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Title: Motor Truck Logging Methods - Engineering Experiment Station Series, Bulletin No. 12
Author: Knapp, Frederick Malcolm
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Motor Truck Logging Methods - Engineering Experiment Station Series, Bulletin No. 12" ***

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  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                                   |
  |                      Transcriber's Notes:                         |
  |                                                                   |
  |* Words printed in italics in the original document are represented|
  |  here between underscores, as in _text_; bold text is similarly   |
  |  represented between =, as in =text=. Small caps in the original  |
  |  have been converted to ALL CAPITALS.                             |
  |* Some of the tables have been laid out differently than in the    |
  |  original book, with every effort made to keep the original data  |
  |  and meaning unchanged.                                           |
  |* All inconsistencies in spelling, lay-out, hyphenation, etc. in   |
  |  the original document have been preserved in this text, except   |
  |  when mentioned below.                                            |
  |* Changes made to the original text:                               |
  |  * page 5: 'and the used of' changed to 'and the use of';         |
  |  * page 13: 'distance, is it, of course' changed to 'distance,    |
  |    it is, of course';                                             |
  |  * page 13: 'four year depreciation' changed to 'four-year        |
  |    depreciation';                                                 |
  |  * page 16: 'twisting the the rubber' changed to 'twisting of     |
  |    the rubber';                                                   |
  |  * page 26: 'page --' changed to 'page 25';                       |
  |  * page 39: 'plank' changed to 'planks';                          |
  |  * page 39: 'is handy' changed to 'is a handy';                   |
  |  * page 46, table: 'A.M.' moved down one row, similar to 'P.M.'   |
  |    further down in the table;                                     |
  |  * Table of Contents: page number '4' changed to '5' (2 changes); |
  |  * Table of Contents: 'Loading and Hauling' changed to 'Loading   |
  |    and Unloading' as in text;                                     |
  |  * Table of Contents: 'Fires' changed to 'Tires' as in text.      |
  |* Footnotes have been moved to directly below the paragraph or     |
  |  table to which they refer.                                       |
  |* Other issues:                                                    |
  |  * Page 33 contained a reference to an illustration on page 40,   |
  |    but this page has no illustration. The reference has been      |
  |    changed to 'page 38', which is probably the illustration the   |
  |    author intended.                                               |
  |  * Both 'Meicklejohn and Brown' and 'Meickeljohn and Brown' occur |
  |    in the text, as do 'Hillard' and Hilliard'.                    |
  |                                                                   |
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The Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Washington was
established in December, 1917, in order to coördinate investigations in
progress and to facilitate the development of engineering and industrial
research in the University. Its purpose is to aid in the industrial
development of the state and nation by scientific research and by
furnishing information for the solution of engineering problems.

     The scope of the work is twofold:--

     (a) To investigate and to publish information concerning
     engineering problems of a more or less general nature that would
     be helpful in municipal, rural and industrial affairs.

     (b) To undertake extended research and to publish reports on
     engineering and scientific problems.

The control of the Station is vested in a Station Staff consisting of
the President of the University, the Dean of the College of Engineering
as ex-officio Director, and seven members of the Faculty. The Staff
determines the character of the investigations to be undertaken and
supervises the work. For administrative purposes the work of the Station
is organized into seven divisions--

  1. Forest Products
  2. Mining and Metallurgy
  3. Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry
  4. Civil Engineering
  5. Electrical Engineering
  6. Mechanical Engineering
  7. Physics Standards and Tests

The results of the investigations are published in the form of
bulletins. Requests for copies of the bulletins and inquiries for
information on engineering and industrial problems should be addressed
to the Director, Engineering Experiment Station, University of
Washington, Seattle.



  BULLETIN

  UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

  ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

  ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION SERIES

  BULLETIN NO. 12

  MOTOR TRUCK LOGGING METHODS

  BY

  FREDERICK MALCOLM KNAPP

  Student in the College of Forestry,
  University of Washington.

  [Illustration]

  SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
  PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE UNIVERSITY
  APRIL, 1921

  Entered as second class matter, at Seattle, under the Act of
  July 16, 1894.



CONTENTS


                                                                    Page

  INTRODUCTION                                                         5

  HISTORY OF TRUCK LOGGING                                             5
  First use of motor truck in logging--Development of logging
  trailer--Possibilities in the use of motor trucks.

  TRANSPORTATION OF LOGS--RAILROADS VERSUS MOTOR TRUCKS                7
  Comparative advantages and uses of motor trucks and railroads--
  Relative cost of road construction--Advantage of flexibility of
  motor trucks.

  COSTS                                                                8
  Operating costs of a typical 5-ton truck--Actual cash outlay--
  Total expense--Variable charges--Recapitulation of work
  performed.

  ROLLING STOCK EQUIPMENT                                             10
  Rigid versus flexible truck bodies--Chain drive versus worm
  drive--Weight of trucks--Speed--Depreciation.

  INSURANCE                                                           14
  Fire and theft insurance--Collision insurance--Liability
  insurance--Property damage insurance.

  TRUCK EQUIPMENT                                                     14
  Bunks--Tires--Relative advantages of different types of  tires
  --Laws governing operation of motor vehicles--Legal limit of
  weight of load--Chain drives--Tops.

  TRAILERS                                                            17
  Draw-bar pull of motor trucks--Effect of grades on draw-bar
  pull--Advantage of trailer--Description of trailer--Brakes on
  trailer--Air brakes on trailers.

  LIFE AND DEPRECIATION                                               20

  COST DATA                                                           20
  Operating expenses for 3½ and 5-ton trucks--Fixed charges--
  Total expenses.

  ROAD CONSTRUCTION                                                   24
  Sub-grade--Cross-plank roads--Fore and aft pole roads--Cement
  roads--Guard rails--Cost of road construction.

  BRIDGES                                                             36

  TURNING DEVICES AND TURNOUTS                                        37
  Construction of turn-tables--Turning of trucks.

  TELEPHONES                                                          39

  INCLINES                                                            39
  Snubbing methods--Practicability of inclines.

  YARDING                                                             41

  LOADING AND HAULING                                                 41
  Methods of loading trucks--Loading with boom--Rigging of
  boom--Unloading.

  TIME STUDIES                                                        45

  CONCLUSION                                                          46
  Future use of the motor truck--Motor trucks and forestry.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                        48



INTRODUCTION


In this paper an attempt has been made to bring together some useful
facts concerning the application of the motor truck to the logging
industry. The term "motor truck" as here used is applied to the ordinary
truck type of motor vehicle with trailer adapted to carrying logs, and
does not include the "tractor" and the "caterpillar tractor." These
latter types present special problems of their own. In the following
pages the discussion of motor truck logging is premised upon conditions
as they exist in the forests of the Pacific Northwest.



HISTORY OF TRUCK LOGGING


Motor trucks in the logging industry are a comparatively recent
development. As nearly as can be determined, the first use of a truck in
a logging operation was made in this region by Palms and Shields near
Covington, Washington, in the spring of 1913. Since that time various
types of road construction suitable for heavy trucks have been devised
and the use of the motor truck for logging has steadily increased until
at the present time there are about six hundred trucks operating in the
woods in the Northwest.

The first real progress in the use of the motor truck for logging
purposes came with the development of the trailer. Although the motor
truck has been brought to its present high state of perfection in
eastern factories the problem of adapting it to the hauling of massive
logs was solved in Seattle, Washington, with the perfecting of a trailer
which could carry unprecedented loads and stand up under the speed
attained by a motor truck. In the early attempts to design a trailer,
it was found that too great tractive effort on the part of the truck
was required if the trailer was patterned after older types with
simply increased dimensions in all of its parts. Through successive
improvements the modern form of heavy duty trailer was finally evolved.
It has solved a serious problem by permitting the hauling of heavier
weights with the aid of the trailer than is possible with the use of the
truck alone. With the help of the trailer and an adjustable reach, the
motor truck has successfully entered the logging field.

In the Pacific Northwest tracts of timber of sufficient area well
situated for economical logging by old established methods are no longer
plentiful. Almost every logging chance which exists today presents its
own peculiar conditions and individual problems. An operator must
therefore analyze the situation thoroughly before arriving at a decision
as to the most economical logging methods that will apply in any
particular case. Even in different sections of the same operation it is
often necessary to use different methods. Since proper cost accounting
systems are not usually kept by logging companies, particularly the
smaller concerns, these companies often do not know that they are losing
money upon one part of an operation because the success of the whole
absorbs this loss.

[Illustration: Pioneer logging with a motor truck in 1913.]

The use of a motor truck has proved to be practicable in many instances,
and bids fair to become of increasing importance. It will therefore
be advantageous for every operator to inquire into its possible
applications. It should be emphasized, however, that the motor truck is
not economically adapted to all conditions. There have been many
failures. Each projected application of the motor truck in the logging
field must be thoroughly analyzed and if a doubt as to its successful
performance exists, expert advice should be sought.



TRANSPORTATION OF LOGS--RAILROADS VERSUS MOTOR TRUCKS


The principal methods of transporting logs are by rail, by motor truck
and by animal power. The last of these methods is, for obvious reasons,
impracticable in the Northwest, and so needs no further comment. While
it is impossible to give specific details in a general discussion of
this kind to show where the motor truck may be more economically suited
to the conditions at hand than the railroad, a comparison of the
fundamental principles involved should enable any operator familiar with
logging to determine whether or not to use the truck for his particular
chance.

In general the choice between railroad and motor truck logging depends,
fundamentally, upon two things: (1) comparative cost, and (2)
adaptability. Sufficient motive power and rolling stock can be obtained
much more cheaply for motor truck logging than for a railroad. There
are, of course, many situations where the locomotive and car costs, as
well as those of constructing a logging railroad, are obviously
prohibitive, and the question revolves entirely upon the adaptability of
the motor truck to existing conditions. There is no question at all that
the logging railroad is not adapted to small, isolated and scattering
tracts, and to certain portions of larger operations. There are almost
innumerable tracts situated close to public highways, or where temporary
roads can be built, which may be very serviceable during the summer
months, giving ample time to clean up the timber before wet weather sets
in. In such instances, road construction and maintenance costs are of
very minor importance. In the larger operations and in the use of the
motor truck as an auxiliary to railroad logging, there are many
opportunities for the reduction of logging costs. However, it is
impossible to discuss these problems specifically in a paper of this
kind. They will need to be worked out on the ground with each case as a
distinct problem. The fundamental problems covered in this paper will
serve as a basis for the more detailed problems that must be solved on
the ground.

Wherever the item of road construction is important, it may be stated in
general that the time required and the cost of building roads for motor
trucks are very much less than for a logging railroad. This is due to
the lesser importance of grades, curves, ballasting, bridges and other
construction work, all of which is much cheaper and takes less time. In
case a pole road is built the material found adjacent to the right of
way can be utilized for what it costs to fell it.

From the standpoint of adaptability the motor truck is very flexible. It
can operate on grades and curves that are impossible with the railroad.
The whole logging equipment, including the donkey engine, can be loaded
on the truck and trailer and easily moved from one setting to another.
By replacing the log bunk with a platform the truck can take out all the
smaller marketable material, such as shingle bolts, poles and cordwood.
The modern truck can also be provided with the necessary equipment for
use in snaking out the logs in stands of small timber and when used with
a winch and an "A" shaped boom, will load itself. If the truck becomes
mired in a mud hole, the winch may be used to pull it out. Finally, the
item of fire risk is practically negligible.



COSTS


In order to arrive at definite figures as a basis for a comparison
between railroad and motor truck transportation costs, the following
case is cited as an example representing average good conditions:[1] A
5-ton truck with trailer was used, operating on a seven and one-half
mile haul over ordinary unpaved roads. An average of four trips a day
were made and the actual running expense for hauling was $.90½ per
thousand feet. Adding to this the overhead expenses of interest,
depreciation, etc., the total cost of hauling was $1.44 per thousand
feet. The statement of this cost is as follows:


ACTUAL CASH OUTLAY IN HAULING 128,420 BOARD FEET OF LOGS

  Gasoline, 284 gallons @ $.19                   $53.96
  Oil, 3 gallons @ $.60                            1.80
  Oil, 20½ gallons @ $.45                          9.23
  Incidentals--One electric light globe             .35
    Hardware                                       4.03
    Blacksmith                                     3.00
  Driver, 11 days @ $4.00                         44.00
                                               --------
                  Total                         $116.37

128,420 feet @ $116.37, or $.90½ per thousand feet.

  [1] West Coast Lumberman. Nov. 1, 1916, page 266. Labor, gas and oil
      have since advanced in cost.


TOTAL EXPENSE OF HAULING 128,420 BOARD FEET OF LOGS

  Investment:
    Chassis                        $4,900.00
    Trailer                           700.00
                                  ----------
    Total Investment               $5,600.00


VARIABLE CHARGES

  Gasoline, 284 gallons @ $.19                           $53.96
  Oil, 3 gallons @ $.60                                    1.80
  Oil, 20½ gallons @ $.45                                  9.23
  Tires, $.07½ per mile on 615 miles                      46.12
  Incidentals                                              7.43
                                                        -------
                    Total variable charges              $118.54

  Depreciation  (based on 15% per annum on $5,600, less
    $560, the cost of the tires, or $5,040.00)            $1.349
  Interest on amortized value at 7%                         .63
  Storage, $5.00 a month                                    .20
  Driver @ $4.00 a day                                     4.00
                                                        --------
                   Total fixed charges                    $6.179

  Total variable charges                          $118.54
  Total fixed charges at $6.179 a day for 11 days   67.97
                                                  -------
                  Total cost                      $186.51

128,420 board feet of logs @ $186.51, or $1.44 per 1000 feet.


Following is a recapitulation of the work performed by a 5-ton logging
truck, Jan. 20 to Jan. 31, 1916, inclusive. The logs were hauled from
O'Neill's Camp on the Bothell-Everett road 7½ miles and dumped into Lake
Washington at Bothell.


   Date    Trips   Mileage  No. Ft. Hauled   Gas Used   Oil Used

  1/20/16    4       60        10,768           30       2.25
  1/21/16    4       60        11,888           24       2.25
  1/22/16    4       60        11,707           30       2.25
  1/23/16 Did not haul. Roads in bad condition.
  1/24/16    4       60         8,894           34       2.25
  1/25/16    2       30         5,200           16    [2]1.00
  1/26/16    4       60        16,174           29       2.25
  1/27/16    4       60        11,276           25       2.25
  1/28/16    4       60        15,514           26       2.25
  1/29/16    4       60        15,511           31       2.25
  1/30/16    3       45         9,152           20    [3]2.25
  1/31/16    4       60        12,336           19       2.25
            --      ---       -------          ---      -----
   Total    41      615       128,420          284      23.50

  [2] Freight truck in the ditch. Four hours lost getting the road
      cleared.

  [3] Two hours lost at the landing due to a spring slipping out of
      place, which made it necessary to unload and load again.


Many loggers who have used both the steam railroad and the motor truck
claim that the latter is preferable in some cases and often is the only
method by means of which logs can be gotten to the mill at a reasonable
cost. Where the stand is scattered and of poor quality, the building of
a railroad is not practical. In such a case the motor truck may offer
the only solution.

The motor truck makes the best showing when hauling from one "side."
With a two or three side operation the railroad is by far the more
practical. It must be remembered, however, that the railroad and the
motor truck are not competitors in the logging industry--they are
allies.



ROLLING STOCK EQUIPMENT


In general two plans are followed in building a motor truck. The first
is to build a rigid truck so that it will resist all shocks and
distortions that come from rough and uneven roads. The second plan is to
build a flexible body so that the chassis will "give" rather than resist
when subjected to hard strains. Although the rigidly-built truck may be
entirely satisfactory for most forms of trucking, it is practically
impossible to build one on the rigid principle that will stand up under
the heavy strains to which a logging truck is subjected unless it is to
be operated over good paved roads. When only ordinary unpaved public
roads are available, flexibility is one of the most important
characteristics to look for when selecting a truck. Where the operator
is hauling over his own pole or plank road this consideration does not
play so important a part, as the road bed then is more likely to be free
from holes and irregularities.

All makes of trucks are more or less alike in general construction,
differing only in minor details, so that the personal whims of the buyer
will largely determine the kind he will select. It is advantageous to
have as long a distance as possible between the driver's seat and the
bunk over the rear axle, in order to allow more of the load to be
carried by the truck, and less by the trailer, giving better traction to
the drive wheels, but necessitating extra strong rear springs and axles.

The type of power transmission best suited to the use of the logging
truck is a question that has received a great deal of attention. There
are three general methods of transmitting the power: (1) by chain; (2)
by worm drive, and (3) by internal gear drive. Each has its advantages.
It is claimed by many that the chain drive saves many hours of
"shut-down time" due to the fact that if anything breaks in the
transmission, it will be a link in the chain as this is the weakest
point. It is then only a matter of a few minutes to insert another link.
With the worm driven vehicle, a break in the transmission requires an
expensive shut-down before the matter can be repaired. The worm drive,
on the other hand, very seldom breaks if proper care is used.

The chain drive also allows the replacement of the sprocket with one of
a larger or smaller diameter thereby giving a higher or lower gear
ratio, which cannot be done with the worm gear. This seems to be of some
advantage to an operator when changing his setting from one with a short
haul and steep grades where a low gear ratio is required, to one where
the haul is long and fairly level, and where speed in transit is an
advantage.

On the other hand, in starting on slippery grades or wherever the
traction is poor, the worm drive will give better traction than a chain
drive because there is difficulty in taking up the slack that is always
present in the chain before letting in the clutch fully. The slightest
jerk given to the wheels when the slack is taken up is likely to cause
them to spin, thereby losing all the tractive power of the drive wheels.
In the worm gear there is no slack to take up and the power can be
applied more gradually, thus reducing the chances of spinning the wheels
and losing the traction.

The question of the weight of the truck used for logging purposes is not
as important now as it will be in the future. Laws are being passed in
nearly every state limiting the maximum weight to be carried on each
wheel by trucks using state or county roads so that the total weight of
the truck without load will be important. When operating over state or
county roads the load is limited to from 2400 to 3000 feet, B. M., of
Douglas fir, depending upon the locality. In such cases, it is an
advantage to have a lighter truck, say one of 3½ tons capacity. By
adding additional leaves to the rear springs of a truck of this capacity
it may be made to carry a larger load than it would be possible to put
on a 5-ton truck and still comply with the law. The pulling power of the
3½-ton truck and the 5-ton truck is practically the same so that the
difference in dead weight between the two may be carried in a profitable
manner by adding four or five hundred feet B. M. of logs. Another
advantage of the lighter weight truck is _speed_. The 3½-ton truck is
geared to make from 14 to 16 miles an hour, while the 5-ton truck is
usually limited to from 10 to 12 miles an hour.

Whenever the legal weight limit does not enter into the problem, as in
operating over a pole or plank road for the entire distance, it is, of
course, advantageous to carry the largest loads possible. In such cases
a 5-ton truck with an 8½-ton trailer is the most profitable investment.
This allows a much larger load to be carried in proportion to the
overhead charges. The disadvantage of the 5-ton truck is that it is very
heavy and unless the roads are good, it will easily sink into the ground
and cause trouble. A common fault of the 5-ton truck today is the
overweight of the front end, which is too heavy for the width of tire on
the front wheels. This can be very easily overcome by the use of wider
tires.



LIFE AND DEPRECIATION


The life of a truck is directly proportional to the care that it
receives, hence, a good driver is a most important consideration. If the
right man can be secured his wages should be a secondary consideration.

The charge to be made for the depreciation of a truck is an uncertain
question. Some loggers figure on the basis of four and a half years,
others on as much as seven years. The depreciation charge on a truck
used in the logging industry should depend largely upon the type of road
over which it is operated. Loggers in general over-rate the life of
their equipment because they do not fully realize the severity of the
work. Over a fore and aft plank road or a cement road, where the jar and
vibration are reduced to a minimum, the wear and tear on the equipment
is very much less than where the truck is operated over a cross-plank
road or an unpaved public road. The matter of depreciation, then, will
depend largely upon the type of road over which the truck is to operate.
In general a four-year depreciation charge less 25% sale value at the
end of that time should be used as a basis for figuring costs unless the
hauling conditions are very favorable. Only under very rare
circumstances should more than four years be allowed. It should be
remembered that the depreciation on a truck is very heavy during the
first year, and the sale value at the end of a year is only half the
original price. Many truck operators now hauling over good roads who are
depreciating on the basis of five years say that a four-year
depreciation would be more nearly correct. Another factor in favor of a
four-year depreciation charge is that methods of logging are changing
constantly and that trucks in that time may be improved upon to such an
extent that the use of the old equipment would be unprofitable and
inefficient.

[Illustration: Swivel bunk on truck equipped for motor truck logging.
The base on which the bunk rests is made of two heavy timbers about 18
inches by 24 inches in section and 4 feet long, bolted together and
clamped to the frame of the truck by means of heavy N-bolts, (D). The
bunk is fastened by a king-pin (E) to the base and is free to rotate
upon a steel center plate and two side-bearing plates (F).]



INSURANCE


The insurance rates on trucks depend upon the use to which they are put.
The insurance usually carried by loggers covers fire and theft, although
some companies also carry liability and either collision or property
damage insurance. The equipment can be insured for only ninety per cent
of its value.

Fire and theft insurance is based upon the list price of the truck and
body when new and the usual premium for the logging truck is one dollar
for every hundred dollars of insured value. Theft rates on the trailer
are based on a flat charge of twenty-five cents per hundred dollars of
insurance taken, regardless of age, list price, etcetera.

Collision insurance is based upon the list price of the equipment and
covers full value at the time of loss of the damage to the truck by
colliding with anything movable or immovable.

The liability rate for logging trucks is $33.75 and is based upon
occupation alone. This covers the public as well as the employee and is
limited to $5,000 for one person and $10,000 for two persons or more.

The property damage rate for logging trucks is $13.50, and covers the
damage done to the property of others. It is arrived at in the same way
as liability insurance. The usual limit for property damage is $1,000.



TRUCK EQUIPMENT


_Bunks._ All trucks for use in log hauling are equipped with a patent
bunk over the rear axle on which the logs rest (see illustration on page
13). This is essentially a steel I-beam (A) which grips the logs so that
they will not slip. At each end of the bunk are V-shaped iron
chock-blocks (B) held by chains which run under the I-beam and are
fastened by an iron gooseneck hook (C) so that the load is kept from
spreading. These blocks may be adjusted to any width of load. The whole
bunk is mounted on a swivel so that it will turn with the logs when
rounding a sharp turn in the road. When dumping the logs at the landing,
each block is loosened from the opposite side so that the danger of the
logs rolling off on the men is greatly lessened.

_Tires._ Solid rubber tires are generally conceded to be the best suited
for the heavy duty required in logging. The use of steel tires is
rapidly declining. The jar on the equipment is in itself enough to
condemn their use. Rubber tires double the mileage of a day's work, more
than double the life of the equipment, allow the weight of the equipment
to be cut in half, and work well on dirt, cement, or any other type of
road. The saving on the life of a pole or plank road by the use of
rubber tires is also an item of considerable importance. There are three
general types of solid rubber tires in use on the logging truck: the
so-called giant tires, the duals, and the non-skid or caterpillar tires.
It is a question as to which of the three is the best. Traction for the
drive wheels and also for the trailer wheels, if the latter are equipped
with brakes, is the problem to be solved.

The duals are satisfactory with light loads and easy grades, on cement,
brick, or other perfect surface road, but when the haul is heavy and the
braking difficult on account of heavy grades, the larger single-tread
giant tires are more efficient. During dry weather it is safe to work
with the single-tread tires on grades as high as nine or ten per cent,
but in wet weather a seven per cent grade should be the maximum unless
some extra means are taken to secure traction, and even then the wheels
will skid if particles of soil get on the surface of a plank road,
unless chains are used or the wheel is wrapped with a light cable.[4]
For very heavy-duty trucking, where resiliency and long service are
prime considerations, the giant type is rapidly superseding the old dual
type as the former contains more rubber and gives more mileage with the
least truck vibration.

  [4] West Coast Lumberman. October, 1919. Page 25.

The non-skid or caterpillar tire may well be used on heavy grades or
where the traction is very poor, the general opinion being that it gives
a firmer grip on the road and makes it safer to handle the truck in wet
weather.

There is no standard width of tread for truck wheels. The widths usually
used on the drive wheels of the logging truck and the wheels of the
trailer are twelve and fourteen inches, respectively. The use of tires
of smaller width on either trailer or truck cannot be recommended. The
wider the tires on the trailer, the better it is both for the life of
the equipment and for ease in handling the load. When the surface of the
giant tires becomes worn down so that the grooves become very shallow,
it is desirable to have the tires re-grooved. They will last a great
deal longer if this is done and will also give better traction on the
road. The groove makes the tire lobes act separately on the uneven
places in the road so that only one lobe is subjected to the strain of
the irregularities instead of the whole tire. This is also true with
reference to the strains that are set up internally due to the twisting
of the rubber.


     LAWS GOVERNING THE OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES

     The Laws governing the operation of motor vehicles upon the
     public highways of the State of Washington are contained and
     summarized in Senate Bill No. 220, Session of 1921 of the
     Legislature of the State of Washington. They include the
     following provisions governing the operation of motor trucks and
     trailers:

     (a) Chapter 153 of the laws of 1913 and Chapter 142 of the laws
     of 1915 are repealed.

     (b) Motor truck vehicles weighing less than 1,500 pounds must pay
     an annual license fee of ten dollars ($10.00); Trucks weighing
     more than 1,500 pounds and not to exceed 6,500 pounds, ten
     dollars ($10.00) plus forty cents per hundredweight for all in
     excess of 1,500 pounds and in addition thereto fifty cents per
     hundredweight at the rated carrying capacity. Motor trucks
     weighing more than 6,500 pounds must pay a license fee of ten
     dollars ($10.00) plus fifty cents per hundredweight for all in
     excess of 1,500 pounds and in addition thereto fifty cents per
     hundredweight at the rated carrying capacity. Trailers =used as
     trucks= shall be classified and rated as, and shall pay the same
     fees as hereinbefore provided for motor trucks of like weight and
     capacity.

     (c) No vehicle of four wheels or less whose gross weight with
     load is over 24,000 pounds is permitted to operate over or along
     a public highway. Any vehicle having a greater weight than 22,400
     pounds on one axle, or any vehicle having a combined weight of
     800 pounds per inch-width of tire concentrated upon the surface
     of the highway (said width of tire in the case of solid rubber
     tires to be measured between the flanges of the rim) is also
     barred by the provisions of this law, with the following
     exception:

     PROVIDED, that in special cases vehicles whose weight including
     loads whose weight exceeds those herein prescribed, may operate
     under special written permits, which must be first obtained and
     under such terms and conditions as to time, route, equipment,
     speed and otherwise as shall be determined by the director of
     licenses if it is desired to use a state highway; the county
     commissioners, if it is desired to use a county road; the city or
     town council, if it is desired to use a city or town street; from
     each of which officer or officers such permit shall be obtained
     in the respective cases. Provided, that no motor truck or trailer
     shall be driven over or on a public highway with a load exceeding
     the licensed capacity.


_Chain Drive._ Trucks equipped with a chain drive should be supplied
with an extra set of chains so that they may be changed and cleaned
every week. To clean the chains, they should be soaked in kerosene which
removes the dirt, grease and gum that has accumulated. By doing this the
life of the chains will be quadrupled. The small amount of time that it
takes will pay.

_Top._ The truck should come equipped with a top over the driver's seat
that is easily detachable. In bad weather the driver should be protected
from the elements, but the top should be removed in good weather as it
is in constant danger of being broken during loading. Many operators
leave the top off entirely and the driver must dress for the weather. A
good demountable top will add to the comfort of the men and often helps
to keep a good man at his job.



TRAILERS


The development of the trailer has made motor truck logging practical.
Every truck has greater tractive power than it can utilize in the
propulsion of the ordinary load. Its limitations are due to a short-bulk
carrying capacity and not to any lack of pulling power. The ordinary
truck has a draw-bar pull of 2600 pounds. The draw-bar pull per ton of
load varies from the minimum of 50 pounds on a level pavement to 250
pounds on a level dirt road, depending upon the character of surface.[5]
Twenty pounds of additional pull are required for each degree of
gradient. For example, a fore and aft plank road offers a resistance of
about 60 pounds pull to a ton of load. If this were located on a seven
per cent grade, it would require a 60 pound pull to overcome the load
resistance plus seven times twenty or 140 pounds additional pull for the
grade, a total of 200 pounds to pull one ton. Dividing 2600, the
draw-bar pull of the truck, by 200, the resistance offered by road and
grade, gives 13 tons as the load that can be pulled by the truck over
this surface and grade. As this must include the weight of the trailer,
which when equipped for logging is about three tons, it leaves a total
of 10 tons that the truck can pull. This is equivalent to about 3000
feet B. M. of Douglas fir logs, the average load that is hauled. While
such an adverse grade as cited in this illustration is avoided if
possible with a loaded truck, the illustration will serve to show the
pulling capacity of the truck. The hauling of loads of this size would
be impossible without the use of the trailer. The normal load, then, may
be increased two, three, or even four times, by the use of the trailer,
over the maximum load that can be carried by the truck alone.

  [5] Operating Cost of Motor Truck Computed. Timberman. Feb., 1918.
      Page 60.

Objection to the trailer that it tends to shorten the life of the truck
is hardly worth consideration. According to a careful analysis it has
been estimated that the use of the trailer does not shorten the life of
the truck by more than one year, which is of little consequence when the
saving due to the size of the load that can be carried is taken into
consideration.

_Description of the Trailer_: The frame of the trailer is constructed of
heavy steel channel bars which support the twin bunks used for logging,
and for the substructure to carry the body when used for other service.
The steel frame is supported by semi-elliptic springs held by shackles
similar to those of the truck. The springs rest securely upon the axle,
are clamped to it by U-bolts, and are relieved from side stresses by
radius rods which connect the axle to the frame.

The trailer is coupled to the truck by a reach which is passed through
guides secured to the hounds of the trailer. The latter may slide upon
the reach and is held in the desired position with reference to the
truck by means of clamps. The hounds are located fore and aft of the
axle and are connected to it by steel plates. The square reach is more
favored generally by loggers than the round type for the reason that it
can be more easily adjusted, particularly the round reach that is cut in
the woods, which is irregular and has to be clamped very tightly in
order to make it stay in place. Holes bored through the square reach
makes the adjustment easy. Combination steel and wood reaches, the sides
being of channel iron and the center of wood, are favored by some
operators.

The twin bunks of the trailer carry the load in balance upon the axle
independent of the reach, thereby relieving the reach of all vertical
stress. (See illustration below). The rear bunk is just an ordinary
wooden affair designed only to help support the weight of the logs. The
front bunk is of the same construction as the one on the truck
(described above) and serves to hold the load in place.

[Illustration: Type of trailer adapted for heavy Pacific coast logging.]

The trailer is guided through the reach directly to the axles, thus
relieving the springs and frame from side stresses. The springs and
their suspension from the frame permit a limited movement of the frame
and the load independent of the wheels and axles and vice versa. This
enables the wheels to pass over an obstruction or drop into a hole
without subjecting the trailer to shocks that would otherwise ensue.

Other types of trailers are used to a limited extent. The trailer
described above was evolved by local engineers and is in almost
universal use in motor truck logging operations.

_Brakes._ All trailers should be equipped with brakes when negotiating
heavy grades. A device connecting the trailer brakes to the truck
permits a ready control from the driver's seat on the truck. The brake
outfit is easily attached to the truck and consists of a ratchet and
lever which winds a one-quarter inch cable on a small drum. The cable
winds around a second drum which is attached to the frame of the truck
about six feet back of the driver's seat. A third drum in the center of
the chassis attached to the shaft of the second drum winds a cable which
goes to an equalizing bar just in front of the trailer brake. As the
ratchet and drum are tightened, the motion is transmitted through the
second and third drums to the equalizing bar. Two arms extend from this
bar to roads which when pulled forward, move a bar attached to the road
in such a way that the brake band in the inside of the brake shoe is
extended against the shoe, applying the brakes evenly to each wheel no
matter how uneven the road-bed or how sharp the curve. A spring attached
to the reach clamp pulls back the equalizing bar when the brakes are
released. A heavy spring on the drum in the center of the shaft on the
truck allows for curves so that an even pressure is always maintained.

The use of a trailer equipped with brakes will do away with the numerous
devices for snubbing a load of logs down a grade not steeper than twelve
per cent. Grades up to this degree of steepness are safe to operate over
in dry weather without added braking power if the trailer is properly
equipped.

A simple and it is claimed an effective air brake for motor trucks and
trailers is now being marketed by an air-brake concern of San Francisco
but it has not yet been tried out in the logging industry. "Braking
action is secured by means of a diaphragm and pressure plate. The
diaphragm is directly connected to the brake-band lever. No air
compressor is used in this system. A small air receiver or storage tank
takes the spent gases from one of the cylinders by utilizing the outlet
afforded by a priming cock. The brakes are applied by a control system
mounted on the steering column. By means of a quickly adjusted hose
connection, air can be applied to the wheels of the trailer using the
control which governs the braking of the truck. The air pressure in the
storage tank is automatically maintained by means of an accumulator
valve which closes when the tank pressure reaches 150 to 175 pounds. If
the tank should be empty at the top of a long grade, sufficient pressure
is generated by the compression of the engine to operate the brakes.
Opening the throttle to full emergency position will apply maximum
braking effect without sliding the wheels."[6]

  [6] Air Brakes for Trucks. Timberman. March, 1920. Page 48g.

This system has not been tried out under the conditions as found in the
woods but if it can be made to work satisfactorily it will be a big
improvement over the old system as the driver will then have
instantaneous control over the load at all times.



LIFE AND DEPRECIATION


The life of the trailer is about the same as that of the truck, and in
depreciation, a period of four years is usually allowed. The maintenance
and upkeep of the trailer is very low. It rarely gives out and with the
ordinary usage requires only a few minor repairs every two or three
years.



COST DATA


The items of expense are here segregated in such a manner that they may
be used as a basis for figuring the cost of hauling logs under average
conditions. These costs are for the truck and trailer as a unit. If a
road has to be built, the overhead charge of the road per thousand feet
of timber hauled over it together with the cost of upkeep must be added
to the figures given below in order to know the total cost of
transportation per thousand feet.


3000 FOOT CAPACITY, OUTFIT COMPLETE

The following figures are for a 3½-ton logging truck with a 5-ton
trailer. The figures are based upon a 275 working day year.

  Cost of equipment (as a basis)                                $6700.00
      Less resale value at expiration of 4 years at
        25% of the original cost                     $1675.00
      Less cost of tires,
        2--36" × 6"           $140.50
        4--40" × 12"           776.00                  916.50
                            --------                 --------
         Total                $916.50                $2591.50    2591.50
                                                                --------
                 Basis for computing                            $4108.50


RUNNING EXPENSES PER MILE

                                                                Per Mile
  Tires, based on a cost of $916.50 and a life of 8000 miles     $ .1145
  Gasoline, four miles to a gallon @ $ .28 per gal.                .07
  Oil and grease                                                   .02
  General repairs                                                  .03
                                                                --------
        Total running expenses per mile                          $ .2345


FIXED CHARGES PER 275 WORKING DAY YEAR

  Depreciation, based on 25% per year on $4108.50              $1027.12
  Interest on money invested at 6% (figured on truck less
      cost of tires)                                             347.01
  Driver at $7.00 a day                                         1925.00
  License                                                         27.00
  Insurance, Fire, Theft and Liability based on $1 a hundred
    on 90% of the value of the new truck for fire and theft,
    and a flat rate of $33.75 for liability                       90.75
                                                                -------
  Total fixed charges for 275 day year                         $3416.88
  Total fixed charges per day                                     12.418


TOTAL EXPENSES

                                 30      40      50       60      70
                                miles   miles   miles    miles   miles
  Uniform variable charges     $7.035  $9.38  $11.725   $14.07 $16.415
  Fixed charges                12.418  12.418  12.418   12.418  12.418
  Total charges (per day)      19.453  21.798  24.143   26.488  28.833
  Total cost per mile, loaded
    one way only                 .648    .545    .482     .441    .412
  Total cost per 1000 ft. per
    mile with 3000 ft. to the
    load                         .216    .181    .160     .147    .137


4000 FOOT CAPACITY, OUTFIT COMPLETE

The following figures are for the 5-ton logging truck equipped with an
8½-ton trailer, based on a 275 working day year:

  Cost of equipment (as a basis)                          $7600.00
  Less resale value at expiration of four years
    at 25% of original cost                     $1900.00
  Less cost of tires:

  2--36-in. × 6-in            $140.50
  4--40-in. × 14-in            923.00
                             --------
    Total                    $1063.50            1063.50
                                                --------
                                                $2963.50   2963.50
                                                          --------
                Basis for computation                     $4636.50


RUNNING EXPENSES PER MILE

                                                               per mile
  Tires, based on cost of $1063.50 and a life of 8000 miles       $.129
  Gasoline, 3½ miles to the gallon @ $.28 per gal.                 .08
  Oil and grease                                                   .02
  General repairs                                                  .035
                                                                 ------
                  Total running expenses per mile                 $.264


FIXED CHARGES PER 275 DAY YEAR

  Depreciation, based upon 25% per year on $4636.50           $ 1157.13
  Interest on money invested at 6% (figured on equipment
    less cost of tires)                                          392.19
  Driver at $7.00 a day                                         1925.00
  License                                                         27.00
  Insurance, fire, theft and liability, based on $1 a hundred
    on 90% of the value of the new truck for fire and
    theft, and a flat rate of $33.75 for liability               101.75
                                                                -------
                  Total fixed charges for 275 day year         $3603.07
                  Total fixed charges per day                     12.92


TOTAL EXPENSES

                                       30       40       50       60
  Uniform variable charges per        miles    miles    miles    miles
    mile $.247                       $ 7.92   $10.56   $13.20   $15.84
  Fixed charges per day               12.92    12.92    12.92    12.92
  Total charges per day               20.84    23.48    26.12    28.76
  Total cost per mile loaded one way
    only                                .694     .587     .522     .479
  Total cost per 1000 feet per mile
    with a 4000 foot load               .173     .146     .130     .119


The above costs will be found to be approximately correct for average
operations. They will vary somewhat with the road conditions, loads,
grades, and the efficiency of the driver. These variations, however,
will be slight. They will not amount to more than one cent per thousand
feet per mile of haul. The investment pays the owner six per cent and
provides renewals for all time. The interest charge is based on the
total cost of the equipment less the cost of the tires. The tire cost is
deducted in figuring the interest charges because this item is covered
under running expenses. The resale value of the truck at the end of four
years is not deducted from the interest charge, because this sum is tied
up for that length of time. Renewal for the equipment is taken care of
by the creation of a sinking fund based on an average life of four
years. Theoretically, on a 5-ton truck, $1157.13 is put aside each year
for four years at the expiration of which time the aggregate of these
savings together with the resale value of $1900, automatically provides
for the purchase of new equipment.[7]

  [7] Timberman. Feb., 1918. Page 60.

A fifty-mile haul may be used as an illustration for figuring the total
running expense of the 5-ton truck. This means that the truck makes
trips enough to total fifty miles for the day's run. The cost per mile,
including gasoline, oil and repairs is 26.4 cents. It will, therefore,
cost $13.20 for the fifty miles. To this amount must be added $12.92,
daily overhead charge, making a total of $26.12 for fifty miles traveled
or 52.2 cents a mile. With an average load of four thousand feet the
cost will be 13.0 cents per mile per thousand feet. A glance at the
table will show that the greater the mileage and the larger the load,
the less will be the overhead expense and consequently the cost per mile
per thousand feet. To these items must be added the cost and maintenance
of the road if one has to be built.



ROAD CONSTRUCTION


The question of the kind of road for hauling logs with the motor truck
is a very important one. It is impossible to move a fifteen-ton load day
in and day out unless there are good roads, and no motor truck operation
of reasonably large proportions can be successfully maintained without a
road that is well constructed and which will not give way during any
kind of weather, under the loads that are carried. One cannot
successfully and continuously operate on dirt or even gravel roads as
they are good only when dry. Good roads are as important to the motor
truck operator as the railroad is to the transportation of logs by rail.

The big handicap in motor truck logging in the past has been poor roads.
The same man who will survey, grade, carefully lay and ballast the steel
for a logging railroad will many times put a truck and trailer on a poor
dirt road and expect the truck to haul economically and satisfactorily.
A motor truck will haul over some mighty poor apologies for roads but it
does not pay. A good road is an excellent investment. It makes larger
loads and more trips a day possible, will save on tires and repairs, and
will require less gasoline to the mile; the efficiency and output will
be increased and the time and operating costs will be decreased.

[Illustration: Sub-grade for motor truck logging road.]

There have been some very successful operators who have secured a small
body of timber at a low price on a public road who made the motor truck
pay without building a road. This method of logging in a small way will
continue to be carried on by small operators who will haul only during
three seasons of the year or even less. However, the big future for the
motor truck for logging is in the larger tracts of timber where it would
not pay to put in a railroad but where a good type of motor truck road
can be built cheaply and loads as large as the truck can handle be
carried with no road restrictions as to the weight.

In general four types of roads are used by loggers: (1) the cross-plank
road, (2) the fore and aft pole road, (3) the fore and aft plank road,
and (4) the cement road. The puncheon road is a modification of the fore
and aft plank road and will be taken up with the latter. The methods and
cost of construction, the advantages and the disadvantages of these
various types of roads follow in detail.

_Sub-Grade_: The sub-grade is put in the same way for each type of road.
The average width of the truck is seven feet and six inches, calling for
a road about eight and a half feet wide, so that the sub-grade should be
twelve feet in width. An illustration of the amount of grading necessary
is shown on page 25. Too much care cannot be taken in the matter of
ditches for draining. In a rainy climate, the water should be carried
away from the hill side of the grade every fifty feet.

_Cross-Plank Road_: The cross-plank road is constructed by laying cull
ties on hewn poles lengthwise of the road. Three rows, four feet apart
are used and second grade ten foot plank, six inches thick and of random
widths, are securely nailed to the ties. Great care must be taken to
have the ties laid fairly smooth if the road is to be even. Plank less
than six inches in thickness should not be used as the thinner ones very
soon crack and go to piece under the excessive jar and vibration.

This is a very expensive road to build as it wastes material. Six
thousand feet of lumber is necessary for every hundred foot station, at
a cost of $222 a station for the material alone, without considering the
cost of laying it. The maintenance cost also is very heavy because the
nails pull out as a result of the vibration caused by the truck. This
type of road is used only over short stretches, such as swampy ground
in connection with the dirt road, and on steep grades and sharp turns in
connection with the pole or plank road.

The Esary Logging Company at Camano Island, Washington, put in a
cross-plank road for a short distance on a sharp curve and a steep
grade, to see how it would affect the traction. It was found that cross
planking was not necessary on curves where the grade is ten per cent or
less when coming down with a load, providing trailer brakes are used. In
the future the company will not use this type of road unless grades
above this maximum are encountered. It is impossible to lay a
cross-plank road smoothly because the stringers settle and make the road
bumpy. The resulting jar on the equipment and the fact that these
stretches have to be taken at a much reduced speed, furnish ample reason
to condemn its use.

The only real use for a cross-plank road is to secure better traction on
grades exceeding ten or twelve per cent, and then it should be laid with
a space of about one inch between the planks. Even in such cases it
would be better to use some other method for securing traction, such as
sanding the track or winding the drive wheels with a light cable. The
waste of material and the excessive vibration limit the use of this type
of road.

_Fore and Aft Pole Road._ In the fore and aft pole road, poles from
twelve to fourteen inches in diameter are hewn on one or more faces and
laid longitudinally with the road, with one or more logs for each wheel
track. This type of road is commonly used by motor truck loggers and is
one that lends itself readily to their use. It is the most practical
road that can be built unless there is a small saw-mill handy to saw
planks for the fore and aft plank road. The smaller material growing
along the right of way is used at an expense of only what it costs to
fell it, hew it and put the poles in place. Hemlock poles may be used to
advantage.

Some operators use the single large pole placed on cross-ties eight or
ten feet apart and use lighter eight-inch poles placed on the outside
for a guard rail to keep the truck from leaving the track. The main pole
is laid in a ditch about eight inches deep, leaving it half buried. This
helps to keep the poles from spreading and increases their firmness and
strength. The pole is notched into the cross-ties, which are made of
logs not less than eight inches in diameter, and is securely nailed or
bolted to prevent it from rolling. The outside guard rail is laid on
the surface of the ground close to the main track and is securely braced
from the outside by means of posts sunk into the ground or it may be
spiked to the main pole or to the ties. When running with the trailer on
this narrow type of road, the guard rail is very necessary.

After the poles have been laid, the sub-grade should be ditched in the
center deep enough to carry away the water that falls in the middle of
the road. The success of the road depends to a large extent upon good
drainage.

The Meicklejohn and Brown Logging Company near Monroe, Washington,
operate over a pole road with three poles for each wheel. The poles are
from ten to twelve inches in diameter at the small end and are hewn to a
six inch face, giving an eighteen inch bearing surface for each wheel.
(See illustration on page 29.) The minimum sized pole that should be
used for roads of this character is one eight inches in diameter at the
small end. The road is constructed the same way as the single pole road
and the poles are laid on cross ties twelve inches in diameter placed
from eight to ten feet apart. Where the road is off the ground as when
crossing over a small depression, these sleepers must not be over five
feet apart. The guard rails at this operation are held in place by means
of a wooden brace nailed from each end of the rail to a near-by stump.
The ends of the poles used for the track are adzed so that they match
evenly. By breaking the joints and hewing them the road presents a level
surface with no bumps.

In planning the curves, it is necessary to make the tracks somewhat
wider than on straight stretches in order to keep the trailer from
running off. The track should be three feet wide on sharp curves and
provided with a stout guard rail if there is any danger of the truck
leaving the track. The curves are banked on the opposite side from that
used on railroad curves. That is, the inner rail is raised about three
inches. This is to throw the load to the outside away from the inner
guard rail, making it easier to make the turn without the rear wheels
binding. In this way a 35 degree curve may be negotiated with forty or
fifty foot logs. As the curves have to be passed at a much reduced
speed, there is little danger of the logs rolling off due to the raised
inner rail.

The grading for a road of this construction is usually light. The grades
should, if possible, be kept below five per cent. A truck will operate
better on a ten per cent grade in dry weather than on a five per cent
one in wet weather. On a road of this type, grades up to ten per cent
can be operated over unless there is snow. When the grades are above
this and the weather is wet, traction still may be secured by sanding
the road or by tacking an old half inch steel cable to the road in the
form of a figure "s". If this is sanded in addition, the truck may
safely be taken up a steeper grade than it would be safe to bring it
down without sanding.

The pole road could be greatly improved by hewing the faces of the poles
where they come together side by side so that an even fit is made. The
details of this improved form of construction are shown in figure 1,
page 30.

[Illustration: The most common type of motor truck logging road--a
fore-and-aft pole road.]

[Illustration: Figure 1. Cross section of pole road. Scale--1 inch
equals 2 feet.]

At the present time this is not done and there are one or more ruts in
the surface of the road due to the rounding off of the poles where they
are placed side by side. The front wheels of the truck are constantly
dropping into these ruts, tending to spread the track apart and making
it harder for the driver to steer. The tires also suffer from uneven
wear. With this deep groove in the track, a certain amount of the
traction of the rear wheels is also lost. Hence a much better road would
be one with the inner faces of the poles hewn so that a tight fit is
secured.

This road can be built of two large poles or three smaller ones to give
a flat track two and a half feet wide for each wheel. Laid nearly flush
with the ground the guard rail can be eliminated with this width of
track, except on sharp curves and other locations where there would be
danger if the truck left the track. On such a road the traction will
also be increased, better time can be made, the truck will be easier to
steer and hence safer to operate, and there will be less wear on the
tires. Such a road can be very easily and cheaply built by bringing in a
portable sawmill and slabbing the material on two sides to the desired
face.

The life of a good pole road is from three to four years if kept in good
repair. The maintenance cost is very light if the road is properly
constructed in the first place, consisting chiefly in removing a pole
here and there that shows signs of too much wear, and in bracing guard
rails where they weaken. The use of two or three hewn poles laid
lengthwise for each wheel without cross-ties does not pay as the poles
soon get out of place even when trenched, and the loss of traction due
to the irregularities and of time and money in the upkeep of such a road
more than justifies putting in a good road in the first place.

The cost of a fore and aft pole road varies with the accessibility of
the material and the cost of the labor. In the past they have been built
for as low as $2000 a mile, but with the present prices costs will range
from $5000 to $7000 a mile. One company within the year contracted the
grading and construction of the road for $70 a hundred foot station, not
including the cost of clearing and chunking out the right of way. The
total cost was about $125 a station or $6600 a mile.

Some of the advantages of the pole road are that it is tough and strong
and does not crack, split or break easily so that if it is properly put
in it lasts and requires but little maintenance. The material for its
construction is found along the right of way and being small in diameter
is less expensive than other road materials.

_Fore and Aft Plank Roads._ This type of road is constructed by placing
cross-ties from eight to ten feet apart, center to center, upon which
are placed lengthwise for each wheel, two or three sawed timbers not
less than six inches in thickness and from twelve to fifteen inches in
width. A good road of this type will deliver 150 million feet of logs at
a conservative estimate.

The grading is usually light and in many places entirely unnecessary.
Second-grade six by eight ties with the eight inch face placed down, or
hewn poles are laid about eight feet apart. Where the road bed is soft,
the ties are placed closer and in some places as near as two and a half
feet apart. Over very swampy ground, the road known as the fore and aft
puncheon road is used. It consists simply of cedar puncheon placed
crosswise of the road with the usual planking nailed securely to it. The
plank used should never be less than six inches in thickness in the main
road as it has been proved that four inch plank very soon give way under
the heavy loads. On the spur lines it is practicable to use four inch
plank because the road is used only a short time.

The total width of the road is eight feet and the plank are laid on top
of the ground, but if they are sunk nearly to the level of the ground
the road is made considerably more firm and enduring, and of course is
safer. The ends are adzed smooth to present an even surface,
drift-bolted to the ties, and all joints broken.

The plank in the track are kept together by means of a three by four
inch timber driven tightly between the tracks on top of the cross-ties
at each joint, and a block nailed to the outside of the tie at each
joint with a wedge-shaped piece of wood driven between it and the plank.
(See illustration on page 33.) This wedge is driven in from time to time
as occasion may demand. If, in addition to this construction, dirt or
gravel is filled in the center to the level of the track, the road is
made very solid.

[Illustration: Fore-and-aft plank road with wedges on cross ties to
facilitate the re-aligning of the planks.]

With a good road of this type and a bearing surface of thirty inches,
the trouble and expense of a guard rail may be eliminated. When a light
truck is used for a small body of timber such a wide and heavily
constructed road is not practical. In this case, a four inch plank with
a fifteen inch surface and an eight inch pole for a guard rail would be
used. Here again the track must be made wider on the sharp curves, often
as wide as three and a half feet. Usually, the inner rail is made wider
than the outer one. On very sharp curves the track may have to be
planked solid to keep the trailer from running off. By sawing out chips
from one-half to one inch wide two-thirds of the way through the plank,
and about six feet apart on the inner side, a long plank may be bent
around quite a sharp curve. The ties, of course, should be placed so as
to allow the cut sections of the plank to rest squarely on them. This
does away with the short pieces and so strengthens the track.

The company logging at Camano Island, Washington, operates over a road
of this type, an illustration of which is shown on page 38. The
difficulties encountered in the construction of this particular road
were very considerable as a cut through very hard shale, in some places
as much as seven feet, was necessary. The maintenance on this road is
heavier than is usual. Two men are employed to work on it continually.
The work consists of blocking up the loose ties and plank, making any
necessary repairs and keeping sand and gravel on the steep grades. The
cost of this work is good insurance as it keeps the road in the best of
condition at all times and saves on other operating expenses.

[Illustration: Detailed view of fore-and-aft plank road, showing method
of wedging.]

_Cost._ The first cost of a road of this type is high but it more than
pays in the long run if a large body of timber is to be hauled over it.
The timber used in its construction amounts to about 160 thousand feet
per mile. Second grade material can be used at a cost of approximately
$5,500 a mile for the plank. The total cost per mile varies from $6,000
to $8,000. The plank road at Camano Island cost $20,000 for two and
three-quarter miles, which includes the cost of the plank, the grading
and labor of putting the plank in place. This is at the rate of about
$7,275 a mile, or approximately $138 a hundred foot station. The
overhead charge for the road at this operation is $.75 a thousand feet
of timber hauled over it. Plank roads of lighter construction have been
built for $4,000 a mile. The length of life is about the same as that of
a pole road, three to four years.

The fore and aft plank road is one of the best roads that can be put in
where the timber is of sufficient quantity to justify the expense. The
big advantage is the speed that can be made and the saving in the
equipment. Such a road is very free from bumps and the jar and vibration
on the truck is no greater than on a city pavement. The depreciation on
a truck depends to a great extent upon the road operated over. With the
above type, depreciation on the truck will not be less than five years.
In addition, tire mileage will be double that obtained over a pole road,
and the gasoline and repair expense will be very materially cut. Owing
to the very small vibration, a load of logs can be brought to the
landing as fast as it is safe to let the truck glide on a down grade.
Speeds as high as 20 miles an hour can easily be taken without excessive
vibration. The traction is greater on this type of road than it is on
the pole road, due to the greater bearing surface. Traction on grades up
to 12% is easily secured by sanding the plank.

_Concrete Roads._ Concrete has been suggested as an ideal road material.
However, up to the present time, loggers have not been very enthusiastic
about this type of road on account of the cost of construction, which is
somewhat more expensive than the other types of roads, and on account of
the permanence of the finished road which is beyond that needed. To the
writer's knowledge, there is no company operating in the Northwest over
a concrete road of their own building. In the future such roads may be
used to a limited extent on the main haul by companies which have
operations extending over at least a five year period. The spur roads
will probably always be of some other material.

In building such roads two tracks of concrete, one for each wheel are
provided. The sub-grade should be well ditched in the center with cross
ditches every fifty feet, as is done with the pole road. It has been
suggested that the ditches holding the track be six inches deep and
twenty-six inches wide. They are filled to the top with concrete and
built with a lip four inches high and four inches wide along the outside
on top of the main surface to serve as a guard rail. No forms are
necessary except for the guard lip.

A word of caution here may not be amiss. Concrete roads of this nature
must be regarded as only experimental, for no specific data are
available for determining the proper section of concrete to be used for
carrying heavy loads on so narrow a bearing surface. It is evident that
the carrying capacity of such strips of concrete would be greatly
affected by the character of the sub-base. It will therefore be
impossible to specify a standard that can be used under all conditions.

The use of the concrete guard rail is one of the disadvantages of this
road. The edges of the rail cannot be made rounding except by special
forms and the rubbing of the tires against this rough surface would
greatly reduce the tire mileage. In addition, the rail is so exposed to
weather and hard wear that it cannot be relied upon to serve effectively
for any great length of time. The placing of forms is also a
considerable item of expense in building such a road. A method which
would eliminate such an expense and at the same time provide a more
practical rail would be an advantage.

[Illustration: Figure 2. Cross section of concrete road. Scale--1 inch
equals 2 feet.]

It has already been said that guard rails are unnecessary with a thirty
inch track except on sharp curves and otherwise dangerous places.
However, where rails are necessary the wooden rail fastened by bolts
embedded in the concrete as illustrated above, is quite effective and
readily installed. This consists of a four by six inch plank placed on
edge and drift-bolted to the concrete every three to five feet by a
three-quarter inch bolt. These bolts are placed in the concrete when it
is poured and should be embedded six inches. This will provide a rail
less expensive to build than a concrete rail and one which will last
longer and save on tires. Replacements are easily made by removing the
nuts and placing a new plank in place of the old. With a guard rail of
this type, there is left a twenty-six inch track for the wheels to run
in.

Experiments by W. D. Pence (Journ. West. Soc. Eng. Vol. VI, 1901, Page
549) on 1:2:4 concrete give an average value of 0.0000055 inches per
degree Fahrenheit for the coefficient of expansion. The richer the
concrete, the greater the change in dimension. Due to the expansion, in
laying the concrete the track must be broken every twenty-five or thirty
feet by placing a half-inch board in the ditch when the concrete is
being filled in. Later this board is removed and the joint filled with
asphalt so that the concrete may expand without danger of cracking the
road.

_Cost._ The best mix to use in building this road is what is known as
the 1:2½:5. For one cubic yard of concrete, the following amounts of
materials will be used for the above mix: 1.21 barrels of cement, 0.46
cubic yards of sand, and 0.92 cubic yards of stone. At the present
prices, the cost for the materials for this road is about twenty cents a
cubic foot or about $4,400 a mile. The total cost of the road including
the necessary grading, ditching and labor, will be from $7,000 to $9,000
per mile.

One of the big advantages of the concrete road is the large gain in
traction secured when operating on steep grades. A motor truck will haul
up a twelve per cent and down a fifteen per cent grade in wet weather on
concrete due to the roughened surface on which the tires do not easily
slip. This, of course, would be dangerous to attempt on the other types
of roads. Another advantage is the small item of upkeep necessary. A
road well laid in the first place should need no repair except to
replace worn guard rails as they show signs of weakening. The concrete
road, however, will not be generally used except on the mainline by the
larger concerns, or for short distances on steep grades where greater
traction is desired.



BRIDGES


In most cases the construction of bridges is unnecessary on account of
the steep grades the trucks can take and because they can negotiate
sharp curves, which make it easier to avoid expensive bridge work.
Where they are absolutely necessary a serviceable bridge is made of
cribwork.

The Esary Logging Company of Camano Island, Washington, operates over a
crib bridge 175 feet long and 15 feet high. The sub-structure of this
bridge is made of logs laid alternately crosswise in tiers. Six by
twelve inch plank are laid diagonally on the cribbing and four by twelve
inch plank are placed on crosswise to the road on top. This makes a
bumpy surface. A better one could be made with cross-ties placed on the
cribbing with fore and aft planking on top. A guard rail is placed on
all bridges.

Short bridges up to eighty or ninety feet in length are constructed by
the use of two large logs hewn flat on the upper surface. The logs
should be at least thirty-six inches in diameter and perfectly sound.
They are placed at the proper gauge and the regular road on cross-ties
constructed on top. On such short stretches this type of bridge has been
operated over without supports. It is not used, however, for long
stretches. The long bridges are, of course, constructed of bents or
piling but are very seldom used in connection with motor truck
transportation on account of the expensive construction and because they
are usually unnecessary.



TURNING DEVICES AND TURNOUTS


When the truck and trailer reach the place where they are to be loaded,
some method must be used to turn them around. Various means are used to
accomplish this. One is the motor truck turn-table. The turn-table
should be slightly longer than the length of the truck and trailer
combined. It is constructed of heavy plank and timbers so that each
track is about 16 inches wide and tapers in thickness from about 14
inches at the center to 4 inches at the ends. The two tracks are held
together at the center and each end by heavy timbers. A heavy timber is
sunk to the level of the road and at the center two circular saws are
laid. A king bolt through the center brace of the turn-table and through
the two saws into the sunken timber provides a pivot upon which the
table turns. When properly balanced and with a little oil between the
surfaces of the saws, the turn-table can be operated by hand with very
little effort. It is usually placed at the end of the road. A turn-table
can be loaded on the truck and trailer when it is desired to move it, so
that as the road is extended into the timber, a means of turning the
truck can be obtained close to the point where the logs are to be
loaded. This device can be built at a cost of from $75 to $125 and is
very serviceable. The main objection to its use is that the setting has
to be just right to make it work satisfactorily and it is sometimes
difficult to get a spot that is level enough. It is always a difficult
problem and a different one for each set-up.

The use of the "back around" is more common with truck loggers at
present because it is easier to build. The back-around is simply a
pocket or short spur along the road above the landing ground which is
planked solid. The truck and trailer are backed into this far enough so
that the truck can pull ahead in the opposite direction. This method of
turning the truck requires only a little extra clearing and grading and
is less expensive and more easily constructed than a turn-table.

[Illustration: Turn out on fore-and-aft plank road.]

When two or more truck units are to be used on a single track, a careful
calculation must be made to determine the best passing places. The
location of these points may determine the success of the operation.
They should be placed so that the truck returning empty can reach the
turnout before the loaded one comes along in order that the loaded one
may not be held up. At the same time, the turnout should not be so far
away from the loading ground that the loading crew will be idle for any
length of time while waiting for an empty truck. It is better to have an
extra turnout, even if seldom used, than conditions that would hinder
efficient operation or might even result in a collision which would tie
up the logging for several days.

A few loggers build a turnout of the same material as the main road for
a short distance to the side. An illustration of this type of turnout is
shown above. Most of them, however, simply clear off a right of way and
put in a gravel bottom for the road as the waiting truck at this point
is empty and will not ordinarily sink into the ground and get stalled. A
few heavy planks laid fore and aft in the form of a track are sometimes
used. The construction of passing places is very simple--the only
important thing to be taken into consideration is the proper point at
which the trucks should pass in order to keep the operation going at
maximum efficiency.



TELEPHONES


In connection with the passing places, the installation of a telephone
line is an important but often neglected item. With two or more
transportation units, a telephone line is a handy if not well nigh
indispensable accessory. It is a great advantage to have such a system
with stations at each end of the road and also at the passing places, as
unavoidable delays will frequently allow a waiting truck to move on to
another passing place, thus saving time. To avoid accidents, the driver
at the passing place should call the loader at the spar tree to see if
the road is clear before coming any farther.

Very often something breaks on the yarding or loading donkey. With the
telephone, perhaps a half day of shutdown may be saved by calling the
main camp for the repair parts and having them brought up by the next
truck. The saving due to avoided accidents and the saving of time more
than pays for the initial expense of installation. The telephone line
should not be neglected at the larger operations.



INCLINES


In rough country the use of the incline has been a great help and has
proved to be entirely practical and quite economical. Grades as high as
sixty or even seventy per cent can be safely taken with an incline if
the proper measures are taken to prevent accidents.

A typical incline is successfully operated by the Meickeljohn, Brown
Logging Company near Monroe, Washington. It is fifteen hundred feet long
and the steepest grade is twenty-eight per cent. An 11-in. × 14-in.
roader donkey located at the top of the incline snubs the loads down and
hauls up the empty trucks. A one and one-eighth inch wire cable is
thrown around the logs and made fast by means of a clevis. This holds
the truck and prevents the logs from slipping forward and injuring the
driver. On all inclines, the line should be choked around the logs
rather than simply attached to the truck to prevent them from slipping
ahead.

The snubbing device consists of an ordinary donkey engine fitted with a
hand brake of extra large size and special air valves so that air is
sucked into the cylinders and let out of the exhaust when the engine is
being pulled backwards by the weight of the load. The load is controlled
by the amount of air let out of the valves. The braking action is very
positive and the load can be stopped in a few revolutions of the crank
shaft.

The average time to lower the load down the incline is three and a half
minutes. At the bottom of the incline, the cable is released and the
truck goes on its way. The cable is attached to the waiting truck by
means of a ring fastened to the frame and the donkey pulls the empty
truck to the top. The time taken to raise the trucks is three minutes.

On grades too steep to operate a truck safely with the ordinary brakes
and yet not steep enough to warrant the expense of the donkey snubber,
the difficulty is overcome by means of a friction snubber. This consists
simply of a cable which is hooked to the truck and extends through a
system of three or four pulleys and thence on down the track. The
friction of this line dragging on the ground and passing through the
pulleys is enough to hold the load so that the truck engine must exert
power to pull the load down the grade. The line is made long enough so
that as the load reaches the bottom of the grade, the free end of the
cable has been pulled up to the system of pulleys and is ready to be
attached to the next load. This system is efficient for small grades, is
inexpensive to install, and requires no further attention.

By the use of the incline with the donkey engine snubber, very heavy
grades can be taken. The construction of the incline is the same as the
rest of the road and is only slightly more expensive to build because of
the inconvenience of laying it on such a steep slope. The use of the
incline will not slow up the operation to any great extent as from fifty
to seventy thousand feet of logs (which is about the average yarding and
loading capacity of one motor-truck side), can be taken over it in a
day. This method of hauling down steep grades is used in several
operations and has been found to be entirely successful.



YARDING


A variety of methods are used by motor truck loggers to get the logs to
the landing to be loaded. The larger operations invariably use the
high-lead method of yarding as the logs come in quicker and with fewer
hang-ups. In a few places the old ground method of yarding with a bull
block is still used. The horse team and skid road is used in a small
timber where poles and piling are being marketed. The latter is a slow
method but will keep one truck busy and is still used in some places
where small stands are located along the highway or in other readily
accessible places.



LOADING AND UNLOADING


The loading of a motor truck is very much the same proposition as the
loading of a flat-car. The principal difficulties that trucks have had
to contend with have been poor roads and inefficient methods of loading.
In loading, the main trouble has been in regulating the yarding so that
a supply of logs is always on hand. The use of the gin pole and crotch
line operated by the straw drum of the yarding donkey ties up the
yarding until the truck is loaded. This is being overcome by using a
separate engine with the high lead for yarding and doing the logging
independently of the yarding as is done in the case of railroad logging.
In this way the yarder can keep ahead of the loading engine and there
will be no delay at the landing.

Most of the larger companies load with the Duplex loader and use tongs.
This is a safer way to load than with the crotch line as the logs can be
more easily controlled. The danger of dropping a log through the truck
or of knocking off the top of the truck or the driver's seat is greatly
lessened.

In pole and piling timber where a skid road and horses are used, loading
is done by hand or with a team. A landing is built of cribwork and the
logs are simply rolled on the truck with peavies or cant hooks, or a
parbuckle system with skids and horses is used. This works fairly well
for small operations in small timber.

[Illustration: Loading a motor truck and trailer through the use of a
boom.]

The latest development in loading is the boom. An illustration of this
method is shown above. The boom itself is a fifty to sixty foot pole
about eighteen inches in diameter at the base and is attached to the
spar tree by means of a metal strap with two lugs which are fitted into
holes bored in the spar to keep the strap from slipping. The base of the
boom is fitted with a metal joint which moves freely on an upright pin
set in the metal strap. (See A, above.) The whole rig is set high enough
on the tree so that it may be swung in a semi-circle and clear the
loaded truck by several feet. A light line (B) from the haulback drum of
the donkey passes through a block attached low on the spar tree and
thence to another block on a stump to the right of the landing. From
here it passes through a third block at the end of the boom and back to
the stump again. This secures the needed pulling power from the haulback
drum.

The lifting line from the mainline drum passes through a block half way
up the tree and thence through a free swinging block (C) and back to the
tree again. On the second block is a ring to which two one inch lines
(D) are attached. These lines pass through the boom stick on rollers (E)
about fifteen feet apart. On the ends of these lines hooks are attached.
These two lines should be so arranged that the hooks remain parallel to
the ground. Two three-quarters inch cables (F) with an eye splice in
each end are attached to the hooks. These lines, or chokers, are then
wrapped around the log and it is lifted clear of the ground by means of
the block hold in the main line.

The haulback line (B) from the donkey is slacked and the boom travels
over to the truck by means of a line (G) attached from the boom to a
dummy log running on a special guy line. A log two feet in diameter and
sixteen feet long is wrapped at each end with a cable and fastened to a
pulley. The two pulleys and attached dummy log travel up and down the
guy line as the boom moves. A line is attached to the boom and runs
through a pulley attached to the dummy log and extends back to the boom
again. This pulls the boom over above the truck as the dummy log travels
down the guy line. The logs are held parallel to the ground above the
truck and the truck is run under the boom to the location designated by
the head loader. With this system the logs will not drop suddenly on the
trucks as the log will fall off while being carried over to the truck if
there is any danger of its falling at all. After the log is placed, the
boom is pulled back to the landing by the haulback line. This system has
worked with success in a number of motor truck operations and is a safer
method than loading with tongs because the logs cannot accidentally drop
and injure the truck. However, the loading situation should be studied
carefully. The most efficient loading device for the particular needs of
the operation may be installed as any loss of time in loading seriously
affects the output of the operation.

Most of the truck loggers unload their logs into water; either into a
lake, a river that can be driven, or into tide-water. A few, however,
unload directly into the log pond at the mill or at the log yard in case
the mill has no log pond.

The road is usually planked solid at the unloading ground. A great help
in unloading is a dock from six to twelve inches higher on one side
than on the other so the logs will roll off the truck easily. The
brow-skid should be close to the log bunks and just a little lower than
these when the truck is tilted. When unloading into shallow water, such
as a small river, six or eight skids a foot and a half in diameter are
placed so that they slope from the brow-skid to the water at an angle of
forty-five degrees. An illustration of this method of unloading is shown
below. The skids are so placed that the unloading ground will not be
undermined.

[Illustration: Unloading truck and trailer through the use of an
incline, showing brow-skids and roll-way.]

When the truck comes to a stop on the incline, the chock blocks are
released from the opposite side and the logs roll off of their own
accord. In some instances a gill-poke has been used in connection with
the unloading incline, the logs being sheared off as the truck moves
ahead. Usually the logs roll off readily without the use of the
gill-poke and if a load does stick it can be loosened with a cant-hook,
so that the gill-poke really is unnecessary.

Unloading on public wharves or roads where no permanent incline can be
used is accomplished by placing a portable wedge-shaped timber in front
of the outside truck and trailer wheels and driving upon it.

[Illustration: Parbuckling a load of logs from the truck and trailer.]

In the most efficient way of unloading the usual brow-skid is placed a
few inches below the log bunk and the logs are parbuckled from the truck
and trailer, an illustration of which is shown above. The trucks are run
on an incline so that one side is raised about four inches. A
crotch-line consisting of two half-inch cables is attached to the
brow-skid and passed under the logs to a ring fastened to an inch cable.
The larger cable passes thru a block located on a gin pole. A light
yarding or a land clearing donkey furnishes the power to parbuckle the
logs into the water. By this method the logs are lifted from the truck
as they are rolled into the water with little danger of the top log
dropping on the log bunk as is often the case when other methods are
used, resulting in expensive repairs for broken springs or bearings.



TIME STUDIES


Time is a very important item in loading and unloading. Usually the most
time is consumed in loading, for which reason any improvement that will
reduce the time taken to load will greatly increase the efficiency of
the operation. With the proper unloading devices, the truck may be
unloaded in the time required to knock down the chock blocks.

The following table is a record kept for one day of the actual time
taken by a truck at each step in the hauling of logs at one operation.
However, it is possible to give only arbitrary figures to fit the
particular operation of which they are taken. No average figures can be
given that fit all conditions.


           DONKEY ENGINE                     DUMP AT MILL
          Time            Time          Unload-          Time
  Arrive Loading  Leave   Down   Arrive   ing    Leave    Up    Scale
  A.M.
   7:15  10 Min.   7:25  20 Min.  7:45  25 Min.   8:10  20 Min.  2592
   8:30   5 Min.   8:35  27 Min.  8:57  13 Min.   9:10  20 Min.  2092
   9:30  12 Min.   9:42  21 Min. 10:03   7 Min.  10:10  20 Min.  1908
  10:30  12 Min.  10:42  33 Min. 11:15  30 Min.  11:45  20 Min.  3074
  P.M.
  12:05  10 Min.  12:15  35 Min. 12:50  17 Min.   1:07  20 Min.  2542
   1:27  15 Min.   1:42  18 Min.  2:00  27 Min.   2:27  20 Min.  1828
   2:47   8 Min.   2:55  21 Min.  3:16   8 Min.   3:24  20 Min.  1689
   3:44  11 Min.   3:55  23 Min.  4:18   9 Min.   4:27  20 Min.  2407
   4:47  14 Min.   5:01  26 Min.  5:27  12 Min.   5:39  20 Min.  2558
                                                                -----
                                               Total            20690


Length of haul 5.9 miles round trip.

Amount of gasoline, 15 gallons.

The above figures were taken several years ago when the facilities for
unloading were slower than the present day methods, which accounts for
the excessive length of time taken to unload.[8]

  [8] The writer is indebted to Mr. George Gunn, Jr., for these figures.

The unloading of a truck is a time when a little care taken will save
considerable expense for repairs. Such a method as the parbuckling
system should be used by companies with sufficient stumpage to warrant
the expense of the extra donkey, to prevent the top logs from dropping
to the log bunks, thereby saving the cost of repairing broken springs
and bearings.



CONCLUSION


At present, the possibilities for the use of the motor truck for logging
are just beginning to be realized. What effect their use will have upon
the future methods of logging remains to be seen. It is certain,
however, that the advent of motor truck transportation will have a
marked effect upon the science of forestry and will bring about a closer
utilization of our timber resources.

The motor truck and the portable band mill seem likely to furnish a
combination which will do away with the old wasteful circular mill
because it supplies the cheapness and efficiency of railroad
transportation and is applicable to small and scattered tracts and to
stands of low-grade lumber. The fact that the portable band mill may be
moved for a cut of a million feet assures adaptability. This is not only
an industrial advance but also a silvicultural advance in that it
affords the possibility of cuttings at frequent intervals without
greatly adding to the cost.

A closer utilization of our present stands of timber may be practiced by
the use of the motor truck. In the northwest, only the larger material
is taken from the forest, leaving a large amount of good timber on the
ground in the form of poles and piling and chunks too short to be made
into saw lumber but from which high grade ties can be made. The truck,
in connection with a band mill, will furnish a means of utilizing this
present waste at a profit to the operator.

The motor truck will be a valuable aid in the working out of a sound
national forest policy for the proper use of our timber resources so
that the timber will be utilized to the greatest possible extent and at
the same time methods taken to provide for the perpetuation of the
forest for future generations. This suggests a way of opening the timber
for the market on some of our national forests. Most of the government
owned forests are situated in more or less rugged country back from the
regular routes of travel. The timber on a great many of these forests is
over-mature and should be cut but at this time it is inaccessible. The
problem confronting the country is how to make it accessible.

The plan for opening these forests is to build permanent concrete or
asphalt roads from the nearest commercial centers thru these tracts
taking into consideration the aesthetic value of the location as well as
the possibilities of logging the timber from them. The timber, then, is
to be taken out, under some silvicultural system and under government
supervision, by motor truck operators who build their own roads from the
nearest concrete road to the timber to be cut. Under this system of
management, the state and federal government pays a part of the expense
of building the permanent road and the operator pays a small sum for the
use of the road by being taxed additional stumpage.

The system of management has many advantages. In the first place, the
mature timber will be logged, the older decadent material coming out
first, in small bodies and at the same time care being taken to
reproduce a new stand. The total area is divided so that as the timber
is logged in rotation a continuous cutting will be assured. Due to the
use of the trucks and on account of the timber being cut in rotation,
the fire danger will be greatly lessened. In case a fire gets beyond
control, the roads thru the forest make an excellent way to bring in men
and supplies to fight the fire. In this way, a fire is readily
accessible in a few hours where formerly it took perhaps several days to
organize the fire fighting party and reach the scene of action. The
concrete roads themselves make good fire lines. By means of the good
roads, the forest is opened to campers and tourists each of whom pays a
small sum as they enter the forest to help pay for the cost of building
the roads and to provide funds for more extensive highways. In this way
the forest is opened for the timber, the best methods of utilization and
forest regeneration are practiced, fire hazard is reduced, and the area
is opened as a recreational ground so that the greatest possible value
is obtained from the tract.

A great many other uses of the motor truck for logging and scientific
forest utilization are being recognized, as example, for transporting
pulpwood, veneer stock, cordwood, rosin and turpentine, and other forest
products. Suffice it to say that this method of transportation has
found a place in the industry and is here to stay. Its value has been
recognized beyond doubt and in the future will play an important part
in the further development of this country.



BIBLIOGRAPHY


  1916. Motor Truck Logging.
        The Power Wagon. Sept. 15. Page 34. (Periodical).

  1916. The Law of the Public Highway in Washington.
        West Coast Lumberman. Sept. 15. Page 23. (Periodical).

  1916. Motor Truck Logging Now Making Great Strides on the Pacific
        Coast. West Coast Lumberman. Nov. 1. Page 260. (Periodical).

  1917. Motor Truck Logging in the Pacific Northwest.
        West Coast Lumberman. Mar. 15. Page 70. (Periodical).

  1917. Motor Trucks in High Favor Among Lumbermen.
        Lumber World Review. Mar. 25. Page 23. (Periodical).

  1917. Motor Truck Logging on Camano Island.
        West Coast Lumberman. July 1. Page 28. (Periodical).

  1917. Motor Truck Logging.
        The Commercial Vehicle. Sept. 1. Page 12. (Periodical).

  1918. Pole Roads. A. R. Hillard.
        West Coast Lumberman. Feb. 1. Page 34. (Periodical).

  1918. Operating Cost of Motor Trucks Computed. H. S. Finch.
        Timberman. Feb. 1. Page 60. (Periodical).

  1918. Winch for Motor Trucks.
        American Lumberman. Mar. 2. Page 58. (Periodical).

  1918. Motor Truck Roads.
        American Lumberman. Mar. 16. Page 38. (Periodical).

  1918. The Motor Truck in the Logging Industry. H. H. Warwood.
        Timberman. April 1. Page 74. (Periodical).

  1918. Road Construction for Motor Trucks. Jay C. Smith.
        Timberman. April 1. Page 38. (Periodical).

  1918. Adjustable Reach Logging Trailer.
        American Lumberman. May 18. Page 63. (Periodical).

  1918. Demonstrating Duplex Trucks.
        American Lumberman. June 1. Page 63. (Periodical).

  1918. Modern Motor Truck Solves Difficult Logging Problems.
        West Coast Lumberman. July 1. Page 18D. (Periodical).

  1918. Motor Trucks in Winter Logging. A. R. Hilliard.
        West Coast Lumberman. Sept. 1. Page 25. (Periodical).

  1919. The Effect of Changed Conditions Upon Forestry. W. W. Ashe.
        Journal of Forestry. Oct. 1. Page 657. (Periodical).

  1919. Puget Sound Logger Tells Congress How to Log With Motor Trucks.
        West Coast Lumberman. October. Page 25. (Periodical).

  1920. Air Brakes for Trucks.
        Timberman. Mar. 1. Page 48g. (Periodical).

The writer has drawn freely from the material found in the above
periodicals and trade journals, but wishes to acknowledge the greater
bulk of information in writing this paper received from the various
truck salesmen and truck operators who were interviewed personally.
Without their assistance, the gathering of this information would have
been impossible.



Publications of the Engineering Experiment Station University of
Washington


  =Bulletin No. 1=--Creosoted Wood Stave Pipe and Its Effect Upon Water
  for Domestic and Irrigational Uses. 1917.
  (Bureau of Industrial Research.) 20 pp. Price, 25 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 2=--An Investigation of the Iron Ore Resources of the
  North-west. By William Harrison Whittier. 1917.
  (Bureau of Industrial Research.) 128 pp. Price, 60 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 3=--An Industrial Survey of Seattle. By Curtis C. Aller.
  1918.
  (Bureau of Industrial Research.) 64 pp. Price, 50 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 4=--A Summary of Mining and Metalliferous Mineral
  Resources in the State of Washington with Bibliography.
  By Arthur Homer Fischer. 1919. 124 pp. Price, 75 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 5=--Electrometallurgical and Electrochemical Industry
  in the State of Washington. By Charles Denham Grier.
  1919. 43 pp. Price, 50 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 6=--Ornamental Concrete Lamp Posts. By Carl Edward
  Magnusson. 1919. 24 pp. Price, 40 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 7=--Multiplex Radio Telegraphy and Telephony. 1920.
  By F. M. Ryan, J. R. Tolmie, R. O. Bach. Price, 50 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 8=--Voltage Wave Analysis with Indicating Instruments.
  By Leslie Forrest Curtis. 1920. 28 pp. Price, 50 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 9=--The Coking Industry of the Pacific Northwest.
  By Joseph Daniels. 1920. 36 pp. Price, 60 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 10=--An Investigation of Compressed Spruce Pulleys.
  By George Samuel Wilson. 1920. 72 pp. Price, 80 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 11=--The Theory of Linear-Sinoidal Oscillations.
  By Henry Godfrey Cordes. 1920. 24 pp. Price, 40 cents.

  =Bulletin No. 12=--Motor Truck Logging Methods.
  By Frederick Malcolm Knapp. 1921. 52 pp. Price, 50 cents.


Requests for bulletins should be addressed to the Director, Engineering
Experiment Station, University of Washington, Seattle.





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