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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 84, June 7, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. III.--No. 84. SATURDAY, JUNE 7. 1851.

Price, Sixpence. Stamped Edition, 7_d._



CONTENTS.


                                                                Page

      NOTES:--

      Edmund Burke, and the "Annual Register," by James
      Crossley                                                   441

      Jews in China                                              442

      The Dutch Martyrology                                      443

      Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest                               443

      Witchcraft in the Seventeenth Century                      444

      Indulgences proposed to Benefactors to the Church of
      St. George the Martyr, Southwark                           444

      Gray's Plagiarisms, by Henry H. Breen                      445

      On the Application of the Word "Littus" in the Sense
      of Ripa, the Bank of a River                               446

      Minor Notes:--Epigrams by Coulanges and Prior--Brewhouse
      Antiquities--Joseph of Exeter de Bello
      Antiocheno--Illustrations of Welsh History                 446

      QUERIES:--

      The Window-tax, Local Mints, and Nobbs of Norwich          447

      Minor Queries:--Gillingham--"We hope, and hope,
      and hope"--What is Champak?--Encorah and
      Millicent--Diogenes in his Tub--Topical Memory--St.
      Paul's Clock striking Thirteen--A regular Mull:
      Petworth--Going to Old Weston--"As drunk as
      Chloe"--Mark for a Dollar--Stepony--Longueville
      MSS.--Carling Sunday--Lion Rampant holding a
      Crozier--Monumental Symbolism--Ptolemy's Presents
      to the Seventy-two--Baronette--Meaning of
      "Hernshaw"--Hogan--"Trepidation talk'd"--Lines
      on the Temple--Death--Was Stella Swift's Sister?           448

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--John Marwoode--St. Paul--Meaning
      of Zoll-verein--Crex, the White Bullace                    450

      REPLIES:--

      The Outer Temple, by Edward Foss                           451

      The Old London Bellman and his Songs or Cries, by
      Dr. E. F. Rimbault                                         451

      The Travels of Baron Munchausen, and the Author of
      "The Sabbath"                                              453

      The Penn Family, by Hepworth Dixon                         454

      On the Word "Prenzie" in "Measure for Measure"
      by S. W. Singer, S. Hickson, &c.                           454

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Countess of Pembroke's
      Epitaph--Court Dress--Ex Pede Herculem--Day of
      the Accession of Richard III.--Tennyson's
      "In Memoriam"--Cardinal Azzolin--Babington's
      Conspiracy--Robert de Welle--Family of Sir John
      Banks--Charles Lamb's Epitaph--Quebeça and his Epitaph--The
      Frozen Horn--West Chester--Registry of Dissenters--Poem
      upon the Grave--Round Robin--Derivation of the Word
      "Yankee"--Letters on the British Museum--Names of the
      Ferret--Anonymous Ravennas--The Lion, a Symbol of the
      Resurrection--Paring the Nails, &c.--Meaning of
      Gig-Hill--The Mistletoe on the Oak--Spelling of
      "Britannicus"--T. Gilbert on Clandestine Marriages--Dog's
      Head in the Pot--Pope Joan--"Nettle in Dock out"--Mind your
      P's and Q's--Lay of the Last Minstrel--Tingry--Sabbatical
      and Jubilee Years of the Jews--Luncheon--Prophecy
      respecting the Discovery or America--Shakespeare's
      Designation of Cleopatra--Harlequins--Christ's-cross
      Row, &c.                                                   456

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     470

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               470

      Notices to Correspondents                                  471



Notes.


EDMUND BURKE, AND THE "ANNUAL REGISTER."

That Burke wrote the _Annual Registers_ for Dodsley for some period
after its commencement, is well known, but no one has yet distinctly
stated when his participation in that work ceased. Mr. Prior, in his
_Life of Burke_, places in his list of his writings: "_Annual Register_,
at first the whole work, afterwards only the Historical Article, 1758,"
&c. He also states that "many of the sketches of contemporary history
were written from his immediate dictation for about thirty years," and
that "latterly a Mr. Ireland wrote much of it under Mr. Burke's
immediate direction." (_Life_, vol. i. p. 85. edit. 1826.)

In proof of this statement, a fac-simile is given of Burke's receipts to
Dodsley for two sums of 50_l._ each "for the _Annual Register_ of 1761,"
the originals of which were in Upcott's collection. At the sale of Mr.
Wilks's autographs this month, I observe there was another receipt for
writing the _Annual Register_ for 1763. I am not aware whether any
other receipts from Burke are in existence for the money paid to him for
his contributions to this periodical, but for the _Annual Registers_
beginning with 1767, and terminating in 1791, I have the receipts of
Thomas English, who appears to have received from Dodsley, first
140_l._, and subsequently 150_l._ annually, for writing and compiling
the historical portion of the work. Burke's connexion with the
publication must therefore have lasted a much shorter period than Mr.
Prior appears to have supposed, and apparently was not continued beyond
seven or eight years, from 1758 to 1766, after which year, English seems
to have taken his place.

Everything relating to Burke is of importance; and if any of your
correspondents can afford any further assistance in defining as
correctly as possible the limits of his participation in the _Annual
Register_, I feel assured that the information will be gladly received
by your readers.

I have not seen it noticed, that the historical articles in the _Annual
Registers_, from 1758 to 1762 inclusive, were collected in an 8vo. vol.
under the title of--

  "A compleat History of the late War, or Annual Register of its
  Rise, Progress, and Events in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America,
  &c." London, 1763.

This work went through more than one edition. My copy, containing 559
pages, is a Dublin edition of the date of 1763, printed by John Exshaw.

As there seems to be no question that what is contained in this volume
is the composition of Burke, and as it has never yet been superseded as
a spirited history of the stirring period to which it relates, it ought
undoubtedly to be attached as a supplement to the 8vo. edition of
Burke's _Works_, with his "Account of the European Settlements in
America," his title to which is now placed beyond dispute.

It is greatly to be regretted that some of Burke's early publications
are yet undiscovered, amongst which are his poetical translations from
the Latin, and his attack upon Henry Brooks, the author of the _Fool of
Quality_.

                                                  JAS. CROSSLEY.


JEWS IN CHINA.

  The mail which arrived from East India and China about the middle
  or end of March last, brought news of the discovery of a race of
  Jews in the interior of the latter country, of which I have seen
  no notice taken by the English press.

  It being a subject in which a number of your readers will
  probably feel interested, and but comparatively few of them see
  the China newspapers, I beg to enclose you an account from the
  _Overland China Mail_, dated Hong Kong, Jan. 29, 1851.

The existence of a fragment of the family of Abraham in the interior of
China has been certainly known for upwards of two hundred years, and
surmised much longer. The Jesuit Ricci, during his residence at Peking
in the beginning of the seventeenth century, was the means of exciting
the attention of foreigners to the Jews of Kai-fung-fú, the ancient
capital of Ho-nan province. In 1618 they were visited by Aleni, a
follower of Ricci; and a hundred years later, between 1704 and 1723,
Fathers Gozani, Domenge, and Gaubil were enabled from personal
investigation on the spot to give minute descriptions of the people,
their synagogue and sacred books, the latter of which few could even
then read, while the former was, with the peculiar institutions of
Moses, fast falling to decay. Beyond a few feeble and ineffective
efforts on the part of Biblical critics, nothing was subsequently
attempted to maintain a communication with this handful of Jews until in
1815 some brethren in London addressed a letter to them in Hebrew, and
offered a large reward if any one would bring an answer in the same
language. The letter was entrusted to a Chinese bookseller, a native of
the province, who is reported to have delivered it, which was doubted,
as he brought no written answer.

Recently the Jews' Society in London, encouraged by the munificence of
Miss Cook, who placed ample funds at their disposal, instituted
enquiries on the subject, and sought the co-operation of the Bishop of
Victoria, who having previously opened a correspondence with Dr.
Medhurst on the subject, during his Lordship's recent visit to Shanghae,
the plan of operations was agreed upon. This was to despatch two Chinese
Christians, one of them a literary graduate, the other a young man with
a competent knowledge of English, acquired at the London Missionary
School. The _North China Herald_ of the 18th January contains an
interesting account of their mission, from which we gather the following
particulars.

The two emissaries started on the 15th November last, and after an
absence of fifty-five days, returned to Shanghae, the distance between
the two cities being about six hundred miles.[1] Arrived at their
destination, they found in the decayed city of Kai-fung-fú, both
Mohamedans and Jews, the latter poverty-stricken and degraded, their
synagogue in a state of dilapidation, and the distinguishing symbols of
their religion nearly extinct. The books of the Law, written in a small
square character on sheepskin, are however still preserved, although it
would seem for many years they have been seen by no one able to read
them.

  [Footnote 1: Kai-fung-fú, according to Williams's map, is situated
  about a league from the southern bank of the Hwang-ho, or Yellow
  River, in 34° 55´ N. Lat., and 114° 40´ E. Long.]

The Jesuits mention the existence of the sacred books, but were not
suffered to copy or even to inspect them; but the Chinese Christians
encountered no such scruples; so that, besides taking copies of
inscriptions on the stone tablets, they were enabled to bring away eight
Hebrew manuscripts, six of them containing portions of the Old
Testament, and two of the Hebrew liturgy. The correspondent of the
_North China Herald_ states that--

  "The portions of Scripture are from the 1st to the 6th chapters of
  Exodus, from the 38th to the 40th chapters of the same book,
  Leviticus 19th and 20th chapters, Numbers 13th, 14th, and 15th
  chapters, Deuteronomy from the 11th to the 16th chapters, with the
  32nd chapter of that book. Various portions of the Pentateuch,
  Psalms, and Hagiographa occur in the books of prayers, which have
  not yet been definitely fixed. The character in which these
  portions are written is an antique form of the Hebrew, with
  points.[2] They are written on thick paper, evidently by means of
  a style, and the material employed, as well as the silk in which
  the books are bound, exhibit marks of a foreign origin. Two
  Israelitish gentlemen, to whom they have been shown in Shanghae,
  say that they have seen such books in Aden; and the occurrence
  here and there of Persian words, written with Hebrew letters, in
  the notes appended, seem to indicate that the books in question
  came originally from the western part of Asia, perhaps Persia or
  Arabia. There is no trace whatever of the Chinese character about
  them, and they must have been manufactured entirely by foreigners
  residing in China, or who have come from a foreign country.
  Regarding their age, it would be difficult to hazard even a
  conjecture."

  [Footnote 2: The Jesuits state expressly that the Hebrew was without
  points.]

The result of this mission has been such that it cannot be doubted
another will be sent, and we trust the attempt at least will be made by
some discreet foreigner--a Jew, or at all events a Hebrew scholar--to
penetrate to Kai-fung-fú; for although the proofs brought away on the
present occasion are so far satisfactory, yet in the account given, on
the authority of the Chinese emissaries, we presume, there are several
things that might otherwise excite incredulity.

                                                       SALOPIAN.

  [The _Jewish Intelligencer_ for May, 1851, contains a long article
  on the "Present State of the Jews at Kai-fung-fú;" also a
  fac-simile of the Hebrew MS. found in the synagogue at that place,
  and a map of the eastern coast of China.]


THE DUTCH MARTYROLOGY.

Wall, in his _History of Infant Baptism_, frequently mentions a book
called _The Dutch Martyrology_ as quoted by Danvers. He appears never to
have seen it, and if I mistake not (although I cannot just now find the
passage) he somewhere throws out a hint that no such book ever existed.
Archdeacon Cotton, in his valuable edition of Wall's book, says (vol.
ii. p. 131. note _m._):

  "Danvers cites this work as 'The Dutch Martyrology called _The
  bloody Theatre_; a most elaborate and worthy collection: written
  in Dutch, by M. J. Van Braght.' I have never seen it."

A very fine copy of this curious and very important work is in the Fagel
collection in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. It is on large
paper, with the exception of some few leaves in different parts of the
volume, which have been mounted to match the rest. It is full of
beautiful engravings by Jan Luyken, representing the sufferings of the
martyrs; some of them, indeed all, possessing very great artistic merit.
The first in the volume, a crucifixion, representing Our Lord in the
very act of being nailed to the cross, is a most striking picture: and I
may also mention another, at p. 385., representing a party in a boat
reading the Bible, having put out to sea to escape observation.

The book is a large folio in 2 vols.: the first consisting of 450, the
second of 840 pages; and contains a most important collection of
original documents, which are indispensable to the history of the
Reformation, and many of them are intimately connected with the English
Reformation. The history of the martyrs begins with Our Saviour's
crucifixion (for He is represented as the first Anabaptist martyr!),
and ends with the year 1660. The Dublin copy is the second edition, and
its full title is as follows:--

   "Het Bloedig Tooneel, of Martelaers Spiegel der Doops-gesinde of
   Weerloose Christenen, die om't getuygenis van JESUS naren
   Selighmaker, geleden hebben, ende gedood zijn, van CHRISTI tijd
   af tot desen tijd toe. Versamelt uyt verscheyde geloofweerdige
   Chronijken, Memorien, en Getuygenissen. Door T. J. V. Braght [or,
   as he is called on the engraved title-page, Tileman Van Braght].
   Den Tweeden Druk, Bysonder vermeerdert met veele Autentijke
   Stucken, en over de hondert curieuse Konstplaten. Amsterdam.
   1685."

Since writing the above, I see that the Bodleian Library has a copy;
procured, however, it is right (for Dr. Cotton's sake) to say, since the
publication of his edition of Wall's _History of Infant Baptism_.

                                                        J. H. T.

      Trin. Coll., Dub.


LADY FLORA HASTINGS' BEQUEST.

All who reverence and love the memory of Lady Flora Hastings,--all who
have had the happiness of a personal acquaintance with that gentle and
gifted being,--who have mourned over her hapless fate,--who have read
her poems, so full of beauty and promise, will receive her "Last
Bequest" with feelings of deep interest.

This poem has never before been published.

                                                        ERZA.

      Oh, let the kindred circle,
        Far in our northern land,
      From heart to heart draw closer
        Affection's strength'ning hand:
      To fill my place long vacant,
        Soon may our loved ones learn;
      For to our pleasant dwelling
        I never shall return.

      Peace to each heart that troubled
        My course of happy years;
      Peace to each angry spirit
        That quench'd my life in tears!
      Let not the thought of vengeance
        Be mingled with regret;
      Forgive my wrongs, dear mother!
        Seek even to forget.

      Give to the friend, the stranger,
        Whatever once was mine;
      Nor keep the smallest token
        To wake fresh tears of thine,--
      Save one, one loved memorial,
        With thee I fain would leave;
      'Tis one that will not teach thee
        Yet more for me to grieve.

      'Twas mine when early childhood
        Turn'd to its sacred page,
      The gay, the thoughtless glances
        Of almost infant age;
      'Twas mine thro' days yet brighter,
        The joyous years of youth,
      When never had affliction
        Bow'd down mine ear to truth.

      'Twas mine when deep devotion
        Hung breathless on each line
      Of pardon, peace, and promise,
        Till I could call them mine;
      Till o'er my soul's awakening
        The gift of Heavenly love,
      The spirit of adoption,
        Descended from above.

      Unmark'd, unhelp'd, unheeded,
        In heart I've walk'd alone;
      Unknown the prayers I've utter'd,
        The hopes I held, unknown;
      Till in the hour of trial,
        Upon the mighty train,
      With strength and succour laden,
        To bear the weight of pain.

      Then, Oh! I fain would leave thee,
        For now my hours are few,
      The hidden mine of treasure,
        Whence all my strength I drew.
      Take then the gift, my mother,
        And till thy path is trod,
      Thy child's last token cherish--
        It is the Book of God.


WITCHCRAFT IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.

Sir Roger Twysden, with all his learning, could not rise above the
credulity of his age; and was, to the last, as firm a believer in
palmistry and witchcraft, and all the illusions of magic, as the
generality of his cotemporaries. His commonplace-books furnish numerous
instances of the childlike simplicity with which he gave credence to any
tale of superstition for which the slightest shadow of authenticity
could be discovered.

The following amusing instance of this almost infantine credulity, I
have extracted from one of his note-books; merely premising that his
wife Isabella was daughter of Sir Nicholas Saunders, the narrator of the
tale:--

  "The 24th September, 1632, Sir Nicholas Saunders told me hee herd
  my lady of Arundall, widow of Phylip who dyed in y'e Tower 1595, a
  virtuous and religious lady in her way, tell the ensuing relation
  of a Cat her Lord had. Her Lord's butler on a tyme, lost a cuppe
  or bowle of sylver, or at least of y't prise he was much troubled
  for, and knowing no other way, he went to a wyzard or Conjurer to
  know what was become of it, who told him he could tell him where
  he might see the bowle if he durst take it. The servant sayd he
  would venture to take it if he could see it, bee it where it
  would. The wyzard then told hym in such a wood there was a bare
  place, where if he hyed himself for a tyme he appoynted, behind a
  tree late in the night he should see y'e Cuppe brought in, but
  w'th all advised him if he stept in to take it, he should make
  hast away w'th it as fast as myght bee. The servant observed what
  he was commanded by y'e Conjurer, and about Mydnyght he saw his
  Lord's Cat bring in the cup was myst, and divers other creatures
  bring in severall other things; hee stept in, went, and felt y'e
  Cuppe, and hyde home: where when he came he told his fellow
  servants this tale, so y't at y'e last it was caryed to my Lord of
  Arundel's eare; who, when his Cat came to him, purring about his
  leggs as they used to doo, began jestingly to speake to her of it.
  The Cat presently upon his speech flewe in his face, at his
  throat, so y't w'thout y'e help of company he had not escaped
  w'thout hurt, it was w'th such violence: and after my lord being
  rescued got away, unknown how, and never after seene.

  "There is just such a tale told of a cat a Lord Willoughby had,
  but this former coming from so good hands I cannot but
  believe.--R. T."

                                                        L. B. L.

_Witchcraft._--In the 13th year of the reign of King William the Third--

  "One Hathaway, a most notorious rogue, feigned himself bewitched
  and deprived of his sight, and pretended to have fasted nine weeks
  together; and continuing, as he pretended, under this evil
  influence, he was advised, in order to discover the person
  supposed to have bewitched him, to boil his own water in a glass
  bottle till the bottle should break, and the first that came into
  the house after, should be the witch; and that if he scratched the
  body of that person till he fetched blood, it would cure him;
  which being done, and a poor old woman coming by chance into the
  house, she was seized on as the witch, and obliged to submit to be
  scratched till the blood came, whereupon the fellow pretended to
  find present ease. The poor woman hereupon was indicted for
  witchcraft, and tried and acquitted at Surrey assizes, before
  Holt, chief justice, a man of no great faith in these things; and
  the fellow persisting in his wicked contrivance, pretended still
  to be ill, and the poor woman, notwithstanding the acquittal,
  forced by the mob to suffer herself to be scratched by him. And
  this being discovered to be all imposition, an information was
  filed against him."--_Modern Reports_, vol. xii. p. 556.

                                                           Q. D.


INDULGENCES PROPOSED TO BENEFACTORS TO THE CHURCH OF ST. GEORGE THE
MARTYR, SOUTHWARK.

As I believe little is known of the early history of this church, which
was dependent upon the Abbey and Convent of Bermondsey, the following
curious hand-bill or _affiche_, printed in black letter (which must have
been promulgated previous to the disgrace of Cardinal Wolsey, and the
suppression of religious houses in the reign of Henry VIII.), seems
worthy of preservation. It was part of the lining of an old cover of a
book, and thus escaped destruction. It is surmounted, at the left hand
corner, by a small woodcut representing St. George slaying the dragon,
and on the right, by a shield, which, with part of the margin, has been
cut away by the bookbinder. But few words are wanting, which are
supplied by conjecture in Italics.

It appears from Staveley's _History of Churches in England_, p. 99.,
that the monks were sent up and down the country, with briefs of a
similar character, to gather contributions of the people on these
occasions, and that the king's letter was sometimes obtained, in order
that they might prove more effectual.

It is most probable that the collectors were authorised to grant special
indulgences proportionate to the value of the contribution. No comment
is necessary upon these proceedings, from which at least the Reformation
relieved the people, and placed pious benefactions upon purer and better
motives.

                                                     MISO-DOLOS.

  "Unto all maner and synguler Cristen people beholdynge or herynge
  these present letters shall come gretynge.

  "Our holy Fathers, xii. Cardynallys of Rome chosen by the mercy of
  Almighty God and by the Auctorite of these appostles Peter and
  Paule, to all and synguler cristen people of eyther kynde, trewely
  penytent and confessyd, and deuoutly gyue to the churche of _oure
  la_dy and Seynt George the martyr in Sowthwerke, protector and
  defender of this Realme of Englande, any thyng or helpe with any
  parte of theyr _goodes_ to the Reparacions or maynteyninge of the
  seruyce of almighty God do_ne in y'e_ same place, as gyuynge any
  boke, belle, or lyght, or any other churchly Ornamentis, they
  shall haue of eche of us Cardinallys syngulerly aforesayd a C.
  dayes of pardon. ¶ Also there is founded in the same parysshe
  churche aforesayd, iii. Chauntre preestis perpetually to praye in
  the sayd churche for the Bretherne and Systers of the same
  Fraternyte, and for the soules of them that be departed, and for
  all cristen soules. And also iiii. tymes by the yere Placebo and
  Dirige, with xiiii. preestis and clerkes, with iii. solempne
  Masses, one of our Lady, another of Seynt George, with a Masse of
  Requiem. ¶ Moreouer our holy Fathers, Cardynallys of Rome
  aforesayd, hathe graunted the pardons followethe to all theym that
  be Bretherne and Systers of the same Fraternyte at euery of the
  dayes followynge, that is to say, the firste sonday after the
  feest of Seynt Johannes Baptyst, on the whiche the same churche
  was halowed, xii. C. dayes of pardon. ¶ Also the feest of Seynt
  Mychael y'e Archangell, xii. C. dayes of pardon. ¶ Also the second
  sonday in Lent, xii. C. dayes of pardon. ¶ Also good Frydaye, the
  whiche daye Criste sufferyd his passion, xii. C. dayes of pardon.
  ¶ Also Tewisday in the wytson weke, xii. C. dayes of pardon. ¶ And
  also at euery feeste of our lorde _Criste_ syngulerly by himselfe,
  from the firste euynsonge to the seconde euynsonge inclusyuely,
  xii. C. dayes of pardon. ¶ Also my lorde Cardynall and Chaunceller
  of Englande hathe gyuen a C. dayes of pardon.

  "¶ The summe of the masses that is sayd and songe within the same
  Parysshe Churche of Seynt George, is a m. and xliiii.

                                         "¶ God Saue the Kynge."


GRAY'S PLAGIARISMS.

Your correspondent VARRO (Vol. iii., p. 206.) rejects as a plagiarism in
Gray the instance quoted by me from a note in Byron (Vol. iii., p. 35.),
on the ground that Gray has himself expressly stated that the passage
was "_an imitation_" of the one in Dante. I always thought that in
literature, as in other things, some thefts were acknowledged and others
unacknowledged, and that the only difference between them was, that,
while the acknowledgment went to extenuate the offence, it the more
completely established the fact of the appropriation. A great many
actual borrowings, but for such acknowledgment, might pass for
coincidences. "On peut se rencontrer," as the Chevalier Ramsay said on a
similar occasion.

The object, however, of this Note is not to shake VARRO'S belief in the
impeccability of Gray, for whose genius I entertain the highest
admiration and respect, but to show your readers that the imputation of
plagiarism against that poet is not wholly unfounded. First, we have the
well-known line in his poem of _The Bard_,--

      "Give ample room and verge enough,"--

which is shown to have been appropriated from the following passage in
Dryden's tragedy of _Don Sebastian_:

      "Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me;
      I have a soul that, like an _ample_ shield,
      Can take in all, and _verge enough_ for more."

To this I shall add the famous apothegm at the close of the following
stanzas, in his Ode _On a Prospect of Eton College_:

      "Yet, ah! why should they _know_ their fate,
      Since _sorrow_ never comes too late,
      And happiness too swiftly flies;
      ... ... _Where ignorance is bliss,
      'Tis folly to be wise_."

The same thought is expressed by Sir W. Davenant in the lines:

      "Then ask not bodies doom'd to die
        To what abode they go:
      Since knowledge is but sorrow's spy,
        'Tis better not to know."

But the source of Gray's apothegm is still more obviously traceable to
these lines in Prior:

      "Seeing aright we see our woes;
        Then what avails us to have eyes?
      _From ignorance our comfort flows,
        The only wretched are the wise._"

A third sample in Gray is borrowed from Milton. The latter, in speaking
of the Deity, has this beautiful image:

      "_Dark with excessive light_ thy skirts appear."

And Gray, with true poetic feeling, has applied this image to Milton
himself in those forceful lines in the _Progress of Poesy_, in which he
alludes to the poet's blindness:

      "The living throne, the sapphire blaze,
      Where angels tremble while they gaze,
      He saw; but, _blasted with excess of light_,
      Closed his eyes in endless night."

There is a passage in Longinus which appears to me to have furnished
Milton with the germ of this thought. The Greek rhetorician is
commenting on the use of figurative language, and, after illustrating
his views by a quotation from Demosthenes, he adds: "In what has the
orator here _concealed_ the figure? plainly _in its own lustre_." In
this passage Longinus elucidates one figure by another,--a not unusual
practice with that elegant writer.

                                                 HENRY H. BREEN.

      St. Lucia, April, 1851.


ON THE APPLICATION OF THE WORD "LITTUS" IN THE SENSE OF RIPA, THE BANK
OF A RIVER.

The late Marquis Wellesley, towards the close of his long and glorious
life, wrote the beautiful copy of Latin verses upon the theme "Salix
Babylonica," which is printed among his _Reliquiæ_.

In this copy of verses is to be found the line,--

      "At tu, pulchra Salix, Thamesini _littoris_ hospes."

Certain critics object to this word "littoris," used here in the sense
of "ripa." The question is, whether such an application can be borne out
by ancient authorities. To be sure, the substitution of "marginis" for
"littoris" would obviate all controversy; but as the objection has been
started, and urged with some pertinacity, it may be worth while to
consider it. The ordinary meaning of _littus_ is undoubtedly the
sea-shore; but it seems quite certain that it is used occasionally in
the sense of "ripa."

In the 2d Ode of Horace, book 1st, we find:

      "Vidimus flavum Tiberim, retortis
      _Littore_ Etrusco violenter undis,
      Ire dejectum monumenta regis,
                    Templaque Vestæ;
      Iliæ dum se nimium querenti
      Jactat ultorem; vagus et sinistrâ
      Labitur _ripâ_."

--meaning, as I conceive, that the waters of the Tiber were thrown back
from the Etruscan _shore_, or _right bank_, which was the steep side, so
as to flood the left bank, and do all the mischief. If this
interpretation be correct, which Gesner supports by the following note,
the question is settled by this single passage:

  "Quod fere malim propter ea quæ sequuntur, _littus ipsius Tiberis_
  dextrum, quod spectat Etruriam: unde _retortis undis sinistrâ
  ripâ_ Romam alluente, _labitur_."

Thus, at all events, I have the authority of Gesner's scholarship for
"_littus ipsius Tiberis_."

There are two other passages in Horace's _Odes_ where "littus" seems to
bear a different sense from the sea-shore. The first, book iii. ode 4.:

      "Insanientem _navita_ Bosporum
        Tentabo, et arentes arenas
          Littoris Assyrii _viator_."

The next, book iii. ode 17.:

      "Qui Formiarum moenia dicitur
        Princeps, et innantem Maricæ
          Littoribus tenuisse Lirim."

Upon which latter Gesner says, that as Marica was a nymph from whom the
river received its name,--

  "Hinc _patet_ Lirim atque Maricam fuisse _duo unius fluminis
  nomina_."

But I will not insist upon these examples even with the support of
Gesner, because Marica _may_ have been a district situate on the
sea-shore, and because, in the former passage, "littus Assyrium" _may_
mean the _Syrian_ coast, which is washed by the Mediterranean.

But to go to another author, in book x. of Lucan's _Pharsalia_ will be
found (line 244.):

      "Vel quod aquas toties rumpentis _littora_ Nili
      Assiduè[3] feriunt, coguntque resistere flatus."

This seems to be a clear case of the Nile breaking its banks, and is
conclusive. Again, in book viii. l. 641.:

      "Et prior in _Nili_ pervenit _littora_ Cæsar."

  [Footnote 3: Sc. Zephyri.]

And again, "littore Niliaco," book ix. l. 135.

Lastly, in Scheller's _Dictionary_, the same meaning is given from the
8th book of Virgil's _Æneid_:

      "_Viridique in littore_ conspicitur sus;"

where, beyond a doubt, is meant "littore" _fluviali_.

It appears, then, from these examples that Lord Wellesley is justified
in his application of the word "littus" to the adjective "Thamesinus."

                                          Q. E. D. (A Borderer.)


Minor Notes.

_Epigrams by Coulanges and Prior._--Has the following coincidence been
noticed between an epigram of M. de Coulanges and some verses by Mat.
Prior?

      "_L'Origine de la Noblesse._

      "D'Adam nous sommes tous enfants,
        La preuve en est connue,
      Et que tous nos premiers parents
        Ont mené la charrue.

      "Mais, las de cultiver enfin
        La terre labourée,
      L'une a dételé le matin,
        L'autre l'après-dinée."--(Published 1698.)

      "_The Old Gentry._

      "That all from Adam first begun,
      None but ungodly Woolston doubts,
      And that his son, and his son's sons
      Were all but ploughmen, clowns and louts.

      "Each, when his rustic pains began,
      To merit pleaded equal right,
      'Twas only who left off at noon,
      Or who went on to work till night."

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_Brewhouse Antiquities._--In Forth and others _versus_ Stanton, Trinity
Term, 20 Charles II., Timothy Alsopp and others sue for 100_l._ for cost
of beer, sold by them to defendant's late husband. Can this Timothy
Alsopp be a lineal predecessor of the present eminent firm of Samuel
Alsopp and Sons? We are told that Child's is the oldest
banking-house--which may be the oldest brewing establishment?

                                                        J. H. S.

_Joseph of Exeter de Bello Antiocheno._--Joseph of Exeter, or Iscanus,
was the author of two poems: 1st, _De Bello Trojano_; 2dly, _De Bello
Antiocheno_. The _first_ has been printed and published. The _second_
was only known by _fragments_ to Leland. See his work _De Scrip. Brit._
p. 239. Mr. Warton, in his _History of English Poetry_ (1774), affirms,
that Mr. Wise, the Radcliffe librarian, had informed him that a MS. copy
of the latter was in the library of the Duke of Chandos at _Canons_.
Query, where is it? It was not at Stowe. It is not in Lord Ashburnham's
collection, nor in the British Museum; nor in the Bodleian Library, nor
in the archives of Sir Thomas Phillipps. For the honour of the nation,
we earnestly hope that it may be discovered and committed to the press.

                                                     EXONIENSIS.

_Illustrations of Welsh History:_--1. _Offer by David, Prince of Wales,
to become a Vassal of the Pope._--2. _Death in the Tower of Griffith ap
Llewellyn, Prince of North Wales._--In Madox's Collections in the
British Museum (Add. MSS. No. 4565., vol. lxxxviii. p. 387.) are the
annexed references to two interesting incidents in the history of Wales,
noticed in a MS. Chronicle of John De Malverne, in the library of Corpus
Christi College, Cambridge. The references are sent for insertion in
"NOTES AND QUERIES," in the hope that some member of the University may
be induced to favour the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" with the
passages referred to by Madox.

  "Per idem tempus David Princeps Norwalliæ ad alas papalis
  protectionis confugere proponens, terram suam optulit ei ab ipso
  tenere, reddendo inde sibi quingentas marcas, cui perhibetur D.
  Papa favorem præbuisse in magnum regni Angliæ præjudicium: novit
  enim mundus Principem Walliæ ab antiquo vassallum Regis Angliæ
  extitisse. Ex eod. Chron. [MS. Joh. de Malverne, M. 14.] A. Dom.
  1244."

  "Griff. fil. Lewel. Princeps Norwalliæ, being in the Tower of
  London, fell down as he tryed to make his escape out of a window,
  and dyed. Ib. ad. Ann. 1244."

                                        JOHN AP WILLIAM AP JOHN.

      Inner Temple, May 28.



Queries.

THE WINDOW-TAX, LOCAL MINTS, AND NOBBS OF NORWICH.

In a MS. chronicle, now before me, of remarkable events which occurred,
in connexion with the history of the city of Norwich, from the earliest
period to the year 1716, compiled by an inhabitant of the place named
Nobbs, of whom a word or two at the end of this note, occurs the
following passage:

  "This year (1695) the parliament made an act for remedying the
  coin of the nation, which was generally debased by counterfeits,
  and diminished by clipping, and _laid a tax upon glass windows_,
  to make good the deficiency when it should be taken in. And, for
  the speedy supply of money to the subjects, upon calling in of the
  old money, there were mints set up in York, Bristol, Chester,
  Exeter, and Norwich. The mint in Norwich began to work in Sept.
  1696. Coined there 259,371_l._ The amount of plate and coin
  brought into this mint was 17,709 ounces."

These quantities are identical with those given by Blomefield (_History
of Norwich_, fol., 1741, p. 300.).

1. The duties chargeable on windows, as now collected, were _regulated_
by Sched. A. of 48 Geo. III. c. 55.; but, assuming the correctness of
Nobbs' statement, is it generally known that this tax _originated_ in
the year, and under the circumstances, above recorded?

Bishop Burnet (_Hist. Own Time_, 8vo., 1833, vol. iv. pp. 252. 258.),
describing the proceedings taken by parliament for rectifying the state
of the coinage, without telling us by what means the money was raised,
says (p. 290.):

  "Twelve thousand pounds was given to supply the deficiency of the
  bad and clipped money."

Is this sum the amount of the proceeds of the tax laid, as our chronicle
records, upon glass windows? If so, or from whatever source obtained, it
may, in passing, be remarked, that it appears to be ridiculously
inadequate to meet the requirements of the case; for, according to the
Bishop, in another place (p. 316.):

  "About five millions of clipped money was brought into the
  exchequer, and the loss that the nation suffered, by the recoining
  of the money, amounted to two millions and two hundred thousand
  pounds."

The window duties have of late provoked much discussion, and it would
prove of some interest, if, through the medium of your pages, any of
your correspondents would take the trouble to investigate a little
further the subject of this note. It very easily admits of confirmation
or denial.

2. The principal reason, however, for now writing, is to request answers
to the two following Queries: 1. What amount of money was respectively
coined during 1696, and the following year, in the cities of York,
Bristol, Chester, and Exeter? and 2. In what parish of each of these
places, including Norwich, was the mint situated?

And now let me add a sentence or two respecting the compiler of the
above-named chronicle, which I am induced to do, as his name is closely
connected with that of one of the most celebrated controversial writers
of the Augustan age of Anne and George I., the friend of Whiston, of
Newton, and of Hoadley, and the subject of Pope's sarcastic allusion:

      "We nobly take the high priori road,
      And reason downwards till we doubt of God."

It appears, on the authority of a MS. letter before me, dated Aylsham,
Norfolk, Jan. 25, 1755, and addressed to Mr. Nehemiah Lodge, town clerk
of Norwich, by Mr. Thos. Johnson, who was speaker of the common council
of that city from 1731 to 1736, that Nobbs

  "Was many years clerk of St. Gregory's parish in Norwich, where he
  kept a school, and was so good a scholar as to fit youths for the
  university, amongst whom were the great Dr. Samuel Clarke, and his
  brother, the Dean of Salisbury."

The old man's MS. is very neatly written, and arranged with much method.
It was made great use of, frequently without acknowledgment, by
Blomefield, in the compilation of his history; and besides the chronicle
of events immediately connected with the city, there are interspersed
through its pages notices of earthquakes, great famines, blazing stars,
dry summers, long frosts, and other similar unusual occurrences. The
simplicity, and grave unhesitating credulity, with which some of the
more astonishing marvels, culled, I suppose, from the pages "of
Holinshed or Stow," are recorded, is very amusing. I cannot refrain from
offering you a couple of examples, and with them I will bring this
heterogeneous "note" to a close.

  "In the eighth year of this king's reign (E. II.) it was ordained
  by parliament, that an ox fatted with grass should be sold for
  15_s._, fatted with corn 20_s._, the best cow for 12_s._; a fat
  hog of two years 3_s._ 4_d._; a fat sheep shorn 14_d._, and with
  fleece 20_d._; a fat capon 2_d._, a fat hen 1_d._, four pigeons
  1_d._ And whosoever sold for more, should forfeit his ware to the
  king. But this order was soon revoked, by reason of the scarcity
  that after followed. For, in the year following, 1315, there was
  so great a dearth, that continued three years, and therewith a
  mortality, that the living were not sufficient to bury the dead;
  horses, dogs, and children were eaten in that famine, and thieves
  in prison plucked in pieces those that were newly brought in, and
  eat them half alive."

But, again, sub ann. 1349:

  "This year dyed in Norwich of the plague, from the first of
  January to the last of June, 57,374 persons, besides religious
  people and beggars; and in Yarmouth, 7053. This plague began
  November the first, 1348, and continued to 1357, and it hath been
  observed that they that were born after this had but twenty-eight
  teeth, whereas before they had thirty-two."

This latter notice refers to the first of those three destructive
epidemics which visited Europe during the reign of our Edw. III., and
are so frequently mentioned in ancient records. It is styled the
"Pestilencia Prima et Magna, Anno Domini 1349, a festo Stæ. Petronillæ
usque ad festum Sti. Michaelis." (Nicolas, _Chron. of Hist._, p. 345.)

                                                        COWGILL.


Minor Queries.

_Gillingham._--Can you, or any of your correspondents, furnish me with
any historical or local data that may tend to identify the place where
that memorable council was convened, by which the succession to the
English crown was transferred from the Danish to the Saxon line?
Hutchins, in his _History of Dorset_ (Edw. II., 1813, vol. iii. p.
196.), says:

  "Malmsbury[4] mentions a council held at Gillingham, in which
  Edward the Confessor was chosen king. It was really a grand
  council of the realm; but the generality of our historians place
  it with more probability at London, or in the environs thereof."

  [Footnote 4: Book ii. c. 12. p. 45.]

I am not aware of anything else that can be advanced in support of the
claims of the Dorset shire Gillingham to be the scene of this event
except it be the fact that a royal palace or hunting-seat there was the
occasional residence of the English kings early in the twelfth century,
and subsequently. I do not know whether its existence can be traced
prior to the Conquest; and unless that can be done, it is obviously of
no importance in the present inquiry. Now it had occurred to me that,
after all, Gillingham, near Chatham in _Kent_, may be the true locality;
but, unfortunately, my knowledge of that place is limited to the fact,
that our London letters, when directed without the addition of "Dorset,"
are usually sent to rusticate there for a day or two. Perhaps one of
your Kentish correspondents will favour me with some more pertinent
information.

                                                         QUIDAM.

"_We hope, and hope, and hope._"--I wish to discover the author (a
disappointed courtier, I believe) of a poem ending thus:

      "We hope, and hope, and hope, then sum
      The total up--Despair!"

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_What is Champak?_--In Shelley's "Lines to an Indian Air," I read--"The
Champak odours fail." Is it connected with the spice-bearing regions of
Champava, or Tsiampa, in Siam?

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_Encorah and Millicent._--These are very common baptismal names for
females in this parish, and I should be very much obliged to any one
who could refer me to the origin and meaning of either or both of them.
The former is also spelt _Anchora_ and _Enchora_.

                                                    J. EASTWOOD.

      Ecclesfield.

_Diogenes in his Tub._--It may be hypercritical, but is there any
authority for placing Diogenes in the tub at the time of his interview
with Alexander, which took place at _Corinth_, as Landseer has done in
his celebrated dog-picture?

                                                        A. A. D.

_Topical Memory._--Where can I find the subject of "topical memory"
treated of? _Cic. de Orat._ i. 34. alludes to it.

                                                        A. A. D.

_St. Paul's Clock striking Thirteen._--Will you allow me on this subject
to put to men of science, and to watchmakers, the _à priori_
question--_Is the alleged fact mechanically possible?_

                                                          AVENA.

_A regular Mull--Origin of the Phrase._--"You have made a regular _mull_
of it," meaning a complete failure. This expression I have often heard,
from my school days even to the present time. Can you give me the origin
of it? In reading a very clever and interesting paper communicated by J.
M. Kemble, Esq., to the Archæological Institute of Great Britain and
Ireland in the volume of their proceedings for 1845, entitled, "The
Names, Surnames, and Nicnames of the Anglo-Saxons," I found the
following paragraph:

  "Two among the early kings of Wessex are worthy of peculiar
  attention, viz., the celebrated sons of Cênberht, Cædwealha and
  his brother Mûl. Of the former it is known, that after a short and
  brilliant career of victory, he voluntarily relinquished the power
  he had won, became a convert to Christianity, and having retired
  to Rome, was there baptised by the name Petrus, and died while yet
  in the Albs, a few days after the ceremony. His brother Mûl,
  during their wars in Kent, suffered himself to be surprised by the
  country-people and was burnt to death, together with twelve
  comrades, in a house where they had taken refuge."

This "Note," I think, answers my Query. Do you know of any other
explanation?

                                                        W. E. W.

_Register-book of the Parish of Petworth._--Can any reader of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" assist in discovering a document which was formerly quoted by
this title? Heylin used it for the reign of Edward VI., but his learned
editor (Mr. Robertson) appears to have searched for it in vain.

                                                           C. H.

      St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

_Going to Old Weston._--When a Huntingdonshire man is asked "If he has
ever been to Old Weston," and replies in the negative, he is invariably
told, "You must go before you die." Old Weston is an out-of-the-way
village in the county, and until within a few years was almost
inapproachable by carriages in winter; but in what the point of the
remark lies, I do not know.

                                                           ARUN.

"_As drunk as Chloe._"--Who was Chloe, and what gave rise to the
expression?

                                                        J. N. C.

_Mark for a Dollar._--What is the origin of the mark for a dollar, $?

                                                           T. C.

_Stepony_ (Vol. ii., p. 267.).--If not too stale by this time, may I put
a Query to any Worcestershire reader on the possible connexion of
Stepony ale with a well-known country _inn_ in that county, which must
have startled many a traveller with strange hippophagous apprehensions,
viz., _Stew-poney_?

                                                              B.

      Lincoln.

_Longueville MSS._--Was the collection of MSS. possessed by Henry
Viscount Longueville, and catalogued in Cat. Lib. MSS. Angliæ, 1697,
dispersed; or, if not, where is it to be found?

                                                        E. T. B.

      York, May 13.

_Carling Sunday._--Carling Sunday, occurring nowabouts, is observed on
the north coast of England by the custom of frying dry peas; and much
augury attends the process, as indicated by the different effect of the
bounding peas on the hot plate. Is any solution to be given? The writer
has heard that the practice originated in the loss of a ship (freighted
with peas) on the coast of Northumberland. Carling is the foundation
beam of a ship, or the main beam on the keel.

                                                              X.

_Lion Rampant holding a Crozier._--I met with this crest some time since
on a private seal, and should be glad to ascertain whether the device
was borne by chancellors and archbishops who exercised these functions
contemporaneously, the last of whom was the Archbishop of York, who was
also Lord Keeper from 1621 to Nov. 1625. The motto on the seal is--

            "Malentour."

To this I cannot trace any meaning. Perhaps some of your heraldic
antiquaries can favour me with a solution of the above device of the
motto?

                                                        F. E. M.

_Monumental Symbolism._--On a monument dated 1600, or thereabouts,
erected to a member of an ancient Roman Catholic family in
Leicestershire, there are effigies of his children sculptured. Two of
the sons are represented in a kneeling posture, with their hands clasped
and upraised; while all the others are standing, some cased in armour,
or otherwise. Can you, from knowledge of heraldry, or any other source,
decide confidently what is the reason of the difference of posture, or
rather what it is intended to denote?

                                                         Reader.

_Ptolemy's Presents to the Seventy-two._--Josephus (_Ant._ b. xii. ch.
ii. sect. 15.) mentions, as among the presents bestowed by Ptolemy on
the Seventy-two elders, "the furniture of the room in which they were
entertained." Was this a usual custom of antiquity?

                                                           H. J.

_Baronette_ (Vol. ii., p. 194.).--In an extract from a statute temp.
Hen. IV., it is stated that "dukes, earls, barons, and _baronettes_
might use livery of our lord the king, or his collar," &c. Query the
meaning of the term _baronette_, in the reign of Henry IV.?

                                                        B. DE M.

_Meaning of "Hernshaw."_--_Hernshaw_ occurs in _Hamlet_, II. 2. Query,
What is the derivation of it? It means, I believe, a young heron.
Chaucer ("Squire's Tale," l. 90.) spells it "heronsewe." As _sewe_
signifies a dish (whence the word _sewer_, he who serves up the dinner),
this word applied to _heron_ may mean one fit for eating, young and
tender.

                                                        J. H. C.

      Adelaide, South Australia.

_Hogan._--

  "For your reputation we keep to ourselves your not hunting nor
  drinking hogan, either of which here would be sufficient to lay
  your honor in the dust."

This passage occurs in a letter from Gray to Horace Walpole in 1737. Can
any subscriber state what "hogan" was, the not drinking of which was "to
lay your honor in the dust?"

                                                  HENRY CAMPKIN.

"_Trepidation talk'd._"--What mean the following words in Milton,
_Paradise Lost_, book iii. line 481?

      "They pass the planets seven, and pass the fixed,
      And that crystalline sphere _whose balance weighs
      The trepidation_ TALK'D, and that first moved."

By the last three words we may easily understand the _primum mobile_ of
the Ptolemaic astronomy; and _trepidation_ is thus explained in the
_Imperial Dictionary_:

  "In the _old astr._ a libration of the eighth sphere, or a motion
  which the Ptolemaic system ascribes to the firmament, to account
  for the changes and motion of the axis of the world."

Newton, in his edition of Milton, is silent. Bentley says in a note:

  "_Foolish_ ostentation, in a thing that a child may be taught in a
  map of these imaginary spheres. _Talk'd_, not good English, for
  called, styled, named."

Paterson, in his _Commentary on Paradise Lost_, 1744, for the sight of
which I am indebted to the courtesy of the librarian of the Chetham
Library, says:

  "_Trepidation_, Lat., an astronomical T., a trembling, a passing.
  Here, two imagined motions of those spheres. Therefore Milton
  justly ridicules those wild notions."

Granting that _trepidation_ and _whose balance weighs_ are understood,
can any of your readers explain the phrase _trepidation talk'd_?

                                                        W. B. H.

      Manchester.

_Lines on the Temple._--Can any of your readers inform me if these
lines, said to be the impromptu production of some passer-by struck with
the horse and lamb over the Temple gates, have ever been in print, and
where?

      "As by the Templars holds you go,
        The Horse and Lamb display'd
      In emblematic figures show,
        The merits of their trade.

      "That travellers may infer from hence
        How just is their profession;
      The lamb sets forth their innocence,
        The horse their expedition.

      "Oh! happy Britons! happy isle,
        May wondering nations say,
      There you get justice without guile,
        And law without delay."

                                                           J. S.

_Death._--I am making a collection, for a literary purpose, of the forms
or similitudes under which the idea of Death has been embodied in
different ages, and among different nations, and shall be highly obliged
by any additions which your numerous learned and intelligent
correspondents may be able to make to my stock of materials. References
to manuscripts, books, coins, paintings, and sculptures, will be highly
acceptable. I must confess that it has not yet been in my power to trace
satisfactorily the origin, or the earliest pictorial example, of the
current representation of Death as a skeleton, with hour-glass and
scythe.

                                                        S. T. D.

_Was Stella Swift's Sister?_--Being last week on a visit to Dublin, I
went to see St. Patrick's Cathedral there, when, contemplating the
monuments of the Dean and Stella, the verger's boy informed me, that
after the death of the latter, the Dean discovered that she was his own
sister, which occasioned him to go mad. Is there any foundation for
this?

                                                        J. H. S.


MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED.

_John Marwoode._--A house in the town of Honiton, Devon, has the
following inscription carved above the dining-room mantelpiece:

      "John . Marwoode . Ge[n]t . Phisition . Bridget . Wife . Buylded."

From a marble tablet in the porch, J. M. appears to have been "Gentleman
Physician" to Queen Elizabeth. Any information respecting him will be
acceptable to

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

  [Dr. Thomas Marwood, of Honiton, was a physician of the first
  eminence in the West of England, and succeeded in effecting a cure
  in a diseased foot of the Earl of Essex, for which he received
  from Queen Elizabeth, as a reward for his professional skill, an
  estate near Honiton. From an inscription on his tomb in the parish
  church, it appears that "he died the 18th Sept., 1617, aged
  _above 105_." The house mentioned by our correspondent was
  erected in 1619 by John Marwood, who was also a physician, and by
  Bridget his wife. For further particulars respecting the family of
  the Marwoods, see _Gentleman's Magazine_, vols. lxi. p. 608.;
  lxiii. 113.; lxxix. 3.; lxxx. pt. i. 429.; lxxx. pt. ii. 320.]

_St. Paul._--I shall be obliged if you will allow me the opportunity of
asking your correspondents for a reference to the fullest and most
reliable life of St. Paul the apostle?

                                                           EMUN.

  [Our correspondent is referred to _The Life and Epistles of St.
  Paul, comprising a complete Biography of the Apostle and a
  paraphrastic Translation of his Epistles, inserted in
  Chronological Order_, now in course of publication by Messrs.
  Longman, under the editorship of the Rev. W. J. Conybeare, M.A.,
  and the Rev. J. S. Howson. The work is copiously illustrated with
  maps plans, views, &c.]

_Meaning of Zoll-verein._--Should a one-shilling visitor to the Crystal
Palace ask a question of a holder of a season ticket touching the exact
meaning and history of the word Zoll-verein, I wonder what he would tell
him?

                                                       CORDEROY.

  [Zoll-Verein, _i. e._ Customs Union.--An union of smaller states
  with Prussia for the purposes of Customs uniformity, first
  commenced in 1819 by the union of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, and
  which now includes Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Wirtemburg, Baden,
  Hesse-Cassel, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and all
  intermediate principalities. For the purposes of trade and customs
  these different kingdoms and principalities act as one empire.]

_Crex, the White Bullace._--Will you insert a Query from a new
correspondent but old subscriber? _Crex_ is the ordinary name with
Cambridgeshire folk for the White Bullace. I cannot answer for the
orthography, as neither Dictionary nor Provincial Glossary acknowledges
the word. Can any of your correspondents enlighten me?

                                               CHARLES THIRIOLD.

      St. Dunstan.

  [This Cambridgeshire name for the White Bullace is clearly
  connected with the Dutch name for Cherry, _Kriecke_. See Killian,
  s. v., where we find KRIECKE, Cerasum, and the several kinds of
  cherry, described as _Swarte Kriecke_, _Spaensche Kriecke_, _Roode
  Kriecke_, &c.]



Replies.


THE OUTER TEMPLE.

(Vol. iii., p. 375.)

While I thank MR. PETER CUNNINGHAM for his ready compliance with my
request, I am sorry to say that I cannot concur in the reliance which he
expresses on the authority of Sir George Buc. The passage quoted from
that writer contains so palpable a blunder in that part of the history
of the Temple of which we have authentic records, that I look with much
suspicion on that portion of the relation, with regard to which no
documentary evidence has been found.

He makes "Hugh Spencer, Earle of Glocester," the next successor of the
Earl of Lancaster in the possession of the Temple after the suppression,
and places "Andomare de Valence" in the house _after_ the execution of
Spencer for treason: an account which receives a somewhat significant
contradiction in the fact, that Valence died in 1323, and Spencer was
beheaded in 1326.

With reference to Buc's assertion, that "the other third part, called
the Outward Temple, Doctor Stapleton, Bishop of Exceter, had gotten in
the raign of the former king, Edward the Second, and conuerted it to a
house for him and his successors, Bishops of Exceter," I can only say
that no such grant has ever been discovered, and that every fact on
which we have any information in relation to the Templars' possessions
in London, contradicts the presumption that any part of them was
disposed of to the bishop. He was raised to his see in 1307. The
Templars were suppressed in 1309. Their lands and tenements in London
were then placed in the hands of custodes appointed by the king, who in
1311 transferred them into the custody of the sheriffs of London, with
directions to account for the rents into the Exchequer. In both of these
documents, and in the grants to the Earls of Lancaster and Pembroke, ALL
the property that belonged to the Templars in London and its suburbs is
expressly included; without excepting any part of it as having been
previously granted to the bishop; which, had any such been made, would
inevitably have been specially noticed. And I have already shown in my
former communication (p. 325.) that the grant by the Hospitallers
themselves to Hugh le Despenser in 1324 is of the _whole_ of their house
called the New Temple, and that the bishop's mansion is therein stated
to be its western boundary.

All these particulars confirm me in my opinion, that the bishop's house
never formed any part of the New Temple.

                                                    EDWARD FOSS.


THE OLD LONDON BELLMAN AND HIS SONGS OR CRIES.

(Vol. iii., pp. 324. 377.)

The songs of the old bellman are interesting relics of the manners and
customs of "London in the olden time;" but they must not be confounded
with the more modern "copies of verses" which, until lately, were
annually handed about at Christmas time by that all-important
functionary the "Parish Beadle." The history of the old London bellman
may be gleaned from a series of tracts from the pen of those two
prolific writers--Thomas Dekker and Samuel Rowlands. The first of these
in the order of date is _The Belman of London. Bringing to light the
most notorious Villanies that are now practised in the Kingdome.
Profitable for Gentlemen, Lawyers, Merchants, Citizens, Farmers,
Masters of Households, and all sortes of Servants to marke, and
delightfull for all Men to Reade._ Printed at London for Nathaniel
Butler, 4to. 1608. The author of this tract was Thomas Dekker. Its
popularity was so great that it passed through _three_ editions in the
course of one year. The title-page above given is that of the first
impression. It is adorned with an interesting woodcut of the bellman
with bell, lantern, and halberd, followed by his dog. In the following
year the same author printed his _Lanthorne and Candle-light, or the
Bellman's second Nights-walke. In which he brings to light a Brood of
more strange Villanies then ever were till this yeare discovered, &c._
London, printed for John Busbie, 4to. 1609. The success of the _Bellman
of London_, which Dekker published anonymously, induced him to write
this second part, to the dedication of which "to Maister Francis Mustian
of Peckham" he puts his name, while he also admits the authorship of the
first part. This is the second edition of _Lanthorne and Candle-light_,
but it came out originally in the same year. On the title-page of this
tract the bellman is represented in a night-cap, without his dog, and
with a "brown bill" on his shoulder. Three years later Dekker produced
his _O per se O, or a New Cryer of Lanthorne and Candle-light. Being an
Addition, or Lengthening of the Bellman's Second Night-walke, &c._
Printed at London for John Busbie, 4to. 1612. Previous to the year 1648,
this production went through no fewer than _nine_ distinct editions,
varying only in a slight degree from each other. One of these editions,
now before me, has for its title _English Villanies Eight severall times
Prest to Death by the Printers_, 4to. 1648. The author in this calls the
bellman "the childe of darkeness, a common night-walker, a man that hath
no man to wait upon him, but onely a dogge; one that was a disordered
person, and at midnight would beat at men's doores bidding them (in
meere mockerie) to looke to their candles, when they themselves were in
their dead sleepes." The following verses are at the back of the
title-page, preceded by a woodcut of a bellman. The same lines are also
given, "with additions," in the earlier editions of the _Villanies_, but
they are too indecent to quote:

      "THE BELL-MAN'S CRY.

      "Men and children, maids and wives,
      'Tis not too late to mend your lives:
      Midnight feastings are great wasters,
      Servants' riots undoe masters.
      When you heare this ringing bell,
      Thinke it is your latest knell:
      Foure a clock, the cock is crowing,
      I must to my home be going:
      When all other men doe rise,
      Then must I shut up mine eyes."

The exceeding popularity of the _Bellman of London_ induced Samuel
Rowlands to bring out his _Martin Mark-all, Beadle of Bridewell, his
Defence and Answere to the Belman of London, discovering the
long-concealed Originall and Regiment of Rogues when they first began to
take head, and how they have succeeded, &c._ Printed for John Budge,
&c., 4to. 1610. The object of this publication was to expose Dekker's
_Bellman_, which Rowlands says was only a "vamp up" of Harman's _Caveat
or Warening for Common Cursetors_; but Harman himself was only a
borrower, and the origin of his work is _The Fraternitye of Vacabondes_,
printed prior to 1565. Greene's _Ground-work of Coney-catching_ is
another work which may be pointed out as having been taken from the same
original. But as these tracts do not contain any "bellman's songs," I
need not now dwell upon them.

Among the many curious musical works printed in London at the close of
the sixteenth and the beginning of the following century, I can scarcely
point out a more desirable volume than one with this title: _Melismata,
Musical Phansies fitting the Court, City, and Country Humours, to three,
four, and five voices_:

      _To all delightful, except to the spiteful;
      To none offensive, except to the pensive._

London, printed by William Stansby, &c., 4to. 1611. The work is in five
divisions, viz., 1. Court Varieties; 2. Citie Rounds; 3. Citie Conceits;
4. Country Rounds; 5. Country Pastimes. Among the "City Conceits" we
have the following:

      "A BEL-MAN'S SONG.

      "Maides to bed, and cover coale,
      Let the mouse out of her hole;
      Crickets in the chimney sing,
      Whilst the little bell doth ring:
      If fast asleepe, who can tell
      When the clapper hits the bell."

But perhaps the most curious collection of bellman's songs that has been
handed down to us, is a small tract of twelve leaves entitled _The
Common Calls, Cries, and Sounds of the Bel-Man; or Diverse Verses to put
us in minde of our Mortality_, 12mo. Printed at London, 1639. This
excessively rare and interesting "set of rhymes" is now before me, and
from them I have extracted a few specimens of the _genuine_ old songs of
the London bellman of past times:--

      "THE BEL-MAN'S SOUNDS.

      "_For Christmas Day._

      "Remember all that on this morne,
      Our blessed Saviour Christ was borne;
      Who issued from a Virgin pure,
      Our soules from Satan to secure;
      And patronise our feeble spirit,
      That we through him may heaven inherit."

      "_For New-Yeares Day._

      "All you that doe the bell-man heere,
      The first day of this hopefull yeare;
      I doe in love admonish you,
      To bid your old sins all adue,
      And walk as God's just law requires,
      In holy deeds and good desires,
      Which if to doe youle doe your best,
      God will in Christ forgive the rest."

      "COMMON SOUNDS.

      "The belman like the wakefull morning cocke,
        Doth warne you to be vigilant and wise:
      Looke to youre fire, your candle, and your locke,
        Prevent what may through negligence arise:
      So may you sleepe with peace and wake with joy,
      And no mischances shall your state annoy."

      "All you which in your beds doe lie,
      Unto the Lord ye ought to cry,
      That he would pardon all your sins;
      And thus the bell-man's prayer begins:
      Lord, give us grace our sinful life to mend,
      And at the last to send a joyfull end:
      Having put out your fire and your light,
      For to conclude, I bid you all good night."

The collection of Bellman's songs here described is sometimes found
appended to a little work entitled _Time well Improved, or Some Helps
for Weak Heads in their Meditations_, 12mo. 1657. The latter publication
is a reprint, with a new title-page, of Samuel Rowlands' _Heaven's
Glory, seeke it; Earth's Vanitie, fly it; Hell's Horror, fere it_. But
whether the songs in question were written, or merely collected by
Rowlands, does not appear.

                                             EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_The Bellman_ (Vol. iii., p. 324.1).--Your correspondent F. W. T. will
find a very amusing sketch of a night-watchman in _Gemälde aus dem
häuslichen Leben und Erzählungen_ of G. W. C. Starke: whether it may
help his inquiries or not I cannot say. It will at least inform him of
the difficulties in which a conscientious and gallant watchman found
himself when he attempted to improve on the time-honoured terms in which
he had to "cry the hours."

                                                         BENBOW.

      Birmingham.


THE TRAVELS OF BARON MUNCHAUSEN, AND THE AUTHOR OF THE SABBATH.

(Vol. iii., p. 305.1)

1. In answer to the communication of A COLLECTOR, allow me to remark,
that although Bruce did not publish his _Travels_ till about seventeen
years after his return to Great Britain, various details had got abroad;
and, as usually happens, the actual facts, as given by himself, were
either intentionally or accidentally misrepresented. Latterly, Bruce,
indignant at the persecution he suffered, held his tongue, and patiently
awaited the publication of his _Travels_ to silence his accusers.
Amongst other teasing occurrences, Paul Jodrell brought him on the stage
in a clever after-piece which was acted in the Haymarket in 1779, and
was published in 8vo. in 1780. A copy of this piece, which is called _A
Widow and no Widow_, is now before me: and Macfable, a Scotch travelling
impostor, was acted by Bannister; and the hits at Bruce cannot be
mistaken.

Further, Bruce himself understood that he was the party meant by
"Munchausen," and he complained of this and many other attacks to a
distant relative of mine, who died a few years since, and who mentioned
the circumstances to me; adding, that Bruce uniformly declared that the
publication of his work would, he had no doubt, afford a triumphant
answer to his calumniators.

Whilst on the subject of Munchausen, I may observe, that the story of
the frozen words is to be found in _Nugæ venales, or a Complaisant
Companion_, by Head, the author or compiler of the _English Rogue_. It
occurs among the lies, p. 133.:

  "A soldier swore desperately that being in the wars between the
  Russians and Polemen, there chanced to be a parley between the two
  generals where a river parted them. At that time it froze so
  excessive that the words were no sooner out of their mouths but
  they were frozen, and could not be heard till _eleven_ days after,
  that a thaw came, when the dissolved words themselves made them
  audible to all."

As my copy has a MS. title, I should be obliged if any of your readers
could furnish me with a correct one.

2. There were _not_ "two James Grahame" cotemporaries. The author of
_Wallace_ was the author of _The Sabbath_, as well as of _Poems and
Tales, Scotch and English_, thin 8vo., Paisley, 1794: a copy of which,
as well as of _Mary Stewart_ and _Wallace_, is in my tolerably extensive
dramatic library. The latter is defective, ending at p. 88.; and was
saved some years ago from a lot of the drama about to be consigned to
the snuff-shop. Probably the same reasons which caused the suppression
of a political romance from the same pen, and of which I have reason to
believe the only existing copy is in my library, may have induced the
non-completion of _Wallace_. Grahame, like many other young men just
emerging at that particular time from the Scotch Universities, had
imbibed opinions which in after years his good sense repudiated. He
concealed his authorship of the Paisley poems (now very scarce), and the
secret only transpired after his death. From the intimacy that subsisted
between myself and his amiable nephew and namesake, whose untimely
death, in 1817, at the age of twenty, I have never ceased to lament, I
had the best means of learning many facts relative to the poet, who was,
according to all accounts, one of the most estimable and truly pious men
that ever lived. As to the crude opinions of early youth, can we forget
that the truly admirable Southey was the author of _Wat Tyler_?

Whether there were only six copies of _Wallace_ _completed_, I cannot
say; but this much I can assert, that there were a great many printed,
and that, as before mentioned, the greater part went to the snuff-shop;
probably, because people were not fond of purchasing a drama wanting the
title and end.

In concluding, I may mention, that the "Mary Stewart" in the 12mo.
edition of the _Poems of Grahame_, is quite altered from the one printed
in 8vo. in 1801.

                                                           J. M.


THE PENN FAMILY.

(Vol. iii., p. 409.)

In reply to your correspondent A. N. C., William Penn, eldest son of the
famous Quaker, married Mary Jones, by whom he had three children,
Gulielma Maria, Springett, and William. The latter had a daughter by his
first wife, Miss Fowler, who married a Gaskill, from which marriage the
present Penn Gaskills of Rolfe's Hould, Buckinghamshire, are descended.
While writing on this subject, allow me to send you two other "notes."

Hugh David, a Welshman, who went out to America in the same vessel with
William Penn, used to relate this curious anecdote of the state founder.
Penn, he says, after watching a goat gnaw at a broom which lay on deck,
called out to him, "Hugh, dost thou observe the goat? See what hardy
fellows the Welsh are; how they can feed on a broom! However, Hugh, I am
a Welshman myself, and will relate by how strange a circumstance our
family lost their name. My grandfather was named John Tudor, and lived
on the top of a hill or mountain in Wales. He was generally called John
Penmunith, which in English is--_John on the top of the hill_. He
removed from Wales into Ireland, where he acquired considerable
property. Upon his return to his own country he was addressed by his
friends and neighbours, not in the former way, but as Mr. Penn. He
afterwards removed to London, where he continued to reside under the
name of John Penn, which has since been the family name." David told
this story to a Quaker, who wrote it down in these words, and gave the
MS. to Robert Proud, the historian of Pennsylvania. The same David, in a
copy of doggrel verses presented to Thomas Penn on a visit to
Philadelphia in 1732, made an allusion to this descent. I quote four of
the lines:

      "For the love of him that now descended be,
      I salute his loyal one of three,
      That ruleth here in glory so serene,
      I branch of Tudor, alias Thomas Penn."

This is at least curious. But I attach little credit to Mr. David's
report. He certainly mistook or ill remembered Penn's words; as his
grandfather was Giles Penn, and his ancestors for two generations
before Giles are known to have been William.

The second note refers to Penn's descendants, and may claim a corner in
your chronicle on more than one ground. William Penn was born in 1644:
in 1844 his grandson, Granville Penn, well known as a writer on
classical subjects, was still alive! The descendants of his first
marriage with Miss Springett, six years ago were in the fifth and sixth
generation after him; those by his second wife, Hannah Callowhill, in
the second.

                                                 HEPWORTH DIXON.


ON THE WORD "PRENZIE" IN "MEASURE FOR MEASURE."

(Vol. iii., p. 401.)

I have read with attention the argument of your correspondent LEGES on
the passage in _Measure for Measure_, in which the word "prenzie"
occurs; and to much that he advances I should, like the modest orator
who followed Mr. Burke, be contented to say "ditto." Nevertheless, as I
cannot agree with him altogether, I beg permission to make a few remarks
upon the question. The extent of my agreement with your correspondent
will be shown in stating, that I think neither "priestly," "princely,"
nor "precise" to be the true word. We disagree, however, in the measure
of our dislike; for of the three suggested corrections, "princely" is,
to my mind, by far the best, and "precise," beyond all measure, the
worst. Indeed, but that Mr. Knight has adopted the latter term, as well
as Tieck, I should have regarded it as an instance of the difficulty in
the way of the best qualified Germans of understanding the niceties of
English meaning, or of feeling how far license might be tolerated in
English versification. In adopting this term Mr. Knight appears to have
forgotten that it has a special application as the Duke (Act I. Sc. 4.)
uses it. Taken in connexion with the expressions "stands at a guard" and
"scarce confesses," _cautiously exact_ would appear to express the sense
in a passage the whole spirit of which shows a scarcely disguised
suspicion. The Duke, evidently, would not have been surprised, as
Claudio was; and the expression appropriate to a close observer like the
one, is a most unlikely epithet to have been chosen by the other. More
fatal, however, is the destruction of the measure. Both instances go
beyond all bounds of license. And though we may pass over the error in a
critic so eminent even as Tieck, we need feel no compunction at exposing
"earless on high" an Englishman who has pilloried so often and so
mercilessly others for the same offence.

While, however, LEGES has shown good cause against the adoption of
either of the above epithets, it does not appear to me that he has
succeeded in establishing a case in favour of the word "pensive," which
he proposes instead. In the first place, the passages your correspondent
quotes, show Angelo to be "strict," "firm," "precise," to be "a man
whose blood is very snow-broth," &c., but certainly not "pensive" in the
common acceptation of the word. Secondly, he fails to show that, if
Shakspeare meant by "pensive" anything more than _thoughtful_ in the
passages he cites, he meant anything so strong as _religiously
melancholy_, which would be the sense required to be of any service to
him as an epithet to the word "guards."

I will now, with your permission, call attention to what I consider an
oversight of enquirers into this subject. The conditions required, as
your correspondent well states, are "that the word adopted shall be (1)
suitable to the reputed character of Angelo; (2) an appropriate epithet
to the word 'guards;' (3) of the proper metre in both places; and (4)
similar in appearance to the word 'prenzie.'" Now, it does not appear to
have been considered that this similarity was to be sought in
manuscript, and not in print; or, if considered, that much more radical
errors arise from illegible manuscripts than the critics have allowed
for. In his "Introductory Notice," Mr. Knight says the word (_prenzie_)
"appears to have been inserted by the printer in despair of deciphering
the author's manuscript." Yet in his note to the text he has printed it,
together with three suggested emendations, as though he would call
attention to the comparative similarity in print. But if, as all have
hitherto assumed, the printer had read the first three or four letters
correctly, is it not most probable that the context, with the word
recurring within four lines, would have set him right? And his having
twice inserted a word having no apparent meaning, is it not as probable
that he was misled at the very beginning of the word by some careless
combination of letters presenting accidentally the same appearance in
the two instances? Having thus shown that the search for the true word
may have been too restricted, I will proceed to make a final suggestion.

When Claudio exclaims in surprise--

            "The (      ) Angelo!"

it is quite clear that the epithet which has to be supplied is one in
total contrast to the character just given of him by Isabella. What is
this character?

            "This _outward-sainted_ deputy,--
      Whose settled visage and deliberate word
      Nips youth i' the head, and follies doth emmew,
      As falcon doth the fowl,--_is yet a devil;
      His filth within being cast, he would appear
      A pond as deep as hell_."

To this it appears to me Claudio would naturally exclaim:

            "The _saintly_ Angelo!"

and Isabella, as naturally following up the contrast, would continue--

      "O, 'tis the cunning livery of hell,
      The _damned'st body to invest and cover_
      In _saintly guards_!"

My acquaintance with the handwriting of the age is very limited, but I
have no doubt there are possible scrawls in which _saintlie_ might be
made to look like _prenzie_. If any one knows a better word, let him
propose it; only I beg leave to warn him against _pious_, which I have
already tried, and for various reasons rejected.

                                                 SAMUEL HICKSON.

      St. John's Wood, May 24. 1851.

_"Prenzie" in "Measure for Measure."_--It must be gratifying to the
correspondents of "NOTES AND QUERIES" to know that their suggestions
receive attention and consideration, even though the result be
unfavourable to their views. I am therefore induced to express, as an
individual opinion, that the reading of the word "prenzie," as proposed
by LEGES, does not appear more satisfactory than those already suggested
in the various editions.

Of these, "precise" is by far the most consonant with the sense of the
context; while "pensive," almost exclusively restricted to the single
meaning, _contemplative_,--action of mind rather than strictness of
manner,--is scarcely applicable to the hypocritical safeguard denounced
by Isabella.

From the original word, too, the deviation of "precise" is less than
that of "pensive." Since the former substitutes _e_ for _n_, and
transposes two letters in immediate proximity, while the latter
substitutes _v_ for _r_, and transposes it from one end of the word to
the other.

But "precise" has the immeasurable advantage of repetition by Shakspeare
himself, in the same play, applied to the same person, and coupled with
the same word "guard," which is undoubtedly used in both instances in
the metaphorical sense of _defensive covering_, and not in that of
"countenance or demeanour," nor yet in that of "the formal trimmings of
scholastic robes:"

                "Lord Angelo is precise;
      Stands at a guard with envy--
      O, 'tis the cunning livery of hell
      The damned'st body to invest and cover
      In precise guards."

Therefore, while I cannot quite join with Mr. Knight in understanding
"precise" as applicable to the formal cut of Angelo's garments, I
nevertheless agree with him, on other grounds, in awarding a decided
preference to the reading of the German critic.

                                                        A. E. B.

_The Obsolete Word "Prenzie."_--I agree with your correspondent LEGES,
that the several emendations which have been suggested of the word
"prenzie," do not "answer all the necessary conditions." LEGES says,
"it is universally agreed that the word is a misprint."[5] Now
misprinting may be traced to wrong letters being dropped in the boxes
into which compositors put the types, and which generally are found to
be neighbours (this is hardly intelligible but to the initiated).
However, _they_ will at once see that a more unfortunate illustration
could hardly have been suggested. An error, made by the printer, often
passes "the reader" or corrector, because it is something, in appearance
and sound, like what should have been used. But in this word there is no
assimilation of either to any one of the words conjectured to have been
meant. Moreover, such a word would never have been _twice_ used
erroneously in the same piece. May it not rather have been an adaptation
from the Norman _prisé_, or the Latin _prenso_, signifying _assumed_,
_seized_, &c.? The _sound_ comes much nearer, the _sense_ would do. I
hardly like to venture a suggestion where so many eminent commentators
entertain other views; but it seems to me that it is a main excellence
of your periodical to encourage such suggestions; and if mine be not too
wild, your insertion of it will oblige

                                                           B. B.

  [Footnote 5: Old as well as modern typographers need have broad
  backs. Bale, in his Preface to the _Image of both Churches_, says,
  "But ij cruel enemies have my just labours had * * * The
  _printers_ are the first whose heady hast, negligence, and
  couetousnesse commonly corrupteth all bokes * * * though they had
  in their handes ij learned correctours w'h take all paynes possyble
  to preserue them."]

P.S. May I end this note by adopting a Query many years since put forth
by a highly valued and, alas! deceased friend and coadjutor in
antiquarian pursuits,--"What is the date of that edition of the Bible
which reads (Psalm cxix. 161.): _Printers_ have persecuted me without a
cause?"

_On a Passage in "Measure for Measure"_ (Vol. iii., p. 401.).--One of
the very few admissible conjectural emendations on Shakspeare made by
the ingenious and gifted poet and critic Tieck, is that which Mr. Knight
adopted, and I cannot think your correspondent LEGES happy in proposing
to substitute "pensive."

There can be no doubt that "guards" in the passage in question signifies
_facings_, _trimmings_, _ornaments_, and that it is used metaphorically
for _dress_, _habit_, _appearance_, and not for _countenance_,
_demeanour_.

The context clearly shows this:

      "_Claud._         The _precise_ Angelo?

      "_Isab._ O, 'tis the cunning _livery_ of hell,
      The damned'st body _to invest and cover_
      In _prècise guards_."

Isabella had before characterised Angelo--

      "This _outward-sainted_ deputy is yet a devil:"

and the Duke afterwards says:

      "Oh, what may man within him hide,
      Though angel _on the outward side_."

In _Much Ado about Nothing_ (Act I. Sc. 1.), Benedick says:

   "The body of your discourse is sometimes _guarded_ with
   fragments, and the _guards_ are but slightly basted on neither."

That the epithet "precise" is peculiarly applicable to the assumed
sanctity of Angelo, the poet has decided in Act I. Sc. 4., where the
Duke describes him thus:

                      "Lord Angelo is _precise_,
      Stands at a guard with envy, scarce confesses
      That his blood flows, or that appetite
      Is more to bread than stone. Hence we shall see,
      If power change purpose, what our _seemers_ be."

"The 'pensive' Angelo" might be admissible, though not so appropriate as
"the precise;" but "pensive" is inapplicable to the word "guards," in
the sense which the poet everywhere attaches to it. In the second Scene
of this Act the Clown says:

   "Craft being richer than innocency, stands for the _facing_."

Your correspondent may be assured that the word he would substitute was
never written or printed "penzive" in Shakspeare's time.

Mr. Collier's objection, that "precise" "sounds ill as regards the
metre, the accent falling on the wrong syllable," has no weight with me,
for it is doubtful whether the accent was not placed on the first
syllable of "prècise" by the poet and his cotemporaries; but were this
not the case, I should still very much prefer the reading proposed by
Tieck, and adopted by Mr. Knight, to any other that has been proposed,
and have little doubt that it is the true one.

                                                   S. W. SINGER.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Countess of Pembroke's Epitaph_ (Vol. iii., p. 307.).--Let me thank
your correspondent MR. GATTY for his information. In order to complete
the history of this inscription, it may be stated that though Gifford is
silent as to Jonson having any claim to it, yet, by admitting it into
his works (vol. viii. p. 337.), he concurs apparently with Whalley and
others, in assigning this "delicate epitaph," as Whalley terms it, to
Jonson, though it "hath never yet been printed with his works." Gifford
considers that Jonson did not "cancel," as it has been alleged, the six
lines, "Marble piles let no man raise," but that he possibly never saw
them. They certainly contradict the preceding ones; admitting that such
a character as the Countess _might_ again appear. These last-mentioned
verses, Gifford adds, were copied from the poems of William Herbert Earl
of Pembroke, "a humble votary of the Muses." This nobleman, whose
amiable character is beautifully drawn by Clarendon, deeply venerated
his excellent mother; he, perhaps, could not feel satisfied in leaving
her praises to be sung by another poet, and therefore added this
well-intended but feeble supplement.

                                                        J. H. M.

_Court Dress_ (Vol. iii., p. 407.).--There are no orders of the Earl
Marshal, printed or manuscript, upon the subject of court costume--it is
not within his department. It is more likely that the Lord Chamberlain
has notices upon the subject. In all cases of court mourning, his
lordship specifies the dress, and notifies the changes, not always,
however, strictly adopted or comprehended.

                                                             Gh.

_Ex Pede Herculem_ (Vol. iii., p. 302.).--The origin of this proverb is
to be found, I think, in Plutarch, who is quoted by Aulus Gellius (i.
1.) as saying in substance as follows:

  "Pythagoras ingeniously calculated the great stature of Hercules,
  by comparing the length of various stadia in Greece. All these
  courses were nominally 600 feet in length, but Hercules was said
  to have measured out the stadium at Olympia with his own feet,
  while the others followed a standard of later days. The
  philosopher argued that by how much the Olympic course exceeded
  all others in length, by the same proportion did the foot of
  Hercules exceed that of men of a subsequent age; and again, by the
  same proportion must the stature of Hercules have been
  pre-eminent."

(The original is to be found also in _Plutarchi Varia Scripta_, ed.
Tauchnitz, vol. vi. p. 393.)

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_The Day of the Accession of Richard III._ (Vol. iii., p. 351.).--I have
examined the original inrolment of the entry upon the Remembrance Roll
_ex parte Capitalis Rememoratoris Hiberniæ_, of the second year of
Richard III., with the _fac-simile_ of that entry which appears in the
Irish Record Reports (1810-1815, plate 9.), and I find that the
_fac-simile_ is correct. The accession of Richard III. is shown by the
entry upon the original record to have taken place on the twenty-_sixth_
day of June. This entry is, as I have stated, upon the roll of the
second year of Richard III., and not of the first year, as stated by the
said Record Reports, there being no Remembrance or Memoranda Roll of the
first year of that monarch to be found amongst the Exchequer Records of
Ireland. Upon this subject of Richard III.'s accession, I beg to
transmit to you the copy of a regal table which is entered in the Red
Book of the Exchequer, probably the most ancient, as well as the most
curious, record in Ireland. Judging by the character of the handwriting
of this _Tabula Regum_, I would come to the conclusion, that the entries
prior in date to that of Henry VIII.'s reign have been made during the
time of that monarch; or, in other words, that this table has probably
not been compiled at any time previous to the reign of Henry VIII.

                                                        J. F. F.

      Nomina Regum [Angliae] post [conquestum] [Willielmi] [Bastardi].

      [Willielmus] conquestor regnavit [per]   XXI [annos]. Beried at
                                                   Cane.
      [Willielmus] Rufus regnavit [per]        XIII [annos].
      Henricus primus regnavit [per]           XXXVI [annos].
      [Stephanus] regnavit [per]               XX [annos].
      Henricus [secundus] regnavit [per]       XXXVI [annos].
      Henricus [tercius] regnavit [per] unum [annum] [imperfectum] &
          ideo non [debet] scribi.
      [Ricardus] regnavit [per]                IX [annos].
      [Johannes] regnavit [per]                XVIII [annos].
      Henricus [tercius] regnavit [per]        LVI [annos].
      Edwardus [primus] regnavit [per]         XXXV [annos].
      Edwardus [secundus] regnavit [per]       XIX [annos].
      Edwardus [tercius] regnavit [per]        L [annos] & CXLVIII
                                                   dies.
      [Ricardus] [secundus] regnavit [per]     XXII [annos] & C dies.
      Henricus quartus regnavit [per]          XIII [annos] &
                                                   [quartrium] [anni]
                                                   [XX]'IIIJ., II dies.
      Henricus [quintus] regnavit [per]        IX [annos] & [quarterium]
                                                   anni LXIII dies.
      Henricus sextus regnavit [per]           XXXVIII [annos]
                                                   [quinquaginta] & III
                                                   dies.
      Edwardus quartus regnavit [per]          XXII [annos] XXXVII dies.
      [Ricardus] [tercius] regnavit [per]      II [annos] [dimidium].
      Henricus septimus regnavit               XXIII [annos] &
                                                   [dimidium] sex
                                                   [septimanas].
      Henricus [octavus] regnavit              XXXVIII [annos].
      Edwardus sextus                          VII [annos].
      Philipus et Maria                        V.
      Elizabeth regina nunc                    XLIII.
      Jacobus qui hodie regnat                 XXII plane.
      Carolus Rex.

_Tennyson's "In Memoriam_" (Vol. iii., pp. 142. 227.).--I beg to
withdraw my former suggestion as to "the crimson-circled star," which,
on reconsideration, appears to me manifestly erroneous.

If you can find space for a second suggestion, I think the question will
be cleared up by the following extract from the valuable work which I
cited before (the _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology_, edited by Dr. W. Smith):

  "Eos, Ἠώς, in Latin Aurora, the goddess of the morning
  red, who brings up the light of day from the east. At the close of
  night she ascended up to the heaven from the river Oceanus to
  announce the coming light of the sun to the gods as well as to
  men. In the Homeric poems, Eos not only announces the coming
  Helios (the sun), but accompanies him throughout the day, and her
  career is not complete till the evening: hence she is sometimes
  mentioned when one would have expected Helios (_Od._ v. 390. x.
  144.); and the tragic writers completely identify her with Hemera
  (the day), of whom, in later times the same mythes are related as
  of Eos."

As Aurora rises from the river Oceanus, he may be called her _father_,
and as she sinks into the same, he may be called her _grave_. The
expression then will mean neither more nor less than this, "We returned
home before the close of day."

Perhaps Mr. Tennyson had a line of Lycidas running in his mind:

      "So sinks the day-star in the ocean bed."

Milton's day-star, however, I take to be the sun himself.

Another of your correspondents, I see, suggests a different
interpretation of the "crimson-circled star."

I hope I shall not be considered as taking too great a liberty if I
avail myself of the medium of your pages to request Mr. Tennyson (deus
ex machinâ) to descend and settle the question.

                                                                X. Z.

_Cardinal Azzolin_ (Vol. iii., pp. 370. 371.).--Cardinal Azzolini was
appointed by Alexander VII. Intendant to Queen Christina on her
receiving a pension of 12,000 scudi from that Pope. On the withdrawal of
this grant by Innocent XI., her majesty wrote a furious letter to the
Cardinal, which is one of the most curious pieces contained in a
_Collection of Letters_, edited by M. Matter (Paris, chez Amiot). That a
close intimacy existed between the Queen and the Cardinal appears from
some allusions in contemporary letters (1685-1687). See M. Valéry's
_Correspondence de Mabillon et de Montfaucon avec l'Italie_ (Paris,
1846), vol. i. p. 99.: "La Reine de Suède, grande amie du Cardinal
Azzolin" ... vol. ii. p. 83.:

  "Il n'y a plus de différend qu'entre le marquis Del Monte et le
  Cardinal Azzolin [_sic_], à qui aura meilleure _part dans les
  bonnes grâces de la Reine pendant sa vie_, et dans son testament
  après sa mort."

The editor adds (vol. iii. p. 298.):

  "Le Cardinal Azzolini fut _le principal héritier de Christine_."

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_Babington's Conspiracy_ (Vol. iii., p. 390.).--In Dr. Maitland's _Index
of English Books in the Lambeth Library_ will be found the following
entry:

  "* Babington (Anthony), His Letter to the Queen. No place,
  printer, or date." The asterisk denotes that it is not mentioned
  by Herbert in his edition of Ames.

This, I believe, will be a satisfactory answer to J. BT.'s Query.

                                                           H. P.

_Robert de Welle_ (Vol. ii., p. 71.).--Not observing that H. W.'s Query
regarding Robert de Welle has as yet been answered, I would refer him to
Blomefield's _Hist. of Norf._, vol. vii. p. 288., edit. 1807, 8vo.,
where under "Bicham-well" he will find a Robert de Welle, lord of the
manor of Well Hall, an. 1326 (20 Edw. II.), which was held under the
_Earl of Clare_, the capital lord. He died circ. 9 Edw. III.

I have met also with a Roger de Welle, in an old roll undated, but about
the time of Hen. III., in which he is entered as holding a manor in
Wimbotsham, co. Norf.:

  Rogerus de Welle tenet manerium suum de Winebodesham cum libero
  tenemento villanis suis et cotariis ad illud manerium
  pertinentibus de comite Warenne per servicium quarte partis unius
  scuti et comes de domino rege in capite, per quale servicium
  nescimus. Et habet in eodem manerio unum messuagium et unam
  carucatam terre arabilis et xiiij acras prati in dominico unum
  molendinum ad ventum liberum tauros et verres eidem manerio
  pertinentes et facit sectam ad curiam de Castelacre de tribus
  septimanis in tres septimanas. Et capit amerciamenta pistorum et
  braciatorum et hoc sine waranto ut credimus. Et clamat habere
  warennam per cartam domini regis.

The manor passed from him to Ingaldesthorp, under which manor the
continuator of Blomefield mentions (vol. vii. p. 517.) that Roger de
_Frevil_ in 13 Hen. III. had a carucate of land here. This is probably
the same person as Roger de Welle, as it was not uncommon for persons at
that period to be known by different designations.

Thomas Knox, M.P. for Dungannon, was created Baron Welles, 1780. H. W.
will find the history of the family in Lodge's _Peerage of Ireland_, by
Archdall, vol. vii. p. 195., ed. 1789.

                                                        G. H. D.

_Family of Sir John Banks_ (Vol. iii., p. 390.).--The following is a
correct list of the descendants of Sir John Banks; and as his wife is an
historical character, her own immediate descent, as well as the notice
of those of the present day who may claim her as their ancestor, may not
be uninteresting to your correspondent:--

                      Thomas Hawtrey, of Chequers, co. Bucks, Esq.,
                                    A. 9 H. VII.
                                         |
      Ralph Hawtrey, fourth Son          = Winifred, d. and h. of Wm.
                                         |     Wallaston, Esq., of
                                         |     Ruislip, co. Middx.
                                         |
                                         |
      Edward Hawtrey, of Ruislip, Esq.   = Elizabeth, d. of Gabriel
                                         |     Dormer, co. Oxon, Esq.
                                         |
                                         |
      Ralph Hawtrey, of Ruislip, Esq.    = Mary, d. of Ed. Altham of
                                         |     Mark's Hall, co. Essex,
                                         |     Esq.
                                         |
      ------------------------------------
             |                |
      John Hawtrey,         Mary, only       =    Sir John Banks,
          of Ruislip,           daughter,    |        Queen's Coll.
          Esq., eldest          d. 1661.     |        Oxon, 1604.
          Son.                  Buried at    |        Chief Justice,
                                Ruislip.     |        temp. C.  I.
                                The Heroine  |        1640. D. 1644.
                                of Corfe     |        Of Stanwell,
                                Castle.      |        Middx., and
                                             |        Corfe Castle,
                                             |        Dorset.
                                             |
                                             |
                                            |||
                      --------------------------------------------------
                       1. John Banks, d. before his father.
                       2. Sir Ralph Banks, Kt.
                       3. Jerome.
                       4. Charles.
                       5. William.

                       6. Bridget, d. 1636, at Stanwell, Middx.
                       7. Alice.
                       8. Elizabeth.
                       9. _Mary._
                      10. Joan.
                      11. Anne, b. 1637, at Stanwell.
                      12. Frances.
                      13. Arabella, baptized July 31, 1642, at Stanwell.

Of these only two appear to have left descendants: _Sir Ralph Banks_,
who is the ancestor of the Earl of Falmouth, and Baroness Le Despenser;
and of George Bankes, Esq., M. P. for Corfe Castle, his lineal
descendant. _Mary Banks_, third daughter, married Sir Robert Jenkinson,
Knt.; and is the ancestor of the Earls of Liverpool and Verulam, of the
Countesses of Craven, Clarendon, and Caledon; Viscountess Milton, and
Viscountess Folkestone.

Burke's _Commoners_ would probably answer the rest of R. C. H. H.'s
Query, or Lysons' _Middlesex_.

                                                           L. H.

_Charles Lamb's Epitaph_ (Vol. iii., p. 322.).--I can explain to MARIA
S. how this epitaph came to be attributed to Wordsworth. The late
laureate did write some lines on the occasion of Lamb's death,
beginning--

      "To a good man of most dear memory,
      This stone is sacred."

They were composed, the author says,

                            "With an earnest wish,
      Though but a doubting hope, that they might serve
      Fitly to guard the precious dust of him,
      Whose virtues called them forth. _That aim is missed._"
                                   Vol. v. p. 141. ed. 1850.

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_Quebeça and his Epitaph_ (Vol. iii., p. 223.).--This epitaph is said,
upon the authority of _Segrais_, to be upon the king of Spain's
preceptor, and to be seen at _Saragossa_. The version of it in my
possession differs from that supplied by your correspondent, and is as
follows:

  "Here lies John Cabeça, preceptor of my lord the king. When he is
  admitted to the choir of angels, whose society he will embellish
  by his powers of song, God shall say to the angels, 'Cease, ye
  calves! and let me hear John Cabeça, the preceptor of my lord the
  king.'"

                                                   J. B. COLMAN.

      Eye, March 24. 1851.

_The Frozen Horn_ (Vol. iii., p. 282.).--The story of the frozen and
thawed words in Rabelais' _Pantagruel_, book iv. c. 55. and 56., is
borrowed from a passage in Plutarch's _Morals_, vol. vi. p. 293.,
Leipsic, Reiske's edition. I beg to subjoin the Latin translation of
this fable of so remote a date:

  "Joco enim Antiphanes dixit, in urbe quadam voces illico frigore
  loci congelare, ac per æstatem, gelu soluto, demum exaudiri, quæ
  dicta erant hyeme; ita ille quæ adolescentes e Platone
  audivissent, aiebat, plerosque vix tandem ingravescente ætate
  intelligere."

                                                        C. I. R.

_West Chester_ (Vol. iii., p. 353.).--JOHN FRANCIS X. asks "why so
designated?" Camden will answer him. That antiquary gives the Roman,
British, and Saxon names, and adds:

  "Nos contractius _West Chester_ ab occidentali
  situ."--_Britannia_, edit. 1607, p. 458.

But X. adds:

  "In _Maps of Cheshire_ 1670, and perhaps later, the city is thus
  called."

The writer has the maps and plans of Braun, Hollar, Saxton, Speed, and
Blome, before him, but these have "Chester" simply; and does not at
present recollect any county map with the prefix mentioned. Perhaps X.
will oblige by a reference.

                                                 LANCASTRIENSIS.

_West Chester_ (Vol. iii., p. 353.).--So called in contradistinction to
Chester-le-Street, Chester Magna, Chester Parva, Chesterfield,
Chesterton, and a hundred other Chesters throughout England. To be _sent
to West Chester_ (frequently so called in the beginning of the last
century), was to be sent into banishment, _i. e._ into Ireland; of which
Chester was in those days the usual, and indeed almost the only, route.

                                                              C.

_Registry of Dissenters_ (Vol. iii., p. 370.).--I beg to inform D. X.
that I have met with several instances of Dissenters' _burials_ being
entered in parish registers, at a time when a more amicable feeling than
now exists prevailed between churchmen and themselves. In the register
of Warbleton, co. Sussex, in particular, there are several entries of
Quakers who were buried in their own cemetery in that parish, about 150
years since.

                                                    M. A. LOWER.

      Lewes.

_Registry of Ministerial Offices performed by Dissenters_ (Vol. iii., p.
370.).--The note of D. X. has led me to examine the baptismal registers
of Ecclesfield parish, and I find on the parchment fly-leaf of the book
which contains the baptisms, that date from nearly the beginning of the
seventeenth century, the following heading--"Births of the children of
some Dissenters enter'd as given." Then comes a list of the names of
fourteen children, with the dates of their births; and, after several
miscellaneous entries of baptisms, I find,

  "January 3. 1750-1, Samuel, son of Thomas Sayles, said to be
  baptised at Sheffield by ye Popish priest."

The enrolment of births is, no doubt, quite improper. But the entering
of dissenting baptisms in the parish register (mentioned by D. X.) would
not, I think, be equally open to reprobation; inasmuch as the
registering has always been of baptisms _in the parish_, and not merely
_in the church_. Hence, if dissenting baptism be, as no doubt it is, a
valid title to burial by the clergyman, he might, not unreasonably, be
disposed to keep a list of such irregular administrations. That the law
has regarded them as irregular, is evident from the fact, that when in
1812 an act was passed "for the better regulating and preserving parish
and other registers of births, baptisms, marriages, and burials in
England," the 146th chap. of the same distinctly declares, that when a
baptism is performed by any other than the licensed minister of the
parish, the certificate of its performance must state that it was
"according to the rites of the United Church of England and Ireland." No
dissenting baptism, therefore, could now be registered by the clergyman.

In our burial register there is a slip of paper pinned, with this
inscription upon it:

  "These are to certify that the remains of Ann, the wife of Thomas
  Ellis, was buried in the Methodist chapel-yard in Ecclesfield, the
  5th day of November, 1826, aged (about) seventy-three."

The poor woman chose to lie apart from her "rude forefathers;" and she
has continued to be the solitary tenant of the small enclosure round the
chapel. It seems, however, that her friends did the best they could
towards preserving her name on the list of those who sleep in the
consecrated cemetery.

                                                   ALFRED GATTY.

_Poem on the Grave_ (Vol. iii., p. 372.).--A correspondent in your No.
of May 10th, signed A. D., wishes to be informed of the author of "The
Grave," a very beautiful poem; and he gives a portion of it thus:--

      "_1st Voice._

      "How peaceful the grave, its quiet how deep,
      Its zephyrs breathe calmly, and soft is its sleep,
        And flow'rets perfume it with ether."

      "_2nd Voice._

      "How lonesome the grave, how deserted and drear,"

(From what I remember of the poem, this stanza flows on thus):--

      "With the howls of the storm wind, the creaks of the bier,
        And the white bones all clattering together."

This poem extends to fifteen or twenty stanzas, and is exquisite in its
imagery, and peculiarly forcible (its author was a Russian, I think
Derzhavin), and in its original language might compare with the works of
the most polished poetry of advanced nations. It can be found translated
in Bowring's _Russian Anthology_, 12mo., published about 1824: where
also will be found some beautiful translations from _Lomonosoff_, "Or
Broken Nose," and other Russian poets. Derzhavin also has his grandest
poem on God, translated there: this poem is popular in no less than
thirty-six languages, and is familiar to the Chinese and Tartar nations,
and even as far as Southern India. I give the exordium, which is
noble:--

      "O Thou Eternal One, whose presence bright
      All space doth occupy, all motion guide;
      Unchanged through time's all-devastating flight;
      Thou only God! There is no God beside!"

And in a further portion of the poem, describing Heaven as the abode of
God, he speaks thus:

      "What shall we call them? Piles of crystal light,
      A glorious company of golden streams,--
      Lamps of celestial ether burning bright,--
      Suns lighting systems with their joyous beams?"

I think I have quoted sufficient to direct A. D.'s attention to the
northern poets, who, though few in number, make up their deficiency in
quantity by the sterling and magnificent quality of their works.

                                                GREGORY BATEMAN.

      Tansor Rectory, near Oundle, Northamptonshire,
          May 15. 1851.

The poem inquired for by A. D. is copied in an album in my possession
"from Bowring's translation of Russian Poetry," and is entitled "The
Churchyard."

                                                  J. R. PLANCHÉ.

_Round Robin_ (Vol. iii., p. 353.).--The "little predie round-robin,"
mentioned by Dr. Heylin, was no doubt a small pancake. (See Halliwell's
_Archaic and Provincial Dictionary_, under "Round Robin.")

Of the derivation of the petition also called a round robin, I find the
following account in the _Imperial Dictionary_:--

  "ROUND ROBIN, n. [Fr. _rond_ and _ruban_.] A written petition,
  memorial, or remonstrance signed by names in a ring or circle. The
  phrase is originally derived from a custom of the French officers,
  who, in signing a remonstrance to their superiors, wrote their
  names in a circular form so that it might be impossible to
  ascertain who had headed the list. It is now used to signify an
  act by which a certain number of individuals bind themselves to
  pursue a certain line of conduct."

The round robin sent to Dr. Johnson on the subject of his epitaph on
Goldsmith is well known. In speaking of it Boswell states that the
sailors make use of it "when they enter into a conspiracy, so as not to
let it be known who puts his name first or last to the paper."

                                                   C. H. COOPER.

      Cambridge, May 3. 1851.

_Derivation of the Word "Yankee"_ (Vol. iii., p. 260.).--Your
correspondent J. M., and M. Philarète Charles, are both incorrect in
saying that this derivation is not given in any English or American
work. In the _Poetical Works of John Trumbull, LL.D._, published at
Hartford (U.S.), 1820, in two volumes, in the Appendix, appears the
following Note:

  _"Yankies._--The first settlers of New England were mostly
  emigrants from London and its vicinity, and exclusively styled
  themselves the English. The Indians, in attempting to utter the
  word _English_, with their broad guttural accent, gave it a sound
  which would be nearly represented in this way, _Yaunghees;_ the
  letter _g_ being pronounced hard, and approaching to the sound of
  _k_ joined with a strong aspirate, like the Hebrew _cheth_, or the
  Greek _chi_, and the _l_ suppressed, as almost impossible to be
  distinctly heard in that combination. The Dutch settlers on the
  river Hudson and the adjacent country, during their long contest
  concerning the right of territory, adopted the name, and applied
  it in contempt to the inhabitants of New England. The British of
  the lower class have since extended it to all the people of the
  United States. This seems the most probable origin of the term.
  The pretended Indian tribe of Yankoos does not appear to have ever
  had an existence; as little can we believe in an etymological
  derivation of the word from ancient Scythia or Siberia, or that it
  was ever the name of a horde of savages in any part of the world."

I some time ago thought of sending you a copy of this "Note," but had
forgotten it, until recalled to my memory by reading J. M.'s extract.

                                             T. H. KERSLEY, A.B.

      King William's College, Isle of Man.

_Yankee--Yankee-doodle_ (Vol. iii., p. 260.).--In a curious book on the
Round Towers of Ireland (I forget the title), the origin of the term
Yankee-doodle was traced to the Persian phrase, "Yanki dooniah," or
"Inhabitants of the New World." Layard, in his book on _Nineveh and its
Remains_, also mentions "Yanghi-dunia" as the Persian name of America.

                                                         BENBOW.

      Birmingham.

_Yankee._--The following lines from a poem, written in England by the
Rev. James Cook Richmond, of Providence, Rhode Island, and dated Sept.
7, 1848, gives the derivation of this word:--

      "At Yankees, John, beware a laugh,
        Against yourself you joke:
      For _Yenghees_ 'English' is, but half
        By Indian natives spoke."

M. Philarète Charles then has too hastily concluded that this etymology
is not given in "aucun ouvrage américain ou anglais," and has supplied
us with a surprising coincidence, since he appears to have fairly
translated the first two lines, viz.: "Les Anglais, quand ils se moquent
des _Yankies_, se moquent d'eux-mêmes."

                                                          W. DN.

_Letters on the British Museum_ (Vol. iii., pp. 208. 261.).--Your
correspondent's Query as to the author of these letters, published by
Dodsley in 1767, 12mo., has not yet been answered. The author's name was
Alexander Thomson. It is inserted in manuscript in two copies of this
work which I possess. I have also seen the assignment of the copyright
to Dodsley, in which the same name occurs as that of the author.

                                                  JAS. CROSSLEY.

_Names of the Ferret_ (Vol. iii., p. 390.).--The name by which the male
ferret is known in the midland counties is the _hob_: the female is
called the _jill_. In that district there is a saying current, which is
applied to the human genus:


      "There's never a Jack but finds a Jill."

In Welsh, the name of the ferret is _ffured_, which means a wily, crafty
creature.

                                                   A RATCATCHER.

_Anonymous Ravennas_ (Vol. i., p. 124.).--W. C.'s Query has not received
much elucidation as yet; as a small contribution, I may remark that the
Benedictine Dom. Porcheron brought the MS. to light, and published it at
Paris, 1686, 8vo., under the title, _Anonymi Ravennatis, qui circa
sæculum septimum vixit, de Geographiâ libri quinque_, with a dedication
to the Duc de Bourbon, son of the great Condé. My authority is, the
_Correspondence inédite de Mabillon et de Montfaucon avec l'Italie_, par
M. Valéry, Paris, 1846, vol. ii. pp. 2, 3, 5.

  "_Paucis abhinc diebus_ prodiit _ab uno e nostris erutus in lucem_
  Anonymus Ravennas, qui _ante annos circiter mille_ de Geographia
  scripsit libros quinque. [Michel Germain à Gattola, _Dec. 31.
  1686_.] Je vous destine un volume _in 8vo._ que notre cher Dom.
  Placide Porcheron vient de donner au public, c'est un Anonyme de
  Ravenne, Goth ou Grec de naissance, _qui vivait il y a mille ans_
  ... [the same, to Magliabechi, _Jan. 10. 1687_.]"

The editor gives the date 1688, and the form 4to., for this book; the
date is evidently a misprint.

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_The Lion, a Symbol of the Resurrection_ (Vol. i., pp. 385. 472.).--As
JARLTZBERG has not replied to MR. EASTWOOD'S Query, permit me to refer
the latter to _Sacred Latin Poetry Selected_, by R. C. Trench, London,
1849, pp. 67. 152. 153.:

  "The Middle-Age legend, that the lion's whelps were born dead and
  first roused to life on the third day by the roar of their sire,
  was often alluded to in connexion with, and as a natural type of
  the Resurrection. Adam de S. Victore (_De SS. Evangelistis_, verse
  25.):

      "'Est leonis rugientis
      Marco vultus, resurgentis
      Quo claret potentia:
      Voce Patris excitatus
      Surgit Christus....'

  "Again, _De Resurrectione Domini_, verse 54.:

      "'Sic de Judâ Leo fortis,
      Fractis portis diræ mortis
      Die surgit tertiâ,
      Rugiente voce Patris....'

  "Hugo de S. Victore (_De Best._, lib. ii. cap. 1.):

  "Cum leæna parit, suos catulos mortuos parit, et ita custodit
  tribus diebus, donec veniens Pater eorum in faciem eorum exhalet,
  et vivificentur. Sic Omnipotens Pater Filium suum tertiâ die
  suscitavit a mortuis.

  "Hildebert (_De Leone_):

      "Natus non vigilat dum Sol se tertiò gyrat,
      Sed dans rugitum pater ejus suscitat illum:
      Tunc quasi vivescit, tunc sensus quinque capescit."

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_Paring the Nails, &c._ (Vol. ii., p. 511.; Vol. iii., p. 55.).--The
legend that I have heard in Devonshire differs from that quoted in Vol.
ii. It ran thus:

      "Friday cut hair, Sunday cut horn,
      Better that man had never been born."

The meaning given to it was, that cutting horn was a kind of _work_, and
therefore a breach of the Sabbath and that cutting hair on the Friday
was, like a hundred other things, thought unlucky on a Friday, from some
obscure reference to the great sacrifice of _Good Friday_. Sir Thomas
Browne shows that this was perhaps the continuation of ancient
superstition; and it is peculiarly remarkable that amongst the Romans
the _Dies Veneris_ (Friday) should have been thought unlucky for
_hair-cutting_. His reference to the crime of Manasses, "of observing
times," enters into no detail, and the text is evidently a general
condemnation of superstitious observances. I may as well here remark
that Browne's reference to Manasses, 1 Chron. xxxv., in my edition
(1686), is erroneous: it should be 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6.

                                                              C.

_Meaning of Gig-Hill_ (Vol. iii., pp. 222. 283.).--Your correspondent N.
B., p. 283., has doubtless aptly illustrated Shakspeare's use of the
word _gig_, but not as a local name, where "there is no indication of
anything in the land to warrant it;" but if your querist K., p. 222.,
will refer to Bailey's _Dictionary_, article "Gig Mill," "a mill for the
fulling of woollen cloth," he will find the key to the local name; and
full information as to the illegality and injurious tendency of Gig
Mills, with an order for their suppression, &c., will be found in the
statute 5 & 6 Edward VI., c. 22, intitled, "An Act for the putting down
of Gig Mills." The presence of such mills previous to the suppression
would give the name to the sites now known as "Gig's Hills."

                                                         BLOWEN.

_The Mistletoe on the Oak_ (Vol. ii., pp. 163. 214.; Vol. iii., pp. 192.
226.).--MR. BUCKMAN calls the Poplar and Lime native, and the Sycamore
and Robinia foreign trees, and adds that the two latter are
comparatively recently introduced.

Without doubt, all four are foreign, except the Asp among Poplars, which
is a native tree. And the Sycamore was introduced into England long
before the Lombardy, and I think before any of the Poplar tribe.

I have seen the Mistletoe propagated by seed inserted, with an upward
cut of a knife, under the bark of an apple-tree.

On the Oak I have never seen the Mistletoe. The late Mr. Loudon, when
shown it on an oak on the estate of the late Miss Woods, of Shopwyke,
near Chichester, said he had only seen it in one other instance.

                                                  A. HOLT WHITE.

For much learned lore relating to this remarkable plant, see the
_Encyclopædia Metropolitana_. Your querist ACHE may be assured that the
Mistletoe may be often found in the counties of Devon and Somerset
growing on oaks, and frequently on old apple-trees in neglected
orchards. A specimen of it may also be occasionally found on other
trees the bark of which is rough, such as the acacia and some species of
willow, when of large size. I have heard of an instance of its growing
in a furze-bush.

                                                        S. S. S.

_Spelling of "Britannicus"_ (Vol. iii., p. 275.).--If R. W. C. will turn
to Akerman's _Coins of the Romans relating to Britain_, he will find, at
p. 36., the description of a brass medallion of Commodus having on the
reverse a legend commencing "BRITTANIA P. M. TR.," &c.

The author observes:

  "The spelling of Britannia is worthy of observation. Dr. Charles
  Grotefend thinks it is from the Greek, Βρεττανια."

And in a Note to this adds:

  "That in Horace and Propertius, the first syllable of Britannia is
  short, but in Lucretius, on the contrary, it is long."

I would further observe, that the same mode of spelling "Britannia,"
with two _t_'s, obtains on the coins of Severus, Caracalla, and Geta.

                                                  J. COVE JONES.

      Temple, April 17. 1851.

_T. Gilbert on Clandestine Marriages_ (Vol. iii., p. 167.).--Thomas
Gilbert, the author of the MS. treatise mentioned by your correspondent,
was the son of William Gilbert, of Priss, in Shropshire. He was born in
1613, and at the age of sixteen entered the University of Oxford. He
took the degree of M.A. in 1638, and was afterwards appointed minister
of Upper Winchington, in Buckinghamshire. He joined the Puritan party at
the beginning of the rebellion, and was made vicar of St. Lawrence,
Reading. Wood says that he turned Independent, "was actually created
Bachelor of Divinity in the time of the Parliamentarian visitation," and
was preferred to the rich rectory of Edgmond, in his native county of
Shropshire. Being very active against the Royalists, he was commonly
called the "Bishop of Shropshire." After the Restoration he was, of
course, ejected, when he retired to Oxford, and lived obscurely many
years, with his wife, in the parish of St. Ebbs. He lived latterly upon
charity, and died in the extreme of poverty, in the year 1694. For more
minute particulars of the life of this person, and a catalogue of his
writings, see Wood's _Athenæ Oxon._, edit. Bliss, vol. iv. p. 406.

                                             EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Dog's Head in the Pot_ (Vol. iii., p. 264.).--I have seen this carved
and gilt as the sign of R. O. Backwell, ironmonger, Devonport. A person
now sitting by me recollects its being adopted there about forty years
since. It is perhaps always the sign of an ironmonger, instead of a
public-house, as suggested by your correspondent. The pot (as at
Blackfriars) is the three-legged cast-iron vessel called in Devonshire a
"crock."

                                                          K. TH.

_Pope Joan_ (Vol. iii., p. 265.).--If the man who believes in this fable
can be found in England, he will meet with the demonstration of its
falsehood in the cotemporary chronicles of Galindo, Bishop of Troyes,
otherwise called by his assumed name of religion, Prudentius Trecensis,
or Trecassensis. (See _Monumenta Germaniæ Historica_, Hanover, 1826,
vol. i. p. 449.) It there appears clearly that no Pope John VIII.
succeeded Leo IV., or preceded Benedict III. Prudentius survived them
_both_ by three years. His words are "Mense Augusto Leo apostolicæ sedis
antistes defunctus est, eique Benedictus successit. Eodem mense duæ
stellæ majoris et minoris quantitatis visæ sunt," &c. &c.

It seems to me that a just blindness fell upon men so evil-minded as to
desire the falsification of chronology and history for polemical ends,
that they should have utterly missed the moral principle by which they
would be thought animated. No prelate ordaining a young person, unknown
to himself, save by academical reputation, could _know_ that person's
sex. The want of beard is no criterion; nor is the female lip in all
instances very smooth. But if it were true that a person eminently
distinguished by studies, and bringing from Athens a high reputation for
merit, could upon those grounds alone obtain the suffrages of the Roman
chapter, more honour would be conferred upon it than that chapter, or
other dispensers of patronage, have usually merited. Instead of being
unknown, the candidates in the days of Benedict III. were, if anything,
_too well known_; for the jobbery and faction, of which this fable would
indicate the entire, and almost unnatural, absence, were sufficiently at
work.

                                                           A. N.

_"Nettle in dock out"_ (Vol. iii., p. 205.).--Bishop Andrewes uses the
phrase, "_in_ docke _out_ nettle, _in_ nettle _out_ docke," to denote
unsteadiness. The passage occurs in Sermon I., "Of the Resurrection,"
folio, p. 391.:

  "Now then that we bee not, all our life long, thus off and on,
  fast or loose, _in docke out nettle, and in nettle out docke_; it
  will behove us once more yet to looke back," &c. &c. &c.

                                                         REVERT.

      Wittingham, Easter Eve.

_Mind your P's and Q's_ (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 357.).--This phrase was, I
believe, originally "Mind your _toupées_ and your _queues_,"--the
_toupée_ being the artificial locks of hair on the head, and the _queue_
the pigtail of olden time.

There used to be an old riddle as follows:--Who is the best person to
keep the alphabet in order?--Answer: A barber, because he ties up the
_queue_, and puts _toupées_ in irons.

                                                         NEDLAM.

"_Lay of the Last Minstrel_" (Vol. iii., p. 367.).--The BORDERER, with
whom, I fancy, every one will fully agree, has himself been guilty of
_incuria_ in charging it upon Walter Scott. The great festival at which
Michael Scott marches off with the Goblin Page, was to celebrate, not
the _nuptials_, but the _betrothal_, of the hero and heroine. I do not
think I have read the _Lay_ since I was a boy; but yet I will bet five
nothings to one, that the following lines are spoken by the Lady, when
she gives way, as she says, to Fate:--

      "For this is your betrothing day,
      And all these noble lords shall stay
        And grace it with their company."

It would be an excellent thing if some of your correspondents would
furnish you with materials for a corner, to be entitled, "The Prophecy
of Criticism." It should give, by short extract, those presages in which
criticism abounds, taken from the Reviews of twenty years or more
preceding the current year. Thus, in this year of 1851, the corner
should be open to any prophecy uttered in or before 1831, and palpably
either fulfilled or falsified. In a little while, when the subject
begins to cool, the admission should be restricted to prophecy of
precisely twenty years of previous date. Such a corner would be useful
warning to critics, and useful knowledge to their readers.

                                                              M.

_Tingry_ (Vol. ii., p. 477.).--In reply to E.V.'s Query, if there is any
place in the north of France bearing that name, I may inform him that
Tingry is a commune near Samer, in the arrondissement of Boulogne.
Tingry Hill is the highest spot in the neighbourhood. In the Boulogne
Museum are several mediæval antiquities found at Tingry.

                                                       P. S. KG.

_Sabbatical and Jubilee Years of the Jews_ (Vol. iii., p. 373.).--You
must find it difficult to know what to do when a correspondent obtains
admission into your columns who absolutely requires to be sent back to
elementary books. On the one hand, care must be taken not to discourage
communication: on the other hand, there is a species of communication
which must be gently discouraged. Nothing has ever appeared in your
columns which makes this remark more necessary than the communication
headed as above, and signed by the venerable name of HIPPARCHUS. Your
well meaning, but hitherto not sufficiently instructed, correspondent,
seems to imagine either that the Jewish year was wholly lunar, or that a
solar year may consist of a fixed number of (wrong) lunar months. Now,
the lunar month is _not_ 29 days, but 29-½ days; and the Jews,
whom he calls ignorant of astronomy (which they were, compared with
Hipparchus of Rhodes), met this, as most know, by using months of 29
days and of 30 days in equal numbers. And surely every one must know
that the Jewish year was regulated, as to its commencement, by the sun
and the equinox. The year opened just before the Passover, which
required a supply of lamb. Unless lamb had been obtainable all the solar
year round, a regular lunar year (such as the Mahometans have) would
have made a due observance of the Passover impossible. I hope your
correspondent can bear to be told, good-humouredly, that it passes all
reasonable permission that he should speculate on chronological
questions as yet.

                                                              M.

_Luncheon_ (Vol. iii., p. 369.).--I cannot help doubting this
derivation; and I suspect that the true meaning of the word is, a piece,
or slice (or _vulgo_, a "hunch") of bread. When people who dined early,
and breakfasted comparatively late, wanted any intermediate refreshment,
"a luncheon" (or, as we should now say, "just a crust of bread") was
sufficient. The Query brought to my mind some verses of the younger
Beattie, which were published with his father's _Minstrel_, &c., in
which he uses the word "luncheon" for the piece of bread placed beside
the plate at dinner. I have no doubt of the fact, though I cannot
recollect the lines, or find the book. But after searching in vain for
it, I took down Johnson's _Dictionary_; and under the word I found this
couplet by Gay, which is perhaps a better authority:

      "When hungry thou stood'st staring like an oaf,
      I sliced the _luncheon_ from the barley loaf."

                                                        S. R. M.

_Prophecy respecting the Discovery of America_ (Vol. i., p. 107.).--Your
correspondent C. quotes the following passage from Seneca:

      "Venient annis secula seris,
      Quibus Oceanus vincula rerum
      Laxet, et ingens pateat tellus,
      Tethysque novos detegat orbes;
      Nec sit terris ultima Thule."

            _Medea_, Act II., ad finem, v. 375.

and he says that some commentator describes these lines as "a
vaticination of the Spanish discovery of America." I believe, however,
that Lord Bacon may claim the merit of having been the first to notice
this vaticination. In his essay "Of Prophecies" he says:

  "Seneca, the tragedian, hath these verses:--

                        'Venient annis
      Sæcula seris, quibus Oceanus
      Vincula rerum laxet, et ingens
      Pateat tellus, Tiphysque novos
      Detegat orbes; nec sit terris
      Ultima thule.'

  "'A prophecy,' he adds, 'of the discovery of America.'"

I have quoted this from an edition of Bacon's _Essays_, printed at the
Chiswick Press, by C. Whittingham, for J. Carpenter, Old Bond Street,
London, 1812: and not the least curious circumstance is the curious
form which Bacon, evidently quoting from memory, has given to the
passage.

                                                 HENRY H. BREEN.

      St. Lucia, March, 1851.

_Shakspeare's Designation of Cleopatra_ (Vol. iii., p. 273.).--I fully
agree with your correspondent S. W. SINGER that an imperfect
acquaintance with our older language has been the weak point of the
commentators, but at the same time I think they have been equally guilty
of an imperfect acquaintance with the history and character of
Cleopatra, and one at least of a careless reading of the text; otherwise
it appears incomprehensible how, on the one hand, the words of the great
poet could have been so distorted; on the other hand, how Scarus could
be thought to allude, by the word "ribald," to Antony. On reference to
Rider's _Dictionary_, published in 1589, the very year in which Malone
places Shakspeare's first play, _First Part of Henry VI._, may be found
the word _Ribaud_, leno, a bawd, a pander; _Ribaudrie_, lascivia,
obscoenitas, impudicitia, Venus; and _Ribaudrous_, obscoenus, impudicus,
impurus.

_Hagge_, doubtless the word of Shakspeare, also may be found in Rider,
answering to the Latin _lamia_, _fascinatrix_, _oculo maligna mulier_.

Arguing from the above, what more appropriate term than "ribaudred
hagge" could be applied to Cleopatra, a queen celebrated for her beauty,
her cunning, her debauchery, nay, even adultery. The sister and wife of
Ptolemy Dionysius, she admitted Cæsar to her embraces, and by him had a
son called Cæsarion, and afterwards became enamoured of Antony, who,
forgetful of his connexion with Octavia, the sister of Cæsar, publicly
married her; thus causing the rupture between him and Cæsar, who met in
a naval engagement off Actium, where Cleopatra, "when 'vantage like a
pair of twins appeared," by flying with sixty sail, ruined the interest
of Antony, and he was defeated; and so were called forth the imprecatory
words of Scarus.

        "Yond ribaudred Hagge of Egypt,
      Whom leprosy o'ertake."

                                                     FRANCISCUS.

_Harlequins_ (Vol. iii., p. 287.).--The origin of the word _hellequin_,
unknown to M. Paul Paris, is to be sought in Scandinavia, especially
Norway, whence so many swarms of fierce Pagan settlers rushed into
Normandy and other parts of France. The _helle-quinna_ or _hell-quean_
was the famous _hela_ or _hel_, the _death-goddess_ (whence our word
_hell_, the _death-realm_, as still used in the Creed, &c.), so well
known also to our own West Scandinavian (commonly called Anglo-Saxon)
forefathers. The Wild Hunt of the Helle-quinna (the Death-quean and her
Meynie) was therefore soon easily synonymous with that of _La Mort_,
and, as M. Paris has well observed, naturally led to the grotesque
mummeries of _notre famille d'Arlequin_.

                                                GEORGE STEPHENS.

      Stockholm.

_Christ's-cross Row_ (Vol. iii., p. 330.).--Quarles, in his _Emblems_,
b. 2. 12, p. 124., edition 1812, has the following passage: "Christ's
cross is the christ-cross of all our happiness," _i. e._ the alphabet,
the beginning, perhaps the alpha and omega. Grose, in his _Olio_, p.
195., 1796, relates the following story:

  "An Irishman explaining the reason why the Alphabet is called the
  Criss-cross-Rowe, said it was because Christ's cross was
  _prefixed_ at the beginning and end of it."

                                                        W. B. H.

      Manchester.

_Meaning of "Waste-book"_ (Vol. iii., pp. 118. 195. 251. 307.).--The
gentlemen who have hitherto attempted to explain this term are very
evidently unacquainted with the subject on which they write; with the
exception, however, of MR. CROSSLEY, whose quotation from the
_Merchant's Mirrour_ confirms what I am about to say. To the clerk in a
merchant's counting-house, like him

      "Who pens a stanza when he should engross,"

the waste-book may indeed be a weary waste; but he does not call it so
for that reason, any more than he gives poetical names to the day-book
or ledger. In short, we must not go to the merchant's counting-house at
all to discover its meaning; or, if we do, "the book-keeper and cashier"
who makes the Query may refer us to one of the elders, or head of the
firm, who, if he be not too proud to own it, may just recollect that his
progenitors or predecessors in the _chandler's shop_ made their rough
entries in a book which was literally waste. For origins we must look to
the lowest forms or types existing. The merchant's system of
book-keeping was not invented perfect; and we may see its various stages
in the different gradations of trade at the present day. In many
respectable shops, in the country especially, the waste-book is formed
by a quire or two of the commonest paper used in the particular trade,
that will bear pen and ink, sown together. An advance upon this is the
waste-book as a distinct book, bound and ruled, of which the day-book or
journal is merely a fair copy; and this being made, the former is held
of no account. The importance, however, of reference to original entries
has no doubt led to the preservation of the "Waste-book" in regular
book-keeping, and a modification of its character.

                                                           S. H.

      St. John's Wood, April 22. 1851.

_Sallust_ (Vol. iii., p. 325.).--May I ask your correspondent whether
the following lines in the "Georgics" (iii. 284.), the most exact
composition in existence, prove that _they_ were first delivered by word
of mouth, from notes only:--

      "Sed fugit interea, fugit irreparabile tempus,
      Singula dum capti circumvectamur amore."

I might add the passage in Pindar, 4th Pythian, 439.:

  "Μακρά μοι νεῖσθαι κατ' ἀμαξιτὸν
  ὥρα γὰρ συνάπτει· καί τινα οἶμον ἴσαμι βραχύν."

Such passages are common in all authors.

                                                           C. B.

_Hand-bells at Funerals_ (Vol. ii., p. 478.).--With reference to B.'s
remark on the Host being _often_ preceded by a hand-bell, it may more
correctly be stated, that the Host, when carried in procession to the
sick, is in all Catholic countries _uniformly_ preceded by a bell, in
order to warn all persons of its approach, that they may be ready to pay
all due reverence as the procession passes. The ringing of the bell on
this occasion was first instituted by the Cardinal Guido, who was sent
Legate to Germany, to confirm the election of the Emperor Otto.

                                                        R. R. M.

  [Query, May not this have been the original _passing_ bell?]

"_Laus tua non tua Fraus_," &c. (Vol. i., p. 416.; Vol. ii., p. 77.;
Vol. iii., p. 290.).--There is the following allusion to these lines by
Question and Answer in the _New Help to Discourse_, published about
1670, p. 102.:

  Q. "How came the famous Buchanan off, when travelling into Italy,
  he was, for the freeness of his writing, suspected of his
  religion, and taken hold of by some of the Pope's Inquisitors?"

  A. "By writing to his Holiness this distich:

      'Laus tua, non tua fraus, virtus, non copia rerum,
      Scandere te fecit hoc decus eximium.'"

For which encomium he was set at liberty; and being gone out of the
Pope's jurisdiction, he sent to his Holiness, and desired, according to
his own true meaning, to read the self-same verses backward.

If George Buchanan, born 1506, was indeed the author of them, it is
certain that no Pope Alexander could have been the subject of them, when
written, I presume, in 1551, that being the year in which he obtained
his liberty. And now to J. F. M.'s Query p. 290.--If he has transcribed
Puttenham aright, he might justly condemn them as very bad "verse Lyon,"
if that be Leonine; but I take it that he has condemned what is worthy
of some praise, and of being "called verse Lyon," for Lyric.

It would lose nothing of the lyrical by translation, but your readers
being all classical I forbear.

                                                         BLOWEN.

_Francis Moore_ (Vol. iii., pp. 263. 381.).--Francis Moore, physician,
was one of the many quack doctors who duped the credulous at the latter
period of the seventeenth century; he practised in Westminster: in all
probability then, as in our own time, the publication of the almanac was
to act as an advertisement of his healing powers, &c. Cookson, Salmon,
Gadbury, Andrewes, Tanner, Coley, Partridge, &c. &c., were all his
predecessors, and were students in physic and astrology. Moore's
_Almanac_ appears to be a perfect copy of Tanner's, which was first
published in 1656, forty-two years prior to the appearance of Moore's.
The portrait in Knight's _London_ is certainly imaginary. There is a
genuine and very characteristic portrait, _now of considerable rarity_,
representing him as a fat-faced man in a wig and large neck-cloth,
inscribed "Francis Moore, born in Bridgnorth, in the county of Salop,
the 29th of January, 1656-7.--JOHN DRAPENTIER, delin. et sculp."

I may mention it as a curious fact, that the portraits of these quack
doctors, when in a good state, are frequently of great rarity. I possess
one which was in the Stow collection, being a fine impression of the
following print by Drapentier, for which the sum of five guineas had
been paid:

  "The effigies of George Jones, whom God hath blessed with greate
  success in healing."--"Student in the art of physick and
  chirurgery for about thirty years in the Upper More Fields, two
  golden balls on the tops of the two posts of the portel before my
  door."

                                                        W. W. C.

_National Debts_ (Vol. iii., p. 374.).--A description of the foundation
of a "national debt" in Florence in the years 1344-45 is to be found in
the _Florentine History_, by Henry Edward Napier, R. N. (published by
Edward Moxon, Dover Street), chap. xxi. p. 125.

                                                       FIRENEYE.

_Law Courts at St. Alban's_ (Vol. i., p. 366.).--I beg to send a copy of
a Latin inscription discovered some years since over the west door
inside the great nave of St. Alban's Abbey. It may possibly prove to be
a record of some historical value, and at all events furnishes a partial
reply to the Query of Σ. in your First Volume:--

  "Propter vicinii situm, et amplum hujus Templi spatium ad magnam
  confluentium multitudinem excipiendam opportunum, temporibus R. H.
  VIII. et denuo R. Elizabethæ, peste Londini sæviente, Conventus
  Juridicus hic agebatur."

Underneath this is written,--

      "Princeps Dei Imago Lex Principis opus
      Finis Legis Justitiâ."

Can any of your learned correspondents clear up the nature and extent of
these fear-stricken flights to the old abbey? Was it the Commons, or
Westminster Hall, or the Convocation, or all together, avoiding the
plague? I may observe that our ancestors seem to have put to some
_practical_ use the vast space of an abbey-church on extraordinary
occasions; and I would humbly suggest that we too of the nineteenth
century might take the hint, and employ the many unoccupied naves of
our ecclesiastical buildings for _religious_ purposes on ordinary
occasions.

      W. M. K.

_The Fifteen O's_ (Vol. iii., p. 391.).--They are sometimes called _St.
Bridget's Prayers_. I have a very small volume entitled:

  "¶ A breefe Directory and playne way how to say the Rosary of our
  blessed Lady: with Meditations for such as are not exercised
  therein. Whereunto are adioyned the prayers of S. Bryget with
  others. Bruges Flandrorum, excudebat Hu. Holost. 1576."

At the end (beginning with fresh signature A i.) are--

  "¶ Fifteene Prayers, righte good and vertuous, vsually called the
  XV Oos, and of diuers called S. Briget's prayers, because the
  holye and blessed Virgin vsed dayly to say them before the Image
  of the Crucifix in S. Paules Church in Rome."

Of this diminutive volume I never saw another copy. It was published by
J. M., who dates his dedication to his dear sister A. M., "from the
Englishe Charter House in Bridges (_sic_), the vigil of the Assumption
of Our Lady, 1576." It seems that the sister was resident in England,
and had, previously to her brother's departure for Bruges, requested him
to send her a translation of the _Rosary_, which having obtained, his
cousin and friend J. Noel procured it to be printed. J. M. willingly
confessing "for that I know there be many good women in Englande that
honour Our Lady, but good bookes to stirre vp deuotion in them are
scarse." Would not a list of English books printed abroad be an
interesting subject for some bibliographical antiquary, and an
acceptable addition to our literary antiquities?

                                                           P. B.

_Bunyan and the Visions of Heaven and Hell_ (Vol. iii., p. 89.).--MR.
OFFOR has very satisfactorily shown that Bunyan could not, from its
grandiloquent style, have been the author of the _Visions of Heaven and
Hell_, attributed to him in an edition of that work published in the
reign of George I., entitled, _The Visions of John Bunyan, being his
last Remains_.

This title must have been a surreptitious one, for, since MR. OFFOR made
the above communication, I have obtained a copy of this scarce book
published _in the previous reign_, under its legitimate title (as in the
Sunderland copy of 1771, mentioned at p. 70. _supra_), and said to be
"By G. L. φιλανθρωπο. London, printed for _John Gwillim_,
against _Crossby Square_ in Bishopsgate-street, 1711."

In his address "To the Reader" (also signed G. L.), the author even
makes the following direct allusion to Bunyan's allegory:

  "And since the _Way_ to Heaven has been so taking under the
  similitude of a _dream_, why should not the _Journey's End_ be as
  acceptable under the similitude of a _vision_? Nay, why should it
  not be more acceptable, since the end is preferable to the
  _means_, and _Heaven_ to the _Way_ that brings us thither? _The
  Pilgrim_ met with many difficulties; but here they are all over.
  All storms and tempests here are hush'd in silence and serenity."

It will therefore, I think, be admitted that the name of Bunyan ought no
longer to be associated with this work, and that all inferences drawn
from the fallacy of his having been the author of it should henceforth
be disregarded.

It would, however, be desirable, if possible, to ascertain who G. L.
really was, and how the spurious title-page came to be affixed by
"Edward Midwinter, at the Looking-Glass upon London Bridge," to his
edition of this allegory?

                                                           N. H.

_Mazer Wood_ (Vol. iii., pp. 239. 288.).--Your Querist asks, "Has the
word Mazer any signification in itself?" It signifies _Maple_, being a
corruptions of the Welsh word _Masarn_--the maple-tree. Probably,
therefore, the use of the wood of the maple for bowls and drinking-cups
prevailed in this country many centuries before the times of Spenser and
Chaucer, in whose works they are mentioned. In Devonshire the black
cherry-tree, which grows to a large size in that county, is called the
mazer-tree. From this circumstance I conjecture that this wood has been
used there in former times for bowls and drinking-cups as a substitute
for maple. That the original word, _mazer_, should have been retained,
is not to be wondered at. It is known that when the mazer bowl was made
of silver, the old name was retained. The name of the maple-tree, in the
Irish language, is _crann-mhalpais_; therefore the name of the Irish
wooden drinking-cup _maedher_ cannot be derived from it.

                                                        S. S. S.

_Robertii Sphæria_ (Vol. iii., p. 398.).--Any of your readers who are
curious in natural history will find, in the _Pharmaceutical Journal_,
vol. ii. p. 591., a very full description of this extraordinary
production, by Dr. Pereira. It is used as a medicine by the Chinese, by
whom it is called the "summer-plant-winter-worm," and who attribute to
it great cordial and restorative powers. The mode of employing it is
curious. A duck is stuffed with five drachms of the insect fungus, and
roasted by a slow fire; when done, the stuffing is taken out, the virtue
of which has passed into the duck, which is to be eaten twice a day for
eight or ten days. In the same work, vol. iv. p. 204., Dr. Pereira gives
a further account of the moth on whose larva the fungus grows.

                                                        E. N. W.

      Southwark, May 19. 1851.

_Count Xavier de Maistre_ (Vol. iii., p. 227.).--I notice a slight
inaccuracy in MR. SINGER'S reference to the author of _Voyage autour de
ma Chambre_. He gives the name as "Jean Xavier Maitre;" whereas the
correct designation is "Count Xavier de Maistre;" the _s_ in the
patronymic being distinctly pronounced. Such trifling errors are only
worth noticing because they appear in a work, one of the main features
of which is the correctness of its references to authors and books. No
doubt it is his extensive acquaintance with both that induced MR.
SINGER, on this occasion, to trust to his memory, rather than turn to a
biographical dictionary.

                                                 HENRY H. BREEN.

      St. Lucia, April, 1851.

_Amicus Plato_ (Vol. iii., p. 389.).--The origin of the sentiment,
"Amicus Plato," &c., seems to be Aristot. Eth. Nicom. c. iv., where he
disputes against Plato, and says: "Both being dear to me, it is right to
prefer truth:"

  "Ἀμφοῖν φίλοιν ὄντοιν, ὅσιον προτιμᾶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν."

                                                           C. B.

_The Coptic Language_ (Vol. ii., pp. 376. 499.).--The reply of HERMAPION
to the questions put by J. E. is scarcely satisfactory. I will endeavour
to answer then more directly. The Coptic language is not an inflected
one; and it has very few affixes. There are many prefixes to its nouns
and verbs, which before the former are articles or demonstrative
pronouns. Between these prefixes and the noun or verb, pronominal
infixes are introduced, by which possession is denoted in the case of a
noun, and the subject in that of a verb. Thus, _ran_ is "a name;"
_pi-ran_, "the name;" _pe-v-ran_, "his name;" _i_, is the verbal root,
"come;" _a_, the prefix of the past tense; and _a-v-i_, "he came." Some
nouns take affixes, as _jo-v_, "his head." Pronominal affixes are also
joined to verbs to express their objects, and to prepositions. In the
old Egyptian language, from which the Coptic is derived, there were more
affixes. I am not aware that infixes have been met with in inscriptions
prior to the eighteenth dynasty; and those which are in use are the same
as the affixes which annexed to nouns denote possession, and to verbs
the subject. The old Egyptian affixes which denoted the object of the
verb, are in general different. _En-v-tu_ would be "he bringeth thee;"
and _en-ka-su_, "thou bringest him." In Coptic, the former would be
_e-o-en-k;_ the latter, _e-k-en-v_. Probably the Coptic prefixes were
originally auxiliary verbs, or prepositions. The old Egyptian affixes
greatly resemble the Hebrew ones, especially if _s_ be substituted for
the Hebrew _h_; and it is very remarkable that the Assyrio-Babylonian
affixes differ from the Hebrew principally in this same respect. In like
manner, the causative conjugation is formed from the simple one by
prefixing _h_ in Hebrew, but by prefixing _s_ in both Assyrio-Babylonian
and Egyptian. No doubt can then exist as to the old Egyptian language
being Semitic; but the opposition between the Semitic languages and the
Indo-European ones is by no means so great as was formerly supposed.
Relations between them are now clearly to be traced, which prove that
they had a common origin, and that at no distant period.

                                                     E. H. D. D.

_Benedicite_ (Vol. ii., p. 463.) is, I believe, two words--_benedici
te_--"that you may be blessed;" and not a single word, as PETER CORONA
supposes. The ellipsis is of _jubeo_, or some similar word.

                                                           D. X.

_Porci solidi-pedes_ (Vol. iii., pp. 263. 357.).--I find, on further
inquiry, that my account of the _porci solidi-pedes_ is correct; and I
can now add the following: that under the eye there was a small
protuberance, not, I believe, found in our ordinary English pigs, but
which forms a remarkable characteristic of the African wild boar. In the
African species it is large; in the Chinese, if it be rightly so called,
it is about half the length of a forefinger, and a quarter of an inch in
height. I have no doubt that Mr. Ramsden, of Carlton Hall, Notts, would
furnish additional information concerning these pigs, should it be
required; and the publication of it would perhaps be interesting to
many.

                                                   E. J. SELWYN.

      Blackheath.

_The Cart before the Horse_ (Vol. i., p. 348.).--F. C. B. says, "I know
not how old may be, 'to put the cart before the horse.'" _Lucian_ quotes
the proverb ἡ ἅμαξα τὸν βοῦν [scil. ἕλκει] to illustrate the case of
the young dying before the old; it is an exact equivalent to the
English proverb. (_Lucian. Dial. Mortuor._ vi. 2.)

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_Dies Iræ_ (Vol. ii., p. 72.).--I beg to refer MR. SIMPSON to the Rev.
R. C. Trench's _Sacred Latin Poetry Selected_, London, 1849, pp.
270-277. The account of Wadding, historiographer of the Franciscan
Order, is there adopted, who names Thomas of Celano as the author. The
question has been thoroughly discussed by Mohnike, _Hymnologische
Forschungen_, vol. i. pp. 1-24. See also Daniel, _Thesaur. Hymnolog._,
vol. ii. p. 103.

                                                    C. P. Ph***.

_Apple-pie Order_ (Vol. iii., p. 330.).--If MR. SNEAK will consult a
work--viz. Mrs. Glasse's (or rather Dr. Hill's) volume of cookery, which
may possibly be in his lady's library--he will find a receipt for making
a Devonshire squab pie. This is to be formed "by _alternate layers_ of
sliced pippins and mutton steaks," to be adjusted in the most orderly
manner. Now, from the nicety and care requisite in this arrangement, may
we not "surmise," though, with Sir Walter Raleigh in the _Critic_, I may
add, "forgive, my friend, if the conjecture's rash," that the expression
"Apple-pie order" has sprung from the dish in question?

                                                        J. H. M.

_The Image of both Churches_ (Vol. iii., p. 407.).--There seems to be
no doubt that this curious book, respecting which DR. RIMBAULT inquires,
was written by Dr. Matthew Pattenson, or Patteson (not Paterson). Gee,
in his _Foot out of the Snare_, published in 1624, the year after the
publication of _The Image of both Churches_, in his Catalogue of
"English Bookes," mentions "_The Image of both Churches_, by M. Pateson,
now in London, a bitter and seditious book." The author is subsequently
referred to as "F.(ather) Pateson, a Jesuit, lodging in Fetter Lane."

See also the Preface to Foulis's _History of the Romish Treasons and
Usurpations_, 1671, fol., and Wood's _Athenæ_, edit. Bliss, vol. iv. p.
139., in which it is stated to have been mostly collected from the
answers of Anti-Cotton and Joh. Brierley, Priest. In Dodd's _Catholic
Church History_, vol. ii. p. 427., folio edit., it is also attributed to
Dr. M. Pattenson, of whom some account is given, and who is mentioned to
have been Physician in Ordinary to Charles I.

                                                  JAS. CROSSLEY.

_School of the Heart_ (Vol. iii., p. 390.).--Your correspondent S. T. D.
will find in the "Prefatory Notice to the Synagogue," printed with
Herbert's _Temple_, edit. Pickering, an account of Christopher Harvey
and his works; also in Walton's _Angler_, edited by Sir H. Nicolas.

                                                              ϖ.

_Meaning of Mosaic_ (Vol. iii., p. 389.).--The breast-plate of the
Jewish High Priest, as commanded by _Moses_, was to be four square, and
that divided into twelve squares, to designate the twelve tribes of
Israel: from this circumstance, the word _Mosaic_ was derived as a term
of Art, being a series or congregate of small squares of different
coloured stones, applicable to the formation of any tesselated figure.

Vide 39th chap. of Exodus, from verse 8. to 14, inclusive.

                                                    JOHN KENTOR.
      Glyn y mêl, May 21. 1851.

_Mosaic_.--This word would appear to be derived from the Greek, μοῦσα
ἐκ μύω, _to close by pressure_; Latin, _musa_ vel _musivum_, that
is, "opus eximia compositione tessellatum," a piece of _tesselated_ or
_chequered_ work of superior manufacture, in regard to the manner in
which the small stones or pieces of wood are _closed_ or _joined_
together.

                                                     FRANCISCUS.

_The Tradescants_ (Vol. iii, pp. 119. 286. 353. 391.).--In common with
several of your correspondents, I have for some time past taken great
interest in the Tradescants, and have read with much pleasure the
letters of DR. RIMBAULT, MR. SINGER, and MR. PINKERTON.

I have hitherto been unsuccessful in discovering any further particulars
of the family of the Tradescants; but a few days since, in looking into
a copy of Dr. Ducarel's tract on the subject, preserved among the books
in the Ashmolean Museum, I found the following note in pencil, not very
legibly written in the margin of the tract, where Dr. Ducarel says he
has not been able to find any account in the Lambeth Register of the
death of the elder Tradescant. "Consult (with certainty of finding
information concerning the Tradescants) the Registers of ----apham,
Kent." Since this note was written, the tract has been bound and the
commencement of several words cut off. Amongst them is the name of the
place of which the registers are to be consulted. I imagine it to be
_Meapham_ (_apham_ is all that can be read).

Perhaps some of your correspondents may have an opportunity of
consulting the registers of Meapham, and should any information
respecting the Tradescants be found there, the marginal note will not
have been without its use.

I am looking forward with great interest to the information which MR.
PINKERTON promises us on the subject; and should this letter be the
means of directing him to a new source of information, it will be a
matter of great satisfaction to me.

                                                          C.C.R.
      Linc. Coll., Oxon.

_St. John's Bridge Fair_ (Vol. iii., pp. 88. 287. 341.).--Having
received the last polish at Peterborough Grammar School in 1840, and
from a three years' residence off and on, I am enabled to speak to the
fact of there being two fairs held at Peterborough.

One, commonly called St. John's Fair, is usually held on the 18th July;
but whether it is also called _St. John's Bridge Fair_ I am unable to
say, as this fair was always held in our holidays, although it might be
so termed.

The other, commonly called "Bridge Fair," is held in the early part of
October, and is so called from its proximity to the bridge. The piece in
which the fairs are held is called the Bridge Close. Indeed I believe
both these fairs were held in the same piece, or at least close by each
other, although held at different times.

I hope this may assist, but whether it is the same spoken of at p. 88. I
cannot say.

                                                        J. N. C.

_A Tye_ (Vol. iii., p. 263.) is described by your correspondent as a
place where three roads meet. Perhaps he means a place where one road
divides into _two_. The nucleus of old English towns will be almost
always found to consist of such a fork of one road into two, requiring
three principal gates or entrances, and distinguishing the plans of
towns from those of cities, in which four roads meet, forming the
Carfoix, and requiring four principal gates. Is there any affinity of
the words _two_, _tye_, and _town_? The parallel case of the junction of
two rivers into one affects the names of places situated there, as
_Tiverton_.

                                                          K. TH.

_Vineyard_ (Vol. ii., pp. 392. 414. 446. 522.).--In reference to the
subject of the name "Vineyard" being still applied to certain places in
England, it may be curious to note that the little village of _F_ingest,
on the borders of Oxon and Bucks, was formerly called _V_ingest; and a
farm in the same parish, now known as the _F_ineing, appears on an old
tablet in the church as "the Vineing." I should add that the country
around is full of steep sunny slopes; and would be, in a warmer climate
admirably adapted for vines.

                                                        G. R. M.

_Legend represented in Frettenham Church_ (Vol. iii, p. 407.).--Your
Cambridge correspondent C. J. E. will do well to refer to the _Acta
Sanctorum_ of the Bollandists, "June 25, St. Eloy,"--or to any of the
numerous biographical notices of that saint, so dear to the French,
especially to the Limousins; and he will find, if not the identical
legend represented in Frettenham Church, the one which probably
suggested it.

                                                           A. B.

_Family of Rowe_ (Vol. iii., p. 408.).--In answer to the inquiry of TEE
BEE, I beg to refer him to vol. iii. No. 10., pages 225. to 231. of the
_Antiquarian Repertory_, where he will find the will of Sir Thomas Rowe
of the 2d May, 1569; of his wife Dame Sarah Rowe of the 21st March,
1579; and of Sir Thomas Rowe of Woodford. They were communicated to the
publishers by T. Astle, Esq., as well worthy of publication, and
containing many pious and charitable bequests, particular directions for
their funerals, and the price of wearing apparel in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth.

I have been unable to learn in whose possession the original "MS.
Extracts of Wills" now remain.

                                                     J. R. D. T.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

It having occurred to Mr. Hudson Turner that our national records might
be made available to illustrate the history of architecture in England,
he has for the last sixteen years "made a brief in his note-book" of
every fact bearing on the subject which came under his notice in the
course of his daily reference to those documents for professional
objects and he has now given to the world some portions of the valuable
materials thus collected in a handsome volume published by Mr. Parker,
of Oxford, under the title of _Some Account of Domestic Architecture in
England, from the Conquest to the end of the Thirteenth Century, with
numerous illustrations of existing Remains from original Drawings_. It
is not, of course, within our limits to trace even briefly the results
of Mr. Turner's labours, or to point out how much light he has thrown
upon a branch of architectural study which, although involved in great
obscurity, has hitherto received but little attention. But we may remark
that its perusal shows, that to an intimate acquaintance with the
invaluable materials for elucidating every department of historical or
antiquarian knowledge to be found in our records, Mr. Turner adds
considerable tact in the employment of his materials, and has
endeavoured therefore, and very successfully, to make his history of
domestic architecture an important contribution towards that of our
social progress. The consequence is, that while, thanks to the valuable
assistance of Mr. Parker, the architectural student will find in this
handsomely illustrated volume much to instruct and delight him, it may
be read with interest by those who are altogether indifferent to the
subject to which it is more immediately devoted.

Our able and indefatigable contributor, Dr. Rimbault, has put forth for
the especial delight of those who, like Mopsa, "love a ballad in print,"
_A Little Book of Songs and Ballads gathered from Ancient Musick Books
MS. and Printed_. The various pieces contained in it have been selected
from many volumes of considerable rarity, and are illustrated by
numerous notes, which are characterised by Dr. Rimbault's accustomed
ability and industry.

Mr. Delf has received from America some copies of an octavo volume
bearing the title of _A Library Manual, containing a Catalogue Raisonnée
of upwards of Twelve Thousand of the most important Works in every
Department of Knowledge_. Although very imperfectly executed (and the
circumstances under which we are informed it was executed may perhaps be
pleaded as some excuse for such imperfections), it is still a book which
might with advantage be placed on the shelves of newly formed literary
societies, as a means of informing the members as to the principal works
existing in the various departments of learning. The idea upon which the
book is founded is so good, and its object one of such obvious utility,
that we have little doubt but it will ere long be much more successfully
carried out.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--J. Russell Smith's (4. Old Compton Street, Soho)
Catalogue Part 4. for 1851 of Choice, Useful, and Curious Books; W. S.
Lincoln's (Cheltenham House, Westminster Road) Sixty-ninth Catalogue of
Cheap Miscellaneous English and Foreign Books; J. Petheram's (94. High
Holborn) Catalogue Part 123., No. 4. for 1851 of Old and New Books.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

  ALBERT LUNEL, a Novel in 3 Vols.

  DR. ADAMS' SERMON ON THE OBLIGATION OF VIRTUE. Any edition.

  ENGRAVED PORTRAITS OF BISHOP BUTLER.

  RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW. Vol. IV.

  DENS' THEOLOGIA MORALIS ET DOGMATICA. 8 Vols. 12mo. Dublin, 1832.

  MARLBOROUGH DISPATCHES. Volumes IV. and V.

  ART JOURNAL, 1839 to 1844 inclusive. Also 1849.

  BULWER'S NOVELS. 12mo. Published at 6_s._ per Vol. Pilgrims of the
  Rhine, Alice, and Zanoni.

  STEPHANI THESAURUS. Valpy. Parts I. II. X. XI. and XXIX.

  KIRBY'S BRIDGEWATER TREATISE. 2 Vols.

  The _Second Vol._ of CHAMBER'S CYCLOPÆDIA OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.

  GOODWIN'S COURSE OF MATHEMATICS. Last edition.

  MITFORD'S HISTORY OF GREECE, continued by Davenport. 12mo. 8 Vols.
  Published by Tegg and Son, 1835. Volume _Eight_ wanted.

  L'ABBÉ DE SAINT PIERRE, PROJET DE PAIX PERPETUELLE. 3 Vols. 12mo.
  Utrecht, 1713.

  AIKIN'S SELECT WORKS OF THE BRITISH POETS. 10 Vols. 24mo.
  Published by Longmans and Co. 1821. Vols. I. V. and VIII. wanted.

  CAXTON'S REYNARD THE FOX (Percy Society Edition). Sm. 8vo. 1844.

  CRESPET, PERE. Deux Livres de la Haine de Satan et des Malins
  Esprits contre l'Homme. 8vo. Francfort, 1581.

  CHEVALIER RAMSAY, Essai de Politique, où l'on traite de la
  Nécessité, de l'Origine, des Droits, des Bornes et des différentes
  Formes de la Souveraineté, selon les Principes de l'Auteur de
  Télémaque. 2 Vols. 12mo. La Haye, without date, but printed in
  1719.

  The same. Second Edition, under the title "Essai Philosophique sur
  le Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fénélon," 12mo.
  Londres, 1721.

[Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage
free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186.
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Dissertationes _have not, we believe, been translated._

J. B. C. _Akerman's_ Numismatic Manual _will probably best answer our
correspondent's purpose. The communication referred to by him is one of
many on nearly the same subject, which have been reserved for
publication at some future time._

JAMES C. _The "Dissertation on Dunmore Fort" has not reached us._

_Will_ N. H. _kindly favour_ MR. OFFOR _with a sight of the edition of_
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Ferret--Knapp Family--Tanthony--Fiat Justitia--San Graal--To learn by
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at Egyptian Banquet--Barker the Panoramist--Royal Library--Dieu et mon
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NIMROUD OBELISK.--A reduced _Model_ of this interesting Obelisk is just
published, having the Cuneiform Writing, and five rows of figures on
each side, carefully copied from that sent by Dr. Layard to the British
Museum. The Model is in Black Marble, like the original, and stands
twenty inches high. _Mr. Tennant_, 149. Strand, London, will be happy to
show a copy, and receive Subscribers' names. He has also Models of
several Egyptian Obelisks.


THE VERY IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF ANTIQUE GEMS OF THE LATE RIGHT HON.
LORD MONSON.--MESSRS. CHRISTIE AND MANSON will Sell by Auction, at their
Great Room, King Street, St. James's Square, on Monday, June 9th, and
following day, at one o'clock precisely, the Valuable Collection of
Exquisite Gems selected from the celebrated Poniatowski Collection by the
Right Hon. Lord Monson, and sold by order of his executors: consisting
of Medallions, Intaglie with subjects from the Iliad, Æneid and
classical Mythology of the very finest work, upon Sards, Agates,
Amethysts, Cornelians, and Almandines, of great beauty and rarity,
mounted in gold. May be viewed, and Catalogues had.


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  PART I., forming PART XV. of HALF-HOURS, JUNE 2nd.

  On the 30th of June,

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  CONTENTS:--1. The Month of Mary.--2. Oratio D. T. Matthæi.--3.
  Passaglia on the Prerogatives of St. Peter.--4. The
  Millennium.--5. The Lord's Supper.--6. On the Bishops of the New
  Testament.--7. On the Gift of Tongues.--8. Theodoret and his
  Times.--9. Hebrews xiii.--10. "Things New and Old."--Books
  received.--Contents of Theological Journals.

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  On WEDNESDAY EVENING, JUNE 11th, 1851, at the Hanover Square
  Rooms, will be performed for the Benefit of this Institution, A
  GRAND CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental Music.

    _Vocal Performers._--Miss Birch, Miss M. Williams, Miss Kearns,
    Mrs. Noble, Miss Pyne, Miss Louisa Pyne.--Madlle. Bertha Johannsen
    and Madlle. Anna Zerr.--Mr. Manvers, Mr. Lawler, Mr. Augustus
    Braham.--Herr Formes, Herr Reichardt, and Herr Pischek.

    In the course of the Concert will be performed, a Fantasia on the
    Harp by Mad. Parish Alvars; a Grand Pianoforte Piece by M. Pauer;
    and a Solo on the Contra Basso by Signor Bottesini.

    Leader, Mr. H. Blagrove.--Conductor of the First Part, Mr. W.
    Sterndale Bennett.--Conductor of the Second Part, Mr. Lindsay
    Sloper.

    For further Particulars, see the Programmes.--The Doors will be
    opened at Seven o'Clock, and the Concert will commence at Eight
    precisely.

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                                           J. W. HOLLAND, _Sec._


WALCOTT'S HISTORY OF WESTMINSTER.

  In 8vo., price 10_s._ 6_d._, the Second Edition (with Appendix and
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  of St. James's, Westminster.

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Just published, in post 4to., price 15_s._, handsomely bound.

  A TREATISE ON CHANCEL SCREENS and ROOD LOFTS, their Antiquity,
  Use, and Symbolic Signification. By A. WELBY PUGIN, Architect.
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  [Star Symbol] Some Copies on large paper, demy 4to., price 1_l._
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cloth.

  INDIAN MISSIONS IN GUIANA. By the REV. W. H. BRETT, Missionary in
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  Foreign Parts.

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 7. 1851.



  [Transcriber's Note: This text uses _underscores_ to indicate _italic_
  fonts. Original spelling varieties have not been standardized.
  Some medieval contractions were tentatively rendered [expanded]
  in [brackets]. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes & Queries" was
  added at the end.]

  List of volumes and pages in "Notes & Queries",   Vol.  I-III:

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes & Queries Vol. I.                                     |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes & Queries Vol. II.                                    |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1-15  | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17-32  | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33-48  | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49-64  | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65-79  | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81-96  | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes & Queries Vol. III.                                   |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |  1-15   | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  | 17-31   | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  | 33-47   | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  | 49-78   | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 | 81-95   | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 | 97-111  | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-461 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |
      +-----------------------------------------------+-------------+





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