but a pulmonary cavity;
    operculum with an apophysis. _Hydrocena_, Dalmatia.

    Fam. 23.--_Proserpinidae._ No operculum. _Proserpina_, Central
    America.

  Order 2. PECTINIBRANCHIA.--In this order there is no longer any trace
  of bilateral symmetry in the circulatory, respiratory and excretory
  organs, the topographically right half of the pallial complex having
  completely disappeared, except the right kidney, which is represented
  by the genital duct. There is usually a penis in the male. The
  ctenidium is monopectinate and attached to the mantle along its whole
  length, except in _Adeorbis_ and _Valvata_; in the latter alone it is
  bipectinate. There is a single well-developed, often pectinated
  osphradium. The eye is always a closed vesicle, and the internal
  cornea is extensive. In the radula there is a single central tooth or
  none.

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.--Animal and shell of _Pyrula laevigata_. (From
  Owen.)

    a, Siphon.
    b, Head-tentacles.
    C, Head, the letter placed near the right eye.
    d, The foot, expanded as in crawling.
    h, The mantle-skirt reflected over the sides of the shell.]

  The former classification into Holochlamyda, Pneumochlamyda and
  Siphonochlamyda has been abandoned, as it was founded on adaptive
  characters not always indicative of true affinities. The order is now
  divided into two sub-orders: the Taenioglossa, in which there are
  three teeth on each side of the median tooth of the radula, and the
  Stenoglossa, in which there is only one tooth on each side of the
  median tooth. In the latter a pallial siphon, a well-developed
  proboscis and an unpaired oesophageal gland are always present, in the
  former they are usually absent. The siphon is an incompletely tubular
  outgrowth of the mantle margin on the left side, contained in a
  corresponding outgrowth of the edge of the shell-mouth, and serving to
  conduct water to the respiratory cavity.

  The condition usually spoken of as a "proboscis" appears to be derived
  from the condition of a simple rostrum (having the mouth at its
  extremity) by the process of _incomplete introversion_ of that simple
  rostrum. There is no reason in the actual significance of the word why
  the term "proboscis" should be applied to an alternately introversible
  and eversible tube connected with an animal's body, and yet such is a
  very customary use of the term. The introversible tube may be
  completely closed, as in the "proboscis" of Nemertine worms, or it may
  have a passage in it leading into a non-eversible oesophagus, as in
  the present case, and in the case of the eversible pharynx of the
  predatory Chaetopod worms. The diagrams here introduced (fig. 19) are
  intended to show certain important distinctions which obtain amongst
  the various "introverts," or intro- and e-versible tubes so frequently
  met with in animal bodies. Supposing the tube to be completely
  introverted and to commence its eversion, we then find that eversion
  may take place, either by a forward movement of the side of the tube
  near its attached base, as in the proboscis of the Nemertine worms,
  the pharynx of Chaetopods and the eye-tentacle of Gastropods, or by a
  forward movement of the inverted apex of the tube, as in the proboscis
  of the Rhabdocoel Planarians, and in that of Gastropods here under
  consideration. The former case we call "pleurecbolic" (fig. 19, A, B,
  C, H, I, K), the latter "acrecbolic" tubes or introverts (fig. 19, D,
  E, F, G). It is clear that, if we start from the condition of full
  eversion of the tube and watch the process of introversion, we shall
  find that the pleurecbolic variety is introverted by the apex of the
  tube sinking inwards; it may be called acrembolic, whilst conversely
  the acrecbolic tubes are pleurembolic. Further, it is obvious enough
  that the process either of introversion or of eversion of the tube may
  be arrested at any point, by the development of fibres connecting the
  wall of the introverted tube with the wall of the body, or with an
  axial structure such as the oesophagus; on the other hand, the range
  of movement of the tubular introvert may be unlimited or complete. The
  acrembolic proboscis or frontal introvert of the Nemertine worms has a
  complete range. So has the acrembolic pharynx of Chaetopods, if we
  consider the organ as terminating at that point where the jaws are
  placed and the oesophagus commences. So too the acrembolic
  eye-tentacle of the snail has a complete range of movement, and also
  the pleurembolic proboscis of the Rhabdocoel prostoma. The introverted
  rostrum of the Pectinibranch Gastropods presents in contrast to these
  a limited range of movement. The "introvert" in these Gastropods is
  not the pharynx as in the Chaetopod worms, but a prae-oral structure,
  its apical limit being formed by the true lips and jaws, whilst the
  apical limit of the Chaetopod's introvert is formed by the jaws placed
  at the junction of pharynx and oesophagus, so that the Chaetopod's
  introvert is part of the stomodaeum or fore-gut, whilst that of the
  Gastropod is external to the alimentary canal altogether, being in
  front of the mouth, not behind it, as is the Chaetopod's. Further, the
  Gastropod's introvert is pleurembolic (and therefore acrecbolic), and
  is limited both in eversion and in introversion; it cannot be
  completely everted owing to the muscular bands (fig. 19, G), nor can
  it be fully introverted owing to the bands (fig. 19, F) which tie the
  axial pharynx to the adjacent wall of the apical part of the
  introvert. As in all such intro- and e-versible organs, eversion of
  the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the
  muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space,
  accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon
  either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ. The inversion of
  the proboscis is effected directly by the contraction of these
  muscles. In various members of the Pectinibranchia the mouth-bearing
  cylinder is introversible (i.e. is a _proboscis_)--with rare
  exceptions these forms have a siphonate mantle-skirt. On the other
  hand, many which have a siphonate mantle-skirt are not provided with
  an introversible mouth-bearing cylinder, but have a simple
  non-introversible rostrum, as it has been termed, which is also the
  condition presented by the mouth-bearing region in nearly all other
  Gastropoda. One of the best examples of the introversible
  mouth-cylinder or proboscis which can be found is that of the common
  whelk (_Buccinum undatum_) and its immediate allies. In fig. 23 the
  proboscis is seen in an everted state; it is only so carried when
  feeding, being withdrawn when the animal is at rest. Probably its use
  is to enable the animal to introduce its rasping and licking apparatus
  into very narrow apertures for the purposes of feeding, e.g. into a
  small hole bored in the shell of another mollusc.

  [Illustration: FIG. 19.--Diagrams explanatory of the nature of
  so-called proboscides or "introverts." (Lankester.)

    A, Simple introvert completely introverted.

    B, The same, partially everted by eversion of the sides, as in the
    Nemertine proboscis and Gastropod eye-tentacle = pleurecbolic.

    C, The same, fully everted.

    D, E, A similar simple introvert in course of eversion by the
    forward movement, not of its sides, but of its apex, as in the
    proboscidean Rhabdocoels = acrecbolic.

    F, Acrecbolic (= pleurembolic) introvert, formed by the snout of the
    proboscidiferous Gastropod. al, alimentary canal; d, the true mouth.
    The introvert is not a simple one with complete range both in
    eversion and introversion, but is arrested in introversion by the
    fibrous bands at c, and similarly in eversion by the fibrous bands
    at b.

    G, The acrecbolic snout of a proboscidiferous Gastropod, arrested
    short of complete eversion by the fibrous band b.

    H, The acrembolic (= pleurecbolic) pharynx of a Chaetopod fully
    introverted. al, alimentary canal; at d, the jaws; at a, the mouth;
    therefore a to d is stomodaeum, whereas in the Gastropod (F) a to d
    is inverted body-surface.

    I, Partial eversion of H.

    K, Complete eversion of H.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 20.--Male of _Littorina littoralis_, Lin., removed
  from its shell; the mantle-skirt cut along its right line of
  attachment and thrown over to the left side of the animal so as to
  expose the organs on its inner face.

    a, Anus.
    i, Intestine.
    r, Nephridium (kidney).
    r', Aperture of the nephridium.
    c, Heart.
    br, Ctenidium (gill-plume).
    pbr, Parabranchia (= the osphradium or olfactory patch).
    x, Glandular lamellae of the inner face of the mantle-skirt.
    y, Adrectal (purpuriparous) gland.
    t, Testis.
    vd, Vas deferens.
    p, Penis.
    mc, Columella muscle (muscular process grasping the shell).
    v, Stomach.
    h, Liver.

    N.B.--Note the simple snout or rostrum not introverted as a
      "proboscis."]

  [Illustration: FIG. 21.--Nervous system of _Paludina_ as a type of the
  streptoneurous condition. (From Gegenbaur, after Jhering.)

    B, Buccal (suboesophageal) ganglion.
    C, Cerebral ganglion.
    Co, Pleural ganglion.
    P, Pedal ganglion with otocyst attached.
    p, Pedal nerve.
    A, Abdominal ganglion at the extremity of the twisted visceral
      "loop."
    sp, Supra-intestinal visceral ganglion on the course of the right
      visceral cord.
    sb, Sub-intestinal ganglion on the course of the left visceral
      cord.]

  The very large assemblage of forms coming under this order comprises
  the most highly developed predaceous sea-snails, numerous vegetarian
  species, a considerable number of freshwater and some terrestrial
  forms. The partial dissection of a male specimen of the common
  periwinkle, _Littorina littoralis_, drawn in fig. 20, will serve to
  exhibit the disposition of viscera which prevails in the group. The
  branchial chamber formed by the mantle-skirt overhanging the head has
  been exposed by cutting along a line extending backward from the
  letters vd to the base of the columella muscle mc, and the whole roof
  of the chamber thus detached from the right side of the animal's neck
  has been thrown over to the left, showing the organs which lie upon
  the roof. No opening into the body-cavity has been made; the organs
  which lie in the coiled visceral hump show through its transparent
  walls. The head is seen in front resting on the foot and carrying a
  median non-retractile snout or rostrum, and a pair of cephalic
  tentacles at the base of each of which is an eye. In many Gastropoda
  the eyes are not thus sessile but raised upon special eye-tentacles
  (figs. 25, 56). To the right of the head is seen the muscular penis p,
  close to the termination of the vas deferens (spermatic duct) vd. The
  testis t occupies a median position in the coiled visceral mass.
  Behind the penis on the same side is the hook-like columella muscle, a
  development of the retractor muscle of the foot, which clings to the
  spiral column or columella of the shell (see fig. 33). This columella
  muscle is the same thing as the muscles adhering to the shell in
  _Patella_, and the posterior adductor of Lamellibranchs.

  The surface of the neck is covered by integument forming the floor of
  the branchial cavity. It has not been cut into. Of the organs lying on
  the reflected mantle-skirt, that which in the natural state lay
  nearest to the vas deferens on the right side of the median line of
  the roof of the branchial chamber is the rectum i', ending in the anus
  a. It can be traced back to the intestine i near the surface of the
  visceral hump, and it is found that the apex of the coil formed by the
  hump is occupied by the liver h and the stomach v. Pharynx and
  oesophagus are concealed in the head. The enlarged glandular structure
  of the walls of the rectum is frequent in the Pectinibranchia, as is
  also though not universal the gland marked y, next to the rectum. It
  is the adrectal gland, and in the genera _Murex_ and _Purpura_
  secretes a colourless liquid which turns purple upon exposure to the
  atmosphere, and was used by the ancients as a dye. Near this and less
  advanced into the branchial chamber is the single renal organ or
  nephridium r with its opening to the exterior r'. Internally this
  glandular sac presents a second slit or aperture which leads into the
  pericardium (as is now found to be the case in all Mollusca). The
  heart c lying in the pericardium is seen in close proximity to the
  renal organ, and consists of a single auricle receiving blood from the
  gill, and of a single ventricle which pumps it through the body by an
  anterior and posterior aorta. The surface x of the mantle between the
  rectum and the gill-plume is thrown into folds which in many
  sea-snails (whelks or _Buccinidae_, &c.) are very strongly developed.
  The whole of this surface appears to be active in the secretion of a
  mucous-like substance. The single gill-plume br lies to the left of
  the median line in natural position. It corresponds to the right of
  the two primitive ctenidia in the untwisted archaic condition of the
  molluscan body, and does not project freely into the branchial cavity,
  but its axis is attached (by concrescence) to the mantle-skirt (roof
  of the branchial chamber). It is rare for the gill-plume of a
  Pectinibranch Gastropod to stand out freely as a plume, but
  occasionally this more archaic condition is exhibited as in _Valvata_
  (fig. 30). Next beyond (to the left of) the gill-plume we find the
  so-called parabranchia, which is here simple, but sometimes lamellated
  as in _Purpura_ (fig. 22). This organ has, without reason, been
  supposed to represent the second ctenidium of the typical mollusc,
  which it cannot do on account of its position. It should be to the
  right of the anus were this the case. Spengel showed that the
  parabranchia of Gastropods is the typical olfactory organ or
  osphradium in a highly developed condition. The minute structure of
  the epithelium which clothes it, as well as the origin of the nerve
  which is distributed to the parabranchia, proves it to be the same
  organ which is found universally in molluscs at the base of each
  gill-plume, and tests the indrawn current of water by the sense of
  smell. The nerve to this organ is given off from the superior
  (original right, see fig. 3) visceral ganglion.

  [Illustration: FIG. 22.--Female of _Purpura lapillus_ removed from its
  shell; the mantle-skirt cut along its left line of attachment and
  thrown over to the right side of the animal so as to expose the organs
  on its inner face.

    a, Anus.
    vg, Vagina.
    gp, Adrectal purpuriparous gland.
    r', Aperture of the nephridium (kidney).
    br, Ctenidium (branchial plume).
    br', Parabranchia (= the comb-like osphradium or olfactory organ).]

  The figures which are given here of various Pectinibranchia are in
  most cases sufficiently explained by the references attached to them.
  As an excellent general type of the nervous system, attention may be
  directed to that of _Paludina_ drawn in fig. 21. On the whole the
  ganglia are strongly individualized in the Pectinibranchia, nerve-cell
  tissue being concentrated in the ganglia and absent from the cords. At
  the same time, the junction of the visceral loop above the intestine
  prevents in all Streptoneura the shortening of the visceral loop, and
  it is rare to find a fusion of the visceral ganglia with either
  pleural, pedal or cerebral--a fusion which can and does take place
  where the visceral loop is not above but below the intestine, e.g. in
  the Euthyneura (fig. 48), Cephalopoda and Lamellibranchia. As
  contrasted with the Aspidobranchia, we find that in the
  Pectinibranchia the pedal nerves are distinctly nerves given off from
  the pedal ganglia, rather than cord-like nerve-tracts containing both
  nerve-cells or ganglionic elements and nerve-fibres. Yet in some
  Pectinibranchia (_Paludina_) a ladder-like arrangement of the two
  pedal nerves and their lateral branches has been detected. The
  histology of the nervous system of Mollusca has yet to be seriously
  inquired into.

  The alimentary canal of the Pectinibranchia presents little diversity
  of character, except in so far as the buccal region is concerned.
  Salivary glands are present, and in some carnivorous forms (_Dolium_)
  these secrete free sulphuric acid (as much as 2% is present in the
  secretion), which assists the animal in boring holes by means of its
  rasping tongue through the shells of other molluscs upon which it
  preys. A crop-like dilatation of the gut and a recurved intestine,
  embedded in the compact yellowish-brown liver, the ducts of which open
  into it, form the rest of the digestive tract and occupy a large bulk
  of the visceral hump. The buccal region presents a pair of shelly jaws
  placed laterally upon the lips, and a wide range of variation in the
  form of the denticles of the lingual ribbon or radula.

  Well-developed glandular invaginations occur in different positions on
  the foot in Pectinibranchia. The most important of these opens by the
  ventral pedal pore, situated in the median line in the anterior half
  of the foot. This organ is probably homologous with the byssogenous
  gland of Lamellibranchs. The aperture, which was formerly supposed to
  be an aquiferous pore, leads into an extensive and often ramified
  cavity surrounded by glandular tubules. The gland has been found in
  both sub-orders of the Pectinibranchia, in _Cyclostoma_ and _Cypraea_
  among the Taenioglossa, in _Hemifusus, Cassis, Nassa, Murex,
  Fasciolariidae, Turbinellidae, Olividae, Marginellidae_ and _Conidae_
  among the Stenoglossa. It was discovered by J.T. Cunningham that in
  _Buccinum_ the egg-capsules are formed by this pedal gland and not by
  any accessory organ of the generative system. Such horny egg-capsules
  doubtless have the same origin in all other species in which they
  occur, e.g. _Fusus, Pyrula, Purpura, Murex, Nassa, Trophon, Voluta_,
  &c. The float of the pelagic _Janthina_, to which the egg-capsules are
  attached, probably is also formed by the secretion of the pedal gland.

  [Illustration: FIG. 23.--A, _Triton variegatum_, to show the proboscis
  or buccal introvert (e) in a state of eversion.

    a, Siphonal notch of the shell occupied by the siphonal fold of the
      mantle-skirt (Siphonochlamyda).
    b, Edge of the mantle-skirt resting on the shell.
    c, Cephalic eye.
    d, Cephalic tentacle.
    e, Everted buccal introvert (proboscis).
    f, Foot.
    g, Operculum.
    h, Penis.
    i, Under surface of the mantle-skirt forming the roof of the
      sub-pallial chamber.
    B, Sole of the foot of _Pyrula tuba_, to show a, the pore usually
      said to be "aquiferous" but probably the orifice of a gland; b,
      median line of foot.]

  Other glands opening on or near the foot are: (1) The suprapedal gland
  opening in the middle line between the snout and the anterior border
  of the foot. It is most commonly found in sessile forms and in
  terrestrial genera such as _Cyclostoma_; (2) the anterior pedal gland
  opening into the anterior groove of the foot, generally present in
  aquatic species; (3) dorsal posterior mucous glands in certain
  _Cyclostomatidae_.

  The foot of the Pectinibranchia, unlike the simple muscular disk of
  the Isopleura and Aspidobranchia, is very often divided into lobes, a
  fore, middle and hind lobe (pro-, meso- and meta-podium, see figs. 24
  and 25). Very usually, but not universally, the metapodium carries an
  operculum. The division of the foot into lobes is a simple case of
  that much greater elaboration or breaking up into processes and
  regions which it undergoes in the class Cephalopoda. Even among some
  Gastropoda (viz. the Opisthobranchia) we find the lobation of the foot
  still further carried out by the development of lateral lobes, the
  parapodia, whilst there are many Pectinibranchia, on the other hand,
  in which the foot has a simple oblong form without any trace of lobes.

  The development of the Pectinibranchia has been followed in several
  examples, e.g. _Paludina, Purpura, Nassa, Vermetus, Neritina_. As in
  other Molluscan groups, we find a wide variation in the early process
  of the formation of the first embryonic cells, and their arrangement
  as a diblastula, dependent on the greater or less amount of food-yolk
  which is present in the egg-cell when it commences its embryonic
  changes. In fig. 26 the early stages of _Paludina vivipara_ are
  represented. There is but very little food-material in the egg of this
  Pectinibranch, and consequently the diblastula forms by invagination;
  the blastopore or orifice of invagination coincides with the anus, and
  never closes entirely. A well-marked trochosphere is formed by the
  development of an equatorial ciliated band; and subsequently, by the
  disproportionate growth of the lower hemisphere, the trochosphere
  becomes a veliger. The primitive shell-sac or shell-gland is well
  marked at this stage, and the pharynx is seen as a new ingrowth (the
  stomodaeum), about to fuse with and open into the primitively
  invaginated arch-enteron (fig. 26, F).

  [Illustration: FIG. 24.--Animal and shell of _Phorus exutus_.

    a, Snout (not introversible).
    b, Cephalic tentacles.
    c, Right eye.
    d, Pro- and meso-podium; to the right of this is seen the metapodium
      bearing the sculptured operculum.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 25.--Animal and shell of _Rostellaria
  rectirostris_. (From Owen.)

    a, Snout or rostrum.
    b, Cephalic tentacle.
    c, Eye.
    d, Propodium and mesopodium.
    e, Metapodium.
    f, Operculum.
    h', Prolonged siphonal notch of the shell occupied by the siphon, or
      trough-like process of the mantle-skirt.]

  In other Pectinibranchia (and such variations are representative for
  all Mollusca, and not characteristic only of Pectinibranchia) we find
  that there is a very unequal division of the egg-cell at the
  commencement of embryonic development, as in _Nassa_. Consequently
  there is, strictly speaking, no invagination (emboly), but an
  overgrowth (epiboly) of the smaller cells to enclose the larger. The
  general features of this process and of the relation of the blastopore
  to mouth and anus have been explained in treating of the development
  of Mollusca generally. In such cases the blastopore may entirely
  close, and both mouth and anus develop as new ingrowths (stomodaeum
  and proctodaeum), whilst, according to the observations of N.
  Bobretzky, the closed blastopore may coincide in position with the
  mouth in some instances (_Nassa_, &c.), instead of with the anus. But
  in these epibolic forms, just as in the embolic _Paludina_, the embryo
  proceeds to develop its ciliated band and shell-gland, passing through
  the earlier condition of a trochosphere to that of the veliger. In the
  veliger stage many Pectinibranchia (_Purpura, Nassa_, &c.) exhibit, in
  the dorsal region behind the head, a contractile area of the
  body-wall. This acts as a larval heart, but ceases to pulsate after a
  time. Similar rhythmically contractile areas are found on the foot of
  the embryo Pulmonate _Limax_ and on the yolk-sac (distended
  foot-surface) of the Cephalopod _Loligo_. The preconchylian
  invagination or shell-gland is formed in the embryo behind the velum,
  on the surface opposite the blastopore. It is surrounded by a ridge of
  cells which gradually extends over the visceral sac and secretes the
  shell. In forms which are naked in the adult state, the shell falls
  off soon after the reduction of the velum, but in _Cenia, Runcina_ and
  _Vaginula_ the shell-gland and shell are not developed, and the young
  animal when hatched has already the naked form of the adult.

  [Illustration: FIG. 26.--Development of the River-Snail, _Paludina
  vivipara_. (After Lankester, 17.)

    dc, Directive corpuscle (outcast cell).
    ae, Arch-enteron or cavity lined by the enteric cell-layer or
      endoderm.
    bl, Blastopore.
    vr, Velum or circlet of ciliated cells.
    dv, Velar area or cephalic dome.
    sm, Site of the as yet unformed mouth.
    f, Foot.
    mes, Rudiments of the skeleto-trophic tissues.
    pi, The pedicle of invagination, the future rectum.
    shgl, The primitive shell-sac or shell-gland.
    m, Mouth.
    an, Anus.
    A, Diblastula phase (optical section).
    B, The diblastula has become a trochosphere by the development of
      the ciliated ring vr (optical section).
    C, Side view of the trochosphere with commencing formation of the
      foot.
    D, Further advanced trochosphere (optical section).
    E, The trochosphere passing to the veliger stage, dorsal view
      showing the formation of the primitive shell-sac.
    F, Side view of the same, showing foot, shell-sac (shgl), velum
      (vr), mouth and anus.
    N.B.--In this development the blastopore is not elongated; it
      persists as the anus. The mouth and stomodaeum form independently
      of the blastopore.]

  One further feature of the development of the Pectinibranchia deserves
  special mention. Many Gastropoda deposit their eggs, after
  fertilization, enclosed in capsules; others, as _Paludina_, are
  viviparous; others, again, as the Zygobranchia, agree with the
  Lamellibranch Conchifera (the bivalves) in having simple exits for the
  ova without glandular walls, and therefore discharge their eggs
  unenclosed in capsules freely into the sea-water; such unencapsuled
  eggs are merely enclosed each in its own delicate chorion. When
  egg-capsules are formed they are often of large size, have tough
  walls, and in each capsule are several eggs floating in a viscid
  fluid. In some cases all the eggs in a capsule develop; in other cases
  one egg only in a capsule (_Neritina_), or a small proportion
  (_Purpura, Buccinum_), advance in development; the rest are arrested
  either after the first process of cell-division (cleavage) or before
  that process. The arrested embryos or eggs are then swallowed and
  digested by those in the same capsule which have advanced in
  development. This is clearly the same process in essence as that of
  the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive
  ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of
  neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the
  sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late. What it
  is that determines the arrest of some eggs and the progressive
  development of others in the same capsule is at present unknown.

  [Illustration: FIG. 27.--_Oxygyrus Keraudrenii_. (From Owen.)

    a, Mouth and odontophore.
    b, Cephalic tentacles.
    c, Eye.
    d, Propodium (B) and mesopodium.
    e, Metapodium.
    f, Operculum.
    h, Mantle-chamber.
    i, Ctenidium (gill-plume).
    k, Retractor muscle of foot.
    l, Optic tentacle.
    m, Stomach.
    n, Dorsal surface overhung by the mantle-skirt; the letter is close
      to the salivary gland.
    o, Rectum and anus.
    p, Liver.
    q, Renal organ (nephridium).
    s, Ventricle.
    u, The otocyst attached to the cerebral ganglion.
    w, Testis.
    x, Auricle of the heart.
    y, Vesicle on genital duct.
    z, Penis.]

  In the tribe of Pectinibranchia called Heteropoda the foot takes the
  form of a swimming organ. The nervous system and sense organs are
  highly developed. The odontophore also is remarkably developed, its
  lateral teeth being mobile, and it serves as an efficient organ for
  attacking the other pelagic forms on which the Heteropoda prey. The
  sexes are distinct, as in all Streptoneura; and genital ducts and
  accessory glands and pouches are present, as in all Pectinibranchia.
  The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and
  proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition
  readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as
  _Rostellaria_, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and
  a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in
  which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a
  plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely
  atrophied. Three steps of this modification may be distinguished as
  three families:--_Atlantidae, Carinariidae_ and _Pterotrachaeidae_.
  They are true Pectinibranchia which have taken to a pelagic life, and
  the peculiarities of structure which they exhibit are strictly
  adaptations consequent upon their changed mode of life. Such
  adaptations are the transparency and colourlessness of the tissues,
  and the modifications of the foot, which still shows in _Atlanta_ the
  form common in Pectinibranchia (compare fig. 27 and fig. 24). The
  cylindrical body of _Pterotrachaea_ is paralleled by the slug-like
  forms of Euthyneura. J.W. Spengel has shown that the visceral loop of
  the Heteropoda is streptoneurous. Special to the Heteropoda is the
  high elaboration of the lingual ribbon, and, as an agreement with some
  of the opisthobranchiate Euthyneura, but as a difference from the
  Pectinibranchia, we find the otocysts closely attached to the cerebral
  ganglia. This is, however, less of a difference than it was at one
  time supposed to be, for it has been shown by H. Lacaze-Duthiers, and
  also by F. Leydig, that the otocysts of Pectinibranchia even when
  lying close upon the pedal ganglion (as in fig. 21) yet receive their
  special nerve (which can sometimes be readily isolated) from the
  cerebral ganglion (see fig. 11). Accordingly the difference is one of
  position of the otocyst and not of its nerve-supply. The Heteropoda
  are further remarkable for the high development of their cephalic
  eyes, and for the typical character of their osphradium (Spengel's
  olfactory organ). This is a groove, the edges of which are raised and
  ciliated, lying near the branchial plume in the genera which possess
  that organ, whilst in _Firoloida_, which has no branchial plume, the
  osphradium occupies a corresponding position. Beneath the ciliated
  groove is placed an elongated ganglion (olfactory ganglion) connected
  by a nerve to the supra-intestinal (therefore the primitively dextral)
  ganglion of the long visceral nerve-loop, the strands of which cross
  one another--this being characteristic of Streptoneura (Spengel).

  [Illustration: FIG. 28.--_Carinaria mediterranea_. (From Owen.)

    A, The animal. B, The shell removed. C, D, Two views of the shell of
      _Cardiopoda_.
    a, Mouth and odontophore.
    b, Cephalic tentacles.
    c, Eye.
    d, The fin-like mesopodium.
    d', Its sucker.
    e, Metapodium.
    f, Salivary glands.
    h, Border of the mantle-flap.
    i, Ctenidium (gill-plume).
    m, Stomach.
    n, Intestine.
    o, Anus.
    p, Liver.
    t, Aorta, springing from the ventricle.
    u, Cerebral ganglion.
    v, Pleural and pedal ganglion.
    w, Testis.
    x, Visceral ganglion.
    y, Vesicula seminalis.
    z, Penis.]

  The Heteropoda belong to the "pelagic fauna" occurring near the
  surface in the Mediterranean and great oceans in company with the
  Pteropoda, the Siphonophorous Hydrozoa, Salpae, Leptocephali, and
  other specially-modified transparent swimming representatives of
  various groups of the animal kingdom. In development they pass through
  the typical trochosphere and veliger stages provided with boat-like
  shell.

  Sub-order 1.--TAENIOGLOSSA. Radula with a median tooth and three teeth
  on each side of it. Formula 3 : 1 : 3.

  Tribe 1.--PLATYPODA. Normal Taenioglossa of creeping habit. The foot
  is flattened ventrally, at all events in its anterior part
  (_Strombidae_). Otocysts situated close to the pedal nerve-centres.
  Accessory organs are rarely found on the genital ducts, but occur in
  _Paludina, Cyclostoma, Naticidae, Calyptraeidae_, &c. Mandibles
  usually present. This is the largest group of Mollusca, including
  nearly sixty families, some of which are insufficiently known from the
  anatomical point of view.

    Fam. 1.--_Paludinidae_. Pedal centres in the form of ganglionated
    cords; kidney provided with a ureter; viviparous; fluviatile.
    _Paludina_. _Neothauma_, from Lake Tanganyika. _Tylopoma_, extinct,
    Tertiary.

  [Illustration: FIG. 29.--_Pterotrachea mutica_ seen from the right
  side. (After Keferstein.)

    a, Pouch for reception of the snout when retracted.
    c, Pericardium.
    ph, Pharynx.
    oc, Cephalic eye.
    g, Cerebral ganglion.
    g', Pleuro-pedal ganglion.
    pr, Foot (mesopodium).
    v, Stomach.
    i, Intestine.
    n, So-called nucleus.
    br, Branchial plume (ctenidium).
    w, Osphradium.
    mt, Foot (metapodium).
    z, Caudal appendage.]

    Fam. 2.--_Cyclophoridae_. No ctenidium, pallial cavity transformed
    into a lung; aperture of shell circular; terrestrial. _Pomatias_,
    shell turriculated. _Diplommatina. Hybocystis. Cyclophorus_, shell
    umbilicated, with a short spire and horny operculum. Cyclosurus,
    shell uncoiled. _Dermatocera_, foot with a horn-shaped protuberance
    at its posterior end. Spiraculum.

    Fam. 3.--_Ampullariidae_. To the left of the ctenidium a pulmonary
    sac, separated from it by an incomplete septum, amphibious.
    _Ampullaria_, shell dextral, coiled. _Lanistes_, shell sinistral,
    spire short or obsolete. _Meladomus._

    Fam. 4.--_Littorinidae._ Oesophageal pouches present; pedal
    nerve-centres concentrated; a pedal penis near the right tentacle.
    _Littorina_, shell not umbilicated, littoral habit. _Lacuna_, foot
    with two posterior appendages, marine, entirely aquatic.
    _Cremnoconchus_, entirely aerial, Indian. _Risella. Tectarius._

    Fam. 5.--_Fossaridae._ Head with two lobes in some Rhipidoglossa.
    _Fossaria._

    Fam. 6.--_Purpurinidae_, extinct.

    Fam. 7.--_Planaxidae._ Shell with pointed spire; a short pallial
    siphon. Planaxis.

    Fam. 8.--_Cyclostomatidae._ Pallial cavity transformed into a lung;
    pedal centres concentrated; a deep pedal groove. _Cyclostoma_, shell
    turbinated, operculum calcareous, British. _Omphalotropis._

    Fam. 9.--_Aciculidae._ Pallial cavity transformed into a lung;
    operculum horny; shell narrow and elongated. _Acicula._

    Fam. 10.--_Valvatidae._ Ctenidium bipectinate, free; hermaphrodite;
    fluviatile. _Valvata_, British.

    Fam. 11.--_Rissoidae._ Epipodial filaments present; one or two
    pallial tentacles. _Rissoa. Rissoina. Stiva._

    Fam. 12.--_Litiopidae._ An epipodium bearing three pairs of
    tentacles and an operculigerous lobe with two appendages;
    inhabitants of the Sargasso weed. _Litiopa._

    Fam. 13.--_Adeorbiidae._ Mantle with two posterior appendages;
    ctenidium large and capable of protrusion from pallial cavity.
    _Adeorbis_, British.

    Fam. 14.--_Jeffreysiidae._ Head with two long labial palps; shell
    ovoid; operculum horny, semicircular, carinated. _Jeffreysia._

    Fam. 15.--_Homalogyridae._ Shell flattened; no cephalic tentacles.
    _Homalogyra_, British. _Ammoniceras._

    Fam. 16.--_Skeneidae._ Shell depressed, with rounded aperture;
    cephalic tentacles long. _Skenea_, British.

    Fam. 17.--_Choristidae._ Shell spiral; four cephalic tentacles; eyes
    absent; two pedal appendages. _Choristes._

    Fam. 18.--_Assimineidae._ Eyes at free extremities of tentacles.
    Assiminea, estuarine, British.

    Fam. 19.--_Truncatellidae._ Snout very long, bilobed; foot short.
    _Truncatella._

  [Illustration: FIG. 30.--_Valvata cristata_, Müll.

    o, Mouth.
    op, Operculum.
    br, Ctenidium (branchial plume).
    x, Filiform appendage (? rudimentary ctenidium).

    The freely projecting ctenidium of typical form not having its axis
      fused to the roof of the branchial chamber is the notable
      character of this genus.]

    Fam. 20.--_Hydrobiidae._ Shell with prominent spire; penis distant
    from right tentacle, generally appendiculated; brackish water or
    fluviatile. _Hydrobia_, British. _Baikalia_, from Lake Baikal.
    _Pomatiopsis. Bithynella. Lithoglyphus. Spekia_, viviparous, from
    Lake Tanganyika. _Tanganyicia. Limnotrochus_, from Lake Tanganyika.
    _Chytra. Littorinida. Bithynia_, British, fluviatile. _Stenothyra._

    Fam. 21.--_Melaniidae._ Spire of shell somewhat elongated;
    mantle-border fringed; viviparous; fluviatile. _Melania. Faunus.
    Paludomus. Melanopsis. Nassopsis. Bythoceras_, from Lake
    Tanganyika.

    Fam. 22.--_Typhobiidae._ Foot wide; shell turriculated, with
    carinated whorls, the carinae tuberculated or spiny. _Typhobia.
    Bathanalia_, from Lake Tanganyika.

    Fam. 23.--_Pleuroceridae._ Like _Melaniidae_, but mantle-border not
    fringed and reproduction oviparous. _Pleurocera. Anculotus._

    Fam. 24.--_Pseudomelaniidae._ All extinct.

    Fam. 25.--_Subulitidae._ All extinct.

    Fam. 26.--_Nerineidae._ All extinct.

    Fam. 27.--_Cerithiidae._ Shell with numerous tuberculated whorls;
    aperture canaliculated anteriorly; short pallial siphon. _Cerithium.
    Bittium. Potamides. Triforis. Laeocochlis. Cerithiopsis._

    Fam. 28.--_Modulidae._ Shell with short spire; no siphon.
    _Modulus._

    Fam. 29.--_Vermetidae._ Animal fixed by the shell, the last whorls
    of which are not in contact with each other; foot small; two
    anterior pedal tentacles. _Vermetus. Siliquaria._

    Fam. 30.--_Caecidae._ Shell almost completely uncoiled, in one
    plane, with internal septa. _Caecum_, British.

    Fam. 31.--_Turritellidae._ Shell very long; head large; foot broad.
    _Turritella_, British. _Mesalia. Mathilda._

    Fam. 32.--_Struthiolariidae._ Shell conical; aperture slightly
    canaliculated; siphon slightly developed. _Struthiolaria._

    Fam. 33.--_Chenopodidae._ Shell elongated; aperture expanded; siphon
    very short. _Chenopus_, British. _Alaria, Spinigera, Diartema_,
    extinct.

    Fam. 34.--_Strombidae._ Foot narrow, compressed, without sole.
    _Strombus. Pteroceras. Rostellaria. Terebellum._

    Fam. 35.--_Xenophoridae._ Foot transversely divided into two parts.
    _Xenophorus. Eotrochus_, Silurian.

    Fam. 36.--_Capulidae._ Shell conical, not coiled, but slightly
    incurved posteriorly; a tongue-shaped projection between snout and
    foot. _Capulus. Thyca_, parasitic on asterids. _Platyceras_,
    extinct.

  [Illustration: FIG. 31.--Shell of _Crucibulum_, seen from below so as
  to show the inner whorl b, concealed by the cap-like outer whorl a.]

    Fam. 37.--_Hipponycidae._ Shell conical; foot secreting a ventral
    calcareous plate; animal fixed. _Hipponyx. Mitrularia._

    Fam. 38.--_Calyptraeidae._ Shell with short spire; lateral cervical
    lobes present; accessory genital glands. _Calyptraea_, British.
    _Crepidula. Crucibulum._

    Fam. 39.--_Naricidae._ Foot divided into two, posterior half bearing
    the operculum; a wide epipodial velum; shell turbinated. Narica.

    Fam. 40.--_Naticidae._ Foot large, with aquiferous system; propodium
    reflected over head; eyes degenerate; burrowing habit. _Natica_,
    British. _Amaura. Sigaretus._

    Fam. 41.--_Lamellariidae._ Shell thin, more or less covered by the
    mantle; no operculum. _Lamellaria. Velutina. Marsenina_,
    _Oncidiopsis_, hermaphrodite.

    Fam. 42.--_Trichotropidae._ Shell with short spire, carinate and
    pointed. _Trichotropis._

    Fam. 43.--_Seguenziidae._ Shell trochiform, with canaliculated
    aperture and twisted columella. _Seguenzia_, abyssal.

    Fam. 44.--_Janthinidae._ Shell thin; operculum absent; tentacles
    bifid; foot secretes a float; pelagic. _Janthina. Recluzia._

    Fam. 45.--_Cypraeidae._ Shell inrolled, solid, polished, aperture
    very narrow in adult; short siphon; anus posterior; osphradium with
    three lobes; mantle reflected over shell. _Cypraea. Pustularia.
    Ovula. Pedicularia_, attached to corals. _Erato_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 32.--Animal and shell of _Ovula_.

    b, Cephalic tentacles.
    d, Foot.
    h, Mantle-skirt, which is naturally carried in a reflected condition
      so as to cover the sides of the shell.]

    Fam. 46.--_Tritonidae._ Shell turriculated and siphonated, thick,
    each whorl with varices; foot broad and truncated anteriorly;
    pallial siphon well developed; proboscis present. _Triton. Persona._
    _Ranella._

    Fam. 47.--_Columbellinidae._ All extinct.

    Fam. 48.--_Cassididae._ Shell ventricose, with elongated aperture,
    and short spire; proboscis and siphon long; operculum with marginal
    nucleus. _Cassis. Cassidaria. Oniscia._

    Fam. 49--_Oocorythidae._ Shell globular and ventricose; aperture
    oval and canaliculated; operculum spiral. _Oocorys_, abyssal.

    Fam. 50.--_Doliidae._ Shell ventricose, with short spire, and wide
    aperture; no varices and no operculum; foot very broad, with
    projecting anterior angles; siphon long. _Dolium. Pyrula._

    Fam. 51.--_Solariidae. Solarium. Torinia. Fluxina._

    Fam. 52.--_Scalariidae._ Shell turriculated, with elongated spire;
    proboscis short; siphon rudimentary. _Scalaria. Eglisia._ Crossea.
    Aclis.

  The three following families have neither radula nor jaws, and are
  therefore called _Aglossa_. They have a well-developed proboscis which
  is used as a suctorial organ; some are abyssal, but the majority are
  either commensals or parasites of Echinoderms.

    Fam. 53.--_Pyramidellidae._ Summit of spire heterostrophic; a
    projection, the mentum, between head and foot; operculum present.
    _Pyramidella. Turbonilla. Odostomia_, British. _Myxa._

  [Illustration: FIG. 33.--Section of the shell of _Triton_, Cuv. (From
  Owen.)

    a, Apex.
    ac, Siphonal notch of the mouth of the shell.
    ac to pc, Mouth of the shell.
    w, w, Whorls of the shell.
    s, s. Sutures.

    Occupying the axis, and exposed by the section, is seen the
      "columella" or spiral pillar. The upper whorls of the shell are
      seen to be divided into separate chambers by the formation of
      successively formed "septa."]

    Fam. 54.--_Eulimidae._ Visceral mass still coiled spirally; shell
    thin and shining. _Eulima_, foot well developed, with an operculum,
    animal usually free, but some live in the digestive cavity of
    Holothurians. _Mucronalia_, foot reduced, but still operculate, eyes
    present, animal fixed by its very long proboscis which is deeply
    buried in the tissues of an Echinoderm, no pseudopallium.
    _Stylifer_, the operculum is lost, animal fixed by a large proboscis
    which forms a pseudopallium covering the whole shell except the
    extremity of the spire, parasitic on all groups of Echinoderms.
    _Entosiphon_, visceral mass still coiled; shell much reduced,
    proboscis very long forming a pseudopallium which covers the whole
    body and projects beyond in the form of a siphon, foot and nervous
    system present, eyes, branchia and anus absent, parasite in the
    Holothurian _Deima blakei_ in the Indian Ocean.

    Fam. 55.--_Entoconchidae._ No shell; visceral mass not coiled; no
    sensory organs, nervous system, branchia or anus; body reduced to a
    more or less tubular sac; hermaphrodite and viviparous; parasitic in
    Holothurians; larvae are veligers, with shell and operculum.
    _Entocolax_, mouth at free extremity, animal fixed by aboral orifice
    of pseudopallium, Pacific. _Entoconcha_, body elongated and tubular,
    animal fixed by the oral extremity, protandric hermaphrodite,
    parasitic in testes of Holothurians causing their abortion.
    _Enteroxenos_, no pseudopallium and no intestine, hermaphrodite,
    larvae with operculum.

  Tribe 2.--HETEROPODA. Pelagic Taenioglossa with foot large and
  laterally compressed to form a fin.

    Fam. 1. _Atlantidae._ Visceral sac and shell coiled in one plane;
    foot divided transversely into two parts, posterior part bearing an
    operculum, anterior part forming a fin provided with a sucker.
    _Atlanta. Oxygyrus._

    Fam. 2.--_Carinariidae._ Visceral sac and shell small in proportion
    to the rest of the body, which cannot be withdrawn into the shell;
    foot elongated, fin-shaped, with sucker, but without operculum.
    _Carinaria. Cardiopoda._

    Fam. 3.--_Pterotrachaeidae._ Visceral sac very much reduced; without
    shell or mantle; anus posterior; foot provided with sucker in male
    only. _Pterotrachaea. Firoloida. Pterosoma._

  Sub-order 2.--STENOGLOSSA. Radula narrow with one lateral tooth on
  each side, and one median tooth or none.

  Tribe 1.--RACHIGLOSSA. Radula with a median tooth and a single tooth
  on each side of it. Formula 1 : 1 : 1. Rudimentary jaws present.

  [Illustration: FIG. 34.--Female _Janthina_, with egg-float (a)
  attached to the foot; b, egg-capsules; c, ctenidium (gill-plume); d,
  cephalic tentacles.]

    Fam. 1.--_Turbinellidae._ Shell solid, piriform, with thick folded
    columella; lateral teeth of radula bicuspidate. _Turbinella.
    Cynodonta. Fulgur. Hemifusus. Tudicla. Strepsidura._

    Fam. 2.--_Fasciolariidae._ Shell elongated, with long siphon;
    lateral teeth of radula multicuspidate. _Fasciolaria. Fusus.
    Clavella. Latirus._

    Fam. 3.--_Mitridae._ Shell fusiform and solid, aperture elongated,
    columella folded; no operculum; eyes on sides of tentacles. _Mitra.
    Turricula. Cylindromitra. Imbricaria._

    Fam. 4.--_Buccinidae._ Foot large and broad; eyes at base of
    tentacles; operculum horny. _Buccinum. Chrysodomus. Liomesus.
    Cominella. Tritonidea. Pisania. Euthria. Phos. Dipsacus._

    Fam. 5.--_Nassidae._ Foot broad, with two slender posterior
    appendages; operculum unguiculate. _Nassa_, marine, British.
    _Canidia_, fluviatile. _Bullia._

    Fam. 6.--_Muricidae._ Shell with moderately long spire and canal,
    ornamented with ribs, often spiny; foot truncated anteriorly.
    _Murex_, British. _Trophon_, British. _Typhis. Urosalpinx.
    Lachesis._

    Fam. 7.--_Purpuridae._ Shell thick, with short spire, last whorl
    large and canal short; aperture wide; operculum horny. _Purpura_,
    British. _Rapana. Monoceros. Sistrum. Concholepas._

    Fam. 8.--_Haliidae._ Shell ventricose, thin and smooth, with wide
    aperture; foot large and thick, without operculum. _Halia._

    Fam. 9.--_Cancellariidae._ Shell ovoid, with short spire and folded
    columella; foot small, no operculum; siphon short. _Cancellaria._

    Fam. 10.--_Columbellidae._ Spire of shell prominent, aperture
    narrow, canal very short, columella crenelated; foot large.
    _Columbella._

    Fam. 11.--_Coralliophilidae._ Shell irregular; radula absent; foot
    and siphon short; sedentary animals, living in corals.
    _Coralliophila. Rhizochilus. Leptoconchus. Magilus. Rapa._

    Fam. 12.--_Volutidae._ Head much flattened and wide, with eyes on
    sides; foot broad; siphon with internal appendages. _Valuta.
    Guivillea. Cymba._

    Fam. 13.--_Olividae._ Foot with anterior transverse groove; a
    posterior pallial tentacle; generally burrowing. _Olivia. Olivella.
    Ancillaria. Agaronia._

    Fam. 14.--_Marginellidae._ Foot very large; mantle reflected over
    shell. _Marginella. Pseudomarginella._

    Fam. 15.--_Harpidae._ Foot very large; without operculum; shell with
    short spire and longitudinal ribs; siphon long. _Harpa._

  Tribe 2.--TOXIGLOSSA. No jaws. No median tooth in radula. Formula: 1 :
  0 : 1. Poison-gland present whose duct traverses the nerve-collar.

    Fam. 1.--_Pleurotomatidae._ Shell fusiform, with elongated spire;
    margin of shell and mantle notched. _Pleurotoma. Clavatula.
    Mangilia. Bela. Pusionella. Pontiothauma._

    Fam. 2.--_Terebridae._ Shell turriculated, with numerous whorls;
    aperture and operculum oval; eyes at summits of tentacles; siphon
    long. _Terebra._

    Fam. 3.--_Conidae._ Shell conical, with very short spire, and narrow
    aperture with parallel borders; operculum unguiform _Conus._


Sub-Class II.--EUTHYNEURA

The most important general character of the Euthyneura is the absence of
torsion in the visceral commissure, and the more posterior position of
the anus and pallial organs. Comparative anatomy and embryology prove
that this condition is due, not as formerly supposed to a difference in
the relations of the visceral commissure which prevented it from being
included in the torsion of the visceral hump, but to an actual detorsion
which has taken place in evolution and is repeated to a great extent in
individual development. In several of the more primitive forms the same
torsion occurs as in Streptoneura, viz. in _Actaeon_ and _Limacina_
among Opisthobranchia, and _Chilina_ among Pulmonata. _Actaeon_ is
proso-branchiate, the visceral commissure is twisted in _Actaeon_ and
_Chilina_, and even slightly still in _Bulla_ and _Scaphander_; in
_Actaeon_ and _Limacina_ the osphradium is to the left, innervated by
the supra-intestinal ganglion. But in the other members of the sub-class
the detorsion of the visceral mass has carried back the anus and
circumanal complex from the anterior dorsal region to the right side, as
in _Bulla_ and _Aplysia_, or even to the posterior end of the body, as
in _Philine, Oncidium, Doris_, &c. Different degrees of the same
process of detorsion are, as we have seen, exhibited by the Heteropoda
among the Streptoneura, and both in them and in the Euthyneura the
detorsion is associated with degeneration of the shell. Where the
modification is carried to its extreme degree, not only the shell but
the pallial cavity, ctenidium and visceral hump disappear, and the body
acquires a simple elongated form and a secondary external symmetry, as
in _Pterotrachaea_ and in _Doris, Eolis_, and other Nudibranchia. These
facts afford strong support to the hypothesis that the weight of the
shell is the original cause of the torsion of the dorsal visceral mass
in Gastropods. But this hypothesis leaves the elevation of the visceral
mass and the exogastric coiling of the shell in the ancestral form
unexplained. In those Euthyneura in which the shell is entirely absent
in the adult, it is, except in the three genera _Cenia, Runcina_ and
_Vaginula_, developed in the larva and then falls off. In other cases
(Tectibranchs) the reduced shell is enclosed by upgrowths of the edge of
the mantle and becomes internal, as in many Cephalopods. A few
Euthyneura in which the shell is not much reduced retain an operculum in
the adult state, e.g. _Actaeon, Limacina_, and the marine Pulmonate,
_Amphibola_. The detorted visceral commissure shows a tendency to the
concentration of all its elements round the oesophagus, so that except
in the Bullomorpha and in _Aplysia_ the whole nervous system is
aggregated in the cephalic region, either dorsally or ventrally. The
radula has a number of uniform teeth on each side of the median tooth in
each transverse row. The head in most cases bears two pairs of
tentacles. All the Euthyneura are hermaphrodite.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--_Acera bullata._ A single row of teeth of the
Radula. (Formula, x.l.x.)]

In the most primitive condition the genital duct is single throughout
its length and has a single external aperture; it is therefore said to
be monaulic. The hermaphrodite aperture is on the right side near the
opening of the pallial cavity, and a ciliated groove conducts the
spermatozoa to the penis, which is situated more anteriorly. This is the
condition in the Bullomorpha, the Aplysiomorpha, and in one Pulmonate,
_Pythia_. In some cases while the original aperture remains undivided,
the seminal groove is closed and so converted into a canal. This is the
modification found in _Cavolinia longirostris_ among the Bullomorpha,
and in all the _Auriculidae_ except _Pythia_. A further degree of
modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the
hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two
distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the
original opening. The genital duct is now said to be diaulic, as in
_Valvata, Oncidiopsis, Actaeon_, and _Lobiger_ among the Bullomorpha, in
the _Pleurobranchidae_, in the Nudibranchia, except the Doridomorpha and
most of the Elysiomorpha, and in the Pulmonata. Originally in this
condition the female aperture is at some distance from the male, as in
the Basommatophora and in other cases; but in some forms the female
aperture itself has shifted and come to be contiguous with the male
opening and penis as in the Stylommatophora. In all these cases the
female duct bears a bursa copulatrix or receptaculum seminis. In some
forms this receptacle acquires a separate external opening remaining
connected with the oviduct internally. There are thus two female
openings, one for copulation, the other for oviposition, as well as a
male opening. The genital duct is now trifurcated or triaulic, a
condition which is confined to certain Nudibranchs, viz. the
Doridomorpha and most of the Elysiomorpha.

The Pteropoda, formerly regarded as a distinct class of the Mollusca,
were interpreted by E.R. Lankester as a branch of the Cephalopoda,
chiefly on account of the protrusible sucker-bearing processes at the
anterior end of _Pneumonoderma_. These he considered to be homologous
with the arms of Cephalopods. He fully recognized, however, the
similarity of Pteropods to Gastropods in their general asymmetry and in
the torsion of the visceral mass in _Limacinidae_. It is now understood
that they are Euthyneurous Gastropods adapted to natatory locomotion and
pelagic life. The sucker-bearing processes of _Pneumonoderma_ are
outgrowths of the proboscis. The fins of Pteropods are now interpreted
as the expanded lateral margins of the foot, termed parapodia, not
homologous with the siphon of Cephalopods which is formed from epipodia.
The Thecosomatous Pteropoda are allied to _Bulla_, the Gymnosomatous
forms to _Aplysia_. The Euthyneura comprises two orders, Opisthobranchia
and Pulmonata.

  [Illustration: FIG. 36.

    A, Veliger-larva of an Opisthobranch (_Polycera_). f, Foot; op,
    operculum; mn, anal papilla; ry, dry, two portions of unabsorbed
    nutritive yolk on either side of the intestine. The right otocyst is
    seen at the root of the foot.

    B, Trochosphere of an Opisthobranch (_Pleurobranchidium_)
    showing--shgr, the shell-gland or primitive shell-sac; v, the cilia
    of the velum; ph, the commencing stomodaeum or oral invagination;
    ot, the left otocyst; pg, red-coloured pigment spot.

    C, Diblastula of an Opisthobranch (_Polycera_) with elongated
    blastopore oi.

    (All from Lankester.)]

  Order 1.--OPISTHOBRANCHIA. Marine Euthyneura, the more archaic forms
  of which have a relatively large foot and a small visceral hump, from
  the base of which projects on the right side a short mantle-skirt. The
  anus is placed in such forms far back beyond the mantle-skirt. In
  front of the anus, and only partially covered by the mantle-skirt, is
  the ctenidium with its free end turned backwards. The heart lies in
  front of, instead of to the side of, the attachment of the
  ctenidium--hence Opisthobranchia as opposed to "Prosobranchia," which
  correspond to the Streptoneura. A shell is possessed in the adult
  state by but few Opisthobranchia, but all pass through a veliger
  larval stage with a nautiloid shell (fig. 36). Many Opisthobranchia
  have by a process of atrophy lost the typical ctenidium and the
  mantle-skirt, and have developed other organs in their place. As in
  some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is
  frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in
  some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia)
  are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal
  surface of the body.

  [Illustration: FIG. 37.--_Phyllirhoë bucephala_, twice the natural
  size, a transparent pisciform pelagic Opisthobranch. The internal
  organs are shown as seen by transmitted light. (After W. Keferstein.)

    a, Mouth.
    b, Radular sac.
    c, Oesophagus.
    d, Stomach.
    c', Intestine.
    f', Anus.
    g, g', g", g"', The four lobes of the liver.
    h, The heart (auricle and ventricle).
    l, The renal sac (nephridium).
    l', The ciliated communication of the renal sac with the pericardium.
    m, The external opening of the renal sac.
    n, The cerebral ganglion.
    o, The cephalic tentacles.
    f, The genital pore.
    y, The ovo-testes.
    w, The parasitic hydromedusa Mnestra, usually found attached in this
      position by the aboral pole of its umbrella.]

  The variety of special developments of structure accompanying the
  atrophy of typical organs in the Opisthobranchia and general
  degeneration of organization is very great. The members of the order
  present the same wide range of superficial appearance as do the
  Pectinibranchiate Streptoneura, forms carrying well-developed spiral
  shells and large mantle-skirts being included in the group, together
  with flattened or cylindrical slug-like forms. But in respect of the
  substitution of other parts for the mantle-skirt and for the gill
  which the more degenerate Opisthobranchia exhibit, this order stands
  alone. Some Opisthobranchia are striking examples of degeneration
  (some Nudibranchia), having none of those regions or processes of the
  body developed which distinguish the archaic Mollusca from such
  flat-worms as the Dendrocoel Planarians. Indeed, were it not for
  their retention of the characteristic odontophore we should have
  little or no indication that such forms as _Phyllirhoë_ and
  _Limapontia_ really belong to the Mollusca at all. The interesting
  little _Rhodope veranyii_, which has no odontophore, has been
  associated by systematists both with these simplified Opisthobranchs
  and with Rhabdocoel Planarians.

  [Illustration: FIG. 38.--Three views of _Aplysia sp._, in various
  conditions of expansion and retraction. (After Cuvier.)

    t, Anterior cephalic tentacles.
    t², Posterior cephalic tentacles.
    e, Eyes.
    f, Metapodium.
    ep, Epipodium.
    g, Gill-plume (ctenidium).
    m, Mantle-flap reflected over the thin oval shell.
    os, s, Orifice formed by the unclosed border of the reflected
      mantle-skirt, allowing the shell to show.
    pe, The spermatic groove.]

  In many respects the sea-hare (_Aplysia_), of which several species
  are known (some occurring on the English coast), serves as a
  convenient example of the fullest development of the organization
  characteristic of Opisthobranchia. The woodcut (fig. 38) gives a
  faithful representation of the great mobility of the various parts of
  the body. The head is well marked and joined to the body by a somewhat
  constricted neck. It carries two pairs of cephalic tentacles and a
  pair of sessile eyes. The visceral hump is low and not drawn out into
  a spire. The foot is long, carrying the oblong visceral mass upon it,
  and projecting (as metapodium) a little beyond it (f). Laterally the
  foot gives rise to a pair of mobile fleshy lobes, the parapodia (ep),
  which can be thrown up so as to cover in the dorsal surface of the
  animal. Such parapodia are common, though by no means universal, among
  Opisthobranchia. The torsion of the visceral hump is not carried out
  very fully, the consequence being that the anus has a posterior
  position a little to the right of the median line above the
  metapodium, whilst the branchial chamber formed by the overhanging
  mantle-skirt faces the right side of the body instead of lying well to
  the front as in Streptoneura and as in Pulmonate Euthyneura. The
  gill-plume, which in _Aplysia_ is the typical Molluscan ctenidium, is
  seen in fig. 39 projecting from the branchial sub-pallial space. The
  relation of the delicate shell to the mantle is peculiar, since it
  occupies an oval area upon the visceral hump, the extent of which is
  indicated in fig. 38, C, but may be better understood by a glance at
  the figures of the allied genus _Umbrella_ (fig. 40), in which the
  margin of the mantle-skirt coincides, just as it does in the limpet,
  with the margin of the shell. But in _Aplysia_ the mantle is reflected
  over the edge of the shell, and grows over its upper surface so as to
  completely enclose it, excepting at the small central area s where the
  naked shell is exposed. This enclosure of the shell is a permanent
  development of the arrangement seen in many Streptoneura (e.g.
  _Pyrula, Ovula_, see figs. 18 and 32), where the border of the mantle
  can be, and usually is, drawn over the shell, though it is withdrawn
  (as it cannot be in _Aplysia_) when they are irritated. From the fact
  that _Aplysia_ commences its life as a free-swimming veliger with a
  nautiloid shell not enclosed in any way by the border of the mantle,
  it is clear that the enclosure of the shell in the adult is a
  secondary process. Accordingly, the shell of _Aplysia_ must not be
  confounded with a primitive shell in its shell-sac, such as we find
  realized in the shells of _Chiton_ and in the plugs which form in the
  remarkable transitory "shell-sac" or "shell-gland" of Molluscan
  embryos (see figs. 26, 60). _Aplysia_, like other Mollusca, develops a
  primitive shell-sac in its trochosphere stage of development, which
  disappears and is succeeded by a nautiloid shell (fig. 36). This forms
  the nucleus of the adult shell, and, as the animal grows, becomes
  enclosed by a reflection of the mantle-skirt. When the shell of an
  _Aplysia_ enclosed in its mantle is pushed well to the left, the
  sub-pallial space is fully exposed as in fig. 39, and the various
  apertures of the body are seen. Posteriorly we have the anus, in
  front of this the lobate gill-plume, between the two (hence
  corresponding in position to that of the Pectinibranchia) we have the
  aperture of the renal organ. In front, near the anterior attachment of
  the gill-plume, is the osphradium (olfactory organ) discovered by J.W.
  Spengel, yellowish in colour, in the typical position, and overlying
  an olfactory ganglion with typical nerve-connexion (see fig. 43). To
  the right of Spengel's osphradium is the opening of a peculiar gland
  which has, when dissected out, the form of a bunch of grapes; its
  secretion is said to be poisonous. On the under side of the free edge
  of the mantle are situated the numerous small cutaneous glands which,
  in the large _Aplysia camelus_ (not in other species), form the purple
  secretion which was known to the ancients. In front of the osphradium
  is the single genital pore, the aperture of the common or
  hermaphrodite duct. From this point there passes forward to the right
  side of the head a groove--the spermatic groove--down which the
  spermatic fluid passes. In other Euthyneura this groove may close up
  and form a canal. At its termination by the side of the head is the
  muscular introverted penis. In the hinder part of the foot (not shown
  in any of the diagrams) is the opening of a large mucus-forming gland
  very often found in the Molluscan foot.

  [Illustration: FIG. 39.--_Aplysia leporina_ (_camelus_, Cuv.), with
  epipodia and mantle reflected away from the mid-line. (Lankester.)

    a, Anterior cephalic tentacle.
    b, Posterior cephalic tentacle; between a and b, the eyes.
    c, Right epipodium.
    d, Left epipodium.
    e, Hinder part of visceral hump.
    fp, Posterior extremity of the foot.
    fa, Anterior part of the foot underlying the head.
    g, The ctenidium (branchial plume).
    h, The mantle-skirt tightly spread over the horny shell and pushed
      with it towards the left side.
    i, The spermatic groove.
    k, The common genital pore (male and female).
    l, Orifice of the grape-shaped (supposed poisonous) gland.
    m, The osphradium (olfactory organ of Spengel).
    n, Outline of part of the renal sac (nephridium) below the surface.
    o, External aperture of the nephridium.
    p, Anus.]

  With regard to internal organization we may commence with the
  disposition of the renal organ (nephridium), the external opening of
  which has already been noted. The position of this opening and other
  features of the renal organ were determined by J.T. Cunningham.

  [Illustration: FIG. 40.--_Umbrella mediterranea_. a, mouth; b,
  cephalic tentacle; h, gill (ctenidium). The free edge of the mantle is
  seen just below the margin of the shell (compare with _Aplysia_, fig.
  39). (From Owen.)]

  There is considerable uncertainty with respect to the names of the
  species of _Aplysia_. There are two forms which are very common in the
  Gulf of Naples. One is quite black in colour, and measures when
  outstretched 8 or 9 in. in length. The other is light brown and
  somewhat smaller, its length usually not exceeding 7 in. The first is
  flaccid and sluggish in its movements, and has not much power of
  contraction; its epipodial lobes are enormously developed and extend
  far forward along the body; it gives out when handled an abundance of
  purple liquid, which is derived from cutaneous glands situated on the
  under side of the free edge of the mantle. According to F. Blochmann
  it is identical with _A. camelus_ of Cuvier. The other species is _A.
  depilans_; it is firm to the touch, and contracts forcibly when
  irritated; the secretion of the mantle-glands is not abundant, and is
  milky white in appearance. The kidney has similar relations in both
  species, and is identical with the organ spoken of by many authors as
  the triangular gland. Its superficial extent is seen when the folds
  covering the shell are cut away and the shell removed; the external
  surface forms a triangle with its base bordering the pericardium, and
  its apex directed posteriorly and reaching the the left-hand posterior
  corner of the shell-chamber. The dorsal surface of the kidney extends
  to the left beyond the shell-chamber beneath the skin in the space
  between the shell-chamber and the left parapodium.

  When the animal is turned on its left-hand side and the mantle-chamber
  widely opened, the gill being turned over to the left, a part of the
  kidney is seen beneath the skin between the attachment of the gill and
  the right parapodium (fig. 39). On examination this is found to be the
  under surface of the posterior limb of the gland, the upper surface of
  which has just been described as lying beneath the shell. In the
  posterior third of this portion, close to that edge which is adjacent
  to the base of the gill, is the external opening (fig. 39, o).

  When the pericardium is cut open from above in an animal otherwise
  entire, the anterior face of the kidney is seen forming the posterior
  wall of the pericardial chamber; on the deep edge of this face, a
  little to the left of the attachment of the auricle to the floor of
  the pericardium, is seen a depression; this depression contains the
  opening from the pericardium into the kidney.

  To complete the account of the relations of the organ: the right
  anterior corner can be seen superficially in the wall of the
  mantle-chamber above the gill. Thus the base of the gill passes in a
  slanting direction across the right-hand side of the kidney, the
  posterior end being dorsal to the apex of the gland, and the anterior
  end ventral to the right-hand corner.

  As so great a part of the whole surface of the kidney lies adjacent to
  external surfaces of the body, the remaining part which faces the
  internal organs is small; it consists of the left part of the under
  surface; it is level with the floor of the pericardium, and lies over
  the globular mass formed by the liver and convoluted intestine.

  [Illustration: FIG. 41.--Gonad, and accessory glands and ducts of
  _Aplysia_. (Lankester.)

    i, Ovo-testis.
    h, Hermaphrodite duct.
    g, Albuminiparous gland.
    f, Vesicula seminalis.
    k, Opening of the albuminiparous gland into the hermaphrodite duct.
    e, Hermaphrodite duct (uterine portion).
    b, Vaginal portion of the uterine duct.
    c, Spermatheca.
    d, Its duct.
    a, Genital pore.]

  Thus the renal organ of _Aplysia_ is shown to conform to the Molluscan
  type. The heart lying within the adjacent pericardium has the usual
  form, a single auricle and ventricle. The vascular system is not
  extensive, the arteries soon ending in the well-marked spongy tissue
  which builds up the muscular foot, parapodia, and dorsal body-wall.

  The alimentary canal commences with the usual buccal mass; the lips
  are cartilaginous, but not armed with horny jaws, though these are
  common in other Opisthobranchs; the lingual ribbon is
  multidenticulate, and a pair of salivary glands pour in their
  secretion. The oesophagus expands into a curious gizzard, which is
  armed internally with large horny processes, some broad and thick,
  others spinous, fitted to act as crushing instruments. From this we
  pass to a stomach and a coil of intestine embedded in the lobes of a
  voluminous liver; a caecum of large size is given off near the
  commencement of the intestine. The liver opens by two ducts into the
  digestive tract.

  The generative organs lie close to the coil of intestine and liver, a
  little to the left side. When dissected out they appear as represented
  in fig. 41. The essential reproductive organ or gonad consists of both
  ovarian and testicular cells (see fig. 42). It is an ovo-testis. From
  it passes a common or hermaphrodite duct, which very soon becomes
  entwined in the spire of a gland--the albuminiparous gland. The latter
  opens into the common duct at the point k, and here also is a small
  diverticulum of the duct f. Passing on, we find not far from the
  genital pore a glandular spherical body (the spermatheca c) opening by
  means of a longish duct into the common duct, and then we reach the
  pore (fig. 39, k). Here the female apparatus terminates. But when the
  male secretion of the ovo-testis is active, the seminal fluid passes
  from the genital pore along the spermatic groove (fig. 39) to the
  penis, and is by the aid of that eversible muscular organ introduced
  into the genital pore of a second _Aplysia_, whence it passes into the
  spermatheca, there to await the activity of the female element of the
  ovo-testis of this second _Aplysia_. After an interval of some
  days--possibly weeks--the ova of the second _Aplysia_ commence to
  descend the hermaphrodite duct; they become enclosed in a viscid
  secretion at the point where the albuminiparous gland opens into the
  duct intertwined with it; and on reaching the point where the
  spermathecal duct debouches they are impregnated by the spermatozoa
  which escape now from the spermatheca and meet the ova.

  [Illustration: FIG. 42.--Follicles of the hermaphrodite gonads of
  Euthyneurous Gastropods. A, of _Helix_; B, of _Eolis_; a, ova; b,
  developing spermatozoa; c, common efferent duct.]

  The development of _Aplysia_ from the egg presents many points of
  interest from the point of view of comparative embryology, but in
  relation to the morphology of the Opisthobranchia it is sufficient to
  point to the occurrence of a trochosphere and a veliger stage (fig.
  36), and of a shell-gland or primitive shell-sac (fig. 36, _shgr_),
  which is succeeded by a nautiloid shell.

  [Illustration: FIG. 43.--Nervous system of _Aplysia_, as a type of the
  long-looped Euthyneurous condition. The untwisted visceral loop is
  lightly shaded. (After Spengel.)

    ce, Cerebral ganglion.
    pl, Pleural ganglion.
    pe, Pedal ganglion.
    ab.sp, Abdominal ganglion which represents also the
      supra-intestinal ganglion of Streptoneura and gives off the nerve
      to the osphradium (olfactory organ) o, and another to an unlettered
      so-called "genital" ganglion. The buccal nerves and ganglia are
      omitted.]

  In the nervous system of _Aplysia_ the great ganglion-pairs are well
  developed and distinct. The euthyneurous visceral loop is long, and
  presents only one ganglion (in _Aplysia camelus_, but two distinct
  ganglia joined to one another in _Aplysia hybrida_ of the English
  coast), placed at its extreme limit, representing both the right and
  left visceral ganglia and the third or abdominal ganglion, which are
  so often separately present. The diagram (fig. 43) shows the nerve
  connecting this abdomino-visceral ganglion with the olfactory ganglion
  of Spengel. It is also seen to be connected with a more remote
  ganglion--the genital. Such special irregularities in the development
  of ganglia upon the visceral loop, and on one or more of the main
  nerves connected with it, are very frequent. Our figure of the nervous
  system of _Aplysia_ does not give the small pair of buccal ganglia
  which are, as in all glossophorous Molluscs, present upon the nerves
  passing from the cerebral region to the odontophore.

  For a comparison of various Opisthobranchs, _Aplysia_ will be found to
  present a convenient starting-point. It is one of the more typical
  Opisthobranchs, that is to say, it belongs to the section
  Tectibranchia, but other members of the suborder, namely, _Bulla_ and
  _Actaeon_ (figs. 44 and 45), are less abnormal than _Aplysia_ in
  regard to their shells and the form of the visceral hump. They have
  naked spirally twisted shells which may be concealed from view in the
  living animal by the expansion and reflection of the parapodia, but
  are not enclosed by the mantle, whilst _Actaeon_ is remarkable for
  possessing an operculum like that of so many Streptoneura.

  The great development of the parapodia seen in _Aplysia_ is usual in
  Tectibranchiate Opisthobranchs. The whole surface of the body becomes
  greatly modified in those Nudibranchiate forms which have lost, not
  only the shell, but also the ctenidium. Many of these have peculiar
  processes developed on the dorsal surface (fig. 46, A, B), or retain
  purely negative characters (fig. 46, D). The chief modification of
  internal organization presented by these forms, as compared with
  _Aplysia_, is found in the condition of the alimentary canal. The
  liver is no longer a compact organ opening by a pair of ducts into the
  median digestive tract, but we find very numerous hepatic diverticula
  on a shortened axial tract (fig. 47). These diverticula extend usually
  one into each of the dorsal papillae or "cerata" when these are
  present. They are not merely digestive glands, but are sufficiently
  wide to act as receptacles of food, and in them the digestion of food
  proceeds just as in the axial portion of the canal. A precisely
  similar modification of the liver or great digestive gland is found in
  the scorpions, where the axial portion of the digestive canal is short
  and straight, and the lateral ducts sufficiently wide to admit food
  into the ramifications of the gland there to be digested; whilst in
  the spiders the gland is reduced to a series of simple caeca.

  [Illustration: FIG. 44.--_Bulla vexillum_ (Chemnitz), as seen
  crawling. a', oral hood (compare with Tethys, fig. 46, B), possibly a
  continuation of the epipodia; b, b', cephalic tentacles. (From Owen.)]

  The typical character is retained by the heart, pericardium, and the
  communicating nephridium or renal organ in all Opisthobranchs. An
  interesting example of this is furnished by the fish-like transparent
  _Phyllirhoë_ (fig. 37), in which it is possible most satisfactorily to
  study in the living animal, by means of the microscope, the course of
  the blood-stream, and also the reno-pericardial communication. In many
  of the Nudibranchiate Opisthobranchs the nervous system presents a
  concentration of the ganglia (fig. 48), contrasting greatly with what
  we have seen in _Aplysia_. Not only are the pleural ganglia fused to
  the cerebral, but also the visceral to these (see in further
  illustration the condition attained by the Pulmonate _Limnaeus_, fig.
  59), and the visceral loop is astonishingly short and insignificant
  (fig. 48, e'). That the parts are rightly thus identified is
  probable from J.W. Spengel's observation of the osphradium and its
  nerve-supply in these forms; the nerve to that organ, which is placed
  somewhat anteriorly--on the dorsal surface--being given off from the
  hinder part (visceral) of the right compound ganglion--the fellow to
  that marked A in fig. 48. The Eolid-like Nudibranchs, amongst other
  specialities of structure, possess (in some cases at any rate)
  apertures at the apices of the "cerata" or dorsal papillae, which lead
  from the exterior into the hepatic caeca. Some amongst them
  (_Tergipes, Eolis_) are also remarkable for possessing peculiarly
  modified cells placed in sacs (cnidosacs) at the apices of these same
  papillae, which resemble the "thread-cells" of the Coelentera.
  According to T.S. Wright and J.H. Grosvenor these nematocysts are
  derived from the hydroids on which the animals feed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 45.--_Actaeon._ h, shell; b, oral hood; d, foot;
  f, operculum.]

  The development of many Opisthobranchia has been examined--e.g.
  _Aplysia, Pleurobranchidium, Elysia, Polycera, Doris, Tergipes_. All
  pass through trochosphere and veliger stages, and in all a nautiloid
  or boat-like shell is developed, preceded by a well-marked
  "shell-gland" (see fig. 36). The transition from the free-swimming
  veliger larva with its nautiloid shell (fig. 36) to the adult form has
  not been properly observed, and many interesting points as to the true
  nature of folds (whether parapodia or mantle or velum) have yet to be
  cleared up by a knowledge of such development in forms like _Tethys,
  Doris, Phyllidia_, &c. As in other Molluscan groups, we find even in
  closely-allied genera (for instance, in _Aplysia_ and
  _Pleurobranchidium_, and other genera), the greatest differences as to
  the _amount_ of food-material by which the egg-shell is encumbered.
  Some form their diblastula by emboly, others by epiboly; and in the
  later history of the further development of the enclosed cells
  (arch-enteron) very marked variations occur in closely-allied forms,
  due to the influence of a greater or less abundance of food-material
  mixed with the protoplasm of the egg.

  Sub-order 1.--TECTIBRANCHIA. Opisthobranchs provided in the adult
  state with a shell and a mantle, except _Runcina, Pleurobranchaea,
  Cymbuliidae_, and some Aplysiomorpha. There is a ctenidium, except in
  some Thecosomata and Gymnosomata, and an osphradium.

  Tribe 1.--BULLOMORPHA. The shell is usually well developed, except in
  _Runcina_ and _Cymbuliidae_, and may be external or internal. No
  operculum, except in _Actaeonidae_ and _Limacinidae_. The pallial
  cavity is always well developed, and contains the ctenidium, at least
  in part; ctenidium, except in _Lophocercidae_, of folded type. With
  the exception of the _Aplustridae, Lophocercidae_ and _Thecosomata_,
  the head is devoid of tentacles, and its dorsal surface forms a
  digging disk or shield. The edges of the foot form parapodia, often
  transformed into fins. Posteriorly the mantle forms a large pallial
  lobe under the pallial aperture. Stomach generally provided with
  chitinous or calcified masticatory plates. Visceral commissure fairly
  long, except in _Runcina, Lobiger_ and _Thecosomata_. Hermaphrodite
  genital aperture, connected with the penis by a ciliated groove,
  except in _Actaeon, Lobiger_ and _Cavolinia longirostris_, in which
  the spermiduct is a closed tube. Animals either swim or burrow.

  [Illustration: FIG. 46.

    A, _Eolis papillosa_ (Lin.), dorsal view.
    a, b, Posterior and anterior cephalic tentacles.
    c, The dorsal "cerata."
    B, _Tethys leporina_, dorsal view.
    a, The cephalic hood.
    b, Cephalic tentacles.
    c, Neck.
    d, Genital pore.
    e, Anus.
    f, Large cerata.
    g, Smaller cerata.
    h, Margin of the foot.
    C, _Doris (Actinocyclus) tuberculatus_ (Cuv.), seen from the pedal
      surface.
    m, Mouth.
    b, Margin of the head.
    f, Sole of the foot.
    sp, The mantle-like epipodium.
    D, E, Dorsal and lateral view of _Elysia (Actaeon) viridis_.
    ep, epipodial outgrowths. (After Keferstein.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 47.--Enteric Canal of _Eolis papillosa_. (From
  Gegenbaur, after Alder and Hancock.)

    ph, Pharynx.
    m, Midgut, with its hepatic appendages h, all of which are not
      figured.
    e, Hind gut.
    an, Anus.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 48.--Central Nervous System of _Fiona_ (one of the
  Nudibranchia), showing a tendency to fusion of the great ganglia.
  (From Gegenbaur, after Bergh.)

    A, Cerebral, pleural and visceral ganglia united.
    B, Pedal ganglion.
    C, Buccal ganglion.
    D, Oesophageal ganglion connected with, the Buccal.
    a, Nerve to superior cephalic tentacle.
    b, Nerves to inferior cephalic tentacles.
    c, Nerve to generative organs.
    d, Pedal nerve.
    e, Pedal commissure.
    e', Visceral loop or commissure (?).]

  [Illustration: Fig. 49.--_Cavolinia tridentata_, Forsk. from the
  Mediterranean, magnified two diameters. (From Owen.)

    a, Mouth.
    b, Pair of cephalic tentacles.
    C, C, Pteropodial lobes of the foot.
    d, Median web connecting these.
    e, e, Processes of the mantle-skirt reflected over the surface of
      the shell.
    g, The shell enclosing the visceral hump.
    h. The median spine of the shell.]

    Fam. 1.--_Actaeonidae._ Cephalic shield bifid posteriorly; margins
    of foot slightly developed; genital duct diaulic; visceral
    commissure streptoneurous; shell thick, with prominent spire and
    elongated aperture; a horny operculum. _Actaeon_, British.
    _Solidula. Tornatellaea_, extinct. _Adelactaeon. Bullina.
    Bullinula._

    Fam. 2.--_Ringiculidae._ Cephalic disk enlarged anteriorly, forming
    an open tube posteriorly; shell external, thick, with prominent
    spire; no operculum. _Ringicula. Pugnus._

    Fam. 3.--_Tornatinidae._ Margins of foot not prominent; no radula;
    shell external, with inconspicuous spire. _Tornatina_, British.
    _Retusa. Volvula._

    Fam. 4.--_Scaphandridae._ Cephalic shield short, truncated
    posteriorly; eyes deeply embedded; three calcareous stomachal
    plates; shell external, with reduced spire. _Scaphander_, British.
    _Atys. Smaragdinella. Cylichna_, British. _Amphisphyra_, British.

    Fam. 5.--_Bullidae._ Margins of foot well developed; eyes
    superficial; three chitinous stomachal plates; shell external, with
    reduced spire. Bulla, British. _Haminea_, British.

    Fam. 6.--_Aceratidae._ Cephalic shield continuous with neck; twelve
    to fourteen stomachal plates; a posterior pallial filament passing
    through a notch in shell. _Acera_, British. _Cylindrobulla.
    Volutella._

    Fam. 7.--_Aplustridae._ Foot very broad; cephalic shield with four
    tentacles; shell external, thin, without prominent spire.
    _Aplustrum. Hydatina. Micromelo._

    Fam. 8.--_Philinidae._ Cephalic shield broad, thick and simple;
    shell wholly internal, thin, spire much reduced, aperture very
    large. _Philine_, British. _Cryptophthalmus. Chelinodura.
    Phanerophthalmus. Colpodaspis_, British. _Colobocephalus._

    Fam. 9.--_Doridiidae._ Cephalic shield ending posteriorly in a
    median point; shell internal, largely membranous; no radula or
    stomachal plates. _Doridium. Navarchus._

    Fam. 10.--_Gastropteridae._ Cephalic shield pointed behind; shell
    internal, chiefly membranous, with calcified nucleus, nautiloid;
    parapodia forming fins. _Gastropteron._

    Fam. 11.--_Runcinidae._ Cephalic shield continuous with dorsal
    integument; no shell; ctenidium projecting from mantle cavity.
    _Runcina._

    Fam. 12.--_Lophocercidae._ Shell external, globular or ovoid; foot
    elongated, parapodia separate from ventral surface; genital duct
    diaulic. _Lobiger. Lophocercus._

  [Illustration: FIG. 50.--Shell of _Cavolinia tridentata_, seen from
  the side.

    f, Postero-dorsal surface.
    g, Antero-ventral surface.
    h, Median dorsal spine.
    i, Mouth of the shell.]

  The next three families form the group formerly known as Thecosomatous
  Pteropods. They are all pelagic, the foot being entirely transformed
  into a pair of anterior fins; eyes are absent, and the nerve centres
  are concentrated on the ventral side of the oesophagus.

    Fam. 13.--_Limacinidae._ Dextral animals, with shell coiled
    pseudo-sinistrally; operculum with sinistral spiral; pallial cavity
    dorsal. _Limacina_, British. _Peraclis_, ctenidium present.

    Fam. 14.--_Cymbuliidae._ Adult without shell; a sub-epithelial
    pseudoconch formed by connective tissue; pallial cavity ventral.
    _Cymbulia. Cymbuliopsis. Gleba. Desmopterus._

    Fam. 15.--_Cavoliniidae._ Shell not coiled, symmetrical; pallial
    cavity ventral. _Cavolinia. Clio. Cuvierina._

  Tribe 2.--APLYSIOMORPHA. Shell more or less internal, much reduced or
  absent. Head bears two pairs of tentacles. Parapodia separate from
  ventral surface, and generally transformed into swimming lobes.
  Visceral commissure much shortened, except in _Aplysia_. Genital duct
  monaulic; hermaphrodite duct connected with penis by a ciliated
  groove. Animals either swim or crawl.

    Fam. 1.--_Aplysiidae_. Shell partly or wholly internal, or absent;
    foot long, with well-developed ventral surface. _Aplysia. Dolabella.
    Dolabrifer. Aplysiella. Phyllaplysia. Notarchus_.

  The next six families include the animals formerly known as
  Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and
  shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the
  parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body. They are all pelagic.

    Fam. 2.--_Pneumonodermatidae_. Pharynx evaginable, with suckers.
    _Pneumonoderma. Dexiobranchaea. Spongiobranchaea. Schizobrachium_.

    Fam. 3.--_Clionopsidae_. No buccal appendages or suckers; a very
    long evaginable proboscis; a quadriradiate terminal branchia.
    _Clionopsis_.

    Fam. 4.--_Notobranchaeidae_. Posterior branchia triradiate.
    Notobranchaea.

    Fam. 5.--_Thliptodontidae_. Head very large, not marked off from the
    body; neither branchia nor suckers; fins situated near the middle of
    the body. _Thliptodon_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 51.--Embryo of _Cavolinia tridentata_. (From
  Balfour, after Fol.)

    a, Anus.
    f, Median portion of the foot.
    pn, Pteropodial lobe of the foot.
    h, Heart.
    i, Intestine.
    m. Mouth.
    ot, Otocyst.
    q, Shell.
    r, Nephridium.
    s, Oesophagus.
    [sigma], Sac containing nutritive yolk.
    mb, Mantle-skirt.
    mc, Sub-pallial chamber.
    Kn, Contractile sinus.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 52.--_Styliola acicula_, Rang. sp. enlarged. (From
  Owen.)

    C, C, The wing-like lobes of the foot.
    d, Median fold of same.
    e, Copulatory organ.
    h, Pointed extremity of the shell.
    i, Anterior margin of the shell.
    n, Stomach.
    o, Liver.
    u. Hermaphrodite gonad.]

    Fam. 6.--_Clionidae_. No branchia of any kind; a short evaginable
    pharynx, bearing paired conical buccal appendages or "cephalocones."
    _Clione. Paraclione. Fowlerina_.

    Fam. 7.--_Halopsychidae_. No branchia; two long and branched buccal
    appendages. _Halopsyche_.

  Tribe 3.--PLEUROBRANCHOMORPHA. Two pairs of tentacles. Foot without
  parapodia; no pallial cavity, but always a single ctenidium situated
  on the right side between mantle and foot. Genital duct diaulic,
  without open seminal groove; male and female apertures contiguous.
  Visceral commissure short, tendency to concentration of all ganglia in
  dorsal side of oesophagus.

    Fam. 1.--_Tylodinidae_. Shell external and conical; anterior
    tentacles form a frontal veil; ctenidium extending only over right
    side; a distinct osphradium. _Tylodina_.

    Fam. 2.--_Umbrellidae_. Shell external, conical, much flattened;
    anterior tentacles very small, and situated with the mouth in a
    notch of the foot below the head; ctenidium very large. _Umbrella_.

    Fam. 3.--_Pleurobranchidae_. Shell covered by mantle, or absent;
    anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; mantle contains spicules.
    _Pleurobranchus. Berthella. Haliotinella. Oscanius_, British.
    _Oscaniella. Oscaniopsis. Pleurobranchaea._

  Sub-order 2.--NUDIBRANCHIA. Shell absent in the adult; no ctenidium or
  osphradium. Body generally slug-like, and externally symmetrical.
  Visceral mass not marked off from the foot, except in _Hedylidae._
  Dorsal respiratory appendages frequently present. Visceral commissure
  reduced; nervous system concentrated on dorsal side of oesophagus.
  Marine; generally carnivorous, and brightly coloured, affording many
  instances of protective resemblance.

  Tribe 1.--TRITONIOMORPHA. Liver wholly or partially contained in the
  visceral mass. Anus lateral, on the right side. Usually two rows of
  ramified dorsal appendages. Genital duct diaulic; male and female
  apertures contiguous.

    Fam. 1.--_Tritoniidae._ Anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; foot
    rather broad. _Tritonia_, British. _Marionia._

    Fam. 2.--_Scyllaeidae._ No anterior tentacles; dorsal appendages
    broad and foliaceous; foot very narrow; stomach with horny plates.
    _Scyllaea_, pelagic.

    Fam. 3.--_Phyllirhoidae._ No anterior tentacles, and no dorsal
    appendages; body laterally compressed, transparent; pelagic.
    _Phyllirhoë._

    Fam. 4.--_Tethyidae._ Head broad, surrounded by a funnel-shaped
    velum or hood; no radula; dorsal appendages foliaceous. _Tethys.
    Melibe._

    Fam. 5.--_Dendronotidae._ Anterior tentacles forming a scalloped
    frontal veil; dorsal appendages and tentacles similarly ramified.
    _Dendronotus. Campaspe._

    Fam. 6.--_Bornellidae._ Dorsum furnished on either side with
    papillae, at the base of which are ramified appendages. _Bornella._

    Fam. 7.--_Lomanotidae._ Body flattened, the two dorsal borders
    prominent and foliaceous. _Lomanotus_, British.

  Tribe 2.--DORIDOMORPHA. Body externally symmetrical; anus median,
  posterior, and generally dorsal, surrounded by ramified pallial
  appendages, constituting a secondary branchia. Liver not ramified in
  the integuments. Genital duct triaulic. Spicules present in the
  mantle.

  [Illustration: FIG. 53.--_Halopsyche gaudichaudii_, Soul. (From Owen.)
  Much enlarged; the body-wall removed.

    a, The mouth.
    c, The pteropodial lobes of the foot.
    f, The centrally-placed hind-foot.
    d, l, e, Three pairs of tentacle-like processes placed at the sides
      of the mouth, and developed (in all probability) from the
      fore-foot.
    o', Anus.
    y, Genital pore.
    k, Retractor muscles.
    o and p, The liver.
    u, v, w, Genitalia.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 54.--_Ancula cristata_, one of the pygobranchiate
  Opisthobranchs (dorsal view). (From Gegenbaur, after Alder and
  Hancock.)

    a, Anus.
    br, Secondary branchia surrounding the anus.
    t, Cephalic tentacles.

    External to the branchia are seen ten club-like processes of the
      dorsal wall, these are the "cerata" which are characteristically
      developed in another suborder of Opisthobranchs.]

    Fam. 1.--_Polyceratidae._ A more or less prominent frontal veil;
    branchiae non-retractile. _Euplocamus. Polycera_, British.
    _Thecacera_, British. _Aegirus_, British. _Plocamopherus. Palio.
    Crimora. Triopa_, British. _Triopella._

    Fam. 2.--_Goniodorididae._ Mantle-border projecting; frontal veil
    reduced, and often covered by the anterior border of the mantle.
    _Goniodoris_, British. _Acanthodoris_, British. _Idalia_, British.
    _Ancula_, British. _Doridunculus_. _Lamellidoris. Ancylodoris_,
    the only fresh-water Nudibranch, from Lake Baikal.

    Fam. 3.--_Heterodorididae_. No branchia. _Heterodoris_.

    Fam. 4.--_Dorididae_. Mantle oval, covering the head and the greater
    part of the body; anterior tentacles, ill-developed; branchiae
    generally retractile. _Doris_, British. _Hexabranchus_.
    _Chromodoris_.

    Fam. 5.--_Doridopsidae_. Pharynx suctorial; no radula; branchial
    rosette on the dorsal surface, above the mantle-border.
    _Doridopsis_.

    Fam. 6.--_Corambidae_. Anus and branchia posterior, below the
    mantle-border. _Corambe_.

    Fam. 7.-_-Phyllidiidae_. Pharynx suctorial; branchiae surrounding
    the body, between the mantle and foot. _Phyllidia. Fryeria_.

  The last three families constitute the sub-tribe Porostomata,
  characterized by the reduction of the buccal mass, which is modified
  into a suctorial apparatus.

  Tribe 3.--EOLIDOMORPHA (_Cladohepatica_). The whole of the liver
  contained in the integuments and tegumentary papillae. Genital duct
  diaulic; male and female apertures contiguous. The anus is
  antero-lateral, except in the _Proctonotidae_, in which it is median.
  Tegumentary papillae not ramified, and containing cnidosacs with
  nematocysts.

    Fam. 1.--_Eolididae_. Dorsal papillae spindle-shaped or club-shaped.
    _Eolis_, British. _Facelina_, British. _Tergipes_, British.
    _Gonieolis. Cuthona. Embletonia. Galvina. Calma. Hero_.

    Fam. 2.--_Glaucidae_. Body furnished with three pairs of lateral
    lobes, bearing the tegumentary papillae; foot very narrow; pelagic.
    _Glaucus_.

    Fam. 3.--_Hedylidae_. Body elongated; visceral mass marked off from
    foot posteriorly; dorsal appendages absent, or reduced to a single
    pair; spicules in the integument. _Hedyle_.

    Fam. 4.--_Pseudovermidae_. Head without tentacles; body elongated;
    anus on right side. _Pseudovermis_.

    Fam. 5.--_Proctonotidae_. Anus posterior, median; anterior
    tentacles, atrophied; foot broad. _Janus_, British. _Proctonotus_,
    British.

    Fam. 6.--_Dotonidae_. Bases of the rhinophores surrounded by a
    sheath; dorsal papillae tuberculated and club-shaped, in a single
    row on either side of the dorsum; no cnidosacs. _Doto_, British.
    _Gellina. Heromorpha_.

    Fam. 7.--_Fionidae_. Dorsal papillae with a membranous expansion;
    male and female apertures at some distance from each other; pelagic.
    _Fiona_.

    Fam. 8.--_Pleurophyllidae_. Anterior tentacles in the form of a
    digging shield; mantle without appendages, but respiratory papillae
    beneath the mantle-border. _Pleurophyllidia_.

    Fam. 9.--_Dermatobranchidae_. Like the last, but wholly without
    branchiae. _Dermatobranchus_.

  Tribe 4.--ELYSIOMORPHA. Liver ramifies in integuments and extends into
  dorsal papillae, but there are no cnidosacs. Genital duct always
  triaulic, and male and female apertures distant from each other. No
  mandibles, and radula uniserial. Never more than one pair of
  tentacles, and these are absent in _Alderia_ and some species of
  _Limapontia_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 55.--Dorsal and Ventral View of _Pleurophyllidia
  lineata_ (Otto), one of the Eolidomorph Nudibranchs. (After
  Keferstein.)

    b, The mouth.
    l, The lamelliform sub-pallial gills, which (as in Patella) replace
      the typical Molluscan ctenidium.]

    Fam. 1.--_Hermaeidae_. Foot narrow; dorsal papillae linear or
    fusiform, in several series. _Hermaea_, British. _Stiliger_.
    _Alderia_, British.

    Fam. 2.--_Phyllobranchidae_. Foot broad; dorsal papillae flattened
    and foliaceous. _Phyllobranchus. Cyerce_.

    Fam. 3.--_Plakobranchidae_. Body depressed, without dorsal papillae,
    but with two very large lateral expansions, with dorsal plications.
    _Plakobranchus_.

    Fam. 4.--_Elysiidae_. Body elongated, with lateral expansions;
    tentacles large; foot narrow. _Elysia_, British. _Tridachia_.

    Fam. 5.--_Limapontiidae_. No lateral expansions, and no dorsal
    papillae; body planariform; anus dorsal, median and posterior.
    _Limapontia_, British. _Actaeonia_, British. _Cenia_.

  Order 2 (of the Euthyneura).--PULMONATA. Euthyneurous Gastropoda,
  probably derived from ancestral forms similar to the Tectibranchiate
  Opisthobranchia by adaptation to a terrestrial life. The ctenidium is
  atrophied, and the edge of the mantle-skirt is fused to the dorsal
  integument by concrescence, except at one point which forms the
  aperture of the mantle-chamber, thus converted into a nearly closed
  sac. Air is admitted to this sac for respiratory and hydrostatic
  purposes, and it thus becomes a lung. An operculum is present only in
  _Amphibola_; a contrast being thus afforded with the operculate
  pulmonate Streptoneura (_Cyclostoma_, &c.), which differ in other
  essential features of structure from the Pulmonata. The Pulmonata are,
  like the other Euthyneura, hermaphrodite, with elaborately developed
  copulatory organs and accessory glands. Like other Euthyneura, they
  have very numerous small denticles on the lingual ribbon. In aquatic
  Pulmonata the osphradium is retained.

  In some Pulmonata (snails) the foot is extended at right angles to the
  visceral hump, which rises from it in the form of a coil as in
  Streptoneura; in others the visceral hump is not elevated, but is
  extended with the foot, and the shell is small or absent (slugs).

  [Illustration: FIG. 56.--A Series of Stylommatophorous Pulmonata,
  showing transitional forms between snail and slug.

    A, _Helix pomatia_. (From Keferstein.)
    B, _Helicophanta brevipes_. (From Keferstein, after Pfeiffer.)
    C, _Testacella haliotidea_. (From Keferstein.)
    D, _Arion ater_, the great black slug. (From Keferstein.)
    a, Shell in A, B, C, shell-sac (closed) in D; b, orifice leading
      into the sub-pallial chamber (lung).]

  Pulmonata are widely distinguished from a small number of Streptoneura
  at one time associated with them on account of their mantle-chamber
  being converted, as in Pulmonata, into a lung, and the ctenidium or
  branchial plume aborted. The terrestrial Streptoneura (represented in
  England by the common genus _Cyclostoma_) have a twisted visceral
  nerve-loop, an operculum on the foot, a complex rhipidoglossate or
  taenio-glossate radula, and are of distinct sexes. The Pulmonata have
  a straight visceral nerve-loop, usually no operculum even in the
  embryo, and a multidenticulate radula, the teeth being equi-formal;
  and they are hermaphrodite. Some Pulmonata (_Limnaea_, &c.) live in
  fresh waters although breathing air. The remarkable discovery has been
  made that in deep lakes such _Limnaei_ do not breathe air, but admit
  water to the lung-sac and live at the bottom. The lung-sac serves
  undoubtedly as a hydrostatic apparatus in the aquatic Pulmonata, as
  well as assisting respiration.

  [Illustration: FIG. 57.--_Ancylus fluviatilis_, a patelliform aquatic
  Pulmonate.]

  The same general range of body-form is shown in Pulmonata as in the
  Heteropoda and in the Opisthobranchia; at one extreme we have snails
  with coiled visceral hump, at the other cylindrical or flattened slugs
  (see fig. 56). Limpet-like forms are also found (fig. 57, _Ancylus_).
  The foot is always simple, with its flat crawling surface extending
  from end to end, but in the embryo _Limnaea_ it shows a bilobed
  character, which leads on to the condition characteristic of
  Pteropoda.

  The adaptation of the Pulmonata to terrestrial life has entailed
  little modification of the internal organization. In one genus
  (_Planorbis_) the plasma of the blood is coloured red by haemoglobin,
  this being the only instance of the presence of this body in the blood
  of Glossophorous Mollusca, though it occurs in corpuscles in the blood
  of the bivalves _Arca_ and _Solen_ (Lankester).

  [Illustration: _Fig. 58._--Hermaphrodite Reproductive Apparatus of the
  Garden Snail (_Helix hortensis_).

    [tau], Ovo-testis.
    ve, Hermaphrodite duct.
    Ed, Albuminiparous gland.
    u, Uterine dilatation of the hermaphrodite duct.
    d, Digitate accessory glands on the female duct.
    ps, Calciferous gland or dart-sac on the female duct.
    Rf, Spermatheca or receptacle of the sperm in copulation, opening
      into the female duct.
    vd, Male duct (vas deferens).
    p, Penis.
    fl, Flagellum.]

  The generative apparatus of the snail (_Helix_) may serve as an
  example of the hermaphrodite apparatus common to the Pulmonata and
  Opisthobranchia (fig. 58). From the ovo-testis, which lies near the
  apex of the visceral coil, a common hermaphrodite duct ve proceeds,
  which receives the duct of the compact white albuminiparous gland, Ed,
  and then becomes much enlarged, the additional width being due to the
  development of glandular folds, which are regarded as forming a uterus
  u. Where these folds cease the common duct splits into two portions, a
  male and a female. The male duct vd becomes fleshy and muscular near
  its termination at the genital pore, forming the penis p. Attached to
  it is a diverticulum fl, in which the spermatozoa which have descended
  from the ovo-testis are stored and modelled into sperm ropes or
  spermatophores. The female portion of the duct is more complex. Soon
  after quitting the uterus it is joined by a long duct leading from a
  glandular sac, the spermatheca (Rf). In this duct and sac the
  spermatophores received in copulation from another snail are lodged.
  In _Helix hortensis_ the spermatheca is simple. In other species of
  _Helix_ a second duct (as large in _Helix aspersa_ as the chief one)
  is given off from the spermathecal duct, and in the natural state is
  closely adherent to the wall of the uterus. This second duct has
  normally no spermathecal gland at its termination, which is simple and
  blunt. But in rare cases in _Helix aspersa_ a second spermatheca is
  found at the end of this second duct. Tracing the widening female duct
  onwards we now come to the openings of the digitate accessory glands
  d, d, which probably assist in the formation of the egg-capsule. Close
  to them is the remarkable dart-sac ps, a thick-walled sac, in the
  lumen of which a crystalline four-fluted rod or dart consisting of
  carbonate of lime is found. It is supposed to act in some way as a
  stimulant in copulation, but possibly has to do with the calcareous
  covering of the egg-capsule. Other Pulmonata exhibit variations of
  secondary importance in the details of this hermaphrodite apparatus.

  The nervous system of _Helix_ is not favourable as an example on
  account of the fusion of the ganglia to form an almost uniform ring of
  nervous matter around the oesophagus. The pond-snail (_Limnaeus_)
  furnishes, on the other hand, a very beautiful case of distinct
  ganglia and connecting cords (fig. 59). The demonstration which it
  affords of the extreme shortening of the Euthyneurous visceral
  nerve-loop is most instructive and valuable for comparison with and
  explanation of the condition of the nervous centres in Cephalopoda, as
  also of some Opisthobranchia. The figure (fig. 59) is sufficiently
  described in the letterpress attached to it; the pair of buccal
  ganglia joined by the connectives to the cerebrals are, as in most of
  our figures, omitted. Here we need only further draw attention to the
  osphradium, discovered by Lacaze-Duthiers, and shown by Spengel to
  agree in its innervation with that organ in all other Gastropoda. On
  account of the shortness of the visceral loop and the proximity of the
  right visceral ganglion to the oesophageal nerve-ring, the nerve to
  the osphradium and olfactory ganglion is very long. The position of
  the osphradium corresponds more or less closely with that of the
  vanished right ctenidium, with which it is normally associated. In
  _Helix_ and _Limax_ the osphradium has not been described, and
  possibly its discovery might clear up the doubts which have been
  raised as to the nature of the mantle-chamber of those genera. In
  _Planorbis_, which is sinistral (as are a few other genera or
  exceptional varieties of various Anisopleurous Gastropods), instead of
  being dextral, the osphradium is on the left side, and receives its
  nerve from the left visceral ganglion, the whole series of unilateral
  organs being reversed. This is, as might be expected, what is found
  to be the case in all "reversed" Gastropods.

  The shell of the Pulmonata, though always light and delicate, is in
  many cases a well-developed spiral "house" into which the creature can
  withdraw itself; and, although the foot possesses no operculum, yet in
  _Helix_ the aperture of the shell is closed in the winter by a
  complete lid, the "hybernaculum" more or less calcareous in nature,
  which is secreted by the foot. In _Clausilia_ a peculiar modification
  of this lid exists permanently in the adult, attached by an elastic
  stalk to the mouth of the shell, and known as the "clausilium." In
  _Limnaeus_ the permanent shell is preceded in the embryo by a
  well-marked shell-gland or primitive shell-sac (fig. 60), at one time
  supposed to be the developing anus, but shown by Lankester to be
  identical with the "shell-gland" discovered by him in other Mollusca
  (_Pisidium, Pleurobranchidium, Neritina_, &c.). As in other Gastropoda
  Anisopleura, this shell-sac may abnormally develop a plug of chitinous
  matter, but normally it flattens out and disappears, whilst the
  cap-like rudiment of the permanent shell is shed out from the
  dome-like surface of the visceral hump, in the centre of which the
  shell-sac existed for a brief period.

  [Illustration: FIG. 59.--Nervous System of the Pond-Snail, _Limnaeus
  stagnalis_, as a type of the short-looped euthyneurous condition. The
  short visceral "loop" with its three ganglia is lightly-shaded.

    ce, Cerebral ganglion.
    pe, Pedal ganglion.
    pl, Pleural ganglion.
    ab, Abdominal ganglion.
    sp, Visceral ganglion of the left side; opposite to it is the
      visceral ganglion of the right side, which gives off the long nerve
      to the olfactory ganglion and osphradium o.

    In _Planorbis_ and in _Auricula_ (Pulmonata, allied to _Limnaeus_)
    the olfactory organ is on the _left_ side and receives its nerve
    from the _left_ visceral ganglion. (After Spengel.)]

  In _Clausilia_, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the
  primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the
  form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of
  calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the
  sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the
  nucleus of the permanent shell. In the slug _Testacella_ (fig. 56, C)
  the shell-plate never attains a large size, though naked. In other
  slugs, namely, _Limax_ and _Arion_, the shell-sac remains permanently
  closed over the shell-plate, which in the latter genus consists of a
  granular mass of carbonate of lime. The permanence of the primitive
  shell-sac in these slugs is a point of considerable interest. It is
  clear enough that the sac is of a different origin from that of
  _Aplysia_ (described in the section treating of Opisthobranchia),
  being primitive instead of secondary. It seems probable that it is
  identical with one of the open sacs in which each shell-plate of a
  _Chiton_ is formed, and the series of plate-like imbrications which
  are placed behind the single shell-sac on the dorsum of the curious
  slug, _Plectrophorus_, suggest the possibility of the formation of a
  series of shell-sacs on the back of that animal similar to those which
  we find in _Chiton_. Whether the closed primitive shell-sac of the
  slugs (and with it the transient embryonic shell-gland of all other
  Mollusca) is precisely the same thing as the closed sac in which the
  calcareous pen or shell of the Cephalopod _Sepia_ and its allies is
  formed, is a further question which we shall consider when dealing
  with the Cephalopoda. It is important here to note that _Clausilia_
  furnishes us with an exceptional instance of the _continuity_ of the
  shell or secreted product of the primitive shell-sac with the adult
  shell. In most other Mollusca (Anisopleurous Gastropods, Pteropods and
  Conchifera) there is a want of such continuity; the primitive
  shell-sac contributes no factor to the permanent shell, or only a very
  minute knob-like particle (_Neritina_ and _Paludina_). It flattens out
  and disappears before the work of forming the permanent shell
  commences. And just as there is a break at this stage, so (as observed
  by A. Krohn in _Marsenia_ = _Echinospira_) there _may_ be a break at a
  later stage, the nautiloid shell formed on the larva being cast, and a
  new shell of a different form being formed afresh on the surface of
  the visceral hump. It is, then, in this sense that we may speak of
  primary, secondary and tertiary shells in Mollusca recognizing the
  fact that they _may_ be merely phases fused by continuity of growth so
  as to form but one shell, or that in other cases they _may_ be
  presented to us as separate individual things, in virtue of the
  non-development of the later phases, or in virtue of sudden changes in
  the activity of the mantle-surface causing the shedding or
  disappearance of one phase of shell-formation before a later one is
  entered upon.

  The development of the aquatic Pulmonata from the egg offers
  considerable facilities for study, and that of _Limnaeus_ has been
  elucidated by E.R. Lankester, whilst H. Rabl has with remarkable skill
  applied the method of sections to the study of the minute embryos of
  _Planorbis_. The chief features in the development of _Limnaeus_ are
  exhibited in fig. 60. There is not a very large amount of
  food-material present in the egg of this snail, and accordingly the
  cells resulting from division are not so unequal as in many other
  cases. The four cells first formed are of equal size, and then four
  smaller cells are formed by division of these four so as to lie at one
  end of the first four (the pole corresponding to that at which the
  "directive corpuscles" are extruded and remain). The smaller cells now
  divide and spread over the four larger cells; at the same time a
  space--the cleavage cavity or blastocoel--forms in the centre of the
  mulberry-like mass. Then the large cells recommence the process of
  division and sink into the hollow of the sphere, leaving an elongated
  groove, the blastopore, on the surface. The invaginated cells (derived
  from the division of the four big cells) form the endoderm or
  arch-enteron; the outer cells are the ectoderm. The blastopore now
  closes along the middle part of its course, which coincides in
  position with the future "foot." One end of the blastopore becomes
  nearly closed, and an ingrowth of ectoderm takes place around it to
  form the stomodaeum or fore-gut and mouth. The other extreme end
  closes, but the invaginated endoderm cells remain in continuity with
  this extremity of the blastopore, and form the "rectal peduncle" or
  "pedicle of invagination" of Lankester, although the endoderm cells
  retain no contact with the middle region of the now closed-up
  blastopore. The anal opening forms at a late period by a very short
  ingrowth or proctodaeum coinciding with the blind termination of the
  rectal peduncle (fig. 60, pi).

  [Illustration: FIG. 60.--Embryo of _Limnaeus stagnalis_, at a stage
  when the Trochosphere is developing foot and shell-gland and becoming
  a Veliger, seen as a transparent object under slight pressure.
  (Lankester.)

    ph, Pharynx (stomodaeal invagination).
    v, v, The ciliated band marking out the velum.
    ng, Cerebral nerve-ganglion.
    re, Stiebel's canal (left side), probably an evanescent embryonic
      nephridium.
    sh, The primitive shell-sac or shell-gland.
    pi, The rectal peduncle or pedicle of invagination; its attachment
      to the ectoderm is coincident with the hindmost extremity of the
      elongated blastopore of fig. 3, C.
    tge, Mesoblastic (skeleto-trophic and muscular) cells investing
      gs, the bilobed arch-enteron or lateral vesicles of invaginated
      endoderm, which will develop into liver.
    f, The foot.]

  The body-cavity and the muscular, fibrous and vascular tissues are
  traced partly to two symmetrically disposed "mesoblasts," which bud
  off from the invaginated arch-enteron, partly to cells derived from
  the ectoderm, which at a very early stage is connected by long
  processes with the invaginated endoderm. The external form of the
  embryo goes through the same changes as in other Gastropods, and is
  not, as was held previously to Lankester's observations, exceptional.
  When the middle and hinder regions of the blastopore are closing in,
  an equatorial ridge of ciliated cells is formed, converting the embryo
  into a typical trochosphere.

  The foot now protrudes below the mouth, and the post-oral hemisphere
  of the trochosphere grows more rapidly then the anterior or velar
  area. The young foot shows a bilobed form. Within the velar area the
  eyes and the cephalic tentacles commence to rise up, and on the
  surface of the post-oral region is formed a cap-like shell and an
  encircling ridge, which gradually increases in prominence and becomes
  the freely depending mantle-skirt. The outline of the velar area
  becomes strongly emarginated and can be traced through the more mature
  embryos to the cephalic lobes or labial processes of the adult
  _Limnaeus_ (fig. 61).

  [Illustration: FIG. 61.--A, B, C. Three views of _Limnaeus stagnalis_,
  in order to show the persistence of the larval velar area v, as the
  circum-oral lobes of the adult. m, Mouth; f, foot; v, velar area, the
  margin v corresponding with the ciliated band which demarcates the
  velar area or velum of the embryo Gastropod (see fig. 4, D, E, F, H,
  I, v). (Original.)]

  The increase of the visceral dome, its spiral twisting, and the
  gradual closure of the space overhung by the mantle-skirt so as to
  convert it into a lung-sac with a small contractile aperture, belong
  to stages in the development later than any represented in our
  figures.

  We may now revert briefly to the internal organization at a period
  when the trochosphere is beginning to show a prominent foot growing
  out from the area where the mid-region of the elongated blastopore was
  situated, and having therefore at one end of it the mouth and at the
  other the anus. Fig. 60 represents such an embryo under slight
  compression as seen by transmitted light. The ciliated band of the
  left side of the velar area is indicated by a line extending from v to
  v; the foot f is seen between the pharynx ph and the pedicle of
  invagination pi. The mass of the arch-enteron or invaginated
  endodermal sac has taken on a bilobed form, and its cells are swollen
  (gs and tge). This bilobed sac becomes _entirely_ the liver in the
  adult; the intestine and stomach are formed from the pedicle of
  invagination, whilst the pharynx, oesophagus and crop form from the
  stomodaeal invagination ph. To the right (in the figure) of the rectal
  peduncle is seen the deeply invaginated shell-gland ss, with a
  secretion sh protruding from it. The shell-gland is destined in
  _Limnaeus_ to become very rapidly stretched out, and to disappear.
  Farther up, within the velar area, the rudiments of the cerebral
  nerve-ganglion ng are seen separating from the ectoderm. A remarkable
  cord of cells having a position just below the integument occurs on
  each side of the head. In the figure the cord of the left side is
  seen, marked re. This paired organ consists of a string of cells which
  are perforated by a duct opening to the exterior and ending internally
  in a flame-cell. Such cannulated cells are characteristic of the
  nephridia of many worms, and the organs thus formed in the embryo
  _Limnaeus_ are embryonic nephridia. The most important fact about them
  is that they disappear, and are in no way connected with the typical
  nephridium of the adult. In reference to their first observer they
  were formerly called "Stiebel's canals." Other Pulmonata possess, when
  embryos, Stiebel's canals in a more fully developed state, for
  instance, the common slug _Limax_. Here too they disappear during
  embryonic life. Similar larval nephridia occur in other Gastropoda. In
  the marine Streptoneura they are ectodermic projections which
  ultimately fall off; in the Opisthobranchs they are closed pouches; in
  _Paludina_ and _Bithynia_ they are canals as in Pulmonata.

  [Illustration: FIG. 62.--_Oncidium tonganum_, a littoral Pulmonate,
  found on the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Mauritius,
  Japan).]

  _Marine Pulmonata._--Whilst the Pulmonata are essentially a
  terrestrial and fresh-water group, there is one genus of slug-like
  Pulmonates which frequent the sea-coast (_Oncidium_, fig. 62). Karl
  Semper has shown that these slugs have, in addition to the usual pair
  of cephalic eyes, a number of eyes developed upon the dorsal
  integument. These dorsal eyes are very perfect in elaboration,
  possessing lens, retinal nerve-end cells, retinal pigment and optic
  nerve. Curiously enough, however, they differ from the cephalic
  Molluscan eye in the fact that, as in the vertebrate eye, the
  filaments of the optic nerve penetrate the retina, and are connected
  with the surfaces of the nerve-end cells nearer the lens instead of
  with the opposite end. The significance of this arrangement is not
  known, but it is important to note, as shown by V. Henson, S.J.
  Hickson and others, that in the bivalves _Pecten_ and _Spondylus_,
  which also have eyes upon the mantle quite distinct from typical
  cephalic eyes, there is the same relationship as in Oncidiidae of the
  optic nerve to the retinal cells. In both Oncidiidae and _Pecten_ the
  pallial eyes have probably been developed by the modification of
  tentacles, such as coexist in an unmodified form with the eyes. The
  Oncidiidae are, according to K. Semper, pursued as food by the leaping
  fish _Periophthalmus_, and the dorsal eyes are of especial value to
  them in aiding them to escape from this enemy.

  Sub-order 1.--BASOMMATOPHORA. Pulmonata with an external shell. The
  head bears a single pair of contractile but not invaginable tentacles,
  at the base of which are the eyes. Penis at some distance from the
  female aperture, except in _Amphibola_ and _Siphonaria_. All have an
  osphradium, except the _Auriculidae_, which are terrestrial, and it is
  situated outside the pallial cavity in those forms in which water is
  not admitted into the lung. There is a veliger stage in development,
  but the velum is reduced.

    Fam. 1.--_Auriculidae_. Terrestrial and usually littoral; genital
    duct monaulic, the penis being connected with the aperture by an
    open or closed groove; shell with a prominent spire, the internal
    partitions often absorbed and the aperture denticulated. _Auricula.
    Cassidula. Alexia. Melampus. Carychium_, terrestrial, British.
    _Scarabus. Leuconia_, British. _Blauneria. Pedipes_.

    Fam. 2.--_Otinidae_. Shell with short spire, and wide oval aperture;
    tentacles short. _Otina_, British. _Camptonyx_, terrestrial.

    Fam. 3.--_Amphibolidae_. Shell spirally coiled; head broad, without
    prominent tentacles; foot short, operculated; marine. _Amphibola_.

    Fam. 4.--_Siphonariidae_. Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles
    atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine
    animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary
    branchial laminae. _Siphonaria_.

    Fam. 5.--_Gadiniidae_. Visceral mass and shell conical; head
    flattened; pallial cavity aquatic, but without a branchia; genital
    apertures separated. _Gadinia_.

    Fam. 6.--_Chilinidae_. Shell ovoid, with short spire, wide aperture
    and folded columella; inferior pallial lobe thick; visceral
    commissure still twisted. _Chilina_.

    Fam. 7.--_Limnaeidae_. Shell thin, dextral, with prominent spire and
    oval aperture; no inferior pallial lobe. _Limnaea_, British.
    _Amphipeplea_, British.

    Fam. 8.--_Pompholygidae_. Shell dextral, hyperstrophic, animal
    sinistral. _Pompholyx. Choanomphalus_.

    Fam. 9.--_Planorbidae_. Visceral mass and shell sinistral; inferior
    pallial lobe very prominent, and transformed into a branchia.
    _Planorbis_, British. _Bulinus. Miratesta_.

    Fam. 10.--_Ancylidae_. Shell conical, not spiral; inferior pallial
    lobe transformed into a branchia. _Ancylus_, British. _Latia.
    Grundlachia_.

    Fam. 11.--_Physidae_. Visceral mass and shell sinistrally coiled;
    shell thin, with narrow aperture; no inferior pallial lobe. _Physa_,
    British. _Aplexa_, British.

  Sub-order 2.--STYLOMMATOPHORA. Pulmonata with two pairs of tentacles,
  except _Janellidae_ and _Vertigo_; these tentacles are invaginable,
  and the eyes are borne on the summits of the posterior pair. Male and
  female genital apertures open into a common vestibule, except in
  _Vaginulidae_ and _Oncidiidae_. Except in _Oncidium_, there is no
  longer a veliger stage in development.

  Tribe 1.--HOLOGNATHA. Jaw simple, without a superior appendage.

    Fam. 1.--_Selenitidae_. Radula with elongated and pointed teeth,
    like those of the Agnatha; a jaw present. _Plutonia.
    Trigonochlamys_.

    Fam. 2.--_Zonitidae_. Shell external, smooth, heliciform or
    flattened; radula with pointed marginal teeth. _Zonites_, British.
    _Ariophanta. Orpiella. Vitrina. Helicarion_.

    Fam. 3.--_Limacidae_. Shell internal. _Limax_, British. _Parmacella.
    Urocyclus. Parmarion. Amalia. Agriolimax. Mesolimax. Monochroma.
    Paralimax. Metalimax_.

    Fam. 4.--_Philomycidae_. No shell; mantle covers the whole surface
    of the body; radula with squarish teeth. _Philomycus_.

    Fam. 5.--_Ostracolethidae_. Shell largely chitinous, not spiral, its
    calcareous apex projecting through a small hole in the mantle.
    _Ostracolethe_.

    Fam. 6.--_Arionidae_. Shell internal, or absent; mantle restricted
    to the anterior and middle part of the body; radula with squarish
    teeth. _Arion_, British. _Geomalacus. Ariolimax. Anadenus_.

    Fam. 7.--_Helicidae_. Shell with medium spire, external or partly
    covered by the mantle; genital aperture below the right posterior
    tentacle; genital apparatus generally provided with a dart-sac and
    multifid vesicles. _Helix_, British. _Bulimus. Hemphillia.
    Berendtia. Cochlostyla. Rhodea_.

    Fam. 8.--_Endodontidae_. Shell external, spiral, generally
    ornamented with ribs; borders of aperture thin and not reflected;
    radula with square teeth; genital ducts without accessory organs.
    _Endodonta. Punctum. Sphyradium. Laoma. Pyramidula._

    Fam. 9.--_Orthalicidae._ Shell external, ovoid, the last whorl
    swollen, aperture oval with a simple border; radular teeth in
    oblique rows. _Orthalicus._

    Fam. 10.--_Bulimulidae._ Jaw formed of folds imbricated externally
    and meeting at an acute angle near the base. _Bulimulus. Peltella.
    Amphibulimus._

    Fam. 11.--_Cylindrellidae._ Shell turriculated, with numerous
    whorls, the last more or less detached. _Cylindrella._

    Fam. 12.--_Pupidae._ Shell external, with elongated spire and
    numerous whorls, aperture generally narrow; male genital duct
    without multifid vesicles. _Pupa_, British. _Eucalodium. Vertigo_,
    British. _Buliminus_, British. _Clausilia_, British. _Balea.
    Zospeum. Megaspira. Strophia. Anostoma._

    Fam. 13.--_Stenogyridae._ Shell elongated, with a more or less
    obtuse summit; aperture with a simple border. _Achatina. Stenogyra.
    Ferussacia_, British. _Cionella. Caecilianella. Azeca. Opeas._

    Fam. 14.--_Helicteridae._ Shell bulimoid, dextral or sinistral;
    radular teeth, expanded at their extremities and multicuspidate.
    _Helicter. Tornatellina._

  Tribe 2.--AGNATHA. No jaws; teeth narrow and pointed; carnivorous.

    Fam. 1.--_Oleacinidae._ Shell oval, elongated, with narrow aperture;
    neck very long; labial palps prominent. _Oleacina (Glandina).
    Streptostyla._

    Fam. 2.--_Testacellidae._ Shell globular or auriform, external or
    partly covered by the mantle. _Streptaxis. Gibbulina. Aerope.
    Rhytida. Daudebardia. Testacella. Chlamydophorus. Schizoglossa._

    Fam. 3.--_Rathouisiidae._ No shell, a carinated mantle covering the
    whole body; male and female apertures distant, the female near the
    anus. _Rathouisia. Atopos._

  Tribe 3.--ELASMOGNATHA. Jaw with a well-developed dorsal appendage.

    Fam. 1.--_Succineidae._ Anterior tentacles much reduced; male and
    female apertures contiguous but distinct; shell thin, spiral, with
    short spire. _Succinea_, British. _Homalonyx. Hyalimax.
    Neohyalimax._

    Fam. 2.--_Janellidae._ Limaciform, with internal rounded shell;
    mantle very small and triangular; pulmonary chamber with tracheae;
    no anterior tentacles. _Janella. Aneitella. Aneitea.
    Triboniophorus._

  Tribe 4.--DITREMATA. Male and female apertures distant.

    Fam. 1.--_Vaginulidae._ No shell; limaciform; terrestrial; female
    aperture on right side in middle of body; anus posterior.
    _Vaginula._

    Fam. 2.--_Oncidiidae._ No shell; limaciform; littoral; female
    aperture posterior, near anus; a reduced pulmonary cavity with a
    distinct aperture. _Oncidium. Oncidiella_, British. _Peronia._

  AUTHORITIES.--L. Boutan, "La Cause principale de l'asymétrie des
  mollusques gastéropodes," _Arch. de zool. expér._ (3), vii. (1899); A.
  Lang, "Versuch einer Erklärung der Asymmetrie der Gastropoder,"
  _Vierteljahrsschr. naturforsch. Gesellschaft_, Zürich, 36 (1892); A.
  Robert, "Recherches sur le développement des Troques," _Arch. de zool.
  expér._ (3), x. (1903); P. Pelseneer, "Report on the Pteropoda,"
  _Zool. "Challenger" Expedit._ pts. lviii., lxv., lxvi. (1887, 1888);
  P. Pelseneer, "Protobranches aériens et Pulmonés branchifères," _Arch.
  de biol._ xiv. (1895); W.A. Herdman, "On the Structure and Functions
  of the Cerata or Dorsal Papillae in some Nudibranchiate Mollusca,"
  _Quart. Journ. Mic. Sci._ (1892); J.T. Cunningham, "On the Structure
  and Relations of the Kidney in Aplysia," _Mitt. Zool. Stat. Neapel_,
  iv. (1883); Böhmig, "Zur feineren Anatomie von _Rhodope veranyi_,
  Kölliker," _Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool._ vol. lvi. (1893).

  TREATISES.--S.P. Woodward, _Manual of the Mollusca_ (2nd ed., with
  appendix, London, 1869); E. Forbes and S. Hanley, _History of British
  Mollusca_ (4 vols., London, 1853); Alder and Hancock, _Monograph of
  British Nudibranchiate Mollusca_ (London, Roy. Society, 1845); P.
  Pelseneer, _Mollusca. Treatise on Zool._, edited by E. Ray Lankester,
  pt. v. (1906); E. Ray Lankester, "Mollusca," in 9th ed. of this
  Encyclopaedia, to which this article is much indebted.     (J. T. C)



GASTROTRICHA, a small group of fairly uniform animals which live among
Rotifers and Protozoa at the bottom of ponds and marshes, biding amongst
the recesses of the algae and sphagnum and other fresh-water plants and
eating organic débris and Infusoria. They are of minute size varying
from one-sixtieth to one-three-hundredth of an inch, and they move by
means of long cilia. Two ventral bands composed of regular transverse
rows of cilia are usually found. The head bears some especially large
cilia. The cuticle which covers the body is here and there raised into
overlapping scales which may be prolonged into bristles. An enlarged,
frontal scale may cover the head, and a row of scales separates the
ventral ciliated areas from one another, whilst two series of
alternating rows cover the back and side. The body, otherwise circular
in section, is slightly flattened ventrally. The mouth is anterior and
slightly ventral; it leads into a protrusible pharynx armed with
recurved teeth that can be everted. This leads to a muscular oesophagus
with a triradiate lumen, which acts as a sucking pump and ends in a
funnel-valve projecting into the stomach. The last named is oval and
formed of four rows of large cells; it is separated by a sphincter from
the rectum, which opens posteriorly and dorsally. The nitrogenous
excretory apparatus consists of a coiled tube on each side of the
stomach; internally the tubes end in large flame-cells, and externally
by small pores which lie on the edges of the ventral row of scales. A
cerebral ganglion rests on the oesophagus and supplies the cephalic
cilia and hairs; it is continued some way back as two dorsal nerve
trunks. The sense organs are the hairs and bristles and in some species
eyes. The muscles are simple and unstriated and for the most part run
longitudinally.

[Illustration: From _Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft Zoologie_, vol. xlix.
p. 209, by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann.

  _Chaetonotus maximus_, Ehrb., ventral side. (After Zelinka.)
  Bo, Bristles surrounding the mouth.
  ds, Dorsal bristles.
  hCi, Posterior lateral cilia.
  Ke, Cuticular dome.
  Mr, Oral cavity.
  lT, Lateral sensory hairs.
  Pl, Cuticular plates.
  Sa, Dorsal bristle of the basal part.
  Sch, Plates.
  Se, Lateral bristles.
  Vb, Point of union of ciliated tract.
  vCi, Anterior group of cilia.
  vS, Ventral bristles of the basal part.]

The two ovaries lie at the level of the juncture of the stomach and
rectum. The eggs become very large, sometimes half the length of the
mother; they are laid amongst water weeds. The male reproductive system
is but little known, a small gland lying between the ovaries has been
thought to be a testis, and if it be, the Gastrotricha are
hermaphrodite.

  Zelinka classifies the group as follows:--

  Sub-order 1.--EUICHTHYDINA with a forked tail.

  (i.) Fam. Ichthydidae, without bristles. Genera: _Ichthydium,
  Lepidoderma_.

  (ii.) Fam. Chaetonotidae, with bristles. Genera: _Chaetonotus,
  Chaetura_.

  Sub-order 2.--APODINA, tail not forked. Genera: _Dasydytes, Gossea,
  Stylochaeta_.

  The genus _Aspidiophorus_ recently described by Voigt seems in some
  respects intermediate between _Lepidoderma_ and _Chaetonotus_.
  _Zelinkia_ and _Philosyrtis_ are two slightly aberrant forms described
  by Giard from certain diatomaceous sands. Altogether there must be
  some forty to fifty described species.

  The group is an isolated one and shows no clear affinities with any of
  the great phyla. Those that are usually dwelt on are treated with the
  Rotifers and Nematoda and Turbellaria.

  LITERATURE.--A.C. Stokes, _The Microscope_ (Detroit, 1887-1888); C.
  Zelinka, _Zeitschr. wiss. Zool._ xlix., 1890, p. 209; M. Voigt,
  _Forschber. Plön._ Th. ix., 1904, p. 1; A. Giard, _C. R. Soc. Biol._
  lvi. pp. 1061 and 1063; E. Daday, _Termes. Fuzetek._ xxiv. p. 1; F.
  Zschokke, _Denk. Schweiz. Ges._ xxxvii. p. 109; S. Hlava, _Zool. Anz._
  xxviii., 1905, p. 331.     (A. E. S.)



GATAKER, THOMAS (1574-1654), English divine, was born in London in
September 1574, and educated at St John's College, Cambridge. From 1601
to 1611 he held the appointment of preacher to the society of Lincoln's
Inn, which he resigned on accepting the rectory of Rotherhithe. In 1642
he was chosen a member of the assembly of divines at Westminster, and
annotated for that assembly the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and
Lamentations. He disapproved of the introduction of the Covenant, and
declared himself in favour of episcopacy. He was one of the forty-seven
London clergymen who disapproved of the trial of Charles I. He was
married four times, and died in July 1654.

  His principal works, besides some volumes of sermons are--_On the
  Nature and Use of Lots_ (1619), a curious treatise which led to his
  being accused of favouring games of chance; _Dissertatio de stylo Novi
  Testamenti_ (1648); _Cinnus, sive Adversaria miscellanea, in quibus
  Sacrae Scripturae primo, deinde aliorum scriptorum, locis aliquam
  multis lux redditur_ (1651), to which was afterwards subjoined
  _Adversaria Posthuma_; and his edition of _Marcus Antoninus_ (1652),
  which, according to Hallam, is the "earliest edition of any classical
  writer published in England with original annotations," and, for the
  period at which it was written, possesses remarkable merit. His
  collected works were published at Utrecht in 1698.



GATCHINA, a town of Russia, in the government of St Petersburg, 29 m. by
rail S. of the city of St Petersburg, in 59° 34' N. and 30° 6' E. Pop.
(1860) 9184; (1897) 14,735. It is situated in a flat, well-wooded, and
partly marshy district, and on the south side of the town are two lakes.
Among its more important buildings are the imperial palace, which was
founded in 1770 by Prince Orlov, and constructed according to the plans
of the Italian architect Rinaldi; a military orphanage, founded in 1803;
and a school for horticulture. Among the few industrial establishments
is a porcelain factory. At Gatchina an alliance was concluded between
Russia and Sweden on the 29th of October 1799.



GATE, an opening into any enclosure for entrance or exit, capable of
being closed by a barrier at will. The word is of wide application,
embracing not only the defensive entrance ways into a fortified place,
with which this article mainly deals, or the imposing architectural
features which form the main entrances to palaces, colleges, monastic
buildings, &c., but also the common five-barred barrier which closes an
opening into a field. The most general distinction that can be made
between "door" and "gate" is that of size, the greater entrance into a
court containing other buildings being the "gate," the smaller entrances
opening directly into the particular buildings the "doors," or that of
construction, the whole entrance way being a "gate" or gateway, the
barrier which closes it a "door." A further distinction is drawn by
applying "door" to the solid barriers or "valves" of wood, metal, &c.,
made in panels and fitted to a framework, and "gate" to an openwork
structure, whether of metal or wood (see further DOOR and METAL-WORK).
The ultimate origin of the word is obscure; the early forms appear with
a palatalized initial letter, still surviving in such dialectical forms
as "yate," or in Scots "yett." It is probably connected with the root of
"get," in the sense either of "means of access" or of "holding,"
"receptacle"; cf. Dutch _gat_, hole. There may be a connexion, however,
with "gate," now usually spelled "gait," a manner of walking,[1] but
originally a way, passage; cf. Ger. _Gasse_, narrow street, lane.

The entrance through the enclosing walls of a city or fortification has
been from the earliest times a place of the utmost importance,
considered architecturally, socially or from the point of view of the
military engineer. In the East the "gate" was and still is in many
Mahommedan countries the central place of civic life. Here was the seat
of justice and of audience, the most important market-place, the spot
where men gathered to receive and exchange news. The references in the
Bible to the gates of the city in all these varied aspects are
innumerable (cf. Gen. xix. 1; Deut. xxv. 7; Ruth iv. 1; 2 Sam. xix. 8; 2
Kings vii. 1). Later the seat of justice and of government is
transferred to the gate of the palace of the king (cf. Dan. ii. 49, and
Esther ii. 19), and this use is preserved to-day in the official title
of the seat of government of the Turkish empire at Constantinople, the
"Sublime Porte," a translation of the Turkish _Bab Aliy_ (_bab_, gate,
and _aliy_, high). A full account with many modern instances of Eastern
customs will be found in Sir Charles Warren's article "Gate" in
Hastings's _Dict. of Bible_. For the "pylon," the typical gate of
Egyptian architecture, see ARCHITECTURE.

The gates into a walled town or other fortified place were necessarily
in early times the chief points on which the attack concentrated, and
the features, common throughout the ages, of flanking or surmounting
towers and of galleries over the entrance way, are found in the Assyrian
gate at Khorsabad (cf. 2 Chron. xxvi. 9; 2 Sam. xviii. 24). With the
coming of peaceful times to a city or the removal of the fear of sudden
attack, the gateways would take a form adapted more for ready exit and
entrance than for defence, though the possibility of defending them was
not forgotten. Such city gates often had separate openings for entrance
and exit, and again for foot passengers and for vehicles. The
Gallo-Roman gate at Autun has four entrances, two just wide enough to
admit carriages, and two narrow alleys for foot passengers. A fine
example of a Roman city gate, dating from the time of Constantine, is at
Trèves. It is four storeys high, with ornamental windows, and decorated
with columns on each storey. The two outer wings project beyond the
central part, the two entrance ways are 14 ft. wide, and could be closed
by doors and a portcullis. The chambers in the storeys above were used
for the purposes of civil administration. In more modern times city
gateways have often followed the type of the Roman triumphal arch, with
a single wide opening and purely ornamental superstructure. On the other
hand, the defensive gate formed by an archway entering as it were
through a tower has been constantly followed as a type of entrance to
buildings of an entirely peaceful character. A fine example of such a
gateway, originally built for defence, is at Battle Abbey; this was
built by Abbot Retlynge in 1338, when Edward III. granted a licence to
fortify and crenellate the abbey. Such gateways are typical of Tudor
palaces, as at St James's or at Hampton Court, and are the most common
form in the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge. The Tom Gate at Christ
Church, Oxford, with its surmounted domed bell tower, or the cupola
resting on columns at Queen's College, Oxford, are further examples of
the gate architecturally considered.

The changes the fortified gateway has undergone in construction and the
varying relative importance it has held in the scheme of defence follow
the lines of development taken by the history of FORTIFICATION AND
SIEGECRAFT (q.v.). The following is a short sketch of the main stages in
its history. A good example of the Roman fortified city gate still
remains at Pompeii. Here there is one passage way for vehicles, 14 ft.
wide; this is open to the sky. The two footways on either side are
arched, with openings in the centre on to the central way. The doors of
the gate are on the city side, but a portcullis (_cataracta_) closed it
on the country side. The gateways of the Roman permanent camps (_castra
stativa_) were four in number, the _porta praetoria_ and _Decumana_ at
either end, with _principalis dextra_ and _sinistra_ on the side (see
also CAMP). At Pevensey (_Anderida_) a small postern on the north side
of the Roman walls was laid bare in 1906-1907, in which the passage
curves in the thickness of the wall, and from a width admitting two men
abreast narrows so that one alone could block it. Flanking towers or
bastions guarded the main entrances, while in front were built outworks,
of palisades, &c., to protect it; these were known as _procastra_ or
_antemuralia_, and the entrances to these were placed so that they could
be flanked from the main walls.

In the defence of a fortified place the gate had not only to be
protected from sudden surprise, but also had to undergo protracted
attacks concentrated upon it during a siege. Thus until the coming of
gunpowder, the ingenuity of military engineers was exhausted in
accumulating the most complicated defences round the gateways, and the
strength of a fortified place could be estimated by the fewness of its
gates. Viollet-le-Duc (_Dict. de l'arch. du moyen âge_, s.v. _Porte_)
takes the Narbonne and Aude gates (E. and W.) of Carcassonne as typical
instances of this complication. The following brief account of the
Narbonne Gate (fig. 1), one of the principal parts of the work on the
fortifications begun by Philip the Bold in 1285, will give some idea of
the varied means of defence, which may be found individually if not
always in such collective abundance in the fortified gateways of the
middle ages. Two massive towers flanked the actual entrance and were
linked across by an iron chain; over the entrance (E) was a
machicolation, further added to in time of war by a hoarding of timber;
and an outer portcullis fell in front of the heavy iron-lined doors. On
to the passage way between the first and second doors opened a square
machicolation (G) from which the defenders in the upper chambers of the
gate could attack an enemy that had succeeded in breaking through the
first entrance or had been trapped by the falling of the first
portcullis. Another machicolation (I) opened from the roof in front of
the second portcullis and second door. So much for the gate itself; but
before an attack could reach that point, the following defences had to
be passed: an immense circular barbican (A) protected the entrance
across the moat and through the outer _enceinte_ of the city. This
entrance was flanked by a masked return of the wall (C), while palisades
(P) still further hampered the assailant in his passage across the
"lists" to the foot of the gate towers. Here sappers would find
themselves exposed to a fire from the loopholes and from the
machicolated hoardings above them, while the projecting horns with which
the face of the towers terminated forced them to uncover themselves to a
flanking fire from the indents in the main curtain on either side of the
towers.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Plan of the Narbonne Gate of the city of
Carcassonne.]

The later history of the gateway is merged in that of modern
fortification. The more elaborate the gate defences the greater was the
inducement for the besieger to attack the walls, and improvements in
methods of siegecraft ultimately compelled the defender to develop the
_enceinte_ from its medieval form of a ring wall with flanking towers to
the 17th century form of bastions, curtains, tenailles and ravelins, all
intimately connected in one general scheme of defence. By Vauban's time
there is little to distinguish the position and defences of the gateways
from the rest of the fortifications surrounding a town. A road from the
country usually entered one of the ravelins, sinking into the glacis,
crossing the ditch of the ravelin and piercing the parapet almost at
right angles to its proper direction (see fig. 2, which also shows a
typical arrangement of minor communications such as ramps and
staircases). From the interior of the ravelin it passed across the main
ditch to a gate in the curtain of the enceinte. The road was in fact
artificially made to wind in such a way that it was kept under fire from
the defences throughout, while the part of it inside the works was bent
so as to place a covering mass between the enemy's fire and troops using
the road for a sortie. Thus the gate itself was merely a barrier against
a _coup de main_ and to keep out unauthorized persons. In conditions
precluding the making of a breach in the walls, i.e. in surprises and
assaults _de vive force_, the gateway and accompanying drawbridge
continue to play their part in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, but
they seldom or never appear as the objectives of a siege _en règle_. In
Vauban's works, and those of most other engineers, there was generally a
postern giving access to the floor of the main ditch, in the centre of
the curtain escarp. The gates of Vauban's and later fortresses are
strong heavy wooden doors, and the gateways more or less ornamental
archways, exactly as in many private mansions of castellar form. In
modern fortresses the gate of a detached fort or an _enceinte de sureté_
is intended purely as a defence against an unexpected rush. The usual
method is to have two gates, the outer one a lattice or portcullis of
iron bars and the inner one a plate of half-inch steel armour, backed by
wood and loopholed. The defenders of the gate can by this arrangement
fire from the inner loopholes through the outer gate upon the
approaches, and also keep the enemy under fire whilst he is trying to
force the outer gate itself. The ditches are crossed either by
drawbridges or by ramps leading the road down to the floor of the ditch.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Plan of Gate Arrangements of an 18th Century
Fortress.]

The "gate" as a barrier to be removed and as an entrance to be passed is
of constant occurrence in figurative language and in symbolical usage.
The gates of the temple of Janus (q.v.) at Rome stood open in war and
closed in peace. The _pylon_ of ancient Egypt had a symbolical meaning
in the Book of the Dead, and religious significance attaches to the
_torii_, one of the outward signs of the Shinto religion in Japan, the
Buddhist _toran_, and to the Chinese _pai-loo_, the honorific gateways
erected to ancestors. The gates of heaven and hell, the gates of death
and darkness, the wide and narrow gates that lead to destruction and
life (Matt. vii. 13 and 14), are familiar metaphorical phrases in the
Bible. In Greek and Roman legend dreams pass through gates of
transparent horn if true, if deceptive and false through opaque gates of
ivory (Hom. _Od_. xix. 560 sq.; Virg. _Aen_. vi. 893).     (C. We.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The spelling "gait" is confined to this meaning--the only
    literary one surviving. In the form "gate" it appears dialectally in
    this sense and in such particular meanings as a right to run cattle
    on common or private ground or as a passage way in mines. The
    principal survival is in names of streets in the north and midlands
    of England and in Scotland, e.g. Briggate at Leeds, Wheeler Gate and
    Castle Gate at Nottingham, Gallow Tree Gate at Leicester, and
    Canongate and Cowgate at Edinburgh.



GATEHOUSE. In the second half of the 16th century in England the
entrance gateway, which formed part of the principal front of the
earlier feudal castles, became a detached feature attached to the
mansions only by a wall enclosing the entrance court. The gatehouse then
constituted a structure of some importance, and included sometimes many
rooms as at Stanway Hall, Gloucestershire, where it measures 44 ft. by
22 ft. and has three storeys; at Westwood, Worcestershire, it had a
frontage of 54 ft. with two storeys; and at Burton Agnes, Yorkshire, it
was still larger and was flanked by great octagonal towers at the angles
and had three storeys. At a later period smaller accommodation was
provided so that it virtually became a lodge, but being designed to
harmonize with the mansion it presented sometimes a monumental
structure. On the continent of Europe the gatehouse forms a much more
important building, as it formed part of the town fortifications, where
it sometimes defended the passage of a bridge across the stream or moat.
There are numerous examples in France and Germany.



GATES, HORATIO (1728-1806), American general, was born at Maldon in
Essex, England, in 1728. He entered the English army at an early age,
and was rapidly promoted. He accompanied General Braddock in his
disastrous expedition against Fort Duquesne in 1755, and was severely
wounded in the battle of July 9; and he saw other active service in the
Seven Years' War. After the peace of 1763 he purchased an estate in
Virginia, where he lived till the outbreak of the War of Independence
in 1775, when he was named by Congress adjutant-general. In 1776 he was
appointed to command the troops which had lately retreated from Canada,
and in August 1777, as a result of a successful intrigue, was appointed
to supersede General Philip Schuyler in command of the Northern
Department. In the two battles of Saratoga (q.v.) his army defeated
General Burgoyne, who, on the 17th of October, was forced to surrender
his whole army. This success was, however, largely due to the previous
manoeuvres of Schuyler and to Gates's subordinate officers. The
intrigues of the Conway Cabal to have Washington superseded by Gates
completely failed, but Gates was president for a time of the Board of
War, and in 1780 was placed in chief command in the South. He was
totally defeated at Camden, S. C., by Cornwallis on the 17th of August
1780, and in December was superseded by Greene, though an investigation
into his conduct terminated in acquittal (1782). He then retired to his
Virginian estate, whence he removed to New York in 1790, after
emancipating his slaves and providing for those who needed assistance.
He died in New York on the 10th of April 1806.



GATESHEAD, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Durham,
England; on the S. bank of the Tyne opposite Newcastle, and on the North
Eastern railway. Pop. (1891) 85,692; (1901) 109,888. Though one of the
largest towns in the county, neither its streets nor its public
buildings, except perhaps its ecclesiastical buildings, have much claim
to architectural beauty. The parish church of St Mary is an ancient
cruciform edifice surmounted by a lofty tower; but extensive restoration
was necessitated by a fire in 1854 which destroyed a considerable part
of the town. The town-hall, public library and mechanic's institute are
noteworthy buildings. Education is provided by a grammar school, a large
day school for girls, and technical and art schools. There is a service
of steam trams in the principal streets, and three fine bridges connect
the town with Newcastle-upon-Tyne. There are large iron works (including
foundries and factories for engines, boilers, chains and cables),
shipbuilding yards, glass manufactories, chemical, soap and candle
works, brick and tile works, breweries and tanneries. The town also
contains a depot of the North Eastern railway, with large stores and
locomotive works. Extensive coal mines exist in the vicinity; and at
Gateshead Fell are large quarries for grindstones, which are much
esteemed and are exported to all parts of the world. Large gas-works of
the Newcastle and Gateshead Gas Company are also situated in the
borough. The parliamentary borough returns one member. The corporation
consists of a mayor, 9 aldermen, and 27 councillors. Area, 3132 acres.

Gateshead (Gateshewed) probably grew up during late Saxon times, the
mention of the church there in which Bishop Walcher was murdered in 1080
being the first evidence of settlement. The borough probably obtained
its charter during the following century, for Hugh de Puiset, bishop of
Durham (1153-1195), confirmed to his burgesses similar rights to those
of the burgesses of Newcastle, freedom of toll within the palatinate and
other privileges. The bishop had a park here in 1348, and in 1438 Bishop
Nevill appointed a keeper of the "tower." The position of the town led
to a struggle with Newcastle over both fishing and trading rights. An
inquisition of 1322 declared that the water of the Tyne was divided into
three parts: the northern, belonging to Northumberland; the southern to
Durham; and the central, common to all. At another inquisition held in
1336 the men of Gateshead claimed liberty of trading and fishing along
the coast of Durham, and freedom to sell their fish where they would. In
1552, on the temporary extinction of the diocese of Durham, Gateshead
was attached to Newcastle, but in 1554 was regranted to Bishop Tunstall.
As compensation the bishop granted to Newcastle, at a nominal rent, the
Gateshead salt-meadows, with rights of way to the High Street, thus
abolishing the toll previously paid to the bishop. During the next
century Bishop Tunstall's successors incorporated nearly all the various
trades of Gateshead, and Cromwell continued this policy. The town
government during this period was by the bishop's bailiff, and the
holders of the burgages composed the juries of the bishop's courts leet
and baron. No charter of incorporation is extant, but in 1563 contests
were carried on under the name of the bailiffs, burgesses and
commonalty, and a list of borough accounts exists for 1696. The bishop
appointed the last borough bailiff in 1681, and though the inhabitants
in 1772 petitioned for a bailiff the town remained under a steward and
grassmen until the 19th century. As part of the palatinate of Durham,
Gateshead was not represented in parliament until 1832. At the
inquisition of 1336 the burgesses claimed an annual fair on St Peter's
Day, and depositions in 1577 mention a borough market held on Tuesday
and Friday, but these were apparently extinct in Camden's day, and no
grant of them is extant. The medieval trade seems to have centred round
the fisheries and the neighbouring coal mines which are mentioned in
1364 and also by Leland.



GATH, one of the five chief cities of the Philistines. It is frequently
mentioned in the historical books of the Old Testament, and from Amos
vi. 2 we conclude that, like Ashdod, it fell to Sargon in 711. Its site
appears to have been known in the 4th century, but the name is now lost.
Eusebius (in the _Onomasticon_) places it near the road from
Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrïn) to Diospolis (Ludd) about five Roman miles
from the former. The Roman road between these two towns is still
traceable, and its milestones remain in places. East of the road at the
required distance rises a white cliff, almost isolated, 300 ft. high and
full of caves. On the top is the little mud village of Tell es-Safi
("the shining mound"), and beside the village is the mound which marks
the site of the Crusaders' castle of Blanchegarde (Alba Custodia), built
in 1144. Tell es-Safi was known by its present name as far back as the
12th century; but it appears not improbable that the strong site here
existing represents the ancient Gath. The cliff stands on the south side
of the mouth of the Valley of Elah, and Gath appears to have been near
this valley (1 Sam. xvii. 2, 52). This identification is not certain,
but it is at least much more probable than the theory which makes Gath,
Eleutheropolis, and Beit Jibrïn one and the same place. The site was
partially excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1899, and
remains extending in date back to the early Canaanite period were
discovered.



GATLING, RICHARD JORDAN (1818-1903), American inventor, was born in
Hertford county, North Carolina, on the 12th of September 1818. He was
the son of a well-to-do planter and slave-owner, from whom he inherited
a genius for mechanical invention and whom he assisted in the
construction and perfecting of machines for sowing cotton seeds, and for
thinning the plants. He was well educated and was successively a school
teacher and a merchant, spending all his spare time in developing new
inventions. In 1839 he perfected a practical screw propeller for
steamboats, only to find that a patent had been granted to John Ericsson
for a similar invention a few months earlier. He established himself in
St Louis, Missouri, and taking the cotton-sowing machine as a basis he
adapted it for sowing rice, wheat and other grains, and established
factories for its manufacture. The introduction of these machines did
much to revolutionize the agricultural system in the country. Becoming
interested in the study of medicine through an attack of smallpox, he
completed a course at the Ohio Medical College, taking his M.D. degree
in 1850. In the same year he invented a hemp-breaking machine, and in
1857 a steam plough. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was living in
Indianapolis, and devoted himself at once to the perfecting of
fire-arms. In 1861 he conceived the idea of the rapid fire machine-gun
which is associated with his name. By 1862 he had succeeded in
perfecting a gun that would discharge 350 shots per minute; but the war
was practically over before the Federal authorities consented to its
official adoption. From that time, however, the success of the invention
was assured, and within ten years it had been adopted by almost every
civilized nation. Gatling died in New York City on the 26th of February
1903.



GATTY, MARGARET (1809-1873), English writer, daughter of the Rev.
Alexander Scott (1768-1840), chaplain to Lord Nelson, was born at
Burnham, Essex, in 1809. She early began to draw and to etch on copper,
being a regular visitor to the print-room of the British Museum from the
age of ten. She also illuminated on vellum, copying the old strawberry
borders and designing initials. In 1839 Margaret Scott married the Rev.
Alfred Gatty, D.D., vicar of Ecclesfield near Sheffield, subdean of York
cathedral, and the author of various works both secular and religious.
In 1842 she published in association with her husband a life of her
father; but her first independent work was _The Fairy Godmother and
other Tales_, which appeared in 1851. This was followed in 1855 by the
first of five volumes of _Parables from Nature_, the last being
published in 1871. It was under the _nom de plume_ of Aunt Judy, as a
pleasant and instructive writer for children, that Mrs Gatty was most
widely known. Before starting _Aunt Judy's Magazine_ in May 1866, she
had brought out _Aunt Judy's Tales_ (1858) and _Aunt Judy's Letters_
(1862), and among the other children's books which she subsequently
published were _Aunt Judy's Song Book for Children_ and _The Mother's
Book of Poetry_. "Aunt Judy" was the nickname given by her daughter
Juliana Horatia Ewing (q.v.). The editor of the magazine was on the
friendliest terms with her young correspondents and subscribers, and her
success was largely due to the sympathy which enabled her to look at
things from the child's point of view. Besides other excellences her
children's books are specially characterized by wholesomeness of
sentiment and cheerful humour. Her miscellaneous writings include, in
addition to several volumes of tales, _The Old Folks from Home_, an
account of a holiday ramble in Ireland; _The Travels and Adventures of
Dr Wolff the Missionary_ (1861), an autobiography edited by her;
_British Sea Weeds_ (1862); _Waifs and Strays of Natural History_
(1871); _A Book of Emblems_ and _The Book of Sun-Dials_ (1872). She died
at Ecclesfield vicarage on the 4th of October 1873.



GAU, JOHN (c. 1495-? 1553), Scottish translator, was born at Perth
towards the close of the 15th century. He was educated in St Salvator's
College at St Andrews. He appears to have been in residence at Malmö in
1533, perhaps as chaplain to the Scots community there. In that year
John Hochstraten, the exiled Antwerp printer, issued a book by Gau
entitled: _The Richt vay to the Kingdome of Heuine_, of which the chief
interest is that it is the first Scottish book written on the side of
the Reformers. It is a translation of Christiern Pedersen's _Den rette
vey till Hiemmerigis Rige_ (Antwerp, 1531), for the most part direct,
but showing intimate knowledge in places of the German edition of
Urbanus Rhegius. Only one copy of Gau's text is extant, in the library
of Britwell Court, Bucks. It has been assumed that all the copies were
shipped from Malmö to Scotland, and that the cargo was intercepted by
the Scottish officers on the look out for the heretical works which were
printed abroad in large numbers. This may explain the silence of all the
historians of the Reformed Church--Knox, Calderwood and Spottiswood. Gau
married in 1536 a Malmö citizen's daughter, bearing the Christian name
Birgitta. She died in 1551, and he in or about 1553.

  The first reference to the _Richt Vay_ appeared in Chalmers's
  _Caledonia_, ii. 616. Chalmers, who was the owner of the unique volume
  before it passed into the Britwell Court collection, considered it to
  be an original work. David Laing printed extracts for the Bannatyne
  Club (_Miscellany_, iii., 1855). The evidence that the book is a
  translation was first given by Sonnenstein Wendt in a paper "Om
  Reformatorerna i Malmö," in Rördam's _Ny Kirkehistoriske Samlinger_,
  ii. (Copenhagen, 1860). A complete edition was edited by A.F. Mitchell
  for the Scottish Text Society (1888). See also Lorimer's _Patrick
  Hamilton_.



GAUDEN, JOHN (1605-1662), English bishop and writer, reputed author of
the _Eikon Basilike_, was born in 1605 at Mayland, Essex, where his
father was vicar of the parish. Educated at Bury St Edmunds school and
at St John's College, Cambridge, he took his M.A. degree in 1625/6. He
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Russell of Chippenham,
Cambridgeshire, and was tutor at Oxford to two of his wife's brothers.
He seems to have remained at Oxford until 1630, when he became vicar of
Chippenham. His sympathies were at first with the parliamentary party.
He was chaplain to Robert Rich, second earl of Warwick, and preached
before the House of Commons in 1640. In 1641 he was appointed to the
rural deanery of Bocking. Apparently his views changed as the
revolutionary tendency of the Presbyterian party became more pronounced,
for in 1648/9 he addressed to Lord Fairfax _A Religious and Loyal
Protestation_ ... against the proceedings of the parliament. Under the
Commonwealth he faced both ways, keeping his ecclesiastical preferment,
but publishing from time to time pamphlets on behalf of the Church of
England. At the Restoration he was made bishop of Exeter. He immediately
began to complain to Hyde, earl of Clarendon, of the poverty of the see,
and based claims for a better benefice on a certain secret service,
which he explained on the 20th of January 1661 to be the sole invention
of the _Eikon Basilike, The Pourtraicture of his sacred Majestie in his
Solitudes and Sufferings_ put forth within a few hours after the
execution of Charles I. as written by the king himself. To which
Clarendon replied that he had been before acquainted with the secret and
had often wished he had remained ignorant of it. Gauden was advanced in
1662, not as he had wished to the see of Winchester, but to Worcester.
He died on the 23rd of May of the same year.

The evidence in favour of Gauden's authorship rests chiefly on his own
assertions and those of his wife (who after his death sent to her son
John a narrative of the claim), and on the fact that it was admitted by
Clarendon, who should have had means of being acquainted with the truth.
Gauden's letters on the subject are printed in the appendix to vol. iii.
of the _Clarendon Papers_. The argument is that Gauden had prepared the
book to inspire sympathy with the king by a representation of his pious
and forgiving disposition, and so to rouse public opinion against his
execution. In 1693 further correspondence between Gauden, Clarendon, the
duke of York, and Sir Edward Nicholas was published by Mr Arthur North,
who had found them among the papers of his sister-in-law, a
daughter-in-law of Bishop Gauden; but doubt has been thrown on the
authenticity of these papers. Gauden stated that he had begun the book
in 1647 and was entirely responsible for it. But it is contended that
the work was in existence at Naseby,[1] and testimony to Charles's
authorship is brought forward from various witnesses who had seen
Charles himself occupied with it at various times during his
imprisonment. It is stated that the MS. was delivered by one of the
king's agents to Edward Symmons, rector of Raine, near Bocking, and that
it was in the handwriting of Oudart, Sir Edward Nicholas's secretary.
The internal evidence has, as is usual in such cases, been brought
forward as a conclusive argument in favour of both contentions. Doubt
was thrown on Charles's authorship in Milton's _Eikonoklastes_ (1649),
which was followed almost immediately by a royalist answer, _The
Princely Pelican. Royall Resolves--Extracted from his Majesty's Divine
Meditations, with satisfactory reasons ... that his Sacred Person was
the only Author of them_ (1649). The history of the whole controversy,
which has been several times renewed, was dealt with in Christopher
Wordsworth's tracts in a most exhaustive way. He eloquently advocated
Charles's authorship. Since he wrote in 1829, some further evidence has
been forthcoming in favour of the Naseby copy. A correspondence relating
to the French translation of the work has also come to light among the
papers of Sir Edward Nicholas. None of the letters show any doubt that
King Charles was the author. S.R. Gardiner (_Hist. of the Great Civil
War_, iv. 325) regards Mr Doble's articles in the _Academy_ (May and
June 1883) as finally disposing of Charles's claim to the authorship,
but this is by no means the attitude of other recent writers. If Gauden
was the author, he may have incorporated papers, &c., by Charles, who
may have corrected the work and thus been joint-author. This theory
would reconcile the conflicting evidence, that of those who saw Charles
writing parts and read the MS. before publication, and the deliberate
statements of Gauden.

  See also the article by Richard Hooper in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._;
  Christopher Wordsworth, _Who wrote Eikon Basilike?_ two letters
  addressed to the archbishop of Canterbury (1824), and _King Charles
  the First, the Author of Icon Basilikè_ (1828); H.J. Todd, _A Letter
  to the Archbishop of Canterbury concerning Eikon Basilike_ (1825);
  _Bishop Gauden, The Author of the Icôn Basilikè_ (1829); W.G.
  Broughton, _A Letter to a Friend_ (1826), _Additional Reasons ..._
  (1829), supporting the contention in favour of Dr Gauden; Mr E.J.L.
  Scott's introduction to his reprint (1880) of the original edition;
  articles in the _Academy_, May and June 1883, by Mr C.E. Doble;
  another reprint edited by Mr Edward Almack for the King's Classics
  (1904); and Edward Almack, _Bibliography of the King's Book_ (1896).
  This last book contains a summary of the arguments on either side, a
  full bibliography of works on the subject, and facsimiles of the title
  pages, with full descriptions of the various extant copies.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See a note in Archbishop Tenison's handwriting in his copy of the
    _Eikon Basilike_ preserved at Lambeth Palace, and quoted in Almack's
    _Bibliography_, p. 15.



GAUDICHAUD-BEAUPRÉ, CHARLES (1789-1854), French botanist, was born at
Angoulême on the 4th of September 1789. He studied pharmacy first in the
shop of a brother-in-law at Cognac, and then under P.J. Robiquet at
Paris, where from R.L. Desfontaines and L.C. Richard he acquired a
knowledge of botany. In April 1810 he was appointed dispenser in the
military marine, and from July 1811 to the end of 1814 he served at
Antwerp. In 1817 he joined the corvette "Uranie" as pharmaceutical
botanist to the circumpolar expedition commanded by D. de Freycinet. The
wreck of the vessel on the Falkland Isles, at the close of 1819,
deprived him of more than half the botanical collections he had made in
various parts of the world. In 1830-1833 he visited Chile, Peru and
Brazil, and in 1836-1837 he acted as botanist to "La Bonite" during its
circumnavigation of the globe. His theory accounting for the growth of
plants by the supposed coalescence of elementary "phytons" involved him,
during the latter years of his life, in much controversy with his
fellow-botanists, more especially C.F.B. de Mirbel. He died in Paris on
the 16th of January 1854.

  Besides accounts of his voyages round the world, Gaudichaud-Beaupré
  wrote "Lettres sur l'organographie et la physiologie," _Arch. de
  botanique_, ii., 1883; "Recherches générales sur l'organographie," &c.
  (prize essay, 1835), _Mém. de l'Académie des Sciences_, t. viii. and
  kindred treatises, with memoirs on the potato-blight, the
  multiplication of bulbous plants, the increase in diameter of
  dicotyledonous plants, and other subjects; and _Réfutation de toutes
  les objections contre les nouveaux principes physiologiques_ (1852).



GAUDRY, JEAN ALBERT (1827-1908), French geologist and palaeontologist,
was born at St Germain-en-Laye on the 16th of September 1827, and was
educated at the college, Stanislas. At the age of twenty-five he made
explorations in Cyprus and Greece, residing in the latter country from
1855 to 1860. He then investigated the rich deposit of fossil vertebrata
at Pikermi and brought to light a remarkable mammalian fauna, Miocene in
age, and intermediate in its forms between European, Asiatic and African
types. He also published an account of the geology of the island of
Cyprus (_Mém. Soc. Géol. de France_, 1862). In 1853, while still in
Cyprus, he was appointed assistant to A. d'Orbigny, who was the first to
hold the chair of palaeontology in the museum of natural history at
Paris. In 1872 he succeeded to this important post; in 1882 he was
elected member of the Academy of Sciences; and in 1900 he presided over
the meetings of the eighth International Congress of Geology then held
in Paris. He died on the 27th of November 1908. He is distinguished for
his researches on fossil mammalia, and for the support which his studies
have rendered to the theory of evolution.

  PUBLICATIONS.--_Animaux fossiles et géologie de l'Attique_ (2 vols.,
  1862-1867); _Cours de paléontologie_ (1873); _Animaux fossiles du Mont
  Lebéron_ (1873); _Les Enchaînements du monde animal dans les temps
  géologiques_ (_Mammifères Tertiaires_, 1878; _Fossiles primaires_,
  1883; _Fossiles secondaires_, 1890); _Essai de paléontologie
  philosophique_ (1896). Brief memoir with portrait in _Geol. Mag._
  (1903), p. 49.     (H. B. W.)



GAUDY, an adjective meaning showy, very bright, gay, especially with a
sense of tasteless or vulgar extravagance, of colour or ornament. The
accurate origin of the various senses which this word and the
substantive "gaud" have taken are somewhat difficult to trace. They are
all ultimately to be referred to the Lat. _gaudere_, to rejoice,
_gaudium_, joy, some of them directly, others to the French derivative
_gaudir_, to rejoice, and O. Fr. _gaudie_. As a noun, in the sense of
rejoicing or feast, "gaudy" is still used of a commemoration dinner at a
college at the university of Oxford. "Gaud," meaning generally a toy, a
gay adornment, a piece of showy jewelry, is more specifically applied to
larger and more decorative beads in a rosary.



GAUERMANN, FRIEDRICH (1807-1862), Austrian painter, son of the landscape
painter Jacob Gauermann (1773-1843), was born at Wiesenbach near
Gutenstein in Lower Austria on the 20th of September 1807. It was the
intention of his father that he should devote himself to agriculture,
but the example of an elder brother, who, however, died early, fostered
his inclination towards art. Under his father's direction he began
studies in landscape, and he also diligently copied the works of the
chief masters in animal painting which were contained in the academy and
court library of Vienna. In the summer he made art tours in the
districts of Styria, Tirol and Salzburg. Two animal pieces which he
exhibited at the Vienna Exhibition of 1824 were regarded as remarkable
productions for his years, and led to his receiving commissions in 1825
and 1826 from Prince Metternich and Caraman, the French ambassador. His
reputation was greatly increased by his picture "The Storm," exhibited
in 1829, and from that time his works were much sought after and
obtained correspondingly high prices. His "Field Labourer" was regarded
by many as the most noteworthy picture in the Vienna exhibition of 1834,
and his numerous animal pieces have entitled him to a place in the first
rank of painters of that class of subjects. The peculiarity of his
pictures is the representation of human and animal figures in connexion
with appropriate landscapes and in characteristic situations so as to
manifest nature as a living whole, and he particularly excels in
depicting the free life of animals in wild mountain scenery. Along with
great mastery of the technicalities of his art, his works exhibit
patient and keen observation, free and correct handling of details, and
bold and clear colouring. He died at Vienna on the 7th of July 1862.

  Many of his pictures have been engraved, and after his death a
  selection of fifty-three of his works was prepared for this purpose by
  the Austrian _Kunstverein_ (Art Union).



GAUGE, or GAGE (Med. Lat. _gauja, jaugia_, Fr. _jauge_, perhaps
connected with Fr. _jale_, a bowl, _galon_, gallon), a standard of
measurement, and also the name given to various instruments and
appliances by which measurement is effected. The word seems to have been
primarily used in connexion with the process of ascertaining the
contents of wine casks; the name gauger is still applied to certain
custom-house officials in the United States, and in Scotland it means an
exciseman. Thence it was extended to other measurements, and used of the
instruments used in making them or of the standards to which they were
referred. In the mechanical arts gauges are employed in great variety to
enable the workmen to ascertain whether the object he is making is of
the proper dimensions (see TOOL), and similar gauges of various forms
are employed to ascertain and to specify the sizes of manufactured
articles such as wire and screws. A rain gauge is an apparatus for
measuring the amount of the rainfall at any locality, and a wind gauge
indicates the pressure and force of the wind. The boilers of steam
engines are provided with a water gauge and a steam or pressure gauge.
The purpose of the former is to enable the attendant to see whether or
not there is a sufficient quantity of water in the boiler. It consists
of two cocks or taps communicating with the interior, one being placed
at the lowest point to which it is permissible for the water to fall,
and the other at the point above which it should not rise; a glass tube
connects the two cocks, and when they are both open the water in this
stands at the same level as in the boiler. The steam gauge shows the
pressure of the steam in the boiler. One of the commonest forms, known
as the Bourdon gauge, depends on the fact that a curved tube tends to
straighten itself if the pressure within it is greater than that outside
it. This gauge therefore consists of a curved or coiled tube of elastic
material, and preferably of elliptic section, connected with the boiler
and arranged with a multiplying gear so that its bending or unbending
actuates a pointer moving over a graduated scale. If the pressure within
the tube is less than that outside it, the tube tends to bend or coil
itself up further; with a pointer arranged as before, the gauge then
becomes a vacuum gauge, indicating how far the pressure in the vessel to
which it is attached is below that of the atmosphere. In railway
engineering the gauge of a line is the distance between the two rails
(see RAILWAY). In nautical language, a ship is said to have the weather
gage when she is to windward of another, and similarly the lee gage when
to leeward of another; in this sense the word is usually spelt "gage," a
spelling which prevails in America for all senses.



GAUHATI, a town of British India, in the Kamrup district of Eastern
Bengal and Assam, mainly on the left or south, but partly on the right
bank of the Brahmaputra. Pop. (1901) 14,244. It is beautifully situated,
with an amphitheatre of wooded hills to the south, but is not very
healthy. There are many evidences, such as ancient earthworks and tanks,
of its historical importance. During the 17th century it was taken and
retaken by Mahommedans and Ahoms eight times in fifty years, but in 1681
it became the residence of the Ahom governor of lower Assam, and in 1786
the capital of the Ahom raja. On the cession of Assam to the British in
1826 it was made the seat of the British administration of Assam, and so
continued till 1874, when the headquarters were removed to Shillong in
the Khasi hills, 67 m. distant, with which Gauhati is connected by an
excellent cart-road. Two much-frequented places of Hindu pilgrimage are
situated in the immediate vicinity, the temple of Kamakhya on a hill 2
m. west of the town, and the rocky island of Umananda in the mid-channel
of the Brahmaputra. Gauhati is still the headquarters of the district
and of the Brahmaputra Valley division, though no longer a military
cantonment. It is the river terminus of a section of the Assam-Bengal
railway. There are a second-grade college, a government high school, a
law class and a training school for masters. Gauhati is an important
centre of river trade, and the largest seat of commerce in Assam.
Cotton-ginning, flour-milling, and an export trade in mustard seed,
cotton, silk and forest produce are carried on. Gauhati suffered very
severely from the earthquake of the 12th of June 1897.



GAUL, GILBERT WILLIAM (1855-   ), American artist, was born in Jersey
City, New Jersey, on the 31st of March 1855. He was a pupil of J.G.
Brown and L.E. Wilmarth, and he became a painter of military pictures,
portraying incidents of the American Civil War. He was elected an
associate of the National Academy of Design in 1880, and in 1882 a full
academician, and in the latter year became a member of the Society of
American Artists. His important works include: "Charging the Battery,"
"News from Home," "Cold Comfort on the Outpost," "Silenced," "On the
Look-out," and "Guerillas returning from a Raid."



GAUL, the modern form of the Roman _Gallia_, the name of the two chief
districts known to the Romans as inhabited by Celtic-speaking peoples,
(a) _Gallia Cisalpina_ (or _Citerior_, "Hither"), i.e. north Italy
between Alps and Apennines and (b) the far more important _Gallia
Transalpina_ (or _Ulterior_, "Further"), usually called _Gallia_ (Gaul)
simply, the land bounded by the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees,
the Atlantic, the Rhine, i.e. modern France and Belgium with parts of
Holland, Germany and Switzerland. The Greek form of _Gallia_ was [Greek:
Galatia], but Galatia in Latin denoted another Celtic region in central
Asia Minor, sometimes styled _Gallograecia_.

(a) Gallia Cisalpina was mainly conquered by Rome by 222 B.C.; later it
adopted Roman civilization; about 42 B.C. it was united with Italy and
its subsequent history is merged in that of the peninsula. Its chief
distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it
yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar
against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the
poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus,
Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished
writers.[1]

(b) Gaul proper first enters ancient history when the Greek colony of
Massilia was founded (? 600 B.C.). Roman armies began to enter it about
218 B.C. In 121 B.C. the coast from Montpellier to the Pyrenees (i.e.
all that was not Massiliot) with its port of Narbo (mod. _Narbonne_) and
its trade route by Toulouse to the Atlantic, was formed into the
province of Gallia Narbonensis and Narbo itself into a Roman
municipality. Commercial motives prompted the step, and Roman traders
and land speculators speedily flocked in. Gradually the province was
extended north of Massilia, up the Rhone, while the Greek town itself
became weak and dependent on Rome.

It is not, however, until the middle of the 1st century B.C. that we
have any detailed knowledge of pre-Roman Gaul. The earliest account is
that contained in the _Commentaries_ of Julius Caesar. According to this
authority, Gaul was at that time divided among three peoples, more or
less distinct from one another, the Aquitani, the Gauls, who called
themselves Celts, and the Belgae. The first of these extended from the
Pyrenees to the Garumna (Garonne); the second, from that river to the
Sequana (Seine) and its chief tributary the Matrona (Marne), reaching
eastward presumably as far as the Rhenus (Rhine); and the third, from
this bounding line to the mouth of the last-named river, thus bordering
on the Germans. By implication Caesar recognizes as a fourth division
the province of Gallia Narbonensis. By far the greater part of the
country was a plain watered by numerous rivers, the chief of which have
already been mentioned, with the exception of its great central stream,
the Liger or Ligeris (Loire). Its principal mountain ranges were Cebenna
or Gebenna (Cévennes) in the south, and Jura, with its continuation
Vosegus or Vogesus (Vosges), in the east. The tribes inhabiting Gaul in
Caesar's time, and belonging to one or other of the three races
distinguished by him, were numerous. Prominent among them, and dwelling
in the division occupied by the Celts, were the Helvetii, the Sequani
and the Aedui, in the basins of the Rhodanus and its tributary the Arar
(Saône), who, he says, were reckoned the three most powerful nations in
all Gaul; the Arverni in the mountains of Cebenna; the Senones and
Carnutes in the basin of the Liger; the Veneti and other Armorican
tribes between the mouths of the Liger and Sequana. The Nervii,
Bellovaci, Suessiones, Remi, Morini, Menapii and Aduatuci were Belgic
tribes; the Tarbelli and others were Aquitani; while the Allobroges
inhabited the north of the Provincia, having been conquered in 121 B.C.
The ethnological divisions thus set forth by Caesar have been much
discussed (see CELT, and articles on the chief tribes).

The Gallic Wars (58-51) of Caesar (q.v.) added all the rest of Gaul,
north-west of the Cévennes, to the Rhine and the Ocean, and in 49 also
annexed Massilia. All Gaul was now Roman territory. Now the second
period of her history opens; it remained for Roman territory to become
romanized.

Caesar had no time to organize his conquest; this work was left to
Augustus. As settled by him, and in part perhaps also by his successor
Tiberius, it fell into the following five administrative areas.

(i) _Narbonensis_, that is, the land between Alps, sea and Cévennes,
extending up the Rhone to Vienne, was as Augustus found it, distinct in
many ways from the rest of Gaul. By nature it is a sun-steeped southern
region, the home of the vine and olive, of the minstrelsy of the
Provençal and the exuberance of Tartarin, distinct from the colder and
more sober north. By history it had already (in the time of Augustus)
been Roman for from 80 to 100 years and was familiar with Roman ways. It
was ready to be Italianized and it was civilized enough to need no
garrison. Accordingly, it was henceforward governed by a proconsul
(appointed by the senate) and freed from the burden of troops, while its
local government was assimilated to that of Italy. The old Celtic tribes
were broken up: instead, municipalities of Roman citizens were founded
to rule their territories. Thus the Allobroges now disappear and the
_colonia_ of Vienna takes their place: the Volcae vanish and we find
Nemausus (Nîmes). Thus thrown into Italian fashion, the province took
rapidly to Italian ways. By A.D. 70 it was "Italia verius quam
provincia" (Pliny). The Gauls obviously had a natural bias towards the
Italian civilization, and there soon became no difference between Italy
and southern Gaul. But though education spread, the results were
somewhat disappointing. Trade flourished; the corporations of bargemen
and the like on the Rhone made money; the many towns grew rich and could
afford splendid public buildings. But no great writer and no great
administrator came from Narbonensis; itinerant lecturers and journalists
alone were produced in plenty, and at times minor poets.

(ii.-iv.) Across the Cévennes lay Caesar's conquests, Atlantic in
climate, new to Roman ways. The whole area, often collectively styled
"Gallia Comata," often "Tres Provinciae," was divided into three
provinces, each under a _legatus pro praetore_ appointed by the emperor,
with a common capital at Lugudunum (Lyons). The three provinces were:
_Aquitania_, reaching from the Pyrenees almost to the Loire;
_Lugudunensis_, the land between Loire and Seine, reaching from Brittany
in the west to Lyons in the south-east; and _Belgica_ in the north. The
boundaries, it will be observed, were wholly artificial. Here also it
was found possible to dispense with garrisons, not because the provinces
were as peaceful as Narbonensis, but because the Rhine army was close at
hand. As befitted an unromanized region, the local government was unlike
that of Italy or Narbonensis. Roman municipalities were not indeed
unknown, but very few: the local authorities were the magistrates of the
old tribal districts. Local autonomy was here carried to an extreme. But
the policy succeeded. The Gauls of the Three Provinces, or some of them,
revolted in A.D. 21 under Florus and Sacrovir, in 68 under Vindex, and
in 70 under Classicus and Tutor (see CIVILIS, CLAUDIUS). But all five
leaders were romanized nobles, with Roman names and Roman citizenship,
and their risings were directed rather against the Roman government than
the Roman empire. In general, the Gauls of these provinces accepted
Roman civilization more or less rapidly, and in due course became hardly
distinguishable from the Italian. In particular, they eagerly accepted
the worship of "Augustus and Rome," devised by the first emperor as a
bond of state religion connecting the provinces with Rome. Each August,
despite the heat, representatives from the 60 (or 64) tribes of Gallia
Comata met at Lyons, elected a priest, "sacerdos ad aram Augusti et
Romae," and held games. The post of representative, and still more that
of priest, was eagerly coveted and provided a scope for the ambitions
which despotism usually crushes. It agrees with the vigorous development
of this worship that the Three Provinces, though romanized, retained
their own local feeling. Even in the 3rd century the cult of Celtic
deities (Hercules Magusanus, Deusoniensis, &c.) were revived, the Celtic
_leuga_ reintroduced instead of the Roman mile on official milestones,
and a brief effort made to establish an independent, though romanized,
Gaul under Postumus and his short-lived successors (A.D. 250-273). Not
only was the area too large and strong to lose its individuality: it was
also too rural and too far from the Mediterranean to be romanized as
fully and quickly as Narbonensis. It is even probable that Celtic was
spoken in forest districts into the 4th century A.D. Town life, however,
grew. The _chefs-lieux_ of the tribes became practically, though not
officially, municipalities, and many of these towns reached considerable
size and magnificence of public buildings. But they attest their tribal
relations by their appellations, which are commonly drawn from the name
of the tribe and not of the town itself. Thus the capitals of the Remi
and Parisii were actually Durocortorum and Lutetia: the appellations in
use were Remis or Remus, Parisiis or Parisius--these forms being
indeclinable nouns formed from a sort of locative of the tribe names.
Literature also flourished. In the latest empire Ausonius, Symmachus,
Apollinaris, Sidonius and other Gaulish writers, chiefly of Gallia
Comata, kept alive the classical literary tradition, not only for Gaul
but for the world.

(v.) The fifth division of Gaul was the Rhenish military frontier.
Augustus had planned the conquest of Germany up to the Elbe. His plans
were foiled by the courage of Arminius and the inability of the Roman
exchequer to pay a larger army. Instead, his successor Tiberius
organized the Rhine frontier in two military districts. The northern one
was the valley of the Meuse and that of the Rhine to a point just south
of Bonn: the southern was the rest of the Rhine valley to Switzerland.
Each district was garrisoned at first by four, later by fewer legions,
which were disposed at various times in some of the following
fortresses: Vetera (Xanten), Novaesium (Neuss), Bonne (Bonn),
Moguntiacum (Mainz), Argentorate (Strassburg) and Vindonissa (Windisch
in Switzerland). At first the districts were purely military, were
called, after the garrisons, "exercitus Germanicus superior" (south) and
"inferior" (north). Later one or two municipalities were
founded--Colonia Agrippinensis at Cologne (A.D. 51), Colonia Augusta
Treverorum at Trier (date uncertain), Colonia Ulpia Traiana outside
Vetera--and about 80-90 A.D. the two "Exercitus" were turned into the
two provinces of Upper and Lower Germany. The armies in these districts
formed the defence of Gaul against German invaders. They also helped to
keep Gaul itself in order and their presence explains why the four
provinces of Gaul proper contained no troops.

These provincial divisions were modified by Diocletian but without
seriously affecting the life of Gaul. The whole country, indeed,
continued Roman and fairly safe from barbarian invasions till after 400.
In 407 a multitude of Franks, Vandals, &c., burst over Gaul: Roman rule
practically ceased and the three kingdoms of the Visigoths, Burgundians
and Franks began to form. There were still a Roman general and Roman
troops when Attila was defeated in the _campi Catalaunici_ in A.D. 451,
but the general, Aetius, was "the last of the Romans," and in 486 Clovis
the Frank ended the last vestige of Roman rule in Gaul.

  For Roman antiquities in Gaul see, beside articles on the modern towns
  (ARLES, NÎMES, ORANGE &c.), BIBRACTE, ALESIA, ITIUS PORTUS, AQUEDUCT,
  ARCHITECTURE, AMPHITHEATRE, &c.; for religion see DRUIDISM; for the
  famous schools of Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nîmes, Vienne, Marseilles
  and Narbonne, see J.E. Sandys, _History of Classical Scholarship_ (ed.
  1906-1908), i. pp. 247-250; for the Roman provinces, Th. Mommsen,
  _Provinces of the Roman Empire_ (trans. 1886), vol. i. chap. iii. See
  also Desjardins, _Géographie historique et administrative de la Gaule
  romaine_ (Paris, 1877); Fustel de Coulanges, _Histoire des
  institutions politiques de l'ancienne France_ (Paris, 1877); for
  Caesar's campaigns, article CAESAR, JULIUS, and works quoted; for
  coins, art. NUMISMATICS and articles in the _Numismatische
  Zeitschrift_ and _Revue numismatique_ (e.g. Blanchet, 1907, pp. 461
  foll.).     (F. J. H.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] When Cisalpine Gaul became completely Romanized, it was often
    known as "Gallia Togata," while the Province was distinguished as
    "Gallia Bracata" (_bracae_, incorrectly _braccae_, "trousers"), from
    the long trousers worn by the inhabitants, and the rest of Gaul as
    "Gallia Comata," from the inhabitants wearing their hair long.



GAULT, in geology, one of the members of the Lower Cretaceous System.
The name is still employed provincially in parts of England for a stiff
blue clay of any kind; by the earlier writers it was sometimes spelt
"Galt" or "Golt."

The formation now known as Gault in England has been variously
designated "Blue Marle," "Brick Earth," "Golt Brick Earth" and
"Oak-tree-soil." In certain parts of the south of England the Gault
appears as a well-marked deposit of clay, lying between two sandy
formations; the one above came to be known as the "Upper Greensand," the
one below being the "Lower Greensand" (see GREENSAND). Since the typical
clayey Gault is continually taking on a sandy facies as it is traced
both horizontally and vertically; and since the fossils of the Upper
Greensand and Gault are inseparably related, it has been proposed by
A.J. Jukes-Browne that these two series of beds should be regarded as
the arenaceous and argillaceous phases of a single formation, to which
he has given the name "Selbornian" (from the village of Selborne where
the beds are well developed). Lithologically, then, the Selbornian
includes the blue and grey clays and marls of the Gault proper; the
glauconitic sands of the Upper Greensand, and their local equivalent,
the "malm," "malm rock" or "firestone," which in places passes into the
micaceous sandstone containing sponge spicules and globules of silica,
the counterpart of the rock called "gaize" on the same horizon in
northern France. In Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and parts of Norfolk the
Selbornian is represented by the Red Chalk. The malm is a ferruginous
siliceous rock, the silica being mainly in the colloidal condition in
the form of globules and sponge spicules; some quartz grains, mica and
glauconite are usually present along with from 2 to 25% of calcareous
matter. Chert-bands and nodules are common in the Upper Greensand of
certain districts; and calcareous concretions, locally recognized as
cowstones (Lyme Regis), doggers or buhrstones, are not infrequent.

The principal divisions of the Selbornian stage with their
characteristic zonal fossils are as follows:--


    Warminster Beds   _Pecten asper_ and _Cardiaster fossarius_.

    Upper Gault       Devizes Beds or Merstham Beds with
                        _Schloenbachia rostralus_.

                    / _Hoplites lautus._
    Lower Gault    <  _H. interruptus._
                    \ _Acanthoceras mammillatum._

  The Gault (with Upper Greensand) crops out all round the Wealden area;
  it extends beneath the London basin and reappears from beneath the
  northern scarp of the Chalk along the foot of the Chiltern Hills to
  near Tring. In the south of England the Gault clay is fairly constant
  in the lower part, with the Greensand above; the clay, however, passes
  into sand as it is followed westward and, as already pointed out, the
  clay and sand appear to pass into a red chalk towards the north-east.
  The Gault overlaps the Lower Greensand towards the east, where it
  rests upon the old Paleozoic axis; it also overlaps the same formation
  towards the west about Frome, and thence passes unconformably across
  the Portlandian beds, Kimeridge Clay, Corallian beds and Oxford Clay;
  in south Dorsetshire it rests upon the Wealden Series. The Gault (with
  Upper Greensand) passes on to the Jurassic and Rhaetic rocks near
  Axmouth, and oversteps farther westward, in the Haldon Hills, on to
  the Permian. A large outlier occurs on the Blackdown Hills of
  Devonshire. Good localities for fossils are Folkestone--where many of
  the shells are preserved with their original pearly nacre,--Burnham,
  Merstham, Isle of Wight, the Blackdown and Haldon Hills, Warminster,
  Hunstanton and Speeton, Black Venn near Lyme Regis, and Devizes
  (malmstone and gaize). The beds are well developed in the vale of
  Wardour, and in the Isle of Wight; the Gault forms the so-called "blue
  slipper" at Ventnor which has been the cause of the landslip or
  undercliff.

  The Gault of north France is very similar to that in the south of
  England, but the French term _Albien_ includes only a portion of the
  Selbornian formation. The Gault of north-west Germany embraces beds
  that would be classed as _Albien_ and _Aptien_ by French authors; it
  comprises the "Flammenmergel"--a pale siliceous marl shot with
  flame-shaped darker patches--a clay with _Belemnites minimus_, and the
  "Gargasmergel" (Aptian). In the Diester and Teutoberger Wald, and in
  the region of Halberstadt, the clays and marls are replaced by
  sandstones, the so-called _Gault-Quader_. Continental writers usually
  place the Gault or Albian at the summit of the Lower Cretaceous; while
  with English geologists the practice is to commence the Upper
  Cretaceous with this formation. In addition to the fossils already
  noticed, the following may be mentioned: _Acanthoceras Desmoceras
  Beaudanti, Hoplites splendens, Hamites, Scaphites, Turrilites,
  Aporrhais retusa, Trigonia aliforme_, also _Ichthyosaurus_ and
  _Ornithocheirus_ (Pterodactyl). From the clays, bricks and tiles are
  made at Burham, Barnwell, Dunton Green, Arlesey, Hitchin, &c. The
  cherts in the Greensand portion are used for road metal, and in the
  Blackdown Hills, for scythe stones; hearthstone is obtained about
  Merstham; phosphatic nodules occur at several horizons.

  See CRETACEOUS SYSTEM; ALBIAN; APTIAN; also A.J. Jukes-Browne, "The
  Gault and Upper Greensand of England." vol. i., _Cretaceous Rocks of
  Britain_; _Mem. Geol. Survey_, 1900.



GAUNTLET (a diminutive of the Fr. _gant_, glove), a large form of glove,
and especially the steel-plated glove of medieval armour. To "run the
gauntlet," i.e. to run between two rows of men who, armed with sticks,
rope-ends or other weapons, beat and strike at the person so running,
was formerly a punishment for military and naval offences. It was
abolished in the Prussian army by Scharnhorst. As a method of torturing
prisoners, it was employed among the North American Indians. "Gauntlet"
(earlier "gantlet") in this expression is a corruption of "gantlope,"
from a Swedish _gatlope_, from _gata_, lane, and _lopp_, a course (cf.
Ger. _gassenlaufen_, to run the gauntlet). According to the _New English
Dictionary_ the word became familiar in England at the time of the
Thirty Years' War.



GAUR, or LAKHNAUTI, a ruined city of British India, in Malda district of
Eastern Bengal and Assam. The ruins are situated about 8 m. to the south
of English Bazar, the civil station of the district of Malda, and on the
eastern bank of the Bhagirathi, an old channel of the Ganges. It is said
to have been founded by Lakshman, and its most ancient name was
Lakshmanavati, corrupted into Lakhnauti. Its known history begins with
its conquest in A.D. 1198 by the Mahommedans, who retained it as the
chief seat of their power in Bengal for more than three centuries. When
the Afghan kings of Bengal established their independence, they
transferred their seat of government (about 1350) to Pandua (q.v.), also
in Malda district, and to build their new capital they plundered Gaur of
every monument that could be removed. When Pandua was in its turn
deserted (A.D. 1453), Gaur once more became the capital under the name
of Jannatabad; it remained so as long as the Mahommedan kings retained
their independence. In A.D. 1564 Sulaiman Kirani, a Pathan adventurer,
abandoned it for Tanda, a place somewhat nearer the Ganges. Gaur was
sacked by Sher Shah in 1539, and was occupied by Akbar's general in
1575, when Daud Shah, the last of the Afghan dynasty, refused to pay
homage to the Mogul emperor. This occupation was followed by an outbreak
of the plague, which completed the downfall of the city, and since then
it has been little better than a heap of ruins, almost overgrown with
jungle.

The city in its prime measured 7½ m. from north to south, with a breadth
of 1 to 2 m. With suburbs it covered an area of 20 to 30 sq. m., and in
the 16th century the Portuguese historian Faria y Sousa described it as
containing 1,200,000 inhabitants. The ramparts of this walled city,
which was surrounded by extensive suburbs, still exist; they were works
of vast labour, and were on the average about 40 ft. high, and 180 to
200 ft. thick at the base. The facing of masonry and the buildings with
which they were covered have now disappeared, and the embankments
themselves are overgrown with dense jungle. The western side of the city
was washed by the Ganges, and within the space enclosed by these
embankments and the river stood the city of Gaur proper, with the fort
containing the palace in its south-west corner. Radiating north, south
and east from the city, other embankments are to be traced running
through the suburbs and extending in certain directions for 30 or 40 m.
Surrounding the palace is an inner embankment of similar construction to
that which surrounds the city, and even more overgrown with jungle. A
deep moat protects it on the outside. To the north of the outer
enbankment lies the Sagar Dighi, a great reservoir, 1600 yds. by 800
yds., dating from A.D. 1126.

Fergusson in his _History of Eastern Architecture_ thus describes the
general architectural style of Gaur:--"It is neither like that of Delhi
nor Jaunpore, nor any other style, but one purely local and not without
considerable merit in itself; its principal characteristic being heavy
short pillars of stone supporting pointed arches and vaults in
brick--whereas at Jaunpore, for instance, light pillars carried
horizontal architraves and flat ceilings." Owing to the lightness of the
small, thin bricks, which were chiefly used in the making of Gaur, its
buildings have not well withstood the ravages of time and the weather;
while much of its enamelled work has been removed for the ornamentation
of the surrounding cities of more modern origin. Moreover, the ruins
long served as a quarry for the builders of neighbouring towns and
villages, till in 1900 steps were taken for their preservation by the
government. The finest ruin in Gaur is that of the Great Golden Mosque,
also called Bara Darwaza, or twelve-doored (1526). An arched corridor
running along the whole front of the original building is the principal
portion now standing. There are eleven arches on either side of the
corridor and one at each end of it, from which the mosque probably
obtained its name. These arches are surmounted by eleven domes in fair
preservation; the mosque had originally thirty-three.

The Small Golden or Eunuch's mosque, in the ancient suburb of Firozpur,
has fine carving, and is faced with stone fairly well preserved. The
Tantipara mosque (1475-1480) has beautiful moulding in brick, and the
Lotan mosque of the same period is unique in retaining its glazed tiles.
The citadel, of the Mahommedan period, was strongly fortified with a
rampart and entered through a magnificent gateway called the Dakhil
Darwaza (?1459-1474). At the south-east corner was a palace, surrounded
by a wall of brick 66 ft. high, of which a part is standing. Near by
were the royal tombs. Within the citadel is the Kadam Rasul mosque
(1530), which is still used, and close outside is a tall tower called
the Firoz Minar (perhaps signifying "tower of victory"). There are a
number of Mahommedan buildings on the banks of the Sagar Dighi,
including, notably, the tomb of the saint Makhdum Shaikh Akhi Siraj (d.
1357), and in the neighbourhood is a burning ghat, traditionally the
only one allowed to the use of the Hindus by their Mahommedan
conquerors, and still greatly venerated and frequented by them. Many
inscriptions of historical importance have been found in the ruins.

  See M. Martin (Buchanan Hamilton), _Eastern India_, vol. iii. (1831);
  G.H. Ravenshaw, _Gaur_ (1878); James Fergusson, _History of Indian and
  Eastern Architecture_ (1876); _Reports of the Archaeological Surveyor,
  Bengal Circle_ (1900-1904).



GAUR, the native name of the wild ox, _Bos (Bibos) gaurus_, of India,
miscalled bison by sportsmen. The gaur, which extends into Burma and the
Malay Peninsula, where it is known as seladang, is the typical
representative of an Indo-Malay group of wild cattle characterized by
the presence of a ridge on the withers, the compressed horns, and the
white legs. The gaur, which reaches a height of nearly 6 ft. at the
shoulder, is specially characterized by the forward curve and great
elevation of the ridge between the horns. The general colour is
blackish-grey. Hill-forests are the resort of this species.



GAUSS, KARL FRIEDRICH (1777-1855), German mathematician, was born of
humble parents at Brunswick on the 30th of April 1777, and was indebted
for a liberal education to the notice which his talents procured him
from the reigning duke. His name became widely known by the publication,
in his twenty-fifth year (1801), of the _Disquisitiones arithmeticae_.
In 1807 he was appointed director of the Göttingen observatory, an
office which he retained to his death: it is said that he never slept
away from under the roof of his observatory, except on one occasion,
when he accepted an invitation from Baron von Humboldt to attend a
meeting of natural philosophers at Berlin. In 1809 he published at
Hamburg his _Theoria motus corporum coelestium_, a work which gave a
powerful impulse to the true methods of astronomical observation; and
his astronomical workings, observations, calculations of orbits of
planets and comets, &c., are very numerous and valuable. He continued
his labours in the theory of numbers and other analytical subjects, and
communicated a long series of memoirs to the Royal Society of Sciences
(_Königliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften_) at Göttingen. His first
memoir on the theory of magnetism, _Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris
ad mensuram absolutam revocata_, was published in 1833, and he shortly
afterwards proceeded, in conjunction with Wilhelm Weber, to invent new
apparatus for observing the earth's magnetism and its changes; the
instruments devised by them were the declination instrument and the
bifilar magnetometer. With Weber's assistance he erected in 1833 at
Göttingen a magnetic observatory free from iron (as Humboldt and F.J.D.
Arago had previously done on a smaller scale), where he made magnetic
observations, and from this same observatory he sent telegraphic signals
to the neighbouring town, thus showing the practicability of an
electromagnetic telegraph. He further instituted an association
(_Magnetischer Verein_), composed at first almost entirely of Germans,
whose continuous observations on fixed term-days extended from Holland
to Sicily. The volumes of their publication, _Resultate am den
Beobachtungen des magnetischen Vereins_, extend from 1836 to 1839; and
in those for 1838 and 1839 are contained the two important memoirs by
Gauss, _Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus, and the Allgemeine
Lehrsätze_--on the theory of forces attracting according to the inverse
square of the distance. The instruments and methods thus due to him are
substantially those employed in the magnetic observatories throughout
the world. He co-operated in the Danish and Hanoverian measurements of
an arc and trigonometrical operations (1821-1848), and wrote (1843,
1846) the two memoirs _Über Gegenstände der höheren Geodäsie_. Connected
with observations in general we have (1812-1826) the memoir _Theoria
combinationis observationum erroribus minimis obnoxia_, with a second
part and a supplement. Another memoir of applied mathematics is the
_Dioptrische Untersuchungen_ (1840). Gauss was well versed in general
literature and the chief languages of modern Europe, and was a member of
nearly all the leading scientific societies in Europe. He died at
Göttingen on the 23rd of February 1855. The centenary of his birth was
celebrated (1877) at his native place, Brunswick.

  Gauss's collected works were published by the Royal Society of
  Göttingen, in 7 vols. 4to (Gött., 1863-1871), edited by E.J.
  Schering--(1) the _Disquisitiones arithmeticae_, (2) _Theory of
  Numbers_, (3) _Analysis_, (4) _Geometry and Method of Least Squares_,
  (5) _Mathematical Physics_, (6) _Astronomy_, and (7) the _Theoria
  motus corporum coelestium_. Additional volumes have since been
  published, _Fundamente der Geometrie usw_. (1900), and _Geodatische
  Nachträge zu Band iv_. (1903). They include, besides his various works
  and memoirs, notices by him of many of these, and of works of other
  authors in the _Göttingen gelehrte Anzeigen_, and a considerable
  amount of previously unpublished matter, _Nachlass_. Of the memoirs in
  pure mathematics, comprised for the most part in vols, ii., iii. and
  iv. (but to these must be added those on _Attractions_ in vol. v.), it
  may be safely said there is not one which has not signally contributed
  to the progress of the branch of mathematics to which it belongs, or
  which would not require to be carefully analysed in a history of the
  subject. Running through these volumes in order, we have in the second
  the memoir, _Summatio quarundam serierum singularium_, the memoirs on
  the theory of biquadratic residues, in which the notion of complex
  numbers of the form a + _bi_ was first introduced into the theory of
  numbers; and included in the _Nachlass_ are some valuable tables. That
  for the conversion of a fraction into decimals (giving the complete
  period for all the prime numbers up to 997) is a specimen of the
  extraordinary love which Gauss had for long arithmetical calculations;
  and the amount of work gone through in the construction of the table
  of the number of the classes of binary quadratic forms must also have
  been tremendous. In vol. iii. we have memoirs relating to the proof of
  the theorem that every numerical equation has a real or imaginary
  root, the memoir on the _Hypergeometric Series_, that on
  _Interpolation_, and the memoir _Determinatio attractionis_--in which
  a planetary mass is considered as distributed over its orbit according
  to the time in which each portion of the orbit is described, and the
  question (having an implied reference to the theory of secular
  perturbations) is to find the attraction of such a ring. In the
  solution the value of an elliptic function is found by means of the
  _arithmetico-geometrical mean_. The _Nachlass_ contains further
  researches on this subject, and also researches (unfortunately very
  fragmentary) on the lemniscate-function, &., showing that Gauss was,
  even before 1800, in possession of many of the discoveries which have
  made the names of N.H. Abel and K.G.J. Jacobi illustrious. In vol. iv.
  we have the memoir _Allgemeine Auflösung_, on the graphical
  representation of one surface upon another, and the _Disquisitiones
  generales circa superficies curvas_. (An account of the treatment of
  surfaces which he originated in this paper will be found in the
  article SURFACE.) And in vol. v. we have a memoir _On the Attraction
  of Homogeneous Ellipsoids_, and the already mentioned memoir
  _Allgemeine Lehrsätze_, on the theory of forces attracting according
  to the inverse square of the distance.     (A. Ca.)



GAUSSEN, FRANÇOIS SAMUEL ROBERT LOUIS (1790-1863), Swiss Protestant
divine, was born at Geneva on the 25th of August 1790. His father, Georg
Markus Gaussen, a member of the council of two hundred, was descended
from an old Languedoc family which had been scattered at the time of the
religious persecutions in France. At the close of his university career
at Geneva, Louis was in 1816 appointed pastor of the Swiss Reformed
Church at Satigny near Geneva, where he formed intimate relations with
J.E. Cellérier, who had preceded him in the pastorate, and also with the
members of the dissenting congregation at Bourg-de-Four, which, together
with the Église du témoignage, had been formed under the influence of
the preaching of James and Robert Haldane in 1817. The Swiss revival was
distasteful to the pastors of Geneva (_Vénérable Compagnie des
Pasteurs_), and on the 7th of May 1817 they passed an ordinance hostile
to it. As a protest against this ordinance, in 1819 Gaussen published in
conjunction with Cellérier a French translation of the Second Helvetic
Confession, with a preface expounding the views he had reached upon the
nature, use and necessity of confessions of faith; and in 1830, for
having discarded the official catechism of his church as being
insufficiently explicit on the divinity of Christ, original sin and the
doctrines of grace, he was censured and suspended by his ecclesiastical
superiors. In the following year he took part in the formation of a
_Société Évangélique_ (_Evangelische Gesellschaft_). When this society
contemplated, among other objects, the establishment of a new
theological college, he was finally deprived of his charge. After some
time devoted to travel in Italy and England, he returned to Geneva and
ministered to an independent congregation until 1834, when he joined
Merle d'Aubigné as professor of systematic theology in the college which
he had helped to found. This post he continued to occupy until 1857,
when he retired from the active duties of the chair. He died at Les
Grottes, Geneva, on the 18th of June 1863.

His best-known work, entitled _La Théopneustie ou pleine inspiration des
saintes écritures_, an elaborate defence of the doctrine of "plenary
inspiration," was originally published in Paris in 1840, and rapidly
gained a wide popularity in France, as also, through translations, in
England and America. It was followed in 1860 by a supplementary treatise
on the canon (_Le Canon des saintes écritures au double point de vue de
la science et de la foi_), which, though also popular, has hardly been
so widely read.

  See the article in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (1899).



GAUTIER, ÉMILE THÉODORE LÉON (1832-1897), French literary historian, was
born at Hâvre on the 8th of August 1832. He was educated at the École
des Chartes, and became successively keeper of the archives of the
department of Haute-Marne and of the imperial archives at Paris under
the empire. In 1871 he became professor of palaeography at the École des
Chartes. He was elected member of the Academy of Inscriptions in 1887,
and became chief of the historical section of the national archives in
1893. Léon Gautier rendered great services to the study of early French
literature, the most important of his numerous works on medieval
subjects being a critical text (Tours, 1872) with translation and
introduction of the _Chanson de Roland_, and _Les Épopées françaises_ (3
vols., 1866-1867; 2nd ed., 5 vols., 1878-1897, including a
_Bibliographie des chansons de geste_). He died in Paris on the 25th of
August 1897.



GAUTIER, THÉOPHILE (1811-1872), French poet and miscellaneous writer,
was born at Tarbes on the 31st of August 1811. He was educated at the
grammar school of that town, and afterwards at the Collège Charlemagne
in Paris, but was almost as much in the studios. He very early devoted
himself to the study of the older French literature, especially that of
the 16th and the early part of the 17th century. This study qualified
him well to take part in the Romantic movement, and enabled him to
astonish Sainte-Beuve by the phraseology and style of some literary
essays which, when barely eighteen years old, he put into the critic's
hands. In consequence of this introduction he at once came under the
influence of the great Romantic _cénacle_, to which, as to Victor Hugo
in particular, he was also introduced by his gifted but ill-starred
schoolmate Gérard de Nerval. With Gérard, Petrus Borel, Corot, and many
other less known painters and poets whose personalities he has
delightfully sketched in the articles collected under the titles of
_Histoire du Romantisme_, &c., he formed a minor romantic clique who
were distinguished for a time by the most extravagant eccentricity. A
flaming crimson waistcoat and a great mass of waving hair were the
outward signs which qualified Gautier for a chief rank among the
enthusiastic devotees who attended the rehearsals of _Hernani_ with red
tickets marked "Hierro," performed mocking dances round the bust of
Racine, and were at all times ready to exchange word or blow with the
_perruques_ and _grisâtres_ of the classical party. In Gautier's case
these freaks were not inconsistent with real genius and real devotion to
sound ideals of literature. He began (like Thackeray, to whom he
presents in other ways some striking points of resemblance) as an
artist, but soon found that his true powers lay in another direction.

His first considerable poem, _Albertus_ (1830), displayed a good deal of
the extravagant character which accompanied rather than marked the
movement, but also gave evidence of uncommon command both of language
and imagery, and in particular of a descriptive power hardly to be
excelled. The promise thus given was more than fulfilled in his
subsequent poetry, which, in consequence of its small bulk, may well be
noticed at once and by anticipation. The _Comédie de la mort_, which
appeared soon after (1832), is one of the most remarkable of French
poems, and though never widely read has received the suffrage of every
competent reader. Minor poems of various dates, published in 1840,
display an almost unequalled command over poetical form, an advance even
over _Albertus_ in vigour, wealth and appropriateness of diction, and
abundance of the special poetical essence. All these good gifts reached
their climax in the _Émaux et camées_, first published in 1856, and
again, with additions, just before the poet's death in 1872. These poems
are in their own way such as cannot be surpassed. Gautier's poetical
work contains in little an expression of his literary peculiarities.
There are, in addition to the peculiarities of style and diction already
noticed, an extraordinary feeling and affection for beauty in art and
nature, and a strange indifference to anything beyond this range, which
has doubtless injured the popularity of his work.

But it was not, after all, as a poet that Gautier was to achieve either
profit or fame. For the theatre, he had but little gift, and his
dramatic efforts (if we except certain masques or ballets in which his
exuberant and graceful fancy came into play) are by far his weakest. It
was otherwise with his prose fiction. His first novel of any size, and
in many respects his most remarkable work, was _Mademoiselle de Maupin_
(1835). Unfortunately this book, while it establishes his literary
reputation on an imperishable basis, was unfitted by its subject, and in
parts by its treatment, for general perusal, and created, even in
France, a prejudice against its author which he was very far from really
deserving. During the years from 1833 onwards, his fertility in novels
and tales was very great. _Les Jeunes-France_ (1833), which may rank as
a sort of prose _Albertus_ in some ways, displays the follies of the
youthful Romantics in a vein of humorous and at the same time
half-pathetic satire. _Fortunio_ (1838) perhaps belongs to the same
class. _Jettatura_, written somewhat later, is less extravagant and more
pathetic. A crowd of minor tales display the highest literary qualities,
and rank with Mérimée's at the head of all contemporary works of the
class. First of all must be mentioned the ghost-story of _La Morte
amoureuse_, a gem of the most perfect workmanship. For many years
Gautier continued to write novels. _La Belle Jenny_ (1864) is a not very
successful attempt to draw on his English experience, but the earlier
_Militona_ (1847) is a most charming picture of Spanish life. In
_Spirite_ (1866) he endeavoured to enlist the fancy of the day for
supernatural manifestations, and a _Roman de la momie_ (1856) is a
learned study of ancient Egyptian ways. His most remarkable effort in
this kind, towards the end of his life, was _Le Capitaine Fracasse_
(1863), a novel, partly of the picaresque school, partly of that which
Dumas was to make popular, projected nearly thirty years earlier, and
before Dumas himself had taken to the style. This book contains some of
the finest instances of his literary power.

Yet neither in poems nor in novels did the main occupation of Gautier as
a literary man consist. He was early drawn to the more lucrative task of
feuilleton-writing, and for more than thirty years he was among the most
expert and successful practitioners of this art. Soon after the
publication of _Mademoiselle de Maupin_, in which he had not been too
polite to journalism, he became irrevocably a journalist. He was
actually the editor of _L'Artiste_ for a time: but his chief newspaper
connexions were with _La Presse_ from 1836 to 1854 and with the
_Moniteur_ later. His work was mainly theatrical and art criticism. The
rest of his life was spent either at Paris or in travels of considerable
extent to Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, England, Algeria and
Russia, all undertaken with a more or less definite purpose of
book-making. Having absolutely no political opinions, he had no
difficulty in accepting the Second Empire, and received from it
considerable favours, in return for which, however, he in no way
prostituted his pen, but remained a literary man pure and simple. He
died on the 23rd of December 1872.

Accounts of his travels, criticisms of the theatrical and literary works
of the day, obituary notices of his contemporaries and, above all, art
criticism occupied him in turn. It has sometimes been deplored that this
engagement in journalism should have diverted Gautier from the
performance of more capital work in literature. Perhaps, however, this
regret springs from a certain misconception. Gautier's power was
literary power pure and simple, and it is as evident in his slightest
sketches and criticisms as in _Émaux et camées or La Morte amoureuse_.
On the other hand, his weakness, if he had a weakness, lay in his almost
total indifference to the matters which usually supply subjects for art
and therefore for literature. He has thus been accused of "lack of
ideas" by those who have not cleared their own minds of cant; and in the
recent set-back of the critical current against form and in favour of
"philosophic" treatment, comment upon him has sometimes been
unfavourable. But this injustice will, beyond all question, be redressed
again. He was neither immoral, irreligious nor unduly subservient to
despotism, but morals, religion and politics (to which we may add
science and material progress) were matters of no interest to him. He
was to all intents a humanist, as the word was understood in the 15th
century. But he was a humorist as well, and this combination, joined to
his singularly kindly and genial nature, saved him from some dangers and
depravations as well as some absurdities to which the humanist temper is
exposed. As time goes on it may be predicted that, though Gautier may
not be widely read, yet his writings will never cease to be full of
indescribable charm and of very definite instruction to men of letters.
Besides those of his works which have been already cited, we may notice
_Une Larme du diable_ (1839), a charming mixture of humour and
tenderness; _Les Grotesques_ (1844), a volume of early criticisms on
some oddities of 17th-century literature; _Caprices et zigzags_ (1845),
miscellanies dealing in part with English life; _Voyage en Espagne_
(1845), _Constantinople_ (1854), _Voyage en Russie_ (1866), brilliant
volumes of travel; _Ménagerie intime_ (1869) and _Tableaux de siège_
(1872), his two latest works, which display his incomparable style in
its quietest but not least happy form.

  There is no complete edition of Gautier's works, and the vicomte
  Spoelberch de Lovenjoul's _Histoire des oeuvres de Théophile Gautier_
  (1887) shows how formidable such an undertaking would be. But since
  his death numerous further collections of articles have been made:
  _Fusains et eaux-fortes_ and _Tableaux à la plume_ (1880); _L'Orient_
  (2 vols., 1881); _Les Vacances du lundi_ (new ed., 1888); _La Nature
  chez elle_ (new ed., 1891). In 1879 his son-in-law, E. Bergerat, who
  had married his younger daughter Estelle (the elder, Mme Judith
  Gautier--herself a writer of distinction--was at one time Mme Catulle
  Mendès), issued a biography, _Théophile Gautier_, which has been often
  reprinted. With it should be compared Maxime du Camp's volume in the
  _Grands Écrivains français_ (1890) and the numerous references in the
  _Journal des Goncourt_. Critical eulogies, from Sainte-Beuve
  (repeatedly in the _Causeries_) and Baudelaire (two articles in _L'Art
  romantique_) downwards, are numerous. The chief of the decriers is
  Émile Faguet in his _Études littéraires sur le XIX^e siècle_. In 1902
  and 1903 there appeared two respectable academic _éloges_ by H. Menai
  and H. Potez.     (G. Sa.)



GAUTIER D'ARRAS, French _trouvère_, flourished in the second half of the
12th century. Nothing is known of his biography except what may be
gleaned from his works. He dedicated his romance of _Éracle_ to Theobald
V., count of Blois (d. 1191); among his other patrons were Marie,
countess of Champagne, daughter of Louis VII. and Eleanor of Guienne and
Baldwin IV., count of Hainaut. _Éracle_, the hero of which becomes
emperor of Constantinople as Heraclius, is purely a _roman d'aventures_
and enjoyed great popularity. His second romance, _Ille et Galeron_,
dedicated to Beatrix, the second wife of Frederick Barbarossa, treats of
a similar situation to that outlined in the lay of "_Eliduc_" by Marie
de France.

  See the _Oeuvres de Gautier d'Arras_, ed. E. Löseth (2 vols., Paris,
  1890); _Hist. litt. de la France_, vol. xxii. (1852); A. Dinaux, _Les
  Trouvères_ (1833-1843), vol. iii.



GAUZE, a light, transparent fabric, originally of silk, and now
sometimes made of linen or cotton, woven in an open manner with very
fine yarn. It is said to have been originally made at Gaza in Palestine,
whence the name. Some of the gauzes from eastern Asia were brocaded with
flowers of gold or silver. In the weaving of gauze the warp threads, in
addition to being crossed as in plain weaving, are twisted in pairs from
left to right and from right to left alternately, after each shot of
weft, thereby keeping the weft threads at equal distances apart, and
retaining them in their parallel position. The textures are woven either
plain, striped or figured; and the material receives many designations,
according to its appearance and the purposes to which it is devoted. A
thin cotton fabric, woven in the same way, is known as leno, to
distinguish it from muslin made by plain weaving. Silk gauze was a
prominent and extensive industry in the west of Scotland during the
second half of the 18th century, but on the introduction of
cotton-weaving it greatly declined. In addition to its use for dress
purposes silk gauze is much employed for bolting or sifting flour and
other finely ground substances. The term gauze is applied generally to
transparent fabrics of whatever fibre made, and to the fine-woven
wire-cloth used in safety-lamps, sieves, window-blinds, &c.



GAVARNI, the name by which SULPICE GUILLAUME CHEVALIER (1801-1866),
French caricaturist, is known. He is said to have taken the _nom de
plume_ from the place where he made his first published sketch. He was
born in Paris of poor parents, and started in life as a workman in an
engine-building factory. At the same time he attended the free school of
drawing. In his first attempts to turn his abilities to some account he
met with many disappointments, but was at last entrusted with the
drawing of some illustrations for a journal of fashion. Gavarni was then
thirty-four years of age. His sharp and witty pencil gave to these
generally commonplace and unartistic figures a life-likeness and an
expression which soon won for him a name in fashionable circles.
Gradually he gave greater attention to this more congenial work, and
finally ceased working as an engineer to become the director of the
journal _Les Gens du monde_. His ambition rising in proportion to his
success, Gavarni from this time followed the real bent of his
inclination, and began a series of lithographed sketches, in which he
portrayed the most striking characteristics, foibles and vices of the
various classes of French society. The letterpress explanations attached
to his drawings were always short, but were forcible and highly
humorous, if sometimes trivial, and were admirably adapted to the
particular subjects. The different stages through which Gavarni's talent
passed, always elevating and refining itself, are well worth being
noted. At first he confined himself to the study of Parisian manners,
more especially those of the Parisian youth. To this vein belong _Les
Lorettes_, _Les Actrices_, _Les Coulisses_, _Les Fashionables_, _Les
Gentilshommes bourgeois_, _Les Artistes_, _Les Débardeurs_, _Clichy_,
_Les Étudiants de Paris_, _Les Baliverneries parisiennes_, _Les Plaisirs
champêtres_, _Les Bals masqués_, _Le Carnaval_, _Les Souvenirs du
carnaval_, _Les Souvenirs du bal Chicard_, _La Vie des jeunes hommes_,
_Les Patois de Paris_. He had now ceased to be director of _Les Gens du
monde_; but he was engaged as ordinary caricaturist of _Le Charivari_,
and, whilst making the fortune of the paper, he made his own. His name
was exceedingly popular, and his illustrations for books were eagerly
sought for by publishers. _Le Juif errant_, by Eugène Sue (1843, 4 vols.
8vo), the French translation of Hoffman's tales (1843, 8vo), the first
collective edition of Balzac's works (Paris, Houssiaux, 1850, 20 vols.
8vo), _Le Diable à Paris_ (1844-1846, 2 vols. 4to), _Les Français peints
par eux-mêmes_ (1840-1843, 9 vols. 8vo), the collection of
_Physiologies_ published by Aubert in 38 vols. 18mo (1840-1842),--all
owed a great part of their success at the time, and are still sought
for, on account of the clever and telling sketches contributed by
Gavarni. A single frontispiece or vignette was sometimes enough to
secure the sale of a new book. Always desiring to enlarge the field of
his observations, Gavarni soon abandoned his once favourite topics. He
no longer limited himself to such types as the _lorette_ and the
Parisian student, or to the description of the noisy and popular
pleasures of the capital, but turned his mirror to the grotesque sides
of family life and of humanity at large. _Les Enfants terribles_, _Les
Parents terribles_, _Les Fourberies des femmes_, _La Politique des
femmes_, _Les Maris vengés_, _Les Nuances du sentiment_, _Les Rêves_,
_Les Petits Jeux de société_, _Les Petits Malheurs du bonheur_, _Les
Impressions de menage_, _Les Interjections_, _Les Traductions en langue
vulgaire_, _Les Propos de Thomas Vireloque_, &c., were composed at this
time, and are his most elevated productions. But whilst showing the same
power of irony as his former works, enhanced by a deeper insight into
human nature, they generally bear the stamp of a bitter and even
sometimes gloomy philosophy. This tendency was still more strengthened
by a visit to England in 1849. He returned from London deeply impressed
with the scenes of misery and degradation which he had observed among
the lower classes of that city. In the midst of the cheerful atmosphere
of Paris he had been struck chiefly by the ridiculous aspects of
vulgarity and vice, and he had laughed at them. But the debasement of
human nature which he saw in London appears to have affected him so
forcibly that from that time the cheerful caricaturist never laughed or
made others laugh again. What he had witnessed there became the almost
exclusive subject of his drawings, as powerful, as impressive as ever,
but better calculated to be appreciated by cultivated minds than by the
public, which had in former years granted him so wide a popularity. Most
of these last compositions appeared in the weekly paper
_L'Illustration_. In 1857 he published in one volume the series entitled
_Masques et visages_ (1 vol. 12mo), and in 1869, about two years after
his death, his last artistic work, _Les Douze Mois_ (1 vol. fol.), was
given to the world. Gavarni was much engaged, during the last period of
his life, in scientific pursuits, and this fact must perhaps be
connected with the great change which then took place in his manner as
an artist. He sent several communications to the Académie des Sciences,
and till his death on the 23rd of November 1866 he was eagerly
interested in the question of aerial navigation. It is said that he made
experiments on a large scale with a view to find the means of directing
balloons; but it seems that he was not so successful in this line as his
fellow-artist, the caricaturist and photographer, Nadar.

  Gavarni's _Oeuvres choisies_ were edited in 1845 (4 vols. 4to) with
  letterpress by J. Janin, Th. Gautier and Balzac, followed in 1850 by
  two other volumes named _Perles et parures_; and some essays in prose
  and in verse written by him were collected by one of his biographers,
  Ch. Yriarte, and published in 1869. See also E. and J. de Goncourt,
  _Gavarni, l'homme et l'oeuvre_ (1873, 8vo). J. Claretie has also
  devoted to the great French caricaturist a curious and interesting
  essay. A catalogue _raisonné_ of Gavarni's works was published by J.
  Armelhault and E. Bocher (Paris, 1873, 8vo).



GAVAZZI, ALESSANDRO (1809-1889), Italian preacher and patriot, was born
at Bologna on the 21st of March 1809. He at first became a monk (1825),
and attached himself to the Barnabites at Naples, where he afterwards
(1829) acted as professor of rhetoric. In 1840, having already expressed
liberal views, he was removed to Rome to fill a subordinate position.
Leaving his own country after the capture of Rome by the French, he
carried on a vigorous campaign against priests and Jesuits in England,
Scotland and North America, partly by means of a periodical, the
_Gavazzi Free Word_. While in England he gradually went over (1855) to
the Evangelical church, and became head and organizer of the Italian
Protestants in London. Returning to Italy in 1860, he served as
army-chaplain with Garibaldi. In 1870 he became head of the Free Church
(_Chiesa libera_) of Italy, united the scattered Congregations into the
"Unione delle Chiese libere in Italia," and in 1875 founded in Rome the
theological college of the Free Church, in which he himself taught
dogmatics, apologetics and polemics. He died in Rome on the 9th of
January 1889.

  Amongst his publications are _No Union with Rome_ (1871); _The Priest
  in Absolution_ (1877); _My Recollections of the Last Four Popes_, &c.,
  in answer to Cardinal Wiseman (1858); _Orations_, 2 decades (1851).



GAVELKIND,[1] a peculiar system of tenure associated chiefly with the
county of Kent, but found also in other parts of England. In Kent all
land is presumed to be holden by this tenure until the contrary is
proved, but some lands have been disgavelled by particular statutes. It
is more correctly described as socage tenure, subject to the custom of
gavelkind. The chief peculiarities of the custom are the following. (1)
A tenant can alienate his lands by feoffment at fifteen years of age.
(2) There is no escheat on attainder for felony, or as it is expressed
in the old rhyme--

  "The father to the bough,
   The son to the plough."

(3) Generally the tenant could always dispose of his lands by will. (4)
In case of intestacy the estate descends not to the eldest son but to
all the sons (or, in the case of deceased sons, their representatives)
in equal shares. "Every son is as great a gentleman as the eldest son
is." It is to this remarkable peculiarity that gavelkind no doubt owes
its local popularity. Though females claiming in their own right are
postponed to males, yet by representation they may inherit together with
them. (5) A wife is dowable of one-half, instead of one-third of the
land. (6) A widower may be tenant by courtesy, without having had any
issue, of one-half, but only so long as he remains unmarried. An act of
1841, for commuting manorial rights in respect of lands of copyhold and
customary tenure, contained a clause specially exempting from the
operation of the act "the custom of gavelkind as the same now exists and
prevails in the county of Kent." Gavelkind is one of the most
interesting examples of the customary law of England; it was, previous
to the Conquest, the general custom of the realm, but was then
superseded by the feudal law of primogeniture. Its survival in this
instance in one part of the country is regarded as a concession extorted
from the Conqueror by the superior bravery of the men of Kent. _Irish
gavelkind_ was a species of tribal succession, by which the land,
instead of being divided at the death of the holder amongst his sons,
was thrown again into the common stock, and redivided among the
surviving members of the sept. The equal division amongst children of an
inheritance in land is of common occurrence outside the United Kingdom
and is discussed under SUCCESSION.

  See INHERITANCE; TENURE. Also Robinson, _On Gavelkind_; Digby,
  _History of the Law of Real Property_; Pollock and Maitland, _History
  of English Law_; Challis, _Real Property_.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] This word is generally taken to represent in O. Eng.
    _gafolgecynd_, from _gafol_, payment, tribute, and _gecynd_, species,
    kind, and originally to have meant tenure by payment of rent or
    non-military services, cf. gafol-land, and thence to have been
    applied to the particular custom attached to such tenure in Kent.
    _Gafol_ apparently is derived from the Teutonic root seen in "to
    give"; the Med. Lat. _gabulum, gablum_ gives the Fr. _gabelle_, tax.



GAVESTON, PIERS (d. 1312), earl of Cornwall, favourite of the English
king Edward II., was the son of a Gascon knight, and was brought up at
the court of Edward I. as companion to his son, the future king. Strong,
talented and ambitious, Gaveston gained great influence over young
Edward, and early in 1307 he was banished from England by the king; but
he returned after the death of Edward I. a few months later, and at once
became the chief adviser of Edward II. Made earl of Cornwall, he
received both lands and money from the king, and added to his wealth and
position by marrying Edward's niece, Margaret, daughter of Gilbert de
Clare, earl of Gloucester (d. 1295). He was regent of the kingdom during
the king's short absence in France in 1308, and took a very prominent
part at Edward's coronation in February of this year. These proceedings
aroused the anger and jealousy of the barons, and their wrath was
diminished neither by Gaveston's superior skill at the tournament, nor
by his haughty and arrogant behaviour to themselves. They demanded his
banishment; and the king, forced to assent, sent his favourite to
Ireland as lieutenant, where he remained for about a year. Returning to
England in July 1309, Edward persuaded some of the barons to sanction
this proceeding; but as Gaveston was more insolent than ever the old
jealousies soon broke out afresh. In 1311 the king was forced to agree
to the election of the "ordainers," and the ordinances they drew up
provided _inter alia_ for the perpetual banishment of his favourite.
Gaveston then retired to Flanders, but returned secretly to England at
the end of 1311. Soon he was publicly restored by Edward, and the barons
had taken up arms. Deserted by the king he surrendered to Aymer de
Valence, earl of Pembroke (d. 1324), at Scarborough in May 1312, and was
taken to Deddington in Oxfordshire, where he was seized by Guy de
Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (d. 1315). Conveyed to Warwick castle he was
beheaded on Blacklow Hill near Warwick on the 19th of June 1312.
Gaveston, whose body was buried in 1315 at King's Langley, left an only
daughter.

  See W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vol. ii. (Oxford, 1896); and
  _Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I. and Edward II._, edited by W.
  Stubbs. Rolls series (London, 1882-1883).



GAVOTTE (a French word adopted from the Provençal _gavoto_), properly
the dance of the Gavots or natives of Gap, a district in the Upper Alps,
in the old province of Dauphiné. It is a dance of a brisk and lively
character, somewhat resembling the minuet, but quicker and less stately
(see DANCE); hence also the use of this name for a corresponding form of
musical composition.



GAWAIN (Fr. _Walwain (Brut), Gauvain, Gaugain_; Lat. _Walganus_,
_Walwanus_; Dutch, _Walwein_, Welsh, _Gwalchmei_), son of King Loth of
Orkney, and nephew to Arthur on his mother's side, the most famous hero
of Arthurian romance. The first mention of his name is in a passage of
William of Malmesbury, recording the discovery of his tomb in the
province of Ros in Wales. He is there described as "_Walwen qui fuit
haud degener Arturis ex sorore nepos_." Here he is said to have reigned
over Galloway; and there is certainly some connexion, the character of
which is now not easy to determine, between the two. In the later
_Historia_ of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and its French translation by Wace,
Gawain plays an important and "pseudo-historic" rôle. On the receipt by
Arthur of the insulting message of the Roman emperor, demanding tribute,
it is he who is despatched as ambassador to the enemy's camp, where his
arrogant and insulting behaviour brings about the outbreak of
hostilities. On receipt of the tidings of Mordred's treachery, Gawain
accompanies Arthur to England, and is slain in the battle which ensues
on their landing. Wace, however, evidently knew more of Gawain than he
has included in his translation, for he speaks of him as

  Li quens Walwains
  Qui tant fu preudom de ses mains (11. 9057-58).

and later on says

  Prous fu et de mult grant mesure,
  D'orgoil et de forfait n'ot qure
  Plus vaut faire qu'il ne dist
  Et plus doner qu'il ne pramist (10. 106-109).

The English Arthurian poems regard him as the type and model of
chivalrous courtesy, "the fine father of nurture," and as Professor
Maynadier has well remarked, "previous to the appearance of Malory's
compilation it was Gawain rather than Arthur, who was the typical
English hero." It is thus rather surprising to find that in the earliest
preserved MSS. of Arthurian romance, i.e. in the poems of Chrétien de
Troyes, Gawain, though generally placed first in the list of knights, is
by no means the hero _par excellence_. The latter part of the _Perceval_
is indeed devoted to the recital of his adventures at the _Chastel
Merveilleus_, but of none of Chrétien's poems is he the protagonist. The
anonymous author of the _Chevalier à l'epée_ indeed makes this apparent
neglect of Gawain a ground of reproach against Chrétien. At the same
time the majority of the short episodic poems connected with the cycle
have Gawain for their hero. In the earlier form of the prose romances,
e.g. in the _Merlin_ proper, Gawain is a dominant personality, his feats
rivalling in importance those ascribed to Arthur, but in the later forms
such as the _Merlin_ continuations, the _Tristan_, and the final
_Lancelot_ compilation, his character and position have undergone a
complete change, he is represented as cruel, cowardly and treacherous,
and of indifferent moral character. Most unfortunately our English
version of the romances, Malory's _Morte Arthur_, being derived from
these later forms (though his treatment of Gawain is by no means
uniformly consistent), this unfavourable aspect is that under which the
hero has become known to the modern reader. Tennyson, who only knew the
Arthurian story through the medium of Malory, has, by exaggeration,
largely contributed to this misunderstanding. Morris, in _The Defence of
Guinevere_, speaks of "gloomy Gawain"; perhaps the most absurdly
misleading epithet which could possibly have been applied to the "gay,
gratious, and gude" knight of early English tradition.

The truth appears to be that Gawain, the Celtic and mythic origin of
whose character was frankly admitted by the late M. Gaston Paris,
belongs to the very earliest stage of Arthurian tradition, long
antedating the crystallization of such tradition into literary form. He
was certainly known in Italy at a very early date; Professor Rajna has
found the names of Arthur and Gawain in charters of the early 12th
century, the bearers of those names being then grown to manhood; and
Gawain is figured in the architrave of the north doorway of Modena
cathedral, a 12th-century building. Recent discoveries have made it
practically certain that there existed, prior to the extant romances, a
collection of short episodic poems, devoted to the glorification of
Arthur's famous nephew and his immediate kin (his brother Ghaeris, or
Gareth, and his son Guinglain), the authorship of which was attributed
to a Welshman, Bleheris; fragments of this collection have been
preserved to us alike in the first continuation of Chrétien de Troyes
_Perceval_, due to Wauchier de Denain, and in our vernacular _Gawain_
poems. Among these "Bleheris" poems was one dealing with Gawain's
adventures at the Grail castle, where the Grail is represented as
non-Christian, and presents features strongly reminiscent of the ancient
Nature mysteries. There is good ground for believing that as Grail
quester and winner, Gawain preceded alike Perceval and Galahad, and that
the solution of the mysterious Grail problem is to be sought rather in
the tales connected with the older hero than in those devoted to the
glorification of the younger knights. The explanation of the very
perplexing changes which the character of Gawain has undergone appears
to lie in a misunderstanding of the original sources of that character.
Whether or no Gawain was a sun-hero, and he certainly possessed some of
the features--we are constantly told how his strength waxed with the
waxing of the sun till noontide, and then gradually decreased; he owned
a steed known by a definite name le Gringalet; and a light-giving sword,
Escalibur (which, as a rule, is represented as belonging to Gawain, not
to Arthur)--all traits of a sun-hero--he certainly has much in common
with the primitive Irish hero Cuchullin. The famous head-cutting
challenge, so admirably told in _Syr Gawayne and the Grene Knighte_, was
originally connected with the Irish champion. Nor was the lady of
Gawain's love a mortal maiden, but the queen of the other-world. In
Irish tradition the other-world is often represented as an island,
inhabited by women only; and it is this "Isle of Maidens" that Gawain
visits in _Diu Crone_; returning therefrom dowered with the gift of
eternal youth. The Chastel Merveilleus adventure, related at length by
Chrétien and Wolfram is undoubtedly such an "other-world" story. It
seems probable that it was this connexion which won for Gawain the title
of the "Maidens' Knight," a title for which no satisfactory explanation
is ever given. When the source of the name was forgotten its meaning was
not unnaturally misinterpreted, and gained for Gawain the reputation of
a facile morality, which was exaggerated by the pious compilers of the
later Grail romances into persistent and aggravated wrong-doing; at the
same time it is to be noted that Gawain is never like Tristan and
Lancelot, the hero of an illicit connexion maintained under
circumstances of falsehood and treachery. Gawain, however, belonged to
the pre-Christian stage of Grail tradition, and it is not surprising
that writers, bent on spiritual edification, found him somewhat of a
stumbling-block. Chaucer, when he spoke of Gawain coming "again out of
faërie," spoke better than he knew; the home of that very gallant and
courteous knight is indeed Fairy-land, and the true Gawain-tradition is
informed with fairy glamour and grace.

  See _Syr Gawayne_, the English poems relative to that hero, edited by
  Sir Frederick Madden for the Bannatyne Club, 1839 (out of print and
  difficult to procure); _Histoire littéraire de la France_, vol. xxx.;
  introduction and summary of episodic "Gawain" poems by Gaston Paris;
  _The Legend of Sir Gawain_, by Jessie L. Weston, Grimm Library, vol.
  vii.; _The Legend of Sir Perceval_, by Jessie L. Weston, Grimm
  Library, vol. xvii.; "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," "Sir Gawain at
  the Grail Castle" and "Sir Gawain and the Lady of Lys," vols. i., vi
  and vii. of _Arthurian Romances_ (Nutt).



GAWLER, a town of Gawler county, South Australia, on the Para river, 24¾
m. by rail N.E. of Adelaide. It is one of the most thriving places in
the colony, being the centre of a large wheat-growing district; it has
also engineering works, foundries, flour-mills, breweries and saw-mills,
while gold, silver, copper and lead are found in the neighbouring hills.
The inhabitants of the town and its extensive suburbs number about 7000;
though the population of the town itself in 1901 was 1996.



GAY, JOHN (1685-1732), English poet, was baptized on the 16th of
September 1685 at Barnstaple, where his family had long been settled. He
was educated at the grammar school of the town under Robert Luck, who
had published some Latin and English poems. On leaving school he was
apprenticed to a silk mercer in London, but being weary, according to Dr
Johnson, "of either the restraint or the servility of his occupation,"
he soon returned to Barnstaple, where he spent some time with his uncle,
the Rev. John Hanmer, the Nonconformist minister of the town. He then
returned to London, and though no details are available for his
biography until the publication of _Wine_ in 1708, the account he gives
in _Rural Sports_ (1713), of years wasted in attending on courtiers who
were profuse in promises never kept, may account for his occupations.
Among his early literary friends were Aaron Hill and Eustace Budgell. In
_The Present State of Wit_ (1711) Gay attempted to give an account of
"all our periodical papers, whether monthly, weekly or diurnal." He
especially praised the _Tatler_ and the _Spectator_, and Swift, who knew
nothing of the authorship of the pamphlet, suspected it to be inspired
by Steele and Addison. To Lintot's _Miscellany_ (1712) Gay contributed
"An Epistle to Bernard Lintot," containing some lines in praise of Pope,
and a version of the story of Arachne from the sixth book of the
_Metamorphoses_ of Ovid. In the same year he was received into the
household of the duchess of Monmouth as secretary, a connexion which
was, however, broken before June 1714.

The dedication of his _Rural Sports_ (1713) to Pope was the beginning of
a lasting friendship. Gay could have no pretensions to rivalry with
Pope, who seems never to have tired of helping his friend. In 1713 he
produced a comedy, _The Wife of Bath_, which was acted only three
nights, and _The Fan_, one of his least successful poems; and in 1714
_The Shepherd's Week_, a series of six pastorals drawn from English
rustic life. Pope had urged him to undertake this last task in order to
ridicule the Arcadian pastorals of Ambrose Philips, who had been praised
by the _Guardian_, to the neglect of Pope's claims as the first pastoral
writer of the age and the true English Theocritus. Gay's pastorals
completely achieved this object, but his ludicrous pictures of the
English swains and their loves were found to be abundantly entertaining
on their own account. Gay had just been appointed secretary to the
British ambassador to the court of Hanover through the influence of
Jonathan Swift, when the death of Queen Anne three months later put an
end to all his hopes of official employment. In 1715, probably with some
help from Pope, he produced _What d'ye call it?_ a dramatic skit on
contemporary tragedy, with special reference to Otway's _Venice
Preserved_. It left the public so ignorant of its real meaning that
Lewis Theobald and Benjamin Griffin (1680-1740) published a _Complete
Key to what d'ye call it_ by way of explanation. In 1716 appeared his
_Trivia, or the Art of Walking the Streets of London_, a poem in three
books, for which he acknowledged having received several hints from
Swift. It contains graphic and humorous descriptions of the London of
that period. In January 1717 he produced the comedy of _Three Hours
after Marriage_, which was grossly indecent without being amusing, and
was a complete failure. There is no doubt that in this piece he had
assistance from Pope and Arbuthnot, but they were glad enough to have it
assumed that Gay was the sole author.

Gay had numerous patrons, and in 1720 he published _Poems on Several
Occasions_ by subscription, realizing £1000 or more. In that year James
Craggs, the secretary of state, presented him with some South Sea stock.
Gay, disregarding the prudent advice of Pope and other of his friends,
invested his all in South Sea stock, and, holding on to the end, he lost
everything. The shock is said to have made him dangerously ill. As a
matter of fact Gay had always been a spoilt child, who expected
everything to be done for him. His friends did not fail him at this
juncture. He had patrons in William Pulteney, afterwards earl of Bath,
in the third earl of Burlington, who constantly entertained him at
Chiswick or at Burlington House, and in the third earl of Queensberry.
He was a frequent visitor with Pope, and received unvarying kindness
from Congreve and Arbuthnot. In 1724 he produced a tragedy called _The
Captives_. In 1727 he wrote for Prince William, afterwards duke of
Cumberland, his famous _Fifty-one Fables in Verse_, for which he
naturally hoped to gain some preferment, although he has much to say in
them of the servility of courtiers and the vanity of court honours. He
was offered the situation of gentleman-usher to the Princess Louisa, who
was still a child. He refused this offer, which all his friends seem to
have regarded, for no very obvious reason, as an indignity. As the
_Fables_ were written for the amusement of one royal child, there would
appear to have been a measure of reason in giving him a sinecure in the
service of another. His friends thought him unjustly neglected by the
court, but he had already received (1722) a sinecure as lottery
commissioner with a salary of £150 a year, and from 1722 to 1729 he had
lodgings in the palace at Whitehall. He had never rendered any special
services to the court.

He certainly did nothing to conciliate the favour of the government by
his next production, the _Beggars' Opera_, a lyrical drama produced on
the 29th of January 1728 by Rich, in which Sir Robert Walpole was
caricatured. This famous piece, which was said to have made "Rich gay
and Gay rich," was an innovation in many respects, and for a time it
drove Italian opera off the English stage. Under cover of the thieves
and highwaymen who figured in it was disguised a satire on society, for
Gay made it plain that in describing the moral code of his characters he
had in mind the corruptions of the governing class. Part of the success
of the _Beggars' Opera_ may have been due to the acting of Lavinia
Fenton, afterwards duchess of Bolton, in the part of Polly Peachum. The
play ran for sixty-two nights, though the representations, four of which
were "benefits" of the author, were not, as has sometimes been stated,
consecutive. Swift is said to have suggested the subject, and Pope and
Arbuthnot were constantly consulted while the work was in progress, but
Gay must be regarded as the sole author. He wrote a sequel, _Polly_, the
representation of which was forbidden by the lord chamberlain, no doubt
through the influence of Walpole. This act of "oppression" caused no
loss to Gay. It proved an excellent advertisement for _Polly_, which was
published by subscription in 1729, and brought its author more than
£1000. The duchess of Queensberry was dismissed from court for enlisting
subscribers in the palace. The duke of Queensberry gave him a home, and
the duchess continued her affectionate patronage until Gay's death,
which took place on the 4th of December 1732. He was buried in
Westminster Abbey. The epitaph on his tomb is by Pope, and is followed
by Gay's own mocking couplet:--

  "Life is a jest, and all things show it,
   I thought so once, and now I know it."

_Acis and Galatea_, an English pastoral opera, the music of which was
written by Handel, was produced at the Haymarket in 1732. The profits of
his posthumous opera of _Achilles_ (1733), and a new volume of _Fables_
(1738) went to his two sisters, who inherited from him a fortune of
£6000. He left two other pieces, _The Distressed Wife_ (1743), a comedy,
and _The Rehearsal at Goatham_ (1754), a farce. The _Fables_, slight as
they may appear, cost him more labour than any of his other works. The
narratives are in nearly every case original, and are told in clear and
lively verse. The moral which rounds off each little story is never
strained. They are masterpieces in their kind, and the very numerous
editions of them prove their popularity. They have been translated into
Latin, French and Italian, Urdu and Bengali.

  See his _Poetical Works_ (1893) in the Muses' Library, with an
  introduction by Mr John Underhill; also Samuel Johnson's _Lives of the
  Poets_, John Gay's _Singspiele_ (1898), edited by G. Sarrazin
  (_Englische Textbibliothek II._); and an article by Austin Dobson in
  vol. 21 of the _Dictionary of National Biography_; _Gay's Chair_
  (1820), edited by Henry Lee, a fellow-townsman, contained a
  biographical sketch by his nephew, the Rev. Joseph Baller.



GAY, MARIE FRANÇOISE SOPHIE (1776-1852), French author, was born in
Paris on the 1st of July 1776. Madame Gay was the daughter of M.
Nichault de la Valette and of Francesca Peretti, an Italian lady. In
1793 she was married to M. Liottier, an exchange broker, but she was
divorced from him in 1799, and shortly afterwards was married to M. Gay,
receiver-general of the department of the Roër or Ruhr. This union
brought her into intimate relations with many distinguished personages;
and her salon came to be frequented by all the distinguished
littérateurs, musicians, actors and painters of the time, whom she
attracted by her beauty, her vivacity and her many amiable qualities.
Her first literary production was a letter written in 1802 to the
_Journal de Paris_, in defence of Madame de Staël's novel, _Delphine_;
and in the same year she published anonymously her first novel _Laure
d'Estell_. _Léonie de Montbreuse_, which appeared in 1813, is considered
by Sainte-Beuve her best work; but _Anatole_ (1815), the romance of a
deaf-mute, has perhaps a higher reputation. Among her other works,
_Salons célèbres_ (2 vols., 1837) may be especially mentioned. Madame
Gay wrote several comedies and opera libretti which met with
considerable success. She was also an accomplished musician, and
composed both the words and music of a number of songs. She died in
Paris on the 5th of March 1852. For an account of her daughter, Delphine
Gay, Madame de Girardin, see GIRARDIN.

  See her own _Souvenirs d'une vieille femme_ (1834); also Théophile
  Gautier, _Portraits contemporains_; and Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du
  lundi_, vol. vi.



GAY, WALTER (1856-   ), American artist, was born at Hingham,
Massachusetts, on the 22nd of January 1856. In 1876 he became a pupil of
Léon Bonnat in Paris. He received an honourable mention in the Salon of
1885; a gold medal in 1888, and similar awards at Vienna (1894), Antwerp
(1895), Berlin (1896) and Munich (1897). He became an officer of the
Legion of Honour and a member of the Society of Secession, Munich. Works
by him are in the Luxembourg, the Tate Gallery (London), and the Boston
and Metropolitan (New York) Museums of Art. His compositions are mainly
figure subjects portraying French peasant life.



GAYA, a city and district of British India, in the Patna division of
Bengal. The city is situated 85 m. S. of Patna by rail. Pop. (1901)
71,288. It consists of two distinct parts, adjoining each other; the
part containing the residences of the priests is Gaya proper; and the
other, which is the business quarter, is called Sahibganj. The civil
offices and residences of the European inhabitants are situated here.
Gaya derives its sanctity from incidents in the life of Buddha. But a
local legend also exists concerning a pagan monster of great sanctity,
named Gaya, who by long penance had become holy, so that all who saw or
touched him were saved from perdition. Yama, the lord of hell, appealed
to the gods, who induced Gaya to lie down in order that his body might
be a place of sacrifice; and once down, Yama placed a large stone on him
to keep him there. The tricked demon struggled violently, and, in order
to pacify him, Vishnu promised that the gods should take up their
permanent residence in him, and that any one who made a pilgrimage to
the spot where he lay should be delivered from the terrors of the Hindu
place of torment. This may possibly be a Brahmanic rendering of Buddha's
life and work. There are forty-five sacred spots (of which the temple of
Vishnupada is the chief) in and around the city, and these are visited
by thousands of pilgrims annually. During the Mutiny the large store of
treasure here was conveyed safely to Calcutta by Mr A. Money. The city
contains a government high school and an hospital, with a Lady Elgin
branch for women.

The DISTRICT OF GAYA comprises an area of 4712 sq. m. Generally
speaking, it consists of a level plain, with a ridge of prettily wooded
hills along the southern boundary, whence the country falls with a
gentle slope towards the Ganges. Rocky hills occasionally occur, either
detached or in groups, the loftiest being Maher hill about 12 m. S.E. of
Gaya city, with an elevation of 1620 ft. above sea-level. The eastern
part of the district is highly cultivated; the portions to the north and
west are less fertile; while in the south the country is thinly peopled
and consists of hills, the jungles on which are full of wild animals.
The principal river is the Son, which marks the boundary between Gaya
and Shahabad, navigable by small boats throughout the year, and by craft
of 20-tons burden in the rainy season. Other rivers are the Punpun,
Phalgu and Jamuna. Two branches of the Son canal system, the eastern
main canal and the Patna canal, intersect the district. In 1901 the
population was 2,059,933, showing a decrease of 3% in the decade. Among
the higher castes there is an unusually large proportion of Brahmans, a
circumstance due to the number of sacred places which the district
contains. The Gayawals, or priests in charge of the holy places, are
held in high esteem by the pilgrims; but they are not pure Brahmans, and
are looked down upon by those who are. They live an idle and dissolute
life, but are very wealthy, from contributions extorted from the
pilgrims. Buddh Gaya, about 6 m. S. of Gaya city, is one of the holiest
sites of Buddhism, as containing the tree under which Sakyamuni attained
enlightenment. In addition to many ruins and sculptures, there is a
temple restored by the government in 1881. Another place of religious
interest is a temple of great antiquity, which crowns the highest peak
of the Barabar hills, and at which a religious fair is held each
September, attended by 10,000 to 20,000 pilgrims. At the foot of the
hill are numerous rock caves excavated about 200 B.C. The opium poppy is
largely cultivated. There are a number of lac factories. Manufactures
consist of common brass utensils, black stone ornaments, pottery,
tussur-silk and cotton cloth. Formerly paper-making was an important
manufacture in the district, but it has entirely died out. The chief
exports are food grains, oil seeds, indigo, crude opium (sent to Patna
for manufacture), saltpetre, sugar, blankets, brass utensils, &c. The
imports are salt, piece goods, cotton, timber, bamboos, tobacco, lac,
iron, spices and fruits. The district is traversed by four branches of
the East Indian railway. In 1901 it suffered severely from the plague.

  See _District Gazetteer_ (1906); Sir A. Cunningham, _Mahabodhi_
  (1892).



GAYAL, a domesticated ox allied to the Gaur, but distinguished, among
other features, by the more conical and straighter horns, and the
straight line between them. Gayal are kept by the natives of the
hill-districts of Assam and parts of Tenasserim and Upper Burma.
Although it has received a distinct name, _Bos (Bibos) frontalis_, there
can be little doubt that the gayal is merely a domesticated breed of the
gaur, many gayal-skulls showing characters approximating to those of the
gaur.



GAYANGOS Y ARCE, PASCUAL DE (1809-1897), Spanish scholar and
Orientalist, was born at Seville on the 21st of June 1809. At the age of
thirteen he was sent to be educated at Pont-le-Voy near Blois, and in
1828 began the study of Arabic under Silvestre de Sacy. After a visit to
England, where he married, he obtained a post in the Spanish treasury,
and was transferred to the foreign office as translator in 1833. In 1836
he returned to England, wrote extensively in English periodicals, and
translated Almakkari's _History of the Mahommedan Dynasties in Spain_
(1840-1843) for the Royal Asiatic Society. In England he also made the
acquaintance of Ticknor, to whom he was very serviceable. In 1843 he
returned to Spain as professor of Arabic at the university of Madrid,
which post he held until 1881, when he was made director of public
instruction. This office he resigned upon being elected senator for the
district of Huelva. His latter years were spent in cataloguing the
Spanish manuscripts in the British Museum; he had previously continued
Bergenroth's catalogue of the manuscripts relating to England in the
Simancas archives. His best-known original work is his dissertation on
Spanish romances of chivalry in Rivadeneyra's _Biblioteca de autores
españoles_. He died in London on the 4th of October 1897.



GAYARRÉ, CHARLES ÉTIENNE ARTHUR (1805-1895), American historian, was
born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on the 9th of January 1805. After
studying at the Collège d'Orléans he began, in 1826, to study law in
Philadelphia, and three years later was admitted to the bar. In 1830 he
was elected a member of the House of Representatives of Louisiana, in
1831 was appointed deputy attorney-general of his state, in 1833 became
presiding judge of the city court of New Orleans, and in 1834 was
elected as a Jackson Democrat to the United States Senate. On account of
ill-health, however, he immediately resigned without taking his seat,
and for the next eight years travelled in Europe and collected
historical material from the French and the Spanish archives. In
1844-1845 and in 1856-1857 he was again a member of the state House of
Representatives, and from 1845 to 1853 was secretary of state of
Louisiana. He supported the Southern Confederacy during the Civil War,
in which he lost a large fortune, and after its close lived chiefly by
his pen. He died in New Orleans on the 11th of February 1895. He is best
known as the historian of Louisiana. He wrote _Histoire de la Louisiane_
(1847); _Romance of the History of Louisiana_ (1848); _Louisiana: its
Colonial History and Romance_ (1851), reprinted in _A History of
Louisiana_; _History of Louisiana: the Spanish Domination_ (1854);
_Philip II. of Spain_ (1866); and _A History of Louisiana_ (4 vols.,
1866), the last being a republication and continuation of his earlier
works in this field, the whole comprehending the history of Louisiana
from its earliest discovery to 1861. He wrote also several dramas and
romances, the best of the latter being _Fernando de Lemos_ (1872).



GAY-LUSSAC, JOSEPH LOUIS (1778-1850), French chemist and physicist, was
born at St Léonard, in the department of Haute Vienne, on the 6th of
December 1778. He was the elder son of Antoine Gay, _procureur du roi_
and judge at Pont-de-Noblac, who assumed the name Lussac from a small
property he had in the neighbourhood of St Léonard. Young Gay-Lussac
received his early education at home under the direction of the abbé
Bourdieux and other masters, and in 1794 was sent to Paris to prepare
for the École Polytechnique, into which he was admitted at the end of
1797 after a brilliant examination. Three years later he was transferred
to the École des Ponts et Chaussées, and shortly afterwards was assigned
to C.L. Berthollet, who wanted an able student to help in his
researches. The new assistant scarcely came up to expectations in
respect of confirming certain theoretical views of his master's by the
experiments set him to that end, and appears to have stated the
discrepancy without reserve; but Berthollet nevertheless quickly
recognized the ability displayed, and showed his appreciation not only
by desiring to be Gay-Lussac's "father in science," but also by making
him in 1807 an original member of the Société d'Arcueil. In 1802 he was
appointed demonstrator to A.F. Fourcroy at the École Polytechnique,
where subsequently (1809) he became professor of chemistry, and from
1808 to 1832 he was professor of physics at the Sorbonne, a post which
he only resigned for the chair of chemistry at the Jardin des Plantes.
In 1831 he was elected to represent Haute Vienne in the chamber of
deputies, and in 1839 he entered the chamber of peers. He died in Paris
on the 9th of May 1850.

Gay-Lussac's earlier researches were mostly physical in character and
referred mainly to the properties of gases, vapour-tensions, hygrometry,
capillarity, &c. In his first memoir (_Ann. de Chimie_, 1802) he showed
that different gases are dilated in the same proportion when heated from
0° to 100° C. Apparently he did not know of Dalton's experiments on the
same point, which indeed were far from accurate; but in a note he
explained that "le cit. Charles avait remarqué depuis 15 ans la même
propriété dans ces gaz; mais n'ayant jamais publié ses résultats, c'est
par le plus grand hasard que je les ai connus." In consequence of his
candour in thus rescuing from oblivion the observation which his
fellow-citizen did not think worth publishing, his name is sometimes
dissociated from this law, which instead is known as that of Charles. In
1804 he had an opportunity of prosecuting his researches on air in
somewhat unusual conditions, for the French Academy, desirous of
securing some observations on the force of terrestrial magnetism at
great elevations above the earth, through Berthollet and J.E. Chaptal
obtained the use of the balloon which had been employed in Egypt, and
entrusted the task to him and J.B. Biot. In their first ascent from the
garden of the Conservatoire des Arts on the 24th of August 1804 an
altitude of 4000 metres (about 13,000 ft.) was attained. But this
elevation was not considered sufficient by Gay-Lussac, who therefore
made a second ascent by himself oh the 16th of September, when the
balloon rose 7016 metres (about 23,000 ft.) above sea-level. At this
height, with the thermometer marking 9½ degrees below freezing, he
remained for a considerable time, making observations not only on
magnetism, but also on the temperature and humidity of the air, and
collecting several samples of air at different heights. The magnetic
observations, though imperfect, led him to the conclusion that the
magnetic effect at all attainable elevations above the earth's surface
remains constant; and on analysing the samples of air he could find no
difference of composition at different heights. (For an account of both
ascents see _Journ. de phys._ for 1804.) On the 1st of October in the
same year, in conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt, he read a paper
on eudiometric analysis (_Ann. de Chim._, 1805), which contained the
germ of his most important generalization, the authors noting that when
oxygen and hydrogen combine together by volume, it is in the proportion
of one volume of the former to two volumes of the latter. But his law of
combination by volumes was not enunciated in its general form until
after his return from a scientific journey through Switzerland, Italy
and Germany, on which with Humboldt he started from Paris in March 1805.
This journey was interrupted in the spring of 1806 by the news of the
death of M.J. Brisson, and Gay-Lussac hurried back to Paris in the hope,
which was gratified, that he would be elected to the seat thus vacated
in the Academy. In 1807 an account of the magnetic observations made
during the tour with Humboldt was published in the first volume of the
_Mémoires d'Arcueil_, and the second volume, published in 1809,
contained the important memoir on gaseous combination (read to the
Société Philomathique on the last day of 1808), in which he pointed out
that gases combining with each other in volume do so in the simplest
proportions--1 to 1, 1 to 2, 1 to 3--and that the volume of the compound
formed bears a simple ratio to that of the constituents.

About this time Gay-Lussac's work, although he by no means entirely
abandoned physical questions, became of a more chemical character; and
in three instances it brought him into direct rivalry with Sir Humphry
Davy. In the first case Davy's preparation of potassium and sodium by
the electric current spurred on Gay-Lussac and his collaborator L.J.
Thénard, who had no battery at their disposal, to search for a chemical
method of obtaining those metals, and by the action of red-hot iron on
fused potash--a method of which Davy admitted the advantages--they
succeeded in 1808 in preparing potassium, going on to make a full study
of its properties and to use it, as Davy also did, for the reduction of
boron from boracic acid in 1809. The second concerned the nature of
"oxymuriatic acid" (chlorine). While admitting the possibility that it
was an elementary body, after many experiments they finally declared it
to be a compound (_Mém. d'Arcueil_, 1809). Davy, on the other hand,
could see no reason to suppose it contained oxygen, as they surmised,
and ultimately they had to accept his view of its elementary character.
The third case roused most feeling of all. Davy, passing through Paris
on his way to Italy at the end of 1813, obtained a few fragments of
iodine, which had been discovered by Bernard Courtois (1777-1838) in
1811, and after a brief examination by the aid of his limited portable
laboratory perceived its analogy to chlorine and inferred it to be an
element. Gay-Lussac, it is said, was nettled at the idea of a foreigner
making such a discovery in Paris, and vigorously took up the study of
the new substance, the result being the "Mémoire sur l'iode," which
appeared in the _Ann. de chim._ in 1814. He too saw its resemblance to
chlorine, and was obliged to agree with Davy's opinion as to its simple
nature, though not without some hesitation, due doubtless to his
previous declaration about chlorine. Davy on his side seems to have felt
that the French chemist was competing with him, not altogether fairly,
in trying to appropriate the honour of discovering the character of the
substance and of its compound, hydriodic acid.

In 1810 he published a paper which contains some classic experiments on
fermentation, a subject to which he returned in a second paper published
in 1815. At the same time he was working with Thénard at the improvement
of the methods of organic analysis, and by combustion with oxidizing
agents, first potassium chlorate and subsequently copper oxide, he
determined the composition of a number of organic substances. But his
last great piece of pure research was on prussic acid. In a note
published in 1811 he described the physical properties of this acid, but
he said nothing about its chemical composition till 1815, when he
described cyanogen as a compound radicle, prussic acid as a compound of
that radicle with hydrogen alone, and the prussiates (cyanides) as
compounds of the radicle with metals. The proof that prussic acid
contains hydrogen but no oxygen was a most important support to the
hydrogen-acid theory, and completed the downfall of Lavoisier's oxygen
theory; while the isolation of cyanogen was of equal importance for the
subsequent era of compound radicles in organic chemistry.

After this research Gay-Lussac's attention began to be distracted from
purely scientific investigation. He had now secured a leading if not the
foremost place among the chemists of the French capital, and the demand
for his services as adviser in technical problems and matters of
practical interest made great inroads on his available time. He had been
a member of the consultative committee on arts and manufactures since
1805; he was attached to the "administration des poudres et salpêtres"
in 1818, and in 1829 he received the lucrative post of assayer to the
mint. In these new fields he displayed the powers so conspicuous in his
scientific inquiries, and he was now to introduce and establish
scientific accuracy where previously there had been merely practical
approximations. His services to industry included his improvements in
the processes for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic
acid (1829); methods of estimating the amount of real alkali in potash
and soda by the volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and
for estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution
of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal
alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by the
Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying silver by a
standard solution of common salt, a volume on which was published in
1833. Among his research work of this period may be mentioned the
improvements in organic analysis and the investigation of fulminic acid
made with the help of Liebig, who gained the privilege of admission to
his private laboratory in 1823-1824.

Gay-Lussac was patient, persevering, accurate to punctiliousness,
perhaps a little cold and reserved, and not unaware of his great
ability. But he was also bold and energetic, not only in his work but
also in support and defence of his friends. His early childish
adventures, as told by Arago, herald the fearless aeronaut and the
undaunted investigator of volcanic eruptions (Vesuvius was in full
eruption when he visited it during his tour in 1805); and the endurance
he exhibited under the laboratory accidents that befell him shows the
power of will with which he would face the prospect of becoming blind
and useless for the prosecution of the science which was his very life,
and of which he was one of the most distinguished ornaments. Only at the
very end, when the disease from which he was suffering left him no hope,
did he complain with some bitterness of the hardship of leaving this
world where the many discoveries being made pointed to yet greater
discoveries to come.

  The most complete list of Gay-Lussac's papers is contained in the
  Royal Society's _Catalogue of Scientific Papers_, which enumerates
  148, exclusive of others written jointly with Humboldt, Thénard,
  Welter and Liebig. Many of them were published in the _Annales de
  chimie_, which after it changed its title to _Annales de chimie et
  physique_ he edited, with Arago, up to nearly the end of his life; but
  some are to be found in the _Mémoires d'Arcueil_ and the _Comptes
  rendus_, and in the _Recherches physiques et chimiques_, published
  with Thénard in 1811.



GAZA, THEODORUS (c. 1400-1475), one of the Greek scholars who were the
leaders of the revival of learning in the 15th century, was born at
Thessalonica. On the capture of his native city by the Turks in 1430 he
fled to Italy. During a three years' residence in Mantua he rapidly
acquired a competent knowledge of Latin under the teaching of Vittorino
da Feltre, supporting himself meanwhile by giving lessons in Greek, and
by copying manuscripts of the ancient classics.[1] In 1447 he became
professor of Greek in the newly founded university of Ferrara, to which
students in great numbers from all parts of Italy were soon attracted by
his fame as a teacher. He had taken some part in the councils which were
held in Siena (1423), Ferrara (1438), and Florence (1439), with the
object of bringing about a reconciliation between the Greek and Latin
Churches; and in 1450, at the invitation of Pope Nicholas V., he went to
Rome, where he was for some years employed by his patron in making Latin
translations from Aristotle and other Greek authors. After the death of
Nicholas (1455), being unable to make a living at Rome, Gaza removed to
Naples, where he enjoyed the patronage of Alphonso the Magnanimous for
two years (1456-1458). Shortly afterwards he was appointed by Cardinal
Bessarion to a benefice in Calabria, where the later years of his life
were spent, and where he died about 1475. Gaza stood high in the opinion
of most of his learned contemporaries, but still higher in that of the
scholars of the succeeding generation. His Greek grammar (in four
books), written in Greek, first printed at Venice in 1495, and
afterwards partially translated by Erasmus in 1521, although in many
respects defective, especially in its syntax, was for a long time the
leading text-book. His translations into Latin were very numerous,
including the _Problemata_, _De partibus animalium_ and _De generatione
animalium_ of Aristotle; the _Historia plantarum_ of Theophrastus; the
_Problemata_ of Alexander Aphrodisias; the _De instruendis aciebus_ of
Aelian; the _De compositione verborum_ of Dionysius of Halicarnassus;
and some of the _Homilies_ of John Chrysostom. He also turned into Greek
Cicero's _De senectute_ and _Somnium Scipionis_--with much success, in
the opinion of Erasmus; with more elegance than exactitude, according to
the colder judgment of modern scholars. He was the author also of two
small treatises entitled _De mensibus_ and _De origine Turcarum_.

  See G. Voigt, _Die Wiederbelebung des klassischen Altertums_ (1893),
  and article by C.F. Bähr in Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine
  Encyklopädie_. For a complete list of his works, see Fabricius,
  _Bibliotheca Graeca_ (ed. Harles), x.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] According to Voigt, Gaza came to Italy some ten years later from
    Constantinople, where he had been a teacher or held some clerical
    office.



GAZA (or 'AZZAH, mod. _Ghuzzeh_), the most southerly of the five
princely Philistine cities, situated near the sea, at the point where
the old trade routes from Egypt, Arabia and Petra to Syria met. It was
always a strong border fortress and a place of commercial importance, in
many respects the southern counterpart of Damascus. The earliest notice
of it is in the Tell el-Amarna tablets, in a letter from the local
governor, who then held it for Egypt, with which country it always stood
in close connexion. It never passed for long into Israelite hands,
though subject for a while to Hezekiah of Judah; from him it passed to
Assyria. In Amos i. 6 the city is denounced for giving up Hebrew slaves
to Edom. To Herodotus (iii. 5) the place seemed as important as Sardis.
The city withstood Alexander the Great for five months (332 B.C.), and
in 96 B.C. was razed to the ground by Alexander Jannaeus. It was rebuilt
by Aulus Gabinius, 57 B.C., but on a new site; the old site was
remembered and spoken of as "Old" or "Desert Gaza": compare Acts viii.
26. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries Gaza was a thriving Greek city, with
good schools and famous temples, especially one to the local god Marna
(i.e. "Lord" or "Our Lord"). A statue of this god has been found near
Gaza; it much resembles the Greek representation of Zeus. The struggle
with Christianity here was long and intense. Egyptian monks gradually
won over the country folk, and in 402, under the influence of Theodosius
and Porphyry the local bishop, the Marneion was destroyed and the cross
made politically supreme. In the 5th and 6th centuries Gaza was held in
high repute as a place of learning. But after it passed into Moslem
hands (635) it gradually lost all save commercial importance, and even
the Crusaders did little to revive its old military glory. It finally
was captured by the Moslems in 1244. Napoleon captured it in 1799.

The modern town (pop. 16,000) is divided into four quarters, one of
which is built on a low hill. A magnificent grove of very ancient olives
forms an avenue 4 m. long to the north. There are many lofty minarets in
various parts of the town, and a fine mosque built of ancient materials.
A 12th century church towards the south side of the hill has also been
converted into a mosque. On the east is shown the tomb of Samson (an
erroneous tradition dating back to the middle ages). The ancient walls
are now covered up beneath green mounds of rubbish. The water-supply is
from wells sunk through the sandy soil to the rock; of these there are
more than twenty--an unusual number for a Syrian town. The land for the
3 m. between Gaza and the sea consists principally of sand dunes. There
is no natural harbour, but traces of ruins near the shore mark the site
of the old Maiuma Gazae or Port of Gaza, now called el Mineh, which in
the 5th century was a separate town and episcopal see, under the title
Constantia or Limena Gaza. Hashem, an ancestor of Mahomet, lies buried
in the town. On the east are remains of a race-course, the corners
marked by granite shafts with Greek inscriptions on them. To the south
is a remarkable hill, quite isolated and bare, with a small mosque and a
graveyard. It is called el Muntar, "the watch tower," and is supposed to
be the mountain "before (or facing) Hebron," to which Samson carried the
gates of Gaza (Judg. xvi. 3). The bazaars of Gaza are considered good.
An extensive pottery exists in the town, and black earthenware peculiar
to the place is manufactured there. The climate is dry and comparatively
healthy, but the summer temperature often exceeds 110° Fahr. The
surrounding country is partly cornland, partly waste, and is inhabited
by wandering Arabs. The prosperity of Ghuzzeh has partially revived
through the growing trade in barley, of which the average annual export
to Great Britain for 1897-1899 was over 30,000 tons. The dress of the
people is Egyptian rather than Syrian. Gaza is an episcopal see both of
the Greek and the Armenian church. The Church Missionary Society
maintains a mission, with schools for both sexes, and a hospital.



GAZALAND, a district of Portuguese East Africa, extending north from the
Komati or Manhissa river, Delagoa Bay, to the Pungwe river. It is a
well-watered, fertile country. Gazaland is one of the chief recruiting
grounds for negro labour in the Transvaal gold mines. The country
derives its name from a Swazi chief named Gaza, a contemporary of Chaka,
the Zulu king. Refugees from various clans oppressed by Dingaan (Chaka's
successor) were welded into one tribe by Gaza's son Manikusa, who took
the name of Sotshangana, his followers being known generally as
Matshangana. A section of them was called Maviti or Landeens (i.e.
couriers), a designation which persists as a tribal name. Between 1833
and 1836 Manikusa made himself master of the country as far north as the
Zambezi and captured the Portuguese posts at Delagoa Bay, Inhambane,
Sofala and Sena, killing nearly all the inhabitants. The Portuguese
reoccupied their posts, but held them with great difficulty, while in
the interior the Matshangana continued their ravages unchecked,
depopulating large regions. Manikusa died about 1860, and his son
Umzila, receiving some help from the Portuguese at Delagoa Bay in a
struggle against a brother for the chieftainship, ceded to them the
territory south of the Manhissa river. North of that stream as far as
the Zambezi and inland to the continental plateau Umzila established
himself in independence, a position he maintained till his death (c.
1884). His chief rival was a Goanese named Gouveia, who came to Africa
about 1850. Having obtained possession of a _prazo_ in the Gorongoza
district, he ruled there as a feudal lord while acknowledging himself a
Portuguese subject. Gouveia recovered from the Matshangana and other
troublers of the peace much of the country in the Zambezi valley, and
was appointed by the Portuguese captain-general of a large region. From
1868 onward the country began to be better known. Probably the first
European to penetrate any distance inland from the Sofala coast since
the Portuguese gold-seekers of the 16th century was St Vincent W.
Erskine, who explored the region between the Limpopo and Pungwe
(1868-1875). Portugal's hold on the coast had been more firmly
established at the time of Umzila's death, and Gungunyana, his
successor, was claimed as a vassal, while efforts were made to open up
the interior. This led in 1890-1891 to collisions on the borderland of
the plateau with the newly established British South Africa Company, and
to the arrest by the company's agents of Gouveia, who was, however, set
at liberty and returned to Mozambique via Cape Town. An offer made by
Gungunyana (1891) to come under British protection was not accepted. In
1892 Gouveia was killed in a war with a native chief. Gungunyana
maintained his independence until 1895, when he was captured by a
Portuguese force and exiled, first to Lisbon and afterwards to Angola,
where he died in 1906. With the capture of Gungunyana opposition to
Portuguese rule largely ceased.

In flora, fauna and commerce Gazaland resembles the neighbouring regions
of Portuguese East Africa. (q.v.).

  See G. McCall Theal, _History of South Africa since 1795_, vol. v.
  (London, 1908).



GAZEBO (usually explained as a comic Latinism, for "I will gaze"; the
_New English Dictionary_ suggests a possible oriental origin now lost),
a term used in the 18th century for a structure on the outer wall of a
garden, having an upper storey with windows on each side so as to
overlook the road. Similar buildings are found in Holland on the borders
of the canals, which in some cases form very picturesque features.



GAZETTE, a name given to news-sheets or newspapers having an abstract of
current events (see NEWSPAPERS). The _London Gazette_ is the title of
the English official organ for announcements by the government, and is
published every Tuesday and Friday. It contains all proclamations,
orders of council, promotions and appointments to commissions in the
army and navy, all appointments to offices of state, and such other
orders, rules and regulations as are directed by act of parliament to be
published therein. It also contains notices of proceedings in
bankruptcy, dissolutions of partnership, &c. By the Documentary Evidence
Act 1868 the production of a copy of the _Gazette_ is prima facie
evidence of royal proclamations and government orders and regulations.
Similar gazettes are also published in Edinburgh and Dublin. Most
countries (the United States excepted) have official journals containing
information more or less similar to that of the _London Gazette_, as the
French _Journal officiel_, the German _Deutscher Reichs-und Kgl. Preuss.
Staats-Anzeiger_, &c. The word "gazetteer" was originally applied to one
who wrote for "gazettes," but is now only used for a geographical
dictionary arranged on an alphabetical plan.



GEAR (connected with "garb," properly elegance, fashion, especially of
dress, and with "gar," to cause to do, only found in Scottish and
northern dialects; the root of the word is seen in the Old Teut.
_garwjan_, to make ready), an outfit, applied to the wearing apparel of
a person, or to the harness and trappings of a horse or any draft
animal, as riding-gear, hunting-gear, &c.; also to household goods or
stuff. The phrase "out of gear," though now connected with the
mechanical application of the word, was originally used to signify "out
of harness" or condition, not ready to work, not fit. The word is also
used of apparatus generally, and especially of the parts collectively in
a machine by which motion is transmitted from one part to another by a
series of cog-wheels, continuous bands, &c. It is used in a special
sense in reference to a bicycle, meaning the diameter of an imaginary
wheel, the circumference of which is equal to the distance accomplished
by one revolution of the pedals (see BICYCLE).



GEBER. The name Geber has long been used to designate the author of a
number of Latin treatises on alchemy, entitled _Summa perfectionis
magisterii, De investigatione perfectionis, De inventione veritatis,
Liber fornacum, Testamentum Geberi Regis Indiae and Alchemia Geberi_,
and these writings were generally regarded as translations from the
Arabic originals of Abu Abdallah Jaber ben Hayyam (Haiyan) ben Abdallah
al-Kufi, who is supposed to have lived in the 8th or 9th century of the
Christian era. About him, however, there is considerable uncertainty.
According to the _Kitab-al-Fihrist_ (10th century), which gives his name
as above, the authorities disagree, some asserting him to have been a
writer on philosophy and rhetoric, and others claiming for him the first
place among the adepts of his time in the art of making gold and silver.
The writer of the _Kitab-al-Fihrist_ says he had been assured that Jaber
only wrote one book and even that he never existed at all, but these
statements he scouts as ridiculous, and expressing the conviction that
Jaber really did exist, and that his works were numerous and important,
goes on to quote the titles of some 500 treatises attributed to him. He
is said to have resided most frequently at Kufa, where he prepared the
"elixir," but, according to others, he never spent long in one place,
having reason to keep his whereabouts unknown. His patron or master is
variously given as Ja'far ben Yahya, and as Ja'far es-Sadiq; in the
Arabic _Book of Royalty_, professedly written by him, he addresses the
last-named as his master. In addition to these details the Fihrist
mentions a tradition that he originally came from Khorasan. Another
story given by d'Herbelot (_Bibliothèque orientale_, s.v. "Giaber")
makes him a native of Harran in Mesopotamia and a Sabaean. Leo
Africanus, who in 1526 gave an account of the Alchemists of Fez in
Africa (see the English translation of his _Africae descriptio_ by John
Pory, _A Geographical History of Africa_, London, 1600, p. 155), states
that their principal authority was Geber, a Greek who had apostatized to
Mahommedanism and lived a century after Mahomet. In Albertus Magnus the
name Geber occurs only once and then with the epithet "of Seville";
doubtless the reference is to the Arabian Jabir ben Aflah, who lived in
that city in the 11th century, and wrote an astronomy in 9 books which
is of importance in the history of trigonometry.

The great puzzle connected with the name Geber lies in the character of
the writings attributed to him, their style and matter differentiating
them strongly from those of even the best authors of the later
alchemical period, and making it difficult to account for their
existence at all. The researches of M.P.E. Berthelot threw a great deal
of light on this question. Taking the six treatises enumerated above he
concluded, after critical examination, that the two last may be
disregarded as of later date than the others, and that the _De
investigatione perfectionis_, the _De inventione_ and the _Liber
fornacum_ are merely extracts from or summaries of the _Summa
perfectionis_ with later additions. The _Summa_ he therefore regarded as
representative of the work of the Latin Geber, and study of it convinced
him that it contains no indication of an Arabic origin, either in its
method, which is conspicuous for clearness of reasoning and logical
co-ordination of material, or in its facts, or in the words and persons
quoted. Without going so far as to deny that some words and phrases may
be taken from the writings of the Arabian Jaber, he was disposed to hold
that it is the original work of some unknown Latin author, who wrote it
in the second half of the 13th century and put it under the patronage of
the venerated name of Geber. The MS. of this work in the Bibliothèque
Nationale at Paris dates from about the year 1300. Berthelot further
investigated Arabic MSS. existing in the Paris library and in the
university of Leiden, and containing works attributed to Jaber, and had
translations made of six treatises--two, of which he gives the titles as
_Livre de la royauté_ and _Petit Livre de la miséricorde_,--from Paris,
and four--_Livre des balances, Livre de la miséricorde, Livre de la
concentration_ and _Livre de la mercure orientale_--from Leiden.
Berthelot was not prepared to assert that these treatises were actually
written by Jaber, but he held it certain that they are works written in
Arabic between the 9th and 12th centuries, at a period anterior to the
relations of the Latins with the Arabs. In style these treatises are
entirely different from the _Summa_ of Geber. Their language is vague
and allegorical, full of allusions and pious Mussulman invocations; the
author continually announces that he is about to speak without mystery
or reserve, but all the same never gives any precise details of the
secrets he professes to reveal. He holds the doctrine that everything
endowed with an apparent quality possesses an opposite occult quality in
much the same terms as it is found in Latin writers of the middle ages,
but he makes no allusion to the theory of the generation of the metals
by sulphur and mercury, a theory generally attributed to Geber, who also
added arsenic to the list. Again he fully accepts the influence of the
stars on the production of the metals, whereas the Latin Geber disputes
it, and in general the chemical knowledge of the two is on a different
plane. Here again the inference is that the Latin treatises printed from
the 15th century onwards as the work of Geber are not authentic,
regarded as translations of the Arabic author Jaber, always supposing
that the Arabic MSS. transcribed and translated for Berthelot are
really, as they profess to be, the work of Jaber, and as representative
of his opinions and attainments.

But while Berthelot thus deprived the world of what were long regarded
as genuine Latin versions of Jaber's works, he also gave it something in
their place, for among the Paris MSS. he found a mutilated treatise,
hitherto unpublished, entitled _Liber de Septuaginta (Johannis),
translatus a Magistro Renaldo Cremonensi_, which he considered the only
known Latin work that can be regarded as a translation from the Arabic
Jaber. The latter states in the Arabic works referred to above that
under that title he collected 70 of the 500 little treatises or tracts
of which he was the author, and the titles of those tracts enumerated in
the _Kitab-al-Fihrist_ as forming the chapters of the _Liber de
Septuaginta_ correspond in general with those of the Latin work, which
further is written in a style similar to that of the Arabic Jaber and
contains the same doctrines. Hence Berthelot felt justified in assigning
it to Jaber, although no Arabic original is known.

The evidence collected by Berthelot has an important bearing on the
history of chemistry. Most of the chemical knowledge attributed to the
Arabs has been attributed to them on the strength of the reputed Latin
writings of Geber. If, therefore, these are original works rather than
translations, and contain facts and doctrines which are not to be found
in the Arabian Jaber, it follows that, on the one hand, the chemical
knowledge of the Arabs has been overestimated and, on the other, that
more progress was made in the middle ages than has generally been
supposed.

  See M.P.E. Berthelot's works on the history of alchemy and especially
  his _Chimie au moyen âge_ (3 vols., Paris, 1893), the third volume of
  which contains a French translation of Jaber's works together with the
  Arabic text.



GEBHARD TRUCHSESS VON WALDBURG (1547-1601), elector and archbishop of
Cologne, was the second son of William, count of Waldburg, and nephew of
Otto, cardinal bishop of Augsburg (1514-1573). Belonging thus to an old
and distinguished Swabian family, he was born on the 10th of November
1547, and after studying at the universities of Ingolstadt, Perugia,
Louvain and elsewhere began his ecclesiastical career at Augsburg.
Subsequently he held other positions at Strassburg, Cologne and
Augsburg, and in December 1577 was chosen elector of Cologne after a
spirited contest. Gebhard is chiefly noted for his conversion to the
reformed doctrines, and for his marriage with Agnes, countess of
Mansfeld, which was connected with this step. After living in
concubinage with Agnes he decided, perhaps under compulsion, to marry
her, doubtless intending at the same time to resign his see. Other
counsels, however, prevailed. Instigated by some Protestant supporters
he declared he would retain the electorate, and in December 1582 he
formally announced his conversion to the reformed faith. The marriage
with Agnes was celebrated in the following February, and Gebhard
remained in possession of the see. This affair created a great stir in
Germany, and the clause concerning ecclesiastical reservation in the
religious peace of Augsburg was interpreted in one way by his friends,
and in another way by his foes; the former holding that he could retain
his office, the latter that he must resign. Anticipating events Gebhard
had collected some troops, and had taken measures to convert his
subjects to Protestantism. In April 1583 he was deposed and
excommunicated by Pope Gregory XIII.; a Bavarian prince, Ernest, bishop
of Liége, Freising and Hildesheim, was chosen elector, and war broke out
between the rivals. The cautious Lutheran princes of Germany, especially
Augustus I., elector of Saxony, were not enthusiastic in support of
Gebhard, whose friendly relations with the Calvinists were not to their
liking; and although Henry of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV. of France,
tried to form a coalition to aid the deposed elector, the only
assistance which he obtained came from John Casimir, administrator of
the Palatinate of the Rhine. The inhabitants of the electorate were
about equally divided on the question, and Ernest, supported by Spanish
troops, was too strong for Gebhard. John Casimir, who acted as
commander-in-chief, returned to the Palatinate in October 1583, and
early in the following year Gebhard was driven from Bonn and took refuge
in the Netherlands. The electorate was soon completely in the possession
of Ernest, and the defeat of Gebhard was a serious blow to
Protestantism, and marks a stage in the history of the Reformation.
Living in the Netherlands he became very intimate with Elizabeth's
envoy, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, but he failed to get
assistance for renewing the war either from the English queen or in any
other quarter. In 1589 Gebhard took up his residence at Strassburg,
where he had held the office of dean of the cathedral since 1574. Before
his arrival some trouble had arisen in the chapter owing to the fact
that three excommunicated canons persisted in retaining their offices.
He joined this party, which was strongly supported in the city, took
part in a double election to the bishopric in 1592, and in spite of some
opposition retained his office until his death at Strassburg on the 31st
of May 1601. Gebhard was a drunken and licentious man, who owes his
prominence rather to his surroundings than to his abilities.

  See M. Lossen, _Der kölnische Krieg_ (Gotha, 1882), and the article on
  Gebhard in band viii. of the _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_
  (Leipzig, 1878); J.H. Hennes, _Der Kampf um das Erzstift Köln_
  (Cologne, 1878); L. Ennen, _Geschichte der Stadt Köln_ (Cologne,
  1863-1880); and _Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland_. _Der Kampf um
  Köln_, edited by J. Hansen (Berlin, 1892).



GEBWEILER (Fr. _Guebwiller_), a town of Germany in the imperial province
of Alsace-Lorraine, at the foot of the Vosges, on the Lauch, 13 m. S. of
Colmar, on the railway Bollweiler-Lautenbach. Pop. (1905) 13,259. Among
the principal buildings are the Roman Catholic church of St Leodgar,
dating from the 12th century, the Evangelical church, the synagogue, the
town-house, and the old Dominican convent now used as a market and
concert hall. The chief industries are spinning and dyeing, and the
manufacture of cloth and of machinery; quarrying is carried on and the
town is celebrated for its white wines.

Gebweiler is mentioned as early as 774. It belonged to the religious
foundation of Murbach, and in 1759 the abbots chose it for their
residence. In 1789, at the outbreak of the Revolution, the monastic
buildings were laid in ruins, and, though the archives were rescued and
removed to Colmar, the library perished.



GECKO,[1] the common name applied to all the species of the _Geckones_,
one of the three sub-orders of the _Lacertilia_. The geckoes are small
creatures, seldom exceeding 8 in. in length including the tail. With the
head considerably flattened, the body short and thick, the legs not high
enough to prevent the body dragging somewhat on the ground, the eyes
large and almost destitute of eyelids, and the tail short and in some
cases nearly as thick as the body, the geckoes altogether lack the
litheness and grace characteristic of most lizards. Their colours also
are dull, and to the weird and forbidding aspect thus produced the
general prejudice against those creatures in the countries where they
occur, which has led to their being classed with toads and snakes, is no
doubt to be attributed. Their bite was supposed to be venomous, and
their saliva to produce painful cutaneous eruptions; even their touch
was thought sufficient to convey a dangerous taint. It is needless to
say that in this instance the popular mind was misled by appearances.
The geckoes are not only harmless, but are exceedingly useful creatures,
feeding on insects, which, owing to the great width of their oesophagus,
they are enabled to swallow whole, and in pursuit of which they do not
hesitate to enter human dwellings, where they are often killed on
suspicion. The structure of the toes in these lizards forms one of
their most characteristic anatomical features.

[Illustration: Leaf-tailed Gecko (_Gymnodactylus platurus_) of
Australia.]

[Illustration: Lower Surface of the Toe of (a) _Gecko_, (b)
_Hemidactylus_--enlarged.]

Most geckoes have adhesive digits and toes, by means of which they are
enabled not only to climb absolutely smooth and vertical surfaces, for
instance a window-pane, but to run along a white-washed ceiling, back
downwards. The adhesion is not produced by sticky matter but by numerous
transverse lamellae, each of which is further beset with tiny hair-like
excrescences. The arrangement of the lamellae and pads differs much in
the various genera and is used for classificatory purposes. Those which
live on sandy ground have narrow digits without the adhesive apparatus.
Most species have sharp, curved claws, often retractile between some of
the lamellae or into a special sheath. The tail is very brittle and can
be quickly regenerated; it varies much in size and shape; the most
extraordinary is that of the leaf-tailed gecko. _Ptychozoon
homalocephalon_ of the Malay countries has membranous expansions on the
sides of the head, body, limbs and tail, which look like parachutes, but
more probably they aid in concealing the creature when it is closely
pressed to the similarly coloured bark of a tree. Most geckoes are dull
coloured, yellow to brown, and they soon change colour from lighter to
dark tints. They are insectivorous and chiefly nocturnal, but are fond
of basking in the sun, motionless on the bark of a tree, or on a rock
the colour of which is then imitated to a nicety. Some species are more
or less transparent.

Geckoes, of which about 270 species are known, subdivided into about 50
genera, are cosmopolitan within the warmer zones, including New Zealand,
and even the remotest volcanic islands. This wide distribution is due
partly to the great age of the suborder (although fossils are unknown),
partly to their being able to exist for several months without food so
that, concealed in hollow trunks of trees, they may float about for a
very long time. Ships, also, act as distributors. In south Europe occur
only _Hemidactylus turcicus_, _Tarentola mauritanica (Platydactylus
facetanus)_ and _Phyllodactylus europaeus_.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The Malay name _ge-koq_ imitates the animal's cry.



GED, WILLIAM (1690-1749), the inventor of stereotyping, was born at
Edinburgh in 1690. In 1725 he patented his invention, developed from the
simple process of soldering together loose types of Van der Mey. Ged,
although he succeeded in obtaining a cast in similar metal, of a type
page, could not persuade Edinburgh printers to take up his invention,
and finally entered into partnership with a London stationer named
Jenner and Thomas James, a typefounder. The partnership, however, turned
out very ill; and Ged, broken-hearted at his want of success due to
trade jealousy and the compositors' dislike of the innovation, died in
poverty on the 19th of October 1749. Two prayer-books for the university
of Cambridge and an edition of Sallust were printed from his stereotype
plates. In his time the best type was imported from Holland, and Ged's
daughter reports that he had repeated offers from the Dutch which, from
patriotic motives, he refused. His sons tried to carry out his patent,
and it was eventually perfected by Andrew Wilson.



GEDDES, ALEXANDER (1737-1802), Scottish Roman Catholic theologian, was
born in Rathven, Banffshire, on the 14th of September 1737. He was
trained at the Roman Catholic seminary at Scalan and at the Scottish
College in Paris, where he studied biblical philology, school divinity
and modern languages. In 1764 he officiated as a priest in Dundee, but
in May 1765 accepted an invitation to live with the earl of Traquair;
where, with abundance of leisure and the free use of an adequate
library, he made further progress in his favourite biblical studies.
After a second visit to Paris, which was employed by him in reading and
making extracts from rare books and manuscripts, he was appointed in
1769 priest of Auchinhalrig and Preshome in his native county. The
freedom with which he fraternized with his Protestant neighbours called
forth the rebuke of his bishop (George Hay), and ultimately, for hunting
and for occasionally attending the parish church of Cullen, where one of
his friends was minister, he was deprived of his charge and forbidden
the exercise of ecclesiastical functions within the diocese. This
happened in 1779; and in 1780 he went with his friend Lord Traquair to
London, where he spent the rest of his life. Before leaving Scotland he
had received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the university of
Aberdeen, and had been made an honorary member of the Society of
Antiquaries, in the institution of which he had taken a very active
part. In London Geddes soon received an appointment in connexion with
the chapel of the imperial ambassador, and was also helped by Lord Petre
in his scheme for a new Catholic version of the Bible. In 1786,
supported also by such scholars as Benjamin Kennicott and Robert Lowth,
Geddes published a _Prospectus of a new Translation of the Holy Bible_,
a considerable quarto volume, in which the defects of previous
translations were fully pointed out, and the means indicated by which
these might be removed. It was well received, and led to the publication
in 1788 of _Proposals for Printing_, with a specimen, and in 1790 of a
_General Answer to Queries, Counsels and Criticisms_. The first volume
of the translation itself, which was entitled _The Holy Bible ...
faithfully translated from corrected Texts of the Originals, with
various Readings, explanatory Notes and critical Remarks_, appeared in
1792, and was the signal for a storm of hostility on the part of both
Catholics and Protestants. It was obvious enough--no small offence in
the eyes of some--that as a critic Geddes had identified himself with
C.F. Houbigant (1686-1783), Kennicott and J.D. Michaelis, but others did
not hesitate to stigmatize him as the would-be "corrector of the Holy
Ghost." Three of the vicars-apostolic almost immediately warned all the
faithful against the "use and reception" of his translation, on the
ostensible ground that it had not been examined and approved by due
ecclesiastical authority; and by his own bishop (Douglas) he was in 1793
suspended from the exercise of his orders in the London district. The
second volume of the translation, completing the historical books,
published in 1797, found no more friendly reception; but this
circumstance did not discourage him from giving forth in 1800 the volume
of _Critical Remarks on the Hebrew Scriptures_, which presented in a
somewhat brusque manner the then novel and startling views of Eichhorn
and his school on the primitive history and early records of mankind.

Geddes was engaged on a critical translation of the Psalms (published in
1807) when he was seized with an illness of which he died on the 26th of
February 1802. Although under ecclesiastical censures, he had never
swerved from a consistent profession of faith as a Catholic; and on his
death-bed he duly received the last rites of his communion.

  Besides pamphlets on the Catholic and slavery questions, as well as
  several fugitive _jeux d'esprit_, and a number of unsigned articles in
  the _Analytical Review_, Geddes also published a free metrical version
  of _Select Satires of Horace_ (1779), and a verbal rendering of the
  _First Book of the Iliad of Homer_ (1792). The _Memoirs_ of his life
  and writings by his friend John Mason Good appeared in 1803.



GEDDES, ANDREW (1783-1844), British painter, was born at Edinburgh.
After receiving a good education in the high school and in the
university of that city, he was for five years in the excise office, in
which his father held the post of deputy auditor. After the death of his
father, who had opposed his desire to become an artist, he came to
London and entered the Royal Academy schools. His first contribution to
the exhibitions of the Royal Academy, a "St John in the Wilderness,"
appeared at Somerset House in 1806, and from that year onwards Geddes
was a fairly constant exhibitor of figure-subjects and portraits. His
well-known portrait of Wilkie, with whom he was on terms of intimacy,
was at the Royal Academy in 1816. He alternated for some years between
London and Edinburgh, with some excursions on the Continent, but in 1831
settled in London, and was elected associate of the Royal Academy in
1832; and he died in London of consumption in 1844. A very able
executant, a good colourist, and a close student of character, he made
his chief success as a portrait-painter, but he produced occasional
figure subjects and landscapes, and executed some admirable copies of
the old masters as well. He was also a good etcher. His portrait of his
mother, and a portrait study, called "Summer," are in the National
Gallery of Scotland, and his portrait of Sir Walter Scott is in the
Scottish National Portrait Gallery.

  See _Art in Scotland: its Origin and Progress_, by Robert Brydall
  (1889); _The Scottish School of Painting_, by William D. McKay, R.S.A.
  (1906).



GEDDES, JAMES LORRAINE (1827-1887), American soldier and writer, was
born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 19th of March 1827. In his boyhood
he was taken to Canada, but in 1843 he returned to Scotland; then
studied at Calcutta in the military academy, entered the army, and after
distinguishing himself in the Punjab campaign, returned to Canada,
whence in 1857 he removed to Vinton, Iowa. In the American Civil War he
served in the Federal army first as lieutenant-colonel and after
February 1862 as colonel of volunteers, taking part in the fighting at
Shiloh, Vicksburg and Corinth. He was captured at Shiloh and was
imprisoned for a time at Madison, Ga., and in Libby prison, Richmond,
Va., and in 1865 was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. He was
principal of the College for the Blind at Vinton after the war, and
until his death was connected with the Iowa College of Agriculture at
Ames, being military instructor and cashier in 1870-1882, acting
president in 1876-1877, librarian in 1877-1875, vice-president and
professor of military tactics in 1880-1882, and treasurer in 1884-1887.
He died at Ames on the 21st of February 1887. He wrote a number of war
songs, including "The Soldiers' Battle Prayer" and "The Stars and
Stripes."



GEDDES, SIR WILLIAM DUGUID (1828-1900), Scottish scholar and
educationist, was born in Aberdeenshire. He was educated at Elgin
academy and university and King's College, Aberdeen, and after having
held various scholastic posts he was appointed in 1860 professor of
Greek and in 1885 principal of the (united) university of Aberdeen. He
was knighted in 1892. He died in Aberdeen on the 9th of February 1900.
It is chiefly as a teacher that Geddes will be remembered, and in his
enthusiastic and successful efforts to raise the standard of Greek at
the Scottish universities he has been compared with the humanists of the
Renaissance. Amongst other works he was the author of _A Greek Grammar_
(1855; 17th edition, 1883; new and revised edition, 1893); a meritorious
edition of the _Phaedo_ of Plato (2nd ed., 1885); and _The Problem of
the Homeric Poems_ (1878), in which, while supporting Grote's view that
the _Iliad_ consisted of an original Achilleïs with insertions or
additions by later hands, he maintains that these insertions are due to
the author of the _Odyssey_.



GEDYMIN (d. 1342), grand-duke of Lithuania, was supposed by the earlier
chroniclers to have been the servant of Witen, prince of Lithuania, but
more probably he was Witen's younger brother and the son of Lutuwer,
another Lithuanian prince. Gedymin inherited a vast domain, comprising
Lithuania proper, Samogitia, Red Russia, Polotsk and Minsk; but these
possessions were environed by powerful and greedy foes, the most
dangerous of them being the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian knights of
the Sword. The systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights under the
pretext of converting it had long since united all the Lithuanian tribes
against the common enemy; but Gedymin aimed at establishing a dynasty
which should make Lithuania not merely secure but mighty, and for this
purpose he entered into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy
See. At the end of 1322 he sent letters to Pope John XXII. soliciting
his protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him of
the privileges already granted to the Dominicans and the Franciscans in
Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word, and desiring that legates
should be sent to receive him also into the bosom of the church. On
receiving a favourable reply from the Holy See, Gedymin issued circular
letters, dated 25th of January 1325, to the principal Hanse towns,
offering a free access into his domains to men of every order and
profession from nobles and knights to tillers of the soil. The
immigrants were to choose their own settlements and be governed by their
own laws. Priests and monks were also invited to come and build churches
at Vilna and Novogrodek. Similar letters were sent to the Wendish or
Baltic cities, and to the bishops and landowners of Livonia and
Esthonia. In short Gedymin, recognizing the superiority of western
civilization, anticipated Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great by
throwing open the semi-savage Russian lands to influences of culture.

In October 1323 representatives of the archbishop of Riga, the bishop of
Dorpat, the king of Denmark, the Dominican and Franciscan orders, and
the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order assembled at Vilna, when Gedymin
confirmed his promises and undertook to be baptized as soon as the papal
legates arrived. A compact was then signed at Vilna, "in the name of the
whole Christian World," between Gedymin and the delegates, confirming
the promised privileges. But the christianizing of Lithuania was by no
means to the liking of the Teutonic Knights, and they used every effort
to nullify Gedymin's far-reaching design. This, unfortunately, it was
easy to do. Gedymin's chief object was to save Lithuania from
destruction at the hands of the Germans. But he was still a pagan
reigning over semi-pagan lands; he was equally bound to his pagan
kinsmen in Samogitia, to his orthodox subjects in Red Russia, and to his
Catholic allies in Masovia. His policy, therefore, was necessarily
tentative and ambiguous, and might very readily be misinterpreted. Thus
his raid upon Dobrzyn, the latest acquisition of the knights on Polish
soil, speedily gave them a ready weapon against him. The Prussian
bishops, who were devoted to the knights, at a synod at Elbing
questioned the authority of Gedymin's letters and denounced him as an
enemy of the faith; his orthodox subjects reproached him with leaning
towards the Latin heresy; while the pagan Lithuanians accused him of
abandoning the ancient gods. Gedymin disentangled himself from his
difficulties by repudiating his former promises; by refusing to receive
the papal legates who arrived at Riga in September 1323; and by
dismissing the Franciscans from his territories. These apparently
retrogressive measures simply amounted to a statesmanlike recognition of
the fact that the pagan element was still the strongest force in
Lithuania, and could not yet be dispensed with in the coming struggle
for nationality. At the same time Gedymin through his ambassadors
privately informed the papal legates at Riga that his difficult position
compelled him for a time to postpone his steadfast resolve of being
baptized, and the legates showed their confidence in him by forbidding
the neighbouring states to war against Lithuania for the next four
years, besides ratifying the treaty made between Gedymin and the
archbishop of Riga. Nevertheless in 1325 the Order, disregarding the
censures of the church, resumed the war with Gedymin, who had in the
meantime improved his position by an alliance with Wladislaus Lokietek,
king of Poland, whose son Casimir now married Gedymin's daughter Aldona.

While on his guard against his northern foes, Gedymin from 1316 to 1340
was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the numerous Russian
principalities in the south and east, whose incessant conflicts with
each other wrought the ruin of them all. Here Gedymin's triumphal
progress was irresistible; but the various stages of it are impossible
to follow, the sources of its history being few and conflicting, and the
date of every salient event exceedingly doubtful. One of his most
important territorial accretions, the principality of Halicz-Vladimir,
was obtained by the marriage of his son Lubart with the daughter of the
Haliczian prince; the other, Kiev, apparently by conquest. Gedymin also
secured an alliance with the grand-duchy of Muscovy by marrying his
daughter, Anastasia, to the grand-duke Simeon. But he was strong enough
to counterpoise the influence of Muscovy in northern Russia, and
assisted the republic of Pskov, which acknowledged his overlordship, to
break away from Great Novgorod. His internal administration bears all
the marks of a wise ruler. He protected the Catholic as well as the
orthodox clergy, encouraging them both to civilize his subjects; he
raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state of efficiency then
attainable; defended his borders with a chain of strong fortresses; and
built numerous towns including Vilna, the capital (c. 1321). Gedymin
died in the winter of 1342 of a wound received at the siege of Wielowa.
He was married three times, and left seven sons and six daughters.

  See Teodor Narbutt, _History of the Lithuanian nation_ (Pol.) (Vilna,
  1835); Antoni Prochaska, _On the Genuineness of the Letters of
  Gedymin_ (Pol.) (Cracow, 1895); Vladimir Bonifatovich Antonovich,
  _Monograph concerning the History of Western and South-western Russia_
  (Rus.) (Kiev, 1885).     (R. N. B.)



GEE, THOMAS (1815-1898), Welsh Nonconformist preacher and journalist,
was born at Denbigh on the 24th of January 1815. At the age of fourteen
he went into his father's printing office, but continued to attend the
grammar school in the afternoons. In 1837 he went to London to improve
his knowledge of printing, and on his return to Wales in the following
year ardently threw himself into literary, educational and religious
work. Among his publications were the well-known quarterly magazine _Y
Traethodydd_ ("The Essayist"), _Gwyddoniadur Cymreig_ ("Encyclopaedia
Cambrensis"), and Dr Silvan Evans's _English-Welsh Dictionary_ (1868),
but his greatest achievement in this field was the newspaper _Baner
Cymru_ ("The Banner of Wales"), founded in 1857 and amalgamated with _Yr
Amserau_ ("The Times") two years later. This paper soon became an oracle
in Wales, and played a great part in stirring up the nationalist
movement in the principality. In educational matters he waged a long and
successful struggle on behalf of undenominational schools and for the
establishment of the intermediate school system. He was an enthusiastic
advocate of church disestablishment, and had a historic newspaper duel
with Dr John Owen (afterwards bishop of St David's) on this question.
The Eisteddfod found in him a thorough friend and a wise counsellor. His
commanding presence, mastery of diction, and resonant voice made him an
effective platform speaker. He was ordained to the Calvinistic Methodist
ministry at Bala in 1847, and gave his time and talents ungrudgingly to
Sunday school and temperance work. Throughout his life he believed in
the itinerant unpaid ministry rather than in the settled pastorate. He
died on the 28th of September 1898, and his funeral was the most
imposing ever seen in North Wales.



GEEL, JACOB (1789-1862), Dutch scholar and critic, was born at Amsterdam
on the 12th of November 1789. In 1823 he was appointed sub-librarian,
and in 1833 chief librarian and honorary professor at Leiden, where he
died on the 11th of November 1862. Geel materially contributed to the
development of classical studies in Holland. He was the author of
editions of Theocritus (1820), of the Vatican fragments of Polybius
(1829), of the [Greek: 'Olumpiakos] of Dio Chrysostom (1840) and of
numerous essays in the _Rheinisches Museum_ and _Bibliotheca critica
nova_, of which he was one of the founders. He also compiled a valuable
catalogue of the MSS. in the Leiden library, wrote a history of the
Greek sophists, and translated various German works into Dutch.



GEELONG, a seaport of Grant county, Victoria, Australia, situated on an
extensive land-locked arm of Port Phillip known as Corio Bay, 45 m. by
rail S.W. of Melbourne. Pop. of the city proper (1901) 12,399; with the
adjacent boroughs of Geelong West, and Newton-and-Chilwell, 23,311.
Geelong slopes to the bay on the north and to the Barwon river on the
south, and its position in this respect, as well as the shelter it
obtains from the Bellarine hills, renders it one of the healthiest towns
in Victoria. As a manufacturing centre it is of considerable importance.
The first woollen mill in the colony was established here, and the
tweeds, cloths and other woollen fabrics of the town are noted
throughout Australia. There are extensive tanneries, flour-mills and
salt works, while at Fyansford, 3 m. distant, there are important cement
works and paper-mills. The extensive vineyards in the neighbourhood of
the town were destroyed under the Phylloxera Act, but replanting
subsequently revived this industry. Corio Bay, a safe and commodious
harbour, is entered by two channels across its bar, one of which has a
depth of 23½ ft. There is extensive quayage, and the largest wool ships
are able to load alongside the wharves, which are connected by rail with
all parts of the colony. The facilities given for shipping wool direct
to England from this port have caused a very extensive wool-broking
trade to grow up in the town. The country surrounding Geelong is
agricultural, but there are large limestone quarries east of the town,
and in the Otway Forest, 23 m. distant, coal is worked. Geelong was
incorporated in 1849.



GEESTEMÜNDE, a seaport town of Germany, in the Prussian province of
Hanover, on the right bank of the Weser, at the mouth of the Geeste,
which separates it from Bremerhaven, 32 m. N. from Bremen by rail. Pop.
(1905) 23,625. The interest of the place is purely naval and commercial,
its origin dating no farther back than 1857, when the construction of
the harbour was begun. The great basin, which can accommodate large
sea-going vessels, was completed in 1863, the petroleum basin was opened
in 1874, and additional wharves have been constructed for the reception
of vessels engaged in the fishing industry. The fish market of
Geestemünde is the most important in Germany, and the auction hall
practically determines the price of fish throughout the empire. The
whole port is protected by powerful fortifications. Among the industrial
establishments of the town are shipbuilding yards, foundries,
engineering works and saw-mills.



GEFFCKEN, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH (1830-1896), German diplomatist and jurist,
was born on the 9th of December 1830 at Hamburg, of which city his
father was senator. After studying law at Bonn, Göttingen and Berlin, he
was attached in 1854 to the Prussian legation at Paris. For ten years
(1856-1866) he was the diplomatic representative of Hamburg in Berlin,
first as chargé d'affaires, and afterwards as minister-resident, being
afterwards transferred in a like capacity to London. Appointed in 1872
professor of constitutional history and public law in the reorganized
university of Strassburg, Geffcken became in 1880 a member of the
council of state of Alsace-Lorraine. Of too nervous a temperament to
withstand the strain of the responsibilities of his position, he retired
from public service in 1882, and lived henceforth mostly at Munich,
where he died, suffocated by an accidental escape of gas into his
bedchamber, on the 1st of May 1896. Geffcken was a man of great
erudition and wide knowledge and of remarkable legal acumen, and from
these qualities proceeded the personal influence he possessed. He was
moreover a clear writer and made his mark as an essayist. He was one of
the most trusted advisers of the Prussian crown prince, Frederick
William (afterwards the emperor Frederick), and it was he (it is said,
at Bismarck's suggestion) who drew up the draft of the New German
federal constitution, which was submitted to the crown prince's
headquarters at Versailles during the war of 1870-71. It was also
Geffcken who assisted in framing the famous document which the emperor
Frederick, on his accession to the throne in 1888, addressed to the
chancellor. This memorandum gave umbrage, and on the publication by
Geffcken in the _Deutsche Rundschau_ (Oct. 1888) of extracts from the
emperor Frederick's private diary during the war of 1870-71, he was, at
Bismarck's instance, prosecuted for high treason. The Reichsgericht
(supreme court), however, quashed the indictment, and Geffcken was
liberated after being under arrest for three months. Publications of
various kinds proceeded from his pen. Among these are _Zur Geschichte
des orientalischen Krieges 1853-1856_ (Berlin, 1881); _Frankreich,
Russland und der Dreibund_ (Berlin, 1894); and _Staat und Kirche_
(1875), English translation by E.F. Fairfax (1877). His writings on
English history have been translated by S.J. Macmullan and published as
_The British Empire, with essays on Prince Albert, Palmerston,
Beaconsfield, Gladstone, and reform of the House of Lords_ (1889).



GEFFROY, MATHIEU AUGUSTE (1820-1895), French historian, was born in
Paris. After studying at the École Normale Supérieure he held history
professorships at various lycées. His French thesis for the doctorate of
letters, _Étude sur les pamphlets politiques et religieux de Milton_
(1848), showed that he was attracted towards foreign history, a study
for which he soon qualified himself by mastering the Germanic and
Scandinavian languages. In 1851 he published a _Histoire des états
scandinaves_, which is especially valuable for clear arrangement and for
the trustworthiness of its facts. Later, a long stay in Sweden
furnished him with valuable documents for a political and social history
of Sweden and France at the end of the 18th century. In 1864 and 1865 he
published in the _Revue des deux mondes_ a series of articles on
Gustavus III. and the French court, which were republished in book form
in 1867. To the second volume he appended a critical study on _Marie
Antoinette et Louis XVI apocryphes_, in which he proved, by evidence
drawn from documents in the private archives of the emperor of Austria,
that the letters published by Feuillet de Conches (_Louis XVI, Marie
Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth_, 1864-1873) and Hunolstein (_Corresp.
inédite de Marie Antoinette_, 1864) are forgeries. With the
collaboration of Alfred von Arneth, director of the imperial archives at
Vienna, he edited the _Correspondance secrète entre Marie-Thérèse et le
comte de Mercy-Argenteau_ (3 vols., 1874), the first account based on
trustworthy documents of Marie Antoinette's character, private conduct
and policy. The Franco-German War drew Geffroy's attention to the
origins of Germany, and his _Rome et les Barbares: étude sur la Germanie
de Tacite_ (1874) set forth some of the results of German scholarship.
He was then appointed to superintend the opening of the French school of
archaeology at Rome, and drew up two useful reports (1877 and 1884) on
its origin and early work. But his personal tastes always led him back
to the study of modern history. When the Paris archives of foreign
affairs were thrown open to students, it was decided to publish a
collection of the instructions given to French ambassadors since 1648
(_Recueil des instructions données aux ambassadeurs et ministres de
France depuis le traité de Westphalie_), and Geffroy was commissioned to
edit the volumes dealing with Sweden (vol. ii., 1885) and Denmark (vol.
xiii., 1895). In the interval he wrote _Madame de Maintenon d'après sa
correspondance authentique_ (2 vols., 1887), in which he displayed his
penetrating critical faculty in discriminating between authentic
documents and the additions and corrections of arrangers like La
Beaumelle and Lavallée. His last works were an _Essai sur la formation
des collections d'antiques de la Suède_ and _Des institutions et des
moeurs du paganisme scandinave: l'Islande avant le Christianisme_, both
published posthumously. He died at Bièvre on the 16th of August 1895.



GEFLE, a seaport of Sweden on an inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia, chief
town of the district (_län_) of Gefleborg, 112 m. N.N.W. of Stockholm by
rail. Pop. (1900) 29,522. It is the chief port of the district of
Kopparberg, with its iron and other mines and forests. The exports
consist principally of timber and wood-pulp, iron and steel. The
harbour, which has two entrances about 20 ft. deep, is usually ice-bound
in mid-winter. Large vessels generally load in the roads at Gråberg, 6
m. distant. There are slips and shipbuilding yards, and a manufacture of
sail-cloth. The town is an important industrial centre, having tobacco
and leather factories, electrical and other mechanical works, and
breweries. At Skutskär at the mouth of the Dal river are wood-pulp and
saw mills, dealing with the large quantities of timber floated down the
river; and there are large wood-yards in the suburb of Bomhus. Gefle was
almost destroyed by fire in 1869, but was rebuilt in good style, and has
the advantage of a beautiful situation. The principal buildings are a
castle, founded by King John III. (1568-1592), but rebuilt later, a
council-house erected by Gustavus III., who held a diet here in 1792, an
exchange, and schools of commerce and navigation.



GEGENBAUR, CARL (1826-1903), German anatomist, was born on the 21st of
August 1826 at Würzburg, the university of which he entered as a student
in 1845. After taking his degree in 1851 he spent some time in
travelling in Italy and Sicily, before returning to Würzburg as
_Privatdocent_ in 1854. In 1855 he was appointed extraordinary professor
of anatomy at Jena, where after 1865 his fellow-worker, Ernst Haeckel,
was professor of zoology, and in 1858 he became the ordinary professor.
In 1873 he was appointed to Heidelberg, where he was professor of
anatomy and director of the Anatomical Institute until his retirement in
1901. He died at Heidelberg on the 14th of June 1903. The work by which
perhaps he is best known is his _Grundriss der vergleichenden Anatomie_
(Leipzig, 1874; 2nd edition, 1878). This was translated into English by
W.F. Jeffrey Bell (_Elements of Comparative Anatomy_, 1878), with
additions by E. Ray Lankester. While recognizing the importance of
comparative embryology in the study of descent, Gegenbaur laid stress on
the higher value of comparative anatomy as the basis of the study of
homologies, i.e. of the relations between corresponding parts in
different animals, as, for example, the arm of man, the foreleg of the
horse and the wing of a fowl. A distinctive piece of work was effected
by him in 1871 in supplementing the evidence adduced by Huxley in
refutation of the theory of the origin of the skull from expanded
vertebrae, which, formulated independently by Goethe and Oken, had been
championed by Owen. Huxley demonstrated that the skull is built up of
cartilaginous pieces; Gegenbaur showed that "in the lowest (gristly)
fishes, where hints of the original vertebrae might be most expected,
the skull is an unsegmented gristly brain-box, and that in higher forms
the vertebral nature of the skull cannot be maintained, since many of
the bones, notably those along the top of the skull, arise in the skin."
Other publications by Gegenbaur include a _Text-book of Human Anatomy_
(Leipzig, 1883, new ed. 1903), the _Epiglottis_ (1892) and _Comparative
Anatomy of the Vertebrates in relation to the Invertebrates_ (Leipzig, 2
vols., 1898-1901). In 1875 he founded the _Morphologisches Jahrbuch_,
which he edited for many years. In 1901 he published a short
autobiography under the title _Erlebtes und Erstrebtes_.

  See Fürbringer in _Heidelberger Professoren aus dem 19ten Jahrhundert_
  (Heidelberg, 1903).



GEGENSCHEIN (Ger. _gegen_, opposite, and _schein_, shine), an extremely
faint luminescence of the sky, seen opposite the direction of the sun.
Germany was the country in which it was first discovered and described.
The English rendering "counterglow" is also given to it. Its faintness
is such that it can be seen only by a practised eye under favourable
conditions. It is invisible during the greater part of June, July,
December and January, owing to its being then blotted out by the
superior light of the Milky Way. It is also invisible during moonlight
and near the horizon, and the neighbourhood of a bright star or planet
may interfere with its recognition. When none of these unfavourable
conditions supervene it may be seen at nearly any time when the air is
clear and the depression of the sun below the horizon more than 20°.
(See ZODIACAL LIGHT.)



GEIBEL, EMANUEL (1815-1884), German poet, was born at Lübeck on the 17th
of October 1815, the son of a pastor in the city. He was originally
intended for his father's profession, and studied at Bonn and Berlin, but
his real interests lay not in theology but in classical and romance
philology. In 1838 he accepted a tutorship at Athens, where he remained
until 1840. In the same year he brought out, in conjunction with his
friend Ernst Curtius, a volume of translations from the Greek. His first
poems, _Zeitstimmen_, appeared in 1841; a tragedy, _König Roderich_,
followed in 1843. In the same year he received a pension from the king of
Prussia, which he retained until his invitation to Munich by the king of
Bavaria in 1851 as honorary professor at the university. In the interim he
had produced _König Sigurds Brautfahrt_ (1846), an epic, and
_Juniuslieder_ (1848, 33rd ed. 1901), lyrics in a more spirited and
manlier style than his early poems. A volume of _Neue Gedichte_, published
at Munich in 1857, and principally consisting of poems on classical
subjects, denoted a further considerable advance in objectivity, and the
series was worthily closed by the _Spätherbstblätter_, published in 1877.
He had quitted Munich in 1869 and returned to Lübeck, where he died on the
6th of April 1884. His works further include two tragedies, _Brunhild_
(1858, 5th ed. 1890), and _Sophonisbe_ (1869), and translations of French
and Spanish popular poetry. Beginning as a member of the group of
political poets who heralded the revolution of 1848, Geibel was also the
chief poet to welcome the establishment of the Empire in 1871. His
strength lay not, however, in his political songs but in his purely lyric
poetry, such as the fine cycle _Ada_ and his still popular love-songs. He
may be regarded as the leading representative of German lyric poetry
between 1848 and 1870.

  Geibel's _Gesammelte Werke_ were published in 8 vols. (1883, 4th ed.
  1906); his _Gedichte_ have gone through about 130 editions. An
  excellent selection in one volume appeared in 1904. For biography and
  criticism, see K. Goedeke, _E. Geibel_ (1869); W. Scherer's address on
  Geibel (1884); K.T. Gaedertz, _Geibel-Denkwurdigkeiten_ (1886); C.C.T.
  Litzmann, _E. Geibel, aus Erinnerungen, Briefen und Tagebüchern_
  (1887), and biographies by C. Leimbach (2nd ed., 1894), and K.T.
  Gaedertz (1897).



GEIGE (O. Fr. _gigue_, _gige_; O. Ital. and Span. _giga_; Prov. _gigua_;
O. Dutch _gighe_), in modern German the violin; in medieval German the
name applied to the first stringed instruments played with a bow, in
contradistinction to those whose strings were plucked by fingers or
plectrum such as the cithara, rotta and fidula, the first of these terms
having been very generally used to designate various instruments whose
strings were plucked. The name _gîge_ in Germany, of which the origin is
uncertain,[1] and its derivatives in other languages, were in the middle
ages applied to rebecs having fingerboards. As the first bowed
instruments in Europe were, as far as we know, those of the rebab type,
both boat-shaped and pear-shaped, it seems probable that the name clung
to them long after the bow had been applied to other stringed
instruments derived from the cithara, such as the fiddle (videl) or
vielle. In the romances of the 12th and 13th centuries the _gîge_ is
frequently mentioned, and generally associated with the rotta. Early in
the 16th century we find definite information concerning the Geige in
the works of Sebastian Virdung (1511), Hans Judenkünig (1523), Martin
Agricola (1532), Hans Gerle (1533); and from the instruments depicted,
of two distinct types and many varieties, it would appear that the
principal idea attached to the name was still that of the bow used to
vibrate the strings. Virdung qualifies the word _Geige_ with _Klein_
(small) and _Gross_ (large), which do not represent two sizes of the
same instrument but widely different types, also recognized by Agricola,
who names three or four sizes of each, discant, alto, tenor and bass.
Virdung's _Klein Geige_ is none other than the rebec with two C-shaped
soundholes and a raised fingerboard cut in one piece with the vaulted
back and having a separate flat soundboard glued over it, a change
rendered necessary by the arched bridge. Agricola's _Klein Geige_ with
three strings was of a totally different construction, having ribs and
wide incurvations but no bridge; there was a rose soundhole near the
tailpiece and two C-shaped holes in the shoulders. Agricola (_Musica
instrumentalis_) distinctly mentions three kinds of _Geigen_ with three,
four and five strings. From him we learn that only one position was as
yet used on these instruments, one or two higher notes being
occasionally obtained by sliding the little finger along. A century
later Agricola's _Geige_ was regarded as antiquated by Praetorius, who
reproduces one of the bridgeless ones with five strings, a rose and two
C-shaped soundholes, and calls it an old fiddle; under _Geige_ he gives
the violins.     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The words _gîge_, _gîgen_, _geic_ appear suddenly in the M. H.
    German of the 12th century, and thence passed apparently into the
    Romance languages, though some would reverse the process (e.g.
    Weigand, _Deutsches Wörterbuch_). An elaborate argument in the
    _Deutsches Wörterbuch_ of J. and W. Grimm (Leipzig, 1897) connects
    the word with an ancient common Teut. root _gag_--meaning to sway to
    and fro, as preserved in numerous forms: e.g. M.H.G _gagen_, _gugen_,
    "to sway to and fro" (_gugen_, _gagen_, the rocking of a cradle), the
    Swabian _gigen_, _gagen_, in the same sense, the Tirolese _gaiggern_,
    to sway, doubt, or the old Norse _geiga_, to go astray or crooked.
    The reference is to the swaying motion of the violin bow. The English
    "jig" is derived from _gîge_ through the O. Fr. _gigue_ (in the sense
    of a stringed instrument); the modern French gigue (a dance) is the
    English "jig" re-imported (Hatzfeld and Darmesteter, _Dictionnaire_).
    This opens up another possibility, of the origin of the name of the
    instrument in the dance which it accompanied.     (W. A. P.)



GEIGER, ABRAHAM (1810-1874), Jewish theologian and orientalist, was born
at Frankfort-on-Main on the 24th of May 1810, and educated at the
universities of Heidelberg and Bonn. As a student he distinguished
himself in philosophy and in philology, and at the close of his course
wrote on the relations of Judaism and Mahommedanism a prize essay which
was afterwards published in 1833 under the title _Was hat Mohammed aus
dem Judentum aufgenommen?_ (English trans. _Judaism and Islam_, Madras,
1898). In November 1832 he went to Wiesbaden as rabbi of the synagogue,
and became in 1835 one of the most active promoters of the _Zeitschrift
für jüdische Theologie_ (1835-1839 and 1842-1847). From 1838 to 1863 he
lived in Breslau, where he organized the reform movement in Judaism and
wrote some of his most important works, including _Lehr- und Lesebuch
zur Sprache der Mischna_ (1845), _Studien_ from Maimonides (1850),
translation into German of the poems of Juda ha-Levi (1851), and
_Urschrift und Übersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhängigkeit von der
innern Entwickelung des Judentums_ (1857). The last-named work attracted
little attention at the time, but now enjoys a great reputation as a new
departure in the methods of studying the records of Judaism. The
_Urschrift_ has moreover been recognized as one of the most original
contributions to biblical science. In 1863 Geiger became head of the
synagogue of his native town, and in 1870 he removed to Berlin, where,
in addition to his duties as chief rabbi, he took the principal charge
of the newly established seminary for Jewish science. The _Urschrift_
was followed by a more exhaustive handling of one of its topics in _Die
Sadducäer und Pharisäer_ (1863), and by a more thorough application of
its leading principles in an elaborate history of Judaism (_Das Judentum
und seine Geschichte_) in 1865-1871. Geiger also contributed frequently
on Hebrew, Samaritan and Syriac subjects to the _Zeitschrift der
deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft_, and from 1862 until his death
(on the 23rd of October 1874) he was editor of a periodical entitled
_Jüdische Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Leben_. He also published a
Jewish prayerbook (_Israëlitisches Gebetbuch_) and a variety of minor
monographs on historical and literary subjects connected with the
fortunes of his people.     (I. A.)

An _Allgemeine Einleitung_ and five volumes of _Nachgelassene Schriften_
were edited in 1875 by his son LUDWIG GEIGER (b. 1848), who in 1880 became
extraordinary professor in the university of Berlin. Ludwig Geiger
published a large number of biographical and literary works and made a
special study of German humanism. He edited the _Goethe-Jahrbuch_ from
1880, _Vierteljahrsschrift für Kultur und Litteratur der Renaissance_
(1885-1886), _Zeitschr. für die Gesch. der Juden im Deutschland_
(1886-1891), _Zeitschr. für vergleichende Litteraturgeschichte und
Renaissance-Litteratur_ (1887-1891). Among his works are _Johann Reuchlin,
sein Leben und seine Werke_ (Leipzig, 1871); and _Johann Reuchlin's
Briefwechsel_ (Tübingen, 1875); _Renaissance und Humanismus in Italien und
Deutschland_ (1882, 2nd ed. 1901); _Gesch. des geistigen Lebens der
preussischen Hauptstadt_ (1892-1894); _Berlin's geistiges Leben_
(1894-1896).

  See also J. Derenbourg in _Jüd. Zeitschrift_, xi. 299-308; E.
  Schrieber, _Abraham Geiger als Reformator des Judentums_ (1880), art.
  (with portrait) in _Jewish Encyclopedia_.

Abraham Geiger's nephew LAZARUS GEIGER (1829-1870), philosopher and
philologist, born at Frankfort-on-Main, was destined to commerce, but
soon gave himself up to scholarship and studied at Marburg, Bonn and
Heidelberg. From 1861 till his sudden death in 1870 he was professor in
the Jewish high school at Frankfort. His chief aim was to prove that the
evolution of human reason is closely bound up with that of language. He
further maintained that the origin of the Indo-Germanic language is to
be sought not in Asia but in central Germany. He was a convinced
opponent of rationalism in religion. His chief work was his _Ursprung
und Entwickelung der menschlichen Sprache und Vernunft_ (vol. i.,
Stuttgart, 1868), the principal results of which appeared in a more
popular form as _Der Ursprung der Sprache_ (Stuttgart, 1869 and 1878).
The second volume of the former was published in an incomplete form
(1872, 2nd ed. 1899) after his death by his brother Alfred Geiger, who
also published a number of his scattered papers as _Zur Entwickelung der
Menschheit_ (1871, 2nd ed. 1878; Eng. trans. D. Asher, _Hist. of the
Development of the Human Race_, Lond., 1880).

  See L.A. Rosenthal, _Laz. Geiger: seine Lehre vom Ursprung d. Sprache
  und Vernunft und sein Leben_ (Stuttgart, 1883); E. Peschier, _L.
  Geiger, sein Leben und Denken_ (1871); J. Keller, _L. Geiger und d.
  Kritik d. Vernunft_ (Wertheim, 1883) and _Der Ursprung d. Vernunft_
  (Heidelberg, 1884).



GEIJER, ERIK GUSTAF (1783-1847), Swedish historian, was born at Ransäter
in Värmland, on the 12th of January 1783, of a family that had
immigrated from Austria in the 17th century. He was educated at the
university of Upsala, where in 1803 he carried off the Swedish Academy's
great prize for his _Äreminne öfver Sten Sture den äldre_. He graduated
in 1806, and in 1810 returned from a year's residence in England to
become _docent_ in his university. Soon afterwards he accepted a post in
the public record office at Stockholm, where, with some friends, he
founded the "Gothic Society," to whose organ _Iduna_ he contributed a
number of prose essays and the songs _Manhem_, _Vikingen_, _Den siste
kämpen_, _Den siste skalden_, _Odalbonden_, _Kolargossen_, which he set
to music. About the same time he issued a volume of hymns, of which
several are inserted in the Swedish Psalter.

Geijer's lyric muse was soon after silenced by his call to be assistant
to Erik Michael Fant, professor of history at Upsala, whom he succeeded
in 1817. In 1824 he was elected a member of the Swedish Academy. A
single volume of a great projected work, _Svea Rikes Häfder_, itself a
masterly critical examination of the sources of Sweden's legendary
history, appeared in 1825. Geijer's researches in its preparation had
severely strained his health, and he went the same year on a tour
through Denmark and part of Germany, his impressions from which are
recorded in his _Minnen_. In 1832-1836 he published three volumes of his
_Svenska folkets historia_ (Eng. trans. by J.H. Turner, 1845), a clear
view of the political and social development of Sweden down to 1654. The
acute critical insight, just thought, and finished historical art of
these incomplete works of Geijer entitle him to the first place among
Swedish historians. His chief other historical and political writings
are his _Teckning af Sveriges tillsånd_ 1718-1772 (Stockholm, 1838), and
_Feodalism och republikanism, ett bidrag till Samhällsförfattningens
historia_ (1844), which led to a controversy with the historian Anders
Fryxell regarding the part played in history by the Swedish aristocracy.
Geijer also edited, with the aid of J.H. Schröder, a continuation of
Fant's _Scriptores rerum svecicarum medii aevi_ (1818-1828), and, by
himself, Thomas Thorild's _Samlade skrifter_ (1819-1825), and _Konung
Gustaf III_.'s _efterlemnade Papper_ (4 vols., 1843-1846). Geijer's
academic lectures, of which the last three, published in 1845 under the
title _Om vår tids inre samhällsforhållanden, i synnerhet med afseende
på Fäderneslandet_, involved him in another controversy with Fryxell,
but exercised a great influence over his students, who especially
testified to their attachment after the failure of a prosecution against
him for heresy. A number of his extempore lectures, recovered from
notes, were published in 1856. He also wrote a life of Charles XIV.
(Stockholm, 1844). Failing health forced Geijer to resign his chair in
1846, after which he removed to Stockholm for the purpose of completing
his _Svenska folkets historia_, and died there on the 23rd of April
1847. His _Samlade skrifter_ (13 vols., 1840-1855; new ed., 1873-1877)
include a large number of philosophical and political essays contributed
to reviews, particularly to _Litteraturbladet_ (1838-1839), a periodical
edited by himself, which attracted great attention in its day by its
pronounced liberal views on public questions, a striking contrast to
those he had defended in 1828-1830, when, as again in 1840-1841, he
represented Upsala University in the Swedish diet. His poems were
collected and published as _Skaldestycken_ (Upsala, 1835 and 1878).

Geijer's style is strong and manly. His genius bursts out in sudden
flashes that light up the dark corners of history. A few strokes, and a
personality stands before us instinct with life. His language is at once
the scholar's and the poet's; with his profoundest thought there beats
in unison the warmest, the noblest, the most patriotic heart. Geijer
came to the writing of history fresh from researches in the whole field
of Scandinavian antiquity, researches whose first-fruits are garnered in
numerous articles in _Iduna_, and his masterly treatise _Om den gamla
nordiska folkvisan_, prefixed to the collection of Svenska folkvisor
which he edited with A.A. Afzelius (3 vols., 1814-1816). The development
of freedom is the idea that gives unity to all his historical writings.

  For Geijer's biography, see his own _Minnen_ (1834), which contains
  copious extracts from his letters and diaries; B.E. Malmström,
  _Minnestal öfver E.G. Geijer_, addressed to the Upsala students (June
  6, 1848), and printed among his _Tal och esthetiska afhandlingar_
  (1868), and _Grunddragen af Svenska vitterhetens häfder_ (1866-1868);
  and S.A. Hollander, _Minne af E.G. Geijer_ (Örebro, 1869). See also
  lives of Geijer by J. Hellstenius (Stockholm, 1876) and J. Niekson
  (Odense, 1902).



GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD (1835-   ), Scottish geologist, was born at
Edinburgh on the 28th of December 1835. He was educated at the high
school and university of Edinburgh, and in 1855 was appointed an
assistant on the Geological Survey. Wielding the pen with no less
facility than the hammer, he inaugurated his long list of works with
_The Story of a Boulder; or, Gleanings from the Note-Book of a
Geologist_ (1858). His ability at once attracted the notice of his
chief, Sir Roderick Murchison, with whom he formed a lifelong
friendship, and whose biographer he subsequently became. With Murchison
some of his earliest work was done on the complicated regions of the
Highland schists; and the small geological map of Scotland published in
1862 was their joint work: a larger map was issued by Geikie in 1892. In
1863 he published an important essay "On the Phenomena of the Glacial
Drift of Scotland," _Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow_, in which the effects of
ice action in that country were for the first time clearly and
connectedly delineated. In 1865 appeared Geikie's _Scenery of Scotland_
(3rd edition, 1901), which was, he claimed, "the first attempt to
elucidate in some detail the history of the topography of a country." In
the same year he was elected F.R.S. At this time the Edinburgh school of
geologists--prominent among them Sir Andrew Ramsay, with his _Physical
Geology and Geography of Great Britain_--were maintaining the supreme
importance of denudation in the configuration of land-surfaces, and
particularly the erosion of valleys by the action of running water.
Geikie's book, based on extensive personal knowledge of the country, was
an able contribution to the doctrines of the Edinburgh school, of which
he himself soon began to rank as one of the leaders.

In 1867, when a separate branch of the Geological Survey was established
for Scotland, he was appointed director. On the foundation of the
Murchison professorship of geology and mineralogy at the university of
Edinburgh in 1871, he became the first occupant of the chair. These two
appointments he continued to hold till 1881, when he succeeded Sir
Andrew Ramsay in the joint offices of director-general of the Geological
Survey of the United Kingdom and director of the museum of practical
geology, London, from which he retired in February 1901. A feature of
his tenure of office was the impetus given to microscopic petrography, a
branch of geology to which he had devoted special study, by a splendid
collection of sections of British rocks. Later he wrote two important
and interesting Survey Memoirs, _The Geology of Central and Western Fife
and Kinross_ (1900), and _The Geology of Eastern Fife_ (1902).

From the outset of his career, when he started to investigate the
geology of Skye and other of the Western Isles, he took a keen interest
in volcanic geology, and in 1871 he brought before the Geological
Society of London an outline of the Tertiary volcanic history of
Britain. Many difficult problems, however, remained to be solved. Here
he was greatly aided by his extensive travels, not only throughout
Europe, but in western America. While the canyons of the Colorado
confirmed his long-standing views on erosion, the eruptive regions of
Wyoming, Montana and Utah supplied him with valuable data in explanation
of volcanic phenomena. The results of his further researches were given
in an elaborate and charmingly written essay on "The History of Volcanic
Action during the Tertiary Period in the British Isles," _Trans. Roy.
Soc. Edin._, (1888). His mature views on volcanic geology were given to
the world in his presidential addresses to the Geological Society in
1891 and 1892, and afterwards embodied in his great work on _The Ancient
Volcanoes of Great Britain_ (1897). Other results of his travels are
collected in his _Geological Sketches at Home and Abroad_ (1882).

His experience as a field geologist resulted in an admirable text-book,
_Outlines of Field Geology_ (5th edition, 1900). After editing and
practically re-writing Jukes's _Student's Manual of Geology_ in 1872, he
published in 1882 a _Text-Book_ and in 1886 a _Class-Book_ of geology,
which have taken rank as standard works of their kind. A fourth edition
of his _Text-Book_, in two vols., was issued in 1903. His writings are
marked in a high degree by charm of style and power of vivid
description. His literary ability has given him peculiar qualifications
as a writer of scientific biography, and the _Memoir of Edward Forbes_
(with G. Wilson), and those of his old chiefs, Sir R.I. Murchison (2
vols., 1875) and Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay (1895), are models of what
such works should be. His _Founders of Geology_ consists of the
inaugural course of Lectures (founded by Mrs G.H. Williams) at Johns
Hopkins University, Baltimore, delivered in 1897. In 1897 he issued an
admirable _Geological Map of England and Wales, with Descriptive Notes_.
In 1898 he delivered the Romanes Lectures, and his address was published
under the title of _Types of Scenery and their Influence on Literature_.
The study of geography owes its improved position in Great Britain
largely to his efforts. Among his works on this subject is _The Teaching
of Geography_ (1887). His _Scottish Reminiscences_ (1904) and _Landscape
in History and other Essays_ (1905) are charmingly written and full of
instruction. He was foreign secretary of the Royal Society from 1890 to
1894, joint secretary from 1903 to 1908, president in 1909, president of
the Geological Society in 1891 and 1892, and president of the British
Association, 1892. He received the honour of knighthood in 1891.



GEIKIE, JAMES (1839-   ), Scottish geologist, younger brother of Sir
Archibald Geikie, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of August 1839. He
was educated at the high school and university of Edinburgh. He served
on the Geological Survey from 1861 until 1882, when he succeeded his
brother as Murchison professor of geology and mineralogy at the
university of Edinburgh. He took as his special subject of investigation
the origin of surface-features, and the part played in their formation
by glacial action. His views are embodied in his chief work, _The Great
Ice Age and its Relation to the Antiquity of Man_ (1874; 3rd ed., 1894).
He was elected F.R.S. in 1875. James Geikie became the leader of the
school that upholds the all-important action of land-ice, as against
those geologists who assign chief importance to the work of pack-ice and
icebergs. Continuing this line of investigation in his _Prehistoric
Europe_ (1881), he maintained the hypothesis of five inter-Glacial
periods in Great Britain, and argued that the palaeolithic deposits of
the Pleistocene period were not post- but inter- or pre-Glacial. His
_Fragments of Earth Lore: Sketches and Addresses, Geological and
Geographical_ (1893) and _Earth Sculpture_ (1898) are mainly concerned
with the same subject. His _Outlines of Geology_ (1886), a standard
text-book of its subject, reached its third edition in 1896; and in 1905
he published an important manual on _Structural and Field Geology_. In
1887 he displayed another side of his activity in a volume of _Songs and
Lyrics by H. Heine and other German Poets, done into English Verse_.
From 1888 he was honorary editor of the _Scottish Geographical
Magazine_.



GEIKIE, WALTER (1795-1837), Scottish painter, was born at Edinburgh on
the 9th of November 1795. In his second year he was attacked by a
nervous fever by which he permanently lost the faculty of hearing, but
through the careful attention of his father he was enabled to obtain a
good education. Before he had the advantage of the instruction of a
master he had attained considerable proficiency in sketching both
figures and landscapes from nature, and in 1812 he was admitted into the
drawing academy of the board of Scottish manufactures. He first
exhibited in 1815, and was elected an associate of the Royal Scottish
Academy in 1831, and a fellow in 1834. He died on the 1st of August
1837, and was interred in the Greyfriars churchyard, Edinburgh. Owing to
his want of feeling for colour, Geikie was not a successful painter in
oils, but he sketched in India ink with great truth and humour the
scenes and characters of Scottish lower-class life in his native city. A
series of etchings which exhibit very high excellence were published by
him in 1829-1831, and a collection of eighty-one of these was
republished posthumously in 1841, with a biographical introduction by
Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Bart.



GEILER (or GEYLER) VON KAISERSBERG, JOHANN (1445-1510), "the German
Savonarola," one of the greatest of the popular preachers of the 15th
century, was born at Schaffhausen on the 16th of March 1445, but from
1448 passed his childhood and youth at Kaisersberg in Upper Alsace, from
which place his current designation is derived. In 1460 he entered the
university of Freiburg in Baden, where, after graduation, he lectured
for some time on the _Sententiae_ of Peter Lombard, the commentaries of
Alexander of Hales, and several of the works of Aristotle. A living
interest in theological subjects, awakened by the study of John Gerson,
led him in 1471 to the university of Basel, a centre of attraction to
some of the most earnest spirits of the time. Made a doctor of theology
in 1475, he received a professorship at Freiburg in the following year;
but his tastes, no less than the spirit of the age, began to incline him
more strongly to the vocation of a preacher, while his fervour and
eloquence soon led to his receiving numerous invitations to the larger
towns. Ultimately he accepted in 1478 a call to the cathedral of
Strassburg, where he continued to work with few interruptions until
within a short time of his death on the 10th of March 1510. The
beautiful pulpit erected for him in 1481 in the nave of the cathedral,
when the chapel of St Lawrence had proved too small, still bears witness
to the popularity he enjoyed as a preacher in the immediate sphere of
his labours, and the testimonies of Sebastian Brant, Beatus Rhenanus,
Johann Reuchlin, Melanchthon and others show how great had been the
influence of his personal character. His sermons--bold, incisive,
denunciatory, abounding in quaint illustrations and based on texts by no
means confined to the Bible,--taken down as he spoke them, and
circulated (sometimes without his knowledge or consent) by his friends,
told perceptibly on the German thought as well as on the German speech
of his time.

  Among the many volumes published under his name only two appear to
  have had the benefit of his revision, namely, _Der Seelen Paradies von
  waren und volkomnen Tugenden_, and that entitled _Das irrig Schaf_. Of
  the rest, probably the best-known is a series of lectures on his
  friend Seb. Brant's work, _Das Narrenschiff_ or the _Navicula_ or
  _Speculum fatuorum_, of which an edition was published at Strassburg
  in 1511 under the following title:--_Navicula sive speculum fatuorum
  praestantissimi sacrarum literarum doctoris Joannis Geiler
  Keysersbergii_.

  See F.W. von Ammon, _Geyler's Leben, Lehren und Predigten_ (1826); L.
  Dacheux, _Un Réformateur catholique à la fin du XV^e siècle_, J.G. de
  K. (Paris, 1876); R. Cruel, _Gesch. der deutschen Predigt_, pp.
  538-576 (1879); P. de Lorenzi, _Geiler's ausgewählte Schriften_ (4.
  vols., 1881); T.M. Lindsay, _History of the Reformation_, i. 118
  (1906); and G. Kawerau in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_, vi. 427.



GEINITZ, HANS BRUNO (1814-1900), German geologist, was born at
Altenburg, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on the 16th of
October 1814. He was educated at the universities of Berlin and Jena,
and gained the foundations of his geological knowledge under F.A.
Quenstedt. In 1837 he took the degree of Ph.D. with a thesis on the
Muschelkalk of Thuringia. In 1850 he became professor of geology and
mineralogy in the Royal Polytechnic School at Dresden, and in 1857 he
was made director of the Royal Mineralogical and Geological Museum; he
held these posts until 1894. He was distinguished for his researches on
the Carboniferous and Cretaceous rocks and fossils of Saxony, and in
particular for those relating to the fauna and flora of the Permian or
Dyas formation. He described also the graptolites of the local Silurian
strata; and the flora of the Coal-formation of Altai and Nebraska. From
1863 to 1878 he was one of the editors of the _Neues Jahrbuch_. He was
awarded the Murchison medal by the Geological Society of London in 1878.
He died at Dresden on the 28th of January 1900. His son FRANZ EUGENE
GEINITZ (b. 1854), professor of geology in the university of Rostock,
became distinguished for researches on the geology of Saxony,
Mecklenburg, &c.

  H.B. Geinitz's publications were _Das Quadersandsteingebirge oder
  Kreidegebirge in Deutschland_ (1849-1850); _Die Versteinerungen der
  Steinkohlenformation in Sachsen_ (1855); _Dyas, oder die
  Zechsteinformation und das Rothliegende_ (1861-1862); _Das
  Elbthalgebirge in Sachsen_ (1871-1875).



GEISHA (a Chino-Japanese word meaning "person of pleasing
accomplishments"), strictly the name of the professional dancing and
singing girls of Japan. The word is, however, often loosely used for the
girls and women inhabiting Shin Yoshiwara, the prostitutes' quarter of
Tokyo. The training of the true Geisha or singing girl, which includes
lessons in dancing, begins often as early as her seventh year. Her
apprenticeship over, she contracts with her employer for a number of
years, and is seldom able to reach independence except by marriage.
There is a capitation fee of two _yen_ per month on the actual singing
girls, and of one _yen_ on the apprentices.

  See Jukichi Inouye, _Sketches of Tokyo Life_.



GEISLINGEN, a town of Germany in the kingdom of Württemberg, on the
Thierbach, 38 m. by rail E.S.E. of Stuttgart. Pop. (1905) 7050. It has
shops for the carving and turning of bone, ivory, wood and horn, besides
iron-works, machinery factories, glass-works, brewing and bleaching
works, &c. The church of St Mary contains wood-carving by Jörg Syrlin
the Younger. Above the town lie the ruins of the castle of Helfenstein,
which was destroyed in 1552. Having been for a few years in the
possession of Bavaria, the town passed to Württemberg in 1810.

  See Weitbrecht, _Wanderungen durch Geislingen und seine Umgebung_
  (Stuttgart, 1896).



GEISSLER, HEINRICH (1814-1879), German physicist, was born at the
village of Igelshieb in Saxe-Meiningen on the 26th of May 1814 and was
educated as a glass-blower. In 1854 he settled at Bonn, where he
speedily gained a high reputation for his skill and ingenuity of
conception in the fabrication of chemical and physical apparatus. With
Julius Plücker, in 1852, he ascertained the maximum density of water to
be at 3.8° C. He also determined the coefficient of expansion for ice
between -24° and -7°, and for water freezing at 0°. In 1869, in
conjunction with H.P.J. Vogelsang, he proved the existence of liquid
carbon dioxide in cavities in quartz and topaz, and later he obtained
amorphous from ordinary phosphorus by means of the electric current. He
is best known as the inventor of the sealed glass tubes which bear his
name, by means of which are exhibited the phenomena accompanying the
discharge of electricity through highly rarefied vapours and gases.
Among other apparatus contrived by him were a vaporimeter, mercury
air-pump, balances, normal thermometer, and areometer. From the
university of Bonn, on the occasion of its jubilee in 1868, he received
the honorary degree of doctor of philosophy. He died at Bonn on the 24th
of January 1879.

  See A.W. Hofmann, _Ber. d. deut. chem. Ges._ p. 148 (1879).



GELA, a city of Sicily, generally and almost certainly identified with
the modern Terranova (q.v.). It was founded by Cretan and Rhodian
colonists in 688 B.C., and itself founded Acragas (see AGRIGENTUM) in
582 B.C. It also had a treasure-house at Olympia. The town took its name
from the river to the east (Thucydides vi. 2), which in turn was so
called from its winter frost ([gamma][epsilon][lambda][alpha] in the
Sicel dialect; cf. Lat. _gelidus_). The Rhodian settlers called it
Lindioi (see LINDUS). Gela enjoyed its greatest prosperity under
Hippocrates (498-491 B.C.), whose dominion extended over a considerable
part of the island. Gelon, who seized the tyranny on his death, became
master of Syracuse in 485 B.C., and transferred his capital thither with
half the inhabitants of Gela, leaving his brother Hiero to rule over the
rest. Its prosperity returned, however, after the expulsion of
Thrasybulus in 466 B.C.,[1] but in 405 it was besieged by the
Carthaginians and abandoned by Dionysius' order, after his failure
(perhaps due to treachery) to drive the besiegers away (E.A. Freeman,
_Hist. of Sic._ iii. 562 seq.). The inhabitants later returned and
rebuilt the town, but it never regained its position. In 311 B.C.
Agathocles put to death 5000 of its inhabitants; and finally, after its
destruction by the Mamertines about 281 B.C., Phintias of Agrigentum
transferred the remainder to the new town of Phintias (now Licata,
q.v.). It seems that in Roman times they still kept the name of Gelenses
or Geloi in their new abode (Th. Mommsen in _C.I.L._ x., Berlin, 1883,
p. 737).     (T. As.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Aeschylus died there in 456 B.C.



GELADA, the Abyssinian name of a large species of baboon, differing from
the members of the genus _Papio_ (see BABOON) by the nostrils being
situated some distance above the extremity of the muzzle, and hence made
the type of a separate genus, under the name of _Theropithecus gelada_.
In the heavy mantle of long brown hair covering the fore-quarters of the
old males, with the exception of the bare chest, which is reddish
flesh-colour, the gelada recalls the Arabian baboon (_Papio hamadryas_),
and from this common feature it has been proposed to place the two
species in the same genus. The gelada inhabits the mountains of
Abyssinia, where, like other baboons, it descends in droves to pillage
cultivated lands. A second species, or race, _Theropithecus obscurus_,
distinguished by its darker hairs and the presence of a bare
flesh-coloured ring round each eye, inhabits the eastern confines of
Abyssinia.     (R. L.*)



GELASIUS, the name of two popes.

GELASIUS I., pope from 492 to 496, was the successor of Felix III. He
confirmed the estrangement between the Eastern and Western churches by
insisting on the removal of the name of Acacius, bishop of
Constantinople, from the diptychs. He is the author of _De duabus in
Christo naturis adversus Eutychen et Nestorium_. A great number of his
letters has also come down to us. His name has been attached to a _Liber
Sacramentorum_ anterior to that of St Gregory, but he can have composed
only certain parts of it. As to the so-called _Decretum Gelasii de
libris recipiendis et non recipiendis_, it also is a compilation of
documents anterior to Gelasius, and it is difficult to determine
Gelasius's contributions to it. At all events, as we know it, it is of
Roman origin, and 6th-century or later. (L. D.*)

GELASIUS II. (Giovanni Coniulo), pope from the 24th of January 1118 to
the 29th of January 1119, was born at Gaeta of an illustrious family. He
became a monk of Monte Cassino, was taken to Rome by Urban II., and made
chancellor and cardinal-deacon of Sta Maria in Cosmedin. Shortly after
his unanimous election to succeed Paschal II. he was seized by Cencius
Frangipane, a partisan of the emperor Henry V., but freed by a general
uprising of the Romans in his behalf. The emperor drove Gelasius from
Rome in March, pronounced his election null and void, and set up
Burdinus, archbishop of Braga, as antipope under the name of Gregory
VIII. Gelasius fled to Gaeta, where he was ordained priest on the 9th of
March and on the following day received episcopal consecration. He at
once excommunicated Henry and the antipope and, under Norman protection,
was able to return to Rome in July; but the disturbances of the
imperialist party, especially of the Frangipani, who attacked the pope
while celebrating mass in the church of St Prassede, compelled Gelasius
to go once more into exile. He set out for France, consecrating the
cathedral of Pisa on the way, and arrived at Marseilles in October. He
was received with great enthusiasm at Avignon, Montpellier and other
cities, held a synod at Vienne in January 1119, and was planning to hold
a general council to settle the investiture contest when he died at
Cluny. His successor was Calixtus II.

  His letters are in J.P. Migne, _Patrol. Lat._ vol. 163. The original
  life by Pandulf is in J.M. Watterich, _Pontif. Roman. vitae_ (Leipzig,
  1862), and there is an important digest of his bulls and official acts
  in Jaffé-Wattenbach, _Regesta pontif. Roman._ (1885-1888).

  See J. Langen, _Geschichte der römischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis
  Innocenz III._ (Bonn, 1893); F. Gregorovius, _Rome in the Middle
  Ages_, vol. 4, trans. by Mrs G.W. Hamilton (London, 1896); A. Wagner,
  _Die unteritalischen Normannen und das Papsttum, 1086-1150_ (Breslau,
  1885); W. von Giesebrecht, _Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit_, Bd.
  iii. (Brunswick, 1890); G. Richter, _Annalen der deutschen Geschichte
  im Mittelalter_, iii. (Halle, 1898); H.H. Milman, _Latin
  Christianity_, vol. 4 (London, 1899).     (C. H. Ha.)



GELATI, a Georgian monastery in Russian Transcaucasia, in the government
of Kutais, 11 m. E. of the town of Kutais, standing on a rocky spur (705
ft. above sea-level) in the valley of the Rion. It was founded in 1109
by the Georgian king David the Renovator. The principal church, a
sandstone cathedral, dates from the end of the preceding century, and
contains the royal crown of the former Georgian kingdom of Imeretia,
besides ancient MSS., ecclesiological furniture, and fresco portraits of
the kings of Imeretia. Here also, in a separate chapel, is the tomb of
David the Renovator (1089-1125) and part of the iron gate of the town of
Ganja (now Elisavetpol), which that monarch brought away as a trophy of
his capture of the place.



GELATIN, or GELATINE, the substance which passes into solution when
"collagen," the ground substance of bone, cartilage and white fibrous
tissue, is treated with boiling water or dilute acids. It is especially
characterized by its property of forming a jelly at ordinary
temperature, becoming liquid when heated, and resolidifying to a jelly
on cooling. The word is derived from the Fr. _gélatine_, and Ital.
_gelatina_, from the Lat. _gelata_, that which is frozen, congealed or
stiff. It is, therefore, in origin cognate with "jelly," which came
through the Fr. _gélee_ from the same Latin original.

The "collagen," obtained from tendons and connective tissues, also
occurs in the cornea and sclerotic coat of the eye, and in fish scales.
Cartilage was considered to be composed of a substance chondrigen, which
gave chondrin or cartilage-glue on boiling with water. Recent researches
make it probable that cartilage contains (1) chondromucoid, (2)
chondroitin-sulphuric acid, (3) collagen, (4) an albumoid present in old
but not in young cartilage; whilst chondrin is a mixture of gelatin and
mucin. "Bone collagen," or "ossein," constitutes, with calcium salts,
the ground substance of bones. Gelatin consists of two substances,
glutin and chondrin; the former is the main constituent of skin-gelatin,
the latter of bone-gelatin.

True gelatigenous tissue occurs in all mature vertebrates, with the
single exception, according to E.F.I. Hoppe-Seyler, of the _Amphioxus
lanceolatus_. Gelatigenous tissue was discovered by Hoppe-Seyler in the
cephalopods _Octopus_ and _Sepiola_, but in an extension of his
experiments to other invertebrates, as cockchafers and _Anodon_ and
_Unio_, no such tissue could be detected. Neither glutin nor chondrin
occurs ready formed in the animal kingdom, but they separate when the
tissues are boiled with water. A similar substance, vegetable gelatin,
is obtained from certain mosses.

Pure gelatin is an amorphous, brittle, nearly transparent substance,
faintly yellow, tasteless and inodorous, neutral in reaction and
unaltered by exposure to dry air. Its composition is in round numbers C
= 50, H = 7, N = 18, O = 25%; sulphur is also present in an amount
varying from 0.25 to 0.7%.

  Nothing is known with any certainty as to its chemical constitution,
  or of the mode in which it is formed from albuminoids. It exhibits in
  a general way a connexion with that large and important class of
  animal substances called _proteids_, being, like them, amorphous,
  soluble in acids and alkalis, and giving in solution a left-handed
  rotation of the plane of polarization. Nevertheless, the ordinary
  well-recognized reactions for proteids are but faintly observed in the
  case of gelatin, and the only substances which at once and freely
  precipitate it from solution are mercuric chloride, strong alcohol and
  tannic acid.

  Although gelatin in a dry state is unalterable by exposure to air, its
  solution exhibits, like all the proteids, a remarkable tendency to
  putrefaction; but a characteristic feature of this process in the case
  of gelatin is that the solution assumes a transient acid reaction. The
  ultimate products of this decomposition are the same as are produced
  by prolonged boiling with acid. It has been found that oxalic acid,
  over and above the action common to all dilute acids of preventing the
  solidification of gelatin solutions, has the further property of
  preventing in a large measure this tendency to putrefy when the
  gelatin is treated with hot solutions of this acid, and then freed
  from adhering acid by means of calcium carbonate. Gelatin so treated
  has been called _metagelatin_.

  In spite of the marked tendency of gelatin solutions to develop
  ferment-organisms and undergo putrefaction, the stability of the
  substance in the dry state is such that it has even been used, and
  with some success, as a means of preserving perishable foods. The
  process, invented by Dr Campbell Morfit, consists in impregnating the
  foods with gelatin, and then drying them till about 10% or less of
  water is present. Milk gelatinized in this way is superior in several
  respects to the products of the ordinary condensation process, more
  especially in the retention of a much larger proportion of
  albuminoids.

  Gelatin has a marked affinity for water, abstracting it from admixture
  with alcohol, for example. Solid gelatin steeped for some hours in
  water absorbs a certain amount and swells up, in which condition a
  gentle heat serves to convert it into a liquid; or this may be readily
  produced by the addition of a trace of alkali or mineral acid, or by
  strong acetic acid. In the last case, however, or if we use the
  mineral acids in a more concentrated form, the solution obtained has
  lost its power of solidifying, though not that of acting as a glue.
  This property is utilized in the preparation of liquid glue (see
  GLUE). By prolonged boiling of strong aqueous solutions at a high, or
  of weak solutions at a lower temperature, the characteristic
  properties of gelatin are impaired and ultimately destroyed. After
  this treatment it acts less powerfully as a glue, loses its tendency
  to solidify, and becomes increasingly soluble in cold water;
  nevertheless the solutions yield on precipitation with alcohol a
  substance identical in composition with gelatin.

  By prolonged boiling in contact with hydrolytic agents, such as
  sulphuric acid or caustic alkali, it yields quantities of leucin and
  glycocoll (so-called "sugar of gelatin," this being the method by
  which glycocoll was first prepared), but no tyrosin. In this last
  respect it differs from the great body of proteids, the characteristic
  solid products of the decomposition of which are leucin and tyrosin.

Gelatin occurs in commerce in varying degrees of purity; the purer form
obtained from skins and bones (to which this article is restricted) is
named gelatin; a preparation of great purity is "patent isinglass,"
while isinglass (q.v.) itself is a fish-gelatin; less pure forms
constitute glue (q.v.), while a dilute aqueous solution appears in
commerce as size (q.v.). The manufacture follows much the same lines as
that of glue; but it is essential that the raw materials must be
carefully selected, and in view of the consumption of most of the
gelatin in the kitchen--for soups, jellies, &c.--great care must be
taken to ensure purity and cleanliness.

  In the manufacture of bone-gelatin the sorted bones are degreased as
  in the case of glue manufacture, and then transferred to vats
  containing a dilute hydrochloric acid, by which means most of the
  mineral matter is dissolved out, and the bones become flexible.
  Instead of hydrochloric acid some French makers use phosphoric acid.
  After being well washed with water to remove all traces of
  hydrochloric acid, the bones are bleached by leading in sulphur
  dioxide. They are now transferred to the extractors, and heated by
  steam, care being taken that the temperature does not exceed 85° C.
  The digestion is repeated, and the runnings are clarified,
  concentrated, re-bleached and jellied as with glue. Skin-gelatin is
  manufactured in the same way as skin-glue. After steeping in lime pits
  the selected skins are digested three times; the first and second
  runnings are worked up for gelatin, while the third are filtered for
  "size."

  Vegetable gelatin is manufactured from a seaweed, genus _Laminaria_;
  from the tengusa, an American seaweed, and from Irish moss. The
  _Laminaria_ is first extracted with water, and the residue with sodium
  carbonate; the filtrate is acidified with hydrochloric acid and the
  precipitated alginic acid washed and bleached. It is then dissolved in
  an alkali, the solution concentrated, and cooled down by running over
  horizontal glass plates. Flexible colourless sheets resembling animal
  gelatin are thus obtained. In America the weed is simply boiled with
  water, the solution filtered, and cooled to a thick jelly. Irish moss
  is treated in the same way. Both tengusa and Irish moss yield a
  gelatin suitable for most purposes; tengusa gelatin clarifies liquids
  in the same way as isinglass, and forms a harder and firmer jelly than
  ordinary gelatin.

  _Applications of Gelatin._--First and foremost is the use of gelatin
  as a food-stuff--in jellies, soups, &c. Referring to the articles
  GLUE, ISINGLASS and SIZE for the special applications of these forms
  of gelatin, we here enumerate the more important uses of ordinary
  gelatin. In photography it is employed in carbon-processes, its use
  depending on the fact that when treated with potassium bichromate and
  exposed to light, it is oxidized to insoluble compounds; it plays a
  part in many other processes. A solution of gelatin containing readily
  crystallized salts--alum, nitre, &c.--solidifies with the formation of
  pretty designs; this is the basis of the so-called "crystalline glass"
  used for purposes of ornamentation. It is also used for coating pills
  to prevent them adhering together and to make them tasteless.
  Compounded with various mineral salts, the carbonates and phosphates
  of calcium, magnesium and aluminium, it yields a valuable ivory
  substitute. It also plays a part in the manufacture of artificial
  leather, of India inks, and of artificial silk (the Vanduara Company
  processes).



GELDERLAND, GELDERS, or GUELDERS, formerly a duchy of the Empire, on the
lower Rhine and the Yssel, bounded by Friesland, Westphalia, Brabant,
Holland and the Zuider Zee; part of which has become the province of
Holland, dealt with separately below. The territory of the later duchy
of Gelderland was inhabited at the beginning of the Christian era by the
Teutonic tribes of the Sicambri and the Batavi, and later, during the
period of the decline of the Roman empire, by the Chamavi and other
Frank peoples. It formed part of the Caroling kingdom of Austrasia, and
was divided into _pagi_ or _gauen_, ruled by official counts
(_comites-graven_). In 843, by the treaty of Verdun, it became part of
Lotharingia (Lorraine), and in 879 was annexed to the kingdom of East
Francia (Germany) by the treaty of Meerssen. The nucleus of the later
county and duchy was the _gau_ or district surrounding the town of
Gelder or Gelre, lying between the Meuse and the Niers, and since 1715
included in Rhenish Prussia.

The early history is involved in much obscurity. There were in the 11th
century a number of counts ruling in various parts of what was
afterwards known as Gelderland. Towards the close of that century Gerard
of Wassenburg, who besides the county of Gelre ruled over portions of
Hamalant and Teisterbant, acquired a dominant position amongst his
neighbours. He is generally reckoned as the first hereditary count of
Gelderland (d. 1117/8). His son, Gerard II.--the Long--(d. 1131),
married Irmingardis, daughter and heiress of Otto, count of Zutphen, and
their son, Henry I. (d. 1182), inherited both countships. His successors
Otto I. (1182-1207) and Gerard III. (1207-1229) were lovers of peace and
strong supporters of the Hohenstaufen emperors, through whose favour
they were able to increase their territories by acquisitions in the
districts of Veluwe and Betuwe. He acted as guardian to his nephew
Floris IV. of Holland during his minority. Otto II., the Lame
(1220-1271), fortified several towns and bestowed privileges upon them
for the purpose of encouraging trade. He became a person of so much
importance that he was urged to be a candidate for the dignity of
emperor. He preferred to support the claims of his cousin, William II.
of Holland. In return for the loan of a considerable sum of money
William gave to him the city of Nijmwegen in pledge. His son Reinald I.
(d. 1326) married Irmingardis, heiress of Limburg, and in right of his
wife laid claim to the duchy against Adolf of Berg, who had sold his
rights to John I. of Brabant. War followed, and on the 5th of June 1288
Reinald, who meantime had also sold his rights to the count of
Luxemburg, was defeated and taken prisoner at the battle of Woeringen.
In this battle the count of Luxemburg was slain, and Reinald had to
surrender his claims as the price of his defeat to John of Brabant. In
1310, in return for his support, Reinald received from the emperor Henry
VII. for all his territories _privilegium de non evocando_, i.e. the
exemption of his subjects from the liability to be sued before any court
outside his jurisdiction. In 1317 he was made a prince of the Empire. A
wound received at the battle of Woeringen had affected his brain, and an
insurrection against him was in 1316 headed by his son Reinald, who
assumed the government under the title of "Son of the Count." Reinald I.
was finally in 1320 immured in prison, where he died in 1326.

Reinald II., the Black (1326-1343), was one of the foremost princes in
the Netherlands of his day. He married (1) Sophia, heiress of Mechlin,
and (2) in 1331 Eleanor, sister of Edward III. of England. By purchase
or conquest he added considerably to his territories. He did much to
improve the condition of the country, to foster trade, to promote the
prosperity of the towns, and to maintain order and security in his lands
by wise laws and firm administration. In 1338 the title of duke was
bestowed upon him by the emperor Louis the Bavarian, who at the same
time granted to him the fief of East Friesland. He died in 1343, leaving
three daughters by his first marriage, and two sons, Reinald and Edward,
both minors, by Eleanor of England. His elder son was ten years of age,
and succeeded to the duchy under the guardianship of his mother Eleanor.
Declared of age two years later, the youthful Reinald III. found himself
involved in many difficulties through the struggles between the rival
factions named after the two noble families of Bronkhorst and Hekeren.
What was the quarrel between them, and what the causes they represented,
cannot now be ascertained with certainty. There is good reason, however,
to believe that they were the counterparts of the contemporary Cod and
Hook parties in Holland, and of the Schieringers and Vetkoopers in
Friesland. In Gelderland the quarrel between them was converted into a
dynastic struggle, the Hekeren recognizing Duke Reinald, while the
Bronkhorsten set up his younger brother Edward. At the battle of Tiel
(1361) Reinald was defeated and taken prisoner, and Edward held the
duchy till 1371. He was a good and successful ruler, and his death by an
arrow wound, after a brilliant victory over the duke of Brabant near
Baesweller (August 1371), was a loss to his country. He was in his
thirty-fifth year and left no heirs. Reinald was now taken from the
prison in which he had been confined to reign once more, but his health
was broken and he died childless three years afterwards. The war of
factions again broke out, the half-sisters of Reinald III. and Edward
both claiming the inheritance; the elder, Matilda (Machteld), in her
own right, the younger Maria on behalf of her seven-year-old boy William
of Jülich, as the only male representative of the family. The Hekeren
supported Matilda, the Bronkhorsten William of Jülich. The war of
succession lasted till 1379, and ended in William's favour, the emperor
Wenceslas (Wenzel) recognizing him as duke four years later.

Duke William was able, restless and adventurous, an ideal knight of the
palmy days of chivalry. He took part in no less than five crusades with
the Teutonic order against the heathen Lithuanians and Prussians. In
1393 he inherited the duchy of Jülich, and died in 1402. He was
succeeded by his brother, Reinald IV. (d. 1423), in the united
sovereignty of Gelderland, Zutphen and Jülich, who, in accordance with a
promise made before his accession, ceded the town of Emmerich to Duke
Adolf of Cleves. He took the part of his brother-in-law, John of Arkel,
against William VI. of Holland, and in a war of several years' duration
was not successful in preventing the Arkel territory being incorporated
in Holland. On his death without legitimate issue, Gelderland passed to
the young Arnold of Egmont, grandson of his sister Johanna, who had
married John, lord of Arkel, their daughter Maria (d. 1415) being the
wife of John, count of Egmont (d. 1451). Arnold was recognized as duke
in 1424 by the emperor Sigismund, but in the following year the emperor
revoked his decision and bestowed the duchy upon Adolf of Berg. Arnold
in retaliation laid claim to the duchy of Jülich, which had likewise
been granted to Adolf by Sigismund, and a war followed in which the
cities and nobles of Gelderland stood by Arnold; it ended in Arnold
retaining Gelderland and Zutphen, and Gerard, the son of Adolf (d.
1437), being acknowledged as duke of Jülich. To gain the support of the
estates of Gelderland in this war of succession, Arnold had been
compelled to make many concessions limiting the ducal prerogatives, and
granting large powers to a council consisting of representatives of the
nobles and the four chief cities, and his extravagance and exactions led
to continual conflicts, in which the prince was compelled to yield to
the demands of his subjects. In his later years a conspiracy was formed
against him, headed by his wife, the violent and ambitious Catherine of
Cleves, and his son Adolf. Arnold was at first successful and Adolf had
to go into exile; but he returned, and in 1465, having taken his father
prisoner by treachery, interned him in the castle of Buren. Charles the
Bold of Burgundy now seized the opportunity to intervene. In 1471 he
forced Adolf to release his father, who sold the reversion of the duchy
to the duke of Burgundy for 92,000 golden gulden. On the 23rd of
February 1473 Arnold died, and Charles of Burgundy became duke of
Gelderland. His succession was not unopposed. Nijmwegen offered an
heroic resistance and only fell after a long siege. After Charles's
death in 1477 Adolf was released from the captivity in which he had been
held, and placed himself at the head of a party in the powerful city of
Ghent, which sought to settle the disputed succession by forcing a match
between him and Mary, the heiress of Burgundy. On the 29th of June 1477,
however, he was killed at the siege of Tournai; and Mary gave her hand
to Maximilian of Austria, afterwards emperor. Catherine, Adolf's sister,
made an attempt to assert the rights of his son Charles to the duchy,
but by 1483 Maximilian had crushed all opposition and established
himself as duke of Gelderland.

Charles of Egmont, however, did not surrender his claims, but with the
aid of the French collected an army, and in the course of 1492 and 1493
succeeded in reconquering his inheritance. The efforts of Maximilian to
recover the country were vain, and the successive governors of the
Netherlands, Philip the Fair and his sister Margaret, fared no better.
In 1507 Charles of Egmont invaded Holland and Brabant, captured
Harderwijk and Bommel in 1511, threatened Amsterdam in 1512, and took
Groningen. It was, undoubtedly, a great and heroic achievement for the
ruler of a petty state like Gelderland thus to assert and maintain his
independence for a long period against the overwhelming power of the
house of Austria. It was not till 1528 that the emperor Charles V. could
force him to accept the compromise of the treaty of Gorichen, by which
he received Gelderland and Zutphen for life as fiefs of the Empire. In
1534 the duke, who was childless, attempted to transfer the reversion of
Gelderland to France, but this project was violently resisted by the
estates of the duchy, and Charles was compelled by them in 1538 to
appoint as his successor William V.--the Rich--of Cleves (d. 1592).
Charles died the same year, and William, with the aid of the French,
succeeded in maintaining his position in Gelderland for several years.
The Habsburg power was, however, in the end too great for him, and he
was forced to cede the duchy to Charles V. by the treaty of Venloo,
signed on the 7th of September 1543.

Gelderland was now definitely amalgamated with the Habsburg dominions in
the Netherlands, until the revolt of the Low Countries led to its
partition. In 1579 the northern and greater part, comprising the three
"quarters" of Nijmwegen, Arnhem and Zutphen, joined the Union of Utrecht
and became the province of Gelderland in the Dutch republic. Only the
quarter of Roermonde remained subject to the crown of Spain, and was
called Spanish Gelderland. By the treaty of Utrecht (1715) this was
ceded to Prussia with the exception of Venloo, which fell to the United
Provinces, and Roermonde, which, with the remaining Spanish Netherlands,
passed to Austria. Of this, part was ceded to France at the peace of
Basel in 1795, and the whole by the treaty of Lunéville in 1801, when it
received the name of the department of the Roer. By the peace of Paris
of 1814 the bulk of Gelderland was incorporated in the United
Netherlands, the remainder falling to Prussia, where it forms the circle
of Düsseldorf.

The rise of the towns in Gelderland began in the 13th century, river
commerce and markets being the chief cause of their prosperity, but they
never attained to the importance of the larger cities in Holland and
Utrecht, much less to that of the great Flemish municipalities. They
differed also from the Flemish cities in the nature of their privileges
and immunities, as they did not possess the rights of communes, but only
those of "free cities" of the Rhenish type. The power of the feudal lord
over them was much greater. The states of Gelderland first became a
considerable power in the land during the reign of Arnold of Egmont
(1423-1473). Their claim to large privileges and a considerable share in
the government of the county were formulated in a document drawn up at
Nijmwegen in April 1436. These the duke had to concede, and to agree
further to the appointment of a council to assist him in his
administration. From this time the absolute authority of the sovereign
in Gelderland was broken. The states consisted of two members--the
nobility and the towns. The towns were divided into four separate
districts or "quarters" named after the chief town in each--Nijmwegen,
Arnhem, Zutphen and Roermonde. In the time of the republic, as has been
stated above, the province of Gelderland comprised the three first-named
"quarters" only. The three quarters had each of them peculiar rights and
customs, and their representatives met together in a separate assembly
before taking part in the diet (_landdag_) of the states. The nobility
possessed great influence in Gelderland and retained it in the time of
the republic.     (G. E.)



GELDERLAND (_Guelders_), a province of Holland, bounded S. by Rhenish
Prussia and North Brabant, W. by Utrecht and South Holland, N. by the
Zuider Zee, N.E. by Overysel, and S.E. by the Prussian province of
Westphalia. It has an area of 1906 sq. m. and a pop. (1900) of 566,549.
Historically it was part of the duchy of Gelderland, which is treated
separately above.

The main portion of Gelderland north of the Rhine and the Old Ysel forms
as it were an extension of the province of Overysel, being composed of
diluvial sand and gravel, covered with sombre heaths and patches of fen.
South of this line, however, the soil consists of fertile river-clay.
The northern portion is divided by the New (or Gelders) Ysel into two
distinct regions, namely, the Veluwe ("bad land") on the west, and the
former countship of Zutphen on the east. In this last division the
ground slopes downwards from south-east to north-west (131 to 26 ft.)
and is intersected by several fertilizing streams which flow in the same
direction to join the Ysel. The extreme eastern corner is occupied by
older Tertiary loam, which is used for making bricks, and upon this and
the river-banks are the most fertile spots, woods, cultivated land,
pastures, towns and villages. The highlands of the Veluwe lying west of
the Ysel really extend as far as the Crooked Rhine and the Vecht in the
province of Utrecht, but are slightly detached from the Utrecht hills by
the so-called Gelders valley, which forms the boundary between the two
provinces. This valley extends from the Rhine along the Grift, the
Luntersche Beek, and the Eem to the Zuider Zee, and would still offer an
outlet in this direction to the Rhine at high water if it were not for
the river dikes. The two main ridges of the Veluwe hills (164 and 360
ft.) extend from the neighbourhood of Arnhem north to Harderwyk and
north-east to Hattem. In the south they stretch themselves along the
banks of the Rhine, forming a strip of picturesque river scenery made up
of the varied elements of sandhills and trees, clay-lands and pastures.
A large number of country-houses and villas are to be found here, and
the riverside villages of Dieren, Velp and Renkum. All over the Veluwe
are heaths, scantily cultivated, with fields of rye and buckwheat,
cattle of inferior quality, and sheep, and a sparse population. There is
also a considerable cultivation of wood, especially of fir and copse,
while tobacco plantations are found at Nykerk and Wageningen.

The southern division of the province presents a very different aspect,
and contains many old towns and villages. It is watered by the three
large rivers, the Rhine, the Waal and the Maas, and has a level clay
soil, varied only by isolated hills and a sandy, wooded stretch between
Nijmwegen and the southern border. The region enclosed between the Rhine
and the Waal and watered by the Linge is called the Betuwe ("good
land"), and gave its name to the Germanic tribe of Batavians, who are
sometimes wrongly regarded as the parent stock of the Dutch people.
There is here a denser population, occupied in the cultivation of wheat,
beetroot and fruit, the breeding of excellent cattle, shipping and
industrial pursuits. The principal centres of population, such as
Zutphen, Arnhem (the chief town of the province), Nijmwegen and Tiel,
lie along the large rivers. Smaller, but of equal antiquity, are the
riverside towns of Doesburg, which is strongly fortified; Wageningen,
with the State agricultural schools; Doetinchem, with a bridge over the
Old Ysel which is mentioned as early as the 14th century; Zalt-Bommel,
with an old church (1304), and a railway bridge over the Waal; and
Kuilenburg, with a fine railway bridge (1863-1868) over the Rhine. Five
m. S. of Zalt-Bommel, on the Maas, is the medieval castle of Ammerzode
or Ammersooi, also called Amelroy during the French occupation in 1674.
It is in an excellent state of preservation and has been restored in
modern times. The first authentic record of the castle is its possession
by John de Herlar of the noble family of Loo at the end of the 13th
century. In 1480 it passed by marriage to the powerful lords van Arkel,
and was partly destroyed by fire at the end of the 16th century. The
chapel dates from the 15th century, and the keep from 1564. Among the
family portraits are works by Albert Dürer. Zetten, on the railway
between Nijmwegen and Tiel, is famous for the charitable institutions
founded here by the preacher Otto Gerhard Heldring (d. 1876). They
comprise a penitentiary (1849) for women; an educational home (1858) for
girls; a theological training college (1864); and a Magdalen hospital.
Nykerk, Harderwyk and Elburg are fishing towns on the Zuider Zee.
Apeldoorn is situated on the edge of the sand-grounds. Heerenberg on the
south-eastern border is remarkable for its ancient castle near the seat
of the powerful lords van den Bergh. Other ancient and historical towns
bordering on the Prussian frontier are Zevenaar, which was for long the
cause of dispute between the houses of Cleves and Gelder and was finally
attached to the kingdom of the Netherlands in 1816; Breedevoort, once
the seat of a lordship of the same name belonging to the counts van Loon
or Lohn, who built a castle here in the beginning of the 13th century
which was destroyed in 1646--the lordship was presented to Prince
William III. in 1697; Winterswyk, now an important railway junction, and
of growing industrial importance; and Borkeloo, or Borkulo, the seat of
an ancient lordship dating from the first half of the 12th century,
which finally came into the possession of Prince William V. of Orange
Nassau in 1777. The castle was formerly of importance.

Gelderland is intersected by the main railway lines, which are largely
supplemented by steam-tram railways. Steam-tramways connect Arnhem and
Zutphen, Wageningen, Nijmwegen, Velp, Doetinchem (by way of Dieren and
Doesburg), whence there are various lines to Emmerich and Gendringen on
the Prussian borders. Groenlo and Lichtenvorde, Borkulo and Deventer are
also connected.



GELDERN, a town of Germany, in Rhenish Prussia, on the Niers, 28 m. N.
W. of Düsseldorf, at the junction of railways to Wesel and Cologne. Pop.
(1905) 6551. It has an Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches and a
town hall with a fine council chamber. Its industries include the
manufacture of buttons, shoes, cigars and soap. The town dates from
about 1100 and was early an important fortified place; until 1371 it was
the residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland. Having passed to
Spain, its fortifications were strengthened by Philip II., but they were
razed by Frederick the Great, the town having been in the possession of
Prussia since 1703.

  See Nettesheim, _Geschichte der Stadt und des Amtes Geldern_ (Crefeld,
  1863); Henrichs, _Beiträge zur innern Geschichte der Stadt Geldern_
  (Geldern, 1893); and Real, _Chronik der Stadt und Umgegend von
  Geldern_ (Geldern, 1897).



GELL, SIR WILLIAM (1777-1836), English classical archaeologist, was born
at Hopton in Derbyshire. He was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge,
and subsequently elected a fellow of Emmanuel College (B.A. 1798, M.A.
1804). About 1800 he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the Ionian
islands, and on his return in 1803 he was knighted. He went with
Princess (afterwards Queen) Caroline to Italy in 1814 as one of her
chamberlains, and gave evidence in her favour at the trial in 1820 (see
G.P. Clerici, _A Queen of Indiscretions_, Eng. trans., London, 1907). He
died at Naples on the 4th of February 1836. His numerous drawings of
classical ruins and localities, executed with great detail and
exactness, are preserved in the British Museum. Gell was a thorough
dilettante, fond of society and possessed of little real scholarship.
None the less his topographical works became recognized text-books at a
time when Greece and even Italy were but superficially known to English
travellers. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and the Society of
Antiquaries, and a member of the Institute of France and the Berlin
Academy.

  His best-known work is _Pompeiana; the Topography, Edifices and
  Ornaments of Pompeii_ (1817-1832), in the first part of which he was
  assisted by J.P. Gandy. It was followed in 1834 by the _Topography of
  Rome and its Vicinity_ (new ed. by E.H. Bunbury, 1896). He wrote also
  _Topography of Troy and its Vicinity_ (1804); _Geography and
  Antiquities of Ithaca_ (1807); _Itinerary of Greece, with a Commentary
  on Pausanias and Strabo_ (1810, enlarged ed. 1827); _Itinerary of the
  Morea_ (1816; republished as _Narrative of a Journey in the Morea_,
  1823). All these works have been superseded by later publications.



GELLERT, CHRISTIAN FÜRCHTEGOTT (1715-1769), German poet, was born at
Hainichen in the Saxon Erzgebirge on the 4th of July 1715. After
attending the famous school of St Afra in Meissen, he entered Leipzig
University in 1734 as a student of theology, and on completing his
studies in 1739 was for two years a private tutor. Returning to Leipzig
in 1741 he contributed to the _Bremer Beiträge_, a periodical founded by
former disciples of Johann Christoph Gottsched, who had revolted from
the pedantry of his school. Owing to shyness and weak health Gellert
gave up all idea of entering the ministry, and, establishing himself in
1745 as _privatdocent_ in philosophy at the university of Leipzig,
lectured on poetry, rhetoric and literary style with much success. In
1751 he was appointed extraordinary professor of philosophy, a post
which he held until his death at Leipzig on the 13th of December 1769.

The esteem and veneration in which Gellert was held by the students, and
indeed by persons in all classes of society, was unbounded, and yet due
perhaps less to his unrivalled popularity as a lecturer and writer than
to his personal character. He was the noblest and most amiable of men,
generous, tender-hearted and of unaffected piety and humility. He wrote
in order to raise the religious and moral character of the people, and
to this end employed language which, though at times prolix, was always
correct and clear. He thus became one of the most popular German
authors, and some of his poems enjoyed a celebrity out of proportion to
their literary value. This is more particularly true of his _Fabeln und
Erzählungen_ (1746-1748) and of his _Geistliche Oden und Lieder_ (1757).
The fables, for which he took La Fontaine as his model, are simple and
didactic. The "spiritual songs," though in force and dignity they cannot
compare with the older church hymns, were received by Catholics and
Protestants with equal favour. Some of them were set to music by
Beethoven. Gellert wrote a few comedies: _Die Betschwester_ (1745), _Die
kranke Frau_ (1748), _Das Los in der Lotterie_ (1748), and _Die
zärtlichen Schwestern_ (1748), the last of which was much admired. His
novel _Die schwedische Gräfin von G._ (1746), a weak imitation of
Richardson's _Pamela_, is remarkable as being the first German attempt
at a psychological novel. Gellert's _Briefe_ (letters) were regarded at
the time as models of good style.

  See Gellert's _Sämtliche Schriften_ (first edition, 10 vols., Leipzig,
  1769-1774; last edition, Berlin, 1867). _Sämtliche Fabeln und
  Erzählungen_ have been often published separately, the latest edition
  in 1896. A selection of Gellert's poetry (with an excellent
  introduction) will be found in F. Muncker, _Die Bremer Beiträge_
  (Stuttgart, 1899). A translation by J.A. Murke, _Gellert's Fables and
  other Poems_ (London, 1851). For a further account of Gellert's life
  and work see lives by J.A. Cramer (Leipzig, 1774), H. Döring (Greiz,
  1833), and H.O. Nietschmann (2nd ed., Halle, 1901); also _Gellerts
  Tagebuch aus dem Jahre 1761_ (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1863) and _Gellerts
  Briefwechsel mit Demoiselle Lucius_ (Leipzig, 1823).



GELLERT, or KILLHART, in Welsh traditional history, the dog of
Llewellyn, prince of Wales. The dog, a greyhound, was left to guard the
cradle in which the infant heir slept. A wolf enters, and is about to
attack the child, when Gellert flies at him. In the struggle the cradle
is upset and the infant falls underneath. Gellert kills the wolf, but
when Prince Llewellyn arrives and sees the empty cradle and blood all
around, he does not for the moment notice the wolf, but thinks Gellert
has killed the baby. He at once stabs him, but almost instantly finds
his son safe under the cradle and realizes the dog's bravery. Gellert is
supposed to have been buried near the village of Beddgelert ("grave of
Gellert"), Snowdon, where his tomb is still pointed out to visitors. The
date of the incident is traditionally given as 1205. The incident has
given rise to a Welsh proverb, "I repent as much as the man who slew his
greyhound." The whole story is, however, only the Welsh version of a
tale long before current in Europe, which is traced to the Indian
Panchatantra and perhaps as far back as 200 B.C.

  See W.A. Clouston, _Popular Tales and Fictions_ (1887); D.E. Jenkins,
  _Beddgelert, its Facts, Fairies and Folklore_ (Portmadoc, 1899).



GELLIUS, AULUS (c. A.D. 130-180), Latin author and grammarian, probably
born at Rome. He studied grammar and rhetoric at Rome and philosophy at
Athens, after which he returned to Rome, where he held a judicial
office. His teachers and friends included many distinguished
men--Sulpicius Apollinaris, Herodes Atticus and Fronto. His only work,
the _Noctes Atticae_, takes its name from having been begun during the
long nights of a winter which he spent in Attica. He afterwards
continued it at Rome. It is compiled out of an Adversaria, or
commonplace book, in which he had jotted down everything of unusual
interest that he heard in conversation or read in books, and it
comprises notes on grammar, geometry, philosophy, history and almost
every other branch of knowledge. The work, which is utterly devoid of
sequence or arrangement, is divided into twenty books. All these have
come down to us except the eighth, of which nothing remains but the
index. The _Noctes Atticae_ is valuable for the insight it affords into
the nature of the society and pursuits of those times, and for the
numerous excerpts it contains from the works of lost ancient authors.

  Editio princeps (Rome, 1469); the best editions are those of Gronovius
  (1706) and M. Hertz (1883-1885; editio minor, 1886, revised by C.
  Hosius, 1903, with bibliography). There is a translation in English by
  W. Beloe (1795), and in French by various hands (1896). See Sandys,
  _Hist. Class. Schol._ i. (1906), 210.



GELLIVARA [GELLIVARE], a mining town of Sweden in the district (_län_)
of Norrbotten, 815 m. N. by E. of Stockholm by rail. It lies in the
well-nigh uninhabited region of Swedish Lapland, 43 m. N. of the Arctic
Circle. It owes its importance to the iron mines in the mountain
Malmberget 4½ m. to the north, rising to 2024 ft. above sea-level (830
ft. above Gellivara town). During the dark winter months work proceeds
by the aid of electric light. In 1864 the mines were acquired by an
English company, but abandoned in 1867. In 1884 another English company
took them up and completed a provisional railway from Malmberget to
Luleå at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia (127 m. S.S.E.), besides
executing a considerable portion of the preliminary works for the
continuation of the line on the Norwegian side from Ofoten Fjord upwards
(see NARVIK). But this company, after extracting some 150,000 tons of
ore in 1888-1889, went into liquidation in the latter year. Two years
later the mines passed into the hands of a Swedish company, and the
railway was acquired by the Swedish Government. The output of ore was
insignificant until 1892, when it stood at 178,000 tons; but in 1902 it
amounted to 1,074,000 tons. Three miles S.W. rises the hill Gellivara
Dundret (2700 ft.), from which the sun is visible at midnight from June
5 to July 11. The population of the parish (about 6500 sq. m.) in 1900
was 11,745; the greater part of the population being congregated at the
town of Gellivara and at Malmberget.



GELNHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau,
on the Kinzig, 27 m. E.N.E. of Frankfort-on-Main, on the railway to
Bebra. Pop. 4500. It is romantically situated on the slope of a
vine-clad hill, and is still surrounded by ancient walls and towers. On
an island in the river are the ivy-covered ruins of the imperial palace
which Frederick I. (Barbarossa) built before 1170, and which was
destroyed by the Swedes during the Thirty Years' War. It has an
interesting and beautiful church (the Marien Kirche), with four spires
(of which that on the transept is curiously crooked), built in the 13th
century, and restored in 1876-1879; also several other ancient
buildings, notably the town-hall, the Fürstenhof (now administrative
offices), and the Hexenthurm. India-rubber goods are manufactured, and
wine is made. Gelnhausen became an imperial town in 1169, and diets of
the Empire were frequently held within its walls. In 1634 and 1635 it
suffered severely from the Swedes. In 1803 the town became the property
of Hesse-Cassel, and in 1866 passed to Prussia.



GELO, son of Deinomenes, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse. On the death of
Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela (491 B.C.), Gelo, who had been his commander
of cavalry, succeeded him; and in 485, his aid having been invoked by
the Gamori (the oligarchical landed proprietors) of Syracuse who had
been driven out by the populace, he seized the opportunity of making
himself despot. From this time Gelo paid little attention to Gela, and
devoted himself to the aggrandizement of Syracuse, which attained
extraordinary wealth and influence. When the Greeks solicited his aid
against Xerxes, he refused it, since they would not give him command of
the allied forces (Herodotus vii. 171). In the same year the
Carthaginians invaded Sicily, but were totally defeated at Himera, the
result of the victory being that Gelo became lord of all Sicily. After
he had thus established his power, he made a show of resigning it; but
his proposal was rejected by the multitude, and he reigned without
opposition till his death (478). He was honoured as a hero, and his
memory was held in such respect that when all the brazen statues of
tyrants were condemned to be sold in the time of Timoleon (150 years
later) an exemption was made in favour of the statue of Gelo.

  Herodotus vii.; Diod. Sic. xi. 20-38; see also SICILY: _History_, and
  SYRACUSE; for his coins see NUMISMATICS: _Sicily_.



GELSEMIUM, a drug consisting of the root of _Gelsemium nitidum_, a
clinging shrub of the natural order Loganiaceae, having a milky juice,
opposite, lanceolate shining leaves, and axillary clusters of from one
to five large, funnel-shaped, very fragrant yellow flowers, whose
perfume has been compared with that of the wallflower. The fruit is
composed of two separable jointed pods, containing numerous flat-winged
seeds. The stem often runs underground for a considerable distance, and
indiscriminately with the root it is used in medicine. The plant is a
native of the United States, growing on rich clay soil by the side of
streams near the coast, from Virginia to the south of Florida. In the
United States it is commonly known as the wild, yellow or Carolina
jessamine, although in no way related to the true jessamines, which
belong to the order Oleaceae. It was first described in 1640 by John
Parkinson, who grew it in his garden from seed sent by Tradescant from
Virginia; at the present time it is but rarely seen, even in botanical
gardens, in Great Britain.

The drug contains a volatile oil and two potent alkaloids, gelseminine
and gelsemine. Gelseminine is a yellowish, bitter substance, readily
soluble in ether and alcohol. It is not employed therapeutically.
Gelsemine has the formula C11H19NO2, and is a colourless, odourless,
intensely bitter solid, which is insoluble in water, but readily forms a
soluble hydrochloride. The dose of this salt is from 1/60th to 1/20th of
a grain. The British Pharmacopoeia contains a tincture of gelsemium, the
dose of which is from five to fifteen minims.

[Illustration: _Gelsemium nitidum_, half natural size; flower, nat.
size.]

The drug is essentially a nerve poison. It has no action on the skin and
no marked action on the alimentary or circulatory systems. Its action on
the cerebrum is slight, consciousness being retained even after toxic
doses, but there may be headache and giddiness. The drug rapidly causes
failure of vision, diplopia, ptosis or falling of the upper eyelid,
dilatation of the pupil, and a lowering of the intra-ocular tension.
This last action is doubtful. The symptoms appear to be due to a
paralysis of the motor cells that control the internal and external
ocular muscles. The most marked action of the drug is upon the anterior
cornua of grey matter in the spinal cord. It can be shown by a process
of experimental exclusion that to an arrest of function of these cells
is due the paralysis of all the voluntary muscles of the body that
follows the administration of gelsemium or gelsemine. Just before death
the sensory part of the spinal cord is also paralysed, general
anaesthesia resulting. The drug kills by its action on the respiratory
centre in the medulla oblongata. Shortly after the administration of
even a moderate dose the respiration is slowed and is ultimately
arrested, this being the cause of death. In cases of poisoning the
essential treatment is artificial respiration, which may be aided by the
subcutaneous exhibition of strychnine.

Though the drug is still widely used, the rational indications for its
employment are singularly rare and uncertain. The conditions in which it
is most frequently employed are convulsions, bronchitis, severe and
purposeless coughing, myalgia or muscular pain, neuralgia and various
vague forms of pain.



GELSENKIRCHEN, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Westphalia,
27 m. W. of Dortmund on the railway Duisburg-Hamm. Pop. (1905) 147,037.
It has coal mines, iron furnaces, steel and boiler works, and soap,
glass and chemical factories. In 1903 various neighbouring industrial
townships were incorporated with the town.



GEM (Lat. _gemma_, a bud,--from the root _gen_, meaning "to
produce,"--or precious stone; in the latter sense the Greek term is
[Greek: psêphos]), a word applied in a wide sense to certain minerals
which, by reason of their brilliancy, hardness and rarity, are valued
for personal decoration; it is extended to include pearl. In a
restricted sense the term is applied only to precious stones after they
have been cut and polished as jewels, whilst in their raw state the
minerals are conveniently called "gem-stones." Sometimes, again, the
term "gem" is used in a yet narrower sense, being restricted to engraved
stones, like seals and cameos.

The subject is treated here in two sections: (1) Mineralogy and general
properties; (2) Gems in Art, i.e. engraved gems, such as seals and
cameos. The artificial products which simulate natural gem-stones in
properties and chemical composition are treated in the separate article
GEM, ARTIFICIAL.


1. MINERALOGY AND GENERAL PROPERTIES

The gem-stones form a small conventional group of minerals, including
principally the diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald and opal. Other stones
of less value--such as topaz, spinel, chrysoberyl, chrysolite, zircon
and tourmaline--are sometimes called "fancy stones." Many minerals still
less prized, yet often used as ornamental stones,--like moonstone,
rock-crystal and agate,--occasionally pass under the name of
"semi-precious stones," but this is rather a vague term and may include
the stones of the preceding group. The classification of gem-stones is,
indeed, to some extent a matter of fashion.

Descriptions of the several gem-stones will be found under their
respective headings, and the present article gives only a brief review
of the general characters of the group.


  Hardness.

A high degree of hardness is an essential property of a gem-stone, for
however beautiful and brilliant a mineral may be it is useless to the
jeweller if it lack sufficient hardness to withstand the abrasion to
which articles of personal decoration are necessarily subjected. Even if
not definitely scratched, the polished stone becomes dull by wear.
Imitations in paste may be extremely brilliant, but being comparatively
soft they soon lose lustre when rubbed. In the article MINERALOGY it is
explained that the varying degrees of hardness are registered on a
definite scale. The exceptional hardness of the diamond gives it a
supreme position in this scale, and to it the arbitrary value of 10 has
been assigned. The corundum gem-stones (ruby and sapphire), though
greatly inferior in hardness to the diamond, come next, with the value
of 9; and it is notable that the sapphire is usually rather harder than
ruby. Then follows the topaz, which, with spinel and chrysoberyl, has a
hardness of 8; whilst quartz falls a degree lower. Most gem-stones are
harder than quartz, though precious opal, turquoise, moonstone and
sphene are inferior to it in hardness. Those stones which are softer
than quartz have been called by jewellers _demi-dures_. To test the
hardness of a cut stone, one of its sharp edges may be drawn, with firm
pressure, across the smooth surface of a piece of quartz; if it leave a
scratch its hardness must be above 7. The stone is then applied in like
manner to a fragment of topaz, preferably a cleavage-piece, and if it
fail to leave a distinct scratch its hardness is between 7 and 8,
whereas if the topaz be scratched it is above 8. An expert may obtain a
fair idea of hardness by gently passing the stone over a fine steel
file, and observing the feel of the stone and the grating sound which it
emits. If a stone be scratched by a steel knife its hardness is below 6.
The degree of hardness of a precious stone is soon ascertained by the
lapidary when cutting it.


  Specific gravity.

Gem-stones differ markedly among themselves in density or specific
weight; and although this is a character which does not directly affect
their value for ornamental purposes, it furnishes by its constancy an
important means of distinguishing one stone from another. Moreover, it
is a character very easily determined and can be applied to cut stones
without injury. The relative weightiness of a stone is called its
specific gravity, and is often abbreviated as S.G. The number given in
the description of a mineral as S.G. shows how many times the stone is
heavier than an equal bulk of the standard with which it is compared,
the standard being distilled water at 4° C. If, for example, the S.G. of
diamond is said to be 3.5 it means that a diamond weighs 3½ times as
much as a mass of water of the same bulk. The various methods of
determining specific gravity are described under DENSITY. The readiest
method of testing precious stones, especially when cut, is to use dense
liquids. Suppose it be required to determine whether a yellow stone be
true topaz or false topaz (quartz), it is merely necessary to drop the
stone into a liquid made up to the specific gravity of about 3; and
since topaz has S.G. of 3.5 it sinks in this medium, but as quartz has
S.G. of only 2.65 it floats. The densest gem-stone is zircon, which may
have S.G. as high as 4.7, whilst the lowest is opal with S.G. 2.2.
Amber, it is true, is lighter still, being scarcely denser than water,
but this substance can hardly be called a gem.


  Crystalline form and cleavage.

Although the great majority of precious stones occur crystallized, the
characteristic form is destroyed in cutting. The crystal-forms of the
several stones are noticed under their respective headings, and the
subject is discussed fully under CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. A few substances used
as ornamental stones--like opal, turquoise, obsidian and amber--are
amorphous or without crystalline form; whilst others, like the various
stones of the chalcedony-group, display no obvious crystal-characters,
but are seen under the microscope to possess a crystalline structure.
Gem-stones are frequently found in gravels or other detrital deposits,
where they occur as rolled crystals or fragments of crystals, and in
many cases have been reduced to the form of pebbles. By the
disintegration of the rock which formed the original matrix, its
constituent minerals were set free, and whilst many of them were worn
away by long-continued attrition, the gem-stones survived by virtue of
their superior hardness.

Many crystallized gem-stones exhibit cleavage, or a tendency to split in
definite directions. The lapidary recognizes a "grain" in the stone.
When the cleavage is perfect, as in topaz, it may render the working of
the stone difficult, and produce incipient cracks in the cut gem. Flaws
due to the cleavage planes are called "feathers." The octahedral
cleavage of the diamond is taken advantage of in dressing the stone
before cutting it. The cutting of gem-stones is explained under
LAPIDARY.


  Colour.

The beauty and consequent value of gems depend mainly on their colour.
Some stones, it is true, are valued for entire absence of colour, as
diamonds of pure "water." Certain kinds of sapphire and topaz, too, are
"water clear," as also is pure rock-crystal; but in most stones colour
is a prime element of attraction. The colour, however, is not generally
an essential property of the mineral, but is due to the presence of
foreign pigmentary matter, often in very small proportion and in some
cases eluding determination. Thus, corundum when pure is colourless, but
the presence of traces of certain mineral substances imparts to it not
only the red of ruby and the blue of sapphire, but almost every other
colour. The tinctorial matter may be distributed either uniformly
throughout the stone or in regular zones, or in quite irregular patches.
A tourmaline, for instance, may be red at one end of a prismatic crystal
and green at the other extremity, or the colour may be so disposed that
in transverse section the centre will be red and the outer zone green. A
beryl may be yellow and green in the same crystal. Sapphire, again, is
often parti-coloured, one portion of the stone being blue and other
portions white or yellow; and the skilful lapidary, in cutting the
stone, will take advantage of the blue portion. The character of the
pigment is in many cases not definitely known. It by no means follows
that the material capable of imparting a certain tint to glass is
identical with that which naturally colours a stone of the same tint;
thus a glass of sapphire-blue may be obtained by the use of cobalt, yet
cobalt has not been detected in the sapphire. Probably the most common
mineral pigments are compounds of iron, manganese, copper and chromium.
If the colour of the stone be discharged by heat, an organic pigment is
presumably present. Some ornamental stones change their colour, or even
lose it, on exposure to sunlight and air: such is the case with
rose-quartz, chrysoprase and certain kinds of topaz and turquoise.
Exposure to heat alters the colour of some stones so readily that the
change is taken advantage of commercially; thus, sherry-yellow topaz may
be rendered pink, smoky and amethystine quartz may become yellow, and
coloured zircons may be decolorized, so as to resemble diamonds.

The colours of some gem-stones are greatly affected by radioactivity,
and Prof. F. Bordas has found this to be particularly the case with
sapphire. From his experiments he believes that yellow corundum, or
oriental topaz, may have been formed from blue corundum under the
influence of radioactive substances present in the soil in which the
sapphire was embedded. Different shades of colour may be presented by
different stones of the same species; and it was formerly the custom of
lapidaries to regard the darker stones as masculine and the paler as
feminine, a full blue sapphire, for instance, being called a "male
sapphire" and a delicate blue stone a "female sapphire." It is notable
that some stones appear to change colour by candle-light and by most
other artificial means of illumination; some amethysts thus become inky,
and certain sapphires acquire a murky tint, whilst others become
amethystine. For an example of a remarkable change of this character,
see ALEXANDRITE.


  Refraction.

As the optical properties of minerals are fully explained under
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, little need be said here on this subject. The
brilliancy of a cut stone depends on the amount of light reflected from
its faces; and in the form known as the "brilliant" the gem is so cut
that much of the incident light, after entering the stone and suffering
refraction, is totally reflected from the facets at the back. The amount
of light which is thus returned to the eye of the observer will be
greater as the angle of total reflection, or critical angle, is smaller,
but this angle will be small if the refractive power of the stone is
great, so that the brilliancy directly depends on the refractivity. The
diamond has the highest refractive index of any gem-stone (2.42).
Jargoon, or zircon, has also a high index (mean 1.95), and sphene, which
is occasionally cut as a gem, is likewise very notable in this respect.
The index of refraction generally bears a relation to the specific
gravity of the stone, the heaviest gems having the highest indices,
though a few minerals offer exceptions. The refractive index, which is
thus a very important character in the scientific discrimination of
gem-stones, may be conveniently determined, within certain limits, by
means of the refractometer devised by Dr G.F. Herbert Smith. This
instrument is an improved form of the total reflectometer, in which the
refractive power of a given substance is determined by the method of
total reflection. It may be used for indices ranging from 1.300 to
1.775, and may be applied to faceted stones without removal from their
settings.


  Dispersion.

The play of prismatic colours exhibited by a cut stone, often known as
its "fire," is due to the decomposition of the white light which enters
the stone, and is returned, by internal reflection, after resolution in
to its coloured components. This decomposition depends on the dispersive
power of the substance. The exceptional beauty of the fiery flashes in
the diamond is due to its high dispersion, in other words, to the
difference between the refractive indices for the red rays and the
violet rays at the extremities of the spectrum. The peculiar lustre
exhibited by the diamond is called adamantine, and is shared to some
extent by certain other stones which have a high refractive index and
high dispersion, such as zircon.


  Spectroscopic characters.

The use of the spectroscope may be valuable in discriminating between
certain precious stones. It was shown by Sir A.H. Church that almandine
garnet and zircon when simply viewed through this instrument give, under
proper conditions, characteristic absorption spectra, due to the light
reflected from the stone having penetrated to some extent into the
substance of the mineral and suffered absorption. It is sometimes
useful to examine the behaviour of a stone under the action of the
Röntgen rays.


  Dichroism.

A very useful means of discriminating between certain stones is found in
their dichroism, or, to use a more general term, pleochroism. Neither
amorphous minerals, like opal, nor minerals crystallizing in the cubic
system, like spinel and garnet, possess this property; but coloured
minerals which are doubly refracting may show different colours, when
properly examined, in different directions. Occasionally this is so
marked as to be detected by the naked eye, as in iolite or dichroite,
but usually the stone needs to be examined with such an instrument as
Haidinger's dichroscope (see CRYSTALLOGRAPHY). It must be remembered
that in the direction of an optic axis the two images will be of the
same colour in all positions of the instrument, and it is therefore
necessary before reaching a definite conclusion to turn the stone about
and examine it in various directions. The use of the dichroscope is so
simple that it can be applied by any one to the examination of a cut
stone, but there are other means of determining the nature of a stone by
its optical properties available to the mineralogist and more suitably
discussed under CRYSTALLOGRAPHY.


  Chemical composition.

In chemical composition the gem-stones present great variety. Diamond is
composed of only a single element; ruby, sapphire and the quartz-group
are oxides; spinel and chrysoberyl may be regarded as aluminates;
turquoise and beryllonite are phosphates; and a great number of
ornamental stones are silicates of greater or less complexity, such as
emerald, topaz, chrysolite, garnet, zircon, tourmaline, kunzite, sphene
and benitoite. In the examination of a cut stone chemical tests are not
available, since they usually involve the partial destruction of the
mineral. The artificial production of certain gems by chemical processes
which yield products identical in composition and physical properties
with the natural stones, is described in the article GEM, ARTIFICIAL.

Doublets and triplets are composite stone, sometimes prepared for
fraudulent purposes. In a doublet a slab of real gem-stone covers the
face of a paste, whilst in a triplet the paste is both faced and backed
by a slice of genuine stone. By the action of a suitable solvent, such
as chloroform or in some cases even hot water, the cement uniting the
pieces gives way and the compound character of the structure is
detected.

Before the chemical composition of gem-stones was understood, their
classification remained vague and unscientific. As the ancients depended
almost entirely on the eye, the colour of the stone naturally became the
chief factor in classification. A variety of stones agreeing roughly in
colour would be grouped together under a common name, widely as they
might differ in other respects. Thus the emerald, the peridot, green
fluorspar, malachite, and certain kinds of quartz and jade seem to have
been united under the general name of [Greek: smaragdos] whilst the
ruby, red spinel and garnet were probably grouped together as
_carbunculus_. In this way minerals radically different were associated
on the ground of what is generally a superficial and accidental
character, and rarely of any classificatory value. On the other hand, a
grouping based only on colour led to several names being in some cases
applied to the same mineral species. Thus the ruby and sapphire are
essentially identical in chemical composition and in all physical
characters, save colour.


  Superstitions.

Descriptions of precious stones by ancient writers generally are too
vague for exact diagnosis. The principal classical authorities are
Theophrastus and the elder Pliny. Stones were formerly held in esteem
not only for their beauty and rarity but for the medicinal and magical
powers with which they were reputed to be endowed. Up to comparatively
recent years the toadstone, for example, was worn not for beauty but for
sake of occult virtue; and even at the present day certain stones, like
jade, are valued for a similar reason. Prof. W. Ridgeway has suggested
that jewelry took its origin not, as often supposed, in an innate love
of personal decoration, but rather in the belief that the objects used
possessed magical virtue. Small stones peculiar in colour or shape,
especially those with natural perforations, are usually valued by
uncivilized peoples as amulets. The Orphic poem [Greek: Lithika],
reputed to be of very early though unknown date, is rich in allusions to
the virtues of many of the gem-stones. Many of the medical and other
virtues of precious stones were evidently attributed to them on the
well-known doctrine of signatures. Thus, the blood-red colour of a fine
jasper suggested that the stone would be useful in haemorrhage; a green
jasper would bring fertility to the soil; and the purple wine-colour of
amethyst pointed to its value as a preventive of intoxication. Many of
the superstitions came down to modern times, and even at the present day
the belief in "lucky stones" is by no means extinct.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The most comprehensive work on gem-stones is Professor
  Max Bauer's _Edelsteinkunde_ (1896), translated, with additions, by
  L.J. Spencer under the title _Precious Stones_ (1904). Less detailed
  are Professor P. Groth's _Grundriss der Edelsteinkunde_ (1887) and
  Professor C. Doelter's _Edelsteinkunde_ (1893). Sir A. H. Church's
  _Precious Stones_ (1905), intended as a guide to the collections in
  the Victoria and Albert Museum, is a convenient introduction: and
  Professor H.A. Miers's Cantor Lectures at the Society of Arts on
  _Precious Stones_ (1896) may be studied with advantage. For American
  stones, the valuable work of Dr G.F. Kunz, _The Gems and Precious
  Stones of N. America_, is a standard authority; and the Annual Reports
  of this writer and others, published by the Geological Survey of the
  United States in the _Mineral Resources_, form a repertory of valuable
  information on precious stones in general. The articles in _The
  Mineral Industry_ (founded by R.P. Rothwell) should also be consulted.
  See likewise O.C. Farrington, _Gems and Gem Minerals_ (Chicago, 1903).
  For optical characters reference should be made to G.F.H. Smith, _The
  Herbert Smith Refractometer_ (London, 1907); L. Claremont, _The
  Gem-Cutter's Craft_ (London, 1906); W. Goodchild, _Precious Stones_
  (London, 1908).     (F. W. R.*)


2. GEMS IN ART

In art, the word Gem is the general term for precious stones when
engraved with designs, whether adapted for sealing ([Greek: sphragis],
_sigillum_, _intaglio_), or mainly for artistic effect (_imagines
ectypae_, _cameo_). They exist in a very large number of undoubtedly
genuine old examples, extending from the mists of Babylonian antiquity
to the decline of Roman civilization, and again starting with a new, but
less original impulse on the revival of art. Apart from workmanship they
possess the charms of colour deep, rich, and varied, of material
unequalled for its endurance, and of scarcity, which in many instances
has been enhanced by the remoteness of the lands whence they came or the
fortuity of their occurrence. These qualities united within the small
compass of a gem were precisely such as were required in a seal as a
thing of constant use, so inalienable in its possession as to become
naturally a personal ornament and an attractive medium of artistic
skill, no less than the centre of traditions or of religious and
legendary associations. As regards the nations of classical antiquity,
all seals are classed as gems, though in many cases the material is not
such as would strictly come under that heading, and precious stones in
the modern sense are hardly known to occur. On the other hand it must
not be supposed that gems engraved in intaglio were necessarily employed
as seals. At all periods many intaglios are found which could not have
been so employed without great difficulty. In Greece and Rome, within
historic times, gems were worn engraved with designs to show that the
bearer was an adherent of a particular worship, the follower of a
certain philosopher, or the attached subject of an emperor. However,
speaking generally, the intaglio engraving is a means to an end, namely,
a seal-impression, while an engraving in relief is complete in itself.

_Methods of Engraving_ (see also under LAPIDARY).--In gem-engraving the
principal modern implement is a wheel or minute copper disk, driven in
the manner of a lathe, and moistened with olive oil mixed with emery or
diamond dust. There is no clear proof of the use among the ancients of a
wheel mounted lathewise, but we have abundant indications of drilling
with a revolving tool, which might be either a tubular drill making a
ring-like depression, a pointed tool making a cup-like sinking, or a
small wheel with a cutting edge, making a boat-shaped depression.

We have one sepulchral monument from Philadelphia showing the tool of an
intaglio engraver ([Greek: daktylokoilogyphos]; see _Athenische
Mitteilungen des Arch. Inst._ xv. p. 333). Unfortunately the relief is
incomplete, and the published illustration inadequate. It would seem,
however, that a revolving tool was supported by a kind of mandrel, and
actuated in primitive fashion by a bow. An alternative plan of working
was to use a splinter of diamond set in a handle and applied like a
graver. Both systems are clearly indicated by Pliny, who in one passage
(_H.N._ xxxvii. 60) states that diamond splinters are sought out by gem
engravers and set in iron, and so easily hollow out stones of any degree
of hardness; while elsewhere (_H.N._ xxxvii. 200) he speaks of the
special efficacy of the _fervor terebrarum_, the vehement action of
drills. A third method is also indicated by Pliny (_ibid._) when he
speaks of the use of a blunted tool, which must have been moistened and
supplied with emery of Naxos.

A four-sided pendant of the Hellenistic period published by Furtwängler
(_Antike Gemmen, Gesch._ p. 400) shows clearly the successive stages of
the operation. On side a the subject is slightly sketched in with the
diamond point. On side b the deepest parts of the figure have also been
roughly scooped out with the wheel. On sides c and d the wheel work is
fairly complete, but the finer internal work has not been begun.

After the design had been completed the stone must have received a final
polish on its surface, to obliterate any erroneous strokes of the first
sketch; but this process was not carried as far as in modern work. It is
a popular error to suppose that a high degree of internal polish is a
proof of antiquity. If the interior of the design has a high degree of
polish it may be either ancient or modern, or it may be an ancient stone
repolished in modern times. If it has a matt surface uniformly produced
by intention, it is probably modern. If the design is slightly dimmed
and worn or scratched the stone may be antique, but is not necessarily
so, since modern engravers have observed this peculiarity, and have
imitated it with a success which, were there no other grounds of
suspicion, might escape detection.

_History._--It has been a subject of controversy whether the first
infancy of the art was passed in Egypt or in Babylonia, but it seems
highly probable that it was developed in Babylonia, whence at any rate
the oldest examples of engraved gems at present known are obtained. It
does not necessarily follow, however, that Egypt was therefore a pupil.
It may well be that the art was developed independently in the two
countries, although certain points of possible contact in respect of the
forms employed will be described below in the section dealing with
primitive Egypt.

_Babylonia._--At a very remote period the cylindrical form of stone was
introduced and became the approved shape, while the technical skill of
the artist was still slight, and the traces of the tools employed (drill
and pencil point) were still unconcealed.

The cylinder was suspended by a string and used as a seal. Impressions
of cylinders are frequent on contract tablets. If one of the parties
cannot use a seal he makes a nail-mark in lieu thereof, as is recorded
in the document.

But from a time that was still comparatively early the engravers could
work with considerable skill in the hard stone. In particular a cylinder
may be quoted in the de Clercq Collection bearing the name of Sargon I.
of Agade, who is placed about 3500 B.C. The cylinder is engraved with
the king's name and titles and two symmetrically disposed renderings of
Izdubar, with a vase of flowing water giving drink to a bull. The whole
is treated in a conventionalized style that indicates long traditions.
An important early cylinder in the British Museum is inscribed with the
name of a viceroy of Ur-Gur, king of Ur (about 2500 B.C.). The engraving
shows Ur-Gur being led into the presence of Sin, the moon-god.

The cylinder seal was adopted by the Assyrians, and so was carried on
continuously till the time of the Persian conquest of Babylon (538
B.C.). Meanwhile, as an alternative form the conoidal seal, rounded at
the top and having a flat base for the intaglio, came into use beside
the cylinder.

In style the Assyrians carried on the Babylonian tradition, but with no
freedom of design. Subjects and treatment became rigidly conventional.

[Illustration: PLATE I.

  1-5.--ORIENTAL.

    1. Babylonian (late Sumerian) Cylinder of a Viceroy of Ur-Gur (or
      Ur-Engur), 2500 B.C.
    2. Assyrian Cylinder. Woman adoring Goddess.
    3. Assyrian Cylinder. Assur worshipped by two Assyrian kings, and
      divine Attendants.
    4. Persian Seal of Darius (500 B.C.). Lion Hunt.
    5. Graeco-Persian Scarabaeoid. Boar Hunt.

  6-15.--CRETAN AND MYCENAEAN INTAGLIOS.

    6. Cretan Symbols.
    7. Man and Bull. Crete.
    8. Lions and Column. Ialysus.
    9. Daemon. Crete.
    10. Lioness and Deer.
    11-13. Three-sided Stone. Peloponnesus.
    14. Man and Bull. Crete.
    15. Bull and Palm. Ialysus.

  16-18.--GEMS OF THE ISLANDS.

    16. Goddess on Waves. Birds.
    17. Lion and Goat.
    18. Heracles and Nereus.

  19.--PHOENICIAN SEAL, inscribed.

  20-26.--GRAECO-PHOENICIAN SCARABS FROM THARROS.

    20. King, enthroned.
    21. Bes with Antelope and Hound.
    22. Bes with Lions.
    23. Warrior.
    24. Egyptian Device.
    25. Bes and Goats.
    26. Hawk of Horus.

  All the above are in the British Museum.]

[Illustration: PLATE II.

  27-34.--EARLY GREEK SCARABS AND SCARABAEOIDS.

    27. Pluto and Persephone. (New York.)
    28. Boreas and Oreithyia. (New York.)
    29. Youth and Dog.
    30. Archer feeling Arrow Tip. (Lord Southesk.)
    31. Satyr and Wine Cup.
    32. Archer and Dog.
    33. Satyr with Wineskin.
    34. Athena with Gorgon Spoils.

  35-44.--FINEST GREEK SCARABS AND SCARABAEOIDS.

    35. Head of Young Warrior.
    36. Lyre Player. (Cockerell Coll.)
    37. Crane, with Deer's Antler.
    38. Head of Eos.
    39. Lyre Player. (Woodhouse Coll. and B.M.)
    40. Lyre Player, signed by Syries.
    41. Stork and Grasshopper, signed by Dexamenos. (St. Petersburg.)
    42. Flying Crane, signed by Dexamenos. (St. Petersburg.)
    43. Flying Goose.
    44. Lion and Stag.

  45-54.--ETRUSCAN SCARABS.

    45. Achilles in Retirement.
    46. Victory.
    47. Capaneus struck by the Bolt.
    48. Heracles.
    49. Capaneus struck by the Bolt.
    50. Achilles.
    51. Heracles and Cycnus.
    52. Heracles.
    53. Heracles and the Lion.
    54. Machaon bandaging Philoctetes.

  55-57.--GREEK GEMS.

    55. Girl with Scroll and Lyre.
    56. Girl with Water-Jar.
    57. Head of Aristippus--Deities.

  58-61.--SIGNED GEMS.

    58. Asclepius of Aulos.
    59. Citharist of Allion.
    60. Medusa of Solon.
    61. Heracles of Gnaios.

  62-70.--ROMAN GEMS.

    62. Portrait.
    63. Head of Trajan Decius.
    64. Ares and Aphrodite.
    65. Jupiter of Heliopolis.
    66. Artemis of Ephesus.
    67. So-called Psyche.
    68. So-called Psyche.
    69. Minerva with Mask, Stamp for the Eye Balsam of Herophilus.
    70. Helios.

  71-72.--CHRISTIAN GEMS.

    71. Crucifixion.
    72. Good Shepherd. Jonah.

  73-76.--EIGHTEENTH CENTURY GEMS.

    73. Achilles of Pamphilus, copied from the antique.
    74. Eros and Psyche, by Pichler.
    75. Head of Athena.
    76. Athena, from Townley Bust by Marchant.]

After the Persian conquest the victors adopted the cylinder form of the
conquered, and continued to use it. A Persian cylinder seal of Darius
(probably about 500 B.C.) in the British Museum shows the king in his
chariot, transfixing a lion with his arrows, in a palm wood. Above is
the winged emblem of the Persian deity Ahuramazda. The inscription gives
the name and titles of Darius in the Persian, Scythic and Babylonian
languages. The style is accurate and minute. The idea of the lion hunt
is borrowed from the Assyrian monuments, but the engraver has been
careful to make the necessary changes of costume and treatment. The
cylinder was, as might be anticipated, imitated to a certain extent by
peoples of the Eastern world in touch with Babylonia. It occurs in
Armenia, Media and Elam. It has been found in Crete (_British School
Annual_, viii. p. 77) and is frequent in the early Cypriote deposits. In
some instances it has been found unfinished and therefore must be
supposed to be of local manufacture. Sometimes a direct imitation of
cuneiform characters occurs on the Cypriote cylinders. The same form was
also employed by the Phoenicians (about the 8th century-7th century
B.C.). By the Greeks and Etruscans it was used, but only rarely, and by
way of exception.

_Egypt._--We must go back to the remotest periods for the origin of
intaglio engraving in Egypt. Recent discoveries of tombs of the earliest
dynasties at Abydos and Nagada have thrown much light on the early
stages of Egyptian art, and have revealed the remarkable fact that in
Egypt (as in Babylonia) the cylinder was the earliest form used for the
purpose of a seal. The cylinders that have been found are comparatively
few in number; but a large number of jar-stoppings of clay are preserved
on which cylinder designs have been rolled off while the clay was still
soft. Such early incised cylinders as are extant are made either of hard
wood or (as in an instance in the British Museum) of stone. The identity
of form has been thought to indicate a connexion with Babylonia, but
none can be traced in the designs of the respective cylinders.

The Egyptians of the earliest dynasties had an admirable command of hard
stones, as shown by their beads and stone vases, but with the exception
of the cylinders quoted they are not known to have applied their skill
to the production of intaglios. At this early period the scarab (or
beetle) was still unknown as a gem-form. It was only about the time of
the 4th dynasty that the scarab (q.v.) was first introduced, and
gradually took the place of the cylinder as the prevailing shape.

The _Scarabaeus sacer_ (Egyptian, _Kheperer_), rolling its eggs in a
ball of mud, became the accepted emblem of the sun-god, and so the form
had an amuletic value. Scarabs of obsidian and crystal date back to the
4th dynasty. Others, coarse and uninscribed, belong to the beginning of
the first Theban empire. After the 18th dynasty they are counted by
thousands. While the beetle form was naturalistically treated, the flat
surface underneath was well adapted to receive a hieroglyphic sign. The
scarabs, however, are by no means the only product of the art. We have
also figures of all kinds in the round and in intaglio--statuettes,
figures of animals and of deities, and sacred emblems such as the ankh
(or _crux ansata_) and the eye. Among interesting variations from the
scarab form is the oblong intaglio of green jasper in the Louvre
(_Gazette arch._, 1878, p. 41) with a design on both sides. It
represents on the obverse Tethmosis (Thothmes) II. (1800 B.C.) slaying a
lion, and identified by his cartouche. On the reverse we have the same
king drawing his bow against his enemies from a war chariot. The scarabs
of Egypt though uninteresting in themselves, considered as examples of
engraving, have this accidental importance in the history of art, that
they furnished the Phoenicians with a model which they were able to
improve as regards the intaglio by a more free spirit of design,
gathered partly from Egypt and partly from Assyria. The scarab thus
improved exercised a lasting influence on the later history, since, as
will be seen below, it was adopted and modified both by Greeks and
Etruscans.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Jewish High Priest's Breastplate.]

_Engraved Gems in the Bible._--While the Phoenicians have left actual
specimens to show with what skill they could adopt the systems of
gem-engraving prevailing at their time in Egypt and Assyria, the
Israelites, on the other hand, have left records to prove, if not their
skill, at least the estimation in which they held engraved gems. "The
sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron and with the point of a
diamond" (Jerem. xvii. 1). To pledge his word Judah gave Tamar his
signet, with its cord for suspension, and staff (Gen. xxxviii. 18);
whence if this passage be compared with the frequent use of "seal" in a
metaphorical sense in the Bible, and with the usage of the Babylonians
of carrying a seal with an emblem engraved on it recorded by Herodotus,
it may be concluded that among the Israelites also every man of mark at
least wore a signet. Their acquaintance with the use of seals in Egypt
and Assyria is seen in the statement that Pharaoh gave Joseph his signet
ring as a badge of investiture (Gen. xli. 42), and that the stone which
closed the den of lions was sealed by Darius with his own signet and
with the signet of his lords (Daniel vi. 17). Then as to the stones
which were most prized, Ezekiel (xxviii. 13), speaking of the prince of
Tyre, mentions "the sardius, the topaz and the diamond, the beryl, the
onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald and the carbuncle,"
stones which again occur in that most memorable of records, the
description of the breastplate of the high priest (Exodus xxviii. 16-21,
and xxxix. 8-14). Twelve stones grouped in four rows, each with three
specimens, may be arranged on a square, so as to have the rows placed
either vertically or horizontally. If they are to cover the whole
square, then, unless the gold mounts supplied the necessary
compensation, they must be cut in an oblong form, and if the names
engraved on them are to run lengthwise, as is the manner of Assyrian
cylinders, then the stones, to be legible, must be grouped in four
horizontal rows of three each. There is in fact no reason to suppose
that the gems of the breastplate were in any other form than that of
cylinders such as abounded to the knowledge of the Israelites, with this
possibility, however, that they may have been cut lengthways into
half-cylinders like a fragmentary one of sard in the British Museum,
which has been mounted in bronze, and, as a remarkable exception, has
been set with three small precious stones now missing. It could not have
been a seal, because of this setting, and because the inscription is not
reversed. The names of the twelve tribes, not their standards, as has
been thought, may have been engraved in this fashion, just as on the two
onyx stones in the preceding verses (Exodus xxviii. 9-11), where there
can be no question but that actual names were incised. On these two
stones the order of the names was according to primogeniture, and this,
it is likely, would apply to the breastplate also. The accompanying
diagram will show how the stones, supposing them to have been cylinders
or half-cylinders, may have been arranged consistently with the
descriptions of the Septuagint. In the arrangement of Josephus (iii. 7.
5) the jasper is made to change places with the sapphire, the amethyst
with the agate, and the onyx with the beryl, while our version differs
partly in the order and partly in the names of the stones; but probably
in all these accounts the names had in some cases other meanings than
those which they now carry. It must be remembered that we have two
series of equivalents, namely, the Hebrew compared with the Septuagint,
and the Greek words of the Septuagint compared with the modern names,
which in many cases, though derived from the Greek, have changed their
applications. From the fact that to each tribe was assigned a stone of
different colour, it may be taken that in each case the colour was one
which belonged prescriptively to the tribe and was symbolic, as in
Assyria, where the seven planets appropriated each a special colour [see
Brandis in _Hermes_, 1867, p. 259 seq., and de Saulcy, _Revue
archéologique_, 1869, ii. p. 91; and compare Revelation xxi. 12, 13,
where the twelve gates, which have the names of the twelve tribes
written upon them, are grouped in four threes, and 19, 20, where the
twelve precious stones of the walls are given]. The precious stones
which occur among the cylinders of the British Museum are sard, emerald,
lapis lazuli (sapphire of the ancients), agate, onyx, jasper and rock
crystal.

_Gem-Engraving in Greek Lands._--We must now turn to the history of
gem-engraving in Greek lands. The excavations in Crete in the first
years of the 20th century revealed a previously unknown culture, which
lasted on the lowest computation for more than two thousand years, and
was only interrupted by the national upheavals which preceded the
opening of Greek history proper. (See CRETE; ARCHAEOLOGY; and AEGEAN
CIVILIZATION.) Throughout the whole period the products of the
gem-engraver occupy an important place among the surviving remains. It
must suffice, however, in this place to indicate the chief groups of
stones.

The earliest engraved stones of Minoan Crete are three-sided prism
seals, made of a soft steatite, native in S.E. Crete (_Journ. of
Hellenic Studies_, xvii. p. 328). These are incised with pictorial signs
evidently belonging to a rudimentary hieroglyphic system, and are dated
before 3000 B.C. At a period placed by A.J. Evans between 2800 and 2200
the method was fully systematized and employed on the signets, as well
as on tablets and other materials. This development of the hieroglyphic
system was accompanied by an increasing power of working in hard
material, and cornelian and chalcedony superseded soft steatite (_Journ.
of Hell. Studies_, xvii. p. 334).

Towards 2000 B.C. a highly developed linear form began to supersede the
pictorial signs. It is abundant on the tablets, but the gems thus
inscribed are comparatively rare. The linear form in turn died out some
six hundred years later.

The signs of the pictorial script incised on the gems are
representations of objects, expressed with precision, but giving little
scope for the higher side of the gem-engraver's art. Simultaneously,
however, with the use of the script, a high degree of skill was acquired
by the engravers in rendering animal and human forms. Scenes occur of
ritual observance, hunting, animal life, and strange compounded forms of
demons. The excavations did not yield a large number of original gems of
this class, but a great number of clay sealings from such signets were
discovered. That they were synchronous with the use of the forms of
script described above is proved by the fact that in the palace at
Cnossus deposits were found, both in the linear and the hieroglyphic
script, sealed with these signets, the seal impressions being again
endorsed in the script (_Brit. School Annual_, xi. pp. 56, 62). For a
remarkable group of sealings found at Zakro see _Journ. of Hell.
Studies_, xxii. pll. 6-10. The finest naturalistic engravings are placed
towards the close of the "Mid-Minoan" and beginning of the "Late-Minoan"
periods (about 2200-1800 B.C.). During the progress of the "Late-Minoan"
period the subjects tended to assume a more formal and heraldic
character. The forms of stones in favour were the disk convex on each
side (lenticular or lentoid stones), and during the "Mid-Minoan" period,
elaborate signets in the form of modern fob-seals. Apart from the use of
intaglios for sealing, the excavations have shown that the Cretan
lapidaries were largely employed in the working of gems for purposes of
decoration. Fragments of lapis lazuli and crystal for inlaying (the
crystals having coloured designs on their lower surfaces) were found in
the throne room at Cnossus; the royal gaming-board, also from the palace
at Cnossus, had inlaid crystal disks and plaques. The workshop of a
lapidary, with unfinished works in marble, steatite, jasper and beryl,
was also found within the precincts of the palace (_Brit. School
Annual_, vii. pp. 20, 77). Examples were also found of work in relief,
substantially anticipating the art of cameo-cutting.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Lenticular Rock-Crystal from Ialysus. (Brit.
Mus.)]

The area over which the Cretan influence extended was wide. Its
manifestations in Greek lands proper, first revealed by Schliemann's
excavation of the royal tombs of Mycenae, ran parallel with and
outlasted the later periods of the Cretan culture to which it stood in
close relation (see AEGEAN CIVILIZATION). Its gems and intaglio works in
gold are known to us from the finds at Mycenae, and at analogous sites,
such as Menidi, Vaphio and Ialysus. They have much in common with the
finer class of Cretan stones already described. The engraved gems fall
principally into two groups in respect of form, namely, the lenticular
(or lentoid) stones already mentioned, and (more rarely) glandular
stones, so called from their resemblance to a _glans_ or sling bolt. A
Cretan fresco shows a figure wearing an agate lenticular stone suspended
from the left wrist. The finer specimens of the Aegean gems are engraved
with the wheel and the point in hard stones, such as chalcedony,
amethyst, sard, rock-crystal and haematite. A lapidary's workshop
similar to that at Cnossus has been found at Mycenae, with a store of
unused gems, and an unfinished lenticular stone (_Ephemeris
Archaiologikè_, 1897, p. 121). The characteristic of the Aegean engraver
is the free expression of living forms. His subjects are figures of
animals, men and demons in combat, and heraldic compositions recalling
the Gate of Lions at Mycenae. It was almost inevitable that the scarab
should be found in the Cretan and Aegean deposits, but in such cases we
have the Egyptian scarab directly imported, and not, as at a later
period, non-Egyptian adaptations of the form. The cylinder also (except
in Cyprus, the borderland between east and west) only occurs as an
importation, and not as a currently manufactured shape.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Lenticular Sard from Ialysus. (Brit. Mus.)]

_The "Island Gems."_--The Aegean culture was swept away probably by that
dimly seen upheaval which separated Mycenaean from historical Greece,
and which is commonly known as the Dorian invasion. One of the few facts
which indicate a certain continuity of tradition in later Greece is
this, that we again find the same characteristic forms, the glandular
and lenticular stones, in the cemeteries, of Melos and elsewhere. It is
only recently that archaeologists have learnt to distinguish between the
later lenticular and glandular stones "of the Greek Islands," as they
are commonly called, and those of the Aegean age. Engravings of the
later class are worked in soft materials only, such as steatite. They
have not the power of expressing action peculiar to the Aegean artist.
In general, the continuity of tradition between the gems of the
Mycenaean and the historical periods is in respect of shape rather than
of art. The subjects are for the most part decorative forms (the
Gryphon, the winged Sphinx, the winged horse, &c.) in course of
development into characters of Greek myth.

_The Phoenicians and the Greeks._--About the end of the 8th and
beginning of the 7th century B.C. the Phoenicians began to exercise a
powerful influence as intermediaries between Egypt and Assyria and the
Mediterranean. Porcelain and other imitations of Egyptian ornaments,
and especially of Egyptian scarabs, are found in great numbers on such
sites as Amathus in Cyprus, Camirus in Rhodes, in Etruria, and at
Tharros in Sardinia. The Egyptian hieroglyphics are imitated with
mistakes, the figures introduced are stiff and formal, the animals as a
rule heraldic. The scarab form, which in Egypt had had its sacred
significance, was now become nothing more than a convenient shape for an
object of jewelry or for the reverse side of a stone. It was adopted
from the Phoenicians both by Greeks and Etruscans. By the Greeks, with
whom we are at present concerned, its use was occasional, and about 500
B.C. it was superseded by the scarabaeoid. Under this name two forms,
somewhat similar but independent in origin, are usually grouped without
sufficient discrimination. The scarabaeoid proper is a simplification of
the scarab, effected by the omission of all details of the beetle. But
many of the stones known as scarabaeoids, with a flat and oval base and
a convex back, are in respect of their form probably of North Syrian
origin (so Furtwängler). The earliest examples of archaic Greek
gem-engraving (other than the later "Island gems" already described) are
works of Ionian art. They show a desire, only limited by imperfect power
of expression, to represent the human figure, though the particular
theme may be a god or other mythical personages. By the beginning of the
5th century the engravers had reached the point of full development, and
the scarabaeoids of the time embody its results. As an example of fine
scarabaeoids the Woodhouse intaglio of a seated citharist (fig. 5; _Cat.
of Gems in Brit. Mus._ No. 555) may be quoted as perhaps the very finest
example of Greek gem-engraving that has come down to us. It would stand
early in the 5th century B.C., a date which would also suit the head of
Eos from Ithome in Messenia (fig. 6). The number, however, of fine
scarabaeoids known to us has been considerably increased in recent
years. They are marked by a broad and simple treatment, which attains a
large effect without excessive minuteness or laboured detail. In these
respects the style has something in common with the reliefs of the 5th
century.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Victory. Early Greek Scarab. (Brit. Mus.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Citharist. Early Greek Scarabaeoid. (Brit.
Mus.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Head of Eos. (Brit. Mus.)]

_Literary History._--The literary references to the early gem-engravers
are no longer of the same importance as before in view of the fuller
knowledge we possess as to the quality of early gem-engraving, but it is
necessary that they should be taken into account.

The records of gem-engravers in Greece begin in the island of Samos,
where Mnesarchus, the father of the philosopher Pythagoras, earned by
his art more of praise than of wealth. "Not to carry the image of a god
on your seal," was a saying of Pythagoras; and, whatever his reason for
it may have been, it is interesting to observe him founding a maxim on
his father's profession of gem-engraving (Diogenes Laërt. viii. 1, 17).
From Samos also came Theodorus, who made for Polycrates the seal of
emerald (Herodotus iii. 41), which, according to the curious story, was
cast in vain into the deep sea on purpose to be lost. That the design on
it was a lyre, as is stated in one authority, is unlikely, at least if
we accept Benndorf's ingenious interpretation of Pliny (_Nat. Hist._
xxxiv. 83). He has suggested that the portrait statue of Theodorus made
by himself was in all probability a figure holding in one hand a graving
tool, and in the other, not, as previously supposed, a quadriga so
diminutive that a fly could cover it with its wings, but a scarab with
the engraving of a quadriga on its face (_Zeitschrift für die
österreich. Gymnasien_, 1873, pp. 401-411), whence it is not
unreasonable to conclude that this scarab in fact represented the famous
seal of Polycrates. Shortly after 600 B.C. there was a law of Solon's
forbidding engravers to retain impressions of the seals they made, and
this date would fall in roundly with that of Theodorus and Mnesarchus,
as if there had in fact been at that time a special activity and unusual
skill. That the use of seals had been general long before, in Cretan and
Mycenaean times, we have seen above, and it is singular to find, as
Pliny points out (xxxiii. 4), no direct mention of seals in Homer, not
even in the passage (_Iliad_, vi. 168) where Bellerophon himself carries
the tablets on which were written the orders against his life. From the
time of Theodorus to that of Pyrgoteles in the 4th century B.C. is a
long blank as to names, but not altogether as to gems, the production of
which may be judged to have been carried on assiduously from the
constant necessity of seals for every variety of purpose. The references
to them in Aristophanes, for example, and the lists of them in the
ancient inventories of treasures in the Parthenon and the Asclepieion at
Athens confirm this frequent usage during the period in question. The
mention of a public seal for authenticating state documents also becomes
frequent in the inscriptions. In the reign of Alexander the Great we
meet the name of Pyrgoteles, of whom Pliny records that he was no doubt
the most famous engraver of his time, and that Alexander decreed that
Pyrgoteles alone should engrave his portrait. Nothing else is known of
Pyrgoteles. A portrait of Alexander in the British Museum (No. 2307),
purporting to be signed by him, is palpably modern.

From literary sources we also learn the names of the engravers
Apollonides, Chronius and Dioscorides, but the date of the
last-mentioned only is certain. He is said to have made an excellent
portrait of Augustus, which was used as a seal by that emperor in the
latter part of his reign and also by his successors. Inscriptions on
extant gems make it probable that Dioscorides was a native of Aegeae in
Cilicia, and that three sons, Hyllos, Herophilus and Eutyches, followed
their father's occupation. We have also a few scattered notices of
amateurs and collectors of gems, but it will be seen that for the whole
period of classical antiquity the literary notices give little aid, and
we must return to the gems.

[Illustration: FIG. 7--Scarabaeioid by Syries. (Brit. Mus.)]

_Early Inscribed Gems._--Various early gems are inscribed with proper
names, which may be supposed to indicate either the artist or the owner
of the gem. In some cases there is no ambiguity, e.g. on a scarab is
inscribed, "I am the seal of Thersis. Do not open me"; and a scarabaeoid
(fig. 7) is inscribed, "Syries made me." But when we have the name
alone, the general principle on which we must distinguish between owner
and artist is that the name of the owner is naturally meant to be
conspicuous (as in a gem in the British Museum inscribed in large
letters with the name of Isagor[as]), while the name of an artist is
naturally inconspicuous and subordinate to the design.

The early engravers known to us by their signatures are: Syries, who was
author of the modified scarab in the British Museum, mentioned above,
with a satyr's head in place of the beetle, and a citharist on the
base--a work of the middle of the 6th century; Semon, who engraved a
black jasper scarab now at Berlin, with a nude woman kneeling at a
fountain filling her pitcher, of the close of the 6th century; Epimenes,
who was the author of an admirable chalcedony scarabaeoid of a nude
youth restraining a spirited horse--formerly in the Tyszkiewicz
Collection, and of about the beginning of the 5th century. But better
known to us than any of these artists is the 5th-century engraver,
Dexamenus of Chios, of whose work four examples[1] survive, viz.:--

1. A chalcedony scarabaeoid from Greece, in the Fitzwilliam Museum at
Cambridge, with a lady at her toilet, attended by her maid. Inscribed
[Greek: DEXAMENOS], and with the name of the lady, [Greek: MIKÊS].

2. An agate with a stork standing on one leg, inscribed [Greek:
DEXAMENOS] simply.

3. A chalcedony with the figure of a stork flying, and inscribed in two
lines, the letters carefully disposed above each other, [Greek:
DEXAMENOS EPOIE CHIOS].

4. A gem, apparently by the same Dexamenus, is a cornelian formerly
belonging to Admiral Soteriades in Athens, and subsequently in the
collection of Dr Arthur Evans. It has a portrait head, bearded and
inscribed [Greek: DEXAMENOS EPOIE].

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Greek Sard. 5th Cent. B.C. (Brit. Mus.)]

The design of a stork flying occurs on an agate scarab in the British
Museum, from the old Cracherode Collection, and therefore beyond all
suspicion of having been copied from the more recently discovered Kertch
gem.

For the period immediately following that early prime to which the gems
above described belong, our materials are less copious. Some of the
finest examples are derived from the Greek tombs in the Crimea and South
Russia. Reckoned among the best of the Crimean gems, and that is
equivalent to saying among the best of all gems, are the following: (1)
a burnt scarabaeoid with an eagle carrying off a hare; (2) a gem with
scarab border and the figure of a youth seated playing on the trigonon,
very much resembling the Woodhouse intaglio (both engraved, _Compte
rendu_, 1871, pl. vi. figs. 16, 17). In these, and in almost all Greek
gems belonging to this period of excellence, the material is of
indifferent quality, consisting of agate, chalcedony or cornelian, just
as in the older specimens. Brilliant colour and translucency are as yet
not a necessary element, and accordingly the design is worked out solely
with a view to its own artistic merit. The scarab tends to die out. The
scarabaeoid in its turn is abandoned for the simple ring stone. The
subjects chosen take by degrees a different character. Aphrodite (nude),
Eros, children and women tend to replace the older and severer themes.
The motives of 4th-century sculpture appear by degrees on the gems.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Amethyst Pendant. (Brit. Mus.)]

_Etruscan Gems._--At this point it is convenient to discuss the
gem-engraving of the Etruscans, which came into being towards the close
of the archaic period of Greek art. In the early Etruscan deposits, such
as that of the Polledrara tomb in the British Museum (towards 600 B.C.),
we find nothing except Phoenician imports of porcelain or stone scarabs,
both strongly Egyptian in character. During the 6th century a few of the
semi-Egyptian stones of Sardinia make their appearance. But in the
latter part of the century these oriental products tend to die out, and
we have in their place the native works of Etruscan artists. These
engravings stand in the closest relation to Greek works of the close of
the 6th century and many imported Greek scarabs also occur.

The Etruscan scarab has its beetle form more minutely engraved than that
of the Greeks. It is further distinguished in the better examples, alike
from the Greek and the Egyptian form, by a small border of a sort of
petal ornament round the lower edge of the beetle. Like the earlier
Greek scarabs it has the cable border round the design, but the border
continued in use in Etruria when it had been abandoned in Greece. The
scarabaeoid form does not occur in Etruscan deposits. Etruscan engraving
begins when Greek art was approaching maturity, with studies, sometimes
stiff and cramped, of the heroic nude form. Some of the Greek deities
such as Athena and Hermes occur, together with the winged personages of
Greek mythology. To the heroic types the names of Greek legend are
attached, with modifications of form, such as [Greek: TYTE] for Tydeus,
and [Greek: KAPNE] for Capaneus. Sometimes the names are appropriate and
sometimes they are assigned at random. The subjects include certain
favourite incidents in the Trojan and Theban cycles (e.g. the death of
Capaneus); myths of Heracles; athletes, horsemen, a few scenes of daily
life. Certain schemes of composition are frequent. In particular, a
figure too large for the field, standing and bending over, is made to
serve for many types. The engraving of the finer Etruscan gems is minute
and precise, marked with elegance and command of the material. Its fault
is its want of original inspiration. Special mention must be made of a
very numerous group of cornelian scarabs, roughly engraved for the most
part with cup-shaped sinkings (whence they are known as gems _a globolo
tondo_) roughly joined together by furrows. Notwithstanding their
apparent rudeness, these gems are shown, by the conditions in which they
are found, to be comparatively late works of the 4th century.
Furtwängler ingeniously suggests that the rough execution was intended
to emphasize the shining surfaces of the cup-sinkings, rather than to
produce any particular intaglio subject. (For an elaborate
classification of the Etruscan scarabs see Furtwängler, _Geschichte_, p.
170.)

_The Cameos._--After the beginning of the regal period, in the 4th
century B.C., the introduction of more splendid materials from the East
was turned to good account by the development of the cameo, i.e. of
gem-carving in relief (for the origin of the word see CAMEO). But in its
simpler forms the principle of the cameo necessarily dates from the
beginning of the art. Thus a lion in rock-crystal was found in the very
early royal tomb of Nagada (de Morgan, _Recherches, Tombeau de Negadah_,
p. 193). The Egyptian scarab, on its rounded side, had been
naturalistically carved in relief in beetle form. Steatite engravings in
relief (notably the harvest festival vase from Hagia Triada) were found
in the Cretan deposits. Subjects are found carved in the round in hard
stone in Mycenaean graves. When we come to historical Greece and to
Etruria the cameo of later times is anticipated by various attempts to
modify the traditional form of the scarab. An example in cornelian was
found at Orvieto in 1874 in a tomb along with vases dating from the
beginning of the 5th century B.C., and it will be seen from the
engraving of this gem (_Arch. Zeit._, 1877, pl. xi. fig. 3) that, while
the design on the face is in intaglio, the half-length figure of a
Gorgon on the back is engraved in relief. Compare a cornelian fragment,
apparently cut from the back of a scarabaeoid, now in the British
Museum. As further examples of the same rare form of cameo, the
following gems in the British Museum may be mentioned:--(1) a cornelian
cut from back of a scarabaeoid, with head of Gorgon surrounded by wings;
(2) cornelian scarabaeoid: Gorgon running to left; on face of the gem an
intaglio of Thetis giving armour to Achilles; (3) steatite scarabaeoid,
already mentioned, signed by Syries, head of a satyr, full face, with
intaglio of citharist. There is, however, no evidence at present
available to show that the cameo proper had been introduced in Greece
before the time of Alexander. The earliest examples found in known
conditions are derived from Crimean tombs of the middle of the 3rd
century B.C.

Among the most splendid of ancient cameos are those at St Petersburg and
Vienna, each representing a monarch of the Diadochi and his consort
(Furtwängler, pl. 53). There is much controversy as to the persons
represented, but the cameos are probably works of the 3rd century.

The materials which ancient artists used for cutting into cameos were
chiefly those siliceous minerals which, under a variety of names,
present various strata or bands of two or more distinct colours. The
minerals, under different names, are essentially the chalcedonic
variety of quartz, and the differences of colour they present are due to
the presence of variable proportions of iron and other foreign
ingredients. These banded stones, when cut parallel to the layers of
different colours, and when only two coloured bands--white and black, or
sometimes white and black and brown--are present, are known as onyxes;
but when they have with the onyx bands layers of cornelian or sard, they
are termed sardonyxes. The sardonyx, which was the favourite stone of
ancient cameo-engravers, and the material in which their masterpieces
were cut, was procured from India, and the increased intercourse with
the East after the death of Alexander the Great had a marked influence
on the development of the art.

Akin in their nature to the great regal cameos, which from the nature of
the case are cut on a nearly plane surface, are the cups and vases cut
out of a homogeneous stone and therefore capable of being worked in the
round. A few examples of such works survive. The most famous are the
Farnese Tazza and the cup of the Ptolemies. The Tazza, which is now in
the National Museum at Naples, was bought by Lorenzo de' Medici from
Pope Paul II. in 1471. It is a large shallow bowl of sardonyx, 8 in. in
diameter. On its exterior surface is a Gorgoneion upon an aegis; in the
interior is an allegorical design, relating to the Nile flood. The cup
of the Ptolemies, formerly known as the cup of St Denis, is preserved in
the Cabinet des Médailles of the French Bibliothèque Nationale. It is a
cup 4¾ in. high and 5-1/8 in. in diameter, carved out of oriental
sardonyx, and richly decorated with Dionysiac emblems and attributes in
relief.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Actaeon. Fragment of Sardonyx Cameo. (Brit.
Mus.)]

_The Cameo in the Roman Empire._--During the 1st century of the empire
the engraver's art alike in cameo and in intaglio was at a high degree
of excellence. The artist in cameo took full advantage of his rich
opportunities in the way of sumptuous materials, and of the requirements
of an imperial court. The two most famous examples of this art which
have come down to the present day are the Great Agate of the Sainte
Chapelle in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, and the Augustus Cameo in
the Vienna Collection. The former was pledged among other valuables in
1244 by Baldwin II. of Constantinople to Saint Louis. It is mentioned in
1344 as "Le Camahieu," having been sent in that year to Rome for the
inspection of Pope Clement VI. It is a sardonyx of five layers of
irregular shape, like all classical gems, measuring 12 in. by 10½ in. It
represents on its upper part the deified members of the Julian house.
The centre is occupied with the reception of Germanicus on his return
from his great German campaign by the emperor Tiberius and his mother
Livia. The lower division is filled with a group of captives in
attitudes expressive of woe and deep dejection. The Vienna gem (_Gemma
augustea_), an onyx of two layers measuring 8-5/8 in. by 7½, is a work
of still greater artistic interest. The upper portion is occupied with
an allegorical representation of the coronation of Augustus, the emperor
being represented as Jupiter with Livia as the goddess Roma at his side.
In the composition deities of Earth and Sea, and several members of the
family of Augustus, are introduced; on the exergue or lower portion are
Roman soldiers preparing a trophy, barbarian captives and female
figures. This gem was in the 15th century at the abbey of St Sernin at
Toulouse. According to tradition it had been placed there by
Charlemagne. It came into the possession of the emperor Rudolph II. in
the 16th century for the enormous sum of 12,000 gold ducats. The
principal cameo in the collection of the British Museum was acquired at
the final dispersion of the Marlborough Collection in 1899. It is a
sardonyx measuring 8¾ in. by 6 in., and appears to represent a Roman
emperor and empress in the forms of Serapis and Isis. Here also, in
imperial times as in the Hellenistic period, side by side with the great
cameos, we meet with works carved out in the round. Noted examples of
such work are the Brunswick vase (at Brunswick), with the subject of
Triptolemus; the Berlin vase with the lustration of a new-born imperial
prince; and the Waddesdon vase in the British Museum, with a vine in
relief set in a rich enamelled Renaissance mount. Hardly less precious
than the cameos in sardonyx were the imitations carved out of coloured
glass. The material was not costly, but its extreme fragility made the
work of extreme difficulty. Examples of such work are the Barberini or
Portland vase, deposited in the British Museum, with scenes supposed to
be connected with the story of Peleus and Thetis; and the "vase of blue
glass" from Pompeii, in the museum at Naples (see Mau and Kelsey, p.
408). The world's great cameos, which are hardly more than a dozen in
number, have not been found by excavation. They remained as precious
objects in imperial and ecclesiastical treasuries and passed thence to
the royal and national collections of modern Europe.

_The Intaglio in the Roman Empire._--The art of engraving in intaglio
was also at a high level of excellence in the beginning of the Roman
empire. This is to be inferred alike from the admirable portraits of the
1st century A.D., and from the number of signed gems bearing Roman
artists' names, such as Aulus, Gnaius and the like, which could hardly
belong to any other period. It is impossible, however, to found any
argument upon the artists' signatures without taking into account the
intricate questions of authenticity which are discussed in the following
section.

_Signed Gems._--The number of gems which have, or purport to have, the
name of the artist inscribed upon them is very large. A great many of
the supposed signatures are modern forgeries, dating from the period
between 1724 (when the book of Stosch, _Gemmae antiquae caelatae,
scalptorum nominibus insignitae_, first drew general attention to the
subject) and 1833, when the multitude of forged signatures (about 1800
in number) in the collection of Prince Poniatowski made the whole
pursuit ridiculous. It is known, however, that forged signatures were
current before 1724 (see Stosch, p. xxi.), and in the period immediately
following they were very numerous. Thus Laurence Natter (_Méthode de
graver en pierres fines_ (1754), p. xxx.) confesses that, whenever
desired, he made copies. For example, he copied a Venus (Brit. Mus. No.
2296), converting the figure into a Danaë and affixing the name of Aulos
which he found on the Venus. Cf. Mariette, _Traité_ (1750), i. p. 101.

The question which of the multitude of supposed signatures can be
accepted as genuine has been a subject of prolonged and intricate
controversy. In the period immediately following the Poniatowski
forgeries the extreme height of scepticism is represented by Koehler,
who only acknowledged five gems (Koehler, iii. p. 206) as having genuine
signatures. In recent years the subject has been principally dealt with
by Furtwängler, whose conclusion is to admit a considerable number of
gems rejected by his predecessors.

It must suffice here to point out a few general principles. In the first
place a certain number of gems recently discovered have inscriptions
which are undoubtedly genuine and which record the names of the
engravers. The form of the signature may be a nominative with a verb, a
nominative without a verb or a genitive. The artists in this class are
Syries, Dexamenus, Epimenes and Semon, mentioned above, and a few
others. Another group of gems which must be accepted consists of stones
whose known history goes back to a period at which a forged inscription
was impossible. Thus a bust of Athena in the Berlin Collection, signed
by Eutyches, was seen by Cyriac of Ancona in 1445. A glass cameo signed
by Herophilus, son of Dioscorides, now at Vienna, was, in the 17th
century, in the monastery of Echternach, where it had probably been from
old times. The portrait of Julia, daughter of Titus, by Euodos (now in
the Bibliothèque Nationale) was formerly a part of a reliquary presented
to the abbey of St Denis by Charles the Bold. Another group of
undoubtedly genuine signatures occurs on cameos (in stone and paste)
which have the inscriptions in relief, and therefore as part of the
original design. Such are the works of Athenion, and of Quintus, son of
Alexas.

For the great majority of signed gems which do not fall into these
categories the reader must refer to the discussions of Furtwängler and
others (see _Bibliography_ below). It must suffice to say that
Furtwängler arrives at the result that we have in all genuine signatures
of at least fifty ancient gem-engravers.

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--Christian Gem. The Good Shepherd. (Brit. Mus.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--Gnostic Gem. (Brit. Mus.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--Sassanian Gem. (Brit. Mus.)]

_Gem-Engraving in the Later Empire._--In the following centuries the art
of intaglio engraving, which was still at a high degree of perfection in
the first century of the Roman empire, became more mechanical. The
designs have a very characteristic appearance, due to the method of
production with rough and hasty strokes of the wheel only. A collection
of gems found in England, such as that in the possession of the
corporation of Bath, shows the feeble character in particular of the
gems current in the provinces. Except in portraiture, and in grylli or
conceits, in which various things are combined into one, often with much
skill, the subjects were as a rule only variations or adaptations of old
types handed down from the Greeks. When new and distinctly Roman
subjects occur, such as the finding of the head on the Capitol, or
Faustulus, or the she-wolf with the twins, both the stones and the
workmanship are poor. In such cases, where the design stirs a genuine
national interest, it may happen that very little of artistic rendering
will be acceptable rather than otherwise, and much more is this true
when the design is a symbol of some article of faith, as in the early
Christian gems. There both the art and the material are at what may be
called the lowest level. The usual subjects on the early Christian gems
are the fish, anchor, ship, dove, the good shepherd, and, according to
Clemens, the lyre. Under the Gnostics, however, with whom there was more
of speculation than of faith, symbolism was developed to an extent which
no art could realize without the aid of writing. A gem was to them a
talisman more or less elaborate with long, but for the most part quite
unintelligible, engraved formulae. The difficulty is to make out how the
stones were carried; many specimens exist, but none show signs of
mounting. The materials are usually haematite or jasper. As regards the
designs, it is clear that Egyptian sources have been most drawn upon.
But the symbolism is also largely associated with Mithraic worship. The
name Abraxas, or more correctly Abrasax, which, from its frequency on
these gems, has led to their being called also "Abraxas gems," is, when
the Greek letters of which it is composed are treated as Greek numerals,
equal to 365, the number of days in a year, and the same is the case
with [Greek: MEITHRAS].

More interesting, from the occasionally forcible portraiture and the
splendour of some of the jacinths employed, are the Sassanian gems,
which as a class may be said to represent the last stage of true
gem-engraving in ancient times.

The art of cameo-engraving, which, as we have seen, attained its
greatest splendour at the beginning of the empire, followed on the whole
a similar course. It waned in the early part of the 3rd century after
the death of the emperor Severus, but under the first Christian emperor
Constantine it enjoyed a brief period of revival. Fine cameo portraits
of Constantine are extant; and it was during or shortly after his reign
that Christian Scripture subjects began to appear on cameos. That class
of subjects constituted the staple of such work--generally rude and
artistically debased--as continued to be cultivated under the Byzantine
empire down to nearly the epoch of the Renaissance. From the Byzantine
period downward one peculiarity of gem-engraving becomes noticeable.
Cameo-work as compared with intaglios in classical times was rare and
infrequent, but now and onwards the opposite is the case,
intaglio-sinking having almost died out, and cameos being chiefly
produced. Commercial intercourse with the East still secured for the
engravers a supply of magnificent sardonyxes, although blood-stone and
other non-banded stones were very commonly used for works in relief.
Cameos during the long dark ages were used chiefly for the decoration of
reliquaries and other altar furniture, and as such their designs were
purely ecclesiastical or scriptural. To this period also belongs the
class of complimentary or motto cameos, which, containing only
inscriptions and an ornamental border, executed in nicolo stones, were
used as personal gifts and adornments.

In medieval times antique cameos were held in peculiar veneration on
account of the belief, then universal, in their potency as medicinal
charms. This power was supposed to be derived from their origin, of
which two theories, equally satisfactory, were current. By the one they
were held to be the work of the children of Israel during their sojourn
in the wilderness (hence the name _Pierres d'Israël_), while the other
theory held them to be direct products of nature, the engraved figures
pointing to the peculiar virtue lodged in them. Interpreters less
mystically inclined found Biblical interpretations for the subjects.
Thus the cameo of the Sainte Chapelle was supposed to represent the
triumph of Joseph in Egypt. A cameo with Poseidon, Athena and her
serpent was Adam and Eve.

The revival of the glyptic arts in western Europe dates from the
pontificate of the Venetian Paul II. (1464-1471), himself an ardent
lover and collector of gems, to which passion, indeed, it is gravely
affirmed he was a martyr, having died of a cold caught by the
multiplicity of gems exposed on his fingers. The cameos of the early
part of the 16th century rival in beauty of execution the finest
classical works, and, indeed, many of them pass in the cabinets of
collectors for genuine antiques, which they closely imitated. The
Oriental sardonyx was not available for the purposes of the Renaissance
artists, who were consequently obliged to content themselves with the
colder German agate onyx. The scarcity of worthy materials led them to
use the backs of ancient cameos, or to improve on classical works of
inferior value executed on good material, and probably to this cause
must also be assigned the development of shell cameos, which are rarely
found, of an older period.

Among the means of distinguishing antique cameos from cinquecento work,
the kind of stone is one of the best tests, the classical artists having
used only rich and warm-tinted Oriental stones, which further are
frequently drilled through their diameter with a minute hole, from
having been used by their original Oriental possessors in the form of
beads. The cinquecento artists also, as a rule, worked their subjects in
high relief, and resorted to undercutting, no case of which is found in
the flat low work of classical times. The projecting portions of antique
work exhibit a dull chalky appearance, which, however, fabricators
learned to imitate in various ways, one of which was by cramming the
gizzards of turkey fowls with the gems. Another index of antiquity is
found in the different methods of working adopted in classical and
Renaissance times. The tools employed by the Renaissance engraver were
the drill and the wheel, while the ancient artist also employed the
diamond point.

[Illustration: Fig. 14--Muse, by Pichler. (Brit. Mus.)]

The gem-engraver's art again during the 18th century revived under an
even greater amount of encouragement from men of wealth and rank. In
this last period the names of engravers who succeeded best in imitating
classical designs were Natter, Pichler (fig. 14), and the Englishmen
Marchant (fig. 15) and Burch. Compared with Greek gems, it will be seen
that what at first sight is attractive as refined and delicate is after
all an exaggerated minuteness of execution, entirely devoid of the
ancient spirit. The success with which modern engravers imposed on
collectors is recorded in many instances, of which one may be taken as
an instructive type. In the Bibliothèque Nationale is a gem
(Chabouillet's catalogue, No. 2337), familiarly known as the signet of
Michelangelo, the subject being a Bacchanalian scene. So much did he
admire it, the story says, that he copied from it one of the groups in
his paintings in the Sistine chapel. The gem, however, is evidently in
this part of it a mere copy from Michelangelo's group, and therefore a
subsequent production, probably by da Pescia.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--Nereid and Sea-bull by Marchant. (Brit. Mus.)]

In our own day the engraving of cameos has practically ceased to be
pursued as an art. Roman manufacturers cut stones in large quantities to
be used as shirt-studs and for setting in finger-rings; and in Rome and
Paris an extensive trade is carried on in the cutting of shell cameos,
which are largely imported into England and mounted as brooches by
Birmingham jewelry manufacturers. The principal shell used is the large
bull's-mouth shell (_Cassis rufa_), found in East Indian seas, which has
a sard-like underlayer. The black helmet (_Cassis tuberosa_) of the West
Indian seas, the horned helmet (_C. cornuta_) of Madagascar, and the
pinky queen's conch (_Strombus gigas_) of the West Indies are also
employed. The famous potter Josiah Wedgwood introduced a method of
making imitations of cameos in pottery by producing white figures on a
coloured ground, this constituting the peculiarity of what is now known
as Wedgwood ware.

_Gem Collectors._--The habit of gem-collecting is recorded first in the
instance of Ismenias, a musician of Cyprus, who appears to have lived in
the 4th century B.C. But though individual collectors are not again
mentioned till the time of Mithradates, whose cabinet was carried off to
Rome by Pompey, still it is to be inferred that they existed, if not
pretty generally, yet in such places as Cyrene, where the passion for
gems was so great that the thriftiest person owned one worth 10 minas,
and where, according to Aelian (_Var. hist._ xii. 30), the skill in
engraving was astonishing. The first cabinet (_dactyliotheca_) in Rome
was that of Scaurus, a stepson of Sulla. Caesar is said to have formed
six cabinets for public exhibition, and from the time of Augustus all
men of refinement were supposed to be judges both of the art and of the
quality of the stones.

In the middle ages the chief collections were incorporated in works of
art in the church treasuries. The first collector of modern times was,
as already mentioned, Pope Paul II., who was followed by a long
succession of princely and noble collectors such as Lorenzo de' Medici
and the great earl of Arundel. The collection of the latter passed into
the hands of the dukes of Marlborough and thence into the possession of
Mr David Bromilow. The collection was finally dispersed by auction in
June 1899.

In modern times the principal collections are contained in state
museums. The cabinets of Vienna and of the Bibliothèque Nationale are
incomparably rich in the historic cameos. Those of the British Museum
and of Berlin are the strongest in their range over the whole field of
the gem-engraver's art.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For the fullest general account of the subject (with
  especial attention to the gems of classical antiquity) see A.
  Furtwängler, _Die antiken Gemmen, Geschichte der Steinschneiderkunst
  im klassischen Altertum_, in 3 vols (1900). See also E. Babelon, _La
  Gravure en pierres fines, camées et intailles_ (1894); A.H. Smith,
  "Gemma" and "Sculptura," in the 3rd edition of Smith's _Dict. of
  Antiquities_; J.H. Middleton, _The Engraved Gems of Classical Times_
  (1891). Much curious information is in the works of C.W. King:
  _Handbook of Engraved Gems_ (1866); _Antique Gems_ (1866); _The
  Natural History, Ancient and Modern, of Precious Stones and Gems, and
  of the Precious Metals_ (1865); _Antique Gems and Rings_ (2 vols.,
  1872).

  Special Periods:--_Babylonia, &c._--Menant, "Les Pierres gravées de la
  haute Asie," _Recherches sur la glyptique orientale_ (1883-1886).

  _Egypt._--For the early cylinder sealings, &c. see Petrie, "Royal
  Tombs of the First Dynasty" (_Egypt Explor. Fund, XVIIIth Memoir_), p.
  24; pls. 12, figs. 3 to 7, and pls. 18-29; Amélineau, "Nouvelles
  Fouilles d'Abydos, 1897-1898," _Compte rendu_, pp. 78, 423; pl. 25,
  figs. 1-3.

  _The Bible._--Petrie, "Stones (Precious)," in Hastings' _Dict. of the
  Bible_.

  _Phoenician._--See M.A. Levy, _Siegel und Gemmen_, with three plates
  of gems having Phoenician, Aramaic, old Hebrew and other inscriptions
  (Breslau, 1869); and, on the same subject, De Voguë, in the _Revue
  archéologique_, 2nd series (1868), xvii. p. 432, pls. 14-16.

  _Crete._--Articles by A.J. Evans in _Journal of Hellenic Studies_,
  xiv., xvii., xxi., and in _Annual of British School at Athens_, vi.
  and onwards.

  _Classical Gems._--See Furtwängler, op. cit.

  _Gnostic Gems._--Cabrol, _Dict. d'archéologie chrétienne_, s.v.
  "Abrasax."

  For the controversy as to gems with artists' signatures, see Koehler,
  _Abhandlung über die geschnittenen Steine, mit den Namen der
  Künstler_; Koehler's collected works, ed. Stephani, vol. iii. (1851);
  Stephani, Notes to Koehler as above; also _Über einige angebliche
  Steinschneider des Alterthums_ (St Petersburg, 1851); Brunn,
  _Geschichte der griechischen Künstler_, ii. (1859), pp. 442-637;
  Furtwängler, _Jahrbuch d. k. deutsch. arch. Inst._ iii. (1888), pp.
  105, 193, 297; iv. (1889), p. 46, and _Geschichte_, passim.

  For the history of the Poniatowski gems, see Reinach, _Pierres
  gravées_, p. 151.

  _Catalogues._--The chief catalogues dealing with modern public
  collections are: Berlin, A. Furtwängler, _Beschreibung der
  geschnittenen Steine im Antiquarium_ (1896); British Museum, A.H.
  Smith, _A Catalogue of Engraved Gems in the British Museum_ (_Dept. of
  Greek and Roman Antiquities_) (1888); Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale,
  Chabouillet, _Catalogue ... des camées et pierres gravées de la
  Bibliothèque Impériale_ (1858); E. Babelon, _Catalogue des camées ...
  de la Bibliothèque Nationale_ (1897).

  _Modern Engraving._--Vasari vii. p. 113 (ed. Siena, 1792); continued
  by Mariette, _Traité des pierres gravées_ (1750), i. p. 105. The older
  books on gems are very numerous, but those of present-day importance
  are not many. Faber, _Illustrium imagines ... apud Fulvium Ursinum_
  (Antwerp, 1606); Stosch, _Gemmae antiquae caelatae, scalptorum
  nominibus insignitae_ (Amsterdam, 1724); Winckelmann, _Description des
  pierres gravées du feu Baron de Stosch_ (1760); Krause, _Pyrgoteles,
  oder die edlen Steine der Alten_ (1856); a convenient reissue of
  Stosch, and seven others of the older works, by S. Reinach, _Pierres
  gravées, &c. ... réunies et rééditées, avec un texte nouveau_ (1895).

  _Pastes._--The principal collection of glass and sulphur pastes from
  gems was that issued by James Tassie of Glasgow, with _A Descriptive
  Catalogue of a General Collection of ... Engraved Gems ... arranged
  and described by R.E. Raspe_ (the author of _Baron Munchausen_)
  (1791).     (A. S. M.; A. H. Sm.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For Nos. 1-4 see Furtwängler, pl. 14; for Nos. 2-4 see Evans,
    _Rev. archéologique_, xxxii. (1898) pl. 8.



GEM, ARTIFICIAL. The term "Artificial Gems" does not mean _imitations_
of real gems, but the actual formation by artificial means of the real
precious stone, so that the product is identical, chemically, physically
and optically, with the one found in nature. For instance, in chemical
composition the lustrous diamond is nothing but crystallized carbon.
Could we take black amorphous carbon in the form of charcoal or
lampblack and dissolve it in a liquid, and by the slow evaporation of
that liquid allow the dissolved carbon to separate out, it would
probably crystallize in the transparent form of diamond. This would be a
true synthesis of diamond, and the product would be just as much
entitled to the name as the choicest products of Kimberley or Golconda.
But this is a very different thing from the imitation diamond so common
in shop windows. Here the chemist has only succeeded in making a paste
or glass having limpidity and a somewhat high refractivity, but wanting
the hardness and "fire" of the real stone.

_The Diamond._--Within recent years chemists have actually succeeded in
making the real diamond by artificial means, and although the largest
yet made is not more than one-fiftieth of an inch across, the process
itself and the train of reasoning leading up to such an achievement are
sufficiently interesting to warrant a somewhat full description.
Attempts to make diamonds artificially have been numerous, but, with the
sole exception of those of Henri Moissan, all have resulted in failure.
The nearest approach to success was attained by J.B. Hannay in 1880 and
R.S. Marsden in 1881; but their results have not been verified by others
who have tried to repeat them, and the probability is that what was then
thought to be diamond was in reality carborundum or carbide of silicon.

Attempts have been made by two methods to make carbon crystallize in the
transparent form. One is to crystallize it slowly from a solution in
which it has been dissolved. The difficulty is to find a solvent. Many
organic and some inorganic bodies hold carbon so loosely combined that
it can be separated out under the influence of chemical action, heat or
electricity, but invariably the carbon assumes the black amorphous form.
The other method is to try to fuse the carbon by fierce heat, when from
analogy it is argued that on cooling it will solidify to a clear limpid
crystal. The progress of science in other directions has now made it
pretty certain that the true mode of making diamond artificially is by a
combination of these two methods. Until recently it was assumed that
carbon was non-volatile at any attainable temperature, but it is now
known that at a temperature of about 3600° C. it volatilizes readily,
passing without liquefying directly from the solid to the gaseous state.
Very few bodies act in this manner, the great majority when heated at
atmospheric pressure to a sufficient temperature passing through the
intermediate condition of liquidity. Some few, however, which when
heated at atmospheric pressure do not liquefy, when heated at higher
pressures in closed vessels obey the common rule and first become liquid
and then volatilize. Sir James Dewar found the critical pressure of
carbon to be about 15 tons on the sq. in.; that is to say, if heated to
its critical temperature (3600° C.), and at the same time subjected to a
pressure of 15 tons to the sq. in., it will assume the liquid form.
Enormous as such pressures and temperatures may appear to be, they have
been exceeded in some of Sir Andrew Noble's and Sir F. Abel's
researches; in their investigations on the gases from gunpowder and
cordite fired in closed steel chambers, these chemists obtained
pressures as great as 95 tons to the sq. in., and temperatures as high
as 4000° C. Here then, if the observations are correct, we have
sufficient temperature and enough pressure to liquefy carbon; and, were
there only sufficient time for these to act on the carbon, there is
little doubt that the artificial formation of diamonds would soon pass
from the microscopic stage to a scale more likely to satisfy the
requirements of science, if not those of personal adornment.

It has long been known that the metal iron in a molten state dissolves
carbon and deposits it on cooling as black opaque graphite. Moissan
carried out a laborious and systematic series of experiments on the
solubility of carbon in iron and other metals, and came to the
conclusion that whereas at ordinary pressures the carbon separates from
the solidifying iron in the form of graphite, if the pressure be greatly
increased the carbon on separation will form liquid drops, which on
solidifying will assume the crystalline shape and become true diamond.
Many other metals dissolve carbon, but molten iron has been found to be
the best solvent. The quantity entering into solution increases with the
temperature of the metal. But temperature alone is not enough; pressure
must be superadded. Here Moissan ingeniously made use of a property
which molten iron possesses in common with some few other
liquids--water, for instance--of increasing in volume in the act of
passing from the liquid to the solid state. Pure iron is mixed with
carbon obtained from the calcination of sugar, and the whole is rapidly
heated in a carbon crucible in an electric furnace, using a current of
700 amperes and 40 volts. The iron melts like wax and saturates itself
with carbon. After a few minutes' heating to a temperature above 4000°
C.--a temperature at which the lime furnace begins to melt and the iron
volatilizes in clouds--the dazzling, fiery crucible is lifted out and
plunged beneath the surface of cold water, where it is held till it
sinks below a red heat. The sudden cooling solidifies the outer skin of
molten metal and holds the inner liquid mass in an iron grip. The
expansion of the inner liquid on solidifying produces enormous pressure,
and under this stress the dissolved carbon separates out in a hard,
transparent, dense form--in fact, as diamond. The succeeding operations
are long and tedious. The metallic ingot is attacked with hot _aqua
regia_ till no iron is left undissolved. The bulky residue consists
chiefly of graphite, together with translucent flakes of
chestnut-coloured carbon, hard black opaque carbon of a density of from
3.0 to 3.5, black diamonds--carbonado, in fact--and a small quantity of
transparent colourless diamonds showing crystalline structure. Besides
these there may be corundum and carbide of silicon, arising from
impurities in the materials employed. Heating with strong sulphuric
acid, with hydrofluoric acid, with nitric acid and potassium chlorate,
and fusing with potassium fluoride--operations repeated over and over
again--at last eliminate the graphite and impurities and leave the true
diamond untouched. The precious residue on microscopic examination shows
many pieces of black diamond, and other colourless transparent pieces,
some amorphous, others crystalline. Although many fragments of crystals
are seen, the writer has scarcely ever met with a complete crystal. All
appear broken up, as if, on being liberated from the intense pressure
under which they were formed, they burst asunder. Direct evidence of
this phenomenon has been seen. A very fine piece of diamond, prepared in
the way just described and carefully mounted on a microscopic slide,
exploded during the night and covered the slide with fragments. This
bursting paroxysm is not unknown at the Kimberley mines.

Sir William Crookes in 1906 communicated to the Royal Society a paper on
a new formation of diamond. Sir Andrew Noble has shown that in the
explosion of cordite in closed steel cylinders pressures of over 50 tons
to the sq. in. and a temperature probably reaching 5400° were obtained.
Here then we have conditions favourable for the liquefaction of carbon,
and if the time of explosion were sufficient to allow the reactions to
take place we should expect to get liquid carbon solidified in the
crystalline state. Experiment proved the truth of these anticipations.
Working with specially prepared explosive containing a little excess of
carbon Sir Andrew Noble collected the residue left in the steel
cylinder. This residue was submitted by Sir William Crookes to the
lengthy operations already described in the account of H. Moissan's
fused iron experiment. Finally, minute crystals were obtained which
showed octahedral planes with dark boundaries due to high refracting
index. The position and angles of their faces, and cleavages, the
absence of bi-refringence, and their high refractive index all showed
that the crystals were true diamond.

The artificial diamonds, so far, have not been larger than microscopic
specimens, and none has measured more than about half a millimetre
across. That, however, is quite enough to show the correctness of the
train of reasoning leading up to the achievement, and there is no reason
to doubt that, working on a larger scale, larger diamonds will result.
Diamonds so made burn in the air when heated to a high temperature, with
formation of carbonic acid; and in lustre, crystalline form, optical
properties, density and hardness, they are identical with the natural
stone.

It having been shown that diamond is formed by the separation of carbon
from molten iron under pressure, it became of interest to see if in some
large metallurgical operations similar conditions might not prevail. A
special form of steel is made at some large establishments by cooling
the molten metal under intense hydraulic pressure. In some samples of
the steel so made Professor Rosel, of the university of Bern, has found
microscopic diamonds. The higher the temperature at which the steel has
been melted the more diamonds it contains, and it has even been
suggested that the hardness of steel in some measure may be due to the
carbon distributed throughout its mass being in this adamantine form.
The largest artificial diamond yet formed was found in a block of steel
and slag from a furnace in Luxembourg; it is clear and crystalline, and
measures about one-fiftieth of an inch across.

A striking confirmation of the theory that natural diamonds have been
produced from their solution in masses of molten iron, the metal from
which has gradually oxidized and been washed away under cycles of
atmospheric influences, is afforded by the occurrence of diamonds in a
meteorite. On a broad open plain in Arizona, over an area of about 5 m.
in diameter, lie scattered thousands of masses of metallic iron, the
fragments varying in weight from half a ton to a fraction of an ounce.
There is little doubt that these fragments formed part of a meteoric
shower, although no record exists as to when the fall took place. Near
the centre, where most of the fragments have been found, is a crater
with raised edges, three-quarters of a mile in diameter and 600 ft.
deep, bearing just the appearance which would be produced had a mighty
mass of iron--a falling star--struck the ground, scattered it in all
directions, and buried itself deeply under the surface, fragments eroded
from the surface forming the pieces now met with. Altogether ten tons of
this iron have been collected, and specimens of the Canyon Diablo
meteorite are in most collectors' cabinets. Dr A.E. Foote, a
mineralogist, when cutting a section of this meteorite, found the tools
injured by something vastly harder than metallic iron, and an emery
wheel used for grinding it was ruined. He attacked the specimen
chemically, and soon afterwards announced to the scientific world that
the Canyon Diablo meteorite contained diamonds, both black and
transparent. This startling discovery was subsequently verified by
Professors C. Friedel and H. Moissan, and also by Sir W. Crookes.

_The Ruby._--It is evident that of the other precious stones only the
most prized are worth producing artificially. Apart from their inferior
hardness and colour, the demand for what are known as "semi-precious
stones" would not pay for the necessarily great expenses of the factory.
Moreover, were it to be known that they were being produced artificially
the demand--never very great--would almost cease. The only other gems,
therefore, which need be mentioned in connexion with their artificial
formation are those of the corundum or sapphire class, which include all
the most highly prized gems, rivalling, and sometimes exceeding, the
diamond in value. Here a remarkable and little-known fact deserves
notice. Excepting the diamond and sapphire, each of the precious
stones--the emerald, the topaz and amethyst--possesses a more noble, a
harder, and more highly-prized counterpart of itself, alike in colour,
but superior in brilliancy and hardness; still more strange, the
precious stone to which its special name is usually attached is the
variety the least prized. The ruby itself might almost be included in
the same category. The true ruby consists of the earth alumina, in a
clear, crystalline form, having a minute quantity of the element
chromium as the colouring matter. It is often called the "Oriental
Ruby," or red sapphire, and when of a paler colour, the "Pink Sapphire."
But the ruby as met with in jewellers' shops of inferior standing is
usually no true ruby, but a "spinel ruby" or "balas ruby," sometimes
very beautiful in colour, but softer than the Oriental ruby, and
different in chemical composition, consisting essentially of alumina and
magnesia and a little silica, with the colouring matter chromium. The
colourless basis of the true Oriental precious stones being taken as
crystallized alumina or white sapphire, when the colouring matter is red
the stone is called ruby, when blue sapphire, when green Oriental
emerald, when orange-yellow Oriental topaz, and when violet Oriental
amethyst. Clear, colourless crystals are known as white sapphire, and
are very valuable. It is evident, therefore, that whosoever succeeds in
making artificially clear crystals of white sapphire has the power, by
introducing appropriate colouring matter, to make the Oriental ruby,
sapphire, emerald, topaz and amethyst. All of these stones, even when of
small size, are costly and readily saleable, while when they are of fine
quality and large size they are highly prized, a ruby of fine colour,
and free from flaws, a few carats in weight, being of more value than a
diamond of the same weight.

This being the case, it is not surprising that repeated attempts have
been made to effect the crystallization of alumina. This is not a matter
of difficulty, but unfortunately the crystals generally form thin
plates, of good colour, but too thin to be useful as gems. In 1837
M.A.A. Gaudin made true rubies, of microscopic size, by fusing alum in a
carbon crucible at a very high temperature, and adding a little chromium
as colouring matter. In 1847 J.J. Ebelmen produced the white sapphire
and rose-coloured spinel by fusing the constituents at a high
temperature in boracic acid. Shortly afterwards he produced the ruby by
employing borax as the solvent. The boracic acid was found to be too
volatile to allow the alumina to crystallize, but the use of borax made
the necessary difference. But it was not till about the year 1877 that
E. Frémy and C. Feil first published a method whereby it was possible to
produce a crystallized alumina from which small stones could be cut.
They first formed lead aluminate by the fusion together of lead oxide
and alumina. This was kept in a state of fusion in a fireclay crucible
(in the composition of which silica enters largely). Under the influence
of the high temperature the silica of the crucible gradually decomposes
the lead aluminate, forming lead silicate, which remains in the liquid
state, and alumina, which crystallizes as white sapphire. By the
admixture of 2 or 3% of a chromium compound with original materials the
resulting white sapphire became ruby. More recently Edmond Frémy and A.
Verneuil obtained artificial rubies by reacting at a red heat with
barium fluoride on amorphous alumina containing a small quantity of
chromium. The rubies obtained in this manner are thus described by Frémy
and Verneuil: "Their crystalline form is regular; their lustre is
adamantine; they present the beautiful colour of the ruby; they are
perfectly transparent, have the hardness of the ruby, and easily scratch
topaz. They resemble the natural ruby in becoming dark when heated,
resuming their rose-colour on cooling." Des Cloizeaux says of them that
"under the microscope some of the crystals show bubbles. In converging
polarized light the coloured rings and the negative black cross are of a
remarkable regularity."

Other experimentalists have attacked the problem in other directions.
Besides those already mentioned, L. Eisner, H.H. De Senarmont,
Sainte-Claire Deville, and H. Caron and H. Debray have succeeded with
more or less success in producing rubies. The general plan adopted has
been to form a mixture of salts fusible at a red heat, forming a liquid
in which alumina will dissolve. Alumina is now added till the fused mass
will take up no more, and the crucible is left in the furnace for a long
time, sometimes extending over weeks. The solvent slowly volatilizes,
and the alumina is deposited in crystals, coloured by whatever colouring
oxide has been added.

Mention has been made above of a stone frequently substituted for the
true ruby, called the "spinel" or "balas" ruby. The spinel and ruby
occur together in nature, stones from Burma being as often spinel as
true Oriental ruby. In the artificial production of the ruby it
sometimes happens that spinel crystallizes out when true Oriental ruby
is expected. The fusion bath is so arranged that only red-coloured
alumina shall crystallize out, but it is difficult to have all the
materials of such purity as to ensure the complete absence of silica and
magnesia. In this case, when these impurities have accumulated to a
certain point they unite with the alumina, and spinel then separates, as
it crystallizes more easily than ruby. When all the magnesia and silica
have been eliminated in this way the bath resumes its deposition of
crystalline ruby. Rubies of fine colour and of considerable size have
been shown in London, made on the Continent by a secret process. The
writer has seen several cut stones so made weighing over a carat each,
the uncut crystals measuring half an inch along a crystal edge, and
weighing over 70 grains, and a clear plate of ruby cut from a single
crystal weighing over 10 grains. Ruby has been made by Sir W.
Roberts-Austen as a by-product in the production of metallic chromium.
Oxide of chromium and aluminium powder are intimately mixed together in
a refractory crucible, and the mixture is ignited at the upper part. The
aluminium and chromium oxide react with evolution of so much heat that
the reduced chromium is melted. Such is the intensity of the reaction
that the resulting alumina is also completely fused, floating as a
liquid on the molten chromium. Sometimes the alumina takes tip the right
amount of chromium to enable it to assume the ruby colour. On cooling
the melted alumina crystallizes in large flakes, which on examination by
transmitted light are seen to be true ruby. The development of the red
colour is said by C. Greville-Williams only to take place at a white
heat. It is not due to the presence of chromic acid, but to a reaction
between alumina and chromic oxide, which requires an elevated
temperature.

Artificially made but real rubies have been put on the market, prepared
by a process of fusion by A. Verneuil. He finds that certain conditions
have to be fulfilled in order to get the alumina in a transparent form.
The temperature must not be higher than is absolutely necessary for
fusion. The melted product must always be in the same part of the
oxyhydrogen flame, and the point of contact between the melted product
and the support should be reduced to as small an area as possible. M.
Verneuil uses a vertical blowpipe flame directed on a support capable of
movement up and down by means of a screw, so that the fused product may
be removed from the zone of fusion as it gets higher by addition of
fresh material. The material employed is either composed of small,
valueless rubies, or alumina coloured with the right amount of chromium.
It is very finely powdered and fed in through the blowpipe orifice,
whence it is blown in a highly heated condition into the zone of fusion.
The support is a small cylinder of alumina placed in the axis of the
blowpipe. As the operation proceeds the fine grains of powder driven on
to the support in the zone of fusion form a cone which gradually rises
and broadens out until it becomes of sufficient size to be used for
cutting. Rubies prepared in this way have the same specific gravity and
hardness as the natural ruby, and they are also dichroic, and in the
vacuum tube under the influence of the cathode stream they phosphoresce
with a discontinuous spectrum showing the strong alumina line in the
red. When properly cut and mounted it is almost impossible to
distinguish them from natural stones.

_The Sapphire._--Auguste Daubrée has shown that when a full quantity of
chromium is added to the bath from which white sapphire crystallizes the
colour is that of ruby, but when much less chromium is added the colour
is blue, forming the true Oriental sapphire. The real colouring matter
of the Oriental sapphire is not definitely known, some chemists
considering it to be chromium and others cobalt. Artificial sapphires
have been made of a fair size and perfectly transparent by the addition
of cobalt to the igneous bath of alumina, but the writer does not
consider them equal in colour to true Oriental sapphire.

_The Oriental Emerald._--The stone known as emerald consists chemically
of silica, alumina and glucina. Like the ruby, it owes its colour to
chromium, but in a different state of oxidation. As already mentioned,
there is another stone which consists of crystallized alumina coloured
with chromium, but holding the chromium in a different state of
oxidation. This is called the Oriental emerald, and, owing to its beauty
of colour, its hardness and rarity, it is more highly prized than the
emerald itself and commands higher prices. The Oriental emerald has been
produced artificially in the same way as the ruby, by adding a larger
amount of chromium to the alumina bath and regulating the temperature.

_The Oriental Amethyst._--The amethyst is rock crystal (quartz) of a
bluish-violet colour. It is one of the least valuable of the precious
stones. The sapphire, however, is found occasionally of a beautiful
violet colour; it is then called the Oriental amethyst, and, on account
of its beauty and rarity, is of great value. It is evident that if to
the igneous bath of alumina some colouring matter, such as manganese, is
added capable of communicating a violet colour to the crystals of
alumina, the Oriental amethyst will be the result. Oriental amethyst has
been so formed artificially, but the stone being known only as a
curiosity to mineralogists and experts in precious stones, and the
public not being able to discriminate between the violet sapphire and
amethystine quartz, there is no demand for the artificial stone.

_The Oriental Topaz._--The topaz is what is called a semi-precious
stone. It occurs of many colours, from clear white to pink, orange,
yellow and pale green. The usual colour is from straw-yellow to sherry
colour. The exact composition of the colouring matter is not known; it
is not entirely of mineral origin, as it changes colour and sometimes
fades altogether on exposure to light. Chemically the topaz consists of
alumina, silica and fluorine. It is not so hard as the sapphire. There
is also a yellow variety of quartz, which is sometimes called "false
topaz." The Oriental topaz, on the other hand, is a precious stone of
great value. It consists of clear crystalline sapphire coloured with a
small quantity of ferric oxide. It has been produced artificially by
adding iron instead of chromium to the matrix from which the white
sapphire crystallizes.

_The Zircon._--The zircon is a very beautiful stone, varying in colour,
like the topaz, from red and yellow to green and blue. It is sometimes
met with colourless, and such are its refractive powers and brilliancy
that it has been mistaken for diamond. It is a compound of silica and
zirconia. H. Sainte-Claire Deville formed the zircon artificially by
passing silicon fluoride at a red heat over the oxide zirconia in a
porcelain tube. Octahedral crystals of zircon are then produced, which
have the same crystalline form, appearance and optical qualities as the
natural zircon.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Sir William Crookes, "A New Formation of Diamond,"
  _Proc. Roy. Soc._ vol. lxxvi. p. 458; "Diamonds," a lecture delivered
  before the British Association at Kimberley, South Africa, 5th
  September, 1905, _Chemical News_, vol. xcii. pp. 135, 147, 159; J.J.
  Ebelmen, "Sur la production artificielle des pierres dures," _Comptes
  rendus_, vol. xxv. p. 279; "Sur une nouvelle méthode pour obtenir, par
  la voie sèche, des combinations crystallisées, et sur ses applications
  à la réproduction de plusieurs espèces minérales," _Comptes rendus_,
  vol. xxv. p. 661; Edmond Frémy and C. Feil, "Sur la production
  artificielle du corindon, du rubis, et de différents silicates
  crystallisées," _Comptes rendus_, vol. lxxxv. p. 1029; C. Friedel,
  "Sur l'existence du diamant dans le fer météorique de Cañon Diablo,"
  _Comptes rendus_, vol. cxv. p. 1037, vol. cxvi. p. 290; H. Moissan,
  "Étude de la météorite de Cañon Diablo," _Comptes rendus_, vol. cxvi.
  p. 288; "Expériences sur la réproduction du diamant," _Comptes
  rendus_, vol. cxviii. p. 320; "Sur quelques expériences relatives à la
  préparation du diamant," _Comptes rendus_, vol. cxxiii. p. 206; _Le
  Four électrique_ (Paris, 1897); H. Sainte-Claire Deville and H. Caron,
  "Sur un nouveau mode de production à l'état cristallisé d'un certain
  nombre d'espèces chimiques et minéralogiques," _Comptes rendus_, vol.
  xlvi. p. 764; A. Verneuil, "Production artificielle des rubis par
  fusion," ibid. vol. cxxxv. p. 791; J. Boyer, _La Synthèse des pierres
  précieuses_ (Paris, 1909).     (W. C.)



GEMBLOUX, a town in the province of Namur and on the borders of Brabant,
Belgium, 25 m. S.E. of Brussels on the main line to Namur and Luxemburg.
Pop. (1904) 4643. It is a busy place with large railway and engine
works, and the junction for several branch lines. On the 31st of January
1578 Don John of Austria gained here a signal victory over the army of
the provinces led by Antony de Goignies.



GEMINI ("The Twins," i.e. Castor and Pollux), in astronomy, the third
sign in the zodiac, denoted by the symbol II. It is also a
constellation, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd
century B.C.), and catalogued by Ptolemy, 25 stars, Tycho Brahe 25, and
Hevelius 38. By the Egyptians this constellation was symbolized as a
couple of young kids; the Greeks altered this symbol to two children,
variously said to be Castor and Pollux, Hercules and Apollo, or
Triptolemus and Iasion; the Arabians used the symbol of a pair of
peacocks. Interesting objects in this constellation are: [alpha]
Geminorum or Castor, a very fine double star of magnitudes 2.0 and 2.8,
the fainter component is a spectroscopic binary; [eta] Geminorum, a long
period (231 days) variable, the extreme range in magnitude being 3.2 to
4; [zeta] Geminorum, a short period variable, 10.15 days, the extreme
range in magnitude being 3.7 to 4.5; _Nova_ Geminorum, a "new" star
discovered in 1903 by H.H. Turner of Oxford; and the star cluster M.35
Geminorum, a fine and bright, but loose, cluster, with very little
central condensation.



GEMINIANI, FRANCESCO (c. 1680-1762), Italian violinist, was born at
Lucca about 1680. He received lessons in music from Alessandro
Scarlatti, and studied the violin under Lunati (Gobbo) and afterwards
under Corelli. In 1714 he arrived in London, where he was taken under
the special protection of the earl of Essex, and made a living by
teaching and writing music. In 1715 he played his violin concertos with
Handel at the English court. After visiting Paris and residing there for
some time, he returned to England in 1755. In 1761 he went to Dublin,
where a servant robbed him of a musical manuscript on which he had
bestowed much time and labour. His vexation at this loss is said to have
hastened his death on the 17th of September 1762. He appears to have
been a first-rate violinist, but most of his compositions are dry and
deficient in melody. His _Art of Playing the Violin_ is a good work of
its kind, but his _Guida armonica_ is an inferior production. He
published a number of solos for the violin, three sets of violin
concertos, twelve violin trios, _The Art of Accompaniment on the
Harpsichord, Organ_, &c., _Lessons for the Harpsichord_ and some other
works.



GEMISTUS PLETHO [or PLETHON], GEORGIUS (c. 1355-1450), Greek Platonic
philosopher and scholar, one of the chief pioneers of the revival of
learning in Western Europe, was a Byzantine by birth who settled at
Mistra in the Peloponnese, the site of ancient Sparta. He changed his
name from Gemistus to the equivalent Pletho ("the full"), perhaps owing
to the similarity of sound between that name and that of his master
Plato. He invented a religious system founded on the speculative
mysticism of the Neoplatonists, and founded a sect, the members of which
believed that the new creed would supersede all existing forms of
belief. But he is chiefly memorable for having introduced Plato to the
Western world. This took place upon his visit to Florence in 1439, as
one of the deputies from Constantinople on occasion of the general
council. Cardinal Bessarion became his disciple; he produced a great
impression upon Cosimo de' Medici; and though not himself making any
very important contribution to the study of Plato, he effectually shook
the exclusive domination which Aristotle had exercised over European
thought for eight centuries. He promoted the union of the Greek and
Latin Churches as far as possible, but his efforts in this direction
bore no permanent fruit. He probably died before the capture of
Constantinople. The most important of his published works are treatises
on the distinction between Plato and Aristotle as philosophers
(published at Venice in 1540); on the religion of Zoroaster (Paris,
1538); on the condition of the Peloponnese (ed. A. Ellissen in
_Analekten der mittel- und neugriechischen Literatur_, iv.); and the
[Greek: Nomoi] (ed. C. Alexandre, Paris, 1858). In addition to these he
compiled several volumes of excerpts from ancient authors, and wrote a
number of works on geography, music and other subjects, many of which
still exist in MS. in various European libraries.

  See especially F. Schultze, _Geschichte der Philosophie der
  Renaissance_, i. (1874); also J.A. Symonds, _The Renaissance in Italy_
  (1877), ii. p. 198; H.F. Tozer, "A Byzantine Reformer," in _Journal of
  Hellenic Studies_, vii. (1886), chiefly on Pletho's scheme of
  political and social reform for the Peloponnese, as set forth in the
  pamphlets addressed to Manuel II. Palaeologus and his son Theodore,
  despot of the Morea; W. Gass, _Gennadius und Pletho_ (1844). Most of
  Pletho's works will be found in J.P. Migne, _Patrologia Graeca_, clx.;
  for a complete list see Fabricius, _Bibliotheca Graeca_ (ed. Harles),
  xii.



GEMMI PASS, a pass (7641 ft.) leading from Frutigen in the Swiss canton
of Bern to Leukerbad in the Swiss canton of the Valais. It is much
frequented by travellers in summer. From Kandersteg (7½ m. by road above
Frutigen, which is 12 m. by rail from Spiez on the Berne-Interlaken
line) a mule path leads to the summit of the pass, passing over the
Spitalmatte plain, where in 1782 and again in 1895 a great avalanche
fell from the Altels (11,930 ft.) to the S.E., causing on both occasions
great loss of life and property. The mule path descends on the south
side of the pass by an extraordinary series of zigzags, made accessible
for mules (though no rider is now allowed to descend on mule-back) by a
band of Tirolese workmen in 1740-1741. They are cut in a very steep wall
of rock, about 1800 ft. in height, and lead down to the village of
Leukerbad, which is 9½ m. by carriage road past Leuk above the Susten
station in the Rhône valley and on the Simplon line.     (W. A. B. C.)



GENDARMERIE, originally a body of troops in France composed of
_gendarmes_ or men-at-arms. In the days of chivalry they were mounted
and armed cap-à-pie, exactly as were the lords and knights, with whom
they constituted the most important part of an army. They were attended
each by five soldiers of inferior rank and more lightly armed. In the
later middle ages the men-at-arms were furnished by owners of fiefs. But
after the Hundred Years' War this feudal gendarmerie was replaced by the
_compagnies d'ordonnance_ which Charles VII. formed when the English
were driven out of France, and which were distributed throughout the
whole extent of the kingdom for preserving order and maintaining the
king's authority. These companies, fifteen in number, were composed of
100 lances or gendarmes fully equipped, each of whom was attended by at
least three archers, one _coutillier_ (soldier armed with a cutlass) and
one _varlet_ (soldier's servant). The states-general of Orleans (1439)
had voted a yearly subsidy of 1,200,000 livres in perpetuity to keep up
this national soldiery, which replaced, and in fact was recruited
chiefly amongst, the bands of mercenaries who for about a century had
made France their prey. The number and composition of the _compagnies
d'ordonnance_ were changed more than once before the reign of Louis XIV.
This sovereign on his accession to the throne found only eight companies
of gendarmes surviving out of an original total of more than one
hundred, but after the victory of Fleurus (1690), which had been decided
by their courage, he increased their number to sixteen. The four first
companies (which were practically guard troops) were designated by the
names of _Gendarmes écossais_, _Gendarmes anglais_, _Gendarmes
bourguignons_ and _Gendarmes flamands_, from the nationality of the
soldiers who had originally composed them; but at that time they
consisted entirely of French soldiers and officers. These four companies
had a captain-general, who was the king. The fifth company was that of
the queen; and the others bore the name of the princes who respectively
commanded them. This organization was dissolved in 1788. The Revolution
swept away all these institutions of the monarchy, and, with the
exception of a short revival of the _Gendarmes de la garde_ at the
Restoration, henceforward the word "gendarmerie" possesses an altogether
different significance--viz. military police.



GENEALOGY (from the Gr. [Greek: genos], family, and [Greek: logos],
theory), a pedigree or list of ancestors, or the study of family
history.

1. _Biblical Genealogies._--The aims and methods of ancient genealogists
require to be carefully considered before the value of the numerous
ancestral lists in the Bible can be properly estimated. Many of the old
"genealogies," like those of Greece, have arisen from the desire to
explain the origin of the various groups which they include. Information
relating to the subdivision of tribes, their relation to each other, the
intermingling of populations and the like are thus frequently
represented in the form of genealogies. The "sons" of a "father" often
stand merely for the branches of a family as they existed at some one
period, and since in course of time tribal relations would vary, lists
which have originated at different periods will present discrepancies.
It is obvious that many of the Biblical names are nothing more than
personifications of nations, tribes, towns, &c., which are grouped
together to convey some idea of the bond by which they were believed to
be connected.

  For the personification of a people or tribe, cp. Gen. xxxiv. 30
  ("Jacob said ... I am a few men"), Josh. xvii. 14 ("the children of
  Joseph said ... I am a numerous people"), Ex. xiv. 25 ("Egypt said,
  let me flee"), Jos. ix. 7, 1 Sam. v. 10, &c.; see G.B. Gray on
  Numbers, xx. 14 (_Internat. Crit. Comm._). Thus we find among the
  "sons" of Japhet: (the nations) Gomer, Javan, Tubal; Canaan "begat"
  Sidon and Heth; the "sons" of Ishmael include the well-known tribes
  Kedar and Jetur; Jacob, or the synonym Israel, personifies the
  "children of Israel" (cf. use of "I," "thou" of the Israelites in
  Deut., and in poetical passages). The recognition of this
  characteristic usage often furnishes an ethnological interpretation to
  those genealogical stories which obviously do not relate to persons,
  but to tribes or peoples personified. The Edomites and Israelites are
  regarded as "brothers" (cf. Num. xx. 14, Deut. ii. 4, Am. i. 11), and
  since Esau (Edom) was born before Jacob (Israel) it would appear that
  the Edomites were held to be the older nation. The union of two clans
  is expressed as a marriage, or the wife is the territory which is
  dominated by the husband (tribe); see CALEB. If the woman is not of
  noble blood, but is a handmaiden or concubine, her children are
  naturally not upon the same footing as those of the wife; consequently
  the descendants of Ishmael, the son of Hagar (Sarah's maid), are
  inferior to Isaac and his descendants, whilst the children of Keturah
  ("incense"), Abraham's concubine, are still lower--from the Israelite
  point of view. This application of the terms of relationship is
  characteristic of the Semites. The "father" of the Rechabites is their
  head or founder (cf. 1 Sam. x. 12: "who is their father?"), and a
  common bond, which is not necessarily physical, unites all "sons,"
  whether they are "sons of the prophets" (members of prophetic guilds)
  or "sons of Belial" (worthless men).

The interpretation of ethnological or statistical genealogies may easily
be pushed too far. Every case has to be judged upon its own merits, and
due allowance must be made both for the ambition of the weaker to claim
or to strengthen an alliance with the stronger, and for the not
unnatural desire of clans or individuals to magnify the greatness of
their ancestry. The first step must always be the careful comparison of
related lists in order to test the consistency of the tradition. Next,
these must be critically studied in the light of all available
historical material, though indeed such evidence is not necessarily
conclusive. Finally, (a) literary criticism must be employed to
determine if possible the dates of such lists, since obviously a
contemporary register is more trustworthy than one which is centuries
later; (b) a critical estimate of the character of the names and of
their use in various periods of Old Testament history is of importance
in estimating the antiquity of the list[1]--for example, many of the
names in Chronicles attributed to the time of David are indubitably
exilic or post-exilic; and (c) principles of ordinary historical
probability are as necessary here as in dealing with the genealogies of
other ancient peoples, and attention must be paid to such features as
fluctuation in the number of links, representation of theories
inconsistent with the growth of national life, schemes of relationship
not in accordance with sociological conditions, &c.

The Biblical genealogies commence with "the generations of the heaven
and earth," and by a process of elimination pass from Adam and Eve by
successive steps to Jacob and to his sons (the tribes), and finally to
the subdivisions of each tribe (cp. 1 Chron. i.-ix. 1). According to
this theory every Israelite could trace back his descent to Jacob, the
common father of the whole nation (Josh. vii. 17 seq., 1 Sam. x. 21).
Such a scheme, however, is full of manifest improbabilities. It demands
that every tribe and every clan should have been a homogeneous group
which had preserved its unity from the earliest times, that family
records extending back for several centuries were in existence, and that
such a tribe as Simeon was able to maintain its independence in spite of
the tradition that it lost its autonomy in very early times (Gen. xlix.
7). The whole conception of the unity of the tribes cannot be referred
to a date previous to the time of David, and in the older writings a
David or a Jeroboam was sufficiently described as the son of Jesse or of
Nebat. The genealogical zeal as represented in the Old Testament is
chiefly of later growth, and the exceptions are due to interpolation
(Josh. vii. 1 18, contrast v. 24), or to the desire to modify or qualify
an older notice. This, in the case of Saul (1 Sam. ix. 1), has led to
textual corruption; a list of such a length as his should have reached
back to one of the "sons" of Benjamin (cf. e.g. Gen. xlvi. 21), else it
were purposeless. The genealogies, too, are often inconsistent amongst
themselves and in contradiction to their object. They show, for example,
that the population of southern Judah, so far from being "Israelite" was
half-Edomite (see Judah), and several of the clans in this district bear
names which indicate their original affinity with Midian or Edom.
Moreover, there was a free intermixture of races, and many cities had a
Canaanite (i.e. pre-Israelite) population which must have been gradually
absorbed by the Israelites (cf. Judg. 1.). That spirit of religious
exclusiveness which marked later Judaism did not become prominent before
the Deuteronomic reformation (see DEUTERONOMY), and it is under its
influence that the writings begin to emphasize the importance of
maintaining the purity of Israelite blood, although by this time the
fusion was complete (see Judg. iii. 6) and for practical purposes a
distinction between Canaanites and Israelites within the borders of
Palestine could scarcely be discerned.

  Many of the genealogical data are intricate. Thus, the interpretation
  of Gen. xxxiv. is particularly obscure (see LEVITES _ad fin._;
  SIMEON). As regards the sons of Jacob, it is difficult to explain
  their division among the four wives of Jacob; viz. (a) the sons of
  Leah are Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah (S. Palestine), Issachar and
  Zebulun (in the north), and Dinah (associated with Shechem); (b) of
  Leah's maid Zilpah, Gad and Asher (E. and N. Palestine); (c) of
  Rachel, Joseph (Manasseh and Ephraim, i.e. central Palestine) and
  Benjamin; (d) of Rachel's maid Bilhah, Dan and Naphtali (N.
  Palestine). It has been urged that (b) and (d) stood upon a lower
  footing than the rest, or were of later origin; or that Bilhan points
  to an old clan associated with Reuben (Gen. xxxv. 22) or Edom (Bilhan,
  Gen. xxxvi. 27), whilst Zilpah represents an Aramaean strain.
  Tradition may have combined distinct schemes, and the belief that the
  wives were Aramaean at least coincides with the circumstance that
  Aramaean elements predominated in certain of the twelve tribes. The
  number "twelve" is artificial and can be obtained only by counting
  Manasseh and Ephraim as one or by omitting Levi, and a careful study
  of Old Testament history makes it extremely difficult to recover the
  tribes as historical units. See, on these points, the articles on the
  several tribes, B. Luther, _Zeit. d. alttest. Wissens_. (1901), pp. 1
  sqq.; G.B. Gray, _Expositor_ (March 1902), pp. 225-240, and in _Ency.
  Bib._, art. "Tribes"; and H.W. Hogg's thorough treatment of the tribes
  in the last-mentioned work.

The ideal of purity of descent shows itself conspicuously in portions of
Deuteronomic law (Deut. vii. 1-3, xxiii. 2-8), and in the reforms of
Nehemiah and Ezra (Ezr. ix. 1-4, 11 sqq.; Neh. xiii. 1-3). The desire to
prove the continuity of the race, enforced by the experience of the
exile, gave the impetus to genealogical zeal, and many of the extant
lists proceed from this age when the true historical succession of names
was a memory of the past. This applies with special force to the lists
in Chronicles which present finished schemes of the Levitical divisions
by the side of earlier attempts, with consequent confusion and
contradiction. Thus the immediate ancestors of Ethan appear in the time
of Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxix. 12), but he with Asaiah and Heman are
contemporaries of David, and their genealogies from Levi downwards
contain a very unequal number of links (1 Chron. vi.). By another
application of genealogical method the account of the institution of
priests and Levites by David (1 Chron. xxiv.) presents many names which
belong solely to post-exilic days, thus suggesting that the scribes
desired to show that the honourable families of their time were not
unknown centuries previously. Everywhere we find the results of much
skill and labour, often in accordance with definite theories, but a
thorough investigation reveals their weakness and often quite
incidentally furnishes valuable evidence of another nature.

  The intricate Levitical genealogies betray the result of successive
  genealogists who sought to give effect to the development of the
  hierarchal system (see LEVITES). The climax is reached when all
  Levites are traced back to Gershon, Kehath and Merari, to which are
  ascribed respectively Asaph, Heman and Ethan (or Jeduthun). The last
  two were not originally Levites in the later accepted sense of the
  term (see 1 Kings iv. 31). To Kehath is reckoned an important
  subdivision descended from Korah, but in 2 Chron. xx. 19 the two are
  distinct groups, and Korah's name is that of an Edomite clan (Gen.
  xxxvi. 5, 14, 18) related to Caleb, and thus included among the
  descendants of Judah (1 Chron. ii. 43). Cases of adjustment,
  redistribution and "Levitizing" of individuals are frequent. There are
  traces of varying divisions both of the singers (Neh. xi. 17) and of
  the Levites (Num. xxvi. 58; Ezr. ii. 40, iii. 9; 1 Chron. xv. 5-10,
  xxiii.), and it is noteworthy that in the case of the latter we have
  mention of such families as Hebroni (Hebronite), Libni (from
  Libnah)--ethnics of South Judaean towns. In fact, a significant number
  of Levitical names find their analogy in the lists of names belonging
  to Judah, Simeon and even Edom, or are closely connected with the
  family of Moses; e.g. Mushi (i.e. Mosaïte), Gershon and Eleazar (cp.
  Gershom and Eliezer, sons of Moses). The Levites bear a class-name,
  and the genealogies show that many of them were connected with the
  minor clans and families of South Palestine which included among them
  Moses and his kin. Hence, it is not unnatural that Obed-edom, for
  example, obviously a southerner, should have been reckoned later as a
  Levite, and the work ascribed by the chronicler's history to the
  closing years of David's life may be influenced by the tradition that
  it was through him these mixed populations first attained importance.
  See further DAVID; JEWS; LEVITES.

In the time of Josephus every priest was supposed to be able to prove
his descent, and perhaps from the time of Ezra downwards lists were
carefully kept. But when Anna is called an Asherite (Luke ii. 36), or
Paul a Benjamite (Rom. xi. 1), family tradition was probably the sole
support to the claim, although the tribal feeling had not become
entirely extinct. The genealogies of Jesus prefixed to two of the
gospels are intended to prove that He was a son of David. But not that
alone, for in Matt. i. he is traced back to Abraham the father of the
Jews, whilst in Luke iii. He, as the second Adam, is traced back to the
first man. The two lists are hopelessly inconsistent; not because one of
them follows the line of Mary, but because they represent independent
attempts. That in Matthew is characteristically arranged in three
series of fourteen generations each through the kings of Judah, whilst
Luke's passes through an almost unknown son of David; in spite of this,
however, both converge in the person of Zerubbabel.

  See further, A.C. Hervey, _Genealogies of Our Lord_; H. von Soden,
  _Ency. Bib._ ii. col. 1666 sqq.; B.W. Bacon, Hastings' _Dict. Bib._
  ii. pp. 138 seq. On the subject generally see J.F. M'Lennan's
  _Studies_ (2nd ser., ch. ix., "fabricated genealogies"); S.A. Cook,
  _Ency. Bib._ ii. col. 1657 sqq. (with references); W.R. Smith,
  _Kinship and Marriage_ (2nd ed., especially ch. i.).     (S. A. C.)

2. _Greek and Roman Genealogies._--A passing reference only is needed to
the intricate genealogies of gods and sons of gods which form so
conspicuous a feature in classical literature.[2] In every one of the
numerous states into which ancient Greece was divided there were
aristocratic families, whose genealogies as a rule went back to
prehistoric times, their first ancestor being some hero of divine
descent, from whom, or from some distinguished younger ancestor, they
derived their names. Many of these families were, as families,
undoubtedly of great antiquity even at the beginning of the historical
period; and in several instances they continued to maintain a
conspicuous and separate existence for centuries. The element of family
pride is prominent in the poetry of the Megarian Theognis; and in an
inscription belonging to the 2nd century B.C. the recipient of certain
honours from the community of Gythium is represented as the thirty-ninth
in direct descent from the Dioscuri and the forty-first from Heracles.
Even in Athens, long after the constitution had become thoroughly
democratic, some of the clans continued to be known as Eupatridae (of
noble family); and Alcibiades, for example, as a member of the phratria
of the Eurysacidae, traced his origin through many generations to
Eurysaces, who was represented as having been the first of the Aeacidae
to settle in Attica. The Corinthian Bacchiadae traced their descent back
to Heracles, but took their name from Bacchis, a younger ancestor. It is
very doubtful, however, whether such pedigrees as this were very
seriously put forward by those who claimed them; and it is certain that,
almost along the whole line, they were unsupported by evidence.[3] We
have the authority of Pollux (viii. 111) for stating that the Athenian
[Greek: genê], of which there were thirty in each [Greek: phratria],
were organized without any exclusive regard being had to
blood-relationship; they were constantly receiving accessions from
without; and the public written registers of births, adoptions and the
like do not appear to have been preserved with such care as would have
made it possible to verify a pedigree for any considerable portion even
of the strictly historical period.[4]

The great antiquity of the early Roman (patrician) _gentes_, who
universally traced themselves back to illustrious ancestors, is
indisputable; and the rigid exclusiveness with which each preserved its
_hereditates gentiliciae_ or _sacra gentilicia_ is sufficiently
illustrated by the fact that towards the close of the republic there
were not more than fifty patrician families (Dion. Halic. i. 85). Yet
even in these it is obvious that, owing to the frequency of resort to
the well-recognized practice of adoption, while there was every
guarantee for the historical identity of the family, there was none
(documents apart) for the personal genealogy of the individual. There is
no evidence that sufficient records of pedigree were kept during the
earlier centuries of the Roman commonwealth, although the leading houses
drew up genealogical tables, and their family pedigree was painted on
the walls of the entrance hall. In later times, it is true, even
plebeian families began to establish a prescriptive right (known as the
_jus imaginum_) to preserve in small wooden shrines in their halls the
busts (or rather, wax portrait masks fastened on to busts) of those of
their members who had attained to curule office, and to exhibit these in
public on appropriate occasions. Under these _imagines majorum_[5] it
became usual to inscribe on the wall their respective _tituli_, the
relationship of each to each being indicated by means of connecting
lines; and thus arose the _stemmata gentilicia_, which at a later time
began to be copied into family records. In the case of plebeian families
(whose stemmata in no case went farther back than 366 B.C.) these
written genealogies were probably trustworthy enough; but in the case of
patricians who went back to Aeneas,[6] so much cannot, it is obvious, be
said; and from a comparatively early period it was clearly recognized
that such records lent themselves too readily to the devices of the
falsifier and the forger to deserve confidence or reverence (Pliny,
_H.N._ xxxv. 2; Juv. viii. 1).

Thus, parvenus were known to place the busts of fictitious ancestors in
the shrines and to engage needy literary men to trace back their descent
even to Aeneas himself.

The many and great social changes which marked the closing centuries of
the Western empire almost invariably militated with great strength
against the maintenance of an aristocracy of birth; and from the time of
Constantine the dignity of patrician ceased to be hereditary.[7]

3. _Modern._--Two forces have combined to give genealogy its importance
during the period of modern history: the laws of inheritance,
particularly those which govern the descent of real estate, and the
desire to assert the privileges of a hereditary aristocracy. But it is
long before genealogies are found in the possession of private families.
The succession of kings and princes are in the chronicle book; the line
of the founders and patrons of abbeys are recorded by the monks with
curious embellishment of legend. But the famous suit of Scrope against
Grosvenor will illustrate the late appearance of private genealogies in
England. In 1385 Sir Richard Scrope, lord of Bolton, displaying his
banner in the host that invaded Scotland, found that his arms of a
golden bend in a blue field were borne by a knight of the Chester
palatinate, one Sir Robert Grosvenor. He carried the dispute to a court
of chivalry, whose decision in his favour was confirmed on appeal to the
king. Grosvenor asserted that he derived his right from an ancestor, Sir
Gilbert Grosvenor, who had come over with the Conqueror, while an
intervening claimant, a Cornish squire named Thomas Carminowe, boasted
that his own ancestors had borne the like arms since the days of King
Arthur's Round Table. It is remarkable that in support of the false
statements made by the claimants no written genealogy is produced. The
evidence of tombs and monuments and the reports of ancient men are
advanced, but no pedigree is exhibited in a case which hangs upon
genealogy. It is possible that the art of pedigree-making had its first
impulse in England from the many genealogies constructed to make men
familiar with the claims of Edward III. to the crown of France, a second
crop of such royal pedigrees being raised in later generations during
the contests of York and Lancaster. But it is not until after the close
of the middle ages that genealogies multiply in men's houses and are
collected into volumes. The medieval baron, knight or squire, although
proud of the nobility of his race, was content to let it rest upon
legend handed down the generations. The exact line of his descent was
sought only when it was demanded for a plea in the king's courts to
support his title to his lands.

From the first the work of the genealogist in England had that taint of
inaccuracy tempered with forgery from which it has not yet been
cleansed. The medieval kings, like the Welsh gentry of later ages,
traced their lines to the household of Eden garden, while lesser men,
even as early as the 14th century, eagerly asserted their descent from a
companion of the Conqueror. Yet beside these false imaginations we find
the law courts, whose business was often a clash of pedigrees, dealing
with genealogies centuries long which, constructed as it would seem from
worthy evidences, will often bear the test of modern criticism.

Genealogies in great plenty are found in manuscripts and printed volumes
from the 16th century onward. Remarkable among these are the descents
recorded in the Visitation Books of the heralds, who, armed with
commissions from the crown, the first of which was issued in 20 Hen.
VIII., perambulated the English counties, viewing arms and registering
pedigrees. The notes in their register books range from the simple
registration of a man's name and arms to entries of pedigrees many
generations long. To the heralds these visitations were rare
opportunities of obtaining fees from the visited, and the value of the
pedigrees registered is notably unequal. Although it has always been the
boast of the College of Arms that Visitation records may be produced as
evidence in the law courts, few of these officially recorded genealogies
are wholly trustworthy. Many of the officers of arms who recorded them
were, even by the testimony of their comrades, of indifferent character,
and even when the visiting herald was an honourable man and an
industrious he had little time to spare for the investigation of any
single genealogy. Deeds and evidences in private hands may have been
hastily examined in some instances--indeed, a herald's summons invites
their production--and monuments were often viewed in the churches, but
for the most part men's memories and the hearsay of the country-side
made the backbone of the pedigree. The further the pedigree is carried
beyond the memory of living men the less trustworthy does it become. The
principal visitations took place in the reigns of Elizabeth, James I.
and Charles II. No commission has been issued since the accession of
William and Mary, but from that time onwards large numbers of
genealogies have been recorded in the registers of the College of Arms,
the modern ones being compiled with a care which contrasts remarkably
with the unsupported statements of the Tudor heralds.

Outside the doors of the College of Arms genealogy has now been for some
centuries a favourite study of antiquaries, whose researches have been
of the utmost value to the historian, the topographer and the
biographer. County histories, following the example of Dugdale's
Warwickshire folios, have given much space to the elucidation of
genealogies and to the amassing of material from which they may be
constructed. Dugdale's great work on the English baronage heads another
host of works occupied with the genealogy of English noble families, and
the second edition of "G.E.C.'s" _Complete Peerage_ shows the mighty
advance of the modern critical spirit. Nevertheless, the 20th century
has not yet seen the abandoning of all the genealogical fables nourished
by the Elizabethan pedigree-mongers, and the ancestry of many noble
houses as recorded in popular works of reference is still derived from
mythical forefathers. Thus the dukes of Norfolk, who, by their office of
earl marshal are patrons of the heralds, are provided with a
10th-century Hereward for an ancestor; the dukes of Bedford, descendants
of a 15th-century burgess of Weymouth, are traced to the knightly house
of Russell of Kingston Russell, and the dukes of Westminster to the
mythical Gilbert le Grosvenor who "came over in the train of the
Conqueror."

Genealogical research has, however, made great advance during the last
generation. The critical spirit shown in such works as Round's _Studies
in Peerage and Family History_ (1901) has assailed with effective
ridicule the methods of dishonest pedigree-makers. Much raw material of
genealogy has been made available for all by the publication of parish
registers, marriage-licence allegations, monumental inscriptions and the
like, and above all by the mass of evidences contained in the volumes
issued by the Public Record Office.

Within a small space it is impossible to set forth in detail the methods
by which an English genealogy may be traced. But those who are setting
out upon the task may be warned at the outset to avoid guesswork based
upon the possession of a surname which may be shared by a dozen families
between whom is no tie of kinship. A man whose family name is Howard may
be presumed to descend from an ancestor for whom Howard was a personal
name: it may not be presumed that this ancestor was he in whom the dukes
of Norfolk have their origin. A genealogy should not be allowed to stray
from facts which can be supported by evidence. A man may know that his
grandfather was John Stiles who died in 1850 at the age of fifty-five.
It does not follow that this John is identical with the John Stiles who
is found as baptized in 1795 at Blackacre, the son of William Stiles.
But if John the grandfather names in his letters a sister named Isabel
Nokes, while the will of William Stiles gives legacies to his son and
daughter John Stiles and Isabel Nokes, we may agree that reasonable
proof has been given of the added generation. A new pedigree should
begin with the carefully tested statements of living members of a
family. The next step should be to collate such family records as bible
entries, letters and diaries, and inscriptions on mourning rings, with
monumental inscriptions of acknowledged members of the family. From such
beginnings the genealogist will continue his search through the
registers of parishes with which the family has been connected; wills
and administrations registered in the various probate courts form, with
parish registers, the backbone of most middle-class family histories.
Court rolls of manors in which members of the family were tenants give,
when existing and accessible, proofs which may carry back a line,
however obscure, through many descents. When these have been exhausted
the records of legal proceedings, and notably those of the court of
chancery, may be searched. Few English households have been able in the
past to avoid an appeal to the chancery court, and the bill and answer
of a chancery plaintiff and defendant will often tell the story of a
family quarrel in which a score of kinsfolk are involved, and the
pleadings may contain the material for a family tree of many branching
generations. Coram Rege and De Banco rolls may even, in the course of a
dispute over a knight's fee or a manor carry a pedigree to the Conquest
of England, although such good fortune can hardly be expected by the
searcher out of an undistinguished line. In proving a genealogy it must
be remembered that in the descent of an estate in land must be sought
the best evidence for a pedigree.

At the present time the study of genealogy grows rapidly in English
estimation. It is no less popular in America, where societies and
private persons have of late years published a vast number of
genealogies, many of which combine the results of laborious research in
American records with extravagant and unfounded claims concerning the
European origin of the families dealt with. A family with the surname of
Cuthbert has been known to hail St Cuthbert of Lindisfarne as its
progenitor, and one surnamed Eberhardt has incorporated in its pedigree
such German princes of old times as were found to have Eberhardt for a
Christian name.

Genealogy in modern France has, with a few honourable exceptions, fallen
into the hands of the popular pedigree-makers, whose concern is to
gratify the vanity of their employers. Italy likewise has not yet shaken
off the influence of those venal genealogists who, three hundred years
ago, sold pedigrees cheaply to all comers. But much laborious
genealogical inquiry had been made in Germany since the days of Hübner,
and even in Russia there has been some attempt to apply modern standards
of criticism to the chronicles of the swarming descendants of the blood
of Rurik.

In no way is the gap made by the Dark Ages between ancient and modern
history more marked than by the fact that no European family makes a
serious claim to bridge it with its genealogy. The unsupported claim of
the Roman house of Massimo to a descent from Fabius Maximus is
respectable beside such legends as that which made Lévis-Mirepoix head
of the priestly tribe of Levi, but even the boast of such remote
ancestry has now become rare. The ancient sovereign houses of Europe
are, for the most part, content to attach themselves to some ancestor
who, when the mist that followed the fall of the Western empire begins
to lift, is seen rallying with his sword some group of spearmen.

  AUTHORITIES.--Genealogical works have been published in such abundance
  that the bibliographies of the subject are already substantial
  volumes. Amongst the earlier books from the press may be noted
  Benvenuto de San Georgio's _Montisferrati marchionum et principum
  regiae propagium successionumque series_ (1515); Pingonius's _Arbor
  gentilitiae Sabaudiae Saxoniaeque domus_ (1521); Gebweiler's _Epitome
  regii ac vetustissimi ortus Caroli V. et Ferdinandi I., omniumque
  archiducum Austriae et comitum Habsburgiensium_ (1527): Meyer's work
  on the counts of Flanders (1531), and Du Boulay's genealogies of the
  dukes of Lorraine (1547). Later in the same century Reineck of
  Helmstadt put forth many works having a wider genealogical scope, and
  we may cite Henninges's _Genealogiae Saxonicae_ (1587) and _Theatrum
  genealogicum_ (1598), and Reusner's _Opus genealogicum catholicum_
  (1589-1592). For the politically inconvenient falseness of François de
  Rosières' _Stemmata Lotharingiae ac Barri ducum_ (1580), wherein the
  dukes of Lorraine were deduced from the line of Charlemagne, the
  author was sent to the Bastille by the parlement of Paris and his book
  suppressed.

  The 17th century saw the production in England of Dugdale's great
  _Baronage_ (1675-1676), a work which still holds a respectable place
  by reason of its citation of authorities, and of Sandford's history of
  the royal house. In the same century André Duchesne, the historian of
  the Montmorencys, Pierre d'Hozier, the chronicler of the house of La
  Rochefoucauld, Rittershusius, Imhoff, Spener, Lohmeier and many others
  contribute to the body of continental genealogies. Pierre de Guibours,
  known as Père Anselme de Ste Marie, published in 1674 the first
  edition of his magnificent _Histoire généalogique de la maison royale
  de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne et de la maison
  du roy et des anciens barons du royaume_. Of this encyclopaedic work a
  third and complete edition appeared in 1726-1733. A modern edition
  under the editorship of M. Potier de Courcy began to be issued in
  1873, but remains incomplete. Among 18th-century work Johann Hübner's
  _Bibliotheca genealogica_ (1729) and _Genealogische Tabellen_
  (1725-1733), with Lenzen's commentary on the latter work (c. 1756),
  may be signalized, with Gatterer's _Handbuch der Genealogie_ (1761)
  and his Abriss der Genealogie (1788), the latter an early manual on
  the science of genealogy. Hergott's _Genealogia diplomatica augustae
  gentis Habsburgicae_ (1737) is the imperial genealogy compiled by the
  emperor's own historiographer.

  Modern peerages in England may be said to date from that of Arthur
  Collins, whose one-volume first edition was published in 1709. The
  fifth edition appeared in 1778, in eight volumes, to be republished in
  1812 by Sir Egerton Brydges, the "Baptist Hatton" of Disraeli's novel,
  who corrected many legendary pedigrees, besides inserting his own
  forged descent from a common ancestor with the dukes of Chandos. From
  this work and from the Irish peerage of Lodge (as re-edited by
  Archdall) most of the later peerages have quarried their material.
  With these may be named the baronetages of Wotton and Betham. Of
  modern popular peerages and baronetages that of Burke has been
  published since 1822 in many editions and now appears yearly. Most
  important for the historian are the _Complete Peerage_ of G.E.
  C[ockayne] (2nd ed., 1910), and the _Complete Baronetage_ of the same
  author. The _Peerage of Scotland_ (1769) of Sir Robert Douglas of
  Glenbervie came to a second edition in 1813, edited by J.P. Wood, and
  the whole work has been revised and re-edited by Sir James Balfour
  Paul (1904, &c.). Of the popular manuals of English untitled families,
  Burke's _Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Commoners_
  (1833-1838) is now brought up to date from time to time and reissued
  as the _Landed Gentry_.

  Lists of pedigrees in English printed works are supplied by Marshall's
  _Genealogist's Guide_ (1903), while pedigrees in the manuscript
  collections of the British Museum are indexed in the list of R. Sims
  (1849). Valuable genealogical material will be found in such
  periodicals as the _Genealogist_, the _Herald and Genealogist_, the
  _Topographer and Genealogist_, _Collectanea topographica et
  genealogica_, _Miscellanea genealogica et heraldica_ and the
  _Ancestor_. In Germany the _Deutscher Herold_ is the organ of the
  Berlin Heraldic and Genealogical Society. The _Nederlandsche Leeuw_ is
  a similar publication in the Low Countries.

  Modern criticism of the older genealogical methods will be found in
  J.H. Round's _Peerage and Pedigree_, 2 vols. (London, 1910), and in
  other volumes by the same author. The Harleian Society has published
  many volumes of the Herald's Visitations; and the British Record
  Society's publications, supplying a key to a vast mass of wills,
  Chancery suits and marriage licences, are of still greater importance.
  The _Victoria History of the Counties of England_ includes
  genealogies of the ancient English county families still among the
  land-owning classes. English pedigrees of the age before the Conquest
  are collected in W.G. Searle's _Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings and Nobles_
  (1899).

  Genealogical dictionaries of noble French families include Victor de
  Saint Allais's _Nobiliaire universel_ (21 vols., 1872-1877) and Aubert
  de la Chenaye-Desbois' _Dictionnaire de la noblesse_ (15 vols.,
  1863-1876). A sumptuous work on the genealogy and heraldry of the
  ancient duchy of Savoy by Count Amédée de Foras began to appear in
  1863. Spain has Lopez de Haro's _Nobiliario genealogico de los reyes y
  títulos de España_. Italy has the _Teatro araldico_ of Tettoni and
  Saladini (1841-1848), Litti's _Famiglie celebri_ and an _Annuario
  della nobilità_. Such annuals are now published more or less
  intermittently in many European countries. Finland has a _Ridderscap
  och Adels Kalender_, Belgium the _Annuaire de la noblesse_, the Dutch
  Netherlands an _Adelsboek_, Denmark the _Adels-Garbog_ and Russia the
  _Annuaire_ of Ermerin. But chief of all such publications is the
  ancient _Almanach de Gotha_, containing the modern kinship of royal
  and princely houses, and now accompanied by volumes dealing with the
  houses of German and Austrian counts and barons, and with houses
  ennobled in modern times by patent. A useful modern reference book for
  students of history is Stokvis's _Manuel d'histoire et de généalogie
  de tous les états du globe_ (1888-1893). The best manual for the
  English genealogist is Walter Rye's _Records and Record Searching_
  (1897), while an ill-arranged but valuable bibliography of English and
  foreign works on the subject is that of George Gatfield (1892).
       (O. Ba.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] G.B. Gray's _Hebrew Proper Names_ (1896), with his article in the
    _Expositor_ (Sept. 1897), pp. 173-190, should be consulted for the
    application and range of Hebrew names in O. T. genealogies and lists.

  [2] On the subject generally see articles "Genos" and "Gens," by A.H.
    Greenidge, in Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities_
    (3rd ed., 1890), where the chief authorities are given.

  [3] The fondness of Euripides for genealogies is ridiculed by
    Aristophanes (_Acharnians_, 47).

  [4] All the earlier Greek historians appear to have constructed their
    narratives on assumed genealogical bases. The four books of Hecataeus
    of Miletus dealt respectively with the traditions about Deucalion,
    about Heracles and the Heraclidae, about the early settlements in
    Peloponnesus, and about those in Asia Minor; he further made a
    pedigree for himself, in which his sixteenth ancestor was a god. The
    works of Hellanicus of Lesbos bore titles ([Greek: Deukaliôneia] and
    the like) which sufficiently explain their nature; his disciple,
    Damastes of Sigeum, was the author of genealogical histories of
    Trojan heroes; Apollodorus of Athens made use of three books of
    [Greek: Genealogika] by Acusilaus of Argos; Pherecydes of Leros also
    wrote [Greek: genealogiai]. See J.A.F. Töpffer, _Attische Genealogie_
    (1889); also J.H. Schubart, _Quaestt. geneal. historicae_ (1832); G.
    Marckscheffel, _De genealogica Graecorum poësi_ (1840).

  [5] The chief authority on this subject is Polybius (vi. 53); see
    also T. Mommsen, _Römisches Staatsrecht_, i. (1887), p. 442.

  [6] At the funeral of Drusus the images of Aeneas, of the Alban
    kings, of Romulus, of the Sabine nobles, of Attus Clausus, and of
    "the rest of the Claudians" were exhibited (Tac. _Ann._ iv. 9).

  [7] The Roman stemmata had, as will be seen afterwards, great
    interest for the older modern genealogists. Reference may be made to
    J. Glandorp's _Descriptio gentis Antoniae_ (1557); to the _Descriptio
    gentis Juliae_ (1576) of the same author; and to J. Hübner's
    _Genealogische Tabellen_. See also G.A. Ruperti's _Tabulae
    genealogicae sive stemmata nobiliss_. gent. Rom. (1794).     (X.)



GENELLI, GIOVANNI BUONAVENTURA (1798-1868), German painter, was born at
Berlin on the 28th of September 1798. He was the son of Janus Genelli, a
painter whose landscapes are still preserved in the Schloss at Berlin,
and grandson to Joseph Genelli, a Roman embroiderer employed to found a
school of gobelins by Frederick the Great. Buonaventura Genelli first
took lessons from his father and then became a student of the Berlin
academy. After serving his time in the guards he went with a stipend to
Rome, where he lived ten years, a friend and assistant to Koch the
landscape painter, a colleague of the sculptor Ernst Hähnel (1811-1891),
Reinhart, Overbeck and Führich, all of whom made a name in art. In 1830
he was commissioned by Dr Härtel to adorn a villa at Leipzig with
frescoes, but quarrelling with this patron he withdrew to Munich, where
he earned a scanty livelihood at first, though he succeeded at last in
acquiring repute as an illustrative and figure draughtsman. In 1859 he
was appointed a professor at Weimar, where he died on the 13th of
November 1868. Genelli painted few pictures, and it is very rare to find
his canvases in public galleries, but there are six of his compositions
in oil in the Schack collection at Munich. These and numerous
water-colours, as well as designs for engravings and lithographs, reveal
an artist of considerable power whose ideal was the antique, but who was
also fascinated by the works of Michelangelo. Though a German by birth,
his spirit was unlike that of Overbeck or Führich, whose art was
reminiscent of the old masters of their own country. He seemed to hark
back to the land of his fathers and endeavour to revive the traditions
of the Italian Renaissance. Subtle in thought and powerfully conceived,
his compositions are usually mythological, but full of matter, energetic
and fiery in execution, and marked almost invariably by daring effects
of foreshortening. Impeded by straitened means, the artist seems
frequently to have drawn from imagination rather than from life, and
much of his anatomy of muscle is in consequence conventional and false.
But none the less Genelli merits his reputation as a bold and
imaginative artist, and his name deserves to be remembered beyond the
narrow limits of the early schools of Munich and Weimar.



GENERAL (Lat. _generalis_, of or relating to a _genus_, kind or class),
a term which, from its pointing to all or most of the members of a
class, the whole of an area, &c. as opposed to "particular" or to
"local," is hence used in various shades of meaning, for that which is
prevalent, usual, widespread or miscellaneous, indefinite, vague. It has
been added to the titles of various officials, military officers and
others; thus the head of a religious order is the "superior-general,"
more usually the "general," and we find the same combination in such
offices as that of "accountant-general," "postmaster-general,"
"attorney-" or "solicitor-general," and many others, the additional word
implying that the official in question is of superior rank, as having a
wider authority or sphere of activity. This is the use that accounts
for the application of the term, as a substantive, to a military officer
of superior rank, a "general officer," or "general," who commands or
administers bodies of troops larger than a regiment, or consisting of
more than one arm of the service (see also OFFICERS). It was towards the
end of the 16th century that the word began to be used in its present
sense as a noun, and in the armies of the time the "general" was
commander-in-chief, the "lieutenant-general" commander of the horse and
second in command of the army, and the "major-general" (strictly
"sergeant-major-general") commander of the foot and chief of the staff.
Field marshals, who have now the highest rank, were formerly subordinate
to the general officers. These titles--general, lieutenant-general and
major-general--are still applied in most armies to the first, second and
third grades of general officer, and in the French service until 1870
the chief of the staff of the army bore the title of major-general. In
the German and Russian services the three grades are qualified by the
addition of the words "of cavalry," "of infantry" and "of artillery."
The French service possesses only two grades, "general of brigade" and
"general of division." The Austrian service has two ranks of general
officers peculiar to itself, "lieutenant field marshal," equivalent to
lieutenant-general, and _Feldzeugmeister_ (master of the ordnance),
equivalent to the German general of infantry or artillery. There is also
the rank of "general of cavalry." The Spanish army still retains the old
term "captain-general." In the German service _General Oberst_
(colonel-general) and _General Feldzeugmeister_ (master-general of
ordnance) are ranks intermediate between that of full general and that
of general field marshal. It may be noted that during the 17th century
"general" was not confined to a commanding officer of an army, and was
also equivalent to "admiral"; thus when under the Protectorate the
office of lord high admiral was put into commission, the three first
commissioners, Blake, Edward Popham and Richard Deane, were styled
"generals at sea."



GENERATION (from Lat. _generare_, to beget, procreate; _genus_, stock,
race), the act of procreation or begetting, hence any one of the various
methods by which plants, animals or substances are produced. As applied
to the result of procreation, "generation" is used of the offspring of
the same parents, taken as one degree in descent from a common ancestor,
or, widely, of the body of living persons born at or near the same time;
thus the word is also used of the age or period of a generation, usually
taken as about thirty years, or three generations to a century. As a
term in biology or physiology, generation is synonymous with the Gr.
[Greek: biogenesis] and the Ger. _Zeugung_, and may comprehend the whole
history of the first origin and continued reproduction of living bodies,
whether plants or animals; but it is frequently restricted to the sexual
reproduction of animals. The subject may be divided into the following
branches, viz.: (1) the first origin of life and living beings, (2)
non-sexual or agamic reproduction, and (3) gamic or sexual reproduction.
For the first two of these topics see ABIOGENESIS, BIOGENESIS and
BIOLOGY; for the third and more extensive division, including (1) the
formation and fecundation of the ovum, and (2) the development of the
embryo in different animals, see REPRODUCTION and EMBRYOLOGY.



GENESIS (Gr. [Greek: genesis], becoming; the term being used in English
as a synonym for origin or process of coming into being), the name of
the first book in the Bible, which derives its title from the Septuagint
rendering of ch. ii. 4. It is the first of the five books (the
Pentateuch), or, with the inclusion of Joshua, of the six (the
Hexateuch), which cover the history of the Hebrews to their occupation
of Canaan. The "genesis" of Hebrew history begins with records of
antediluvian times: the creation of the world, of the first pair of
human beings, and the origin of sin (i.-iii.), the civilization and
moral degeneration of mankind, the history of man to the time of Noah
(iv.-vi. 8), the flood (vi. 9-ix.), the confusion of languages and the
divisions of the human race (x.-xi.). Turning next to the descendants of
Shem, the book deals with Abraham (xii.-xxv. 18), Isaac and Jacob (xxv.
19-xxxv.), the "fathers" of the tribes of Israel, and concludes with
the personal history of Joseph, and the descent of his father Jacob (or
Israel) and his brethren into the land of Egypt (xxxvii.-l.). The book
of Genesis, as a whole, is closely connected with the subsequent
oppression of the sons of Israel, the revelation of Yahweh the God of
their fathers (Ex. iii. 6, 15 seq., vi. 2-8), the "exodus" of the
Israelites to the land promised to their fathers (Ex. xiii. 5, Deut. i.
8, xxvi. 3 sqq., xxxiv. 4) and its conquest (Josh. i. 6, xxiv.); cf.
also the summaries Neh. ix. 7 sqq., Ps. cv. 6 sqq.


    Analysis.

  The words, "these are the generations of the heavens and of the earth
  when they were created" (ii. 4), introduce an account of the creation
  of the world, which, however, is preceded by a relatively later and
  less primitive record (i. 1-ii. 3). The differences between the two
  accounts lie partly in the style and partly in the form and contents
  of the narratives. i. 1-ii. 3 is marked by stereotyped formulae ("and
  God [_Elohim_] said ... and it was so ... and God saw that it was
  good, and there was evening and there was morning," &c.); it is
  precise and detailed, whereas ii. 4b-iii. is less systematic, fresher
  and more anthropomorphic. The former is cosmic, the latter is local.
  It is the latter which mentions the mysterious garden and the
  wonderful trees which Yahweh planted, and depicts Yahweh conversing
  with man and walking in the garden in the cool of the evening. The
  former, on the other hand, has an enlightened conception of _Elohim_;
  the Deity, though grand, is a lifeless figure; several antique ideas
  are nevertheless preserved. The account of the creation, too, is
  different; for example, in chap. i. man and woman are created
  together, whereas in ii. man is at first alone. The naiveness of the
  story of the creation of woman is in line with the interest which this
  more popular source takes in the origin or existence of phenomena,
  customs and contemporary beliefs (the garden, the naming of animals,
  &c.). The primitive record is continued in the story of Cain and Abel
  (iv.), where the old-time problem of Cain's wife and the reference to
  other human beings (iv. 14 seq.) gave rise in pre-critical days to the
  theory of pre-Adamites, as though Adam and Eve were not the only
  inhabitants of the earth. But all the indications go to show that
  there were at least two distinct popular narratives, one of which
  ignores the flood. Cain the murderer, doomed to be a wanderer, now
  becomes the builder of a city, and his descendants introduce various
  arts (iv. 16b-24).[1] (See the articles ABEL; ADAM; CAIN; COSMOGENY;
  ENOCH; EVE; LAMECH.) From the "generations" of the heavens and the
  earth (which one would have expected at the head of ch. i.) we pass to
  the "generations of Adam" (v. 1). The list of the "Sethites," with its
  characteristically stereotyped framework, has an older parallel in iv.
  25 seq. (with the origin of the worship of Yahweh contrast Ex. vi. 2.
  seq.), and a fragment from the same source is found in v. 29.

  After the birth of Noah the son of Lamech (v. 29, contrast iv. 19
  sqq.) comes the brief story of the demigods (vi. 1-4). It is no part
  of the account of the fall or of the flood (note verse 4 and Num.
  xiii. 33), least of all does it furnish grounds for the old view of
  the division of the human race into evil Cainites and God-fearing
  Sethites. The excerpt with its description of the fall of the angels
  is used to form a prelude to the wickedness of man and the avenging
  flood (vi. 5). Noah, the father of Ham, Shem and Japheth, appears as
  the hero in the Hebrew version of the flood (see DELUGE; NOAH).
  Duplicates (vi. 5-8, 9-13) and discrepancies (vi. 19 sq. contrasted
  with vii. 2; or vii. 11, viii. 14 contrasted with viii. 8, 10, 12)
  point to the use of two sources (harmonizing passages in vii. 3, 7-9).
  The later narrative, which begins with "the generations" of Noah (vi.
  9-22; vii. 6, 11, 13-17a, 18-21, 24; viii. 1-2a, 3b-5, 13a, 14-19; ix.
  1-17), is almost complete; note the superscription and the length of
  the flood (365 days; according to other notices the flood apparently
  lasted only 61 or 68 days). In the earlier source Noah collects seven
  pairs of clean animals, one of each kind; he sacrifices after leaving
  the ark, and Yahweh promises not to curse the ground or to smite
  living things again. But in the later, he takes only one pair, and
  subsequently Elohim blesses Noah and makes a covenant never again to
  destroy all flesh by a flood.[2] The covenant (characteristic of the
  latest narratives in Genesis) also prohibits the shedding of blood
  (cf. the story of Cain and Abel in the earlier source). Mankind is now
  made to descend from the three sons of Noah. The older story, however,
  continues with another step in the history of civilization, and to
  Noah is ascribed the cult of the vine, the abuse of which leads to the
  utterance of a curse upon Canaan and a blessing upon Shem and Japheth
  (ix. 20-27). The table of nations in x. ("the generations of the sons
  of Noah") preserves several signs of composite origin (contrast e.g.
  x. 7 with vv. 28 sq., Ludim v. 13 with v. 22, and the Canaanite
  families v. 16 with the dispersion "afterwards," v. 18, &c.); see
  CANAAN; GENEALOGY; NIMROD. The history of the primitive age concludes
  with the story of the tower of Babel (xi. 1-9), which, starting from
  a popular etymology of Babel ("gate of God"), as though from Balbel
  ("confusion"), tells how Yahweh feared lest mankind should become too
  powerful (cf. iii. 22-24), and seeks to explain the origin of the
  numerous languages in use. It is independent of x., which already
  assumes a confusion of tongues (vv. 5, 20, 31), the existence of Babel
  (v. 10), and gives a different account of the rise of the various
  races. This incident in the journey eastwards (xi. 2) is equally
  independent of the story of the Deluge and of Noah's family (see
  Wellhausen, _Prolegomena_, p. 316). The continuation of the chapter,
  "the generations of Shem" (xi. 10-27, see the Shemite genealogy in x.
  21 sqq., and contrast the ages with vi. 3), is in the same stereotyped
  style as ch. v., and prepares the way for the history of the
  patriarchs.

  The "generations of Terah" (xi. 27) lead to the introduction of the
  first great patriarch Abraham (q.v.).[3] There is a twofold account of
  his migration to Bethel with his nephew Lot; the more statistical form
  in xi. 31 sq., xii. 4b, 5 belongs to the latest source. The statement
  that the Canaanite was then in the land (xii. 6, cf. xiii. 7) points
  to a time long after the Israelite conquest, when readers needed such
  a reminder (so Hobbes in his _Leviathan_, 1651). A famine forces him
  to descend into Egypt, where a story of Sarai (here at least 65 years
  of age; see xii. 4, xvii. 17) is one of three variants of a similar
  peculiar incident (cf. xx. 1-17, xxvi. 6-14). The passage is an
  insertion (xii. 10-xiii. 2; xii. 9, xiii. 3 seq. being harmonistic).
  The thread is resumed in the account of the separation of the
  patriarch and his nephew Lot, who divide the land between them.
  Abraham occupies Canaan, but moves south to Hebron, which, according
  to Josh. xiv. 15, was formerly known as Kirjath-Arba. Lot dwells in
  the basin of the Jordan, and his history is continued in the story of
  the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (xviii.-xix.; Hos. xi. 8, Deut.
  xxix. 23 speak of Admah and Zeboim). Lot is saved and becomes the
  ancestor of the Moabites and Ammonites, who are thus closely related
  to the descendants of Abraham (note xix. 37, "unto this day"). The
  great war with Amraphel and Chedorlaomer--the defeat of a
  world-conquering army by 318 men--with the episode of Melchizedek,
  noteworthy for the reference to Jerusalem (xiv. 18, cf. Ps. lxxvi. 2),
  has nothing in common with the context (see ABRAHAM; MELCHIZEDEK). It
  treats as individuals the place-names Mamre and Eshcol (xiv. 13, cf.
  Num. xiii. 23 seq.), and by mentioning Dan (v. 14) anticipates the
  events in Josh. xix. 47, Judg. xviii. 29.[4] A cycle of narratives
  deals with the promise that the barren Sarai (Sarah) should bear a
  child whose descendants would inhabit the land of Canaan. The
  importance of the tradition for the history of Israel explains both
  the prominence given to it (cf. already xii. 7, xiii. 14-17) and their
  present complicated character (due to repeated revision). The older
  narratives comprise (a) the promise that Abraham shall have a son of
  his own flesh (xv.)--the account is composite;[5] (b) the birth of
  Ishmael, Abraham's son by Hagar, their exile, and Yahweh's promise
  (xvi., with a separate framework in vv. 1a. 3, 15 seq.)--before the
  birth of Isaac; and (c) the promise of a son to Sarai (xviii. 1-15),
  now combined with the story of Lot and the overthrow of Sodom. The
  latest source (xvii.) is marked by the solemn covenant between Yahweh
  and Abraham, the revelation of God Almighty (El-Shaddai, cf. Ex. vi.
  3), and the institution of circumcision (otherwise treated in Ex. iv.
  26, Josh. v. 2 seq.). The more elevated character of this source as
  contrasted with xv. and xviii. is as striking as the difference of
  religious tone in the two accounts of the creation (above). Abraham
  now travels thence (xx. 1, Hebron, see xviii. 1), and his adventure in
  the land of Abimelech, king of Gerar (xx.), is a duplicate of xii.
  (above). It is continued in xxi. 22-34, which has a close parallel in
  the life of Isaac (xxvi., below). Isaac is born in accordance with the
  divine promise (xviii. 10 at Hebron); the scene is the south of
  Palestine. The story of the dismissal of Hagar and Ishmael, and the
  revelation (xxi. 8-21) cannot be separated from xvi. 4-14, where vv. 9
  seq. are intended to harmonize the passages. Although about sixteen
  years intervene (see xvi. 16; xxi. 5, 8), Ishmael is a young child who
  has to be carried (xxi. 15), but the Hebrew text of xxi. 14 (not,
  however, the Septuagint) endeavours to remove the discrepancy.[6]
  "After these things" comes the offering of Isaac which implicitly
  annuls the sacrifice of the first-born, a not unfamiliar rite in
  Palestine as the denunciations prove (cf. Ezek. xvi. 20 seq., xx. 26;
  Mic. vi. 7; Is. lvii. 5), and thus marks an advance, e.g. upon the
  story of Jephthah's daughter (Judg. xi.). The story may be contrasted
  with the Phoenician account of the sacrifice by Cronos (to be
  identified with El) of his only son, which practically justified the
  horrid custom. The detailed account of the purchase of the cave of
  Machpelah (contrast the brevity of xxxiii. 19) is of great importance
  for the traditions of the patriarchs, and, like the references to the
  death of Sarah and Abraham, belongs to the latest source (xxiii., xxv.
  7-11a).[7] The idyllic picture of life in xxiv. presupposes that Isaac
  is sole heir (v. 36); since this is first stated in xxv. 5, it is
  probable that xxv. 5, 11b (and perhaps vv. 6, 18) are out of place. It
  is noteworthy that the district is Abraham's native place (xxiv. 4, 7,
  10; contrast the Babylonian home specified in xi. 28, 31; xv. 7). In
  xxv. 1 sqq. Abraham takes as wife (but _concubine_, 1 Chron. i. 32
  seq.) Keturah ("incense") and becomes the father of various Arab
  tribes, e.g. Sheba and Dedan (grandsons of Cush in x. 7).

  After "the generations of Ishmael" (xxv. 12 sqq.) the narrative turns
  to "the generations of Isaac" (xxv. 19 sqq.). The story of the events
  at the court of Abimelech (xxvi.) finds a parallel in the now
  disjointed xx., xxi. 22-34; note the new explanation of Beersheba, the
  reference in xxvi. 1 to the parallel story in xii., the absence of
  allusion to xx., and the apparent editorial references to xxi. in vv.
  15, 18. On the whole, the story of Isaac's wife at Gerar is briefer
  and not so elevated as that of Sarah, but the parallel to xxi. 22-34
  is more detailed. The birth of Esau and Jacob (xxv. 21-34) introduces
  the story of Jacob's craft when Isaac is on the point of death
  (xxvii.). Jacob flees to Laban at Haran to escape Esau's hatred
  (xxvii. 41-45); but, according to the latest source (P), he is charged
  by Isaac to go to Paddan-Aram, and take a wife there, and his father
  transfers to him the blessing of Abraham (xxvii. 46-xxviii. 9). On his
  way to Haran he stops at Bethel (formerly Luz, according to Judg. i.
  22-26), where a vision prompts him to accept the God of the place
  should he return in peace to his father's home (xxviii. 10-22). He
  passes to the land of "the children of the east" (xxix. 1), and the
  scenes which follow are scarcely situated at Haran, the famous and
  ancient seat of the worship of the moon-god, but in the desert. Here
  he resides fifteen years or more, and by the daughters of Laban and
  their handmaidens becomes the "father" of the tribes of Israel. There
  are numerous traces of composition from different sources, but a
  satisfactory analysis is impossible.[8] The flight of Jacob and his
  household (from Paddan-Aram, xxxi. 18 P) leads over "the River" (v.
  21, i.e. the Euphrates); though the seven days' journey of this
  concourse of men and cattle suggests that he came to Gilead, not from
  Haran (300 m. distant), but from some nearer locality. This is to be
  taken with the evidence against Haran already noticed, with the use of
  the term "children of the east" (xxix. 1; cf. Jer. xlix. 28; Ezek.
  xxv. 4, 10), and with the details of Laban's kindred (xxii. 20-24).[9]
  The arrival at Mahanaim ("[two?] camps") gives rise to specific
  allusions to the meaning of the name (xxxii. 1 seq., 7-12, 13-21); cf.
  also the plays upon Jabbok, Israel and Peniel in xxxii. 22-32. He
  meets Esau (xxxii. 3-21, xxxiii. 1-16, another reference to Peniel,
  "face of God," in v. 10), but they part. Jacob now comes to Shechem
  "in peace" (cf. the phrase in xxviii. 21), where he buys land and
  erects an altar (xxxiii. 18-20, cf. Abraham in xii. 6 seq.). There is
  a remarkable story of the violation of his daughter Dinah by Shechem,
  the son of Hamor the Hivite (xxxiv.). It has been heavily revised;
  note the alternating prominence of Hamor and Shechem, the condemnation
  of Simeon and Levi for their vengeance (cf. the curse in xlix. 5-7),
  the destruction of the city Shechem by all the sons of Jacob, and the
  survival of the Hamorites as a family centuries later (xxxiii. 19,
  Judg. ix. 28). The narrative continues with Jacob's journey to Bethel,
  the death of Deborah (who accompanied Rebekah to Palestine 140 years
  previously, see xxiv. 59, and the latest source in xxv. 20, xxxv. 28),
  the death of Rachel (xxxv. 16-20, contrast xxxvii. 10), and ceases
  abruptly in the middle of a sentence (xxxv. 22, but see xlix. 3-4).
  The latest source (xxxv. 9-13, 15, 22b-29) gives another account of
  the origin of the names Israel (cf. xxxii. 28) and Bethel (cf. xxviii.
  19), and the genealogy wrongly includes Benjamin among the sons born
  outside Palestine (vv. 24-26). In narrating Jacob's leisurely return
  to Isaac at Hebron, the writers quite ignore the many years which have
  elapsed since he left his father at the point of death in Beersheba
  (xxvii. 1, 2, 7, 10, 41).

  "The generations of Esau, the same is Edom," provide much valuable
  material for the study of Israel's rival (xxxvi.). The chapter gives
  yet another account of the separation of Jacob and Esau (with vv. 6-8,
  cf. Abraham and Lot, xiii. 5 seq.), and describes the latter's
  withdrawal to Seir (cf. already xxxii. 3; xxxiii. 14, 16). It includes
  lists of diverse origin (e.g. vv. 2-5, contrast xxvi. 34, xxviii. 9);
  various "dukes" (R.V. marg. "chiefs"), or rather "thousands" or
  "clans"; and also the "sons" of Seir the Horite, i.e. Horite clans
  (vv. 20 seq. and vv. 29 seq.). A summary of Edomite kings is ascribed
  to the period before the Israelite monarchy (vv. 31-39), and the
  record concludes with the "dukes" of Esau, the father of the Edomites
  (vv. 40-43, cf. names in vv. 10-14, 15-19).[10]

  Finally, Genesis turns from the patriarchs to the "generations of
  Jacob" (xxxvii. 2), and we have stories of the "sons," the ancestors
  of the tribes. (In xxxiv. the incidents which primarily concerned
  Simeon and Levi alone have, however, been adjusted to the general
  history of Jacob and his family.) The first place is given to Joseph
  (xxxvii.), although xxxviii. crowds the early history of the family of
  Judah into the twenty-two years between xxxvii. 2 and Jacob's descent
  into Egypt (see xli. 46, 47; xlv. 6).[11] In xxxvii., xxxix. sqq. we
  have an admirable specimen of writing quite distinct in stamp from the
  patriarchal stories. The romance which has here been utilized shows an
  acquaintance with Egypt; the narratives are discursive, not laconic,
  everything is more detailed, and more under the influence of literary
  art. The Reuben and Simeon which appear in it are not the characters
  which we meet in xxxiv., xxxv. 22, or in the poem xlix. 3-7; and the
  tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh do not scruple to claim ancestry from
  Joseph and the daughter of an Egyptian priest at the seat of the
  worship of the sun-god (xli. 45). The narratives are composite. Joseph
  incurs the ill-will of his brethren because of Israel's partiality or
  because of his significant dreams. He is at Shechem or at Dothan; and
  when the brothers seek to slay him, Judah proposes that he should be
  sold to Ishmaelites, or Reuben suggests that he should be cast into a
  pit, where Midianites find and kidnap him (xxxvii., cf. xl. 15). The
  latter sell him to the eunuch Potiphar, but he appears in the service
  of a married householder (xxxix., the second clause of v. 1
  harmonizes). Among other signs of dual origin are the alternation of
  "Jacob" and "Israel," and the prominence of Judah (xliii. 3, 8; xliv.
  14, 18) or of Reuben (xlii. 22, 37). The money is found in a "bag" as
  the brothers encamp (xlii. 27, 28a; xliii.), or in a "sack" when they
  reach home (xlii. 8-26, 29-35, 28b, 36 sq.). When Israel and his
  family descend into Egypt, the latest source gives a detailed list
  which agrees in the main with the Israelite subdivisions (xlvi. 6-27,
  cf. Num. xxvi. and 1 Chron. ii.-viii.). The families dwell in the land
  of Goshen, east of the Delta, "for every shepherd is an abomination
  unto the Egyptians" (xlv. 10; xlvi. 28-34; xlvii. 1-6); or they are in
  the "land of Rameses" (xlvii. 11, and Septuagint in xlvi. 28);[12]
  Joseph's policy during the famine is next described (xlvii. 13-26),
  although it would have been more in place after xli. (see _ib._ 34).
  There are several difficulties in Jacob's blessing of the sons of
  Joseph (xlviii.).[13] The blessing in xlix. is a collection of
  poetical passages praising or blaming the various tribes, and must
  certainly date after the Israelite settlement in Palestine; see
  further the articles on the tribes. Jacob's dying instructions to
  Joseph (xlvii. 29-31) are continued in l. 1 sqq., his charge to his
  sons (xlix. 28 sqq., P) in l. 12 seq. It is significant that Jacob's
  body is taken to Palestine, but the brethren return to Egypt; in spite
  of a possible allusion to the famine in v. 21, the late chronological
  scheme would imply that it had long ceased (see xlv. 6, xlvii. 28).
  The book closes with the death of Joseph about fifty years later,
  after the birth of the children of Machir, who himself was a
  contemporary of Moses forty years after the Exodus (Num. xxxii.
  39-41). Joseph's body is embalmed, but it is not until the concluding
  chapter of the book of Joshua (xxiv. 32) that his bones find their
  last resting-place.


  A composite work.

Only on the assumption that the book of Genesis is a composite work is
it possible to explain the duplication of events, the varying use of the
divine names _Yahweh_ and _Elohim_, the linguistic and stylistic
differences, the internal intricacies of the subject matter, and the
differing standpoints as regards tradition, chronology, morals and
religion.[14] The cumulative effect of the whole evidence is too strong
to be withstood, and already in the 17th century it was recognized that
the book was of composite origin. Immense labour has been spent in the
critical analysis of the contents, but it is only since the work of Graf
(1866) and Wellhausen (1878) that a satisfactory literary hypothesis has
been found which explained the most obvious intricacies. The
Graf-Wellhausen literary theory has gained the assent of almost all
trained and unbiased biblical scholars, it has not been shaken by the
more recent light from external evidence, and no alternative theory has
as yet been produced. The internal features of Genesis demand some
formulated theory, more precise than the indefinite concessions of the
17th century, beyond which the opponents of modern literary criticism
scarcely advance, and the Graf-Wellhausen theory, in spite of the
numerous difficulties which it leaves untouched, is the only adequate
starting-point for the study of the book. According to this, Genesis is
a post-exilic work composed of a post-exilic priestly source (P) and
non-priestly earlier sources which differ markedly from P in language,
style and religious standpoint, but much less markedly from one and
another.[15] These sources can be traced elsewhere in the Pentateuch and
Joshua, and P itself is related to the post-exilic works Chronicles,
Ezra and Nehemiah. In its _present_ form Genesis is an indispensable
portion of the biblical history, and consequently its literary growth
cannot be viewed apart from that of the books which follow. On internal
grounds it appears that the Pentateuch and Joshua, as they now read,
virtually come in between an older history by "Deuteronomic" compilers
(easily recognizable in Judges and Kings), and the later treatment of
the monarchy in Chronicles, where the influence of the circle which
produced P and the present Mosaic legislation is quite discernible.
There have been stages where earlier extant sources have been cut down,
adjusted or revised by compilers who have incorporated fresh material,
and it is the later compilers of Genesis who have made the book a fairly
knit whole. The technical investigation of the _literary_ problems
(especially the extent of the earlier sources) is a work of great
complexity, and, for ordinary purposes, it is more important to obtain a
preliminary appreciation of the general features of the contents of
Genesis.


  Value of traditions.

That the records of the pre-historic ages in Gen. i.-xi. are at complete
variance with modern science and archaeological research is
unquestionable.[16] But although it is impossible to regard them any
longer either as genuine history or as subjects for an allegorical
interpretation (which would prove the accuracy of _any_ record) they are
of distinct value as human documents. They reflect the ideas and
thoughts of the Hebrews, they illustrate their conceptions of God and
the universe, and they furnish material for a comparison of the moral
development of the Hebrews with that of other early races. Some of the
traditions are closely akin to those current in ancient Babylonia, but a
careful and impartial comparison at once illustrates in a striking
manner the relative moral and spiritual superiority of our writers. On
these subjects see further COSMOGONY; DELUGE.[17]

The records of the patriarchal age, xii.-l. are very variously
estimated, although the great majority of scholars agree that they are
not contemporary and that they cannot be used, as they stand, for
pre-Mosaic times. Apart from the ordinary arguments of historical
criticism, it is to be noticed that external evidence does not support
the assumption that the records preserve genuine pre-Mosaic history.
There are no grounds for any arbitrary distinction between the
"pre-historic" pre-Abrahamic age and the later age. External evidence,
which recognizes no universal deluge and no dispersal of mankind in the
third millennium B.C., throws its own light upon the opening centuries
of the second. It has revealed conditions which are not reflected in
Genesis, and important facts upon which the book is silent--unless,
indeed, there is a passing allusion to the great Babylonian monarch
Khammurabi in the Amraphel of Gen. xiv. Any careful perusal of modern
attempts to recover historical facts or an historical outline from the
book will show how very inadequate the material proves to be, and the
reconstructions will be found to depend upon an interpretation of the
narratives which is often liberal and not rarely precarious, and to
imply such reshaping and rewriting of the presumed facts that the
cautious reader can place little reliance on them. Whatever future
research may bring, it cannot remove the _internal_ peculiarities which
combine to show that Genesis preserves, not literal history, but popular
traditions of the past. External evidence has proved the antiquity of
various elements, but not that of the form or context in which they now
appear; and the difference is an important one. We have now a background
upon which to view the book, and, on the one hand, it has become obvious
that the records preserve--as is only to be expected--Oriental customs,
beliefs and modes of thought. But it has not been demonstrated that
these are exclusively pre-Mosaic. On the other hand, a better
acquaintance with the ancient political, sociological and religious
conditions has made it increasingly difficult to interpret the records
as a whole literally, or even to find a place in pre-Mosaic Palestine
for the lives of the patriarchs as they are depicted.[18] Nevertheless,
though one cannot look to Genesis for the history of the early part of
the second millennium B.C., the study of what was thought of the past,
proves in this, as in many other cases, to be more instructive than the
facts of the past, and it is distinctly more important for the biblical
student and the theologian to understand the thought of the ages
immediately preceding the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C.
than the actual history of many centuries earlier.


  Fusion of diverse features.

A noteworthy feature is the frequent _personification_ of peoples,
tribes or clans (see GENEALOGY: _Biblical_). Midian (i.e. the
Midianites) is a son of Abraham; Canaan is a son of Ham (ix. 22), and
Cush the son of Ham is the father of Ramah and grandfather of the famous
S. Arabian state Sheba and the traders of Dedan (x. 6 sq., cf. Ezek.
xxvii. 20-22). Bethuel the father of Rebekah is the brother of the
tribal names Uz and Buz (xxii. 21 sqq., cf. Jer. xxv. 20, 23). Jacob is
otherwise known as Israel and becomes the father of the tribes of
Israel; Joseph is the father of Ephraim and Manasseh, and incidents in
the life of Judah lead to the birth of Perez and Zerah, Judaean clans.
This personification is entirely natural to the Oriental, and though
"primitive" is not necessarily an ancient trait.[19] It gives rise to
what may be termed the "prophetical interpretation of history" (S.R.
Driver, _Genesis_, p. 111), where the character, fortunes or history of
the apparent individual are practically descriptive of the people or
tribe which, according to tradition, is named after or descended from
him. The utterance of Noah over Canaan, Shem and Japheth (ix. 25 sqq.),
of Isaac over Esau and Jacob (xxvii.), of Jacob over his sons (xlix.) or
grandsons (xlviii.), would have no meaning to Israelites unless they had
some connexion with and interest for contemporary life and thought.
Herein lies the force of the description of the wild and independent
Ishmael (xvi. 12), the "father" of certain well-known tribes (xxv.
13-15); or the contrast between the skilful hunter Esau and the quiet
and respectable Jacob (xxv. 27), and between the tiller Cain who
becomes the typical nomad and the pastoral Abel (iv. 1-15). The interest
of the struggles between Jacob and Esau lay, not in the history of
individuals of the distant past, but in the fact that the names actually
represented Israel and its near rival Edom. These features are in entire
accordance with Oriental usage and give expression to current belief,
existing relationships, or to a poetical foreshadowing of historical
vicissitudes. But in the effort to understand them as they were
originally understood it is very obvious that this method of
interpretation can be pressed too far. It would be precarious to insist
that the entrances into Palestine of Abraham and Jacob (or Israel)
typified two distinct immigrations. The separation of Abraham from Lot
(cf. Lotan, an Edomite name), of Isaac from Hagar-Ishmael, or of Jacob
from Esau-Edom scarcely points to the relative antiquity of the origin
of these non-Israelite peoples who, to judge from the evidence, were
closely related. Or, if the "sons" of Jacob had Aramaean mothers, to
prove that those which are derived from the wives were upon a higher
level than the "sons" of the concubines is more difficult than to allow
that certain of the tribes must have contained some element of Aramaean
blood (cf. 1 Chron. vii. 14, and see ASHER; GAD; MANASSEH). Some of the
names are clearly not those of known clans or tribes (e.g. Abraham,
Isaac), and many of the details of the narratives obviously have no
natural ethnological meaning. Stories of heroic ancestors and of tribal
eponyms intermingle; personal, tribal and national traits are
interwoven. The entrance of Jacob or Israel with his sons suggests that
of the children of Israel. The story of Simeon and Levi at Shechem is
clearly not that of two individuals, sons of the patriarch Israel; in
fact the story actually uses the term "wrought folly in Israel" (cf.
Jud. xx. 6, 10), and the individual Shechem, the son of Hamor, cannot be
separated from the city, the scene of the incidents. Yet Jacob's life
with Laban has many purely individual traits. And, further, there
intervenes a remarkable passage with an account of his conflict with the
divine being who fears the dawn and is unwilling to reveal his name. In
a few verses the "wrestling" ('-b -k) of Jacob (_ya'aqob_) is associated
with the Jabbok (_yabboq_); his "striving" explains his name Israel; at
Peniel he sees "the face of God," and when touched on his vulnerable
spot--the hollow of the thigh--he is lamed, hence "the children of
Israel eat not the sinew of the hip which is upon the hollow of the
thigh unto this day" (xxxii. 24-32). Other examples of the fusion of
different features can be readily found. Three divine beings appear to
Abraham at the sacred tree of Hebron, and when the birth of Isaac (from
_sahaq_, "laugh") is foretold, the account of Sarah's behaviour is
merely a popular and trivial story suggested by the child's name (xviii.
12-15; see also xvii. 17, xxi. 6, 9). An extremely fine passage then
describes the patriarch's intercession for Sodom and Gomorrah, and the
narrative passes on to the catastrophe which explains the Dead Sea and
its desert region and has parallels elsewhere (e.g. the Greek legend of
Zeus and Hermes in Phrygia). Lot escapes to Zoar, the name gives rise to
the pun on the "little" city (xix. 20), and his wife, on looking back,
becomes one of those pillars of salt which still invite speculation.
Finally the names of his children Moab and Ammon are explained by an
incident when he is a cave-dweller on a mountain.

  To primitive minds which speculated upon the "why and wherefore" of
  what they saw around them, the narratives of Genesis afforded an
  answer. They preserve, in fact, some of the popular philosophy and
  belief of the Hebrews. They furnish what must have been a satisfactory
  origin of the names Edom, Moab and Ammon, Mahanaim and Succoth,
  Bethel, Beersheba, &c. They explain why Shechem, Bethel and Beersheba
  were ancient sanctuaries (see further below); why the serpent writhes
  along the ground (iii. 14); and why the hip sinew might not be eaten
  (xxxii. 32). To these and a hundred other questions the national and
  tribal stories--of which no doubt only a few have survived, and of
  which other forms, earlier or later, more crude or more refined, were
  doubtless current--furnish an evidently adequate answer. Myth and
  legend, fact and fiction, the common stock of oral tradition, have
  been handed down, and thus constitute one of the most valuable sources
  for popular Hebrew thought.

  The book is not to be judged from any one-sided estimate of its
  contents. By the side of much that seems trivial, and even
  non-moral--for the patriarchs themselves are not saints--it is
  noteworthy how frequently the narratives are didactic. The
  characteristic sense of collective responsibility, which appears more
  incidentally in xx. 7, is treated with striking intensity in a passage
  (xviii. 23-33) which uses the legend of Sodom and Gomorrah as a
  vehicle for the statement of a familiar problem (cf. Ezek. xviii., Ps.
  lxxiii., Job). It will be observed that interviews with divine beings
  presented as little difficulty to the primitive minds of old as to the
  modern native; even the idea of intercourse of supernatural beings
  with mortals (vi. 1-4) is to-day equally intelligible. The modern
  untutored native has a not dissimilar undeveloped and childlike
  attitude towards the divine, a naive theology and a simple cultus. The
  most circumstantial tales are told of imaginary figures, and the most
  incredible details clothe the lives of the historical heroes of the
  past. So abundant is the testimony of modern travellers to the extent
  to which Eastern custom and thought elucidate the interpretation of
  the Bible, that it is very important to notice those features which
  illustrate Genesis. "The Oriental," writes S.I. Curtiss (_Bibl.
  sacra_, Jan. 1901, pp. 103 sqq.), "is least of all a scientific
  historian. He is the prince of story-tellers, narratives, real and
  imaginative, spring from his lips, which are the truest portraiture of
  composite rather than individual Oriental life, though narrated under
  forms of individual experience." There are, therefore, many
  preliminary points which combine to show that the critical student
  cannot isolate the book from Oriental life and thought; its uniqueness
  lies in the manner in which the material has been shaped and the use
  to which it has been put.


  Questions of date.

The Book of Jubilees (not earlier than the 2nd century B.C.) presents
the history in another form. It retains some of the canonical matter,
often with considerable reshaping, omits many details (especially those
to which exception could be taken), and adds much that is novel. The
chronological system of the latest source in Genesis becomes an
elaborate reckoning of heavenly origin. Written under the obvious
influence of later religious aims, it is especially valuable because one
can readily compare the two methods of presenting the old
traditions.[20] There is the same kind of personification, fresh
examples of the "prophetical interpretation of history," and by the side
of the older "primitive" thought are ideas which can only belong to this
later period. In each case we have merely a selection of current
traditional lore. For example, Gen. vi. 1-4 mentions the marriage of
divine beings with the daughters of men and the birth of Nephilim or
giants (cf. Num. xiii. 33). Later allusions to this myth (e.g. Baruch
iii. 26-28, Book of Enoch vi. sqq., 2 Peter ii. 4, &c.) are not based
upon this passage; the fragment itself is all that remains of some more
organic written myth which, as is well-known, has parallels among other
peoples.[21] Old myths underlie the account of the creation and the
garden of Eden, and traces of other versions or forms appear elsewhere
in the Old Testament. Again, the Old Testament throws no light upon the
redemption of Abraham (Is. xxix. 22), although the Targums and other
sources profess to be well-informed. The isolated reference to Jacob's
conquest of Shechem in Gen. xlviii. 22 must have belonged to another
context, and later writings give in a later and thoroughly incredible
form allied traditions. In Hosea xii. 4, Jacob's wrestling is mentioned
before the scene at Bethel (Gen. xxxii. 24 sqq., xxviii. 11 sqq.). The
overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah is described in Genesis (xviii. seq.),
but Hosea refers only to that of Admah and Zeboim (xi. 8, cf. Deut.
xxix. 23, Gen. x. 19)--different versions of the great catastrophe were
doubtless current. Consequently investigation must start with the
particular details which happen to be preserved, and these not
necessarily in their original or in their only form. Since the antiquity
of elements of tradition is independent of the shape in which they
appear before us, a careful distinction must be drawn between those
details which do not admit of being dated or located and those which do.
There is evidence for the existence of the _names_ Abram, Jacob and
Joseph previous to 900 B.C., but this does not prove the antiquity of
the present narratives encircling them. Babylonian tablets of the
creation date from the 7th century B.C., but their contents are many
centuries earlier (viz. the age of Khammurabi), whereas the Phoenician
myths of the origin of things are preserved in a late form by the late
writers Damascius and Philo of Byblus. Gen. xiv., which may preserve
some knowledge of the reign of Khammurabi, is on internal literary
grounds of the post-exilic age, and it is at least a coincidence that
the Babylonian texts, often quoted in support of the genuineness of the
narrative, belong to about the same period and use early Babylonian
history for purely didactic purposes.[22] In general, just as the Book
of Jubilees, while presenting many elements of old tradition, betrays on
decisive internal grounds an age later than Genesis itself, so, in turn,
there is sufficient conclusive evidence that Genesis in its present form
includes older features, but belongs to the age to which (on quite
independent grounds) the rest of the Pentateuch must be ascribed.


  Historical backgrounds.

Popular tradition often ignores events of historical importance, or, as
repeated experience shows, will represent them in such a form that the
true historical kernel could never have been recovered without some
external clue. The absence of definite references to the events of the
Israelite monarchy does not necessarily point to the priority of the
traditions in Genesis or their later date. Nevertheless, some allusion
to national fortunes is reflected in the exaltation of Jacob (Israel)
over Esau (Edom), and in the promise that the latter should break the
yoke from his neck.[23] Israelite kings are foreshadowed (xvii. 6, xxxv.
11, P), and Israel's kingdom has the ideal limits as ascribed to Solomon
(xv. 18, see 1 Kings iv. 21; but cf. art. SOLOMON). Judah is promised a
world-wide king (xlix. 8-10), though elsewhere the supremacy of Joseph
rouses the jealousy of his "brothers" (xxxvii. 8). Different dates and
circles of interest are thus manifest. The cursing and dispersion of
Simeon and Levi (xlix. 5-7) recall the fact that Simeon's cities were in
the territory of Judah (Josh. xix. 1, 9), and that the Levitical priests
are later scattered and commended to the benevolence of the Israelites.
But the curse obviously represents an attitude quite opposed to the
blessing pronounced upon Levi by Moses (Deut. xxxiii. 8-11). The Edomite
genealogies (xxxvi.) represent a more extensive people than the
references in the popular stories suggest, and the latter by no means
indicate that Edom had so important a career as we actually gather from
a few allusions to its kings (xxxvi. 31-39).[24] The references to
Philistines are anachronistic for the pre-Mosaic age, and it is clear
that the tradition of a solemn covenant with a Philistine king and his
general (xxi. 22 seq., xxvi. 26 sqq.) does not belong to the age or the
circle which remembered the grievous oppressions of the Philistines or
felt contempt for these "uncircumcised" enemies of Israel[25]. Finally,
the thread of the tradition unmistakably represents a national unity of
the twelve sons (tribes) of Israel; but this unity was not felt at
certain periods of disorganization, and the idea of including Judah
among the sons of Israel could not have arisen at a time when Israel and
Judah were rival kingdoms.[26] In so far as the traditions can be read
in the light of biblical history it is evident that they belong to
different ages and represent different national, tribal, or local
standpoints.


  Interest in holy places.

Another noteworthy feature is the interest taken in _sacred sites_.
Certain places are distinguished by theophanies or by the erection of an
altar (_lit._ place of sacrificial slaughter), and incidents are
narrated with a very intelligible purpose. _Mizpah_ in Gilead is the
scene of a covenant or treaty between Jacob and his Aramaean relative
commemorated by a pillar (_Massebah_). It was otherwise known for an
annual religious ceremony, the traditional origin of which is related in
the story of Jephthah's vow and sacrifice (Judg. xi.), and its priests
are denounced by Hosea (v. i). _Shechem_, the famous city of the
Samaritans ("the foolish nation," Ecclus. I. 26), where Joseph was
buried (Josh. xxiv. 32), had a sanctuary and a sacred pillar and tree.
It was the scene of the coronation (a religious ceremony) of Abimelech
(Judg. ix.), and Rehoboam (1 Kings xii. 1). The pillar was ascribed to
Joshua (Josh. xxiv. 26 seq.), and although Jacob set up at Shechem an
"altar," the verb suggests that the original object was a pillar (Gen.
xxxiii. 20). The first ancestor of Israel, on the other hand, is merely
associated with a theophany at an oracular tree (xii. 6). The Benjamite
_Bethel_ was especially famous in Israelite religious history. The story
tells how Jacob discovered its sanctity,--it was the gate of
heaven,--made a covenant with its God, established the sacred pillar,
and instituted its tithes (xxviii.). The prophetess Deborah dwelt under
a palm-tree near Bethel (Judg. iv. 5), and her name is also that of the
foster-mother of Rebekah who was buried near Bethel beneath the "oak of
weeping" (xxxv. 8). _Bochim_ ("weeping") elsewhere receives its name
when an angel appeared to the Israelites (Judg. ii. 1, Septuagint adds
Bethel). To the prophets Hosea and Amos the cultus of Bethel was
superstitious and immoral, even though it was Yahweh himself who was
worshipped there (see BETHEL). South of Hebron lay _Beersheba_, an
important centre and place of pilgrimage, with a special numen by whom
oaths were taken (Amos viii. 14, see Sept. and the commentaries). Isaac
built its altar, and Isaac's God guarded Jacob in his journeying (xxxi.
29, xlvi. 1). This patriarch and his "brother" Ishmael are closely
associated with the district south of Judah, both are connected with
_Beer-lahai-roi_ (xxiv. 62, Sept. xxv. 11), whose fountain was the scene
of a theophany (xvi.), and their traditions are thus localized in the
district of Kadesh famous in the events of the Exodus (cf. xvi. 14, xxi.
21, xxv. 18, Ex. xv. 22). (See EXODUS, THE.) Abraham planted a sacred
tree at Beersheba and invoked "the everlasting God" (xxi. 33). But the
patriarch is more closely identified with _Hebron_, which had a
sanctuary (cf. 2 Sam. xv. 7 seq.), and an altar which he built "unto
Yahweh" (xiii. 18). The sacred oak of Mamre was famous in the time of
Josephus (_B. J._ iv. 9, 7), it was later a haunt of "angels" (Sozomen),
and Constantine was obliged to put down the heathenish cultus. The place
still has its holy tree. Beneath the oak there appeared the three divine
beings, and in the cave of Machpelah the illustrious ancestor and his
wife were buried. The story of his descent into Egypt and the plaguing
of Pharaoh is a secondary insertion (xii. 10-xiii. 2), and where the
patriarch appears at Beersheba it is in incidents which tend to connect
him with his "son" Isaac. There is a very distinct tendency to emphasize
the importance of Hebron. Taken from primitive giants by the
non-Israelite clan Caleb (q.v.) it has now become predominant in the
patriarchal traditions. Jacob leaves his dying father at Beersheba
(xxviii. 10), but according to the _latest_ source he returns to him at
Hebron (xxxv. 27), and here, north of Beersheba, he continues to live
(xxxvii. 14, xlvi. 1-5). The cave of Machpelah became the grave of
Isaac, Rebekah and Leah (but not Rachel); and though Jacob appears to
be buried beyond the Jordan, it is the latest source which places his
grave at Hebron (1. i-11 and 12 seq.). So in still later tradition, all
the sons of Jacob with the exception of Joseph find their last
resting-place at Hebron, and in Jewish prayers for the dead it is
besought that their souls may be bound up with those of the patriarchs,
or that they may go to the cave of Machpelah and thence to the
Cherubim.[27] The increasing prominence of the old Calebite locality is
not the least interesting phase in the comparative study of the
patriarchal traditions.

The association of the ancestors of Israel with certain sites is a
feature which finds analogies even in modern Palestine. There are old
centres of cult which have never lost the veneration of the people; the
shrines are known as the tombs of saints or _walis_ (patrons) with such
orthodox names as St George, Elijah, &c. Traditions justify the
reputation for sanctity, and not only are similar stories told of
distinct figures, but there are varying traditions of a single
figure.[28] The places have retained their sacred character despite
political and religious vicissitudes; they are far older than their
present names, and such is the conservatism of the east that it is not
surprising when, for example, a sacred tomb at Gezer stands quite close
to the site of an ancient holy place, about 3000 years old, the
existence of which was first made known in the course of excavation.
Genesis preserves a selection of traditions relating to a few of the old
Palestinian centres of cult. We cannot suppose that these first gained
their sacred character in the pre-Mosaic "patriarchal" age; there is in
any case the obvious difficulty of bridging the gap between the descent
into Egypt and the Exodus, and it is clear that when the Israelites
entered Palestine they came among a people whose religion, tradition and
thought were fully established. It is only in accordance with analogy if
stories were current in Israel of the institution of the sacred places,
and closer study shows that we do not preserve the original version of
these traditions.[29]

A venerated tree in modern Palestine will owe its sanctity to some
tradition, associating it, it may be, with some saint; the Israelites in
their turn held the belief that the sacred tree at Hebron was one
beneath which their first ancestor sat when three divine beings revealed
themselves to him. But it is noteworthy that Yahweh alone is now
prominent; the tradition has been revised, apparently in writing, and,
later, the author of Jubilees (xvi.) ignores the triad. At
Beer-lahai-roi an El ("god") appeared to Hagar, whence the name of her
child Ishmael; but the writer prefers the unambiguous proper name
Yahweh, and, what is more, the divine being is now Yahweh's angel--the
Almighty's subordinate (xvi.). The older traits show themselves partly
in the manifestation of various _Els_, and partly in the cruder
anthropomorphism of the earlier sources. Later hands have by no means
eliminated or modified them altogether, and in xxxi. 53 one can still
perceive that the present text has endeavoured to obscure the older
belief that the God of Abraham was not the God of his "brother" Nahor
(see the commentaries). The sacred pillar erected by Jacob at Bethel was
solemnly anointed with oil, and it (and not the place) was regarded as
the abode of the Deity (xxviii. 18, 22). This agrees with all that is
known of stone-cults, but it is quite obvious that this interesting
example of popular belief is far below the religious ideas of the writer
of the chapter in its present form.[30] There were many places where it
could be said that Yahweh had recorded his name and would bless his
worshippers (Ex. xx. 24). They were abhorrent to the advanced ethical
teaching of prophets and of those imbued with the spirit of Deuteronomy
(cf. 2 Kings xviii. 4 with v. 22), and it is patent from Jeremiah,
Ezekiel and Is. lvi.-lxvi. that even at a late date opinion varied as
to how Yahweh was to be served.[31] It is significant, therefore, that
the narratives in Genesis (apart from P) reflect a certain tolerant
attitude; there is much that is contrary to prophetical thought, but
even the latest compilers have not obliterated all features that, from a
strict standpoint, could appear distasteful. Although the priestly
source shows how the lore could be reshaped, and Jubilees represents
later efforts along similar lines, it is evident that for ordinary
readers the patriarchal traditions could not be presented in an entirely
new form, and that to achieve their aims the writers could not be at
direct variance with current thought.

  It will now be understood why several scholars have sought to recover
  earlier forms of the traditions, the stages through which the material
  has passed, and the place of the earlier forms and stages in the
  history and religion of Israel. These labours are indispensable for
  scientific biblical study, and are most fruitful when they depend upon
  comprehensive methods of research. When, for example, one observes the
  usual forms of hero-cult and the tendency to regard the occupant of
  the modern sacred shrine as the ancestor of his clients, deeper
  significance is attached to the references to the protective care of
  Abraham and Israel (Is. lxiii. 16), or to the motherly sympathy of
  Rachel (Jer. xxxi. 15). And, again, when one perceives the tendency to
  look upon the alleged ancestor or _weli_ as an almost divine being,
  there is much to be said for the view that the patriarchal figures
  were endowed by popular opinion with divine attributes. But here the
  same external evidence warns us that these considerations throw no
  light upon the original significance of the patriarchs. It is
  impossible to recover the earliest traditions from the present
  narratives, and these alone offer sufficiently perplexing
  problems.[32]


  Southern interests.

From a careful survey of all the accessible material it is beyond doubt
that Genesis preserves only a selection of traditions of various ages
and interests, and often not in their original form. We have relatively
little tradition from North Israel; Beersheba, Beer-lahai-roi and Hebron
are more prominent than even Bethel or Shechem, while there are no
stories of Gilgal, Shiloh or Dan. Yet in the nature of the case, there
must have been a great store of local tradition accessible to some
writers and at some periods.[33] Interest is taken not in Phoenicia,
Damascus or the northern tribes, but in the east and south, in Gilead,
Ammon, Moab and Ishmael. Particular attention is paid to Edom and Jacob,
and there is good evidence for a close relationship between Edomite and
allied names and those of South Palestine (including Simeon and Judah).
Especially significant, too, is the interest in traditions which
affected the South of Palestine, that district which is of importance
for the history of Israel in the wilderness and of the Levites.[34] It
is noteworthy, therefore, that while different peoples had their own
theories of their earliest history, the first-born of the first human
pair is Cain, the eponym of the Kenites, and the ancestor of the
beginnings of civilization (iv. 17, 20-22). This "Kenite" version had
its own view of the institution of the worship of Yahweh (iv. 26); it
appears to have ignored the Deluge, and it implies the existence of a
fuller corpus of written tradition. Elsewhere, in the records of the
Exodus, there are traces of specific traditions associated with Kadesh,
Kenites, Caleb and Jerahmeel, and with a movement into Judah, all
originally independent of their present context. Like the prominence of
the traditions of Hebron and its hero Abraham, these features cannot be
merely casual.[35]

  The fact that one is not dealing with literal history complicates the
  question of the nomadic or semi-nomadic life of the Israelite
  ancestors.[36] They are tent-dwellers, shepherds, sojourners (xvii. 8,
  xxiii. 4, xxviii. 4, xxxvi. 7, xxxvii. 1), and we breathe the air of
  the open country. But the impression gained from the narratives is of
  course due to the narrators. The movements of the patriarchs serve
  mainly to connect them with traditions which were originally
  independent. When Abraham separates from Lot he settles in "the land
  of Canaan," while Lot dwells in "the cities of the plain" (xiii. 12).
  Isaac at Beersheba enters into an alliance with the Philistines (xxvi.
  12 sqq.), while Jacob seems to settle at Shechem (xxxiv.), and there
  or at Dothan, a few miles north, his sons pasture their father's flock
  (xxxvii. 12 sqq.).[37] Indeed, according to an isolated fragment Jacob
  conquered Shechem and gave it to Joseph (xlviii. 22), and this
  tradition underlies (and has not given birth to) the late and
  fantastic stories of his warfare (Jub. xxxiv. 1-9, Test. of Judah
  iii.). Judah, also, is represented as settling among the Canaanites
  (xxxviii.), and Simeon marries a Canaanite--according to late
  tradition, a woman of Zephath (xlvi. 10; Jub. xxxiv. 20, xliv. 13; see
  Judg. i. 17). These representations have been subordinated to others,
  in particular to the descent into Egypt of Jacob (Israel) and his
  sons, and the Exodus of the Israelites. But the critical study of
  these events raises very serious historical problems. Abraham's
  grandson, with his family--a mere handful of people--went down into
  Egypt during a famine (cf. Abraham xii. 10, and Isaac xxvi. 1 seq.);
  400 years pass, all memory of which is practically obliterated, and
  the Israelite nation composed of similar subdivisions returns.
  Although the later genealogies from Jacob to Moses allow only four
  generations (cf. Gen. xv. 16), the difficulties are not removed.
  Joseph lived to see the children of Machir (l. 23, note Ex. i. 8),
  though Machir received Gilead from the hands of Moses (Num. xxxii.
  40); Levi descended with Kehath, who became the grandfather of Aaron
  and Moses, while Aaron married a descendant in the fifth generation
  from Judah (Ex. vi. 23). On the other hand the genealogies in 1 Chron.
  ii. sqq. are independent of the Exodus; Ephraim's children raid Gath,
  his daughter founds certain cities, and Manasseh has an Aramaean
  concubine who becomes the mother of Machir (1 Chron. vii. 14,
  20-24).[38] Moreover the whole course of the invasion and settlement
  of Israel (under Joshua) has no real connexion with pre-Mosaic
  patriarchal history. If we reinterpret the history of the _family_ and
  its descent into Egypt, and belittle its increase into a _nation_, and
  if we figure to ourselves a more gradual occupation of Palestine, we
  destroy the entire continuity of history as it was understood by those
  who compiled the biblical history, and we have no evidence for any
  confident reconstruction. With such thoroughness have the compilers
  given effect to their views that only on closer examination is it
  found that even at a relatively late period fundamentally differing
  traditions still existed, and that those which belonged to circles
  which did not recognize the Exodus have been subordinated and adjusted
  by writers to whom this was the profoundest event in their past.[39]


  The Southern nucleus.

That the journey of Jacob-Israel from his Aramaean relatives into
Palestine hints at some pre-Mosaic immigration is possible, but has not
been either proved or disproved. The details point rather to a
reflection of the entrance of the children of Israel, elsewhere ascribed
to the leadership of Joshua (q.v.). Though the latter proceeded to
Gilgal, a variant tradition, now almost lost, seems to have recorded an
immediate journey to Shechem (Deut. xxvii. 1-10, Josh. viii. 30-35)
previous to Joshua's great campaigns (Josh. x. seq., cf. Jacob's wars).
His religious gathering at Shechem before the dismissal of the tribes
finds its parallel in Jacob's reforms before leaving for Bethel (xxiv.;
cf. v. 26, Gen. xxxv. 4). Owing, perhaps, to the locale of the writers,
we hear relatively little of the northern tribes. Judah and Simeon are
the first to conquer their lot, and the "house of Joseph" proceeds south
to Bethel, where the story of the "weeping" at Bochim finds a parallel
in the "oak of weeping" (Gen. xxxv. 8). In Gen. xxxviii. "at that time
Judah went down from his brethren"--in xxxvii. they are at Shechem or
Dothan--and settled among Canaanites, and there is a fragmentary
allusion to a similar alliance of Simeon (xlvi. 10). The trend of the
two series of traditions is too close to be accidental, yet the present
sequence of the narratives in Joshua and Judges associates them with the
Exodus. Further, Jacob's move to Shechem, Bethel and the south is
parallel to that of Abraham, but his history actually represents a
twofold course. On the one hand, he is the Aramaean (Deut. xxvi. 5), the
favourite son of his Aramaean mother. On the other, Rebekah is brought
to Beer-lahai-roi (xxiv.), Jacob belongs to the south and he leaves
Beersheba for his lengthy sojourn beyond the Jordan. His separation from
Esau, the revelation at Bethel, and the new name Israel are recorded
twice, and if the entrance into Palestine reflects one ethnological
tradition, the possibility that his departure from Beersheba reflects
another, finds support (a) in the genealogies which associate the nomad
"father" of the southern clans Caleb and Jerahmeel with Gilead (1 Chron.
ii. 21), and (b) in the hints of an "exodus" from the district of Kadesh
northwards.

The history of an immigration into Palestine from beyond the Jordan
would take various shapes in local tradition. In Genesis it is preserved
from the southern point of view. The northern standpoint appears when
Rachel, mother of Joseph and Benjamin, is the favoured wife in contrast
to the despised Leah, mother of Judah and Simeon; when Joseph is supreme
among his brethren; and when Judah is included among the "sons" of
Israel. It is possible that the application of the traditional
immigration to the history of the tribes is secondary. This at all
events suggests itself when xxxiv. extends to the history of all the
sons, incidents which originally concerned Simeon and Levi alone, and
which may have represented the Shechemite version of a "Levitical"
tradition (see LEVITES). However this may be, it is necessary to account
for the nomadic colouring of the narratives (cf. Meyer, pp. 305, 472)
and the prominence of southern interests, and it would be in accordance
with biblical evidence elsewhere if northern tradition had been taken
over and adapted to the standpoint of the southern members of Israel,
with the incorporation of local tradition which could only have
originated in the south.[40] These and other indications point to a late
date in biblical history. There is a manifest difference between the
religious importance of Shechem in the traditions of Joshua (xxiv.) and
Jacob's reforms when he leaves behind him the heathen symbols before
journeying to the holy site of Bethel (Gen. xxxv. 4). There is even some
polemic against marriage with Shechemites (xxxiv.; more emphatic in Jub.
xxx.), while in the story of the Hebronite Abraham, Bethel itself is
avoided and Shechem is of little significance. Again, the present object
of xxxviii. is to trace the origin of certain Judaean subdivisions after
the death of the wicked Er and Onan. It is purely local and is
interested in Shelah, and more especially in Perez and Zerah, names of
families or clans of the post-exilic age.[41] Elsewhere, in 1 Chron.
ii. and iv., the genealogies represent a Judah composed of clans from
the south (Caleb and Jerahmeel) and of small families or guilds, Shelah
included. It is not the Judah of the monarchy or of the post-exilic
Babylonian-Israelite community. But the mixed elements were ultimately
reckoned among the descendants of Judah, through Hezron the "father" of
Caleb and Jerahmeel, and just as the southern groups finally became
incorporated in Israel, so it is to be observed that although Hebron and
Abraham have gained the first place in the patriarchal history, the
traditions are no longer specifically Calebite, but are part of the
common Israelite heritage.

We are taken to a period in biblical history when, though the historical
sources are almost inexplicably scanty, the narratives of the past were
approaching their present shape. Some time after the fall of Jerusalem
(587 B.C.) there was a movement from the south of Judah northwards to
the vicinity of Jerusalem (Bethlehem, Kirjath-jearim, &c.), where, as
can be gathered from 1 Chron. ii., were congregated Kenite and Rechabite
communities and families of scribes. Names related to those of Edomite
and kindred groups are found in the late genealogies of both Judah and
Benjamin, and recur even among families of the time of Nehemiah.[42] The
same obscure period witnessed the advent of southern families,[43] the
revival of the Davidic dynasty and its mysterious disappearance, the
outbreak of fierce hatred of Edom, the return of exiles from Babylonia,
the separation of Judah from Samaria and the rise of bitter
anti-Samaritan feeling. It closes with the reorganization associated
with Ezra and Nehemiah and the compilation of the historical books in
practically their present form. It contains diverse interests and
changing standpoints by which it is possible to explain the presence of
purely southern tradition, the southern treatment of national history,
and the antipathy to northern claims. As has already been mentioned, the
specifically southern writings have everywhere been modified or adjusted
to other standpoints, or have been almost entirely subordinated, and it
is noteworthy, therefore, that in narratives elsewhere which reflect
rivalries and conflicts among the priestly families, there is sometimes
an animus against those whose names and traditions point to a southern
origin (see LEVITES).


  Summary.

Thus the book of Genesis represents the result of efforts to systematize
the earliest history, and to make it a worthy prelude to the Mosaic
legislation which formed the charter of Judaism as it was established in
or about the 5th century B.C. It goes back to traditions of the most
varied character, whose tone was originally more in accord with earlier
religion and thought. Though these have been made more edifying, they
have not lost their charm and interest. The latest source, it is true,
is without their freshness and life, but it is a matter for thankfulness
that the simple compilers were conservative, and have neither presented
a work entirely on the lines of P, nor rewritten their material as was
done by the author of Jubilees and by Josephus. It is obvious that from
Jubilees alone it would have been impossible to conceive the form which
the traditions had taken a few centuries previously--viz. in Genesis.
Also, from P alone it would have been equally impossible to recover the
non-priestly forms. But while there is no immeasurable gulf between the
canonical book of Genesis and Jubilees, the internal study of the former
reveals traces of earlier traditions most profoundly different as
regards thought and contents. It is not otherwise when one looks below
the traditional history elsewhere (e.g. Samuel, Kings). An explanation
may be found in the vicissitudes of the age. The movement from the
south, which seems to account for a considerable cycle of the
patriarchal traditions, belongs to the age after the downfall of the
Israelite and (later) the Judaean monarchies when there were vital
political and social changes. The removal of prominent inhabitants, by
Assyria and later by Babylonia, the introduction of colonists from
distant lands, and the movements of restless tribes around Palestine
were more fatal to the continuity of trustworthy tradition than to the
persistence of popular thought. New conditions arose as the population
was reorganized, a new Israel claimed to be the heirs of the past (cf.
e.g. the Samaritans, Ezr. iv. 2, Joseph. _Antiq_. ix. 14, 3; xi. 8,
6), and not until after these vicissitudes did the book of Genesis begin
to assume its present shape.[44] (See JEWS; PALESTINE: _History_.)

  The above pages handle only the more important details for the study
  of a book which, as regards contents and literary history, cannot be
  separated from the series to which it forms the introduction. As
  regards the literary-critical problems it is clear that with the
  elimination of P we have the sources (minor adjustment and revision
  excepted) which were accessible to the last compiler in the
  post-exilic age. Most critics have inclined to date these sources (J
  and E) as early as possible, whereas the admitted presence of
  secondary and of relatively late passages (e.g. xviii. 22 sqq., J;
  xxii., E) shows that one must work back from the sources as known in
  P's age, and that one can rely only upon those criteria which can be
  approximately dated. It is usual to regard the more primitive
  character of J and E as a mark of antiquity; but this ignores the
  regular survival of primitive modes of thought and of popular
  tradition outside more cultured circles. It is also recognized that J
  and E are non-prophetical and non-Deuteronomic, but it has not been
  proved that the present J and E are earlier than the prophets or the
  Deuteronomic reforms of Josiah (2 Kings xxii. seq.). J and E are
  linguistically almost identical (in contrast to P), and differ from P
  in features which are often not of chronological but of sociological
  significance (e.g. the mentality of the writers). Their language is
  without some of the phenomena found in narratives which emanate from
  the north (e.g. Judges v., stories of Elijah and Elisha), and their
  stylistic variations may be, as Gunkel suggests, the mark of a
  district or region; for this district one would look in the
  neighbourhood of Jerusalem. The conclusion that P's narratives and
  laws in the Pentateuch are post-exilic was found by biblical scholars
  to be a necessary correction to the original hypothesis of Graf (1866)
  that P's _narratives_ were to be retained (with J and E) at an early
  date. This view was influenced by the close connexion between the
  subject-matter, J, E and P representing the same trend of tradition.
  But by still ascribing J and E as written sources to about the 9th or
  8th century (individual opinion varies), many difficulties and
  inconsistencies are involved. The present J and E reflect a reshaping
  and readjustment of earlier tradition which is found elsewhere, and
  the suggestion that they are not far removed from the age of the
  priestly writers and redactors does not conflict with what is known of
  language, forms of religious thought, or tendencies of tradition. We
  reach thus approximately the age when post-Deuteronomic editors were
  able to utilize such records as Judg. i., xvii. sqq., 2 Sam. ix.-xx.
  (see JUDGES; SAMUEL, BOOKS OF), which are equally valuable as
  specimens of current thought and of written tradition. In conclusion,
  the tendency of criticism has been to recognize "schools" of J and E
  extending into the exile, thus making the three sources J, E and P
  more nearly contemporaneous. The most recent conservative authority
  also inclines to a similar contemporaneity ("collaboration" or
  "co-operation"), but at an impossibly early date (J. Orr, _Problem of
  the O. T_., 1905, pp. 216, 345, 354, 375 seq., 527). By admitting
  possible revision in the post-exilic age (pp. 226, 369, 375 seq.), the
  conservative theory recalls the old legend that Ezra rewrote the Old
  Testament (2 Esd. xiv.) and thus restored the Law which had been lost;
  a view which, through the early Christian Fathers, gained currency and
  has enjoyed a certain popularity to the present day. But when once
  revision or rewriting is conceded, there is absolutely no guarantee
  that the present Pentateuch is in any way identical with the five
  books which tradition ascribed to Moses (q.v.), and the necessity for
  a comprehensive critical investigation of the _present_ contents makes
  itself felt.[45]

  LITERATURE.--Only a few of the numerous works can be mentioned. Of
  those written from a conservative or traditional standpoint the most
  notable are: W.H. Green's _Unity of Genesis_ (1895); and J. Orr,
  _Problem of the O. T_. (which is nevertheless a great advance upon
  earlier non-critical literature). S.R. Driver's commentary
  (_Westminster Series_) deals thoroughly with all preliminary problems
  of criticism, and is the best for the ordinary reader; that of A.
  Dillmann (6th ed.; Eng. trans.) is more technical, that of W.H.
  Bennett (_Century Bible_) is more concise and popular. G.J. Spurrell,
  Notes on the Text of Genesis, and C.J. Ball (in Haupt's _Sacred Books
  of the O. T_.) appeal to Hebrew students. W.E. Addis, _Documents of
  the Hexateuch_, Carpenter and Harford-Battersby, _The Hexateuch_, and
  C.F. Kent, _Beginnings of Hebrew History_, are more important for the
  literary analysis. J. Wellhausen's sketch in his _Proleg. to Hist. of
  Israel_ (Eng. trans., pp. 259-342) is admirable, as also is the
  general Introduction (trans. by W.H. Carruth, 1907) to H. Gunkel's
  valuable commentary. Of recent works bearing upon the subject-matter
  reference may be made to J.P. Peters, _Early Hebrew Story_ (1904),
  A.R. Gordon, _Early Traditions of Genesis_ (1907), and T.K. Cheyne,
  _Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel_ (1907). Special mention
  must be made of Eduard Meyer and B. Luther, to whose _Die Israëliten
  und ihre Nachbarstämme_ (1906) the present writer is indebted for many
  valuable suggestions and hints. Fuller bibliographical information
  will be found in the works already mentioned, in the articles in the
  _Ency. Bib_. (G.F. Moore), and Hastings's _Dict_. (G.A. Smith), and in
  the volume by J. Skinner in the elaborate and encyclopaedic
  _International Critical Series_.     (S. A. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The abrupt introduction of a small poem (iv. 23 seq.) was long
    ago regarded as due to the use of separate sources (so the Calvinist
    Isaac de la Peyrère, 1654).

  [2] The divergences of detail, with corresponding stylistic
    variations, were recognized long ago (e.g. by Father Simon in 1682).

  [3] As early as 1685 Jean le Clerc observed that Ur of the Chaldees
    (_Chasdim_) in xi. 28 anticipates _Chesed_ in xxii. 22, and implied
    some knowledge of the land of the Chaldaeans (cf. Ezek. i. 3, xi.
    24).

  [4] The Catholic priest Andrew du Maes (1570) already pointed to the
    names Hebron and Dan as signs of post-Mosaic date.

  [5] Note the repetitions in vv. 2 and 3; Abraham's faith, vv. 4-6,
    and his request, v. 8; contrast the time of day, v. 5 and v. 12, and
    the dates, v. 13 and v. 16. In vv. 12-15 there is a reference to the
    bondage in Egypt.

  [6] These and other chronological embarrassments, now recognized as
    due to the framework of the post-exilic writer (P), have long been
    observed--by Spinoza, 1671.

  [7] Points of resemblance in xxiii. with Babylonian usage have often
    been exaggerated; comparison "shows noteworthy differences" (T.G.
    Pinches, _The Old Testament_, p. 238); see Carpenter and
    Harford-Battersby, _Hexateuch_, i. 64, Driver, Gen. p. 230, and
    _Addenda_.

  [8] Note, e.g., the sudden introduction of xxix. 15, the curious
    position of v. 24 (due to P), the double play upon the names Zebulun
    and Joseph, xxx. 20, 23 seq., the internal intricacies in the
    agreement, _ib._ vv. 31-43; the difficulties in the reference to the
    latter in xxxi. 6 sqq. (especially v. 10).

  [9] See Ed. Meyer (and B. Luther), _Die Israëliten und ihre
    Nachbarstämme_ (1906), pp. 238 sqq.; also the shrewd remarks of C.T.
    Beke, _Origines biblicae_ (1834), pp. 123 sqq.

  [10] It is interesting to find that the Spanish Rabbi Isaac (of
    Toledo, A.D. 982-1057), noticing that the royal list must be later
    than the time of Saul (also recognized by Martin Luther and others),
    proposed to assign the chapter to the age of Jehoshaphat.

  [11] But the chronology is hopeless, and only ten years are allowed
    according to another and later scheme (xxv. 26, xxxv. 28, xlvii. 9).

  [12] Cf. the account of the Israelites in Egypt, where they are in
    Goshen, unaffected by the plagues (Ex. viii. 22, ix. 26), or,
    according to another view, are living in the midst of the Egyptians
    (e.g. xii. 23).

  [13] V. 7 breaks the context; there is repetition in vv. 10b and 13b;
    interchange of the names Jacob and Israel; v. 12 suggests a blessing
    upon Joseph himself; and with vv. 15 seq. (the blessing of the sons,
    not of Joseph), contrast vv. 20 sqq. (the singular "in thee," v. 20).

  [14] Only the more noticeable peculiarities have been mentioned in
    the preceding columns.

  [15] On the course of modern criticism and on the various sources: P,
    J (Judaean or Yahwist), E (Ephraimite or Elohist), see BIBLE (_Old
    Test. Criticism_). The passages usually assigned to P in Genesis are:
    i. 1-ii. 4a; v. 1-28, 30-32; vi. 9-22; vii. 6 (and parts of 7-9), 11,
    13-16a, 18-21, 24; viii. 1-2a, 3b-5, 13a, 14-19; ix. 1-17, 28-29; x.
    1-7, 20, 22-23, 31-32; xi. 10-27, 31-32; xii. 4b-5; xiii. 6, 11b-12a;
    xvi. 1a, 3, 15-16; xvii.; xix. 29; xxi. 1b, 2b-5; xxiii.; xxv. 7-11a,
    12-17, 19-20, 26b; xxvi. 34-35; xxvii. 46-xxviii. 9; xxix. 24, 28b,
    29; xxxi. 18b; xxxiii. 18a; xxxiv. 1-2a, 4, 6, 8-10, 13-18, 20-24,
    part of 25, 27-29; xxxv. 9-13, 15, 22b-29; xxxvi. (in the main);
    xxxvii. 1-2a; xli. 46; xlvi. 6-27; xlvii. 5-6a, 7-11, 27b-28; xlviii.
    3-7; xlix. 1a, 28b-33, l. 12-13.

  [16] See on this, especially, S.R. Driver's _Genesis_ in the
    "Westminster Commentaries" (seventh ed., 1909).

  [17] The above is typical of modern biblical criticism which is
    compelled to recognize the human element (and can thus have no a
    priori preconceptions in approaching the Old Testament), but at the
    same time reveals ever more decisively the presence of purifying
    influences, without which the records of Israel would have had no
    permanent interest or value. They thus gain a new value which cannot
    be impaired when it is realized that their significance is quite
    independent of their origins.

  [18] See the remarks of W.R. Smith, _Eng. Hist. Rev._ (1888), pp. 128
    seq. (from the sociological side), and for general considerations,
    A.A. Bevan, _Crit. Rev._ (1893), pp. 138 sqq.; S.R. Driver,
    _Genesis_, pp. xliii. sqq.

  [19] Cf. Amos i. 11; 1 Chron. ii. iv. (note iv. 10), the Book of
    Jubilees (see above), and also Arabian usage (W.R. Smith, _Kinship
    and Marriage_, ch. i.). For modern examples, see E. Littmann,
    _Orient. Stud. Theodor Nöldeke_ (ed. Bezold, 1906), pp. 942-958.

  [20] The Book of Jubilees also enables the student to test the
    arguments based upon any study restricted to Genesis alone. Thus it
    shows that the "primitive" features of Genesis afford a criterion
    which is sociological rather than chronological. This is often
    ignored. For example, the conveyance of the field of Machpelah
    (xxiii.) is conspicuous for the absence of any reference to a written
    contract in contrast to the "business" methods in Jer. xxxii. This
    does not prove that Gen. xxiii. is early, because writing was used in
    Palestine about 1400 B.C., and, on the other hand, the more simple
    forms of agreement are still familiar after the time of Jeremiah
    (e.g. Ruth, Proverbs). Similarly, no safe argument can be based upon
    the institution of blood-revenge in Gen. iv., when one observes the
    undeveloped conditions among the Trachonites of the time of Herod the
    Great (Josephus, Ant. xvi. 9, 1), or the varying usages among modern
    tribes.

  [21] On the Jewish forms, see R.H. Charles, _Book of Jubilees_
    (1902), pp. 33 seq.

  [22] A.H. Sayce, _Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl. Arch._ (1907), pp.
    13-17.

  [23] xxvii. 27-29, 39 seq. This is significantly altered in the later
    writings (Jub. xxvi. 34 and the Targums). It is worth noticing that
    in Jub. xxvi. 35 a new turn is given to Gen. xxvii. 41 by changing
    Isaac's approaching death (which raises serious difficulties in the
    history of Jacob) into Esau's wish that it may soon come.

  [24] See E. Meyer (and B. Luther), _Die Israëliten und ihre
    Nachbarstämme_ (1906), pp. 386-389, 442-446.

  [25] See PHILISTINES. The covenant with Abimelech may be compared
    with the friendship between David and Achish (1 Sam. xxvii.), who is
    actually called Abimelech in the heading of Ps. xxxiv. (see 1 Sam.
    xxi. 10). If this is a mistake (and not a variant tradition) it is a
    very remarkable one. The treatment of the covenant by the author of
    Jubilees (xxiv. 28 sqq.), on the other hand, is only intelligible
    when one recalls the attitude of Judah to the Philistine cities in
    the 2nd century B.C.; see R.H. Charles, ad loc.

  [26] In 2 Sam. xix. 43 (original text) the men of Israel claim to be
    the first-born rather than Judah; cf. 1 Chron. v. 1 seq., where the
    birthright (after Reuben was degraded) is explicitly conferred upon
    Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh).

  [27] Cf. Josephus, _Antiq._ ii. 8, 2; _Test. of xii. Patriarchs_;
    Acts vii. 16 (where Shechem is an error); Oesterley and Box,
    _Religion and Worship of the Synagogue_, pp. 340 seq.; M.G. Dampier,
    in _Church and Synagogue_ (1909), p. 78.

  [28] See J.P. Peters, _Early Heb. Story_ (1904), pp. 81 sqq.; S.A.
    Cook, _Relig. of Anc. Palestine_ (1908), pp. 19 sqq.

  [29] In like manner the Babylonian story of the flood has been
    revised and adapted to the Hebrew Noah (cf. _Nippur, ad fin._).

  [30] The writer in Jub. xxvii. 27 treats the pillar as a "sign."
    Another useful example of revision is to be found in Josh. xxii.,
    where what was regarded (by a reviser) as an object unworthy of the
    religion of Yahweh is now merely commemorative.

  [31] For popular religious thought and practice (often described as
    pre-prophetical, though non-prophetical would be a safer term), see
    HEBREW RELIGION.

  [32] Among recent efforts to find and explain mythical elements, see
    especially Stucken, _Astralmythen_: H. Winckler, _Geschichte
    Israëls_, vol. ii.; and P. Jensen, _Das Gilgamesch-Epos in der
    Weltlitteratur_.

  [33] Again the analogy of the modern East is instructive. Especially
    interesting are the traditions associating the same figure or
    incident with widely separated localities.

  [34] See EXODUS, THE; LEVITES. On this feature see Luther and Meyer,
    _op. cit._ pp. 158 seq., 227 sqq., 259, 279, 305, 386, 443. Their
    researches on this subject are indispensable for a critical study of
    Genesis.

  [35] The notion of an Eve (_hawwah_, "serpent") as the first woman
    may be conjecturally associated with (a) the frequent traditions of
    the serpent-origin of clans, and (b) with evidence which seems to
    connect the Levites and allied families with some kind of
    serpent-cult (see Meyer, op. cit. pp. 116, 426 seq., 443, and art.
    SERPENT-WORSHIP). The account of mankind as it now reads (ii. seq.)
    is in several respects less primitive (contrast vi. 1 seq.), and the
    present story of Cain and his murder of Abel really places the former
    in an unfavourable light.

  [36] See the discussion between B.D. Eerdmans and G.A. Smith in the
    _Expositor_ (Aug.-Oct. 1908), and the former's _Alttest. Studien_,
    ii. (1908), _passim._

  [37] xxxiv. (note v. 9) indicates a possible alliance with
    Shechemites, and xxxv. 4 (taken literally) implies a residence long
    enough for a religious reform to be necessary. Yet the present aim of
    the narratives is to link together the traditions and emphasize
    Jacob's return from Laban to his dying father (xxviii. 21; xxxi. 3,
    13, 18; xxxii. 9; xxxv. 1, 27).

  [38] Cf. Benjamin's descendants in 1 Chron. viii. 6 seq. and see on
    the naive and primitive character of these traditions, Kittel,
    comment. ad loc.

  [39] That there are traditions in Genesis which do not form the
    prelude to Exodus is very generally recognized by those who agree
    that the Israelites after entering Palestine took over some of the
    indigenous lore (whether from the Canaanites or from a presumed
    earlier layer of Israelites). This adoption of native tradition by
    new settlers, however, cannot be confined to any single period. See
    further, Luther and Meyer, op. cit. pp. 108, 110, 156, 227 seq., 254
    seq., 414 seq., 433; on traditions related to the descent into Egypt,
    _ib._ 122 sqq., 151 seq., 260; and on the story of Joseph (ch. xxxv.,
    xxxvii. sqq.), as an independent cycle used to form a connecting
    link, Luther, _ib._ pp. 142-154.

  [40] Cf. the late "Deuteronomic" form of Judges where a hero of
    Kenizzite origin (and therefore closely connected with Caleb) stands
    at the head of the Israelite "judges"; also, from another aspect, the
    specifically Judaean and anti-Israelite treatment of the history of
    the monarchy. But in each case the feature belongs to a relatively
    late stage in the literary history of the books; see JUDGES; SAMUEL,
    BOOKS OF; KINGS.

  [41] Mahalalel (son of Kenan, another form of Cain, v. 12) is also a
    prominent ancestor in Perez (Neh. xi. 4), and Zerah claimed the
    renowned sages of Solomon's day (1 Chron. ii. 6, 1 Kings iv. 31). The
    story implies that Perez surpassed his "brother" clan Zerah (xxxviii.
    27-30), and in fact Perez is ultimately reckoned the head of the
    Judaean subdivisions (1 Chron. ii. 4 sqq.), and thus is the reputed
    ancestor of the Davidic dynasty (Ruth iv. 12, 18 sqq.).

    The sympathies of these traditions are as suggestive as their
    presence in the canonical history, which, it must be remembered,
    ultimately passed through the hands of Judaean compilers.

  [42] Neh. iii. 9, 14; see Meyer, pp. 300, 430; S.A. Cook, _Critical
    Notes on O. T. History_, p. 58 n. 2. While the evidence points to an
    early close relationship among S. Palestinian groups (Edom, Ishmael,
    &c.; cf. Meyer, p. 446), there are many allusions to subsequent
    treacherous attacks which made Edom execrable. Here again biblical
    criticism cannot at present determine precisely when or precisely why
    the changed attitude began; see EDOM; JEWS, §§ 20, 22.

  [43] Although the movement reflected in 1 Chron. ii. is scarcely
    pre-exilic, yet naturally there had always been a close relation
    between Judah and the south, as the Assyrian inscriptions of the
    latter part of the 8th century B.C. indicate.

  [44] The south of Palestine, if less disturbed by these changes, may
    well have had access to older authoritative material.

  [45] For Orr's other concessions bearing upon Genesis, see _op.
    cit_., pp. 9 seq., 87, 93, and (on J, E, P) 196, 335, 340. These,
    like the concessions of other apologetic writers, far outweigh the
    often hypercritical, irrelevant, and superficial objections brought
    against the literary and historical criticism of Genesis.



GENET, typically a south European carnivorous mammal referable to the
_Viverridae_ or family of civets, but also taken to include several
allied species from Africa. The true genet (_Genetta vulgaris_ or
_Genetta genetta_) occurs throughout the south of Europe and in
Palestine, as well as North Africa. The fur is of a dark-grey colour,
thickly spotted with black, and having a dark streak along the back,
while the tail, which is nearly as long as the body, is ringed with
black and white. The genet is rare in the south of France, but commoner
in Spain, where it frequents the banks of streams, and feeds on small
mammals and birds. It differs from the true civets in that the anal
pouch is a mere depression, and contains only a faint trace of the
highly characteristic odour of the former. In south-western Europe and
North Africa it is sought for its soft and beautifully spotted fur. In
some parts of Europe, the genet, which is easily tamed, is kept like a
cat for destroying mice and other vermin.

[Illustration: The Genet (_Genetta vulgaris_).]



GENEVA, a city of Ontario county, New York, U.S.A., at the N. end of
Seneca Lake, about 52 m. S.E. of Rochester. Pop. (1890) 7557; (1900)
10,433 (of whom 1916 were foreign-born); (1910 census) 12,446. It is
served by the New York Central & Hudson River, and the Lehigh Valley
railways, and by the Cayuga & Seneca Canal. It is an attractively built
city, and has good mineral springs. Malt, tinware, flour and grist-mill
products, boilers, stoves and ranges, optical supplies, wall-paper,
cereals, canned goods, cutlery, tin cans and wagons are manufactured,
and there are also extensive nurseries. The total value of the factory
product in 1905 was $4,951,964, an increase of 82.3% since 1900. Geneva
has a public library, a city hospital and hygienic institute. It is the
seat of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and of Hobart
College (non-sectarian), which was first planned in 1812, was founded in
1822 (the majority of its incorporators being members of the Protestant
Episcopal church) as successor to Geneva Academy, received a full
charter as Geneva College in 1825, and was renamed Hobart Free College
in 1852 and Hobart College in 1860, in honour of Bishop John Henry
Hobart. The college had in 1908-1909 107 students, 21 instructors, and a
library of 50,000 volumes and 15,000 pamphlets. A co-ordinate woman's
college, the William Smith school for women, opened in 1908, was endowed
in 1906 by William Smith of Geneva, who at the same time provided for a
Hall of Science and for further instruction in science, especially in
biology and psychology. In 1888 the Smith Observatory was built at
Geneva, being maintained by William Smith, and placed in charge of Dr
William Robert Brooks, professor of astronomy in Hobart College. The
municipality owns its water-supply system. Geneva was first settled
about 1787 almost on the site of the Indian village of Kanadasega, which
was destroyed in 1779 during Gen. John Sullivan's expedition against the
Indians in western New York. It was chartered as a city in 1898.



GENEVA (Fr. _Genève_, Ger. _Genf_, Ital. _Ginevra_, Late Lat. _Gebenna_,
though _Genava_ in good Latin), a city and canton of Switzerland,
situated at the extreme south-west corner both of the country and of the
Lake of Geneva or Lake Leman. The canton is, save Zug, the smallest in
the Swiss Confederation, while the city, long the most populous in the
land, is now surpassed by Zürich and by Basel.


  The canton.

The canton has an area of 108.9 sq. m., of which 88.5 sq. m. are classed
as "productive" (forests covering 9.9 sq. m. and vineyards 6.8 sq. m.,
the rest being cultivated land). Of the "unproductive" 20.3 sq. m., 11½
are accounted for by that portion of the Lake of Geneva which belongs to
the canton. It is entirely surrounded by French territory (the
department of Haute Savoie lying to the south, and that of the Ain to
the west and the north), save for about 3½ m. on the extreme north,
where it borders on the Swiss canton of Vaud. The Rhone flows through it
from east to west, and then along its south-west edge, the total length
of the river in or within the canton being about 13 m., as it is very
sinuous. The turbid Arve is by far its largest tributary (left), and
flows from the snows of the chain of Mont Blanc, the only other affluent
of any size being the London (right). Market gardens, orchards, and
vineyards occupy a large proportion of the soil (outside the city), the
apparent fertility of which is largely due to the unremitting industry
of the inhabitants. In 1901 there were 6586 cows, 3881 horses, 2468
swine and 2048 bee-hives in the canton. Besides building materials, such
as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton
is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and
asphalt. The broad-gauge railways in the canton have a length of 18¾ m.,
and include bits of the main lines towards Paris and Lausanne (for Bern
or the Simplon), while there are also 72¾ m. of electric tramways. The
canton was admitted into the Swiss Confederation in 1815 only, and ranks
as the junior of the 22 cantons. In 1815-1816 it was created by adding
to the old territory belonging to the city (just around it, with the
outlying districts of Jussy, Genthod, Satigny and Cartigny) 16 communes
(to the south and east, including Carouge and Chêne) ceded by Savoy, and
6 communes (to the north, including Versoix), cut off from the French
district of Gex.


  Statistics of canton and city.

In 1900 there were, not counting the city, 27,813 inhabitants in the
canton, or, including the city, 132,609, the city alone having thus a
population of 104,796. (In the following statistics those for the city
are enclosed within brackets.) In 1900 this population was thus divided
in point of religion: Romanists, 67,162 (49,965), Protestants, 62,400
(52,121), and Jews 1119 (1081). In point of language 109,741 (84,259)
were French-speaking, 13,343 (12,004) German-speaking, and 7345 (6574)
Italian-speaking, while there were also 89 (76) Romonsch-speaking
persons. More remarkable are the results as to nationality: 43,550
(31,607) were Genevese citizens, and 36,415 (30,582) Swiss citizens of
other cantons. Of the 52,644 (42,607) foreigners, there were 34,277
(26,018) French, 10,211 (9126) Italians, 4653 (4283) subjects of the
German empire, 583 (468) British subjects, 832 (777) Russians, and 285
(251) citizens of the United States of America. In the canton there were
10,821 (5683) inhabited houses, while the number of separate households
was 35,450 (28,621). Two points as to these statistics deserve to be
noted. The number of foreign residents is steadily rising, for in 1900
there were only 79,965 (62,189) Swiss in all as against 52,644 (42,607)
foreigners. One result of this foreign immigration, particularly from
France and Italy, has been the rapid increase of Romanists, who now form
the majority in the canton, while in the city they were still slightly
less numerous than the Protestants in 1900; later (local) statistics
give in the Canton 75,400 Romanists to 64,200 Protestants, and in the
city 52,638 Romanists to 51,221 Protestants. Geneva has always been a
favourite residence of foreigners, though few can ever have expected to
hear that the "protestant Rome" has now a Romanist majority as regards
its inhabitants. Galiffe (_Genève hist. et archéolog_.) estimates the
population in 1356 at 5800, and in 1404 at 6490, in both cases within
the fortifications. In 1536 the old city acquired the outlying districts
mentioned above, as well as the suburb of St Gervais on the right bank
of the Rhone, so that in 1545 the number is given as 12,500, reduced by
1572 to 11,000. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) it
rose, by 1698, to 16,934. Thenceforward the progress was fairly steady:
18,500 (1711); 24,712 (1782); 26,140 (1789). After the creation of the
canton (1815) the numbers were (those for the city are enclosed within
brackets) 48,489 (25,289), the city rising in 1837 to 33,714, and in
1843 to 36,452. The result of the Federal censuses (begun in 1850) are
as follows: in 1850, 64,146 (42,127); in 1860, 82,876 (59,826); in 1870,
88,791 (65,606); in 1880, 99,712 (76,197), and in 1888, 105,509
(81,407).


  Government.

The canton comprises 3 administrative districts: the 13 communes on the
right bank and the 34 on the left bank each form one, while the city
proper, on both sides of the river, forms one district and one commune.
From 1815 to 1842 the city and the cantonal government was the same. But
at that date the city obtained its independence, and is now ruled by a
town council of 41 members, and an executive of 5 members, the election
in each case being made direct by the citizens, and the term of office
being 4 years. The existing cantonal constitution dates, in most of its
main features, from 1847. The legislature or _Grand Conseil_ (now
composed of 100 members) is elected (in the proportion of 1 member for
every 1000 inhabitants or fraction over 500) for 3 years by a direct
popular vote, subject (since 1892) to the principles of proportional
representation, while the executive or _conseil d'état_ (7 members) is
elected (no proportional representation) by a popular vote for 3 years.
By the latest enactments (one dating from 1905) 2500 citizens can claim
a vote ("facultative referendum") as to any legislative project, or can
exercise the "right of initiative" as to any such project or as to the
revision of the cantonal constitution. The canton sends 2 members
(elected by a popular vote) to the Federal _Ständerath_, and 7 to the
Federal _Nationalrath_.


  Religion.

The Consistory rules the Established Protestant Church, and is now
composed of 31 members, 25 being laymen and 6 (formerly 15) clerics,
while the "venerable company of pastors" (pastors actually holding
cures) has greatly lost its former importance and can now only submit
proposals to the Consistory. The Christian Catholic Church is also
"established" at Geneva (since 1873) and is governed by the _conseil
supérieur_, composed of 25 lay members and 5 clerics. No other religious
denominations are "established" at Geneva. But the Romanists (who form
13% of the electors) are steadily growing in numbers and in influence,
while the Christian Catholics are losing ground rapidly, the highest
number of votes received by a candidate for the _conseil supérieur_
having fallen from 2003 in 1874 to 806 in 1890 and 507 in 1906, while
they are abandoning the country churches (some were lost as early as
1892) which they had taken from the Romanists in the course of the
_Kulturkampf_.


  Industry.

The fairs of Geneva (held 4 times a year) are mentioned as early as
1262, and attained the height of their prosperity about 1450, but
declined after Louis XI.'s grants of 1462-1463 in favour of the fairs of
Lyons. Among the chief articles brought to these fairs (which were
largely frequented by Italian, French and Swiss merchants) were cloth,
silk, armour, groceries, wine, timber and salt, this last coming mainly
from Provence. The manufacturers of Geneva formed in 1487 no fewer than
38 gilds, including tailors, hatters, mercers, weavers, tanners,
saddle-makers, furriers, shoe-makers, painters on glass, &c. Goldsmiths
are mentioned as early as 1290. Printing was introduced in 1478 by
Steinschaber of Schweinfurth, and flourished much in the 16th century,
though the rigorous supervision exercised by the Consistory greatly
hampered the Estiennes (Stephanus) in their enterprises. Nowadays the
best known industry at Geneva is that of watchmaking, which was
introduced in 1587 by Charles Cusin of Autun, and two years later
regulations as to the trade were issued. In 1685 there were in Geneva
100 master watchmakers, employing 300 work-people, who turned out 5000
pieces a year, while in 1760 this trade employed 4000 work-people. Of
recent years its prosperity has diminished greatly, so that the
watchmaking and jewelry trades in 1902 numbered respectively but 38 and
32 of the 394 establishments in Geneva which were subject to the factory
laws. Lately, huge establishments have been constructed for the
utilization of the power contained in the Rhone. The local commerce of
Geneva is much aided by the fact that the city is nearly entirely
surrounded by "free zones," in which no customs duties are levied,
though the districts are politically French: this privilege was given to
Gex in 1814, and to the Savoyard districts in 1860, when they were also
neutralized.


  Celebrities.

Considering the small size of Geneva, till recently, it is surprising
how many celebrated persons have been connected with it as natives or as
residents. Here are a few of the principal, special articles being
devoted to many of them in this work. In the 16th century, besides
Calvin and Bonivard, we have Isaac Casaubon, the scholar; Robert and
Henri Estienne, the printers, and, from 1572 to 1574, Joseph Scaliger
himself, though but for a short time. J.J. Rousseau is, of course, the
great Genevese of the 18th century. At that period, and in the 19th
century, Geneva was a centre of light, especially in the case of various
of the physical sciences. Among the scientific celebrities were de
Saussure, the most many-sided of all; de Candolle and Boissier, the
botanists; Alphonse Favre and Necker, the geologists; Marignac, the
chemist; Deluc, the physicist, and Plantamour, the astronomer. Charles
Bonnet was both a scientific man and a philosopher, while Amiel belonged
to the latter class only. Pradier and Chaponnière, the sculptors;
Arlaud, Diday and Calame, the artists; Mallet, who revealed Scandinavia
to the literary world; Necker, the minister; Sismondi, the historian of
the Italian republics; General Dufour, author of the great survey which
bears the name of the "Dufour Map," have each a niche in the Temple of
Fame. Of a less severe type were Cherbuliez, the novelist; Töpffer, who
spread a taste for pedestrianism among Swiss youth; Duchosal, the poet;
Marc Monnier, the littérateur; not to mention the names of any persons
still living, or of politicians of any date.


  The city and its buildings.

The city of Geneva is situated at the south-western extremity of the
beautiful lake of the same name, whence the "arrowy Rhone" flows
westwards under the seven bridges by which the two halves of the town
communicate with each other. To the south is the valley of the Arve
(descending from the snows of the Mont Blanc chain), which unites with
that of the Rhone a little below the town; while behind the Arve the
grey and barren rocks of the Petit Salève rise like a wall, which in
turn is overtopped by the distant and ethereal snows of Mont Blanc. Yet
the actual site of the town is not as picturesque as that of several
other spots in Switzerland. Though the cathedral crowns the hillock
round which clusters the old part of the town, a large portion of the
newer town is built on the alluvial flats on either bank of the Rhone.
Since the demolition of the fortifications in 1849 the town has extended
in every direction, and particularly on the right bank of the Rhone. It
possesses many edifices, public and private, which are handsome or
elegant, but it has almost nothing to which the memory reverts as a
masterpiece of architectural art. It is possible that this is, in part,
due to the artistic blight of the Calvinism which so long dominated the
town. But, while lacking the medieval appearance of Fribourg or Bern, or
Sion or Coire, the great number of modern fine buildings in Geneva,
hotels, villas, &c., gives it an air of prosperity and comfort that
attracts many visitors, though on others modern French architecture
produces a blinding glare. On the other hand, there are broad quays
along the river, while public gardens afford grateful shade.

The cathedral (Protestant) of St Pierre is the finest of the older
buildings in the city, but is a second-rate building, though as E.A.
Freeman remarks, "it is an excellent example of a small cathedral of its
own style and plan, with unusually little later alteration." The hillock
on which it rises was no doubt the site of earlier churches, but the
present Transitional building dates only from the 12th and 13th
centuries, while its portico was built in the 18th century, after the
model of the Pantheon at Rome. It contains a few sepulchral monuments,
removed from the cloisters (pulled down in 1721), and a fine modern
organ, but the historical old bell _La Clémence_ has been replaced by a
newer and larger one which bears the same name. More interesting than
the church itself is the adjoining chapel of the Maccabees, built in the
15th century, and recently restored. Near the cathedral are the arsenal
(now housing the historical museum, in which are preserved many relics
of the "Escalade" of 1602, including the famous ladders), and the maison
de ville or town hall. The latter building is first mentioned in 1448,
but most of the present building dates from far later times, though the
quaint paved spiral pathway (taking the place of a staircase in the
interior) was made in the middle of the 16th century. In the _Salle du
Conseil d'État_ some curious 15th-century frescoes have lately been
discovered, while the old Salle des Festins is now known as the Salle de
l'Alabama, in memory of the arbitration tribunal of 1872. In the
15th-century Tour Baudet, adjoining the Town Hall, are preserved the
rich archives of the city. Not far away is the palais de justice, built
in 1709 as a hospital, but used as a court house since 1858. On the Île
in the Rhone stands the tower (built c. 1219) of the old castle
belonging to the bishop. Among the modern buildings we may mention the
following: the University (founded in 1559, but raised to the rank of a
University in 1873 only), the Athénée, the Conservatoire de Musique, the
Victoria Hall (a concert hall, presented in 1904 to the city by Mr
Barton, formerly H.B.M.'s Consul), the theatre, the Salle de la
Réformation (for religious lectures and popular concerts), the Bâtiment
Electoral, the Russian church and the new post office. At present the
museums of various kinds at Geneva are widely dispersed, but a huge new
building in course of construction (1906) will ultimately house most of
them. The Musée Rath contains pictures and sculptures; the Musée Fol,
antiquities of various dates; the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, _inter
alia_, a fine collection of prints; the Musée Industriel, industrial
objects and models; the Musée Archéologique, prehistoric and
archaeological remains; the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle, scientific
collections; and the Musée Epigraphique, a considerable number of
inscriptions. Some way out of the town is the Musée Ariana (extensive
art collections), left, with a fine park, in 1890 to the city by a rich
citizen, Gustave Revilliod. The public library is in the university
buildings and contains many valuable MSS. and printed books. Geneva
boasts also of a fine observatory and of a number of technical schools
(watchmaking, chemistry, medicine, commerce, fine arts, &c.), some of
which are really annexes of the university, which in June 1906 was
attended by 1158 matriculated students, of whom 903 were non-Swiss, the
Russians (475 in number) forming the majority of the foreign students.
Geneva is well supplied with charitable institutions, hospitals, &c.
Among other remarkable sights of the city may be mentioned the great
hydraulic establishment (built 1882-1899) of the _Forces Motrices du
Rhône_ (turbines), the singular monument set up to the memory of the
late duke of Brunswick who left his fortune to the city in 1873, and the
Île Jean-Jacques Rousseau now connected with the Pont des Bergues. The
house occupied by Rousseau is No. 40 in the Grand' Rue, while No. 13 in
the same street is on the site of Calvin's house, though not the actual
dwelling inhabited by him.


  History.

The real name of the city is _Genava_, that being the form under which
it appears in almost all the known documents up to the 7th century,
A.D., the variation _Genua_ (which has led to great confusion with
Genoa) being also found in the 6th century. But _Geneva_ and _Gebenna_
are of later date. The first mention of the city is made by Caesar
(_Bell. Galli_. i. 6-7) who tells us that it was the last _oppidum_ of
the Allobroges, and the nearest to the territory of the Helvetii, with
which it was connected by a bridge that, for military reasons, he was
forced to destroy. Inscriptions of later date state that it was only a
_vicus_ of the Viennese province, while mentioning the fact that a gild
of boatmen flourished there. But the many Roman remains found on the
original site (in the region of the cathedral) of the city show that it
must have been of some importance, and that it possessed a considerable
commerce. About 400 the _Notitia Galliarum_ calls it a _civitas_ (so
that it then had a municipal administration of its own), and reckons it
as first among those of the Viennese. Probably this rise in dignity was
connected with the establishment of a bishop's see there, the first
bishop certainly known, Isaac, being heard of about 400 in a letter
addressed by St Eucherius to Salvius, while, in 450, a letter of St Leo
states that the see was then a suffragan of the archbishopric of Vienne.
It is possible that there may be some ground for the local tradition
that Christianity was introduced into this region by Dionysius and
Paracodus, who successively occupied the see of Vienne, but another
tradition that the first bishop was named St Nazarius rests on a
confusion, as that saint belongs to Genoa and not to Geneva.

About the middle of the 5th century A.D. it came into the possession of
the Burgundians, who held it as late as 527 (thus leaving no room for
any occupation by the Ostrogoths), and in 534 passed into the hands of
the Franks. The Burgundian kings seem to have made Geneva one of their
principal residences, and the _Notitia_ (above named) tells us that the
city was _restaurata_ by King Gundibald (d. 516) which is generally
supposed to mean that he first surrounded it with a wall, the city then
comprising little more than the hill on which the present cathedral
stands. That building is of course of much later date, but it seems
certain that when (c. 513-516) Sigismund, son of King Gundibald, built a
stone church on the site, it took the place of an earlier wooden church,
constructed on Roman foundations, all three layers being clearly visible
at the present day. We know that St Avitus, archbishop of Vienne (d.
518), preached a sermon (preserved to us) at the dedication of a church
at Geneva which had been built on the site of one burnt by the enemy,
and the bits of half-burnt wood found in the second of the two layers
mentioned above, seem to make it probable that the reference is to
Sigismund's church. But Geneva was in no sense one of the great cities
of the region, though it is mentioned in the _Antonine Itinerary_ and in
the _Peutinger Table_ (both 4th century A.D.), no doubt owing to its
important position on the bank of the Rhone, which then rose to the foot
of the hill on which the original city stood. This is no doubt the
reason why, apart from some passing allusions (for instance, Charles the
Great held a council of war there in 773, on his first journey to
Italy), we hear very little about it.

In 1032, with the rest of the kingdom of Burgundy or Arles, it reverted
to the emperor Conrad II., who was crowned king at Payerne in 1033, and
in 1034 was recognized as such at Geneva by a great assembly of nobles
from Germany, Burgundy and Italy, this rather unwilling surrender
signifying the union of those 3 kingdoms. It is said that Conrad
granted the temporal sovereignty of the city to the bishop, who, in
1162, was raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, being
elected, from 1215, by the chapter, but, after 1418, named directly by
the pope himself.

Like many other prince-bishops, the ruler of Geneva had to defend his
rights: without against powerful neighbours, and within against the
rising power of the citizens. These struggles constitute the entire
political history of Geneva up to about 1535, when a new epoch of unrest
opens with the adoption of Protestantism. The first foe without was the
family of the counts of the Genevois (the region south of the city and
in the neighbourhood of Annecy), who were also "protectors" (_advocati_)
of the church of Geneva, and are first heard of in the 11th and 12th
centuries. Their influence was probably never stronger than during the
rule as bishop (1118-1119) of Guy, the brother of the reigning count.
But his successor, Humbert de Grammont, resumed the grants made to the
count, and in 1125 by the Accord of Seyssel, the count fully
acknowledged the suzerainty of the bishop. A fresh struggle under Bishop
Ardutius (1135-1185) ended in the confirmation by Frederick Barbarossa,
as emperor, of the position of the bishop as subject to no one but
himself (1153), this declaration being strengthened by the elevation of
the bishop and his successors to the rank of princes of the empire
(1162).

In 1250 the counts of Savoy first appear in connexion with Geneva, being
mortgagees of the Genevois family, and, in 1263, practically their heirs
as "protectors" of the city. It was thus natural that the citizens
should invoke the aid of Savoy against their bishop, Robert of the
Genevois (1276-1287). But Count Amadeus of Savoy not merely seized
(1287) the castle built by the bishops (about 1219) on the Île, but also
(1288) the office of _vicedominus_ [_vidomne_], the official through
whom the bishop exercised his minor judicial rights. The new bishop,
William of Conflans (1287-1295) could recover neither, and in 1290 had
to formally recognize the position of Savoy (which was thus legalized)
in his own cathedral city. It was during this struggle that about 1287
(these privileges were finally sanctioned by the bishop in 1300) the
citizens organized themselves into a commune or corporation, elected 4
syndics, and showed their independent position by causing a seal for the
city to be prepared. The bishop was thus threatened on two sides by foes
of whom the influence was rising, and against whom his struggles were of
no avail. In 1365 the count obtained from the emperor the office of
imperial vicar over Geneva, but the next bishop William of Marcossay
(1366-1377: he began the construction of a new wall round the greatly
extended city, a process not completed till 1428) secured the withdrawal
of this usurpation (1366-1367), which the count finally renounced
(1371). One of that bishop's successors, Adhémar Fabri (1385-1388)
codified and confirmed all the franchises, rights and privileges of the
citizens (1387), this grant being the _Magna Carta_ of the city of
Geneva. In 1401 Amadeus VIII. of Savoy bought the county of the
Genevois, as the dynasty of its rulers had become extinct. Geneva was
now surrounded on all sides by the dominions of the house of Savoy.

Amadeus did homage, in 1405, to the bishop for those of the newly
acquired lands which he held from the bishop. But, after his power had
been strengthened by his elevation (1417) by the emperor to the rank of
a duke, and by his succession to the principality of Piedmont (1418,
long held by a cadet branch of his house), Amadeus tried to purchase
Geneva from its bishop, John of Pierre-Scisé or Rochetaillée
(1418-1422). This offer was refused both by the bishop and by the
citizens, while in 1420 the emperor Sigismund declared that he alone was
the suzerain of the city, and forbade any one to attack it or harm it in
any fashion. Oddly enough Amadeus did in the end get hold of the city,
for, having been elected pope under the name of Felix V., he named
himself to the vacant see of Geneva (1444), and kept it, after his
resignation of the Papacy in 1449, till his death in 1451. For the most
part of this period he resided in Geneva. From 1451 to 1522 the see was
almost continuously held by a cadet of the house of Savoy, which thus
treated it as a kind of appange.

Most probably Geneva would soon have become an integral part of the
realms of the house of Savoy had it not been for the appearance of a new
protector on the scene--the Swiss confederation. In the early 15th
century the town of Fribourg made an alliance with Geneva for commercial
purposes (the cloth warehouses of Fribourg at Geneva being enlarged in
1432 and 1465), as the cloth manufactured at Fribourg found a market in
the fairs of Geneva (which are mentioned as early as 1262, and were at
the height of their prosperity about 1450). The duke, however, was no
better inclined towards the Swiss than towards Geneva. He struck a blow
at both, when, in 1462-1463, he induced his son-in-law, Louis XI. of
France, to forbid French merchants to attend the fairs of Geneva,
altering also the days of the fairs at Lyons (established in 1420 and
increased in number in 1463) so as to make them clash with those fixed
for the fairs of Geneva. This nearly ruined Geneva, which, too, in 1477
had to pay a large indemnity to the Swiss army that, after the defeat of
Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, advanced to take vengeance on the
dominions of his ally, Yolande, dowager duchess of Savoy and sister of
Louis XI., as well as on the bishop of Geneva, her brother-in-law. But,
after this payment, the bishop made an alliance with the Swiss. A
prolonged attempt was made (1517-1530) by the reigning duke of Savoy,
Charles III. (1504-1553), to secure Geneva for his family, at first with
the help of his bastard cousin John (1513-1522), the last of his house
to hold the see. In this struggle the syndic, Philibert Berthelier,
succeeded in concluding (1519) an alliance with Fribourg, which,
however, had to be given up almost immediately. It split the citizens
into two parties; the _Eidgenots_ relying on the Swiss, while the
_Mamelus_ (mamelukes) supported the duke. Berthelier was executed in
1519, and Amé Lévrier in 1524, but Bezanson Hugues (d. 1532) took their
place, and in 1526 succeeded in renewing the alliance with Fribourg and
adding to it one with Bern. This much enraged the duke, who took active
steps against the citizens, and tried (1527) to carry off the bishop,
Pierre de la Baume (1522-1544), who soon found it best to make his
submission.

The Genevese, thus abandoned by their natural protector, looked to the
Swiss for help. They sent (October 1530) a considerable army to save the
city. This armed intervention compelled the duke to sign the treaty of
St Julien (19th October) by which he engaged not to trouble the Genevese
any more, agreeing that if he did so the two towns of Fribourg and Bern
should have the right to occupy his barony of Vaud. The two towns also,
by the decision given as arbitrators at Payerne (30th December 1530),
upheld their alliance with Geneva, condemned the duke to pay all the
expenses of the war, and confirmed the clause as to their right to
occupy Vaud; they also surrounding the exercise of the powers of
_vidomne_ by the duke with so many restrictions that in 1532 the duke,
after much resistance, formally agreed to recognize the alliance of
Geneva with the two towns and not to annoy the Genevese any more. Thus a
legal tie between Geneva and two of the Swiss cantons was established,
while the duke did not any longer venture to annoy the Genevese, as he
clung to his fine barony of Vaud. In the course of this struggle (and
especially after the last episcopal _vidomne_ had left the town in 1526)
the municipal authorities of the city greatly developed, a _grand
conseil_ of 200 members being set up in imitation of those at Bern and
at Fribourg, while within the larger assembly there was a _petit
conseil_ of 60 members for more confidential business. Thus 1530 marks
the date at which Geneva became its own mistress within, while allied
externally with the Swiss confederation. But hardly had this settlement
been reached when a fresh element of discord threatened to wholly upset
matters--the adoption of Protestant principles by the city. Just before
this event, however, the fortifications were once more (1534) rebuilt
(bits still remain) and extended so as to take in several new suburbs,
including that of St Gervais on the right bank of the Rhone which, till
then, seems to have been unenclosed (1511-1527).

In 1532 William Farel, a Protestant preacher from Dauphiné, who had
converted Vaud, &c. to the new belief, first came to Geneva and settled
there in 1533. But although Bern supported the Reform, Fribourg did
not, and in 1534 withdrew from its alliance with Geneva, while directly
afterwards the duke of Savoy made a fresh attempt to seize the city. On
the 10th of August 1535 the Protestant faith was formally adopted by
Geneva, but an offer of help from France having been refused, as the
city was unwilling to give up any of its sovereign rights, the duke's
party continued its intrigues. Finally Bern, fearing that Geneva might
fall to France instead of to itself, sent an army to protect the city
(January 1536), but, not being able to persuade the citizens to give up
their freedom, had to content itself with the conquest of the barony of
Vaud and of the bishopric of Lausanne, thus acquiring rich territories,
while becoming close neighbours of Geneva (January and March 1536).
Meanwhile Farel had been advancing the cause of religious reform, which
was definitively adopted on the 21st of May 1536. In July 1536 a French
refugee, John Calvin (q.v.), came to Geneva for a night, but was
detained by Farel who found in him a powerful helper. The opposition
party of the _Libertins_ succeeded in getting them both exiled in 1538,
but, in September 1541, Calvin was recalled (Farel spending the rest of
his life at Neuchâtel, where he died 1565) to Geneva. Born in 1509, he
was then about 32 years of age. He set up this theocracy in Geneva, and
ruled the reorganized republic with a strong hand till his death in
1564, when he was succeeded by the milder Théodore de Beza (1519-1605).

The great blot on Calvin's rule was his intolerance of other thinkers,
as exemplified by his burning of Gruet (1547) and of Servetus (1553).
But, on the other hand, he founded (1559) the Academy, which, originally
meant as a seminary for his preachers, later greatly extended its scope,
and in 1873 assumed the rank of a University. The strict rule of Calvin
drove out many old Genevese families, while he caused to be received as
citizens many French, Italian and English refugees, so that Geneva
became not merely the "Protestant Rome" but also quite a cosmopolitan
little city. The Bernese often interfered with the internal affairs of
Geneva (while Calvin, a Frenchman, naturally looked towards France), and
refused to allow the city to conclude any alliances save with itself.
That alliance was finally renewed in 1558, while in 1560 the Romanist
cantons made one with the duke of Savoy, a zealous supporter of the old
faith. In 1564, after long negotiations, Bern restored to the duke part
of its conquests of 1536, viz. Gex, the Genevois and the Chablais,
Geneva being thus once more placed amid the dominions of the duke;
though by the same treaty (that of Lausanne, October 1564, Calvin having
died the preceding May) the alliance of Bern with Geneva was maintained.
In 1579 Geneva was included in the alliance concluded by France with
Bern and Soleure, while in 1584 Zürich joined Bern in another alliance
with Geneva. The struggle widened as Geneva became a pawn in the great
attempt of the duke of Savoy to bring back his subjects to the old
faith, his efforts being seconded by François de Sales, the "apostle of
the Chablais." But the king of France, for political reasons, opposed
Savoy, with whom, however, he made peace in 1601. In December 1602
François de Sales was consecrated bishop of Geneva (since 1535 the
bishops had lived at Annecy), and a few days later the duke of Savoy
made a final attempt to get hold of the city by a surprise attack in the
night of 11-12th December 1602 (Old Style), known in history as the
"Escalade," as ladders were used to scale the city walls. It was
successfully repelled, over 200 of the foe being slain, while 17
Genevese only perished. Filled with joy at their rescue from this
attack, the citizens crowded to their cathedral, where Beza (then 83
years of age) bid them to sing the 124th Psalm which has ever since been
sung on the anniversary of this great delivery. The peace of St Julien
(21st of July 1603) marked the final defeat of the duke of Savoy in the
long struggle waged (since 1290) by his house against the city of
Geneva.

In the charter of 1387 we hear only of the _conseil général_ (composed
of all male heads of families) which acted as the legislature, and
elected annually the executive of 4 syndics; no doubt this form of rule
existed earlier than 1387. Even before 1387 there was also the _petit
conseil_ or _conseil ordinaire_ or _conseil étroit_, a body not
recognized by the law, though it became very powerful; it was composed
of the 4 syndics, with several other counsellors, and acted originally
as the adviser of the syndics who were legally responsible for the rule
of the city. In 1457 we first hear of the Council of the Fifty
(re-established in 1502 and later known as the Sixty), and in 1526 of
the Council of the Two Hundred (established in imitation of those of
Bern and Fribourg), both being summoned in special cases of urgency. The
members of both were named by the _petit conseil_, of which, in turn,
the members were confirmed or not by the Two Hundred. By the
Constitution of 1543 the _conseil général_ had only the right of
choosing the 4 syndics out of a list of 8 presented by the _petit
conseil_ and the Two Hundred, which therefore really elected them,
subject to a formal approbation on the part of the larger body. This
system was slightly modified in 1568, the constitution of that date
lasting till 1794. The _conseil général_ fell more and more into the
background, the members of the other councils gradually obtained the
privilege of being irremovable, and the system of co-optation resulted
in the creation of a close monopoly of political offices in the hands of
a few leading families.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, while the Romanist majority of the
Swiss cantons steadily refused to accept Geneva as even a subordinate
member of the Confederation, the city itself was distracted on several
occasions by attempts of the citizens, as a whole, to gain some share in
the aristocratic government of the town, though these attempts were only
partially successful. But the last half of the 18th century marks the
most brilliant period in the literary history of Geneva, whether as
regards natives or resident foreigners, while in the succeeding half
century the number of Genevese scientific celebrities is remarkable. In
1794 the effects of the French Revolution were shown in the more liberal
constitution granted by the city government. But in 1798 the city was
annexed to France and became the capital of the French department of
Léman (to be carefully distinguished from the Swiss _canton_ of Léman,
that is Vaud, of the Helvetic Republic, also set up in 1798), while in
1802, by the Concordat, the ancient bishopric of Geneva was suppressed.
On the fall of Napoleon (1813) the city recovered its independence, and
finally, in 1815, was received as the junior member of the Swiss
confederation, several bits of French and Savoyard territory (as pointed
out above) being added to the narrow bounds of the old Genevese Republic
in order to give the town some protection against its non-Swiss
neighbours.

The constitution of 1814 set up a common form of government for the city
and the canton, the city not obtaining its municipal independence till
the constitution of 1842. From 1535 to 1798 public worship according to
the Romanist form had been strictly forbidden. In 1799 already the first
attempts were made to reestablish it, and in 1803 the church of St
Germain was handed over to the Romanists. The constitution of 1814,
looking forward to the annexation of Romanist districts to the city
territory to form the new canton, guaranteed to that body the freedom of
worship, at any rate in these newly gained districts. In 1819 the canton
(the new portions of which were inhabited mainly by Romanists) was
annexed to the bishopric of Lausanne, the bishop in 1821 being
authorized to add "and of Geneva" to his episcopal style. After the
adventure of the "Escalade" the fortifications were once more
strengthened and extended, these works being completed about 1726. But,
in 1822, some of the bastions were converted into promenades, while in
1849 the rest of the fortifications were pulled down so as to allow the
city to expand and gradually assume its present aspect.

When Geneva recovered its political independence in 1814 a new
constitution was drawn up, but it was very reactionary, for there is no
mention in it of the sovereignty of the people. It set up a _conseil
représentatif_ or legislature of 250 members, which named the _conseil
d'état_ or executive, while it was itself elected by a limited class,
for the electoral qualification was the annual payment of direct taxes
to the amount of 20 Swiss livres or about 23 shillings. It was not till
1842 that this system, though much criticized, was modified. In the
early part of 1841 the "Third of March Association" was formed to watch
over the interests of the citizens, and in November of that year the
government was forced by a popular demonstration to summon an _assemblée
constituante_, which in 1842 elaborated a new constitution that was
accepted by the citizens. Besides bestowing on the city a government
distinct from that of the canton, it set up for the latter a _grand
conseil_ or legislature, and a conseil _d'état_ or executive of 13
members, both elected for the term of 4 years. But this constitution did
not seem liberal enough to many citizens, so that in 1846 the government
gave way to the Radicals, led by James Fazy (1794-1878), who drew up a
constitution that was accepted by a popular vote on the 21st of May
1847. It was much more advanced than that of 1842, and in its main
features still prevails. From that date till 1864 the Radicals ruled the
state, their head, Fazy, being an able man, though extravagant and
inclined to absolutism. Under his sway the town was modernized and
developed, but the finances were badly administered, and Fazy became
more and more a radical dictator. "On voudrait faire de Genève," sighed
the conservative, de la Rive, "la plus petite des grandes villes, et
pour moi je préfère qu'elle reste la plus grande des petites villes." In
1861 and in 1864 Fazy failed to secure his re-election to the _conseil
d'état_, riots followed his defeat, and the Federal troops were forced
to intervene so as to restore order.

The Democratic party (liberal-conservative) ruled from 1865 to 1870, and
did much to improve the finances of the state. In 1870 the Radicals
regained the supremacy under their new chief, Antoine Carteret
(1813-1889) and kept it till 1878. This was a period of religious
strife, due to the irritation caused by the Vatican council, and the
pope's attempt to revive the bishopric of Geneva. Gaspard Mermillod
(1824-1891) was named in 1864 _curé_ of Geneva, and made bishop of
Hebron _in partibus_, acting as the helper of the bishop of Lausanne.
Early in 1873 the pope named him "vicar apostolic of Geneva," but he was
expelled a few weeks later from Switzerland, not returning till 1883,
when he became bishop of Lausanne, being made cardinal in 1890. The
Radical government enacted severe laws as to the Romanists in Geneva,
and gave privileges to the Christian Catholic Church, which, organized
in 1874 in Switzerland, had absorbed the community founded at Geneva by
Père Hyacinthe, an ex-Carmelite friar. The Romanists therefore were no
longer recognized by the state, and were persecuted in divers ways,
though the tide afterwards turned in their favour. The Democrats ruled
from 1878 to 1880, and introduced the "Referendum" (1879) into the
cantonal constitution, but, their policy of the separation of church and
state having been rejected by the people at a vote, they gave way to the
Radicals. The Radicals went out in 1889, and the Democrats held the
reins of power till 1897, their leader being Gustave Ador. In 1891 they
introduced the "Initiative" into the cantonal constitution, and in 1892
the principle of proportional representation so far as regards the
_grand conseil_, while Th. Turrettini did much to increase the
economical prosperity of the city. In 1897 the Radicals came in again,
their leaders being first Georges Favon (1843-1902) till his death, and
then Henri Fazy, a distant relative of James and an excellent historian.
They attempted to rule by aid of the Socialists, but their power
fluctuated as the demands of the Socialists became greater. On the 30th
of June 1907 the Genevese, by a popular vote, decided on the separation
of Church and State.

  AUTHORITIES.--D. Baud-Bovy, _Peintres genevois, 1702-1807_ (2 vols.,
  Geneva, 1903-1904); J.T. de Belloc, _Le Cardinal Mermillod_ (Fribourg,
  1892): M. Besson, Recherches _sur les origines des évêchés de Genève,
  Lausanne et Sion_ (Fribourg, 1906); J.D. Blavignac, Armorial genevois
  (Geneva, 1849), and _Études sur Genève depuis l'antiquité jusqu'à nos
  jours_ (2 vols., Geneva, 1872-1874); Fr. Bonivard, _Chroniques de
  Genève_ (Reprint) (2 vols., Geneva, 1867); F. Borel, _Les Foires de
  Genève au XV^e siècle_ (Geneva, 1892); Ch. Borgeaud, _Histoire de
  l'université de Genève, 1559-1798_ (Geneva, 1900); E. Choisy, _La
  Théocratie à Genève au temps de Calvin_ (Geneva, 1898), and _L'État
  chrétien Calviniste à Genève au temps de Théodore de Bèze_ (Geneva,
  1902); F. de Crue, _La Guerre féodale de Genève et l'établissement de
  la Commune, 1205-1320_ (Geneva, 1907); H. Denkinger, _Histoire
  populaire du canton de Genève_ (Geneva, 1905); E. Doumergue, _La
  Genève Calviniste_ (containing a minute topographical description of
  16th-century Geneva, and forming vol. iii. of the author's _Jean
  Calvin_) (Lausanne, 1905); E. Dunant, _Les Relations politiques de
  Genève avec Berne et les Suisses, de 1536 à 1564_ (Geneva, 1894);
  _Documents de l'Escalade de Genève_ (Geneva, 1903); G. Fatio and F.
  Boissonnas, _La Campagne genevoise d'après nature_ (Geneva, 1899), and
  _Genève à travers les siècles_ (Geneva, 1900); H. Fazy, _Histoire de
  Genève à l'époque de l'Escalade, 1598-1603_ (Geneva, 1902), and _Les
  Constitutions de la République de Genève_ (to 1847) (Geneva, 1890);
  J.B.G. Galiffe, _Genève historique et archéologique_ (2 vols., Geneva,
  1869-1872); J.A. Gautier, _Histoire de Genève_ (to 1691) (6 vols.,
  1896-1903); F. Gribble and J.H. and M.H. Lewis, _Geneva_ (London,
  1908); J. Jullien, Histoire de Genève (new ed.; Geneva, 1889); C.
  Martin, _La Maison de Ville de Genève_ (Geneva, 1906); _Mémoires et
  documents_ (publ. by the local Historical Society since 1821); F.
  Mugnier, _Les Évêques de Genève-Annecy, 1535-1870_ (Paris, 1888);
  _Pierre de Genève, St_ (monograph on the cathedral), 4 parts (Geneva,
  1891-1899); A. de Montet, _Dictionnaire biographique des Genevois,
  &c._ (2 vols., Lausanne, 1878); C.L. Perrin, _Les Vieux Quartiers de
  Genève_ (Geneva, 1904); A. Pfleghart, _Die schweizerische
  Uhrenindustrie_ (Leipzig, 1908); _Régeste genevois avant 1312_
  (Geneva, 1866); _Registres du conseil de Genève_, vols. i. and ii.,
  1409-1477 (Geneva, 1900-1906); A. Roget, _Histoire du peuple de Genève
  depuis la Réforme jusqu'à l'Escalade_ (7 vols., from 1536-1568;
  Geneva, 1870-1883); A. Rilliet, _Le Rétablissement du Catholicisme à
  Genève il y a deux siècles_ (Geneva, 1880); P. Vaucher, _Luttes de
  Genève contre la Savoie_, 1517-1530 (Geneva, 1889); _Recueil
  généalogique suisse (Genève)_ (2 vols., Geneva, 1902-1907).
       (W. A. B. C.)



GENEVA CONVENTION, an international agreement for the purpose of
improving the condition of wounded soldiers of armies in the field,
originally adopted at an international conference held at Geneva,
Switzerland, in 1864, and afterwards replaced by the convention of July
6, 1906, also adopted at Geneva. This later agreement is the one now
known as the Geneva Convention. The conference of 1864 was the result of
a movement which sprang from the publication in 1862 of a book entitled
_Un Souvenir de Solférino_ by Henri Dunant, a Genevese philanthropist,
in which he described the sufferings of the wounded at the battle of
Solférino with such vivid effect that the subject became forthwith one
of public interest. It was energetically taken up by M. Gustave Moynier,
whose agitation led to an unofficial congress being held at Geneva in
October 1863. This was followed by an official one at Geneva, called by
the Swiss government in 1864. The convention which was there signed
(22nd August 1864) on behalf of the states represented, afterwards
received the adherence of every civilized power.

At a second conference on the same subject, held at Geneva in 1868, a
supplementary convention was drawn up, consisting of fourteen additional
articles, five of which related to war on land and nine to naval
warfare. The additional articles were not, however, ratified by the
chief states, and never became operative. The Brussels International
Conference (1874) for the codification of the law and customs of war
occupied itself with the Geneva Convention and again drew up a number of
articles which were submitted to the interested governments. But, as in
the case of the additional articles of 1868, no effect was ever given to
them.

At the Peace Conference of 1899 Great Britain withdrew her objections to
the application of the convention to maritime warfare, and agreed to the
adoption of a special convention "adapting to Maritime warfare the
principles of the Geneva Convention." A _voeu_ was also adopted by the
conference expressing the wish that a special conference should be held
as soon as possible for the purpose of revising the convention of 1864.

In deference to the above _voeu_ the Swiss government in 1901 sounded
the other parties to the convention of 1864 as to whether the time had
not come to call the proposed special conference, but the replies
received did not give much encouragement and the matter was dropped for
the time being. By a circular note of the 17th of February 1903, the
Swiss government invited all the states which had signed or adhered to
the Geneva Convention to send representatives to a conference to be held
at Geneva in the following September. Some governments did not accept
the invitation in time and the conference had to be postponed. At the
beginning of 1904, there being no apparent obstacle, the Swiss
government again invited the powers to send delegates to a conference in
the following May. Meanwhile war broke out between Russia and Japan and
there was again an adjournment. At length in March 1906 an invitation
was accepted by thirty-five states, only Turkey, Salvador, Bolivia,
Venezuela, Nicaragua and Colombia abstaining and the conference was
held at Geneva in July 1906, when a full revised convention was adopted,
which now takes the place of that of 1864.[1] The adoption of the new
Geneva Convention entailed a revision of the above-mentioned Hague
Convention and a new edition of the latter is one of the documents
adopted at the Peace Conference of 1907.

The new Geneva Convention consists of thirty-three articles divided into
the following chapters, (i.) the wounded and sick; (ii.) medical units
and establishments; (iii.) personnel; (iv.) material; (v.) convoys of
evacuation; (vi.) the distinctive emblem; (vii.) application and
carrying out of the Convention; (viii.) prevention of abuses and
infractions; (ix.) general provisions.

The essential parts of the new Hague Convention of 1907 (18th of
October) adapting the above conventions to maritime warfare as follows:
(N.B. The alterations are in italics. The parts of the older convention
of 1899 which have been suppressed are in brackets).

  i. Military hospital-ships, that is to say, ships constructed or
  assigned by states specially and solely for the purpose of assisting
  the wounded, sick or shipwrecked, and the names of which shall have
  been communicated to the belligerent powers at the commencement or
  during the course of hostilities, and in any case before they are
  employed, shall be respected and cannot be captured while hostilities
  last.

  These ships, moreover, are not on the same footing as men-of-war as
  regards their stay in a neutral port.

  ii. Hospital-ships, equipped wholly or in part at the cost of private
  individuals or officially-recognized Relief Societies, shall likewise
  be respected and exempt from capture, provided the belligerent power
  to whom they belong has given them an official commission and has
  notified their names to the hostile power at the commencement of or
  during hostilities, and in any case before they are employed.

  These ships should be furnished with a certificate from the competent
  authorities, declaring that they had been under their control while
  fitting out and on final departure.

  iii. Hospital-ships, equipped wholly or in part at the cost of private
  individuals or officially-recognized Societies of neutral countries
  shall be respected and exempt from capture [if the neutral power to
  whom they belong has given them an official commission and notified
  their names to the belligerent powers at the commencement of or during
  hostilities, and in any case before they are employed] _on condition
  that they are placed under the orders of one of the belligerents, with
  the previous consent of their own Government and with the
  authorization of the belligerent, and on condition that the latter
  shall have notified their names to the enemy at the commencement or
  during the course of hostilities, in any event, before they are
  employed._

  iv. The ships mentioned in Articles i., ii. and iii. shall afford
  relief and assistance to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked of the
  belligerents independently of their nationality.

  The governments engage not to use these ships for any military
  purpose.

  These ships must not in any way hamper the movements of the
  combatants.

  During and after an engagement they will act at their own risk and
  peril.

  The belligerents will have the right to control and visit them; they
  can refuse to help them, order them off, make them take a certain
  course, and put a commissioner on board; they can even detain them, if
  important circumstances require it.

  As far as possible the belligerents shall inscribe in the sailing
  papers of the hospital-ships the orders they give them.

  v. The military hospital-ships shall be distinguished by being painted
  white outside with a horizontal band of green about a metre and a half
  in breadth.

  The ships mentioned in Articles ii. and iii. shall be distinguished by
  being painted white outside with a horizontal band of red about a
  metre and a half in breadth.

  The boats of the ships above mentioned, as also small craft which may
  be used for hospital work, shall be distinguished by similar painting.

  All hospital-ships shall make themselves known by hoisting, together
  with their national flag, the white flag with a red cross provided by
  the Geneva Convention, _and, in addition, if they belong to a neutral
  State, by hoisting on the mainmast the national flag of the
  belligerent under whose direction they are placed._

  _Hospital-ships which, under the terms of Article iv., are detained
  by the enemy, must lower the national flag of the belligerent under
  whom they were acting._

  _The above-mentioned vessels and boats, desiring at night-time to
  ensure the respect due to them, shall, with the consent of the
  belligerent whom they are accompanying, take the necessary steps that
  the special painting denoting them shall be sufficiently conspicuous._

  vi. [Neutral merchantmen, yachts or vessels, having, or taking on
  board, sick, wounded or shipwrecked of the belligerents, cannot be
  captured for so doing, but they are liable to capture for any
  violation of neutrality they may have committed.]

  _The distinctive signs provided by Article v. can only be used,
  whether in time of peace or in time of war, to protect ships therein
  mentioned._

  vii. _In the case of a fight on board a war-ship, the hospitals shall
  be respected and shall receive as much consideration as possible._

  _These hospitals and their belongings are subject to the laws of war,
  but shall not be employed for any other purpose so long as they shall
  be necessary for the sick and wounded._

  _Nevertheless, the commander who has them under his orders, may make
  use of them in case of important military necessity, but he shall
  first ensure the safety of the sick and wounded on board._

  viii. _The protection due to hospital-ships and to hospitals on board
  war-ships shall cease if they are used against the enemy._

  _The fact that the crew of hospital-ships, and attached to hospitals
  on war-ships, are armed for the maintenance of order and for the
  defence of the sick or wounded, and the existence of a
  radio-telegraphic installation on board, is not considered as a
  justification for withdrawing the above-mentioned protection._

  ix. _Belligerents may appeal to the charitable zeal of commanders of
  neutral merchant vessels, yachts or other craft, to take on board and
  look after the sick and wounded._

  _Ships having responded to this appeal, as well as those who have
  spontaneously taken on board sick, wounded or shipwrecked men, shall
  have the advantage of a special protection and of certain immunities.
  In no case shall they be liable to capture on account of such
  transport; but subject to any promise made to them they are liable to
  capture for any violation of neutrality they may have committed._

  [vii.] x. The religious, medical or hospital staff of any captured
  ship is inviolable, and its members cannot be made prisoners of war.
  On leaving the ship they take with them the objects and surgical
  instruments which are their own private property.

  This staff shall continue to discharge its duties while necessary, and
  can afterwards leave when the commander-in-chief considers it
  possible.

  The belligerents must guarantee to the staff that has fallen into
  their hands [the enjoyment of their salaries intact] _the same
  allowances and pay as those of persons of the same rank in their own
  navy_.

  [viii.] xi. Sailors and soldiers, _and other persons officially
  attached to navies or armies_, who are taken on board when sick or
  wounded, to whatever nation they belong, shall be [protected]
  respected and looked after by the captors.

  xii. _Every vessel of war of a belligerent party may claim the return
  of the wounded, sick or shipwrecked who are on board military
  hospital-ships, hospital-ships of aid societies or of private
  individuals, merchant ships, yachts or other craft, whatever be the
  nationality of these vessels._

  xiii. _If the wounded, sick or shipwrecked are received on board a
  neutral ship of war, it shall be provided, as far as possible, that
  they may take no further part in war operations._

  xiv. The shipwrecked, wounded or sick of one of the belligerents who
  fall into the hands of the other, are prisoners of war. The captor
  must decide, according to circumstances, if it is best to keep them or
  send them to a port of his own country, to a neutral port, or even to
  a hostile port. In the last case, prisoners thus repatriated cannot
  serve as long as the war lasts.

  xv. The shipwrecked, wounded or sick who are landed at a neutral port
  with the consent of the local authorities, must, failing a contrary
  arrangement between the neutral State and the belligerents, be guarded
  by the neutral State, so that they may not be again able to take part
  in the military operations.

  _The expenses of hospital treatment and internment shall be borne by
  the State to which the shipwrecked, wounded or sick belong._
       (T. Ba.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Another International Conference held in December 1904 at the
    Hague dealt with the status of hospital-ships in time of war. Great
    Britain did not take part in this Conference. Her abstention,
    however, was not owing to any objection of principle, but purely to
    considerations of domestic legislation.



GENEVA, LAKE OF, the largest lake of which any portion belongs to
Switzerland, and indeed in central Europe. It is called _Lacus Lemannus_
by the old Latin and Greek writers, in 4th century A.D. _Lacus
Lausonius_ or _Losanetes_, in the middle ages generally _Lac de
Lausanne_, but from the 16th century onwards _Lac de Genève_, though
from the end of the 18th century the name _Lac Léman_ was
revived--according to Prof. Forel _Le Léman_ is the proper form. Its
area is estimated at 223 sq. m. (Swiss Topographical Bureau) or 225½ sq.
m. (Forel), of which about 140 sq. m. (134½ sq. m. Forel) are
politically Swiss (123½ sq. m. belonging to the canton of Vaud, 11½ sq.
m. to that of Geneva, and 5 sq. m. to that of the Valais), the remainder
(83 sq. m.) being French since the annexation of Savoy in 1860--the
entire lake is included in the territory (Swiss or Savoyard) neutralized
by the congress of Vienna in 1815. The French part takes in nearly the
whole of the south shore, save its western and eastern extremities,
which belong respectively to Geneva and to the Valais.

  The lake is formed by the Rhone, which enters it at its east end,
  between Villeneuve (E.) and St Gingolph (W.), and quits it at its west
  end, flowing through the city of Geneva. The only important
  tributaries are the Drance (S.), the Venoge (N.) and the Veveyse (N.).
  The form of the lake is that of a crescent, of which the east end is
  broad and rounded, while the west end tapers towards the city of
  Geneva. The bird's eye length of the whole lake, from Chillon to
  Geneva, is 39½ m., but along its axis 45 m. The coast-line of the
  north shore is 59 m. in length and that of the south shore 44¾ m. The
  maximum depth is 1015½ ft., but the mean depth only 500 ft. The
  surface is 1231¼ ft. (Swiss Topog. Bureau) or 1220 ft. (Forel) above
  sea-level. The greatest width (between Morges and Amphion) is 8½ m.,
  but the normal width is 5 m. The lake forms two well-marked divisions,
  separated by the strait of Promenthoux, which is 216½ ft. in depth, as
  a bar divides the Grand Lac from the Petit Lac. The _Grand Lac_
  includes the greater portion of the lake, the _Petit Lac_ (to the west
  of the strait or bar) being the special Genevese portion of the lake,
  and having an area of but 30½ sq. m. The unusual blueness of the
  waters has long been remarked, and the transparency increases the
  farther we get from the point where the Rhone enters it, the deposits
  which the river brings down from the Alps gradually sinking to the
  bottom of the lake. At Geneva we recall Byron's phrase, "the blue
  rushing of the arrowy Rhone" (_Childe Harold_, canto iii. stanza 71).
  The limit of visibility of a white disk is 33 ft. in winter (in
  February 1891 Prof. Forel observed an extreme of 70½ ft.) and 21¼ ft.
  in summer. Apart from the seasonal changes in the level of the lake
  (which is highest in summer, no doubt because of the melting of the
  Alpine snows that feed the Rhone), there are also the remarkable
  temporary disturbances of level known as the _seiches_, in which the
  whole mass of water in the lake rhythmically swings from shore to
  shore. According to Prof. Forel there are both longitudinal and
  transverse _seiches_. The effect of the longitudinal _seiches_ at
  Geneva is four times as great as at Chillon, at the other end of the
  lake, while the extreme duration of this phenomenon is 73 minutes for
  the uninodal longitudinal _seiches_ (35½ minutes for the binodal) and
  10 minutes for the transverse _seiches_ (5 minutes for the binodal).
  The maximum height of a recorded _seiche_ at Geneva is rather over 6
  ft. (October 1841). The currents in the water itself are irregular.
  The principal winds that blow over the lake are the _bise_ (from the
  N.E.), the _vaudaire_ or _Föhn_ (from the S.E.), the _sudois_ or _vent
  de pluie_ (from the S.W.) and the _joran_ (from the N.W.). The storm
  winds are the _molan_ (from the Arve valley towards Geneva) and the
  _bornan_ (from the Drance valley towards the central portion of the
  lake). The lake is not as rich in fish as the other Swiss lakes, one
  reason being the obstacle opposed by the Perte du Rhône to fish
  seeking to ascend that river. Prof. Forel knows of but twenty
  indigenous species (of which the _Féra_, or _Coregonus fera_, is the
  principal) and six that have been introduced by man in the 19th
  century. A number of lake dwellings, of varying dates, have been found
  on the shores of the lake. The first steamer placed on the lake was
  the "Guillaume Tell," built in 1823 at Geneva by an Englishman named
  Church, while in 1873 the present Compagnie générale de navigation sur
  le lac Léman was formed, and in 1875 constructed the first saloon
  steamer, the "Mont Blanc." But despite this service and the railways
  along each shore, the red lateen sails of minor craft still brighten
  the landscape. The railway along the northern shore runs from Geneva
  past Nyon, Rolle, Morges, Ouchy (the port of Lausanne), Vevey and
  Montreux to Villeneuve (56½ m.). That on the south shore gains the
  edge of the lake at Thonon only (22¼ m. from Geneva), and then runs
  past Evian and St Gingolph to Le Bouveret (20 m. from Thonon). In the
  harbour of Geneva two erratic boulders of granite project above the
  surface of the water, and are named _Pierres du Niton_ (supposed to be
  altars to Neptune). The lower of the two, which is also the farthest
  from the shore, has been taken as the basis of the triangulation of
  Switzerland: the official height is 376.86 mètres, which in 1891 was
  reduced to 373.54 mètres, though 376.6 mètres is now said to be the
  real figure. Of course the heights given on the Swiss Government map
  vary with these different estimates of the point taken as basis.

  For all matters relating to the lake, see Prof. F.A. Forel's
  monumental work, _Le Léman_ (3 vols. Lausanne, 1892-1904); also (with
  fine illustrations) G. Fatio and F. Boissonnas, _Autour du lac Léman_
  (Geneva, 1902).     (W. A. B. C.)



GENEVIÈVE, or GENOVEFA, ST (c. 422-512), patroness of Paris, lived
during the latter half of the 5th century. According to tradition, she
was born about 422 at Nanterre near Paris; her parents were called
Severus and Gerontia, but accounts differ widely as to their social
position. According to the legend, she was only in her seventh year when
she was induced by St Germain, bishop of Auxerre, to dedicate herself to
the religious life. On the death of her parents she removed to Paris,
where she distinguished herself by her benevolence, as well as by her
austere life. She is said to have predicted the invasion of the Huns;
and when Attila with his army was threatening the city, she persuaded
the inhabitants to remain on the island and encouraged them by an
assurance, justified by subsequent events, that the attack would come to
nothing (451). She is also said to have had great influence over
Childeric, father of Clovis, and in 460 to have caused a church to be
built over the tomb of St Denis. Her death occurred about 512 and she
was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles, popularly known as the
church of St Geneviève. In 1793 the body was taken from the new church,
built in her honour by Louis XV., when it became the Panthéon, and burnt
on the Place de Grève; but the relics were enshrined in a chapel of the
neighbouring church of St Étienne du Mont, where they still attract
pilgrims; her festival is celebrated with great pomp on the 3rd of
January. The frescoes of the Panthéon by Puvis de Chavannes are based
upon the legend of the saint.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The main source is the anonymous _Vita s. Genovefae
  virginis Parisiorum_, published in 1687 by D.P. Charpentier. The
  genuineness of this life was attacked by B. Krusch (_Neues Archiv_,
  1893 and 1894) and defended by L. Duchesne, _Bibliothèque de l'École
  des Chartes_ (1893), _Bulletin critique_ (1897), p. 473. Krusch
  continued to hold that the life was an 8th-century forgery
  (_Scriptores rer. Merov_. iii. 204-238). See A. Potthast, _Bibliotheca
  medii aevi_ (1331, 1332), and G. Kurth, _Clovis_, ii. 249-254. The
  legends and miracles are given in the Bollandists' _Acta Sanctorum_,
  January 1st; there is a short sketch by Henri Lesetre, _Ste
  Geneviève_, in "Les Saints" series (Paris, 1900).



GENEVIÈVE, GENOVEVA or GENOVEFA, OF BRABANT, heroine of medieval legend.
Her story is a typical example of the widespread tale of the chaste wife
falsely accused and repudiated, generally on the word of a rejected
suitor. Genovefa of Brabant was said to be the wife of the palatine
Siegfried of Treves, and was falsely accused by the majordomo Golo.
Sentenced to death she was spared by the executioner, and lived for six
years with her son in a cave in the Ardennes nourished by a roe.
Siegfried, who had meanwhile found out Golo's treachery, was chasing the
roe when he discovered her hiding-place, and reinstated her in her
former honour. Her story is said to rest on the history of Marie of
Brabant, wife of Louis II., duke of Bavaria, and count-palatine of the
Rhine, who was tried by her husband and beheaded on the 18th of January
1256, for supposed infidelity, a crime for which Louis afterwards had to
do penance. The change in name may have been due to the cult of St
Geneviève, patroness of Paris. The tale first obtained wide popularity
in _L'Innocence reconnue, ou vie de Sainte Geneviève de Brabant_ (pr.
1638) by the Jesuit René de Cérisier (1603-1662), and was a frequent
subject for dramatic representation in Germany. With Genovefa's history
may be compared the Scandinavian ballads of _Ravengaard og Memering_,
which exist in many recensions. These deal with the history of Gunild,
who married Henry, duke of Brunswick and Schleswig. When Duke Henry went
to the wars he left his wife in charge of Ravengaard, who accused her of
infidelity. Gunild is cleared by the victory of her champion Memering,
the "smallest of Christian men." The Scottish ballad of Sir Aldingar is
a version of the same story. The heroine Gunhilda is said to have been
the daughter of Canute the Great and Emma. She married in 1036 King
Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry III., and there was nothing in her
domestic history to warrant the legend, which is given as authentic
history by William of Malmesbury (_De gestis regum Anglorum_, lib. ii. §
188). She was called Cunigund after her marriage, and perhaps was
confused with St Cunigund, the wife of the emperor Henry II. In the
_Karlamagnus-saga_ the innocent wife is Oliva, sister of Charlemagne and
wife of King Hugo, and in the French Carolingian cycle the emperor's
wife Sibille (_La Reine Sibille_) or Blanchefleur (_Macaire_). Other
forms of the legend are to be found in the story of Doolin's mother in
_Doon de Mayence_, the English romance of _Sir Triamour_, in the story
of the mother of Octavian in _Octavian the Emperor_, in the German folk
book _Historie von der geduldigen Königin Crescentia_, based on a
12th-century poem to be found in the _Kaiserchronik_; and the English
_Erl of Toulouse_ (c. 1400). In the last-named romance it has been
suggested that the story gives the relations between Bernard I. count of
Toulouse, son of the Guillaume d'Orange of the Carolingian romances, and
the empress Judith, second wife of Louis the Pious.

  See F.J. Child, _English and Scottish Popular Ballads_, vol. ii.
  (1886), art. "Sir Aldingar"; S. Grundtvig, _Danske Kaempeviser_
  (Copenhagen, 1867); "Sir Triamore," in _Bishop Percy's Folio MS._, ed.
  Hales and Furnivall, vol. ii. (London, 1868); _The Romance of
  Octavian_, ed. E.M. Goldsmid (Aungervyle Soc., Edinburgh, 1882); _The
  Erl of Toulous and the Emperes of Almayn_, ed. G. Lüdtke (Berlin,
  1881); B. Seuffert, _Die Legende von der Pfalzgräfin Genovefa_
  (Würzburg, 1877); B. Golz, _Pfalzgräfin Genovefa in der deutschen
  Dichtung_ (Leipzig, 1897); R. Köhler, "Die deutschen Volksbücher von
  der Pfalzgräfin Genovefa," in _Zeitschr. für deutsche Philologie_
  (1874).



GENGA, GIROLAMO (c. 1476-1551), Italian painter and architect, was born
in Urbino about 1476. At the age of ten he was apprenticed to the
woollen trade, but showed so much inclination for drawing that he was
sent to study under an obscure painter, and at thirteen under Luca
Signorelli, with whom he remained a considerable while, frequently
painting the accessories of his pictures. He was afterwards for three
years with Pietro Perugino, in company with Raphael. He next worked in
Florence and Siena, along with Timoteo della Vite; and in the latter
city he painted various compositions for Pandolfo Petrucci, the leading
local statesman. Returning to Urbino, he was employed by Duke Guidobaldo
in the decorations of his palace, and showed extraordinary aptitude for
theatrical adornments. Thence he went to Rome; and in the church of S.
Caterina da Siena, in that capital, is one of his most distinguished
works, "The Resurrection," remarkable both for design and for colouring.
He studied the Roman antiquities with zeal, and measured a number of
edifices; this practice, combining with his previous mastery of
perspective, qualified him to shine as an architect. Francesco Maria
della Rovere, the reigning duke of Urbino, recalled Genga, and
commissioned him to execute works in connexion with his
marriage-festivities. This prince being soon afterwards expelled by Pope
Leo X., Genga followed him to Mantua, whence he went for a time to
Pesaro. The duke of Urbino was eventually restored to his dominions; he
took Genga with him, and appointed him the ducal architect. As he neared
the close of his career, Genga retired to a house in the vicinity of
Urbino, continuing still to produce designs in pencil; one, of the
"Conversion of St Paul," was particularly admired. Here he died on the
11th of July 1551. Genga was a sculptor and musician as well as painter
and architect. He was jovial, an excellent talker, and kindly to his
friends. His principal pupil was Francesco Menzocchi. His own son
Bartolommeo (1518-1558) became an architect of celebrity. In Genga's
paintings there is a great deal of freedom, and a certain peculiarity of
character consonant with his versatile, lively and social temperament.
One of his leading works is in the church of S. Agostino in Cesena--a
triptych in oil-colours, representing the "Annunciation," "God the
Father in Glory," and the "Madonna and Child." Among his architectural
labours are the church of San Giovanni Battista in Pesaro; the bishop's
palace at Sinigaglia; the façade of the cathedral of Mantua, ranking
high among the productions of the 16th century; and a new palace for the
duke of Urbino, built on the Monte Imperiale. He was also concerned in
the fortifications of Pesaro.



GENISTA, in botany, a genus of about eighty species of shrubs belonging
to the natural order Leguminosae, and natives of Europe, western Asia
and North Africa. Three are native in Britain. _G. anglica_ is the
needle-furze or petty whin, found on heaths and moist moors, a spinous
plant with slender spreading branches 1 to 2 ft. long, very small leaves
and short racemes of small yellow papilionaceous flowers. The pollen is
emitted in a shower when an insect alights on it. _G. tinctoria_, dyer's
green-weed, the flowers of which yield a yellow dye, has no spines.
Other species are grown on rock-work or as greenhouse plants.



GENIUS (from Lat. _genere_, _gignere_), a term which originally meant,
in Roman mythology, a generative and protecting spirit, who has no exact
parallel in Greek religion, and at least in his earlier aspect is of
purely Italian origin as one of the deities of family or household.
Every man has his genius, who is not his creator, but only comes into
being with him and is allotted to him at his birth. As a creative
principle the genius is restricted to man, his place being taken by a
Juno (cp. Juno Lucina, the goddess of childbirth) in the case of women.
The male and female spirit may thus be distinguished respectively as the
protector of generation and of parturition (_tutela generandi,
pariendi_), although the female appears less prominent. It is the genius
of the _paterfamilias_ that keeps the marriage bed, named after him
_lectus genialis_ and dedicated to him, under his special protection.
The genius of a man, as his higher intellectual self, accompanies him
from the cradle to the grave. In many ways he exercises a decisive
influence on the man's character and mode of life (Horace, _Epistles_,
ii. 2. 187). The responsibility for happiness or unhappiness, good or
bad fortune, lay with the genius; but this does not suppose the
existence of two genii for man, the one good and the other bad ([Greek:
agathodaimôn], [Greek: kakodaimôn]), an idea borrowed from the Greek
philosophers. The Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism,
always endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended to
enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of indulging or
cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed himself or failed
to do so, when he had the opportunity. A man's birthday was naturally a
suitable occasion for honouring his genius, and on that occasion
offerings of incense, wine, garlands, and cakes were made (Tibullus ii.
2; Ovid, _Tristia_, iii. 13. 18). As the representative of a man's
higher self and participating in a divine nature, the genius could be
sworn by, and a person could take an oath by his own or some one else's
genius. When under Greek influence the Roman idea of the gods became
more and more anthropomorphized, a genius was assigned to them, not
however as a distinct personality. Thus we hear of the genius of Jupiter
(Jovis Genio, _C.I.L._ i. 603), Mars, Juno, Pluto, Priapus. In a more
extended sense the genius is also the generator and preserver of human
society, as manifested in the family, corporate unions, the city, and
the state generally. Thus, the genius publicus Populi Romani--probably
distinct from the genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the
Capitol was dedicated, with an inscription expressing doubt as to the
sex (_Genio ... sive mas sive femina_)--stood in the forum near the
temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned with a diadem,
and carrying a cornu copiae and sceptre. It frequently appears on the
coins of Trajan and Hadrian. Sacrifice, not confined to bloodless
offerings like those of the genius of the house, was offered to him
annually on the 8th of October. There were genii of cities, colonies,
and even of provinces; of artists, business people and craftsmen; of
cooks, gladiators, standard-bearers, a legion, a century, and of the
army generally (_genius sanctus castrorum peregrinorum totiusque
exercitus_). In imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the
reigning emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were
publicly worshipped. It was a common practice (often compulsory) to
swear by the genius of the emperor, and any one who swore falsely was
flogged. Localities also, such as theatres, baths, stables, streets, and
markets, had their own genius. The word thus gradually lost its original
meaning; the nameless local genii became an expression for the
universality of the _divinum numen_ and were sometimes identified with
the higher gods. The local genius was usually represented by a snake,
the symbol of the fruitfulness of the earth and of perpetual youth.
Hence snakes were usually kept in houses (Virgil, _Aen._ v. 95; Persius
i. 113), their death in which was considered a bad omen. The personal
genius usually appeared as a handsome youth in a toga, with head
sometimes veiled and sometimes bare, carrying a drinking cup and cornu
copiae, frequently in the position of one offering sacrifice.

  See W.H. Roscher, _Lexikon der Mythologie_, and article by J.A. Hild
  in Daremberg and Saglio, _Dictionnaire des antiquités_, where full
  references to ancient and modern authorities are given; L. Preller,
  _Römische Mythologie_, 3rd ed., by H. Jordan; G. Wissowa, _Religion
  und Kultur der Römer_.

Apart from the Latin use of the term, the plural "genii" (with a
singular "genie") is used in English, as equivalent to the Arabic
_jinn_, for a class of spirits, good or bad, such as are described, for
instance, in _The Arabian Nights_. But "genius" itself has become the
regular English word for the highest conceivable form of original
ability, something altogether extraordinary and beyond even supreme
educational prowess, and differing, in kind apparently, from "talent,"
which is usually distinguished as marked intellectual capacity short
only of the inexplicable and unique endowment to which the term "genius"
is confined. The attempt, however, to define either quality, or to
discriminate accurately between them, has given rise to continual
controversy, and there is no agreement as to the nature of either; and
the commonly quoted definitions of genius--such as Carlyle's
"transcendant capacity of taking trouble, first of all,"[1] in which the
last three words are usually forgotten--are either admittedly incomplete
or are of the nature of epigrams. Nor can it be said that any
substantial light has been thrown on the matter by the modern
physiological school, Lombroso and others, who regard the eccentricity
of genius as its prime factor, and study it as a form of mental
derangement. The error here is partly in ignoring the history of the
word, and partly in misrepresenting the nature of the fact. There are
many cases, no doubt, in which persons really insane, of one type or
another, or with a history of physical degeneration or epilepsy, have
shown remarkable originality, which may be described as genius, but
there are at least just as many in whom no such physical abnormality can
be observed. The word "genius" itself however has only gradually been
used in English to express the degree of original greatness which is
beyond ordinary powers of explanation, i.e. far beyond the capacity of
the normal human being in creative work; and it is a convenient term
(like Nietzsche's "superman") for application to those rare individuals
who in the course of evolution reveal from time to time the heights to
which humanity may develop, in literature, art, science, or
administrative life. The English usage was originally derived, naturally
enough, from the Roman ideas contained in the term (with the analogy of
the Greek [Greek: daimôn]), and in the 16th and 17th centuries we find
it equivalent simply to "distinctive character or spirit," a meaning
still commonly given to the word. The more modern sense is not even
mentioned in Johnson's _Dictionary_, and represents an 18th-century
development, primarily due to the influence of German writers; the
meaning of "distinctive natural capacity or endowment" had gradually
been applied specially to creative minds such as those of poets and
artists, by contrast with those whose mental ability was due to the
results of education and study, and the antithesis has extended since,
through constant discussions over the attempt to differentiate between
the real nature of genius and that of "talent," until we now speak of
the exceptional person not merely as having genius but as "a genius."
This phraseology appears to indicate some reversion to the original
Roman usage, and the identification of the great man with a generative
spirit.

  Modern theories on the nature of "genius" should be studied with
  considerable detachment, but there is much that is interesting and
  thought-provoking in such works as J.F. Nisbet's _Insanity of Genius_
  (1891), Sir Francis Galton's _Hereditary Genius_ (new ed., 1892), and
  C. Lombroso's _Man of Genius_ (Eng. trans., 1891).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] _Frederick the Great_, iv. iii. 1407.



GENUS, STÉPHANIE-FÉLICITÉ DU CREST DE SAINT-AUBIN, COMTESSE DE
(1746-1830), French writer and educator, was born of a noble but
impoverished Burgundian family, at Champcéry, near Autun, on the 25th of
January 1746. When six years of age she was received as a canoness into
the noble chapter of Alix, near Lyons, with the title of Madame la
Comtesse de Lancy, taken from the town of Bourbon-Lancy. Her entire
education, however, was conducted at home. In 1758, in Paris, her skill
as a harpist and her vivacious wit speedily attracted admiration. In her
sixteenth year she was married to Charles Brûlart de Genlis, a colonel
of grenadiers, who afterwards became marquis de Sillery, but this was
not allowed to interfere with her determination to remedy her incomplete
education, and to satisfy a taste for acquiring and imparting knowledge.
Some years later, through the influence of her aunt, Madame de
Montesson, who had been clandestinely married to the duke of Orleans,
she entered the Palais Royal as lady-in-waiting to the duchess of
Chartres (1770). She acted with great energy and zeal as governess to
the daughters of the family, and was in 1781 appointed by the duke of
Chartres to the responsible office of _gouverneur_ of his sons, a bold
step which led to the resignation of all the tutors as well as to much
social scandal, though there is no reason to suppose that the
intellectual interests of her pupils suffered on that account. The
better to carry out her ingenious theories of education, she wrote
several works for their use, the best known of which are the _Théâtre
d'éducation_ (4 vols., 1779-1780), a collection of short comedies for
young people, _Les Annales de la vertu_ (2 vols., 1781) and _Adèle et
Théodore_ (3 vols., 1782). Sainte-Beuve tells how she anticipated many
modern methods of teaching. History was taught with the help of magic
lantern slides and her pupils learnt botany from a practical botanist
during their walks. In 1789 Madame de Genlis showed herself favourable
to the Revolution, but the fall of the Girondins in 1793 compelled her
to take refuge in Switzerland along with her pupil Mademoiselle
d'Orléans. In this year her husband, the marquis de Sillery, from whom
she had been separated since 1782, was guillotined. An "adopted"
daughter, Pamela,[1] had been married to Lord Edward Fitzgerald (q.v.)
in the preceding December.

In 1794 Madame de Genlis fixed her residence at Berlin, but, having been
expelled by the orders of King Frederick William, she afterwards settled
in Hamburg, where she supported herself for some years by writing and
painting. After the revolution of 18th Brumaire (1799) she was permitted
to return to France, and was received with favour by Napoleon, who gave
her apartments at the arsenal, and afterwards assigned her a pension of
6000 francs. During this period she wrote largely, and produced, in
addition to some historical novels, her best romance, _Mademoiselle de
Clermont_ (1802). Madame de Genlis had lost her influence over her old
pupil Louis Philippe, who visited her but seldom, although he allowed
her a small pension. Her government pension was discontinued by Louis
XVIII., and she supported herself largely by her pen. Her later years
were occupied largely with literary quarrels, notably with that which
arose out of the publication of the _Dîners du Baron d'Holbach_ (1822),
a volume in which she set forth with a good deal of sarcastic cleverness
the intolerance, the fanaticism, and the eccentricities of the
"philosophes" of the 18th century. She survived until the 31st of
December 1830, and saw her former pupil, Louis Philippe, seated on the
throne of France.

  The numerous works of Madame de Genlis (which considerably exceed
  eighty), comprising prose and poetical compositions on a vast variety
  of subjects and of various degrees of merit, owed much of their
  success to adventitious causes which have long ceased to operate. They
  are useful, however (especially the voluminous _Mémoires inédits sur
  le XVIII^e siècle_, 10 vols., 1825), as furnishing material for
  history. Most of her writings were translated into English almost as
  soon as they were published. A list of her writings with useful notes
  is given by Quérard in _La France littéraire_. Startling light was
  thrown on her relations with the duc de Chartres by the publication
  (1904) of her correspondence with him in _L'Idylle d'un "gouverneur"_
  by G. Maugras. See also Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_, vol. iii.;
  H. Austin Dobson, _Four Frenchwomen_ (1890); L. Chabaud, _Les
  Précurseurs du féminisme_ (1901); W. de Chabreul, _Gouverneur de
  princes, 1737-1830_ (1900); and _Lettres inédites à ... Casimir
  Baecker, 1802-1830_ (1902), edited by Henry Lapauze.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See Gerald Campbell, _Edward and Pamela Fitzgerald_ (1905).



GENNA, a word of obscure origin borrowed from the Assamese, and used
technically by anthropologists to describe a class of social and
religious ordinances based on sanctions which derive their validity from
a vague sense of mysterious danger which results from disobedience to
them. These prohibitions--or system of things forbidden--affect the
relations, permanent and temporary, of individuals (either as members of
a tribe, village, clan or household, or as occupying an official
position in the village or clan) towards other persons or groups of
persons and towards material objects which possess intrinsic sanctity.
The term is extended to the communal rites performed by the village,
clan or household, either as magical ceremonies or as prophylactics on
special occasions when the social, commensal, conjugal and alimentary
relations of the group affected are subjected to temporary
modifications. These practices and beliefs are observed among the hill
tribes of Assam from the Abors and Mishmis on the north to the Lusheis
on the south, all linguistically members of the Tibeto-Burman group,
and among the Khasis, members of the Mon-Khmer group. Genna and taboo
(q.v.) are products of an identical level of culture and similar
psychological processes, and provide the mechanism of the social and
religious systems.

_Permanent Gennas._--The only universal _genna_ is that which forbids
the intermarriage of members of the same clan. In some cases in Manipur
animals are _genna_ to the tribe--i.e. they must not be killed or
eaten--but tribal differentiation is, in practice, based on dialectical
distinctions rather than on tribal _gennas_. The village as such
possesses no permanent _gennas_, but the clans, as the units of marriage
under the law of exogamy, have distinct elementary _gennas_, especially
the clan to which the priest-chief belongs. The most important
individual _gennas_ are those which protect the priest-chief from
impurity or contact with "sacred" substances such as the flesh of
animals used in sacrifices. He may neither eat in a strange house, nor
utter words of abuse, nor take an oath in a dispute, except in his
representative capacity on behalf of his village. The first-fruits are
_genna_ to the village until he eats, thus establishing an opposition
between him and his co-villagers. Married and unmarried women are
subject to alimentary _gennas_; thus unmarried girls are forbidden the
flesh of any male animal or of any female animal dying gravid.

_Ritual Gennas._--Ritual _gennas_ are held annually to foster the rice
crops, all other industries and activities being _genna_ (forbidden)
during the cultivating season, to secure good hunting, to avert
sickness, especially epidemics, to take omens, and to lay finally to
rest the ghosts of all that have died within the year. The village gates
are closed, men and women eat apart, and conjugal relations are
suspended. Special village _gennas_ are held when rain is needed, when a
villager dies in any manner out of the ordinary, as women in childbirth,
when an animal gives birth to still-born offspring, and when any
permanent genna has been violated. Clan _gennas_ are held for all
ordinary cases of death. Household _gennas_ are held on the occasions of
birth (when the aliment and conduct of the father are specially
regulated), naming, ear-piercing, the first hair-cutting, sickness, and,
in certain areas, tattooing. Individuals are subjected to temporary
_gennas_ as warriors both before and after a head-hunting raid, pregnant
women, married persons at the beginning of their married life, the wives
of the priest-chief, and those who from ambition or pride of wealth seek
to perpetuate their names by erecting a stone monument, an act which
confers the right to wear the distinctive clothes of the priest-chief
which otherwise are _genna_ to the whole village. Ritual _gennas_ are of
varying duration. Some last for a month while others are complete in two
days. As religious or magical rites, they prevent danger or establish
and restore normal relations with powers which are potentially harmful
or require placation.

  AUTHORITIES.--Official records of the government of India, Nos. 23
  (1855), 27 (1859), 68 (1870); Colonel T.H. Lewin, _Hill Tracts of
  Chittagong; Report on the Census of Assam_ (1891), vol. i. Report,
  note by A.W. Davis, p. 237 seq.; Major P.R.T. Gurdon, _The Khasis_
  (1907); T.C. Hodson, _Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute_,
  vol. xxxvi. (1906).     (T. C. H.)



GENNADIUS II. [as layman GEORGIOS SCHOLARIOS] (d. c. 1468), patriarch of
Constantinople from 1454 to 1456, philosopher and theologian, was one of
the last representatives of Byzantine learning. Extremely little is
known of his life, but he appears to have been born at Constantinople
about 1400 and to have entered the service of the emperor John VII.
Paleologus as imperial judge or counsellor. Georgios first appears
conspicuously in history as present at the great council held in 1438 at
Ferrara and Florence with the object of bringing about a union between
the Greek and Latin Churches. At the same council was present the
celebrated Platonist, Gemistus Pletho, the most powerful opponent of the
then dominant Aristotelianism, and consequently the special object of
reprobation to Georgios. In church matters, as in philosophy, the two
were opposed,--Pletho maintaining strongly the principles of the Greek
Church, and being unwilling to accept union through compromise, while
Georgios, more politic and cautious, pressed the necessity for union and
was instrumental in drawing up a form which from its vagueness and
ambiguity might be accepted by both parties. He was at a disadvantage
because, being a layman, he could not directly take part in the
discussions of the council. But on his return to Greece his views
changed, and he violently and obstinately opposed the union he had
previously urged. In 1448 he became a monk at Pantokrator and took the
name Gennadius. In 1453, after the capture of Constantinople by the
Turks, Mahommed II., finding that the patriarchal chair had been vacant
for some time, resolved to elect some one to the office, and the choice
fell on Gennadius. While holding the episcopal office Gennadius drew up,
apparently for the use of Mahommed, a lucid confession or exposition of
the Christian faith, which was translated into Turkish by Ahmed, judge
of Beroea, and first printed by A. Brassicanus at Vienna in 1530. After
a couple of years Gennadius found the position of patriarch under a
Turkish sultan so irksome that he retired to the monastery of John the
Baptist near Serrae in Macedonia, where he died about 1468. About one
hundred of his alleged writings exist, the majority in manuscript and of
doubtful authenticity.

  The fullest account of his writings is given in Gass, _Gennadius and
  Pletho_ (Berlin, 1844), the second part of which contains Pletho's
  _Contra Gennadium_. See also F. Schultze, _Gesch. der Phil. d.
  Renaissance_, i. (1874). A list of the known writings of Gennadius is
  given in Fabricius, _Bibliotheca Graeca_, ed. Harles, vol. xi., and
  what has been printed is to be found in Migne, _Patrol. Gr._ vol. clx.



GENOA (anc. _Genua_, Ital. _Genova_, Fr. _Gênes_), the chief port of
Liguria, Italy, and capital of the province of Genoa, 119 m. N.W. of
Leghorn by rail. Pop. (1906) 255,294 (town); 267,248 (commune). The town
is situated on the Gulf of Genoa, and is the chief port and commercial
town of Italy, the seat of an archbishop and a university, the
headquarters of the IV. Italian army corps, and a strong fortress. The
city, as seen from the sea, is "built nobly," and deserves the title it
has acquired or assumed of the Superb. Finding only a small space of
level ground along the shore, it has been obliged to climb the lower
hills of the Ligurian Alps, which afford many a coign of vantage for the
effective display of its architectural magnificence. The original
nucleus of the city is that portion which lies to the east of the port
in the neighbourhood of the old pier (Molo Vecchio). In the 10th century
it began to feel a lack of room within the limits of its fortifications;
and accordingly, in the middle of the 12th century, it was found
necessary to extend the line of circumvallation. Even this second
circuit, however, was of small compass, and it was not till 1320-1330
that a third line took in the greater part of the modern site of the
city proper. This presented about 3 m. of rampart towards the land side,
and can still be easily traced from point to point through the city,
though large portions, especially towards the east, have been
dismantled. The present line of circumvallation dates from 1626-1632,
the period when the independence of Genoa was threatened by the dukes of
Savoy. From the mouth of the Bisagno in the east, and from the
lighthouse point in the west, it stretches inland over hill and dale to
the great fort of Sperone, i.e. the Spur, on the summits of Monte
Peraldo at a height of 1650 ft.,--the circuit being little less than 12
m., and all the important points along the line being defended by forts
or batteries.

A portion of the enclosed area is open country, dotted only here and
there with houses and gardens. There are eight gates, the more important
being Porta Pila and Porta Romana towards the east, and the Porta
Lanterna or Lighthouse Gate to the west. The main architectural features
of Genoa are its medieval churches, with striped façades of black and
white marble, and its magnificent 16th-century palaces. The earlier
churches of Genoa show a mixture of French Romanesque and the Pisan
style--they are mostly basilicas with transepts, and as a rule a small
dome; the pillars are sometimes ancient columns, and sometimes formed of
alternate layers of black and white marble. The façades are simple,
without galleries, having only pilasters projecting from the wall, and
are also alternately black and white. This style continued in Gothic
times also. The oldest is S. Maria di Castello (11th century), the
columns and capitals of which are almost all antique. S. Cosma, S.
Donato (with remains of the 10th-century building) and others belong to
the 12th century, and S. Giovanni di Prè, S. Agostino (with a fine
campanile), S. Stefano, S. Matteo and others to the 13th. The famous
painting of the martyrdom of S. Stephen, by Giulio Romano, carried off
by Napoleon in 1811, was restored to S. Stefano in 1815. S. Matteo, the
church of the D'Oria or Doria family, was founded in 1126 by Martino
Doria. The façade dates from 1278, and the interior of the edifice dates
in the main from 1543. In the crypt is the tomb of Andrea Doria by
Montorsoli, and above the main altar hangs the dagger presented to the
doge by Pope Paul III. To the left of the church is an exquisite
cloister of 1308 with double columns, in which a number of inscriptions
relating to the Doria family and also the statue of Andrea Doria by
Montorsoli are preserved. The little square in front of the church is
surrounded by Gothic palaces of the Doria family. Of the churches the
principal is the comparatively small cathedral of S. Lorenzo. Tradition
makes its first foundation contemporary with St Lawrence himself; and a
document of 987 implies that it was even then the metropolitan church.
Reconstructed about the end of the 11th and beginning of the 12th
century, it was formally consecrated by Pope Gelasius II. on the 18th of
October 1118; and since then it has undergone a large number of
extensive though partial renovations. The façade, with its three
elaborate doorways, belongs to the 14th century and is a copy of French
models of the 13th. The two side portals with Romanesque sculptures
belong to the 12th-14th centuries. Some pagan reliefs are built into the
tower. The interior was rebuilt in 1307, the old columns being used. The
belfry, which rises above the right-hand doorway, was erected about 1520
by the doge, Ottaviano da Campofragoso, and the cupola was erected after
the designs of the architect Galeazzo Alessi in 1567. The fine Early
Renaissance (1448) sculptural decorations of the chapel of S. John the
Baptist were due to Domenico Gagini of Bissone on the Lake of Lugano,
who later transferred his activities to Naples and Palermo, and other
Lombard masters. An edict of Innocent VIII. forbids women to enter the
chapel except on one day in the year. In the treasury of the cathedral
is a magnificent silver monstrance dating from 1553, and an octagonal
bowl, the Sacro Catino, brought from Caesarea in 1101, which corresponds
to the descriptions given of the Holy Grail, and was long regarded as an
emerald of matchless value, but was found when broken at Paris, whither
it had been carried by Napoleon I., to be only a remarkable piece of
ancient glass. The choir-stalls are a very fine work of the 15th century
and later, with intarsias. Near the cathedral is a small 12th-century
(?) cloister.

Of older date than the cathedral is the church of S. Ambrose and S.
Andrew, if its first foundation be correctly assigned to the Milanese
bishop Honoratus of the 6th century; but the present edifice is due to
the Society of Jesus, who obtained possession of the church in 1587. The
interior is richly decorated and contains the "Circumcision" and "St
Ignatius" by Rubens, and the "Assumption" of Guido Reni. The Annunziata
del Guastato is one of the largest churches in the city, erected in
1587. It is a cruciform structure, with a dome, and the central nave is
supported by fourteen Corinthian columns of white marble. To the
otherwise unfinished brick façade a portal borne by marble columns was
added in 1843. The interior is covered with gilding and frescoes of the
17th century, and is somewhat overloaded with rich decoration, while a
range of white marble columns supports the nave. Santa Maria delle Vigne
probably dates from the 9th century, but the present structure was
erected in 1586. The campanile, however, is a remarkable work of the
13th century. Adjoining the church is a ruined cloister of the 11th
century. San Siro, originally the "Church of the Apostles" and the
cathedral of Genoa, was rebuilt by the Benedictines in the 11th century,
and restored and enlarged by the Theatines in 1576, the façade being
added in 1830; in this church in 1339 Simone Boccanera was elected first
doge of Genoa. Santa Maria di Carignano, or more correctly Santa Maria
Assunta e SS. Fabiano e Sebastiano, belongs mainly to the 16th century,
and was designed by Galeazzo Alessi, in imitation of Bramante's plan for
S. Peter's at Rome, as it was then being executed by Michelangelo. The
interior is fine, harmonious and restrained, painted in white and grey,
while the colouring of the exterior is less pleasing. From the highest
gallery of the dome--368 ft. above the sea-level, and 194 ft. above the
ground--a magnificent view is obtained of the city and the neighbouring
coast.

Buildings of the 15th century do not occupy an important place in Genoa,
but there are some small private houses and remains of sculptural
decoration of the Early Renaissance to be seen in the older portions of
the town. The palaces of the Genoese patricians, famous for their
sumptuous architecture, their general effectiveness (though the
architectural details are often faulty if closely examined), and their
artistic collections, were many of them built in the latter part of the
16th century by Galeazzo Alessi, a pupil of Michelangelo, whose style is
of an imposing and uniform character and displays marvellous ingenuity
in using a limited or unfavourable site to the greatest advantage.
Several of the villas in the vicinity of the city are also his work. The
Via Garibaldi is flanked by a succession of magnificent palaces, chief
among which is the Palazzo Rosso, so called from its red colour.
Formerly the palace of the Brignole-Sale family, it was presented by the
duchess of Galliera to the city in 1874, along with its valuable
contents, its library and picture gallery, which includes fine examples
of Van Dyck and Paris Bordone. The Palazzo Municipale, built by Rocco
Lurago at the end of the 16th century, once the property of the dukes of
Turin, has a beautiful entrance court and a hanging terraced garden
fronting a noble staircase of marble which leads to the spacious council
chamber. In an adjoining room are preserved a bronze tablet dating from
117 B.C. (see below), two autograph letters of Columbus, and the violin
of Paganini, also a native of Genoa. Opposite the Palazzo Rosso is the
Palazzo Bianco, a palace full of art treasures bequeathed to the city by
the duchess of Galliera upon her death in 1889, and subsequently
converted into a museum. The Roman antiquities here preserved belong to
other places--Luna, Libarna, &c. The Adorno, Giorgio Doria (both
containing small but choice picture-galleries), Parodi and Serra and
other palaces in this street are worthy of mention. The Via Balbi again
contains a number of palaces. The Durazzo Pallavicini palace has a noble
façade and staircase and a rich picture-gallery. The street takes its
name, however, from the Palazzo Balbi-Senarega, which has Doric
colonnades and a fine orangery. The Palazzo dell' Università has an
extremely fine court and staircase of the early 17th century. The
Palazzo Reale is also handsome but somewhat later. The Palazzo Doria in
the Piazza del Principe, presented to Andrea Doria by the Genoese in
1522, is on the other hand earlier; it was remodelled in 1529 by
Montorsoli and decorated with fine frescoes by Perino del Vaga. The old
palace of the doges, originally a building of the 13th century, to which
the tower alone belongs, the rest of the building having been remodelled
in the 16th century and modernized after a fire in 1777, stands in the
Piazza Umberto Primo near the cathedral, and now contains the telegraph
and other government offices. Another very fine building is the Gothic
Palazzo di S. Giorgio, near the harbour, dating from about 1260,
occupied from 1408 to 1797 by the Banca di S. Giorgio, and now converted
into a produce exchange. The Campo Santo or Cimitero di Staglieno, about
1½ m. from the city on the banks of the Bisagno, is one of the chief
features of Genoa; its situation is of great natural beauty and it is
remarkable for its sepulchral monuments, many of which have been
executed by the foremost sculptors of modern Italy. The university,
founded in 1471, is a flourishing institution with faculties in law,
medicine, natural science, engineering and philosophy. Attached to it
are a library, an observatory, a botanical garden, and a physical and
natural history museum. Genoa is also well supplied with technical
schools and other institutions for higher education, while ample
provision is made for primary education. The hospitals and the asylum
for the poor are among the finest institutions of their kind in Italy.
Mention must also be made of the Academy of Fine Arts, the municipal
library, the great Teatro Carlo Felice and the Verdi Institute of Music.


The irregular relief of its site and its long confinement within the
limits of fortifications, which it had outgrown, have both contributed
to render Genoa a picturesque confusion of narrow streets, lanes and
alleys, varied with stairways climbing the steeper slopes and bridges
spanning the deeper valleys. Large portions of the town are inaccessible
to ordinary carriages, and many of the important streets have very
little room for traffic. In modern times, however, a number of fine
streets and squares with beautiful gardens have been laid out. The
Piazza Ferrari, a large irregular space, is the chief focus of traffic
and the centre of the Genoese tramway system; it is embellished with a
fine equestrian statue of Garibaldi, unveiled in 1893, which stands in
front of the Teatro Carlo Felice. Leading from this piazza is the Via
Venti Settembre, a broad, handsome street laid out since 1887, leading
south-east to the Ponte Pila, the central bridge over the Bisagno. The
street is itself spanned by an elegant bridge carrying the Corso Andrea
Podesta, a modern avenue on the heights above. Adjoining the church of
the Madonna della Consolazione is the new market, a building of no
little beauty. The Via Roma, another important centre of traffic which
gives on to the Via Carlo Felice near the Piazza Ferrari, leads to the
Piazza Corvetto, in the centre of which stands the colossal equestrian
statue of Victor Emmanuel II. To the left is the Villetta Dinegro, a
beautiful park belonging to the city, decorated with cascades and a
number of statues and busts of prominent statesmen and citizens. To the
right is another park, the Acquasola, laid out in 1837 on the site of
the old ramparts. In the west of the city, in front of the principal
station, is the Piazza Acquaverde. On the north side, embowered in palm
trees, is a great statue of Columbus, at whose feet kneels the figure of
America. Opposite is the Palazzo Faraggiana, with scenes from the life
of Columbus in relief on its marble pediment. Among other modern
thoroughfares, the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, laid out since 1876
on the hills at the back of the town, leads by many curves from the
Piazza Manin along the hill-tops westward, and finally descends into the
Piazza Acquaverde; its entire length is traversed by an electric
tramway, and it commands magnificent views of the town. A similar road,
the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare, was laid out in 1893-1895 on the
site of the outer ramparts, and skirts the sea-front from the Piazza
Cavour to the mouth of the Bisagno, thence ascending the right bank to
the Ponte Pila. Genoa is remarkably well served with electric tramways,
which are found in all the wider streets, and run, often through
tunnels, into the suburbs and to the surrounding country on the east as
far as Nervi and to Pegli oh the west. Three funicular railways from
different points of the city give access to the highest parts of the
hills behind the town.

  Though its existence as a maritime power was originally due to its
  port, it is only since 1870 that Genoa has provided the conveniences
  necessary for the modern development of its trade, the duke of
  Galliera's gift of £800,000 to the city in 1875 being devoted to this
  purpose. A further enlargement of the harbour was necessitated upon
  the opening of the St Gotthard tunnel in 1882, which extended the
  commercial range of the port through Switzerland into Germany. The old
  harbour is semi-circular in shape, 232 acres in area, with numerous
  quays, and protected by moles from southern and south-westerly winds.
  An outer harbour, 247 acres in area, has been constructed in front of
  this by extending the Molo Nuovo by the Molo Duca di Galliera, and
  another basin, the Vittorio Emanuele III., for coal vessels, with an
  area of 96 acres, is in course of construction to the west of this,
  between it and the lofty lighthouse which rises on the promontory at
  the south-west extremity of the harbour. This basin is to be entered
  from both the east and the west, and allows for a future extension in
  front of San Pier d'Arena as far as the mouth of the river Polcevera.
  The port administration was placed under an autonomous harbour board
  (_consorzio_) in 1903. The largest ships can enter the harbour, which
  has a minimum depth of 30 ft.; it has two dry docks, a graving dock
  and a floating dry dock. Very large warehouses have been constructed.
  The exports are olive oil, hemp, flax, rice, fruit, wine, hats,
  cheese, steel, velvets, gloves, flour, paper, soap and marble, while
  the main imports are coal, cotton, grain, machinery, &c. Genoa has a
  large emigrant traffic with America, and a large general passenger
  steamer traffic both for America and for the East.

  The development of industry has kept pace with that of the harbour.
  The Ansaldo shipbuilding yards construct armoured cruisers both for
  the Italian navy and for foreign governments, The Odero yards, for
  the construction of merchant and passenger steamers, have been
  similarly extended, and the Foce yard is also important. A number of
  foundries and metallurgical works supply material for repairs and
  shipbuilding. The sugar-refining industry has been introduced by two
  important companies, and most of the capital employed in
  sugar-refining in other parts of Italy has been subscribed at Genoa,
  where the administrative offices of the principal companies and
  individual refiners are situated. The old industries of macaroni and
  cognate products maintain their superiority. Tanneries and
  cotton-spinning and weaving mills have considerably extended
  throughout the province. Cement works have acquired an extension
  previously unknown, more than thirty firms being now engaged in that
  branch of industry. The manufactures of crystallized fruits and of
  filigree silver-work may also be mentioned. The trade of the port
  increased from well under 1,000,000 tons in 1876 to 6,164,873 metric
  tons in 1906 (the latter figure, however, includes home trade in a
  proportion of about 12%). Of this large total 5,365,544 tons are
  imports and only 799,319 tons are exports, and, comparing 1906 with
  1905, we have a decrease of 34,355 tons on the exports, and an
  increase of 436,123 tons on the imports. The effect upon the railway
  problem is of course very great, inasmuch as, while the supply of
  trucks required per day in 1906 was from 1000 to 1200, about 80% of
  these had to be sent down empty to the harbour. Of the four main lines
  which centre on Genoa--(1) to Novi, which is the junction for
  Alessandria, where lines diverge to Turin and France via the Mont
  Cenis, and to Novara and Switzerland and France via the Simplon, and
  for Milan; (2) to Acqui and Piedmont; (3) to Savona, Ventimiglia and
  the French Riviera, along the coast; (4) to Spezia and Pisa--the first
  line has to take no less than 78% of the traffic. It has indeed two
  alternative double lines for the passage over the Apennines, but one
  of them has a maximum gradient of 1 : 18 and a tunnel over 2 m. long,
  and the other has a maximum gradient of 1 : 62, and a tunnel over 5 m.
  long. A marshalling station costing some £800,000, connected directly
  with the harbour by tunnels, with 31 m. of rails, capable of taking
  2000 trucks, was constructed at Campasso in 1906 north of San Pier
  d'Arena (through which till then the traffic of the first three lines,
  representing 95% of the total, had to pass). It is computed that some
  40% of the total commerce of Italy passes through Genoa; it is indeed
  the most important harbour in the western Mediterranean, with the
  exception of Marseilles, with which it carries on a keen rivalry.
  Genoa has in the past been somewhat handicapped in the race by the
  insufficiency of railway communication, which, owing to the mountains
  which encircle it, is difficult to secure, many tunnels being
  necessary. The general condition of the Italian railways has also
  affected it, and the increased traffic has not always found the
  necessary facilities in the way of a proper amount of trucks to
  receive the goods discharged, leading to considerable encumbrance of
  the port and consequent diversion of a certain amount of trade
  elsewhere, and besides this to serious temporary deficiencies in the
  coal supply of northern Italy.

  The imports of Genoa are divided into four main classes: about 50% of
  the total weight is coal, grain about 12%, cotton about 6%, and
  miscellaneous about 34%. Of the coal imports the great bulk is from
  British ports: about half comes from Cardiff and Barry, one-tenth from
  other Welsh ports, one-fifth from the Tyne ports. The amount shows an
  almost continued increase from 617,798 tons in 1881 to 2,737,919 in
  1906. The total of shipping entered in 1906 was 6586 vessels with a
  tonnage of 6,867,442, while that cleared was 6611 vessels with a
  tonnage of 6,682,104.

_History._--Genoa, being a natural harbour of the first rank, must have
been in use as a seaport as early as navigation began in the Tyrrhenian
Sea. We hear nothing from ancient authorities of its having been visited
or occupied by the Greeks, but the discovery of a Greek cemetery of the
4th century B.C.[1] proves it. The construction of the Via Venti
Settembre gave occasion for the discovery of a number of tombs, 85 in
all, the bulk of which dated from the end of the 5th and the 4th
centuries B.C. The bodies had in all cases been cremated, and were
buried in small shaft graves, the interment itself being covered by a
slab of limestone. The vases were of the last red figure style, and were
mostly imported from Greece or Magna Graecia, while the bronze objects
came from Etruria, and the brooches (_fibulae_) from Gaul. This
illustrates the early importance of Genoa as a trading port, and the
penetration of Greek customs, inhumation being the usual practice of the
Ligurians. Genoa is believed to derive its name from the fact that the
shape of this portion of the coast resembles that of a knee (_genu_).

We hear of the Romans touching here in 216 B.C., and of its destruction
by the Carthaginians in 209 B.C. and immediate restoration by the
Romans, who made it and Placentia their headquarters against the
Ligurians. It was reached from Rome by the Via Aurelia, which ran along
the north-west coast, and its prolongation, which later acquired the
name of the Via Aemilia (Scauri); for the latter was only constructed in
109 B.C., and there must have been a coast-road long before, at least as
early as 148 B.C., when the Via Postumia was built from Genua through
Libarna (mod. Serravalle, where remains of an amphitheatre and
inscriptions have been found), Dertona, Iria, Placentia, Cremona, and
thence eastwards. We also have an inscription of 117 B.C. (now preserved
in the Palazzo Municipale at Genoa) giving the text of the decision
given by the _patroni_, Q. and M. Minucius, of Genua, in accordance with
a decree of the Roman senate, in a controversy between the people of
Genua and the Langenses or Langates (also known as the Viturii), the
inhabitants of a neighbouring hill-town, which was included in the
territory of Genua. But none of the other inscriptions found in Genoa or
existing there at the present day, which are practically all sepulchral,
can be demonstrated to have belonged to the ancient city; it is equally
easy to suppose that they were brought from elsewhere by sea (Mommsen in
_Corp. Inscr. Lat._ v. p. 884). It is only from inscriptions of other
places that we know that it had municipal rights, and we do not know at
what period it obtained them. Classical authors tell us but little of
it. Strabo (iv. 6. 2, p. 202) states that it exported wood, skins and
honey, and imported olive oil and wine, though Pliny speaks of the wine
of the district as the best of Liguria (_H.N._ xiv. 67.)

The history of Genoa during the dark ages, throughout the Lombard and
Carolingian periods, is but the repetition of the general history of the
Italian communes, which succeeded in snatching from contending princes
and barons the first charters of their freedom. The patriotic spirit and
naval prowess of the Genoese, developed in their defensive wars against
the Saracens, led to the foundation of a popular constitution, and to
the rapid growth of a powerful marine. From the necessity of leaguing
together against the common Saracen foe, Genoa united with Pisa early in
the 11th century in expelling the Moslems from the island of Sardinia,
but the Sardinian territory thus acquired soon furnished occasions of
jealousy to the conquering allies, and there commenced between the two
republics the long naval wars destined to terminate so fatally for Pisa.
With not less adroitness than Venice, Genoa saw and secured all the
advantages of the great carrying trade which the crusades created
between Western Europe and the East. The seaports wrested at the same
period from the Saracens along the Spanish and Barbary coasts became
important Genoese colonies, whilst in the Levant, on the shores of the
Black Sea, and along the banks of the Euphrates were erected Genoese
fortresses of great strength. No wonder if these conquests generated in
the minds of the Venetians and the Pisans fresh jealousy against Genoa,
and provoked fresh wars; but the struggle between Genoa and Pisa was
brought to a disastrous conclusion for the latter state by the battle of
Meloria in 1284.

The commercial and naval successes of the Genoese during the middle ages
were the more remarkable because, unlike their rivals, the Venetians,
they were the unceasing prey to intestine discord--the Genoese commons
and nobles fighting against each other, rival factions amongst the
nobles themselves striving to grasp the supreme power in the state,
nobles and commons alike invoking the arbitration and rule of some
foreign captain as the sole means of obtaining a temporary truce. From
these contests of rival nobles, in which the names of Spinola and Doria
stand forth with greatest prominence, Genoa was soon drawn into the
great vortex of the Guelph and Ghibelline factions; but its recognition
of foreign authority--successively German, Neapolitan and Milanese--gave
way to a state of greater independence in 1339, when the government
assumed a more permanent form with the appointment of the first doge, an
office held at Genoa for life, in the person of Simone Boccanera.
Alternate victories and defeats of the Venetians and Genoese--the most
terrible being the defeat sustained by the Venetians at Chioggia in
1380--ended by establishing the great relative inferiority of the
Genoese rulers, who fell under the power now of France, now of the
Visconti of Milan. The Banca di S. Giorgio, with its large possessions,
mainly in Corsica, formed during this period the most stable element in
the state, until in 1528 the national spirit appeared to regain its
ancient vigour when Andrea Doria succeeded in throwing off the French
domination and restoring the old form of government. It was at this very
period--the close of the 15th and commencement of the 16th century--that
the genius and daring of a Genoese mariner, Christopher Columbus, gave
to Spain that new world, which might have become the possession of his
native state, had Genoa been able to supply him with the ships and
seamen which he so earnestly entreated her to furnish. The government as
restored by Andrea Doria, with certain modifications tending to impart
to it a more conservative character, remained unchanged until the
outbreak of the French Revolution and the creation of the Ligurian
republic. During this long period of nearly three centuries, in which
the most dramatic incident is the conspiracy of Fieschi, the Genoese
found no small compensation for their lost traffic in the East in the
vast profits which they made as the bankers of the Spanish crown and
outfitters of the Spanish armies and fleets both in the old world and
the new, and Genoa, more fortunate than many of the other cities of
Italy, was comparatively immune from foreign domination.

At the end of the 17th century the city was bombarded by the French, and
in 1746, after the defeat of Piacenza, surrendered to the Austrians, who
were, however, soon driven out. A revolt in Corsica, which began in
1729, was suppressed with the help of the French, who in 1768 took
possession of the island for themselves (see CORSICA: _History_).

The short-lived Ligurian republic was soon swallowed up in the French
empire, not, however, until Genoa had been made to experience, by the
terrible privations of the siege when Masséna held the city against the
Austrians (1800), all that was meant by a participation in the
vicissitudes of the French Revolution. In 1814 Genoa rose against the
French, on the assurance given by Lord William Bentinck that the allies
would restore to the republic its independence. It had, however, been
determined by a secret clause of the treaty of Paris that Genoa should
be incorporated with the dominions of the king of Sardinia. The
discontent created at the time by the provision of the treaty of Paris
as confirmed by the congress of Vienna had doubtless no slight share in
keeping alive in Genoa the republican spirit which, through the
influence of a young Genoese citizen, Joseph Mazzini, assumed forms of
permanent menace not only to the Sardinian monarchy but to all the
established governments of the peninsula. Even the material benefits
accruing from the union with Sardinia and the constitutional liberty
accorded to all his subjects by King Charles Albert were unable to
prevent the republican outbreak of 1848, when, after a short and sharp
struggle, the city, momentarily seized by the republican party, was
recovered by General Alfonzo La Marmora.

  Among the earlier Genoese historians the most important are
  Bartolommeo Fazio and Jacopo Bracelli, both of the 15th century, and
  Paolo Partenopeo, Jacopo Bonfadio, Oberto Foglietta and Agostino
  Giustiniano of the 16th. Paganetti wrote the ecclesiastical history of
  the city; and Accinelli and Gaggero collected material for the
  ecclesiastical archaeology. The memoirs of local writers and artists
  were treated by Soprani and Ratti. Among more general works are
  Bréquigny, _Histoire des révolutions de Gênes jusqu'en 1748_; Serra,
  _La Storia dell' antica Liguria e di Genova_ (Turin, 1834); Varesi,
  _Storia della repubblica di Genova sino al 1814_ (Genoa, 1835-1839);
  Canale, _Storia dei Genovesi_ (Genoa, 1844-1854), _Nuova istoria della
  repubblica di Genova_ (Florence, 1858), and _Storia della rep. di
  Genova dall' anno 1528 al 1550_ (Genoa, 1874); Blumenthal, _Zur
  Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsgeschichte Genua's im 12ten Jahrhundert_
  (Kalbe an der Saale, 1872); Malleson, _Studies from Genoese History_
  (London, 1875). The _Liber jurium reipublicae Genuensis_ was edited by
  Ricotti in the 7th, 8th and 9th volumes of the _Monumenta historiae
  patriae_ (Turin, 1854-1857). A great variety of interesting matter
  will be found in the _Atti della Società Ligure di storia patria_
  (1861 sqq.), and in the _Giornale Ligustico di archeologia, storia, e
  belle arti_. The history of the university has been written by Lorenzo
  Isnardi, and continued by Em. Celesia (2 vols., Genoa).     (T. As.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See _Notizie degli scavi_ (1898), 395 (A. d'Andrade), 464 (G.
    Ghirardini).



GENOVESI, ANTONIO (1712-1769), Italian writer on philosophy and
political economy, was born at Castiglione, near Salerno, on the 1st of
November 1712. He was educated for the church, and, after some
hesitation, took orders in 1736 at Salerno, where he was appointed
professor of eloquence at the theological seminary. During this period
of his life he began the study of philosophy, being especially attracted
by Locke. Dissatisfied with ecclesiastical life, Genovesi resigned his
post, and qualified as an advocate at Rome. Finding law as distasteful
as theology, he devoted himself entirely to philosophy, of which he was
appointed extraordinary professor in the university of Naples. His first
works were _Elementa Metaphysicae_ (1743 et seq.) and _Logica_ (1745).
The former is divided into four parts, Ontosophy, Cosmosophy, Theosophy,
Psychosophy, supplemented by a treatise on ethics and a dissertation on
first causes. The _Logic_, an eminently practical work, written from the
point of view of Locke, is in five parts, dealing with (1) the nature of
the human mind, its faculties and operations; (2) ideas and their kinds;
(3) the true and the false, and the various degrees of knowledge; (4)
reasoning and argumentation; (5) method and the ordering of our
thoughts. If Genovesi does not take a high rank in philosophy, he
deserves the credit of having introduced the new order of ideas into
Italy, at the same time preserving a just mean between the two extremes
of sensualism and idealism. Although bitterly opposed by the partisans
of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them
Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian
or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on
condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it
should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's
professorial labours was the _Lezioni di Commercio_, the first complete
and systematic work in Italian on economics. On the whole he belongs to
the "Mercantile" school, though he does not regard money as the only
form of wealth. Specially noteworthy in the _Lezioni_ are the sections
on human wants as the foundation of economical theory, on labour as the
source of wealth, on personal services as economic factors, and on the
united working of the great industrial functions. He advocated freedom
of the corn trade, reduction of the number of religious communities, and
deprecated regulation of the interest on loans. In the spirit of his age
he denounced the relics of medieval institutions, such as entails and
tenures in mortmain. Gioja's more important treatise owes much to
Genovesi's lectures. Genovesi died on the 22nd of September 1769.

  See C. Ugoni, _Della letteratura italiana nella seconda metà del
  secolo XVIII_ (1820-1822); A. Fabroni, _Vitae Italorum doctrina
  excellentium_ (1778-1799); R. Bobba, _Commemorazione di A. Genovesi_
  (Benevento, 1867).



GENSONNÉ, ARMAND (1758-1793), French politician, the son of a military
surgeon, was born at Bordeaux on the 10th of August 1758. He studied
law, and at the outbreak of the Revolution was an advocate of the
parlement of Bordeaux. In 1790 he became _procureur_ of the Commune, and
in July 1791 was elected by the newly created department of the Gironde
a member of the court of appeal. In the same year he was elected deputy
for the department to the Legislative Assembly. As reporter of the
diplomatic committee, in which he supported the policy of Brissot, he
proposed two of the most revolutionary measures passed by the Assembly:
the decree of accusation against the king's brothers (January 1, 1792),
and the declaration of war against the king of Bohemia and Hungary
(April 20, 1792). He was vigorous in his denunciations of the intrigues
of the court and of the "Austrian committee"; but the violence of the
extreme democrats, culminating in the events of the 10th of August,
alarmed him; and when he was returned to the National Convention, he
attacked the Commune of Paris (October 24 and 25). At the trial of Louis
XVI. he supported an appeal to the people, but voted for the death
sentence. As a member of the Committee of General Defence, and as
president of the Convention (March 7-21, 1793), he shared in the bitter
attacks of the Girondists on the Mountain; and on the fatal day of the
2nd of June his name was among the first of those inscribed on the
prosecution list. He was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 24th
of October 1793, condemned to death and guillotined on the 31st of the
month, displaying on the scaffold a stoic fortitude. Gensonné was
accounted one of the most brilliant of the little band of brilliant
orators from the Gironde, though his eloquence was somewhat cold and he
always read his speeches.



GENTIAN, botanically _Gentiana_, a large genus of herbaceous plants
belonging to the natural order Gentianaceae. The genus comprises about
300 species,--most of them perennial plants with tufted growth, growing
in hilly or mountainous districts, chiefly in the northern hemisphere,
some of the blue-flowered species ascending to a height of 16,000 ft. in
the Himalaya Mountains. The leaves are opposite, entire and smooth, and
often strongly ribbed. The flowers have a persistent 4- to 5-lobed calyx
and a 4- to 5-lobed tubular corolla; the stamens are equal in number to
the lobes of the corolla. The ovary is one-celled, with two stigmas,
either separate and rolled back or contiguous and funnel-shaped. The
fruit when ripe separates into two valves, and contains numerous small
seeds. The majority of the genus are remarkable for the deep or
brilliant blue colour of their blossoms, comparatively few having
yellow, white, or more rarely red flowers; the last are almost
exclusively found in the Andes.

Only a few species occur in Britain. _G. amarella_ (felwort) and _G.
campestris_ are small annual species growing on chalky or calcareous
hills, and bear in autumn somewhat tubular pale purple flowers; the
latter is most easily distinguished by having two of the lobes of the
calyx larger than the other two, while the former has the parts of the
calyx in fives, and equal in size. Some intermediate forms between these
two species occur, although rarely, in England; one of these, _G.
germanica_, has larger flowers of a bluer tint, spreading branches, and
a stouter stem. Some of these forms flower in spring. _G. pneumonanthe_,
the Calathian violet, is a rather rare perennial species, growing in
moist heathy places from Cumberland to Dorsetshire. Its average height
is from 6 to 9 in. It has linear leaves, and a bright blue corolla 1½
in. long, marked externally with five greenish bands, is without hairs
in its throat, and is found in perfection about the end of August. It is
the handsomest of the British species; two varieties of it are known in
cultivation, one with spotted and the other with white flowers. _G.
verna_ and _G. nivalis_ are small species with brilliant blue flowers
and small leaves. The former is a rare and local perennial, occurring,
however, in Teesdale and the county of Clare in Ireland in tolerable
abundance. It has a tufted habit of growth, and each stem bears only one
flower. It is sometimes cultivated as an edging for flower borders. _G.
nivalis_ in Britain occurs only on a few of the loftiest Scottish
mountains. It differs from the last in being an annual, and having a
more isolated habit of growth, and in the stem bearing several flowers.
On the Swiss mountains these beautiful little plants are very abundant;
and the splendid blue colour of masses of gentian in flower is a sight
which, when once seen, can never be forgotten. For ornamental purposes
several species are cultivated. The great difficulty of growing them
successfully renders them, however, less common than would otherwise be
the case; although very hardy when once established, they are very
impatient of removal, and rarely flower well until the third year after
planting. Of the ornamental species found in British gardens some of the
prettiest are _G. acaulis_, _G. verna_, _G. pyrenaica_, _G. bavarica_,
_G. septemfida_ and _G. gelida_. Perhaps the handsomest and most easily
grown is the first named, often called _Gentianella_, which produces its
large intensely blue flowers early in the spring.

All the species of the genus are remarkable for possessing an intense
but pure bitter taste and tonic properties. About forty species are used
in medicine in different parts of the world. The name of felwort given
to _G. amarella_, but occasionally applied to the whole genus, is stated
by Dr Prior to be given in allusion to these properties--_fel_ meaning
gall, and _wort_ a plant. In the same way the Chinese call _G.
asclepiadea_, and the Japanese _G. Buergeri_, "dragon's gall plants," in
common with several other very bitter plants whose roots they use in
medicine. _G. campestris_ is sometimes used in Sweden and other northern
countries as a substitute for hops.

By far the most important of the species used in medicine is _G. lutea_,
a large handsome plant 3 or 4 ft. high, growing in open grassy places on
the Alps, Apennines and Pyrenees, as well as on some of the mountainous
ranges of France and Germany, extending as far east as Bosnia and the
Danubian principalities. It has large oval strongly-ribbed leaves and
dense whorls of conspicuous yellow flowers. Its use in medicine is of
very ancient date. Pliny and Dioscorides mention that the plant was
noticed by Gentius, a king of the Illyrians, living 180-167 B.C., from
whom the name _Gentiana_ is supposed to be derived. During the middle
ages it was much employed in the cure of disease, and as an ingredient
in counter-poisons. In 1552 Hieronymus Bock (Tragus) (1498-1554), a
German priest, physician and botanist, mentions the use of the root as a
means of dilating wounds.

The root, which is the part used in medicine, is tough and flexible,
scarcely branched, and of a brownish colour and spongy texture. It has a
pure bitter taste and faint distinctive odour. The bitter principle,
known as _gentianin_, is a glucoside, soluble in water and alcohol. It
can be decomposed into glucose and gentiopicrin by the action of dilute
mineral acids. It is not precipitated by tannin or subacetate of lead. A
solution of caustic potash or soda forms with gentianin a yellow
solution, and the tincture of the root to which either of these alkalis
has been added loses its bitterness in a few days. Gentian root also
contains _gentianic acid_ (C14H10O5), which is inert and tasteless. It
forms pale yellow silky crystals, very slightly soluble in water or
ether, but soluble in hot strong alcohol and in aqueous alkaline
solutions. This substance is also called _gentianin_, _gentisin_ and
_gentisic acid_.

The root also contains 12 to 15% of an uncrystallizable sugar called
gentianose, of which fact advantage has long been taken in Switzerland
and Bavaria for the production of a bitter cordial spirit called
_Enzianbranntwein_. The use of this spirit, especially in Switzerland,
has sometimes been followed by poisonous symptoms, which have been
doubtfully attributed to inherent narcotic properties possessed by some
species of gentian, the roots of which may have been indiscriminately
collected with it; but it is quite possible that it may be due to the
contamination of the root with that of _Veratrum album_, a poisonous
plant growing at the same altitude, and having leaves extremely similar
in appearance and size to those of _G. lutea_.

Gentian is one of the most efficient of the class of substances which
act upon the stomach so as to invigorate digestion and thereby increase
the general nutrition, without exerting any direct influence upon any
other portion of the body than the alimentary canal. Having a pleasant
taste and being non-astringent (owing to the absence of tannic acid), it
is the most widely used of all bitter tonics. The British Pharmacopoeia
contains an aqueous extract (dose, 2-8 grains), a compound infusion with
orange and lemon peel (dose, ½-1 ounce), and a compound tincture with
orange peel and cardamoms (dose ½-1 drachm). It is used in dyspepsia,
chlorosis, anaemia and various other diseases, in which the tone of the
stomach and alimentary canal is deficient, and is sometimes added to
purgative medicines to increase and improve their action. In veterinary
medicine it is also used as a tonic, and enters into a well-known
compound called _diapente_ as a chief ingredient.



GENTIANACEAE (the gentian family), in botany, an order of Dicotyledons
belonging to the sub-class Sympetalae or Gamopetalae, and containing
about 750 species in 64 genera. It has a world-wide distribution, and
representatives adapted to very various conditions, including, for
instance, alpine plants, like the true gentians (_Gentiana_), meadow
plants such as the British _Chlora perfoliata_ (yellow-wort) or
_Erythraea Centaurium_ (centaury), marsh plants such as _Menyanthes
trifoliata_ (bog-bean), floating water plants such as _Limnanthemum_, or
steppe and sea-coast plants such as _Cicendia_. They are annual or
perennial herbs, rarely becoming shrubby, and generally growing erect,
with a characteristic forked manner of branching; the Asiatic genus
_Crawfurdia_ has a climbing stem; they are often low-growing and
caespitose, as in the alpine gentians.

  The leaves are in decussating pairs (that is, each pair is in a plane
  at right angles to the previous or succeeding pair), except in
  _Menyanthes_ and a few allied aquatic or marsh genera, where they are
  alternate or radical. Several genera, chiefly American, are
  saprophytes, forming slender low-growing herbs, containing little or
  no chlorophyll and with leaves reduced to scales; such are _Voyria_
  and _Leiphaimos_, mainly tropical American. The inflorescence is
  generally cymose, often dichasial, recalling that of Caryophyllaceae,
  the lateral branches often becoming monochasial; it is sometimes
  reduced to a few flowers or one only, as in some gentians. The flowers
  are hermaphrodite, and regular with parts in 4's and 5's, with
  reduction to 2 in the pistil; in _Chlora_ there are 6 to 8 members in
  each whorl. The calyx generally forms a tube with teeth or segments
  which usually overlap in the bud. The corolla shows great variety in
  form; thus among the British genera it is rotate in _Chlora_,
  funnel-shaped in _Erythraea_, and cylindrical, bell-shaped,
  funnel-shaped or salver-shaped in _Gentiana_; the segments are
  generally twisted to the right in the bud; the throat is often
  fimbriate or bears scales. The stamens, as many as, and alternating
  with, the corolla-segments, are inserted at very different heights on
  the corolla-tube; the filaments are slender, the anthers are usually
  attached dorsally, are versatile, and dehisce by two longitudinal
  slits; after escape of the pollen they sometimes become spirally
  twisted as in _Erythraea_. Dimorphic flowers are frequent, as in the
  bog-bean (_Menyanthes_). There is considerable variation in the size,
  shape and external markings of the pollen grains, and a division of
  the order into tribes and subtribes based primarily on pollen
  characters has been proposed. The form of the honey-secreting
  developments of the disk at the base of the ovary also shows
  considerable variety. The superior ovary is generally one-chambered,
  with two variously developed parietal placentas, which occasionally
  meet, forming two chambers; the ovules are generally very numerous and
  anatropous or half-anatropous in form. The style, which varies much in
  length, is simple, with an undivided or bilobed or bipartite stigma.
  The fruit is generally a membranous or leathery capsule, splitting
  septicidally into two valves; the seeds are small and numerous, and
  contain a small embryo in a copious endosperm.

  [Illustration: Central figure and figs. 1-4 after Curtis, _Flora
  Londinensis_.

  _Gentiana Amarella._

    1, A small form, natural size.
    2, Calyx and protruding style.
    3, Corolla, laid open.
    4, Capsule, bursting into two valves, and showing the seeds attached
      to their margins.
    5, Floral diagram.]

  The brilliant colour of the flowers, often occurring in large numbers
  (as in the alpine gentians), the presence of honey-glands and the
  frequency of dimorphy and dichogamy, are adaptations for pollination
  by insect visitors. In the true gentians (_Gentiana_) the flowers of
  different species are adapted for widely differing types of insect
  visitors. Thus _Gentiana lutea_, with a rotate yellow corolla and
  freely exposed honey, is adapted to short-tongued insect visitors; _G.
  Pneumonanthe_, with a long-tubed, bright blue corolla, is visited by
  bumble bees; and _G. verna_, with a still longer narrower tube, is
  visited by Lepidoptera.

  _Gentiana_, the largest genus, contains nearly three hundred species,
  distributed over Europe (including arctic), five being British, the
  mountains of Asia, south-east Australia and New Zealand, the whole of
  North America and along the Andes to Cape Horn; it does not occur in
  Africa. Bitter principles are general in the vegetative parts,
  especially in the rhizomes and roots, and have given a medicinal value
  to many species, e.g. _Gentiana lutea_ and others.



GENTILE, in the English Bible, the term generally applied to those who
were not of the Jewish race. It is an adaptation of the Lat. _gentilis_,
of or belonging to the same _gens_, the clan or family; as defined in
Paulus ex Festo "gentilis dicitur et ex eodem genere ortus et is qui
simili nomine; ut ait Cincius, gentiles mihi sunt, qui meo nomine
appellantur." In post-Augustan Latin _gentilis_ became wider in meaning,
following the usage of _gens_, in the sense of race, nation, and meant
"national," belonging to the same race. Later still the word came to
mean "foreign," i.e. other than Roman, and was so used in the Vulgate,
with _gentes_, to translate the Hebrew _goyyim_, nations, LXX. [Greek:
ethnê], the non-Israelitish peoples (see further JEWS).



GENTILE DA FABRIANO (c. 1370-c. 1450), Italian painter, was born at
Fabriano about 1370. He is said to have been a pupil of Allegretto di
Nuzio, and has been supposed to have received most of his early
instruction from Fra Angelico, to whose manner his bears in some
respects a close similarity. About 1411 he went to Venice, where by
order of the doge and senate he was engaged to adorn the great hall of
the ducal palace with frescoes from the life of Barbarossa. He executed
this work so entirely to the satisfaction of his employers that they
granted him a pension for life, and accorded him the privilege of
wearing the habit of a Venetian noble. About 1422 he went to Florence,
where in 1423 he painted an "Adoration of the Magi" for the church of
Santa Trinita, which is preserved in the Florence Accademia; this
painting is considered his best work now extant. To the same period
belongs a "Madonna and Child," which is now in the Berlin Museum. He had
by this time attained a wide reputation, and was engaged to paint
pictures for various churches, more particularly Siena, Perugia, Gubbio
and Fabriano. About 1426 he was called to Rome by Martin V. to adorn the
church of St John Lateran with frescoes from the life of John the
Baptist. He also executed a portrait of the pope attended by ten
cardinals, and in the church of St Francesco Romano a painting of the
"Virgin and Child attended by St Benedict and St Joseph," which was much
esteemed by Michelangelo, but is no longer in existence. Gentile da
Fabriano died about 1450. Michelangelo said of him that his works
resembled his name, meaning noble or refined. They are full of a quiet
and serene joyousness, and he has a naïve and innocent delight in
splendour and in gold ornaments, with which, however, his pictures are
not overloaded.



GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA and ORAZIO DE', Italian painters.

ORAZIO (c. 1565-1646) is generally named Orazio Lomi de' Gentileschi; it
appears that De' Gentileschi was his correct surname, Lomi being the
surname which his mother had borne during her first marriage. He was
born at Pisa, and studied under his half-brother Aurelio Lomi, whom in
course of time he surpassed. He afterwards went to Rome, and was
associated with the landscape-painter Agostino Tasi, executing the
figures for the landscape backgrounds of this artist in the Palazzo
Rospigliosi, and it is said in the great hall of the Quirinal Palace,
although by some authorities the figures in the last-named building are
ascribed to Lanfranco. His best works are "Saints Cecilia and Valerian,"
in the Palazzo Borghese, Rome; "David after the death of Goliath," in
the Palazzo Doria, Genoa; and some works in the royal palace, Turin,
noticeable for vivid and uncommon colouring. At an advanced age
Gentileschi went to England at the invitation of Charles I., and he was
employed in the palace at Greenwich. Vandyck included him in his
portraits of a hundred illustrious men. His works generally are strong
in shadow and positive in colour. He died in England in 1646.

ARTEMISIA (1590-1642), Orazio's daughter, studied first under Guido,
acquired much renown for portrait-painting, and considerably excelled
her father's fame. She was a beautiful and elegant woman; her likeness,
limned by her own hand, is to be seen in Hampton Court. Her most
celebrated composition is "Judith and Holofernes," in the Uffizi
Gallery; certainly a work of singular energy, and giving ample proof of
executive faculty, but repulsive and unwomanly in its physical horror.
She accompanied her father to England, but did not remain there long;
the best picture which she produced for Charles I. was "David with the
head of Goliath." Artemisia refused an offer of marriage from Agostino
Tasi, and bestowed her hand on Pier Antonio Schiattesi, continuing,
however, to use her own surname. She settled in Naples, whither she
returned after her English sojourn; she lived there in no little
splendour, and there she died in 1642. She had a daughter and perhaps
other children.



GENTILI, ALBERICO (1552-1608), Italian jurist, who has great claims to
be considered the founder of the science of international law, second
son of Matteo Gentili, a physician of noble family and scientific
eminence, was born on the 14th of January 1552 at Sanginesio, a small
town of the march of Ancona which looks down from the slopes of the
Apennines upon the distant Adriatic. After taking the degree of doctor
of civil law at the university of Perugia, and holding a judicial office
at Ascoli, he returned to his native city, and was entrusted with the
task of recasting its statutes, but, sharing the Protestant opinions of
his father, shared also, together with a brother, Scipio, afterwards a
famous professor at Altdorf, his flight to Carniola, where in 1579
Matteo was appointed physician to the duchy. The Inquisition condemned
the fugitives as contumacious, and they soon received orders to quit the
dominions of Austria.

Alberico set out for England, travelling by way of Tübingen and
Heidelberg, and everywhere meeting with the reception to which his
already high reputation entitled him. He arrived at Oxford in the autumn
of 1580, with a commendatory letter from the earl of Leicester, at that
time chancellor of the university, and was shortly afterwards qualified
to teach by being admitted to the same degree which he had taken at
Perugia. His lectures on Roman law soon became famous, and the
dialogues, disputations and commentaries, which he published henceforth
in rapid succession, established his position as an accomplished
civilian, of the older and severer type, and secured his appointment in
1587 to the regius professorship of civil law. It was, however, rather
by an application of the old learning to the new questions suggested by
the modern relations of states that his labours have produced their most
lasting result. In 1584 he was consulted by government as to the proper
course to be pursued with Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, who had been
detected in plotting against Elizabeth. He chose the topic to which his
attention had thus been directed as a subject for a disputation when
Leicester and Sir Philip Sidney visited the schools at Oxford in the
same year; and this was six months later expanded into a book, the _De
legationibus libri tres_. In 1588 Alberico selected the law of war as
the subject of the law disputations at the annual "Act" which took place
in July; and in the autumn published in London the _De Jure Belli
commentatio prima_. A second and a third _Commentatio_ followed, and the
whole matter, with large additions and improvements, appeared at Hanau,
in 1598, as the _De Jure Belli libri tres_. It was doubtless in
consequence of the reputation gained by these works that Gentili became
henceforth more and more engaged in forensic practice, and resided
chiefly in London, leaving his Oxford work to be partly discharged by a
deputy. In 1600 he was admitted to be a member of Gray's Inn, and in
1605 was appointed standing counsel to the king of Spain. He died on the
19th of June 1608, and was buried, by the side of Dr Matteo Gentili, who
had followed his son to England, in the churchyard of St Helen's,
Bishopsgate. By his wife, Hester de Peigni, he left two sons, Robert and
Matthew, and a daughter, Anna, who married Sir John Colt. His notes of
the cases in which he was engaged for the Spaniards were posthumously
published in 1613 at Hanau, as _Hispanicae advocationis libri duo_. This
was in accordance with his last wishes; but his direction that the
remainder of his MSS. should be burnt was not complied with, since
fifteen volumes of them found their way, at the beginning of the 19th
century, from Amsterdam to the Bodleian library.

The true history of Gentili and of his principal writings has only been
ascertained in recent years, in consequence of a revived appreciation of
the services which he rendered to international law. The movement to do
him honour originated in 1875 in England, as the result of the inaugural
lecture of Prof. T.E. Holland, and was warmly taken up in Italy. In
spreading through Europe it encountered two curious cross-currents of
opinion,--one the ultra-Catholic, which three centuries before had
ordered his name to be erased from all public documents and placed his
works in the _Index_; another the narrowly-Dutch, which is, it seems,
needlessly careful of the supremacy of Grotius. These two currents
resulted respectively in a bust of Garcia Moreno being placed in the
Vatican, and in the unveiling in 1886, with much international oratory,
of a fine statue of Grotius at Delft. The English committee, under the
honorary presidency of Prince Leopold, in 1877 erected a monument to the
memory of Gentili in St Helen's church, and saw to the publication of a
new edition of the _De Jure Belli_. The Italian committee, of which
Prince (afterwards King) Humbert was honorary president, was less
successful. It was only in 1908, the tercentenary of the death of
Alberico, that the statue of the great heretic was at length unveiled in
his native city by the minister of public instruction, in the presence
of numerous deputations from Italian cities and universities. Preceding
writers had dealt with various international questions, but they dealt
with them singly, and with a servile submission to the decisions of the
church. It was left to Gentili to grasp as a whole the relations of
states one to another, to distinguish international questions from
questions with which they are more or less intimately connected, and to
attempt their solution by principles entirely independent of the
authority of Rome. He uses the reasonings of the civil and even the
canon law, but he proclaims as his real guide the _Jus Naturae_, the
highest common sense of mankind, by which historical precedents are to
be criticized and, if necessary, set aside.

His faults are not few. His style is prolix, obscure, and to the modern
reader pedantic enough; but a comparison of his greatest work with what
had been written upon the same subject by, for instance, Belli, or Soto,
or even Ayala, will show that he greatly improved upon his predecessors,
not only by the fulness with which he has worked out points of detail,
but also by clearly separating the law of war from martial law, and by
placing the subject once for all upon a non-theological basis. If, on
the other hand, the same work be compared with the _De Jure Belli et
Pacis_ of Grotius, it is at once evident that the later writer is
indebted to the earlier, not only for a large portion of his
illustrative erudition, but also for all that is commendable in the
method and arrangement of the treatise.

  The following is probably a complete list of the writings of Gentili,
  with the places and dates of their first publication: _De juris
  interpretibus dialogi sex_ (London, 1582); _Lectionum et epist. quae
  ad jus civile pertinent libri tres_ (London, 1583-1584); _De
  legationibus libri tres_ (London, 1585); _Legal. comitiorum Oxon.
  actio_ (London, 1585-1586); _De divers. temp. appellationibus_ (Hanau,
  1586); _De nascendi tempore disputatio_ (Witteb., 1586);
  _Disputationum decas prima_ (London, 1587); _Conditionum liber
  singularis_ (London, 1587); _De jure belli comm. prima_ (London,
  1588); _secunda, ib._ (1588-1589); _tertia_ (1589); _De injustitia
  bellica Romanorum_ (Oxon, 1590); _Ad tit. de Malef, et Math, de Prof.
  et Med._ (Hanau, 1593); _De jure belli libri tres_ (Hanau, 1598); _De
  armis Romanis, &c._ (Hanau, 1599); _De actoribus et de abusu mendacii_
  (Hanau, 1599); _De ludis scenicis epist. duae_ (Middleburg, 1600); _Ad
  I. Maccabaeorum et de linguarum mistura disp._ (Frankfurt, 1600);
  _Lectiones Virgilianae_ (Hanau, 1600); _De nuptiis libri septem_
  (1601); _In tit. si quis principi, et ad leg. Jul. maiest._ (Hanau,
  1604); _De latin, vet. Bibl._ (Hanau, 1604); _De libro Pyano_ (Oxon,
  1604); _Laudes Acad. Perus. et Oxon._ (Hanau, 1605); _De unione
  Angliae et Scotiae_ (London, 1605); _Disputationes tres, de libris
  jur. can., de libris jur. civ., de latinitate vet. vers._ (Hanau,
  1605); _Regales disput. tres, de pot. regis absoluta, de unione
  regnorum, de vi civium_ (London, 1605); _Hispanicae advocationis libri
  duo_ (Hanau, 1613); _In tit. de verb. signif._ (Hanau, 1614); _De
  legatis in test._ (Amsterdam, 1661). An edition of the _Opera omnia_,
  commenced at Naples in 1770, was cut short by the death of the
  publisher, Gravier, after the second volume. Of his numerous
  unpublished writings, Gentili complained that four volumes were lost
  "pessimo pontificiorum facinore," meaning probably that they were left
  behind in his flight to Carniola.

  AUTHORITIES.--Several tracts by the Abate Benigni in Colucci,
  _Antichità Picene_ (1790); a dissertation by W. Reiger annexed to the
  _Program of the Groningen Gymnasium_ for 1867; an inaugural lecture
  delivered in 1874 by T.E. Holland, translated into Italian, with
  additions by the author, by A. Saffi (1884); the preface to a new
  edition of the _De jure belli_ (1877) and _Studies in International
  Law_ (1898) (which see, for details as to the family and MSS. of
  Gentili), by the same; works by Valdarnini and Foglietti (1875),
  Speranza and De Giorgi (1876), Fiorini (a translation of the _De jure
  belli_, with essay, 1877), A. Saffi (1878), L. Marson (1885), M. Thamm
  (1896), B. Brugi (1898), T.A. Walker (an analysis of the principal
  works of Gentili) in his _History of the Law of Nations_, vol.
  i.(1899); H. Nézarel, in Pillet's _Fondateurs de droit international_
  (1904); E. Agabiti (1908). See also E. Comba, in the _Rivista
  Christiana_ (1876-1877); Sir T. Twiss, in the _Law Review_ (1878);
  articles in the _Revue de droit international_ (1875-1878, 1883, 1886,
  1908); O. Scalvanti, in the _Annali dell' Univ. di Perugia_, N.S.,
  vol. viii. (1898).     (T. E. H.)



GENTLE (through the Fr. _gentil_, from Lat. _gentilis_, belonging to the
same _gens_, or family), properly an epithet of one born of a "good
family"; the Latin _generosus_, "well born" (see GENTLEMAN), contrasted
with "noble" on the one side and "simple" on the other. The word
followed the wider application of the word "gentleman"; implying the
manners, character and breeding proper to one to whom that name could be
applied, courteous, polite; hence, with no reference to its original
meaning, free from violence or roughness, mild, soft, kind or tender.
With a physical meaning of soft to the touch, the word is used
substantively of the maggot of the bluebottle fly, used as a bait by
fishermen. At the end of the 16th century the French _gentil_ was again
adapted into English in the form "gentile," later changed to "genteel."
The word was common in the 17th and 18th centuries as applied to
behaviour, manner of living, dress, &c., suitable or proper to persons
living in a position in society above the ordinary, hence polite,
elegant. From the early part of the 19th century it has also been used
in an ironical sense, and applied chiefly to those who pay an excessive
and absurd importance to the outward marks of respectability as evidence
of being in a higher rank in society than that to which they properly
belong.



GENTLEMAN (from Lat. _gentilis_, "belonging to a race or _gens_," and
"man"; Fr. _gentilhomme_, Span, _gentil hombre_, Ital. _gentil huomo_),
in its original and strict signification, a term denoting a man of good
family, the Lat. _generosus_ (its invariable translation in
English-Latin documents). In this sense it is the equivalent of the Fr.
_gentilhomme_, "nobleman," which latter term has in Great Britain been
long confined to the peerage (see NOBILITY); and the term "gentry"
("gentrice" from O. Fr. _genterise_ for _gentelise_) has much of the
significance of the Fr. _noblesse_ or the Ger. _Adel_. This was what was
meant by the rebels under John Ball in the 14th century when they
repeated:

  "When Adam delved and Eve span,
   Who was then the gentleman?"

Selden (_Titles of Honor_, 1672), discussing the title "gentleman,"
speaks of "our English use of it" as "convertible with _nobilis_," and
describes in connexion with it the forms of ennobling in various
European countries. William Harrison, writing a century earlier, says
"gentlemen be those whom their race and blood, or at the least their
virtues, do make noble and known." But for the complete gentleman the
possession of a coat of arms was in his time considered necessary; and
Harrison gives the following account of how gentlemen were made in
Shakespeare's day:

  "... gentlemen whose ancestors are not known to come in with William
  duke of Normandy (for of the Saxon races yet remaining we now make
  none accompt, much less of the British issue) do take their beginning
  in England after this manner in our times. Who soever studieth the
  laws of the realm, who so abideth in the university, giving his mind
  to his book, or professeth physic and the liberal sciences, or beside
  his service in the room of a captain in the wars, or good counsel
  given at home, whereby his commonwealth is benefited, can live without
  manual labour, and thereto is able and will bear the port, charge and
  countenance of a gentleman, he shall for money have a coat and arms
  bestowed upon him by heralds (who in the charter of the same do of
  custom pretend antiquity and service, and many gay things) and
  thereunto being made so good cheap be called master, which is the
  title that men give to esquires and gentlemen, and reputed for a
  gentleman ever after. Which is so much the less to be disallowed of,
  for that the prince doth lose nothing by it, the gentleman being so
  much subject to taxes and public payments as is the yeoman or
  husbandman, which he likewise doth bear the gladlier for the saving of
  his reputation. Being called also to the wars (for with the government
  of the commonwealth he medleth little) what soever it cost him, he
  will both array and arm himself accordingly, and show the more manly
  courage, and all the tokens of the person which he representeth. No
  man hath hurt by it but himself, who peradventure will go in wider
  buskins than his legs will bear, or as our proverb saith, now and then
  bear a bigger sail than his boat is able to sustain."[1]

In this way Shakespeare himself was turned, by the grant of his coat of
arms, from a "vagabond" into a gentleman.

The fundamental idea of "gentry," symbolized in this grant of
coat-armour, had come to be that of the essential superiority of the
fighting man; and, as Selden points out (p. 707), the fiction was
usually maintained in the granting of arms "to an ennobled person though
of the long Robe wherein he hath little use of them as they mean a
shield." At the last the wearing of a sword on all occasions was the
outward and visible sign of a "gentleman"; and the custom survives in
the sword worn with "court dress." This idea that a gentleman must have
a coat of arms, and that no one is a "gentleman" without one is,
however, of comparatively late growth, the outcome of the natural desire
of the heralds to magnify their office and collect fees for registering
coats; and the same is true of the conception of "gentlemen" as a
separate class. That a distinct order of "gentry" existed in England
very early has, indeed, been often assumed, and is supported by weighty
authorities. Thus, the late Professor Freeman (_Ency. Brit._ xvii. p.
540 b, 9th ed.) said: "Early in the 11th century the order of
'gentlemen' as a separate class seems to be forming as something new. By
the time of the conquest of England the distinction seems to have been
fully established." Stubbs (_Const. Hist._, ed. 1878, iii. 544, 548)
takes the same view. Sir George Sitwell, however, has conclusively
proved that this opinion is based on a wrong conception of the
conditions of medieval society, and that it is wholly opposed to the
documentary evidence. The fundamental social cleavage in the middle ages
was between the _nobiles_, i.e. the tenants in chivalry, whether earls,
barons, knights, esquires or franklins, and the _ignobiles_, i.e. the
villeins, citizens and burgesses;[2] and between the most powerful noble
and the humblest franklin there was, until the 15th century, no
"separate class of gentlemen." Even so late as 1400 the word "gentleman"
still only had the sense of _generosus_, and could not be used as a
personal description denoting rank or quality, or as the title of a
class. Yet after 1413 we find it increasingly so used; and the list of
landowners in 1431, printed in _Feudal Aids_, contains, besides knights,
esquires, yeomen and husbandmen (i.e. householders), a fair number who
are classed as "gentilman."

Sir George Sitwell gives a lucid explanation of this development, the
incidents of which are instructive and occasionally amusing. The
immediate cause was the statute I Henry V. cap. v. of 1413, which laid
down that in all original writs of action, personal appeals and
indictments, in which process of outlawry lies, the "estate degree or
mystery" of the defendant must be stated, as well as his present or
former domicile. Now the Black Death (1349) had put the traditional
social organization out of gear. Before that the younger sons of the
_nobiles_ had received their share of the farm stock, bought or hired
land, and settled down as agriculturists in their native villages. Under
the new conditions this became increasingly impossible, and they were
forced to seek their fortunes abroad in the French wars, or at home as
hangers-on of the great nobles. These men, under the old system, had no
definite status; but they were _generosi_, men of birth, and, being now
forced to describe themselves, they disdained to be classed with
franklins (now sinking in the social scale), still more with yeomen or
husbandmen; they chose, therefore, to be described as "gentlemen." On
the character of these earliest "gentlemen" the records throw a lurid
light. According to Sir George Sitwell (p. 76), "the premier gentleman
of England, as the matter now stands, is 'Robert Erdeswyke of Stafford,
gentilman,'" who had served among the men-at-arms of Lord Talbot at
Agincourt (ib. note). He is typical of his class. "Fortunately--for the
gentle reader will no doubt be anxious to follow in his footsteps--some
particulars of his life may be gleaned from the public records. He was
charged at the Staffordshire Assizes with housebreaking, wounding with
intent to kill, and procuring the murder of one Thomas Page, who was cut
to pieces while on his knees begging for his life." If any earlier
claimant to the title of "gentleman" be discovered, Sir George Sitwell
predicts that it will be within the same year (1414) and in connexion
with some similar disreputable proceedings.[3]

From these unpromising beginnings the separate order of "gentlemen" was
very slowly evolved. The first "gentleman" commemorated on an existing
monument was John Daundelyon of Margate (d. c. 1445); the first
gentleman to enter the House of Commons, hitherto composed mainly of
"valets," was "William Weston, gentylman"; but even in the latter half
of the 15th century the order was not clearly established. As to the
connexion of "gentilesse" with the official grant or recognition of
coat-armour, that is a profitable fiction invented and upheld by the
heralds; for coat-armour was but the badge assumed by gentlemen to
distinguish them in battle, and many gentlemen of long descent never had
occasion to assume it, and never did. This fiction, however, had its
effect; and by the 16th century, as has been already pointed out, the
official view had become clearly established that "gentlemen"
constituted a distinct order, and that the badge of this distinction was
the heralds' recognition of the right to bear arms. It is unfortunate
that this view, which is quite unhistorical and contradicted by the
present practice of many undoubtedly "gentle" families of long descent,
has of late years been given a wide currency in popular manuals of
heraldry.

In this narrow sense, however, the word "gentleman" has long since
become obsolete. The idea of "gentry" in the continental sense of
_noblesse_ is extinct in England, and is likely to remain so, in spite
of the efforts of certain enthusiasts to revive it (see A.C. Fox-Davies,
_Armorial Families_, Edinburgh, 1895). That it once existed has been
sufficiently shown; but the whole spirit and tendency of English
constitutional and social development tended to its early destruction.
The comparative good order of England was not favourable to the
continuance of a class, developed during the foreign and civil wars of
the 14th and 15th centuries, for whom fighting was the sole honourable
occupation. The younger sons of noble families became apprentices in the
cities, and there grew up a new aristocracy of trade. Merchants are
still "citizens" to William Harrison; but he adds "they often change
estate with gentlemen, as gentlemen do with them, by a mutual conversion
of the one into the other." A frontier line between classes so
indefinite could not be maintained, especially as in England there was
never a "nobiliary prefix" to stamp a person as a gentleman by his
surname, as in France or Germany.[4] The process was hastened, moreover,
by the corruption of the Heralds' College and by the ease with which
coats of arms could be assumed without a shadow of claim; which tended
to bring the "science of armory" into contempt. The word "gentleman" as
an index of rank had already become of doubtful value before the great
political and social changes of the 19th century gave to it a wider and
essentially higher significance. The change is well illustrated in the
definitions given in the successive editions of the _Encyclopaedia
Britannica_. In the 5th edition (1815) "a gentleman is one, who without
any title, bears a coat of arms, or whose ancestors have been freemen."
In the 7th edition (1845) it still implies a definite social status:
"All above the rank of yeomen." In the 8th edition (1856) this is still
its "most extended sense"; "in a more limited sense" it is defined in
the same words as those quoted above from the 5th edition; but the
writer adds, "By courtesy this title is generally accorded to all
persons above the rank of common tradesmen when their manners are
indicative of a certain amount of refinement and intelligence." The
Reform Bill of 1832 has done its work; the "middle classes" have come
into their own; and the word "gentleman" has come in common use to
signify not a distinction of blood, but a distinction of position,
education and manners. The test is no longer good birth, or the right to
bear arms, but the capacity to mingle on equal terms in good society. In
its best use, moreover, "gentleman" involves a certain superior standard
of conduct, due, to quote the 8th edition once more, to "that
self-respect and intellectual refinement which manifest themselves in
unrestrained yet delicate manners." The word "gentle," originally
implying a certain social status, had very early come to be associated
with the standard of manners expected from that status. Thus by a sort
of punning process the "gentleman" becomes a "gentle-man." Chaucer in
the _Meliboeus_ (c. 1386) says: "Certes he sholde not be called a gentil
man, that ... ne dooth his diligence and bisynesse, to kepen his good
name"; and in the _Wife of Bath's Tale_:

  "Loke who that is most vertuous alway
   Prive and apert, and most entendeth ay
   To do the gentil dedes that he can
   And take him for the gretest gentilman,"

and In the _Romance of the Rose_ (c. 1400) we find "he is gentil bycause
he doth as longeth to a gentilman." This use develops through the
centuries, until in 1714 we have Steele, in the _Tatler_ (No. 207),
laying down that "the appellation of Gentleman is never to be affixed to
a man's circumstances, but to his Behaviour in them," a limitation
over-narrow even for the present day. In this connexion, too, may be
quoted the old story, told by some--very improbably--of James II., of
the monarch who replied to a lady petitioning him to make her son a
gentleman, "I could make him a nobleman, but God Almighty could not make
him a gentleman." Selden, however, in referring to similar stories "that
no Charter can make a Gentleman, which is cited as out of the mouth of
some great Princes that have said it," adds that "they without question
understood Gentleman for _Generosus_ in the antient sense, or as if it
came from _Gentilis_ in that sense, as _Gentilis_ denotes one of a noble
Family, or indeed for a Gentleman by birth." For "no creation could make
a man of another blood than he is." The word "gentleman," used in the
wide sense with which birth and circumstances have nothing to do, is
necessarily incapable of strict definition. For "to behave like a
gentleman" may mean little or much, according to the person by whom the
phrase is used; "to spend money like a gentleman" may even be no great
praise; but "to conduct a business like a gentleman" implies a standard
at least as high as that involved in the phrase "noblesse oblige." In
this sense of a person of culture, character and good manners the word
"gentleman" has supplied a gap in more than one foreign language.

The evolution of this meaning of "gentleman" reflects very accurately
that of English society; and there are not wanting signs that the
process of evolution, in the one as in the other, is not complete. The
indefinableness of the word mirrors the indefinite character of
"society" in England; and the use by "the masses" of "gentleman" as a
mere synonym for "man" has spread _pari passu_ with the growth of
democracy. It is a protest against implied inferiority, and is cherished
as the modern French _bourgeois_ cherishes his right of duelling with
swords, under the _ancien régime_ a prerogative of the _noblesse_. Nor
is there much justification for the denunciation by purists of the
"vulgarization" and "abuse" of the "grand old name of gentleman." Its
strict meaning has now fallen completely obsolete. Its current meaning
varies with every class of society that uses it. But it always implies
some sort of excellency of manners or morals. It may by courtesy be
over-loosely applied by one common man to another; but the common man
would understand the reproach conveyed in "You're no gentleman."

  AUTHORITIES.--Selden, _Titles of Honor_ (London, 1672); William
  Harrison, _Description of England_, ed. G.F.J. Furnivall for the New
  Shakspere Soc. (London, 1877-1878); Sir George Sitwell, "The English
  Gentleman," in the _Ancestor_, No. 1 (Westminster, April 1902);
  _Peacham's Compleat Gentleman_ (1634), with an introduction by G.S.
  Gordon (Oxford, 1906); A. Smythe-Palmer, D.D., _The Ideal of a
  Gentleman, or a Mirror for Gentlefolk: A Portrayal in Literature from
  the Earliest Times_ (London, 1908), a very exhaustive collection of
  extracts from authors so wide apart as Ptah-hotep (3300 B.C.) and
  William Watson, arranged under headings: "The Historical Idea of a
  Gentleman," "The Herald's Gentleman," "The Poet's Gentleman," &c.
       (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Description of England_, bk. ii. ch. v. p. 128. Henry Peacham,
    in his _Compleat Gentleman_ (1634), takes this matter more seriously.
    "Neither must we honour or esteem," he writes, "those ennobled, or
    made gentle in blood, who by mechanic and base means have raked up a
    mass of wealth ... or have purchased an ill coat (of arms) at a good
    rate; no more than a player upon the stage, for wearing a lord's cast
    suit: since nobility hangeth not upon the airy esteem of vulgar
    opinion, but is indeed of itself essential and absolute" (Reprint, p.
    3). Elsewhere (p. 161) he deplores the abuse of heraldry, which had
    even in his day produced "all the world over such a medley of coats"
    that, but for the commendable activity of the earls marshals, he
    feared that yeomen would soon be "as rare in _England_ as they are in
    _France_." See also an amusing instance from the time of Henry VIII.,
    given in "The Gentility of Richard Barker," by Oswald Barron, in the
    _Ancestor_, vol. ii. (July 1902).

  [2] Even this classification would seem to need modifying. For
    certain of the great patrician families of the cities were certainly
    _nobiles_.

  [3] The designation "gentilman" is, indeed, found some two centuries
    earlier. In the _Inquisitio maneriorum Ecclesiae S. Pauli Londin._ of
    A.D. 1222 (W.A. Hale, _Domesday of St Paul's_, Camden Soc., 1858, p.
    80) occurs the entry: _Adam gentilma dim acra, p' iii. d._ This is
    probably the earliest record of the "grand old name of gentleman";
    but Adam, who held half an acre at a rent of three pence--less by
    half than that held by "Ralph the bondsman" (Rad' le bunde) in the
    same list--was certainly not a "gentleman." "Gentilman" here was a
    nickname, perhaps suggested by Adam's name, and thus in some sort
    anticipating the wit of the famous couplet repeated by John Ball's
    rebels.

  [4] The prefix "de" attached to some English names is in no sense
    "nobiliary." In Latin documents _de_ was the equivalent of the
    English "of," as _de la_ of "at" (so de la Pole for Atte Poole, cf.
    such names as Attwood, Attwater). In English this "of" was in the
    15th century dropped; e.g. the grandson of Johannes de Stoke (John of
    Stoke) in a 14th-century document becomes John Stoke. In modern
    times, under the influence of romanticism, the prefix "de" has been
    in some cases "revived" under a misconception, e.g. "de Trafford,"
    "de Hoghton." Very rarely it is correctly retained as derived from a
    foreign place-name, e.g. de Grey.



GENTZ, FRIEDRICH VON (1764-1832), German publicist and statesman, was
born at Breslau on the 2nd of May 1764. His father was an official, his
mother an Ancillon, distantly related to the Prussian minister of that
name. On his father's transference to Berlin, as director of the mint,
the boy was sent to the Joachimsthal gymnasium there; his brilliant
talents, however, did not develop until later, when at the university of
Königsberg he fell under the influence of Kant. But though his intellect
was sharpened and his zeal for learning quickened by the great thinker's
influence, Kant's "categorical imperative" did not prevent him from
yielding to the taste for wine, women and high play which pursued him
through life. When in 1785 he returned to Berlin, he received the
appointment of secret secretary to the royal _Generaldirectorium_, his
talents soon gaining him promotion to the rank of councillor for war
(_Kriegsrath_). During an illness, which kept him virtuous by confining
him to his room, he studied French and English, gaining a mastery of
these languages which, at that time exceedingly rare, opened up for him
opportunities for a diplomatic career.

His interest in public affairs was, however, first aroused by the
outbreak of the French Revolution. Like most quick-witted young men, he
greeted this at first with enthusiasm; but its subsequent developments
cooled his ardour and he was converted to more conservative counsels by
Burke's _Essay on the French Revolution_, a translation of which into
German (1794) was his first literary venture. This was followed, next
year, by translations of works on the Revolution by Mallet du Pan and
Mounier, and at this time he also founded and edited a monthly journal,
the _Neue deutsche Monatsschrift_, in which for five years he wrote,
mainly on historical and political questions, maintaining the principles
of British constitutionalism against those of revolutionary France. The
knowledge he displayed of the principles and practice of finance was
especially remarkable. In 1797, at the instance of English statesmen, he
published a translation of a history of French finance by François
d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an eminent Genevese exile naturalized and
knighted in England, extracts from which he had previously given in his
journal. His literary output at this time, all inspired by a moderate
Liberalism, was astounding, and included an essay on the results of the
discovery of America, and another, written in French, on the English
financial system (_Essai sur l'état de l'administration des finances de
la Grande-Bretagne_, London, 1800). Especially noteworthy, however, was
the _Denkschrift_ or _Missive_ addressed by him to King Frederick
William III. on his accession (1797), in which, _inter alia_, he urged
upon the king the necessity for granting freedom to the press and to
commerce. For a Prussian official to venture to give uncalled-for advice
to his sovereign was a breach of propriety not calculated to increase
his chances of favour; but it gave Gentz a conspicuous position in the
public eye, which his brilliant talents and literary style enabled him
to maintain. Moreover, he was from the first aware of the probable
developments of the Revolution and of the consequences to Prussia of the
weakness and vacillations of her policy. Opposition to France was the
inspiring principle of the _Historisches Journal_ founded by him in
1799-1800, which once more held up English institutions as the model,
and became in Germany the mouthpiece of British policy towards the
revolutionary aggressions of the French republic. In 1801 he ceased the
publication of the _Journal_, because he disliked the regularity of
journalism, and issued instead, under the title _Beiträge zur
Geschichte_, &c., a series of essays on contemporary politics. The first
of these was _Über den Ursprung und Charakter des Krieges gegen die
französische Revolution_ (1801), by many regarded as Gentz's
masterpiece; another important brochure, _Von dem politischen Zustande
von Europa vor und nach der Revolution_, a criticism of Hauterive's _De
l'état de la France à la fin de l'an VIII_, appeared the same year.

This activity gained him recognition abroad and gifts of money from the
British and Austrian governments; but it made his position as an
official in Berlin impossible, for the Prussian government had no mind
to abandon its attitude of cautious neutrality. Private affairs also
combined to urge Gentz to leave the Prussian service; for, mainly
through his own fault, a separation with his wife was arranged. In May
1802, accordingly, he took leave of his wife and left with his friend
Adam Müller for Vienna. In Berlin he had been intimate with the Austrian
ambassador, Count Stadion, whose good offices procured him an
introduction to the emperor Francis. The immediate result was the title
of imperial councillor, with a yearly salary of 4000 gulden (December
6th, 1802); but it was not till 1809 that he was actively employed.
Before returning to Berlin to make arrangements for transferring himself
finally to Vienna, Gentz paid a visit to London, where he made the
acquaintance of Pitt and Granville, who were so impressed with his
talents that, in addition to large money presents, he was guaranteed an
annual pension by the British government in recognition of the value of
the services of his pen against Bonaparte. From this time forward he was
engaged in a ceaseless polemic against every fresh advance of the
Napoleonic power and pretensions; with matchless sarcasm he lashed "the
nerveless policy of the courts, which suffer indignity with
resignation"; he denounced the recognition of Napoleon's imperial title,
and drew up a manifesto of Louis XVIII. against it. The formation of the
coalition and the outbreak of war for a while raised his hopes, in spite
of his lively distrust of the competence of Austrian ministers; but the
hopes were speedily dashed by Austerlitz and its results. Gentz used his
enforced leisure to write a brilliant essay on "The relations between
England and Spain before the outbreak of war between the two powers"
(Leipzig, 1806); and shortly afterwards appeared _Fragmente aus der
neuesten Geschichte des politischen Gleichgewichts in Europa_
(translated _s.t. Fragments on the Balance of Power in Europe_, London,
1806). This latter, the last of Gentz's works as an independent
publicist, was a masterly exposé of the actual political situation, and
at the same time prophetic in its suggestions as to how this should be
retrieved: "Through Germany Europe has perished, through Germany it must
rise again." He realized that the dominance of France could only be
broken by the union of Austria and Prussia, acting in concert with Great
Britain. He watched with interest the Prussian military preparations,
and, at the invitation of Count Haugwitz, he went at the outset of the
campaign to the Prussian headquarters at Erfurt, where he drafted the
king's proclamation and his letter to Napoleon. The writer was known,
and it was in this connexion that Napoleon referred to him as "a
wretched scribe named Gentz, one of those men without honour who sell
themselves for money." In this mission Gentz had no official mandate
from the Austrian government, and whatever hopes he may have cherished
of privately influencing the situation in the direction of an alliance
between the two German powers were speedily dashed by the campaign of
Jena.

The downfall of Prussia left Austria the sole hope of Germany and of
Europe. Gentz, who from the winter of 1806 onwards divided his time
between Prague and the Bohemian watering-places, seemed to devote
himself wholly to the pleasures of society, his fascinating personality
gaining him a ready reception in those exalted circles which were to
prove of use to him later on in Vienna. But, though he published
nothing, his pen was not idle, and he was occupied with a series of
essays on the future of Austria and the best means of liberating Germany
and redressing the balance of Europe; though he himself confessed to his
friend Adam Müller (August 4th, 1806) that, in the miserable
circumstances of the time, his essay on "the principles of a general
pacification" must be taken as a "political poem."

In 1809, on the outbreak of war between Austria and France, Gentz was
for the first time actively employed by the Austrian government under
Stadion; he drafted the proclamation announcing the declaration of war
(15th of April), and during the continuance of hostilities his pen was
ceaselessly employed. But the peace of 1810 and the fall of Stadion once
more dashed his hopes, and, disillusioned and "hellishly blasé," he once
more retired to comparative inactivity at Prague. Of Metternich,
Stadion's successor, he had at the outset no high opinion, and it was
not till 1812 that there sprang up between the two men the close
relations that were to ripen into life-long friendship. But when Gentz
returned to Vienna as Metternich's adviser and henchman, he was no
longer the fiery patriot who had sympathized and corresponded with Stein
in the darkest days of German depression and in fiery periods called
upon all Europe to free itself from foreign rule. Disillusioned and
cynical, though clear-sighted as ever, he was henceforth before all
things an Austrian, more Austrian on occasion even than Metternich; as,
e.g., when, during the final stages of the campaign of 1814, he
expressed the hope that Metternich would substitute "Austria" for
"Europe" in his diplomacy and--strange advice from the old hater of
Napoleon and of France--secure an Austro-French alliance by maintaining
the husband of Marie Louise on the throne of France.

For ten years, from 1812 onward, Gentz was in closest touch with all the
great affairs of European history, the assistant, confidant, and adviser
of Metternich. He accompanied the chancellor on all his journeys; was
present at all the conferences that preceded and followed the war; no
political secrets were hidden from him; and his hand drafted all
important diplomatic documents. He was secretary to the congress of
Vienna (1814-1815) and to all the congresses and conferences that
followed, up to that of Verona (1822), and in all his vast knowledge of
men and affairs made him a power. He was under no illusion as to their
achievements; his memoir on the work of the congress of Vienna is at
once an incisive piece of criticism and a monument of his own
disillusionment. But the Liberalism of his early years was gone for
ever, and he had become reconciled to Metternich's view that, in an age
of decay, the sole function of a statesman was to "prop up mouldering
institutions." It was the hand of the author of that offensive _Missive_
to Frederick William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the
Carlsbad decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the
freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a day more
important than that of Leipzig" the session of the Vienna conference of
1819, in which it was decided to make the convocation of representative
assemblies in the German states impossible, by enforcing the letter of
Article XIII. of the Act of Confederation.

As to Gentz's private life there is not much to be said. He remained to
the last a man of the world, though tormented with an exaggerated terror
of death. His wife he had never seen again since their parting at
Berlin, and his relations with other women, mostly of the highest rank,
were too numerous to record. But passion tormented him to the end, and
his infatuation for Fanny Elssler, the celebrated _danseuse_, forms the
subject of some remarkable letters to his friend Rahel, the wife of
Varnhagen von Ense (1830-1831). He died on the 9th of June 1832.

Gentz has been very aptly described as a mercenary of the pen, and
assuredly no other such mercenary has ever carved out for himself a more
remarkable career. To have done so would have been impossible, in spite
of his brilliant gifts, had he been no more than the "wretched scribe"
sneered at by Napoleon. Though by birth belonging to the middle class in
a country of hide-bound aristocracy, he lived to move on equal terms in
the society of princes and statesmen; which would never have been the
case had he been notoriously "bought and sold." Yet that he was in the
habit of receiving gifts from all and sundry who hoped for his backing
is beyond dispute. He notes that at the congress of Vienna he received
22,000 florins through Talleyrand from Louis XVIII., while Castlereagh
gave him £600, accompanied by _les plus folles promesses_; and his diary
is full of such entries. Yet he never made any secret of these gifts;
Metternich was aware of them, and he never suspected Gentz of writing or
acting in consequence against his convictions. As a matter of fact, no
man was more free or outspoken in his criticism of the policy of his
employers than this apparently venal writer. These gifts and pensions
were rather in the nature of subsidies than bribes; they were the
recognition by various powers of the value of an ally whose pen had
proved itself so potent a weapon in their cause.

It is, indeed, the very impartiality and objectivity of his attitude
that make the writings of Gentz such illuminating documents for the
period of history which they cover. Allowance must of course be made for
his point of view, but less so perhaps than in the case of any other
writer so intimately concerned with the policies which he criticizes.
And, apart from their value as historical documents, Gentz's writings
are literary monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous
German prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style.

  A selection of Gentz's works (_Ausgewählte Schriften_) was published
  by Weick in 5 vols. (1836-1838); his lesser works (Mannheim,
  1838-1840) in 5 vols. and _Mémoires et lettres inédites_ (Stuttgart,
  1841) were edited by G. Schlesier. Subsequently there have appeared
  _Briefe an Chr. Garve_ (Breslau, 1857); correspondence
  (_Briefwechsel_) with Adam Müller (Stuttgart, 1857); _Briefe an Pilat_
  (2 vols., Leipzig, 1868); _Aus dem Nachlass Friedrichs von Gentz_ (2
  vols.), edited by Count Anton Prokesch-Osten (Vienna, 1867); _Aus der
  alten Registratur der Staats-Kanzlei: Briefe politischen Inhalts von
  und an Friedrich von Gentz_, edited by C. von Klinkowström (Vienna,
  1870); _Dépêches inédites du chev. de Gentz aux Hospodars de Valachie
  1813-1828_ (a correspondence on current affairs commissioned by the
  Austrian government), edited by Count Anton von Prokesch-Osten the
  younger (3 vols., Paris, 1876), incomplete, but partly supplemented in
  _Österreichs Teilnahme an den Befreiungskriegen_ (Vienna, 1887), a
  collection of documents of the greatest value; _Zur Geschichte der
  orientalischen Frage: Briefe aus dem Nachlass Friedrichs von Gentz_
  (Vienna, 1877), edited by Count Prokesch-Osten the younger. Finally
  Gentz's diaries, from 1800 to 1828, an invaluable mine of authentic
  material, were edited by Varnhagen von Ense and published after his
  death under the title _Tagebücher_, &c. (Leipzig, 1861; new ed., 4
  vols., _ib._ 1873). Several lives of Gentz exist. The latest is by E.
  Guglia, _Friedrich von Gentz_ (Vienna, 1901).     (W. A. P.)



GEOCENTRIC, referred to the centre of the earth (Gr. [Greek: gê]) as an
origin; a term designating especially the co-ordinates of a heavenly
body referred to this origin.





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