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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 85, June 14, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 85, June 14, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Irish characters have been marked in braces, as
{f} for an Irish letter f; characters with macrons have been marked in
brackets with an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on
top. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. Original
spelling varieties have not been standardized. A list of volumes and
pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. III.--No. 85. SATURDAY, JUNE 14. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4_d._



      Illustrations of Chaucer, No. VIII.: The Armorican
      Word "Menez"                                               473

      Folk Talk: "Eysell," "Captious"                            474

      An Old Man whose Father lived in the Time of Oliver
      Cromwell                                                   475

      Minor Notes:--On a Passage in Sedley--On a Passage in
      "Romeo and Juliet"--Inscription on a Tablet in
      Limerick Cathedral                                         476


      Princesses of Wales                                        477

      Minor Queries:--Lady Mary Cavendish--Covey--Book wanted to
      purchase--The Devil's Bit--Corpse passing makes a Right of
      Way--Nao, a Ship--William Hone--Hand giving the
      Blessing--Tinsell, a Meaning of--Arches of Pelaga--Emiott
      Arms--Well Chapels--Davy Jones's Locker--Æsopus
      Epulans--Written Sermons--Pallavicino and the Conte
      d'Olivares                                                 477

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Athelney Castle,
      Somersetshire--Legend of St. Molaisse--Bogatzky            478


      Greene's Groatsworth of Witte, by Rev. Thos. Corser        479

      The Dutch Martyrology                                      479

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Spick and Span New--Under
      the Rose--Handel's Occasional Oratorio--Stone
      Chalice--Thanksgiving Book--Carved Ceiling in
      Dorsetshire--"Felix quem faciunt," &c.--The Saint
      Graal--Skeletons at Egyptian Banquet--Sewell--
      Col-fabias--Poem from the Digby MS.--Umbrella--The Curse of
      Scotland--Bawn--Catacombs and Bone-houses--Bacon and
      Fagan--To learn by heart--Auriga--Vineyards in
      England--Barker--The Tanthony, &c.                         480


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     487

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               487

      Notices to Correspondents                                  487

      Advertisements                                             487



(Vol. iii., pp. 388. 420.)

_The Armorican Word "Menez."_

I have been induced, in consequence of the scene of one of the
_Canterbury Tales_ being

  "In _Armorike_ that called is Bretaigne,"

to re-examine that tale (the Frankleine's) in the expectation that in
it, if anywhere, some light might be thrown upon this newly discovered
Chaucerian word "menez"; and I think I have succeeded in detecting its
use in the sense of _points_ or _summits_ of _rocks_ emerging from the
surface of the water.

But in weighing the probability of this being the true sense in which it
is used in the present instance by Chaucer, the wide applicability of
the word "means" in its usual acceptation of _instrument to an end_,
must not be lost sight of. There is scarcely the name of any one thing
for which "means" may not be made a plausible substitution; so much so,
that if a man were to ask for a hat to cover his head, his demand would
be quite intelligible if expressed by "a means" to cover his head.

I make this proviso as an answer to the probable objection, that
"menes," in its usual acceptation, gives sufficiently good sense to the
passage in question; it may do so, and still not be the sense intended
by the author.

The footing on which I wish to place the inquiry is this:

1st. We have an _Armorican_ word which it is desirable to prove was
known to, and used by, Chaucer.

2dly. We find this identical word in a tale written by him, of which the
scene is _Armorica_.

3dly. It bears, however, a close resemblance to another word of
different meaning, which different meaning happens also to afford a
plausible sense to the same passage.

The question then is, in case this latter meaning should not appear to
be better, nor even so good, as that afforded by the word of which we
are in search, shall we not give that word the preference, and thereby
render it doubly blessed, giving and receiving light?

In coming to a decision, it is necessary to take in the whole context.
Arviragus and Dorigene live in wedded happiness, until the former,
leaving his wife, takes shipping

      ---- "to gon and dwelle a yere or twaine
      In Englelond, that cleped was _eke_ Bretaigne."

Dorigene, inconsolable at his loss, sits upon the sea-shore, and views
with horror the "grisly, fendly, rockes," with which the coast is
studded, in every one of which she sees certain destruction to her
husband in his return. She accuses the gods of injustice in forming
these rocks for the sole apparent purpose of destroying man, so favoured
in other respects, and she concludes her apostrophe in these words,--

      "Than, semeth it, ye had a gret chertee
      Toward mankind; but how then may it be
      That ye such _men[=e]s_ make, it to destroyen,
      Which _men[=e]s_ don no good but ever anoyen?"

Undoubtedly, in the third of these lines, "menes" seems to have a
perfectly good meaning in the sense of instrument, or _means_ to
destroy. But, in the last line, the same sense is not so obvious--"means
to destroy" must _necessarily_ be destructive, and Chaucer would never
be guilty of the unmeaning truism of repeating--"means which do no good
but ever annoy."

Moreover, I am not aware that the accent is ever thrown upon the silent
_e_ where the signification of "mene" is an instrument--

      "She may be Godd[=e]s mene and Godd[=e]s whippe"--

but in the lines under discussion the last syllable in both cases is
accented, agreeing in that respect with the _Armorican sound_--"menez."

Let us now examine whether the Armorican _sense_ is capable of giving a
perfect meaning to _both_ lines? That sense is, a rocky ridge or
emerging summit. Let us substitute the word _rock[=e]s_ for _men[=e]z_,
and then try what meaning the passage receives.

      "If, quoth Dorigene, ye love _mankind_ so well ----
      ---- ----  ----- how then may it be
      That ye such _rock[=e]s_ make, _it_ to destroyen,
      Which _rock[=e]s_ don no good but ever anoyen?"

Here the sense is perfect in both lines--a sense, too, that is in exact
keeping with Dorigene's previous complaint of THE USELESSNESS of these

      "That semen rather a foule confusion
      Of werk, than any faire creation
      Of swiche a parfit wis[=e] God and stable;
      Why have ye wrought this work unreasonable?
      For by this werk, north, south, ne west, ne est,
      There n'is yfostred man, ne brid, ne best;
      _It doth no good_, to my wit, _but anoyeth_."

I therefore propose the following as the true reading of the passage in
question: viz.,

      ---- "Ye had a great chertee
      Toward mankind; but how then may it be
      That ye swiche menez make, it to destroyen,
      Which menez don no good, but ever anoyen?"

And if I have succeeded in making good this position we no longer stand
in need of a precedent for the same reading in the case of--"In menez

  A. E. B.

    Leeds, May 31. 1851.

P.S. I have been favoured, through the publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES,"
with an obliging note from S.S.S. (2), communicating some authorities,
of which the most germane to this subject are--

1. From _Archæologia Britannica_ (Edward Lhuyd. Oxford, 1707): "Armoric,
_Men_, a stone; _menez_, a mountain."

2. From Walter's _Welsh Dictionary_: "Welsh, _Maen_, a stone; _maen
terfyn_, a boundary stone; _maen mawr_, a large stone."


If folk lore be worthy of a place in your columns, folk talk should not
be shut out, and that the etymological solutions, gathered from this
source, which I have previously forwarded, have not appeared, is
doubtless attributable to some other cause than indifferentism to the
authority. I have found many inexplicable words and phrases, occurring
in the older writers, rendered plain and highly expressive by folk talk
definitions; and a glance at the relative positions of the common people
of this day, and the writers of the past, to the educated and scholarly
world of the nineteenth century, will suffice to show good reasons for a
discriminative reference to the language of the one, for the elucidation
of the other's expression. In common with the majority of your readers,
as I should think, I found the notes and replies on "eysell" and
"captious" to be highly interesting, and of course applied to the folk
talk for its definition. In the first case I obtained from my own
experience, what I think will be a satisfactory clue to its meaning, and
something more in addition. There is a herb of an acid taste, the common
name for which--the only one with which I am acquainted--is
_green-sauce_; and this herb is, or rather was, much sought after by
children in my boyish days. At a public school not a dozen miles from
Stratford-on-Avon, it was a common practice for we lads to spend our
holidays in roaming about the fields; and among objects of search, this
green-sauce was a prominent one, and it was a point of honour with each
of us to notify to the others the discovery of a root of green-sauce. In
doing this, the discoverer, after satisfying himself by his taste that
the true herb was found, followed an accepted course, and signified his
success to his companions by raising his voice and shouting, what I have
always been accustomed to write, "Hey-sall." I have no knowledge of the
origin of this word; it was with us as a school-rule so to use it; and I
have no doubt but that "ey-sell" was in Shakspeare's time the popular
name for the herb to which I allude.

Mixing much with the rural population of Warwickshire, I have, on many
occasions, seen the word "captious" used in the sense of carping,
irritable, unthankfulness, and self-willed; and, in my humble opinion,
such a rendering would be more in accordance with the character of the
fiction, and the poet's early teaching, than any definition I have yet
seen in your pages.



  [We are indebted to the kindness of the Rev. THOMAS CORSER for the
  opportunity of preserving in our columns the following interesting
  notice, from the _Manchester Guardian_ of the 19th August, 1843,
  of the subject of his communication in our No. for May 31. (No.
  83, p. 421.)]

Having heard of the extraordinary circumstance of an old man named James
Horrocks, in his hundredth year, living in Harwood, about three miles
from Bolton, whose father lived in the time of Oliver Cromwell, we took
an opportunity, a few days ago, of visiting this venerable descendant of
a sire who was contemporary with the renowned Protector. Until within
the last few years he resided at Hill End, a small estate left him by an
uncle when he was about twenty-six years old; but both his surviving
daughters being married, and himself growing feeble, and his sight
failing him, he left the land and went to reside with his eldest
daughter, Margaret, and his son-in-law, John Haslam, at a place called
"The Nook," near the Britannia, in Harwood. Here we found the old man,
surrounded with every comfort which easy circumstances and affectionate
friends can afford, and, to use his own language, "neither tired of
living, nor yet afraid to die." He is a remarkably good-looking old man,
with long, silvery locks, and a countenance beaming with benevolence and
good nature. He has nearly lost the use of his eye-sight, and is a
little dull of hearing, yet he is enabled to walk about. The loss of his
sight he regrets most of all, as it prevents him from spending his time
in reading, to which he was before accustomed; and, as he remarked, also
denies him the pleasure of looking upon his children and his old
friends. He converses with remarkable cheerfulness for one of his years.
As an instance, we may mention, that, on observing to him that he must
have been a tall man in his youth, he sprang up from his arm chair with
the elasticity of middle age, rather than the decrepitude usually
accompanying those few who are permitted to spin out the thread of life
to the extent of a century, and, with a humorous smile upon his
countenance, put his hands to his thighs, and stood as straight as an
arrow against a gentleman nearly six feet, remarking, at the same time,
"I don't think I am much less now than ever I was." He stands now about
five feet eight inches and a half. A short time ago, on coming down
stairs in the morning, he observed to his daughter, with his accustomed
good humour, and buoyancy of spirit, "I wonder what I shall dream next;
I dreamt last night that I was going to be married again; and who knows
but I could find somebody that would have me yet." His son-in-law is an
old grey-headed man, much harder of hearing than himself; and it
frequently happens, that when any of the family are endeavouring to
explain anything to him, old James will say, "Stop, and I'll _insense_
him;" and his lungs seldom fail in the undertaking.

From this interesting family we learn, that William Horrocks, the father
of the present James, of whom we have been speaking, was born in 1657,
four years after Oliver Cromwell was declared protector, and one year
before his death. He would be two years old when Richard Cromwell, who
succeeded his father, resigned; and four years old when Charles II. was
crowned in 1661. The exact period of his first marriage we have not been
able to ascertain; but it is certain that his bride was employed as
nurse in the well-known family of the Chethams, either at Turton Tower,
or at Castleton Hall, near Rochdale. By this marriage he had four
children, as appears from the following memorandums, written in an
excellent hand in the back of an old black-letter Bible, printed in

  "Mary, the daughter of William and Elizabeth Horrocks, was born
  the 15th day of September, and baptised the 23d day of the same
  month, Anno Dom. 1683."

  "John, the son of William and Elizabeth Horrocks, was born the
  18th day of January, and baptized the 25th day of the same month,
  Anno Dom. 1686."

  "Ann, the daughter of William and Elizabeth Horrocks, was born the
  14th day of March, and baptized the 23d day of the same month,
  Anno Dom. 1699."

  "William, the son of William and Elisabeth Horrocks, was born the
  9th day of June, and baptised the 17th day of the same month, Anno
  Dom. 1700."

At what time his wife died, we are also unable to ascertain; but there
is no doubt he remained a widower for many years, and at length married
his housekeeper, a comely blooming young woman, whose kindness to the
old man was unremitting, and he married her in 1741, at the age of
eighty-four, she being at the time only twenty-six.

This marriage evidently attracted much attention in the neighbourhood,
and we find that, about two years afterwards, the old man and his
youthful partner were sent for to Castleton Hall, the residence of a
branch of Humphry Chetham's family, where they were treated with great
kindness, and a portrait painter engaged to take their likenesses, which
are now in the possession of their son, and add much to the interest of
a visit to him. These portraits are well executed; and, of course,
appear rather like those of a grandfather and his grandchild than of
husband and wife, although he appears more like sixty than eighty-six.
In front of each painting is prominently inscribed the age of each of
the parties, and the date when the portrait was taken. Upon that of the
husband the inscription is, "ÆTA: 86--1743." And upon that of the wife,
"ÆTA: 28--1743." These, it appears, were taken two years after their
marriage, and preserved in the Chetham family, at Castleton Hall, as
great curiosities.

In the following year, the present James was born, as appears from the
following entry on the back of the same old Bible:

  "James, the son of William and Elizabeth Horrocks of Bradshaw
  Chapel, was born March 14th, 1744."

He will therefore complete his hundredth year on the 14th of next March.
He was born in a house near Bradshaw Chapel, which has long since been
removed. He was about twenty-seven years old when an uncle left him a
small estate in Harwood, called Hill End; and soon after he married, we
believe in 1773, and by that marriage had eight children. William, the
son of James and Margaret Horrocks, was born February 21, 1776;
Margaret, March 31, 1778; John, August 11, 1781; Simon, Dec. 23, 1783;
Matty, June 28, 1786; James, Jan. 13, 1789; Sarah, Sept. 22, 1791; and
Betty, Jan. 8, 1794.

Of these, the only survivors are Margaret, aged sixty-five, the wife of
John Haslam, with whom the old man now resides; and Betty, the youngest,
aged forty-nine, who is married, and has four children.

The old man was only eleven years old when his father died, and has no
recollection of hearing him mention any remarkable event occurring in
his lifetime.

On asking the old man how he came into possession of the portraits of
his father and mother, he stated, that, some years ago, he saw in the
newspapers a sale advertised of the property at Castleton Hall, and went
there before the day to inquire after the portraits, with the view of
purchasing them before the sale. The servants at the hall admitted him,
and he found they were not there. He then went to the house of the
steward, and found he was not at home; he, however, left a message,
desiring that the steward would send him word if there was any
probability of his being able to purchase the portraits. Accordingly,
the steward sent him word that they had been removed, with the family
portraits, to the residence of a lady near Manchester, where he might
have the satisfaction of seeing them. The old man cannot remember either
the name or the address of the lady. However, he went to the place, in
company with a friend, and saw the lady, who treated him with the
greatest kindness. She showed him the portraits, and was so much pleased
with the desire he manifested to purchase them, that she said, if she
could be certain that he was the heir, she would make him a present of
them, as his filial affection did him great honour. His friend assured
her that he was the only child of his mother by William Horrocks, and
she then gave them to him, although she parted with them with regret, as
she had no other paintings that attracted so much attention. His
recollection of the circumstances are so perfect, that he remembers
offering a gratuity to the servants for packing the portraits, which the
lady would not allow them to receive.

As an instance of the health and vigour of this remarkable old man, it
may be mentioned, that ten years ago, in the winter of 1832-3, he
attended at Newton, to vote for Lord Molyneux, then a candidate for
South Lancashire. He was then in his ninetieth year. He walked from
Harwood to Bolton, a distance of three miles. From thence he went to
Newton by the railway; and, having voted, he by some means missed the
train, and walked to Bolton, a distance of fifteen miles. On arriving
there he took some refreshment, and again set out for Harwood, and
accomplished the distance of twenty-one miles in the day, in the depth
of winter.--_Manchester Guardian_, Aug. 19, 1843.


_On a Passage in Sedley._--There is a couplet in Sir Charles Sedley's
poems, which is quoted as follows in a work in my possession:

      "Let fools the name of loyalty divide:
      Wise men and Gods are on the strongest side."

Does the context require the word "divide?" or is it a misprint for
"deride?" Of course, the latter word would completely alter the sense,
but it seems to me that it would make it more consistent with truth. The
word "divide" supposes loyalty to be characteristic of fools, and places
the Gods in antagonism to that sentiment; while the word "deride"
restores them to their natural position.


  St. Lucia, April, 1851.

_On a Passage in Romeo and Juliet._--In the encounter between Mercutio
and Tybalt (Act III. Sc. 1.), in which Mercutio is killed, he addresses
Tybalt tauntingly thus:--

  "Good king of cats, &c., will you pluck your sword out of his
  _pilcher_ by the ears? Make haste, lest mine be about your ears
  ere it be out."

The first quarto has _scabbard_, all the later editions have _pilcher_,
a word occurring nowhere else. There has been a vain attempt to make
_pilcher_ signify a _leathern sheath_, because a _pilch_ was a _garment
of leather_ or _pelt_. To me it is quite evident that _pilcher_ is a
mere typographical error for _pitcher_, which, in this jocose, bantering
speech, Mercutio substitutes for _scabbard_, else why are the _ears_
mentioned? The poet was familiar with the proverb "Pitchers have ears,"
of which he has elsewhere twice availed himself. The _ears_, as every
one knows, are the _handles_, which have since been called the _lugs_.
Shakspeare would hardly have substituted a word of his own creation for
_scabbard_; but _pitcher_ was suggested by the play upon the word
_ears_, which is used for _hilts_ in the plural, according to the
universal usage of the poet's time. The _ears_, applied to a _leathern
coat_, or even a _sheath_, would be quite unmeaning, but there is a well
sustained ludicrous image in "pluck your sword out of his _pitcher by
the ears_."

    S. W. SINGER.

_Inscription on a Tablet in Limerick Cathedral._--

  "Mementi Mory.

  "Here lieth Littele Samuell Barinton, that great Under Taker, of
  Famious Cittis Clock and Chime Maker; He made his one Time goe
  Early and Latter, But now He is returned to God his Creator.

  "The 19 of November Then He Seest, And for His Memory This Here is
  Pleast, By His Son Ben 1693."

The correctness of this copy, _in every respect_, may be relied upon.

    R. J. R.



Blackstone, in his _Commentaries_, vol. i. p. 224., says, the heir
apparent to the crown is usually made Prince of Wales and Earl of
Chester; upon which Mr. Christian in a note remarks, upon the authority
of Hume, that this creation has not been confined to the heir apparent,
for both Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth were created by their father,
Henry VIII., Princesses of Wales, each of them at the time (the latter
after the legitimation of Mary) being heir presumptive to the crown.

Can any of your correspondents inform me upon what authority this
statement of Hume rests? or whether there exists any evidence of such
creations having been made? Do any such creations appear upon the Patent
Rolls? The statement is not supported by any writer of authority upon
such subjects, and, as far as your Querist's investigation has
proceeded, seems without foundation. It is one, however, too important
in connexion with royal titles to remain uncontradicted, if the fact be
not so.


Minor Queries.

_Lady Mary Cavendish._--Information is requested respecting the
_ancestry_ of the Lady Mary Cavendish, who married a Lieutenant
Maudesley, or Mosley, of the Guards. She is thought to have been maid of
honour to Queen Anne. And a Sir Henry Cavendish, who was teller of the
Exchequer in Ireland some sixty years ago, was of the same family.


_Covey._--When the witches in this country were very numerous, Satan for
convenience divided them into companies of thirteen (one reason why
thirteen has always been considered an unlucky number), and called each
company a _covine_. Is that the etymology of the word _covey_, as
applied to birds?

    L. M. M. R.

_Book wanted to purchase._--Can any one help me to find a little book on
"Speculative Difficulties in the Christian Religion?" I read such a book
about four years ago, and have quite forgotten its title and its author.
The last chapter in the book was on the "Origin of Evil." There is a
little book called _Speculative Difficulties_, but that is not the one I

    L. M. M. R.

_The Devil's Bit._--In the Barnane Mountains, near Templemore, Ireland,
there is a large dent or hollow, visible at the distance of twenty
miles, and known by the name of the "Devil's Bit."

Can any of your readers assist me in discovering the origins of this
singular name? There is a foolish tradition that the Devil was obliged,
by one of the saints, to make a road for his Reverence across an
extensive bog in the neighbourhood, and so taking a piece of the
mountain in his mouth, he strode over the bog and deposited a road
behind him!


_Corpse passing makes a Right of Way._--What is the origin of the
supposed custom of land becoming public property, after a funeral has
passed over it? An instance of this occurred (I am told) a short time
since at Battersea.

    R. W. E.

_Nao, a Ship._--Seeing it twice stated in Mr. G. F. Angas's _Australia
and New Zealand_, that "in the Celtic dialect of the Welsh, Nao (is) a
ship," I am desirous to learn in what author of that language, or in
what dictionary or glossary thereof, any such word is to be met with.
(See vol. ii., pp. 274. 278.) I doubt, or even disbelieve, the Britons
having had _any_ name for a ship, though they had a name for an osier
floating basket, covered with raw hides. And when they became familiar
with the _navis longa_ of the Romans, they and their Gaelic neighbours
adopted the adjective, and not the substantive. But the question of
_nao_ is one of fact; and having got the assertion, I want the

    A. N.

_William Hone._--I wish to meet with the interesting and touching
account of the conversion of William Hone, the compiler of the _Every
Day Book_, and should be obliged to any one who would tell me where it
is to be found.

    E. V.

_Hand giving the Blessing._--What is the origin of holding up the two
forefingers and thumb, and pressing down the third and little fingers of
the right hand in giving "the blessing," as we see in figures of
bishops, &c.? Is it a mystic allusion to the Trinity?

    A. A. D.

  4. Moray Place, Birkenhead.

_Tinsell, a Meaning of._--I wish to know if this word is still used by
the country-people in the midland counties, and on the borders of North
Wales, to denote _fire-wood_. In a Report dated in 1620, from a surveyor
to the owner of an estate in Wales, near the borders of Shropshire, the
following mention of it occurs:

  "There is neither wood nor underwood on the said lands, but a few
  underwoods in the park of hasell, alders, withie, and thornes, and
  such like, which the tenants doe take and use for _Tinsel_ as need

The working people in Shropshire and Staffordshire still speak of
_tining_ a fire (pronounced _teening_). This is but a slight change in
the Anglo-Saxon word _tynan_, to light a fire.

    S. S. S.

_Arches of Pelaga._--A young sailor, in his passage from Alexandria to
Trinadas, mentions a place under this designation. Query, Is there a
place correctly so called, or is this one of the misnomers not
unfrequent among seamen?

    M. A. LOWER.

_Emiott Arms._--What are the arms of the family of Emiott of Kent?

    E. H. Y.

_Well Chapels._--Will any of your learned readers be kind enough to
direct me to the best sources of information on this subject?

    H. G. T.

_Davy Jones's Locker._--If a sailor is killed in a sea-skirmish, or
falls overboard and is drowned, or any other fatality occurs which
necessitates the consignment of his remains to the "great deep," his
surviving messmates speak of him as one who has been sent to "Davy
Jones's Locker." Who was the important individual whose name has become
so powerful a myth? And what occasioned the identification of the ocean
itself with the locker of this mysterious Davy Jones?


_Æsopus Epulans._--I shall be much obliged by information respecting the
authorship and history of this work, printed at Vienna, 1749, 4to.

    N. B.

_Written Sermons._--Information is requested as to when the custom of
preaching from written sermons was first introduced, and the
circumstances which gave rise to it.

    M. C. L.

_Pallavicino and the Conte d'Olivares._--I have in my possession an old
Italian MS., 27 pages of large foolscap paper. It is headed "Caduta del
Conte d'Olivares," and at the end is signed "Scritta da Ferrante
Pallavicino," and dated "28 Genaro, 1643." Of course this Count
d'Olivares was the great favourite of Philip IV. of Spain; but who was
Pallavicino? Could it have been the Paravicino who was court chaplain to
Philip III. and IV.? or was he of the Genoese family of Pallavicini
mentioned by Leigh Hunt (_Autobiography_, vol. ii. p. 177.) as having
been connected with the Cromwell family? What favours the latter
presumption is, that a gentleman to whom I showed the MS. said at once,
"That is Genoa paper, just the same I got there for rough copies;" and
he also told me that the water-mark was a well-known Genoa mark: it
consists of a bird standing on an eight pointed starlike flower.

If any one can give me any likely account of this Pallavicino, or tell
me whether the MS. is at all valuable in any way, I shall owe him many


  Broadway, New York, May 10. 1851.

Minor Queries Answered.

_Athelney Castle, Somersetshire._--Can any of your readers inform me,
whether Athelney Castle, built by King Alfred, as a monastery, in token
of his gratitude to God for his preservation, when compelled to fly from
his throne, is in existence; or if any remains of it can be traced, as I
do not find it mentioned either in several maps, gazetteers, or
topographical dictionaries? It was situate about four miles from
Bridgewater, near the conflux of the rivers Parrot and Tone?

    J. S.

  Islington, May 15. 1851.

_Athelney._--In a visit which I recently paid to the field of
_Sedgemoor_ and the Isle of _Athelney_ in Somersetshire, I found on the
latter a stone pillar, inclosed by an iron railing, designed to point
the traveller's eye to the spot, so closely associated with his earliest
historical studies, with the burnt cakes, the angry housewife, and the
castigated king. The pillar bears the following inscription, which you
may think perhaps worthy of preservation in your useful pages:--

  "King Alfred the Great, in the year of our Lord 879, having been
  defeated by the Danes, fled for refuge to the forest of Athelney,
  where he lay concealed from his enemies for the space of a whole
  year. He soon after regained possession of his throne, and in
  grateful remembrance of the protection he had received, under the
  favour of Heaven, he erected a monastery on this spot and endowed
  it with all the lands contained in the Isle of Athelney. To
  perpetuate the memorial of so remarkable an incident in the life
  of that illustrious prince, this edifice was founded by John
  Slade, Esq., of Mansell, the proprietor of Athelney and Lord of
  the Manor of North Petherton, A. D. 1801."

    J. R. W.


_Legend of St. Molaisse_ (Vol. ii., p. 79.).--Can you tell me anything
more about this MS., and in whose possession it now is?

    R. H.

  ["The Legend of St. Molaisse" was sold in a sale at Puttick and
  Simpson's, July 3, 1850, for the sum of £8. 15_s._]

_Bogatzky._--Who was Bogatzky, the author of the well-known _Golden
Treasury_? Any particulars of his life will be acceptable.

    E. V.

  [Bogatzky was a Polish nobleman, the pupil of the great Professor
  Francke, and of a kindred spirit. He died at an advanced age in
  1768. It is not generally known that Bogatzky published a Second
  Volume of his _Golden Treasury_, which Dr. Steinkopff revised and
  edited in 1812, to which he prefixed a short but interesting
  account of the author. See also _Allgemeine Enyclopädie von Ersch
  und Gruber_, s.v.]



(Vol. iii., p. 140.)

In answer to MR. HALLIWELL's Query, "whether the remarkable passage
respecting Shakspeare in this work has descended to us in its genuine
state," I beg to inform him that I possess a copy of the edition of
1596, as well as of those of 1617 and 1621, from the latter of which the
reprint by Sir Egerton Brydges was taken, and that the passage in
question is exactly the same in all the three editions. For the general
information of your readers interested in Greene's works, I beg to
state, that the variations in the edition of 1596 from the other two,
consist of the words "written before his death, and published at his
dying request," on the title; and instead of the introductory address
"To Wittie Poets, or Poeticall Wittes," signed I. H., there are a few
lines on A 2, "The Printer to the Gentle Readers:"

  "I haue published heere, Gentlemen, for your mirth and benefit,
  Greene's Groateswoorth of Wit. With sundry of his pleasant
  discourses ye haue beene before delighted: But now hath death
  giuen a period to his pen, onely this happened into my hands which
  I haue published for your pleasures: Accept it fauourably because
  it was his last birth, and not least worth, in my poore opinion.
  But I will cease to praise that which is aboue my conceit, and
  leaue it selfe to speake for it selfe: and so abide your learned

  "Yours, W. W."

Then follows another short address, "To the Gentlemen Readers," by
Greene himself; and as this edition is so rare, only two copies being
known, and the address is short, I transcribe it entire for your

  "Gentlemen, The Swan sings melodiously before death, that in all
  his life time vseth but a iarring sound. _Greene_, though able
  inough to write, yet deeplyer searched with sicknesse than euer
  heretofore, sendes you his swanne-like song, for that he feares he
  shall neuer againe carroll to you woonted loue layes, neuer againe
  discouer to you youth's pleasures. Howeuer yet sicknesse, riot,
  incontinence, haue at once shown their extremitie, yet if I
  recouer, you shall all see more fresh springs then euer sprang
  from me, directing you how to liue, yet not diswading you from
  loue. This is the last I haue writ, and I feare me the last I
  shall write. And how euer I haue beene censured for some of my
  former bookes, yet, Gentlemen, I protest, they were as I had
  special information. But passing them, I commend this to your
  fauourable censures, and like an Embrion without shape, I feare me
  will bee thrust into the world. If I liue to ende it, it shall be
  otherwise: if not, yet will I commend it to your courtesies, that
  you may as wel be acquainted with my repentant death, as you haue
  lamented my carelesse course of life. But as _Nemo ante obitum
  felix_, so _Acta exitus probat_: Beseeching therefore to bee
  deemed hereof as I deserue, I leaue the worke to your liking, and
  leaue you to your delights."

Greene died in September, 1592; and this is curious, as being probably
the last thing that ever came from his pen.

The work commences on sig. A 4, the other three leaves being occupied
with the title and the two addresses. It concludes with Greene's "letter
written to his wife," and has not "Greene's Epitaph: Discoursed
Dialogue-wise betweene Life and Death," which is in the two later

I may here mention that I possess a copy of an extremely rare work
relating to Robert Greene, which has only lately become known, viz.:

  "Greene's Newes both from Heaven and Hell. Prohibited the first
  for writing of Bookes, and banished out of the last for displaying
  of Connycatchers. Commended to the Presse by B. R." (Barnabee
  Rich) 4to. bl. lett. Lond. 1593.

Concerning the great rarity of this interesting tract, which was unknown
to the Rev. A. Dyce when publishing his edition of Greene's works, your
readers may see a notice by Mr. Collier in his _Extracts from the
Registry of the Stat. Comp._, vol. ii. p. 233., apparently from the
present copy, no other being known.


  Stand Rectory.


(Vol. iii., p. 443.)

Besides the copy of the above work mentioned by your correspondent J. H.
T., several others are known to exist in this country. Among them I may
mention one in the library of the Baptist College, Bristol. My own copy
was supplied by a London bookseller, who has likewise imported several
other copies from Holland, where it is by no means a scarce work.

The second illustrated edition was published twenty years after the
decease of Van Braght. The first edition, without engravings, now before
me, appeared in 1660, which was the edition used by Danvers. But Danvers
does not appear to have known its existence, when the first edition of
his treatise came out in 1673. The "large additions" of his second
edition in 1674, are chiefly made from the work of Van Braght.

The original portion of Van Braght's work is, however, confined to the
first part. The second part, _The Martyrology_, strictly so called, is
of much earlier date. Many single narratives appeared at the time, and
collections of these were early made. The earliest collection of
martyrdoms bears the date of 1542. This was enlarged in 1562, 1578,
1580, and 1595. This fact I give on the authority of Professor Müller of
Amsterdam, from the _Jaarboekje voor de Doopsgezinde Gemeenten in de
Nederlanden, 1838 en 1839_, pp. 102, 103.

An edition, dated 1599, of these very rare books is now before me. It
has the following curious and affecting title:

  "Dit Boeck wort genaemt: Het Offer des Heeren, Om het inhout van
  sommige opgeofferde Kinderen Gods, de welcke voort gebrocht
  hebben, wt den goeden schat haers herten, Belijdinghen,
  Sentbrieuen ende Testamenten, de welcke sy met den monde beleden,
  ende met den bloede bezeghelt hebben, &c. &c. Tot Harlinghen. By
  my Peter Sebastiaenzoon, Int jaer ons Heeren MDXCIX."

It is a thick 12mo. of 229 folios, and contains the martyrdoms of
thirty-three persons (the first of which is Stephen), which were
subsequently embodied in the larger martyrologies. Each narrative is
followed by a versified version of it. A small book of hymns is added,
some of them composed by the martyrs; and the letters and confession of
one Joos de Tollenaer, who was put to death at Ghent in 1589.

In 1615, a large collection of these narratives appeared at Haarlem in a
thick 4to. volume. The compilers were Hans de Ries, Jaques Outerman, and
Joost Govertsoon, all eminent Mennonite ministers. Two editions followed
from the press of Zacharias Cornelis at Hoorn in 1617 and 1626, both in
4to., but under different editorship. The last edition was offensive to
the Haarlem editors, who therefore published a fourth at Haarlem in
1631. As its title is brief, I will give it from the copy in my library:

  "Martelaers Spiegel der Werelose Christenen t' zedert A. D. 1524.
  Joan, xv. 20. Matt. x. 28. Esai, li. 7. Joan xvi. 2. 1 Pet. iv.
  19. [All quoted at length.] Gedrukt tot Haarlem Bij Hans
  Passchiers van Wesbusch. In't Jaer onses Heeren, 1631."

This edition is in small folio. The title-page is from a copperplate,
and is adorned with eight small engravings, representing scenes of
suffering and persecution from scripture. The narratives of martyrs
extends from 1524 to 1624. It is this work which forms the basis of Van
Braght's. He added to it the whole of his first part, and also some
additional narratives in the second. To the best of his ability he
verified the whole.

These works are frequently referred to by Ottius in his _Annales
Anabaptistici_ under the titles "Martyrologium Harlemense" and
"Martyrologium Hornanum."

From a paper in the _Archivs für Kunde österreichischer
Geschichtsquellen_, I learn that a MS. exists in the City library of
Hamburgh, with the following title:

  "Chronickel oder Denkbüechel darinnen mit kurtzen Begriffen, Was
  sich vom 1524 Jar, Bis auff gegenwärtige Zeit, in der gemain
  zuegetragen, vnd wie viel trewer Zeugen Jesu Christij die warheit
  Gottes so riterlich mit irem bluet bezeugt. 1637."

The work appears chiefly confined to a history of the Moravian
Anabaptists: but from passages given by the writer, Herr Gregor Wolny,
it is evident that it contains many of the narratives given by Van
Braght. The earlier portion of the MS. was written previous to 1592,
when its writer or compiler died. Three continuators carried on the
narrations to 1654. The last date in it is June 7, 1654; when Daniel
Zwicker, in his own handwriting, records his settlement as pastor over a
Baptist church. Mention is made of this MS. by Ottius, and by Fischer in
his _Tauben-kobel_, p. 33., &c. For any additional particulars
respecting it, I should feel greatly obliged.

It does not appear to be known to your correspondent that a translation
of the second part of Van Braght's work has been commenced in this
country, of which the first volume was issued by the Hanserd Knollys
Society last year. A translation of the entire work appeared in 1837, in
Pennsylvania, U. S., for the use of the Mennonite churches, emigrants
from Holland and Germany to whom the language of their native land had
become a strange tongue.

    E. B. U.

  33. Moorgate Street, London.

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Spick and Span New_ (Vol. iii., p. 330.).--The corresponding _German_
word is _Spann-nagel-neu_, which may be translated as "New from the
stretching needle;" and corroborates the meaning given by you. I may
remark the French have no equivalent phrase. It is evidently a familiar
allusion of the clothmakers of England and Germany.



_Under the Rose_ (Vol. iii., pp. 300.).--There is an old Club in this
town (Birmingham) called the "Bear Club," and established (ut dic.)
circa 1738, formerly of some repute. Among other legends of the Club, is
one, that in the centre of the ceiling of their dining-room was once a
carved rose, and that the members always drank as a first toast, to "The
health of the King," [under the rose], meaning the Pretender.


_Handel's Occasional Oratorio_ (Vol. iii., p. 426.).--The "Occasional
Oratorio" is a separate composition, containing an overture, 10
recitatives, 21 airs, 1 duet, and 15 choruses. It was produced in the
year 1745. It is reported, I know not on what authority, that the King
having ordered Handel to produce a new oratorio on a given day, and the
artist having answered that it was impossible to do it in the time
(which must have been unreasonably short, to extort such a reply from
the intellect that produced _The Messiah_ in three weeks, and _Israel in
Egypt_ in four), his Majesty deigned no other answer than that done it
must and should be, whether possible or not, and that the result was the
putting forward of the "Occasional Oratorio."

The structure of the oratorio, which was evidently a very hurried
composition, gives a strong air of probability to the anecdote.
Evidently no libretto was written for it; the words tell no tale, are
totally unconnected, and not even always tolerable English, a fine
chorus (p. 39. Arnold) going to the words "Him or his God we no fear."
It is rather a collection of sacred pieces, strung together literally
without rhyme or reason in the oratorio form, than one oratorio. The
examination of it leads one to the conclusion, that the composer took
from his portfolio such pieces as he happened to have at hand, strung
them together as he best could, and made up the necessary quantity by
selections from his other works. Accordingly we find in it the pieces
"The Horse and his Rider," "Thou shalt bring them in," "Who is like unto
Thee?" "The Hailstone Chorus," "The Enemy said I will pursue," from
_Israel in Egypt_, written in 1738; the chorus "May God from whom all
Mercies spring," from _Athaliah_ (1733); and the chorus "God save the
King, long live the King," from the _Coronation Anthem_ of 1727. There
is also the air "O! Liberty," which he afterwards (in 1746) employed in
_Judas Maccabæus_. Possibly some other pieces of this oratorio may be
found also in some of Handel's other works, not sufficiently stamped on
my memory for me to recognise them; but I may remark that the quantity
of _Israel in Egypt_ found in it may perhaps have so connected it in
some minds with that glorious composition as to have led to the practice
referred to of prefixing in performance the overture to the latter work,
to which, although the introductory movement, the fine adagio, and grand
march are fit enough, the light character of the fugue is, it must be
confessed, singularly inappropriate.

I am not aware of any other "occasion" than that of the King's will,
which led to the composition of this oratorio.

    D. X.

_Stone Chalice_ (Vol. ii., p. 120.).--They are found in the ancient
churches in Ireland, and some are preserved in the Museum of the Royal
Irish Academy, and in private collections. A beautiful specimen is
engraved in Wakeman's _Handbook of Irish Antiquities_, p. 161.

    R. H.

_Thanksgiving Book_ (Vol. iii., p. 328.).--The charge for a
"Thanksgiving Book," mentioned by A CHURCHWARDEN, was no doubt for a
Book of Prayers, &c., on some general thanksgiving day, probably after
the battle of Blenheim and the taking of Gibraltar, which would be about
the month of November. A similar charge appears in the Churchwardens'
accounts for the parish of _Eye, Suffolk_, at a much earlier period,
viz. 1684, which you may probably deem worthy of insertion in your

      "_Payments._                                      _l._ _s._ _d._

      "It. To Flegg for sweepinge and dressinge
      upp the church the nynth
      of September beeinge A day of
      _Thanks-givinge_ for his Ma'ties
      deliv'ance from the Newkett
      Plot                                               00   03   00

      "It. For twoe _Bookes_ for the 9th of September
      aforesaid                                          00   01   00"

    J. B. COLMAN.

  Eye, April 29, 1851.

_Carved Ceiling in Dorsetshire_ (Vol. iii., p. 424.).--Philip, King of
Castile (father to Charles V.), was forced by foul weather into Weymouth
Harbour. He was hospitably entertained by Sir Thomas Trenchard, who
invited Mr. Russell of Kingston Russell to meet him. King Philip took
such delight in his company that at his departure he recommended him to
King Henry VII. as a person of spirit "fit to stand before princes, and
not before mean men." He died in 1554, and was the ancestor of the
Bedford family. Sir Thomas Trenchard probably had the ceiling. See
Fuller's _Worthies_ (_Dorsetshire_), vol. i. p. 313.


The house of which your correspondent has heard his tradition is
certainly _Woolverton House_, in the parish of Charminster, near this

It was built by Sir Thomas Trenchard, who died 20 Hen. VIII.; and
tradition holds, as history tells us, that Phillip, Archduke of Austria,
and King of Castile, with his queen _Juana_, or _Joanna_, were driven by
weather into the port of Weymouth: and that Sir Thomas Trenchard, then
the High Sheriff of the county, invited their majesties to his house,
and afforded them entertainment that was no less gratifying than timely.

Woolverton now belongs to James Henning, Esq. There is some fine carving
in the house, though it is not the ceiling that is markworthy; and it is
thought by some to be the work of a foreign hand. At Woolverton House
were founded the high fortunes of the House of Bedford. Sir Thomas
Trenchard, feeling the need of an interpreter with their Spanish
Majesties, happily bethought himself of a John Russell, Esq., of
Berwick, who had lived some years in Spain, and spoke Castilian; and
invited him, as a Spanish-English mouth, to his house: and it is said he
accompanied the king and queen to London, where he was recommended to
the favour of Hen. VII.; and after rising to high office, received from
Hen. VIII. a share of the monastic lands.

See Hutchins's _History of Dorset_.

    W. BARNES.


_"Felix quem faciunt," &c._ (Vol. iii., pp. 373. 431.).--The passage
cited by C. H. P. as assigned to Plautus, and which he says he cannot
find in that author, occurs in one of the interpolated scenes in the
_Mercator_, which are placed in some of the old editions between the 5th
and 6th Scenes of Act IV. In the edition by Pareus, printed at Neustadt
(Neapolis Nemetum) in 1619, 4to., it stands thus:

  "Verum id dictum est: Feliciter is sapit, qui periculo alieno

I was wrong in attributing it to Plautus, and should rather have called
it _Plautine_. By a strange slip of the pen or the press, pericu_lum_ is
put instead of pericu_lo_ in my note. Niebuhr has a very interesting
essay on the interpolated scenes in Plautus, in the first volume of his
_Kleine Historische und Philologische Schriften_, which will show why
these scenes and passages, marked as supposititious in some editions,
are now omitted. It appears that they were made in the fifteenth century
by Hermolaus Barbarus. See a letter from him to the Bishop of Segni, in
_Angeli Politiani Epistolæ_, lib. xii. epist. 25.

To the parallel thoughts already cited may be added the following:

  "Ii qui sciunt, quid aliis acciderit, facile ex aliorum eventu,
  suis rationibus possunt providere."

      _Rhetoric. ad Herennium_, L. 4. c. 9.

      "I' presi esempio de' lor stati rei,
      Facendomi profitto l' altrui male
      In consolar i casi e dolor miei."

      Petrarca, _Trionfo della Castità_.

      "Ben' è felice quel, donne mie care,
      Ch' essere accorto all' altrui spese impare."

      Ariosto, _Orl. Fur._, canto X.

      S. W. SINGER.

_The Saint Graal_ (Vol. iii., p. 413.).--I see that MR. G. STEPHENS
states, that Mons. Roquefort's nine columns are decisive of Saint Graal
being derived from Sancta Cratera. I am unacquainted with the word
_cratera_, unless in Ducange, as meaning a basket. But _crater_, a
goblet, is the word meant by Roquefort.

How should _graal_ or _greal_ come from _crater_? I cannot see common
sense in it. Surely that ancient writer, nearly, or quite, contemporary
with the publication of the romance, Helinandus Frigidimontanus, may be
trusted for the fact that _graal_ was French for "gradalis or gradale,"
which meant "scutella lata et aliquantulum profunda in quâ preciosæ
dapes cum suo jure divitibus solent apponi." (Vide Helinand. ap.
Vincentium Bellovacensem, _Speculum Historiale_, lib. 43. cap. 147.) Can
there be a more apparent and palpable etymology of any word, than that
_graal_ is _gradale_? See Ducange in _Gradale_, No. 3, and in
_Gradalis_, and the three authorities (of which Helinand is not one)
cited by him.

    A. N.

_Skeletons at Egyptian Banquet_ (Vol. iii., p. 424.).--The
_interpretation_ of this is probably from Jer. Taylor's own head. See,
for the history of the association in his mind, his sermon on the
"Marriage Ring."

  "It is fit that I should infuse a bunch of myrrh into the festival
  goblet, and, after the Egyptian manner, serve up a dead man's
  bones as a feast."

    Q. Q.

_Sewell_ (Vol. iii., p. 391.).--Allow me to refer H. C. K. to a passage
in the _Letters on the Suppression of the Monasteries_, published by the
Camden Society, p. 71., for an example of the word _sewelles_. It is
there said to be equivalent to _blawnsherres_. The scattered pages of
Duns Scotus were put to this use, after he was banished from Oxford by
the Royal Commissioners.

The word is perhaps akin to the low Latin _suellium_, threshing-floor,
or to the Norman French _swele_, threshold: in which case the original
meaning would be _bounds_ or _limits_.

    C. H.

  St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

_Col-fabias_ (Vol. iii., p. 390.).--This word is a Latinised form of the
Irish words Cul-{f}eabu{s} (cul-feabus), _i. e._ "a closet of decency"
or "for the sake of decency."


_Poem from the Digby MS._ (Vol. iii., p. 367.).--Your correspondent H.
A. B. will find the lines in his MS. beginning

      "You worms, my rivals," &c.,

printed, with very slight variations, amongst Beaumont's poems, in
Moxon's edition of the Works of Beaumont and Fletcher, 1840. They are
the concluding lines of "An Elegy on the Lady Markham."


_Umbrella_ (Vol. iii., pp. 37. 126.).--I find the following passage in
the fourth edition of Blount's _Glossographia_, published as far back as

  "_Umbrello_ (Ital. _Ombrella_), a fashion of round and broad Fans,
  wherewith the _Indians_ (and from them our great ones) preserve
  themselves from the heat of the sun or fire; and hence any little
  shadow, Fan, or other thing, wherewith the women guard their faces
  from the sun."

In Kersey's _Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum_, 1708, it is thus noticed--

  "_Umbrella_, or _Umbrello_, a kind of broad Fan or Skreen,
  commonly us'd by women to shelter them from Rain: also a Wooden
  Frame cover'd with cloth to keep off the sun from a window."

  "_Parasol (F.)_, a small sort of canopy or umbrello, which women
  carry over their heads."

And in Phillips's _New World of Words_, 7th ed., 1720--

  "_Umbrella_ or _Umbrello_, a kind of broad Fan or Skreen, which in
  hot countries People hold over their heads to keep off the Heat
  of the Sun; or such as are here commonly us'd by women to shelter
  them from Rain: Also, a wooden Frame cover'd with cloth or stuff,
  to keep off the sun from a window."

  "_Parasol (Fr.)_, a small sort of canopy or umbrello, which women
  carry over their Heads, to shelter themselves from Rain," &c.

    T. C. T.

_The Curse of Scotland_ (Vol. iii., p. 22.).--Your correspondent L.
says, the true explanation of the circumstance of the nine of diamonds
being called the curse of Scotland is to be found in the game of Pope
Joan; but with all due deference to him, I must beg entirely to dissent
from this opinion, and to adhere to the notion of its origin being
traceable to the heraldic bearing of the family of Dalrymple, which are
or, on a saltire azure, _nine lozenges of the field_.

There can be no doubt that John Dalrymple, 2nd Viscount and 1st Earl of
Stair, justly merited the appellation of the "Curse of Scotland," from
the part which he took in the horrible massacre of Glencoe, and from the
utter detestation in which he was held in consequence, and which
compelled him to resign the secretaryship in 1695. After a deliberate
inquiry by the commissioners had declared _him_ to be guilty of the
massacre, we cannot wonder that the man should be held up to scorn by
the most popular means which presented themselves; and the nine diamonds
in his shield would very naturally, being the insignia of his family, be
the best and most easily understood mode of perpetuating that
detestation in the minds of the people.

    L. J.

_Bawn_ (Vol. i., p. 440.; Vol. ii., pp. 27. 60. 94.).--Your
correspondents will find some information on this word in Ledwich's
_Antiquities of Ireland_, 2nd edit. p. 279.; and in Wakeman's _Handbook
of Irish Antiquities_, p. 141. Ledwich seems to derive the word from the
Teutonic _Bawen_, to construct and secure with branches of trees.

    R. H.

_Catacombs and Bone-houses_ (Vol. i., p. 171.).--MR. GATTY will find a
vivid description of the bone-house at Hythe, in Mr. Borrow's
_Lavengro_, vol. i. I have no reference to the exact page.

    C. P. PH***.

_Bacon and Fagan_ (Vol. iii., p. 106.).--The letters B and F are
doubtless convertible, as they are both labial letters, and can be
changed as _b_ and _p_ are so frequently.

1. The word "batten" is used by Milton in the same sense as the word

2. The Latin word "flo" is in English "to blow."

3. The word "flush" means much the same as "blush."

4. The Greek word βρέμω is in the Latin changed to "fremo."

5. The Greek word βορὰ = in English "forage."

6. _Herod._ vii. 73. Βίλιππος for Φίλιππος;
 Βρύγες for Φρύγες.

7. Φάλαινα in Greek = "balæna" in Latin = "balène" in French.

8. Φέρω in Greek = "to bear" in English.

9. "Frater" in Latin = "brother" in English.

Many other instances could probably be found.

I think that we may fairly imply that the labials _p_, _b_, _f_, _v_,
may be interchanged, in the same way as the dental letters _d_ and _t_
are constantly; and I see no reason left to doubt that the word Bacon is
the same as the word Fagan.


_To learn by Heart_ (Vol. iii., p. 425.).--When A SUBSCRIBER TO YOUR
JOURNAL asks for some account of the origin of the phrase "to learn by
Heart," may he not find it in St. Luke i. 66, ii. 19. 51.?

"To learn by _memory_" (or by "_rote_") conveys to my own mind a very
different notion from what I conceive to be expressed by the words "To
learn by _heart_." Just as there is an evident difference between a
_gentleman in heart and feeling_, and a _gentleman in manners and
education only_; so there is a like difference (as I conceive) between
learning by heart and learning by rote; namely, the difference between a
_moral_, and a merely _intellectual_, operation of the mind. To learn by
_memory_ is to learn by _rote_, as a parrot: to learn by _heart_ is to
learn _morally--practically_. Thus, we say, we give our hearts to our
pursuits: we "love God with all our hearts," pray to Him "with the
spirit, and with the understanding," and "with the heart believe unto
righteousness:" we "ponder in our hearts," "muse in our hearts," and
"keep things in our hearts," i. e. "_learn by heart_."

    J. E.

_Auriga_ (Vol. iii., p. 188.).--Claudius Minois, in his Commentaries on
the _Emblemata_ of Alciatus, gives the following etymology of

  "Auriga non dicitur ab auro, sed ab aureis: sunt enim aureæ lora
  sive fræni, qui equis ad aures alligantur; sicut oreæ, quibus ora
  coercentur."--_Alciati Emblemata_, Emb. iv. p. 262.

    W. R.

  Hospitio Chelhamensi.

_Vineyards in England_ (Vol. ii., p. 392.; Vol. iii., p. 341.).--Add to
the others _Wynyard_, so far north as Durham.


_Barker_ (Vol. iii., p. 406.).--Mr. Barker lived in West Square, St.
George's Fields, a square directly opposite the Philanthropic Society's


_Barker, the original Panorama Painter._--MR. CUNNINGHAM is quite
correct in stating Robert Barker to be the originator of the Panorama.
His first work of the kind was a view of Edinburgh, of which city, I
believe, he was a native.

On his death, in 1806, he was succeeded by his son, Mr. Henry Aston
Barker, the Mr. Barker referred to by A. G. This gentleman and his wife
(one of the daughters of the late Admiral Bligh) are both living, and
reside at Bitton, a village lying midway between this city and Bath.


  Bristol, June 2, 1851.

_The Tanthony_ (Vol. iii., pp. 105. 229. 308.).--ARUN's Query is fully
answered by a reference to Mrs. Jameson's _Sacred and Legendary Art_,
vol. ii. p. 379., where the bell is shown to be emblematic of the
saint's power to exorcise evil spirits, and reference is made to several
paintings (and an engraving given of one) in which it is represented.
The phrase "A Tantony Pig" is also explained, for which see further
Halliwell's _Dict. of Arch. and Prov. Words_, s.v. Anthony.

    C. P. PH***.

_Essay on the Irony of Sophocles, &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 389.).--Three
Queries by NEMO: 1. The Rev. Connop Thirlwall, now Bishop of St.
David's, is the author of the essay in question. 2. Cicero, _Tusc.
Disp._, i. 15. 39.:--_Errare_ mehercule _malo cum Platone ... quam cum
istis vera sentire_; (again), Cicero, _ad Attic._, l. viii. ep.
7.:--_Malle_, quod dixerim, me _cum Pompeio vinci, quam cum istis
vincere_. 3. The remark is Aristotle's; but the same had been said of
Homer by Plato himself:

  "Aristot. [_Eth. Nicom._ l. i. cap. 6. § 1. ed. Oxon.] is
  reluctant to criticise Plato's doctrine of _Ideas_, διὰ τὸ
  φίλους ἄνδρας εἰσαγάγειν τὰ εἴδη: but, he adds, the truth must
  nevertheless be spoken:--ἀμφοῖν γὰρ ὄντοιν φίλοιν, ὅσιον προτιμᾶν τὴν

  "Plato [_de Repub._, X. cap. 1. p. 595 b.]:--Φιλία τίς με καὶ αἰδὼς ἐκ
  παιδὸς ἔχουσα περὶ Ὁμήρου ἀποκωλύει λέγειν ... ἀλλ' οὐ γὰρ πρό γε τῆς
  ἀλήθειας τιμητέος ἄνηρ.]"

    C. P. PH***.

_Achilles and the Tortoise_ (Vol. ii., p. 154.).--S. T. Coleridge has
explained this paradox in _The Friend_, vol. iii. p. 88. ed. 1850: a
note is subjoined regarding Aristotle's attempted solution, with a
quotation from Mr. de Quincey, in _Tate's Mag._, Sept. 1834, p. 514. The
passage in _Leibnitz_ which Ἰδιώτης requires, is probably
"_Opera_, i. p. 115. ed. Erdmann."

    C. P. PH***.

_Early Rain called "Pride of the Morning"_ (Vol. ii., p. 309.).--In
connexion with this I would quote an expression in Keble's _Christian
Year_, "On the Rainbow," (25th Sun. after Trin.):

      "_Pride of the_ dewy _Morning_!
        The swain's experienced eye
      From thee takes timely warning,
        Nor trusts else the gorgeous sky."

    C. P. PH***.

_The Lost Tribes_ (Vol. ii., p. 130.).--JARLTZBERG will find one theory
on this subject in Dr. Asahel Grant's book, _The Nestorians; or, the
Lost Tribes_, published by Murray; 12mo.

    C. P. PH***.

"_Noli me Tangere_" (Vol. ii., pp. 153. 253. 379.).--There is an
exquisite criticism upon the treatment of this subject by various
painters, accompanied by an etching from Titian, in that delightful
book, Mrs. Jameson's _Sacred and Legendary Art_, vol. i. pp 354. 360.;
and to the list of painters who have illustrated this subject, add
_Holbein_, in the Hampton Court Gallery. (See Mrs. Jameson's _Handbook
to the Public Galleries_, pp. 172. 353., 1845.)

    C. P. PH***.

"_The Sicilian Vespers_" (Vol. ii., p. 166.).--Your correspondent is
referred to _The War of the Sicilian Vespers_, by Amari, translated by
the Earl of Ellesmere, published very lately by Murray.

    C. P. PH***.

_Antiquity of Smoking_ (Vol ii., pp. 216. 521.)--C. B. says, alluding to
JARLTZBERG's references, "there is nothing in Solinus;" I read, however,
in Solinus, cap. xv. (fol. 70. ed. Ald. 1518), under the heading,
"Thracum mores, etc.":

  "Uterque sexus epulantes focos ambiunt, herbarum quas habent
  semine ignibus superjecto. Cujus nidore perculsi pro lætitiâ
  habent imitari ebrietatem sensibus sauciatis."

JARLTZBERG's reference to Herod. i. 36. supplies nothing to the point:
Herod. iv. 2. mentions the use of bone pipes, φυσητῆρας
ὀστεΐνους by the Scythians, _in milking_; but Herodotus (iv. 73. 75.)
describes the orgies of the Scythians, who produced intoxicating fumes
by strewing hemp-seed upon red-hot stones, as the leaves and seed of the
Hasisha al fokara, or hemp-plant, are smoked in the East at the present
day. (See De Sacy, _Chrestom. Arabe_, vol. ii. p. 155.) Compare also
Plutarch de Fluviis (_de Hebro_, fr. 3.), who speaks of a plant
resembling Origanum, from which the Thracians procured a stupefying
vapour, by burning the stalks:

  "Ἐπιτιθέασι πυρὶ ... καὶ τὴν ἀναφερομένην ἀναθυμίασιν
  δεχόμενοι ταῖς ἀναπνοίαις, καροῦνται, καὶ εἰς βαθὺν ὕπνον
  καταφέρονται.] [Opera Varia, vol. vi. p. 444. ed. Tauchn.]"

    C. P. PH***.

_Milton and the Calves-Head Club_ (Vol. iii., p. 390).--Dr. Todd, in his
edition of Milton's _Works_, in 1809, p. 158., mentions the rumour,
without expressing any opinion of its truth. I think he omits all
mention of it in his subsequent edition in 1826, and therefore hope he
has adopted the prevailing opinion that it is a contemptible libel. In a
note to the former edition is a reference to Kennett's _Register_, p.
38., and to _"Private forms of Prayer fitted for the late sad times,"
&c._, 12mo., Lond., 1660, attributed to Dr. Hammond. An anonymous
author, quoting the verbal assurance of "a certain active Whigg," would
be entitled to little credit in attacking the character of the living,
and ought surely to be scouted when assailing the memory of the dead. In
Lowndes' _Bib. Man._ it is stated that

  "This miserable trash has been attributed to the author of

    J. F. M.

_Voltaire's Henriade_ (Vol. iii., p. 388.).--I have two translations of
this poem in English verse, in addition to that mentioned at p. 330.,
viz., one in 4to., Anon., London, 1797; and one by Daniel French, 8vo.,
London, 1807. The former, which, as I collect from the preface, was
written by a lady and a foreigner, alludes to two previous translations,
one in blank verse (probably Lockman's), and the other in rhyme.

    J. F. M.

_Petworth Register_ (Vol. iii., p. 449.).--Your correspondent C. H.
appears to give me too much credit for diligence, in having "searched"
after this document; for in truth I did nothing beyond writing to the
rector of the parish, the Rev. Thomas Sockett. All that I can positively
say as to my letter, is, that it was intended to be courteous; that it
stated my reason for the inquiry; that it contained an apology for the
liberty taken in applying to a stranger; and that Mr. Sockett did not
honour me with any answer. I believe, however, that I asked whether the
register still existed; if so, what was its nature, and over what period
it extended; and whether it had been printed or described in any
antiquarian or topographical book.

Perhaps some reader may have the means of giving information on these
points; and if he will do so through the medium of your periodical, he
will oblige both C. H. and myself. Or perhaps C. H. may be able to
inquire through some more private channel, in which case I should feel
myself greatly indebted to him if he would have the goodness to let me
know the result.



_Apple-pie Order_ (Vol. iii., p. 330.).--The solution of J. H. M. to MR.
SNEAK's inquiry is not satisfactory. "Alternate layers of sliced pippins
and mutton steaks" might indeed make a pie, but not an apple-pie,
therefore this puzzling phrase must have had some other origin. An
ingenious friend of mine has suggested that it may perhaps be derived
from that expression which we meet with in one of the scenes of
_Hamlet_, "Cap à pied;" where it means perfectly appointed. The
transition from _cap à pied_, or "cap à pie," to _apple-pie_, has rather
a rugged appearance, orthographically, I admit; but the ear soon becomes
accustomed to it in pronunciation.

    A. N.

  [MR. ROBERT SNOW and several other correspondents have also
  suggested that the origin of the phrase "apple-pie order" is to
  be found in the once familiar "cap à pied."]

_Durham Sword that killed the Dragon_ (Vol. iii., p. 425.).--For details
of the tradition, and an engraving of the sword, see Surtees' _History
of Durham_, vol. iii. pp. 243, 244.


_Malentour_ (Vol. iii., p. 449.)--Your correspondent F. E. M. will find
the word _Malentour_, or _Malæntour_, given in Edmondson's _Complete
Body of Heraldry_ as the motto of the family of Patten alias Wansfleet
(_sic_) of Newington, Middlesex: it is said to be borne on a scroll over
the crest, which is a Tower in flames.

In the "Book of Mottoes" the motto ascribed to the name of Patten is
_Mal au Tour_, and the double meaning is suggested, "Misfortune to the
Tower," and "Unskilled in artifice."

The arms that accompany it in Edmondson are nearly the same as those of
William Pattyn alias Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor
temp. Hen. VI.--the founder of Magdalen College, Oxford.

    F. C. M.

_The Bellman and his History_ (Vol. iii., pp. 324. 377.).--Since my
former communication on this subject I have been referred to the cut of
the Bellman and his _Dog_ in Collier's _Roxburghe Ballads_, p. 59.,
taken from the first edition of Dekker's _Belman of London_, printed in

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, May 17, 1851.

"_Geographers on Afric's Downs_" (Vol. iii., p. 372.).--Is your
correspondent A. S. correct in his quotation? In a poem of Swift's, "On
Poetry, a Rhapsody," are these lines:--

      "So geographers, in Afric maps
      With savage pictures fill their gaps,
      And o'er unhabitable downs
      Place elephants for want of towns."

      _Swift's Works, with Notes by Dr. Hawksworth_, 1767,
      vol. vii. p, 214.

    C. DE D.

"_Trepidation talk'd_" (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--The words attributed to
Milton are--

      "That crystalline sphere whose balance weighs
      The trepidation talk'd, and that first moved."

Paterson's comment, quoted by your correspondent, is exquisite: he
evidently thinks there were two trepidations, one _talked_, the other
_first moved_.

The _trepidation_ (not a tremulous, but a turning or oscillating motion)
is a well-known hypothesis added by the Arab astronomers to Ptolemy, in
explanation of the precession of the equinoxes. This precession they
imagined would continue retrograde for a long period, after which it
would be direct for another long period, then retrograde again, and so
on. They, or their European followers, I forget which, invented the
_crystal_ heaven, an apparatus outside of the _starry_ heaven (these
cast-off phrases of astronomy have entered into the service of poetry,
and the _empyreal_ heaven with them), to cause this slow turning, or
trepidation, in the starry heaven. Some used _two_ crystal heavens, and
I suspect that Paterson, having some confused idea of this, fancied he
found them both in Milton's text. I need not say that your correspondent
is quite right in referring the words _first moved_ to the _primum

Again, _balance_ in Milton never _weighs_. _Scale_ is his word (iv. 997.
x. 676.) for a weighing apparatus. Where he says of Satan's army (i.

          "In even balance down they light
      On the firm brimstone,"

he appears to mean that they were in regular order, with a right wing to
balance the left wing. The direct motion of the crystal heaven,
following and compensating the retrograde one, is the "balance" which
"_was_ the trepidation _called_;" and this I suspect to be the true
reading. The past tense would be quite accurate, for all the Ptolemaists
of Milton's time had abandoned the _trepidation_. As the text stands it
is nonsense; even if Milton did _dictate_ it, we know that he never
_saw_ it; and there are several passages of which the obscurity may be
due to his having had to rely on others. Witness the lines in book iv.


_Registry of Dissenting Baptisms in Churches_ (Vol. iii., p. 370.).--I
forward extracts from the Registers of the parish of Saint Benedict in
this town relating to the baptism of Dissenters. (Mr. Hussey, mentioned
in several of the entries, was Joseph Hussey, minister of a Dissenting
congregation here from 1691 to 1720. His meeting-house on Hog Hill (now
St. Andrew's Hill) in this town was pillaged by a Jacobite mob, 29th
May, 1716. He died in London in 1726, and was the author of several
works, which are now very scarce.)

  "1697. October 14th. William the Son of Richard Jardine and
  Elisabeth his Wife was baptiz'd in a Private Congregation by Mr.
  Hussey in ye name of the Father the Son and the Holy Ghost.

  "Witnesses, Robert Wilson, Richard Jardine.

  "1698. Henery the Son of John and Sarah Shipp was baptized in a
  Private Congregation by Mr. Hussey December 1. Elisabeth the
  Daughter of Richard and Elisabeth Jardine was born ye twenty-first
  day of January and baptized the second day of February 1698/99 in
  a Private Congregation.

  "1700. Walter the Son of Richard and Elisabeth Jardine born July
  23 and said to be baptized in a Separate Congregation by Mr.
  Hussey Aug. 20.

  "1701. Elisabeth Daughter of Richard Jardine and Elisabeth his
  wife born October 7. and said to be baptized at a Private
  Congregation Novemb. 3d.

  "1702. June 22. Miram the Son of Thomas Short and Mary his Wife
  said to be baptized at a Separate Congregation. Jane the Daughter
  of Richard Jardine and Elizabeth his Wife said to be baptized at a
  Separate Congregation Dec. 21.

  "1703. John the Son of Alexander Jardine and Elisabeth his Wife
  said to be baptized at a Separate Congregation, Mar. 31.

  "1705. Alexander the Son of Alexander Jardine and ... his Wife was
  as 'tis said baptized in a Separate Congregation July 1705.

  "1706. John the Son of Alexander Jardine and Elisabeth his Wife
  said to be baptized at a Private Congregation Dec. 11.

  "1707. Nov. 11. John the Son of Alexander and Elis. Jardine was
  said to be baptized in Separate Congregation.

  "1710. Aug. 23. John ye Son of Bryan and Sarah Ellis was said to
  have been baptized in Separate Congregation.

    "Nov. 15. Nath. ye Son of Alexander and Elisa Jardine was
    said to be baptiz'd in a Separate Congregation."

I have no recollection of having met with similar entries in any other
Parish Register.

    C. H. COOPER.

_Redwing's Nest_ (Vol. iii., p. 408.).--I think that upon further
consideration C. J. A. will find his egg to be merely that of a
blackbird. While the eggs of some birds are so constant in their
markings that to see one is to know all, others--at the head of which we
may place the sparrow, the gull tribe, the thrush, and the
blackbird--are as remarkable for the curious variety of their markings,
and even of the shades of their colouring. And every schoolboy's
collection will show that these distinctions will occur in the same

I also believe that there has been some mistake about the nest, for
though, like the thrush, the blackbird coats the interior of its nest
with mud, &c., it does not, like that bird, leave this coating exposed,
but adds another lining of soft dried grass.


_Champak_ (Vol. iii., p. 84.).--A correspondent, C. P. PH***., asks
"What is Champak?" He will find a full description of the plant in Sir
William Jones's "Botanical Observations on Select Indian Plants," vol.
v. pp. 128-30. _Works_, ed. 1807. In speaking of it, he says:

  "The strong aromatic scent of the gold-coloured Champac is thought
  offensive to the bees, who are never seen on its blossoms; but
  their elegant appearance on the black hair of the Indian women is
  mentioned by Rumphius; and both facts have supplied the Sanscrit
  poets with elegant allusions."

    D. C.



The first volume issued to the members of the Camden Society in return
for the present year's subscription affords in more than one way
evidence of the utility of that Society. It is an account _of Moneys
received and paid for Secret Services of Charles II. and James II._, and
is edited by Mr. Akerman from a MS. in the possession of William Selby
Lowndes, Esq. Of the value of the book as materials towards illustrating
the history of the period over which the payments extend, namely from
March 1679 to December 1688, there can be as little doubt, as there can
be that but for the Camden Society it never could have been published.
As a publishing speculation it could not have tempted any bookseller;
even if its owner would have consented to its being so given to the
world: and yet that in the simple entries of payments to the Duchess of
Portsmouth, to "Mrs. Ellinor Gwynne," to "Titus Oates," to the
Pendrells, &c., will be found much to throw light upon many obscure
passages of this eventful period of our national history, it is probable
that future editions of Mr. Macaulay's brilliant narrative of it will
afford ample proof.

_The Antiquarian Etching Club_, which was instituted two or three years
since for the purpose of rescuing from oblivion, and preserving by means
of the graver, objects of antiquarian interest, has just issued the
first part of its publications for 1851. This contains twenty-one plates
of various degrees of merit, but all of great interest to the antiquary,
who looks rather for fidelity of representation than for artistic

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--G. Bumstead's (205. High Holborn), Catalogue, Part
LI., containing many singularly Curious Books; James Darling's (Great
Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields) Catalogue, Part 49. of Books chiefly


ALBERT LUNEL, a Novel in 3 Vols.






ART JOURNAL. 1839 to 1844 inclusive. Also 1849.

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Utrecht, 1713.

Longmans and Co. 1821. Vols. I. V. and VIII. wanted.

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CRESPET, PERE. Deux Livres de la Haine de Satan et des Malins Esprits
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CHEVALIER RAMSAY, ESSAI DE POLITIQUE, où l'on traite de la Nécessité, de
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H. E. _The proper reading of the line referred to, which is from Nat.
Lee's_ Alexander the Great, _is_,--

      "When Greeks joined Greeks, then was the tug of war."

_See_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," No. 14. Vol. I., p. 211.

SILENUS. _The oft quoted lines_,--

      "He that fights and runs away," &c.,

_by Sir John Menzies, have already been fully illustrated in our
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Museum. The Model is in Black Marble, like the original, and stands
twenty inches high. _Mr. Tennant_, 149. Strand, London, will be happy to
show a copy, and receive Subscribers' names. He has also Models of
several Egyptian Obelisks.

Price 2_s._ 6_d._; by Post 3_s._

  REV. S. R. MAITLAND, DD. F.R.S. F.S.A. Sometime Librarian to the
  late Archbishop of Canterbury, and Keeper of the MSS. at Lambeth.

    "One of the most valuable and interesting pamphlets we ever
    read."--_Morning Herald._

    "This publication, which promises to be the commencement of a
    larger work, will well repay serious perusal."--_Ir. Eccl. Journ._

    "A small pamphlet in which he throws a startling light on the
    practices of modern Mesmerism."--_Nottingham Journal._

    "Dr. Maitland, we consider, has here brought Mesmerism to the
    'touchstone of truth,' to the test of the standard of right or
    wrong. We thank him for this first instalment of his inquiry, and
    hope that he will not long delay the remaining portions."--_London
    Medical Gazette._

    "The Enquiries are extremely curious, we should indeed say
    important. That relating to the Witch of Endor is one of the most
    successful we ever read. We cannot enter into particulars in this
    brief notice; but we would strongly recommend the pamphlet even to
    those who care nothing about Mesmerism, or _angry_ (for it has
    come to this at last) with the subject."--_Dublin Evening Post._

    "We recommend its general perusal as being really an endeavour, by
    one whose position gives him the best facilities, to ascertain the
    genuine character of Mesmerism, which is so much
    disputed."--_Woolmer's Exeter Gazette._

    "Dr. Maitland has bestowed a vast deal of attention on the subject
    for many years past, and the present pamphlet is in part the
    result of his thoughts and inquiries. There is a good deal in it
    which we should have been glad to quote ... but we content
    ourselves with referring our readers to the pamphlet
    itself."--_Brit. Mag._

  W. STEPHENSON, 12. and 13. Parliament Street.

Next week, Volumes III. and IV. of

  period from Edward I. to Richard III., 1272 to 1485.

  Lately published, price 28_s._

  VOLUMES I. and II. of the same Work; from the Conquest to the end
  of Henry III., 1066 to 1272.

    "A work in which a subject of great historical importance is
    treated with the care, diligence, and learning it deserves; in
    which Mr. Foss has brought to light many points previously
    unknown, corrected many errors, and shown such ample knowledge of
    his subject as to conduct it successfully through all the
    intricacies of a difficult investigation; and such taste and
    judgment as will enable him to quit, when occasion requires, the
    dry details of a professional inquiry, and to impart to his work
    as he proceeds, the grace and dignity of a philosophical
    history."--_Gent. Mag._


Just published, with Twelve Engravings, and Seven Woodcuts royal 8vo.
10_s._, cloth,

  An Elementary Work, affording at a single glance a comprehensive
  view of the History of English Architecture, from the Heptarchy to
  the Reformation. By EDMUND SHARPE, M.A., Architect.

    "Mr. Sharpe's reasons for advocating changes in the nomenclature
    of Rickman are worthy of attention, coming from an author who has
    entered very deeply into the analysis of Gothic architecture, and
    who has, in his 'Architectural Parallels,' followed a method of
    demonstration which has the highest possible
    value."--_Architectural Quarterly Review._

    "The author of one of the noblest architectural works of modern
    times. His 'Architectural Parallels' are worthy of the best days
    of art, and show care and knowledge of no common kind. All his
    lesser works have been marked in their degree by the same careful
    and honest spirit. His attempt to discriminate our architecture
    into periods and assign to it a new nomenclature, is therefore
    entitled to considerable respect."--_Guardian._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Now ready, price 5_s._ illustrated, No. I. of



      Introductory Address to our Readers.
      The Great Exhibition and its Influence upon Architecture.
      Design in Ecclesiastical Architecture.
      Museums at Home and Abroad.
      Ruskin and "The Stones of Venice."
      Architectural Nomenclature and Classification.
      Domestic Gothic Architecture in Germany.
      Inventors and Authorship in relation to Architecture.
      Assyrian Architecture.
      Classified List of Books recently published.
      RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW:--Chevreul on Colour.
      NEW INVENTIONS:--Machinery, Tools, and Instruments.--Materials,
      and Contrivances; Self-acting Dust-shoot Door; Removal of Smoke
      by Sewers, &c. &c.--Patents and Designs registered, &c. &c.

  GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Just published, No. IX., imperial 4to., price 2_s._ 6_d._

  DETAILS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, measured and drawn from existing
  Examples by J. K. COLLING, Architect. Continued Monthly.


      Arches from Leverington Church, Cambridgeshire.
      Details of ditto.
      Tracery and Details from Altar Screen, Beverley Minster.
      Parapet and Basement from St. Mary's Church, Beverley.
      Seven Examples of Key Plates.

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 14, 1851.

  List of volumes and pages in "Notes & Queries",   Vol.  I-III:

      | Notes & Queries Vol. I.                                     |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes & Queries Vol. II.                                    |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1-15  | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17-32  | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33-48  | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49-64  | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65-79  | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81-96  | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes & Queries Vol. III.                                   |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |  1-15   | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  | 17-31   | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  | 33-47   | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  | 49-78   | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 | 81-95   | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 | 97-111  | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-461 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June 7, 1851      | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 85, June 14, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

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