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Title: John Woolman's Journal
Author: Woolman, John
Language: English
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                         EVERYMAN'S LIBRARY

                        EDITED BY ERNEST RHYS


                             BIOGRAPHY


                       JOHN WOOLMAN'S JOURNAL

                       WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
                           VIDA D. SCUDDER


THE PUBLISHERS OF _EVERYMAN'S LIBRARY_ WILL BE PLEASED TO SEND FREELY TO
ALL APPLICANTS A LIST OF THE PUBLISHED AND PROJECTED VOLUMES TO BE
COMPRISED UNDER THE FOLLOWING TWELVE HEADINGS:


    TRAVEL
    SCIENCE
    FICTION
    THEOLOGY & PHILOSOPHY
    HISTORY
    CLASSICAL
    FOR YOUNG PEOPLE
    ESSAYS
    ORATORY
    POETRY & DRAMA
    BIOGRAPHY
    ROMANCE


IN TWO STYLES OF BINDING, CLOTH, FLAT BACK, COLOURED TOP, AND LEATHER,
ROUND CORNERS, GILT TOP.

    LONDON: J. M. DENT & SONS, LTD.
    NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON & CO.

A GOOD BOOK IS THE PRECIOUS LIFE-BLOOD OF A MASTER SPIRIT EMBALMED &
TREASURED UPON PURPOSE TO A LIFE BEYOND LIFE--MILTON



THE JOURNAL _with other_ WRITINGS _of_ JOHN WOOLMAN


    LONDON: PUBLISHED
    by J. M. DENT & SONS LTD
    AND IN NEW YORK
    BY E. P. DUTTON & CO

    _All rights reserved_



INTRODUCTION


From the days of Charles Lamb to those of Dr. Eliot of Harvard, the
unique charm and worth of the _Journal of John Woolman_ have been
signalled by a thinker of distinction here and there, and the book, if
not widely known, has quietly found its way to many hearts and been
reprinted in sundry editions. The more formal works, however, in which
this gentle and audacious eighteenth-century Quaker-preacher spoke out
his whole careful mind have been for the most part neglected. These
works are sometimes prosy, always indifferent to style in their
unflinching quest for "pure wisdom," often concerned with the dead issue
of negro slavery. Yet even in this last case they have much value as
historic documents; no full knowledge of Woolman's spirit is possible
without them; and not to know that spirit in its entirety is a distinct
loss.

The present edition, while making no claim to critical completeness,
presents the main accessible body of Woolman's writings. Here is a well
of purest water, "dug deep," to use the Quaker phrase. The mere
limpidity of the water will be joy enough for some: others gazing into
it may feel that they see down to the proverbial Truth--the very origin
of things, the foundations of the moral universe.

A studious moderation of utterance is the first quality to make itself
felt in Woolman's works. To casual or jaded readers who crave the
word-embroidery, the heightened note, of the romanticist in style, the
result may seem colourless. Here is a lack of adjectives, an entire
absence of emphasis, a systematic habit of under-statement that, in the
climax of a paragraph or the crisis of an emotion, seems at times almost
ludicrous. Yet to the reader of severer taste, this very absence of
emphasis, so quaintly sober, so sensitive in its unfaltering reticence,
becomes the choicest grace of Woolman's style. As is the style, so is
the man. Woolman "studied to be quiet," and his steady self-discipline
was rewarded by a scrupulous yet instinctive control over the finest
shades of verity in speech and life. In the youthful trouble of deep
religious feeling, when he "went to meetings," as he expressively tell
us, "in an awful frame of mind," he spoke a few words one day, under "a
strong exercise of spirit." "But not keeping close to the divine
opening, I said more than was required of me, and being soon sensible of
my error, I was afflicted in mind some weeks, without any light or
comfort, even to such a degree that I could not take satisfaction in
anything." The mistake was not often repeated; for as he writes in
memorable words: "As I was thus humbled and disciplined under the Cross,
my understanding became more strengthened to distinguish the pure spirit
that inwardly moves upon the heart, and taught me to wait in silence,
sometimes for many weeks together, till I felt that rise which prepares
the creature to stand like a trumpet through which the Lord speaks to
His flock." A fine passage towards the end of the _Journal_ shows that
the danger of speaking without this "pure spirit" was ever present to
him. "Many love to hear eloquent orations, and if there is not a careful
attention to the Gift, men who have once laboured in the pure Gospel
ministry, growing weary of suffering and ashamed of appearing weak, may
kindle a fire, compass themselves about with sparks, and walk in the
light, not of Christ who is under suffering, but of that fire which they
going from the Gift have kindled; and that in hearers which has gone
from the meek suffering state into the worldly wisdom, may be warmed
with this fire and speak highly of these labours. In this journey, a
labour hath attended my mind that the ministers amongst us may be
preserved in the meek, feeling life of truth." No man could so keenly
analyse the snare of fluency and popularity, who had not spent a life on
guard. The reserve of his writings is a natural consequence. One
searches these pages in vain, often controversial though they be, for a
single point in which the note is forced or emotion escapes control.

Yet the emotional intensity concealed beneath this equable habit of
soul, is evident from the first line to the last. In the fine phrase of
the Friends after his death, Woolman "underwent many deep baptisms;" how
deep, the _Journal_ reveals. He was a man of impassioned tenderness.
Even as a child he saw "that as the mind is moved by an inward principle
to love God as an invisible, incomprehensible Being, so by the same
principle it is moved to love Him in all his manifestations in the
visible world. That as by his breath the flame of life has kindled in
all sensible creatures, to say that we love God as unseen and at the
same time exercise cruelty toward the least creature moving by his life,
or by life derived from Him, is a contradiction in itself." Woolman did
not only say these things, he felt them. He is among the great lovers of
the world. His tenderness for animals was always keen, from the days in
which, as he has told us, he suffered childish remorse from having
killed a robin, to his last voyage, when in the midst of personal
suffering, he noted pityingly the dull and pining appearance of the
"dunghill fowls" on board. "I believe," he writes, "where the love of
God is verily perfected, a care will be felt that we do not lessen that
sweetness of life in the animal creation which the great Creator intends
for them under our government."

He who so sympathised with the robin and the cock was filled with a
yearning compassion for the sorrows of humanity. Of him as of Shelley it
might well be said, "He was as a nerve o'er which do creep the else
unfelt oppressions of the earth." We read of his appetite failing
through the agitation of his mind over human pain and his relations to
it. In his last illness he broke forth in words that might have been
uttered by S. Catherine of Siena: "O Lord my God! The amazing horrors of
darkness were gathered around me and covered me all over, and I saw no
way to go forth. I felt the misery of my fellow-beings separated from
the divine harmony, and it was heavier than I could bear; I was crushed
down under it." All great lovers are great sufferers: Woolman was no
exception to the rule.

If he knew deep sorrow he knew deep joy also, as all must do who like
him "live under the Cross and simply follow the operations of Truth."
More is unuttered than uttered in the _Journal_, yet through its
silences we may read an inner experience akin to that of Bunyan or
Pascal. Like these great protagonists of the Spirit, he knew a peace
given "not as the world giveth." For peace can be where ease is not.
Decorous son of an unillumined century, John Woolman is of the company
of the Mystics. He is of those led by the Shepherd of Souls beside the
still waters. He has suggested his own secret: "Some glances of real
beauty may be seen in their faces who dwell in true meekness. There is a
harmony in the sound of that voice to which Divine love gives utterance,
and some appearance of right order in their temper and conduct whose
passions are regulated. Yet all these do not fully show forth that
inward life to those who have not felt it; but this white stone and new
name are known rightly only to such as have them." "Pure" is the central
word of the _Journal_, and the beauty of pure contemplative quietude is
the final impression conveyed by this record so full of anguish over the
sorrows of humanity and of unflinching witness against wickedness, borne
at the expense of the crucifixion of the natural man.

       *       *       *       *       *

A chief value of Woolman's works consists in his serene application of
his mystical intuitions to the affairs of this world. He who "dwelt deep
in an inward stillness" studied his age with a penetrating sagacity that
allowed no evasions. The man so carefully on his guard against
extravagance was a reformer who pushed his demands, as some would think,
almost beyond the border of sanity. No temper was ever more opposed to
fanaticism: yet many readers may question whether he escaped the doom of
the fanatic. And the most pertinent reason for a re-issue of his works
at this juncture is, that in our own day so many hearts are troubled
like his own. A generation seeking guidance on the path of social duty
will find here a precursor of Ruskin and Tolstoi, a man whose thought,
despite the quaintness of his diction, has a quite extraordinary
modernness, and whose searchings of conscience are none of them
familiar.

The main contemporary issue that agitated Woolman was of course the
slave-trade, and he was long regarded all but exclusively as a herald of
the anti-slavery movement. But the Fabian Society did well to suggest,
in reprinting one of his tracts, the broader scope of his thinking. It
will be evident from this edition that his horror of chattel slavery was
one incident only in that general attitude toward civilisation which
drew from him the bitter cry: "Under a sense of deep revolt and an
overflowing stream of unrighteousness, my life has often been a life of
mourning." The central evil which he opposed was, in brief, the
exploitation of labour: the ideal which he sought was a society in which
no man should need to profit by the degradation of his fellow-men. For
economic analysis of the modern type one naturally looks in vain; moral
analysis of social relations has, however, rarely been carried farther.
These little essays "On Labour," "On the Right Use of the Lord's Outward
Gifts," "On Loving our Neighbour," these "Considerations on the True
Harmony of Mankind," this "Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich,"
reveal through their quaint formalities of phrase a searching spirit not
to be outdone to-day.

Woolman felt "a concern in the spring of pure love, that all who have
plenty of outward substance may example others in the right use of
things, may carefully look into the condition of poor people, and beware
of exacting of them in regard to their wages." He was solicitous, as
many have been since his day, over the perplexities of those who seek to
combine a due care for their own families with consideration for the
wage-earner, "in a fruitful land where the wages bear so small a
proportion to the necessaries of life." "There are few if any," he says
truly, "could behold their fellow-creatures lie long in distress and
forbear to help them when they could do it without any inconvenience;
but customs, requiring much labour to support them, do often lie heavy
upon the poor, while they who live in these customs are so entangled in
a multitude of unnecessary concerns that they think but little of the
hardships the poor people go through." To lessen these "concerns," thus
to emancipate the labourer from a part of the crushing burden of
production, became his central thought. "In beholding that unnecessary
toil which many go through in supporting outward greatness, and
procuring delicacies; in beholding how the true calmness of life is
changed into hurry, and that many, by eagerly pursuing outward treasure,
are in danger of withering as to the inward state of the mind; in
meditating on the works of this spirit, and the desolations it makes
among the professors of Christianity, I may thankfully acknowledge that
I often feel pure love beget longings in my mind for the exaltation of
the peaceable Kingdom of Christ, and an engagement to labour according
to the Gift bestowed upon me for promoting an humble, plain, temperate
way of living."

The Simple Life is then Woolman's plea, and the necessity for social
sacrifice the burden of his teaching. This plea he presents with no
vagueness or Wagnerian sentimentality, but with an alarming precision of
outline.

No man ever described better the insensible growth of worldly convention
into that custom which "lies upon us with a weight heavy as frost and
deep almost as life." Noting the gradual lapse of the Friends from their
earlier standards of unworldliness, he says: "These things, though done
in calmness without any show of disorder, do yet deprave the mind in
like manner and with as great certainty as prevailing cold congeals
water." And again, "Though the change from day to night is by a motion
so gradual as scarcely to be perceived, yet when night is come we behold
it very different from the day; and thus as people become wise in their
own eyes and prudent in their own sight, customs rise up from the spirit
of this world and spread, by little and little, till a departure from
the simplicity that is in Christ becomes as distinguishable as light
from darkness to such who are crucified to the world." So the
generations as they pass slip further and further from "pure wisdom,"
for "the customs of their parents, and their neighbours, working upon
their minds, and they from thence conceiving ideas of things and modes
of conduct, the entrance into their hearts becomes in a great measure
shut up against the gentle movings of Uncreated Purity." Woolman is too
wise to feel resentment against those so hardened; rather he says,
"Compassion hath filled my heart toward my fellow-creatures involved in
customs, grown up in the wisdom of this world, which is foolishness with
God."

To his own spirit, we may well apply the description in the little essay
on "Merchandising," of the growing sensitiveness among the faithful
friends of Christ, who "inwardly breathe that His Kingdom may come on
earth" and "learn to be very attentive to the means He may appoint for
promoting pure righteousness." His ideal is "that state in which Christ
is the Light of our life," so that "our labours stand in the true
harmony of society." "In this state," he writes, "a care is felt for a
reformation in general, that our own posterity, with the rest of mankind
in succeeding ages, may not be entangled by oppressive customs,
transmitted to them through our hands." When we consider the deepening
desire in our own day to lessen for the next generation that intolerable
burden of social compunction which rests upon ourselves, may we perhaps
dare to hope that this blessed "state," in which John Woolman himself
constantly abode, is becoming common?

The definite issues suggested in these pages are often surprisingly
modern. Now the fine old Quaker is perturbed over the question of
tainted money: "Have the gifts and possessions received by me from
others been conveyed in a way free from all unrighteousness so far as I
have seen?" Now he notes the evils of over-work: "I have observed that
too much labour not only makes the understanding dull, but so intrudes
upon the harmony of the body that, after ceasing from our toil, we have
another to pass through before we can enjoy the sweetness of rest," and
proceeds to plead with energy for mercy and moderation in the standard
of toil exacted from the poor. "The condition of many who dwell in
cities," had "affected him with brotherly sympathy." Again we find him
touching on the problem of dangerous trades, or analysing with the
puzzle of the pioneer the ancient fallacy that the production of
luxuries relieves economic distress--a fallacy to which he gives in
quaint phrase a sound refutal. In the fifth chapter of the "Word of
Remembrance," the interested reader will find a remarkable and very
beautiful prophecy of the central principle of the settlement movement.
And so we might go on.

In the twelfth century Woolman's solution would probably have been found
in withdrawal from the evil world to the purity of desert or convent.
Not so in the eighteenth. He remained among his brethren, bearing on his
heart the burden of the common guilt: he was one of the first people to
perceive that the moral sense must control not only our obvious but also
our hidden relations with our fellows. And his experience may be said to
mark the exact point where the individualism of the Puritan age broke
down, unable to stand the strain of the growing sense of social
solidarity. The intense but often naïvely self-centred conception of the
religious life common to a Bunyan and an Edwardes had proved inadequate,
and a new demand for an extension of Christianity to the remotest
reaches of practical life, till human society be transformed in its
depth and its breadth by a supernatural power, was consciously born.

Yet if Woolman's problem be social, his solution is individualistic. It
is found in a resolute endeavour to clear his own life of any dependence
on evil. Among the many experiments on the same lines, none more
thorough-going is recorded; he pushed consistency to a farther point
than Tolstoi or Thoreau. It is the story of this experiment that he
tells us in the _Journal_, with a rare sincerity. See him as a lad,
starting out peaceably at his trade of tailor, easily reaching
commercial success--for Woolman possessed practical ability,--but
"perceiving merchandise to be attended with much cumber," and deciding
accordingly not to develop his business. Watch from this time the
interaction of two co-operating forces, a craving for personal purity,
and a horror of profiting by human pain,--and note that while the first
impulse never waned, the second became more and more constraining. The
record of his various "concerns" is delightfully human and appealing. He
hated to be morally fussy, and the necessity of violating good breeding
at the call of conscience caused him acute distress, for he had an
ingrained instinct of good manners. Yet though "the exercise was heavy,"
he bravely took his elders to task on occasion: refused to accept free
hospitality from slave-holders, forcing money on them for his
entertainment; and, what is still harder, laboured with his friends.
"Thou who travels in the work of the ministry, and art made very welcome
by thy friends, it is good for thee to dwell deep that thou mayest feel
and understand the spirits of people.... I have seen that in the midst
of kindness and smooth conduct, to speak close and home to them who
entertain us on points that relate to their outward interest, is hard
labour, and sometimes when I have felt Truth lead toward it I have found
myself disqualified by a superficial friendship.... To see the failings
of our friends and think hard of them without opening that which we
ought to open, and still carry a face of friendship, this tends to
undermine the foundation of true unity." A man, sensitive, humble, and
well-bred as Woolman evidently was, who can write thus, is pretty sure
to know "deep exercises that are mortifying to the creaturely will."
Some of his concerns, as those relating to the payment of taxes and the
entertainment of soldiers, were common to the Friends; others are
apparently inventions of his own. As time went on they increased and
multiplied, all practically springing from the common root, the desire
to avoid the oppression of the poor. Greed and the wish for ease came to
seem a root of all evil. Travelling among the Indians, he felt the
intimate relation of their misfortunes to the hunger of the English race
for luxury and land. The use of dyes harmful to the worker forced him to
wear undyed garments, even though to his meek distress a passing fashion
of white hats made him run the danger of being confounded with the
children of this world. A concern came upon him to go on foot in his
preaching journeys: at first apparently that he might, like his Master,
appear in the form of a servant; later, that he might have no complicity
in the miseries suffered by the little post-boys employed in the
chaises. Nothing is clearer to the reader of the _Journal_ than the
rapid increase of this holy or foolish sensitiveness. Seeking not to
trade with oppressors, he refuses to gratify his palate with sugars
prepared by the slave labour: under inward pressure to visit the West
Indies, he has anxious scruples about taking passage on a ship owned by
the West India Company, but decides that he may do so if he pays a sum
sufficiently larger than that demanded to compensate the labour involved
on another basis than that of slavery. At last--and here the crisis of
his experience draws near--he feels himself inwardly bound to go to
England; and decides that it is his duty to travel in the steerage,
because forsooth the adornments of the cabin have cost vain and
degrading labour. The horrors of a steerage passage in those days are
well known to us from other sources; and among our visions of the
martyrs of Truth we may well preserve the picture of John Woolman, his
patient Quaker face upturned at midnight through the hatch, panting for
a breath of air. Through the studied quiet of the narrative, the
shrinking of the flesh can plainly be felt. The whole story at this
point palpitates with a solemn pain and an exceeding peace. As usual,
the sufferings of others form the larger part of his pain: he is wracked
with sympathy for the sailors, and moved to a grieved indignant study of
their temptations and afflictions which is good reading still to-day.
Arrived in England, his experience deepens. As usual, he writes without
emphasis: but his distress and tenderness are in every line. In a
passage that reads as if penned by Engels or Rowntree, he makes careful
pitying note of the scale of wages and cost of living, and cries out
sharply, "Oh, may the wealthy consider the poor! May those who have
plenty lay these things to heart!" We perceive that he is realising with
increasing perplexity the extraordinary intricacy with which "the spirit
of oppression" is entwined with the most innocent and necessary
pursuits. "Silence as to every motion proceeding from the love of money
and an humble waiting upon God to know his will concerning us appear
necessary: 'He alone is able' so to direct us in our outward employments
that pure universal love may shine forth in our proceedings." In
"bowedness of spirit" he proceeds northward, and it is evident that the
body is growing weaker as he makes his silent laborious way on foot,
bearing from town to town the message of his Lord. He is offered to
drink when thirsty, in silver vessels, and declines, "telling his case
with weeping." Disgusted, "being but weakly," with "the scent arising
from that filth which more or less infects the air of all closely
settled towns," he feels distress both in body and mind with that which
is impure, and a longing "that people might come in to cleanness of
spirit, cleanness of person, and cleanness about their houses and
garments:" noting at the same time, with his accustomed sagacity, that
"some who are great carry delicacy to a great height themselves, and yet
real cleanliness is not generally promoted." So continues his travail of
soul, recorded in these pathetic and illumined pages, and before long
the fatal disorder, small-pox, seizes upon him. He dies among strangers
after lying patiently through his illness in the spirit of prayer, still
saying characteristically to the young apothecary Friend with whom he
had "found a freedom to confer," "that if anything should be proposed as
to medicine that did not come through defiled channels or oppressive
hands, he should be willing to consider and take it so far as he found
freedom." Almost his last words, when already he could hardly be
understood, are charged with his steady social compunction.

Dear John Woolman! Pure and high spirit, incapable of evasion,
noteworthy no less for restraint and gentleness than for the resolute
determination to translate the undimmed vision of the Perfect Right into
terms of our daily existence! Whither would his "concerns" have carried
him, had not the Angel of Small-Pox ended his wistful and unrelenting
quest? He died in 1772, having lived his life before the industrial
revolution, in days which we are wont to envy as simpler and less beset
by social problems than our own. Certainly they were days in which the
network of human relations was far less intricate than now. Yet the
process in which he was engaged reached out to limits beyond our power
to scan, and his experience is in one point of view an heroic _reductio
ad absurdum_. No more instructive attempt was ever made to attain
personal purity while neither withdrawing from the world nor
transforming it. To-day the number is on the increase of persons who
suffer under the sense of social guilt. All who know such suffering and
are inclined to think the conversion of individuals adequate as an
ultimate remedy, will do well to ponder these pages. For the conclusion
is forced on us that Woolman was in an _impasse_: and while we love and
reverence the heavenly sturdiness of soul possessed by this
eighteenth-century saint, we must recognise with amusement touched by
tenderness the hopelessness of his efforts to attain personal purity,
the ridiculous extremes of isolation into which such a conscientious
effort, if logically carried out, would lead us. The definite inference
from Woolman's life and thought will be for most modern people the
conviction of the hopelessness of the attempt to achieve, by individual
means and private effort, a satisfying social righteousness in an
unchanged world.

After all, Woolman's trouble and sorrow and tumult of spirit, so
suggestive, so helpful to modern souls, were transitory. At the heart of
his "endless agitation" subsisted a "central peace." His was the grace
to know that "deep humility is a strong bulwark," and to "look less at
the effects of the labour than at the pure motion and reality of the
concern." The gentleness with which he delivered his fiery message was
more than a manner due to Quaker training, or even than a result of
resolute self-discipline: it was the index of an inward stillness in
which his soul dwelt undisturbed. Let us hope that the days may come
when the "concern" about profiting by the painful or degrading labour of
others will have an interest as exclusively historic as the "concern"
about holding slaves has already attained. Tremulously it may be, yet
soberly and joyously, many clear-minded and practical people are
beginning to hope for such a day. When it comes, the immediate message
of Woolman will be less cogent, but he will still continue to be read by
those who care for the revelations of a beautiful soul. These pages
offer more than light on the path of social duty; they offer fellowship
with a spirit that "dwelt deep," and attained an abiding loveliness
because responsive through all turmoil of spirit and all outward
suffering, to the "gentle movings of Uncreated Purity." "That purity of
life," wrote he, "which proceeds from faithfulness in following the
Spirit of Truth, this habitation has often been opened before me as a
place of retirement for the children of the light, where we may stand
separated from that which disordereth and confuseth the affairs of
society." Such a "place of retirement for the Children of the Light,"
this book affords.

VIDA D. SCUDDER.



BIBLIOGRAPHY


Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, recommended to the
Professors of Christianity of every Denomination, Part I., 1754; Part
II., 1762; many later issues of both parts; Considerations on Pure
Wisdom and Human Policy, on Labour, Schools, and the Right Use of the
Lord's Outward Gifts, 1768, and numerous later reprints; Considerations
on the True Harmony of Mankind, and how it is to be Maintained, 1770,
and later reprints; an Epistle to the Quarterly and Monthly Meetings of
Friends, 1772; Remarks on Sundry Subjects, 1773, and later reprints;
Serious Considerations on Various Subjects of Importance (containing the
four above works, and some expressions of John Woolman in his last
illness), 1773; A First Book for Children, 1774 (?); A Journal of the
Life, Gospel, Labours, and Christian Experiences of John Woolman, 1774,
and many later editions; with Introduction by John Greenleaf Whittier,
1871; with Introduction by A. Smellie, and Appreciation by J. G.
Whittier (Books of the Heart), 1898; new century edition, with
bibliography, etc., 1900; with foreword by Rev. R. J. Campbell, 1903; A
Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich, 1793; later editions,
published by Fabian Society, 1898, 1908.

LETTERS: Edited by J. Kendall (Letters on Religious Subjects, vol. ii.),
1820; by J. and I. Comly (_Friends' Miscellany_, vol. i.), 1834; in
_Journal_, and in _Friends' Review_, vols. v.-xxviii.

WORKS: 1774; 5th edition, 1818.

LIFE: Saint John Woolman (_Eclectic Review_), 1861; David Duncan,
paper read at Manchester Friends' Institute, 1871; Dora Greenwell,
1871; W. Garrett Horder, A Quaker Saint (_The Young Man_), 1874;
reprinted in Quaker Worthies, 1896; T. Green, 1885, with Introduction by
H. C. G. Moule, 1897; Sketch of the Life of John Woolman (Booklet
Series, No. 6), 1896; in Present Day Papers, vol. iii., 1900; a poem by
Bernard Barton, "A Tribute to the Memory of John Woolman," appeared in
vol. iii. of _The Friend_, and references to Woolman are found in Lamb,
and in H. Crabb Robinson's Diary.



CONTENTS


    ADVERTISEMENT TO THE READER                                 3

    THE TESTIMONY OF FRIENDS IN YORKSHIRE                       5

    A TESTIMONY OF THE MONTHLY-MEETING OF FRIENDS               9

    A JOURNAL OF THE LIFE AND TRAVELS OF JOHN WOOLMAN          17

    THE LAST EPISTLE AND OTHER WRITINGS                       159

    CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TRUE HARMONY OF MANKIND             177

    AN EPISTLE TO THE QUARTERLY AND MONTHLY-MEETINGS OF
    FRIENDS                                                   203

    REMARKS ON SUNDRY SUBJECTS                                219

    SOME EXPRESSIONS OF JOHN WOOLMAN IN HIS LAST ILLNESS      245



THE JOURNAL



ADVERTISEMENT TO THE READER


The manuscript JOURNAL of our late Friend JOHN WOOLMAN, was ended in
_England_; where he also finished all his Labours. It appears, by a
Letter which he sent, in his last Illness, to a Friend in _London_, that
he did not intend the whole should be printed, and that he desired the
said Friend to revise what he had written in this Nation, and leave out
such Parts as he should think proper. It was, notwithstanding, sent
entire, without any Alteration, to _America_; where it was soon after
printed, together with several Tracts which had been published in his
Life-time. But, as some Passages in the Journal contain Observations
which appear to have been intended as private Memorandums only, and
others relate to Circumstances which happened in his native Country, not
expedient to be preserved on Record in this Nation, it is apprehended
that the following ABRIDGEMENT of it will be acceptable to Friends, and
may be of general Service; and, as many weighty Arguments and pertinent
Advices, relative to Slavery and the Oppression of the Negroes in the
Plantations, are contained in the Journal, it was therefore apprehended
that two small Tracts on that Subject might be omitted in this
Abridgement.



THE TESTIMONY OF FRIENDS IN YORKSHIRE

_At their Quarterly-meeting held at York, the 24th and 25th of the third
Month 1773, concerning_

JOHN WOOLMAN

_Of_ Mount-Holly, _in the Province of New-Jersey, in_ America; _who
departed this Life at the House of our Friend_, THOMAS PRIESTMAN, _in
the Suburbs of this City, the 7th of the tenth month 1772, and was
interred in the Burying-ground of Friends, the 9th of the same, aged
about fifty-two Years_


This our valuable Friend, having been under a religious Engagement for
some Time to visit Friends in this Nation, and more especially us in the
northern Parts, undertook the same in full Concurrence and near Sympathy
with his Friends and Brethren at home, as appeared by Certificates from
the monthly and quarterly Meetings to which he belonged, and from the
Spring-meeting of Ministers and Elders, held at _Philadelphia_ for
_Pennsylvania_ and _New-Jersey_.

He arrived in the City of _London_ the beginning of the last
Yearly-meeting, and, after attending that Meeting, travelled northward,
visiting the Quarterly-meetings of _Hertfordshire_, _Buckinghamshire_,
_Northamptonshire_, _Oxfordshire_, and _Worcestershire_, and divers
particular Meetings in his Way.

He visited many Meetings on the West Side of this County; also some in
_Lancashire_ and _Westmorland_; from whence he came to our
Quarterly-meeting in the last ninth Month; and though much out of
Health, yet was enabled to attend all the Sittings of that Meeting
except the last.

His Disorder, then, which proved the Small-pox, increased speedily upon
him, and was very afflicting; under which he was supported in much
Meekness, Patience, and Christian Fortitude. To those who attended him
in his Illness his Mind appeared to be centered in divine Love; under
the precious Influence whereof, we believe, he finished his Course, and
entered into the Mansions of everlasting Rest.

In the early Part of his Illness he requested a Friend to write, and he
broke forth thus:

"O Lord, my God! the amazing Horrors of Darkness were gathered around me
and covered me all over, and I saw no Way to go forth: I felt the Misery
of my Fellow-creatures separated from the divine Harmony, and it was
heavier than I could bear, and I was crushed down under it: I lifted up
my Hand, and stretched out my Arm, but there was none to help me: I
looked round about, and was amazed: In the Depths of Misery, O Lord! I
remembered that thou art omnipotent; that I had called thee Father; and
I felt that I loved thee, and I was made quiet in thy Will, and I waited
for Deliverance from thee; thou hadst Pity upon me when no Man could
help me: I saw that Meekness under suffering was shewed to us in the
most affecting Example of thy Son, and thou wast teaching me to follow
him, and I said, Thy Will, O Father, be done."

Many more of his weighty Expressions might have been inserted here, but
it was deemed unnecessary, they being already published in Print.

He was a Man endued with a large natural Capacity; and, being obedient
to the Manifestations of divine Grace, having in Patience and Humility
endured many deep Baptisms, he became thereby sanctified and fitted for
the Lord's Work, and was truly serviceable in his Church: Dwelling in
awful Fear and Watchfulness, he was careful, in his public Appearances,
to feel the putting forth of the divine Hand, so that the Spring of the
Gospel-ministry often flowed through him with great Sweetness and
Purity, as a refreshing Stream to the weary Travellers toward the City
of God: Skilful in dividing the Word, he was furnished by Him, in whom
are hid all the Treasures of Wisdom and Knowledge, to communicate freely
to the several States of the People where his Lot was cast. His Conduct
at other Times was seasoned with the like watchful Circumspection and
Attention to the Guidance of divine Wisdom, which rendered his whole
Conversation uniformly edifying.

He was fully perswaded that as the Life of Christ comes to reign in the
Earth, all Abuse and unnecessary Oppression, both of the human and brute
Creation, will come to an End; but, under the Sense of a deep Revolt and
overflowing Stream of Unrighteousness, his Life has been often a Life of
mourning.

He was deeply concerned on account of that inhuman and iniquitous
Practice of making Slaves of the People of _Africa_, or holding them in
that State; and, on that Account, we understand he hath not only written
some Books, but travelled much on the Continent of _America_, in order
to make the Negro-masters (especially those in Profession with us)
sensible of the evil of such a Practice; and though, in his Journey to
_England_, he was far removed from the outward Sight of their
Sufferings, yet his deep Exercise of Mind remained, as appears by a
short Treatise he wrote in this Journey, and his frequent Concern to
open the miserable State of this deeply-injured People. His Testimony in
the last Meeting he attended was on this Subject; wherein he remarked,
that as we, as a Society, when under outward Sufferings, had often found
it our Concern to lay them before those in Authority, and thereby, in
the Lord's Time, had obtained Relief, so he recommended this oppressed
Part of the Creation to our Notice, that we may, as way may open,
represent their Sufferings, in an Individual, if not a Society Capacity,
to those in Authority.

Deeply sensible that the Desire to gratify People's Inclinations in
Luxury and Superfluities is the principal Ground of Oppression, and the
Occasion of many unnecessary Wants, he believed it to be his Duty to be
a Pattern of great Self-denial with Respect to the Things of this Life,
and earnestly to labour with Friends in the Meekness of Wisdom, to
impress on their Minds the great Importance of our Testimony in these
Things, recommending to the Guidance of the blessed Truth in this and
all other Concerns, and cautioning such as are experienced therein
against contenting themselves with acting up to the Standard of others,
but to be careful to make the Standard of Truth, manifested to them, the
Measure of their Obedience; for, said he, "that Purity of Life which
proceeds from Faithfulness in following the Spirit of Truth, that State
where our Minds are devoted to serve God, and all our Wants are bounded
by his Wisdom,--this Habitation has often been opened before me, as a
Place of retirement for the Children of the Light, where they may stand
separated from that which disordereth and confuseth the Affairs of
Society, and where we may have a Testimony of our Innocence in the
Hearts of those who behold us."

We conclude with fervent Desires that we, as a People, may thus, by our
Example, promote the Lord's Work in the Earth; and, our Hearts being
prepared, may unite in Prayer to the great Lord of the Harvest, that as,
in his infinite Wisdom, he hath greatly stripped the Church, by removing
of late divers faithful Ministers and Elders, he may be pleased to send
forth many more faithful Labourers into his Harvest.

_Signed in, by Order, and on Behalf of, said Meeting_:

    THOMAS BENNETT,
    JOHN STORR,
    JOSEPH EGLIN,
    THOMAS PERKINSON,
    JOSEPH WRIGHT,
    SAMUEL BRISCOE,
    JOHN TURNER,
    JOSHUA ROBINSON,
    THOMAS PRIESTMAN, and
    divers other Friends.



A TESTIMONY OF THE MONTHLY-MEETING OF FRIENDS

_Held in_ Burlington, _the first Day of the eighth Month, in the Year of
our Lord 1774, concerning our esteemed Friend,_

JOHN WOOLMAN, DECEASED


He was born in _Northampton_, in the County of _Burlington_, and
Province of _West-New-Jersey_, in the eighth Month, 1720, of religious
Parents, who instructed him very early in the Principles of the
_Christian_ Religion, as professed by the People called _Quakers_, which
he esteemed a Blessing to him, even in his young Years, tending to
preserve him from the Infection of wicked Children; but, through the
Workings of the Enemy, and Levity incident to Youth, he frequently
deviated from those parental Precepts, by which he laid a renewed
Foundation for Repentance, that was finally succeeded by a godly Sorrow
not to be repented of, and so became acquainted with that sanctifying
Power which qualifies for true Gospel Ministry, into which he was called
about the twenty-second year of his Age; and, by a faithful Use of the
Talents committed to him, he experienced an Increase, until he arrived
at the State of a Father, capable of dividing the Word aright to the
different States he ministered unto; dispensing Milk to Babes, and Meat
to those of riper Years. Thus he found the Efficacy of that Power to
arise, which, in his own Expressions, "prepares the Creature to stand
like a Trumpet through which the Lord speaks to his People."--He was a
loving Husband, a tender Father, and very humane to every Part of the
Creation under his Care.

His Concern for the Poor and those in Affliction was evident by his
Visits to them; whom he frequently relieved by his Assistance and
Charity. He was for many Years deeply exercised on Account of the poor
enslaved _Africans_, whose Cause, as he sometimes mentioned, lay almost
continually upon him, and to obtain Liberty to those Captives, he
laboured both in public and private; and was favoured to see his
Endeavours crowned with considerable Success. He was particularly
desirous that Friends should not be instrumental to lay Burthens on this
oppressed People, but remember the Days of suffering from which they had
been providentially delivered; that, if Times of Trouble should return,
no Injustice dealt to those in Slavery might rise in Judgment against
us, but, being clear, we might on such Occasions address the Almighty
with a degree of Confidence, for his Interposition and Relief; being
particularly careful, as to himself, not to countenance Slavery even by
the Use of those Conveniences of Life which were furnished by their
Labour.

He was desirous to have his own, and the Minds of others, redeemed from
the Pleasures and immoderate Profits of this World, and to fix them on
those Joys which fade not away; his principal Care being after a Life of
Purity, endeavouring to avoid not only the grosser Pollutions, but those
also which, appearing in a more refined Dress, are not sufficiently
guarded against by some well-disposed People. In the latter Part of his
Life he was remarkable for the Plainness and Simplicity of his Dress,
and, as much as possible, avoided the Use of Plate, costly Furniture,
and feasting; thereby endeavouring to become an Example of Temperance
and Self-denial, which he believed himself called unto, and was favoured
with Peace therein, although it carried the Appearance of great
Austerity in the View of some. He was very moderate in his Charges in
the Way of Business, and in his Desires after Gain; and, though a Man of
Industry, avoided, and strove much to lead others out of extreme Labour
and Anxiousness after perishable Things; being desirous that the
Strength of our Bodies might not be spent in procuring Things
unprofitable, and that we might use Moderation and Kindness to the brute
Animals under our Care, to prize the Use of them as a great Favour, and
by no Means abuse them; that the Gifts of Providence should be
thankfully received and applied to the Uses they were designed for.

He several Times opened a School at _Mount-Holly_, for the Instruction
of poor Friends Children and others, being concerned for their Help and
Improvement therein: His Love and Care for the rising Youth among us
were truly great, recommending to Parents and those who have the Charge
of them, to chuse conscientious and pious Tutors, saying, "It is a
lovely Sight to behold innocent Children," and that "to labour for their
Help against that which would mar the Beauty of their Minds, is a Debt
we owe them."

His Ministry was sound, very deep and penetrating, sometimes pointing
out the dangerous Situation which Indulgence and Custom lead into;
frequently exhorting others, especially the Youth, not to be discouraged
at the Difficulties which occur, but press after Purity. He often
expressed an earnest Engagement that _pure Wisdom_ should be attended
to, which would lead into Lowliness of Mind and Resignation to the
divine Will, in which State small Possessions here would be sufficient.

In transacting the Affairs of Discipline, his Judgment was sound and
clear, and he was very useful in treating with those who had done amiss;
he visited such in a private Way in that Plainness which Truth dictates,
shewing great Tenderness and _Christian_ Forbearance. He was a constant
Attender of our Yearly-meeting, in which he was a good Example, and
particularly useful; assisting in the Business thereof with great Weight
and Attention. He several Times visited most of the Meetings of Friends
in this and the neighbouring Provinces, with the Concurrence of the
Monthly-meeting to which he belonged, and, we have Reason to believe,
had good Service therein, generally or always expressing, at his
Return, how it had fared with him, and the Evidence of Peace in his Mind
for thus performing his Duty. He was often concerned with other Friends
in the important Service of visiting Families, which he was enabled to
go through to Satisfaction.

In the Minutes of the Meeting of Ministers and Elders for this Quarter,
at the Foot of a List of the Members of that Meeting, made about five
Years before his Death, we find in his Hand-writing the following
Observations and Reflections. "As looking over the Minutes, made by
Persons who have put off this Body, hath sometimes revived in me a
Thought how Ages pass away; so this List may probably revive a like
Thought in some, when I and the rest of the Persons above-named are
centered in another State of Being.--The Lord, who was the Guide of my
Youth, hath in tender Mercies helped me hitherto; he hath healed me of
Wounds, he hath helped me out of grievous Entanglements; he remains to
be the Strength of my Life; to whom I desire to devote myself in Time
and in Eternity."--_Signed_, John Woolman.

In the twelfth Month, 1771, he acquainted this Meeting that he found his
Mind drawn towards a religious Visit to Friends in some Parts of
_England_, particularly in _Yorkshire_. In the first Month, 1772, he
obtained our Certificate, which was approved and endorsed by our
Quarterly-meeting, and by the Half-year's-meeting of Ministers and
Elders at _Philadelphia_. He embarked on his Voyage in the fifth, and
arrived in _London_ in the sixth, Month following, at the Time of their
annual Meeting in that City. During his short Visit to Friends in that
Kingdom, we are informed that his Services were acceptable and edifying.
In his last Illness he uttered many lively and comfortable Expressions,
being "perfectly resigned, having no Will either to live or die," as
appears by the Testimony of Friends at _York_ in _Great-Britain_, in the
Suburbs whereof, at the House of our Friend, _Thomas Priestman_, he died
of the Small-pox, on the seventh Day of the tenth Month, 1772, and was
buried in Friends Burying-ground in that City, on the ninth of the same,
after a large and solid Meeting held on the Occasion at their great
Meeting-house, aged near fifty-two Years; a Minister upwards of
thirty Years, during which Time he belonged to _Mount-Holly_
Particular-meeting, which he diligently attended when at Home and in
Health of Body, and his Labours of Love, and pious Care for the
Prosperity of Friends in the blessed Truth, we hope may not be
forgotten, but that his good Works may be remembered to Edification.

_Signed in, and by Order of, the said Meeting, by_

SAMUEL ALLINSON, _Clerk_.


Read and approved at our Quarterly-meeting, held at _Burlington_ the
29th of the eighth Month, 1774.

_Signed, by Order of said Meeting_,

DANIEL SMITH, _Clerk_.



A JOURNAL OF THE LIFE, GOSPEL-LABOURS, AND CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCES, OF
THAT FAITHFUL MINISTER OF JESUS CHRIST,

JOHN WOOLMAN;

Late of MOUNT-HOLLY, in the Province of NEW-JERSEY.

ISAIAH xxxii. 17.

    "The Work of Righteousness shall be Peace; and the Effect of
    Righteousness, Quietness and Assurance for ever."

    LONDON:
    Printed and sold by JAMES PHILLIPS, in
    George-Yard, Lombard-Street.

    M.DCC.LXXV.



A JOURNAL OF THE LIFE AND TRAVELS OF JOHN WOOLMAN, IN THE SERVICE OF THE
GOSPEL


CHAPTER I

    _His Birth and Parentage, with some Account of the Operations of
    divine Grace on his Mind in his Youth_--_His first Appearance in the
    Ministry_--_And his Considerations, while young, on the keeping of
    Slaves_

I have often felt a Motion of Love to leave some Hints in Writing of my
Experience of the Goodness of God; and now, in the thirty-sixth Year of
my Age, I begin this Work.

I was born in _Northampton_, in _Burlington_ County, _West-Jersey_, in
the Year 1720; and before I was seven Years old I began to be acquainted
with the Operations of divine Love. Through the Care of my Parents, I
was taught to read nearly as soon as I was capable of it; and, as I went
from School one seventh Day, I remember, while my Companions went to
play by the Way, I went forward out of Sight, and, sitting down, I read
the 22d Chapter of the _Revelations_: "He shewed me a pure River of
Water of Life, clear as Chrystal, proceeding out of the Throne of God
and of the Lamb, _etc._" and, in reading it, my Mind was drawn to seek
after that pure Habitation, which, I then believed, God had prepared for
his Servants. The Place where I sat, and the Sweetness that attended my
Mind, remain fresh in my Memory.

This, and the like gracious Visitations, had that Effect upon me, that
when Boys used ill Language it troubled me; and, through the continued
Mercies of God, I was preserved from it.

The pious Instructions of my Parents were often fresh in my Mind when I
happened to be among wicked Children, and were of Use to me. My Parents,
having a large Family of Children, used frequently, on first Days after
Meeting, to put us to read in the holy Scriptures, or some religious
Books, one after another, the rest sitting by without much Conversation;
which, I have since often thought, was a good Practice. From what I had
read and heard, I believed there had been, in past Ages, People who
walked in Uprightness before God, in a Degree exceeding any that I knew,
or heard of, now living: And the Apprehension of there being less
Steadiness and Firmness, amongst People in this Age than in past Ages,
often troubled me while I was a Child.

A Thing remarkable in my Childhood was, that once, going to a
Neighbour's House, I saw, on the Way, a _Robin_ sitting on her Nest, and
as I came near she went off, but, having young ones, flew about, and
with many Cries expressed her Concern for them; I stood and threw Stones
at her, till, one striking her, she fell down dead: At first I was
pleased with the Exploit, but after a few Minutes was seized with
Horror, as having, in a sportive Way, killed an innocent Creature while
she was careful for her Young: I beheld her lying dead, and thought
these young ones, for which she was so careful, must now perish for want
of their Dam to nourish them; and, after some painful Considerations on
the Subject, I climbed up the Tree, took all the young Birds, and killed
them; supposing that better than to leave them to pine away and die
miserably: And believed, in this Case, that Scripture-proverb was
fulfilled, "The tender Mercies of the Wicked are cruel." I then went on
my Errand, but, for some Hours, could think of little else but the
Cruelties I had committed, and was much troubled. Thus he, whose tender
Mercies are over all his Works, hath placed a Principle in the human
Mind, which incites to exercise Goodness towards every living Creature;
and this being singly attended to, People become tender hearted and
sympathising; but being frequently and totally rejected, the Mind
becomes shut up in a contrary Disposition.

About the twelfth Year of my Age, my Father being abroad, my Mother
reproved me for some Misconduct, to which I made an undutiful Reply;
and, the next first Day, as I was with my Father returning from Meeting,
he told me he understood I had behaved amiss to my Mother, and advised
me to be more careful in future. I knew myself blameable, and in Shame
and Confusion remained silent. Being thus awakened to a Sense of my
Wickedness, I felt Remorse in my Mind, and, getting home, I retired and
prayed to the Lord to forgive me; and do not remember that I ever, after
that, spoke unhandsomely to either of my Parents, however foolish in
some other Things.

Having attained the Age of sixteen Years, I began to love wanton
Company; and though I was preserved from prophane Language, or
scandalous Conduct, still I perceived a Plant in me which produced much
wild Grapes; yet my merciful Father forsook me not utterly, but, at
Times, through his Grace, I was brought seriously to consider my Ways;
and the Sight of my Backslidings affected me with Sorrow; but, for want
of rightly attending to the Reproofs of Instruction, Vanity was added to
Vanity, and Repentance to Repentance: Upon the whole, my Mind was more
and more alienated from the Truth, and I hastened toward Destruction.
While I meditate on the Gulph towards which I travelled, and reflect on
my youthful Disobedience, for these Things I weep, mine Eyes run down
with Water.

Advancing in Age, the Number of my Acquaintances increased, and thereby
my Way grew more difficult; though I had found Comfort in reading the
holy Scriptures, and thinking on heavenly Things, I was now estranged
therefrom: I knew I was going from the Flock of Christ, and had no
Resolution to return; hence serious Reflections were uneasy to me, and
youthful Vanities and Diversions my greatest Pleasure. Running in this
Road I found many like myself; and we associated in that which is the
reverse of true Friendship.

But in this swift Race it pleased God to visit me with Sickness, so that
I doubted of recovering; and then did Darkness, Horror, and Amazement,
with full Force, seize me, even when my Pain and Distress of Body was
very great. I thought it would have been better for me never to have had
a Being, than to see the Day which I now saw. I was filled with
Confusion; and in great Affliction, both of Mind and Body, I lay and
bewailed myself. I had not Confidence to lift up my Cries to God, whom I
had thus offended; but, in a deep Sense of my great Folly, I was humbled
before him; and, at length, that Word which is as a Fire and a Hammer,
broke and dissolved my rebellious Heart, and then my Cries were put up
in Contrition; and in the multitude of his Mercies I found inward
Relief, and felt a close Engagement, that, if he was pleased to restore
my Health, I might walk humbly before him.

After my Recovery, this Exercise remained with me a considerable Time;
but, by Degrees, giving Way to youthful Vanities, they gained Strength,
and, getting with wanton young People, I lost Ground. The Lord had been
very gracious, and spoke Peace to me in the Time of my Distress; and I
now most ungratefully turned again to Folly; on which Account, at Times,
I felt sharp Reproof. I was not so hardy as to commit Things scandalous;
but to exceed in Vanity, and promote Mirth, was my chief Study. Still I
retained a Love for pious People, and their Company brought an Awe upon
me. My dear Parents, several Times, admonished me in the Fear of the
Lord, and their Admonition entered into my Heart, and had a good Effect
for a Season; but, not getting deep enough to pray rightly, the Tempter,
when he came, found Entrance. I remember once, having spent a Part of
the Day in Wantonness, as I went to Bed at Night, there lay in a Window,
near my Bed, a Bible, which I opened, and first cast my Eye on this
Text, "We lie down in our Shame, and our Confusion covers us:" This I
knew to be my Case; and, meeting with so unexpected a Reproof, I was
somewhat affected with it, and went to Bed under Remorse of Conscience;
which I soon cast off again.

Thus Time passed on: My Heart was replenished with Mirth and Wantonness,
and pleasing Scenes of Vanity were presented to my Imagination, till I
attained the Age of eighteen Years; near which Time I felt the Judgments
of God, in my Soul, like a consuming Fire; and, looking over my past
Life, the Prospect was moving.--I was often sad, and longed to be
delivered from those Vanities; then again, my Heart was strongly
inclined to them, and there was in me a sore Conflict: At Times I turned
to Folly, and then again, Sorrow and Confusion took hold of me. In a
while, I resolved totally to leave off some of my Vanities; but there
was a secret Reserve, in my Heart, of the more refined Part of them, and
I was not low enough to find true Peace. Thus, for some Months, I had
great Troubles; there remaining in me an unsubjected Will, which
rendered my Labours fruitless, till at length, through the merciful
Continuance of heavenly Visitations, I was made to bow down in Spirit
before the Lord. I remember one Evening I had spent some Time in reading
a pious Author; and walking out alone, I humbly prayed to the Lord for
his Help, that I might be delivered from all those Vanities which so
ensnared me. Thus, being brought low, he helped me; and, as I learned to
bear the Cross, I felt Refreshment to come from his Presence; but, not
keeping in that Strength which gave Victory, I lost Ground again; the
Sense of which greatly affected me; and I sought Desarts and lonely
Places, and there, with Tears, did confess my Sins to God, and humbly
craved Help of him. And I may say with Reverence, he was near to me in
my Troubles, and in those Times of Humiliation opened my Ear to
Discipline. I was now led to look seriously at the Means by which I was
drawn from the pure Truth, and learned this, that, if I would live in
the Life which the faithful Servants of God lived in, I must not go
into Company as heretofore in my own Will; but all the Cravings of Sense
must be governed by a divine Principle. In Times of Sorrow and Abasement
these Instructions were sealed upon me, and I felt the Power of Christ
prevail over selfish Desires, so that I was preserved in a good degree
of Steadiness; and, being young, and believing at that Time that a
single Life was best for me, I was strengthened to keep from such
Company as had often been a Snare to me.

I kept steadily to Meetings; spent First-day Afternoons chiefly in
reading the Scriptures and other good Books; and was early convinced in
Mind, that true Religion consisted in an inward Life, wherein the Heart
doth love and reverence God the Creator, and learns to exercise true
Justice and Goodness, not only toward all Men, but also toward the brute
Creatures.--That as the Mind was moved, by an inward Principle, to love
God as an invisible incomprehensible Being, by the same Principle it was
moved to love him in all his Manifestations in the visible World.--That,
as by his Breath the Flame of Life was kindled in all animal sensible
Creatures, to say we love God, and, at the same Time exercise Cruelty
toward the least Creature, is a Contradiction in itself.

I found no Narrowness respecting Sects and Opinions; but believed, that
sincere upright-hearted People, in every Society, who truly love God,
were accepted of him.

As I lived under the Cross, and simply followed the Openings of Truth,
my Mind, from Day to Day, was more enlightened; my former Acquaintance
were left to judge of me as they would, for I found it safest for me to
live in private, and keep these Things sealed up in my own Breast. While
I silently ponder on that Change wrought in me, I find no Language equal
to it, nor any Means to convey to another a clear Idea of it. I looked
on the Works of God in this visible Creation, and an Awfulness covered
me; my Heart was tender and often contrite, and universal Love to my
Fellow-creatures increased in me: This will be understood by such as
have trodden the same Path. Some Glances of real Beauty may be seen in
their Faces, who dwell in true Meekness. There is a Harmony in the
Sound of that Voice to which divine Love gives Utterance, and some
Appearance of right Order in their Temper and Conduct, whose Passions
are regulated; yet all these do not fully shew forth that inward Life to
such as have not felt it: But this white Stone and new Name is known
rightly to such only as have it.

Though I had been thus strengthened to bear the Cross, I still found
myself in great Danger, having many Weaknesses attending me, and strong
Temptations to wrestle with; in the feeling whereof I frequently
withdrew into private Places, and often with Tears besought the Lord to
help me, whose gracious Ear was open to my Cry.

All this Time I lived with my Parents, and wrought on the Plantation;
and, having had Schooling pretty well for a Planter, I used to improve
it in Winter Evenings, and other leisure Times; and, being now in the
twenty-first Year of my Age, a Man, in much Business at shop-keeping and
baking, asked me, if I would hire with him to tend Shop and keep Books.
I acquainted my Father with the Proposal; and, after some Deliberation,
it was agreed for me to go.

At Home I had lived retired; and now, having a Prospect of being much in
the Way of Company, I felt frequent and fervent Cries in my Heart to
God, the Father of Mercies, that he would preserve me from all
Corruption; that in this more publick Employment, I might serve him, my
gracious Redeemer, in that Humility and Self-denial, with which I had
been, in a small Degree, exercised in a more private Life. The Man, who
employed me, furnished a Shop in _Mount-Holly_, about five Miles from my
Father's House, and six from his own; and there I lived alone, and
tended his Shop. Shortly after my Settlement here I was visited by
several young People, my former Acquaintance, who knew not but Vanities
would be as agreeable to me now as ever; and, at these Times, I cried to
the Lord in secret, for Wisdom and Strength; for I felt myself
encompassed with Difficulties, and had fresh Occasion to bewail the
Follies of Time past, in contracting a Familiarity with libertine
People; and, as I had now left my Father's House outwardly, I found my
heavenly Father to be merciful to me beyond what I can express.

By Day I was much amongst People, and had many Trials to go through;
but, in the Evenings, I was mostly alone, and may with Thankfulness
acknowledge, that, in those Times, the Spirit of Supplication was often
poured upon me; under which I was frequently exercised, and felt my
Strength renewed.

In a few Months after I came here, my Master bought several _Scotchmen_,
Servants, from on-board a Vessel, and brought them to _Mount-Holly_ to
sell; one of which was taken sick, and died.

In the latter Part of his Sickness, he, being delirious, used to curse
and swear most sorrowfully; and, the next Night after his Burial, I was
left to sleep alone in the same Chamber where he died; I perceived in me
a Timorousness; I knew, however, I had not injured the Man, but assisted
in taking Care of him according to my Capacity; and was not free to ask
any one, on that Occasion, to sleep with me: Nature was feeble; but
every Trial was a fresh Incitement to give myself up wholly to the
Service of God, for I found no Helper like him in Times of Trouble.

After a While, my former Acquaintance gave over expecting me as one of
their Company; and I began to be known to some whose Conversation was
helpful to me: And now, as I had experienced the Love of God, through
Jesus Christ, to redeem me from many Pollutions, and to be a Succour to
me through a Sea of Conflicts, with which no Person was fully
acquainted; and as my Heart was often enlarged in this heavenly
Principle, I felt a tender Compassion for the Youth, who remained
entangled in Snares, like those which had entangled me from one Time to
another: This Love and Tenderness increased; and my Mind was more
strongly engaged for the Good of my Fellow-creatures. I went to Meetings
in an awful Frame of Mind, and endeavoured to be inwardly acquainted
with the Language of the true Shepherd; and, one Day, being under a
strong Exercise of Spirit, I stood up, and said some Words in a Meeting;
but, not keeping close to the divine Opening, I said more than was
required of me; and being soon sensible of my Error, I was afflicted in
Mind some Weeks, without any Light or Comfort, even to that Degree that
I could not take Satisfaction in any Thing: I remembered God, and was
troubled, and, in the Depth of my Distress, he had Pity upon me, and
sent the Comforter: I then felt Forgiveness for my Offence, and my Mind
became calm and quiet, being truly thankful to my gracious Redeemer for
his Mercies; and, after this, feeling the Spring of divine Love opened,
and a Concern to speak, I said a few Words in a Meeting, in which I
found Peace; this, I believe, was about six Weeks from the first Time:
And, as I was thus humbled and disciplined under the Cross, my
Understanding became more strengthened to distinguish the pure Spirit
which inwardly moves upon the Heart, and taught me to wait in Silence
sometimes many Weeks together, until I felt that rise which prepares the
Creature.

From an inward purifying, and stedfast abiding under it, springs a
lively operative Desire for the Good of others: All the Faithful are not
called to the public Ministry; but whoever are, are called to minister
of that which they have tasted and handled spiritually. The outward
Modes of Worship are various; but, wherever any are true Ministers of
Jesus Christ, it is from the Operation of his Spirit upon their Hearts,
first purifying them, and thus giving them a just Sense of the
Conditions of others.

This Truth was clearly fixed in my Mind; and I was taught to watch the
pure Opening, and to take Heed, lest, while I was standing to speak, my
own Will should get uppermost, and cause me to utter Words from worldly
Wisdom, and depart from the Channel of the true Gospel-Ministry.

In the Management of my outward Affairs, I may say, with Thankfulness, I
found Truth to be my Support; and I was respected in my Master's Family,
who came to live in _Mount-Holly_ within two Years after my going
there.

About the twenty-third Year of my Age, I had many fresh and heavenly
Openings, in respect to the Care and Providence of the Almighty over his
Creatures in general, and over Man as the most noble amongst those which
are visible. And being clearly convinced in my Judgment, that to place
my whole Trust in God was best for me, I felt renewed Engagements, that
in all Things I might act on an inward Principle of Virtue, and pursue
worldly Business no farther, than as Truth opened my Way therein.

About the Time called _Christmas_, I observed many People from the
Country, and Dwellers in Town, who, resorting to Public-Houses, spent
their Time in drinking and vain Sports, tending to corrupt one another;
on which Account I was much troubled. At one House, in particular, there
was much Disorder; and I believed it was a Duty incumbent on me to go
and speak to the Master of that House. I considered I was young, and
that several elderly Friends in town had Opportunity to see these
Things; but though I would gladly have been excused, yet I could not
feel my Mind clear.

The Exercise was heavy; and as I was reading what the Almighty said to
_Ezekiel_, respecting his Duty as a Watchman, the Matter was set home
more clearly; and then, with Prayers and Tears, I besought the Lord for
his Assistance, who, in Loving-kindness, gave me a resigned Heart: Then,
at a suitable Opportunity, I went to the Public-house, and, seeing the
Man amongst much Company, I went to him, and told him, I wanted to speak
with him; so we went aside, and there, in the Fear of the Almighty, I
expressed to him what rested on my Mind; which he took kindly, and
afterward shewed more Regard to me than before. In a few Years
afterwards he died, middle-aged; and I often thought that, had I
neglected my Duty in that Case, it would have given me great Trouble;
and I was humbly thankful to my gracious Father, who had supported me
herein.

My Employer having a Negro Woman, sold her, and desired me to write a
Bill of Sale, the Man being waiting who bought her: The Thing was
sudden; and, though the Thoughts of writing an Instrument of Slavery
for one of my Fellow-creatures felt uneasy, yet I remembered I was hired
by the Year, that it was my Master who directed me to do it, and that it
was an elderly Man, a Member of our Society, who bought her; so, through
Weakness, I gave way, and wrote; but, at the executing it, I was so
afflicted in my Mind, that I said, before my Master and the Friend, that
I believed Slave-keeping to be a Practice inconsistent with the
_Christian_ Religion: This in some Degree abated my Uneasiness; yet, as
often as I reflected seriously upon it, I thought I should have been
clearer, if I had desired to have been excused from it, as a Thing
against my Conscience; for such it was. And, some Time after this, a
young Man, of our Society, spoke to me to write a Conveyance of a Slave
to him, he having lately taken a Negro into his House: I told him I was
not easy to write it; for, though many of our Meeting and in other
Places kept Slaves, I still believed the Practice was not right, and
desired to be excused from the writing. I spoke to him in Good-will; and
he told me that keeping Slaves was not altogether agreeable to his Mind;
but that the Slave being a Gift to his Wife, he had accepted of her.


CHAPTER II

    _His first Journey, on a religious Visit, into_ East-Jersey, _in
    Company with_ ABRAHAM FARRINGTON--_His Thoughts on merchandizing,
    and his learning a Trade_--_His second Journey, with_ ISAAC ANDREWS,
    _into_ Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, _and_ North Carolina--_His
    third Journey, with_ PETER ANDREWS, _through Part of_ West _and_
    East-Jersey--_Some Account of his Sister_ ELIZABETH, _and her
    Death_--_His fourth Journey, with_ PETER ANDREWS, _through_ New-York
    _and_ Long-Island, _to_ New-England--_And his fifth Journey, with_
    JOHN SYKES, _to the eastern Shore of_ Maryland, _and the lower
    Counties on_ Delaware

My esteemed Friend, _Abraham Farrington_, being about to make a Visit to
Friends on the eastern Side of this Province, and having no Companion,
he proposed to me to go with him; and, after a Conference with some
elderly Friends, I agreed to go: We set out the fifth Day of the ninth
Month, in the Year 1743; had an Evening-meeting at a Tavern in
_Brunswick_, a Town in which none of our Society dwelt; the Room was
full, and the People quiet. Thence to _Amboy_, and had an
Evening-meeting in the Court-house; to which many People came, amongst
whom were several Members of the Assembly, they being in Town on public
Affairs of the Province: In both these Meetings my ancient Companion was
enlarged to preach, in the Love of the Gospel. Thence we went to
_Woodbridge_, _Raway_, and _Plainfield_; and had six or seven Meetings
in Places where Meetings of Friends are not usually held, being made up
chiefly of _Presbyterians_; and my beloved Companion was frequently
strengthened to publish the Word of Life amongst them: As for me, I was
often silent; and, when I spake, it was with much Care, that I might
speak only what Truth opened: And I learned some profitable Lessons.--We
were out about two Weeks.

Near this Time, being on some outward Business in which several
Families were concerned, and which was attended with Difficulties, some
Things relating thereto not being clearly stated, nor rightly understood
by all, there arose some Heat in the Minds of the Parties, and one
valuable Friend got off his Watch; I had a great Regard for him, and
felt a strong Inclination, after Matters were settled, to speak to him
concerning his Conduct in that case: But I being a Youth, and he far
advanced in Age and Experience, my Way appeared difficult; but, after
some Days Deliberation, and inward seeking to the Lord for Assistance, I
was made subject; so that I expressed what lay upon me in a Way which
became my Youth and his Years: And, though it was a hard Task to me, it
was well taken, and, I believe, useful to us both.

Having now been several Years with my Employer, and he doing less at
Merchandize than heretofore, I was thoughtful of some other Way of
Business; perceiving Merchandize to be attended with much Cumber, in the
Way of trading in these Parts.

My mind, through the Power of Truth, was in a good degree weaned from
the Desire of outward Greatness, and I was learning to be content with
real Conveniences, that were not costly; so that a Way of Life, free
from much Entanglement, appeared best for me, though the Income might be
small. I had several Offers of Business that appeared profitable, but
did not see my Way clear to accept of them; as believing the Business
proposed would be attended with more outward Care than was required of
me to engage in.

I saw that a humble Man, with the blessing of the Lord, might live on a
little; and that where the Heart was set on Greatness, Success in
Business did not satisfy the craving; but that commonly, with an
Increase of Wealth, the Desire of Wealth increased. There was a Care on
my Mind so to pass my Time, that nothing might hinder me from the most
steady Attention to the Voice of the true Shepherd.

My Employer, though now a Retailer of Goods, was by Trade a Taylor, and
kept a Servant-man at that Business; and I began to think about
learning the Trade, expecting that, if I should settle, I might, by this
Trade and a little retailing of Goods, get a Living in a plain Way,
without the Load of great Business: I mentioned it to my Employer, and
we soon agreed on Terms; and then, when I had Leisure from the Affairs
of Merchandize, I worked with his Man. I believed the Hand of Providence
pointed out this Business for me; and was taught to be content with it,
though I felt, at Times, a Disposition that would have sought for
something greater: But, through the Revelation of Jesus Christ, I had
seen the Happiness of Humility, and there was an earnest Desire in me to
enter deep into it; and, at Times, this Desire arose to a Degree of
fervent Supplication, wherein my Soul was so environed with heavenly
Light and Consolation, that Things were made easy to me which had been
otherwise.

After some Time, my Employer's Wife died; she was a virtuous Woman, and
generally beloved of her Neighbours; and, soon after this, he left
shop-keeping, and we parted. I then wrought at my Trade, as a Taylor;
carefully attended Meetings for Worship and Discipline; and found an
Enlargement of Gospel-love in my Mind, and therein a Concern to visit
Friends in some of the Back-settlements of _Pennsylvania_ and
_Virginia_; and, being thoughtful about a Companion, I expressed it to
my beloved Friend, ISAAC ANDREWS, who then told me that he had Drawings
to the same Places; also to go through _Maryland_, _Virginia_, and
_Carolina_. After considerable Time past, and several Conferences with
him, I felt easy to accompany him throughout, if Way opened for it. I
opened the Case in our Monthly-meeting; and, Friends expressing their
Unity therewith, we obtained Certificates to travel as Companions; his
from _Haddonfield_, and mine from _Burlington_.

We left our Province on the twelfth Day of the third Month, in the Year
1746, and had several Meetings in the upper Part of _Chester_ County,
and near _Lancaster_; in some of which, the Love of Christ prevailed,
uniting us together in his Service. Then we crossed the River
_Susquehannah_, and had several Meetings in a new Settlement, called the
_Red-Lands_; the oldest of which, as I was informed, did not exceed ten
Years. It is the poorer Sort of People that commonly begin to improve
remote Desarts: With a small Stock they have Houses to build, Lands to
clear and fence, Corn to raise, Clothes to provide, and Children to
educate; that Friends, who visit such, may well sympathise with them in
their Hardships in the Wilderness; and though the best Entertainment
such can give may seem coarse to some who are used to Cities, or old
settled Places, it becomes the Disciples of Christ to be content with
it. Our Hearts were sometimes enlarged in the Love of our heavenly
Father amongst these People; and the sweet Influence of his Spirit
supported us through some Difficulties: To him be the Praise!

We passed on to _Monoquacy_, _Fairfax_, _Hopewell_, and _Shanando_, and
had Meetings; some of which were comfortable and edifying. From
_Shanando_ we set off in the Afternoon for the old Settlements of
Friends in _Virginia_; and, the first Night, we, with our Pilot, lodged
in the Woods, our Horses feeding near us; but he being poorly provided
with a Horse, and we young and having good Horses, were free the next
Day to part with him; and did so. In two Days after, we reached to our
Friend _John Cheagle's_, in _Virginia_; so we took the Meetings in our
Way through _Virginia_; were, in some Degree, baptized into a feeling
Sense of the Conditions of the People; and our Exercise in general was
more painful in these old Settlements, than it had been amongst the back
Inhabitants: But, through the Goodness of our heavenly Father, the Well
of living Waters was, at Times, opened to our Encouragement and the
Refreshment of the sincere-hearted. We went on to _Perquimons_, in
_North-Carolina_, had several Meetings, which were large, and found some
Openness in those Parts, and a hopeful Appearance amongst the young
People. So we turned again to _Virginia_, and attended most of the
Meetings which we had not been at before, labouring amongst Friends in
the Love of Jesus Christ, as Ability was given; and thence went to the
Mountains, up _James-River_, to a new Settlement, and had several
Meetings amongst the People, some of whom had lately joined in
Membership with our Society.

In our journeying to and fro, we found some honest-hearted Friends, who
appeared to be concerned for the Cause of Truth among a backsliding
People.

From _Virginia_, we crossed over the River _Patowmac_, at Hoe's Ferry,
and made a general Visit to the Meetings of Friends on the Western Shore
of _Maryland_; and were at their Quarterly-meeting. We had some hard
Labour amongst them, endeavouring to discharge our Duty honestly as Way
opened, in the Love of Truth: And thence taking sundry Meetings in our
Way, we passed homeward; where, through the Favour of divine Providence
we reached the sixteenth Day of the sixth Month, in the Year 1746; and I
may say that, through the Assistance of the Holy Spirit, my Companion
and I travelled in Harmony, and parted in the Nearness of true brotherly
Love.

Two Things were remarkable to me in this Journey; first, in Regard to my
Entertainment, when I ate, drank, and lodged at free-cost, with People
who lived in Ease on the hard Labour of their Slaves, I felt uneasy;
and, as my Mind was inward to the Lord, I found, from Place to Place,
this Uneasiness return upon me, at Times, through the whole Visit. Where
the Masters bore a good Share of the Burthen, and lived frugally, so
that their Servants were well provided for, and their Labour moderate, I
felt more easy; but where they lived in a costly Way, and laid heavy
Burthens on their Slaves, my Exercise was often great, and I frequently
had Conversation with them, in private, concerning it. Secondly; this
Trade of importing Slaves from their native Country being much
encouraged amongst them, and the white People and their Children so
generally living without much Labour, was frequently the Subject of my
serious Thoughts: And I saw in these southern Provinces so many Vices
and Corruptions, increased by this Trade and this Way of Life, that it
appeared to me as a Gloom over the Land; and though now many willingly
run into it, yet, in future, the Consequence will be grievous to
Posterity: I express it as it hath appeared to me, not at once nor
twice, but as a Matter fixed on my Mind.

Soon after my Return Home, I felt an increasing Concern for Friends on
our Sea-coast; and, on the eighth Day of the eighth Month, in the Year
1746, with the Unity of Friends, and in Company with my beloved Friend
and Neighbour, PETER ANDREWS, Brother to my Companion before-mentioned,
we set forward, and visited Meetings generally about _Salem_, _Cape
May_, _Great_ and _Little Egg-Harbour_; and had Meetings at _Barnagat_,
_Mannahocking_, and _Mane-Squan_, and so to the Yearly-meeting at
_Shrewsbury_. Through the Goodness of the Lord Way was opened, and the
Strength of divine Love was sometimes felt in our Assemblies, to the
Comfort and Help of those who were rightly concerned before him. We were
out twenty-two Days, and rode, by Computation, three hundred and forty
Miles. At _Shrewsbury_ Yearly-meeting, we met with our dear Friends
MICHAEL LIGHTFOOT and ABRAHAM FARRINGTON, who had good Service there.

The Winter following my eldest Sister, ELIZABETH WOOLMAN, jun. died of
the Small-pox, aged thirty-one Years. She was, from her Youth, of a
thoughtful Disposition; and very compassionate to her Acquaintance in
their Sickness or Distress, being ready to help as far as she could. She
was dutiful to her Parents; one Instance whereof follows:--It happened
that she, and two of her Sisters, being then near the Estate of young
Women, had an Inclination, one First-day after Meeting, to go on a Visit
to some other young Women at some Distance off; whose Company, I
believe, would have done them no Good. They expressed their Desire to
our Parents; who were dissatisfied with the Proposal, and stopped them.
The same Day, as my Sisters and I were together, and they talking about
their Disappointment, _Elizabeth_ expressed her Contentment under it;
signifying, she believed it might be for their Good.

A few Years after she attained to mature-Age, through the gracious
Visitations of God's Love, she was strengthened to live a self-denying
exemplary Life, giving herself much to Reading and Meditation.

The following Letter may shew, in some Degree, her Disposition.

     HADDONFIELD, _1st Day, 11th Month_, 1743.

     Beloved Brother, JOHN WOOLMAN,--In that Love which desires the
     Welfare of all Men, I write unto thee: I received thine, dated
     second Day of the tenth Month last, with which I was comforted. My
     Spirit is bowed with Thankfulness that I should be remembered, who
     am unworthy; but the Lord is full of Mercy, and his Goodness is
     extended to the meanest of his Creation; therefore, in his infinite
     Love, he hath pitied, and spared, and shewed Mercy, that I have not
     been cut off nor quite lost; but, at Times, I am refreshed and
     comforted as with the Glimpse of his Presence, which is more to the
     immortal Part, than all which this World can afford: So, with
     Desires for thy Preservation with my own, I remain

     Thy affectionate Sister,
     ELIZ. WOOLMAN, jun.

In the fore Part of her Illness she was in great Sadness and Dejection
of Mind, of which she told one of her intimate Friends, and said, When I
was a young Girl I was wanton and airy, but I thought I had thoroughly
repented of it; and added, I have of late had great Satisfaction in
Meetings. Though she was thus disconsolate, still she retained a Hope,
which was as an Anchor to her: And sometime after, the same Friend came
again to see her, to whom she mentioned her former Expressions, and
said, It is otherwise now, for the Lord hath rewarded me seven fold; and
I am unable to express the Greatness of his Love manifested to me. Her
Disorder appearing dangerous, and our Mother being sorrowful, she took
Notice of it, and said, Dear Mother, weep not for me; I go to my God:
And, many Times, with an audible Voice, uttered Praise to her Redeemer.

A Friend, coming some Miles to see her the Morning before she died,
asked her, how she did? She answered, I have had a hard Night, but shall
not have another such, for I shall die, and it will be well with my
Soul; and accordingly died the next Evening.

The following Ejaculations were found amongst her Writings; written, I
believe, at four Times:

I. Oh! that my Head were as Waters, and mine Eyes as a Fountain of
Tears, that I might weep Day and Night, until acquainted with my God.

II. O Lord, that I may enjoy thy Presence! or else my Time is lost, and
my Life a Snare to my Soul.

III. O Lord, that I may receive Bread from thy Table, and that thy Grace
may abound in me!

IV. O Lord, that I may be acquainted with thy Presence, that I may be
seasoned with thy Salt, that thy Grace may abound in me!

Of late I found Drawings in my Mind to visit Friends in _New-England_,
and, having an Opportunity of joining in Company with my beloved Friend,
PETER ANDREWS, we, having obtained Certificates from our
Monthly-meeting, set forward on the sixteenth Day of the third Month, in
the Year 1747, and reached the Yearly-meeting at _Long-Island_; at which
were our Friends SAMUEL NOTTINGHAM, from _England_, JOHN GRIFFITH, JANE
HOSKINS, and ELIZBETH HUDSON, from _Pennsylvania_, and JACOB ANDREWS,
from _Chesterfield_. Several of whom were favoured in their publick
Exercise; and, through the Goodness of the Lord, we had some edifying
Meetings. After this, my Companion and I visited Friends on
_Long-Island_; and, through the Mercies of God we were helped in the
Work.

Besides going to the settled Meetings of Friends, we were at a general
Meeting at _Setawket_, chiefly made up of other Societies; and had a
Meeting at _Oyster-Bay_ in a Dwelling-house, at which were many People:
At the first of which there was not much said by way of Testimony; but
it was I believe, a good Meeting: At the latter, through the springing
up of living Waters, it was a Day to be thankfully remembered. Having
visited the Island, we went over to the Main, taking Meetings in our
Way, to _Oblong_, _Nine Partners_, and _New-Milford_.--In these back
Settlements we met with several People, who, through the immediate
Workings of the Spirit of Christ in their Minds, were drawn from the
Vanities of the World, to an inward Acquaintance with him: They were
educated in the Way of the _Presbyterians_. A considerable Number of the
Youth, Members of that Society, used to spend their Time often together
in merriment; but some of the principal young Men of that Company being
visited by the powerful Workings of the Spirit of Christ, and thereby
led humbly to take up his Cross, could no longer join in those Vanities;
and, as these stood stedfast to that inward Convincement, they were made
a Blessing to some of their former Companions; so that, through the
Power of Truth, several were brought into a close Exercise concerning
the eternal Well-being of their Souls. These young People continued for
a Time to frequent their publick Worship; and, besides that, had
Meetings of their own; which Meetings were a while allowed by their
Preacher, who, sometimes, met with them: But, in Time, their Judgment,
in Matters of Religion, disagreeing with some of the Articles of the
_Presbyterians_, their Meetings were disapproved by that Society; and
such of them as stood firm to their Duty, as it was inwardly manifested,
had many Difficulties to go through. And their Meetings were in a while
dropped; some of them returning to the _Presbyterians_; and others of
them, after a Time, joined our religious Society. I had Conversation
with some of the latter, to my Help and Edification; and believe several
of them are acquainted with the Nature of that Worship, which is
performed in Spirit and in Truth.

From hence, accompanied by AMOS POWEL, a Friend from _Long-Island_, we
rode through _Connecticut_, chiefly inhabited by _Presbyterians_, who
were generally civil to us; and, after three Days riding, we came
amongst Friends in the Colony of _Rhode-Island_. We visited Friends in
and about _Newport_, and _Dartmouth_, and generally in those Parts; and
then to _Boston_; and proceeded eastward as far as _Dover_; and then
returned to _Newport_; and, not far from thence, we met our Friend,
THOMAS GAWTHROP, from _England_, who was then on a Visit to these
Provinces. From _Newport_ we sailed to _Nantucket_; were there near a
Week; and from thence came over to _Dartmouth_: And having finished our
Visit in these Parts, we crossed the _Sound_ from _New-London_ to
_Long-Island_; and, taking some Meetings on the Island, proceeded
homeward; where we reached the thirteenth Day of the seventh Month, in
the Year 1747, having rode about fifteen hundred Miles, and sailed about
one hundred and fifty.

In this Journey, I may say, in general, we were sometimes in much
Weakness, and laboured under Discouragements; and at other Times,
through the renewed Manifestations of divine Love, we had seasons of
Refreshment, wherein the Power of Truth prevailed.

We were taught, by renewed Experience, to labour for an inward
Stillness; at no Time to seek for Words, but to live in the Spirit of
Truth, and utter that to the People which Truth opened in us. My beloved
Companion and I belonged to one Meeting, came forth in the Ministry near
the same Time, and were inwardly united in the Work; he was about
thirteen Years older than I, bore the heaviest Burthen, and was an
Instrument of the greatest Use.

Finding a Concern to visit Friends in the lower Counties on _Delaware_,
and on the eastern Shore of _Maryland_, and having an Opportunity to
join with my well-beloved ancient Friend, JOHN SYKES, we obtained
Certificates, and set off the seventh Day of the eighth Month, in the
Year 1748; were at the Meetings of Friends in the lower Counties,
attended the Yearly-meeting at _Little-Creek_, and made a Visit to the
chief of the Meetings on the eastern Shore; and so Home by Way of
_Nottingham_: Were abroad about six Weeks, and rode, by Computation,
about five hundred and fifty Miles.

Our Exercise, at Times, was heavy; but, through the Goodness of the
Lord, we were often refreshed; and I may say, by Experience, _He is a
strong Hold in the Day of Trouble_. Though our Society, in these Parts,
appeared to me to be in a declining Condition; yet, I believe, the Lord
hath a People amongst them, who labour to serve him uprightly, but have
many Difficulties to encounter.


CHAPTER III

    _His Marriage_--_The Death of his Father_--_His Journies into the
    upper Part of_ New-Jersey, _and afterwards into_
    Pennsylvania--_Considerations on keeping Slaves, and his Visits to
    the Families of Friends at several Times and Places_--_An Epistle
    from the General Meeting_--_His Journey to_
    Long-Island--_Considerations on Trading, and on the Use of
    spirituous Liquors and costly Apparel_--_And his Letter to a Friend_

About this Time, believing it good for me to settle, and thinking
seriously about a Companion, my Heart was turned to the Lord with
Desires that he would give me Wisdom to proceed therein agreeable to his
Will; and he was pleased to give me a well-inclined Damsel, SARAH ELLIS;
to whom I was married the eighteenth Day of the eighth Month, in the
Year 1749.

In the fall of the Year 1750 died my Father, SAMUEL WOOLMAN, with a
Fever, aged about sixty Years.

In his Life-time he manifested much Care for us his Children, that in
our Youth we might learn to fear the Lord; often endeavouring to imprint
in our Minds the true Principles of Virtue, and particularly to cherish
in us a Spirit of Tenderness, not only towards poor People, but also
towards all Creatures of which we had the Command.

After my Return from _Carolina_, in the Year 1746, I made some
Observations on keeping Slaves, which some Time before his Decease I
shewed him; and he perused the Manuscript, proposed a few Alterations,
and appeared well satisfied that I found a Concern on that Account: And
in his last Sickness, as I was watching with him one Night, he being so
far spent that there was no Expectation of his Recovery, but having the
perfect Use of his Understanding, he asked me concerning the Manuscript,
whether I expected soon to proceed to take the Advice of Friends in
publishing it? And, after some Conversation thereon, said, I have all
along been deeply affected with the Oppression of the poor Negroes; and
now, at last, my Concern for them is as great as ever.

By his Direction I had wrote his Will in a Time of Health, and that
Night he desired me to read it to him, which I did; and he said it was
agreeable to his Mind. He then made mention of his End, which he
believed was near; and signified, that, though he was sensible of many
Imperfections in the Course of his Life, yet his Experience of the Power
of Truth, and of the Love and Goodness of God from Time to Time, even
till now, was such, that he had no Doubt but that, in leaving this Life,
he should enter into one more happy.

The next Day his Sister _Elizabeth_ came to see him, and told him of the
Decease of their Sister _Ann_, who died a few Days before: He then said,
I reckon Sister _Ann_ was free to leave this World: _Elizabeth_ said,
she was. He then said, I also am free to leave it; and, being in great
Weakness of Body, said, I hope I shall shortly go to Rest. He continued
in a weighty Frame of Mind, and was sensible till near the last.

On the second Day of the ninth Month, in the Year 1751, feeling Drawings
in my Mind to visit Friends at the _Great-Meadows_, in the upper Part of
_West-Jersey_, with the Unity of our Monthly-meeting, I went there; and
had some searching laborious Exercise amongst Friends in those Parts,
and found inward Peace therein.

In the ninth Month of the Year 1753, in Company with my well-esteemed
Friend JOHN SYKES, and with the Unity of Friends, we travelled about two
Weeks, visiting Friends in _Bucks-County_. We laboured in the Love of
the Gospel, according to the Measure received; and, through the Mercies
of him, who is Strength to the Poor who trust in him, we found
Satisfaction in our Visit: And, in the next Winter, Way opening to visit
Friends Families within the Compass of our Monthly-meeting, partly by
the Labours of two Friends from _Pennsylvania_, I joined in some Part of
the Work; having had a Desire some Time that it might go forward amongst
us.

About this Time, a Person at some Distance lying sick, his Brother came
to me to write his Will: I knew he had Slaves; and, asking his Brother,
was told he intended to leave them as Slaves to his Children. As Writing
is a profitable Employ, and as offending sober People was disagreeable
to my Inclination, I was straitened in my Mind; but, as I looked to the
Lord, he inclined my Heart to his Testimony: And I told the Man, that I
believed the Practice of continuing Slavery to this People was not
right; and had a Scruple in my Mind against doing Writings of that Kind;
that, though many in our Society kept them as Slaves, still I was not
easy to be concerned in it; and desired to be excused from going to
write the Will. I spake to him in the Fear of the Lord; and he made no
Reply to what I said, but went away: He, also, had some Concerns in the
Practice; and I thought he was displeased with me. In this Case I had a
fresh Confirmation, that acting contrary to present outward Interest,
from a Motive of divine Love, and in Regard to Truth and Righteousness,
opens the Way to a Treasure better than Silver, and to a Friendship
exceeding the Friendship of Men.

The Manuscript before-mentioned having lain by me several Years, the
Publication of it rested weightily upon me; and this Year I offered it
to the Revisal of Friends, who, having examined and made some small
Alterations in it, directed a Number of Copies thereof to be published,
and dispersed amongst Friends.

In the Year 1754, I found my Mind drawn to join in a Visit to Friends
Families belonging to _Chesterfield_ Monthly-meeting; and having the
Approbation of our own, I went to their Monthly-meeting in order to
confer with Friends, and see if Way opened for it: I had Conference with
some of their Members, the Proposal having been opened before in their
Meeting, and one Friend agreed to join with me as a Companion for a
Beginning; but, when Meeting was ended, I felt great Distress of Mind,
and doubted what Way to take, or whether to go Home and wait for greater
Clearness: I kept my Distress secret; and, going with a Friend to his
House, my Desires were to the great Shepherd for his heavenly
Instruction; and in the Morning I felt easy to proceed on the Visit,
being very low in my Mind: And as mine Eye was turned to the Lord,
waiting in Families in deep Reverence before him, he was pleased
graciously to afford Help; so that we had many comfortable
Opportunities, and it appeared as a fresh Visitation to some young
People. I spent several Weeks this Winter in the Service, Part of which
Time was employed near Home. And again, in the following Winter, I was
several Weeks in the same Service; some Part of the Time at
_Shrewsbury_, in Company with my beloved Friend, _John Sykes_; and have
Cause humbly to acknowledge, that, through the Goodness of the Lord, our
Hearts were, at Times, enlarged in his Love; and Strength was given to
go through the Trials which, in the Course of our Visit, attended us.

From a Disagreement between the Powers of _England_ and _France_, it was
now a Time of Trouble on this Continent; and an Epistle to Friends went
forth from our General Spring-meeting, which I thought good to give a
Place in this Journal.

     An EPISTLE from our General Spring-meeting of Ministers and Elders
     for _Pennsylvania_ and _New-Jersey_, held at _Philadelphia_, from
     the 29th of the third Month, to the first of the fourth Month,
     inclusive, 1755.

     To Friends on the Continent of _America_.

     Dear Friends,--In an humble Sense of divine Goodness, and the
     gracious Continuation of God's Love to his People, we tenderly
     salute you; and are at this Time therein engaged in Mind, that all
     of us who profess the Truth, as held forth and published by our
     worthy Predecessors in this latter Age of the World, may keep near
     to that Life which is the Light of Men, and be strengthened to hold
     fast the Profession of our Faith without wavering, that our Trust
     may not be in Man but in the Lord alone, who ruleth in the Army of
     Heaven, and in the Kingdoms of Men, before whom the Earth is _as
     the Dust of the Balance, and her Inhabitants as Grasshoppers_. Isa.
     xl. 22.

     We (being convinced that the gracious Design of the Almighty in
     sending his Son into the World, was to repair the Breach made by
     Disobedience, to finish Sin and Transgression, that his Kingdom
     might come, and his Will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven) have
     found it to be our Duty to cease from those national Contests
     productive of Misery and Bloodshed, and submit our Cause to him,
     the Most High, whose tender Love to his Children exceeds the most
     warm Affections of natural Parents, and who hath promised to his
     Seed throughout the Earth, as to one Individual, "I will never
     leave thee, nor forsake thee." _Heb._ xiii. 5. And as we, through
     the gracious Dealings of the Lord our God, have had Experience of
     that Work which is carried on, "not by _earthly_ Might, nor by
     Power, but by my Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts:" _Zech._ iv. 6.
     By which Operation, that spiritual Kingdom is set up, which is to
     subdue and break in pieces all Kingdoms that oppose it, and shall
     stand for ever; in a deep Sense thereof, and of the Safety,
     Stability, and Peace, there is in it, we are desirous that all who
     profess the Truth, may be inwardly acquainted with it, and thereby
     be qualified to conduct ourselves in all Parts of our Life as
     becomes our peaceable Profession: And we trust, as there is a
     faithful Continuance to depend wholly upon the Almighty Arm, from
     one Generation to another, the peaceable Kingdom will gradually be
     extended "from Sea to Sea, and from the River to the Ends of the
     Earth." _Zech._ ix. 10. to the Completion of those Prophecies
     already begun, that "Nation shall not lift up a Sword against
     Nation, nor learn War any more." _Isa._ ii. 4. _Micah_ iv. 3.

     And, dearly beloved Friends, seeing we have these Promises, and
     believe that God is beginning to fulfil them, let us constantly
     endeavour to have our Minds sufficiently disintangled from the
     surfeiting Cares of this Life, and redeemed from the Love of the
     World, that no earthly Possessions nor Enjoyments may bias our
     Judgments, or turn us from that Resignation, and entire Trust in
     God, to which his Blessing is most surely annexed; then may we say,
     "Our Redeemer is mighty, he will plead our Cause for us." _Jer._ 1.
     34. And if, for the farther promoting his most gracious Purposes in
     the Earth, he should give us to taste of that bitter Cup which his
     faithful Ones have often partaken of; O! that we may be rightly
     prepared to receive it.

     And now, dear Friends, with Respect to the Commotions and Stirrings
     of the Powers of the Earth at this Time near us, we are desirous
     that none of us may be moved thereat; "but repose ourselves in the
     Munition of that Rock that all these Shakings shall not move, even
     in the Knowledge and Feeling of the eternal Power of God, keeping
     us subjectly given up to his heavenly Will, and feel it daily to
     mortify that which remains in any of us which is of this World; for
     the worldly Part, in any, is the changeable Part, and that is up
     and down, full and empty, joyful and sorrowful, as Things go well
     or ill in this World; for as the Truth is but one, and many are
     made Partakers of its Spirit, so the World is but one, and many are
     made Partakers of the Spirit of it; and so many as do partake of
     it, so many will be straitened and perplexed with it: But they who
     are single to the Truth, waiting daily to feel the Life and Virtue
     of it in their Hearts, these shall rejoice in the midst of
     Adversity," and have to experience, with the Prophet, that
     "Although the Fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall Fruit be in
     the Vines; the Labour of the Olive shall fail, and the Fields shall
     yield no Meat; the Flock shall be cut off from the Fold, and there
     shall be no Herd in the Stalls; yet will _they_ rejoice in the
     Lord, and joy in the God of _their_ Salvation." _Hab._ iii. 17, 18.

     If, contrary to this, we profess the Truth, and, not living under
     the Power and Influence of it, are producing Fruits disagreeable to
     the Purity thereof, and trust to the Strength of Man to support
     ourselves, therein our Confidence will be vain. For he, who removed
     the Hedge from his Vineyard, and gave it to be trodden under Foot,
     by reason of the wild Grapes it produced, (_Isa._ v. 5.) remains
     unchangeable; And if, for the Chastisement of Wickedness, and the
     farther promoting his own Glory, he doth arise, even to shake
     terribly the Earth, who then may oppose him, and prosper!

     We remain, in the Love of the Gospel, your Friends and Brethren.

     Signed by fourteen Friends.

Scrupling to do Writings, relative to keeping Slaves, having been a
Means of sundry small Trials to me, in which I have so evidently felt my
own Will set aside, I think it good to mention a few of them.--Tradesmen
and Retailers of Goods, who depend on their Business for a Living, are
naturally inclined to keep the Good-will of their Customers; nor is it a
pleasant Thing for young Men to be under any Necessity to question the
Judgment or Honesty of elderly Men, and more especially of such as have
a fair Reputation. Deep-rooted Customs, though wrong, are not easily
altered; but it is the Duty of every one to be firm in that which they
certainly know is right for them. A charitable benevolent Man, well
acquainted with a Negro, may, I believe, under some Circumstances, keep
him in his Family as a Servant, from no other Motives than the Negro's
Good; but Man, as Man, knows not what shall be after him, nor hath
Assurance that his Children will attain to that Perfection in Wisdom and
Goodness necessary rightly to exercise such Power: It is clear to me,
that I ought not to be the Scribe where Wills are drawn, in which some
Children are made absolute Masters over others during Life.

About this Time, an ancient Man, of good Esteem in the Neighbourhood,
came to my House to get his Will written; he had young Negroes; and I
asked him privately, how he purposed to dispose of them? He told me: I
then said, I cannot write thy Will without breaking my own Peace; and
respectfully gave him my Reasons for it: He signified that he had a
Choice that I should have written it; but as I could not, consistent
with my Conscience, he did not desire it: And so he got it written by
some other Person. And, a few Years after, there being great Alterations
in his Family, he came again to get me to write his Will: His Negroes
were yet young; and his Son, to whom he intended to give them, was,
since he first spoke to me, from a Libertine, become a sober young Man;
and he supposed, that I would have been free, on that Account, to write
it. We had much friendly Talk on the Subject, and then deferred it: A
few Days after, he came again, and directed their Freedom; and then I
wrote his Will.

Near the Time the last-mentioned Friend first spoke to me, a Neighbour
received a bad Bruise in his Body, and sent for me to bleed him; which
being done, he desired me to write his Will: I took Notes; and, amongst
other Things, he told me to which of his Children he gave his young
Negro: I considered the Pain and Distress he was in, and knew not how it
would end; so I wrote his Will, save only that Part concerning his
Slave, and carrying it to his Bed side, read it to him; and then told
him, in a friendly Way, that I could not write any Instruments by which
my Fellow-creatures were made Slaves, without bringing Trouble on my own
Mind: I let him know that I charged nothing for what I had done; and
desired to be excused from doing the other Part in the Way he proposed:
We then had a serious Conference on the Subject; at length he agreeing
to set her free, I finished his Will.

Having found Drawings in my Mind to visit Friends on _Long-Island_,
after obtaining a Certificate from our Monthly-meeting, I set off on the
twelfth Day of the fifth Month, in the Year 1756. When I reached the
Island, I lodged the first Night at the House of my dear Friend, RICHARD
HALLET; the next Day, being the first of the Week, I was at the Meeting
in _New-town_; in which we experienced the renewed Manifestations of the
Love of Jesus Christ, to the Comfort of the honest-hearted. I went that
Night to _Flushing_; and the next Day, in Company with my beloved
Friend, MATTHEW FRANKLIN, we crossed the Ferry at _White-stone_; were at
three Meetings on the Main, and then returned to the Island; where I
spent the Remainder of the Week in visiting Meetings. The Lord, I
believe, hath a People in those Parts, who are honestly inclined to
serve him; but many, I fear, are too much clogged with the Things of
this Life, and do not come forward bearing the Cross in such
Faithfulness as he calls for.

My Mind was deeply engaged in this Visit, both in publick and private;
and, at several Places, observing that they had Slaves, I found myself
under a Necessity in a friendly Way, to labour with them on that
Subject; expressing, as Way opened, the Inconsistency of that Practice
with the Purity of the _Christian_ Religion, and the ill Effects of it
manifested amongst us.

The Latter-end of the Week, their Yearly-meeting began; at which were
our Friends JOHN SCARBOROUGH, JANE HOSKINS, and SUSANNA BROWN, from
_Pennsylvania_: The publick Meetings were large, and measurably favoured
with divine Goodness.

The Exercise of my Mind, at this Meeting, was chiefly on Account of
those who were considered as the foremost Rank in the Society; and, in a
Meeting of Ministers and Elders, Way opened, that I expressed in some
Measure what lay upon me; and, at a Time when Friends were met for
transacting the Affairs of the Church, having set a while silent, I felt
a Weight on my Mind, and stood up; and, through the gracious Regard of
our heavenly Father, Strength was given fully to clear myself of a
Burthen, which, for some Days, had been increasing upon me.

Through the humbling Dispensations of divine Providence, Men are
sometimes fitted for his Service. The Messages of the Prophet Jeremiah,
were so disagreeable to the People, and so reverse to the Spirit they
lived in, that he became the Object of their Reproach; and, in the
Weakness of Nature, thought of desisting from his prophetic Office; but,
saith he, "His Word was in my Heart as a burning Fire shut up in my
Bones; and I was weary with forbearing, and could not stay." I saw at
this Time, that if I was honest in declaring that which Truth opened in
me, I could not please all Men; and laboured to be content in the Way
of my Duty, however disagreeable to my own Inclination. After this I
went homeward, taking _Woodbridge_, and _Plainfield_ in my Way; in both
which Meetings, the pure Influence of divine Love was manifested; in an
humbling Sense whereof I went Home, having been out about twenty-four
Days, and rode about three hundred and sixteen Miles.

While I was out on this Journey, my Heart was much affected with a Sense
of the State of the Churches in our southern Provinces; and, believing
the Lord was calling me to some farther Labour amongst them, I was bowed
in Reverence before him, with fervent Desires that I might find Strength
to resign myself up to his heavenly Will.

Until this Year, 1756, I continued to retail Goods, besides following my
Trade as a Taylor; about which Time, I grew uneasy on Account of my
Business growing too cumbersome: I had begun with selling Trimmings for
Garments, and from thence proceeded to sell Cloths and Linens; and, at
length, having got a considerable Shop of Goods, my Trade increased
every Year, and the Road to large Business appeared open; but I felt a
Stop in my Mind.

Through the Mercies of the Almighty, I had, in a good degree, learned to
be content with a plain Way of Living: I had but a small Family; and, on
serious Consideration, I believed Truth did not require me to engage in
much cumbering Affairs: It had been my general Practice to buy and sell
Things really useful: Things that served chiefly to please the vain Mind
in People, I was not easy to trade in; seldom did it; and, whenever I
did, I found it weaken me as a _Christian_.

The Increase of Business became my Burthen; for, though my natural
Inclination was toward Merchandize, yet I believed Truth required me to
live more free from outward Cumbers: and there was now a Strife in my
Mind between the two; and in this Exercise my Prayers were put up to the
Lord, who graciously heard me, and gave me a Heart resigned to his holy
Will: Then I lessened my outward Business; and, as I had Opportunity,
told my Customers of my Intention, that they might consider what Shop to
turn to: And, in a while, wholly laid down Merchandize, following my
Trade, as a Taylor, myself only, having no Apprentice. I also had a
Nursery of Appletrees; in which I employed some of my Time in hoeing,
grafting, trimming, and inoculating. In Merchandize it is the Custom,
where I lived, to sell chiefly on Credit, and poor People often get in
Debt; and when Payment is expected, not having wherewith to pay, their
Creditors often sue for it at Law. Having often observed Occurrences of
this Kind, I found it good for me to advise poor People to take such
Goods as were most useful and not costly.

In the Time of Trading, I had an Opportunity of seeing, that the too
liberal Use of spirituous Liquors, and the Custom of wearing too costly
Apparel, led some People into great Inconveniences; and these two Things
appear to be often connected; for, by not attending to that Use of
Things which is consistent with universal Righteousness, there is an
Increase of Labour which extends beyond what our heavenly Father intends
for us: And by great Labour, and often by much Sweating, there is, even
among such as are not Drunkards, a craving of some Liquors to revive the
Spirits; that, partly by the luxurious Drinking of some, and partly by
the Drinking of others (led to it through immoderate Labour), very great
Quantities of Rum are every Year expended in our Colonies; the greater
Part of which we should have no Need of, did we steadily attend to pure
Wisdom.

Where Men take Pleasure in feeling their Minds elevated with
Strong-drink, and so indulge their Appetite as to disorder their
Understandings, neglect their Duty as Members in a Family or Civil
Society, and cast off all Regard to Religion, their Case is much to be
pitied; and where such, whose Lives are for the most Part regular, and
whose Examples have a strong Influence on the Minds of others, adhere to
some Customs which powerfully draw to the Use of more Strong-liquor than
pure Wisdom allows; this also, as it hinders the spreading of the
Spirit of Meekness, and strengthens the Hands of the more excessive
Drinkers, is a Case to be lamented.

As every Degree of Luxury hath some Connection with Evil, those who
profess to be Disciples of Christ, and are looked upon as Leaders of the
People, should have that Mind in them which was also in Christ, and so
stand separate from every wrong Way, as a Means of Help to the Weaker.
As I have sometimes been much spent in the Heat, and taken Spirits to
revive me, I have found, by Experience, that in such Circumstances the
Mind is not so calm, nor so fitly disposed for divine Meditation, as
when all such Extremes are avoided; and I have felt an increasing Care
to attend to that holy Spirit which sets Bounds to our Desires, and
leads those, who faithfully follow it, to apply all the Gifts of divine
Providence to the Purposes for which they were intended. Did such, as
have the Care of great Estates, attend with Singleness of Heart to this
heavenly Instructor, which so opens and enlarges the Mind, that Men love
their Neighbours as themselves, they would have Wisdom given them to
manage, without finding Occasion to employ some People in the Luxuries
of Life, or to make it necessary for others to labour too hard; but, for
want of steadily regarding this Principle of divine Love, a selfish
Spirit takes Place in the Minds of People, which is attended with
Darkness and manifold Confusion in the World.

Though trading in Things useful is an honest Employ; yet, through the
great Number of Superfluities which are bought and sold, and through the
Corruption of the Times, they, who apply to merchandize for a Living,
have great Need to be well experienced in that Precept which the Prophet
JEREMIAH laid down for his Scribe: "Seekest thou great Things for
thyself? seek them not."

In the Winter, this Year, I was engaged with Friends in visiting
Families; and, through the Goodness of the Lord, we had oftentimes
Experience of his Heart-tendering Presence amongst us.


A Copy of a Letter written to a Friend.

In this thy late Affliction I have found a deep Fellow-feeling with
thee; and had a secret Hope throughout, that it might please the Father
of Mercies to raise thee up, and sanctify thy Troubles to thee; that
thou, being more fully acquainted with that Way which the World esteems
foolish, mayst feel the Clothing of divine Fortitude, and be
strengthened to resist that Spirit which leads from the Simplicity of
the everlasting Truth.

We may see ourselves crippled and halting, and, from a strong Bias to
Things pleasant and easy, find an Impossibility to advance forward; but
Things impossible with Men are possible with God; and, our Wills being
made subject to his, all Temptations are surmountable.

This Work of subjecting the Will is compared to the Mineral in the
Furnace; "He refines them as Silver is refined.--He shall sit as a
Refiner and Purifier of Silver." By these Comparisons we are instructed
in the Necessity of the Operation of the Hand of God upon us, to prepare
our Hearts truly to adore him, and manifest that Adoration, by inwardly
turning away from that Spirit, in all its Workings, which is not of him.
To forward this Work, the all-wise God is sometimes pleased, through
outward Distress, to bring us near the Gates of Death; that, Life being
painful and afflicting, and the Prospect of Eternity open before us, all
earthly Bonds may be loosened, and the Mind prepared for that deep and
sacred Instruction, which otherwise would not be received. If Parents
love their Children and delight in their Happiness, then he, who is
perfect Goodness, in sending abroad mortal Contagions, doth assuredly
direct their Use: Are the Righteous removed by it? Their Change is
happy: Are the Wicked taken away in their Wickedness? The Almighty is
clear: Do we pass through with Anguish and great Bitterness, and yet
recover, he intends that we should be purged from Dross, and our Ears
opened to Discipline.

And now that, on thy Part, after thy sore Affliction and Doubts of
Recovery, thou art again restored, forget not him who hath helped thee;
but in humble Gratitude hold fast his Instructions, thereby to shun
those By-paths which lead from the firm Foundation. I am sensible of
that Variety of Company, to which one in thy Business must be exposed: I
have painfully felt the Force of Conversation proceeding from Men deeply
rooted in an earthly Mind, and can sympathize with others in such
Conflicts, in that much Weakness still attends me.

I find that to be a Fool as to worldly Wisdom, and commit my Cause to
God, not fearing to offend Men, who take Offence at the Simplicity of
Truth, is the only Way to remain unmoved at the Sentiments of others.

The Fear of Man brings a Snare; by halting in our Duty, and giving back
in the Time of Trial, our Hands grow weaker, our Spirits get mingled
with the People, our Ears grow dull as to hearing the Language of the
true Shepherd; that when we look at the Way of the Righteous, it seems
as though it was not for us to follow them.

There is a Love clothes my Mind, while I write, which is superior to all
Expressions; and I find my Heart open to encourage a holy Emulation, to
advance forward in _Christian_ Firmness. Deep Humility is a strong
Bulwark; and, as we enter into it, we find Safety: The Foolishness of
God is wiser than Man, and the Weakness of God is stronger than Man.
Being unclothed of our own Wisdom, and knowing the Abasement of the
Creature, therein we find that Power to arise, which gives Health and
Vigour to us.


CHAPTER IV

    _His Journey to_ Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, _and_
    North-Carolina: _Considerations on the State of Friends there; and
    the Exercise he was under in travelling among those so generally
    concerned in keeping Slaves: With some Observations in Conversation,
    at several Times, on this Subject_--_His Epistle to Friends at_
    New-Garden _and_ Cane-Creek--_His Thoughts on the Neglect of a
    religious Care in the Education of the Negroes_

Feeling an Exercise in Relation to a Visit to the southern Provinces, I
acquainted our Monthly-meeting therewith, and obtained their
Certificate: Expecting to go alone, one of my Brothers, who lived in
_Philadelphia_, having some Business in _North-Carolina_, proposed going
with me Part of the Way; but, as he had a View of some outward Affairs,
to accept of him as a Companion seemed some Difficulty with me,
whereupon I had Conversation with him at sundry Times; and, at length,
feeling easy in my Mind, I had Conversation with several elderly Friends
of _Philadelphia_ on the Subject; and he obtaining a Certificate
suitable to the Occasion, we set off in the fifth Month of the Year
1757; and, coming to _Nottingham_ Week-day Meeting, lodged at JOHN
CHURCHMAN'S; and here I met with our Friend BENJAMIN BUFFINGTON, from
_New-England_, who was returning from a Visit to the southern Provinces.
Thence we crossed the River _Susquehannah_, and lodged at WILLIAM COX'S
in _Maryland_; and, soon after I entered this Province, a deep and
painful Exercise came upon me, which I often had some Feeling of since
my Mind was drawn towards these Parts, and with which I had acquainted
my Brother before we agreed to join as Companions.

As the People in this and the southern Provinces live much on the Labour
of Slaves, many of whom are used hardly, my Concern was, that I might
attend with Singleness of Heart to the Voice of the true Shepherd, and
be so supported as to remain unmoved at the Faces of Men.

The Prospect of so weighty a Work brought me very low; and such were the
Conflicts of my Soul, that I had a near Sympathy with the Prophet, in
the Time of his Weakness, when he said, "If thou deal thus with me, kill
me, I pray thee, if I have found Favour in thy Sight," Numb. xi. 15. But
I soon saw that this proceeded from the Want of a full Resignation to
the divine Will. Many were the Afflictions which attended me; and in
great Abasement, with many Tears, my Cries were to the Almighty, for his
gracious and Fatherly Assistance; and then, after a Time of deep Trial,
I was favoured to understand the State mentioned by the Psalmist, more
clearly than ever I had before; to wit: "My Soul is even as a weaned
Child." Psalm cxxxi. 2. Being thus helped to sink down into Resignation,
I felt a Deliverance from that Tempest in which I had been sorely
exercised, and in Calmness of Mind went forward, trusting that the Lord
Jesus Christ, as I faithfully attended to him, would be a Counsellor to
me in all Difficulties.

The seventh Day of the fifth Month, in the Year 1757, I lodged at a
Friend's House; and the next Day, being the first of the Week, was at
_Potapsco_ Meeting; then crossed _Patuxent_ River, and lodged at a
Public-house. On the ninth breakfasted at a Friend's House; who,
afterward, putting us a little on our Way, I had Conversation with him,
in the Fear of the Lord, concerning his Slaves; in which my Heart was
tender, and I used much Plainness of Speech with him, which he appeared
to take kindly. We pursued our Journey without appointing Meetings,
being pressed in Mind to be at the Yearly-meeting in _Virginia_; and, in
my travelling on the Road, I often felt a Cry rise from the Center of my
Mind, thus: O Lord, I am a Stranger on the Earth, hide not thy Face from
me.

On the eleventh Day of the fifth Month, we crossed the Rivers
_Patowmack_ and _Rapahannock_, and lodged at _Port-Royal_; and on the
Way we happening in Company with a Colonel of the Militia, who appeared
to be a thoughtful Man, I took Occasion to remark on the Difference in
general betwixt a People used to labour moderately for their Living,
training up their Children in Frugality and Business, and those who live
on the Labour of Slaves; the former, in my View, being the most happy
Life: With which he concurred, and mentioned the Trouble arising from
the untoward, slothful, Disposition of the Negroes; adding, that one of
our Labourers would do as much in a Day as two of their Slaves. I
replied, that free Men, whose Minds were properly on their Business,
found a Satisfaction in improving, cultivating, and providing for their
Families; but Negroes, labouring to support others who claim them as
their Property, and expecting nothing but Slavery during Life, had not
the like Inducement to be industrious.

After some farther Conversation, I said, that Men having Power too often
misapplied it; that though we made Slaves of the Negroes, and the
_Turks_ made Slaves of the _Christians_, I believed that Liberty was the
natural Right of all Men equally: Which he did not deny; but said, the
Lives of the Negroes were so wretched in their own Country, that many of
them lived better here than there: I only said, there are great odds, in
regard to us, on what Principle we act; and so the Conversation on that
Subject ended: And I may here add, that another Person, some Time
afterward, mentioned the Wretchedness of the Negroes, occasioned by
their intestine Wars, as an Argument in Favour of our fetching them away
for Slaves: To which I then replied, if Compassion on the _Africans_, in
Regard to their domestic Troubles, were the real Motive of our
purchasing them, that Spirit of Tenderness, being attended to, would
incite us to use them kindly; that, as Strangers brought out of
Affliction, their Lives might be happy among us; and as they are human
Creatures, whose Souls are as precious as ours, and who may receive the
same Help and Comfort from the holy Scriptures as we do, we could not
omit suitable Endeavours to instruct them therein: But while we
manifest, by our Conduct, that our Views in purchasing them are to
advance ourselves; and while our buying Captives taken in War animates
those Parties to push on that War, and increase Desolation amongst them,
to say they live unhappy in _Africa_, is far from being an Argument in
our Favour: And I farther said, the present Circumstances of these
Provinces to me appear difficult; that the Slaves look like a
burthensome Stone to such who burthen themselves with them; and that if
the white People retain a Resolution to prefer their outward Prospects
of Gain to all other Considerations, and do not act conscientiously
toward them as fellow Creatures, I believe that Burthen will grow
heavier and heavier, till Times change in a Way disagreeable to us: At
which the Person appeared very serious, and owned, that, in considering
their Condition, and the Manner of their Treatment in these Provinces,
he had sometimes thought it might be just in the Almighty so to order
it.

Having thus travelled through _Maryland_, we came amongst Friends at
_Cedar-Creek_ in _Virginia_, on the 12th Day of the fifth Month; and the
next Day rode, in Company with several Friends, a Day's Journey to
_Camp-Creek_. As I was riding along in the Morning, my Mind was deeply
affected in a Sense I had of the Want of divine Aid to support me in the
various Difficulties which attended me; and, in an uncommon Distress of
Mind, I cried in secret to the Most High, O Lord, be merciful, I beseech
thee, to thy poor afflicted Creature. After some Time, I felt inward
Relief; and, soon after, a Friend in Company began to talk in Support of
the Slave-Trade, and said, the Negroes were understood to be the
Offspring of _Cain_, their Blackness being the Mark God set upon him
after he murdered _Abel_ his Brother; that it was the Design of
Providence they should be Slaves, as a Condition proper to the Race of
so wicked a Man as _Cain_ was: Then another spake in Support of what had
been said. To all which, I replied in Substance as follows: That _Noah_
and his Family were all who survived the Flood, according to Scripture;
and, as _Noah_ was of _Seth's_ Race, the Family of _Cain_ was wholly
destroyed. One of them said, that after the Flood _Ham_ went to the Land
of _Nod_, and took a Wife; that _Nod_ was a Land far distant, inhabited
by _Cain's_ Race, and that the Flood did not reach it; and as _Ham_ was
sentenced to be a Servant of Servants to his Brethren, these two
Families, being thus joined, were undoubtedly fit only for Slaves. I
replied, the Flood was a Judgment upon the World for its Abominations;
and it was granted, that _Cain's_ Stock was the most wicked, and
therefore unreasonable to suppose they were spared: As to _Ham's_ going
to the Land of _Nod_ for a Wife, no Time being fixed, _Nod_ might be
inhabited by some of _Noah's_ Family, before _Ham_ married a second
Time; moreover the Text saith, "That all Flesh died that moved upon the
Earth." _Gen._ vii. 21. I farther reminded them, how the Prophets
repeatedly declare, "That the Son shall not suffer for the Iniquity of
the Father; but every one be answerable for his own Sins." I was
troubled to perceive the Darkness of their Imaginations; and in some
Pressure of Spirit said, the Love of Ease and Gain is the Motive in
general for keeping Slaves, and Men are wont to take hold of weak
Arguments to support a Cause which is unreasonable; and added, I have no
Interest on either Side, save only the Interest which I desire to have
in the Truth: And as I believe Liberty is their Right, and see they are
not only deprived of it, but treated in other Respects with Inhumanity
in many Places, I believe he, who is a Refuge for the Oppressed, will,
in his own Time, plead their Cause; and happy will it be for such as
walk in Uprightness before him: And thus our Conversation ended.

On the fourteenth Day of the fifth Month I was at _Camp-Creek_
Monthly-meeting, and then rode to the Mountains up _James-River_, and
had a Meeting at a Friend's House; in both which I felt Sorrow of Heart,
and my Tears were poured out before the Lord, who was pleased to afford
a Degree of Strength, by which Way was opened to clear my Mind amongst
Friends in those Places. From thence I went to _Fort-Creek_, and so to
_Cedar-Creek_ again; at which Place I had a Meeting; here I found a
tender Seed: And as I was preserved in the Ministry to keep low with the
Truth, the same Truth in their Hearts answered it, that it was a Time of
mutual Refreshment from the Presence of the Lord. I lodged at JAMES
STANDLEY'S, Father of WILLIAM STANDLEY, one of the young Men who
suffered Imprisonment at _Winchester_, last Summer, on Account of their
Testimony against Fighting; and I had some satisfactory Conversation
with him concerning it. Hence I went to the _Swamp_ Meeting, and to
_Wayanoke_ Meeting; and then crossed _James-River_, and lodged near
_Burleigh_. From the Time of my entering _Maryland_ I had been much
under Sorrow, which so increased upon me, that my Mind was almost
overwhelmed; and I may say with the Psalmist, "In my Distress I called
upon the Lord, and cried to my God;" who, in infinite Goodness, looked
upon my Affliction, and in my private Retirement sent the Comforter for
my Relief: For which I humbly bless his holy Name.

The Sense I had of the State of the Churches brought a Weight of
Distress upon me: The Gold to me appeared dim, and the fine Gold
changed; and though this is the Case too generally, yet the Sense of it
in these Parts hath, in a particular Manner, borne heavy upon me. It
appeared to me, that, through the prevailing of the Spirit of this
World, the Minds of many were brought to an inward Desolation; and,
instead of the Spirit of Meekness, Gentleness, and heavenly Wisdom,
which are the necessary Companions of the true Sheep of Christ, a Spirit
of Fierceness, and the Love of Dominion, too generally prevailed. From
small Beginnings in Errors, great Buildings, by degrees, are raised; and
from one Age to another are more and more strengthened by the general
Concurrence of the People; and, as Men obtain Reputation by their
Profession of the Truth, their Virtues are mentioned as Arguments in
Favour of general Error, and those of less Note, to justify themselves,
say, such and such good Men did the like. By what other Steps could the
People of _Judah_ arise to that Height in Wickedness, as to give just
Ground for the Prophet _Isaiah_ to declare, in the Name of the Lord,
"that none calleth for Justice, nor any pleadeth for Truth." _Isaiah_
lix. 4. Or for the Almighty to call upon the great City of _Jerusalem_,
just before the _Babylonish_ Captivity: "If ye can find a Man, if there
be any who executeth Judgment, that seeketh the Truth, and I will pardon
it." _Jer._ v. 1. The Prospect of a Road lying open to the same
Degeneracy, in some Parts of this newly-settled Land of _America_, in
Respect to our Conduct toward the Negroes, deeply bowed my Mind in this
Journey; and, though, to briefly relate how these People are treated is
no agreeable Work; yet, after often reading over the Notes I made as I
travelled, I find my Mind engaged to preserve them. Many of the white
People in those Provinces take little or no Care of Negro Marriages;
and, when Negroes marry after their own Way, some make so little Account
of those Marriages, that, with Views of outward Interest, they often
part Men from their Wives by selling them far asunder; which is common
when Estates are sold by Executors at Vendue. Many, whose Labour is
heavy, being followed, at their Business in the Field, by a Man with a
Whip, hired for that Purpose, have, in common, little else allowed but
one Peck of _Indian_ Corn and some Salt for one Week, with a few
Potatoes; the Potatoes they commonly raise by their Labour on the first
Day of the Week.

The Correction, ensuing on their Disobedience to Overseers, or
Slothfulness in Business, is often very severe, and sometimes desperate.

The Men and Women have many Times scarce Clothes enough to hide their
Nakedness, and Boys and Girls, ten and twelve Years old, are often quite
naked amongst their Master's Children: Some of our Society, and some of
the Society called New-Lights, use some Endeavours to instruct those
they have in reading; but, in common, this is not only neglected, but
disapproved. These are the People by whose Labour the other Inhabitants
are in a great Measure supported, and many of them in the Luxuries of
Life: These are the People who have made no Agreement to serve us, and
who have not forfeited their Liberty that we know of: These are Souls
for whom Christ died, and, for our Conduct toward them, we must answer
before him who is no Respecter of Persons.

They who know the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent,
and are thus acquainted with the merciful, benevolent Gospel Spirit,
will therein perceive that the Indignation of God is kindled against
Oppression and Cruelty; and, in beholding the great Distress of so
numerous a People, will find Cause for Mourning.

From my Lodging I went to _Burleigh_ Meeting, where I felt my Mind drawn
into a quiet resigned State; and, after long Silence, I felt an
Engagement to stand up; and, through the powerful Operation of divine
Love, we were favoured with an edifying Meeting. The next Meeting we had
was at _Black-Water_; and so to the Yearly-meeting at the western
Branch: When Business began, some Queries were considered, by some of
their Members, to be now produced; and, if approved, to be answered
hereafter by their respective Monthly-meetings. They were the
_Pennsylvania_ Queries, which had been examined by a Committee of
_Virginia_ Yearly-meeting appointed the last Year, who made some
Alterations in them; one of which Alterations was made in Favour of a
Custom which troubled me. The Query was, "Are there any concerned in the
Importation of Negroes, or buying them after imported?" Which they
altered thus: "Are there any concerned in the Importation of Negroes, or
buying them to trade in?" As one Query admitted with Unanimity was, "Are
any concerned in buying or vending Goods unlawfully imported, or prize
Goods?" I found my Mind engaged to say, that as we professed the Truth,
and were there assembled to support the Testimony of it, it was
necessary for us to dwell deep, and act in that Wisdom which is pure, or
otherwise we could not prosper. I then mentioned their Alteration; and,
referring to the last-mentioned Query, added, as purchasing any
Merchandize, taken by the Sword, was always allowed to be inconsistent
with our Principles; Negroes being Captives of War, or taken by Stealth,
those Circumstances make it inconsistent with our Testimony to buy them;
and their being our Fellow-creatures, who are sold as Slaves, adds
greatly to the Iniquity. Friends appeared attentive to what was said;
some expressed a Care and Concern about their Negroes; none made any
Objection, by Way of Reply to what I said; but the Query was admitted as
they had altered it. As some of their Members have heretofore traded in
Negroes, as in other Merchandize, this Query being admitted, will be one
Step farther than they have hitherto gone: And I did not see it my Duty
to press for an Alteration; but felt easy to leave it all to him, who
alone is able to turn the Hearts of the Mighty, and make Way for the
spreading of Truth on the Earth, by Means agreeable to his infinite
Wisdom. But, in Regard to those they already had, I felt my Mind engaged
to labour with them; and said, that, as we believe the Scriptures were
given forth by holy Men, as they were moved by the Holy Ghost, and many
of us know by Experience that they are often helpful and comfortable,
and believe ourselves bound in Duty to teach our Children to read them,
I believe, that, if we were divested of all selfish Views, the same good
Spirit, that gave them forth, would engage us to teach the Negroes to
read, that they might have the Benefit of them: Some, amongst them, at
this Time, manifested a Concern in Regard to taking more Care in the
Education of their Negroes.

On the twenty-ninth Day of the fifth Month, at the House where I lodged,
was a Meeting of Ministers and Elders, at the ninth Hour in the Morning;
at which Time I found an Engagement to speak freely and plainly to them
concerning their Slaves; mentioning, how they, as the first Rank in the
Society, whose Conduct in that Case was much noticed by others, were
under the stronger Obligations to look carefully to themselves:
Expressing how needful it was for them, in that Situation, to be
thoroughly divested of all selfish Views; that living in the pure Truth,
and acting conscientiously toward those People in their Education and
otherwise, they might be instrumental in helping forward a Work so
necessary, and so much neglected amongst them. At the twelfth Hour the
Meeting of Worship began, which was a solid Meeting.

On the thirtieth Day, about the tenth Hour, Friends met to finish their
Business, and then the meeting for Worship ensued, which to me was a
laborious Time; but, through the Goodness of the Lord, Truth, I
believe, gained some Ground; and it was a strengthening Opportunity to
the Honest-hearted.

About this Time I wrote an Epistle to Friends in the Back-settlements of
_North-Carolina_, as follows:

     To Friends at their Monthly-meeting at _New-Garden_ and
     _Cane-Creek_, in _North-Carolina_.

     Dear Friends,--It having pleased the Lord to draw me forth on a
     Visit to some Parts of _Virginia_ and _Carolina_, you have often
     been in my Mind; and though my Way is not clear to come in Person
     to visit you, yet I feel it in my Heart to communicate a few
     Things, as they arise in the Love of Truth. First, my dear Friends,
     dwell in Humility, and take Heed that no Views of outward Gain get
     too deep hold of you, that so your Eyes being single to the Lord,
     you may be preserved in the Way of Safety. Where People let loose
     their Minds after the Love of outward Things, and are more engaged
     in pursuing the Profits, and seeking the Friendships, of this
     World, than to be inwardly acquainted with the Way of true Peace;
     such walk in a vain Shadow, while the true Comfort of Life is
     wanting: Their Examples are often hurtful to others; and their
     Treasures, thus collected, do many Times prove dangerous Snares to
     their Children.

     But where People are sincerely devoted to follow Christ, and dwell
     under the Influence of his holy Spirit, their Stability and
     Firmness, through a divine Blessing, is at Times like Dew on the
     tender Plants round about them, and the Weightiness of their
     Spirits secretly works on the Minds of others; and in this
     Condition, through the spreading Influence of divine Love, they
     feel a Care over the Flock; and Way is opened for maintaining good
     Order in the Society: And though we meet with Opposition from
     another Spirit, yet, as there is a dwelling in Meekness, feeling
     our Spirits subject, and moving only in the gentle peaceable
     Wisdom, the inward Reward of Quietness will be greater than all our
     Difficulties. Where the pure Life is kept to, and Meetings of
     Discipline are held in the Authority of it, we find by Experience
     that they are comfortable, and tend to the Health of the Body.

     While I write, the Youth come fresh in my Way:--Dear young People,
     choose God for your Portion; love his Truth, and be not ashamed of
     it: Choose for your Company such as serve him in Uprightness; and
     shun, as most dangerous, the Conversation of those whose Lives are
     of an ill Savour; for, by frequenting such Company, some hopeful
     young People have come to great Loss, and have been drawn from less
     Evils to greater, to their utter Ruin. In the Bloom of Youth no
     Ornament is so lovely as that of Virtue, nor any Enjoyments equal
     to those which we partake of, in fully resigning ourselves to the
     divine Will: These Enjoyments add Sweetness to all other Comforts,
     and give true Satisfaction in Company and Conversation, where
     People are mutually acquainted with it; and, as your Minds are thus
     seasoned with the Truth, you will find Strength to abide stedfast
     to the Testimony of it, and be prepared for Services in the Church.

     And now, dear Friends and Brethren, as you are improving a
     Wilderness, and may be numbered amongst the first Planters in one
     Part of a Province, I beseech you, in the Love of Jesus Christ, to
     wisely consider the Force of your Examples, and think how much your
     Successors may be thereby affected: It is a Help in a Country, yea,
     and a great Favour and a Blessing, when Customs, first settled, are
     agreeable to sound Wisdom; so, when they are otherwise, the Effect
     of them is grievous; and Children feel themselves encompassed with
     Difficulties prepared for them by their Predecessors.

     As moderate Care and Exercise, under the Direction of true Wisdom,
     are useful both to Mind and Body; so by this Means in general, the
     real Wants of Life are easily supplied: Our gracious Father having
     so proportioned one to the other, that keeping in the true Medium
     we may pass on quietly. Where Slaves are purchased to do our
     Labour, numerous Difficulties attend it. To rational Creatures
     Bondage is uneasy, and frequently occasions Sourness and Discontent
     in them; which affects the Family, and such as claim the Mastery
     over them: And thus People and their Children are many Times
     encompassed with Vexations, which arise from their applying to
     wrong Methods to get a Living.

     I have been informed that there is a large Number of Friends in
     your Parts, who have no Slaves; and in tender and most affectionate
     Love, I beseech you to keep clear from purchasing any. Look, my
     dear Friends, to divine Providence; and follow in Simplicity that
     Exercise of Body, that Plainness and Frugality, which true Wisdom
     leads to; so will you be preserved from those Dangers which attend
     such as are aiming at outward Ease and Greatness.

     Treasures, though small, attained on a true Principle of Virtue,
     are sweet in the Possession, and, while we walk in the Light of the
     Lord, there is true Comfort and Satisfaction. Here, neither the
     Murmurs of an oppressed People, nor an uneasy Conscience, nor
     anxious Thoughts about the Events of Things, hinder the Enjoyment
     of it.

     When we look toward the End of Life, and think on the Division of
     our Substance among our Successors; if we know that it was
     collected in the Fear of the Lord, in Honesty, in Equity, and in
     Uprightness of Heart before him, we may consider it as his Gift to
     us; and with a single Eye to his Blessing, bestow it on those we
     leave behind us. Such is the Happiness of the plain Ways of true
     Virtue. "The Work of Righteousness shall be Peace; and the Effect
     of Righteousness, Quietness and Assurance for ever." Isa. xxxii.
     17.

     Dwell here, my dear Friends; and then, in remote and solitary
     Desarts, you may find true Peace and Satisfaction. If the Lord be
     our God, in Truth and Reality, there is Safety for us; for he is a
     Stronghold in the Day of Trouble, and knoweth them that trust in
     him.

     ISLE OF WIGHT COUNTY, IN VIRGINIA,
     _29th of the 5th Month, 1757_.

From the Yearly-meeting in _Virginia_, I went to _Carolina_; and, on the
first Day of the sixth Month, was at _Wells_ Monthly-meeting, where the
Spring of the Gospel Ministry was opened, and the Love of Jesus Christ
experienced amongst us: To his Name be the Praise!

Here my Brother joined with some Friends from _New-Garden_, who were
going homeward; and I went next to _Simond's_ Creek Monthly-meeting,
where I was silent during the Meeting for Worship: When Business came
on, my Mind was exercised concerning the poor Slaves; but did not feel
my Way clear to speak: In this Condition I was bowed in Spirit before
the Lord; and with Tears and inward Supplication besought him so to open
my Understanding, that I might know his Will concerning me; and, at
length, my mind was settled in Silence: Near the End of their Business,
a Member of their Meeting expressed a Concern, that had some Time lain
upon him, on Account of Friends so much neglecting their Duty in the
Education of their Slaves; and proposed having Meetings sometimes
appointed for them on a Week-day, to be only attended by some Friends to
be named in their Monthly-meetings: Many present appeared to unite with
the Proposal: One said, he had often wondered that they, being our
Fellow-creatures, and capable of religious Understanding, had been so
exceedingly neglected: Another expressed the like Concern, and appeared
zealous, that Friends, in future, might more closely consider it: At
length a Minute was made; and the farther Consideration of it referred
to their next Monthly-meeting. The Friend who made this Proposal had
Negroes: He told me, that he was at _New-Garden_, about two hundred and
fifty Miles from Home, and came back alone; and that in this solitary
Journey, this Exercise, in Regard to the Education of their Negroes,
was, from Time to Time, renewed in his Mind. A Friend of some Note in
_Virginia_, who had Slaves, told me, that he being far from Home on a
lonesome Journey, had many serious Thoughts about them; and that his
Mind was so impressed therewith, that he believed that he saw a Time
coming, when divine Providence would alter the Circumstances of these
People, respecting their Condition as Slaves.

From hence I went to _Newbegun Creek_, and sat a considerable Time in
much Weakness; then I felt Truth open the Way to speak a little in much
Plainness and Simplicity, till, at length, through the Increase of
divine Love amongst us, we had a seasoning Opportunity. From thence to
the Head of _Little-River_, on a First-day, where was a crowded Meeting;
and, I believe, it was, through divine Goodness, made profitable to
some. Thence to the _Old-Neck_; where I was led into a careful searching
out the secret Workings of the Mystery of Iniquity, which, under a Cover
of Religion, exalts itself against that pure Spirit, which leads in the
Way of Meekness and Self-denial. From thence to _Pineywoods_: This was
the last Meeting I was at in _Carolina_, and was large; and, my Heart
being deeply engaged, I was drawn forth into a fervent Labour amongst
them.

From hence I went back into _Virginia_, and had a Meeting near JAMES
COWPLAND'S; it was a Time of inward Suffering; but, through the Goodness
of the Lord, I was made content: Then to another Meeting; where, through
the Renewings of pure Love, we had a very comfortable Season.

Travelling up and down of late, I have had renewed Evidences, that to be
faithful to the Lord, and content with his Will concerning me, is a most
necessary and useful Lesson for me to be learning; looking less at the
Effects of my Labour, than at the pure Motion and Reality of the
Concern, as it arises from heavenly Love. In the Lord Jehovah is
everlasting Strength; and as the Mind, by a humble Resignation, is
united to him; and we utter Words from an inward Knowledge that they
arise from the heavenly Spring, though our Way may be difficult, and
require close Attention to keep in it; and though the Manner in which we
may be led may tend to our own Abasement; yet, if we continue in
Patience and Meekness, heavenly Peace is the Reward of our Labours.

From thence I went to _Curles_ Meeting; which, though small, was
reviving to the Honest-hearted. Thence to _Black-Creek_ and _Caroline_
Meetings; from whence, accompanied by WILLIAM STANDLEY,
before-mentioned, we rode to _Goose-Creek_, being much through the
Woods, and about one hundred Miles.--We lodged the first Night at a
Publick-house; the second, in the Woods; and, the next Day, we reached a
Friend's House, at _Goose-Creek_. In the Woods we lay under some
Disadvantage, having no Fire-works nor Bells for our Horses; but we
stopped a little before Night, and let them feed on the wild Grass which
was in plenty; in the mean Time cutting with our Knives a Store against
Night, and then tying them, and gathering some Bushes under an Oak, we
lay down; but, the Musquettoes being plenty, and the Ground damp, I
slept but little: Thus, lying in the Wilderness, and looking at the
Stars, I was led to contemplate on the Condition of our first Parents,
when they were sent forth from the Garden; but the Almighty, though they
had been disobedient, continued to be a Father to them, and shewed them
what tended to their Felicity, as intelligent Creatures, and was
acceptable to him. To provide Things relative to our outward Living, in
the Way of true Wisdom, is good; and the Gift of improving in Things
useful is a good Gift, and comes from the Father of Lights. Many have
had this Gift; and, from Age to Age, there have been Improvements of
this Kind made in the World: But some, not keeping to the pure Gift,
have, in the creaturely Cunning and Self-Exaltation, sought out many
Inventions; which Inventions of Men are distinct from that Uprightness
in which Man was created; as the first Motion to them was evil, so the
Effects have been and are evil. At this Day, it is as necessary for us
constantly to attend on the heavenly Gift, to be qualified to use
rightly the good Things in this Life amidst great Improvements, as it
was for our first Parents, when they were without any Improvements,
without any Friend or Father but God only.

I was at a Meeting at _Goose-Creek_; and next at a Monthly-meeting at
_Fairfax_; where, through the gracious Dealing of the Almighty with us,
his Power prevailed over many Hearts. Thence to _Manoquacy_ and
_Pipe-Creek_, in _Maryland_; at both which Places I had Cause humbly to
adore him, who supported me through many Exercises, and by whose Help I
was enabled to reach the true Witness in the Hearts of others: There
were some hopeful young People in those Parts. Thence I had Meetings at
_John Everit's_ in _Monalen_, and at _Huntingdon_; and I was made humbly
thankful to the Lord, who opened my Heart amongst the People in these
new Settlements, so that it was a Time of Encouragement to the
Honest-minded.

At _Monalen_, a Friend gave me some Account of a religious Society among
the _Dutch_, called _Mennonists_; and, amongst other Things, related a
Passage in Substance as follows:--One of the _Mennonists_ having
Acquaintance with a Man of another Society at a considerable Distance,
and being with his Waggon on Business near the House of his said
Acquaintance, and Night coming on, he had Thoughts of putting up with
him; but passing by his Fields, and observing the distressed Appearance
of his Slaves, he kindled a Fire in the Woods hard by, and lay there
that Night: His said Acquaintance hearing where he lodged, and afterward
meeting the _Mennonist_, told him of it; adding, he should have been
heartily welcome at his House; and, from their Acquaintance in former
Time, wondered at his Conduct in that Case. The _Mennonist_ replied,
Ever since I lodged by thy Field, I have wanted an Opportunity to speak
with thee: The Matter was; I intended to have come to thy House for
Entertainment, but, seeing thy Slaves at their Work, and observing the
Manner of their Dress, I had no liking to come to partake with thee:
Then admonished him to use them with more Humanity; and added, As I lay
by the Fire that Night, I thought that, as I was a Man of Substance,
thou wouldst have received me freely; but, if I had been as poor as one
of thy Slaves, and had no Power to help myself, I should have received
from thy Hand no kinder Usage than they.

Hence I was at three Meetings in my Way; and so I went Home, under a
humbling Sense of the gracious Dealings of the Lord with me, in
preserving me through many Trials and Afflictions in my Journey. I was
out about two Months, and travelled about eleven hundred and fifty
Miles.


CHAPTER V

    _The draughting of the Militia in_ New-Jersey _to serve in the Army;
    with some Observations on the State of the Members of our Society at
    that Time_--_His Visit to Friends in_ Pennsylvania, _accompanied by_
    BENJAMIN JONES--_Proceedings at the Monthly, Quarterly, and
    Yearly-Meetings, in_ Philadelphia, _respecting those who keep
    Slaves_

On the ninth Day of the eighth Month, in the Year 1757, at Night, Orders
came to the military Officers in our County (_Burlington_), directing
them to draught the Militia, and prepare a Number of Men to go off as
Soldiers, to the Relief of the _English_ at _Fort-William-Henry_, in
_New-York_ Government: A few Days after which there was a general Review
of the Militia at _Mount-Holly_, and a Number of Men chosen and sent off
under some Officers. Shortly after, there came Orders to draught three
Times as many, to hold themselves in Readiness to march when fresh
Orders came: And, on the 17th Day of the eighth Month, there was a
Meeting of the military Officers at _Mount-Holly_, who agreed on a
Draught; and Orders were sent to the Men, so chosen, to meet their
respective Captains at set Times and Places; those in our Township to
meet at _Mount-Holly_; amongst whom was a considerable Number of our
Society. My Mind being affected herewith, I had fresh Opportunity to see
and consider the Advantage of living in the real Substance of Religion,
where Practice doth harmonize with Principle. Amongst the Officers are
Men of Understanding, who have some Regard to Sincerity where they see
it; and in the Execution of their Office, when they have Men to deal
with whom they believe to be upright-hearted, to put them to Trouble, on
account of Scruples of Conscience, is a painful Task, and likely to be
avoided as much as easily may be: But where Men profess to be so meek
and heavenly-minded, and to have their Trust so firmly settled in God,
that they cannot join in Wars, and yet, by their Spirit and Conduct in
common Life, manifest a contrary Disposition, their Difficulties are
great at such a Time.

Officers, in great Anxiety, endeavouring to get Troops to answer the
Demands of their Superiors, seeing Men, who are insincere, pretend
Scruple of Conscience in Hopes of being excused from a dangerous
Employment, such are likely to be roughly handled. In this Time of
Commotion some of our young Men left the Parts, and tarried abroad till
it was over; some came, and proposed to go as Soldiers; others appeared
to have a real tender Scruple in their Minds against joining in Wars,
and were much humbled under the Apprehension of a Trial so near: I had
Conversation with several of them to my Satisfaction. At the set Time
when the Captain came to Town, some of those last-mentioned went and
told him in Substance as follows:--That they could not bear Arms for
Conscience-sake; nor could they hire any to go in their Places, being
resigned as to the Event of it: At length the Captain acquainted them
all, that they might return Home for the present, and, required them to
provide themselves as Soldiers, and to be in Readiness to march when
called upon. This was such a Time as I had not seen before; and yet I
may say, with Thankfulness to the Lord, that I believed this Trial was
intended for our Good; and I was favoured with Resignation to him. The
_French_ Army, taking the Fort they were besieging, destroyed it and
went away: The Company of Men first draughted, after some Days march,
had Orders to return Home; and those on the second Draught were no more
called upon on that Occasion.

On the fourth Day of the fourth Month, in the Year 1758, Orders came to
some Officers in _Mount-Holly_, to prepare Quarters, a short Time, for
about one hundred Soldiers: And an Officer and two other Men, all
Inhabitants of our Town, came to my House; and the Officer told me, that
he came to speak with me, to provide Lodging and Entertainment for two
Soldiers, there being six Shillings a Week per Man allowed as Pay for
it. The Case being new and unexpected, I made no Answer suddenly; but
sat a Time silent, my Mind being inward: I was fully convinced, that the
Proceedings in Wars are inconsistent with the Purity of the _Christian_
Religion: And to be hired to entertain Men, who were then under Pay as
Soldiers, was a Difficulty with me. I expected they had legal Authority
for what they did; and, after a short Time, I said to the Officer, If
the Men are sent here for Entertainment, I believe I shall not refuse to
admit them into my House; but the Nature of the Case is such, that I
expect I cannot keep them on Hire: One of the Men intimated, that he
thought I might do it consistent with my religious Principles; To which
I made no Reply; as believing Silence at that Time best for me. Though
they spake of two, there came only one, who tarried at my House about
two Weeks, and behaved himself civilly; and when the Officer came to pay
me, I told him I could not take Pay for it, having admitted him into my
House in a passive Obedience to Authority. I was on Horseback when he
spake to me: And, as I turned from him, he said, he was obliged to me:
To which I said nothing; but, thinking on the Expression, I grew uneasy;
and afterwards, being near where he lived, I went and told him on what
Grounds I refused taking Pay for keeping the Soldier.

Near the Beginning of the Year 1758, I went one Evening, in Company with
a Friend, to visit a sick Person; and, before our Return, we were told
of a Woman living near, who, of late, had several Days been
disconsolate, occasioned by a Dream; wherein Death, and the Judgments of
the Almighty after Death, were represented to her Mind in a moving
Manner: Her Sadness on that Account, being worn off, the Friend, with
whom I was in Company, went to see her, and had some religious
Conversation with her and her Husband: With this Visit they were
somewhat affected; and the Man, with many Tears, expressed his
Satisfaction; and, in a short Time after, the poor Man being on the
River in a Storm of Wind, he, with one more, was drowned.

In the eighth Month of the Year 1758, having had Drawings in my Mind to
be at the Quarterly-meeting in _Chester_ County, and at some Meetings in
the County of _Philadelphia_, I went first to said Quarterly-meeting,
which was large, and several weighty Matters came under Consideration
and Debate; and the Lord was pleased to qualify some of his Servants
with Strength and Firmness to bear the Burthen of the Day: Though I said
but little, my Mind was deeply exercised; and, under a Sense of God's
Love, in the Anointing and fitting some young Men for his Work, I was
comforted, and my Heart was tendered before him. From hence I went to
the Youth's Meeting at _Darby_, where my beloved Friend and Brother,
BENJAMIN JONES, met me, by an Appointment before I left Home, to join in
the Visit: And we were at _Radnor_, _Merion_, _Richland_, _North-Wales_,
_Plymouth_, and _Abington_ Meetings; and had Cause to bow in Reverence
before the Lord, our gracious God, by whose Help Way was opened for us
from day to day. I was out about two Weeks, and rode about two hundred
Miles.

The Monthly-meeting of _Philadelphia_ having been under a Concern on
Account of some Friends who this Summer (1758) had bought Negro Slaves,
the said Meeting moved it to their Quarterly-meeting, to have the Minute
reconsidered in the Yearly-meeting, which was made last on that Subject:
And the said Quarterly-meeting appointed a Committee to consider it, and
report to their next; which Committee having met once and adjourned, I
going to _Philadelphia_ to meet a Committee of the Yearly-meeting, was
in Town the Evening on which the Quarterly-meeting's Committee met the
second Time; and, finding an Inclination to sit with them, was, with
some others, admitted; and Friends had a weighty Conference on the
Subject: And, soon after their next Quarterly-meeting, I heard that the
Case was coming to our Yearly-meeting; which brought a weighty Exercise
upon me, and under a Sense of my own Infirmities, and the great Danger I
felt of turning aside from perfect Purity, my Mind was often drawn to
retire alone, and put up my Prayers to the Lord, that he would be
graciously pleased to strengthen me; that, setting aside all Views of
Self-interest, and the Friendship of this World, I might stand fully
resigned to his holy Will.

In this Yearly-meeting, several weighty Matters were considered; and,
toward the last, that in Relation to dealing with Persons who purchase
Slaves. During the several Sittings of the said Meeting, my Mind was
frequently covered with inward Prayer, and I could say with _David_,
that _Tears were my Meat Day and Night_. The Case of Slave-keeping lay
heavy upon me; nor did I find any Engagement to speak directly to any
other Matter before the Meeting. Now, when this Case was opened, several
faithful Friends spake weightily thereto, with which I was comforted;
and, feeling a Concern to cast in my Mite, I said in Substance as
follows:

"In the Difficulties attending us in this Life, nothing is more precious
than the Mind of Truth inwardly manifested; and it is my earnest Desire
that, in this weighty Matter we may be so truly humbled as to be
favoured with a clear Understanding of the Mind of Truth, and follow it;
this would be of more Advantage to the Society, than any Medium not in
the Clearness of divine Wisdom. The Case is difficult to some who have
them; but if such set aside all Self-interest, and come to be weaned
from the Desire of getting Estates, or even from holding them together,
when Truth requires the Contrary, I believe Way will open that they will
know how to steer through those Difficulties."

Many Friends appeared to be deeply bowed under the Weight of the Work;
and manifested much Firmness in their Love to the Cause of Truth and
universal Righteousness on the Earth: And, though none did openly
justify the Practice of Slave-keeping in general, yet some appeared
concerned, lest the Meeting should go into such Measures as might give
Uneasiness to many Brethren; alledging, that if Friends patiently
continued under the Exercise, the Lord, in Time to come might open a Way
for the Deliverance of these People: And, I finding an Engagement to
speak, said, "My Mind is often led to consider the Purity of the divine
Being, and the Justice of his Judgments; and herein my Soul is covered
with Awfulness: I cannot omit to hint of some Cases, where People have
not been treated with the Purity of Justice, and the Event hath been
lamentable: Many Slaves on this Continent are oppressed, and their Cries
have reached the Ears of the Most High. Such are the Purity and
Certainty of his Judgments, that he cannot be partial in our Favour. In
infinite Love and Goodness, he hath opened our Understandings, from one
Time to another, concerning our Duty towards this People; and it is not
a Time for Delay. Should we now be sensible of what he requires of us,
and, through a Respect to the private Interest of some Persons, or
through a Regard to some Friendships which do not stand on an immutable
Foundation, neglect to do our Duty in Firmness and Constancy, still
waiting for some extraordinary Means to bring about their Deliverance,
it may be by terrible Things in Righteousness God may answer us in this
Matter."

Many faithful Brethren laboured with great Firmness; and the Love of
Truth, in a good Degree, prevailed. Several Friends, who had Negroes,
expressed their Desire that a Rule might be made, to deal with such
Friends as Offenders who bought Slaves in future: To this it was
answered, that the Root of this Evil would never be effectually struck
at, until a thorough Search was made into the Circumstances of such
Friends as kept Negroes, with respect to the Righteousness of their
Motives in keeping them, that impartial Justice might be administered
throughout. Several Friends expressed their Desire, that a Visit might
be made to such Friends as kept Slaves; and many Friends said, that they
believed Liberty was the Negroes Right: To which, at length, no
Opposition was made publickly. A Minute was made more full on that
Subject than any heretofore; and the Names of several Friends entered,
who were free to join in a Visit to such as kept Slaves.


CHAPTER VI

    _His visiting the Quarterly-meetings in_ Chester _County; and
    afterwards joining with_ DANIEL STANTON _and_ JOHN SCARBOROUGH _in a
    Visit to such as kept Slaves there_--_Some Observations on the
    Conduct such should maintain as are concerned to speak in Meetings
    for Discipline_--_Several more Visits to such as kept Slaves; and to
    Friends near_ Salem--_Some Account of the Yearly-meeting in the Year
    1759; and of the increasing Concern, in divers Provinces, to labour
    against buying and keeping Slaves_--_The Yearly-meeting Epistle_

On the eleventh Day of the eleventh Month, in the Year 1758, I set out
for _Concord_; the Quarterly-meeting, heretofore held there, was now, by
reason of a great Increase of Members, divided into two by the Agreement
of Friends, at our last Yearly-meeting. Here I met with our beloved
Friends, SAMUEL SPAVOLD and MARY KIRBY, from _England_, and with JOSEPH
WHITE, from _Bucks_ County, who had taken Leave of his Family in order
to go on a religious Visit to Friends in _England_; and, through divine
Goodness, we were favoured with a strengthening Opportunity together.

After this Meeting I joined with my Friends, DANIEL STANTON and JOHN
SCARBOROUGH, in visiting Friends who had Slaves; and at Night we had a
Family-meeting at WILLIAM TRIMBLE'S, many young People being there; and
it was a precious reviving Opportunity. Next Morning we had a
comfortable Sitting with a sick Neighbour; and thence to the Burial of
the Corpse of a Friend at _Uwchland_ Meeting, at which were many People,
and it was a Time of divine Favour; after which, we visited some who had
Slaves; and, at Night, had a Family-meeting at a Friend's House, where
the Channel of Gospel-love was opened, and my Mind was comforted after a
hard Day's Labour. The next Day we were at _Goshen_ Monthly-meeting; and
thence, on the eighteenth Day of the eleventh Month, in the Year 1758,
attended the Quarterly-meeting at _London-Grove_, it being the first
held at that Place. Here we met again with all the before-mentioned
Friends, and had some edifying Meetings: And, near the Conclusion of the
Meeting for Business, Friends were incited to Constancy in supporting
the Testimony of Truth, and reminded of the Necessity which the
Disciples of Christ are under to attend principally to his Business, as
he is pleased to open it to us: And to be particularly careful to have
our Minds redeemed from the Love of Wealth; to have our outward Affairs
in as little Room as may be; that no temporal Concerns may entangle our
Affections, or hinder us from diligently following the Dictates of
Truth, in labouring to promote the pure Spirit of Meekness and
Heavenly-mindedness amongst the Children of Men in these Days of
Calamity and Distress, wherein God is visiting our Land with his just
Judgments.

Each of these Quarterly-meetings was large, and sat near eight Hours.
Here I had Occasion to consider, that it was a weighty Thing to speak
much in large Meetings for Business: First, except our Minds are rightly
prepared, and we clearly understand the Case we speak to, instead of
forwarding, we hinder, Business, and make more Labour for those on whom
the Burthen of the Work is laid.

If selfish Views, or a partial Spirit, have any Room in our Minds, we
are unfit for the Lord's Work; if we have a clear Prospect of the
Business, and proper Weight on our Minds to speak, it behoves us to
avoid useless Apologies and Repetitions: Where People are gathered from
far, and adjourning a Meeting of Business is attended with great
Difficulty, it behoves all to be cautious how they detain a Meeting;
especially when they have sat six or seven Hours, and have a great
Distance to ride Home. After this Meeting I rode Home.

In the Beginning of the twelfth Month of the Year 1758 I joined in
Company with my Friends, JOHN SYKES and DANIEL STANTON, in visiting such
as had Slaves: Some, whose Hearts were rightly exercised about them,
appeared to be glad of our Visit; but in some Places our Way was more
difficult; and I often saw the Necessity of keeping down to that Root
from whence our Concern proceeded; and have Cause, in reverent
Thankfulness, humbly to bow down before the Lord, who was near to me,
and preserved my Mind in Calmness under some sharp Conflicts, and begat
a Spirit of Sympathy and Tenderness in me toward some who were
grievously entangled by the Spirit of this World.

In the first Month of the Year 1759, having found my Mind drawn to visit
some of the more active Members, in our Society at _Philadelphia_, who
had Slaves, I met my Friend JOHN CHURCHMAN there, by an Agreement: And
we continued about a Week in the City. We visited some that were sick,
and some Widows and their Families; and the other Part of our Time was
mostly employed in visiting such as had Slaves.--It was a Time of deep
Exercise, looking often to the Lord for his Assistance; who, in
unspeakable Kindness, favoured us with the Influence of that Spirit,
which crucifies to the Greatness and Splendour of this World, and
enabled us to go through some heavy Labours, in which we found Peace.

On the twenty-fourth Day of the third Month of this Year, I was at our
general Spring-meeting at _Philadelphia_: After which, I again joined
with JOHN CHURCHMAN on a Visit to some more who had Slaves in
_Philadelphia_; and, with Thankfulness to our heavenly Father, I may
say, that divine Love and a true sympathising Tenderness of Heart
prevailed at Times in this Service.

Having, at Times, perceived a Shyness in some Friends, of considerable
Note, towards me, I found an Engagement in Gospel Love to pay a Visit to
one of them; and, as I dwelt under the Exercise, I felt a Resignedness
in my Mind to go; So I went, and told him, in private, I had a Desire to
have an Opportunity with him alone; to which he readily agreed: And
then, in the Fear of the Lord, Things relating to that Shyness were
searched to the Bottom; and we had a large Conference, which, I believe,
was of Use to both of us, and am thankful that Way was opened for it.

On the fourteenth Day of the sixth Month, in the same Year, having felt
Drawings in my Mind to visit Friends about _Salem_, and having the
Approbation of our Monthly-meeting therein, I attended their
Quarterly-meeting, and was out seven Days, and at seven Meetings; in
some of which I was chiefly silent, and in others, through the baptizing
Power of Truth, my Heart was enlarged in heavenly Love, and found a near
Fellowship with the Brethren and Sisters, in the manifold Trials
attending their _Christian_ Progress through this World.

In the seventh Month, I found an increasing Concern on my Mind to visit
some active Members in our Society who had Slaves; and, having no
Opportunity of the Company of such as were named on the Minutes of the
Yearly-meeting, I went alone to their Houses, and, in the Fear of the
Lord, acquainted them with the Exercise I was under: And thus,
sometimes, by a few Words, I found myself discharged from a heavy
Burthen.

After this, our Friend JOHN CHURCHMAN, coming into our Province with a
View to be at some Meetings, and to join again in the Visit to those who
had Slaves, I bore him Company in the said Visit to some active Members,
and found inward Satisfaction.

At our Yearly-meeting, in the Year 1759, we had some weighty Seasons;
where the Power of Truth was largely extended, to the strengthening of
the Honest-minded. As Friends read over the Epistles, to be sent to the
Yearly-meetings along this Continent, I observed in most of them, both
this Year and last, it was recommended to Friends to labour against
buying and keeping Slaves; and in some of them closely treated upon.
This Practice had long been a heavy Exercise to me, and I have often
waded through mortifying Labours on that Account; and, at Times, in some
Meetings been almost alone therein. Now, observing the increasing
Concern in our religious Society, and seeing how the Lord was raising up
and qualifying Servants for his Work, not only in this Respect, but for
promoting the Cause of Truth in general, I was humbly bowed in
Thankfulness before him.

This Meeting continued near a Week; and, for several Days, in the fore
Part of it, my Mind was drawn into a deep inward Stillness; and being,
at Times, covered with the Spirit of Supplication, my Heart was secretly
poured out before the Lord: And, near the Conclusion of the Meeting for
Business, Way opened, that, in the pure Flowings of divine Love, I
expressed what lay upon me; which, as it then arose in my Mind, was
"first to shew how Deep answers to Deep in the Hearts of the Sincere and
Upright; though, in their different Growths, they may not all have
attained to the same Clearness in some Points relating to our Testimony:
And I was led to mention the Integrity and Constancy of many Martyrs,
who gave their Lives for the Testimony of Jesus; and yet, in some
Points, held Doctrines distinguishable from some which we hold: And
that, in all Ages, where People were faithful to the Light and
Understanding which the Most High afforded them, they found Acceptance
with him; and that now, though there are different Ways of Thinking
amongst us in some Particulars, yet, if we mutually kept to that Spirit
and Power which crucifies to the World, which teaches us to be content
with Things really needful, and to avoid all Superfluities, giving up
our Hearts to fear and serve the Lord, true Unity may still be preserved
amongst us: And that if such, as were, at Times, under Sufferings on
Account of some Scruples of Conscience, kept low and humble, and in
their Conduct in Life manifested a Spirit of true Charity, it would be
more likely to reach the Witness in others, and be of more Service in
the Church, than if their Sufferings were attended with a contrary
Spirit and Conduct." In which Exercise I was drawn into a sympathizing
Tenderness with the Sheep of Christ, however distinguished one from
another in this World; and the like Disposition appeared to spread over
others in the Meeting. Great is the Goodness of the Lord toward his poor
Creatures!

An Epistle went forth from this Yearly-meeting, which I think good to
give a Place in this Journal; being as follows:

     From the Yearly-meeting held at _Philadelphia_, for _Pennsylvania_
     and _New-Jersey_, from the twenty-second Day of the ninth Month, to
     the twenty-eighth Day of the same, inclusive, 1759.

     To the Quarterly and Monthly-meetings of Friends belonging to the
     said Yearly-meeting.

     "Dearly beloved Friends and Brethren,--In an awful Sense of the
     Wisdom and Goodness of the Lord our God, whose tender Mercies have
     long been continued to us in this Land, we affectionately salute
     you, with sincere and fervent Desires, that we may reverently
     regard the Dispensations of his Providence, and improve under them.

     The Empires and Kingdoms of the Earth are subject to his almighty
     Power: He is the God of the Spirits of all Flesh, and deals with
     his People agreeable to that Wisdom, the Depth whereof is to us
     unsearchable: We, in these Provinces, may say, he hath, as a
     gracious and tender Parent, dealt bountifully with us, even from
     the Days of our Fathers: It was he who strengthened them to labour
     through the Difficulties attending the Improvement of a Wilderness,
     and made Way for them in the Hearts of the Natives; so that by them
     they were comforted in Times of Want and Distress: It was by the
     gracious Influences of his holy Spirit, that they were disposed to
     work Righteousness, and walk uprightly one towards another, and
     towards the Natives, and in Life and Conversation to manifest the
     Excellency of the Principles and Doctrines of the _Christian_
     Religion; and thereby they retain their Esteem and Friendship:
     Whilst they were labouring for the Necessaries of Life, many of
     them were fervently engaged to promote Piety and Virtue in the
     Earth, and educate their Children in the Fear of the Lord.

     If we carefully consider the peaceable Measures pursued in the
     first Settlement of the Land, and that Freedom from the Desolations
     of Wars which for a long Time we enjoyed, we shall find ourselves
     under strong Obligations to the Almighty, who, when the Earth is
     so generally polluted with Wickedness, gave us a Being in a Part so
     signally favoured with Tranquility and Plenty, and in which the
     Glad-tidings of the Gospel of Christ are so freely published, that
     we may justly say with the Psalmist, "What shall we render unto the
     Lord for all his Benefits?"

     Our own real Good, and the Good of our Posterity, in some Measure,
     depend on the Part we act; and it nearly concerns us to try our
     Foundations impartially. Such are the different Rewards of the Just
     and Unjust in a future State, that, to attend diligently to the
     Dictates of the Spirit of Christ, to devote ourselves to his
     Service, and engage fervently in his Cause, during our short Stay
     in this World, is a Choice well becoming a free intelligent
     Creature; we shall thus clearly see and consider that the Dealings
     of God with Mankind in a national Capacity, as recorded in Holy
     Writ, do sufficiently evidence the Truth of that Saying, "It is
     Righteousness which exalteth a Nation;" and though he doth not at
     all Times suddenly execute his Judgments on a sinful People in this
     Life, yet we see, by many Instances, that where "Men follow lying
     Vanities, they forsake their own Mercies;" and as a proud selfish
     Spirit prevails and spreads among a People, so partial Judgment,
     Oppression, Discord, Envy, and Confusions, increase, and Provinces
     and Kingdoms are made to drink the Cup of Adversity as a Reward of
     their own Doings. Thus the inspired Prophet, reasoning with the
     degenerated _Jews_, saith, "Thine own Wickedness shall correct
     thee, and thy Backslidings shall reprove thee: Know, therefore,
     that it is an evil Thing and bitter, that thou hast forsaken the
     Lord thy God, and that my Fear is not in thee, saith the Lord God
     of Hosts." _Jer._ ii. 19.

     The God of our Fathers, who hath bestowed on us many Benefits,
     furnished a Table for us in the Wilderness, and made the Desarts
     and solitary Places to rejoice; he doth now mercifully call upon us
     to serve him more faithfully.--We may truly say, with the Prophet,
     "It is his Voice which crieth to the City, and Men of Wisdom see
     his Name: They regard the Rod, and him who hath appointed
     it."--People, who look chiefly at Things outward, too little
     consider the original Cause of the present Troubles; but such as
     fear the Lord, and think often upon his Name, see and feel that a
     wrong Spirit is spreading among the Inhabitants of our Country;
     that the Hearts of many are waxed fat, and their Ears dull of
     hearing; that the Most High, in his Visitations to us, instead of
     calling, lifteth up his Voice and crieth; he crieth to our Country,
     and his Voice waxeth louder and louder. In former Wars between the
     _English_ and other Nations, since the Settlement of our Provinces,
     the Calamities attending them have fallen chiefly on other Places,
     but now of late they have reached to our Borders; many of our
     fellow Subjects have suffered on and near our Frontiers, some have
     been slain in Battle, some killed in their Houses, and some in
     their Fields, some wounded and left in great Misery, and others
     separated from their Wives and little Children, who have been
     carried Captives among the _Indians_: We have seen Men and Women,
     who have been Witnesses of these Scenes of Sorrow, and been reduced
     to Want, have come to our Houses asking Relief.--It is not long
     since it was the Case of many young Men, in one of these Provinces,
     to be draughted, in order to be taken as Soldiers; some were at
     that Time in great Distress, and had Occasion to consider that
     their Lives had been too little conformable to the Purity and
     Spirituality of that Religion which we profess, and found
     themselves too little acquainted with that inward Humility, in
     which true Fortitude to endure Hardness for the Truth's Sake is
     experienced.--Many Parents were concerned for their Children, and
     in that Time of Trial were led to consider, that their Care, to get
     outward Treasure for them, had been greater than their Care for
     their Settlement in that Religion which crucifieth to the World,
     and enableth to bear a clear Testimony to the peaceable Government
     of the Messiah. These Troubles are removed, and for a Time we are
     released from them.

     Let us not forget that "The Most High hath his Way in the Deep, in
     Clouds and in thick Darkness"--that it is his Voice which crieth to
     the City and to the Country; and oh! that these loud and awakening
     Cries may have a proper Effect upon us, that heavier Chastisement
     may not become necessary! For though Things, as to the Outward,
     may, for a short Time, afford a pleasing Prospect; yet, while a
     selfish Spirit, that is not subject to the Cross of Christ,
     continueth to spread and prevail, there can be no long Continuance
     in outward Peace and Tranquility. If we desire an Inheritance
     incorruptible, and to be at Rest in that State of Peace and
     Happiness, which ever continues; if we desire, in this Life, to
     dwell under the Favour and Protection of that almighty Being, whose
     Habitation is in Holiness, whose Ways are all equal, and whose
     Anger is now kindled because of our Backslidings; let us then
     awfully regard these Beginnings of his fore Judgments, and, with
     Abasement and Humiliation turn to him, whom we have offended.

     Contending with one equal in Strength is an uneasy Exercise; but if
     the Lord is become our Enemy, if we persist to contend with him who
     is omnipotent, our Overthrow will be unavoidable.

     Do we feel an affectionate Regard to Posterity; and are we employed
     to promote their Happiness? Do our Minds, in Things outward, look
     beyond our own Dissolution; and are we contriving for the
     Prosperity of our Children after us? Let us then, like wise
     Builders, lay the Foundation deep; and, by our constant uniform
     Regard to an inward Piety and Virtue, let them see that we really
     value it: Let us labour, in the Fear of the Lord, that their
     innocent Minds, while young and tender, may be preserved from
     Corruptions; that, as they advance in Age, they may rightly
     understand their true Interest, may consider the Uncertainty of
     temporal Things, and, above all, have their Hope and Confidence
     firmly settled in the Blessing of that Almighty Being, who inhabits
     Eternity, and preserves and supports the World.

     In all our Cares, about worldly Treasures, let us steadily bear in
     Mind, that Riches, possessed by Children who do not truly serve
     God, are likely to prove Snares that may more grievously entangle
     them in that Spirit of Selfishness and Exaltation, which stands in
     Opposition to real Peace and Happiness; and renders them Enemies
     to the Cross of Christ, who submit to the Influence of it.

     To keep a watchful eye towards real Objects of Charity, to visit
     the Poor in their lonesome Dwelling-places, to comfort them who,
     through the Dispensations of divine Providence, are in strait and
     painful Circumstances in this Life, and steadily to endeavour to
     honour God with our Substance, from a real Sense of the Love of
     Christ influencing our Minds thereto, is more likely to bring a
     Blessing to our Children, and will afford more Satisfaction to a
     _Christian_ favoured with Plenty, than an earnest Desire to collect
     much Wealth to leave behind us; for "Here we have no continuing
     City;" may we therefore diligently "seek one that is to come, whose
     Builder and Maker is God."

     "Finally, Brethren, whatsoever Things are true, whatsoever Things
     are just, whatsoever Things are pure, whatsoever Things are lovely,
     whatsoever Things are of good Report; if there be any Virtue, if
     there be any Praise, think on these Things and do them, and the God
     of Peace shall be with you."

     Signed, by Appointment, and on Behalf of our said
     Meeting, by seven Friends.

On the twenty-eighth Day of the eleventh Month, in the Year 1759, I was
at the Quarterly-meeting in _Bucks_ County: This Day being the Meeting
of Ministers and Elders, my Heart was enlarged in the Love of Jesus
Christ; and the Favour of the Most High was extended to us in that and
the ensuing Meeting.

I had Conversation, at my Lodging, with my beloved Friend, SAMUEL
EASTBURN; who expressed a Concern to join in a Visit to some Friends, in
that County, who had Negroes; and as I had felt a Draught in my Mind to
that Work in the said County, came Home and put Things in Order: On the
eleventh Day of the twelfth Month following, I went over the River; and
on the next Day was at _Buckingham_ Meeting; where, through the
Descendings of heavenly Dew, my Mind was comforted, and drawn into a
near Unity with the Flock of Jesus Christ.

Entering upon this Visit appeared weighty: And before I left Home my
Mind was often sad; under which Exercise I felt, at Times, the Holy
Spirit, which helps our Infirmities; through which, in private, my
Prayers were, at Times, put up to God, that he would be pleased to purge
me from all Selfishness, that I might be strengthened to discharge my
Duty faithfully, how hard soever to the natural Part. We proceeded on
the Visit in a weighty Frame of Spirit, and went to the Houses of the
most active Members, throughout the Country, who had Negroes; and,
through the Goodness of the Lord, my Mind was preserved in Resignation
in Times of Trial, and, though the Work was hard to Nature, yet through
the Strength of that Love which is stronger than Death, Tenderness of
Heart was often felt amongst us in our Visits, and we parted from
several Families with greater Satisfaction than we expected.

       *       *       *       *       *

We visited JOSEPH WHITE'S Family, he being in _England_; and also a
Family-sitting at the House of an Elder who bore us Company, and was at
_Makefield_ on a First-day: At all which Times my Heart was truly
thankful to the Lord, who was graciously pleased to renew his
Loving-kindness to us, his poor Servants, uniting us together in his
Work.


CHAPTER VII

    _His Visit, in Company with_ SAMUEL EASTBURN, _to_ Long-Island,
    Rhode-Island, Boston, _etc. in_ New-England--_Remarks on the
    Slave-Trade at_ Newport, _and his Exercise on that Account; also on
    Lotteries_--_Some Observations on the Island of_ Nantucket

Having, for some Time past, felt a Sympathy in my Mind with Friends
Eastward, I opened my Concern in our Monthly-meeting; and, obtaining a
Certificate, set forward on the seventeenth Day of the fourth Month, in
the Year 1760, joining in Company, by a previous Agreement, with my
beloved Friend, SAMUEL EASTBURN. We had Meetings at _Woodbridge_,
_Rahaway_, and _Plainfield_; and were at their Monthly-meeting of
Ministers and Elders in _Rahaway_. We laboured under some
Discouragement; but, through the invisible Power of Truth, our Visit was
made reviving to the Lowly-minded, with whom I felt a near Unity of
Spirit, being much reduced in my Mind. We passed on and visited the
chief of the Meetings on _Long-Island_. It was my Concern, from Day to
Day, to say no more nor less than what the Spirit of Truth opened in me;
being jealous over myself, lest I should speak any Thing to make my
Testimony look agreeable to that Mind in People, which is not in pure
Obedience to the Cross of Christ.

The Spring of the Ministry was often low; and, through the subjecting
Power of Truth, we were kept low with it; and from Place to Place, such
whose Hearts were truly concerned for the Cause of Christ, appeared to
be comforted in our Labours; and though it was in general a Time of
Abasement of the Creature, yet, through his Goodness, who is a Helper of
the Poor, we had some truly edifying Seasons, both in Meetings, and in
Families where we tarried; and sometimes found Strength to labour
earnestly with the Unfaithful, especially with those whose Station in
Families, or in the Society, was such, that their Example had a powerful
Tendency to open the Way for others to go aside from the Purity and
Soundness of the blessed Truth. At _Jericho_, on _Long-Island_, I wrote
Home as follows:

     _24th of the 4th Month, 1760._

     "Dearly beloved Wife,--We are favoured with Health; have been at
     sundry Meetings in _East-Jersey_, and on this Island: My Mind hath
     been much in an inward watchful Frame since I left thee, greatly
     desiring that our Proceedings may be singly in the Will of our
     heavenly Father.

     "As the present Appearance of Things is not joyous, I have been
     much shut up from outward Cheerfulness, remembering that Promise,
     'Then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord:'--As this, from Day
     to Day, has been revived in my Memory, I have considered that his
     internal Presence on our Minds is a Delight, of all others, the
     most pure; and that the Honest-hearted not only delight in this,
     but in the Effect of it upon them. He regards the Helpless and
     Distressed, and reveals his Love to his Children under Affliction;
     they delight in beholding his Benevolence, and feeling divine
     Charity moving upon them: Of this I may speak a little; for though,
     since I left you, I have often found an engaging Love and Affection
     toward thee and my Daughter, and Friends about Home, that going out
     at this Time, when Sickness is so great amongst you, is a Trial
     upon me; yet I often remember there are many Widows and Fatherless,
     many who have poor Tutors, many who have evil Examples before them,
     and many whose Minds are in Captivity, for whose Sake my Heart is,
     at Times, moved with Compassion; so that I feel my Mind resigned to
     leave you for a Season, to exercise that Gift which the Lord hath
     bestowed on me; which though small, compared with some, yet in this
     I rejoice, that I feel Love unfeigned toward my Fellow-creatures. I
     recommend you to the Almighty, who, I trust, cares for you; and,
     under a Sense of his heavenly Love, remain,--Thy loving Husband,

     "J. W."

We crossed from the East End of _Long-Island_ to _New-London_, about
thirty Miles, in a large open Boat; while we were out, the Wind rising
high, the Waves several Times beat over us, so that to me it appeared
dangerous; but my Mind was, at that Time, turned to him, who made and
governs the Deep, and my Life was resigned to him: And, as he was
mercifully pleased to preserve us, I had fresh Occasion to consider
every Day as a Day lent to me; and felt a renewed Engagement to devote
my Time, and all I had, to him who gave them.

We had five Meetings in _Narraganset_; and went thence to _Newport_ on
_Rhode-Island_. Our gracious Father preserved us in an humble Dependence
on him through deep Exercises, that were mortifying to the creaturely
Will. In several Families in the Country, where we lodged, I felt an
Engagement on my Mind to have a Conference with them in private
concerning their Slaves; and, through divine Aid, I was favoured to give
up thereto: Though, in this Concern, I appeared singular from many,
whose Service in Travelling, I believe, is greater than mine; I do not
think hard of them for omitting it; I do not repine at having so
unpleasant a Task assigned me, but look with Awfulness to him, who
appoints to his Servants their respective Employments, and is good to
all who serve him sincerely.

We got to _Newport_ in the Evening, and on the next Day visited two sick
Persons, and had comfortable Sittings with them; and in the Afternoon
attended the Burial of a Friend.

The next Day we were at Meetings at _Newport_, in the Forenoon and
Afternoon; where the Spring of the Ministry was opened, and Strength
given to declare the Word of Life to the People.

The next Day we went on our Journey; but the great Number of Slaves in
these Parts, and the Continuance of that Trade from thence to _Guinea_,
made deep Impression on me; and my Cries were often put up to my
heavenly Father in secret, that he would enable me to discharge my Duty
faithfully, in such Way as he might be pleased to point out to me.

We took _Swansea_, _Freetown_, and _Tanton_, in our Way to _Boston_;
where also we had a Meeting; our Exercise was deep, and the Love of
Truth prevailed, for which I bless the Lord. We went Eastward about
eighty Miles beyond _Boston_, taking Meetings, and were in a good Degree
preserved in an humble Dependance on that Arm which drew us out; and,
though we had some hard Labour with the Disobedient, laying Things home
and close to such as were stout against the Truth; yet, through the
Goodness of God, we had, at Times, to partake of heavenly Comfort with
them who were meek, and were often favoured to part with Friends in the
Nearness of true Gospel-fellowship. We returned to _Boston_, and had
another comfortable Opportunity with Friends there; and thence rode back
a Day's Journey Eastward of _Boston_: Our Guide being a heavy Man, and
the Weather hot, and my Companion and I considering it, expressed our
Freedom to go on without him, to which he consented, and we respectfully
took our Leave of him; this we did, as believing the Journey would have
been hard to him and his Horse.

We visited the Meetings in those Parts, and were measurably baptized
into a feeling of the State of the Society: And in Bowedness of Spirit
went to the Yearly-meeting at _Newport_; where I understood that a large
Number of Slaves were imported from _Africa_ into that Town, and then on
Sale by a Member of our Society. At this Meeting we met with JOHN STORER
from _England_, ELIZABETH SHIPLEY, ANN GAUNT, HANNAH FOSTER, and MERCY
REDMAN, from our Parts, all Ministers of the Gospel, of whose Company I
was glad.

At this Time my Appetite failed, and I grew outwardly weak, and had a
Feeling of the Condition of _Habakkuk_ as there expressed: "When I
heard, my Belly trembled, my Lips quivered, I trembled in myself that I
might rest in the Day of Trouble;" I had many Cogitations, and was
sorely distressed: And was desirous that Friends might petition the
Legislature, to use their Endeavours to discourage the future
Importation of Slaves; for I saw that this Trade was a great Evil, and
tended to multiply Troubles, and bring Distresses on the People in
those parts, for whose Welfare my Heart was deeply concerned.

But I perceived several Difficulties in Regard to petitioning; and such
was the Exercise of my Mind, that I had Thought of endeavouring to get
an Opportunity to speak a few Words in the House of Assembly, then
sitting in Town. This Exercise came upon me in the Afternoon, on the
second Day of the Yearly-meeting, and, going to Bed, I got no Sleep till
my Mind was wholly resigned therein; and in the Morning I enquired of a
Friend how long the Assembly were likely to continue sitting; who told
me, they were expected to be prorogued that Day or the next.

As I was desirous to attend the Business of the Meeting, and perceived
the Assembly were likely to depart before the Business was over; after
considerable Exercise, humbly seeking to the Lord for Instruction, my
Mind settled to attend on the Business of the Meeting; on the last Day
of which, I had prepared a short Essay of a Petition to be presented to
the Legislature, if Way opened: And being informed that there were some
appointed, by that Yearly-meeting, to speak with those in Authority, in
Cases relating to the Society, I opened my Mind to several of them, and
shewed them the Essay I had made; and afterward opened the Case in the
Meeting for Business, in Substance as follows:

"I have been under a Concern for some Time, on Account of the great
Number of Slaves which are imported in this Colony; I am aware that it
is a tender Point to speak to, but apprehend I am not clear in the Sight
of Heaven without speaking to it. I have prepared an Essay of a
Petition, if Way open, to be presented to the Legislature; and what I
have to propose to this Meeting is, that some Friends may be named to
withdraw and look over it, and report whether they believe it suitable
to be read in the Meeting; if they should think well of reading it, it
will remain for the Meeting, after hearing it, to consider, whether to
take any farther Notice of it at a Meeting or not." After a short
Conference some Friends went out, and, looking over it, expressed their
Willingness to have it read; which being done, many expressed their
Unity with the Proposal; and some signified, that to have the Subjects
of the Petition enlarged upon, and to be signed out of Meeting by such
as were free, would be more suitable than to do it there: Though I
expected, at first, that if it was done it would be in that Way; yet,
such was the Exercise of my Mind, that to move it in the hearing of
Friends, when assembled, appeared to me as a Duty; for my Heart yearned
toward the Inhabitants of these Parts; believing that by this Trade
there had been an Increase of Inquietude amongst them, and a Way made
easy for the spreading of a Spirit opposite to that Meekness and
Humility, which is a sure Resting-place for the Soul: And that the
Continuance of this Trade would not only render their Healing more
difficult, but increase their Malady.

Having thus far proceeded, I felt easy to leave the Essay among Friends,
for them to proceed in it as they believed best. And now an Exercise
revived on my Mind in Relation to Lotteries, which were common in those
Parts: I had once moved it in a former Sitting of this Meeting, when
Arguments were used in Favour of Friends being held excused who were
only concerned in such Lotteries as were agreeable to Law: And now, on
moving it again, it was opposed as before; but the Hearts of some solid
Friends appeared to be united to discourage the Practice amongst their
Members; and the Matter was zealously handled by some on both Sides. In
this Debate it appeared very clear to me, that the Spirit of Lotteries
was a Spirit of Selfishness, which tended to Confusion and Darkness of
Understanding; and that pleading for it in our Meetings, set apart for
the Lord's Work, was not right: And, in the Heat of Zeal, I once made
Reply to what an ancient Friend said, though when I sat down, I saw that
my Words were not enough seasoned with Charity; and, after this, I spake
no more on the Subject. At length a Minute was made; a Copy of which was
agreed to be sent to their several Quarterly-meetings, inciting Friends
to labour to discourage the Practice amongst all professing with us.

Some Time after this Minute was made, I, remaining uneasy with the
Manner of my speaking to the ancient Friend, could not see my Way clear
to conceal my Uneasiness, but was concerned that I might say nothing to
weaken the Cause in which I had laboured; and then, after some close
Exercise and hearty Repentance, for that I had not attended closely to
the safe Guide, I stood up, and reciting the Passage, acquainted
Friends, that, though I durst not go from what I had said as to the
Matter, yet I was uneasy with the Manner of my speaking, as believing
milder Language would have been better. As this was uttered in some
Degree of creaturely Abasement, it appeared to have a good Savour
amongst us, after a warm Debate.

The Yearly-meeting being now over, there yet remained on my Mind a
secret, though heavy, Exercise in regard to some leading active Members
about _Newport_, being in the Practice of Slave-keeping. This I
mentioned to two ancient Friends, who came out of the Country, and
proposed to them, if Way opened, to have some Conversation with those
Friends: And, thereupon, one of those Country Friends and I consulted
one of the most noted Elders who had Slaves; and he, in a respectful
Manner, encouraged me to proceed to clear myself of what lay upon me.
Now I had, near the Beginning of the Yearly-meeting, a private
Conference with this said Elder and his Wife concerning theirs; so that
the Way seemed clear to me to advise with him about the Manner of
proceeding: I told him, I was free to have a Conference with them all
together in a private House; or, if he thought they would take it unkind
to be asked to come together, and to be spoke with one in the hearing of
another, I was free to spend some Time among them, and visit them all in
their own Houses: He expressed his Liking to the first Proposal, not
doubting their Willingness to come together: And, as I proposed a Visit
to only Ministers, Elders, and Overseers, he named some others, who he
desired might be present also: And, as a careful Messenger was wanted
to acquaint them in a proper Manner, he offered to go to all their
Houses to open the Matter to them; and did so. About the eighth Hour,
the next Morning, we met in the Meeting-house Chamber, and the
last-mentioned Country Friend, also my Companion, and JOHN STORER, with
us; when, after a short Time of Retirement, I acquainted them with the
Steps I had taken in procuring that Meeting, and opened the Concern I
was under; and so we proceeded to a free Conference upon the Subject. My
Exercise was heavy, and I was deeply bowed in Spirit before the Lord,
who was pleased to favour us with the seasoning Virtue of Truth, which
wrought a Tenderness amongst us; and the Subject was mutually handled in
a calm and peaceable Spirit: And, at length, feeling my Mind released
from that Burthen which I had been under, I took my Leave of them, in a
good Degree of Satisfaction; and, by the Tenderness they manifested in
Regard to the Practice, and the Concern several of them expressed in
Relation to the Manner of disposing of their Negroes after their
Decease, I believed that a good Exercise was spreading amongst them; and
I am humbly thankful to God, who supported my Mind, and preserved me in
a good Degree of Resignation through these Trials.

Thou, who sometimes travellest in the Work of the Ministry, art made
very welcome by thy Friends, and seest many Tokens of their
Satisfaction, in having thee for their Guest, it is good for thee to
dwell deep, that thou mayst feel and understand the Spirits of People:
If we believe Truth points towards a Conference on some Subjects, in a
private Way, it is needful for us to take heed that their Kindness,
their Freedom, and Affability, do not hinder us from the Lord's Work. I
have seen that, in the midst of Kindness and smooth Conduct, to speak
close and home to them who entertain us, on Points that relate to their
outward Interest, is hard Labour; and sometimes, when I have felt Truth
lead toward it, I have found myself disqualified by a superficial
Friendship; and as the Sense thereof hath abased me, and my Cries have
been to the Lord, so I have been humbled and made content to appear
weak, or as a Fool for his Sake; and thus a Door hath opened to enter
upon it. To attempt to do the Lord's Work in our own Way, and to speak
of that which is the Burthen of the Word in a Way easy to the natural
Part, doth not reach the Bottom of the Disorder. To see the Failings of
our Friends and think hard of them, without opening that which we ought
to open, and still carry a Face of Friendship; this tends to undermine
the Foundation of true Unity.

The Office of a Minister of Christ is weighty; and they, who go forth as
Watchmen, had need to be steadily on their Guard against the Snares of
Prosperity and an outside Friendship.

After the Yearly-meeting, we were at Meetings at _New-Town_, _Cushnet_,
_Long-Plain_, _Rochester_, and _Dartmouth_: From thence we sailed for
_Nantucket_, in Company with ANN GAUNT and MERCY REDMAN, and several
other Friends: The Wind being slack, we only reached _Tarpawling-Cove_
the first Day; where, going on Shore, we found Room in a Publick-house,
and Beds for a few of us, the rest sleeping on the Floor: We went on
board again about Break of Day; and, though the Wind was small, we were
favoured to come within about four Miles of _Nantucket_; and then, about
ten of us getting into our Boat, we rowed to the Harbour before dark;
whereupon a large Boat, going off, brought in the rest of the Passengers
about Midnight: The next Day but one was their Yearly-meeting, which
held four Days; the last of which was their Monthly-meeting for
Business. We had a laborious Time amongst them: Our Minds were closely
exercised, and I believe it was a Time of great Searching of Heart: The
longer I was on the Island, the more I became sensible that there was a
considerable Number of valuable Friends there, though an evil Spirit,
tending to Strife, had been at Work amongst them: I was cautious of
making any Visits, but as my Mind was particularly drawn to them; and in
that Way we had some Sittings in Friends Houses, where the heavenly Wing
was, at Times, spread over us, to our mutual Comfort.

My beloved Companion had very acceptable Service on this Island.

When Meeting was over, we all agreed to sail the next Day, if the
Weather was suitable and we well; and, being called up the latter Part
of the Night, we went on board a Vessel, being in all about fifty; but,
the Wind changing, the Seamen thought best to stay in the Harbour till
it altered; so we returned on Shore; and, feeling clear as to any
farther Visits, I spent my Time in our Chamber chiefly alone; and, after
some Hours, my Heart being filled with the Spirit of Supplication, my
Prayers and Tears were poured out, before my heavenly Father, for his
Help and Instruction in the manifold Difficulties which attended me in
Life: And, while I was waiting upon the Lord, there came a Messenger
from the Women Friends, who lodged at another House, desiring to confer
with us about appointing a Meeting, which to me appeared weighty, as we
had been at so many before; but, after a short Conference, and advising
with some elderly Friends, a Meeting was appointed, in which the Friend,
who first moved it, and who had been much shut up before, was largely
opened in the Love of the Gospel: And the next Morning, about Break of
Day, going again on board the Vessel, we reached _Falmouth_ on the Main
before Night; where our Horses being brought, we proceeded toward
_Sandwich_ Quarterly-meeting.

Being two Days in going to _Nantucket_, and having been there once
before, I observed many Shoals in their Bay, which make Sailing more
dangerous, especially in stormy Nights; also, that a great Shoal, which
encloses their Harbour, prevents their going in with Sloops, except when
the Tide is up; waiting without which, for the Rising of the Tide, is
sometimes hazardous in Storms; waiting within, they sometimes miss a
fair Wind. I took Notice, that on that small Island was a great Number
of Inhabitants, and the Soil not very fertile; the Timber so gone, that
for Vessels, Fences, and Firewood, they depend chiefly on the buying
from the Main; the Cost whereof, with most of their other Expences, they
depend principally upon the Whale-fishery to answer. I considered, that
as Towns grew larger, and Lands near navigable Waters more cleared,
Timber and Wood require more Labour to get it: I understood that the
Whales being much hunted, and sometimes wounded and not killed, grew
more shy and difficult to come at: I considered that the Formation of
the Earth, the Seas, the Islands, Bays, and Rivers, the Motions of the
Winds and great Waters, which cause Bars and Shoals in particular
Places, were all the Works of him who is perfect Wisdom and Goodness;
and, as People attend to his heavenly Instruction, and put their Trust
in him, he provides for them in all Parts where he gives them a Being.
And as, in this Visit to these People, I felt a strong Desire for their
firm Establishment on the sure Foundation, besides what was said more
publickly, I was concerned to speak with the Women Friends, in their
Monthly-meeting of Business, many being present; and, in the fresh
Spring of pure Love, to open before them the Advantage, both inward and
outward, of attending singly to the Guidance of the Holy Spirit, and
therein to educate their Children in true Humility, and the Disuse of
all Superfluities, reminding them of the Difficulties their Husbands and
Sons were frequently exposed to at Sea; and that, the more plain and
simple their Way of Living was, the less Need of running great Hazards
to support them in it; encouraging the young Women in their neat decent
Way of attending themselves on the Affairs of the House; shewing, as the
Way opened, that, where People were truly humble, used themselves to
Business, and were content with a plain Way of Life, it had ever been
attended with more true Peace and Calmness of Mind, than they have had
who, aspiring to Greatness and outward Shew, have grasped hard for an
Income to support themselves in it: And, as I observed they had few or
no Slaves amongst them, I had to encourage them to be content without
them; making mention of the numerous Troubles and Vexations which
frequently attend the Minds of People who depend on Slaves to do their
Labour.

We attended the Quarterly-meeting at _Sandwich_, in Company with ANN
GAUNT and MERCY REDMAN, which was preceded by a Monthly-meeting; and in
the whole held three Days: We were various Ways exercised amongst them,
in Gospel-love, according to the several Gifts bestowed on us; and were,
at Times, overshadowed with the Virtue of Truth, to the Comfort of the
Sincere, and stirring up of the Negligent. Here we parted with ANN and
MERCY, and went to _Rhode-Island_, taking one Meeting in our Way, which
was a satisfactory Time; and, reaching _Newport_ the Evening before
their Quarterly-meeting, we attended it; and, after that, had a Meeting
with our young People, separated from those of other Societies. We went
through much Labour in this Town; and now, in taking Leave of it, though
I felt close inward Exercise to the last, I found inward Peace; and was,
in some Degree, comforted, in a Belief, that a good Number remain in
that Place, who retain a Sense of Truth; and that there are some young
People attentive to the Voice of the heavenly Shepherd. The last
Meeting, in which Friends from the several Parts of the Quarter came
together, was a select Meeting; and, through the renewed Manifestation
of the Father's Love, the Hearts of the Sincere were united together.

That Poverty of Spirit, and inward Weakness, with which I was much tried
the fore Part of this Journey, have of late appeared to me as a
Dispensation of Kindness. Appointing Meetings never appeared more
weighty to me; and I was led into a deep Search, whether in all Things
my Mind was resigned to the Will of God; often querying with myself,
what should be the Cause of such inward Poverty; and greatly desired,
that no secret Reserve in my Heart might hinder my Access to the divine
Fountain. In these humbling Times I was made watchful, and excited to
attend the secret Movings of the heavenly Principle in my Mind, which
prepared the Way to some Duties, that in more easy and prosperous Times,
as to the Outward, I believe I should have been in danger of omitting.

From _Newport_ we went to _Greenwich_, _Shanticut_, and _Warwick_; and
were helped to labour amongst Friends in the Love of our gracious
Redeemer: And then, accompanied by our Friend, JOHN CASEY, from
_Newport_, we rode through _Connecticut_ to _Oblong_, visited the
Meetings of Friends in those Parts, and thence proceeded to the
Quarterly-meeting at _Ryewoods_; and, through the gracious Extendings of
divine Help, had some seasoning Opportunities in those Places: So we
visited Friends at _New York_ and _Flushing_; and thence to _Rahaway_:
And here, our Roads parting, I took Leave of my beloved Companion, and
true Yoke-mate, SAMUEL EASTBURN; and reached Home on the tenth Day of
the eighth Month, 1760, where I found my Family well: And, for the
Favours and Protection of the Lord, both inward and outward, extended to
me in this Journey, my Heart is humbled in grateful Acknowledgments; and
I find renewed Desires to dwell and walk in Resignedness before him.


CHAPTER VIII

    _His Visits to_ Pennsylvania, Shrewsbury, _and_ Squan_--His
    publishing the second Part of Considerations on keeping
    Negroes_--_His visiting the Families of Friends of_ Ancocas _and_
    Mount-Holly _Meetings_--_His Visits to the_ Indians _at_ Wehaloosing
    _on the River_ Susquehannah

Having felt my Mind drawn toward a Visit to a few Meetings in
_Pennsylvania_, I was very desirous to be rightly instructed as to the
Time of setting off: And, on the tenth Day of the fifth Month, 1761,
being the first Day of the Week, I went to _Haddonfield_ Meeting,
concluding to seek for heavenly Instruction, and come Home, or go on, as
I might then believe best for me; and there, through the springing up of
pure Love, I felt Encouragement, and so crossed the River. In this Visit
I was at two Quarterly and three Monthly-meetings; and, in the Love of
Truth, felt my Way open to labour with some noted Friends, who kept
Negroes: And, as I was favoured to keep to the Root, and endeavoured to
discharge what I believed was required of me, I found inward Peace
therein, from Time to Time, and Thankfulness of Heart to the Lord, who
was graciously pleased to be a Guide to me.

In the eighth Month, 1761, having felt Drawings in my Mind to visit
Friends in and about _Shrewsbury_, I went there, and was at their
Monthly-meeting, and their First-day-meeting; and had a Meeting at
_Squan_, and another at _Squankum_; and, as Way opened, had Conversation
with some noted Friends concerning their Slaves: And I returned Home in
a thankful Sense of the Goodness of the Lord.

From the Care I felt growing in me some Years, I wrote Considerations on
keeping Negroes, Part the Second; which was printed this Year, 1762.
When the Overseers of the Press had done with it, they offered to get a
Number printed, to be paid for out of the Yearly-meeting Stock, and to
be given away; but I being most easy to publish them at my own Expence,
and, offering my Reasons, they appeared satisfied.

This Stock is the Contribution of the Members of our religious Society
in general; amongst whom are some who keep Negroes; and, being inclined
to continue them in Slavery, are not likely to be satisfied with those
Books being spread amongst a People where many of the Slaves are taught
to read, and especially not at their Expence; and such often, receiving
them as a Gift, conceal them: But as they, who make a Purchase,
generally buy that which they have a Mind for, I believe it best to sell
them; expecting, by that Means, they would more generally be read with
Attention. Advertisements being signed by Order of the Overseers of the
Press, directed to be read in Monthly-meetings of Business within our
own Yearly-meeting, informing where the Books were, and that the Price
was no more than the Cost of printing and binding them, many were taken
off in our Parts; some I sent to _Virginia_, some to _New-York_, and
some to _Newport_, to my Acquaintance there; and some I kept, expecting
to give Part of them away, where there appeared a Prospect of Service.

In my Youth I was used to hard Labour; and, though I was middling
healthy, yet my Nature was not fitted to endure so much as many others:
So that, being often weary, I was prepared to sympathize with those
whose Circumstances in Life, as free Men, required constant Labour to
answer the Demands of their Creditors, and with others under Oppression.
In the Uneasiness of Body, which I have many Times felt by too much
Labour, not as a forced but as a voluntary Oppression, I have often been
excited to think on the original Cause of that Oppression, which is
imposed on many in the World: And, the latter Part of the Time wherein I
laboured on our Plantation, my Heart, through the fresh Visitations of
heavenly Love, being often tender, and my leisure Time frequently spent
in reading the Life and Doctrines of our blessed Redeemer, the Account
of the Sufferings of Martyrs, and the History of the first Rise of our
Society, a Belief was gradually settled in my Mind, that if such, as had
great Estates, generally lived in that Humility and Plainness which
belongs to a _Christian_ Life, and laid much easier Rents and Interests
on their Lands and Monies, and thus led the Way to a right Use of
Things, so great a Number of People might be employed in Things useful,
that Labour, both for Men and other Creatures, would need to be no more
than an agreeable Employ; and divers Branches of Business, which serve
chiefly to please the natural Inclinations of our Minds, and which, at
present, seem necessary to circulate that Wealth which some gather,
might, in this Way of pure Wisdom, be discontinued. And, as I have thus
considered these Things, a Query, at Times, hath arisen: Do I, in all my
Proceedings, keep to that Use of Things which is agreeable to universal
Righteousness? And then there hath some Degree of Sadness, at Times,
come over me, for that I accustomed myself to some Things, which
occasioned more Labour than I believe divine Wisdom intends for us.

From my early Acquaintance with Truth I have often felt an inward
Distress, occasioned by the striving of a Spirit in me against the
Operation of the heavenly Principle; and in this Circumstance have been
affected with a Sense of my own Wretchedness, and in a mourning
Condition felt earnest Longing for that divine Help, which brings the
Soul into true Liberty; and sometimes, in this State, retiring into
private Places, the Spirit of Supplication hath been given me; and,
under a heavenly Covering, I have asked my gracious Father to give me a
Heart in all Things resigned to the Direction of his Wisdom.

In visiting People of Note in the Society who had Slaves, and labouring
with them in brotherly Love on that Account, I have seen, and the Sight
hath affected me, that a Conformity to some Customs, distinguishable
from pure Wisdom, has entangled many; and the Desire of Gain, to support
these Customs, greatly opposed the Work of Truth: And sometimes, when
the Prospect of the Work before me has been such, that in Bowedness of
Spirit, I have been drawn into retired Places, and besought the Lord
with Tears that he would take me wholly under his Direction, and shew me
the Way in which I ought to walk, it hath revived, with Strength of
Conviction, that, if I would be his faithful Servant, I must, in all
Things, attend to his Wisdom, and be teachable; and so cease from all
Customs contrary thereto, however used amongst religious People.

As he is the Perfection of Power, of Wisdom, and of Goodness, so, I
believe, he hath provided, that so much Labour shall be necessary for
Men's Support, in this World, as would, being rightly divided, be a
suitable Employment of their Time; and that we cannot go into
Superfluities, or grasp after Wealth in a Way contrary to his Wisdom,
without having Connection with some Degree of Oppression, and with that
Spirit which leads to Self-exaltation and Strife, and which frequently
brings Calamities on Countries, by Parties contending about their
Claims.

In the eleventh Month of the Year 1762, feeling an Engagement of Mind to
visit some Families in _Mansfield_. I joined my beloved Friend, BENJAMIN
JONES, and we spent a few Days together in that Service. In the second
Month, 1763, I joined in Company with ELIZABETH SMITH and MARY NOBLE on
a Visit to the Families of Friends at _Ancocas_; in both which Visits,
through the baptizing Power of Truth, the sincere Labourers were often
comforted, and the Hearts of Friends opened to receive us. And, in the
fourth Month following, I accompanied some Friends in a Visit to the
Families of Friends in _Mount-Holly_, in which my Mind was often drawn
into an inward Awfulness, wherein strong Desires were raised for the
everlasting Welfare of my Fellow-creatures; and, through the Kindness of
our heavenly Father, our Hearts were, at Times, enlarged, and Friends
invited, in the Flowings of divine Love, to attend to that which would
settle them on the sure Foundation.

Having many Years felt Love in my Heart towards the Natives of this
Land, who dwell far back in the Wilderness, whose Ancestors were the
Owners and Possessors of the Land where we dwell; and who, for a very
small Consideration, assigned their Inheritance to us; and, being at
_Philadelphia_, in the eighth Month, 1761, in a Visit to some Friends
who had Slaves, I fell in Company with some of those Natives who lived
on the East Branch of the River _Susquehannah_, at an _Indian_ Town
called _Wehaloosing_, two hundred Miles from _Philadelphia_, and, in
Conversation with them by an Interpreter, as also by Observations on
their Countenances and Conduct, I believed some of them were measurably
acquainted with that divine Power which subjects the rough and forward
Will of the Creature: And, at Times, I felt inward Drawings toward a
Visit to that Place, of which I told none except my dear Wife, until it
came to some Ripeness; and, then, in the Winter, 1762, I laid it before
Friends at our Monthly and Quarterly, and afterwards at our general
Spring-meeting; and, having the Unity of Friends, and being thoughtful
about an _Indian_ Pilot, there came a Man and three Women from a little
beyond that Town to _Philadelphia_ on Business: And I, being informed
thereof by Letter, met them in Town in the fifth Month, 1763; and, after
some Conversation, finding they were sober People, I, by the Concurrence
of Friends in that Place, agreed to join with them as Companions in
their Return; and, on the seventh Day of the sixth Month following, we
appointed to meet at SAMUEL FOULK'S, at _Richland_ in _Bucks_ County.
Now, as this Visit felt weighty, and was performed at a Time when
Travelling appeared perilous, so the Dispensations of divine Providence,
in preparing my Mind for it, have been memorable; and I believe it good
for me to give some Hints thereof.

After I had given up to go, the Thoughts of the Journey were often
attended with unusual Sadness; in which Times my Heart was frequently
turned to the Lord with inward Breathings for his heavenly Support, that
I might not fail to follow him wheresoever he might lead me: And, being
at our Youths Meeting at _Chesterfield_, about a Week before the Time I
expected to set off, I was there led to speak on that Prayer of our
Redeemer to his Father: "I pray not that thou shouldest take them out of
the World, but that thou shouldest keep them from the Evil." And, in
attending to the pure Openings of Truth, I had to mention what he
elsewhere said to his Father; "I know that thou hearest me at all
Times:" So that, as some of his Followers kept their Places, and as his
Prayer was granted, it followed necessarily that they were kept from
Evil: And, as some of those met with great Hardships and Afflictions in
this World, and at last suffered Death by cruel Men, it appears, that
whatsoever befals Men while they live in pure Obedience to God, as it
certainly works for their Good, so it may not be considered an Evil as
if relates to them. As I spake on this Subject, my Heart was much
tendered, and great Awfulness came over me; and then, on the first Day
of the next Week, being at our own Afternoon-meeting, and my Heart being
enlarged in Love, I was led to speak on the Care and Protection of the
Lord over his People, and to make mention of that Passage, where a Band
of _Assyrians_ endeavouring to take captive the Prophet, were
disappointed; and how the Psalmist said, "The Angel of the Lord
encampeth round about them that fear him." And thus, in true Love and
Tenderness, I parted from Friends, expecting the next Morning, to
proceed on my Journey, and, being weary, went early to Bed; and, after I
had been asleep a short Time, I was awaked by a Man calling at my Door;
and, arising, was invited to meet some Friends at a Publick-house in our
Town, who came from _Philadelphia_ so late, that Friends were generally
gone to Bed: These Friends informed me, that an Express arrived the last
Morning from _Pittsburgh_, and brought News that the _Indians_ had taken
a Fort from the _English_ Westward, and slain and scalped _English_
People in divers Places, some near the said _Pittsburgh_; and that some
elderly Friends in _Philadelphia_, knowing the Time of my expecting to
set off, had conferred together, and thought good to inform me of these
Things, before I left Home, that I might consider them, and proceed as I
believed best; so I, going again to Bed, told not my Wife till Morning.
My Heart was turned to the Lord for his heavenly Instruction; and it was
an humbling Time to me. When I told my dear Wife, she appeared to be
deeply concerned about it; but, in a few Hours Time, my Mind became
settled in a Belief, that it was my Duty to proceed on my Journey; and
she bore it with a good Degree of Resignation. In this Conflict of
Spirit, there were great Searchings of Heart, and strong Cries to the
Lord, that no Motion might be, in the least Degree, attended to, but
that of the pure Spirit of Truth.

The Subjects before-mentioned, on which I had so lately spoken in
publick, were now very fresh before me; and I was brought inwardly to
commit myself to the Lord, to be disposed of as he saw best. So I took
Leave of my Family and Neighbours, in much Bowedness of Spirit, and went
to our Monthly-meeting at _Burlington_; and, after taking Leave of
Friends there, I crossed the River, accompanied by my Friends, ISRAEL
and JOHN PEMBERTON; and, parting the next Morning with ISRAEL, JOHN bore
me Company to SAMUEL FOULK'S, where I met the before-mentioned
_Indians_, and we were glad to see each other: Here my Friend, BENJAMIN
PARVIN, met me, and proposed joining as a Companion, we having passed
some Letters before on the Subject; and now, on his Account, I had a
sharp Trial; for, as the Journey appeared perilous, I thought, if he
went chiefly to bear me Company, and we should be taken Captive, my
having been the Means of drawing him into these Difficulties would add
to my own Afflictions: So I told him my Mind freely, and let him know
that I was resigned to go alone; but, after all, if he really believed
it to be his Duty to go on, I believed his Company would be very
comfortable to me: It was indeed a Time of deep Exercise, and BENJAMIN
appeared to be so fastened to the Visit, that he could not be easy to
leave me; so we went on, accompanied by our Friends, JOHN PEMBERTON, and
WILLIAM LIGHTFOOT of _Pikeland_, and lodged at _Bethlehem_; and there,
parting with JOHN, WILLIAM and we went forward on the ninth Day of the
sixth Month, and got Lodging on the Floor of a House, about five Miles
from _Fort-Allen_: Here we parted with WILLIAM; and at this Place we
met with an _Indian_ Trader, lately come from _Wioming_; and, in
Conversation with him, I perceived that many white People do often sell
Rum to the _Indians_, which, I believe, is a great Evil; first, they
being thereby deprived of the Use of their Reason, and their Spirits
violently agitated, Quarrels often arise, which end in Mischief; and the
Bitterness and Resentments, occasioned hereby, are frequently of long
Continuance; Again, their Skins and Furs, gotten through much Fatigue
and hard Travels in Hunting, with which they intended to buy Clothing,
when they become intoxicated, they often sell at a low Rate for more
Rum; and afterward, when they suffer for want of the Necessaries of
Life, are angry with those who, for the Sake of Gain, took the Advantage
of their Weakness: Of this their Chiefs have often complained, at their
Treaties with the _English_. Where cunning People pass Counterfeits, and
impose that on others which is good for nothing, it is considered as a
Wickedness; but, to sell that to People which we know does them Harm,
and which often works their Ruin, for the Sake of Gain, manifests a
hardened and corrupt Heart, and is an Evil, which demands the Care of
all true Lovers of Virtue to suppress: And while my Mind, this Evening,
was thus employed, I also remembered, that the People on the Frontiers,
among whom this Evil is too common, are often poor; who venture to the
Outside of a Colony, that they may live more independent on such as are
wealthy, who often set high Rents on their Land: Being renewedly
confirmed in a Belief, that, if all our Inhabitants lived according to
sound Wisdom, labouring to promote universal Love and Righteousness, and
ceased from every inordinate Desire after Wealth, and from all Customs
which are tinctured with Luxury, the Way would be easy for our
Inhabitants, though much more numerous than at present, to live
comfortably on honest Employments, without having that Temptation they
are often under of being drawn into Schemes to make Settlements on Lands
which have not been purchased of the _Indians_, or of applying to that
wicked Practice of selling Rum to them.

On the tenth Day of the Month we set out early in the Morning, and
crossed the Western Branch of _Delaware_, called the _Great Lehie_, near
_Fort-Allen_; the Water being high, we went over in a Canoe: Here we met
an _Indian_, and had some friendly Conversation with him, and gave him
some Biscuit; and he having killed a Deer, gave the _Indians_ with us
some of it: Then, after travelling some Miles, we met several _Indian_
Men and Women with a Cow and Horse, and some Household Goods, who were
lately come from their Dwelling at _Wioming_, and going to settle at
another Place; we made them some small Presents, and, some of them
understanding _English_, I told them my Motive in coming into their
Country, with which they appeared satisfied: And, one of our Guides
talking a While with an ancient Woman concerning us, the poor old Woman
came to my Companion and me, and took her Leave of us with an Appearance
of sincere Affection. So, going on, we pitched our Tent near the Banks
of the same River, having laboured hard in crossing some of those
Mountains called the Blue-Ridge; and, by the Roughness of the Stones,
and the Cavities between them, and the Steepness of the Hills, it
appeared dangerous; but we were preserved in Safety, through the
Kindness of him, whose Works in those mountainous Desarts appeared
awful: Toward whom my Heart was turned during this Day's Travel.

Near our Tent, on the Sides of large Trees peeled for that Purpose, were
various Representations of Men going to, and returning from the Wars,
and of some killed in Battle; this being a Path heretofore used by
Warriours: And, as I walked about viewing those _Indian_ Histories,
which were painted mostly in red, but some in black; and thinking on the
innumerable Afflictions which the proud, fierce, Spirit produceth in the
World; thinking on the Toils and Fatigues of Warriours, travelling over
Mountains and Desarts; thinking on their Miseries and Distresses when
wounded far from Home by their Enemies; and of their Bruises and great
Weariness in chasing one another over the Rocks and Mountains; and of
their restless, unquiet, State of Mind, who live in this Spirit; and of
the Hatred which mutually grows up in the Minds of the Children of those
Nations engaged in War with each other: During these Meditations, the
Desire to cherish the Spirit of Love and Peace amongst these People
arose very fresh in me. This was the first Night that we lodged in the
Woods; and, being wet with travelling in the Rain, the Ground, our Tent,
and the Bushes, which we proposed to lay under our Blankets, being also
wet, all looked discouraging; but I believed, that it was the Lord who
had thus far brought me forward, and that he would dispose of me as he
saw good; and therein I felt easy: So we kindled a Fire, with our Tent
open to it; and, with some Bushes next the Ground, and then our
Blankets, we made our Bed, and, lying down, got some Sleep; and, in the
Morning, feeling a little unwell, I went into the River; the Water was
cold, but soon after I felt fresh and well.

The eleventh Day of the sixth Month, the Bushes being wet, we tarried in
our Tent till about eight o'Clock; when, going on, we crossed a high
Mountain supposed to be upwards of four Miles over; the Steepness on the
North Side exceeding all the others. We also crossed two Swamps, and, it
raining near Night, we pitched our Tent and lodged.

About Noon, on our Way, we were overtaken by one of the _Moravian_
Brethren, going to _Wehaloosing_, and an _Indian_ Man with him, who
could talk _English_; and we, being together while our Horses ate Grass,
had some friendly Conversation; but they, travelling faster than we,
soon left us. This _Moravian_, I understood, had spent some Time this
Spring at _Wehaloosing_, and was, by some of the _Indians_, invited to
come again.

The twelfth Day of the sixth Month, and first of the Week, it being a
rainy Day, we continued in our Tent; and here I was led to think on the
Nature of the Exercise which hath attended me: Love was the first
Motion, and thence a Concern arose to spend some Time with the
_Indians_, that I might feel and understand their Life, and the Spirit
they live in, if haply I might receive some Instruction from them, or
they be in any Degree helped forward by my following the Leadings of
Truth amongst them: And, as it pleased the Lord to make Way for my going
at a Time when the Troubles of War were increasing, and when, by Reason
of much wet Weather, Travelling was more difficult than usual at that
Season, I looked upon it as a more favourable Opportunity to season my
Mind, and bring me into a nearer Sympathy with them: And, as mine Eye
was to the great Father of Mercies, humbly desiring to learn what his
Will was concerning me, I was made quiet and content.

Our Guide's Horse, though hoppled, went away in the Night; after finding
our own, and searching some Time for him, his Footsteps were discovered
in the Path going back again, whereupon my kind Companion went off in
the Rain, and, about seven Hours after, returned with him: And here we
lodged again; tying up our Horses before we went to Bed, and loosing
them to feed about Break of Day.

On the thirteenth Day of the sixth Month, the Sun appearing, we set
forward; and, as I rode over the barren Hills, my Meditations were on
the Alterations of the Circumstances of the Natives of this Land since
the Coming in of the _English_. The Lands near the Sea are conveniently
situated for fishing; the Lands near the Rivers, where the Tides flow,
and some above, are in many Places fertile, and not mountainous; while
the Running of the Tides makes passing up and down easy with any Kind of
Traffic. Those Natives have, in some Places, for trifling
Considerations, sold their Inheritance so favourably situated; and, in
other Places, been driven back by superior Force: So that in many
Places, as their Way of clothing themselves is now altered from what it
was, and they, far remote from us, have to pass over Mountains, Swamps,
and barren Desarts, Travelling is very troublesome, in bringing their
Skins and Furs to trade with us.

By the extending of _English_ Settlements, and partly by _English_
Hunters, the wild Beasts, they chiefly depend on for a Subsistance, are
not so plenty as they were; and People too often, for the Sake of Gain,
open a Door for them to waste their Skins and Furs, in purchasing a
Liquor which tends to the Ruin of them and their Families.

My own Will and Desires were now very much broken, and my Heart, with
much Earnestness, turned to the Lord, to whom alone I looked for Help in
the Dangers before me. I had a Prospect of the _English_ along the
Coast, for upwards of nine hundred Miles, where I had travelled; and the
favourable Situation of the _English_, and the Difficulties attending
the Natives in many Places, and the Negroes, were open before me; and a
weighty and heavenly Care came over my Mind, and Love filled my Heart
toward all Mankind, in which I felt a strong Engagement, that we might
be obedient to the Lord, while, in tender Mercies, he is yet calling to
us; and so attend to pure universal Righteousness, as to give no just
Cause of Offence to the _Gentiles_, who do not profess _Christianity_,
whether the Blacks from _Africa_, or the native Inhabitants of this
Continent: And here I was led into a close laborious Enquiry, whether I,
as an Individual, kept clear from all Things which tended to stir up, or
were connected with Wars, either in this Land or _Africa_; and my Heart
was deeply concerned, that, in future, I might in all Things keep
steadily to the pure Truth, and live and walk in the Plainness and
Simplicity of a sincere Follower of Christ. And, in this lonely Journey,
I did, this Day, greatly bewail the Spreading of a wrong Spirit,
believing, that the prosperous, convenient, Situation of the _English_,
requires a constant Attention to divine Love and Wisdom to guide and
support us in a Way answerable to the Will of that good, gracious, and
almighty Being, who hath an equal Regard to all Mankind: And, here,
Luxury and Covetousness, with the numerous Oppressions, and other Evils
attending them, appeared very afflicting to me; and I felt in that which
is immutable, that the Seeds of great Calamity and Desolation are sown
and growing fast on this Continent: Nor have I Words sufficient to set
forth that Longing I then felt, that we, who are placed along the Coast,
and have tasted the Love and Goodness of God, might arise in his
Strength; and, like faithful Messengers, labour to check the Growth of
these Seeds, that they may not ripen to the Ruin of our Posterity.

We reached the _Indian_ Settlement at _Wioming_; and here we were told,
that an _Indian_ Runner had been at that Place a Day or two before us,
and brought News of the _Indians_ taking an _English_ Fort westward, and
destroying the People, and that they were endeavouring to take another;
and also, that another _Indian_ Runner came there about the Middle of
the Night before we got there, who came from a Town about ten Miles
above _Wehaloosing_, and brought News, that some _Indian_ Warriours,
from distant Parts, came to that Town with two _English_ Scalps, and
told the People, that it was War with the _English_.

Our Guides took us to the House of a very ancient Man; and, soon after
we had put in our Baggage, there came a Man from another _Indian_ House
some Distance off; and I, perceiving there was a Man near the Door, went
out; and, having a Tomahawk wrapped under his Matchcoat out of Sight, as
I approached him, he took it in his Hand; I, however, went forward, and,
speaking to him in a friendly Way, perceived he understood some
_English_: My Companion then coming out, we had some Talk with him
concerning the Nature of our Visit in these Parts; and then he going
into the House with us, and talking with our Guides, soon appeared
friendly, and sat down and smoked his Pipe. Though his taking his
Hatchet in his Hand, at the Instant I drew near to him, had a
disagreeable Appearance, I believe he had no other Intent than to be in
Readiness in case any Violence was offered to him.

Hearing the News brought by these _Indian_ Runners, and being told by
the _Indians_ where we lodged, that what _Indians_ were about _Wioming_
expected, in a few Days, to move to some larger Towns, I thought that,
to all outward Appearance, it was dangerous Travelling at this Time; and
was, after a hard Day's Journey, brought into a painful Exercise at
Night, in which I had to trace back, and view over the Steps I had taken
from my first Moving in the Visit; and though I had to bewail some
Weakness which, at Times, had attended me, yet I could not find that I
had ever given way to a wilful Disobedience: And then, as I believed I
had, under a Sense of Duty, come thus far, I was now earnest in Spirit,
beseeching the Lord to shew me what I ought to do. In this great
Distress I grew jealous of myself, lest the Desire of Reputation, as a
Man firmly settled to persevere through Dangers, or the Fear of Disgrace
arising on my returning without performing the Visit, might have some
Place in me: Thus I lay, full of Thoughts, great Part of the Night,
while my beloved Companion lay and slept by me; till the Lord, my
gracious Father, who saw the Conflicts of my Soul, was pleased to give
Quietness: Then I was again strengthened to commit my Life, and all
Things relating thereto, into his heavenly Hands; and, getting a little
Sleep toward Day, when Morning came we arose.

On the fourteenth Day of the sixth Month, we sought out and visited all
the _Indians_ hereabout that we could meet with; they being chiefly in
one Place, about a Mile from where we lodged, in all perhaps twenty.
Here I expressed the Care I had on my Mind for their Good; and told
them, that true Love had made me willing thus to leave my Family to come
and see the _Indians_, and speak with them in their Houses. Some of them
appeared kind and friendly. So we took our Leave of these _Indians_, and
went up the River _Susquehannah_, about three Miles, to the House of an
_Indian_, called JACOB JANUARY, who had killed his Hog; and the Women
were making store of Bread, and preparing to move up the River. Here our
Pilots left their Canoe when they came down in the Spring, which lying
dry, was leaky; so that we, being detained some Hours, had a good deal
of friendly Conversation with the Family; and, eating Dinner with them,
we made them some small Presents. Then, putting our Baggage in the
Canoe, some of them pushed slowly up the Stream, and the rest of us rode
our Horses; and swimming them over a Creek, called _Lahawahamunk_, we
pitched our Tent a little above it, there being a Shower in the Evening:
And, in a Sense of God's Goodness in helping me in my Distress,
sustaining me under Trials, and inclining my Heart to trust in him, I
lay down in an humble bowed Frame of Mind, and had a comfortable Night's
Lodging.

On the fifteenth Day of the sixth Month, we proceeded forward till the
Afternoon; when, a Storm appearing, we met our Canoe at an appointed
Place; and, the Rain continuing, we stayed all Night, which was so
heavy, that it beat through our Tent, and wet us and our Baggage.

On the sixteenth Day, we found, on our Way, abundance of Trees blown
down with the Storm the Day before; and had Occasion reverently to
consider the kind Dealings of the Lord, who provided a safe Place for us
in a Valley, while this Storm continued. By the falling of abundance of
Trees across our Path, we were much hindered, and in some Swamps our Way
was so stopped, that we got through with extreme Difficulty.

I had this Day often to consider myself as a Sojourner in this World;
and a Belief in the All-sufficiency of God to support his People in
their Pilgrimage felt comfortable to me; and I was industriously
employed to get to a State of perfect Resignation.

We seldom saw our Canoe but at appointed Places, by reason of the Path
going off from the River; and, this Afternoon, JOB CHILAWAY, an _Indian_
from _Wehaloosing_, who talks good _English_, and is acquainted with
several People in and about _Philadelphia_, met our People on the River;
and, understanding where we expected to lodge, pushed back about six
Miles, and came to us after Night; and in a While our own Canoe came, it
being hard Work pushing up Stream. JOB told us, that an _Indian_ came in
Haste to their Town yesterday, and told them, that three Warriours,
coming from some Distance, lodged in a Town above _Wehaloosing_ a few
Nights past; and that these three Men were going against the _English_
at _Juniata_. JOB was going down the River to the Province-store at
_Shamokin_. Though I was so far favoured with Health as to continue
travelling, yet, through the various Difficulties in our Journey, and
the different Way of living from what I had been used to, I grew sick;
and the News of these Warriours being on their March so near us, and
not knowing whether we might not fall in with them, was a fresh Trial of
my Faith; and though, through the Strength of divine Love, I had several
Times been enabled to commit myself to the divine Disposal, I still
found the Want of my Strength to be renewed, that I might persevere
therein; and my Cries for Help were put up to the Lord, who, in great
Mercy, gave me a resigned Heart, in which I found Quietness.

On the seventeenth Day, parting from JOB CHILAWAY, we went on, and
reached _Wehaloosing_ about the Middle of the Afternoon, and the first
_Indian_ that we saw was a Woman of a modest Countenance, with a Bible,
who first spake to our Guide; and then, with a harmonious Voice,
expressed her Gladness at seeing us, having before heard of our Coming:
Then, by the Direction of our Guide, we sat down on a Log; and he went
to the Town, to tell the People we were come. My Companion and I sitting
thus together, in a deep inward Stillness, the poor Woman came and sat
near us; and, great Awfulness coming over us, we rejoiced in a Sense of
God's Love manifested to our poor Souls. After a While, we heard a
Conkshell blow several Times, and then came JOHN CURTIS, and another
_Indian_ Man, who kindly invited us into a House near the Town, where we
found, I suppose, about sixty People sitting in Silence; and, after
sitting a short Time, I stood up, and in some Tenderness of Spirit
acquainted them with the Nature of my Visit, and that a Concern for
their Good had made me willing to come thus far to see them; all in a
few short Sentences, which some of them understanding interpreted to the
others, and there appeared Gladness amongst them. Then I shewed them my
Certificate, which was explained to them; and the _Moravian_, who
overtook us on the Way, being now here, bade me welcome.

On the eighteenth Day: We rested ourselves this Forenoon; and the
_Indians_, knowing that the _Moravian_ and I were of different religious
Societies, and as some of their People had encouraged him to come and
stay a While with them, were, I believe, concerned that no Jarring or
Discord might be in their Meetings: And they, I suppose, having
conferred together, acquainted me, that the People, at my Request,
would, at any Time, come together, and hold Meetings; and also told me,
that they expected the _Moravian_ would speak in their settled Meetings,
which are commonly held Morning and near Evening. So I found Liberty in
my Heart to speak to the _Moravian_, and told him of the Care I felt on
my Mind for the Good of these People; and that I believed no ill Effects
would follow it, if I sometimes spake in their Meetings when Love
engaged me thereto, without calling them together at Times when they did
not meet of course: Whereupon he expressed his Good-will toward my
speaking, at any Time, all that I found in my Heart to say: So, near
Evening, I was at their Meeting, where the pure Gospel-love was felt, to
the tendering some of our Hearts; and the Interpreters, endeavouring to
acquaint the People with what I said in short Sentences, found some
Difficulty, as none of them were quite perfect in the _English_ and
_Delaware_ Tongues; so they helped one another, and we laboured along,
divine Love attending: And afterwards, feeling my Mind covered with the
Spirit of Prayer, I told the Interpreters that I found it in my Heart to
pray to God, and believed, if I prayed aright, he would hear me, and
expressed my Willingness for them to omit interpreting; so our Meeting
ended with a Degree of divine Love: And, before the People went out, I
observed PAPUNEHANG (the Man who had been zealous in labouring for a
Reformation in that Town, being then very tender) spoke to one of the
Interpreters; and I was afterwards told that he said in Substance as
follows: "I love to feel where Words come from."

On the nineteenth Day, and first of the Week: This Morning, in the
Meeting, the _Indian_, who came with the _Moravian_, being also a Member
of that Society, prayed; and then the _Moravian_ spake a short Time to
the People: And, in the Afternoon, they coming together, and my Heart
being filled with a heavenly Care for their Good, I spake to them a
While by Interpreters; but none of them being perfect in the Work, and
I, feeling the Current of Love run strong, told the Interpreters, that I
believed some of the People would understand me, and so I proceeded: In
which Exercise I believe the Holy Ghost wrought on some Hearts to
Edification, where all the Words were not understood, I looked upon it
as a Time of divine Favour, and my Heart was tendered and truly thankful
before the Lord; and, after I sat down, one of the Interpreters seemed
spirited to give the _Indians_ the Substance of what I had said.

Before our first Meeting, this Morning, I was led to meditate on the
manifold Difficulties of these _Indians_, who, by the Permission of the
six Nations, dwell in these Parts; and a near Sympathy with them was
raised in me; and, my Heart being enlarged in the Love of Christ, I
thought that the affectionate Care of a good Man for his only Brother in
Affliction does not exceed what I then felt for that People.

I came to this Place through much Trouble; and though, through the
Mercies of God, I believed, that if I died in the Journey, it would be
well with me; yet the Thoughts of falling into the Hands of _Indian_
Warriours were, in Times of Weakness, afflicting to me; and, being of a
tender Constitution of Body, the Thoughts of Captivity amongst them
were, at Times, grievous; as supposing, that they being strong and
hardy, might demand Service of me beyond what I could well bear; but the
Lord alone was my Keeper; and I believed, if I went into Captivity, it
would be for some good End: And thus, from Time to Time, my Mind was
centered in Resignation, in which I always found Quietness. And now,
this Day, though I had the same dangerous Wilderness between me and
Home, I was inwardly joyful that the Lord had strengthened me to come on
this Visit, and manifested a fatherly Care over me in my poor lowly
Condition, when in mine own Eyes I appeared inferior to many amongst the
_Indians_.

When the last-mentioned Meeting was ended, it being Night, PAPUNEHANG
went to Bed; and, one of the Interpreters sitting by me, I observed
PAPUNEHANG spoke with an harmonious Voice, I suppose a Minute or two;
and, asking the Interpreter, I was told, that "He was expressing his
Thankfulness to God for the Favours he had received that Day; and
prayed that he would continue to favour him with that same, which he had
experienced in that Meeting." And though PAPUNEHANG had before agreed to
receive the _Moravian_, and join with them, he still appeared kind and
loving to us.

On the twentieth Day I was at two Meetings, and silent in them.

The twenty-first Day: This Morning, in Meeting, my Heart was enlarged in
pure Love amongst them, and, in short plain Sentences, I expressed
several Things that rested upon me, which one of the Interpreters gave
the People pretty readily; after which, the Meeting ended in
Supplication, and I had Cause humbly to acknowledge the Loving-kindness
of the Lord towards us; and then I believed that a Door remained open
for the faithful Disciples of Jesus Christ to labour amongst these
People.

I now feeling my Mind at Liberty to return, took my Leave of them in
general, at the Conclusion of what I said in Meeting; and so we prepared
to go homeward: But some of their most active Men told us, that, when we
were ready to move, the People would choose to come and shake Hands with
us; which those who usually come to Meeting did: And, from a secret
Draught in my Mind, I went amongst some who did not use to go to
Meeting, and took my Leave of them also: And the _Moravian_ and his
_Indian_ Interpreter appeared respectful to us at parting. This Town
stands on the Bank of _Susquehannah_, and consists, I believe, of about
forty Houses, mostly compact together; some about thirty feet long, and
eighteen wide, some bigger, some less; mostly built of split Plank, one
End set in the Ground, and the other pinned to a Plate, on which lay
Rafters, and covered with Bark. I understand a great Flood last Winter
overflowed the chief Part of the Ground where the Town stands; and some
were now about moving their Houses to higher Ground.

We expected only two _Indians_ to be our Company; but, when we were
ready to go, we found many of them were going to _Bethlehem_ with Skins
and Furs, who chose to go in Company with us: So they loaded two
Canoes, which they desired us to go in, telling us, that the Waters
were so raised with the Rains, that the Horses should be taken by such
as were better acquainted with the Fording-places: So we, with several
_Indians_, went in the Canoes, and others went on Horses, there being
seven besides ours. And we meeting with the Horsemen once on the Way by
Appointment, and that near Night, a little below a Branch called
_Tankhannah_, we lodged there; and some of the young Men going out a
little before Dusk with their Guns, brought in a Deer.

On the twenty-second Day, through Diligence, we reached _Wioming_ before
Night, and understood the _Indians_ were mostly gone from this Place:
Here we went up a small Creek into the Woods with our Canoes, and,
pitching our Tent, carried out our Baggage; and before Dark our Horses
came to us.

On the twenty-third Day in the Morning their Horses were loaded, and we
prepared our Baggage, and so set forward, being in all fourteen; and
with diligent Travelling, were favoured to get near half-way to
_Fort-Allen_. The Land on this Road from _Wioming_ to our Frontier being
mostly poor, and good Grass scarce, they chose a Piece of low Ground to
lodge on, as the best for grazing; and I, having sweated much in
Travelling, and being weary, slept sound; I perceived in the Night that
I had taken Cold, of which I was favoured to get better soon.

On the twenty-fourth Day we passed _Fort-Allen_, and lodged near it in
the Woods.

Having forded the westerly Branch of _Delaware_ three Times, we thereby
had a shorter Way, and missed going over the Top of the Blue Mountains,
called the second Ridge. In the second Time fording, where the River
cuts through the Mountain, the Waters being rapid, and pretty deep, and
my Companion's Mare being a tall, tractable Animal, he sundry Times
drove her back through the River, and they loaded her with the Burthens
of some small Horses, which they thought not sufficient to come through
with their Loads.

The Troubles westward, and the Difficulty for _Indians_ to pass through
our Frontier, I apprehend, was one Reason why so many came; as
expecting that our being in Company would prevent the outside
Inhabitants from being surprised.

On the twenty-fifth Day we reached _Bethlehem_, taking Care on the Way
to keep foremost, and to acquaint People on and near the Road who these
_Indians_ were: This we found very needful; for the Frontier Inhabitants
were often alarmed at the Report of _English_ being killed by _Indians_
westward.

Amongst our Company were some whom I did not remember to have seen at
Meeting, and some of these, at first, were very reserved; but, we being
several Days together, and behaving friendly toward them, and making
them suitable Returns for the Services they did us, they became more
free and social.

On the twenty-sixth Day and first of the Week, having carefully
endeavoured to settle all Affairs with the _Indians_ relative to our
Journey, we took Leave of them, and I thought they generally parted with
us affectionately; so we, getting to _Richland_, had a very comfortable
Meeting amongst our Friends: Here I parted with my kind Friend and
Companion, BENJAMIN PARVIN; and, accompanied by my Friend, SAMUEL FOULK,
we rode to JOHN CADWALLADER'S, from whence I reached Home the next Day,
where I found my Family middling well; and they, and my Friends, all
along appeared glad to see me return from a Journey which they
apprehended dangerous: But my Mind, while I was out, had been so
employed in striving for a perfect Resignation, and I had so often been
confirmed in a Belief, that whatever the Lord might be pleased to allot
for me, would work for Good, I was careful lest I should admit any
Degree of Selfishness in being glad over much, and laboured to improve
by those Trials in such a Manner as my gracious Father and Protector
intends for me. Between the _English_ Inhabitants and _Wehaloosing_ we
had only a narrow Path, which in many Places is much grown up with
Bushes, and interrupted by abundance of Trees lying across it; these,
together with the Mountains, Swamps, and rough Stones, make it a
difficult Road to travel; and the more so, for that Rattle-snakes
abound there, of which we killed four: People, who have never been in
such Places, have but an imperfect Idea of them; but I was not only
taught Patience, but also made thankful to God, who thus led me about
and instructed me, that I might have a quick and lively Feeling of the
Afflictions of my Fellow-creatures, whose Situation in Life is
difficult.


CHAPTER IX

    _His religious Conversation with a Company met to see the Tricks of
    a Juggler_--_His Account of_ JOHN SMITH'S _Advice, and of the
    Proceedings of a Committee, at the Yearly-meeting in
    1764_--_Contemplations on the Nature of true Wisdom, occasioned by
    hearing of the Cruelty of the_ Indians _to their Captives_--_His
    visiting the Families of Friends at_ Mount-Holly, Mansfield, _and_
    Burlington, _in 1764, and the Meetings on the Sea-Coast, from_
    Cape-May, _toward_ Squan, _in 1765_--_His Visit to the lower
    Counties on_ Delaware,_ and the eastern Shore of_ Maryland, _in
    1766, in Company with_ JOHN SLEEPER; _with some Account of_ JOSEPH
    NICHOLS _and his Followers; and Observations on the different State
    of the first Settlers in_ Pennsylvania, _who depended on their own
    Labour, and those of the southern Provinces, who kept Negroes_--_His
    visiting the northern Parts of_ New-Jersey _the same Year, and the
    western Parts of_ Maryland _and_ Pennsylvania _in 1767, and
    afterwards other Parts of_ Pennsylvania, _and the Families of
    Friends at_ Mount-Holly; _and again, several Parts of_ Maryland _in
    1768_--_Farther Considerations on keeping Slaves; and his Concern
    for having formerly, as an Executor, been Party to the Sale of one;
    and what he did in Consequence of it_--_Thoughts on Friends
    exercising Offices in civil Government_

The latter Part of the Summer, 1763, there came a Man to _Mount-Holly_,
who had before published, by a printed Advertisement, that, at a certain
Publick-house, he would shew many wonderful Operations, which he therein
enumerated.

This Man, at the Time appointed, did, by slight of Hand, sundry Things;
which, to those gathered, appeared strange.

The next Day, I, hearing of it, and understanding that the Shew was to
be continued the next Night, and the People to meet about Sun-set, felt
an Exercise on that Account: So I went to the Publick-house in the
Evening, and told the Man of the House that I had an Inclination to
spend a Part of the Evening there; with which he signified that he was
content. Then, sitting down by the Door, I spake to the People as they
came together, concerning this Shew; and, more coming and sitting down
with us, the Seats of the Door were mostly filled; and I had
Conversation with them in the Fear of the Lord, and laboured to convince
them that, thus assembling to see those Tricks or Slights of Hand, and
bestowing their Money to support Men, who, in that Capacity, were of no
Use in the World, was contrary to the Nature of the _Christian_
Religion.

There was one of the Company, who, for a Time, endeavoured, by
Arguments, to shew the Reasonableness of their Proceedings herein; but,
after considering some Texts of Scripture, and calmly debating the
Matter, he gave up the Point. So, having spent about an Hour amongst
them, and feeling my Mind easy, I departed.

At our Yearly-meeting at _Philadelphia_, on the twenty-fifth Day of the
ninth Month, 1764, JOHN SMITH, of _Marlborough_, aged upwards of eighty
Years, a faithful Minister, though not eloquent, stood up in our Meeting
of Ministers and Elders, and, appearing to be under a great Exercise of
Spirit, informed Friends in Substance as follows: to wit, "That he had
been a Member of the Society upwards of sixty Years, and well
remembered, that in those early Times Friends were a plain lowly-minded
People; and that there was much Tenderness and Contrition in their
Meetings.--That, at twenty Years from that Time, the Society, increasing
in Wealth, and in some Degree conforming to the Fashions of the World,
true Humility was less apparent, and their Meetings, in general, not so
lively and edifying.--That, at the End of forty Years, many of them were
grown very rich; that wearing of fine costly Garments, and using of
silver (and other) Watches, became customary with them, their Sons and
their Daughters, and many of the Society made a specious Appearance in
the World; which Marks of outward Wealth and Greatness appeared on some
in our Meetings of Ministers and Elders; and as these Things became
more prevalent, so the powerful Overshadowings of the Holy Ghost were
less manifest in the Society.--That there had been a continued Increase
of these Ways of Life even until now; and that the Weakness which hath
now overspread the Society, and the Barrenness manifest amongst us, are
Matter of much Sorrow." He then mentioned the Uncertainty of his
attending these Meetings in future, expecting his Dissolution was now
near; and, having tenderly expressed his Concern for us, signified that
he had seen in the true Light that the Lord would bring back his People
from these Things into which they were thus degenerated; but that his
faithful Servants must first go through great and heavy Exercises
therein.

On the twenty-ninth Day, the Committee, appointed by the Yearly-meeting
to visit the Quarterly and Monthly-meetings, now gave an Account in
Writing of their Proceedings in that Service; in which they signified,
that, in the Course of it, they had been apprehensive that some Persons
holding Offices in Government, inconsistent with our Principles, and
others, who kept Slaves, remaining active Members in our Meetings of
Discipline, had been one Means of Weakness more and more prevailing in
the Management thereof in some Places. After this Report was read, an
Exercise revived on my Mind, which, at Times, had attended me several
Years, and inward Cries to the Lord were raised in me, that the Fear of
Man might not prevent me from doing what he required of me; and standing
up, I spake in Substance as follows: "I have felt a Tenderness in my
Mind, towards Persons, in two Circumstances mentioned in that Report;
that is, toward such active Members as keep Slaves, and such as hold
Offices in civil Government; and have desired, that Friends, in all
their Conduct, may be kindly affectioned one toward another. Many
Friends, who keep Slaves, are under some Exercise on that Account; and,
at Times, think about trying them with Freedom; but find many Things in
their Way: And the Way of Living, and annual Expences of some of them,
are such, that it seems impracticable for them to set their Slaves free,
without changing their own Way of Life. It has been my Lot to be often
abroad; and I have observed in some Places, at Quarterly and
Yearly-meetings, and at some Houses where travelling Friends and their
Horses are often entertained, that the yearly Expence of Individuals
therein is very considerable: And Friends, in some Places, crouding much
on Persons in these Circumstances for Entertainment, hath often rested
as a Burthen on my Mind for some Years past; and I now express it in the
Fear of the Lord, greatly desiring that Friends now present may duly
consider it."

In the Fall of this Year, having hired a Man to work, I perceived, in
Conversation, that he had been a Soldier in the late War on this
Continent; and, in the Evening, giving a Narrative of his Captivity
amongst the _Indians_, he informed me that he saw two of his
Fellow-captives tortured to Death in a very cruel Manner.

This Relation affected me with Sadness, under which I went to Bed; and,
the next Morning, soon after I awoke, a fresh and living Sense of divine
Love was spread over my Mind; in which I had a renewed Prospect of the
Nature of that Wisdom from above, which leads to a right Use of all
Gifts, both spiritual and temporal, and gives Content therein: Under a
Feeling thereof, I wrote as follows:

"Hath he, who gave me a Being attended with many Wants unknown to
Brute-creatures, given me a Capacity superior to theirs; and shewn me,
that a moderate Application to Business is proper to my present
Condition; and that this, attended with his Blessing, may supply all
outward Wants, while they remain within the Bounds he hath fixed; and no
imaginary Wants, proceeding from an evil Spirit, have any Place in me?
Attend then, O my Soul! to this pure Wisdom, as thy sure Conductor
through the manifold Dangers in this World.

"Doth Pride lead to Vanity? Doth Vanity form imaginary Wants? Do these
Wants prompt Men to exert their Power in requiring that of others, which
they themselves would rather be excused from, were the same required of
them?

"Do these Proceedings beget hard Thoughts? Do hard Thoughts, when ripe,
become Malice? Does Malice, when ripe, become revengeful; and, in the
End, inflict terrible Pains on their Fellow-creatures, and spread
Desolation in the World?

"Doth Mankind, walking in Uprightness, delight in each other's
Happiness? And do these Creatures, capable of this Attainment, by giving
way to an evil Spirit, employ their Wit and Strength to afflict and
destroy one another?

"Remember then, O my Soul! the Quietude of those in whom Christ governs,
and in all thy Proceedings feel after it.

"Doth he condescend to bless thee with his Presence? To move and
influence to Action? To dwell in thee, and walk in thee? Remember then
thy Station, as a Being sacred to God; accept of the Strength freely
offered thee; and take heed that no Weakness, in conforming to
expensive, unwise, and hard-hearted, Customs, gendering to Discord and
Strife, be given way to. Doth he claim my Body as his Temple, and
graciously grant that I may be sacred to him? O! that I may prize this
Favour; and that my whole Life may be conformable to this Character!

"Remember, O my Soul! that the Prince of Peace is thy Lord: That he
communicates his unmixed Wisdom to his Family; that they, living in
perfect Simplicity, may give no just Cause of Offence to any Creature,
but may walk as he walked."

Having felt an Openness in my Heart toward visiting Families in our own
Meeting, and especially in the Town of Mount-Holly, the Place of my
Abode, I mentioned it in our Monthly-meeting the Fore-part of the
Winter, 1764; which being agreed to, and several Friends of our Meeting
being united in the Exercise, we proceeded therein; and, through divine
Favour, were helped in the Work, so that it appeared to me as a fresh
reviving of godly Care amongst Friends: And, the latter Part of the same
Winter, I joined my Friend WILLIAM JONES, in a Visit to Friends Families
in _Mansfield_; in which Labour I had Cause to admire the Goodness of
the Lord towards us.

Having felt my Mind drawn toward a Visit to Friends along the Sea-coast
from _Cape-May_ to near _Squan_; and also to visit some People in those
Parts, amongst whom there is no settled Worship; I joined with my
beloved Friend, BENJAMIN JONES, in a Visit there, having Friends Unity
therein: And, setting off the twenty-fourth Day of the tenth Month,
1765, we had a prosperous and very satisfactory Journey; feeling, at
Times, through the Goodness of the heavenly Shepherd, the Gospel to flow
freely toward a poor People scattered in those Places: And soon after
our Return, I joined my Friends, JOHN SLEEPER and ELIZABETH SMITH, in
visiting Friends Families at _Burlington_, there being at this Time
about fifty Families of our Society in that City; and we had Cause
humbly to adore our heavenly Father, who baptized us into a Feeling of
the State of the People, and strengthened us to labour in true
Gospel-love amongst them.

An Exercise having, at Times, for several Years attended me, in regard
to paying a religious Visit to Friends on the eastern Shore of
_Maryland_: Such was the Nature of this Exercise, that I believed the
Lord moved me to travel on Foot amongst them, that, by so travelling, I
might have a more lively Feeling of the Condition of the oppressed
Slaves, set an Example of Lowliness before the Eyes of their Masters,
and be more out of the Way of Temptation to unprofitable Converse.

The Time now drawing near in which I believed it my Duty to lay my
Concern before our Monthly-meeting, I perceived, in Conversation with my
beloved Friend, JOHN SLEEPER, that he was under a Concern to travel the
same Way, and also to travel on Foot in the Form of a Servant amongst
them, as he expressed it. This he told me before he knew aught of my
Exercise.

We, being thus drawn the same Way, laid our Exercise and the Nature of
it before Friends; and, obtaining Certificates, we set off the sixth Day
of the fifth Month, 1766; and were at Meetings with Friends at
_Wilmington_, _Duck-Creek_, _Little-Creek_, and _Motherkill_; my Heart
being sundry Times tendered under the divine Influence, and enlarged in
Love toward the People amongst whom we travelled.

From _Motherkill_, we crossed the Country about thirty-five Miles to
Friends at _Tuckahoe_ in _Maryland_, and had a Meeting there and at
_Marshy-Creek_.

At these, our three last Meetings, were a considerable Number of People,
Followers of one JOSEPH NICHOLS, a Preacher; who, I understand, is not
in outward Fellowship with any religious Society of People, but
professeth nearly the same Principles as our Society doth, and often
travels up and down appointing Meetings, to which many People come. I
heard some Friends speaking of some of their Neighbours, who had been
irreligious People, that were now his Followers, and were become sober
well-behaved Men and Women.

Some Irregularities, I hear, have been amongst the People at several of
his Meetings; but, from the whole of what I have perceived, I believe
the Man and some of his Followers are honestly disposed, but that
skilful Fathers are wanting amongst them: From hence we went to
_Choptank_ and _Third-Haven_; and thence to _Queen Anne's_. The Weather
having some Days past been hot and dry, and we, to attend Meetings
pursuant to Appointment, having travelled pretty steadily, and had hard
Labour in Meetings, I grew weakly, at which I was, for a Time,
discouraged; but, looking over our Journey, and thinking how the Lord
had supported our Minds and Bodies, so that we got forward much faster
than I expected before we came out, I now saw that I had been in Danger
of too strongly desiring to get soon through the Journey, and that this
bodily Weakness, now attending me, was a Kindness to me; and then, in
Contrition of Spirit, I became very thankful to my gracious Father, for
this Manifestation of his Love; and, in humble Submission to his Will,
my Trust was renewed in him.

On this Part of our Journey, I had many Thoughts on the different
Circumstances of Friends, who inhabit _Pennsylvania_ and _Jersey_, from
those who dwell in _Maryland_, _Virginia_, and _Carolina_.
_Pennsylvania_ and _New-Jersey_ were settled by many Friends, who were
convinced of our Principles in _England_ in Times of Suffering, and,
coming over, bought Lands of the Natives, and applied themselves to
Husbandry in a peaceable Way; and many of their Children were taught to
labour for their Living.

Few Friends, I believe, came from _England_ to settle in any of these
southern Provinces; but, by the faithful Labours of travelling Friends
in early Times, there were considerable Convincements amongst the
Inhabitants of these Parts. Here I remembered my reading of the warlike
Disposition of many of the first Settlers in those Provinces, and of
their numerous Engagements with the Natives, in which much Blood was
shed, even in the Infancy of those Colonies. These People, inhabiting
those Places, being grounded in Customs contrary to the pure Truth, when
some of them were affected with the powerful preaching of the Word of
Life, and joined in Fellowship with our Society, they had a great Work
to go through. It is observable, in the History of the Reformation from
_Popery_, that it had a gradual Progress from Age to Age: The
Uprightness of the first Reformers, in attending to the Light and
Understanding given them, opened the Way for sincere-hearted People to
proceed farther afterward; and thus, each one truly fearing God, and
labouring in those Works of Righteousness appointed for him in his Day,
findeth Acceptance with him: Though, through the Darkness of the Times,
and the Corruption of Manners and Customs, some upright Men have had
little more for their Day's Work than to attend to the righteous
Principle in their Minds, as it related to their own Conduct in Life,
without pointing out to others the whole Extent of that, which the same
Principle would lead succeeding Ages into. Thus, for Instance, amongst
an imperious warlike People, supported by oppressed Slaves, some of
these Masters, I suppose, are awakened to feel and see their Error; and,
through sincere Repentance, cease from Oppression, and become like
Fathers to their Servants; shewing, by their Example, a Pattern of
Humility in living, and Moderation in governing, for the Instruction
and Admonition of their oppressing Neighbours; those, without carrying
the Reformation farther, I believe, have found Acceptance with the Lord.
Such was the Beginning; and those who succeeded them, and have
faithfully attended to the Nature and Spirit of the Reformation, have
seen the Necessity of proceeding forward, and not only to instruct
others, by their Example, in governing well, but also to use Means to
prevent their Successors from having so much Power to oppress others.

Here I was renewedly confirmed in my Mind, that the Lord (whose tender
Mercies are over all his Works, and whose Ear is open to the Cries and
Groans of the Oppressed) is graciously moving on the Hearts of People,
to draw them off from the Desire of Wealth, and bring them into such an
humble, lowly, Way of Living, that they may see their Way clearly, to
repair to the Standard of true Righteousness; and not only break the
Yoke of Oppression, but know him to be their Strength and Support in a
Time of outward Affliction.

We, passing on, crossed _Chester-River_; and had a Meeting there, and at
_Cecil_ and _Sassafras_. Through my bodily Weakness, joined with a heavy
Exercise of Mind, it was to me an humbling Dispensation, and I had a
very lively Feeling of the State of the Oppressed; yet I often thought,
that what I suffered was little, compared with the Sufferings of the
blessed Jesus, and many of his faithful Followers; and may say, with
Thankfulness, I was made content.

From _Sassafras_ we went pretty directly Home, where we found our
Families well; and, for several Weeks after our Return, I had often to
look over our Journey: And though it appeared to me as a small Service,
and that some faithful Messengers will yet have more bitter Cups to
drink in those southern Provinces, for Christ's Sake, than we had; yet I
found Peace in that I had been helped to walk in Sincerity, according to
the Understanding and Strength given me.

On the thirteenth Day of the eleventh Month, 1766, with the Unity of
Friends at our Monthly-meeting, in Company with my beloved Friend,
BENJAMIN JONES, I set out on a Visit to Friends in the upper Part of
this Province, having had Drawings of Love in my Heart that Way a
considerable Time: We travelled as far as _Hardwick_; and I had inward
Peace in my Labours of Love amongst them.

Through the humbling Dispensations of divine Providence, my Mind hath
been brought into a farther Feeling of the Difficulties of Friends and
their Servants south-westward; and being often engaged in Spirit on
their Account, I believed it my Duty to walk into some Parts of the
western Shore of _Maryland_, on a religious Visit; and, having obtained
a Certificate from Friends of our Monthly-meeting, I took my Leave of my
Family under the heart-tendering Operation of Truth; and, on the
twentieth Day of the fourth Month, 1767, I rode to the Ferry opposite to
_Philadelphia_, and from thence walked to WILLIAM HORNE'S, at _Derby_,
that Evening; and next Day pursued my journey alone, and reached
_Concord_ week-day Meeting.

Discouragements and a Weight of Distress had, at Times, attended me in
this lonesome Walk; through which Afflictions I was mercifully
preserved: And now, sitting down with Friends, my Mind was turned toward
the Lord, to wait for his holy Leadings; who, in infinite Love, was
pleased to soften my Heart into an humble Contrition, and did renewedly
strengthen me to go forward; so that to me it was a Time of heavenly
Refreshment in a silent Meeting.

The next Day I came to _New-Garden_ week-day Meeting, in which I sat
with Bowedness of Spirit; and, being baptized into a Feeling of the
State of some present, the Lord gave us a heart-tendering Season; to his
Name be the Praise.

I passed on, and was at _Nottingham_ Monthly-meeting; and at a Meeting
at _Little-Britain_ on First-day: And in the Afternoon several Friends
came to the House where I lodged, and we had a little Afternoon-meeting;
and, through the humbling Power of Truth, I had to admire the
Loving-kindness of the Lord manifested to us!

On the twenty-sixth Day, I crossed _Susquehannah_; and coming amongst
People in outward Ease and Greatness, chiefly on the Labour of Slaves,
my Heart was much affected; and, in awful Retiredness, my Mind was
gathered inward to the Lord, being humbly engaged that in true
Resignation I might receive Instruction from him, respecting my Duty
amongst this People.

Though travelling on Foot was wearisome to my Body; yet thus travelling
was agreeable to the State of my Mind.

I went gently on, being weakly; and was covered with Sorrow and
Heaviness, on Account of the spreading prevailing Spirit of this World,
introducing Customs grievous and oppressive on one Hand, and cherishing
Pride and Wantonness on the other. In this lonely Walk, and State of
Abasement and Humiliation, the State of the Church in these Parts was
opened before me; and I may truly say with the Prophet, "I was bowed
down at the hearing of it; I was dismayed at the seeing of it." Under
this Exercise, I attended the Quarterly-meeting at _Gunpowder_; and, in
Bowedness of Spirit, I had to open, with much Plainness, what I felt
respecting Friends living in Fullness, on the Labours of the poor
oppressed Negroes; and that Promise of the Most High was now revived: "I
will gather all Nations and Tongues; and they shall come and see my
Glory."--Here the Sufferings of Christ, and his tasting Death for every
Man, and the Travels, Sufferings, and Martyrdoms, of the Apostles and
primitive _Christians_, in labouring for the Conversion of the Gentiles,
were livingly revived in me; and, according to the Measure of Strength
afforded, I laboured in some Tenderness of Spirit, being deeply affected
amongst them: And thus the Difference, between the present Treatment
which these Gentiles, the Negroes, receive at our Hands, and the Labours
of the primitive _Christians_ for the Conversion of the Gentiles was
pressed home, and the Power of Truth came over us; under a Feeling of
which, my Mind was united to a tender-hearted People in those Parts; and
the Meeting concluded in a Sense of God's Goodness toward his humble
dependent Children.

The next Day was a general Meeting for Worship, much crouded; in which I
was deeply engaged in inward Cries to the Lord for Help, that I might
stand wholly resigned, and move only as he might be pleased to lead me:
And I was mercifully helped to labour honestly and fervently amongst
them, in which I found inward Peace; and the Sincere were comforted.

From hence I turned toward _Pipe-Creek_, and passed on to the
_Red-Lands_; and had several Meetings amongst Friends in those Parts. My
Heart was often tenderly affected, under a Sense of the Lord's Goodness,
in sanctifying my Troubles and Exercises, turning them to my Comfort,
and, I believe, to the Benefit of many others; for, I may say, with
Thankfulness, that in this Visit, it appeared like a fresh tendering
Visitation in most Places.

I passed on to the western Quarterly-meeting in _Pennsylvania_; during
the several Days of this Meeting, I was mercifully preserved in an
inward feeling after the Mind of Truth, and my publick Labours tended to
my Humiliation, with which I was content: And, after the
Quarterly-meeting of Worship ended, I felt Drawings to go to the Women's
Meeting of Business; which was very full: And here the Humility of Jesus
Christ, as a Pattern for us to walk by, was livingly opened before me;
and in treating on it my Heart was enlarged; and it was a baptizing
Time. From hence I went on; and was at Meetings at _Concord_,
_Middletown_, _Providence_, and _Haddonfield_, and so Home; where I
found my Family well. A sense of the Lord's merciful Preservation, in
this my Journey, excites reverent Thankfulness to him.

On the second Day of the ninth Month, 1767, with the Unity of Friends, I
set off on a Visit to Friends in the upper Part of _Berks_ and
_Philadelphia_ Counties; was at eleven Meetings in about two Weeks; and
have renewed Cause to bow in Reverence before the Lord, who, by the
powerful Extendings of his humbling Goodness, opened my Way amongst
Friends, and made the Meetings (I trust) profitable to us. And, the
Winter following, I joined Friends on a Visit to Friends Families, in
some Part of our Meeting; in which Exercise, the pure Influence of
divine Love made our Visits reviving.

On the fifth Day of the fifth Month, 1768, I left Home under the
humbling Hand of the Lord, having obtained a Certificate, in order to
visit some Meetings in _Maryland_; and to proceed without a Horse looked
clearest to me. I was at the Quarterly-meetings at _Philadelphia_ and
_Concord_; and then went on to _Chester-River_; and, crossing the Bay
with Friends, was at the Yearly-meeting at _West-River_; thence back to
_Chester-River_; and, taking a few Meetings in my Way, proceeded Home.
It was a Journey of much inward Waiting; and, as my Eye was to the Lord,
Way was, several Times, opened to my humbling Admiration, when Things
had appeared very difficult.

In my Return, I felt a Relief of Mind, very comfortable to me; having,
through divine Help, laboured in much Plainness, both with Friends
selected, and in the more publick Meetings; so that (I trust) the pure
Witness, in many Minds, was reached.

The eleventh Day of the sixth Month, 1769. Sundry Cases have happened,
of late Years, within the Limits of our Monthly-meeting, respecting that
of exercising pure Righteousness toward the Negroes; in which I have
lived under a Labour of Heart, that Equity might be steadily kept to. On
this Account, I have had some close Exercises amongst Friends; in which,
I may thankfully say, I find Peace: And, as my Meditations have been on
universal Love, my own Conduct in Time past became of late very grievous
to me.

As Persons, setting Negroes free in our Province, are bound by Law to
maintain them, in case they have Need of Relief, some, who scrupled
keeping Slaves for Term of Life, in the Time of my Youth, were wont to
detain their young Negroes in their Service till thirty Years of Age,
without Wages, on that Account; and with this Custom I so far agreed,
that I, being joined to another Friend, in executing the Will of a
deceased Friend, once sold a Negro Lad till he might attain the Age of
thirty Years, and applied the Money to the Use of the Estate.

With Abasement of Heart, I may now say, that sometimes, as I have sat in
a Meeting, with my Heart exercised toward that awful Being, who
respecteth not Persons nor Colours, and have looked upon this Lad, I
have felt that all was not clear in my Mind respecting him; and as I
have attended to this Exercise, and fervently sought the Lord, it hath
appeared to me, that I should make some Restitution, but in what Way I
saw not till lately; when, being under some Concern that I may be
resigned to go on a Visit to some Part of the _West-Indies_, and under
close Engagement of Spirit, seeking to the Lord for Counsel herein, that
of my joining in the Sale aforesaid, came heavily upon me; and my Mind,
for a Time, was covered with Darkness and Sorrow; and, under this sore
Affliction, my Heart was softened to receive Instruction: And here I
first saw, that, as I had been one of the two Executors, who had sold
this Lad nine Years longer than is common for our own Children to serve,
so I should now offer a Part of my Substance to redeem the last Half of
that nine Years; but, as the Time was not yet come, I executed a Bond,
binding me and my Executors to pay to the Man, he was sold to, what, to
candid Men, might appear equitable for the last four Years and a Half of
his Time, in case the said Youth should be living, and in a Condition
likely to provide comfortably for himself.

The ninth Day of the tenth Month, 1769. My Heart hath often been deeply
afflicted under a Feeling I have had, that the Standard of pure
Righteousness is not lifted up to the People by us, as a Society, in
that Clearness which it might have been, had we been so faithful to the
Teachings of Christ as we ought to have been: And, as my Mind hath been
inward to the Lord, the Purity of Christ's Government hath been opened
in my Understanding; and, under this Exercise, that of Friends being
active in civil Society, in putting Laws in force which are not
agreeable to the Purity of Righteousness, hath, for several Years, been
an increasing Burthen upon me; having felt, in the Openings of universal
Love, that where a People, convinced of the Truth of the inward
Teachings of Christ, are active in putting Laws in Execution which are
not consistent with pure Wisdom, it hath a necessary Tendency to bring
Dimness over their Minds: And, as my Heart hath been thus exercised, and
a tender Sympathy in me toward my Fellow-members, I have, within a few
Months past, in several Meetings for Discipline, expressed my Concern on
this Subject.


CHAPTER X

    _His preparing to visit Friends in_ England--_His embarking at_
    Chester, _in Company with_ SAMUEL EMLEN, _in a Ship bound to_
    London--_His deep Exercise, in observing the Difficulties and
    Hardships the common Sailors are exposed to_--_Considerations on the
    Dangers to which Youth are exposed, in being trained to a sea-faring
    Life; and its Inconsistency with a pious Education_--_His Thoughts
    in a Storm at Sea: With many instructive Contemplations on the
    Voyage_--_And his Arrival at_ London

Having been some Time under a religious Concern to prepare for crossing
the Seas, in order to visit Friends in the northern Parts of _England_,
and more particularly _Yorkshire_; after weighty Consideration, I
thought it expedient to inform Friends, at our Monthly-meeting at
_Burlington_, of it; who, having Unity with me therein, gave me a
Certificate; and I afterward communicated the same to our
Quarterly-meeting, and they likewise certified their Concurrence
therewith. Some Time after which, at the general Spring-meeting of
Ministers and Elders, I thought it my Duty to acquaint them of the
religious Exercise which attended my Mind; with which they likewise
signified their Unity by a Certificate, dated the twenty-fourth Day of
the third Month, 1772, directed to Friends in _Great-Britain_.

In the fourth Month following, I thought the Time was come for me to
make some Enquiry for a suitable Conveyance; being apprehensive that, as
my Concern was principally toward the northern Parts of _England_, it
would be most proper to go in a Vessel bound to _Liverpool_ or
_Whitehaven_: And, while I was at _Philadelphia_, deliberating on this
Occasion, I was informed, that my beloved Friend, SAMUEL EMLEN, jun.,
intending to go to _London_, and having taken a Passage for himself in
the Cabbin of a Ship, called _Mary and Elizabeth_, of which JAMES
SPARKS was Master, and JOHN HEAD, of the City of _Philadelphia_, one of
the Owners; and I feeling a Draught in my Mind toward the Steerage of
the same Ship, went first and opened to SAMUEL the Feeling I had
concerning it.

My beloved Friend appeared glad that I had Thoughts of going in the
Vessel with him, though my Prospect was toward the Steerage; and he,
offering to go with me, we went on board, first in the Cabbin, a
commodious Room, and then into the Steerage; where we sat down on a
Chest, the Sailors being busy about us: Then the Owner of the Ship came,
and sat down with us.

Here my Mind was turned toward Christ, the heavenly Counsellor; and I
feeling, at this Time, my own Will subjected, my Heart was contrite
before him.

A Motion was made, by the Owner, to go and sit in the Cabbin, as a Place
more retired; but I felt easy to leave the Ship, and made no Agreement
as to a Passage in her; but told the Owner, if I took a Passage in the
Ship, I believed it would be in the Steerage; but did not say much as to
my Exercise in that Case.

I went to my Lodgings, and soon after went to Bed, and my Mind was under
a deep Exercise before the Lord; whose helping Hand was manifested to me
as I slept that Night, and his Love strengthened my Heart. In the
Morning I went with two Friends on board the Vessel again; and, after a
short Time spent therein, I went, with SAMUEL EMLEN, to the House of the
Owner; to whom, in the Hearing of SAMUEL only, I opened my Exercise, in
relation to a Scruple with regard to a Passage in the Cabbin.

After this I agreed for a Passage in the Steerage; and, hearing in Town
that JOSEPH WHITE had a Desire to see me, I felt the Reviving of a
Desire to see him, and went then to his House, and next Day Home; where
I tarried two Nights; and then, early in the Morning, I parted with my
Family, under a Sense of the humbling Hand of God upon me; and going to
_Philadelphia_, had Opportunity with several of my beloved Friends; who
appeared to be concerned for me, on Account of the unpleasant Situation
of that Part of the Vessel where I was likely to lodge.

Having stayed two Nights in _Philadelphia_, I went the next Day to
_Derby_ Monthly-meeting; where, through the Strength of divine Love, my
Heart was enlarged toward the Youth then present; under which I was
helped to labour in some Tenderness of Spirit. Then, lodging at WILLIAM
HORNE'S, I, with one Friend, went to _Chester_; where, meeting with
SAMUEL EMLEN, we went on board, the first Day of the fifth Month, 1772;
and, as I sat down alone, on a Seat on the Deck, I felt a satisfactory
Evidence that my Proceedings were not in my own Will, but under the
Power of the Cross of Christ.

Seventh Day of the fifth Month. We have had rough Weather mostly since I
came on board; and the Passengers, JAMES REYNOLDS, JOHN TILL-ADAMS,
SARAH LOGAN and her hired Maid, and JOHN BISPHAM, were all sea-sick,
more or less, at Times; from which Sickness, through the tender Mercies
of my heavenly Father, I have been preserved; my Afflictions now being
of another Kind.

There appeared an Openness in the Minds of the Master of the Ship and of
the Cabbin-Passengers toward me: We were often together on the Deck, and
sometimes in the Cabbin.

My Mind, through the merciful Help of the Lord, hath been preserved in a
good Degree, watchful and inward; and I have, this Day, great Cause to
be thankful, in that I remain to feel Quietness of Mind.

As my lodging in the Steerage, now near a Week, hath afforded me sundry
Opportunities of seeing, hearing, and feeling, with respect to the Life
and Spirit of many poor Sailors, an inward Exercise of Soul hath
attended me, in regard to placing our Children and Youth where they may
be likely to be exampled and instructed in the pure Fear of the Lord;
and I, being much amongst the Seamen, have, from a Motion of Love,
sundry Times taken Opportunities, with one of them at a Time alone, and
in a free Conversation laboured to turn their Minds toward the Fear of
the Lord: And this Day we had a Meeting in the Cabbin, where my Heart
was contrite under a Feeling of divine Love.

Now, concerning Lads being trained up as Seamen; I believe a
Communication from one Part of the World to some other Parts of it, by
Sea, is, at Times, consistent with the Will of our heavenly Father; and
to educate some Youth in the Practice of sailing, I believe, may be
right: But how lamentable is the present Corruption of the World! how
impure are the Channels through which Trade hath a Conveyance! how great
is that Danger, to which poor Lads are now exposed, when placed on
shipboard to learn the Art of sailing!

O! that all may take Heed and beware of Covetousness! O that all may
learn of Christ, who was meek and low of Heart! Then, in faithfully
following him, he will teach us to be content with Food and Raiment,
without respect to the Customs or Honours of this World.

Men, thus redeemed, will feel a tender Concern for their
Fellow-creatures, and a Desire that those in the lowest Stations may be
assisted and encouraged; and, where Owners of Ships attain to the
perfect Law of Liberty, and are Doers of the Word, these will be blessed
in their Deeds.

Rising to work in the Night is not commonly pleasant in any case; but,
in dark rainy Nights, it is very disagreeable, even though each Man were
furnished with all Conveniences: But, if Men must go out at Midnight, to
help manage the Ship in the Rain, and, having small Room to sleep and
lay their Garments in, are often beset to furnish themselves for the
Watch, their Garments or something relating to their Business being
wanting and not easily found, when, from the Urgency occasioned by high
Winds, they are hastened and called up suddenly, here is a Trial of
Patience on the poor Sailors and the poor Lads their Companions.

If, after they have been on Deck several Hours in the Night, and come
down into the Steerage soaking wet, and are so close stowed that proper
Convenience for change of Garment is not easily come at, but for Want of
proper Room, their wet Garments are thrown in Heaps, and sometimes,
through much crouding, are trodden under Foot in going to their Lodgings
and getting out of them, and they have great Difficulties, at Times,
each one to find his own, here are Trials on the poor Sailors.

Now, as I have been with them in my Lodge, my Heart hath often yearned
for them, and tender Desires have been raised in me, that all Owners and
Masters of Vessels may dwell in the Love of God, and therein act
uprightly; and, by seeking less for Gain, and looking carefully to their
Ways, may earnestly labour to remove all Cause of Provocation from the
poor Seamen, either to fret or use Excess of Strong-drink; for, indeed,
the poor Creatures, at Times, in the Wet and Cold, seem to apply to
Strong-drink to supply the Want of other Convenience.

Great Reformation in the World is wanting; and the Necessity of it,
amongst these who do Business on great Waters, hath, at this Time, been
abundantly opened before me.

The eighth Day of the fifth Month. This Morning the Clouds gathered, the
Wind blew strong from South-eastward, and before Noon increased to that
Degree that Sailing appeared dangerous. The Seamen then bound up some of
their Sails, and took down some; and, the Storm increasing, they put the
Dead-lights, so called, into the Cabbin-Windows, and lighted a Lamp as
at Night.

The Wind now blew vehemently, and the Sea wrought to that Degree, that
an awful Seriousness prevailed in the Cabbin, in which I spent, I
believe, about seventeen Hours; for I believed the poor wet toiling
Seamen had Need of all the Room in the crouded Steerage, and the
Cabbin-Passengers had given me frequent Invitations.

They ceased now from Sailing, and put the Vessel in the Posture called,
lying-to.

My Mind, in this Tempest, through the gracious Assistance of the Lord,
was preserved in a good Degree of Resignation; and I felt, at Times, a
few Words in his Love to my Ship-mates, in regard to the All-sufficiency
of him who formed the great Deep, and whose Care is so extensive, that a
Sparrow falls not without his Notice; and thus, in a tender Frame of
Mind, spake to them of the Necessity of our yielding, in true Obedience,
to the Instructions of our heavenly Father, who sometimes, through
Adversities, intendeth our Refinement.

About eleven at Night I went out on the Deck, when the Sea wrought
exceedingly, and the high-foaming Waves, all round about, had in some
Sort the Appearance of Fire, but did not give much, if any, Light.

The Sailor, then at the Helm, said he lately saw a Corposant at the Head
of the Mast.

About this Time I observed the Master of the Ship ordered the Carpenter
to keep on the Deck; and, though he said little, I apprehended his Care
was, that the Carpenter, with his axe, might be in Readiness, in case of
any Extremity.

Soon after this, the Vehemency of the Wind abated; and, before Morning,
they again put the Ship under Sail.

The tenth Day of the Month, and first of the Week, it being fine
Weather, we had a Meeting in the Cabbin, at which most of the Seamen
were present: This Meeting to me was a strengthening Time.

The thirteenth Day of the Month. As I continue to lodge in the Steerage,
I feel an Openness this Morning, to express something farther of the
State of my Mind, in Respect to poor Lads bound Apprentice to learn the
Art of Sailing. As I believe Sailing is of some Use in the World, a
Labour of Soul attends me, that the pure Counsel of Truth may be humbly
waited for in this Case, by all concerned in the Business of the Seas.

A pious Father, whose Mind is exercised for the everlasting Welfare of
his Child, may not, with a peaceable Mind, place him out to an
Employment amongst a People, whose common Course of Life is manifestly
corrupt and prophane; so great is the present Defect amongst Seafaring
Men, in regard to Piety and Virtue: And, through an abundant Traffic,
and many Ships of War, so many People are employed on the Sea, that this
Subject of placing Lads to the Employment appears very weighty.

Prophane Examples are very corrupting, and very forcible. And as my
Mind, Day after Day, and Night after Night, hath been affected with a
sympathizing Tenderness toward poor Children, put to the Employment of
Sailors, I have sometimes had weighty Conversation with the Sailors in
the Steerage, who were mostly respectful to me, and more and more so the
longer I was with them: They mostly appeared to take kindly what I said
to them; but their Minds have appeared to be so deeply impressed with
that almost universal Depravity amongst Sailors, that the poor
Creatures, in their Answers to me on this Subject, have revived in my
Remembrance that of the degenerate _Jews_ a little before the Captivity,
as repeated by JEREMIAH the Prophet, "There is no Hope."

Now, under this Exercise, a Sense of the Desire of outward Gain
prevailing amongst us hath felt grievous, and a strong Call to the
professed Followers of Christ hath been raised in me, that all may take
Heed, lest, through loving this present World, they be found in a
continued Neglect of Duty, with respect to a faithful Labour for a
Reformation.

Silence, as to every Motion proceeding from the Love of Money, and an
humble Waiting upon God to know his Will concerning us, has now appeared
necessary: He alone is able to strengthen us to dig deep, to remove all
which lies between us and the safe Foundation, and so direct us in our
outward Employments, that pure universal Love may shine forth in our
Proceedings.

Desires arising from the Spirit of Truth are pure Desires; and when a
Mind, divinely opened toward a young Generation, is made sensible of
corrupting Examples, powerfully working, and extensively spreading
amongst them, how moving is the Prospect!

The sixteenth Day of the Month. Wind for several Days past often high,
what the Sailors call squally, rough Sea and frequent Rains. This last
Night a very trying Night to the poor Seamen: The Water, chief Part of
the Night, running over the main Deck, and sometimes Breaking-waves came
on the Quarter-deck. The latter Part of the Night, as I lay in Bed, my
Mind was humbled under the Power of divine Love; and Resignedness to the
great Creator of the Earth and Seas, renewedly wrought in me; whose
fatherly Care over his Children felt precious to my Soul: And Desires
were now renewed in me, to embrace every Opportunity of being inwardly
acquainted with the Hardships and Difficulties of my Fellow-creatures,
and to labour in his Love for the spreading of pure universal
Righteousness on the Earth. The Opportunities were frequent of hearing
Conversation amongst the Sailors, in respect to the Voyages to _Africa_,
and the Manner of bringing the deeply-oppressed Slaves into our Islands.
The Thoughts of their Condition, frequently in Chains and Fetters on
board the Vessels, with Hearts loaded with Grief, under the
Apprehensions of miserable Slavery; my Mind was frequently opened to
meditate on these Things.

On the seventeenth Day of the Month, and first of the Week, we had a
Meeting in the Cabbin; to which the Seamen generally came. My Spirit was
contrite before the Lord; whose Love, at this Time, affected my Heart.

This Afternoon I felt a tender Sympathy of Soul with my poor Wife and
Family left behind; in which State, my Heart was enlarged in Desires
that they may walk in that humble Obedience wherein the everlasting
Father may be their Guide and Support, through all the Difficulties in
this World; and a Sense of that gracious Assistance, through which my
Mind hath been strengthened to take up the Cross and leave them, to
travel in the Love of Truth, hath begotten Thankfulness in my Heart to
our great Helper.

On the twenty-fourth Day of the Month, and first of the Week, a clear
pleasant Morning: And, as I sat on Deck, I felt a Reviving in my Nature;
which, through much rainy Weather and high Winds, being shut up in a
close unhealthy Air, was weakened.

Several Nights of late I felt Breathing difficult; so that a little
after the rising of the second Watch (which is about Midnight) I got up,
and stood, I believe, near an Hour, with my Face near the Hatchway, to
get the fresh Air at the small Vacancy under the Hatch-door; which is
commonly shut down, partly to keep out Rain, and sometimes to keep the
Breaking-waves from dashing into the Steerage.

I may, with Thankfulness to the Father of Mercies, acknowledge, that, in
my present weak State, my Mind hath been supported to bear the
Affliction with Patience; and have looked at the present Dispensation as
a Kindness from the great Father of Mankind, who, in this my floating
Pilgrimage, is in some Degree bringing me to feel that, which many
thousands of my Fellow-creatures often suffer in a greater Degree.

My Appetite failing, the Trial hath been the heavier; and I have felt
tender Breathings in my Soul after God, the Fountain of Comfort, whose
inward Help hath supplied, at Times, the Want of outward Convenience:
And strong Desires have attended me, that his Family, who are acquainted
with the Movings of his holy Spirit, may be so redeemed from the Love of
Money, and from that Spirit in which Men seek Honour one of another,
that in all Business, by Sea or Land, we may constantly keep in View the
coming of his Kingdom on Earth, as it is in Heaven; and, by faithfully
following this safe Guide, shew forth Examples, tending to lead out of
that under which the Creation groans!

This Day we had a Meeting in the Cabbin; in which I was favoured in some
Degree to experience the fulfilling of that Saying of the Prophet, "The
Lord hath been a Strength to the Poor, a Strength to the Needy in their
Distress;" for which, my Heart is bowed in Thankfulness before him!

The twenty-eighth Day of the Month.--Wet Weather of late, small Winds
inclining to Calms: Our Seamen have cast a Lead, I suppose about one
hundred Fathoms, but find no Bottom: Foggy Weather this Morning.

Through the Kindness of the great Preserver of Men my Mind remains
quiet; and a Degree of Exercise, from Day to Day, attends me, that the
pure peaceable Government of Christ may spread and prevail amongst
Mankind.

The leading on of a young Generation in that pure Way in which the
Wisdom of this World hath no Place; where Parents and Tutors, humbly
waiting for the heavenly Counsellor, may example them in the Truth, as
it is in Jesus;--this, for several Days, hath been the Exercise of my
Mind. O! how safe, how quiet, is that State, where the Soul stands in
pure Obedience to the Voice of Christ, and a watchful Care is maintained
not to follow the Voice of the Stranger!

Here Christ is felt to be our Shepherd, and, under his Leading, People
are brought to a Stability; and, where he doth not lead forward, we are
bound, in the Bonds of pure Love, to stand still and wait upon him. In
the Love of Money, and in the Wisdom of this World, Business is
proposed; then the Urgency of Affairs pushes forward; nor can the Mind
in this State, discern the good and perfect Will of God concerning us.

The Love of God is manifested in graciously calling us to come out of
that which stands in Confusion: But, if we bow not in the Name of Jesus;
if we give not up those Prospects of Gain, which, in the Wisdom of this
World, are open before us, but say, in our Hearts, I must needs go on,
and, in going on, I hope to keep as near to the Purity of Truth as the
Business before me will admit of; here the Mind remains entangled, and
the Shining of the Light of Life into the Soul is obstructed.

In an entire Subjection of our Wills the Lord graciously opens a Way for
his People, where all their Wants are bounded by his Wisdom; and here we
experience the Substance of what _Moses_ the Prophet figured out in the
Water of Separation, as a Purification from Sin.

_Esau_ is mentioned as a Child red all over, like a hairy Garment: In
_Esau_ is represented the natural Will of Man. In preparing the Water of
Separation, a red Heifer, without Blemish, on which there had been no
Yoke, was to be slain, and her Blood sprinkled by the Priest seven Times
toward the Tabernacle of the Congregation; then her Skin, her Flesh, and
all pertaining to her, were to be burnt without the Camp; and of her
Ashes the Water was prepared. Thus the crucifying the old Man, or
natural Will, is represented; and hence comes a Separation from that
carnal Mind, which is Death.

"He who toucheth the dead Body of a Man, and purifieth not himself with
the Water of Separation, he defileth the Tabernacle of the Lord; he is
unclean." _Numb._ xix. 13.

If any, through the Love of Gain, go forth into Business, wherein they
dwell as amongst the Tombs, and touch the Bodies of those who are dead;
if these, through the infinite Love of God feel the Power of the Cross
of Christ to crucify them to the World, and therein learn humbly to
follow the divine Leader;--here is the Judgment of this World;--here the
Prince of this World is cast out.

The Water of Separation is felt; and, though we have been amongst the
Slain, and, through the Desire of Gain, have touched the dead Body of a
Man, yet, in the purifying Love of Christ, we are washed in the Water of
Separation; are brought off from that Business, from that Gain, and from
that Fellowship, which was not agreeable to his holy Will: And I have
felt a renewed Confirmation, in the Time of this Voyage, that the Lord,
in his infinite Love, is calling to his visited Children, so to give up
all outward Possessions and Means of getting Treasures, that his holy
Spirit may have free Course in their Hearts, and direct them in all
their Proceedings.

To feel the Substance pointed at in this Figure, Man must know Death, as
to his own Will.

"No Man can see God, and live." This was spoken by the Almighty to
_Moses_ the Prophet, and opened by our blessed Redeemer.

As Death comes on our own Wills, and a new Life is formed in us, the
Heart is purified and prepared to understand clearly. "Blessed are the
Pure in Heart; for they shall see God." In Purity of Heart the Mind is
divinely opened to behold the Nature of universal Righteousness, or the
Righteousness of the Kingdom of God. "No Man hath seen the Father, save
he that is of God; he hath seen the Father."

The natural Mind is active about the Things of this Life; and, in this
natural Activity, Business is proposed, and a Will in us to go forward
in it. As long as this natural Will remains unsubjected, so long there
remains an Obstruction against the Clearness of divine Light operating
in us; but when we love God with all our Heart, and with all our
Strength, then in this Love, we love our Neighbours as ourselves; and a
Tenderness of Heart is felt toward all People for whom Christ died, even
such who, as to outward Circumstances, may be to us as the _Jews_ were
to the _Samaritans_. Who is my Neighbour? See this Question answered by
our Saviour, _Luke_ x. 30.

In this Love we can say, that Jesus is the Lord; and the Reformation in
our Souls is manifested in a full Reformation of our Lives, wherein all
Things are new, and all Things are of God; _2 Cor._ v. 18. in this the
Desire of Gain is subjected.

When Employment is honestly followed in the Light of Truth, and People
become diligent in Business, "fervent in Spirit, serving the Lord;"
_Rom._ xii. 11. here the Name is opened: "This is the Name by which he
shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS." _Jerem._ xxiii. 6. O! how
precious is this Name! it is like Ointment poured out. The chaste
Virgins are in Love with the Redeemer; and, for the promoting his
peaceable Kingdom in the World, are content to endure Hardness, like
good Soldiers; and are so separated in Spirit from the Desire of Riches,
that in their Employments they become extensively careful to give none
Offence, neither to _Jews_ nor _Heathen_, nor the Church of Christ.

On the thirty-first Day of the Month, and first of the Week, we had a
Meeting in the Cabbin, with near all the Ship's Company; the Whole being
near thirty. In this Meeting, the Lord, in Mercy, favoured us with the
Extendings of his Love.

The second Day of the sixth Month. Last Evening the Seamen found Bottom
at about seventy Fathoms.

This Morning, fair Wind, and pleasant. As I sat on Deck, my Heart was
overcome with the Love of Christ, and melted into Contrition before him;
and, in this State, the Prospect of that Work, to which I have felt my
Mind drawn when in my native Land, being in some Degree opened before
me, I felt like a little Child: and my Cries were put up to my heavenly
Father for Preservation, that, in a humble Dependence on him, my Soul
might be strengthened in his Love, and kept inwardly waiting for his
Counsel.

This Afternoon we saw that Part of _England_ called the _Lizard_.

Some Dunghill-fowls yet remained of those the Passengers took for their
Sea-store; I believe about fourteen perished in the Storms at Sea, by
the Waves breaking over the Quarter-deck; and a considerable Number with
Sickness, at different Times. I observed the Cocks crew, coming down the
_Delaware_, and while we were near the Land; but afterward I think I did
not hear one of them crow till we came near the Land in _England_, when
they again crowed a few Times.

In observing their dull Appearance at Sea, and the pining Sickness of
some of them, I often remembered the Fountain of Goodness, who gave
Being to all Creatures, and whose Love extends to that of caring for the
Sparrows; and believe, where the Love of God is verily perfected, and
the true Spirit of Government watchfully attended to, a Tenderness
toward all Creatures made subject to us will be experienced, and a Care
felt in us, that we do not lessen that Sweetness of Life, in the animal
Creation, which the great Creator intends for them in our Government.

The fourth Day of the Month. About Noon a Pilot came off from _Dover_;
where my beloved Friend, SAMUEL EMLEN, went on Shore, and thence to
_London_; but I felt easy in staying in the Ship.

The seventh Day of the Month, and first of the Week. Clear Morning; we
lay at Anchor for the Tide, and had a Parting-meeting with the Ship's
Company; in which my Heart was enlarged in a fervent Concern for them,
that they may come to experience Salvation through Christ. We had a
Head-Wind up the _Thames_; lay sometimes at Anchor; saw many Ships
passing, and some at Anchor near; and had large Opportunity of feeling
the Spirit in which the poor bewildered Sailors too generally
live.--That lamentable Degeneracy, which so much prevails on the People
employed on the Seas, so affected my Heart, that I cannot easily convey
the Feeling I have had to another.


CHAPTER XI

    _His attending the Yearly-meeting in_ London; _and, after it,
    proceeding towards_ Yorkshire, _visiting several Quarterly and other
    Meetings in the Counties of_ Hertford, Warwick, Oxford, Nottingham,
    York, _and_ Westmoreland; _and thence again into_ Yorkshire, _and to
    the City of_ York; _with some instructive Thoughts and Observations,
    and Letters on divers Subjects_--_His hearing of the Decease of_
    WILLIAM HUNT; _and some Account of him_--_His Sickness at_ York;
    _and End of his Pilgrimage there_

On the eighth Day of the sixth Month, 1772, we landed at _London_; and I
went straightway to the Yearly-meeting of Ministers and Elders, which
had been gathered (I suppose) about half an Hour.

In this Meeting my Mind was humbly contrite: In the Afternoon the
Meeting of Business opened; which, by Adjournments, held near a Week. In
these Meetings I often felt a living Concern for the Establishment of
Friends in the pure Life of Truth; and my Heart was enlarged in the
Meeting of Ministers, Meeting of Business, and in several Meetings of
publick Worship; and I felt my Mind united in true Love to the faithful
Labourers now gathered at this Yearly-meeting.

On the fifteenth Day of the Month, I left _London_, and went to a
Quarterly-meeting at _Hertford_.

The first Day of the seventh Month. I have been at Quarterly-meetings at
_Sherrington_, _Northampton_, _Banbury_, and _Shipston_; and had sundry
Meetings between: My Mind hath been bowed under a Sense of divine
Goodness manifested amongst us; my Heart hath been often enlarged in
true Love, both amongst Ministers and Elders, and in publick Meetings;
that through the Lord's Goodness, I believe it hath been a fresh
Visitation to many, in particular to the Youth.

The seventeenth Day of the Month. Was this Day at _Birmingham_: Have
been at Meetings at _Coventry_, _Warwick_, in _Oxfordshire_, and sundry
other Places; have felt the humbling Hand of the Lord upon me; and
through his tender Mercies find Peace in the Labours I have gone
through.

The twenty-sixth Day of the Month. I have continued travelling
northward, visiting Meetings: Was this Day at _Nottingham_; which, in
the Forenoon especially, was, through divine Love, a Heart-tendering
Season: Next Day had a Meeting in a Friend's House with Friends Children
and some Friends; this, through the strengthening Arm of the Lord, was a
Time to be thankfully remembered.

The second Day of the eighth Month, and first of the Week. Was this Day
at _Sheffield_, a large inland Town: Have been at sundry Meetings last
Week; and feel inward Thankfulness for that divine Support, which hath
been graciously extended to me.

The ninth Day of the Month, and first of the Week, was at _Rushworth_:
Have lately passed through some painful Labour; but have been comforted,
under a Sense of that divine Visitation, which I feel extended toward
many young People.

The sixteenth Day of the Month, and first of the Week, I was at
_Settle_: It hath of late been a Time of inward Poverty; under which my
Mind hath been preserved in a watchful tender State, feeling for the
Mind of the holy Leader, and I find Peace in the Labours I have passed
through.

I have felt great Distress of Mind, since I came on this Island, on
Account of the Members of our Society being mixed with the World in
various Sorts of Business and Traffick, carried on in impure Channels.
Great is the Trade to _Africa_ for Slaves! and, in loading these Ships,
abundance of People are employed in the Factories; amongst whom are many
of our Society. Friends, in early Times, refused, on a religious
Principle, to make, or trade in, Superfluities; of which we have many
large Testimonies on Record; but, for Want of Faithfulness, some gave
way; even some, whose Examples were of Note in our Society; and from
thence others took more Liberty. Members of our Society worked in
Superfluities, and bought and sold them; and thus Dimness of Sight came
over many: At length, Friends got into the Use of some Superfluities in
Dress, and in the Furniture of their Houses; and this hath spread from
less to more, till Superfluity of some Kinds is common amongst us.

In this declining State, many look at the Example one of another, and
too much neglect the pure Feeling of Truth. Of late Years, a deep
Exercise hath attended my Mind, that Friends may dig deep, may carefully
cast forth the loose Matter, and get down to the Rock, the sure
Foundation, and there hearken to that divine Voice which gives a clear
and certain Sound; and I have felt in that which doth not deceive, that
if Friends, who have known the Truth, keep in that Tenderness of Heart,
where all Views of outward Gain are given up, and their Trust is only on
the Lord, he will graciously lead some to be Patterns of deep
Self-denial in Things relating to Trade and Handicraft-labour; and that
some, who have plenty of the Treasures of this World, will example in a
plain frugal Life, and pay Wages, to such as they may hire, more
liberally than is now customary in some Places.

The twenty-third Day of the Month. Was this Day at _Preston-Patrick_,
and had a comfortable Meeting. I have, several Times, been entertained
at the Houses of Friends, who had sundry Things about them which had the
Appearance of outward Greatness; and, as I have kept inward, Way hath
opened for Conversation with such in private, in which Divine Goodness
hath favoured us together with heart-tendering Times.

I rested a few Days, in Body and Mind, with our Friend JANE CROSFIELD;
who was once in _America_: Was, on the sixth Day of the Week, at
_Kendal_ in _Westmoreland_; and at _Greyrig_ Meeting the thirtieth Day
of the Month, and first of the Week.

I have known Poverty of late, and been graciously supported to keep in
the Patience; and am thankful, under a Sense of the Goodness of the Lord
toward those that are of a contrite Spirit.

The sixth Day of the ninth Month, and first of the Week. Was this Day at
_Counterside_, a large Meeting-house, and very full; and, through the
Opening of pure Love, it was a strengthening Time to me, and (I believe)
to many more.

The thirteenth Day of the Month. Was this Day at _Richmond_, a small
Meeting; but, the Town's People coming in, the House was crowded: It was
a Time of heavy Labour; and (I believe) was a profitable Meeting.

At this Place I heard that my Kinsman WILLIAM HUNT, from
_North-Carolina_, who was on a religious Visit to Friends in _England_,
departed this Life on the ninth Day of the ninth Month, Instant, of the
Small-pox, at _Newcastle_.--He appeared in the Ministry when a Youth;
and his Labours therein were of good Savour. He travelled much in that
Work in _America_. I once heard him say, in publick Testimony, that his
Concern was (in that Visit) to be devoted to the Service of Christ so
fully, that he might not spend one Minute in pleasing himself: Which
Words, joined with his Example, were a Means of stirring up the pure
Mind in me.

On this Visit to _England_ I have felt some Instructions sealed on my
Mind, which I am concerned to leave in Writing, for the Use of such as
are called to the Station of a Minister of Christ.

Christ being the Prince of Peace, and we being no more than Ministers, I
find it necessary for us, not only to feel a Concern in our first going
forth, but to experience the renewing thereof, in the Appointment of
Meetings.

I felt a Concern, in _America_, to prepare for this Voyage; and, being,
through the Mercy of God, brought safe here, my Heart was like a Vessel
that wanted Vent; and for several Weeks, at first, when my Mouth was
opened in Meetings, it often felt like the raising of a Gate in a
Water-course, where a Weight of Water lay upon it; and in these Labours
there appeared a fresh Visitation to many, especially the Youth; but
sometimes, after this, I felt empty and poor, and yet felt a Necessity
to appoint Meetings.

In this State I was exercised to abide in the pure Life of Truth, and
in all my Labours to watch diligently against the Motions of Self in my
own Mind.

I have frequently felt a Necessity to stand up, when the Spring of the
Ministry was low; and to speak from the Necessity, in that which
subjecteth the Will of the Creature; and herein I was united with the
suffering Seed, and found inward Sweetness with these mortifying
Labours.

As I have been preserved in a watchful Attention to the divine Leader,
under these Dispensations, Enlargement at Times hath followed, and the
Power of Truth hath risen higher, in some Meetings, than I ever knew it
before through me.

Thus I have been more and more instructed, as to the Necessity of
depending, not upon a Concern which I felt in _America_, to come on a
Visit to _England_, but upon the fresh Instructions of Christ, the
Prince of Peace, from Day to Day.

Now, of late, I felt a Stop in the Appointment of Meetings, not wholly,
but in Part; and I do not feel Liberty to appoint them so quick one
after another as I have heretofore.

The Work of the Ministry being a Work of divine Love, I feel that the
Openings thereof are to be waited for, in all our Appointments.

O! how deep is divine Wisdom! Christ puts forth his Ministers, and goeth
before them: And O! how great is the Danger of departing from the pure
Feeling of that which leadeth safely!

Christ knoweth the State of the People; and, in the pure Feeling of the
Gospel-Ministry, their States are opened to his Servants.

Christ knoweth when the Fruit-bearing Branches themselves have Need of
purging.

O! that these Lessons may be remembered by me! and that all who appoint
Meetings may proceed in the pure Feeling of Duty.

I have sometimes felt a Necessity to stand up; but that Spirit which is
of the World hath so much prevailed in many, and the pure Life of Truth
been so pressed down, that I have gone forward, not as one travelling
in a Road cast up and well prepared, but as a Man walking through a Miry
place, in which are Stones here and there, safe to step on, but so
situated, that, one Step being taken, Time is necessary to see where to
step next.

Now I find that, in the pure Obedience, the Mind learns Contentment, in
appearing weak and foolish to that Wisdom which is of the World; and in
these lowly Labours, they who stand in a low Place, rightly exercised
under the Cross, will find Nourishment.

The Gift is pure; and, while the Eye is single in attending thereto, the
Understanding is preserved clear: Self is kept out. We rejoice in
filling up that which remains of the Afflictions of Christ, for his
Body's Sake, which is the Church.

The natural Man loveth Eloquence, and many love to hear eloquent
Orations; and, if there is not a careful Attention to the Gift, Men who
have once laboured in the pure Gospel-ministry, growing weary of
Suffering, and ashamed of appearing weak, may kindle a Fire, compass
themselves about with Sparks, and walk in the Light; not of Christ who
is under Suffering; but of that Fire which they, going from the Gift,
have kindled; and that in Hearers, which is gone from the meek suffering
State, into the worldly Wisdom, may be warmed with this Fire, and speak
highly of these Labours. That which is of God gathers to God; and that
which is of the World is owned by the World.

In this Journey a Labour hath attended my Mind, that the Ministers
amongst us may be preserved in the meek feeling Life of Truth, where we
may have no Desire but to follow Christ and be with him; that, when he
is under Suffering, we may suffer with him, and never desire to rise up
in Dominion, but as he, by the Virtue of his own Spirit, may raise us.

       *       *       *       *       *

A few Days after writing these Considerations, our dear Friend, in the
Course of his religious Visits, came to the City of _York_, and attended
most of the Sittings of the Quarterly-meeting there; but, before it was
over, was taken ill of the Small-pox. Our Friend, THOMAS PRIESTMAN, and
others who attended him, preserved the following Minutes of his
Expressions in the Time of his Sickness and of his Decease.

First-day, the twenty-seventh of the ninth Month, 1772. His Disorder
appeared to be the Small-pox.

Second-day. He said he felt the Disorder to affect his Head, so that he
could think little, and but as a Child.

Third-day he uttered the following Prayer.--O Lord my God! the amazing
Horrors of Darkness were gathered around me and covered me all over, and
I saw no Way to go forth; I felt the Depth and Extent of the Misery of
my Fellow-creatures separated from the divine Harmony, and it was
heavier than I could bear, and I was crushed down under it; I lifted up
my Hand, I stretched out my Arm, but there was none to help me; I looked
round about and was amazed; in the Depths of Misery, O Lord! I
remembered that thou art omnipotent, that I had called thee Father, and
I felt that I loved thee, and I was made quiet in thy Will, and I waited
for Deliverance from thee; thou hadst Pity upon me when no Man could
help me: I saw that Meekness under Suffering was shewed to us in the
most affecting Example of thy Son, and thou taughtest me to follow him,
and I said, "Thy Will, O Father! be done."

Fourth-day-morning, being asked how he felt himself, he meekly answered,
I do not know that I have slept this Night, I feel the Disorder making
its Progress, but my Mind is mercifully preserved in Stillness and
Peace: Sometime after he said he was sensible the Pains of Death must be
hard to bear; but, if he escaped them now, he must sometime pass through
them, and he did not know that he could be better prepared, but had no
Will in it. He said he had settled his outward Affairs to his Mind, had
taken Leave of his Wife and Family as never to return, leaving them to
the divine Protection; adding, and though I feel them near to me at this
Time, yet I freely give them up, having a Hope that they will be
provided for. And a little after said, This Trial is made easier than I
could have thought, my Will being wholly taken away; for if I were
anxious for the Event, it would have been harder; but I am not, and my
Mind enjoys a perfect Calm.

In the Night a young Woman having given him something to drink, he said,
My Child, thou seemest very kind to me, a poor Creature, the Lord will
reward thee for it. A While after he cried out with great Earnestness of
Spirit, O my Father! my Father! and soon after he said, O my Father! my
Father! how comfortable art thou to my Soul in this trying Season! Being
asked if he could take a little Nourishment; after some Pause he
replied, my Child, I cannot tell what to say to it; I seem nearly
arrived where my Soul shall have Rest from all its Troubles. After
giving in something to be inserted in his Journal, he said, I believe
the Lord will now excuse me from Exercises of this Kind; and I see no
Work but one, which is to be the last wrought by me in this World; the
Messenger will come that will release me from all these Troubles; but it
must be in the Lord's Time, which I am waiting for. He said he had
laboured to do whatever was required, according to the Ability received,
in the Remembrance of which he had Peace; and, though the Disorder was
strong at Times, and would like a Whirlwind come over his Mind, yet it
had hitherto been kept steady, and centered in everlasting Love; adding,
and if that be mercifully continued, I ask nor desire no more. Another
Time he said, he had long had a view of visiting this Nation, and,
sometime before he came, had a Dream, in which he saw himself in the
northern Parts of it, and that the Spring of the Gospel was opened in
him much as in the Beginning of Friends, such as GEORGE FOX and WILLIAM
DEWSBERRY, and he saw the different States of the People, as clear as he
had ever seen Flowers in a Garden; but in his going along he was
suddenly stopt, though he could not see for what End; but, looking
towards Home, fell into a Flood of Tears which waked him.

At another Time he said, My Draught seemed strongest towards the North,
and I mentioned, in my own Monthly-meeting, that attending the
Quarterly-meeting at _York_, and being there, looked like Home to me.

Fifth-day-night, having repeatedly consented to take Medicine with a
View to settle his Stomach, but without Effect, the Friend, then waiting
on him, said, through Distress, What shall I do now? He answered with
great Composure, Rejoice evermore, and in every Thing give Thanks; but
added a little after, this is sometimes hard to come at.

Sixth-day-morning, he broke forth early in Supplication on this wise: O
Lord! it was thy Power that enabled me to forsake Sin in my Youth, and I
have felt thy Bruises for Disobedience; but, as I bowed under them, thou
didst heal me, continuing a Father and a Friend: I feel thy Power now,
and I beg that, in the approaching trying Moment, thou wilt keep my
Heart stedfast unto thee.----Upon his giving Directions to a Friend
concerning some little Things, she said, I will take Care, but hope thou
wilt live to order them thyself. He replied, My Hope is in Christ; and,
though I may seem a little better, a Change in the Disorder may soon
happen, and my little Strength be dissolved; and, if it so happen, I
shall be gathered to my everlasting Rest. On her saying she did not
doubt that, but could not help mourning to see so many faithful Servants
removed at so low a Time, he said, All Good cometh from the Lord, whose
Power is the same, and can work as he sees best. The same Day he had
given Directions about wrapping his Corpse, perceiving a Friend to weep,
he said, I would rather thou wouldst guard against weeping for me, my
Sister; I sorrow not, though I have had some painful Conflicts; but now
they seem over, and Matters well settled, and I look at the Face of my
dear Redeemer; for sweet is his Voice, and his Countenance is comely.

First-day, fourth of the tenth Month, being very weak, and in general
difficult to be understood, he uttered a few Words in Commemoration of
the Lord's Goodness, and added, How tenderly have I been waited on in
this Time of Affliction! in which I may say, in JOB'S Words, Tedious
Days and wearisome Nights are appointed unto me: And how many are
spending their Time and Money in Vanity and Superfluities, while
thousands and tens of thousands want the Necessaries of Life, who might
be relieved by them, and their Distresses, at such a Time as this, in
some degree softened, by the administering suitable Things!

Second-day-morning, the Apothecary, who appeared very anxious to assist
him, being present, he queried about the Probability of such a Load of
Matter being thrown off his weak Body; and, the Apothecary making some
Remarks implying he thought it might, he spoke with an audible Voice on
this wise:--My Dependance is on the Lord Jesus, who, I trust, will
forgive my Sins, which is all I hope for; and, if it be his Will to
raise up this Body again, I am content; and, if to die, I am resigned;
and, if thou canst not be easy without trying to assist Nature, I
submit. After which his Throat was so much affected, that it was very
difficult for him to speak so as to be understood; and he frequently
wrote when he wanted any Thing. About the second Hour, on Fourth-day
Morning, he asked for Pen and Ink, and, at several Times, with much
Difficulty, wrote thus: I believe my being here is in the Wisdom of
Christ; I know not as to Life or Death.

About a Quarter before six, the same Morning, he seemed to fall into an
easy Sleep, which continued about Half an Hour; when, seeming to awake,
he breathed a few Times with more Difficulty, and expired, without Sigh,
Groan, or Struggle!


END OF THE JOURNAL



THE LAST EPISTLE & OTHER WRITINGS OF JOHN WOOLMAN


THE INTRODUCTION

My Mind hath often been affected with Sorrow, on Account of the
prevailing of that Spirit, which leads from an humble waiting on the
inward Teaching of Christ, to pursue Ways of Living, attended with
unnecessary Labour, and which draws forth the Minds of many People to
seek after outward Power, and to strive for Riches, which frequently
introduce Oppression, and bring forth Wars and grievous Calamities.

It is with Reverence that I acknowledge the Mercies of our Heavenly
Father, who, in Infinite Love, did visit me in my Youth, and wrought a
Belief in me, that through true Obedience a State of inward Purity may
be known in this Life, in which we may love Mankind in the same Love
with which our Redeemer loveth us, and therein learn Resignation to
endure Hardships, for the real Good of others.

_While the Eye is single, the whole Body is full of Light_, Mat. vi. 22.
but for want of this, selfish Desires, and an imaginary Superiority,
darken the Mind; hence Injustice frequently proceeds; and where this is
the Case, to convince the Judgment, is the most effectual Remedy.

Where violent Measures are pursued in opposing Injustice, the Passions,
and Resentments, of the Injured, frequently operate in the Prosecution
of their Designs; and after Conflicts productive of very great
Calamities, the Minds of contending Parties often remain as little
acquainted with the pure Principle of Divine Love, as they were before;
but where People walk in that pure Light in which all their _Works are
wrought in God_, John iii. 21. and under Oppression persevere in the
meek Spirit, and abide firm in the Cause of Truth, without actively
complying with oppressive Demands, through those the Lord hath often
manifested his Power, in opening the Understandings of others, to the
promoting Righteousness in the Earth.

A Time, I believe, is coming, wherein this Divine Work will so spread
and prevail, that _Nation shall not lift up Sword against Nation, nor
learn War any more_, Isaiah ii. 4. And as we, through the tender Mercies
of God, do feel that this precious Work is begun, I am concerned to
encourage my Brethren and Sisters in a Holy Care and Diligence, that
each of us may so live, under the sanctifying Power of Truth, as to be
redeemed from all unnecessary Cares; that our Eye being single to him,
no Customs, however prevalent, which are contrary to the Wisdom from
above, may hinder us from faithfully following his Holy Leadings, in
whatsoever he may graciously appoint for us.



CONSIDERATIONS ON PURE WISDOM AND HUMAN POLICY


To have our Trust settled in the Lord, and not to seek after, nor desire
outward Treasures, any further than his Holy Spirit leads us therein, is
a happy State, as saith the Prophet, _Blessed is the Man that trusteth
in the Lord, and whose Hope the Lord is_.

Pure Wisdom leads People into Lowliness of Mind, in which they learn
Resignation to the Divine Will, and Contentment in suffering for his
Cause, when they cannot keep a clear Conscience without suffering.

In this pure Wisdom the Mind is attentive to the Root, and original
Spring of Motions and Desires; and as we know _the Lord to be our
Refuge_, and find no Safety but in humbly walking before him, we feel an
Holy Engagement, that every Desire which leads therefrom may be brought
to Judgment.

While we proceed in this precious Way, and find ardent Longings for a
full Deliverance from every thing which defiles, all Prospects of Gain,
that are not consistent with the Wisdom from above, are considered as
Snares, and an inward Concern is felt, that we may live under the Cross,
and faithfully attend to that Holy Spirit, which is sufficient to
preserve out of them.

When I have considered that Saying of Christ, _Mat._ vi. 19, _Lay not up
for yourselves Treasures upon Earth_, his Omnipotence hath often
occurred to my Mind.

While we believe that he is every where present with his People, and
that perfect Goodness, Wisdom and Power are united in him, how
comfortable is the Consideration.

Our Wants may be great, but his Power is greater. We may be oppressed
and despised, but he is able to turn our patient Sufferings into Profit
to ourselves, and to the Advancement of his Work on Earth. His People,
who feel the Power of his Cross, to crucify all that is selfish in them,
who are engaged in outward Concerns, from a Convincement that it is
their Duty, and resign themselves, and their Treasures, to him; these
feel that it is dangerous to give way to that in us, which craves Riches
and Greatness in this World.

As the Heart truly contrite, earnestly desires _to know Christ, and the
Fellowship of his Sufferings_, Phil. iii. 10. so far as the Lord for
gracious Ends may lead into them; as such feel that it is their Interest
to put their Trust in God, and to seek no Gain but that which he, by his
Holy Spirit, leads into; so, on the contrary, they who do not reverently
wait for this Divine Teacher, and are not humbly concerned, according to
their Measure, _to fill up that which is behind of the Afflictions of
Christ_, Col. i. 24. in patiently suffering for the promoting
Righteousness in the Earth; but have an Eye toward the Power of Men, and
the outward Advantage of Wealth, these are often attentive to those
Employments which appear profitable, even though the Gains arise from
such Trade and Business which proceeds from the Workings of that Spirit,
which is estranged from the self-denying Life of an humble contrite
_Christian_.

While I write on this Subject, I feel my Mind tenderly affected toward
those honestly disposed People, who have been brought up in Employments
attended with those Difficulties.

To such I may say, in the feeling of our Heavenly Father's Love, and
number myself with you, O that our Eyes may be single to the Lord! May
we reverently wait on him for Strength, to lay aside all unnecessary
Expence of every Kind, and learn Contentment, in a plain simple Life.

May we, in Lowliness, submit to the Leadings of his Spirit, and enter
upon any outward Employ which he graciously points out to us, and then
whatever Difficulties arise, in Consequence of our Faithfulness, I trust
they will work for our Good.

Small Treasure to a resigned Mind is sufficient. How happy is it to be
content with a little, to live in Humility, and feel that in us, which
breathes out this Language, Abba! Father.

If that, called the Wisdom of this World, had no Resemblance of true
Wisdom, the Name of Wisdom, I suppose, had not been given to it.

As wasting outward Substance, to gratify vain Desires, on one hand; so
Slothfulness and Neglect, on the other, do often involve Men and their
Families in Trouble, and reduce them to Want and Distress; to shun both
these opposite Vices, is good in itself, and hath a Resemblance of
Wisdom; but while People thus provident, have it principally in View to
get Riches, and Power, and the Friendship of this World, and do not
humbly wait for the Spirit of Truth to lead them into Purity; these,
through an anxious Care to obtain the End desired, reach forth for Gain
in worldly Wisdom, and, in regard to their inward State, fall into
divers Temptations and Snares. And though such may think of applying
Wealth to good Purposes, and to use their Power to prevent Oppression,
yet Wealth and Power is often applied otherwise; nor can we depart from
the Leadings of our Holy Shepherd, without going into Confusion.

Great Wealth is frequently attended with Power, which nothing but Divine
Love can qualify the Mind to use rightly; and as to the Humility, and
Uprightness of our Children after us, how great is the Uncertainty! If,
in acquiring Wealth, we take hold on the Wisdom which is from beneath,
and depart from the Leadings of Truth, and Example our Children herein,
we have great Cause to apprehend, that Wealth may be a Snare to them;
and prove an Injury to others, over whom their Wealth may give them
Power.

To be redeemed from that Wisdom which is from beneath, and walk in the
Light of the Lord, is a precious Situation; thus his People are brought
to put their Trust in him; and in this humble Confidence in his Wisdom,
Goodness and Power, the Righteous find a Refuge in Adversities, superior
to the greatest outward Helps, and a Comfort more certain than any
worldly Advantages can afford.


ON LABOUR

Having from my Childhood been used to Bodily Labour for a Living, I may
express my Experience therein.

Right Exercise affords an innocent Pleasure in the Time of it, and
prepares us to enjoy the Sweetness of Rest; but from the Extremes each
Way, arise Inconveniences.

Moderate Exercise opens the Pores, gives the Blood a lively Circulation,
and the better enables us to judge rightly respecting that Portion of
Labour which is the true Medium.

_The Fowls of the Air sow not, nor gather into Barns, yet our Heavenly
Father feedeth them_, Mat. vi. 26. nor do I believe that Infinite
Goodness and Power would have allotted Labour to us, had he not seen
that Labour was proper for us in this Life.

The original Design, and true Medium of Labour, is a Subject that, to
me, appears worthy of our serious Consideration.

Idle Men are often a Burden to themselves, neglect the Duty they owe to
their Families, and become burdensome to others also.

As outward Labour, directed by the Wisdom from above, tends to our
Health, and adds to our Happiness in this Life; so, on the contrary,
entering upon it in a selfish Spirit, and pursuing it too long, or too
hard, hath a contrary Effect.

I have observed, that too much Labour not only makes the Understanding
dull, but so intrudes upon the Harmony of the Body, that after ceasing
from our Toil, we have another to pass through, before we can be so
composed as to enjoy the Sweetness of Rest.

From too much Labour in the Heat, frequently proceeds immoderate Sweats,
which do often, I believe, open the Way for Disorders, and impair our
Constitutions.

When we go beyond the true Medium, and feel Weariness approaching, but
think Business may suffer if we cease, at such a Time spirituous Liquors
are frequently taken, with a View to support Nature under these
Fatigues.

I have found that too much Labour in the Summer heats the Blood, that
taking strong Drink to support the Body under such Labour, increaseth
that Heat, and though a Person may be so far temperate as not to
manifest the least Disorder, yet the Mind, in such a Circumstance, doth
not retain that Calmness and Serenity which we should endeavour to live
in.

Thus toiling in the Heat, and drinking strong Liquor, makes Men more
resolute, and less considerate, and tends very much to disqualify from
successfully following him who is meek and low of Heart.

As laying out Business, more than is consistent with pure Wisdom, is an
Evil, so this Evil frequently leads into more. Too much Business leads
to Hurry. In the Hurry and Toil too much strong Drink is often used, and
hereby many proceed to Noise and Wantonness, and some, though more
considerate, do often suffer Loss, as to a true Composedness of Mind.

I feel sincere Desires in my Heart that no Rent, nor Interest, might be
laid so high as to be a Snare to Tenants. That no Desires of Gain may
draw any too far in Business. That no Cares to support Customs, which
have not their Foundation in pure Wisdom, may have Place in our Minds,
but that we may build on the sure Foundation, and feel our Holy Shepherd
to lead us, who alone is able to preserve us, and bring forth from every
Thing which defiles.

Having several Times, in my Travels, had Opportunity to observe the
Labour and Manner of Life of great Numbers of Slaves, it appears to me
that the true Medium is lamentably neglected by many, who assign them
their Portion of Labour.

Without saying much at this Time, concerning buying and selling Men for
Term of Life, who have as just a Right to Liberty as we have; nor about
the great Miseries, and Effusion of Blood, consequent to promoting the
Slave-trade, and to speak as favourably as may be, with regard to
continuing those in Bondage who are amongst us, we cannot say there is
no Partiality in it; for whatever Tenderness may be manifested by
Individuals in their Life-time towards them, yet for People to be
transmitted from a Man to his Posterity, in the helpless Condition of
Slaves, appears inconsistent with the Nature of the Gospel Spirit. From
such Proceedings it often follows, that Persons in the Decline of Life,
are deprived of Monies equitably due to them, and committed to the Care,
and subjected to the absolute Power of young unexperienced Men, who know
but little about the Weakness of old Age, nor understand the Language of
declining Life.

Where Parents give their Estates to their Children, and then depend on
them for a Maintainance, they sometimes meet with great Inconveniences;
but if the Power of Possession, thus obtained, doth often reverse the
Obligations of Gratitude and filial Duty, and makes manifest, that Youth
are often ignorant of the Language of old Age, how hard is the Case of
ancient Negroes, who, deprived of the Wages equitably due to them, are
left to young People, who have been used to look upon them as their
Inferiors.

For Men to behold the Fruits of their Labour withheld from them, and
possessed by others, and in old Age find themselves destitute of those
comfortable Accommodations, and that tender Regard which their Time of
Life requires:

When they feel Pains and Stiffness in their Joints and Limbs, Weakness
of Appetite, and that a little Labour is wearisome, and still behold
themselves in the neglected uncomfortable Condition of a Slave, and
oftentimes to a young unsympathising Man:

For Men to be thus treated from one Generation to another, who, besides
their own Distresses, think on the Slavery entailed on their Posterity,
and are grieved: What disagreeable Thoughts must they have of the
professed Followers of Jesus! And how must their Groans ascend to that
Almighty Being, who _will be a Refuge for the Oppressed_, Psalm ix. 9.


ON SCHOOLS

_Suffer the little Children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of
such is the Kingdom of God_, Mark x. 14.

To encourage Children to do Things with a View to get Praise of Men, to
me appears an Obstruction to their being inwardly acquainted with the
Spirit of Truth. For it is the Work of the Holy Spirit to direct the
Mind of God, that in all our Proceedings we may have a single Eye to
him. To give Alms in secret, to fast in secret, and labour to keep clear
of that Disposition reproved by our Saviour, _All their Works which they
do is for to be seen of Men_, Mat. xxiii. 5.

That Divine Light which enlightens all Men, I believe, does often shine
in the Minds of Children very early, and to humbly wait for Wisdom, that
our Conduct toward them may tend to forward their Acquaintance with it,
and strengthen them in Obedience thereto, appears to me to be a Duty on
all of us.

By cherishing the Spirit of Pride, and the Love of Praise in them, I
believe they may sometimes improve faster in Learning, than otherwise
they would; but to take Measures to forward Children in Learning, which
naturally tend to divert their Minds from true Humility, appears to me
to savour of the Wisdom of this World.

If Tutors are not acquainted with Sanctification of Spirit, nor
experienced in an humble waiting for the Leadings of Truth, but follow
the Maxims of the Wisdom of this World, such Children who are under
their Tuition, appear to me to be in Danger of imbibing Thoughts, and
Apprehensions, reverse to that Meekness, and Lowliness of Heart, which
is necessary for all the true Followers of Christ.

Children at an Age fit for Schools, are in a Time of Life which requires
the patient Attention of pious People, and if we commit them to the
Tuition of such, whose Minds we believe are not rightly prepared to
_train them up in the Nurture and Admonition of the Lord_, we are in
Danger of not acting the Part of faithful Parents toward them; for our
Heavenly Father doth not require us to do Evil, that Good may come of
it; and it is needful that we deeply examine ourselves, lest we get
entangled in the Wisdom of this World, and, through wrong Apprehensions,
take such Methods in Education, as may prove a great Injury to the Minds
of our Children.

It is a lovely Sight to behold innocent Children; and when they are sent
to such Schools where their tender Minds are in imminent Danger of being
led astray by Tutors, who do not live a self-denying Life, or by the
Conversation of such Children who do not live in Innocence, it is a Case
much to be lamented.

While a pious Tutor hath the Charge of no more Children than he can take
due Care of, and keeps his Authority in the Truth, the good Spirit in
which he leads and governs, works on the Minds of such who are not
hardened, and his Labours not only tend to bring them forward in outward
Learning, but to open their Understandings with respect to the true
_Christian_ Life; but where a Person hath Charge of too many, and his
Thoughts and Time are so much employed in the outward Affairs of his
School, that he does not so weightily attend to the Spirit and Conduct
of each Individual, as to be enabled to administer rightly to all in due
Season; through such Omission he not only suffers, as to the State of
his own Mind, but the Minds of the Children are in Danger of suffering
also.

To watch the Spirit of Children, to nurture them in Gospel Love, and
labour to help them against that which would mar the Beauty of their
Minds, is a Debt we owe them; and a faithful Performance of our Duty,
not only tends to their lasting Benefit, and our own Peace, but also to
render their Company agreeable to us.

Instruction, thus administered, reaches the pure Witness in the Minds of
such Children who are not hardened, and begets Love in them toward those
who thus lead them on; but where too great a Number are committed to a
Tutor, and he, through much Cumber, omits a careful Attention to the
Minds of Children, there is Danger of Disorders gradually increasing
amongst them, till the Effects thereof appear in their Conduct, too
strong to be easily remedied.

A Care hath lived on my Mind, that more Time might be employed by
Parents at Home, and by Tutors at School, in weightily attending to the
Spirit and Inclinations of Children, and that we may so lead, instruct,
and govern them, in this tender Part of Life, that nothing may be
omitted in our Power, to help them on their Way to become the Children
of our Father, who is in Heaven.

Meditating on the Situation of Schools in our Provinces, my Mind hath,
at Times, been affected with Sorrow, and under these Exercises it hath
appeared to me, that if those who have large Estates, were faithful
Stewards, and laid no Rent, nor Interest, nor other Demands, higher than
is consistent with universal Love; and those in lower Circumstances
would, under a moderate Employ, shun unnecessary Expence, even to the
smallest Article; and all unite in humbly seeking to the Lord, he would
graciously instruct us, and strengthen us, to relieve the Youth from
various Snares, in which many of them are entangled.


ON THE RIGHT USE OF THE LORD'S OUTWARD GIFTS

As our Understandings are opened by the pure Light, we experience that,
through an inward approaching to God, the Mind is strengthened in
Obedience; and that by gratifying those Desires which are not of his
begetting, those Approaches to him are obstructed, and the deceivable
Spirit gains Strength.

These Truths, being as it were engraven upon our Hearts, and our
everlasting Interest in Christ evidently concerned herein, we become
fervently engaged, that nothing may be nourished which tends to feed
Pride or Self-love in us. Thus in pure Obedience, we are not only
instructed in our Duty to God, but also in the Affairs which necessarily
relate to this Life, and the Spirit of Truth which guides into all
Truth, leavens the Mind with a pious Concern, that _whatsoever we do in
Word or Deed, may be done in his Name_, Col. iii. 17.

Hence such Buildings, Furniture, Food, and Raiment, as best answer our
Necessities, and are the least likely to feed that selfish Spirit which
is our Enemy, are the most acceptable to us.

In this State the Mind is tender, and inwardly watchful, that the Love
of Gain draw us not into any Business, which may weaken our Love to our
Heavenly Father, or bring unnecessary Trouble to any of his Creatures.

Thus the Way gradually opens to cease from that Spirit which craves
Riches and Things fetched far, which so mixeth with the Customs of this
World, and so intrudes upon the true Harmony of Life, that the right
Medium of Labour is very much departed from. And as the Minds of People
are settled in a steady Concern, not to hold nor possess any Thing but
what may be held consistent with the Wisdom from above, they consider
what they possess as the Gift of God, and are inwardly exercised, that
in all Parts of their Conduct they may act agreeable to the Nature of
the peaceable Government of Christ.

A little supports such a Life; and in a State truly resigned to the
Lord, the Eye is single, to see what outward Employ he leads into, as a
Means of our Subsistence, and a lively Care is maintained to hold to
that without launching further.

There is a Harmony in the several Parts of this Divine Work in the
Hearts of People; he who leads them to cease from those gainful
Employments, carried on in that Wisdom which is from beneath, delivers
also from the Desire after worldly Greatness, and reconciles the Mind to
a Life so plain, that a little doth suffice.

Here the real Comforts of Life are not lessened. Moderate Exercise, in
the Way of true Wisdom, is pleasant both to Mind and Body.

Food and Raiment sufficient, though in the greatest Simplicity, is
accepted with Content and Gratitude.

The mutual Love, subsisting between the faithful Followers of Christ, is
more pure than that Friendship which is not seasoned with Humility, how
specious soever the Appearance.

Where People depart from pure Wisdom in one Case, it is often an
Introduction to depart from it in many more; and thus a Spirit which
seeks for outward Greatness, and leads into worldly Wisdom to attain it,
and support it, gets Possession of the Mind.

In beholding the customary Departure from the true Medium of Labour, and
that unnecessary Toil which many go through, in supporting outward
Greatness, and procuring Delicacies.

In beholding how the true Calmness of Life is changed into Hurry, and
that many, by eagerly pursuing outward Treasure, are in great Danger of
withering as to the inward State of the Mind.

In meditating on the Works of this Spirit, and on the Desolations it
makes amongst the Professors of _Christianity_, I may thankfully
acknowledge, that I often feel pure Love beget Longings in my Heart, for
the Exaltation of the peaceable Kingdom of Christ, and an Engagement to
labour according to the Gift bestowed on me, for the promoting an
humble, plain, temperate Way of living. A Life where no unnecessary
Care, nor Expences, may incumber our Minds, nor lessen our Ability to do
Good; where no Desires after Riches, or Greatness, may lead into hard
Dealing; where no Connections with worldly-minded Men, may abate our
Love to God, nor weaken a true Zeal for Righteousness. A Life wherein we
may diligently labour for Resignedness to do, and suffer, whatever our
Heavenly Father may allot for us, in reconciling the World to himself.

When the Prophet _Isaiah_ had uttered his Vision, and declared that a
Time was coming wherein _Swords should be beat into Plowshares, and
Spears into pruning Hooks, and that Nation shall not lift up Sword
against Nation, nor learn War any more_; he immediately directs the
Minds of People to the Divine Teacher, in this remarkable Language; _O
House of_ Jacob! _come ye, and let us walk in the Light of the Lord_,
Isaiah ii. 5.

To wait for the Direction of this Light, in all temporal as well as
spiritual Concerns, appears necessary; for if in any Case we enter
lightly into temporal Affairs, without feeling this Spirit of Truth to
open our Way therein, and through the Love of this World proceed on, and
seek for Gain by that Business or Traffick, which _is not of the Father,
but of the World_, 1 John ii. 16 we fail in our Testimony to the Purity
and Peace of his Government, and get into that which is for
Chastisement.

This Matter hath lain heavy on my Mind, it being evident, that a Life
less humble, less simple and plain, than that which Christ leads his
Sheep into, does necessarily require a Support, which pure Wisdom does
not provide for; hence there is no Probability of our being _a peculiar
People, so zealous of good Works, as to have no Fellowship with Works of
Darkness_, Titus ii. 14. Ephes. v. 11. while we have Wants to supply
which have their Foundation in Custom, and do not come within the
Meaning of those Expressions, _your Heavenly Father knoweth that ye have
need of all these Things_, Mat. vi. 32.

These Things which he beholds necessary for his People, he fails not to
give them in his own Way and Time; but as his Ways are above our Ways,
and his Thoughts above our Thoughts, so imaginary Wants are different
_from these Things which he knoweth that we have need of_.

As my Meditations have been on these Things, Compassion hath filled my
Heart toward my Fellow Creatures, involved in Customs, grown up in _the
Wisdom of this World, which is Foolishness with God_, 1 Cor. iii. 19.
And O that the Youth may be so thoroughly experienced in an humble
Walking before the Lord, that they may be his Children, and know him to
be their Refuge, their safe unfailing Refuge, through the various
Dangers attending this uncertain State of Being!

If those whose Minds are redeemed from the Love of Wealth, and who are
content with a plain, simple Way of living, do yet find that to conduct
the Affairs of a Family, without giving Countenance to unrighteous
Proceedings, or having Fellowship with Works of Darkness, the most
diligent Care is necessary.

If Customs, distinguishable from universal Righteousness, and opposite
to the true Self-denying Life, are now prevalent, and so mixed with
Trade, and with almost every Employ, that it is only through humble
waiting on the inward Guidance of Truth, that we may reasonably hope to
walk safely, and support an uniform Testimony to the peaceable
Government of Christ:

If this be the Case, how lamentably do they expose themselves to
Temptations, who give way to the Love of Riches, conform to expensive
Living, and reach forth for Gain, to support Customs, which our Holy
Shepherd leads not into.



CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TRUE HARMONY OF MANKIND, AND How it is to be
maintained.

By JOHN WOOLMAN

     _And the Remnant of_ Jacob _shall be in the midst of many People,
     as the Dew from the Lord, as the Showers upon the Grass, that
     tarrieth not for Man, nor waiteth for the Sons of Men_, Micah v. 7.

     _LONDON_:
     Re-printed by MARY HINDE.


THE INTRODUCTION

As Mankind from one Parent are divided into many Families, and as
Trading to Sea is greatly increased within a few Ages past; amidst this
extended Commerce how necessary is it that the professed Followers of
Christ keep sacred his Holy Name, and be employed about Trade and
Traffick no farther than Justice and Equity evidently accompanies? That
we may give no just Cause of Offence to any, however distant, or unable
to plead their own Cause; and may continually keep in View the Spreading
of the true and saving Knowledge of God, and his Son Jesus Christ,
amongst our Fellow Creatures, which through his infinite Love some feel
to be more precious than any other Treasure.


CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TRUE HARMONY OF MANKIND &c.


CHAPTER I

    _On serving the Lord in our outward Employments_

Under the humbling Dispensations of the Father of Mercies, I have felt
an inward Labour for the Good of my Fellow Creatures, and a Concern that
the Holy Spirit, which alone can restore Mankind to a State of true
Harmony, may with Singleness of Heart be waited for and followed.

I trust there are many under that Visitation, which if faithfully
attended to, will make them quick of Understanding in the Fear of the
Lord, and qualify with Firmness to be true Patterns of the _Christian_
Life, who in Living and Walking may hold forth an Invitation to others,
to come out of the Entanglements of the Spirit of this World.

And that which I feel first to express is, a Care for those who are in
Circumstances, which appear difficult, with respect to supporting their
Families in a Way answerable to pure Wisdom, that they may not be
discouraged, but remember that in humbly obeying the Leadings of Christ,
he owneth us as his Friends, _Ye are my Friends if ye do whatsoever I
command you_; and to be a Friend to Christ, is to be united to him, who
hath all Power in Heaven and in Earth; and though a Woman may forget her
sucking Child, yet will he not forget his faithful Ones.

The Condition of many who dwell in Cities hath often affected me with a
Brotherly Sympathy, attended with a Desire that Resignation may be
laboured for; and where the Holy Leader directeth to a Country Life, or
some Change of Employ, he may be faithfully followed; for, under the
refining Hand of the Lord, I have seen that the Inhabitants of some
Cities are greatly increased through some Branches of Business which the
Holy Spirit doth not lead into, and that being entangled in these
Things, tends to bring a Cloud over the Minds of People convinced of the
Leadings of this Holy Leader, and obstructs the coming of the Kingdom of
Christ on Earth as it is in Heaven.

Now if we indulge a Desire to imitate our Neighbours in those Things
which harmonise not with the true _Christian_ Walking, these
Entanglements may hold fast to us, and some, who in an awakening Time,
feel tender Scruples, with respect to their Manner of Life, may look on
the Example of others more noted in the Church, who yet may not be
refined from every Degree of Dross; and by looking on these Examples,
and desiring to support their Families in a Way pleasant to the natural
Mind, there may be Danger of the Worldly Wisdom gaining Strength in
them, and of their Departure from that pure Feeling of Truth, which if
faithfully attended to, would teach Contentment in the Divine Will, even
in a very low Estate.

One formerly speaking on the Profitableness of true Humility saith, "He
that troubles not himself with anxious Thoughts for more than is
necessary, lives little less than the Life of Angels, whilst by a Mind
content with little, he imitates their want of nothing." _Cave's_ Prim.
_Christi._ Page 31.

"It is not enough," says _Tertullian_, "that a _Christian_ be chaste and
modest, but he must appear to be so: A Virtue of which he should have so
great a Store, that it should flow from his Mind upon his Habit, and
break from the Retirements of his Conscience, into the Superficies of
his Life." Same Book, Page 43.

"The Garments we wear," says _Clemens_, "ought to be mean and
frugal--that is true Simplicity of Habit, which takes away what is vain
and superfluous, that the best and most solid Garment, which is the
farthest from Curiosity." Page 49.

Though the Change from Day to Night, is by a Motion so gradual as
scarcely to be perceived, yet when Night is come we behold it very
different from the Day; and thus as People become wise in their own
Eyes, and prudent in their own Sight, Customs rise up from the Spirit of
this World, and spread by little, and little, till a Departure from the
Simplicity that there is in Christ becomes as distinguishable as Light
from Darkness, to such who are crucified to the World.

Our Holy Shepherd, to encourage his Flock in Firmness and Perseverance,
reminds them of his Love for them; _As the Father hath loved me, so have
I loved you; continue ye in my Love._ And in another Place graciously
points out the Danger of departing therefrom, by going into unsuitable
Employments; this he represents in the Similitude of Offence from that
useful active Member, the Hand; and to fix the Instruction the deeper,
names the right Hand; _If thy right Hand offend thee, cut it off and
cast it from thee_--If thou feelest Offence in thy Employment, humbly
follow him who leads into all Truth, and is a strong and faithful Friend
to those who are resigned to him.

Again, he points out those Things which appearing pleasant to the
natural Mind, are not best for us, in the Similitude of Offence from the
Eye; _If thy right Eye offend thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee._
To pluck out the Eye, or cut off the Hand, is attended with sharp Pain;
and how precious is the Instruction which our Redeemer thus opens to us,
that we may not faint under the most painful Trial, but put our Trust in
him, even in him who sent an Angel to feed _Elijah_ in the Wilderness;
who fed a Multitude with a few Barley Loaves, and is now as attentive to
the Wants of his People as ever.

The Prophet _Isaiah_ represents the unrighteous Doings of the
_Israelites_ toward the Poor, as the Fruits of an effeminate Life; _As
for my People, Children are their Oppressors, and Women rule over them:
What mean ye, that ye beat my People to pieces, and grind the Faces of
the Poor? saith the Lord God._ Then he mentions the Haughtiness of the
Daughters of _Sion_, and enumerates many Ornaments, as Instances of
their Vanity; to uphold which, the Poor were so hardly dealt with, that
he sets forth their Poverty, their Leanness and Inability to help
themselves, in the Similitude of a Man maimed by Violence, or beaten to
pieces, and forced to endure the painful Operation of having his Face
gradually worn away in the manner of grinding.

And I may here add, that at Times, when I have felt true Love open my
Heart towards my Fellow Creatures, and being engaged in weighty
Conversation in the Cause of Righteousness, the Instructions I have
received under these Exercises, in Regard to the true Use of the outward
Gifts of God, have made deep and lasting Impressions on my Mind.

I have here beheld, how the Desire to provide Wealth, and to uphold a
delicate Life, hath grievously entangled many, and been like Snares to
their Offspring; and tho' some have been affected with a Sense of their
Difficulties, and appeared desirous, at Times, to be helped out of them;
yet for want of abiding under the humbling Power of Truth, they have
continued in these Entanglements; for in remaining conformable to this
World, and giving Way to a delicate Life, this expensive Way of living,
in Parents, and in Children, hath called for a large Supply, and in
answering this Call the Faces of the Poor have been ground away, and
made thin through hard Dealing.

There is Balm, there is a Physician; and O what Longings do I feel! that
we may embrace the Means appointed for our Healing, know that removed
which now ministers Cause for the Cries of many People to ascend to
Heaven against their Oppressors, and that we may see the true Harmony
restored.

_Behold how good and how pleasant it is, for Brethren to dwell together
in Unity._ The Nature of this Unity is thus opened by the Apostle; _If
we walk in the Light, as Christ is in the Light, we shall have
Fellowship one with another, and the Blood of Christ will cleanse us
from all Sin._

The Land may be polluted with innocent Blood, which like the Blood of
_Abel_ may cry to the Almighty; but those who _walk in the Light, as
Christ is in the Light_, they know the _Lamb of God, who taketh away
Sin_.

Walking is a Phrase frequently used in Scripture, to represent our
Journey thro' Life, and appears to comprehend the various Affairs and
Transactions properly relating to our being in this World.

Christ being the Light, dwells always in the Light; and if our walking
be thus, and in every Affair and Concern we faithfully follow this
Divine Leader, he preserves from giving just Cause for any to quarrel
with us: And where this Foundation is laid, and mutually kept to, by
Families conversant with each other, the Way is open for these Comforts
in Society, which our Heavenly Father intends as a Part of our Happiness
in this World; and then we may experience the Goodness, and Pleasantness
of dwelling together in Unity; but where Ways of Living take place,
which tend to Oppression, and in the Pursuit of Wealth, People do that
to others which they know would not be acceptable to themselves, either
in exercising an absolute Power over them, or otherwise laying on them
unequitable Burdens; here a Fear lest that Measure should be meted to
them, which they have measured to others, incites a Care to support that
by Craft and cunning Devices which stands not on the firm Foundation of
Righteousness: Thus the Harmony of Society is broken, and from hence
Commotions and Wars do frequently arise in the World.

_Come out of_ Babylon _my People, that ye be not Partakers of her Sins,
and that ye receive not of her Plagues_. Rev. xv. 3, 4. This _Babel_, or
_Babylon_, was built in the Spirit of Self-exaltation: _Let us build us
a City and a Tower, whose Top may reach to Heaven, and let us make us a
Name_. Gen. xi. 4. In departing from an humble Trust in God, and
following a selfish Spirit, People have Intentions to get the upperhand
of their Fellow Creatures, privately meditate on Means to obtain their
Ends, have a Language in their Hearts which is hard to understand. In
_Babel_ the Language is confounded.

This City is represented as a Place of Business, and those employed in
it, as Merchants of the Earth: _The Merchants of the Earth are waxed
rich through the Abundance of her Delicacies_. Rev. xviii. 3.

And it is remarkable in this Call, that the Language from the Father of
Mercies is, my People, _Come out of_ Babylon _my People_. Thus his
tender Mercies are toward us in an imperfect State; and as we faithfully
attend to the Call, the Path of Righteousness is more and more opened;
Cravings, which have not their Foundation in pure Wisdom, more and more
cease; and in an inward Purity of Heart, we experience a Restoration of
that which was lost at _Babel_, represented by the inspired Prophet in
the _returning of a pure Language_. Zeph. iii. 9.

Happy for them who humbly attend to the Call, _Come out of_ Babylon _my
People_. For though in going forth we may meet with Trials, which for a
Time may be painful, yet as we bow in true Humility, and continue in it,
an Evidence is felt that God only is wise; and that in weaning us from
all that is selfish he prepares the Way to a quiet Habitation, where all
our Desires are bounded by his Wisdom. And an Exercise of Spirit attends
me, that we who are convinced of the pure Leadings of Truth, may bow in
the deepest Reverence, and so watchfully regard this Leader, that many
who are grievously entangled in a Wilderness of vain Customs, may look
upon us and be instructed. And O that such who have Plenty of this
World's Goods, may be faithful in that with which they are entrusted!
and Example others in the true _Christian_ Walking.

Our blessed Saviour, speaking on Worldly Greatness, compares himself to
one waiting and attending on a Company at Dinner; _Whether is greater,
he that sitteth at Meat or he that serveth? Is not he that sitteth at
Meat? But I am amongst you as he that serveth._ Luke xxii. 27.

Thus in a World greatly disordered, where Men aspiring to outward
Greatness were wont to oppress others to support their Designs, he who
was of the highest Descent, being the Son of God, and greater than any
amongst the greatest Families of Men, by his Example and Doctrines
foreclosed his Followers from claiming any Shew of outward Greatness,
from any supposed Superiority in themselves, or derived from their
Ancestors.

He who was greater than Earthly Princes, was not only meek and low of
Heart, but his outward Appearance was plain and lowly, and free from
every Stain of the Spirit of this World.

Such was the Example of our blessed Redeemer, of whom the beloved
Disciple said, _He that saith he abideth in him, ought also to walk even
as he walked._

_John Bradford_, who suffered Martyrdom under Queen _Mary_, wrote a
Letter to his Friends out of Prison, a short Time before he was burnt,
in which are these Expressions; "Consider your Dignity as Children of
God, and Temples of the Holy Ghost, and Members of Christ, be ashamed
therefore to think, speak, or do any Thing unseemly, for God's Children,
and the Members of Christ." _Fox's_ Acts and Mon. Page 1177.


CHAPTER II

    _On the Example of CHRIST_

As my Mind hath been brought into a Brotherly Feeling with the Poor, as
to the Things of this Life, who are under Trials in regard to getting a
Living in a Way answerable to the Purity of Truth; a Labour of Heart
hath attended me, that their Way may not be made difficult through the
Love of Money in those who are tried with plentiful Estates, but that
they with Tenderness of Heart may sympathize with them.

It was the Saying of our blessed Redeemer, _Ye cannot serve God and
Mammon_. There is a deep Feeling of the Way of Purity, a Way in which
the Wisdom of the World hath no Part, but is opened by the Spirit of
Truth, and is called _the Way of Holiness_; a Way in which the Traveller
is employed in watching unto Prayer; and the outward Gain we get in this
Journey is considered as a Trust committed to us, by him who formed and
supports the World; and is the rightful Director of the Use and
Application of the Product of it.

Now except the Mind be preserved chaste, there is no Safety for us; but
in an Estrangement from true Resignation, the Spirit of the World casts
up a Way, in which Gain is many Times principally attended to, and in
which there is a selfish Application of outward Treasures.

How agreeable to the true Harmony of Society, is that Exhortation of the
Apostle? _Look not every Man on his own Things, but every Man also on
the Things of others. Let this Mind be in you which was also in Christ
Jesus._

A Person in outward Prosperity may have the Power of obtaining Riches,
but the same Mind being in him which is in Christ Jesus, he may feel a
Tenderness of Heart towards those of low Degree; and instead of setting
himself above them, may look upon it as an unmerited Favour, that his
Way through Life is more easy than the Way of many others; may improve
every Opportunity of leading forth out of those Customs which have
entangled the Family; employ his Time in looking into the Wants of the
poor Members, and hold forth such a perfect Example of Humiliation, that
the pure Witness may be reached in many Minds; and the Way opened for a
harmonious walking together.

Jesus Christ, in promoting the Happiness of others, was not deficient in
looking for the Helpless, who lay in Obscurity, nor did he save any
Thing to render himself honourable amongst Men, which might have been of
more Use to the weak Members in his Father's Family; of whose Compassion
towards us I may now speak a little. He who was perfectly happy in
himself, moved with infinite Love, _took not upon him the Nature of
Angels_, but our imperfect Natures, and therein wrestled with the
Temptations which attend us in this Life; and being the Son of him who
is greater than Earthly Princes, yet became a Companion to poor,
sincere-hearted Men; and though he gave the clearest Evidence that
Divine Power attended him, yet the most unfavourable Constructions were
framed by a self-righteous People; those Miracles represented as the
Effect of a diabolical Power, and Endeavours used to render him hateful,
as having his Mission from the Prince of Darkness; nor did their Envy
cease till they took him like a Criminal, and brought him to Trial.
Though some may affect to carry the Appearance of being unmoved at the
Apprehension of Distress, our dear Redeemer, who was perfectly sincere,
having the same human Nature which we have, and feeling, a little before
he was apprehended, the Weight of that Work upon him, for which he came
into the World, was _sorrowful even unto Death_; here the human Nature
struggled to be excused from a Cup so bitter; but his Prayers centered
in Resignation, _Not my Will but thine be done_. In this Conflict, so
great was his Agony, that _Sweat like Drops of Blood fell from him to
the Ground_.

Behold now, as foretold by the Prophet, he is in a judicial Manner
_numbered with the Transgressors_! Behold him as some poor Man of no
Reputation, standing before the High Priest and Elders, and before
_Herod_ and _Pilate_, where Witnesses appear against him, and he mindful
of the most gracious Design of his Coming, declineth to plead in his own
Defence, _but as a Sheep that is dumb before the Shearer_, so under many
Accusations, Revilings, and Buffetings, remained silent. And though he
signified to _Peter_, that he had Access to Power sufficient to
overthrow all their outward Forces; yet retaining a Resignation to
suffer for the Sins of Mankind, he exerted not that Power, but permitted
them to go on in their malicious Designs, and pronounce him to be worthy
of Death, even him who was perfect in Goodness; thus _in his Humiliation
his Judgment was taken away_, and he, like some vile Criminal, _led as a
Lamb to the Slaughter_. Under these heavy Trials (tho' poor unstable
_Pilate_ was convinced of his Innocence, yet) the People generally
looked upon him as a Deceiver, a Blasphemer, and the approaching
Punishment as a just Judgment upon him; _They esteemed him smitten of
God and afflicted._ So great had been the Surprize of his Disciples, at
his being taken by armed Men, that they _forsook him, and fled_; thus
they hid their Faces from him, he was despised, and by their Conduct it
appeared as though _they esteemed him not_.

But contrary to that Opinion, of his being smitten of God and afflicted,
it was for our Sakes that _he was put to Grief_; _he was wounded for our
Transgressions_; _he was bruised for our Iniquities_; and under the
Weight of them manifesting the deepest Compassion for the Instruments of
his Misery, laboured as their Advocate, and in the Deeps of Affliction,
with an unconquerable Patience, cried out, _Father, forgive them, they
know not what they do!_

Now this Mind being in us, which was in Christ Jesus, it removes from
our Hearts the Desire of Superiority, Worldly Honour, or Greatness; a
deep Attention is felt to the Divine Counsellor, and an ardent
Engagement to promote, as far as we may be enabled, the Happiness of
Mankind universally: This State, where every Motion from a selfish
Spirit yieldeth to pure Love, I may, with Gratitude to the Father of
Mercies acknowledge, is often opened before me as a Pearl to dig after;
attended with a living Concern, that amongst the many Nations and
Families on the Earth, those who believe in the Messiah, that _he was
manifested to destroy the Works of the Devil_, and thus to _take away
the Sins of the World_, may experience the Will of our Heavenly Father,
_may be done on Earth as it is in Heaven_. Strong are the Desires I
often feel, that this Holy Profession may remain unpolluted, and the
Believers in Christ may so abide in the pure inward Feeling of his
Spirit, that the Wisdom from above may shine forth in their Living, as a
Light by which others may be instrumentally helped on their Way, in the
true harmonious Walking.


CHAPTER III

    _On_ MERCHANDIZING

Where the Treasures of pure Love are opened, and we obediently follow
him who is the Light of Life, the Mind becomes chaste; and a Care is
felt, that the Unction from the Holy One may be our Leader in every
Undertaking.

In being crucified to the World, broken off from that Friendship which
is Enmity with God, and dead to the Customs and Fashions which have not
their Foundation in the Truth; the Way is prepared to Lowliness in
outward Living, and to a Disintanglement from those Snares which attends
the Love of Money; and where the faithful Friends of Christ are so
situated that Merchandize appears to be their Duty, they feel a
Restraint from proceeding farther than he owns their Proceeding; being
convinced that _we are not our own, but are bought with a Price, that
none of us may live to ourselves, but to him who died for us_, 2 Cor. v.
15. Thus they are taught, not only to keep to a moderate Advance and
Uprightness in their Dealings; but to consider the Tendency of their
Proceeding; to do nothing which they know would operate against the
Cause of universal Righteousness; and to keep continually in View the
Spreading of the peaceable Kingdom of Christ amongst Mankind.

The Prophet _Isaiah_ spake of the gathered Church, in the Similitude of
a City, where many being employed were all preserved in Purity; _They
shall call them the Holy People, the Redeemed of the Lord, and thou
shalt be called sought out, a City not forsaken_, Isa. lxiii. 10. And
the Apostle, after mentioning the Mystery of Christ's Sufferings,
exhorts, _Be ye Holy in all Manner of Conversation_, 1 Pet. i. 15. There
is a Conversation necessary in Trade; and there is a Conversation so
foreign from the Nature of Christ's Kingdom, that it is represented in
the Similitude of one Man pushing another with a warlike Weapon; _There
is that speaketh like the Piercings of a Sword_, Prov. xii. 18. Now in
all our Concerns it is necessary that the Leading of the Spirit of
Christ be humbly waited for, and faithfully followed, as the only Means
of being preserved chaste as an Holy People, who _in all Things are
circumspect_, Exod. xxiii. 13, that nothing we do may carry the
Appearance of Approbation of the Works of Wickedness, make the
Unrighteous more at Ease in Unrighteousness, or occasion the Injuries
committed against the Oppressed to be more lightly looked over.

Where Morality is kept to, and supported by the Inhabitants of a
Country, there is a certain Reproach attends those Individuals amongst
them, who manifestly deviate therefrom. But where Iniquity is committed
openly, and the Authors of it are not brought to Justice, nor put to
Shame, their Hands grow strong. Thus the general Corruption of the
_Jews_ shortly before their State was broke up by the _Chaldeans_, is
described by their Boldness in Impiety; for as their Leaders were
connected together in Wickedness they strengthened one another, and grew
confident; _Were they ashamed when they had committed Abominations? Nay,
they were not at all ashamed, neither could they blush_, Jer. vi. 15, on
which Account the Lord thus expostulates with them, _What hath my
Beloved to do in my House, seeing she hath wrought Lewdness with many,
and the Holy Flesh is passed from thee; when thou doest Evil, then thou
rejoicest_, Jer. xi. 15.

Now the faithful Friends of Christ, who hunger and thirst after
Righteousness, and inwardly breathe that his Kingdom may come on Earth
as it is in Heaven, he teacheth them to be quick of Understanding in his
Fear, and to be very attentive to the Means he may appoint for promoting
pure Righteousness in the Earth; and as Shame is due to those whose
works manifestly operate against the gracious Design of his Sufferings
for us, a Care lives on their Minds that no wrong Customs however
supported may bias their Judgments, but that they may humbly abide under
the Cross, and be preserved in a Conduct which may not contribute to
strengthen the Hands of the Wicked in their Wickedness, or to remove
Shame from those to whom it is justly due. The Coming of that Day is
precious, in which we experience the Truth of this Expression, _The Lord
our Righteousness_, Jer. xiii. 6, and feel him to be _made unto us
Wisdom and Sanctification_.

The Example of a righteous Man is often looked at with Attention. Where
righteous Men join in Business, their Company gives Encouragement to
others; and as one Grain of Incense deliberately offered to the Prince
of this World, renders an Offering to God in that State unacceptable;
and from those esteemed Leaders of the People may be injurious to the
Weak; it requires deep Humility of Heart, to follow him faithfully, who
alone gives sound Wisdom, and the Spirit of true Discerning; and O how
necessary it is, to consider the Weight of a Holy Profession!

The Conduct of some formerly gave Occasion of Complaint against them;
_Thou hast defiled thy Sanctuaries by the Multitude of thine Iniquities,
by the Iniquity of thy Traffick_, Ezek. xxviii. 18, and in several
Places it is charged against _Israel_, that they had polluted the Holy
Name.

The Prophet _Isaiah_ represents inward Sanctification in the Similitude
of being purged from that which is Fuel for Fire; and particularly
describes the outward Fruits, brought forth by those who dwell in this
inward Holiness; _They walk righteously, and speak uprightly._ By
_walking_ he represents the Journey through Life, as a righteous
Journey; and _by speaking uprightly_, seems to point at that which
_Moses_ appears to have had in View, when he thus express'd himself;
_Thou shall not follow a Multitude to do Evil, nor speak in a Cause to
decline after many to wrest Judgment_, Exod. xxiii. 2.

He goes on to shew their Firmness in Equity; representing them as
Persons superior to all the Arts of getting Money, which have not
Righteousness for their Foundation; _They despise the Gain of
Oppressions_: And further shews how careful they are that no Prospects
of Gain may induce them to become partial in Judgment respecting an
Injury; _They shake their Hands from holding Bribes._

Again, where any Interest is so connected with shedding Blood, that the
Cry of innocent Blood goes also with it; he points out their Care to
keep innocent Blood from crying against them, in the Similitude of a
Man's stopping his Ears to prevent a Sound from entering his Head; _They
stop their Ears from hearing Blood_: And where they know that Wickedness
is committed, he points out with Care, that they do not by an unguarded
Friendship with the Authors of it, appear like unconcerned Lookers on,
but as People so deeply affected with Sorrow, that they cannot endure to
stand by and behold it; this he represents in the Similitude of a Man
_shutting his Eyes from seeing Evil_.

_Who amongst us shall dwell with devouring Fire? Who amongst us shall
dwell with everlasting Burnings? He that walketh righteously and
speaketh uprightly. He that despiseth the Gain of Oppressions, that
shaketh his Hands from holding of Bribes, that stoppeth his Ears from
hearing of Blood, and shutteth his Eyes from seeing Evil_, Isa. xxxiii.
15.

He proceeds in the Spirit of Prophecy to shew how the Faithful, being
supported under Temptations, would be preserved from that Defilement
that there is in the Love of Money; that as they who in a reverent
Waiting on God, feel their Strength renewed, are said to _mount upward_;
so here their Preservation from the Snare of unrighteous Gain, is
represented in the Likeness of a Man, borne up above all crafty, artful
Means of getting the Advantage of another; _They shall dwell on high_;
and points out the Stability and Firmness of their Condition; _His Place
of Defence shall be the Munition of Rocks_; and that under all the
outward Appearances of Loss, in denying himself of gainful Profits for
Righteousness Sake, yet through the Care of him who provides for the
Sparrows, he should have a Supply answerable to his infinite Wisdom;
_Bread shall be given him, his Waters shall be sure_. And as our Saviour
mentions the Sight of God to be attainable by _the Pure in Heart_, so
here the Prophet pointed out, how in true Sanctification the
Understanding is opened, to behold the peaceable harmonious Nature of
his Kingdom; _thine Eyes shall see the King in his Beauty_: And that
looking beyond all the Afflictions which attend the Righteous, to _a
Habitation eternal in the Heavens_, they with an eye divinely open
_shall behold the Land that is very far off_.

_He shall dwell on high, his Place of Defence shall be the Munition of
Rocks, Bread shall be given him, his Waters shall be sure. Thine Eyes
shall see the King in his Beauty; they shall behold the Land that is
very far off_, Isa. xxxiii. 16.

I often remember, and to me the Subject is awful, that the great Judge
of all the Earth doeth that which is right, and that he, _before whom
the Nations are as the Drop of a Bucket_, is _no Respecter of Persons_.
Happy for them, who like the inspired Prophet, _in the Way of his
Judgments wait for him_, Isa. xxvi. 8.

When we feel him to sit as a Refiner with Fire, and know a Resignedness
wrought in us, to that which he appoints for us, his Blessing in a very
low Estate, is found to be more precious than much outward Treasure in
those Ways of Life, where the Leadings of his Spirit are not followed.

The Prophet in a Sight of a divine Work amongst many People, declared in
the Name of the Lord, _I will gather all Nations and Tongues, and they
shall come and see my Glory_, Isa. lxvi. 18. And again, _from the rising
of the Sun to the going down of the same, my Name shall be great amongst
the_ Gentiles, _and in every Place Incense shall be offered to my Name,
and a pure Offering_, Malachi i. 11.

Behold here how the Prophets had an inward Sense of the Spreading of the
Kingdom of Christ; and how he was spoken of as one who should _take the
Heathen for his Inheritance, and the utmost Parts of the Earth for his
Possession_, Psal. ii. 8. That _he was given for a Light to the_
Gentiles; _and for Salvation to the Ends of the Earth_, Isa. xlix. 6.

When we meditate on this divine Work, as a Work of Ages; a Work that the
Prophets felt long before Christ appeared visibly on Earth, and remember
the bitter Agonies he endured when he _poured out his Soul unto Death_,
that the Heathen Nations, as well as others, might come to the Knowledge
of the Truth and be saved.

When we contemplate on this marvellous Work, as that which _the Angels
desire to look into_, 1 Pet. i. 12. And behold People amongst whom this
Light hath eminently broken forth, and who have received many Favours
from the bountiful Hand of our Heavenly Father; not only indifferent
with respect to publishing the glad Tidings amongst the _Gentiles_, as
yet sitting in Darkness and entangled with many Superstitions; but
aspiring after Wealth and worldly Honours, take hold of Means to obtain
their Ends, tending to stir up Wrath and Indignation, and to beget an
Abhorrence in them to the Name of _Christianity_. When these Things are
weightily attended to, how mournful is the Subject?

It is worthy of Remembrance, that People in different Ages, deeply
baptized into the Nature of that Work for which Christ suffered, have
joyfully offered up their Liberty and Lives for the promoting of it in
the Earth.

_Policarp_, who was reputed a Disciple of the Apostle _John_, having
attained to great Age, was at length sentenced to die for his Religion;
and being brought to the Fire, prayed nearly as follows, "Thou God and
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom I have received the Knowledge
of thee! O God of the Angels and Powers, and of every living Creature,
and of all Sorts of just Men which live in thy Presence. I thank thee,
that thou hast graciously vouchsafed this Day and this Hour to allot me
a Portion among the Number of Martyrs, among the People of Christ, unto
the Resurrection of everlasting Life; among whom I shall be received in
thy Sight, this Day, as a fruitful and acceptable Sacrifice; wherefore
for all this, I praise thee, I bless thee, I glorify thee through the
everlasting High Priest, Jesus Christ, thy well-beloved Son; to whom,
with thee and the Holy Ghost, be all Glory, World without End. _Amen._"

Bishop _Latimer_, when Sentence of Death by Fire was pronounced against
him, on Account of his Firmness in the Cause of Religion, he said, "I
thank God most heartily, that he hath prolonged my Life to this End;
that I may in this Case glorify him by this Kind of Death." _Fox's_ Acts
and Mon. 936.

_William Dewsbury_, who had suffered much for his Religion, in his last
Sickness, encouraging his Friends to Faithfulness, made mention, like
good old _Jacob_, of the Loving kindness of God to him in the Course of
his Life, and that through the Power of Divine Love, he, for Christ's
Sake, had joyfully entered Prisons. See Introduction to his Works.

I mention these as a few Examples, out of many of the powerful
Operations of the Spirit of Christ, where People are fully devoted to
it, and of the ardent Longings in their Minds for the Spreading of his
Kingdom amongst Mankind. Now to those, in the present Age, who truly
know Christ, and feel the Nature of his peaceable Government opened in
their Understandings, how loud is that Call wherewith we are called to
Faithfulness; that in following this pure Light of Life, we, _as Workers
together with him_, may labour in that great Work for which he was
offered as a Sacrifice on the Cross; and that his peaceable Doctrines
may shine through us in their real Harmony, at a Time when the Name of
_Christianity_ is become hateful to many of the _Heathen_.

When _Gehazi_ had obtained Treasures which the Prophet under divine
Direction had refused, and was returned from the Business; the Prophet
troubled at his Conduct, queried if it was a Time thus to prepare for a
specious Living.

_Is it a Time to receive Money and Garments, Men Servants and Maid
Servants? The Leprosy therefore of_ Naaman _shall cleave to thee, and to
thy Seed for ever_, 2 Kings v. 26. And O that we may lay to Heart the
Condition of the present Time, and humbly follow his Counsel, who alone
is able to prepare the Way for a true harmonious Walking amongst
Mankind.


CHAPTER IV

    _On_ DIVINE ADMONITIONS

Such are the Perfections of our Heavenly Father, that in all the
Dispensations of his Providence, it is our Duty, _in every Thing, to
give Thanks_. Though from the first Settlement of this Part of
_America_, he hath not extended his Judgments to the Degree of Famine,
yet Worms at Times have come forth beyond numbering, and laid waste
Fields of Grain and Grass, where they have appeared; another Kind, in
great Multitudes, working out of Sight, in Grass Ground, have so eat the
Roots, that the Surface, being loosened from the Soil beneath, might be
taken off in great Sheets.

These Kind of devouring Creatures appearing seldom, and coming in such
Multitudes, their Generation appears different from most other Reptiles,
and by the Prophet were call'd _God's Army sent amongst the People_,
Joel ii. 25.

There have been Tempests of Hail, which have very much destroyed the
Grain where they extended. Through long Drought in Summer, Grain in some
Places hath been less than half the usual Quantity;[1] and in the
Continuance thereof, I have beheld with Attention, from Week to Week,
how Dryness from the Top of the Earth, hath extended deeper and deeper,
while the Corn and Plants have languished; and with Reverence my Mind
hath been turned towards him, who being perfect in Goodness, in Wisdom
and Power, doeth all Things right. And after long Drought, when the Sky
hath grown dark with a Collection of Matter, and Clouds like Lakes of
Water hung over our Heads, from whence the thirsty Land hath been
soaked; I have at Times, with Awfulness, beheld the vehement Operation
of Lightning, made sometimes to accompany these Blessings, as a
Messenger from him who created all Things, to remind us of our Duty in a
right Use of those Benefits, and give striking Admonitions, that we do
not misapply those Gifts, in which an Almighty Power is exerted, in
bestowing them upon us.

[Footnote 1: When Crops fail. I often feel a tender Care that the Case
of poor Tenants may be mercifully considered.]

When I have considered that many of our Fellow Creatures suffer much in
some Places, for want of the Necessaries of Life, whilst those who rule
over them are too much given to Luxury, and divers Vanities; and behold
the apparent Deviation from pure Wisdom amongst us, in the Use of the
outward Gifts of God; those Marks of Famine have appeared like humbling
Admonitions from him, that we might be instructed by gentle
Chastisements, and might seriously consider our Ways; remembering that
the outward Supply of Life is a Gift from our Heavenly Father, and no
more venture to use, or apply his Gifts, in a Way contrary to pure
Wisdom.

Should we continue to reject those merciful Admonitions, and use his
Gifts at Home, contrary to the gracious Design of the Giver, or send
them Abroad in a Way of Trade, which the Spirit of Truth doth not lead
into; and should he whose Eyes are upon all our Ways, extend his
Chastisements so far as to reduce us to much greater Distress than hath
yet been felt by these Provinces; with what sorrow of Heart might we
meditate on that Subject, _Hast thou not procured this unto thyself, in
that thou hast forsaken the Lord thy God, when he led thee by the Way?
Thine own Wickedness shall correct thee, and thy Backslidings shall
reprove thee; know therefore, and see that it is an evil Thing and
bitter, that thou hast forsaken the Lord thy God, and that my Fear is
not in thee, saith the Lord of Hosts_, Jer. ii. 17, 19.

My Mind hath often been affected with Sorrow, in beholding a wrong
Application of the Gifts of our Heavenly Father; and those Expressions
concerning the Defilement of the Earth have been opened to my
Understanding; _The Earth was corrupt before God, and the Earth was
filled with Violence_, Gen. vi. 11. Again, Isaiah xxiv. 5. _The Earth
also is defiled under the Inhabitants thereof._

The Earth being the Work of a Divine Power, may not as such be accounted
unclean; but when Violence is committed thereon, and the Channel of
Righteousness so obstructed, that _in our Skirts are found the Blood of
the Souls of poor Innocents; not by a secret Search, but upon all
these_,[2] Jer. ii. 34.

[Footnote 2: See a _Caution and Warning to Great Britain and her
Colonies_ Page 31.]

When Blood shed unrighteously remains unatoned for, and the Inhabitants
are not effectually purged from it, when they do not wash their Hands in
Innocency, as was figured in the Law, in the Case of one being found
slain; but seek for Gain arising from Scenes of Violence and Oppression,
here the Land is polluted with Blood, _Deut_. xxi. 6.

Moreover, when the Earth is planted and tilled, and the Fruits brought
forth are applied to support unrighteous Purposes; here the gracious
Design of infinite Goodness, in these his Gifts being perverted, the
Earth is defiled; and the Complaint formerly uttered becomes applicable;
_Thou hast made me to serve with thy Sins; thou hast wearied me with
thine Iniquities_, Isaiah xliii. 24.



AN EPISTLE TO THE QUARTERLY AND MONTHLY MEETINGS OF FRIENDS.

By JOHN WOOLMAN.

    _LONDON_:
    Re-printed by MARY HINDE.


AN EPISTLE, &c.

Beloved Friends,--Feeling at this Time a renewed Concern that the pure
Principle of Light and Life, and the righteous Fruits thereof may spread
and prevail amongst Mankind, there is an Engagement on my Heart to
labour with my Brethren in religious Profession, that none of us may be
a Stumbling-block in the Way of others; but may so walk that our Conduct
may reach the pure Witness in the Hearts of such who are not in
Profession with us.

And, dear Friends, while we publickly own that the Holy Spirit is our
Leader, the Profession is in itself weighty, and the Weightiness thereof
increaseth in Proportion as we are noted among the Professors of Truth,
and active in dealing with such who walk disorderly.

Many under our Profession, for Want of due Attention, and a perfect
Resignation, to this Divine Teacher, have in some Things manifested a
Deviation from the Purity of our religious Principles, and these
Deviations having crept in amongst us by little and little, and
increasing from less to greater, have been so far unnoticed, that some
living in them, have been active in putting Discipline in Practice with
relation to others, whose Conduct hath appeared more dishonourable in
the World.

Now as my Mind hath been exercised before the Lord, I have seen, that
the Discipline of the Church of Christ standeth in that which is pure;
that it is the Wisdom from above which gives Authority to Discipline,
and that the Weightiness thereof standeth not in any outward
Circumstances, but in the Authority of Christ who is the Author of it;
and where any walk after the Flesh, and not according to the Purity of
Truth, and at the same Time are active in putting Discipline in
Practice, a Veil is gradually drawn over the Purity of Discipline, and
over that Holiness of Life, which Christ leads those into, _in whom, the
Love of God is verily perfected_, 1 John ii. 5.

When we labour in true Love with Offenders, and they remain obstinate,
it sometimes is necessary to proceed as far as our Lord directed; _Let
him be to thee as an heathen Man, or a Publican_, Mat. xviii. 17.

Now when such are disowned, and they who act therein feel Christ made
unto them Wisdom, and are preserved in his meek, restoring Spirit, there
is no just Cause of Offence ministered to any; but when such who are
active in dealing with Offenders, indulge themselves in Things which are
contrary to the Purity of Truth, and yet judge others whose Conduct
appears more dishonourable than theirs, here the pure Authority of
Discipline ceaseth as to such Offenders, and a Temptation is laid in
their Way to wrangle and contend;--_Judge not_, said our Lord, _that ye
be not Judged._ Now this forbidding alludes to Man's Judgment, and
points out the Necessity of our humbly attending to that sanctifying
Power, under which the Faithful experience the Lord to be _a Spirit of
Judgment to them_, Isa. xxviii. 6. And as we feel his Holy Spirit to
mortify the Deeds of the Body in us, and can say, _It is no more I that
live, but Christ that liveth in me_, here right Judgment is known.

And while Divine Love prevails in our Hearts, and Self in us is brought
under Judgment, a Preparation is felt to labour in a right Manner with
Offenders; but if we abide not in this Love, our outward Performance in
dealing with others, degenerates into Formality; for _this is the Love
of God, that we keep his Commandments_, John i. 3.

How weighty are those Instructions of our Redeemer concerning religious
Duties, when he points out, that they who pray, should be so obedient to
the Teachings of the Holy Spirit, that humbly confiding in his Help,
they may say, _Thy Name, O Father I be hallowed. Thy Kingdom come. Thy
Will be done on Earth, as it is in Heaven._--In this awful State of Mind
is felt that Worship which stands in doing the Will of God on Earth, as
it is done in Heaven, and keeping the Holy Name sacred: To take a Holy
Profession upon us is awful, nor can we keep his Holy Name sacred, but
by humbly abiding under the Cross of Christ. The Apostle laid a heavy
Complaint against some who prophaned this Holy Name by their Manner of
Living, _Through you_, he says, _the Name of God is blasphemed among
the_ Gentiles, _Rom._ ii. 24.

Some of our Ancestors, through many Tribulations, were gathered into the
State of true Worshippers, and had Fellowship in that which is pure; and
as one was inwardly moved to kneel down in their Assemblies, and
publickly call on the Name of the Lord, those in the Harmony of united
Exercise then present, joined in the Prayer: I mention this, in order
that we of the present Age, may look unto the Rock from whence we were
hewn, and remember that to unite in Worship, is an Union in Prayer, and
that Prayer acceptable to the Father, is only in a Mind truly
sanctified, where the sacred Name is kept Holy, and the Heart resigned
to do his Will on Earth, as it is done in Heaven; _If ye abide in me_,
saith Christ, _and my Words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will in
my Name, and it shall be done unto you._--Now we know not what to pray
for as we ought, but as the Holy Spirit doth open and direct our Minds,
and as we faithfully yield to its Influences, our Prayers are in the
Will of our Heavenly Father, who fails not to grant that which his own
Spirit, through his Children, asketh;--thus Preservation from Sin is
known, and the Fruits of Righteousness are brought forth by such who
inwardly unite in Prayer.

How weighty are our solemn Meetings when the Name of Christ is kept
Holy!

"How precious is that State in which the Children of the Lord are so
redeemed from the Love of this World, that they are accepted and blessed
in all that they do!" _R. Barclay's_ Apology, Page 404.

How necessary is it that we who profess these Principles, and are
outwardly active in supporting them, should faithfully abide in Divine
Strength, that _as he who has called us, is Holy, so we may be Holy in
all manner of Conversation_, 1 Pet. i. 15.

If one professing to be influenced by the Spirit of Christ, propose to
unite in a Labour to promote Righteousness in the Earth, and in Time
past he hath manifestly deviated from the Paths of Equity, then to act
consistent with this Principle, his first Work is to make Restitution so
far as he may be enabled; for if he attempts to contribute toward a Work
intended to promote Righteousness, while it appears that he neglecteth,
or refuseth to act righteously himself, his Conduct has a Tendency to
entangle the Minds of those who are weak in the Faith, who behold these
Things, and to draw a Veil over the Purity of Righteousness, by carrying
an Appearance as though that was Righteousness which is not.

Again, if I propose to assist in supporting those Doctrines wherein that
Purity of Life is held forth, in which Customs proceeding from the
Spirit of this World have no Place, and at the same Time strengthen
others in those Customs by my Example; the first Step then in an orderly
Proceeding, is to cease from those Customs myself, and afterwards to
labour, as I may be enabled, to promote the like Disposition and Conduct
in others.

To be convinced of the pure Principle of Truth, and diligently exercised
in walking answerable thereto, is necessary before I can consistently
recommend this Principle to others.--I often feel a Labour in Spirit,
that we who are active Members in religious Society, may experience in
ourselves the Truth of those Expressions of the Holy One; _I will be
sanctified in them that come nigh me_, Lev. x. 3.----In this Case, my
Mind hath been often exercised when alone, Year after Year, for many
Years, and in the Renewings of Divine Love, a tender Care hath been
incited in me, that we who profess the inward Principle of Light to be
our Teacher, may be a Family united in that Purity of Worship, which
comprehends a Holy Life, and ministers Instruction to others.

My Mind is often drawn towards Children in the Truth, who having a small
Share of the Things of this Life, and coming to have Families, may be
inwardly exercised before the Lord to support them in a Way agreeable to
the Purity of Truth, in which they may feel his Blessing upon them in
their Labours; the Thoughts of such being entangled with Customs,
contrary to pure Wisdom, conveyed to them through our Hands, doth often
very tenderly, and movingly affect my Heart, and when I look towards,
and think on the succeeding Generation, fervent Desires are raised in
me, that we by yielding to that Holy Spirit which leads into all Truth,
may not do the Work of the Lord deceitfully, may not live contrary to
the Purity of the Divine Principle we profess; but that as faithful
Labourers in our Age, we may be instrumental in removing
Stumbling-blocks out of the Way of those who may succeed us.

So great was the Love of Christ, that he gave himself for the Church,
_that he might sanctify and cleanse it, that it should be Holy, and
without Blemish, not having Spot or Wrinkle, or any such Thing_, Eph. v.
25. and where any take the Name of Christ upon them, professing to be
Members of his Church, and led by his Holy Spirit, and yet manifestly
deviate from the Purity of Truth, they herein act against the gracious
Design of his giving himself for them, and minister Cause for the
Continuance of his Afflictions, _viz._ in his Body the Church.

Christ suffered Afflictions in a Body of Flesh prepared by the Father,
but the Afflictions of his mystical Body are yet unfinished; for they
who are baptized into Christ are baptized into his Death; and as we
humbly abide under his sanctifying Power, and are brought forth into
Newness of Life, we feel Christ to live in us, who being the same
Yesterday, To-day, and forever, and always at Unity with himself, his
Spirit in the Hearts of his People leads to an inward Exercise for the
Salvation of Mankind; and when under a Travail of Spirit, we behold a
visited People entangled by the Spirit of the World with its Wickedness
and Customs, and thereby rendered incapable of being faithful Examples
to others, Sorrow and Heaviness under a Sense of these Things, is often
experienced, and thus in some Measure is filled up that which remains of
the Afflictions of Christ.

Our blessed Saviour speaking concerning Gifts offered in Divine Service,
says, _If thou bring thy Gift to the Altar, and there remembrest that
thy Brother hath ought against thee, leave there thy Gift before the
Altar, and go thy Way, first be reconciled to thy Brother, and then
come and offer thy Gift_, Mat. v. 23, 24. Now there is no true Unity,
but in that wherein the Father and the Son are united, nor can there be
a perfect Reconciliation but in ceasing from that which ministers Cause
for the Continuation of the Afflictions of Christ; and if any professing
to bring their Gift to the Altar, do remember the customary
Contradiction which some of their Fruits bear to the pure spiritual
Worship, here it appears necessary to lay to Heart this Command, _Leave
thy Gift by the Altar_.

Christ graciously calls his People Brethren; _Whosoever shall do the
Will of God, the same is my Brother_, Mark iii. 35. Now if we walk
contrary to the Truth as it is in Jesus, while we continue to profess
it, we offend against Christ, and if under this Offence we bring our
Gift to the Altar, our Redeemer doth not direct us to take back our
Gift, he doth not discourage our proceeding in a good Work; but
graciously points out the necessary Means by which the Gift may be
rendered acceptable, _Leave_, saith he, _thy Gift by the Altar, first go
and be reconciled to thy Brother_, cease from that which grieves the
Holy Spirit, cease from that which is against the Truth, as it is in
Jesus, and then come and offer thy Gift.

I feel, while I am writing, a Tenderness to those who through Divine
Favour are preserved in a lively Sense of the State of the Churches, and
at Times may be under Discouragements with regard to proceeding in that
pure Way which Christ by his Holy Spirit leads into: The Depth of
Disorder and Weakness, which so much prevails, being opened, Doubtings
are apt to arise as to the Possibility of proceeding as an Assembly of
the Lord's People in the pure Council of Truth; and here I feel a
Concern to express in Uprightness, that which hath been opened in my
Mind, under the Power of the Cross of Christ, relating to a visible
gathered Church, the Members whereof are guided by the Holy Spirit.

The Church is called _the Body of Christ_, Col. i. 24.

Christ is called _the Head of the Church_, Eph. i. 22.

The Church is called _the Pillar, and Ground of Truth_, 1 Tim. iii. 15.

Thus the Church hath a Name that is sacred, and the Necessity of keeping
this Name Holy, appears evident; for where a Number of People unite in a
Profession of being led by the Spirit of Christ, and publish their
Principles to the World, the Acts and Proceedings of that People may in
some Measure be considered as such which Christ is the Author of.

Now while we stand in this Station, if the pure Light of Life is not
followed and regarded in our Proceedings, we are in the Way of
prophaning the Holy Name, and of going back toward that Wilderness of
Sufferings and Persecution, out of which, through the tender Mercies of
God, a Church hath been gathered; _Christ liveth in sanctified Vessels_,
Gal. ii. 20. and where they behold his Holy Name prophaned, and the pure
Gospel Light eclipsed, through the Unfaithfulness of any who by their
Station appear to be Standard-bearers under the Prince of Peace, the
living Members in the Body of Christ in beholding these Things, do in
some degree experience the Fellowship of his Sufferings; and as the
Wisdom of the World more and more takes Place in conducting the Affairs
of this visible gathered Church, and the pure Leadings of the Holy
Spirit less waited for and followed, so the true Suffering Seed is more
and more oppressed.

My Mind is often affected with a Sense of the Condition of
sincere-hearted People in some Kingdoms, where Liberty of Conscience is
not allowed, many of whom being burthened in their Minds with prevailing
Superstition joined with Oppressions, are often under Sorrow; and where
such have attended to that pure Light which hath in some degree opened
their Understandings, and for their Faithfulness thereto, have been
brought to Examination and Trial, how heavy are the Persecutions which
in divers Parts of the World are exercised upon them! How mighty, as to
the outward, is that Power by which they are borne down, and oppressed!

How deeply affecting is the Condition of many upright-hearted People who
are taken into the _Papal_ Inquisition! What lamentable Cruelties, in
deep Vaults, in a private Way, are exercised on many of them! And how
lingering is that Death by a small slow Fire, which they have
frequently indured, who have been faithful to the End!

How many tender spirited _Protestants_ have been sentenced to spend the
Remainder of their Lives in a Galley chained to Oars, under hard-hearted
Masters, while their young Children are placed out for Education, and
taught Principles so contrary to the Conscience of the Parents, that by
dissenting from them, they have hazarded their Liberty, Lives, and all
that was dear to them of the Things of this World!

There have been in Time past severe Persecutions under the _English_
Government, and many sincere-hearted People have suffered Death for the
Testimony of a good Conscience, whose Faithfulness in their Day hath
ministred Encouragement to others, and been a Blessing to many who have
succeeded them; thus from Age to Age, the Darkness being more and more
removed, a Channel at length, through the tender Mercies of God, hath
been opened for the Exercise of the pure Gift of the Gospel Ministry,
without Interruption from outward Power, a Work, the like of which is
rare, and unknown in many Parts of the World.

As these Things are often fresh in my Mind, and this great Work of God
going on in the Earth has been open before me, that Liberty of
Conscience with which we are favoured, hath appeared not as a light
Matter.

A Trust is committed to us, a great and weighty Trust, to which our
diligent Attention is necessary, wherever the active Members of this
visible gathered Church use themselves to that which is contrary to the
Purity of our Principles, it appears to be a Breach of this Trust, and
one Step back toward the Wilderness, one Step towards undoing what God
in infinite Love hath done through his faithful Servants, in a Work of
several Ages, and like laying the Foundation for future Sufferings.

I feel a living Invitation in my Mind to such who are active in our
religious Society, that we may lay to Heart this Matter, and consider
the Station in which we stand; a Place of outward Liberty under the free
Exercise of our Conscience toward God, not obtained but through great
and manifold Afflictions of those who lived before us. There is
Gratitude due from us to our Heavenly Father, and Justice to our
Posterity; can our Hearts endure, or our Hands be strong, if we desert a
Cause so precious, if we turn aside from a Work, under which so many
have patiently laboured?

May the deep Sufferings of our Saviour be so dear to us, that we may
never trample under Foot the adorable Son of God, nor count the Blood of
the Covenant unholy!

May the Faithfulness of the Martyrs when the Prospect of Death by Fire
was before them, be remembred. And may the patient constant Sufferings
of the upright-hearted Servants of God in latter Ages be revived in our
Minds. And may we so follow on to know the Lord, that neither the
Faithful in this Age, nor those in Ages to come, may ever be brought
under Suffering, through our sliding back from the Work of Reformation
in the World.

While the active Members in the visible gathered Church stand upright,
and the Affairs thereof are carried on under the Leadings of the Holy
Spirit, although Disorders may arise among us, and cause many Exercises
to those who feel the Care of the Churches upon them; yet while these
continue under the Weight of the Work, and labour in the Meekness of
Wisdom for the Help of others, the Name of Christ in the visible
gathered Church may be kept sacred; but while they who are active in the
Affairs of this Church, continue in a manifest Opposition to the Purity
of our Principles, this, as the Prophet _Isaiah_ x. 18. expresseth it,
is like _as when a Standard-bearer fainteth_; and thus the Way opens to
great and prevailing Degeneracy, and to Sufferings for such who through
the Power of Divine Love, are separated to the Gospel of Christ, and
cannot unite with any Thing which stands in Opposition to the Purity of
it.

The Necessity of an inward Stillness, hath under these Exercises
appeared clear to my Mind; in true Silence Strength is renewed, the Mind
herein is weaned from all Things, but as they may be enjoyed in the
Divine Will, and a Lowliness in outward Living opposite to Worldly
Honour, becomes truly acceptable to us;--in the Desire after outward
Gain, the Mind is prevented from a perfect Attention to the Voice of
Christ, but being weaned from all Things, but as they may be enjoyed in
the Divine Will, the pure Light shines into the Soul, and where the
Fruits of that Spirit which is of the World, are brought forth by many
who profess to be led by the Spirit of Truth, and Cloudiness is felt to
be gathering over the visible gathered Church, the Sincere in Heart who
abide in true Stillness, and are exercised therein before the Lord for
his Name's Sake, have a Knowledge of Christ in the Fellowship of his
Sufferings, and inward Thankfulness is felt at Times, that through
Divine Love, our own Wisdom is cast out, and that forward active Part in
us subjected, which would rise and do something in the visible gathered
Church, without, the pure Leadings of the Spirit of Christ.

While aught remains in us different from a perfect Resignation of our
Wills, it is like a Seal to a Book wherein is written, _that good, and
acceptable, and perfect Will of God concerning us_, Rom. xii. 2. but
when our Minds entirely yield to Christ, that Silence is known, which
followeth the opening of the last of the Seals, _Rev._ viii. 1. In this
Silence we learn abiding in the Divine Will, and there feel, that we
have no Cause to promote but that only in which the Light of Life
directs us in our Proceedings, and that the alone Way to be useful in
the Church of Christ, is to abide faithfully under the Leadings of his
Holy Spirit in all Cases, and being preserved thereby in Purity of
Heart, and Holiness of Conversation, a Testimony to the Purity of his
Government may be held forth through us, to others.

As my Mind hath been thus exercised, I have seen that to be active and
busy in the visible gathered Church, without the Leadings of the Holy
Spirit, is not only unprofitable, but tends to increase Dimness; and
where Way is not opened to proceed in the Light of Truth, a Stop is felt
by those who humbly attend to the Divine Leader, a Stop which in
relation to good Order in the visible gathered Church, is of the
greatest Consequence to be observed; thus _Robert Barclay_ in his
Treatise on Discipline holds forth, Page 65, 68, 84. "That the Judgment
or Conclusion of the Church or Congregation, is no further effectual as
to the true End and Design thereof, but as such Judgment or Conclusion
proceeds from the Spirit of God operating on their Minds who are
sanctified in Christ Jesus."

Now in this Stop I have learned the Necessity of waiting on the Lord in
Humility, that the Works of all may be brought to the Light, and those
to Judgment which are wrought in the Wisdom of this World; and have also
seen, that in a Mind thoroughly subjected to the Power of the Cross,
there is a Savour of Life to be felt, which evidently tends to gather
Souls to God, while the greatest Works in the visible gathered Church
brought forth in Man's Wisdom, remain to be unprofitable.

Where People are divinely gathered into a Holy Fellowship, and
faithfully abide under the Influence of that Spirit which leads into all
Truth, _they are the Light of the World_, Mat. v. 14. Now holding this
Profession, to me hath appeared weighty, even beyond what I can fully
express, and what our blessed Lord seemed to have in View, when he
proposed the Necessity of counting the Cost, before we begin to build.

I trust there are many who at Times, under Divine Visitation, feel an
inward Enquiry after God; and when such in the Simplicity of their
Hearts mark the Lives of a People, who profess to walk by the Leadings
of his Spirit, of what great Concernment is it that our Lights shine
clear, that nothing of our Conduct carry a Contradiction to the Truth as
it is in Jesus, or be a Means of prophaning his Holy Name, and be a
Stumbling-block in the Way of those sincere Enquirers!

When such Seekers, who wearied with empty Forms, look toward uniting
with us as a People, and behold active Members among us depart in their
customary Way of Living, from that Purity of Life, which under humbling
Exercises hath been opened before them, as the Way of the Lord's People,
how mournful and discouraging is the Prospect! And how strongly doth
such Unfaithfulness operate against the Spreading of the peaceable,
harmonious Principle, and Testimony of Truth amongst Mankind!

In entering into that Life, which is hid with Christ in God, we behold
his peaceable Government, where the whole Family are governed by the
same Spirit, and the _doing to others as we would they should do unto
us_, groweth up as good Fruit from a good Tree; the Peace, Quietness,
and harmonious Walking in this Government is beheld with humble
Reverence to him who is the Author of it; and in partaking of the Spirit
of Christ, we partake of that which labours, and suffers for the
Increase of this peaceable Government among the Inhabitants of the
World; and I have felt a Labour of long Continuance, that we, who
profess this peaceable Principle, may be faithful Standard-bearers under
the Prince of Peace, and that nothing of a defiling Nature, tending to
Discord and Wars, may remain among us.

May each of us query with ourselves, have the Treasures I possess been
gathered in that Wisdom which is from above, so far as hath appeared to
me?

Have none of my Fellow Creatures an equitable Right to any Part which is
called mine?

Have the Gifts, and Possessions received by me from others, been
conveyed in a Way free from all Unrighteousness, so far as I have seen?

The Principle of Peace in which our Trust is only in the Lord, and our
Minds weaned from a Dependance on the Strength of Armies, hath appeared
to me very precious, and I often feel strong Desires, that we who
profess this Principle, may so walk, as to give just Cause for none of
our Fellow Creatures to be offended at us; that our Lives may evidently
manifest, that we are redeemed from that Spirit in which Wars are. Our
blessed Saviour in pointing out the Danger of so leaning on Man, as to
neglect the Leadings of his Holy Spirit, said, _Call no Man your Father
upon the Earth; for one is your Father which is in Heaven_, Mat. xxiii.
9. Where the Wisdom from above is faithfully followed, and therein we
are entrusted with Substance, it is a Treasure committed to our Care in
the Nature of an Inheritance, as an Inheritance from him, who formed,
and supports the World. Now in this Condition the true Enjoyment of the
good Things of this Life is understood, and that Blessing felt, in which
is real Safety; this is what I apprehend our blessed Lord had in View,
when he pronounced, _Blessed are the Meek, for they shall inherit the
Earth_.

Selfish Worldly-minded Men may hold Lands in the selfish Spirit, and
depending on the Strength of the outward Power, be perplexed with secret
Uneasiness, lest the Injured should sometime overpower them, and that
Measure meted to them, which they measure to others. Thus selfish Men
may possess the Earth; but it is the Meek who inherit it, and enjoy it
as an Inheritance from the Heavenly Father, free from all the
Defilements, and Perplexities of Unrighteousness.

Where Proceedings have been in that Wisdom which is from beneath, and
inequitable Gain gathered by a Man, and left as a Gift to his Children,
who being entangled by the same Worldly Spirit, have not attained to
that Clearness of Light in which the Channels of Righteousness are
opened, and Justice done to those who remain silent under Injuries: Here
I have seen under humbling Exercise of Mind, that the Sins of the
Fathers are embraced by the Children, and become their Sins, and thus of
the Days of Tribulation, the Iniquities in the Fathers are visited upon
these Children, who take hold of the Unrighteousness of their Fathers,
and live in that Spirit in which those Iniquities were committed; to
which agreeth the Prophecy of _Moses_, concerning a rebellious People;
_They that are left of you shall pine away in their Iniquities, in your
Enemy's Land, and in the Iniquities of their Fathers shall they pine
away_, Lev. xxvi. 39. and our blessed Lord in beholding the Hardness of
Heart in that Generation, and feeling in himself, that they lived in the
same Spirit in which the Prophets had been persecuted unto Death,
signified, _That the Blood of all the Prophets which was shed from the
Foundation of the World, should be required of that Generation, from the
Blood of_ Abel, _unto the Blood of_ Zacharias, _who perished between the
Altar and the Temple_, Luke xi. 51.

Tender Compassion fills my Heart towards my Fellow Creatures estranged
from the harmonious Government of the Prince of Peace, and a Labour
attends me, that they may be gathered to this peaceable Habitation.

In being inwardly prepared to suffer Adversity for Christ's Sake, and
weaned from a Dependance on the Arm of Flesh, we feel, that there is a
Rest for the People of God, and that it stands in a perfect Resignation
of ourselves to his Holy Will; in this Condition, all our Wants and
Desires are bounded by pure Wisdom, and our Minds wholly attentive to
the Counsel of Christ inwardly communicated, which hath appeared to me
as a Habitation of Safety for the Lord's People, in Times of outward
Commotion and Trouble, and Desires from the Fountain of pure Love, are
opened in me, to invite my Brethren and Fellow Creatures to feel for,
and seek after that which gathers the Mind into it.

    JOHN WOOLMAN.

    MOUNT-HOLLY, NEW-JERSEY,
    _4th Month 1772_.



REMARKS ON SUNDRY SUBJECTS.

By JOHN WOOLMAN.

    _LONDON_:
    Printed by MARY HINDE.


REMARKS &c.


CHAPTER I

    _On loving our Neighbours as ourselves_

When we love the Lord with all our Hearts, and his Creatures in his
Love, we are then preserv'd in Tenderness both toward Mankind and the
Animal Creation; but if another Spirit gets Room in our Minds, and we
follow it in our Proceedings, we are then in the Way of disordering the
Affairs of Society.

If a Man successful in Business expends Part of his Income in Things of
no real Use, while the Poor employed by him pass through great
Difficulties in getting the Necessaries of Life, this requires his
serious Attention.

If several principal Men in Business unite in setting the Wages of those
who work for Hire, and therein have Regard to a Profit to themselves
answerable to unnecessary Expence in their Families, while the Wages of
the other on a moderate Industry will not afford a comfortable Living
for their Families, and a proper Education for their Children, this is
like laying a Temptation in the Way of some to strive for a Place higher
than they are in, when they have not Stock sufficient for it.

Now I feel a Concern in the Spring of pure Love, that all who have
Plenty of outward Substance, may Example others in the right Use of
Things; may carefully look into the Condition of poor People, and beware
of exacting on them with Regard to their Wages.

While hired Labourers, by moderate Industry, through the Divine
Blessing, may live comfortably, raise up Families, and give them
suitable Education, it appears reasonable for them to be content with
their Wages.

If they who have Plenty love their Fellow Creatures in that Love which
is Divine, and in all their Proceedings have an equal Regard to the Good
of Mankind universally, their Place in Society is a Place of Care, an
Office requiring Attention, and the more we possess, the greater is our
Trust, and with an Increase of Treasure, an Increase of Care becomes
necessary.

When our Will is subject to the Will of God, and in relation to the
Things of this World, we have nothing in View, but a comfortable Living
equally with the rest of our Fellow Creatures, then outward Treasures
are no farther desirable than as we feel a Gift in our Minds equal to
the Trust, and Strength to act as dutiful Children in his Service, who
hath formed all Mankind, and appointed a Subsistence for us in this
World.

A Desire for Treasures on any other Motive, appears to be against that
Command of our blessed Saviour, _Lay not up for yourselves Treasures
here on Earth_, Mat. vi. 19.

He forbids not laying up in the Summer against the Wants of Winter; nor
doth he teach us to be slothful in that which properly relates to our
being in this World; but in this Prohibition he puts in _yourselves_,
_Lay not up for_ yourselves _Treasures here on Earth_.

Now in the pure Light, this Language is understood, for in the Love of
Christ there is no Respect of Persons; and while we abide in his Love,
we live not to _ourselves_, but to him who died for us. And as we are
thus united in Spirit to Christ, we are engaged to labour in promoting
that Work in the Earth for which he suffer'd.

In this State of Mind our Desires are, that every honest Member in
Society may have a Portion of Treasure, and Share of Trust, answerable
to that Gift, with which our Heavenly Father hath gifted us.

In great Treasure, there is a great Trust. A great Trust requireth great
Care. But the laborious Mind wants Rest.

A pious Man is content to do a Share of Business in Society, answerable
to the Gifts with which he is endowed, while the Channels of Business
are free from Unrighteousness, but is careful lest at any Time his Heart
be over-charg'd.

In the harmonious Spirit of Society _Christ is all in all_, Col. iii.
11.

Here it is that _old Things are past away, all Things are new, all
Things are of God_, 2 Cor. v. 17, 18, and the Desire for outward Riches
is at an End.

They of low Degree who have small Gifts, enjoy their Help who have large
Gifts; those with their small Gifts, have a small degree of Care, while
these with their large Gifts, have a large degree of Care: And thus to
abide in the Love of Christ, and enjoy a comfortable Living in this
World is all that is aimed at by those Members in Society, to whom
Christ is made Wisdom and Righteousness.

But when they who have much Treasure, are not faithful Stewards of the
Gifts of God, great Difficulties attend it.

Now this Matter hath deeply affected my Mind. The Lord, through merciful
Chastisements, hath given me a Feeling of that Love, in which the
Harmony of Society standeth, and a Sight of the Growth of that Seed
which bringeth forth Wars and great Calamities in the World, and a
Labour attends me to open it to others.

Now to act with Integrity, according to that Strength of Mind and Body
with which our Creator hath endowed each of us, appears necessary for
all, and he who thus stands in the lowest Station, appears to be
entitled to as comfortable and convenient a Living, as he whose Gifts of
Mind are greater, and whose Cares are more extensive.

If some endowed with strong Understandings as Men, abide not in the
harmonious State, in which we _love our Neighbours as ourselves_, but
walk in that Spirit in which the Children of this World are wise in
their Generation; these by the Strength of Contrivance may sometimes
gather great Treasure, but the Wisdom of this World is Foolishness with
God; and if we gather Treasures in Worldly Wisdom, we lay up _Treasures
for ourselves_; and great Treasures managed in any other Spirit, than
the Spirit of Truth, disordereth the Affairs of Society, for hereby the
good Gifts of God in this outward Creation are turned into the Channels
of Worldly Honour, and frequently applied to support Luxury, while the
Wages of poor Labourers are such, that with moderate Industry and
Frugality they may not live comfortably, raise up Families, and give
them suitable Education, but through the Streightness of their
Condition, are often drawn on to labour under Weariness, to toil through
Hardships themselves, and frequently to oppress those useful Animals
with which we are intrusted.

From Age to Age, throughout all Ages, Divine Love is that alone, in
which Dominion has been, is, and will be rightly conducted.

In this the Endowments of Men are so employed, that the Friend and the
Governor are united in one, and oppressive Customs come to an End.

Riches in the Hands of Individuals in Society, is attended with some
degree of Power; and so far as Power is put forth separate from pure
Love, so far the Government of the Prince of Peace is interrupted; and
as we know not that our Children after us will dwell in that State in
which Power is rightly applied, to lay up Riches for them appears to be
against the Nature of his Government.

The Earth, through the Labour of Men under the Blessing of him who
formed it, yieldeth a Supply for the Inhabitants from Generation to
Generation, and they who walk in the pure Light, their Minds are
prepared to taste and relish not only those Blessings which are
spiritual, but also feel a Sweetness and Satisfaction in a right Use of
the good Gifts of God in the visible Creation.

Here we see that Man's Happiness stands not in great Possessions, but in
a Heart devoted to follow Christ, in that Use of Things, where Customs
contrary to universal Love have no Power over us.

In this State our Hearts are prepared to trust in God, and our Desires
for our Children and Posterity are, that they, with the rest of Mankind,
in Ages to come, may be of that Number, of whom he hath said, _I will be
a Father to them, and they shall be my Sons and Daughters_, 2 Cor. vi.
18.

When Wages in a fruitful Land bear so small a Proportion to the
Necessaries of Life, that poor honest People who have Families cannot
by a moderate Industry attain to a comfortable Living, and give their
Children sufficient Learning, but must either labour to a degree of
Oppression, or else omit that which appears to be a Duty.

While this is the Case with the Poor, there is an Inclination in the
Minds of most People, to prepare at least so much Treasure for their
Children, that they with Care and moderate Industry may live free from
these Hardships which the Poor pass through.

Now this Subject requireth our serious Consideration: To labour that our
Children may be put in a Way to live comfortably, appears in itself to
be a Duty, so long as these our Labours are consistent with universal
Righteousness; but if in striving to shun Poverty, we do not walk in
that State where _Christ is our Life_, then we wander; _He that hath the
Son, hath Life_, 1 John v. 12. _This Life is the Light of Men_, 1 John
1. 4. If we walk not in this Light, we walk in Darkness, and _he that
walketh in Darkness, knoweth not whither he goeth_, John xii. 35.

To keep to right Means in labouring to attain a right End is necessary:
If in striving to shun Poverty, we strive only in that State where
Christ is the Light of our Life, our Labours will stand in the true
Harmony of Society; but if People are confident that the End aimed at is
good, and in this Confidence pursue it so eagerly, as not to wait for
the Spirit of Truth to lead them, then they come to Loss. _Christ is
given to be a Leader and Commander of the People_, Isaiah lv. 4. Again;
_The Lord shall guide thee continually_, Isaiah lviii. 12. Again; _Lord,
thou wilt ordain Peace for us, for thou also hast wrought all our Works
in us_, Isaiah xxvi. 12.

_In the Lord have we Righteousness and Strength_, Isaiah xlv. 24.

In this State our Minds are preserved watchful in following the Leadings
of his Spirit in all our Proceedings in this World, and a Care is felt
for a Reformation in general. That our own Posterity, with the rest of
Mankind in succeeding Ages, may not be entangled by oppressive Customs,
transmitted to them through our Hands; but if People in the Narrowness
of natural Love, are afraid that their Children will be oppressed by
the Rich, and through an eager Desire to get Treasures, depart from the
pure Leadings of Truth in one Case, though it may seem to be a small
Matter, yet the Mind even in that small Matter may be embolden'd to
continue in a Way of Proceeding, without waiting for the Divine Leader.

Thus People may grow expert in Business, wise in the Wisdom of this
World, retain a fair Reputation amongst Men, and yet being Strangers to
the Voice of Christ, the safe Leader of his Flock, the Treasures thus
gotten, may be like Snares to the Feet of their Posterity.

Now to keep faithful to the pure Counsellor, and under trying
Circumstances suffer Adversity for Righteousness Sake, in this there is
a Reward.

If we, being poor, are hardly dealt with by those who are rich, and
under this Difficulty are frugal and industrious, and in true Humility
open our Case to them who oppress us, this may reach the pure Witness in
their Minds; and though we should remain under Difficulties as to the
outward, yet if we abide in the Love of Christ, all will work for our
Good.

When we feel what it is to suffer in the true suffering State, then we
experience the Truth of those Expressions, that, _as the Sufferings of
Christ abound in us, so our Consolation aboundeth by Christ_, 2 Cor. i.
5.

But if poor People who are hardly dealt with, do not attain to the true
suffering State, do not labour in true Love with those who deal hardly
with them, but envy their outward Greatness, murmur in their Hearts
because of their own Poverty, and strive in the Wisdom of this World to
get Riches for themselves and their Children; this is like wandering in
the Dark.

If we who are of a middle Station between Riches and Poverty, are
affected at Times with the Oppressions of the Poor, and feel a tender
Regard for our Posterity after us, O how necessary is it that we wait
for the pure Counsel of Truth!

Many have seen the Hardships of the Poor, felt an eager Desire that
their Children may be put in a Way to escape these Hardships; but how
few have continued in that pure Love which openeth our Understandings to
proceed rightly under these Difficulties!

How few have faithfully followed that Holy Leader who prepares his
People to labour for the Restoration of true Harmony amongst our Fellow
Creatures!

_In the pure Gospel Spirit we walk by Faith and not by Sight_, 2 Cor. v.
7.

In the Obedience of Faith we die to the Narrowness of Self-love, and our
Life being hid with Christ in God, our Hearts are enlarg'd toward
Mankind universally; but in departing from the true Light of Life, many
in striving to get Treasures have stumbled upon the dark Mountains.

Now that Purity of Life which proceeds from Faithfulness in following
the Spirit of Truth, that State where our Minds are devoted to serve
God, and all our Wants are bounded by his Wisdom, this Habitation has
often been open'd before me as a Place of Retirement for the Children of
the Light, where we may stand separated from that which disordereth and
confuseth the Affairs of Society, and where we may have a Testimony of
our Innocence in the Hearts of those who behold us.

Through departing from the Truth as it is in Jesus, through introducing
Ways of Life attended with unnecessary Expences, many Wants have arisen,
the Minds of People have been employ'd in studying to get Wealth, and in
this Pursuit some departing from Equity, have retain'd a Profession of
Religion; others have look'd at their Example, and thereby been
strengthen'd to proceed further in the same Way: Thus many have
encourag'd the Trade of taking Men from _Africa_, and selling them as
Slaves.

It hath been computed that near One Hundred Thousand Negroes have of
late Years been taken annually from that Coast, by Ships employed in the
_English_ Trade.

As I have travell'd on religious Visits in some Parts of _America_, I
have seen many of these People under the Command of Overseers, in a
painful Servitude.

I have beheld them as _Gentiles_ under People professing _Christianity_,
not only kept ignorant of the Holy Scriptures, but under great
Provocations to Wrath; of whom it may truly be said, _They that rule
over them make them to howl, and the Holy Name is abundantly
blasphemed_, Isaiah lii. 5.

Where Children are taught to read the Sacred Writings, while young, and
exampled in Meekness and Humility, it is often helpful to them; nor is
this any more than a Debt due from us to a succeeding Age.

But where Youth are pinched for want of the Necessaries of Life, forced
to labour hard under the harsh Rebukes of rigorous Overseers, and many
Times endure unmerciful Whippings: In such an Education, how great are
the Disadvantages they lie under! And how forcibly do these Things work
against the Increase of the Government of the Prince of Peace!

_Humphrey Smith_, in his Works, p. 125, speaking of the tender Feelings
of the Love of God in his Heart when he was a Child, said, "By the
violent wrathful Nature that ruled in others, was my Quietness
disturbed, and Anger begotten in me toward them, yet that of God in me
was not wholly overcome, but his Love was felt in my Heart, and great
was my Grief when the Earthly-mindedness and wrathful Nature so provoked
me, that I was estranged from it.

"And this I write as a Warning to Parents and others, that in the Fear
of the living God, you may train up the Youth, and may not be a Means of
bringing them into such Alienation."

Many are the Vanities and Luxuries of the present Age, and in labouring
to support a Way of living conformable to the present World, the
Departure from that Wisdom that is pure and peaceable hath been great.

Under the Sense of a deep Revolt, and an overflowing Stream of
Unrighteousness, my Life has been often a Life of Mourning, and tender
Desires are raised in me, that the Nature of this Practice may be laid
to Heart.

I have read some Books wrote by People who were acquainted with the
Manner of getting Slaves in _Africa_.

I have had verbal Relations of this Nature from several Negroes brought
from _Africa_, who have learn'd to talk _English_.

I have sundry Times heard _Englishmen_ speak on this Subject, who have
been at _Africa_ on this Business; and from all these Accounts it
appears evident that great Violence is committed, and much Blood shed in
_Africa_ in getting Slaves.

When three or four Hundred Slaves are put in the Hold of a Vessel in a
hot Climate, their Breathing soon affects the Air. Were that Number of
free People to go Passengers with all Things proper for their Voyage,
there would Inconvenience arise from their Number; but Slaves are taken
by Violence, and frequently endeavour to kill the white People, that
they may return to their Native Land. Hence they are frequently kept
under some Sort of Confinement, by Means of which a Scent ariseth in the
Hold of a Ship, and Distempers often break out amongst them, of which
many die. Of this tainted Air in the Hold of Ships freighted with
Slaves, I have had several Accounts, some in Print, and some verbal, and
all agree that the Scent is grievous. When these People are sold in
_America_, and in the Islands, they are made to labour in a Manner more
servile and constant, than that which they were used to at Home, that
with Grief, with different Diet from what has been common with them, and
with hard Labour, some Thousands are computed to die every Year, in what
is called the Seasoning.

Thus it appears evident, that great Numbers of these People are brought
every Year to an untimely End; many of them being such who never injured
us.

When the Innocent suffer under hard-hearted Men, even unto Death, and
the Channels of Equity are so obstructed, that the Cause of the
Sufferers is not judged in Righteousness, _the Land is polluted with
Blood_, Numb. xxxv. 33.

When Blood hath been shed unrighteously, and remains unatoned for, the
Cry thereof is very piercing.

Under the humbling Dispensations of Divine Providence, this Cry hath
deeply affected my Heart, and I feel a Concern to open, as I may be
enabled, that which lieth heavy on my Mind.

When _the Iniquity of the House of_ Israel _and of_ Judah _was
exceeding great, when the Land was defiled with Blood, and the City full
of Perverseness_, Ezek. ix. 9. _some were found sighing and crying for
the Abominations of the Times_, Ezek. ix. 4. and such who live under a
right Feeling of our Condition as a Nation, these I trust will be
sensible that the Lord at this Day doth call to Mourning, though many
are ignorant of it. So powerful are bad Customs when they become
general, that People growing bold thro' the Examples one of another,
have often been unmoved at the most serious Warnings.

Our blessed Saviour speaking of the People of the old World, said, _They
eat, they drank, they married, and were given in Marriage, until the Day
that_ Noah _went into the Ark, and the Flood came and destroy'd them
all_, Luke xvii. 27.

The like he spake concerning the People of _Sodom_, who are also
represented by the Prophet as haughty, luxurious, and oppressive; _This
was the Sin of_ Sodom, _Pride, Fulness of Bread, and Abundance of
Idleness was found in her, and in her Daughters; neither did she
strengthen the Hands of the Poor and Needy_, Ezek. xvi. 49.

Now in a Revolt so deep as this, when much Blood has been shed
unrighteously, in carrying on the Slave Trade, and in supporting the
Practice of keeping Slaves, which at this Day is unatoned for, and
crieth from the Earth, and from the Seas against the Oppressor!

While this Practice is continued, and under a great Load of Guilt there
is more Unrighteousness committed, the State of Things is very moving!

There is a Love which stands in Nature, and a Parent beholding his Child
in Misery, hath a Feeling of the Affliction; but in Divine Love the
Heart is enlarged towards Mankind universally, and prepar'd to
sympathize with Strangers, though in the lowest Station in Life.

Of this the Prophet appears to have had a Feeling, when he said, _Have
we not all one Father? Hath not one God created us? Why then do we deal
treacherously every Man with his Brother, in prophaning the Covenant of
our Fathers?_ Mal. ii. 10.

He who of old heard the Groans of the Children of _Israel_ under the
hard Task-masters in _Egypt_, I trust hath looked down from his Holy
Habitation on the Miseries of these deeply oppress'd People. Many Lives
have been shorten'd through extreme Oppression while they labour'd to
support Luxury and Worldly Greatness; and tho' many People in outward
Prosperity may think little of those Things, yet the gracious Creator
hath Regard to the Cries of the Innocent, however unnoticed by Men.

The Lord in the Riches of his Goodness is leading some into the Feeling
of the Condition of this People, who cannot rest without labouring as
their Advocate; of which in some Measure I have had Experience, for, in
the Movings of his Love in my Heart, these poor Sufferers have been
brought near to me.

The unoffending Aged and Infirm made to labour too hard, kept on a Diet
less comfortable than their weak State required, and exposed to great
Difficulties under hard-hearted Men, to whose Sufferings I have often
been a Witness, and under the Heart-melting Power of Divine Love, their
Misery hath felt to me like the Misery of my Parents.

Innocent Youth taken by Violence from their Native Land, from their
Friends and Acquaintance; put on board Ships with Hearts laden with
Sorrow; exposed to great Hardships at Sea; placed under People, where
their Lives have been attended with great Provocation to Anger and
Revenge.

With the Condition of these Youth, my Mind hath often been affected, as
with the Afflictions of my Children, and in a Feeling of the Misery of
these People, and of that great Offence which is minister'd to them, my
Tears have been often poured out before the Lord.

That Holy Spirit which affected my Heart when I was a Youth, I trust is
often felt by the Negroes in their Native Land, inclining their Minds to
that which is righteous, and had the professed Followers of Christ in
all their Conduct towards them, manifested a Disposition answerable to
the pure Principle in their Hearts, how might the Holy Name have been
honoured amongst the _Gentiles_, and how might we have rejoiced in the
fulfilling of that Prophecy, _I the Lord love Judgment, I hate Robbery
for Burnt-offerings, and I will direct their Work in Truth, and make an
everlasting Covenant with them. Their Seed shall be known amongst the_
Gentiles, _and their Offspring amongst the People: All that see them
shall acknowledge them, that they are the Seed which the Lord hath
blessed_, Isaiah lxi. 8, 9.

But in the present State of Things, how contrary is this Practice to
that meek Spirit, in which our Saviour laid down his Life for us, that
all the Ends of the Earth might know Salvation in his Name!

How are the Sufferings of our blessed Redeemer set at nought, and his
Name blasphemed amongst the _Gentiles_, through the unrighteous
Proceedings of his profess'd Followers!

My Mind hath often been affected, even from the Days of my Youth, under
a Sense of that marvellous Work, for which God, in infinite Goodness,
sent his Son into the World.

The opening of that Spring of living Waters, which the true Believers in
Christ experience, by which they are redeemed from Pride and
Covetousness, and brought into a State of Meekness, where their Hearts
are enlarged in true Love toward their Fellow Creatures universally;
this Work to me has been precious, and the Spreading the Knowledge of
the Truth amongst the _Gentiles_ been very desirable. And the professed
Followers of Christ joining in Customs evidently unrighteous, which
manifestly tend to stir up Wrath, and increase Wars and Desolations,
hath often covered my Mind with Sorrow.

If we bring this Matter home, and as _Job_ proposed to his Friends, _Put
our Soul in their Soul's stead_, Job xvi. 4.

If we consider ourselves and our Children as exposed to the Hardships
which these People lie under in supporting an imaginary Greatness.

Did we in such Case behold an Increase of Luxury and Superfluity amongst
our Oppressors, and therewith felt an Increase of the Weight of our
Burdens, and expected our Posterity to groan under Oppression after us.

Under all this Misery, had we none to plead our Cause, nor any Hope of
Relief from Man, how would our Cries ascend to the God of the Spirits of
all Flesh, who judgeth the World in Righteousness, and in his own Time
is a Refuge for the Oppressed!

If they who thus afflicted us, continued to lay Claim to Religion, and
were assisted in their Business by others, esteemed pious People, who
through a Friendship with them strengthened their Hands in Tyranny.

In such a State, when we were Hunger-bitten, and could not have
sufficient Nourishment but saw them in fulness pleasing their Taste with
Things fetched from far:

When we were wearied with Labour, denied the Liberty to rest, and saw
them spending their Time at Ease: When Garments answerable to our
Necessities were denied us, while we saw them cloathed in that which was
costly and delicate:

Under such Affliction, how would these painful Feelings rise up as
Witnesses against their pretended Devotion! And if the Name of their
Religion was mention'd in our Hearing, how would it sound in our Ears
like a Word which signified Self-exaltation, and Hardness of Heart!

When a Trade is carried on, productive of much Misery, and they who
suffer by it are some Thousands Miles off, the Danger is the greater, of
not laying their Sufferings to Heart.

In procuring Slaves on the Coast of _Africa_, many Children are stolen
privately; Wars also are encouraged amongst the Negroes, but all is at a
great Distance.

Many Groans arise from dying Men, which we hear not.

Many Cries are uttered by Widows and Fatherless Children, which reach
not our Ears.

Many Cheeks are wet with Tears, and Faces sad with unutterable Grief,
which we see not.

Cruel Tyranny is encouraged. The Hands of Robbers are strengthened, and
Thousands reduced to the most abject Slavery, who never injured us.

Were we for the Term of one Year only to be an Eye-witness to what
passeth in getting these Slaves:

Was the Blood which is there shed to be sprinkled on our Garments:

Were the poor Captives bound with Thongs, heavy laden with Elephants
Teeth, to pass before our Eyes on their Way to the Sea:

Were their bitter Lamentations Day after Day to ring in our Ears, and
their mournful Cries in the Night to hinder us from Sleeping:

Were we to hear the Sound of the Tumult when the Slaves on board the
Ships attempt to kill the _English_, and behold the Issue of those
bloody Conflicts:

What pious Man could be a Witness to these Things, and see a Trade
carried on in this Manner, without being deeply affected with Sorrow?

Through abiding in the Love of Christ we feel a Tenderness in our Hearts
toward our Fellow Creatures, entangled in oppressive Customs; and a
Concern so to walk, that our Conduct may not be a Means of strength'ning
them in Error.

It was the Command of the Lord through _Moses, Thou shalt not suffer Sin
upon thy Brother: Thou shalt in anywise rebuke thy Brother, and shalt
not suffer Sin upon him_, Lev. xix. 17.

Again; _Keep far from a false Matter; and the Innocent and Righteous
slay thou not_, Exod. xxiii. 7.

The Prophet _Isaiah_ mentions Oppression as that which the true Church
in Time of outward Quiet should not only be clear of, but should be _far
from it_; _Thou shalt be far from Oppression_, Isaiah liv. 14. Now these
Words, _far from_, appear to have an extensive Meaning, and to convey
Instruction in regard to that of which _Solomon_ speaks, _Though Hand
join in Hand, the Wicked shall not go unpunished_, Prov. xvi. 5.

It was a Complaint against one of old, _When thou sawest a Thief, thou
consentedst with him_, Psal. l. 18.

The Prophet _Jeremiah_ represents the Degrees of Preparation toward
Idolatrous Sacrifice, in the Similitude of a Work carried on by
Children, Men, and Women: _The Children gather Wood, the Fathers kindle
the Fire, and the Women knead the Dough to bake Cakes for the Queen of
Heaven_, Jer. vii. 18.

It was a complaint of the Lord against _Israel_, through his Prophet
_Ezekiel_, that _they strengthen'd the Hands of the Wicked, and made the
Hearts of the Righteous sad_, Ezek. xiii. 12.

Some Works of Iniquity carried on by the People were represented by the
Prophet _Hosea_, in the Similitude of Ploughing, Reaping, and eating the
Fruit; _You have ploughed Wickedness, reaped Iniquity, eaten the Fruit
of Lying, because thou didst trust in thy own Way, to the Multitude of
thy mighty Men_, Hosea x. 13.

I have felt great Distress of Mind since I came on this Island, on
Account of the Members of our Society being mixed with the World in
various Sorts of Business and Traffick, carried on in impure Channels.
Great is the Trade to _Africa_ for Slaves; and in loading these Ships
abundance of People are employ'd in the Manufactories.

Friends in early Time refused, on a religious Principle, to make or
trade in Superfluities, of which we have many large Testimonies on
Record, but for want of Faithfulness some gave way, even some whose
Examples were of Note in Society, and from thence others took more
Liberty: Members of our Society worked in Superfluities, and bought and
sold them, and thus Dimness of Sight came over many. At length, Friends
got into the Use of some Superfluities in Dress, and in the Furniture of
their Houses, and this hath spread from less to more, till Superfluity
of some Kind is common amongst us.

In this declining State many look at the Example one of another, and too
much neglect the pure Feeling of Truth. Of late Years a deep Exercise
hath attended my Mind, that Friends may dig deep, may carefully cast
forth the loose Matter, and get down to the Rock, the sure Foundation,
and there hearken to that Divine Voice which gives a clear and certain
Sound.

And I have felt in that which doth not deceive, that if Friends who have
known the Truth, keep in that Tenderness of Heart, where all Views of
outward Gain are given up, and their Trust is only on the Lord, he will
graciously lead some to be Patterns of deep Self-denial, in Things
relating to Trade, and handicraft Labour; and that some who have Plenty
of the Treasures of this World, will example in a plain frugal Life,
and pay Wages to such whom they may hire, more liberally than is now
customary in some Places.

The Prophet, speaking of the true Church, said, _Thy People also shall
be all righteous._

Of the Depth of this Divine Work several have spoken.

_John Gratton_, in his Journal, p. 45, said, "The Lord is my Portion, I
shall not want. He hath wrought all my Works in me. I am nothing but
what I am in him."

_Gilbert Latey_, through the powerful Operations of the Spirit of Christ
in his Soul, was brought to that Depth of Self-denial, that he could not
join with that proud Spirit in other People, which inclined them to want
Vanities and Superfluities. This Friend was often amongst the chief
Rulers of the Nation in Times of Persecution, and it appears by the
Testimony of Friends, that his Dwelling was so evidently in the pure
Life of Truth, that in his Visits to those great Men, he found a Place
in their Minds; and that King _James_ the Second, in the Times of his
Troubles, made particular Mention in a very respectful Manner of what
_Gilbert_ once said to him.

The said _Gilbert_ found a Concern to write an Epistle, in which are
these Expressions; "Fear the Lord, ye Men of all Sorts, Trades, and
Callings, and leave off all the Evil that is in them, for the Lord is
grieved with all the Evils used in your Employments which you are
exercised in.

"It is even a Grief to see how you are Servants to Sin, and Instruments
of Satan." See his Works, Page 42, _etc._ _George Fox_, in an Epistle,
writes thus: "Friends, stand in the Eternal Power of God, Witness
against the Pomps and Vanities of this World.

"Such Tradesmen who stand as Witnesses in the Power of God, cannot
fulfil the People's Minds in these Vanities, and therefore they are
offended at them.

"Let all trust in the Lord, and wait patiently on him; for when Trust
first broke forth in _London_, many Tradesmen could not take so much
Money in their Shops for some Time, as would buy them Bread and Water,
because they withstood the World's Ways, Fashions, and Customs; yet by
their patient waiting on the Lord in their good Life and Conversation,
they answer'd the Truth in People's Hearts, and thus their Business
increased." Book of Doctrinals, Page 824.

Now Christ our Holy Leader graciously continueth to open the
Understandings of his People, and as Circumstances alter from Age to
Age, some who are deeply baptized into a Feeling of the State of Things,
are led by his Holy Spirit into Exercises in some respect different from
those which attended the Faithful in foregoing Ages, and through the
Constrainings of pure Love, are engaged to open the Feelings they have
to others.

In faithfully following Christ, the Heart is weaned from the Desires of
Riches, and we are led into a Life so plain and simple, that a little
doth suffice, and thus the Way openeth to deny ourselves, under all the
tempting Allurements of that Gain, which we know is the Gain of
Unrighteousness.

The Apostle speaking on this Subject, asketh this Question; _What
Fellowship hath Righteousness with Unrighteousness?_ 2 Cor. vi. 14. And
again saith, _Have no Fellowship with the unfruitful Works of Darkness,
but rather reprove them_, Ephes. v. 11. Again, _Be not Partaker of other
Men's Sins, keep thyself pure_, 1 Tim. v. 22.

Where People through the Power of Christ are thoroughly settled in a
right Use of Things, freed from all unnecessary Care and Expence, the
Mind in this true Resignation is at Liberty from the Bands of a narrow
Self-Interest, to attend from Time to Time on the Movings of his Spirit
upon us, though he leads into that through which our Faith is closely
tried.

The Language of Christ is pure, and to the Pure in Heart this pure
Language is intelligible; but in the Love of Money, the Mind being
intent on Gain, is too full of human Contrivance to attend to it.

It appeareth evident, that some Channels of Trade are defiled with
Unrighteousness, that the Minds of many are intent on getting Treasures
to support a Life, in which there are many unnecessary Expences.

And I feel a living Concern attend my Mind, that under these
Difficulties we may humbly follow our Heavenly Shepherd, who graciously
regardeth his Flock, and is willing and able to supply us both inwardly
and outwardly with clean Provender, that hath been winnowed with the
Shovel and the Fan, where we may _sow to ourselves in Righteousness,
reap in Mercy_, Hosea x. 12. and not be defiled with the Works of
Iniquity.

Where Customs contrary to pure Wisdom are transmitted to Posterity, it
appears to be an Injury committed against them; and I often feel tender
Compassion toward a young Generation, and Desires that their
Difficulties may not be increased through Unfaithfulness in us of the
present Age.


CHAPTER II

    _On a_ SAILOR'S LIFE

In the Trade to _Africa_ for Slaves, and in the Management of Ships
going on these Voyages, many of our Lads and young Men have a
considerable Part of their Education.

Now what pious Father beholding his Son placed in one of these Ships, to
learn the Practice of a Mariner, could forbear mourning over him?

Where Youth are exampled in Means of getting Money so full of Violence,
and used to exercise such Cruelties on their Fellow Creatures, the
Disadvantage to them in their Education is very great.

But I feel it in my Mind to write concerning the Seafaring Life in
general.

In the Trade carried on from the _West-Indies_, and from some Part of
the Continent, the Produce of the Labour of Slaves is a considerable
Part.

And Sailors who are frequently at Ports where Slaves abound, and
converse often with People who oppress without the Appearance of
Remorse, and often with Sailors employ'd in the Slave Trade, how
powerfully do these evil Examples spread amongst the Seafaring Youth!

I have had many Opportunities to feel and understand the general State
of the Seafaring Life amongst us, and my Mind hath often been sad on
Account of so many Lads and young Men been trained up amidst so great
Corruption.

Under the humbling Power of Christ I have seen, that if the Leadings of
his Holy Spirit were faithfully attended to by his professed Followers
in general, the Heathen Nations would be exampled in Righteousness. A
less Number of People would be employed on the Seas. The Channels of
Trade would be more free from Defilement. Fewer People would be
employed in Vanities and Superfluities.

The Inhabitants of Cities would be less in Number.

Those who have much Lands would become Fathers to the Poor.

More People would be employed in the sweet Employment of Husbandry, and
in the Path of pure Wisdom, Labour would be an agreeable, healthful
Employment.

In the Opening of these Things in my Mind, I feel a living Concern that
we who have felt Divine Love in our Hearts may faithfully abide in it,
and like good Soldiers endure Hardness for Christ's Sake.

He, our blessed Saviour, exhorting his Followers to love one another,
adds, _As I have loved you_. John xiii. 34.

He loved _Lazarus_, yet in his Sickness did not heal him, but left him
to endure the Pains of Death, that in restoring him to Life, the People
might be confirmed in the true Faith.

He loved his Disciples, but sent them forth on a Message attended with
great Difficulty, amongst Hard-hearted People, some of whom would think
that in killing them they did God Service.

So deep is Divine Love, that in stedfastly abiding in it, we are
prepar'd to deny ourselves of all that Gain which is contrary to pure
Wisdom, and to follow Christ, even under Contempt, and through
Sufferings.

While Friends were kept truly humble, and walked according to the Purity
of our Principles, the Divine Witness in many Hearts was reached; but
when a Worldly Spirit got Entrance, therewith came in Luxuries and
Superfluities, and spread by little and little, even among the foremost
Rank in Society, and from thence others took Liberty in that Way more
abundantly.

In the Continuation of these Things from Parents to Children, there were
many Wants to supply, even Wants unknown to Friends while they
faithfully followed Christ. And in striving to supply these Wants many
have exacted on the Poor, many have enter'd on Employments, in which
they often labour in upholding Pride and Vanity. Many have looked on one
another, been strengthen'd in these Things, one by the Example of
another, and as to the pure Divine Seeing, Dimness hath come over many,
and the Channels of true Brotherly Love been obstructed.

People may have no intention to oppress, yet by entering on expensive
Ways of Life, their Minds may be so entangled therein, and so engag'd to
support expensive Customs, as to be estranged from the pure sympathizing
Spirit.

As I have travell'd in _England_, I have had a tender Feeling of the
Condition of poor People, some of whom though honest and industrious,
have nothing to spare toward paying for the Schooling of their Children.

There is a Proportion between Labour and the Necessaries of Life, and in
true Brotherly Love the Mind is open to feel after the Necessities of
the Poor.

Amongst the Poor there are some that are weak through Age, and others of
a weakly Nature, who pass through Straits in very private Life, without
asking Relief from the Publick.

Such who are strong and healthy may do that Business, which to the
Weakly may be oppressive; and in performing that in a Day which is
esteem'd a Day's Labour, by weakly Persons in the Field and in the
Shops, and by weakly Women who spin and knit in the Manufactories, they
often pass through Weariness; and many Sighs I believe are uttered in
secret, unheard by some who might ease their Burdens.

Labour in the right Medium is healthy, but in too much of it there is a
painful Weariness; and the Hardships of the Poor are sometimes increased
through Want of a more agreeable Nourishment, more plentiful Fewel for
the Fire, and warmer Cloathing in the Winter than their Wages will
answer.

When I have beheld Plenty in some Houses to a Degree of Luxury, the
Condition of poor Children brought up without Learning, and the
Condition of the Weakly and Aged, who strive to live by their Labour,
have often revived in my Mind, as Cases of which some who live in
Fulness need to be put in Remembrance.

There are few, if any, could behold their Fellow Creatures lie long in
Distress and forbear to help them, when they could do it without any
Inconvenience; but Customs requiring much Labour to support them, do
often lie heavy on the Poor, while they who live in these Customs are so
entangled in a Multitude of unnecessary Concerns that they think but
little of the Hardships which the poor People go through.


CHAPTER III

    _On_ SILENT WORSHIP

Worship in Silence hath often been refreshing to my Mind, and a Care
attends me that a young Generation may feel the Nature of this Worship.

Great Expence ariseth in Relation to that which is call'd Divine
Worship.

A considerable Part of this Expence is applied toward outward Greatness,
and many poor People in raising of Tithe, labour in supporting Customs
contrary to the Simplicity that there is in Christ, toward whom my Mind
hath often been moved with Pity.

In pure silent Worship, we dwell under the Holy Anointing, and feel
Christ to be our Shepherd.

Here the best of Teachers ministers to the several Conditions of his
Flock, and the Soul receives immediately from the Divine Fountain, that
with which it is nourished.

As I have travelled at Times where those of other Societies have
attended our Meetings, and have perceiv'd how little some of them knew
of the Nature of silent Worship; I have felt tender Desires in my Heart
that we who often sit silent in our Meetings, may live answerable to the
Nature of an inward Fellowship with God, that no Stumbling-block through
us, may be laid in their Way.

Such is the Load of unnecessary Expence which lieth on that which is
called Divine Service in many Places, and so much are the Minds of many
People employ'd in outward Forms and Ceremonies, that the opening of an
inward silent Worship in this Nation to me hath appeared to be a
precious Opening.

Within the last four Hundred Years, many pious People have been deeply
exercised in Soul on Account of the Superstition which prevailed amongst
the professed Followers of Christ, and in support of their Testimony
against oppressive Idolatry, some in several Ages have finished their
Course in the Flames.

It appears by the History of the Reformation, that through the
Faithfulness of the Martyrs, the Understandings of many have been
opened, and the Minds of People, from Age to Age, been more and more
prepared for a real spiritual Worship.

My Mind is often affected with a Sense of the Condition of those People
who in different Ages have been meek and patient, following Christ
through great Afflictions: And while I behold the several Steps, of
Reformation, and that Clearness, to which through Divine Goodness, it
hath been brought by our Ancestors; I feel tender Desires that we who
sometimes meet in Silence, may never by our Conduct lay Stumbling-blocks
in the Way of others, and hinder the Progress of the Reformation in the
World.

It was a Complaint against some who were called the Lord's People, that
they brought polluted Bread to his Altar, and said the Table of the Lord
was contemptible.

In real silent Worship the Soul feeds on that which is Divine; but we
cannot partake of the Table of the Lord, and that Table which is
prepared by the God of this World.

If Christ is our Shepherd, and feedeth us, and we are faithful in
following him, our Lives will have an inviting Language, and the Table
of the Lord will not be polluted.



SOME EXPRESSIONS OF JOHN WOOLMAN IN HIS LAST ILNESS.

    _LONDON_:
    Printed by MARY HINDE.



SOME EXPRESSIONS, &c.

Being in the Course of his religious Visit at _York_, and having
attended most of the Sittings of the Quarterly-Meeting there, held in
the Ninth Month, 1772, he was taken ill of the _Small Pox_, in which
Disorder he continued about two Weeks, at Times under great Affliction
of Body, and then departed in full Assurance of a happy Eternity, as the
following Expressions, amongst others, taken from his own Mouth, do
plainly evidence.

One Day being asked how he felt himself, he meekly answered, "I don't
know that I have slept this Night: I feel the Disorder making its
Progress, but my Mind is mercifully preserved in Stillness and Peace."
Some Time after he said, "He was sensible the Pains of Death must be
hard to bear, but if he escaped them now, he must some Time pass through
them, and did not know he could be better prepared, but had no Will in
it." Said, "He had settled his outward Affairs to his Mind; had taken
Leave of his Wife and Family, as never to return, leaving them to the
Divine Protection:" Adding, "And though I feel them near to me at this
Time, yet I freely give them up, having an Hope they will be provided
for." And a little after said, "This Trial is made easier than I could
have thought, by my Will being wholly taken away; for if I was anxious
as to the Event, it would be harder, but I am not, and my Mind enjoys a
perfect Calm."

In the Night a young Woman having given him something to drink, he said,
"My Child, thou seemest very kind to me, a poor Creature, the Lord will
reward thee for it." A while after he cried out with great Earnestness
of Spirit, "Oh! my Father, my Father, how comfortable art thou to my
Soul in this trying Season." Being asked if he could take a little
Nourishment, after some Pause he replied, "My Child, I cannot tell what
to say to it: I seem nearly arrived where my Soul shall have Rest from
all its Troubles." After giving in something to be put into his Journal,
he said, "I believe the Lord will now excuse me from Exercises of this
Kind, and I see no Work but one, which is to be the last wrought by me
in this World; the Messenger will come that will release me from all
these Troubles, but it must be in the Lord's Time, which I am waiting
for." He said, "He had laboured to do whatever was required, according
to the Ability received, in the Remembrance of which he had Peace: And
though the Disorder was strong at Times, and would come over his Mind
like a Whirlwind, yet it had hitherto been kept steady, and center'd in
everlasting Love." Adding, "And if that's mercifully continued, I ask
nor desire no more."

At another Time he said, "He had long had a View of visiting this
Nation; and some Time before he came, he had a Dream, in which he saw
himself in the Northern Parts of it; and that the Spring of the Gospel
was opened in him, much as in the Beginning of Friends, such as _George
Fox_ and _William Dewsbury_; and he saw the different States of People
as clear as ever he had seen Flowers in a Garden; but in his going on he
was suddenly stopt, though he could not see for what End, but looked
towards Home, and in that fell into a Flood of Tears, which waked him."
At another Time he said, "My Draught seem'd strongest to the North, and
I mentioned in my own Monthly-Meeting, that attending the
Quarterly-Meeting at _York_, and being there, looked like Home to me."

Having repeatedly consented to take a Medicine with a View to settle his
Stomach, but without Effect, the Friend then waiting on him, said,
through Distress, "What shall I do now?" He answered with great
Composure, "Rejoice evermore, and in every Thing give Thanks." But added
a little after, "This is sometimes hard to come at."

One Morning early he brake forth in Supplication on this wise; "Oh Lord!
it was thy Power that enabled me to forsake Sin in my Youth, and I have
felt thy Bruises since for Disobedience, but as I bowed under them thou
healedst me; and though I have gone through many Trials and sore
Afflictions, thou hast been with me, continuing a Father and a Friend. I
feel thy Power now, and beg that in the approaching trying Moments, thou
wilt keep my Heart steadfast unto thee." Upon his giving the same Friend
Directions concerning some little Matters, she said, "I will take Care,
but hope thou mayst live to order them thyself;" he replied, "My Hope is
in Christ; and though I may now seem a little better, a Change in the
Disorder may soon happen, and my little Strength be dissolved, and if it
so happen, I shall be gather'd to my everlasting Rest." On her saying,
"She did not doubt that, but could not help mourning to see so many
faithful Servants removed at so low a Time," he said, "All Goodness
cometh from the Lord, whose Power is the same, and he can work as he
sees best." The same Day, after giving her Directions about wrapping his
Corpse, and perceiving her to weep, he said, "I had rather thou wouldst
guard against Weeping or Sorrowing for me, my Sister; I sorrow not,
though I have had some painful Conflicts; but now they seem over, and
Matters all settled, and I look at the Face of my dear Redeemer, for
sweet is his Voice, and his Countenance comely."

Being very weak, and in general difficult to be understood, he uttered a
few Words in Commemoration of the Lord's Goodness to him; and added,
"How tenderly have I been waited upon in this Time of Affliction, in
which I may say in _Job's_ Words, _Tedious Days and wearisome Nights are
appointed unto me_; and how many are spending their Time and Money in
Vanity and Superfluities, while Thousands and Tens of Thousands want the
Necessaries of Life, who might be relieved by them, and their Distresses
at such a Time as this, in some degree softened by the administring of
suitable Things."

An Apothecary who attended him of his own Accord (he being unwilling to
have any sent for) appeared very anxious to assist him, with whom
conversing, he queried about the Probability of such a Load of Matter
being thrown off his weak Body, and the Apothecary making some Remarks,
implying he thought it might, he spoke with an audible Voice on this
wise: "My Dependance is in the Lord Jesus Christ, who I trust will
forgive my Sins, which is all I hope for; and if it be his Will to raise
up this Body again, I am content, and if to die I am resigned: And if
thou canst not be easy without trying to assist Nature, in order to
lengthen out my Life, I submit." After this, his Throat was so much
affected, that it was very difficult for him to speak so as to be
understood, and he frequently wrote when he wanted any Thing. About the
second Hour on Fourth-day Morning, being the 7th of the Tenth Month,
1772, he asked for Pen and Ink, and at several Times, with much
Difficulty, wrote thus: "I believe my being here is in the Wisdom of
Christ; I know not as to Life or Death." About a Quarter before Six the
same Morning, he seemed to fall into an easy Sleep, which continued
about half an Hour, when seeming to awake, he breathed a few Times with
more Difficulty, and so expired without Sigh, Groan, or Struggle.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Note_, He often said, "It was hid from him, whether he might recover,
or not, and he was not desirous to know it; but from his own Feeling of
the Disorder, and his feeble Constitution, thought he should not."


FINIS


THE TEMPLE PRESS, PRINTERS, LETCHWORTH





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we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
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Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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