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Title: Canada: Its Postage Stamps and Postal Stationery
Author: Howes, Clifton Armstrong
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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POSTAL STATIONERY***


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Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

      Text enclosed by equal signs is in bold face (=bold=).

      Small caps typeface is shown as ALL UPPER CASE.

      Footnotes are presented after the paragraph in which the
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      The extensive block quotations within this book feature rows
      of closely spaced asterisks (* * * * *) which function as an
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      Changes to the text have been limited to correction of
      typographical errors which have been listed at the end.



CANADA
ITS POSTAGE STAMPS AND POSTAL STATIONERY

by

CLIFTON A. HOWES, B. Sc., F. R. P. S. L.



Published by
The New England Stamp Co.
Boston, U. S. A.
1911



[Illustration: 1852-1857

THICK HARD WOVE PAPER. DULL PURPLE. IMPERF.

THICK SOFT WOVE PAPER RED-VIOLET.

Specimen Page From the Collection of Charles Lathrop Pack Esq.]



CANADA
ITS POSTAGE STAMPS AND POSTAL STATIONERY

by

CLIFTON A. HOWES, B. Sc., F. R. P. S. L.



Published by
The New England Stamp Co.
Boston, U. S. A.
1911

Copyright 1911
By the New England Stamp Co.
Boston, Mass.

Press of
Newcomb & Gauss
Salem, Mass.



CONTENTS


                                                                  Page
  KEY TO PLATES                                                      4
  FOREWORD                                                           9
  INTRODUCTION                                                      11
  CHAPTER       I. Preliminary Matters                              18
      "        II. The Issue of 1851                                28
      "       III. The Remaining Pence Issues                       46
      "        IV. The Perforated Pence Issues                      68
      "         V. The Cancellations of the Early Issues            77
      "        VI. The Issue of 1859                                82
      "       VII. The Dominion of Canada--Preliminary              94
      "      VIII. The Issue of 1868                               106
      "        IX. The Small "Cents" Issue, 1870-1882              122
      "         X. The Supplementary Values of 1893                138
      "        XI. The Jubilee Issue of 1897                       145
      "       XII. The "Maple Leaf" Issue of 1897                  161
      "      XIII. The "Numerals" Issue of 1898-1902               167
      "       XIV. The "Christmas" Stamp of 1898                   179
      "        XV. The "King's Head" Issue of 1903-1908            188
      "       XVI. The "Tercentenary" Issue of 1908                199
      "      XVII. The "Registration" Stamps                       205
      "     XVIII. The Postage Due Stamps                          215
      "       XIX. The Special Delivery Stamp                      217
      "        XX. The Officially Sealed Labels                    221
      "       XXI. The Stamped Envelopes                           224
      "      XXII. The Wrappers                                    243
      "     XXIII. The Post Cards                                  249
      "      XXIV. The Letter Cards                                263
      "       XXV. Official Stationery                             267
      "      XXVI. Precancellation and Permits                     272
  REFERENCE LIST                                                   277



KEY TO PLATES


PLATE I.

  No. 1.  6 pence,     1851.
      2. 12   "          "
      3. 10   "        1855.
      4.  1/2 penny,   1857.
      5.  7-1/2 pence, 1857.
      6.  3       "    1851.
      7.  1/2 penny,   1859.
      8.  6 pence,       "
      9.  3   "          "
     10.  1 cent,        "
     11.  2 cents,       "
     12. 10   "          "
     13. 12-1/2 "        "
     14. 17   "          "
     15.  5   "          "
     16.  1 cent,      1868.
     17.  1/2 "          "
     18.  2 cents,       "
     19.  5   "        1859, variety.
     20.  3   "        1868.
     21.  5   "        1875.
     22.  6   "        1868.
     23. 12-1/2  "       "
     24. 15   "          "


PLATE II.

  No. 25. 1 cent,       1870.
      26. 2 cents,      1872.
      27. 1/2 cent,     1882.
      28. 3 cents,      1870.
      29. 5   "         1876.
      30. 6   "         1872.
      31. 8   "         1893.
      32. 10 cents,     1874.
      33. 20  "         1893.
      34. 1/2 cent,     1897, "Jubilee."
      35. 50 cents,     1893.
      36. 1/2 cent,     1897, "Maple Leaf."
      37. 2 cents on 3 cents, "Port Hood Provisional."
      38. 2 cents,      1898, "Map."
      39. 1 cent on 3 cents (pair), "Port Hood Provisional."
      40. 1/2 cent, 1898, "Numeral."
      41. 2 cents on 3 cents, 1899, "Maple Leaf."
      42. 2   "   "  3   "      "   "Numeral."
      43. 1 cent, 1903, "King's Head."
      44. 2 cents on 3 cents, 1899, inverted, "Numeral."
      45. 2   "   "  3   "      "      "      "Maple Leaf."


PLATE III.

  No. 46. 1/2 cent, 1908, "Tercentenary."
      47.  1    "     "          "
      48.  2  cents,  "          "
      49.  5    "     "          "
      50.  7    "     "          "
      51. 10    "     "          "
      52. 15    "     "          "
      53. 20    "     "          "
      54.  2    "   1875, Registration.
      55.  5    "     "          "
      56.  8    "     "          "
      57. 10    "   1898, Special Delivery.
      58.  1  cent, 1906, Postage Due.
      59.  2  cents,  "      "     "
      60.  5    "     "      "     "


PLATE IV.

  No. 61.  6 pence,     1851, pair.
      62. 12   "          "   pair from Pack collection.
      63.  6 pence,     1851, pair.
      64.  6   "          "    "
      65. 12   "          "   from Worthington collection.
      66.  6 pence,     1851, thick soft paper, from Pack collection.
      67.  7-1/2 pence, 1857, wide oval.
      68.  7-1/2   "      "   narrow oval.
      69.  7-1/2   "      "   pair.
      70. 10       "    1855, pair, wide oval.
      71. 10       "      "    "    narrow oval.
      72.  6       "    1859, from Pack collection.
      73.  6       "    1851, strip of 3 on very thick soft paper,
                                from Worthington collection.
      74. 10 cents,     1859, black brown, from Pack collection.


PLATE V.

  No. 75.  6 pence, 1851.
      76.  6   "      "
      77.  3   "      "  pair.
      78.  6   "      "
      79.  6   "      "
      80.  6   "      "  strip of 3 on very thick hard paper,
                           from Pack collection.
      81.  7-1/2 pence, 1857, strip of three.
      82. 12       "    1851, pair from Pack collection.
      83. 12       "      "     "    "    "       "
      84. 12       "      "   from Pack collection.
      85. 12       "      "   pair from Worthington collection.
      86. 12       "    1851, wove paper, from Pack collection.
      87.  6     pence, 1851, split, used on piece, from Pack collection.
      88.  3     pence, 1851, ribbed paper, from Pack collection.
      89. 12-1/2 cents, small, from Worthington collection.


PLATE VI.

  No. 90. 12 pence, 1851, on cover, from Worthington collection.
      91. 12 pence, 1851, on cover, from Pack collection (originally in
                              Seybold collection.)


PLATE VII.

  No. 92.   6 pence, 1851, very thick soft paper, split, used on cover,
                             from Pack collection.
      93.  10 pence, 1855, pair, narrow oval.
      94.  10   "      "   block of 4, wide oval.
      95.  10   "      "   strip of 3, narrow oval.
      96.   5 cents, 1859, block of 7, upper right corner stamp is
                             variety. From Pack collection.
      97.   5 cents, 1859, pair and split, used on piece,
                             from Worthington collection.


PLATE VIII.

  No. 98.   6 cents, 1868, split, used on cover,
                             from Worthington collection.
      99.  10 cents, 1859, black brown, split, used on cover,
                             from Worthington collection.


PLATE IX.

  No. 100.  1     cent, 1859, block of 4 imperforate.
      101.  5     cents,  "     "   "  4     "
      102.  2       "     "     "   "  4     "
      103. 12-1/2   "     "     "   "  4     "
      104. 10       "     "     "   "  4     "
      105. 17       "     "     "   "  4     "
      106. 20       "   1893,   "   "  4     "
      107. 15       "   1868,   "   "  4     "
      108. 50       "   1893,   "   "  4     "

    The above blocks were selected from the Pack and Worthington
    collections and some in the possession of the New England Stamp Co.


PLATE X.

  No. 109. 10 cents, 1874, block of 4 imperforate.
      110.  8   "    1893,   "   "  4    "
      111.  6   "    1872,   "   "  4    "
      112.  5   "    1897, "Maple Leaf," block of 4, imperforate.
      113.  2   "    1898, "Map,"          "   "  4      "
      114.  2   "    1903, block of 4 imperforate.
      115.  5   "    Registered, pair imperforate.
      116. "Officially Sealed" Label, 1905.
      117.     "         "       "    1879.

    The above blocks of imperforates were from the same sources as noted
    for Plate IX.


PLATE XI.

  No. 118. 10  cents, 1874, strip of 10, marginal imprints.
      119. 1/2 cent,  1868,   "   "  3,     "       "
      120.  3  cents, 1870,   "   "  3,     "       "
      121.  1  cent,  1870, block of 8,     "       "
      122.  3  cents, 1870, strip of 3,     "       "

    The above are all from the Worthington collection.


PLATE XII.

  No. 123.   1  cent,  1870, block of 12  imperforate.
      124.   2  cents, 1872,   "   "   4      "
      125.   3    "    1870,   "   "   4      "
      126.   5    "    1876,   "   "   4      "
      127. 1/2 cent,   1882,   "   "  12      "

    Nos. 123 and 127 are from the Worthington collection and the other
    three from the Pack collection.


PLATE XIII.

  No. 128. 3 pence, 1875 (?) perforated 14, pair used on cover,
                               from Pack collection.
      129. 2 cents, 1872, pair imperforate used on cover,
                               in possession of New England Stamp Co.


PLATE XIV.

  No. 130. Stamped Envelope,  5 cents, 1860.
      131.    "        "     10   "      "

    Both the above were in the Seybold collection.


PLATE XV. (Frontispiece).

A page of six pennies from the collection of Charles Lathrop Pack.



FOREWORD


Twenty years ago the Philatelic Society, London, brought out their work
on "The Postage Stamps, Envelopes, Wrappers and Post Cards of the North
American Colonies of Great Britain." This, of course, included Canada,
but since that time no special work, treating exhaustively of the postal
emissions of this important Colony, has been placed before the
philatelic public. It seems opportune, therefore, particularly in view
of the general popularity of the stamps of the Dominion, to present this
volume for the favor of the stamp collecting fraternity and especially
of that considerable portion which is interested to the extent of
specializing in the beautiful issues that Canada has given us.

This work had its inception in the now popular handbook idea, but in
looking over the ground it was soon realized by the author that there
was need of and material enough for a much more extended treatment of
the subject than could be encompassed in the limits of the usual
brochure. Plans were therefore laid for a thorough study of all
available material, and in furtherance of this it was found necessary to
make a special trip to Ottawa, where, in the library of the House of
Commons, is to be found the only complete set available of the Reports
of the Postmasters General of Canada. These naturally proved a mine of
first hand information which was availed of to its full extent; and in
this connection must be expressed the deep appreciation of the
assistance rendered the author by his friend M. Henri R. Landry, through
whose influence and untiring interest the way was made easy for
convenient and rapid examination of these invaluable files. Thanks are
also due Mr. Edward Y. Parker of Toronto, for notes and specimens
furnished, as well as Mr. A. McKechnie of Ottawa.

But documents and descriptions are not enough for the thorough study of
any subject which concerns tangible objects, and three famous
collections were inspected for first hand information upon the stamps
themselves. To Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack of Lakewood, N. J., Mr. George
H. Worthington of Cleveland, Ohio, and the lamented Mr. John F. Seybold,
late of Syracuse, N. Y., are due not only the author's fullest thanks
for opportunities freely given to examine their magnificent collections
of Canada, but the debt extends to philatelists in general for thus
being enabled to share, through study, description, listing and
pictorial reproduction, in the results of their specializing. Mr. Pack's
wonderful array of rarities, beautiful copies and remarkable series of
shades has been largely used in the compilation of the stamp lists. This
collection though since much enlarged and improved, obtained the gold
medal at the International Philatelic Exhibition in London, 1906. Mr.
Worthington's fine collection has also been used in the same way and has
furnished much information concerning plate numbers and marginal
imprints. Mr. Seybold's covers were particularly interesting in showing
the actual use of the stamps, the cancellations employed, and various
other features to be gleaned from the study of original covers,
particularly of early date. Selections for illustrative purposes were
made from all three collections, as will be noted.

Mr. John N. Morse and Mr. Edwin F. Sawyer, both of Boston, have very
kindly placed their collections of post cards and envelopes,
respectively, at our disposal for purposes of study.

Again, the philatelic press has been diligently searched for articles,
stray notes, etc., which would illumine the pathway, particularly by
throwing side lights on various phases of the subject. Prominent among
these were the articles on Canada by Messrs. C. B. Corwin, D. A. King
and J. R. Hooper in the _Metropolitan Philatelist_ for 1890-91, and by
Mr. Donald A. King in Stanley Gibbons' _Monthly Journal_ for 1896-97.

It can readily be seen from the foregoing that the limits of a handbook
were soon passed, and the question really became one of a pretentious
volume which should be all that thorough research could offer and ample
means produce. A glance at the present work shows that this was no small
proposition, and to any one with experience in philatelic publishing it
was apparent that the desired production would mean a heavy balance on
the wrong side of the ledger. The author does not pose as a
philanthropist, but he feels he has discovered such in the publishers of
this volume. With the broad-minded policy that whatever helps Philately
benefits all, even indirectly, the New England Stamp Company of Boston,
having become greatly interested in the monograph, accepted the burden
and became responsible for the publication of the work. The advantages
of the co-operation of such a well-known firm are manifest, and the
author takes great pleasure in acknowledging his indebtedness to this
Company, through whose munificence it has been possible to produce this
volume in its present form.

                                     C. A. HOWES, B. Sc., F. R. P. S. L.

  Boston, U. S. A.
    December, 1910.



INTRODUCTION


The Dominion of Canada, as we know it to-day, is a confederation of the
former British Colonies and unorganized territories of North America
which lie to the northward of the United States. The single exception is
the Colony of Newfoundland, which so far has resisted all overtures
looking to its absorption. The Dominion was formed in 1867 by the union
of the then Colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to which
the others were added subsequently. At that time the Colony of Canada
consisted of two provinces, Ontario and Quebec, known also as Upper and
Lower Canada respectively. It is with these two provinces that our
philatelic story of Canada begins.

But first let us delve a bit into earlier times and trace the
development of the territory we are going to consider, as it may prove
interesting for its historical value. Passing by the claims of the
Norsemen in the tenth century to a somewhat vague exploration of the
eastern American coast, we come to the discovery of Newfoundland by John
Cabot in 1497, and it is upon this fact, in part, that England
subsequently based her claim to the whole of North America. But for the
most part the territory included within the well populated portion of
the present Dominion was explored and settled by the French. In 1534
Jacques Cartier entered the St. Lawrence River and took possession of
the country in the name of France, and in 1608 the first permanent
settlement was made at Quebec by Samuel de Champlain. The name of the
colony was apparently furnished by the Indians, for in the manuscript
narrative of Cartier's second voyage,[1] under "Vocabulary of the
natives," is found: "They call a town--Canada." Baxter says: "There can
be no doubt that the word Canada is derived from _Kannata_, which in
Iroquois signifies a collection of dwellings, in other words a
settlement."[2] French control continued until the middle of the
eighteenth century when, in the war with England, the decisive victory
of Wolfe over Montcalm at Quebec, in 1759, practically brought it to a
close, and by the treaty of Paris in 1763 Canada was permanently ceded
to Great Britain.

[1] In the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.

[2] =A Memoir of Jacques Cartier=, by J. P. Baxter, p. 135.

Tracing the development of the Colony under English rule, we find that
by the so-called "Quebec Act" of 1774 it was placed under the
administration of a Governor and Legislative Council appointed by the
Crown. Following the American Revolution, however, there was a large
immigration of former colonists into Ontario, and because of their
English stock, while Quebec was French, a separation was deemed
advisable. By the "Constitutional Act" of 1791 this was effected and two
Colonies, Upper Canada (or Canada West) and Lower Canada (or Canada
East) were constituted, each with its own separate government. Just
fifty years later, in 1841, they were reunited under the single name of
Canada. This brings us near the opening of our philatelic history. The
united provinces had an area of about 350,000 square miles and a
population, in 1850, of some 1,800,000 people. The Governor was
appointed by the Crown and chose his own Executive Council; a
Legislative Council of life members was also appointed by the Crown; and
a Legislative Assembly was elected consisting of an equal number of
representatives for each province. The Governor was made
Governor-General of British North America.

The advantages of the union of Upper and Lower Canada gradually became
so manifest, that a convention was held at Quebec in 1864 for the
purpose of considering the advisability of uniting all the provinces.
The result bore fruit in the passage of an Act of Union by the British
Parliament on March 29, 1867, under which Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia were formally united as the Dominion of Canada, the
actual event being consummated on July 1, 1867. Subsequently, on July
20, 1871, the Colony of British Columbia, and on July 1, 1873, the
Colony of Prince Edward Island, were added to the Dominion. In 1869 the
vast territories of the Hudson's Bay Company were acquired by purchase,
and out of them the province of Manitoba was formed and admitted to full
privileges in the Dominion on July 15, 1870.

The absorption of the Company's Territories is interesting for, as we
all know, this was a trading concern whose sole commodity was fur. The
Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of the continent were the mecca of hunters
and trappers, and their chief prey from the time the first French
explorers began to search the Canadian lakes, and later when the
Hudson's Bay Company succeeded to the French domain, was the beaver. In
fact the early history of Canada was largely bound up with beaver
catching and the sale of the skins, and for nearly a century the
northern territories, both under French and English rule, were
organized with a view to this traffic. In the early days of the Company
the "standard of trade" of the Northwest was a beaver skin. Thus the
beaver naturally became emblematic, which resulted later in its use as
the "crest" of the Canadian coat-of-arms, a place that it retains to the
present day over those of the Dominion. In this connection it would be
unjust to omit a mention of that other symbol dear to the Canadian
heart--the maple leaf. Like the rose, the thistle and the shamrock of
the Mother land, the beautiful tree of the Colony, so widespread, so
useful, and so gorgeous in its autumn coloring of red and gold--the
blazon of the English arms--became a favorite emblem of the people. The
particular variety that is so used is of course the rock or sugar maple
(_acer saccharinum_).

Turning now to early postal history, it is necessary to go back to the
reign of Queen Anne, although Canada was not then under British
dominion. In the year 1710 an Act was passed by the British Parliament
"For establishing a General Post-Office in all Her Majesty's Dominions,"
which not only repealed all previous enactments but placed the
postoffice establishment on a new basis. A "General Post and
Letter-Office" was established in London "from whence all letters and
packets whatsoever may be with speed and expedition sent into any part
of the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to North America and the
West Indies, or any other of Her Majesty's dominions, or any country or
kingdom beyond the seas," and "at which office all returns and answers
may be likewise received." For the better "managing, ordering,
collecting, and improving the revenue," and also for the better
"computing and settling the rates of letters according to distance, a
chief office is established in Edinburgh, one in Dublin, one at New
York, and other chief offices in convenient places in Her Majesty's
colonies of America, and one in the islands of the West Indies, called
the Leeward Islands." "The whole of these chief offices shall be under
the control of an officer who shall be appointed by the Queen's Majesty,
her heirs and successors, to be made and constituted by letters patent
under the Great Seal, by the name and stile of Her Majesty's
_Postmaster-General_." "The Postmaster-General shall appoint deputies
for the chief offices in the places named above." The rates to New York
under this Act were fixed at 1 shilling per single letter. Other rates
were charged to other parts of the American continent according to the
distance from New York.

In 1753 Benjamin Franklin received the royal commission as Deputy
Postmaster-General for the American Colonies. No man in America had
been so identified with the interests of the Colonial postoffice as he,
and from 1737 he had been postmaster of Philadelphia. All his energies
were devoted to his new work and when Canada passed by treaty to Great
Britain in 1763, as already mentioned, his jurisdiction was extended to
cover the new territory. It is thus curious to record that the
(afterwards) first Postmaster-General of the United States was also the
first Postmaster-General of Canada.

In the evidence given by Franklin before the House of Commons in the
year 1766, in regard to the extent of the post-office accommodation in
North America, he made the following statement:--

    The posts generally travel along the sea coasts, and only in a few
    cases do they go back into the country. Between Quebec and Montreal
    there is only one post per month. The inhabitants live so scattered
    and remote from each other in that vast country, that the posts
    cannot be supported amongst them. The English Colonies, too, along
    the frontier, are very thinly settled.

By 1774, however, Franklin, then in England as the Representative of the
Colonies, had become obnoxious to the British Government, and on January
31st of that year was removed from his office. After the Declaration of
Independence, Mr. Hugh Finlay, who had previously been postmaster at
Quebec, received the appointment of "Deputy Postmaster-General of His
Majesty's Province of Canada." He had in 1791 eleven post-offices under
his management, one as far west as Mackinaw and one as far east as the
Baie des Chaleurs. There was a weekly mail between Quebec and Montreal
and a monthly mail for the Western country. From a Quebec almanac of
1796 it appears that there were seven post-offices in Upper Canada and
five in Lower Canada. At that time mails were despatched monthly to
England, and semi-weekly between Quebec and Montreal, or Halifax. At the
Baie des Chaleurs the visits of the postman must have been few and far
between, as they were only favored with a mail "as occasion offered."

In 1800 Mr. George Heriot succeeded Mr. Finlay. At this time New
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island were all under the
authority of the Canadian administration. The number of post-offices was
increased to twenty-six.

The following is taken from the advertising column of the _Upper Canada
Gazette_ in 1807:--

    The mail for Upper Canada will be despatched from the post-office at
    Montreal, on the following days, to wit:

    Monday, 14th January.

    Monday, 12th February.

    Monday, 10th March.

    Monday, 7th April--the last trip.

    A courier from Kingston may be looked for here in 14 or 15 days from
    the above periods, where he will remain 2 or 3 days, and then return
    to Kingston.

    Another courier will proceed from this with the Niagara mail, via
    Messrs. Hatts', where the Sandwich [So. Essex] letters will be left,
    both from Niagara and this, 'till the courier comes from there to
    return with them.

    Letters put into the post-office will be forwarded any time by

             W. ALLAN,
  Acting Deputy-Postmaster.

Mr. Heriot resigned in 1816 and was succeeded by Mr. Daniel Sutherland
who, on his accession to office found Nova Scotia and Prince Edward
Island withdrawn from Canadian charge. New Brunswick, however, continued
to be included, but appears to have been withdrawn in 1824, so that from
that year until the federation of the Provinces in 1867 the
Postmaster-General was concerned only with Canada proper. Mr. Sutherland
established a daily mail between Quebec and Montreal and a weekly mail
between Montreal and Toronto. In 1827 there were 101 post-offices and
2,368 miles of established post-route, the number of miles of
mail-travel being 455,000 per annum. The letters that year were
estimated at 340,000 and the newspapers at 400,000.

The following extract from the _Quebec Mercury_, published on July 18,
1829, conveys some idea of the postal communication with England at that
period:--

    No later advices have been received from Europe since our last. Some
    further extracts from the London papers, to 31st May, inclusive,
    brought to New York by the _Corinthian_, will be found in another
    part of this number.

In the _Montreal Courant_, dated September 2nd, 1829, was the following
paragraph, showing the improvement which had been effected in the
communication between Prescott and that city:--

    EXPEDITIOUS TRAVELLING:--On Saturday last, the Upper Canada line of
    stages performed the journey from Prescott to this city in about 17
    hours, leaving the former place at a little before 3 a. m., and
    arriving here a few minutes before 8 in the evening. Not many years
    ago this journey occupied two, and sometimes three days, but owing
    to the great improvements made by Mr. Dickinson, the enterprising
    proprietor, by putting steam-boats on the lakes St. Francis and St.
    Louis, and keeping his horses in excellent condition, it is now
    performed in little more than one-third of the time.

Even so late as 1833, newspaper proprietors found it (particularly in
the Upper Province) better to employ their own couriers. As a proof of
this we transcribe from the _Queenstown_ (Niagara) _Colonial Advocate_
of that year, the following advertisement:--

    POST-RIDER WANTED IMMEDIATELY.

    The proprietor of this newspaper wishes to contract with a steady
    man (who can find and uphold his own horse) to deliver it to the
    subscribers once a week during the winter, on the route between York
    and Niagara, viâ Ancaster.

Mr. Thos. A. Stayner succeeded Mr. Sutherland in 1831, at which time
there were 151 post-offices. Through Mr. Stayner's recommendation a
uniform rate of 1s. 2d. sterling, per half ounce, was adopted in 1841
between any place in Canada and the mother country. This resulted from
the establishment of regular steam communication across the Atlantic in
1840, by means of the Cunard Line between Liverpool and Halifax.

During all this period the carrying of letters was a profitable
business. There was, for example, a profit of $21,000 in 1824 and of
$47,000 in 1831, all which sums were duly remitted to England to swell
the Imperial revenue. The rates, however, were exceedingly high. It cost
eighteen cents to send a letter from Toronto to Kingston, and thirty
cents to send one to Montreal. The charge for sending a weekly paper
through the mails was a dollar a year, as much as the paper now costs,
and the postage on a daily was over two dollars a year.[3]

[3] Most of the foregoing information is taken from extracts from the
Canadian Postal Guide, published in the =Stamp Collector's Magazine= for
Aug. 1, 1868, and the Halifax Philatelist, II: 138.

The net revenues of the post-office given for 1831 must have dropped
considerably, for we find that in 1845 the surplus of the Canadian
Post-office was but £7184 ($35,000) against the $47,000 given above for
fourteen years earlier. This amount rose to £22,188 ($110,000) in 1848,
fell to £15,725 ($78,500) the next year, and had risen again to a basis
of £20,000 ($100,000) in the year previous to the introduction of
postage stamps and the reduction of rates. The inland postage rates then
in force, as charged under the Imperial Laws, were, for a letter not
exceeding 1/2 ounce in weight:

  For any distance not exceeding 60 miles,                            4d.
  For any distance exceeding 60 miles and not exceeding 100 miles     6d.
  For any distance exceeding 100 miles and not exceeding 200 miles    8d.
  And for every additional 100 miles or fraction an additional        2d.



For one hundred and forty years Great Britain had managed her colonial
posts, or at least directed them, when on 28th July, 1849, the British
Parliament passed an "Act for enabling Colonial Legislatures to
establish Inland Posts."[4] This was the signal for the voluntary
withdrawal of most of the colonial postal systems then under Imperial
direction, and for the establishment of local systems where none had
previously existed. Because of its historical interest we quote from the
provisions of the Act as follows:--

    Whereas under or by virtue of [_various Acts_] Her Majesty's Post
    Master General has, by himself or his Deputies, the exclusive
    Privilege of establishing Posts, collecting, conveying, and
    delivering Letters, and collecting Postage, within Her Majesty's
    Colonies, and the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury have
    Authority from Time to Time to fix the Rates of Postage to be
    charged within such Colonies: And whereas the said Postmaster
    General and Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury respectively
    have, in exercise of such Privilege and Authority, established Posts
    and fixed Rates of Postage in certain of such Colonies: And whereas
    it is expedient to Authorize the Establishment of Posts and Postage
    Rates in Her Majesty's Colonies by the Legislatures of such
    Colonies: Be it enacted, therefore.... That it shall be lawful for
    the Legislatures or proper Legislative Authorities of Her Majesty's
    Colonies, or any of them, by Acts, Laws, or Ordinances to be from
    Time to Time for that Purpose made and enacted in the Manner and
    subject to the Conditions by Law required in respect of Acts, Laws,
    or Ordinances of such Legislatures or Legislative Authorities, to
    make such provisions as such Legislatures or Legislative Authorities
    may think fit for and concerning the Establishment, Maintenance, and
    Regulation of Posts or Post Communications within such Colonies
    respectively, and for charging Rates of Postage for the Conveyance
    of Letters by such Posts or Post Communications, and for
    appropriating the Revenue to be derived therefrom.

    II. [_Where the Postmaster General has actually established posts
    and his power has not "determined," such colonial acts, etc., shall
    not take effect until approved by Her Majesty and Privy Council, nor
    until such time as the assent may be proclaimed in the Colony, or
    such subsequent time as may be signified._]

    III. [_After the establishment of Posts by Colonial Legislatures the
    powers of the Postmaster General shall cease._]

    IV. [_The Acts of Colonial Legislatures are to apply only to Posts
    within the limits of the Colony and to rates of postage within such
    limits._]

[4] 12^o & 13^o Vict. Cap. LXVI.

Canada lost no time in taking advantage of the above Act, and in the
next year (1850) passed the required ordinances for the transfer of its
domestic postal system to the control of its own Government. The next
chapter will therefore start the Canadian postal history proper.



CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY MATTERS


The most important of the British North American Colonies in 1850 were
Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Though not united politically,
they yet had the common bonds of fatherland, of race, of mercantile
interest, and the mutual dependence that comes, or should come, from
propinquity under these conditions. It is not surprising, therefore,
that all three should make provision for assuming control of their
domestic postal systems in the same year, nor that they should adopt
practically identical ordinances for this purpose, and should make
common postal rates for their internal and inter-colonial mail matter.
Still less surprising is it when we recall that it was but the breaking
up into sections of what had previously been a homogeneous postal system
for the whole of British North America, operated under the Imperial Laws
as detailed in the last chapter.

While the project of turning over local postal systems to the colonies
was taking shape in the British Parliament, Canada "took time by the
forelock" and made preparations for obtaining its own postage stamps.

    "In the Journal of May 21, 1849, there is a message to the
    legislative assembly of Canada relating to the establishing of a
    general post-office for the Province, when handed over by the
    Imperial government. A resolution was brought up in the assembly on
    May 22, 1849, 'That postage stamps for prepayment be allowed and
    that Colonial stamps be engraved.' This finally passed the assembly
    on May 25, 1849, and received the assent of the legislative council
    on the 26th."[5]

[5] =Metropolitan Philatelist=, I: 253.

A year later, after the passage of the enabling act by the British
Parliament, which has been already quoted, the Canadian Parliament took
up the consideration of the main subject and on the 10th August, 1850,
passed what is known briefly as _The Post Office Act_, the provisions of
which that are of most interest to us being such as follow:--

    13^o & 14^o Victoriae., Cap. XVII.

    An Act to provide for the transfer of the management of the Inland
    Posts to the Provincial Government, and for the regulation of the
    said Department.

    Whereas by the Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed
    in the Session held in the twelfth and thirteenth years of Her
    Majesty's Reign, and intituled, _An Act for enabling Colonial
    Legislatures to establish Inland Posts_, the Legislatures or proper
    legislative authorities of Her Majesty's Colonies are empowered ...
    to make such provisions as [they] may think fit for and concerning
    the establishment, maintenance, and regulation of Posts and Post
    Communications within such Colonies respectively, and for charging
    rates of postage for the conveyance of letters by such Posts and
    Post Communications, and for appropriating the Revenue to be derived
    therefrom: ... And whereas it is expedient that a uniform and cheap
    rate of postage should be established throughout the several
    Colonies of British North America, and with a view to the
    establishment thereof, the Local Governments of the said Colonies
    have agreed upon certain conditions hereinafter mentioned and
    forming a part of the provisions of this Act, and it is therefore
    expedient to exercise the powers so vested as aforesaid in the
    Legislature of this Province: ...

    II. And be it enacted, That the Inland Posts and Post Communications
    in the Province shall, so far as may be consistent with the Acts of
    the Parliament of the United Kingdom in force in this Province, be
    exclusively under Provincial management and control; the Revenue
    arising from the duties of postage and other dues receivable by the
    Officers employed in managing such Posts and Post Communications
    shall form part of the Provincial Revenue, unless such moneys belong
    of right to the United Kingdom or to some other Colony, or to some
    foreign state; and the expenses of management shall be defrayed out
    of Provincial Funds....

    * * * * *

    V. And be it enacted, That the Provincial Post Master General shall
    be appointed by Commission under the Great Seal of the Province, and
    to hold his office during pleasure, but the Post Masters and other
    Officers of the Department shall be appointed and may be removed by
    letter from the proper Officer communicating the Governor's
    pleasure.

    VI. [_All privileges, powers and authority of Her Majesty's Deputy
    Post Master General are transferred to and vested in the Provincial
    Post Master General._]

    * * * * *

    VIII. And in conformity to the agreement made as aforesaid between
    the Local Governments of the several Colonies of British North
    America, Be it enacted, That the Provincial Postage on letters and
    packets not being of Newspapers or Printed Pamphlets, Magazines or
    Books, entitled to pass at lower rate, shall not exceed the rate of
    three pence currency, per half ounce, for any distance whatsoever
    within this Province, any fraction of a half ounce being chargeable
    as a half ounce: that no transit postage shall be charged on any
    letter or packet passing through this Province or any part thereof
    to any other Colony in British North America, unless it be posted in
    this Province and the sender choose to pre-pay it; nor on any letter
    or packet from any such Colony if pre-paid there: that two pence
    sterling the half ounce shall remain as the rate in operation as
    regards letters by British Mails, to be extended to Countries having
    postal conventions with the United Kingdom, unless Her Majesty's
    Government in the United Kingdom shall see fit to allow this rate to
    be changed to three pence currency:

    That the pre-payment of Provincial Postage shall be optional:

    That all Provincial Postage received within the Province shall be
    retained as belonging to it, and that all Provincial Postage
    received within any other of the British North American Colonies,
    may be retained as belonging to such Colony:

    That the British Packet Postage and other British Postage collected
    in this Province shall be accounted for and paid over to the proper
    authorities in the United Kingdom; but the Colonial Postage on the
    same letters or packets shall belong to the Colony collecting it, or
    if pre-paid to the British Post Office, it may be credited to the
    Colony to which such letters or packets are addressed:

    That no privilege of franking shall be allowed as regards Provincial
    Postage:

    That Provincial Stamps for the pre-payment of postage may be
    prepared under the orders of the Governor in Council, which stamps
    shall be evidence of the pre-payment of Provincial Postage to the
    amount mentioned on such stamp, and that such stamps prepared under
    the direction of the proper authorities in the other British North
    American Colonies, shall be allowed in this Province as evidence of
    the pre-payment of Provincial Postage in such other Colonies
    respectively, on the letters or packets to which they are affixed,
    and which have been mailed there:

    That the Provincial Postage on Newspapers, Pamphlets, Magazines and
    Printed Books, shall remain such as it now is until it be altered by
    regulation under this Act.... Provided always, that one copy of each
    newspaper published in this Province may be sent free from postage
    to any Publisher of another Newspaper in this Province, that all
    printed documents addressed to the Publisher of any Newspaper in
    this Province shall be delivered to him free, and that all
    Newspapers published in this Province and addressed to Subscribers
    in the United States, shall pass free to the Provincial line, under
    such regulations as the Governor in Council shall make to prevent
    the abuse of the privileges hereby granted:

    And, subject to the foregoing provisions of this section and to the
    other express provisions of this Act, the Governor in Council shall
    have full power and authority ... for establishing the rates of
    postage on Newspapers and Printed Pamphlets, Magazines and Books,
    and for declaring what shall be deemed such, or directing that in
    any case or class of cases they be free of postage, either in the
    first instance or the case of their being re-mailed, ... for the
    preparing and distributing of Provincial stamps for pre-payment, for
    limiting the weight and dimensions of letters or packets to be sent
    by Post ... for prescribing the conditions and circumstances under
    which letters, accounts and papers relating solely to the business
    of the Post Office, and addressed to or sent by some officer
    thereof, shall be free from Provincial Postage, ... for providing,
    when he shall think it expedient, means for avoiding the risk of
    transmitting small sums of money through the Post, by establishing a
    system of money orders to be granted by one Post Master or officer
    of the Department on another, and fixing the terms on which such
    orders may be obtained, for establishing a system for the
    Registering of letters and the charge[6] be made for such
    registration, ... for the delivery of letters and packets in the
    larger and more populous Cities and Towns, at the residences of
    parties to whom they are addressed, and fixing the limits within
    which such delivery shall take place, and the rates to be paid by
    the parties who shall prefer to have their letters and packets so
    delivered, rather than apply for them at the Post Office: ... and
    generally to make such regulations as may be deemed necessary for
    the due and effective working of the Post and Postal business and
    arrangements, and for carrying this Act fully into effect:

    IX. And be it enacted, That subject always to the provisions and
    regulations aforesaid, the Provincial Post Master General shall have
    the sole and exclusive privilege of conveying, receiving,
    collecting, sending and delivering letters within this Province; and
    that any person or party who shall (except in the cases hereinafter
    excepted) collect, send, convey or deliver, or undertake to convey
    or deliver any letter within this Province, or who shall receive or
    have in his possession any letter for the purpose of conveying or
    delivering it, otherwise than in conformity with this Act, shall for
    each and every letter so unlawfully conveyed or undertaken to be
    conveyed, received, delivered or found in his possession, incur a
    penalty not exceeding five pounds currency: [_exceptions are letters
    taken by friends journeying, by special messengers, Court
    Commissions, etc._]

    * * * * *

    XI. And be it enacted, That as well the Colonial, British or Foreign
    as the Provincial Postage on any letter or packet shall (if not
    pre-paid) be payable to the Provincial Post Master General by the
    party to whom the same shall be addressed, or who may lawfully
    receive such a letter or packet, which may be detained until the
    same be paid: ... and if any letter or packet be refused, or if the
    party to whom it is addressed cannot be found, then such postage
    shall be recoverable by the Provincial Post Master General from the
    sender of such letter or packet: ... and that all postage may be
    recovered with costs, by civil action in any Court having
    jurisdiction to the amount, or in any way in which duties are
    recoverable.

    XII. And for avoiding doubts, and preventing inconvenient delay in
    the delivery of letters, Be it declared and enacted, That no Post
    Master shall be bound to give change, but the exact amount of the
    postage on any letter or packet shall be tendered or paid to him in
    current coin or in Provincial Postage stamps.

    * * * * *

    XIV. [_Letters of Soldiers, Seamen, etc., shall be charged a certain
    fixed sum in place of all British or Provincial postage._]

    XV. [_Posted letters to be property of party addressed._]

    XVI.... To forge, counterfeit or imitate any Postage Stamp issued or
    used under the authority of this Act, or by or under the authority
    of the Government or proper authority of the United Kingdom, or of
    any British North American Province, or of any Foreign Country, or
    knowingly to use any such forged, counterfeit or imitated stamp, or
    to engrave, cut, sink or make any plate, die or other thing whereby
    to forge, counterfeit or imitate such stamp or any part or portion
    thereof, except by the permission in writing of the Provincial Post
    Master General, or of some officer or person who under the
    regulations to be made in that behalf, may lawfully grant such
    permission, or to have possession of any such plate, die or other
    thing as aforesaid, without such permission as aforesaid, or to
    forge, counterfeit or unlawfully imitate, use or affix to or upon
    any letter or packet, any stamp, signature, initials, or other mark
    or sign purporting that such letter or packet ought to pass free of
    postage, or at a lower rate of postage, or that the postage thereon
    or any part thereof hath been pre-paid or ought to be paid by or
    charged to any person, department or party whomsoever, shall be
    felony, punishable by imprisonment in the Provincial Penitentiary
    for life.

[6] sic.

The passage of the above Act and its approval by the Queen in Council
gave opportunity for preparations to be made to carry out its
provisions, the date being set for the 6th April, 1851. Three weeks
previous to the appointed time the following notice was sent out to
postmasters in anticipation of the transfer.


NOTICE TO POSTMASTERS.

  GENERAL POST OFFICE,
  MONTREAL, 14TH MARCH, 1851.

    SIR:--

    I am commanded by His Excellency the Governor General, to
    communicate to you the following Instructions, for your guidance in
    the performance of your duties, under the New Post Office Law of the
    13th and 14th Vict., chap. 17, passed at the last Session of the
    Provincial Parliament, which will take effect, and supersede the
    Imperial Post Office Acts, hitherto in force in Canada, on and from
    the 6th day of April next:

    1. From the above date, all Letters transmitted by the Post in
    Canada, with the exception of Packet Letters to and from the United
    Kingdom, will be liable to a uniform rate of _Three_ Pence,
    currency, per half-ounce, for whatever distance conveyed:
    pre-payment will be optional: the charge increasing according to the
    weight of the Letter, one single rate for every additional
    half-ounce, counting the fraction of a half-ounce as a full rate,
    thus:

    A Letter, weighing not exceeding 1/2 ounce, will be liable to 3d.
    Postage.

    A Letter, weighing more than 1/2 ounce, and not exceeding 1 ounce,
    will be liable to 6 d. Postage.

    A Letter, weighing more than 1 ounce, and not exceeding 1-1/2
    ounces, will be liable to 9d. Postage.

    A Letter, weighing more than 1-1/2 ounces, and not exceeding 2
    ounces, will be liable to 1 s. Postage.

    A Letter, weighing more than 2 ounces, and not exceeding 2-1/2
    ounces, will be liable to 1 s., 3 d. Postage, and so on.

    It will be observed that the above scale differs from that now
    followed, in advancing one rate for each half-ounce after the first
    ounce.

    2. The single Packet rate for Letters by the Atlantic Steam Packet
    Mails to and from England, viâ the United States, of 1s. 2d.
    sterling, if _un-paid_, and 1s. 4d. currency if _pre-paid_, as also
    the rate on Letters by those mails, viâ Halifax, of 1s. [missing
    value] sterling, if _un-paid_, and 1s. 1-1/2 d. currency, if
    _pre-paid_, remain unaltered, and the present scale of weights is to
    remain in force as regards such Letters.

    Post Masters must be very careful to observe this distinction when
    taxing Letters, weighing over one ounce, intended for the English
    Mails.

    3. The regulations now in force with regard to Letters to and from
    Soldiers and Sailors in Her Majesty's Service, by which under
    certain conditions such Letters pass through the Post on pre-payment
    of a penny only, will remain unaltered.

    * * * * *

    5. Letters addressed to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward's
    Island, or Newfoundland, are to be rated with the uniform rate of
    3d. per half-ounce.

    6. Letters to and from the United States will be liable to the
    uniform rate of 3d. per half-ounce, between the Frontier Line and
    the place of posting or place of destination in Canada; and until
    further arrangements can be made, this charge on Letters from Canada
    to the United States must be pre-paid at the time of posting.

    7. [_Rates and regulations for Newspapers, Pamphlets, etc., to
    remain as at present._]

    8. [_Printed matter addressed to Editors is free._]

    9. The charge on Letters posted at an Office for delivery in the
    same City, Town, or Place, and any additional charge made on Letters
    delivered at the residences of parties to whom they are addressed,
    are to remain as at present, until further instructions.

    10. No Franking Privilege is allowed under the New Act except with
    regard to Letters and Packets on the business of the Post Office,
    addressed to or transmitted by the Post Master General.

    * * * * *

    13. Stamps for the pre-payment of Postage are being prepared, and
    will be distributed for the use of the public at an early date.

    * * * * *

    16. [_Letters, etc., to Deputy Post Master General to pass free._]

         T. A. STAYNER.
  _Deputy Post Master General._

[*] [Transcriber's Note: 2 or 3 characters here are unreadable.]

Meanwhile, under the authority given the Governor in Council by _The
Post Office Act_, an agreement had been drawn up between the post office
Departments of Canada and the United States for the purpose of
establishing and regulating the interchange of mails between the two
countries. This was signed on the 25th March, 1851, and was communicated
to the Canadian post-masters by the first department order, as
follows:--

    DEPARTMENT ORDER [NO. 1.]

    LETTERS, ETC., BETWEEN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES, INCLUDING
    CALIFORNIA AND OREGON.

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
            TORONTO, _2nd April_, 1851.

    Commencing on and from the 6th instant, Letters, Newspapers, &c.,
    will pass through the Mails between Canada and the United States,
    including California and Oregon, at the Rates of Postage and under
    the Regulations herein mentioned.

    1. Letters posted at any Office in Canada, addressed to any place in
    the United States, except California and Oregon, are to be rated
    with a uniform rate of six-pence, currency, per half-ounce.

    2. Letters posted in any part of the United States, except
    California and Oregon, addressed to Canada, will be rated there with
    a uniform charge of ten cents, equal to six-pence, currency, per
    half-ounce.

    3. The Postage Rate on Letters passing between Canada and California
    and Oregon, will be a uniform charge of nine-pence, currency, equal
    to fifteen cents per half-ounce.

    4. It is to be understood that the above rates include the whole
    charge for the transmission of a Letter between any place in Canada
    and any place within the United States, including California and
    Oregon.

    5. The scale for computing the charge upon Letters weighing more
    than 1/2 ounce, will be the same as that for Letters passing within
    the Province.

    6. Pre-payment of Letters passing between Canada and any place
    within the United States, including California and Oregon, will, in
    all cases, be optional.

    7. Newspapers, Pamphlets, &c., posted in Canada, addressed to the
    United States, including California and Oregon, are, ... to be
    forwarded through the Post at the same rates of charge as if
    addressed to a place within the Province; the said rates must,
    however, be _pre-paid_--as, if the ordinary Canada Rate is not paid
    at the time of posting a Newspaper or Pamphlet, &c., it cannot be
    forwarded to the United States.

    8. United States Newspapers, Pamphlets, &c., addressed to places in
    Canada, will be received in the Province with the American Postage
    thereon pre-paid--leaving the ordinary Canada Rate of charge from
    the Frontier Line to the place of destination, to be ... collected
    by the Post Master who may deliver the same in Canada.

    9.-10.-11. [_Copies of newspapers or printed documents sent by or to
    publishers or editors are free of Canadian postage._]

    12. The Canada Postage Stamps, when used, will be taken in the
    United States as evidence of pre-payment of Postage on Letters going
    from Canada to the United States, and in like manner the United
    States Postage Stamps on Letters coming into Canada, are to be taken
    by Post Masters in this Province as evidence of pre-payment having
    been made in the United States.

    13. The following are appointed to be the Offices in Canada through
    which the Post communication with the United States will be
    maintained, and to which Post Masters are to forward their Mail
    matter for the United States, according to the relative position of
    their several Offices:

  PORT SARNIA,                                         |
  WINDSOR,                                             | KINGSTON,
  FORT ERIE,                                           |
                                                       | BROCKVILLE,
  QUEENSTON,       { Intended in the mean time to      |
                   { be the Channel of Communication   | PRESCOTT,
                   { with the United States for the    |
                   { Country West of Toronto.          | MONTREAL,
                                                       |
  NIAGARA,                                             | ST. JOHN'S,
  TORONTO,                                             |
                                                       | DUNDEE,
  COBOURG,         { A Communication during Summer     |
                   { only, by Steamer to Rochester.    | STANSTEAD,

  By Command,
    W. H. GRIFFIN.

Both the _Post Office Act_ and the above Department Order treat of the
disposition of periodicals and other printed matter without giving the
rates of postage required thereon. A subsequent Order gives us these
rates:--

    DEPARTMENT ORDER, [NO. 3.]

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
       TORONTO. _17th April_, 1851.

    _Printed Circulars, Price Currents, Handbills, Pamphlets,
    Periodicals, Books, and other Printed Matter transmitted by Post in
    Canada._

    1. Upon each Printed Circular, Price Current or Handbill, and other
    Printed matter of a like description, when unconnected with any
    manuscript or written communication and of no greater weight than
    one ounce, there shall be charged One penny; and for each additional
    ounce or fraction of an ounce, One penny additional.

    2. Upon each Periodical or Magazine, Pamphlet and Book, bound or
    unbound, there shall be charged a rate of One half-penny per ounce.

    3. Pre-payment of the foregoing rates will be optional, except when
    the Printed matter is addressed to the United States, and in that
    case the charge must invariably be pre-paid.

    4. On such Printed matter received into Canada by Mail from the
    United States, the above Canada Rates will always remain to be
    collected on delivery in this Province.

    5.[_Exchange of one copy between publishers is free._]

    6. [_Must be unsealed; if writing is enclosed will be treated as a
    letter._]

    7. No Book or packet of Periodicals, Magazines, &c., can be
    forwarded through the Post, if exceeding the weight of forty-eight
    ounces.

  JAMES MORRIS. _Post Master General._


It is of course understood that the above does not apply to newspapers,
which were charged to a nominal rate of 1/2d. each, the term _newspaper_
being considered to aply to periodicals issued not less often than once
a week.

A supplementary order was issued, a couple of days later than the
preceding, which announces a book post with England. It is a bit curious
as prohibiting the use of postage stamps in prepayment of the charges,
at a time when their introduction was supposed to be an improvement in
the postal service.

    SUPPLEMENTARY ORDER.

    POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

    TORONTO, 19_th April_, 1851.

    _Book Post with England._

    Under the authority of Her Majesty's Government, an arrangement will
    take effect on the fifteenth day of May next, under which Printed
    Books, Magazines, Reviews, or Pamphlets, whether British, Colonial,
    or Foreign, may be sent through the Post, between Canada and the
    United Kingdom, at the Following Rates of Postage:

  [S] = Sterling
                                                    | [S] |   Currency
  For a single volume,                              |     |
    _i.e._, Book, Magazine, Review, or Pamphlet,    |     |
    not exceeding half lb. in weight                | 6d. | Equal to 7-1/2d.
                                                    |     |
  For a single volume, &c.,                         |     |
    exceeding half lb. and not exceeding one lb.    | 1s. |   "   to 1s. 3d.
                                                    |     |
  For a single volume, &c.,                         |     |
    exceeding one lb. and not exceeding two lbs.    | 2s. |   "   "  2s. 6d.
                                                    |     |
  For a single volume, &c.,                         |     |
    exceeding two lbs. and not exceeding three lbs. | 3s. |   "   "  3s. 9d.

    The above charge must always be pre-paid, on printed Books, &c.,
    &c., sent to the United Kingdom under this Regulation, at the time
    of posting in Canada; and the pre-payment must be made in money, and
    cannot be taken in Canada Postage Stamps.

    Postmasters, as with pre-paid Letters for England must rate the
    Books, &c., posted under this Regulation, in _red ink_, with both
    the sterling rate and its equivalent in currency, ...--thus, a Book,
    &c., weighing 3-1/2 pounds, will be rated:--

    "Paid 4s. sterling--equal to 5s. currency."

    * * * * *

    JAMES MORRIS, _Post Master General._

The Department Circular No. 5, published from Toronto on 20th June,
1851, contains but one paragraph of interest to us.

    Post Masters are informed that the transfer of the Post Office in
    the Provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to Provincial
    control, will take place on the 6th July next, and that from that
    date the uniform rate of 3d. per 1/2 ounce will form the sole charge
    on a Letter transmitted between any place in Canada and any place in
    New Brunswick, or Nova Scotia. Pre-payment will be optional.

On the 30th August, 1851, the Canadian Parliament passed an _Act to
Amend the Post Office Act_. The only section of any particular interest
to us is the following:--

    14^o & 15^o Vict. Cap. LXXI.

    * * * * *

    XV. And be it enacted, That the Post Master General shall be
    authorized, whenever the same may be proper for the accommodation of
    the public in any city, to employ Letter Carriers for the delivery
    of letters received at the Post Office in such city, excepting such
    as the persons to whom they are addressed may have requested, in
    writing addressed to the Postmaster, to be retained in the Post
    Office, and for the receipt of letters at such places in the said
    city as the Postmaster General may direct, and for the deposit of
    the same in the Post Office; and for the delivery by Carrier of each
    letter received from the Post Office, the person to whom the same is
    delivered shall pay not exceeding One Penny, and for the delivery of
    each newspaper and pamphlet One Halfpenny, and for every letter
    received by a Carrier to be deposited in the Post Office, there
    shall be paid to him, at the time of the receipt, not exceeding One
    Half-penny:--all of which receipts, by the Carriers in any city,
    shall, if the Postmaster General so direct, be accounted for to the
    Postmaster of the said city, to constitute a fund for the
    compensation of the said Carriers, and to be paid to them in such
    proportions and manner as the Postmaster General may direct.

But in the meantime the postage stamps, which will now be our main
study, were issued to the public, and we will therefore turn back to the
period of their birth and trace their history, together with the
development of the post that accompanies it, through the nearly sixty
years that have since elapsed.



CHAPTER II

THE ISSUE OF 1851


According to all good catalogues, the date of the first issue of stamps
for Canada is the year 1851. If we find some more precise statement put
forth in a special article on the subject, the date is apt to be given
as the 6th April, 1851. If we go back into the dusty archives of the
Canadian Post Office Department, we find the circular announcing the
forthcoming stamps is dated a fortnight later than the hitherto supposed
correct date for their issue. We reproduce it here in its entirety:--

    DEPARTMENT ORDER [NO. 4.]

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
       TORONTO, _21st April_, 1851.

    _Stamps for the pre-payment of Postage on Letters._

    Postage Stamps are about to be issued, one representing the Beaver,
    of the denomination of Three pence; the second representing the head
    of Prince Albert, of the denomination of Six pence; and the third,
    representing the head of Her Majesty, of the denomination of One
    shilling; which will shortly be transmitted to the Post Masters at
    important points, for sale.

    Any Post Master receiving Stamps from this Department will, by the
    next mail, acknowledge the receipt of the amount. At the expiration
    of each Quarter, and with his Quarterly Postage Accounts, he will
    render an account of Stamps on a form which will be hereafter
    supplied, charging himself therein with any amount which remained on
    hand at the close of the preceding Quarter, and with the amounts
    received during the Quarter just ended, and crediting himself with
    the amount then remaining on hand. The balance of the account so
    stated, representing the amount of Stamps he has sold or disposed
    of, the Post Master will add to the balance due on his Return for
    the same Quarter of Postages.

    Any Letter or Packet, with one or more Stamps affixed, equal in
    amount to the Postage properly chargeable thereon, may be mailed and
    forwarded from any office as a pre-paid Letter or Packet; but if the
    Stamps affixed be not adequate to the proper Postage, the Post
    Master receiving the Letter or Packet for transmission will rate it
    with the amount deficient in addition.--This Regulation concerning
    Letters short paid has reference only to Letters passing within the
    Province.

    Stamps so affixed are to be immediately _cancelled_ in the office in
    which the Letter or Packet may be deposited, with an instrument to
    be furnished for that purpose. In Post Offices not so furnished, the
    stamps must be cancelled by making a cross [X] on each with a pen.
    If the cancelling has been omitted on the mailing of the Letter, the
    Post Master delivering it will cancel the stamp in the manner
    directed, and immediately report the Post Master who may have been
    delinquent, to the Department. Bear in mind that Stamps must
    invariably be cancelled before mailing the Letters to which they are
    affixed.

    Letters and Packets pre-paid by Stamps must be entered in the
    Letter-Bill separately from other pre-paid Letters,--and in like
    manner in the Monthly Sheets.

  J. MORRIS, _Post Master General_.

From the above it is plainly evident that the new stamps were _not_
placed in use on April 6th, the day of the transfer of the Post Office
to Provincial control, as is usually stated. Furthermore, as this order
announcing them states that the stamps are "about to be issued," it is
evident that they did not appear concurrently with the order, which is
dated April 21st.[7] As a matter of fact the first supply of the 3 pence
stamps was only received by the Department from the manufacturers on
April 5th, the day before the transfer, and the second supply on April
20th, the day before the above circular was issued; while the 6 pence
and 12 pence stamps did not arrive until May 2nd and May 4th,
respectively.[8] In a letter to Mr. Donald A. King,[9] dated 2d March,
1904, from Mr. William Smith, Secretary of the Department at Ottawa, the
latter states "that postage stamps were issued to the public for the
first time on 23rd April, 1851." This agrees with the other known facts,
and can doubtless be taken as the correct date for the 3d. stamp. The
6d. stamp we have no further details for, but it was doubtless in use by
the middle of May. For the 12d. stamp we have, fortunately, all the
details, as will appear subsequently, and can give the exact date of
issue as June 14, 1851.

[7] This correction of the date must be noted, for in Mr. King's article
in the Monthly Journal, VII: 7, it is wrongly given as 1st April, which
might lead to erroneous conclusions. In the Article by Messrs. Corwin
and King, (Metropolitan Philatelist, I: 149), the date is correctly
given.

[8] Metropolitan Philatelist, XVII: 83.

[9] London Philatelist, XIII: 153.

At the time of the transfer, the Postmaster General issued a lengthy set
of _Regulations and Instructions for the Government of the Post Office
Department in Canada_, and it is perhaps best to reproduce here such
sections as may prove of interest in connection with the use of the
stamps, various rates of postage, etc., etc.

    * * * * *

    20. Letters posted to be sent by Mail are to be carefully postmarked
    on the face or address side, with the name of the Post Office, the
    month and the day of the month in which they are posted, and, except
    when they are Prepaid by Postage stamps, with the Rate of Postage in
    plain figures. In performing these operations great care must be
    used to avoid interference with the address.

    * * * * *

    22. If the Postage is Paid in Money when the Letter is posted, stamp
    or write the word "_Paid_" against the Postage rate, and mark the
    rate in _red ink_; but if the Letter is "_Unpaid_" the rate is to be
    marked in _black ink_.

    * * * * *

    42. Should the Receiving Postmaster find that any of the Letters
    have been under-rated, that is, not charged with sufficient
    Postage,--if for example, a Letter weighing an ounce has only been
    charged with one rate, he will mark the additional Postage with the
    words "_More to pay_," and his initials on the Letter.

    * * * * *

    44.... Letters are to be postmarked on the back or seal side with
    the date of the day on which they arrive....

    * * * * *

    58. On Letters not exceeding 1/2 oz. in weight between any place in
    Canada and any other place in British North America, including
    Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Cape
    Breton, the rate is a uniform charge of 3d.

    For every additional weight of half an oz., or any fractional excess
    of half an oz., there shall be charged an additional rate of 3d.

    59. On Letters deposited at an Office for delivery in the same
    place, called Drop or Box Letters, the rate is One half-penny each,
    to be brought to account by Postmasters.

    60. On Letters between any place in Canada and any part of Great
    Britain or Ireland, if conveyed in the Weekly closed Mails through
    the United States, the rate is a uniform charge of 1s. 2d. sterling,
    equal to 1s. 4d. currency, on a Letter not exceeding 1/2 oz., in
    weight.

    * * * * *

    62. On Letters between Canada and the United Kingdom, conveyed by
    the semi-monthly Mails by way of Quebec, New Brunswick and Halifax,
    the rate is:

    On Letters not exceeding 1/2 oz., 1s. 0d. sterling equal to 1s.
    1-1/2d. currency.

    On Letters not exceeding 1 oz., 2s. 0d. sterling equal to 2s. 3d.
    currency.

    On Letters not exceeding 2 oz., 4s. 0d. sterling equal to 4s. 6d.
    currency.

    63. On Letters between any place in Canada and any part of the
    United States, except California and Oregon, the rate is a uniform
    charge of 6d., equal to 10c. per 1/2 oz. weight.

    64. On Letters to California and Oregon, the rate is 9d., equal to
    15c. per 1/2 oz.

    * * * * *

    67. Letters to Newfoundland may be sent via Quebec and Halifax at a
    Postage rate of 7-1/2d. per 1/2 oz.

    68. Letters to British West Indies via Quebec, Halifax and Bermuda
    will be charged the Canada rate of 3d. and in addition the Packet
    rate for sea conveyance between Halifax and Bermuda of 4-1/2d.
    currency, making on a letter not weighing more than 1/2 oz. a rate
    of 7-1/2d.

    69. Letters may also be sent from Canada to the British West Indies
    and Havanah by the ordinary United States Mails to New York, and
    from thence by British Steam Packet to destination, on Prepayment in
    Canada of 9d. equal to 15c. per 1/2 oz.

    70. Mails are made up at Montreal every fortnight for Halifax, Nova
    Scotia, and despatched for conveyance to Halifax with the Mails by
    the Royal Mail Steamers from Boston to Halifax and Liverpool by
    which Letters may be sent to the following places at the rates
    mentioned:

    Letters to Halifax and Nova Scotia         7-1/2d. currency.
    Letters to Newfoundland                        1s. currency.
    Letters to Bermuda and British West Indies     1s. currency.


    * * * * *

    74--75--76. [_Almost identical with first three paragraphs of_
    Department Order No. 4. _describing and prescribing use of postage
    stamps_. Vide supra.]

    77. If the Stamps affixed to a Letter addressed to any place in
    British North America or to the United Kingdom be not adequate to
    the proper Postage, the Post Master receiving the Letter for
    transmission will rate it with the amount deficient in addition.

    78. On Letters for the United States when Stamps are affixed
    representing less than the amount of Postage to which the Letters
    are liable, the Stamps are to be cancelled and the Letters rated
    with the full rate as Unpaid.

    79--80--81. [_Identical with last two paragraphs of_ Department
    Order No. 4. _concerning cancelling, omission of same, and accounts
    of stamped letters_.]

    82. Stamps affixed to Letters coming from either of the British
    North American Provinces, the United Kingdom or the United States,
    and recognized as equivalent to pre-payment at the Office where the
    Letter has been posted--are to be allowed in Canada as evidence of
    pre-payment accordingly, on the Letters to which they have been
    affixed.

    * * * * *

    84. [_Postage Stamps must be taken when offered in payment of
    postage on delivery of Unpaid Letters._]

    * * * * *

    88. [_Non-Commissioned Officers, Embodied Pensioners, Seamen and
    Soldiers, while employed in Her Majesty's Service, can send and
    receive letters at a rate of 1d. each, which must be paid at time of
    posting, and letter must not exceed 1/2 oz. in weight._]

    * * * * *

    95. [_Rate on circulars, price currents, hand bills, etc., 1d. per
    ounce or fraction._]

    96. [_Rate on pamphlets, periodicals, magazines and books, 1/2d. per
    ounce._]

    * * * * *

    100. [_Limit of weight for periodicals, etc., (§96) is 48 oz._]

    * * * * *

    103. [_Book post to England is 6d. sterling (7-1/2d. currency) for
    1/2lb., 1s. sterling (1s. 3d. currency) for 1 lb., and at 1s. per
    lb., rate thereafter._]

    * * * * *

    112. [_Postage on newspapers in Canada is 1/2d. except on exchange
    copies, which are free._]

It strikes one as curious, in glancing over the above, to note the
several half penny and one penny rates, as well as two at 7-1/2 pence,
and to realize that no stamp of the lowest value, at least, should have
been arranged for whereby these amounts could have been prepaid by means
of stamps. To be sure, the 7-1/2d. rate could be obtained by halving a
three penny stamp in conjunction with a 6d. stamp as was the common
practice in Nova Scotia, but no such combination is known on a Canada
cover.

Of the three stamps issued, the first and most typical of Canada was the
3d. which was designed, so Mr. C. N. Robertson of Ottawa tells us, by
Sir Sanford Fleming, a civil engineer and draughtsman. The central
feature is a representation of the beaver in its native haunts, above
which is the royal crown of England resting on a rose, thistle and
shamrock, with the letters V and R (_Victoria Regina_) at either side. A
reference to figure 6 on Plate I makes further description unnecessary.
The normal color was a bright red.

A quite marked variety of this stamp occurs in what is generally known
as a "double strike" or "shifted transfer." It is _not_ due to
accidental light contact of the sheet in printing, previous to the
heavier impression in a slightly changed position, as is often
suggested, but is a true plate variety, caused by a slight impression of
the transfer roller in the wrong position on the plate previous to the
heavy impression sunk in the proper position. This fact is shown by its
being found in pairs and blocks with the normal stamp. It is recognized
by the letters EE PEN being "doubled" at the top, making it appear as if
a line had been drawn through the words and giving it the name,
occasionally used of the "line through threepence" variety. The figure 3
also appears doubled at the bottom. Its position in the sheet has not
been determined, but it occurs on all papers.

The 6d. stamp is in the usual upright form, containing a portrait of
Albert, the Prince Consort. It has been impossible to trace the original
of the picture, though diligent search has been made. The rose, thistle
and shamrock again appear on the stamp, at either side of the oval frame
and separating the inscriptions. Figure 1 of Plate I gives an excellent
reproduction of this value. The normal color may be said to have been a
slate violet.

The 12d. stamp is very similar in design to the 6d. stamp, but contains
a portrait of Queen Victoria. This beautiful head, so often seen upon
the early British Colonial stamps, was taken from the full length
painting by Alfred Edward Chalon, R. A., which was ordered by the Queen
for her mother, the Duchess of Kent, as a souvenir of Her Majesty's
first visit to the House of Lords. The occasion was the prorogation of
Parliament, on July 17, 1837, and the Queen is portrayed in her robes of
state, because of which fact the painting is sometimes described as "in
Coronation Robes," but this is erroneous.[10] The stamp is illustrated
as figure 2 on Plate I, and it will be noticed that the inscriptions in
the oval frame are this time separated on either side by the royal
crown. The color is black.

[10] London Philatelist, VI: 147.

The peculiarity in the expression of the value of this stamp as "Twelve
Pence" instead of "One Shilling," which would seem to be the natural
form for such an amount in English money, was long a moot question
amongst collectors. It was even suggested as an "error" of the American
manufacturers of the stamp! But the controversy has been practically
settled by reference to the monetary conditions of the period. A glance
back at the rates of postage we have already quoted will show that it
was generally necessary to give them in two forms, "currency" and
"sterling." The somewhat depreciated Canadian currency required fifteen
pence, as will be noted, to equal the shilling sterling--a point that is
brought out on the two stamps issued subsequently for the British Packet
rates. Add to this the fact that in New England the "shilling" was a
current expression for 16-2/3 cents (10 pence currency), while in New
York it represented 12-1/2 cents (7-1/2 pence currency) and we can
readily see that in Canadian territory contiguous to these sections the
number of pence to a "shilling" might often be a debatable quantity. As
a matter of fact the French Canadians of Lower Canada made general use
of the "shilling" as reckoned at 10 pence (20 cents) in the old
currency, while the "York shilling" was extensively used in Upper
Canada.[11] "Twelve pence" was without doubt wholly intentional,
therefore, as the designation of the stamp, and was a happy solution of
any ambiguity in its use, even if it has proved a stumbling block to the
understanding of latter day collectors.

[11] Metropolitan Philatelist, I: 170.

An interesting essay for this stamp is in existence, being a companion
for the 3 pence "beaver," inasmuch as the shape of the stamp and the
central design are the same, though on a larger scale; the inscriptions,
however, are on an octagonal frame around the picture instead of an
elliptical one, and the value is expressed as "one shilling," with "1s"
in each spandrel. It was doubtless also a conception of Sir Sanford
Fleming, the designer of the 3 pence, and it would be interesting to
know what the companion 6 pence may have been.

The three issued stamps were ordered from and engraved on steel by
Messrs. Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and Edson of New York, who, it will be
interesting to note, were the engravers of the 1847 issue of United
States stamps--a fact which very likely may have had its influence on
the Canadian authorities. The stamps were printed in sheets of 100, ten
rows of ten, and had eight marginal imprints, two on each side. The
imprint reads, "Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson, New York.", in minute
letters of the size known as "diamond" in the printing office, and it is
placed opposite the third and eighth stamps of the horizontal or
vertical row, as the case may be, but always with the bottom of the
imprint next the stamps. This causes the imprints to read up on the
left, down on the right, and upside down on the bottom margins of the
sheets.

We have found but one item in the departmental accounts for the fiscal
year 1851-2 referring to the stamps. This reads:--

    Rawdon, Wright & Co., for engraving postage stamps, £31.8.2

This was doubtless simply a bill for printing, as it is altogether too
small an amount to account for the engraving of three stamp dies and the
making of three printing plates.

The first delivery of the stamps from the manufacturers took place on
April 5, 1851, according to a valuable summary from official records,
published in the _Metropolitan Philatelist_,[12] when 100,000 of the 3
pence value were received by the Canadian Government. A second lot,
numbering 150,200 of the 3 pence, arrived on April 20th. The 6 pence
value followed on May 2nd, to the number of 100,400; and the 12 pence
two days later, on May 4th, when the only consignment ever received from
the printers, numbering 51,400, was delivered.

[12] =Metropolitan Philatelist, XVII=: 83.

The paper on which the stamps were printed was a thin, tough, grayish
white variety which we should probably call bond paper, but which at
that time is said to have been known as bank note paper. It was
doubtless handmade, and therefore varies considerably in thickness, the
two extremes being usually listed as _medium_ or _ordinary_, and _very
thin_ or _almost pelure_.

It has been the custom to assume that the first deliveries of the stamps
were probably all upon _laid_ paper, which was borne out by dates on
covers or postmarked specimens of the stamps used during the first year
of issue. But by June of 1852, at least, according to Messrs. Corwin and
King,[13] the stamps were beginning to appear on paper which was simply
_wove_, without any trace of the laid lines, though in all other
respects similar to the first supplies. Of course a minor detail of
manufacture like this would have no official cognizance, so there is
nothing for us to go by in determining the quantities printed on one or
the other kind of paper, or the dates of issue, save for what can be
gleaned from dated covers and deductions to be drawn from them. The two
varieties of paper, however, have been as productive of controversy in
the case of the 12 pence stamp as the peculiar expression of its value
proved.

[13] =Metropolitan Philatelist, I=: 149.

But before discussing this question, let us see what we have to work on.
The first annual report of the Postmaster General, for the year ending
5th April, 1852, contains the following information concerning the new
stamps:--

    Postage Stamps for the pre-payment of letters of the respective
    values of 3d., 6d. and 1s. were procured and issued immediately
    after the transfer, and have been kept for sale to the public at all
    the principal Post Offices in the Province; the demand, however, has
    not been great, as will be seen by the following statement, and the
    sales of the last quarter of the year would seem to demonstrate that
    the use of these Stamps in pre-payment of letters, is rather
    diminishing than gaining ground in the community. There were
    procured from the manufacturers, Messrs. Rawdon, Wright, Hatch &
    Co., of New York, during the year ended 5th April 1852:

                             Value.
      250,200 3d. Stamps   £3127 10 0
      100,400 6d. Stamps    2510  0 0
       51,000 1s. Stamps    2550  0 0
      _______              __________
      401,600              £8187 10 0

    Of these have been issued to Postmasters for sale, to the same date:

                            Value.
      217,300 3d. Stamps   £2716 5 0
       63,400 6d. Stamps    1585 0 0
          820 1s. Stamps      41 0 0
      _______               ________
      281,520              £4342 5 0

The succeeding annual reports of the Postmaster General, for the years
ending 31st March, 1853-6, give the following table of postage stamp
statistics:--

Postage stamps issued for sale as follows:--

  REPORT OF 31ST. MARCH, 1853.

                                      3d. Stamps  6d. Stamps   1s. Stamps

    On hand 5th April, 1852              32,900      37,000        50,180
    Since received from Manufacturers   250,000
                                        _________________________________
                                        282,900      37,000        50,180
    Issued for sale during year         163,000       2,575           100
                                        _________________________________
    On hand 31st March, 1853            119,900       34,425       50,080

  REPORT OF 31ST. MARCH, 1854.

    Received from Manufacturers         250,000          ...          ...
                                        _________________________________
                                        369,900       34,425       50,080
    Issued for sale during year         240,700       10,825          325
                                        _________________________________
    On hand 31st March, 1854            129,200       23,600       49,755

  REPORT OF 31ST. MARCH, 1855.

    Received from Manufacturers         250,000       50,000          ...
                                        _________________________________
                                        379,200       73,600       49,755
    Issued for sale during year         355,000       25,800          265

    On hand 31st. March, 1855            24,200       47,800       49,490

  REPORT OF 31ST. MARCH, 1856.

    Received from Manufacturers         600,300          ...          ...
                                        _________________________________
                                        624,500       47,800       49,490
    Issued for sale during year         368,700       38,419          ...
                                        _________________________________
    On hand 31st. March, 1856           255,800        9,381       49,490

In this annual report of 31st March, 1856, is the last account of the
12d. stamp, from which it appears that none were issued to postmasters
during the fiscal year. It does not mean that none were sold or used
during that period, however, for with the increasing use of stamps this
was quite probable. But it is evident from the tables given that the
stamp was disbursed from headquarters in very limited quantities during
the four years from 1851 to 1855 only; and we are quite fortunate in
being able to give the exact details of this distribution. An anonymous
article was published in the _Metropolitan Philatelist_ in 1902,[14]
from which we have already quoted, that contained a "_Valuable summary
of the first issue of postage stamps used in this Colony._" The
statement is made that "it is taken from official records and is
absolutely accurate." We quote here the information concerning the

    CANADA ONE SHILLING POSTAGE STAMP.

      Total number rec'd. from Contractors          51,000
      Total number issued to postmasters             1,510
                                                    ------
      Balance (destroyed)                           49,490

    NOTE.--On May 4, 1851, the first and only consignment of the Canada
    1 shilling postage stamp, to the number of 51,000 (value £2,550),
    was received by the Post Office Department, Canada, from the
    Contractors, Messrs. Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson, New York.

    The issue of this stamp began on June 14, 1851, and concluded on
    December 4, 1854, when the stamp was discontinued. During its issue
    1510 stamps of that denomination were sent out to postmasters,
    leaving a balance on hand of 49,490, which, on May 1st. 1857, were,
    in accordance with the practice of the Department in cases of the
    discontinuance of stamps, destroyed. As has already been observed,
    there was only the one lot of this stamp received from the
    contractors.

    DETAILS OF ISSUE.

      Date of Issue.      Name of Office.  Name of P. M.    No.

      June  14, 1851      Hamilton         E. Ritchie       300
      Oct.  17, 1851      Chippewa         W. Hepburn       100
      Nov.  13, 1851      Thorold          J. Keefer         20
      Nov.  25, 1851      Toronto          C. Berchy        200
      Mar.   8, 1852      Montreal         J. Porteous      200
      Sept. 14, 1852      Ingersoll        D. Phelan        100
      Apr.   5, 1853  [15]Bytown           G. W. Baker      100
      Oct.  20, 1853      Sherbrooke       Wm. Brooks        15
      Jan.  13, 1854      Smith's Falls    Jas. Shaw         50
      Jan.  20, 1854      Bytown           G. W. Baker      100
      Feb.   8, 1854      L'Islet          Ballantyne        15
      Feb.  27, 1854      Ingersoll        Chadwick          20
      Mar.  22, 1854      Sault S. Marie   Jos. Wilson       25
      May   15, 1854      Port. du Fort    McLaren           15
      Oct.  21, 1854      Rowan Mills      de Blaquiere      50
      Oct.  26, 1854      Melbourne        Thos. Tait        50
      Oct.  27, 1854      Montreal         A. La Rocque     100
      Dec.   4, 1854      Smith's Falls    Jas. Shaw         50
                                                          -----
                                     Total number issued, 1,510

[14] =Metropolitan Philatelist, XVII=: 83.

[15] Now Ottawa, Capital of Dominion of Canada.

From the above it is seen that Hamilton and Montreal each received a
total of 300 copies, Toronto and Bytown each 200, Ingersoll 120,
Chippewa and Smith's Falls each 100, and so on down.

So much for the 12d. stamp. The tables of the Post Office reports tell
us also that the issues of the 6d. stamp to postmasters for these same
four years totalled 102,600, or only 2200 more than the original number
delivered, the second delivery of the 6d. not having taken place until
March 21, 1855,[16] at the end of the last fiscal year of the four. If,
then, the entire first printings of the 6d. and 12d. stamps were on laid
paper, as is usually claimed, there would be no such thing as a 12d. on
wove paper, and the 6d. stamp in the same state would not be found
_used_ (provided proper postmark evidence were forthcoming) before the
end of March, 1855. During the same period there were at least five
deliveries of the 3d. stamp, so that several things may have happened to
that value. But, curiously enough, it is the other two stamps that
furnish us with our best evidence.

[16] Metropolitan Philatelist, XVII: 83.

We now come literally to the "nigger in the wood-pile." The 12d. stamp
_does_ exist on the _wove_ paper! Mr. Worthington and Mr. Pack each
possess an unused copy, and careful examination by the writer has failed
to disclose any appreciable difference in the color, quality or
appearance of the paper, save for the impossibility of discovering the
laid lines, between these copies and those possessing proper credentials
as the regular laid paper 12d. of 1851. The color of the stamp and its
general appearance give no hint of the supposed irregularity, and a
letter to Mr. Worthington from the well known expert, Mr. John N. Luff,
gives his approval to the specimen in Mr. Worthington's collection. It
was formerly considered that the supposed 12d. on wove paper was merely
a proof, and in the "_Catalogue for Advanced Collectors_" we find the
following note concerning it under Canada.[17]

[17] American Journal of Philately, 2d. Series, III: 121.

    Although the 12p is catalogued by some as existing on thin wove
    paper, we do not believe in it as in every copy on wove paper sent
    to us for examination some traces of the word _specimen_ were to be
    discovered thus showing them all to be merely proofs.

As far as the writer has seen them, specimen copies have been on India
paper, which is quite distinct from the regular paper of the issue, and
they have been overprinted with the word "SPECIMEN" in carmine ink,
either diagonally or vertically upward. The copies referred to in the
paragraph just quoted probably had been treated with chemicals to remove
the red ink overprint.

Of course the desideratum for the settlement of the whole question is
to find a copy of the stamp used on cover; but inasmuch as up to the
present time but three copies of the 12d. on laid paper are known in
this condition, it seems a hopeless quest. Nevertheless there appear to
be several _used_ copies of the wove paper 12d. known, the first mention
we find of one being in the report of the proceedings of the Philatelic
Society of London for 4th May, 1888,[18] which reads: "The business of
the evening consisted in the revision of the Society's reference list of
the Stamps of Canada, which was concluded, Mr. F. Ransom showing an
undoubted postmarked specimen of the 12d. first issue, printed upon
stout wove paper." Mr. W. H. Brouse, the eminent Canadian philatelist,
also possessed a cancelled copy of this stamp, which later adorned the
Ayer collection, it is understood. An editorial in the _Dominion
Philatelist_ thus speaks of it:[19]--"We have received from W. H.
Brouse, of Toronto, a photograph of ... 12 pence Canada on _wove paper_
[which] appears to be a beautiful specimen with fine margin and light
cancellation." Two fine copies, one unused and one used, were sold in
the auction of the Mirabaud collection at Paris, in April, 1909.

[18] Philatelic Record, X: 124.

[19] Dominion Philatelist, No. 34, p. 8.

From the above it is plainly evident that the 12d. on wove paper
properly exists, in spite of the "first [and only] printing on laid
paper" theory, which is usually laid down as an _a priori_
consideration. Also it appears that it is found in a used condition,
though this cannot be taken as an absolute test, because of the
uncertainty that may lurk in a cancellation on a detached specimen of a
stamp. Only the discovery of a copy properly used on the original cover,
as already intimated, can effectually settle the question of its actual
issue and use. But there is a fact which doubtless furnishes the clue to
the seeming mystery of its being. We have already noted that the laid
paper first used varied considerably in thickness, and also that the
wove paper next used was in all respects similar to the former, but of
course without the laid lines. Now it happens sometimes that it is quite
difficult to distinguish the laid paper, a very careful scrutiny or even
the extreme resort to the benzine cup being necessary to bring out the
watermarked lines, and perhaps then only in a half suspicious way. If
such be the case, it is only a step further to the entire disappearance
of these "laid lines," and lo, the wove paper!

Writing to Mr. F. C. Young concerning the 12d. stamp, Mr. John N. Luff
says:[20]--"It is my opinion that both the wove and laid papers are
quite genuine and I think it is possible that both varieties might
occur though there was only one lot sent out by the printers. It does
not, of course, follow that the entire batch was printed on the same day
or that two varieties of paper might not have been used. The early
printers were not always very particular about their paper, provided it
was somewhat alike in a general way. Some collectors claim that laid
paper is often of such nature that the lines do not show in some parts
of the sheet, and I believe there is evidence to support this theory."
Finally Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack, in some notes sent the _London
Philatelist_, sums matters up in these words:[21]--"After a very careful
investigation I believe that the 12d., on wove paper, was issued, and
that the stamp was on sale at the Post Office, in Hamilton, Canada
West." Mr. Pack writes us further:--"When I was a boy I went to school
at St. Catherines, Ontario. There were keen stamp collectors in St.
Catherines at that time, not only among boys, but among grown people.
That was about 1869 or 1870. I was told that part of the 12d. Canada
which had been on sale at the Hamilton post office were on wove paper
and I was convinced that that was the case."

[20] Canada Stamp Sheet, IV: 142.

[21] London Philatelist, XVI: 144.

Concerning the laid and wove papers of this issue Mr. King writes as
follows:[22]--"The texture of these papers is virtually the same, and it
is indeed often difficult, particularly in the case of the 6d., to
distinguish between the _laid_ and _wove_ papers. The lines in the
_laid_ paper are of a most peculiar character, and cannot, as a rule, be
brought fairly out by holding the stamp between one's eyes and the
light. The best way to test these two papers is to lay the stamps, face
down, on a black surface, and let the light strike them at about an
angle of fifteen degrees, when the _laid_ lines are brought most plainly
into view. It is necessary, however, to place the specimens so that the
light will strike them parallel to their length, as the _laid_ lines run
horizontally in the 3d., and vertically in the 6d. and 12d."

[22] Monthly Journal, VII: 9.

We now come to the most interesting and confirmatory part of our
evidence. We have already referred to the fact that Messrs. Corwin &
King give June, 1852, as the date when the wove paper appeared, and 1852
is given in all catalogues and lists as the year of issue for all three
stamps on this paper. In their article on British North America, the
above gentlemen, in discussing early dates established by entire covers
for the varieties of paper that they describe, remark under the caption
"_Series IV_." (the _thin wove_ paper): "We took a six-pence from a
letter dated June 25th, 1852."[23] This statement can hardly be
questioned, after the careful and minute study that they gave to the
papers of this issue, and it therefore means just one thing: _the 6d. on
wove paper came in the first lot delivered_, for we have seen that the
second supply did not arrive until 1855. The fact is therefore
established that the first deliveries of stamps in April and May, 1851,
included the wove paper, and we therefore have here what amounts to the
proper credentials for the appearance and even use of the 12d. on wove
paper.

[23] Metropolitan Philatelist, I: 149.

As the 3d., having been delivered first, was undoubtedly printed first,
this value may have been entirely upon the laid paper, particularly as
it seems to be not especially rare on this paper and has not been
recorded on wove paper used earlier than the receipt of the 1852
supplies. But this of course is negative evidence, and this value may
yet be found to have been printed upon the wove paper along with the
other two values in 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

We have remarked that there were but three covers known bearing copies
of the 12d. stamp. It is with great satisfaction, therefore, that we are
able to present reproductions of two of them for the benefit of our
readers. The earliest date is on the cover numbered 90 on Plate VI,
which is in the Worthington collection. This bears the postmark of
"Montreal, L. C. JY 21, 1852" in red. The stamp is a little heavily
cancelled by the concentric rings type of obliteration in black. The
word CANADA within the curved frame and the word PAID are stamped in red
on the cover. This was a requirement of the first postal convention
between Canada and the United States, signed on March 25, 1851. Section
9 reads:--

    "The Offices designated for the despatch and receipt of Canadian
    Mails on the side of the United States will stamp 'U. States' upon
    all letters sent into Canada for delivery; and the Offices
    designated for the despatch and receipt of United States mails on
    the side of Canada will stamp 'Canada' upon all letters sent into
    the United States for delivery."

The other two covers were both the property of the late John F. Seybold,
but the one upon which the stamp appears in finest condition now
ornaments the collection of Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack. This is
illustrated as No. 91 on Plate VI and bears the postmark of "Hamilton,
C. W. NO 23, 1853." The stamp is cancelled with the concentric rings in
blue, and an additional handstamp appears in red reading "CANADA--PAID
20 Cts" in two lines. The "20" is made over from "10" by the use of a
pen in changing the first figure. In this connection it will be
remembered that 6d. currency, equal to 10 cents, was the single rate for
1/2oz. letters between Canada and the United States.[24]

[24] See 63 on page 30.

The third cover is in all respects a companion piece of the second,
bearing the same marks and (probably) the same address originally, but
dated from Hamilton on "DE 8, 1853."

All three of these covers show the particular use of the 12d.
stamp--simply as a multiple of the 3d. and 6d. in currency rates. That
it was _not_ issued with any intention of being especially used for the
British packet rate must be evident, as we have seen that this was 1s.
4d. currency if prepaid and sent via the United States, or 1s. 1-1/2d.
currency if prepaid and sent via Halifax[25]--rates that could not be
made up by means of the three stamps first issued.

[25] See Secs. 60 and 62 on page 30.

On the other hand the stamp was quadruple the domestic rate, double the
rate to the United States, and the single rate for the fortnightly mails
from Montreal viâ Boston to Newfoundland, Bermuda and the British West
Indies.[26] Probably letters in the first category were not common, and,
as it happens, all our specimens fall in the second. The third category
doubtless did not entail a large correspondence, particularly as the
more direct route to the places mentioned, viâ Quebec and Halifax, was
at the lesser rate of 7-1/2d.[27] For the above reasons, then, the
covers as we find them evidently exemplify the usual use to which the
12d. stamp was put, and explain why more were not used, as surely would
have been the case had the stamp been convenient for prepaying the
packet rate to England, with which there was a large correspondence.

[26] See Sec. 70 on page 31.

[27] See Secs. 67 and 68 on page 30.

       *       *       *       *       *

Having now described the two main varieties of paper common to the three
values of this issue, let us look at some further varieties of the stock
used for the 3d. and 6d. values, which, because of their long term of
use, were subject to quite a number of printings and therefore gave
opportunity for the variation in paper which is a characteristic of this
issue. We have already given the statistics of the receipt and issue of
3d. and 6d. stamps for the five years from 1851 to 1856,[28] and find
they total 1,600,500 for the 3d. and 150,400 for the 6d. From succeeding
reports of the Postmaster General we cull the following:--

[28] See pages 35-36.

  REPORT OF 30TH SEPT., 1857, [including 1 year 6 months, by statute.][29]

                                                     3d. stamps  6d. stamps

    Balance on hand 31st March, 1856                    255,800       9,381
    Received from Mfrs. in half-year to 30th. Sept.                  50,000
                                                      ---------   ---------
      Total                                             255,800      59,381
    Issued for sale during half-year                    186,200      24,781
                                                      ---------   ---------
    Balance 1st October, 1856                            69,600      34,600
    Received from Mfrs. year ending 30th Sept., 1857    600,000      50,078
                                                      ---------   ---------
      Total                                             669,600      84,678
    Issued for sale during yr. ending 30th Sept., 1857  587,900      60,600
                                                      ---------   ---------
    Balance on hand                                      81,700      24,078

  REPORT OF 30TH. SEPT., 1858.

    Received from Mfrs. year ending 30th Sept., 1858    900,000     100,000
                                                      ---------   ---------
      Total                                             981,700     124,078
    Issued for sale during year                         717,200      82,500
                                                      ---------   ---------
    Balance on hand 30th Sept., 1858                    264,500      41,578

  REPORT OF 30TH. SEPT., 1859.

    Rec'd from Mfrs. during 9 mos. to 30th June, 1859   449,900      70,000
                                                      ---------   ---------
      Total                                             714,400     111,578
    Issued for sale during above 9 months               692,700      94,000
                                                      ---------   ---------
    Balance on hand 30th June, 1859                      21,700      17,578

[29] 20^o Vict. cap. XXV. Sec. VII; see page 61.

On July 1, 1859 the stamps in decimal currency were issued, so the above
remainders represent the last of the 3d. and 6d. stamps. Adding the
receipts from the manufacturers in the above tables, therefore, to the
totals already given for the years 1851-6, and then deducting the
remainders (which were later destroyed), we have for the total issue of
the 3d. stamp 3,528,700, and of the 6d. stamp 402,900. In these figures
are of course included the perforated stamps, which we will consider
later.

It will be seen from the tables that there were at least eight
deliveries of the 3d. stamps and at least six deliveries of the 6d.
stamps, but inasmuch as these are totalled by years, and as some of the
amounts are quite large (_e. g._ 900,000 of the 3d. in 1858), it seems
certain that there were even more deliveries and consequently more
printings of the stamps than is indicated. In no other way can we
account for the variety in the paper used, and also the variety in the
color of the 6d. stamp. The 3d. does not vary so much, probably because
its shade of red did not require much mixing of inks and the ingredients
were such that slight variations in the proportions did not greatly
affect the tone. The normal color being a bright red, we find it running
to a deeper, almost brick red in one direction, and to a vermilion in
the other. As to the normal color of the 6d. it would be almost
impossible to hazard a guess, if we had simply a series of one stamp of
each distinct variation in color or shade in which it is found. The
common run of shades is from a slate violet to a slate or "near black"
with a "cast" of violet, of brown, or even green. What can one do in
trying to describe the "color" of such a chameleon stamp with such an
uncertain basis to work upon? The check list gives the nearest
approximation to the various shades that we have been able to translate
into color names, but it is almost impossible to so describe some of
them as to convey the proper idea of the exact shade to the reader.

For papers used, Mr. King describes no less than fourteen.[30] Four of
these are the two grades of the laid and wove "bank-note" paper already
mentioned. A third variety of laid paper is described by him as entirely
different, being a stout white paper in which "the _laid_ lines are most
distinct, while the paper is of a different texture and color from the
regular grey shade." Mr. Pack states: "This paper is very rare, and I
have never seen but very few copies."[31] Mr. King's sixth variety is
described as "hard, stout, grayish wove," but we have included it with
the ordinary wove paper in the check list, of which it is but a little
heavier manifestation. The same may be said of his varieties XII and
XIII, described as "medium" and "thick, hard, white wove paper, very
slightly ribbed," respectively, which we have classed under "stout,
hard, white wove paper." There is an extreme case in the 6d. stamp,
which comes on a _very_ thick hard paper, concerning which Mr. Pack
says:--"The unused 6d. on very thick, hard paper is one of the greatest
rarities of Canada. It is as rare as the 12d. unused. Curiously enough,
this stamp in used condition is very rare in a pair or strip. So far as
I know there are only two or three strips or pairs in existence. It is
my understanding that the very thick _hard_ paper stamps were printed
previous to those on the _soft_ paper." The last remark refers to the
very thick, soft paper, almost a card board (Mr. King's variety XIV)
which is now well known as an exceedingly rare variety. It is distinct,
both in paper and color, from any other variety of the 6d. stamp, the
shade being a dull purple. The same may be said of the thick _hard_
paper stamp, which appears to be in a very even shade of slate violet.

[30] Monthly Journal, VII: 9.

[31] London Philatelist, XVI: 144.

Mr. King's varieties X and XI are both peculiar, the former being a
"very soft, thin, cream wove which is quite fragile and will not bear
much handling," and the latter a "soft, thick, coarse white wove paper;
the surface presents a sort of hairy appearance, and the quality is
better than series X." The 3d. is the only value occurring in these two
varieties, which we have placed under "soft white wove paper" in the
check list.

Lastly comes the ribbed paper. The first variety is a very soft, thin
paper on which the 3d. appears. This is Mr. King's variety VII, and he
makes a variety VIII of the same paper in a "cream" tone. The same value
comes on a thicker, hard paper, Mr. King's variety IX, and he lists a
6d. in violet black as well.

From the foregoing it will be seen that the first issue of Canadian
stamps furnishes plenty of material for study, and is an extremely
difficult series to work out and put into proper form for a reference
list. Mr. King truly says:--"If the papers and shades of this series of
stamps are thoroughly studied, there are more varieties than in all the
other British North American stamps put together; in many cases they are
minute, in others more decided, but in every case distinct." Some
criticism may be made of our not using _in extenso_, the excellent
"Reference List"[32] prepared by Messrs. King and Corwin, but it has
seemed wise, in working with the specialized collections already alluded
to, to condense this list to some extent; nor do we think its
correctness and usefulness have been impaired thereby.

[32] Monthly Journal, VII: 9.

We have spoken of the three values of stamps already treated as the
"first issue" of Canada. Some may cavil at this, for there are three
more values belonging to the pence series which may be regarded as part
of the "first issue," inasmuch as they were complementary as well as
supplementary to the original three. But they did not appear until
nearly four or more years later, and therefore escaped the laid paper
varieties. For this reason, and because there appears another important
question to solve in connection with two of them, we have reserved a
separate chapter for these three. We may also say that as one of them
appears in the perforated series of pence values we have left the
consideration of these latter stamps until the next following chapter.



CHAPTER III

THE REMAINING PENCE ISSUES


A resume of the chief happenings of the year and other items of interest
is given in the annual reports of the Postmasters General, and a brief
summary of these first few years will not be without its importance
here. It will be recalled that the Provincial Government took over the
control of its posts on the 6th April, 1851, and by the _Act to Amend
The Post Office Act_, passed 30th August, 1851,[33] the Postmaster
General was required by statute to "report to the Governor General of
the Province annually, for the purpose of being laid before Parliament
at each Session, _First_. A report of Finances, Receipts and Expenditure
of the Post Office Department for the year ending on the fifth day of
April previous," etc., etc. Accordingly the first annual report of the
Postmaster General was rendered on the 5th April, 1852. In it we find
the following information:--

[33] 14^o & 15^o Vict., cap. LXXI, sec. 12.

    Upon the transfer of the control of the Post Office Department in
    this Province, by the Imperial Post Office Authorities to the
    Provincial Government, on the 6th April, 1851, the number of Post
    Offices in operation was found to be 601--the number of miles of
    established Post Route, 7595--over which the annual transportation
    of the Mails was 2,487,000 miles--and the Gross Revenue raised under
    the authority of the Imperial Post Office, at the high tariff of
    rates then prevailing, had been for the year preceding the transfer
    £93,802 currency, including in that sum the collections in Canada of
    British Packet Postage, estimated to have amounted to £10,000
    sterling.

    The Provincial Act of the 12th and 13th Vic. cap. 66, providing for
    the management of the Department after the transfer, reduced the
    Postage charges in Canada upon all letters passing between places
    within the Province, or within British North America generally, to a
    uniform rate of 3d. per 1/2 oz.; whereas under the tariff in force
    previous to the transfer, the average charge on each letter was
    computed to have been as nearly as possible 9d. per 1/2 oz.; the
    reduction therefore consequent upon the introduction of the uniform
    3d. rate was equivalent to 2/3, or 66-2/3 per cent, on the former
    average letter Postage charge.

    The Postage charge on Box or Drop Letters, and the additional charge
    on letters delivered in the Cities by Letter Carriers, have in each
    case been reduced to one half penny, being one half the former
    rates.

    With regard to newspapers, the Postage charge has been altogether
    taken off upon several important branches of newspaper circulation,
    and papers to and from the other British North American Provinces,
    papers sent to the United States, and Editors' exchange papers, pass
    free of all Postage charge whatever. The rates on printed papers,
    circulars, pamphlets, books, &c., have also been modified and
    reduced.

The gross receipts of the Department for the year under review are given
as £71,788 18s. 5d. currency, a drop of over £20,000 from the previous
year; but this is a good showing after all, for when it is remembered
that the new uniform rate of postage was but one third the former
average rate, it is readily figured out that correspondence nearly
doubled under the new tariffs. This is confirmed by the following
comparative statement of pieces mailed:--

One week preceding 5th April, 1851, No. of letters, 41,000; papers,
90,000.

One week preceding 5th April, 1852, No. of letters, 86,051[34]; papers,
101,000.

[34] This is explained in the report for 1853 as being "a clerical error
for 71,726."

There were 243 new post offices added during the year and 1023 miles of
post routes.

"An agreement was concluded with the Post Master General of the United
States, which has continued in satisfactory operation since April, 1851,
under which letters pass between any place in Canada, and any place in
the United States, at a Postage rate of 6d. currency, per half oz.,
except to and from California and Oregon, when, the distance being over
3,000 miles, the rate is 9d. per half oz. Letters are posted on either
side, paid or unpaid, at the option of the sender."

The total correspondence passing between the two countries is given as
having a postage rating of $85,636.97.

The second annual report of the Postmaster General is dated the 31st
March, 1853, and contains little of interest but statistics. 176 new
post offices were established and 504 miles of new post routes added.
The gross revenue of the Department for the fiscal year is given as
£84,866.6.11-1/2. and the total postage on the correspondence passing
between Canada and the United States was $104,966.40.

The third report, of 31st March, 1854, speaks of a large reduction in
the postal charges upon newspapers circulating within the Province and
on certain classes of periodical prints, which took place on Feb. 1,
1854, but gives no further details. Concerning the British packet
postage, however, the report says:--

    In March, 1854, the charge on packet letters passing between Canada
    and the United Kingdom and most foreign countries was reduced by the
    Imperial Government from 1s. 2d. sterling to 8d. sterling per 1/2
    oz. when sent in closed mails through the United States, and from
    1s. to 6d. when sent direct from a Provincial Port, Quebec or
    Halifax.

Further on are the following recommendations:--

    Should no further change be likely soon to take place in the charges
    on the correspondence with England, it would promote the public
    convenience to procure Postage stamps of the value of 10d. and 7-1/2
    d. respectively to correspond with the present packet letter
    charges.

And again:--

    Much unnecessary labor and waste of time is occasioned to this
    Department by the practice now followed of rating and collecting
    Postage on all Government and Legislative correspondence, and it
    would be an improvement, in my belief, very worthy of adoption, to
    authorize by enactment the transmission of all such matter through
    the mails, under proper regulations, free of Postage charge, and
    that in lieu thereof, a certain fixed annual sum estimated to be
    equivalent to the aggregate of the Postage arising upon such
    correspondence, should be paid by the Receiver General to the Post
    Office, to be accounted for as Post Office Revenue.

Perhaps the most pregnant remark is one short statement:--"The use of
stamps has materially increased"; for it will be remembered that the
first annual report of the Postmaster General was pessimistic with
regard to the employment of stamps, fearing that their use was
diminishing.

The accounts accompanying the report contain but one item concerning
stamps:--

  Rawdon, Wright & Co., Postage Stamps furnished Post Office
  Department                                        £12.11.3

This amount was of course only for printing supplies, evidently for the
250,000 3d. stamps received during the fiscal year.

In the fourth report, of 31st March, 1855, there are several items of
interest. The lowering of the British packet rates proved a popular
step, naturally, and the report states that "Notwithstanding the
important reduction granted by the Imperial Government in the postage
rate between this country and the United Kingdom in March, 1854," the
results were as follows:--

British Packet Postage collected in Canada in year ending 31 March, 1855
(postage rate 8d. sterling) £16,449.14.3-1/2.

British Packet Postage collected in Canada in year ending 31 March, 1854
(postage rate 1s. 2d. sterling) £17,495.1.4-1/2. which was a drop of but
six per cent. in receipts upon a reduction of over forty per cent. in
the postal charge.

Again:--

    In March, 1855 the Imperial Post Office authorized a reduction in
    the charge on letters passing through the English Posts between
    Canada and France, from 2s. 8-1/2d. Currency to 1s. 8d. Currency per
    1/4 oz. letter.

The suggestions contained in the report for 1854 concerning the franking
of official mail matter, and the payment of a fixed annual sum to the
Post Office Department on this account, were acted upon, and the report
states:--

    In July last the Act of last Session came into effect, removing
    altogether the Postage charge on the circulation of Provincial
    Newspapers and according a franking privilege to the correspondence
    of the Legislature and of the Public Departments of the Government.

The Act referred to was doubtless the following:--

    18^o Vict. Cap. LXXIX.

    An act to abolish Postage on Newspapers published within the
    Province of Canada, and for other purposes connected with the Post
    Office Department of this Province.

    [_Assented to_ 19th May, 1855.]

    WHEREAS papers devoted to the advancement of Education, Temperance,
    Science, Agriculture and other special objects, are now exempt from
    postage; And whereas it would further materially aid the diffusion
    of useful knowledge to remove all postal restrictions on the
    transmission of Newspapers in general, published within this
    Province, and of all documents printed by order of either House of
    Parliament: Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent
    Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative
    Council and the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, * *
    * * and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, as
    follows:

    I. All Newspapers published within the Province of Canada, shall be
    transmitted by mail free of Postage.

    * * * * *

    IV. All Letters and other mailable matter addressed to or sent by
    the Governor of this Province, or sent to or by any Public
    Department at the seat of Government, shall be free of Provincial
    Postage under such regulations as may be directed by the Governor in
    Council.

    V. All Letters and other mailable matter addressed to or sent by the
    Speaker or Chief Clerk of the Legislative Council or of the
    Legislative Assembly, or by or to any Member of either of said
    branches of the Legislature during any Session of the Legislature,
    shall be free of Provincial Postage.

    VI. All public documents and printed papers may be sent by the
    Speaker or Chief Clerk of the Legislative Council or of the
    Legislative Assembly, to any Member of either of the said branches
    of the Legislature of Canada, during the recess of Parliament, free
    of Postage.

    VII. Members of either branch of the Legislature of Canada may send
    during the recess of Parliament by mail, free of Postage, all papers
    printed by order of either branch of the Legislature of Canada.

    * * * * *

    IX. This Act shall come into effect on and after the first day of
    July, eighteen hundred and fifty-five.

There is a bit of conflict here. The "enactment clause" of the above Act
makes it operative unequivocally on July 1, 1855. Yet the Postmaster
General's report, just quoted, which is supposed to be for the fiscal
year ending 31st March, 1855, distinctly states that the provisions of
the above Act came into effect "in July last," which would seem to be
July, 1854. The Act itself is not in error, so the discrepancy must lie
in the Postmaster General's report. Probably the report was written much
later in the year than March 31st, as it was not presented to Parliament
until the fall session, and therefore gave opportunity to refer back to
happenings in July.

The growth of the Department during the first four years under
Provincial control is illustrated by the following table:--

                  Post       Miles    Letters                    Correspondence
        Date      Offices    of       mailed  Gross Revenue           with
                  in         Routes.  per                           the U. S.
                  operation.          week

  6th April, 1851    601     7,595    41,000  £ 93,802
  5th April, 1852    840     8,618    71,726  £ 71,788.18. 5       $ 85,636.97
  31st Mar., 1853  1,016     9,122    81,896  £ 84,866. 6. 11-1/2  $104,966.40
  31st Mar., 1854  1,166    10,027    98,350  £ 98,495. 6. 7       $129,921.67
  31st Mar., 1855  1,293    11,192   116,671  £110,747.12. 9-1/2   $145,377.69



The number of post offices had more than doubled; the length of the post
routes had increased by fifty per cent; and although the revenue had
dropped one quarter during the first year, owing to the reduction in
postage rates, it had increased by half in the next three years; while
the total correspondence between Canada and the United States had
increased by two thirds in the same three years.

But the item that interests us particularly in this report reads:--

    To promote the general convenience in prepaying letters to the
    United Kingdom at the new rate, postage stamps of the value of 10d.
    Currency, equal to 8d. sterling, were procured and issued for sale
    to the public.

Thus part of the recommendation contained in the report for the
preceding year was carried out.

In the accounts for the fiscal year we find the following entries:--

  1st. Quarter, Rawdon, Wright & Co., Postage Stamps
    for P. O. Dept.                                  £12.12.6

  3rd. Quarter, Rawdon, Wright & Co., Making Stamps   42.18.6

  4th. Quarter, Rawdon, Wright & Co., Postage Stamps
    for P. O. Dept.                                   17.13.6

From this it would appear that the bill for engraving ("making") the new
10d. stamp was paid in the third quarter of the fiscal year,
corresponding to the last quarter of 1854. According to the table of
receipts from manufacturers in the "summary" already quoted,[35] the
10d. stamp was first received by the Post Office Department on Jan. 2,
1855. In Mr. King's "Reference List,"[36] however, the date "Dec. 5,
1854" is given as being "taken from used stamps on the original covers,"
but this must certainly be a mistake. The "summary" also gives the
quantities issued to postmasters by quarters, and there were none issued
(naturally) in the quarter ending Dec. 31, 1854. In the next quarter,
ending Mar. 31, 1855, there were 16,200 issued to postmasters, so that
the first issue probably took place soon after receipt, that is, in
January, 1855. The total number received from the manufacturers in this
first delivery was 100,080.

[35] Metropolitan Philatelist, XVII: 83.

[36] Monthly Journal, VII: 9.

The plate for this stamp is stated to have been made up for printing
sheets of 100 impressions in ten rows of ten, like the three values of
1851, and also to have had the eight marginal imprints. But there are
reasons for thinking it may have been made to print 120 impressions,
ten rows of twelve each, concerning which more will be said later.
Suffice it to remark here that the number delivered (100,080) is exactly
divisible by 120, making 834 full sheets, which is not the case if 100
is used. The normal color of the stamp is a very deep blue.

The design of the new 10d., illustrated as No. 3 on Plate I, corresponds
in general style to the 6d. and 12d. of 1851, but the portrait in the
central oval is of Jacques Cartier, the explorer and founder of Canada.
There has been some discussion over the identity of the original, it
having been claimed that the subject was Sebastian Cabot, the
discoverer, just as the portrait on the 6d. stamp has been assigned to
Lord Elgin, Governor-General of Canada from 1846 to 1854.[37]
Unfortunately no circular announcing the issue of the stamp has come to
hand, and, as seen from the quotation already given, the report of the
Postmaster General does not give us the information. It is nevertheless
a fact that the portrait represents Cartier, the original being a
three-quarter length painting in the Hotel de Ville at St. Malo, France,
the birthplace of Cartier. The inscriptions in the oval frame are in
this case separated by a small picture of the beaver at the right, and
three maple leaves at the left. The value is expressed as TEN PENCE,
with the numerals "10" in the lower spandrels, followed by the letters
"cy" for "currency." In the upper spandrels is the corresponding value
in sterling money, expressed as "8d stg". The relation between sterling
and currency values and their equivalents in the decimal coinage of the
United States was fixed by law, and the matter seems important enough to
reproduce the statute here.

[37] Philatelic Record, X: 50.


    16^o Vict. Cap. CLVIII.

    An Act to regulate the Currency. [Assented to 14th June, 1853.]

    * * * * *

    II. And be it enacted, That the denominations of money in the
    Currency of this Province, shall be pounds, dollars, shillings,
    pence, cents and mills: the pound, shilling and penny shall have,
    respectively, the same proportionate values as they now have, the
    dollar shall be one-fourth of a pound, the cent shall be
    one-hundredth of a dollar, and the mill one-tenth of a cent....

    III. And be it enacted, That the Pound Currency shall be held to be
    equivalent to and to represent one hundred and one grains and three
    hundred and twenty-one thousandths of a grain Troy weight of Gold of
    the Standard of fineness now prescribed by Law for the Gold Coins of
    the United Kingdom; and the Dollar Currency shall be held to be
    equivalent to and to represent one fourth part of the weight
    aforesaid of Gold of the said Standard....

    IV. And be it enacted, That the Pound Sterling shall be held to be
    equal to one pound, four shillings and four pence, or four dollars,
    eighty-six cents and two-thirds of a cent, Currency....

    * * * * *

    IX. And be it enacted, That ... the Gold Eagle of the United States,
    coined after [1st. July, 1834], ... and weighing ten penny weights,
    eighteen grains, Troy weight, shall pass current and be a legal
    tender in this Province for ten Dollars or two pounds ten shillings
    currency....

Further supplies of the 10d. stamp were not needed for three years, the
next lot, numbering 72,120, having been delivered during the year ending
30th Sept., 1858, according to the table of stamp statistics. These two
lots were the only ones delivered, and the balance on hand when the
decimal stamps appeared being 31,200, we find a total issue for the 10d.
stamp of 141,000.

Puzzling questions seem to be the rule with this first series of
Canadian stamps, and the 10d. is no exception. The stamp occurs, to all
appearances, in at least _two sizes_, one of which has been termed the
"wide oval" and the other the "narrow oval." These are well brought out
by illustrations Nos. 70 (wide) and 71 (narrow) on Plate IV. Very likely
the peculiarity was noticed much earlier, but it seems to have been
brought to the attention of collectors generally for the first time by
Mr. W. H. Brouse, in a paper read before the London Philatelic Society
on Feb. 3, 1894.[38] We quote this entire:--

[38] London Philatelist, III: 34.

    "I have carefully read such Philatelic articles or publications
    relating to British North American stamps as have come under my
    notice, but have as yet not come across anything relating to the
    difference in Canadians that is to be found in the 7-1/2d. Canadian
    currency (6d. sterling), green, and the 10d., blue, and so concluded
    that it may have passed my observation, or, if not, has not yet been
    'written up.' Will you therefore pardon a short note on the subject?

    "Of the 10d., blue, there are three distinct varieties in design,
    viz.,

      First  (_a_) the long and narrow;
      Second (_b_) the long and broad: and
      Third  (_c_) the short and broad.

    "The outside edges or ornaments are in all three cases the same, but
    the difference lies in the fact of the oval or frame around the head
    having been, as the case may be, elongated or contracted, or
    sometimes widened out.

    "The extreme variation in length is about one-sixteenth of an inch,
    which is considerable in a postage stamp. I doubt very much if this
    happened through intention, but rather think that it is the result
    of what might be termed 'engravers' license.' However, whatever it
    may be, the result is that there are three distinct varieties.

    "It will, I think, be found that the earlier one of these is the
    long and narrow, on thinnish paper; then the long and broad (which
    is the most common), on thicker paper; and lastly, the short and
    broad, on medium paper. The latter is the scarcer, and consequently
    the most valuable.

    "I have for a long time known of the above differences, and at first
    thought it only an optical delusion, owing to some of the copies
    having had their sides closely trimmed, but on closer observation
    the distinct differences, as I have mentioned, were manifest. What
    is said of the 10d. may also be said of the 7-1/2d. (but to a lesser
    degree of variation), only the latter are generally found in the
    long and broad frame or oval. A slight difference also occurs in the
    6d., violet; no variation appears in the length of the stamp, though
    I have two specimens in which the oval or frame shows a contraction
    in width to the extent of about one-forty-eighth of an inch, and is
    quite noticeable.

    "This may be 'piper's news' to some of the members of the Philatelic
    Society, London, but to others it may be of interest, and for that
    reason I beg your indulgence."

    Mr. Castle, in reading the foregoing paper at the meeting of the
    London Philatelic Society, shewed specimens of the stamps described
    by Mr. Brouse, and added a few remarks as under.

    "I venture to think the modest disclaimer on the part of Mr. Brouse,
    in his closing sentence, is hardly borne out in view of the
    interesting communication he has made. To me the information was
    certainly novel, and I could hardly credit that there should exist
    such differences in size until I had verified the fact by
    examination of specimens. Owing to the kindness of Messrs. Stanley
    Gibbons, Limited, and Mr. W. H. Peckitt, I was enabled to inspect a
    number of these pence issues, and I have tabulated the measurements
    as nearly as I  can:--

                  HALFPENNY.

              Size.                              Paper.

      (_a_) 22 × 18-1/2 mm.                  Medium thick
      (_b_) 22-1/2 × 18 mm.                  Medium thick

                  THREEPENCE.

      (_a_) 22 (full) × 18 mm.             Very thin wove
      (_a_) 22 × 18mm.                     Very thin laid
      (_b_) 22-1/2 × 17-1/2 mm.                      Thin
      (_c_) 22-3/4 × 17-1/2 mm.                     Thick

                  SIXPENCE.

      (_a_) 22 × 18 mm.                         Thin wove
      (_a_) 22 × 18 mm.                         Thin Laid
      (_b_) 22-3/4 × 17-3/4 mm.                     Thick

                  SEVENPENCE-HALFPENNY.

      (_a_) 22-1/4 × 18-1/2 mm. (bare)         Med. thick
      (_a_) 22-1/2 × 18-1/2 mm.              Medium thick
      (_a_) 22-3/4 × 18 mm.                  Medium thick
      (_a_) 22-3/4 × 18-1/2 mm.              Medium thick

                  TENPENCE.

      (_a_) 22-3/4 × 17-1/2 mm.         Thin to very thin
      (_b_) 22-1/2 × 18 mm. (full)                  Thick
      (_b_) 22-3/4 × 18-1/2 mm. (bare)              Thick
      (_c_) 22 × 18 mm.                              Thin

    "The varieties of the Tenpence are those described by Mr. Brouse as
    (_a_) long and narrow, (_b_) long and broad, and (_c_) short and
    broad. I may add that in the case of this value I have examined and
    measured some forty copies, including a strip of three, as also a
    proof on very thin India paper, which corresponds exactly in
    measurement with variety (_b_) on the thick paper (22-3/4 ×
    18-1/2mm.). It is obvious that to be absolutely accurate beyond a
    half mm. with an ordinary gauge is hardly possible, but in several
    of the given cases I have averaged the sizes of several that very
    closely approximated.

    "As will be seen, I have gone somewhat beyond the lines of Mr.
    Brouse's paper in including the 1/2d., the 3d., and 6d., the
    variation in the former being slight, but in the two latter
    noteworthy. The question how these varieties have arisen is an
    interesting one, nor can I see that they can be accounted for by
    shrinkage of the paper, as in the case of the 10d. proof above
    cited, which is on all fours with the ordinary stamp on thick paper.
    In the case of the strip of this value I found all three stamps
    measured the same, and the fact remains that variety (_c_) is short
    _and_ broad. In any case the existence of these varieties is
    palpable, the question of their origin a genuine philatelic problem,
    and I think that the thanks of us all are therefore due to Mr.
    Brouse for his interesting paper."

This may have been the first record of the peculiarity in the case of
the Canadian stamps, but it was at least not the first time that
variation in the dimensions of certain line engraved stamps, supposed to
have been produced from the same original die, had been noted and
discussed. We refer to the case of the early Ceylon stamps, which
furnished food for contention in the philatelic press for many years.
The first mention of a difference in the length of these seems to have
been in December, 1864.[39] Ten years later the reference list of Ceylon
prepared by the London Philatelic Society[40] noted the fact that the
stamps of 1863 on unwatermarked paper were in general about a millimeter
shorter in the vertical dimension than the succeeding issue on paper
watermarked Crown C C, although the engraved designs were otherwise
absolutely identical. Major Edw. B. Evans, in his catalogue,[41] appends
a note on the unwatermarked stamps of 1863 as follows:--

    These stamps are apparently (indeed, we may say certainly) from the
    same plates as the other issues, but at the same time the
    impressions on this paper are about 1-16 inch shorter than those on
    other papers. This can only have been occasioned by the paper having
    shrunk to some extent since the stamps were printed....

[39] The Stamp Collectors' Magazine, II: 191.

[40] The Philatelist, IX: 10.

[41] A Catalogue for Collectors, page 39.

Later, in 1887, Mr. T. K. Tapling, writing in _Le Timbre-Poste_,[42]
claims the difference cannot be due to shrinkage of paper because the
stamps have all shrunk evenly, and attributes it to some defect in the
process of making the plates. He reasons thus:--

    Les timbres sur les feuilles de n'importe quelle valeur étaient tous
    identiques comme type. Ils furent gravés sur acier, je pense par MM.
    Perkins Bacon et Co., chaque timbre par un procédé de réduplication,
    étant reproduit d'une matrice; la planche étant ensuite durcie pour
    l'impression. Il n'y a par conséquent pas de variété de types, les
    lignes des gravures sur les timbres courts étant les mêmes que
    celles sur les timbres longs, excepté qu'elles sont un tant soit peu
    contractées.... Il me semble plus que probable que la différence en
    longeur des exemplaires puisse être attribuée à un léger défaut dans
    le procédé de réduplication des planches de la matrice originale.

[42] =Le Timbre-Poste=, Numéro Jubilaire, page XXXV.

As a matter of fact the stamps did not shrink evenly, but very unevenly.
Mr. W. B. Thornhill, writing on these same stamps in 1889,[43]
says:--"You can hardly find two stamps of exactly the same measurements
in the same value, though the difference in many cases is too small to
signify"; and he proceeds to show the extreme variations in a carefully
prepared table including every value on every variety of paper for
issues from 1855 to 1867. The greatest variation in the vertical
dimension seems to be about 1 mm. in 26 mm., or roughly 4%, and in the
horizontal dimension about 1/4 to 1/2 mm. in 19 mm. or roughly 1-1/4 to
2-1/2%. These dimensional differences being so palpably existent,
therefore, what factors are we to consider in looking for their cause?
There seem to be but three: first, an original die or matrix for each
different size; second, one original die only, whose impressions on the
printing plate show variations resulting from the process of
transferring them; third, a printing plate with all the impressions
exact duplicates of the one original die, but whose reproductions in ink
on dampened paper are varied by the shrinkage of the paper in drying.

[43] =Philatelic Record=, XI: 71.

Mr. Thornhill convinces himself by inspection that the first proposition
is untenable; in fact its absurdity is at once apparent on a little
thought, for the engraving of the original die is a laborious and costly
piece of work, and that very fact, coupled with the comparative ease of
exact reduplication by mechanical processes on the printing plate,
furnishes the chief reason for the employment of this method of
producing stamps. Since there is such a variety in the size of the
stamps, therefore, the first theory would indicate many original dies,
and this we know was not the case. Its refutation indeed is seen in the
stamps themselves; for each original die, if differing in size from its
fellows, meant a separate engraving, and it is humanly impossible to
make these separate engravings exact duplicates, whereas, on the other
hand, no appreciable variation in line or dot can be detected on the
same stamp in its different sizes save the general expansion or
contraction of the design, which is proportionate in all its parts. The
different die or matrix theory is therefore thrown out on grounds of
impracticability and absurdity.

Accepting the one original die proposition, then, Mr. Thornhill agrees
with Mr. Tapling in turning down the shrinkage of paper theory and
favoring the second supposition, that the variation comes on the plates
and is due to the process of transference. Let us glance at this a
moment. The original die is engraved on a block of soft steel of very
fine and even quality. When finished it is tempered to a very great
degree of hardness. Next the engraving is transferred by tremendous
pressure to a transferring roller of similar soft steel, which is in
turn hardened. In this process there might be an opportunity for a
slight variation in the size of the transferred impression, due to the
expansion and contraction of the steel in the tempering process. Next,
this hardened transfer roller is impressed upon the printing plate of
soft steel as many times as there are copies desired. These naturally
all agree among themselves and with the transfer roller impression in
size. Now when the printing plate in turn receives its hardening, there
may again be a chance for a slight difference between the transfer
roller and the plate impressions; _but_ it is wholly unlikely that the
plate impressions will vary much among themselves, otherwise the
perfection of Mr. Jacob Perkins' invention, the chief merit of which was
exact reduplication, would be impaired. As a matter of fact, the high
grade and even quality of the steel necessarily employed, and the care
naturally taken in hardening the plate, preclude any other than an even
variation, if any, due to the tempering process. This means that such
variations would be practically constant over the printing surface of
the plate, and that therefore the impressions would still remain
practically identical in size.

Where, then, does this bring us? With such numerous and well defined
variations in dimensions in the printed stamps, we should look for the
cause in the simplest and most natural method by which they could
readily be produced, which is furnished by the third theory presented.
Concerning this we quote from the London Philatelic Society's work on
Ceylon:[44]--

    In reference to the variations in the size of the stamps of Issues
    III and V [no watermark and Crown CC], Major Evans, who was the
    first to propound the theory that these variations were due to
    differences in the nature of the paper employed, writes as
    follows:--

    "The theory of the expansion and contraction of the paper being now
    pretty generally accepted, as accounting for the variations observed
    in the size of the stamps of the early issues of Ceylon, it seems
    necessary to explain exactly what that theory is, and how these
    differences are supposed to arise. Previous to printing from plates
    engraved in _taille-douce_ the paper is wetted, which, as is well
    known, causes it to expand; the amount of expansion varies, no
    doubt, considerably in different kinds of paper, and it must also
    vary with the amount of moisture in the same kind of paper, for as
    the paper dries it returns to its original dimensions, and,
    therefore, up to a certain point, the wetter it is the greater will
    be the expansion. In any case the paper is in a state of expansion
    at the time of printing, both from being wetted and from being
    stretched out flat and pressed, and the impression when first
    printed is then, and then only, in all cases the size of the
    engraving upon the plate. It then dries, and in so doing contracts,
    and the greater the amount of expansion the greater will be the
    amount of the subsequent contraction, so that the smallest stamps
    are those printed on the paper which expanded most, and the largest
    those on the paper which expanded least. The minor variations of
    size may be due to the paper being more or less damp when used, but
    probably a very slight difference in the thickness or density of the
    paper would cause some variation in its expansion. The marked
    difference in size of the stamps on thin, unwatermarked paper, which
    were the first to attract the attention of Philatelists, is no doubt
    due to that particular variety of paper, which is very tough and
    elastic, and which has been found to expand very greatly on being
    wetted and stretched."

[44] =Postage Stamps, &c., of British India and Ceylon=, page 69.

So much for the Ceylon stamps, which we have discussed _in extenso_; but
we have only to substitute in every case a reference to the first
Canadian issues, particularly the 10d. which we started out with, to
make the discussion apply with equal force in this case as in the other.
The question is the same--the variations occur in the same way, the
method of engraving and reproduction is the same, and the varieties in
the paper are very similar.

Major Evans, in a reply to Mr. Thornhill's paper,[45] states that he
tried some experiments in wetting a thin, tough note paper, and found an
expansion of three per cent., while by stretching it he increased the
expansion to eight per cent, without difficulty! Yet the greatest
variation in Mr. Thornhill's table was only four per cent. Major Evans
then tried some of the 1863 Newfoundland stamps, which he judged were
on paper of almost the same nature as that of the unwatermarked Ceylons
of the same year, and they gave precisely similar results.

[45] =Philatelic Record=, XI: 158.

Mr. Frank C. Young, who was in the printing business, also tells of
similar experiments which he carried still further.[46]

    Having provided some twenty-five sheets of paper of different
    qualities and thicknesses, each was cut into sixteen pieces.
    Selecting a common half tone cut which measured exactly 100 × 69 mm.
    and dampening the sheets of paper to different degrees of wetness I
    proceeded to impress the cut on each sheet, using a common roller
    proof press. After the printed sheets had been allowed to dry it
    became a matter of a good millimeter gauge and careful measurements
    of the printed impressions, not the paper.

    ... Hardly two sheets of the whole lot were identical in size, nor
    was I able to formulate any table as to how much or how little or
    which way of the paper shrinkage would occur. The only general rule
    which seemed to come out clearly was that thin paper would
    invariably shrink more than thick. In many of the sheets the
    difference was barely noticeable, while, on the other hand, such
    measurements as 96 × 68, 97 × 68-1/2, 99 × 67-1/2, 98 × 68 mm. were
    fairly common, and one sheet, after several very careful
    measurements, was undeniably 95-1/2 × 69 mm., thus showing a
    shrinkage of 4-1/2 per cent, one way and none at all the other. This
    was very thin laid linen paper.

    Contrary to all expectations, more than one impression measured more
    than either the cut or those printed on dry paper, one on thin wove
    paper being fully 101 mm. long.

[46] =Canada Stamp Sheet=, IV: 173.

Looking back now at Mr. Castle's tables,[47] we find his greatest
variations in length amount to 3/4 mm. in 22 mm., or roughly 3-1/2%, and
in width 1 mm. in 18 mm., or roughly 5-1/2%--results entirely within
bounds according to Major Evans' and Mr. Young's experiments, and
doubtless settling once and for all the reason of the "three distinct
varieties in design" of Mr. Brouse.

[47] See page 54.

As for the paper actually used for the printing of the 10d. stamp, we
find it a hard, white wove variety varying very much in thickness from a
very thin, almost pelure quality, through which the design is quite
plainly evident, to a medium and finally a considerably thicker quality.
The pelure paper seems naturally to be the one on which the greatest
variation in dimensions occurs, the _long_ and _broad_ size of the stamp
coming principally on the thicker paper,[48] which is supposed to shrink
the least upon drying and therefore keeps the printed impression nearest
the size of the plate impression. The _long_ and _narrow_ impression,
being the commoner variation, was probably due to the paper being fed
to the press the same way of the "grain" as a rule, while the _short_
and _broad_ variation, which is much scarcer, occurred by an occasional
sheet of paper being fed the other way of the "grain." That paper has a
"grain" is readily proved by tearing a piece in one direction and then
tearing it at right angles to the first tear; one will be found much
easier of accomplishment generally than the other, and this "grain"
doubtless has its due effect in the amount of shrinkage in one way or
the other upon drying a dampened sheet.

[48] See page 56.

       *       *       *       *       *

One further variety we have to record in the 10d. stamp, this being a
"shifted transfer" variety similar to that occurring in the 3d. value.
In this case we find the letters A D A and S of "Canada Postage," and P
E N of "Pence" showing a distinct doubling at the bottom, the transfer
roller evidently having been set a little too high at first and a very
slight impression made on the plate. The stamp has not been seen in a
pair to prove its character absolutely, but it bears all the ear-marks
of being a proper plate variety and not due to a careless impression
when printing.

       *       *       *       *       *

To continue again with the Postmaster General's reports. We find in that
for 31st March, 1856, a note to the effect that the postage on letters
to France had been once more reduced, this time to 10d. currency per 1/4
oz., which gave further employment to the new 10d. stamp. There is also
some information concerning the registry system, but this will be
treated later under that head. One item is found in the accounts to
interest us:--

    Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson, for printing 300,000 postage
  stamps for Post Office Department £15.2.3.

As only 3d. stamps were received during the year, this of course refers
to that value, and the price charged is found to be practically one
shilling, currency, per thousand, or twenty cents American money.

In June of 1857 the Canadian Parliament made further changes in the
newspaper rates, etc., according to the following Act:--


    20^o Vict. Cap. XXV.

    An Act to Amend the Post-Office Laws of this Province.

    [Assented to 10th June 1857.]

    Whereas it is expedient to amend the Post-Office Laws, in the manner
    hereafter provided: Therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice
    and consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of Canada enacts
    as follows:--

    I. [Repeals sections I and V of 18^o Vict. Cap. 79.][49]

    II. Newspapers printed and published within this Province and
    addressed from the Office of Publication, shall be transmitted from
    the Post-Office where mailed to any other Post-Office in Canada, or
    to the United Kingdom, or to any British Colony or Possession, or to
    France, free of Canadian Postage.

    III. Newspapers printed and published in the United Kingdom, or in
    any British Colony or Possession, or in France, when received in
    mails addressed to this Province, and directed to any place in
    Canada, shall pass through the Post and be delivered at the
    Post-Office addressed, free of Canadian postage.

    IV. For the purposes of this Act, the word "newspapers" shall be
    held to mean periodicals published not less frequently than once in
    each week, and containing notices of passing events, or any such
    newspaper published fortnightly or monthly at the time of the
    passage of this Act.

    V. Periodicals printed and published in this Province other than
    newspapers, when specially devoted to Religious and to General
    Education, to Agriculture or Temperance, or to any branch of
    Science, and addressed directly from the Office of Publication,
    shall be transmitted from the Post-Office where mailed to any other
    Post-Office in this Province free of postage.

    VI. Letters and other mailable matter addressed to or sent by the
    Speaker or Chief Clerk of the Legislative Council or of the
    Legislative Assembly, or to or by any Member of the Legislature at
    the seat of Government, during any session of the Legislature, or
    addressed to any of the Members or Officers in this section
    mentioned, at the seat of Government as aforesaid, during the ten
    days next before the meeting of Parliament, shall be free of
    postage.

    VII. So much of the twelfth section of the Post-Office Act, passed
    in the session held in the 14th and 15th years of Her Majesty's
    Reign and chaptered 71, as requires the Postmaster General to make
    to the Governor General of this Province, annually, certain Reports
    for the purpose of being laid before the Provincial Parliament at
    each Session thereof, for the year ending the fifth day of April
    previous to such Session, is hereby repealed; and it shall,
    hereafter, be the duty of the Postmaster General to furnish such
    Reports annually so that they may be laid before the Provincial
    Parliament within ten days after the assembling thereof, and such
    Annual Reports shall be made up to the thirtieth day of September
    previous to each Session.

    * * * * *

    X. This Act shall take effect on and from the first day of August
    next.

[49] See page 50.

Although the enactment clause made the above Act operative on 1st
August, 1857, because of which we should not expect it to affect the
Postmaster General's report for the year ending 31st March, 1857, yet we
find this report dated 30th September, 1857, thus including the year
and a half from 1st April, 1856. Among other items of interest in this
report we find the following:--

    There is very material economy of labor to the Department in dealing
    with letters pre-paid by stamp as compared with letters on which the
    postage is collected in money, as well as a manifest gain to the
    public, in the increased facilities which pre-payment by stamp
    enables the Post Office to afford for posting and delivering letters
    so pre-paid.

    It is gratifying, therefore, to observe that the use of stamps is
    gradually gaining ground, encouraging as it does the hope that it
    may be found practicable and expedient ere long to make prepayment
    by stamp the prevailing rule in Canada, as it has for some time been
    in the United Kingdom, in France, and in the United States.

    A reduction in the charge of Book Post Packets, when not exceeding 4
    oz., in weight between Canada and the United Kingdom, of one half
    the former rate has been made.

    To facilitate the pre-payment of letters passing from Canada to
    England by the Canadian steamers, a new stamp bearing value at 6
    pence sterling, or 7-1/2 pence currency, being the Canadian Packet
    rate, has been secured and put in circulation.

    A new stamp has also been introduced of the value of one halfpenny
    to serve as the medium for prepaying transient Newspapers.

The above is the only reference we have to the issue of the 7-1/2d.
stamp. The accounts for the fiscal year ending 30th September, 1857,
contain the following item:--

      "Rawdon, Wright and Co., Postage Stamps, £165.9.6"

which must include the cost of dies and plates for the two new values.
There is no record of the date of issue of the 7-1/2d. stamp, as far as
our research has gone. The London Society's work[50] gives it as June 2,
1857, but upon what authority is not stated. It will be recalled that a
stamp of this value was suggested, in company with the 10d., in the
Postmaster General's report for 31st March, 1854, as being the reduced
rate granted in that same month on letters sent "direct from a
Provincial Port, Quebec or Halifax," to England. The _Halifax
Philatelist_ states:[51]--"This stamp was rendered necessary on account
of the contract between the Canadian Government and the Allan Line of
Steamers in regard to carrying the mails, and by which contract the
postage was reduced." It hardly seems to have been very "necessary" when
it took three years at least to bring the Postmaster General's
suggestion to a realization. Besides, the Allan Line steamers began
their service over a year before the appearance of the stamp, and the
rate it represented had even then been in force for two years, nor was
it reduced for many years thereafter.

[50] The Postage Stamps, etc., of the North American Colonies of Great
Britain, page 14.

[51] Halifax Philatelist, II: 74.

The Postmaster General's Report for 1856 says:--

    The month of May, 1856, was marked by the first voyage to the St.
    Lawrence of the line of Canadian Mail Steamers, under the contract
    between Mr. Hugh Allan of Montreal, and the Provincial Government.
    These vessels have performed the service for which they were bound,
    with laudable punctuality, and have crossed the Atlantic at an
    average speed which compares successfully with the performances of
    the steamers of the Cunard and Collins lines from New York and
    Boston.

The average time of passage is given as--Westward, 12 days, 20-1/2
hours; Eastward, 11 days, 2 hours.

The design of the stamp was simply adapted from that of the discarded
12d. stamp, as will readily be seen from the illustration (No. 5 on
Plate I). The inscriptions were changed to CANADA PACKET POSTAGE, which
of course referred to the fast mail steamers then known as "packets,"
and not to any "parcel post" as is sometimes erroneously stated; and SIX
PENCE STERLING, a new departure in labeling a Canadian stamp. Like the
10d. that preceded it, however, the corresponding values were inserted
in the spandrels, "6d. stg." in the left hand pair and "7-1/2d. cy." in
the right hand pair. The stamp is generally listed under its "currency"
value to conform with the rest of the set and avoid confusion with the
regular "six pence" stamp. The normal color of the stamp is a dark
green.

The 7-1/2d. stamp is known to have been arranged on the plate for
printing sheets of 120 stamps, ten rows of twelve stamps each, this
being to facilitate the reckoning in English money. The eight marginal
imprints appeared as on the other values. There was but one supply
received, on the first order, of 100,080 stamps which, if we divide by
120, gives an even 834 sheets. Now, if we but glance back at the first
supply received of the 10d. stamp[52] we find exactly the same number,
evenly divisible by 120 but not by 100. The second supply of the 10d.
stamp works out in exactly the same way,--72,120 makes an even 601
sheets at 120 per sheet. Is it not probable to suppose, therefore, in
the absence of entire sheets or horizontal rows of the 10d. stamp, that
the latter was also printed in sheets of 120, as previously suggested,
instead of sheets of 100 as stated in Mr. King's article?[53]

[52] See page 51.

[53] =Monthly Journal=, VII: 8.

When the issue of the decimal stamps took place, on July 1, 1859, there
were 17,670 of the 7-1/2d. stamps on hand, so that the total issue of
this value was 82,410 copies.

As will be gathered from Mr. Brouse's paper, which we quoted in
connection with the 10d. stamp, a similar variation in the width of the
oval is to be found in the case of the 7-1/2d. stamp, but the extremes
are not so great and it is therefore not so noticeable. A glance at the
table of measurements[54] will show that the variation in width is
confined to a half millimeter and that in height to practically the same
amount. Of course the discussion and conclusions detailed at length
under the 10d. stamp apply with equal force in the present instance, and
the fact that the 7-1/2d. stamp is not found on the very thin paper
probably accounts for the lack of extreme variations. It was printed
upon paper of the same kind as used for the 10d., but only on the medium
and thicker qualities. A pair of the stamps in juxtaposition, showing
the wide oval and the narrow oval, will be found as numbers 67 and 68
respectively on Plate IV.

[54] See page 54.

       *       *       *       *       *

The last--and also least--of the pence issues was the half-penny stamp.
There had been a need for this value since the introduction of stamps,
for there were several rates that were impossible to make up with the
denominations that were issued and which therefore had to be paid in
money. Among these were the 1/2d. charge on newspapers from 1851 to
1855, the same charge per ounce on magazines and books during the entire
period, the 1/2d. and 1d. carrier's fees, the 1d. rate on circulars and
on soldier's letters, and the several 7-1/2d. rates for letters and for
the book post with England. But the Act last quoted,[55] which restored
a charge on transient newspapers, seems to have been the direct cause of
the belated issue of the half-penny stamp. The circular announcing its
issue is as follows:[56]--

    POSTAGE ON NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS.

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
      TORONTO, 18th July, 1857.

    Under the Post Office Law of last Session, taking effect from 1st.
    August, 1857, Newspapers printed and published in Canada, and
    mailed direct from Office of Publication, will pass free of Canadian
    Postage.

    Periodicals so printed, published, and mailed when specially devoted
    to Religious and to General Education, to Agriculture, or
    Temperance, or to any branch of Science, will pass free from any one
    Post-Office to another within the Province.

    Transient and re-mailed Papers and Periodicals will pass by Post if
    pre-paid by Postage stamp--one halfpenny on each Newspaper, and on
    each Periodical, one halfpenny, if not exceeding 3 oz., in weight,
    and 2d. if over 3 oz.

    Postage Stamps of the value of one halfpenny each will be sold to
    the public at all the principal Post Offices (including all Money
    Order Offices), with a discount of 5 per cent upon purchases of not
    less than twenty stamps, and will be available in prepayment of
    Newspapers and Periodicals, and of Drop and Town Letters.

    R. SPENCE, _Postmaster-General_.

[55] See pages 60-61.

[56] =Canada Stamp Sheet=, IV: 184.

The London Society's work gives the date of issue of the 1/2d. value as
18th July, 1857, and it is clearly seen from the preceding notice where
the date was obtained. But it is more likely that the stamp was issued
on 1st. August, the day the new rates took effect.

The new stamp was very plain, as will be seen from the illustration, No.
4 on Plate I. The profile head of Queen Victoria was quite evidently
taken from the head on the British penny stamp. The usual inscription,
CANADA POSTAGE, occupies the upper part of the oval frame, and ONE HALF
PENNY the lower part, but the value is not expressed by numerals in the
corners, as on all the other stamps of the issue, the spandrels being
merely filled in with a reticulated pattern. The stamp was printed in
sheets of 100, ten rows of ten, with the eight marginal imprints as
described for the series of 1851.

The tables of statistics in the Postmaster General's reports give the
number of 1/2d. stamps received previous to 1st. October, 1857, as
1,341,600; during the next fiscal year 1,258,920 were received; and
between 1st. October, 1858 and 30th June, 1859, when they were
superseded, 850,100 more arrived, making a total stock of 3,450,620. The
balance on hand when the decimal series was issued was 60,660, which
makes the total issue of the 1/2d. stamp 3,389,960.

The normal color of the stamp is a deep rose. It is found printed on a
soft ribbed paper, with the ribbing both horizontal and vertical, as
well as on the ordinary hard white wove paper of this issue in both the
thin and thicker qualities.

The London Society's work has the following remarks:[57]--

    Two _soi-disant_ provisionals have been chronicled; viz., the
    Halfpenny surcharged in black--one with an Arabic numeral "1," and
    the other with "8d. STG." The Society can furnish no information
    concerning these two stamps; but supposing the surcharges to be
    genuine, they are probably only notifications of insufficient
    postage applied after the letters were posted.

[57] =The Stamps, etc., of the North American Colonies of Great
Britain=, page 14.

We find that the original chronicle of these varieties was in _Le
Timbre-Poste_ in 1869. Concerning them M. Moens writes as follows:--

    Un de nos correspondants nous annonce qu'il possède un timbre rose
    1/2 penny, surchargé de la marque: 8 _d. stg._ Cette émission,
    provisoire sans doute, doit être le résultat de la penurie
    momentanée de timbres 10 pence, dans un ou plusieurs bureaux
    secondaires.[58]

[58] =Le Timbre-Poste=, VII: 82.

And in the next issue of the paper:--

    On nous a montré le 1/2 p. rose, non dentélé, surchargé en noir, du
    chiffre 1, de 20 mm. environ et placé dans le sens horizontal. C'est
    probablement encore un timbre émis provisoirement, pour une raison
    qui nous échappe, le 1 penny n'ayant jamais existé. Quant au timbre
    dont nous avons parlé le mois dernier, le chiffre 8 et la lettre S
    ont pour dimension 16 mm.[59]

[59] =ibid.= VII: 94.

We think all idea of a "surcharge" can be at once dismissed, as the
raising of the value, particularly to 8d., would be a very foolish and
doubtless wholly unnecessary proceeding, and certainly some record of
such procedure would have been found ere this. The impressions were
probably from rating stamps that were accidentally struck on the postage
stamps, or possibly used purposely as cancellations.

       *       *       *       *       *

The report of the Postmaster General for the 30th Sept. 1858, notes the
fact that previous to 1854 all newspapers were rated at 1/2d. each, but
in that year were granted free transmission. Concerning the new
regulations it continues:--

    In pursuance of the Act of 1857, limiting free transmission to such
    as are posted directly from the office of publication, a halfpenny
    rate, pre-payable by postage stamps, has been taken since 1st.
    August, 1857 on all transient newspapers--that is, papers posted by
    individuals other than the Publishers.



The same report states:--"The Department has, from 1st. January, 1859,
put in operation an arrangement for the conveyance of Parcel Packets
between any two Post Offices in Canada with the ordinary mails." The
charge was fixed at 1s. 3d. per pound with a maximum weight of two
pounds, and prepayment was enforced.

In the Department accounts we find the following:--

    Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Co., Supply of letter and newspaper
  stamps                                                £99.6.6

which was simply a printing bill. The last payment for the pence issue
of stamps appears in the report for 30th Sept., 1859, and is for the
deliveries during the nine months from 30th. Sept. 1858 to 30th June,
1859, when the pence stamps were retired. The charge is given in decimal
currency:--

  Rawdon, Wright & Co., supply of letter and newspaper stamps
                                                      $238.69

The report for 1858 gives an interesting table showing the growth of the
postal business by decades for the thirty years previous. The remarkable
increase during the last period, within which the Province assumed
control and the use of stamps was introduced, is to be noted:--

         Number of   Miles of   Gross    Letters   Newspapers
  Year  P. Offices  P. Routes  Postage   Annually   Annually

  1828     101        2,368    £15,000    340,000     400,000
  1838     380        5,486     35,000  1,000,000   1,250,000
  1848     539        6,985     65,000  2,000,000   3,000,000
  1858   1,566       13,600    151,000  9,800,000  13,500,000

The year 1859 brings us to the end of the pence issues, but before
leaving them there is still one more question to consider, that of the
perforated varieties, which will form the subject of the next chapter.



CHAPTER IV

THE PERFORATED PENCE ISSUES


The perforated series of the pence issues of Canada furnishes another
one of those knotty problems for which these stamps are noted. The first
intimation of the improvement that was announced officially appears in
the Report of the Postmaster General for 30th September, 1857, in these
words:--

    Moreover, the Department has been led, by the increasing use of
    Postage Stamps, to take measures for obtaining the Canadian Postage
    Stamps on sheets perforated in the dividing lines, in the manner
    adopted in England, to facilitate the separation of a single stamp
    from the others on a sheet when required for use.

One would naturally suppose that the stamps would be ordered in this
condition from the manufacturers, and we think they were; but no further
light is thrown upon the matter by the Reports, and other facts that
persist in intruding themselves have given rise to a theory that the
Department either bought perforating machines of its own and operated
upon the stock on hand, or engaged some local concern to perforate the
stock in question. This _might_ have been done, but if so why were the
7-1/2 and 10 pence stamps omitted? Again, had such been the case, it is
passing strange that the 1/2 penny, issued unperforated but two months
before the date of the report, should be approximately twice as common
in that state as perforated. In the case of the 3d., taking stock on
hand the 30th September, 1857, and subsequent deliveries, two-fifths of
the entire issue should have been perforated, which would make the
latter stamps almost as common as the earlier issues; while in the case
of the 6d., under similar conditions, almost the same ratio holds, the
figures being a trifle more in favor of the perforated series. This does
not conform with facts at all, and it can hardly be explained by
supposing that a relatively small stock of but three values was operated
upon in 1857 and the improvement then dropped for a couple of years.

For further proof of the incorrectness of this theory we think the
following fact speaks for itself. Appended to each Postmaster General's
Report are various tables of expenditures. One of these statements is
headed:--

"Sums paid in discharge of Tradesmen's Bills," and in it are found the
amounts paid to various parties named for all kinds of supplies
furnished the Department. This is where the payments to the engravers of
the stamps appear, as well as items for cancelling stamps, post-marks,
etc. Now a careful examination of all items for the years 1857, 1858 and
1859 fails to disclose any payment either for purchase of a perforating
machine or for having the stamps perforated by outside parties. This may
be "negative evidence" but we feel that it has its due weight.

Nevertheless, we find at least two other perforations on stamps of this
issue besides the regulation gauge 12, which has made it appear to some
that the Department might have experimented with means of separation
before settling definitely on the type adopted. The stamp operated upon
was the 3d., probably as being the most commonly employed value, which
would naturally be the case were the perforations the efforts of private
parties. The first "irregular" perforation was listed by Major Evans[60]
as gauging 13, and the London Society's work lists it as well, probably
following the earlier catalog. But Messrs. Corwin and King
state:[61]--"This perforation is totally unknown in America, and we
doubt its existence." Neither the Pack nor the Worthington collection
contains a copy and we think it can be passed by.

[60] A Catalogue for Collectors, page 33.

[61] Metropolitan Philatelist, I: 226.

The next perforation is of gauge 14, and this is well known though of
extreme rarity. Messrs. Corwin and King did not know of over twenty
specimens in 1891. We are fortunate in being able to illustrate a fine
used pair on piece of cover from the Pack collection as No. 128 on Plate
XIII. Most unfortunately, however, as will be noted, some vandal cut the
cover, though perhaps unwittingly, just so as to destroy most of the
postmark and thus lose forever the date and place of mailing. Messrs.
Corwin and King state:[62]--

[62] ibid. I: 275.

    We have lately seen a pair of 3d. perf. 14, upon the original cover,
    but which, unfortunately, presents a most indistinct dating stamp,
    and, although endorsed by the recipient with date of writing, May
    30, date of receipt and date of reply, all three year dates are so
    indistinctly written that one is unable to tell whether it is 1857
    or 1859, although we think the former was the date. Should this be
    the case it would seem as though the perf. 14 and another curious
    perforation just discovered ... were experimental, or provisional,
    pending the receipt from the makers of those perf. 12. Most of the
    few stamps perf. 14 which we have seen, appear cut on one or more
    sides with the shears, as though the users were not familiar with
    the advantages of perforation as a means of separating the stamps,
    and adhering in a measure to the old methods. This is one of the
    reasons which lead us to believe that these stamps, perf. 14, were
    issued before those perf. 12, because the latter are almost
    invariably separated by tearing apart as is proper.... The writer
    has in his collection seven copies of the 3d. perf. 14, and of these
    four specimens show double perforation on one or more sides. It is a
    rare occurrence when a double perforation is found upon any of the
    stamps so treated by the American Bank Note Co. or their
    predecessors, and when we find four out of seven specimens in that
    condition, we are justified in stating that these stamps, gauging
    14, were never perforated by the makers.

In another part of the article just quoted is the following:[63]--

    The American Bank Note Co. and Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and Edson,
    their predecessors, have never, according to official information
    from them, employed any other gauge than 12, in fact they call 12
    their standard and only perforation. Allowing that they did
    perforate the ones found perf. 12 (which are the rule, while those
    perf. 14 are the exception), then those perf. 14 must have been
    certainly operated upon elsewhere than in the shops of the Bank Note
    Co., where this perforation is unknown.

[63] Metropolitan Philatelist, I: 226.

From all the foregoing we can seem to make but one deduction for the 3d.
perforated 14 and that is--unofficial. The dated cover, if 1859, would
be but a month before the issue of the decimal stamps, and the regular
"perf. 12" stamps were plentifully supplied at that time. It would
therefore seem that the date must have been 1857, as suggested, which
would have been well ahead of the appearance of the "perf. 12" issues as
we shall see later. Then the fact that the manufacturers cannot be held
responsible for this perforation, and the Department accounts furnish no
item of expenditure directly traceable to such work, make it seem wholly
probable that it was done by private parties for their own or customers'
convenience.

The "curious perforation" alluded to as just discovered was announced by
the Scott Stamp & Coin Co. as follows:[64]--

    CANADA.--In a large lot of pence issues purchased by us lately, we
    have found two copies of 3 pence on grayish wove paper perforated 13
    with oblique parallel cuts. This seems to confirm the theory that
    the pence issues of Canada were not perforated by the manufacturers,
    but either by the Canadian Government or by some persons authorized
    by them, who most likely experimented with different perforating
    machines, finally selecting the one perforating 12.

[64] American Journal of Philately, 2d. Series, IV: 23.

With regard to the deductions given, we think that what we have already
presented concerning the unofficial character of the gauge 14
perforation applies with even more force in the present instance, and we
unhesitatingly put these two curios in the "privately perforated" class.

Messrs. Corwin and King give further details as follows:[65]--

    As one of them has passed into the possession of the writer, we are
    able to particularize somewhat with reference to this particular
    perforation.... Our specimen is from the bottom of the sheet, or
    else the shears have been used, so that we find the perforation as
    it originally existed between each stamp, before separation. This
    perforation consists of oblique _curved_ parallel cuts; they are not
    straight, but show a very decided curve from right to left, looking
    at the face of the stamp. The other sides of our specimen present,
    having been torn from the stamp on either side, a very well defined
    saw-tooth perforation, very much like that found on the Bremen
    stamps, but much coarser, clearly gauging 13. It occurs to us that,
    perhaps, this is the 13 perforation listed by the London Society,
    although, had a specimen been before the society when the reference
    list was compiled, the peculiarity of this style of perforation
    would surely have been noted by them.

[65] Metropolitan Philatelist, I: 277.

To return to the general subject, Mr. Donald A. King in his own article
says:[66]--

    It is an open question whether these stamps were delivered to the
    Canadian Post Office Department in a perforated condition or not.
    The manufacturers are wholly unable to throw any light on the
    subject; and while there is much to be said in favor of their having
    perforated the stamps, there are points against it almost as strong.
    In favor of it there is the fact that, at the date that these stamps
    were issued, it was more than probable that a firm like the
    manufacturers would have perforating machines. The normal gauge of
    the perforated set is 12, that being the only size of perforation
    ever used by the manufacturers, or their successors, the American
    Bank Note Company; indeed, they call 12 their standard and only
    gauge.

[66] Monthly Journal, VII: 9.

The stamps in issue from the time of the announcement of perforation in
the Report of 1857, to the appearance of the decimal stamps in 1859,
were the 1/2d., 3d., 6d., 7-1/2d., and 10d. values, but only the first
three appeared with perforations. The first supply of the 10d. stamp, as
we know, was received in January 1855, and was naturally unperforated.
The first and only supply of the 7-1/2d. stamp was received probably in
the second quarter of 1857, and these were all unperforated. The first
supply of the 1/2d. stamp was doubtless delivered about midsummer of
1857, and these were evidently all unperforated. The other supplies
received in the fiscal year of 1857 were 300,000 of the 3d. in September
1856, and the same number again in March 1857, together with the 50,078
of the 6d.[67] Evidently these were still in the unperforated class, as
they were delivered before either the 7-1/2d. or 1/2d. supplies. We must
therefore look to the supplies delivered _after_ the 30th September,
1857, as a basis for reckoning up the perforated series. The values and
quantities given in the stamp accounts (already quoted) are as
follows:--

                                           1/2d.       3d.     6d.    10d.

  Rec'd, yr. ending 30th Sept. 1858      1,258,920   900,000 100,000 72,120
  Rec'd. half-yr. end'g 30th June, 1859    850,100   449,900  70,000
                                         --------- --------- ------- ------
      Total,                             2,109,020 1,349,900 170,000 72,120
  Balance on hand 30th June, 1859           60,660    21,700  17,578 31,200
         (destroyed)
                                         --------- --------- ------- ------
  Issued                                 2,048,360 1,328,200 152,422 40,920

The first thing that confronts us here is a second supply of the 10d.
stamp in this supposed "perforated period," over half of which was
issued for sale, and yet the 10d. stamp is practically unknown in a
perforated condition! We say practically, because the London Society's
work[68] remarks:--"The Seven Pence Halfpenny, green, and Ten Pence,
blue, perforated, exist in the collection of a well known Parisian
collector. The authenticity, however, of the perforations appears to be
doubtful." We think it is more than doubtful, as it is practically
certain that neither value was ever issued in this condition. Messrs.
Corwin and King state:[69]--"We agree with the Society in doubting the
authenticity of the 7-1/2d. and 10 pence, perforated, as these stamps,
thus treated, have never been seen in America, nor can anything be
ascertained from the makers of the Stamps or the Canadian Post Office
Department concerning them." The last statement is hardly convincing,
for neither party referred to can give any more information concerning
the other three values that we know _were_ issued. We can heartily
subscribe to the next remark, however:--"We have no hesitation in
pronouncing them impostors."

[67] Metropolitan Philatelist, XVII: 83.

[68] North American Colonies of Great Britain, page 15.

[69] Metropolitan Philatelist, I: 226.

The date usually assigned to the appearance of the perforated stamps is
January 1858. The London Society gave simply "1857," which is apparently
set down merely because they have just quoted the announcement from the
Postmaster General's Report for that year. Evans and Moens, in their
catalogs, both name the date as November 1858. Unfortunately no more
authoritative statement has been found, except that in Messrs. Corwin
and King's article[70] they say "Mr. Hooper positively states that it
took place in January, 1858." Mr. John R. Hooper was at that time [1890]
connected with the Canadian Post Office Department at Ottawa and took
pains to look up much information for the above-mentioned gentlemen. His
reasons for the "positive statement" are not given, and inasmuch as he
is quoted elsewhere as saying that "the records of the Post Office
Department are silent as to where this perforation was performed and by
whom,"[71] and also seems a little uncertain in some other details, we
feel that further confirmation is needed.

[70] =Metropolitan Philatelist, I=: 275.

[71] =ibid. I=: 226.

In our table above we have given the supplies received after the 30th
September, 1857, and deducted the remainders so as to have the actual
number issued. The 10d. has already proved a stumbling block, for it was
not perforated at all! Next we find the 6d. to the number of 150,000,
when the total issue, including the laid paper, was but 400,000; yet the
catalog value of the imperforates is some $6 for each variety, and of
the perforated stamp at least $30! Can anyone doubt that all these
150,000 6d. stamps were _not_ perforated? In the case of the 3d. we have
one and a third millions to compare with a total issue of three and a
half millions--about a third in the supposed perforated class. Yet the
catalog value of the latter is $2.50 against 36 cents for the wove paper
imperforate alone. With the 1/2d. stamp there are two millions against a
total of three and a third millions, or about two to one in favor of the
supposed perforated stamps, yet the latter are double the catalog price
of the former! The only conclusion to be drawn from these regularly
appearing inconsistencies in each value is that all the supplies after
30th September, 1857 were _not_ perforated, as the 10d. stamp very
glaringly intimates!

If this be so, is it not possible that the order to perforate new
supplies was given to the manufacturers much later than has hitherto
been thought to be the case? It hardly seems likely that this
improvement would be ordered for a few supplies and then dropped, only
to reappear a year and a half later as a permanent feature of the new
set. Once adopted it was more than likely to be retained.

Let us see, then, just for curiosity's sake, what the supplies of the
last six months of issue yield us for data. For the 1/2d. we find
850,000, roughly, with 60,000 remainders. Call it 800,000 issued which,
if perforated, would be a quarter of the total issue of 1/2d. stamps, or
a ratio to the imperforates of one to three. This is not so far away
from the catalog ratio of two to one (inversely, of course) in the value
of the perforated stamps. With the 3d. stamp we have 450,000, roughly,
with 20,000 remainders, say 430,000 issued. Of a total issue of
3,500,000 this represents one-eighth, or a ratio of one to seven. The
inverse ratio of seven to one for catalog value comes pretty close when
we compare $2.50 with 36 cents! In the case of the 6d. there are 70,000
less 17,500 remainders, or 52,500. This is approximately one-eighth the
total issue of 400,000, or again a ratio of one to seven. The inverse
ratio of seven to one for a catalog value would make the perforated
stamp list $42 with the imperforate at $6. But both laid and wove paper
6d. stamps list at approximately $6, whereas if all had been issued on
but one variety of paper we might find perhaps a single list price of
say $4. With this as a basis, the catalog value of $30 for the
perforated 6d. is in as close agreement with our supposition as are the
others. And, best of all, the second supply of the 10d. stamp is
disposed of without any difficulty whatever under this hypothesis!

It may be argued that reasoning thus from catalog prices is too
uncertain to prove of value. Granted in many cases. But here is an issue
from fifty to sixty years old; the stamps were regularly used in
increasing numbers during their years of issue; they have always been
popular and eagerly collected, so that the stock in existence has been
pretty well handled and pretty well distributed. Under these conditions
the catalog prices should by this time reflect fairly accurately the
_relative_ rarity of the main varieties of each stamp at least; and it
is this relative rarity that we are after in order to approximate the
original supplies of the main varieties. The result is certainly of more
than mere interest, the agreement being such that we are tempted to lay
down the following propositions in regard to the perforated stamps for
further proof or disproof:--

_First._ The regular perforation (gauge 12) was done by the
manufacturers and applied to the last requisitions previous to the
change to decimal stamps.

_Second._ The date of the supposed issue of the perforated stamps should
be changed from January 1858, to November 1858 or January 1859.

_Third._ The quantities of perforated stamps issued are placed
approximately at:--1/2d., 789,440; 3d., 428,200; 6d., 52,422.

In further support of the above postulates, we must say that every cover
bearing any one of the three perforated stamps which we have been able
to get a satisfactory date from has been postmarked in _1859_! Not one
has yet been seen which bore a date in 1858 even, and one 6d. from the
Seybold collection, which was dated at Brantford, Dec. 29, 1857, turned
out to be bad. Of course perforated pence stamps are hard to find on
original covers, but it is curious that so far not one has upset the
theory we have laid down.

There is one point left which perhaps needs some attention. The London
Society's work lists a 6d. on _laid_ paper, perforated 12, and Mr. King
has followed by including it in his reference list. This would imply
that the Canadian Government had perforated its stock on hand, in which
might be a few remainders of the early laid paper issue, and naturally
would go far toward confirming that view of the origin of the perforated
series. But this stamp seems to be an unknown quantity, almost as much
so as the 3d. "perforated 13" of Major Evans' Catalogue. Mr. Pack
says:[72]--"I have never heard of the 6d. perforated, on laid paper. It
is catalogued in the Society's publication, but a copy, so far as I can
learn, has never been seen in Canada or in the United States."

[72] =London Philatelist, XVI=: 144.

We have been interested to track this stamp, and have apparently found
the original located in the Tapling collection, now housed at the
British Museum. In a catalog of the Canadian portion of this collection
by Gordon Smith,[73] we find two unused copies listed on _laid_ paper,
one marked "perf. 12" and the other "forged perf." The sequel is found
in the _American Journal of Philately_ for 1891[74] in the following
note:--

    There is no longer any mystery in regard to the origin of that
    _great rarity_! the perforated 6 pence on laid paper, these stamps
    having been perforated for four or five years in the shops of
    Messrs. Benjamin Sarpy & Co., Cullum street, London, who openly
    boast of having manufactured and sold those in the collection of the
    late Hon. T. K. Tapling and other prominent collectors.

[73] =The Stamp News, X=: 43.

[74] =American Journal of Philately=, 2d. Series, IV: 365.

The paper upon which the perforated pence series is found seems to give
further confirmation to the theory that they came from but one or
possibly two printings. Outside of the two lower values on ribbed paper,
which are rare, the series seems to be entirely on a hard, white wove
paper, varying in thickness from a medium to a thicker quality, which is
in every way similar to the paper employed for the succeeding cents
issue. On the thin ribbed paper the London Society (1889) and Messrs.
Corwin and King (1891) list the 1/2d. stamp, but this is not found in
the catalog of the Tapling collection already referred to, nor in the
Pack or Worthington collections; we have therefore listed it with a
query. The 3d. stamp we have seen, however, and Mr. Pack says it "is a
scarce stamp even in used condition, but in unused condition I find it
one of the great rarities of Canada."[75]

[75] =London Philatelist, XVI=: 144.

As noted under Chapter II,[76] the use of split stamps was not usual, as
in Nova Scotia, but Mr. King chronicles the 6d. perforated, in dark
violet, split diagonally and used as a 3d. in like manner to its
unperforated predecessor.

[76] See page 32.



CHAPTER V

THE CANCELLATIONS OF THE EARLY ISSUES


A rather interesting study, particularly for the collector of entires,
is that of postmarks and cancellations, and sometimes much assistance in
the solution of knotty questions is rendered by these often despised and
neglected adjuncts to the proper use of postage stamps.

The early cancellations of Canada have been the subject of some
attention, more so, in fact, than the postmarks, as they were required
to be used on the stamps while the postmark was struck on the cover,
where the date and place of mailing would be plainly visible. In one of
the early volumes of reports it is stated that "Office Stamps and Seals
were supplied from England on 21st July, 1851." It is presumed that this
included postmarks and cancellations.

It will be remembered, perhaps, that in the circular announcing the
issue of stamps in 1851[77] it was ordered that "Stamps so affixed are
to be immediately _cancelled_ ... with an instrument to be furnished for
that purpose." The first one so supplied was the "concentric rings"
cancellation, consisting of seven concentric circles and having an outer
diameter of 18 mm. This is the most common of all, being found from the
very earliest dates down to 1870, at least, as it occurs on the early
shades of the "small" cents issue. It was generally struck in black ink,
but may occasionally be found in a dull blue. A good illustration of
this cancellation is seen on the cover numbered 90 on Plate VI.

[77] See page 28.

By 1855, at least, a modified form of the concentric ring cancellation
was introduced. This had a number in the center in large figures, some 8
mm. high, with four concentric circles enclosing it, the outside
diameter being about 23 mm. This type was generally struck in black, but
is sometimes found in a dull blue also. It can be seen on the strip of
stamps numbered 81 on Plate V. The numbers, of course, were placed in
the cancellations with a definite purpose, and a little study of entire
covers shows that certain numbers were assigned to certain post
offices, as might be suspected. Number 21, for instance, is the most
common one and will be found to be connected with Montreal. Further
study will reveal the fact that the names of the post offices were taken
in alphabetical order, and the numbers assigned to them consecutively in
that way. Still further inspection develops the fact that most of the
post offices were those in Upper Canada (or Canada West), while but a
few of the most important ones were included from Lower Canada (or
Canada East.)

Mr. Edgar Nelton seems first to have made a study of these numbers in an
attempt to identify their corresponding post offices, and he published a
list of some twenty-two as the result of his examination of many
original covers.[78] The numbers run up to 52 at least, and using the
facts that we have deduced concerning the arrangement of the names, we
have endeavored to fill out his skeleton list with such offices as it
seems possible may yet be identified with the corresponding numbers. We
have done this with some assurance for the following reasons:--

[78] =Chicago Collectors' Monthly, II=: 21.

We were fortunately able to examine a Canada Directory for 1857-8, and
on looking up the postal information given therein, found a list of the
money order offices then existing. This was in two sections, the first
containing the names, alphabetically arranged, of 31 offices in "Class
No. 1," which included most of the principal cities and towns; and the
second a lengthy alphabetical list of offices in "Class No. 2." The
first section had a somewhat familiar appearance, and inspection showed
that a majority of the names on Mr. Nelton's list of numbered
cancellations were there in proper order! But 21 more names were needed,
according to the cancellation numbers, to fill out the latter series.
The second section was therefore examined for such towns as had the
largest populations and were presumably most important. The result
enabled more than one name, already on Mr. Nelton's list, to be fitted
in its proper place! Here, then, was apparently the solution of the
first series of numbered cancellations, and we hazard a guess that the
52 names are the original list of money order offices, arranged when the
money order system was instituted in February, 1855.

The subjoined table gives the list of post offices and their
corresponding numbers, which has been worked out along the lines above
mentioned. It is offered in the hope that more will be done to determine
positively the correspondence between the two. The names in ordinary
type are those that have been identified without any reasonable doubt;
those that have been fitted in tentatively are in italics. The Roman
numeral following indicates the Class to which the Money Order Office
belongs.


LIST OF NUMBERED CANCELLATIONS.

   1. _Barrie, U. C._              I
   2. Belleville, U. C.            I
   3. _Berlin, U. C._              I
   4. Bowmanville, U. C.           I
   5. Brantford, U. C.             I
   6. _Brighton, U. C._           II
   7. _Brockville, U. C._          I
   8. Chatham, U. C.               I
   9. _Clinton, U. C._            II
  10. _Cobourg, U. C._             I
  11. _Cornwall, U. C._            I
  12. _Dundas, U. C._              I
  13. Galt, U. C.                  I
  14. _Goderich, U. C._            I
  15. _Guelph, U. C._              I
  16. Hamilton, U. C.              I
  17. _Ingersoll, U. C._          II
  18. Kingston, U. C.              I
  19. London, U. C.                I
  20. Melbourne, L. C.            II
  21. Montreal, L. C.              I
  22. Napanee, U. C.              II
  23. _Napierville, L. C._        II
  24. _Newcastle, U. C._          II
  25. _Niagara, U. C._             I
  26. _Oakville, U. C._           II
  27. Ottawa, U. C.                I
  28. _Paris, U. C._               I
  29. Perth, U. C.                II
  30. Peterborough, U. C.          I
  31. Picton, U. C.               II
  32. _Port Dover, U. C._         II
  33. _Port Hope, U. C._           I
  34. Port Sarnia, U. C.          II
  35. Prescott, U. C.              I
  36. _Preston, U. C._            II
  37. Quebec, L. C.                I
  38. St. Catherines, U. C.        I
  39. _St. Hyacinthe, L. C._      II
  40. _St. Johns, L. C._          II
  41. _St. Thomas, U. C._          I
  42. _Sherbrooke, L. C._         II
  43. Simcoe, U. C.               II
  44. _Smith's Falls, U. C._      II
  45. Stanstead, L. C.            II
  46. Stratford, U. C.             I
  47. Three Rivers, L. C.          I
  48. _Toronto, U. C._             I
  49. Whitby, U. C.               II
  50. _Windsor, U. C._             I
  51. _Woodstock, U. C._           I
  52. _York, U. C._               II

It will be noticed, if Mr. Helton's list is compared with the above,
that there are a few discrepancies. He assigns Toronto to No. 24, which
is manifestly out of place. Owen Sound is given to No. 26, while 28
should be its location; the latter must be reserved for Paris, however,
which is a first class office where Owen Sound is but second class.
Richmond is given as No. 42, but as St. Catherines, a first class
office, has been identified as No. 38, there seems no place for the
second class office of Richmond, which should precede it alphabetically.
Niagara has been assigned to No. 23, but in such case it would
necessitate two blanks preceding Ottawa, so it seems that the proper
number should be 25. With these few exceptions no further trouble was
experienced in working out the list, and since it was drawn up Numbers
2, 4, 8, 38 and 49 have been identified and tallied exactly with it!
Such proof has gone far toward confirming our propositions in regard to
it, and we hope for more.

A third cancellation, which was apparently used mainly for newspapers
and packages, consisted of nine somewhat thick diagonal bars, the whole
impression having a square outline. This was generally struck in black,
but occasionally in dull blue.

Postmarks were supposed to be used only on the cover, where they would
plainly exhibit the story they were to tell, while the cancellation
marks were intended to deface the stamp. But sometimes the postmarks are
found used for the latter purpose. They seem to be mostly of two
varieties, both circular in outline, a larger one having the town name
in a curve above, with U. C., L. C., C. W., or C. E., at the bottom, and
arcs of two concentric circles filling in the outline between; a second
being smaller with a single arc of a circle filling in the outline. The
first variety is plainly shown on the cover numbered 90 on Plate VI, and
the second on the cover numbered 130 on Plate XIV. The date in the
center seems always to be given in full--month, day and year. The
postmarks are generally in black, as usual, but sometimes in dull blue.

Penmarked specimens are sometimes met with, but not often.

With the issue of 1859 the duplex mark seems to have been adopted, with
the postmark (the ordinary complete circle with the usual arrangement of
name, abbreviation of province and date) and the cancellation mark (a
series of parallel lines with a circular outline) on the same instrument
so as to be struck on the letter together.

With the 1868 issue for the Dominion we of course find the cancellations
of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, then British Columbia and finally
Prince Edward Island, all of which introduce complications. A new
cancellation, which seems to have been for the Dominion as a whole,
consisted of two heavy concentric circles containing a number. It is one
of this kind that Mr. Nelton refers to in his article as having the
number 627. A notable cancellation is one in the shape of a large maple
leaf.

An interesting and rare postmark which was found on the 3 cent of the
1868 issue, is thus written up by Mr. F. G. Bing[79]:--

[79] =The Postage Stamp, VII=: 6.

    The stamp had been obliterated with a small thick lined circle in
    which appear the words "WAY LETTER" in large type. Eventually a
    full account of the matter was obtained from the Canadian postal
    authorities.

    * * * * *

    POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.

    OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH.

  OTTAWA, 13th March, 1908.

    DEAR SIR:--Replying to your enquiry on the subject, as to the object
    of the post office mark consisting of a rather thick circle in which
    are the words "WAY LETTER" only, impressed upon a Canada postage
    stamp (3c.) similar to the one you enclosed, and which I herewith
    return, I find on enquiry that previous to the Confederation of the
    Dominion of Canada in 1867, there was in Nova Scotia and New
    Brunswick a regulation requiring mail couriers on the coach roads to
    accept letters for mailing, when these were offered them at a
    distance of not less than one or two miles from the nearest post
    office, to place them in a locked leather pouch provided for the
    purpose, and to post them at the first post office, the Postmaster
    of which was instructed to stamp these with the words "WAY LETTER."
    After Confederation this postmark lingered at some of the offices in
    the provinces named, when it was used for general cancellation
    purposes, if not for its primary purpose. It has now, however,
    wholly disappeared. Some think it lasted up to 1887 or 1891, but I
    am sorry I cannot furnish you with a more definite date as to its
    extinction.

   Very truly yours,
  E. P. STANTON, _Superintendent_.

    It will be seen from this interesting letter that the postmark was
    in the first instance applied to the postage stamps of Nova Scotia
    and New Brunswick, and it is quite possible that only upon the
    stamps of these two provinces does it possess its full original
    significance. At the same time it does not follow that the
    regulations under which this cancellation was in use were
    immediately withdrawn with the Confederation of the Dominion of
    Canada; and it is more than probable that the custom based upon
    these regulations of accepting letters from the public at a distance
    from a post office, and applying the special obliteration, would
    continue long after that date, as it is evident that the use of the
    "Way Letter" postmark was never definitely prohibited by the
    Canadian postal authorities, or the date of its extinction would not
    have been in doubt. It is, however, quite certain that only a
    comparatively small number of letters would be entitled to receive
    this special mark, and its rarity is therefore indisputable.

Various new varieties came with the "small" cents issue and later,
concerning which there is not so much of interest as in the earlier
years of the postal service; we therefore pass them by, remarking only
on the special "jubilee" machine cancellation which was used at Montreal
in 1897. This was of the "flag" form and somewhat ornate, bearing the
name "VICTORIA" and the dates "1837" and "1897."



CHAPTER VI

THE ISSUE OF 1859


With two valuations placed upon the cumbrous English monetary system
inherited by Canada from the Mother Country--"sterling" and
"currency"--and with the practical illustration of the advantages of the
decimal system manifest in all the transactions with its great southern
neighbor, whose currency was already legalized in the Province,[80] it
was only a question of time when Canada would adopt a decimal system of
its own. This was done, but all that interests us is the Decimal Postage
law resulting, which is as follows:--

[80] See page 52.

    22^o Vict. Cap. XVII.

    An Act to amend the Post Office Laws.

    [_Assented to 4th May, 1859._]

    Whereas it is expedient to amend the Post Office Laws, in the manner
    hereinafter provided: Therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice
    and consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of Canada,
    enacts as follows:

    1. There shall be payable on all Newspapers sent by Post in Canada,
    except "Exchange Papers" addressed to Editors and Publishers of
    Newspapers, such rate of Postage, not exceeding one cent on each
    such Newspaper, as the Governor in Council shall from time to time
    direct by regulation, and such rate shall be payable on all such
    Newspapers posted on or after the first day of July next.

    2. So much of any Act as provides that Newspapers posted within this
    Province shall pass free of Postage, in cases other than those in
    which they will be free under this Act, is hereby repealed.

    3. In order to adapt the operations of the Post Office to the
    Decimal Currency, the internal letter postage rate shall be changed
    from three pence to its equivalent of five cents, per half
    ounce--the charge for advertising a dead letter from three farthings
    to two cents--the charge for returning a dead letter to the writer,
    from one penny to three cents; and in all cases where a one
    half-penny or penny rate of Postage is chargeable, these rates shall
    be changed to one cent and two cents respectively.

    4. To promote simplicity and economy in the business of the Post
    Office, all letters posted in Canada for any place within the
    Province, and not prepaid, shall be charged seven instead of five
    cents per half ounce on delivery; and on letters posted for the
    British Mails, for the other British North American Provinces, or
    for the United States, when not prepaid, there shall be charged such
    addition to the ordinary rate, not in any case exceeding a double
    rate, as the Post Master General may agree upon with the Post Office
    Authorities of those Countries, for the purpose of enforcing
    prepayment.

    5. The Post Master General may establish a Parcel Post and parcels
    other than letters and not containing letters, may be sent by such
    Parcel Post, and when so sent shall be liable to such charges for
    conveyance and to such regulations as the Governor in Council shall
    from time to time see fit to make.

    * * * * *

    8. [_To inclose a letter in a parcel or a newspaper, posted as such,
    is a misdemeanor._]

From the above Act we see that the transmission of newspapers has again
been subjected to revision looking toward an increase of revenue, all
free transmission by post being now limited to exchange copies between
editors or publishers. The making of prepayment by stamps obligatory was
another step which had been quite strongly recommended in the last
Postmaster General's report in these terms:--

    No single improvement would be so valuable to the Post Office
    service as the introduction of the system of the pre-payment of
    letters by stamp. It is not recommended that pre-payment of letters
    should be made absolutely compulsory, but where stamps are readily
    procurable, pre-payment in that form should be insisted on, and the
    principle of pre-payment should be enforced by imposing an
    additional charge on letters posted unpaid.

By referring to the Act subsequently passed we see that these
recommendations were carried out to the letter.

In regard to the fifth section of the Act, concerning the Parcel Post,
we come across another example of the curious shuffling of dates and
apparent _ex post facto_ law making which we have previously noted. In
quoting the Postmaster General's report for _30th Sept., 1858_,[81] we
found it stated that the Parcel Post had been in operation "from _1st
January, 1859_," and now we have the Legislative Act providing for it
passed under date of _4th May, 1859_! This is going it one better on
"reading history backward" by actually making it backward! The reports
at least, as we previously deduced, were evidently written some time
after the dates given them and did not confine their record to
happenings previous to those fictitious dates. Confirmation of this is
furnished by the Postmaster General's report that we have to consider,
that of the Hon. Sydney Smith for the year ending 30th September, 1859,
the report being actually dated 20th February, 1860.

[81] See page 67.

       *       *       *       *       *

Further details concerning the Parcel Post are not given until the
Report for 30th June, 1864, where we read:--

    By means of the Parcel Post a parcel may be sent within the Province
    to or from any place, however remote from the ordinary lines of
    traffic conveyance, on prepayment of a postage rate of 25 cents per
    lb., provided that the weight or size of the parcel does not exceed
    the carrying capacity of an ordinary mail bag; and provided that the
    contents of the parcel are not of a character to injure the rest of
    the mail.

The rate is given in decimal currency, then in use, but at the time of
the establishment of the Parcel Post the equivalent rate would have been
1s. 3d. currency. In the Report for 1865 it is stated that:--

    The provisions of the Parcel Post have been extended to parcels
    passing between Canada and New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and
    parcels not containing letters may now be forwarded by post from one
    end of British North America to the other, on prepayment of a
    uniform rate of 25 cents per lb.

In the report for 1859, mentioned above, we find the following:--

    The Law of last Session directing the conversion of all postage
    rates into decimals, and the collection of postage in the new
    decimal currency, was put in operation on the 1st July.... Decimal
    stamps of the value of 1 cent, 5 cents, and 10 cents for ordinary
    correspondence, and of 12-1/2 cents for Canadian, and of 17 cents
    for British Packet Postage Rates were obtained in readiness for the
    commencement of the Decimal Postage Law in July, 1859, and have from
    that date been issued in lieu of the stamps previously in use.

The cents issue of Canadian stamps therefore dates from July 1, 1859.
The stamps themselves were merely an adaptation of the designs of the
pence series to the corresponding values of the decimal currency. The
ONE CENT stamp was unchanged from the half-penny except for the
substitution of the new for the former value. The FIVE CENTS stamp had
these words in place of the old denomination, with a quarterfoil
ornament separating them at each side from CANADA and POSTAGE. Oblique
figures 5 were placed in the spandrels on a cross-hatched ground
instead of the upright figures 3 on foliations. A similar change was
made in the TEN CENTS, Roman numerals X being placed obliquely in the
spandrels on a cross-hatched ground where upright figures 6 were
previously on foliations; while the new denomination was substituted for
the old. The sole change in the 12-1/2 cent stamp was to substitute
"12-1/2c." in the spandrels for the former values in sterling and
currency. The 17 cent stamp had the value in words replacing TEN PENCE,
but the new value was so much longer that the emblems between the old
value and CANADA POSTAGE were removed and replaced by two small elliptic
ornaments. "8d. stg." still occupies the upper spandrels, but figures 17
are placed in each of the lower ones. The central designs in each of the
above stamps are absolutely identical with those of the pence stamps
that preceded them--indeed the portrait and surrounding oval with
inscriptions on the 12-1/2 c. are all unchanged. From this it is evident
that the new dies were "built up" from the old ones, the central
portions being transferred and the required changes in surrounding
inscriptions, etc., being newly engraved. This was easy enough of
accomplishment since the American Bank Note Co., who furnished the new
stamps, were the successors of Messrs. Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and Edson,
the firm name having been changed on May 1, 1858, and the dies of the
pence issue were of course in their possession. Illustrations of the
five values will be found as Nos. 10, 15, 12, 13 and 14, respectively,
on Plate I.

There was one addition to the list of values in this set during its
period of use--a 2 cent stamp. In the Postmaster General's Report for
30th June, 1864, it is noted:--"A new Postage Stamp, of the value of two
cents, was added to the other denominations supplied, from the 1st.
August last [1864]." The Report for the succeeding year has this further
to say:--"A provision has been made for the transmission and delivery of
Canadian periodicals, addressed to the United Kingdom, at the reduced
rate of two cents each," and it was evidently largely on account of this
that the new stamp was ordered. Its design was unmistakably "built up"
as with the rest of the set, the 1 cent stamp serving as the model,
figures 2 being placed in ovals in the spandrels and the wording of the
value being changed to correspond. (Illustration No. 11 on Plate I). The
stamp was issued as stated on the 1st August, 1864.

All the stamps of this issue were, as before, line engraved and printed
in sheets of 100, ten rows of ten. The same style of marginal
inscriptions as in the first issue is found--"American Bank Note Co.
New-York" in minute letters of the type known as "diamond," repeated
twice in each margin, reading up on the left, down on the right, and
inverted at the bottom of the sheet. In the 1, 2, 5 and 12-1/2c. stamps
the imprint is placed against the third and eighth stamps of each
marginal row of ten, but from a block of 10c. at hand the inscriptions
in the case of this value are apparently "centered" over the space
between the third and fourth and the seventh and eighth stamps of each
marginal row, thus bringing them over two stamps instead of one.
Curiously enough, the 17c. value has no marginal inscriptions at all.

The same plate variety that occurs in the 3d. stamp--the "shifted
transfer" or "double strike"--is repeated in its successor, the 5c.
stamp. That it is a true plate variety is abundantly proved by the fine
block of seven stamps illustrated as No. 96 on Plate VII. The variety
will be found in the upper right corner stamp, and the doubling of the
frame lines at the left and of the oval frame line above CANADA will be
readily apparent. A single copy is illustrated as No. 19 on Plate I. It
seems to have been first noted by Mr. R. Wuesthoff in the _American
Journal of Philately_ for June, 1892.

A minor variety of the 5c. stamp printed from a worn plate is also to be
noted, in which the fine lines of the groundwork have almost
disappeared.

The entire series comes regularly perforated 12, the identical normal
perforation of the pence stamps that immediately preceded it, and which
we have endeavored to trace to the same source. The abnormal varieties
in this series are of course the imperforate ones, and of these we
present cuts of a full set in blocks of four, numbered 100 to 105 on
Plate IX. That the stamps were actually issued and used in this
condition is proved by copies of several with the proper postmarks of
the period in the Pack collection. Mr. Pack writes of them[82]:--

    I have the 1c. and 5c. postmarked in 1860 and 1861 at Toronto and
    Prescott, Canada West. I also believe that these varieties were on
    sale at Kingston, Canada West, at about that time. I have also the
    2c. and 10c. in undoubtedly early used condition.

[82] =London Philatelist, XVI=: 144.

Further varieties are formed by "split" stamps, as before, though these
were never authorized and seldom used. We are fortunate in being able to
illustrate two five cent stamps used with half of a third to make up the
12-1/2c. packet rate. This is No. 97 on Plate VII. The postmark is
unfortunately mostly torn away, but is evidently "Montreal," and the
last numeral in the year figures seems to be an "8," which would mean
"1868." A 10c. stamp also split and used for a 5c. is shown on the
entire as No. 99 on Plate VIII. The postmark is "Bowmanville, U.C., Feb.
15, 1860."

The normal colors for the stamps of this series may be given as 1 cent
deep rose, 2 cents dull rose, 5 cents deep red, 12-1/2 cents deep green,
and 17 cents Prussian blue. It will be noticed that we have omitted the
10 cents--and with reason. If the 6 pence stamp of the preceding issue
was difficult to select a normal color for, how shall we find one for
its successor? Messrs. Corwin and King say[83]:--"The most surprising
fact about this issue is the vast number of colors and shades to be
found in the 10 cents. We have several hundreds of them in our
collection, and are continually adding new color varieties." They run
all the way from a bright red lilac through shades of violet and brown
to a black brown, which is so dark and distinct that it has for years
been catalogued separately.

[83] =Metropolitan Philatelist, II=: 3.

The paper on which these stamps were printed does not show as much
variation as in the previous issue. Mr. King[84] gives a list of five
varieties, all of which vary considerably in thickness. It seems
sufficient for our purposes, however, to list them under three heads as
ordinary wove paper, a thick, hard wove paper, and ribbed paper.

[84] =Monthly Journal, VII=: 32.

These stamps were in issue from the 1st July 1859, until the series
issued for the new Dominion of Canada appeared on 1st April, 1868. The
stamp accounts in the various Postmaster General's Reports give the
quantities received and issued, and we present here a summary of these
tables as their reproduction entire would serve no useful purpose unless
to show the increase in the consumption of stamps from year to year as
the postal business increased.

  _Received from_
     _manufacturers_:       1c.         5c.        10c.     12-1/2c.    17c.
  quarter ending
       30th Sept. 1859   1,000,400   1,000,089    200,000    200,000   50,000
  year ending
       30th Sept. 1860   2,000,050   2,499,986    300,000    300,000   50,000
  year ending
      30th Sept. 1861    2,200,100   3,400,300    499,998    199,996   50,000
  year ending
      30th Sept. 1862    2,799,900   3,300,350    400,000    399,996   50,000
  year ending
       30th Sept. 1863   3,500,200   4,300,450    600,050    300,000  100,000
  9mos. ending
       30th June 1864    3,000,000   3,999,999    800,000    399,990   49,999
  year ending
       30th June 1865    3,064,800   4,890,598    700,000    676,600  100,000
  year ending
      30th June 1866     3,910,000   8,100,000    800,000    400,100   50,000
  year ending
       30th June 1867    5,100,000   5,100,500    999,650    299,950  100,000
  year ending
       30th June 1868   (?)900,000   3,199,900    400,000       ?      ......
                        ----------   ---------    -------  ---------  -------
     Totals             27,475,450  39,792,172  5,799,698  3,176,632  599,999

The yearly supplies of the 2 cent stamps, first appearing in the 1865
accounts, were as follows:--

  1865   360,000
  1866   300,000
  1867   200,500
  1868    50,000(?)
         -------
  Total  910,500

Unfortunately the stamp accounts for 1868 do not separate the supplies
received in the old and new designs, so that in the case of the 1, 2 and
12-1/2 cent stamps, which appear in both issues, the quantity delivered
by the manufacturers is a total which we cannot divide with certainty.
An approximation may perhaps be made, particularly with the 2 cent
stamp. The balance of this value on hand 30th June, 1867, was 171,000,
and the deliveries in the year ending 30th June, 1868, were 2,050,000.
Inasmuch as the yearly issue of this value had been some 250,000, the
probability is that the odd 50,000 delivered belonged to the 1859
series, as this would make 221,000 for the nine month's supply to 1st
April; the even two millions were doubtless the order for the new
series. The yearly issue of the 1 cent had been some 3-1/2 to 4
millions; if from the 2,900,000 received, according to the 1868 Report,
we take the odd 900,000, we find it makes 3,308,900 when combined with
the balance on hand in 1867. This gives a sufficient supply for the nine
months of the old issue and leaves an even two millions again for the
new series. The 12-1/2 cent presents a slightly different aspect. The
yearly issue had been some 400,000, and the amount on hand in 1867 was
385,750--without doubt a plentiful supply for the nine months preceding
the issue of the new stamps. It must be remembered, also, in all these
cases, that the "amount on hand" was that of the Department's stock, and
that the postmasters were of course in possession of local stocks. It
therefore seems probable that the 500,000 12-1/2 cent stamps received in
1868 were of the new series alone. The 5 and 10 cent stamps, however,
which are lacking in the new set, can at once be added to their
preceding deliveries, and it will be noted that no further supplies of
the 17c. stamp were required during the year.

We find in the Department accounts that the American Bank Note Co. was
paid $1331.70 for "engraving postage stamps" during the fiscal year,
which was the final settlement with that Company.

What became of the remainder of the old issue does not appear, but it
seems probable that they were largely used up in the course of regular
business, as no object would be gained by turning in the relatively
small quantities remaining, for accounting and destruction, unless it be
the 17 cent value, which had become rather useless. Curiously enough,
the stamp accounts _do_ separate the old and new issues in the "balance
on hand, 30th June, 1868," which was three months after the appearance
of the new set. These figures are as follows:--

   1 cent        319,900
   2 cents           700
   5 cents       138,400
  10 cents        60,650
  12-1/2 cents    68,750
  17 cents        33,876

Glancing now over the Postmaster General's reports for the years
1859-1868, during which the above issue was in use, and which were the
last years of the strictly provincial control, we find many items of
interest.

In the report for 1859 it is noted that "the issue and use by the public
of Postage Stamps has increased with great rapidity since last return,"
and the issue of stamped envelopes "for the promotion of public
convenience" is announced. These will be treated of by themselves in a
later chapter. We find the experiment was made of placing street letter
boxes in Toronto, and "with very encouraging results as to the extent to
which the number of letters posted in these boxes would appear to
demonstrate their usefulness. These Pillar Boxes are visited, at least
twice each day, at suitable hours, by Post Office Messengers, in order
to convey the letters deposited in them to the Post Office."
Preparations were also being made to install letter boxes in Montreal
and Quebec.

The Department accounts have the following entries:--

  Rawdon, Wright & Co., supply of letter and newspaper stamps     $238.69
  American Bank Note Co., engraving letter and newspaper stamps   1487.40

Of course the amounts all went to the same concern, as the firm name had
been changed on May 1, 1858, as already noted.

The report for 1860 contains interesting statistical information
concerning the growth of the Department, which it may be well to put on
record:--

  Year  No. of   Miles of  No. of letters  Postal Revenue     Remarks
       Offices.    Post      by Post       (deducting
                  Route.     per annum.    dead letters.)
  1851   601      7,595      2,132,000

  1852   840      8,618      3,700,000    $230,629.00   {First year of
                                                        { account under
                                                        { Provincial control.
  1853  1016      9,122      4,250,000     278,587.00   {Charge on
                                                        { newspapers
                                                        { reduced one-half.
  1854  1166     10,027      5,100,000     320,000.00

  1855  1293     11,192      6,000,000     368,166.00   {Newspapers conveyed
                                                        { without charge.
  1856  1375     11,839      7,000,000     374,295.00

  1857  1506     13,253      8,500,000     462,163.00

  1858  1566     13,600      9,000,000     541,153.00

  1859  1638     13,871      8,500,000     678,426.98

  1860  1698     14,202      9,000,000     658,451.99   {Additional 2c. rate
                                                        { on unpaid letters
                                                        { and charge
                                                        { made on newspapers.

The Report continues:--

    From the experience of the past, the confident hope may be
    entertained that, by a wise and judicious economy, (and without
    withholding from newly settled portions of the country, the Postal
    accommodations without which the settlement of the country cannot
    advance), in a comparatively short space of time the Postage upon
    letters may be reduced from the present five cent to a _three cent
    rate_, as near an approach to the Penny sterling postage system of
    the Mother Country as the relative value of our currency will
    conveniently permit.

It was eight years before these hopes were realized, however.

The "epistolary intercourse with the United States" is given for the
same period, but we need only note that the postal value of the total
correspondence exchanged was $83,630.97 in 1852, had increased to
$187,469.59 in 1857, and then dropped gradually to $178,132.39 in 1860.
The Report says:--

    The prepayment of letters passing between the two countries
    continues optional on either side, at the combined rate of 10 cents
    per 1/2 oz. from any place in Canada to any place in the United
    States and _vice versa_, except to or from the States on the
    Pacific, California and Oregon, when the rate is 15 cents per 1/2
    oz.

The accounts present a charge in favor of the American Bank Note Co. of
$1697.95 "for engraving Letter and Newspaper stamps and Stamped
Envelopes." Of the latter we shall have more to say in their proper
place.

The Reports of 1861 and 1862 contain nothing special, and the accounts
show payments of $1451.87 and $1583.63 respectively to the American Bank
Note Co.

The Report of 1863 states that in November of that year an agreement
was entered into with the United States for the transmission between the
two countries of seeds, bulbs, etc., at 1 cent per ounce, and also book
manuscripts, printers' proof sheets, maps, prints, etc., at the same
rate.

In January 1864, the Imperial Post Office extended to the mails between
Canada and the United Kingdom regulations conceding patterns of
merchandise and trade samples at the same rates as books and printed
matter.

The American Bank Note Co. was paid $1946.62.

The next Report is dated 30th June, 1864, instead of the usual 30th
September, and is therefore for nine months only. This was done to bring
the fiscal year of the Post Office Department to correspond with the
financial year of the General Government.

The enactment which was the cause of the change follows:--


    27^o--28^o Vict. Cap. VI.

    An Act to amend the Law respecting the Public Accounts, and the
    Board of Audit.

    (_Assented to 30th June, 1864_)

    10. It shall be the duty of the Board of Audit to prepare and submit
    to the Minister of Finance the Public Accounts to be annually laid
    before Parliament.

    11. The said Public Accounts shall include the period from the
    thirtieth of June in one year to the thirtieth of June in the next
    year, which period shall constitute the Financial Year....

There is nothing particular in the Report for these nine months to quote
here, except the payment of the relatively small sum of $619.25 to the
American Bank Note Co.

The Report for 1865 states that "Regulations have been adopted
establishing a sample and pattern post in Canada, and packets of trade
samples, or patterns of merchandise, may be sent by post between any
places within this Province, on prepayment of one cent per ounce, under
certain conditions to prevent an abuse of the privilege." It further
announces that "Street Letter boxes are being placed in all the
principal streets of Montreal."

The Reports of 1866 and 1867 were published together, but contain little
of interest beyond the statistics we have already used. Payments to the
American Bank Note Co. were $2630.11 in 1866 and $1699.03 in 1867. The
final payment to the American Co., which we have already quoted from the
1868 report, was $1331.70. We read that "The street letter boxes put up
in the city of Montreal have worked satisfactorily. The number of
letters and papers posted therein weekly, appeared from returns taken
to be, Letters 2400, Papers 500, or at the rate of 150,000 letters and
papers per annum."

Authority to establish letter boxes was given by an Act of Parliament
which contains several other matters of interest and which we therefore
quote.

    29^o--30^o Vict. Cap. XI.

    An Act to amend the Post Office Act.

    [_Assented to 15th August, 1866._]

    Whereas the more effectually to prevent frauds upon the Post Office
    Revenue, it is expedient to amend the Post Office Act: Therefore,
    Her Majesty, by and with the consent of the Legislative Council and
    Assembly of Canada, enacts as follows:

    1. If any person uses or attempts to use in payment of postage on
    any letter or mailable thing posted in this Province, any postage
    stamp which has been before used for a like purpose, such person
    shall be subjected to a penalty of not less than Ten and not
    exceeding Forty dollars for every such offense, and the letter or
    other mailable thing on which such stamp has been so improperly used
    may be detained, or in the discretion of the Postmaster General
    forwarded to its destination charged with double the postage to
    which it would have been liable if posted unpaid.

    2. [_To enclose a letter in a parcel, packet of samples or
    newspaper, posted an such, shall be an offense punishable by a fine
    of not less than ten or more than forty dollars in each case._]

    3. The Postmaster General may grant licenses, revocable at pleasure,
    to Agents, other than Postmasters, for the sale to the Public, of
    Postage Stamps and Stamped envelopes, and may allow to such Agents a
    commission not exceeding five per cent, on the amount of their
    sales;--and it shall not be lawful for any person to exercise the
    business of selling Postage Stamps or Stamped envelopes to the
    Public unless duly licensed to do so by the Postmaster General and
    under such conditions as he may prescribe: and any person who shall
    violate this provision by selling Postage Stamps or Stamped
    envelopes to the public without a license from the Postmaster
    General, shall on conviction before a Justice of the Peace, incur a
    penalty of not exceeding forty dollars for each offence.

    * * * * *

    5. The Postmaster General may, when in his judgment the public
    convenience requires it, establish Street Letter Boxes or Pillar
    Boxes for the reception of letters and other mailable matter in the
    streets of any City or Town in this Province, and from the time that
    a letter is deposited in any such Street Letter Box or Pillar Box it
    shall be deemed to be a Post Letter within the meaning of the Post
    Office Act.

    6. [_Wilfully injuring such letter boxes is a misdemeanor._]

    * * * * *

    8. The Governor in Council may, by regulations to be from time to
    time made, provide for the transmission through the Mails of this
    Province, of patterns and samples of merchandise and goods for
    sale, and of packages of seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots and scions or
    grafts, on such terms and conditions as may be set forth in such
    regulations.

    9. [_Wilfully destroying, damaging or detaining any of above
    articles is a misdemeanor._]

The only other item to quote from the report of 1867 is the
following:--"On 1st July, 1867 the Union Act came into operation, and
brought under one central administration the Postal Service throughout
the Dominion." With this statement we close the account of the Postal
history of the Province of Canada, and in the next chapter open up the
larger one of the Dominion of Canada, whose later issues, though not
without interest, still lack the charm that time can never tear from the
simple, yet dignified and beautiful stamps of the Province.



CHAPTER VII

THE DOMINION OF CANADA


PRELIMINARY.

As outlined in our Introductory Chapter, the union of Upper and Lower
Canada into the single Province of Canada had been so manifestly
advantageous that it started an agitation for the union of all the
British North American provinces. The result was a convention, held at
Quebec in 1864, which drafted a proposed Constitution that was later
embodied by the British Parliament in "An Act for the Union of Canada,
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and the Government thereof,"[85] which
was passed on the 29th March, 1867. The preamble recites that "the
provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick have expressed their
desire to be federally united into One Dominion under the Crown of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with a Constitution similar
in Principle to that of the United Kingdom." The Act is cited in brief
as "The British North America Act 1867," and provides that the Dominion
of Canada shall be divided into four provinces named Ontario, Quebec,
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; that there shall be a Governor General
who may select his own Privy Council; that there shall be a Parliament
consisting of a Senate, with members appointed by the Governor General
for life, and a House of Commons of elected representatives; that the
seat of Government shall be at Ottawa; that each Province shall have a
Lieutenant Governor appointed by the Governor General and a local
legislature similar to the Dominion Parliament; and making provision for
the admission of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, British Columbia
and Rupert's Land and the North-western Territory. The Act took effect
on the 1st July, 1867, which day is annually observed as "Dominion Day."

[85] 30^o--31^o Vict. Cap. III.

The first Parliament of Canada, which convened at Ottawa on November 6,
1867, was naturally largely concerned in revising and consolidating the
laws of the various Provinces, and among these of course appeared the
Post Office Laws. A number of changes were introduced, but many of the
provisions of former Acts were embodied almost as they stood in the new
statute. We reproduce its most important features in our line of
inquiry.

    31^o Vict. Cap. X.

    An Act for the regulation of the Postal Service.

    [_Assented to 21st. December_, 1867.]

    Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and
    House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:


    PRELIMINARY--INTERPRETATION.

    1. This Act shall be known and may be cited as _The Post Office Act_
    1867; and the following terms and expressions therein shall be held
    to have the meaning hereinafter assigned to them....

    The term "Letter" includes Packets of Letters;

    The term "Postage" means the duty or sum chargeable for the
    conveyance of Post Letters, Packets and other things by Post;

    The term "Foreign Country" means any country not included in the
    dominions of Her Majesty;

    The term "Foreign Postage" means the postage on the conveyance of
    Letters, Packets or other things, within any Foreign Country or
    payable to any Foreign Government;

    The term "Canada Postage" means the postage on the conveyance of
    Letters, Packets and other things by Post within the Dominion of
    Canada or by Canada Mail Packet;

    The term "Mail" includes every conveyance by which Post Letters are
    carried, whether it be by land or by water;

    The term "British Packet Postage" means the postage due on the
    conveyance of letters by British Packet Boats, between the United
    Kingdom and British North America;--And the term "British Postage"
    includes all Postage not being Foreign, Colonial or Canadian;

    * * * * *

    The term "Post Letter" means any letter transmitted or deposited in
    any Post Office to be transmitted by the Post;--And a letter shall
    be deemed a Post Letter from the time of its being so deposited or
    delivered at a Post Office, to the time of its being delivered to
    the party to whom it is addressed....

    2. All Laws in force in the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia or New
    Brunswick, at the Union thereof on the first of July, one thousand
    eight hundred and sixty-seven, in respect to the Postal Service, and
    continued in force by the "British North America Act 1867," shall be
    and the same are hereby repealed.

    * * * * *

    ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL PROVISIONS.

    7. There shall be at the seat of Government of Canada a Post Office
    Department for the superintendence and management of the Postal
    Service of Canada, under the direction of a Postmaster General.

    8. The Postmaster General shall be appointed by Commission under the
    Great Seal of Canada, and shall hold his office during pleasure.

    * * * * *

    10. The Postmaster General may, subject to the provisions of this
    Act:

    1. Establish and close Post Offices and Post Routes;

    * * * * *

    3. Enter into and enforce all contracts relating to the conveyance
    of the Mails or other business of the Post Office;

    4. [_Make regulations concerning mailable matter and limits of
    weight and dimensions of such._]

    5. [_Establish rates of postage and conditions on matter not already
    provided for._]

    6. Cause to be prepared and distributed Postage Stamps, necessary
    for the prepayment of Postages under this Act, also stamped
    envelopes for the like purpose;

    7. [_Make arrangements concerning Posts and Postal business with
    postal authorities outside of Canada._]

    * * * * *

    11. Prescribe and enforce such Regulations as to letters directed to
    be registered as to him may seem necessary, in respect to the
    registration of letters and other matter passing by Mail, as well
    between places in Canada, as between Canada and the United Kingdom,
    any British Possession, the United States or any other Foreign
    Country, and to the charge to be made for the same; and also in
    respect to the registration by the officers of the Post Office of
    letters unquestionably containing money or other valuable enclosure
    when posted without registration by the senders of the same, and to
    imposing a rate of two cents registration charge upon such letters;

    * * * * *

    14. Establish and provide Street Letter Boxes or Pillar Boxes or
    Boxes of any other description for the receipt of letters and such
    other mailable matter as he may deem expedient, in the streets of
    any City or Town in Canada, or at any Railway Station or other
    public place where he may consider such Letter Boxes to be
    necessary;

    15. Grant licenses revocable at pleasure, to Agents other than
    Postmasters, for the sale to the Public of Postage Stamps and
    Stamped Envelopes, and allow to such Agents a commission of not
    exceeding five per cent, on the amount of their sales.

    RATES OF POSTAGE.

    19. On all letters transmitted by Post for any distance within
    Canada, except in cases herein otherwise specially provided for,
    there shall be charged and paid one uniform rate of three cents per
    half ounce in weight, any fraction of an ounce being chargeable as a
    half ounce, provided that such three cents postage rate be prepaid
    by postage stamps or in current coin at the time of posting such
    letters; and when such letters are posted without prepayment being
    made thereon, then and in such case it shall be lawful to charge
    upon letters so posted unpaid a rate of five cents per half ounce.

    20. On letters not transmitted through the mails, but posted and
    delivered at the same Post Office, commonly known as local or drop
    letters, the rate shall be one cent, to be in all cases prepaid by
    postage stamp affixed to such letters.

    21. [_Seamen and Soldiers, etc. in Her Majesty's service, entitled
    to receive and send letters on payment of a certain special sum in
    lieu of all British postage, shall be freed likewise from Canadian
    postage._]

    22. The rate of postage upon newspapers printed and published in
    Canada, and issued not less frequently than once a week, from a
    known office of publication, and sent to regular subscribers in
    Canada by mail, shall be as follows: upon each such newspaper, when
    issued once a week, the rate for each quarter of a year, commencing
    on the first of January, first of April, first of July, or first of
    October of each year, shall be five cents, when issued twice a week,
    ten cents, when issued three times a week, fifteen cents, when
    issued six times a week, thirty cents, and in that proportion,
    adding one rate of five cents for each issue more frequent than once
    a week; and such postage must be pre-paid in advance from the first
    day of the quarter from which the payment commences, for a term of
    not less than a quarter of a year: ... provided, nevertheless, that
    _Exchange Papers_, addressed by one editor or publisher of a
    newspaper to another editor or publisher, may be sent by Post free
    of charge.

    23. On all newspapers sent by Post in Canada, except in the cases
    hereinbefore expressly provided for, there shall be payable a rate
    not exceeding two cents each, and when such newspapers are posted in
    Canada this rate shall in all cases be prepaid by postage stamp
    affixed to the same.

    24. For the purposes of this Act, the word "Newspapers" shall be
    held to mean periodicals published not less frequently than once in
    each week, and containing notices of passing events.

    25. The rate of postage upon periodical publications, other than
    newspapers, shall be one cent per four ounces, or half a cent per
    number, when such periodicals weigh less than one ounce and are
    posted singly, and when such periodical publications are posted in
    Canada, these rates shall in all cases be prepaid by postage stamps
    affixed to the same.

    26. On books, pamphlets, occasional publications, printed circulars,
    prices current, handbills, book and newspaper manuscript, printer's
    proof sheets whether corrected or not, maps, prints, drawings,
    engravings, photographs when not on glass, in cases containing
    glass, sheet music whether printed or written, packages of seeds,
    cuttings, bulbous roots, scions or grafts, patterns or samples of
    merchandize or goods, the rate of postage shall be one cent per
    ounce; provided that no letter or other communication intended to
    serve the purpose of a letter be sent or enclosed therein, and that
    the same be sent in covers open at the ends or sides or otherwise so
    put up as to admit of inspection by the Officers of the Post Office
    to ensure compliance with this provision--and this postage rate
    shall be prepaid by postage stamps in all cases when such articles
    are posted in Canada.

    27. [_Foregoing rates subject to such conditions as may be agreed
    upon between Canada and any other country._]

    28. [_Postage on unpaid letters is due from addressee, or if refused
    may be recovered with costs by civil action from sender._ (See
    13^o--14^o Vict. Cap. 17, Sec. 12.)]

    29. In all cases where letters and other mailable matter are posted
    for places without the limits of Canada, on which stamps for
    pre-payment are affixed of less value than the true rate of Postage
    to which such letters are liable,--or when stamps for prepayment are
    affixed to letters addressed to any place as aforesaid for which
    prepayment cannot be taken in Canada,--the Postmaster General may
    forward such letters, charged with postage, as if no stamp had been
    affixed.

    30. And for avoiding doubts, and preventing inconvenient delay in
    the posting and delivery of letters,--no Postmaster shall be bound
    to give change, but the exact amount of the postage on any letter or
    other mailable matter shall be tendered or paid to him in current
    coin as respects letters or other things delivered, and in current
    coin or postage stamps as the case may require in respect to the
    letters or other things posted.

    31. [_The Postmaster General may make reasonable compensation to
    Masters of vessels not Post Office Packets for conveyance of ship
    letters from foreign ports to Canada._]

    32. [_Postmaster General has exclusive privilege of collecting,
    conveying and delivering letters, etc._; $20 _penalty for
    infraction_. (See 13^o--14^o Vict. Cap. XVII. Sec. 9.)]

    * * * * *

    35. [_The Postmaster General may employ Letter Carriers, and charge
    two cents for delivery of a letter and one cent for a newspaper or
    pamphlet._ (See 14^o--15^o Vict. Cap. LXXI. Sec. 15.)]

    36. It shall be lawful for the Postmaster General, with the consent
    of the Governor in Council, to establish in any city, when he shall
    deem it expedient, a system of free delivery by Letter Carrier of
    letters brought by mail and he may direct that from the time that
    such system is established, no charge shall be made for the delivery
    of such letters by Letter Carriers in such city, and further that on
    drop or local letters when delivered by Letter Carrier in such city,
    one cent only per half ounce shall be charged in addition to the
    ordinary local or drop letter rate.

    37. [_Postmaster General may establish a parcel post._ (See 22^o
    Vict. Cap. XVII. Sec. 5.)]

    38. [_Usual franking of official matter._ (See 18^o Vict. Cap.
    LXXIX. Secs. 4, 5, 6, 7 and 24^o Vict. Cap. XXV. Sec. 6), _but
    limited to transmission in Canada_.]

    * * * * *

    40. Letters, or other articles, which from any cause remain
    undelivered in any Post Office, or which having been posted, cannot
    be forwarded by post, shall under such regulations as the Postmaster
    General may make, be transmitted by Postmasters to the Post Office
    Department as Dead Letters, there to be opened and returned to the
    writers on payment of any postage due thereon, with five cents
    additional on each Dead Letter to defray the costs of returning the
    same, or such Dead Letters may in any case or class of cases be
    otherwise disposed of as the Postmaster General may direct.

    * * * * *

    77. [_Stealing mail matter or forging stamps, etc._, (see 13^o--14^o
    Vict. Cap. XVII. Sec. 16) _is a felony. Stealing or damaging printed
    matter, package of merchandise, etc., or enclosing a letter in other
    mail matter, or obstructing mails is a misdemeanor_.]

    Sub. sec. 16. To remove with fraudulent intent from any letter,
    newspaper or other mailable matter, sent by Post, any postage stamp
    which shall have been affixed thereon, or wilfully, with intent
    aforesaid remove from any postage stamp which shall have been
    previously used, any mark which shall have been made thereon at any
    Post Office, shall be a misdemeanor.

    * * * * *

    81. If any person uses or attempts to use in prepayment of postage
    on any letter or other mailable matter posted in this Province, any
    postage stamp which has been before used for a like purpose, such
    person shall be subject to a penalty of not less than Ten and not
    exceeding Forty dollars for every such offense, and the letter or
    other mailable matter on which such stamp has been so improperly
    used may be detained, or in the discretion of the Postmaster General
    forwarded to its destination charged with double postage.

    * * * * *

    91. This Act shall come into operation on the first day of April,
    one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight.

Although the above Act gives most of the groundwork upon which the Post
Office Department of Canada has since been operated, save of course the
changes in detail that will be noted in their proper places, yet it
seems advisable, in spite of some possible repetition, to quote the
larger part of the Instructions sent out to Postmasters in preparation
for the impending changes, because of additional details to be found
therein.

    TO ALL POSTMASTERS, AND OTHER PERSONS EMPLOYED IN THE POSTAL SERVICE
    OF CANADA:

    DEPARTMENT ORDER NO. 2.

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
      OTTAWA, 1ST MARCH, 1868.

    The Post Office Act, passed on the 21st December, 1867, for the
    regulation of the Postal Service, will come into operation
    throughout the Dominion on and from the 1st April, 1868.

    A copy of the Statute, and of the General Regulations founded
    thereon, will be forwarded to every Postmaster, whether in charge of
    a regular Post-Office, Way Office or Sub-Office, and to every
    Railway Mail Clerk; meanwhile the following summary of the principal
    provisions of the Act, as affecting the organization of the
    Department, in relation to the several Provinces of the Dominion,
    the postage rates to be charged from and after the 1st. April, etc.,
    etc., is supplied for the information of Postmasters and other
    persons employed in the Post Office Service of Canada.

    ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT.

    1. The Superintendence and Management of the Postal Service of
    Canada is vested in the Post Office Department, at the seat of
    Government, Ottawa, under the direction of the Postmaster General of
    Canada.

    2. Subject to the directions of the Postmaster General, the general
    management of the business of the Department will be with the Deputy
    Postmaster General of Canada.

    3. The local Superintendence of Post Office business, and
    performance of such duties as are assigned to them by the Statute,
    or entrusted to them from time to time by the Postmaster General,
    will be confided to the Post Office Inspectors, of whom there are
    seven, stationed and exercising their powers and functions in the
    undermentioned Postal Divisions.

        _Postal Division._                   _Post Office Address._

      Nova Scotia                                       Halifax, N. S.
      New Brunswick and the Bay
        Chaleurs, Coast of Gaspé         Frederickton, for the present
      Province of Quebec, as far West as Three Rivers           Quebec
      Province of Quebec, from Three Rivers Westward          Montreal
      Province of Ontario, as far as Cobourg                  Kingston
      Province of Ontario, from Cobourg to Hamilton            Toronto
      Province of Ontario, from Hamilton Westward               London
      */

      /#
      4. All Postmasters, including Way Office and Sub-Office Keepers,
      are continued in Office, and all Bonds and Mail Contracts continued
      in force, subject to the ordinary conditions of such appointments and
      engagements, and to the future action of the Department.

      PRINCIPAL RATES OF POSTAGE.

      LETTERS.

      5. On letters passing between any two places within the Dominion
      of Canada, a uniform rate, (irrespective of distance) of three
      cents per 1/2 oz., if prepaid; and five cents per 1/2 oz., if posted
      unpaid.

      6. On letters between any place in the Dominion and any place in
      the United States, 6 cents per 1/2 oz., if prepaid; and 10 cents per
      1/2 oz., if posted unpaid.

       7. On letters to or from the United Kingdom, in Mails by Canada
      Packets, to or from Quebec in summer, or Portland in winter; or by
      Mail Packet to or from Halifax, 12-1/2 cents per 1/2 oz.
      #/

      On do. in Mails via New York Packet                15 cents per 1/2 oz.
      On letters to Prince Edward Island, if prepaid,     3   "    "  do
                                    if posted unpaid,     5   "    "  do
      On letters to Newfoundland, to be in all cases
                                             prepaid, 12-1/2  "    "  do
      On letters to British Columbia and Vancouver
      Island, in all cases to be prepaid,                10   "    "  do
        On letters to Red River,
                          to be in all cases prepaid,     6   "    "  do
        On letters to Red River,
                          to be in all cases prepaid,     6   "    "  do

    NEWSPAPER RATES.

    8. Newspapers printed and published in Canada may be sent by Post
    from the office of publication to any place in Canada at the
    following rates, if paid quarterly in advance, either by the
    Publisher, at the Post Office where the papers are posted or by the
    subscriber, at the Post Office where the papers are  delivered:--

      For a paper published once a week    5 cents per quarter of a year.
            do              twice a week  10        do
            do              three times   15        do
            do              six times     30        do

    If the above rates are prepaid by the Publisher, the Postmaster
    receiving payment must be careful to have the papers so prepaid
    separately put up, and marked, distinctly, as prepaid.

    When the above rates are not prepaid in advance, by either the
    Publisher at the Office of posting or by the subscriber at the
    Office of delivery, the papers are to be charged one cent each on
    delivery.

    9. Canadian Newspapers, addressed from the Office of publication to
    subscribers in the United Kingdom, the United States, Prince Edward
    Island and Newfoundland, may be forwarded, on prepayment at the
    Office in Canada where posted, at the above commuted rates,
    applicable to such papers within the Dominion.

    10. Exchange Papers passing between publishers in Canada, and
    between publishers in Canada and publishers in the United States,
    Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, are to pass free--one copy of
    each paper to each publisher.

    11. Transient Newspapers include all Newspapers posted in Canada,
    other than Canada Newspapers sent from the Office of publication,
    and when addressed to any place within the Dominion, to the United
    Kingdom, to the United States, Prince Edward Island or Newfoundland,
    must be prepaid two cents each by postage stamp.

    12. Newspapers coming into Canada will be subject to the following
    charges on delivery:

        If from the United Kingdom, by mail packet to Quebec, Halifax or
        Portland--Free on delivery.

        By mails viâ the United States (New York), Two cents each.

        If from the United States, two cents each, to be rated at the
        Canada Frontier, or exchange Office receiving mails from the
        United States.

        If from Prince Edward Island or Newfoundland, when received by
        regular subscribers in Canada from the Office of publication,
        the ordinary commuted rates applicable to Canada Newspapers.

        Transient Papers--two cents each.

    13. The Canada Postage rates on Newspapers coming or going to the
    United Kingdom and the United States, will thus be the same as those
    charged in the United Kingdom and the United States on Newspapers
    there received from or sent to Canada.

    14. Canada News Agents may post to regular subscribers in Canada,
    British Newspapers free, and United States Newspapers unpaid, such
    papers in the latter case, must be duly rated two cents each for
    collection on delivery.

    PRINTED PAPERS, CIRCULARS, PRICES CURRENT, HAND BILLS, BOOKS,
    PAMPHLETS.

    15. The rate on printed matter of this description posted in Canada,
    and addressed to any place in Canada, Prince Edward Island,
    Newfoundland or the United States, will be one cent per ounce, to be
    prepaid by Postage Stamp; and a like rate will be payable on
    delivery, when received from the United States, Prince Edward Island
    or Newfoundland.

    PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS.

    16. When posted in Canada for any place in Canada, Prince Edward
    Island, Newfoundland or the United States, the rate will be one cent
    per four ounces.

    17. A like rate will be payable on delivery in Canada, when received
    from the United States, Prince Edward Island or Newfoundland.

    18. Periodicals weighing less than one ounce per number, when posted
    in Canada for any place within the Dominion, Prince Edward Island,
    Newfoundland or the United States may, when put up singly, pass for
    one half cent per number, to be prepaid by Postage Stamp.

    19. As the Postage Rates on Periodicals, other than Newspapers, will
    be payable in advance, and as certain classes of such periodicals,
    printed and published in Canada, and sent from the office of
    publication to regular subscribers, have for some time past been
    exempted from postage where exclusively devoted to the education of
    youth, to temperance, agriculture and science, or for other reasons,
    it is ordered, that with respect to periodicals which do now enjoy
    this privilege or exemption, the exemption shall continue until the
    expiration of the current year--that is until the 31st December,
    1868, and that from the 1st. January, 1869, all such special
    exemptions and privileges shall cease.

    PARCEL POST.

    20. The rate on Parcels, by Parcel Post, will be 12-1/2 cents per 8
    ounces, that is to  say:--

      On a parcel not exceeding 8 oz          12-1/2 cents
      Over 8 oz., and not exceeding 1 lb      25     cents
      Over 1 lb., and not exceeding 24 oz     37-1/2 cents
      And so on, to the limit of three lbs.

    BOOK AND NEWSPAPER MANUSCRIPT, AND OTHER MISCELLANEOUS MATTER.

    21. On Book and Newspaper Manuscript (meaning written articles
    intended for insertion in a newspaper or periodical, and addressed
    to the Editor or Publisher thereof, for insertion), Printers' Proof
    Sheets, whether corrected or not, Maps, Prints, Drawings,
    Engravings, Music, whether printed or written, packages of Seeds,
    Cuttings, Roots, Scions or Grafts, and Botanical Specimens, the rate
    will be 1 cent per ounce, when posted for any place in Canada or the
    United States, and prepaid by Postage Stamp.

    POSTAGE STAMPS.

    22. To enable the Public to prepay conveniently by Postage Stamp the
    foregoing rates, the following denominations of Postage Stamps for
    use throughout the Dominion, have been prepared, and will be
    supplied to Postmasters for sale:--#/

      Half Cent           Stamps }
      One cent                do }
      Two cent                do }
      Three cent              do } All bearing, as a device, the effigy
      Six cent                do }    of Her Majesty.
      Twelve and a half cent  do }
      Fifteen cent            do }

    23. The Postage Stamps now in use in the several Provinces may be
    accepted, as at present, in prepayment of letters, etc., for a
    reasonable time after the 1st of April; but from and after that date
    all issues and sales to the public will be of the new denomination.

    FRANKING AND FREE MATTER.

    The following matter is exempt from Canadian Postage:--

    24. All letters and other mailable matter addressed to or sent by
    the Governor of Canada.

    25. All letters or other mailable matter addressed to or sent by any
    Department of the Government, at the seat of Government at Ottawa,
    under such regulations as may from time to time be made by the
    Governor in Council.

    26. All letters and other mailable matter addressed to or sent by
    the Speaker or Chief Clerk of the Senate or of the House of Commons,
    or to or by any Member of either House, at the Seat of Government,
    during any Session of Parliament--or addressed to any of the Members
    or Officers in this section mentioned at the Seat of Government as
    aforesaid, during the ten days next before the meeting of
    Parliament.

    27. All public documents and printed papers sent by the Speaker or
    Chief Clerk of the Senate or of the House of Commons to any Member
    of either House during the recess of Parliament.

    28. All papers printed by order of either House sent by Members of
    either House during the recess of Parliament.

    29. Petitions and Addresses to either of the Provincial Legislatures
    of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, or to any branch
    thereof; and votes, proceedings and other papers, printed by order
    of any such Legislature, or any branch thereof, during any Session
    thereof,--provided such petitions and addresses, votes, proceedings
    and other papers, are sent without covers, or in covers open at the
    ends or sides, and contain no Letter or written communication to
    serve the purpose of a Letter.

    30. Letters and other mailable matter (except that provided for as
    above) addressed to or sent by the Provincial Governments or
    Legislatures of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, will
    be liable to the ordinary rates of Postage.

    31. Public documents and printed papers sent under the foregoing
    clauses should bear, as part of the address, the bona fide
    superscription of the Speaker, Chief Clerk, or Officer specially
    deputed for this purpose to act for those functionaries, or of the
    Member sending the same.

    32. The privilege of free transmission, as above described, has
    effect only as respects Canada Postage rates.

    33. All letters and other mailable matter to and from the Postmaster
    General and the Deputy Postmaster General, and all Official
    communications to and from the Post Office Department, and to and
    from the Post Office Inspectors, are to pass free of Canadian
    Postage.

    34. All letters and communications on the business of the Post
    Office Department, intended for the Post Office Department at
    Ottawa, should be invariably addressed to "The Postmaster General."
    The branch of the Department for which the letter or communication
    is intended should be written on the left hand upper corner of the
    letter,  thus:--

      "For Accountant"
      "For Secretary"
      [etc.]

    as the case may be, but the main direction must be to the Postmaster
    General, or Deputy Postmaster General.

    35. All letters containing a remittance on account of the Public
    Revenue sent by any Postmaster in Canada to a Bank or Bank Agency;
    and all remittances or acknowledgements sent by a Bank or Bank
    agency, on account of Public Revenue, to any Postmaster in Canada,
    are to pass free through the Post, as respects both postage and
    registration charge.

    36. No change is made in the Way or Sub-Office system of Nova Scotia
    and New Brunswick, Quebec or Ontario.

    37. No change is made in the Money Order System.

    38. A system of Post Office Savings Banks will be instituted on the
    1st. April, and will be extended as quickly as practicable to all
    the principal cities, towns and places throughout the Dominion.

  A. CAMPBELL, _Postmaster General_.



CHAPTER VIII

THE ISSUE OF 1868


A glance at the new regulations quoted in the last chapter will show
that there is no five or seventeen cent prepaid rate, and but one at ten
cents--to British Columbia and Vancouver Island; as a result these three
denominations are not found in the new set of Dominion postage stamps.
On the other hand the half cent transient newspaper rate, the three cent
letter rate, with its double at six cents, and the new British Packet
rate via New York of fifteen instead of seventeen cents, necessitated
these four additional denominations in the new series.

The stamps themselves are as usual line engraved on steel, and present
more "continuity of design" throughout the set than before. The main
feature of this design is a circular medallion bearing a diademed
profile portrait of Queen Victoria to right, on a horizontally lined
ground. Arched above this medallion are the words CANADA POSTAGE, and
beneath it the value, both in words and Arabic numerals, a slightly
different arrangement occurring on each denomination. Foliations of
acanthus pattern fill in the remainder of the design, making the outline
somewhat irregular. The stamps are fairly large, averaging 20 × 24 mm.
in size, except the half cent, which is considerably smaller, being only
17 × 21 mm. They will be found illustrated as Nos. 17, 16, 18, 20, 22,
23 and 24 on Plate I.

The stamps were printed in sheets of 100, ten rows of ten, and by the
imprint we find they were the product of a new concern. This imprint
appears in colorless capitals on a narrow strip of color with bossed
ends, and reads BRITISH AMERICAN BANK NOTE CO. MONTREAL & OTTAWA. This
strip is framed by a very thin parallel line, its entire width being but
one millimeter, while its length is about 51 mm. It occurs but once on a
side, being placed against the middle two stamps (numbers 5 and 6) of
each row at a distance of about 3 mm. (see illustration 107 on Plate
IX.) The inscription reads up on the left and down on the right, as
before, but the bottom one is now upright, instead of being reversed.

In the case of the half cent stamp at least, we find an additional
marginal imprint over the second and third stamps of the top row. This
consists of the words HALF CENT, in shaded Roman capitals 4 mm. high,
the whole being about 40 mm. long, (illustration 119 on Plate XI).
Presumably the same thing, varied for each denomination, occurs on other
values of the series, as we find it does on the succeeding issue; but a
strip from the top of a sheet of the 15 cent stamps proves that it was
lacking on that value at least.

The normal colors of the stamps of this series are approximately:--1/2
cent, black; 1 cent, brown red; 2 cents, green; 3 cents, deep red; 6
cents, dark brown; 12-1/2 cents, deep blue; 15 cents, mauve. We say
approximately, since there is considerable variation as may be noted by
a glance at the Reference List. Particularly is this the case with the
15 cent stamp. The earliest tint is the one we have noted--mauve; but
the stamp was in practically continuous use down to 1900, and the gamut
of shades and colors through which it passed in that time is almost
equal to the 10 cent stamp of the preceding issue.

Of the approximate dates of issue of some of the more pronounced shades
of the 15 cent stamp it is possible to give an idea through the
chronicles of various contemporary magazines which noted them. The
original stamp we know was in a mauve tint, and was so chronicled in the
_Stamp Collector's Magazine_ for May 1868 (VI: 71). The _American
Journal of Philately_ for April 20, 1868, (I:18) describes it as
"lilac". The _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ in December, 1874 (XII: 182)
says it has "just appeared in a dull deep mauve." Next M. Moens notes
that it has become gray lilac, in _Le Timbre-poste_ for March, 1877.
Again in the issue for June, 1880, he records it in bright violet, while
in May, 1881, it is described as a dark slate color (_ardoise foncé_).
In the July, 1888, issue of the _Halifax Philatelist_ the color is said
to have reverted to the mauve tint of the first printings except that it
was "more bluish", and once more in May, 1890, the _Dominion
Philatelist_ states that "The Canada 15c. has again changed color. It is
now bright violet." Finally, in _Mekeel's Weekly_ for March 12, 1896,
under "Canadian Notes", we read that "quite a large stock is still on
hand in the P.O. Department, but no more are being printed. What are
going out now are the remainders of various batches. They are coming in
all shades; some being almost the first issue colors."

It remains to note two additions to this series. The first was a change
in color:--the 1 cent and 3 cent stamps were quite naturally found to be
too nearly alike in shade to properly differentiate them in the rush of
post office business. Hence the 1 cent was changed to an orange yellow,
appearing in its new dress in 1809. The exact date seems not to be
available, but we find it first noted in _The Philatelist_ for April 1,
1809, in these words:--"The 1 cent and 3 c. of this colony have been
hitherto almost identical in hue; that anomaly is now rectified by the
recent emission of the former value in bright orange." In the "Summary
for the year 1809", the same paper credits the issue to January,
1869.[86]

[86] =The Philatelist=. IV: 42.

The second addition was a 5 cent stamp, which is a bit of an anomaly
inasmuch as it is a companion in size and design to the 1868 series, but
was issued on October 1, 1875, after the series in reduced size, begun
in 1870, had been practically completed. The explanation is simple: the
die of this large 5 cent stamp had been engraved in 1867 with the other
values of the first Dominion series,[87] but as there were no rates
requiring such a denomination in the set, it was not issued. When in
1875 the need for a 3 cent value arose, the unused die was employed to
make a plate for temporary use, until a new die conforming in size and
design with the small stamps could be prepared. The large 5 cent stamp
is thus really in the nature of a provisional, for its smaller and
permanent successor followed it in about four months.

[87] In the first series of the =American Journal of Philately= for June
1, 1868 (I: 25) we read: "The Canadian Government have had a 5 cent
stamp prepared, engraved of the same type as the present set, the most
noticeable difference being the circle round the head which is corded.
The specimen sent us is printed in brown on India paper, bearing the
Company's imprint underneath."

The statement is often made that the 5 cent denomination was required
because of Canada's entry into the Universal Postal Union, which was
instituted on July 1, 1875. The statement has elements of truth in it,
inasmuch as the indirect results of Canada's application produced the 5
cent rate which required the new stamp; but the statement is not exact
because Canada was not actually admitted to the Postal Union until three
years later. The Postmaster General's Reports tell the story. The Report
for 30th June, 1875 says:--

    A treaty for the formation of a General Postal Union, and for the
    adoption of uniform postage rates and regulations for International
    correspondence, was arranged and signed at Berne, Switzerland, in
    October, 1874, by the representatives of the Post Offices of the
    chief Nations of the world. This agreement took effect between all
    the countries which were directly parties to the Treaty, in July
    last.

    The Treaty did not include the British Possessions beyond the sea,
    but Canada has, with the concurrence of the Imperial Government,
    applied for admission as a member of this Postal Union. Meanwhile
    the letter rate of postage between Canada and the United Kingdom
    has, by arrangement with the Imperial Post Office, been reduced to
    the International rate of 2-1/2 pence sterling--5 cents currency,
    established by the Union regulations; and this reduction has also
    been made applicable to correspondence passing by way of New York,
    making the rate between Canada and the United Kingdom uniform at 5
    cents by whatever route conveyed.

From the Report of 30th June, 1876 we find that the application of
Canada for admission to the Universal Postal Union was not successful
owing to the opposition of France. Because of differences with Great
Britain in regard to admitting Colonies beyond the seas at the same
rates as European countries, British India and the French Colonies had
been admitted with a reduced rate of 6 pence per half ounce letter, so
as to include cost of sea transit. France contended that Canada should
be kept to the same terms. From the Report of 30th June, 1877 we learn
that Canada by treaty had obtained the Postal Union rate of 5 cents with
Germany, including Prussia, Saxony, Hanover, Bavaria, Baden and
Wurtemberg. The letter rate with Newfoundland had also been reduced from
6 cents to 5 cents per half ounce.

The Report for 30th June, 1878 brings matters to fruition:--

    At the meeting of the International Postal Congress, which, under
    the provisions of the Postal Treaty of Berne, concluded in October,
    1874, took place at Paris in May, 1878, Canada was admitted to be a
    member of the General Postal Union from the 1st July, 1878, and in
    consequence the rate of letter postage between Canada and all Europe
    became one uniform charge of 5 cents per half ounce. Newspapers and
    other printed matter, and samples and patterns of merchandise also
    became subject to uniform postage rates and regulations for all
    destinations in Europe. Existing postal arrangements between the
    United States and Canada were, by mutual agreement, allowed to
    remain undisturbed by the entry of Canada into the Union, under a
    provision of the General Postal Union Treaty applicable to such a
    case.

The last remark refers to the treaty which took effect on 1st February,
1875, by which letters posted in Canada or the United States could be
sent to the other country at the single domestic rate of three cents--of
which more later.

This large 5 cent stamp was of course line engraved like the rest of the
series, and issued in sheets of 100, ten rows of ten. The sheet bore
four marginal imprints, arranged as before, but of a slightly different
type from the 1868 issue. This new imprint is in capitals and lower case
letters on a colored strip 56 mm. long and 2-1/2 mm. wide, with a border
of pearls, and reads: "British American Bank Note Co. Montreal."
Doubtless the words "FIVE CENTS" in shaded Roman capitals would be found
over the second and third stamps of the top row if one were fortunate
enough to possess this portion of a sheet. The stamp is illustrated as
No. 21 on Plate I, and the marginal imprint is of the type shown in
illustration No. 118 on plate XI. The normal color of this 5 cent stamp
is an olive gray, and it is perforated 12, as are all the other values
of the set.

The paper upon which the series of 1868 was printed was in general an
ordinary white wove variety which varied considerably from a very thin,
almost pelure quality to a quite hard and thick variety. Laid paper also
makes its appearance again in this set. In Messrs. Corwin and King's
article[88] we read:--"The 3 cents on laid paper was first brought to
attention in the _Philatelic Record_ for March, 1882,[89] wherein it was
stated that Mr. Tapling had a copy in his collection. The 1 cent was
first mentioned in the _National Philatelist_ for January, 1883, by Mr.
Corwin, its discoverer, in these words: 'Some time since I saw noted in
the _Philatelic Record_ the existence of a 3 cent Canada stamp, emission
of 1868, on laid paper. In looking through my Canadian varieties, after
reading this note, I discovered also a copy of the one cent red, same
emission, on laid paper'". The 1 cent yellow is likewise catalogued by
the London Society,[90] but the following remark is added: "The One
Cent, yellow, on laid paper, is not known to the Society. It is taken
from _The Halifax Philatelist_ for July, 1888, page 74." Concerning this
Messrs. Corwin and King state:[91] "This was inserted in the _Halifax
Philatelist_ in error; so far as we know this stamp does not exist. The
original sin of chronicling this stamp, however, rests with M. Moens,
for in the _Philatelic Record_ for January, 1883, the fact is stated
that M. Moens states that he knows of the existence of the 1c. orange on
laid paper." Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack adds his testimony against this
quondam stamp:[92] "I do not believe that the 1c, yellow, exists on
laid paper, None of the large collectors of Canada or of this country
have seen it, and I believe there is no real authority for listing it."
There was none: and now that we have tracked it down, the laugh seems to
be on the _Philatelic Record_, and M. Moens is absolved from his
"original sin." In _Le Timbre-Poste_ for January, 1883, under the
heading CANADA we read: "Semblable au 3 cents, 1868, sur papier _vergé_
blanc, il existe: 1 cent, brun-orange." This was the information quoted
in the _Philatelic Record_,[93] but the translator evidently mistook the
proper rendering of the French color name as _orange-brown_, and
translated it simply _orange_, whence the error spread. We can therefore
dispose quite effectually of the question and of the phantom stamp in
the same breath.

[88] =Metropolitan Philatelist=, II: 57.

[89] This is an error, for in =Le Timbre-Poste= for November, 1877 (XV:
841). M. Moens says: "M. Fouré nous fait remarquer que le 3 cents [1868]
a été imprimé exceptionnellement sur papier vergé."

[90] =North American Colonies of Great Britain=, page 16.

[91] =Metropolitan Philatelist=, II: 57.

[92] =London Philatelist=, XVI: 144.

[93] =Philatelic Record=. IV: 213.

Concerning the laid paper stamps Messrs. Corwin and King say they "must
have been among the first issued, as we have seen a copy of the 1 cent,
red-brown, postmarked November 27, 1868."[94] That this must have been
the case is proved by the existence of the 1 cent in brown-red and not
in yellow, as would have been the case if the paper were used in 1869 or
thereafter. _Mekeel's Weekly_[95] also records the 3 cent on a cover
bearing date of August 31, 1868.

[94] =Metropolitan Philatelist=, II: 57.

[95] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, IX: 64.

The 15 cent stamp was reported in the _American Journal of Philately_
for October, 1892, in these words: "Mr. F. de Coppet has shown us a 15
c. of the 1868 issue on thin paper, horizontally laid," and the stamp is
described as "violet". We have not seen a copy, but if it was in the
early "mauve" tint it probably was a companion of the 1 cent and 3
cents, the latter being found on both thick and thin horizontally laid
paper according to Messrs. Corwin and King's lists. If the "violet" was
of the gray shades, it belonged to a later printing and not with the
early stamps. Mr. Pack lists another variety still[96]: "I also have a
copy of the 15 c. on distinctly soft ribbed paper." This stamp is in the
lilac gray shade and therefore belongs to later printings as we shall
see, for this ribbed paper is found in all values of the small stamps of
the succeeding issue.

[96] =London Philatelist=, XVI: 144.

One other variety of paper needs our attention, and that is the
watermarked paper. The fact of its use was early known to collectors,
for in _The Philatelist_ for February, 1870, in an article on "British
North America" by W. Dudley Atlee, after the "Issue for Confederation"
is the following "Note.--There is also in the last series of adhesives
a Three Cent printed on paper _watermarked_ with maker's name; these
were most probably issued after the thin paper and before the usual
stout paper emissions." Mr. H. F. Ketcheson, commenting on the above in
1889,[97] remarks: "the one cent red also appears on same paper, as I
have two specimens of each in my possession." The _Halifax
Philatelist,_[98] in its contemporary issue, also happened to note the
discovery of two more values: "Mr. F. C. Kaye has shown us the 2 cent
and 6 cent of the 1868 issue, with large watermarked letters of the same
type as those in the 1 cent and 3 cent." The 12-1/2 and 15 cent were
later found, but the 1/2 cent and 1 cent yellow have never been
discovered. This latter fact doubtless determines the period when the
paper was used, for, like the laid paper, if employed in 1869 or later
we should find the 1 cent yellow instead of brown red printed on it. On
the other hand, it could not have been used when the first consignments
were being printed, probably early in 1868, or the 1/2 cent would be
included in the series. This is determined by the fact that the first
supply of the 1/2 cent lasted until the fiscal year of 1871-2, before
any further printings were made. The watermarked paper must therefore
have been used sometime during the course of the year 1868, probably the
middle, when supplies of all values except the 1/2 cent were printed.

[97] =Dominion Philatelist=, I: 5.

[98] =Halifax Philatelist=, III: 8.

For the determination of the character of the watermark we are indebted
to Mr. John N. Luff, whose thoroughness and acumen when delving into a
philatelic problem are proverbial. The result of his study was published
in 1895[99] and we take the following extracts from his interesting
paper:--

[99] =American Journal of Philately=, VIII: 77.

    Most philatelic writers, when treating of the Canadian issue of
    1868-75, give small space to the series watermarked with large
    letters. Most of them make a few speculative remarks as to the
    probable watermark and then drop the subject. So far as I am aware,
    no one has taken the trouble to ascertain what the watermark
    actually is. The London Society in the _North American Colonies of
    Great Britain_ says: "Some of the stamps on wove paper have been
    catalogued with a watermark, consisting of various letters. It is
    probable that these letters are portions of the name of the
    papermaker, which most likely exists in the margin of the sheets."
    Other writers are equally superficial. The _Catalogue for Advanced
    Collectors_ says: "Although we catalogue as varieties the stamps on
    watermarked paper, it is very possible that these form a separate
    issue. It may have happened that the printers, having-run short of
    the regular paper, replaced it by some similar paper that they had
    in stock, bearing this watermark"....

    In the _Stamps of British North America_, by Messrs. C. B. Corwin
    and Donald A. King (_Metropolitan Philatelist_, June 1891), this
    watermark is given more attention. The possibility that it is the
    words "Canada Postage" or "Canada Post Office Department" is
    discussed and rejected, because the authors have found certain
    letters and pairs of letters which do not occur in these words.

    It has seemed to me that it would be of interest, probably of value,
    to know exactly what this watermark is. I have therefore given the
    matter considerable study, and now have the pleasure of presenting
    the result to your readers. The extensive stock of the Scott Stamp &
    Coin Co., being placed at my disposal, together with a quantity of
    stamps from private sources ... I believe I have correctly
    reconstructed the watermark.

    As the broadest letter measures only 12 mm., and the stamps are
    about 23mm. from center to center of perforations, there are usually
    parts of two or three letters on each stamp. I have found a large
    number of single letters, pairs, portions of three letters, and in
    one instance, a pair and parts of two letters. Of many combinations
    I have found several examples. I have also found quite a number of
    stamps showing parts of two rows of letters, one above the other.

    Taking these in sequence we reconstruct the watermark

[Illustration:

  E. & G. BOTHWELL
    CLUTHA MILLS]

    The reader will please bear in mind, that when the stamps are viewed
    from the back, the letters read from right to left (at least when
    the sheets were placed normally in the press) as is usual with the
    Crown and CC, CA and other watermarks.

    The letters are plain double lined capitals, except the third in the
    first line, C, which is more fancy, having a decided hook at the end
    of the lower curve and the upper curve ending in a point, instead of
    being cut off squarely, as in the case of the other letters. The E
    and C are followed by periods 2-1/2 mm. square. The initial capitals
    E, C and B are 13 mm. high, the other letters 12-1/2 mm. The upper
    row is about 140 mm. long, the lower about 122 mm., and the distance
    between the rows 11-1/2 mm. The watermark will thus fall on twelve
    stamps in each sheet of one hundred. But it cannot be argued from
    this that the stamps with watermark are only eight times as rare as
    those without, as we must take into consideration the
    proportionately large number of sheets on ordinary unwatermarked
    paper. The sheets were apparently placed on the press without much
    care, as the letters are frequently found reversed and inverted. I
    have not however found any placed vertically, nor have I found any
    other letters than the above....

    As to the position of the watermark in the sheets, I believe it to
    be central. Its height, 37 mm., is great for a marginal watermark,
    and the fact that none of the letters have been found vertically, as
    is so frequently the case with marginal watermarks, is also in favor
    of a central location. We might also expect to find stamps on
    watermarked paper showing, as is not uncommon, the imprint of the
    contractors above or below, if the watermark were marginal. I, at
    least, have found none.

Mr. Luff considers that the watermarked stamps "are on an unofficial
paper used temporarily," which is without doubt the case, at least as
far as the temporary nature goes. He says further: "Compared with the
large number without watermark, they are sufficiently scarce to indicate
a provisional use of the paper and at the same time there are enough of
them to show that a considerable number of sheets were printed."

For other varieties in this series we have the 1/2 cent on "bluish-white
wove paper", listed by M. Moens in the sixth edition of his catalogue.
Messrs. Corwin and King say this "corresponds to our grayish paper, the
shade sometimes being quite intense." But they list the entire series on
"thin, soft, grayish wove paper", as well as the 1/2 cent and 1 cent
brown-red on "pelure grayish paper". It may be that imperfect wiping of
the plates had left an extra grayish tint upon the paper of the specimen
that Moens singled out for cataloguing, just as occurred in the case of
most values of the Post Office Department stamps of the United States.

Messrs. Corwin and King[100] give an extremely lengthy reference list of
this issue on no less than _seventeen_ varieties of paper, with the
remark that, "every variety we mention is distinct from any other", but,
with Major Evans, we must remark that "we confess we are unable to
follow our friend Mr. King through all the intricacies of these
varieties of paper ... but the differences are, perhaps, more real than
is indicted in the descriptions." On inspection the "seventeen
varieties" seem to combine themselves into I: laid paper, of thick and
thin qualities; II: watermarked paper; III: yellowish wove paper, very
thin to very thick; and IV: grayish wove paper, from pelure to very
thick. In both of the wove papers are found the differences due to the
process of manufacture, the even texture of the plain wove variety and
the mottled texture of the so-called "wire-wove" variety.

[100] =Metropolitan Philatelist=, II: 55 and =Monthly Journal=, VIII:
236.

The paper used for this issue is responsible for variations in the size
of the stamps similar in character and origin to those we have already
thoroughly discussed in connection with the 7-1/2 and 10 pence stamps of
1855-7. The design of the series is not calculated to render these
variations so apparent as in the former case, but the extreme variations
we have found have been carefully noted and are presented in the
following list. It will be seen that the variation is confined to a half
millimeter in each dimension.

  1/2    cent,     16-3/4 × 21-1/2 mm.
                   17     × 21     mm.
  1      cent,     19-1/2 × 24-1/2 mm.
                   20     × 24     mm.
  2      cents,    19-1/2 × 24-1/2 mm.
                   20     × 24     mm.
  3      cents,    19-1/2 × 24-1/2 mm.
                   20     × 24     mm.
  5      cents,    19     × 24-1/2 mm.
                    ?       ?
  6      cents,    20     × 24-1/2 mm.
                   20-1/2 × 24     mm.
  12-1/2 cents,    19-1/2 × 24-1/2 mm.
                   20     × 24     mm.
  15     cents,    19-3/4 × 24-1/2 mm.
                   20     × 24     mm.

It is also stated that these stamps exist perforated 11-1/2 × 12,[101]
as well as the usual 12 all around. As the perforation was done by
guillotine machines, this would apparently indicate a machine of 11-1/2
gauge used for the vertical perforations, and we should expect to find
some stamps at least perforated 12 × 11-1/2, if not 11-1/2 all around.
Such do not seem to have been reported and we have no further
information concerning the variety mentioned.

[101] =Monthly Journal=, IX: 125.

For imperforate stamps in this series we find the 1 cent, yellow, and
the 15 cents in a peculiar shade of brown violet. The former is known
only in cancelled condition, we believe, but we are able to illustrate
an unused block of four of the latter as No. 107 on Plate IX.

The only case of the use of a split stamp in this issue that we have to
record is of the 6 cent, cut diagonally and used for the ordinary 3 cent
rate on a letter posted at "Annapolis, N. S. JY 2,1869." While having no
more authorization than any other of the occasional Canadian "splits,"
yet this cover is particularly interesting because of its hailing from
Nova Scotia, where split stamps had been used and recognized for their
fractional values when the local issue was employed. An illustration of
this cover will be found as No. 98 on Plate VIII.

Concerning the quantities issued of the various denominations in this
series we cannot be quite as exact as in some of the previous cases. No
distinction was made between the various issues in the tables of amounts
received from the manufacturers, provided the denomination was the same.
In the case of the 1/2, 3, 6 and 15 cent stamps, which were new values,
the quantities given in the Report for 1868 can be used, but with the 1,
2 and 12-1/2 cent stamps the last deliveries of the 1859 series and the
first of the 1868 series are lumped together. We have already made a
tentative division of the receipts for these latter values,[102]
however, which we think is safe enough to use for our purposes. It must
be recognized that we are approaching conditions in the business of the
Post Office where the quantity of stamps used, particularly if they be
of low value and are in service for a number of years, mounts to such an
enormous total that the actual figures representing the numbers issued
have practically no philatelic value. While interesting, therefore, the
totals shown below may be "out" by several per cent without appreciably
altering their usefulness--or lack of it.

[102] See page 88.

With these considerations as a basis, we can lay out the series up to
certain limits as follows:--

  RECEIVED FROM MANUFACTURERS.

                         1/2c.          1c.            2c.          3c.

  30th June, 1868      1,500,000     2,000,000(?)  2,000,000(?)  6,000,000
   "     "   1869         ...        9,250,000     4,000,000    12,000,000
   "     "   1870         ...        2,300,000     1,300,000    11,300,000
   "     "   1871         ...           ...        1,800,000        ...
   "     "   1872        500,000        ...        3,200,000        ...
   "     "   1873-82   4,756,700        ...           ...           ...
   "     "   1876-96      ...           ...           ...           ...
                       ---------    ----------    ----------    ----------
        Totals         6,756,700    13,550,000    12,300,000    29,300,000


                           6c.         12-1/2c.      15c.

  30th June, 1868       2,000,000      500,000(?)   212,500
   "     "   1869       2,000,000    1,000,000      600,000
   "     "   1870       2,230,000      300,000       ...
   "     "   1871       3,070,000      734,000       ...
   "     "   1872       2,325,000       ...          ...
   "     "   1873-82       ...          ...          ...
   "     "   1876-96       ...          ...       1,765,400
                       ----------    ---------    ---------
        Totals         11,625,000    2,534,000    2,577,900

The above table shows that the first deliveries of the 1/2 cent were
sufficient to last until 1872; from that time there were yearly
deliveries approximating a half million up to the issue of the miniature
1/2 cent in 1882. The figures for that year doubtless included a large
quantity of this latter stamp, so we can safely approximate the quantity
of the 1/2 cent of 1868 issued as 6-1/2 millions. The large 1 cent stamp
was superseded about March 1870, so the above figures may very likely
be reduced by say two millions in 1870, leaving 11-1/2 millions of the
large stamps, but in both brown-red and yellow. A large part of the
1868-9 deliveries must have been of the brown-red stamp, however, as the
yellow one did not appear until January 1869, and from the catalog
prices the former would seem to be twice as common as the latter. The
large 3 cent was also superseded about January 1870, so that a
considerable portion of the deliveries of 1869-70 were doubtless due its
successor. Some 20 millions or more can without doubt be credited to the
1868 stamp, nevertheless.

The 2 cent and 6 cent were both superseded early in 1872, so their
totals can be reduced probably to approximately 10-11 millions for the
former and perhaps 10 millions of the latter.

With the 12-1/2 and 15 cent stamps we find no successors, but we do find
that none of the former was delivered after 1871, so that our total of
2-1/2 millions is correct, barring our first approximation. From the
lists of "Issues to Postmasters" it is evident that the stamp was
regularly used, but in decreasing quantities, down to 1888, when the
last figures "1100" appear. A summing up of these issues to postmasters
(again allowing for the first approximation) gives us a total of
1,944,100 issued; but of these there were 44,086 returned by the
postmasters as unfit for use, the last return (84 copies) being received
in 1893. The result for the 12-1/2 cent stamp is therefore approximately
1,900,000 issued and used, and some 634,000 probably destroyed.

The 15 cent stamp, after the amount received in the 1869 account, needed
no further supplies until the 1875 account, although it was issued to
postmasters each year. The changes in rates in 1875 made it again useful
as a multiple of the 5 cent stamp and in connection with registration.
From that time until 1893 it was regularly printed and delivered, but
this was evidently the end of its usefulness, as the only receipt
thereafter was of 400 in 1896--undoubtedly a small remainder which the
engravers wanted to get rid of. It was regularly issued to postmasters,
however, up to 1900, the last amount, 21,350 appearing in that year's
accounts, though 70 copies were turned in for destruction in 1901. Some
31,000 all told were returned as unfit for use, but the rest were
probably all used in the course of business.

Of the large 5 cent stamp we can only judge as with the preceding. The
Report for 1876 includes the deliveries of both large and small stamps,
the total being 2 millions. As succeeding deliveries of the small stamp
averaged a million or more for several years thereafter, it is highly
probable that the above total was evenly divided and that the large 5
cent was at least printed to the number of a million copies.

       *       *       *       *       *

Turning now to the Postmaster General's Reports for the several years
during which the large sized stamps were the general issue, we find in
the _First Report of the Dominion of Canada, for the Year ending 30th
June, 1868,_ the following remarks concerning the new order:--

    The Post Office Laws and Regulations of the several Provinces of the
    Dominion, in force at the date of the Union, remained in operation
    under the authority of the Union Act until superseded by the statute
    known as "_The Post Office Act 1867_", passed in the first session
    of the Dominion Parliament, for the regulation of the Postal
    Service, and which general Act took effect from the 1st. April,
    1868.

    By this Act a uniform system of Post Office organization was
    provided for, the ordinary rate of domestic letter postage was
    reduced from five cents to three cents per half ounce, and the
    charge on letters sent to and received from the United States was at
    the same time lowered from ten to six cents per half ounce weight
    (the latter being the combination of the three cent letter rates of
    both Countries), and lastly, low rates of postage charge were
    established for the conveyance of newspapers, periodicals, printed
    papers, parcels and other miscellaneous matter by Post.

    In Nova Scotia and New Brunswick the additional newspaper postage
    collected under the new Statute, applying equal charges on newspaper
    matter throughout the Dominion, approximately balanced the loss in
    the reduction of the letter rates, in fact the collections in Nova
    Scotia in the first fiscal year after the change in the postage
    rates, shew a marked improvement on the revenue of the previous
    year, and there has been a material increase in the number of
    letters passing by Post in the Maritime Provinces, as well as in
    Ontario and Quebec.

    * * * * *

    Postage stamps of denominations corresponding to the reduced rates
    of postage authorized by the Post Office Act of 1867, were prepared
    by the British American Bank Note Co. at Ottawa, and distributed by
    the Department throughout the Dominion for use on the 1st. April.
    1868, from which date the new rates of postage came into operation.

Some statistics are also given which it will not be out of place to
quote here for future comparison.

There were 87 new Post Offices established in Ontario and Quebec during
the [fiscal] year and 74 Post Offices and Way Offices in New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia. On the 1st January, 1869, there were 3638 Post Offices
and Way Offices in the Dominion, and also:--

                  _Miles of_      _Letters_   _Revenue_
                  _Post Route_   _Annually_  (_fiscal year_)
  Ontario & Quebec     18,716          14,750,000           $906,663.04
  New Brunswick         3,379           1,350,000             53,827.80
  Nova Scotia           5,579           2,000,000             64,219.77
                       ------          ----------          ------------
  Totals               27,674          18,100,000          1,024,710.61

The total correspondence passing between the United States and Canada is
given as $319,352.53, but with no returns from the Maritime Provinces.

The next year's Report, dated 30th June, 1869, gives the revenue as
$973,056, a drop of fifty thousand dollars, due to its being the first
complete year since the reduction of the postage rates. The total
correspondence with the United States is also given as $227,699.13, the
drop having come through the reduction to a 6 cent rate, although the
Maritime Provinces were included this time. The Report also notes that
"From 1st January, 1870, the Postal rate to the United Kingdom was
reduced from 12-1/2 to 6 cents per 1/2 ounce letter."

The report for 1870 states that the Postal Packet rate was reduced on
the 1st January, 1870, but does not give the new rate. It is also said
that "measures will be taken to organize the whole postal system of the
new Province of Manitoba on the same footing as the rest of Canada, from
an early date."

The Province of Manitoba, as we have already noted, was admitted to full
privileges in the Dominion on July 15, 1870, and the former Colony of
British Columbia came in on July 20, 1871. The Postmaster General's
Report for 30th June, 1871 says of these:--

    The rates of postage have been made uniform in both newly
    confederated Provinces with those prevailing in the older sections,
    as well in respect to correspondence passing between British
    Columbia and Manitoba, and the rest of the Dominion, as in regard to
    the transmissions within each of the said Provinces.

    Arrangements have been made with the Post Office of the United
    States, under which mails to and from British Columbia pass in
    closed bags (through the United States mails) between Windsor
    (Ontario) and Victoria (British Columbia), via San Francisco, for
    the conveyance of which through the United States, a transit rate is
    paid by the Dominion to the United States Post Office, as in the
    case of similar closed mails passing to and from Manitoba.

The report for 30th June 1872 states that:--

    Arrangements between Canada and Newfoundland came into effect from
    1st. November, 1872, establishing a uniform prepaid rate of 6 cents
    per 1/2 ounce on letters passing between any Post Office in the
    Dominion and any Post Office in Newfoundland, instead of 12-1/2
    cents as before, and providing that Newspapers, Books, printed
    matter and post cards shall be prepaid at ordinary Canadian rates
    and vice versâ.

The postal revenue for the year was $1,193,062, it being the first year
that the postal business of British Columbia and Manitoba was included.
The former was credited with 38 Post Offices and the latter with 27 Post
Offices.

It will be remembered that Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion on
July 1, 1873, and the Report of that year credits the former Colony with
180 Post Offices.

The report of 30th June, 1874, states that "The System of free-delivery
by letter-carriers in the principal cities, of letters and papers coming
by mail has been commenced at Montreal and Toronto." This was under the
authority of section 36 of _The Post Office Act_ 1867 which we have
already quoted.[103] The text of a new postal treaty between Canada and
the United States is given from which we make the following excerpts:--

[103] See page 98.

    POSTAL ARRANGEMENT

    BETWEEN THE DOMINION OF CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES.

    ART. I. Correspondence of every kind, written and printed, ...
    [_mailed in each country and addressed to the other_], shall be
    fully prepaid at the domestic postage rates of the country of
    origin, and the country of destination will receive, forward and
    deliver the same free of charge.

    ART. II. Each country will transport the domestic mails of the other
    by its ordinary mail routes in closed pouches through its territory,
    free of charge.

    ART. III. [_Patterns and samples, weighing not over 8 oz., unsealed,
    10 cents each, prepayment obligatory._]

    ART. IV. [_No further accounts to be kept between the two
    countries._]

    ART. VIII. The existing arrangements for the exchange of registered
    letters between the two countries shall continue in full force; but
    the registration fee on registered letters sent from the United
    States to Canada shall be the same as the registration fee charged
    in the United States for domestic registered letters.

    ART. IX. This arrangement, except so far as it relates to letter
    postage, shall take effect from the first of January, 1875. The
    reduced letter rate will come into operation on the first of
    February, 1875....

    Done in duplicate and signed at Ottawa the 27th day of January,
    1875.

From the above it is seen that the double domestic postage rate on
letters between the two countries, and the keeping of accounts of the
total correspondence passing through the exchange offices, were done
away with on the 1st February, 1875, and since that date all such mail
matter has passed freely between the two countries at the ordinary
domestic rates of each. The figures given in this Report were the last
for the total correspondence between Canada and the United States, and
were presumably for the seven months from 1st July, 1874, to 1st
February, 1875: they were $478,516.91, which would represent some eight
million letters were that the only class included, and all of them
single letters; this would be at the rate of some thirteen million
letters per year, a very respectable figure for the intercommunication
of the two countries.

Because of further postal changes which came in 1875 and also the fact
that a new type of stamp had gradually been replacing the large sized
first issue of the Dominion during the last few years, we will close
this chapter with the 1874 Report.



CHAPTER IX

THE SMALL "CENTS" ISSUE, 1870-82


In the _American Journal of Philately_ for August 20, 1869 we find the
following: "Canada is shortly to have a new set of stamps. Taking
lessons in economy from our own country, it seems they are about
altering their stamps to make them smaller, so as to save paper. The
head will still remain exactly the same as now, but the frame and margin
around the head will be considerably less." The 1869 set of the United
States was then in use, and it may well be that the smaller sized stamps
appealed to the authorities in comparison with their own rather large
sized productions, even though their suggested parsimony had nothing to
do with it. The current 1/2 cent stamp was taken as the model, and the
other values reduced in size to correspond with it, while keeping their
former colors. The main features of the designs were therefore retained.

No special announcement of the new series was made that we have been
able to discover, and they were only introduced, apparently, as stocks
of the large sized stamps on hand were used up. We find the first record
of the change in the _American Journal of Philately_ for February 20,
1870: "The stamps of the New Dominion have now made their appearance,
altered as described by us last August." Though not specified, this
referred to the 3 cent stamp, and its actual issue probably took place
in January. _The Philatelist_ chronicles it in the issue of March 1,
1870, as being of "the same colour and general description as before".
[Illustration No. 28 on Plate II.]

The next value to appear was the 1 cent, which was noted in the _Stamp
Collector's Magazine_ for April 1, 1870; it was probably issued,
therefore, some time in March, for the _American Journal of Philately_
records it in its issue of April 20, 1870. [Illustration No. 25 on Plate
II.]

Two years then elapsed before further additions were made, and lent some
color to the report in several European journals that the cause of the
new issue was the destruction by fire in Montreal of the plates of the 1
cent and 3 cent of 1868, and that the other values of the set would
remain as before. The _American Journal of Philately_ learned, however,
that only the press room of the Bank Note Co. was damaged, and that the
plates were intact. At last the 6 cent in reduced size made its
appearance and was chronicled in the _American Journal of Philately_ for
February, 1872, to be followed in the March issue by the announcement of
the 2 cent. The former value must therefore have been issued in January
and the latter in February. [Illustrations Nos. 30 and 26 on Plate II.]

Again in the _American Journal of Philately_ for November 20, 1874, we
find it "reported" that Canada "has issued a 10c. rose", and the next
issue says it "is printed in a peculiar pale rose, we can not call to
mind any other stamp of this particular tint." The actual issue
therefore, was probably about November 1, 1874. Just what called forth
this new value in the Dominion series does not appear, unless it be the
section in the Postal Treaty between Canada and the United States which
fixed the rate on patterns and samples at 10 cents for not over 8 oz.,
with prepayment obligatory.[104] This rate did not go into effect,
however, until January 1, 1875. Of course as a multiple of the 5 cent
rates which came into force on October 1, 1875, the new 10 cent stamp
was very useful, but that was nearly a year subsequent to its issue. The
new stamp is illustrated as No. 32 on Plate II.

[104] See page 121.

The next of the series to make its appearance was the 5 cent, which was
noted in the _American Journal of Philately_ for February 20, 1876 as
having "just been issued." [Illustration No. 29 on Plate II.] This
doubtless means about the 1st February, so that its large sized
predecessor had only about four months of life. There were now left in
the large sized stamps only the 12-1/2 and 15 cents. In its issue for
May, 1872, the _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ quoted from the _Canadian
Philatelist_ as follows:--"It is unlikely that the 12-1/2 c. small size
will be issued, as the large ones are very little used, and can now be
bought at the post-office at 12 cents." This last statement is rather
surprising. Nevertheless, it was announced in the _American Journal of
Philately_ for October, 1879 that "Canada will shortly issue the 12-1/2
and 15c. values of postals in small size, to correspond with the others
of the series." This paper seemed to have been usually well informed
concerning Canadian postal matters, but the expected new stamps did not
materialize. The dies and plates were undoubtedly prepared, for the
12-1/2 cent stamp at least exists in a finished state, but is very
scarce. Proofs of both values were illustrated in _Le Timbre-Poste_ for
November, 1888, with the following remarks: "On nous envoie les essais
des futurs timbres 12-1/2 et 15 centavos qui doivent compléter un peu
tardivement, la série des timbres à ce format. Nos exemplaires sont
imprimés, le premier en lilas, le second en vert sur papier de la
Chine." Commenting on this in the _American Philatelist_ for December,
1888, Mr. W. C. Stone says: "We heard of these some ten or twelve years
ago and saw them both last summer in New York." We have been fortunate
enough to be able to illustrate the 12-1/2 cent (see No. 89 on Plate V)
from the Worthington collection, and this finished copy, with full gum,
is in a bright blue as we should expect. We regret that it was
impossible to locate a copy of the reduced 15 cent to illustrate as a
companion piece. The reasons that the plates of these two stamps were
never actually brought into use, though evidently prepared with the
other values in smaller size, were probably these: The 12-1/2 cent of
1868, as we have seen, though issued to postmasters for several
subsequent years, was not printed after 1871, nor was the old stock
exhausted when its use was discontinued. There was therefore no call for
any supply to be printed from the new plate. The 15 cent was not printed
between 1869 and 1875, and after that in such relatively small
quantities each year until 1896, that, unless we are greatly mistaken,
the original plate never wore out, but was used without change to the
end.

The old adage that "history repeats itself" was again exemplified in
Canadian stamps when in July, 1882, the 1/2 cent stamp, for fourteen
years unaltered, was once more reduced to a smaller size than the
regular series. The general effect of the design remained the same, but
the foliate ornamentation gave place to angular outlines. The
illustration will be found as No. 27 on Plate II.

All of the above mentioned stamps, except the 1/2 cent as will be
explained, were line engraved on steel and printed in sheets of 100, ten
rows of ten. The marginal imprints turn out to be of three varieties in
this series, and we have pieced together what information we can
concerning them, for strips with marginal imprints are extremely hard to
find now. The first plates made, including at least the 1, 2, 3, 5, and
6 cent stamps, and probably the 10 cent as well, since that was engraved
before the 5 cent, had the denomination in shaded Roman capitals, 4 mm.
high, [Illustration No. 121 on Plate XI], over stamps 2 and 3 of the top
row. Sometimes the shading is hardly apparent, as in our illustration,
but it can be detected. Beginning over stamp 4, extending over stamps 5
and 6, and ending over stamp 7, is the inscription we found on the
series of 1868 (see illustration 107 on Plate IX), "BRITISH AMERICAN
BANK NOTE CO. MONTREAL & OTTAWA" in colorless Roman capitals in the
little strip of color 1 mm. wide and 51 mm. long. This imprint is also
beneath the bottom row of stamps and at each side, reading up at the
left and down at the right [Illustration No. 111 on Plate X]. We have so
far not seen this inscription on the 5 cent and 10 cent sheets, and
doubt if it exists on the former at least.

About 1875 the engraving company seem to have dropped their Ottawa
branch, for on the large 5 cent stamp, whose plate was made in that
year, we find the new imprint "British American Bank Note Co. Montreal"
in capitals and lower case letters on a colored strip 56 mm. long and
2-1/2 mm. wide, having a pearled border. This imprint is found on all
four sides of the sheet, as before, as reference to Plates X, XI and XII
will show, and on the plates of all values. In the case of the 6 and 10
cent stamps, and perhaps some others as well, the value SIX, TEN, etc.
is now found in the shaded Roman capitals over stamp number 9 of the top
row, but lacking the word CENTS. Over stamp number 2 of the top row is
the figure of value, 6 mm. high, [Illustration No. 118, Plate XI]. A
sheet of the small 5 cent stamps which we have seen, however, does not
follow this arrangement but reverts to the first style with FIVE CENTS
in the shaded Roman capitals over the first three stamps of the top row
only, though having the four "Montreal" imprints. Again, a sheet of 3
cent that we have examined has the word THREE alone in the shaded Roman
capitals over the first two stamps of the top row, and the "Montreal"
imprint at the center of the top and bottom rows only, there being
nothing at the sides. A sheet of 1 cent presents still another style,
having the "Montreal" imprint at top and bottom alone, and no other
marginal inscriptions. We have seen no sheet or margin of the 2 cent
stamp bearing the "Montreal" imprint, but it doubtless exists.

Whether the arrangement of these marginal inscriptions is a special one
for each value, or whether each style described exists in all values
there does not seem to be material enough at hand to determine. Probably
neither statement is wholly in accordance with facts, as there must have
been a great many plates of the 1 cent and 3 cent stamps, with
proportionately fewer for the less used values. There seems to have been
no system of plate numbering, as far as we can discover, though some
margins show reversed letters or figures about 3 to 4 mm. high in
various positions; they do not appear to have any special significance,
however.

In regard to the 1/2 cent of 1882, which we excepted from the above
statements, there is a special arrangement to consider. The stamp was
of course line engraved on steel, as before, but the plate printed two
panes of 100 impressions each, side by side. These panes were the usual
10 × 10 arrangement, and were separated by a space of 11 mm. through
which they were cut into two "post office sheets". The marginal
inscriptions were simply the "Montreal" imprint [illustration No. 127 on
Plate XII] which appeared six times--at the top and bottom of each pane,
in the right margin of the right hand pane and the left margin of the
left hand pane, there being no imprint in the space between the two
panes. Over the top inscription of the right pane is the reversed figure
1, 4 mm. high, and in the same position on the left pane the
corresponding figure 2, evidently to designate the panes.

Once again, and this time the fact was noted in some of the philatelic
journals, the imprint was changed. The engraving company had been
required by the Government to do its printing at Ottawa,[105] and under
"Canada Notes" in _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_ for December 21, 1892,
"Canadensis" reports: "The new plates of the Canada stamps now bear this
imprint: 'British American Bank Note Co. Ottawa', instead of Montreal.
The matrix being made from the old die are exactly like the previous
issues." The new imprint is a copy of the first one we described, with
"Montreal &" omitted. It is 40 mm. long and 1-1/2 mm. wide and is well
shown in illustration No. 123 on Plate XII. These new plates were
doubtless the ones heralded in the _Dominion Philatelist_ for September,
1892, wherein it is stated that "the present issue of Canada 3 c. Stamps
are being printed and issued in sheets of 200 instead of 100 as
formerly." And again in the same paper for May, 1893: "The Canada 1c.,
2c., and 3c. stamps are now being printed in sheets of 200." This new
sheet arrangement consisted of ten horizontal rows of twenty stamps
each. The "Ottawa" imprint appears three times, once in the middle of
the top margin, over stamps 10 and 11, and twice in the bottom margin,
beneath stamps 5 and 6, and again beneath stamps 15 and 16. There are no
imprints at the sides. The denomination appears in the top margin at
both right and left and in a new style of lettering on these larger
plates. Thus we find ONE CENT or TWO CENT over stamps 2 and 3 as well as
18 and 19, or THREE CENT over the first four and last four stamps in
plain Egyptian capitals, (see illustration No. 120 on Plate XI).

[105] See page 128.

One other imprint was used on the 2 cent value at least, but we have so
far seen it on no other. It was 49 mm. long and nearly 2 mm. wide, but
otherwise is a duplicate of the smaller "Ottawa" imprint. A portion of
it is seen in illustration No. 129 on Plate XIII. The sheet was in the
10 × 10 form, and the imprint appeared at top and bottom only, there
being no other marginal inscriptions. From the sheet form it would seem
probable that it preceded the use of the sheets of 200 stamps.

The colors of these small stamps were intended to be the same as those
of the larger stamps they superseded, and in the main they were so. The
orange and orange yellow shades of the 1 cent stamp appear to have been
the earlier ones, while the yellow tints came in the later printings.
The 2 cent follows the green of its predecessor very closely. The 3
cent, as might be expected, is more prolific in the variety of shades
presented. The _Philatelist_ chronicled it (March, 1870) in the "same
colour as before," while Moens, in _Le Timbre-Poste_, was more specific
and gave it as red-brown. In May, 1873, the _Stamp Collector's Magazine_
lists it in orange-vermilion, while _The Philatelist_ says vermilion and
_Le Timbre-Poste_ bright orange. The 5 cent stamp did not vary a great
deal except in tone, though _Le Timbre-Poste_ notes it as "black-gray"
in July, 1877. The 6 cent was also fairly constant in its brown shade.
The 10 cent appeared at first in what, for want of a better name, may be
called a rose-lilac. The _Stamp Collector's Magazine_ called it pale
rose, and the _American Journal, of Philately_ said it was a "peculiar
pale rose" which was a new tint. The latter paper notes it again in a
"bright carnation" in March, 1876, while _Le Timbre-Poste_ in August of
the same year chronicles it in "pale red instead of lilac."

We have been thus particular in listing the record of early shades
because of the changes which come later.

In the January, 1888, issue of the _Halifax Philatelist_ we find the
following note under "Canada":--"The plate of the 2 c. stamp has been
re-engraved. Color is now dark green". No details of such re-engraving
were forthcoming, but in the June, 1888, number of the _Philatelic
Record_ is a paragraph which evidently refers to the same stamp:--"A
correspondent has sent us a specimen of the 2 cents, green, which he
calls a _new die_. We fail to see it; but what we do see is, that the
stamp is printed from a lithographed transfer." This surprising
statement seemed to excite no special comment save from the sagacious M.
Moens, who remarks:[106] "Nous avons également reçu ce timbre qui parait
lithographié, par suite d'usure de la planche, croyons-nous, car la
feuille entière que nous avons annonce que l'impression a été faite,
comme antérieurement, par la British American Bank Note Co. de Montreal
et Ottawa, qui ne s'occupe pas d'impression lithographique que nous
sachions."

[106] =Le Timbre-Poste=, XXVI: 61.

Without doubt M. Moens gave the correct explanation, for the imprint
that he mentions will be recognized as the one to be found on the
earliest plates of the small stamps, and 1888 was thirteen years at
least after the second type of imprint with "Montreal" only had been
introduced. Hence the stamp in question was probably a late print from a
worn plate, which gave a rather flat and indistinct impression that
might suggest lithography, though it is certain that Canada has never
yet stooped to such a cheap means of postage stamp production. A similar
case may be recalled with the 1/2 penny stamp of St. Helena which was
issued in 1884, and which presented a like appearance.

Whether the above incident had anything to do with the change of the
printing company from Montreal to Ottawa, which we have already noted in
describing the imprints, we cannot say, but it is certain that it was
the beginning of changes, in shade at least, which affected the whole
series of stamps. We have the authority of the Postmaster General's
Report for 1889 that the "removal of the British American Bank Note Co.
from Montreal to Ottawa" had taken place--evidently early in 1888, as
will be seen later--so that the use of an old worn-out plate might have
been a case of temporary necessity. Further details are given by the
Canadian correspondent of the _Weekly Philatelic Era_[107] as follows:
"About six years ago the Government insisted on their contractors doing
their printing at the Capital, and the British American Bank Note Co.
erected a handsome establishment on Wellington Street, where all postage
stamps have since been printed. It may be remembered that the Ottawa
printings were signalized by distinct varieties in shade from the
earlier Montreal issues, varieties that have never been sufficiently
distinguished in the standard catalogues."

[107] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XII: 23.

These changes in the stamp shades were soon noted. In March, 1888, the
_Philatelic Record_ described the 10 cent stamp as "now in carmine-red",
while two months later it chronicled the 5 cent as changed "from
bronze-green to greenish-grey." We have already noted the change in the
15 cent to a color approximating its original mauve, "only more of a
bluish tinge," which the _Halifax Philatelist_ recorded in July, 1888.
The following October the same paper listed the 3 cent in a "bright
carmine", and in July, 1889, announced the 2 cent in "blue green". The
6 cent lagged behind the others and did not manifest itself until the
_American Journal of Philately_ announced it in October, 1890, in a
"rich brown." Once again, _Le Timbre-Poste_ for April, 1892, stated that
the 5 cent had "since the 8th March, appeared in gray black". The 1 cent
doubtless had its special hue of yellow along with the other changes,
but it was not recorded, probably because not distinct enough from the
usual run of variations in which it had been appearing.

That the above changes were hardly of a character to warrant dignifying
them as a "new issue," which is frequently done, is shown by a moment's
consideration. The 1/2 cent and 1 cent stamps showed no appreciable
difference in coloring and therefore caused no comment. The 2 cent did
not maintain its blue green shade unaltered, and the 3 cent soon
reverted to its former brilliant red hue, as the _Philatelic Journal of
America_ for May, 1889, says that "the carmine color recently adopted
has been dropped, and the stamps are printed in colors similar to the
ones in use before the change was made." The 5, 6 and 10 cent stamps,
however, made permanent changes, but only such as might readily be
traceable to a new mixing of the inks in the case of the first two. The
10 cent can hardly be so easily disposed of, as lake and brown-red are
of quite different composition from a rose-lilac. But there can have
been no official intention of altering the shades or colors or more
definite and permanent changes would certainly have been made throughout
the set. It remains, therefore, to classify them simply as shade
varieties of the original set.

Mr. King gives a list of eight varieties of paper[108] for the "small
cents issues", but we have deemed it sufficient to note a thick and a
thin white wove paper, and a closely ribbed paper. All values are
reported as existing with the compound perforation (11-1/2 × 12) spoken
of under the 1868 issue. We also find all values occurring in an
imperforate condition. The 3 cent was first noted in the _Philatelic
Record_ for December, 1882; the 15 cent we have already spoken of under
the 1868 issue; and the 5, 6 and 10 cent at least, from the shades of
the specimens we have seen, belong to the printings subsequent to the
color modifications of 1888-90. Concerning these imperforates, we find
in a paper on Canada, read before the Royal Philatelic Society by Mr. M.
H. Horsley,[109] the following note:--

    In my opinion, which I have had confirmed by several most competent
    authorities, the various imperforated copies which I show you, some
    used and some unused, are absolutely genuine varieties. Imperforated
    copies of various values were sold over the Post-office counter in
    Montreal about the years 1891-3, at their face value, and have been
    good for postage whenever people cared to use them. The quantities
    in this condition are, I believe, extremely small.

[108] =Monthly Journal=, VIII: 237.

[109] =London Philatelist=, XVI: 88.

Supplementing this Mr. Pack writes:[110]--

    I quite agree with Mr. Horsley in regard to the various imperforate
    copies of the issues of 1882 to 1895. There are a good many
    specimens of these stamps imperforate, and they were on sale at a
    Canadian Post Office.

[110] =London Philatelist=, XVI: 144.

The above statements are correct, and we can vouch for them by
documentary evidence. Not only were the various values of the series we
are considering on sale in imperforate condition, but also the 8, 20 and
50 cent stamps which we are next to consider, and the shade of the 8
cent stamp shows it to have been among the earlier printings--probably
in 1893. We are fortunate in being able to present illustrations of all
these imperforates in blocks of four or more, which will be found on
Plates IX, X and XII.

That these imperforates are perfectly good for postage and are
recognized by the Canadian Post Office to this day, equally with their
perforated prototypes, has been proved to our satisfaction because we
have employed some on registered matter addressed to the United States.
As this class of mail requires to be fully prepaid, any irregularity
would at once be detected and the covers would tell the story. We
illustrate a pair of the 2 cent imperforate on a registered cover mailed
at Como, Quebec, on March 20, 1905. [Plate XIII, No. 129.]

As before, we find that a few stamps have been "split" and used for half
their value, copies of the 2 cent and 6 cent having been cut vertically
and doing unquestioned duty as 1 cent and 3 cent stamps respectively. As
this practise is unauthorized they can be regarded mearly as freaks that
have slipped through by carelessness--or favor.

Turning once more to the Postmaster General's Reports, we begin with
that of the 30th June, 1875. This notes that:--

    The Act passed in the last Session of Parliament for the regulation
    of the Postal Service of Canada, came wholly into force on the 1st
    October, 1875.

    1. Letters passing by mail at 3 cents per 1/2 oz.

    2. Local or drop letters at 1 cent per 1/2 oz.

    3. Post cards 1 cent each.

    4. Canadian newspapers and periodicals, from office of publication
    at 1 cent per pound of bulk weight.

    5. Transient newspapers and periodicals, circulars, books,
    pamphlets, etc., open, 1 cent per 4 oz.

    6. Newspapers or periodicals weighing less than 1 oz. each, when
    posted singly, 1/2 cent each.

    7. Closed parcels not containing letters, 12-1/2 cents per 8 oz.

The Act referred to was "An Act to amend and consolidate the Statute Law
for the regulation of the Postal Service. [_Assented to 8th April,
1875._]"[111] and was mainly a repetition of _The Post Office Act,
1867_,[112] with certain amendments incorporated. The principal changes
which interest us are as follows:--

[111] 38^o Vict. Chap. 7.

[112] 31^o Vict. Cap. X. See page 95.

    1. This Act shall be known and may be cited as "The Post Office Act,
    1875," etc., etc.

    10.--6. Cause to be prepared and distributed postage and
    registration stamps necessary for the prepayment of postages and
    registration charges, under this Act; also stamped envelopes for the
    like purpose and post-cards and stamped post bands or wrappers for
    newspapers or other mailable articles not being post letters.

    19. [_Letter rate of 3 cents per 1/2 oz._]: and such postage rate of
    three cents shall be pre-paid by postage stamp or stamps at the time
    of posting the letter, otherwise such letter shall not be forwarded
    by post, except that letters addressed to any place in Canada and on
    which one full rate of three cents has been so pre-paid, shall be
    forwarded to their destination charged with double the amount of the
    postage thereon not so prepaid, which amount shall be collected on
    delivery.

    20. [_Drop letter rate restricted to_ "one cent per half ounce
    weight."]

    22. The rate of postage on newspaper and periodical publications
    printed and published in Canada, and issued not less frequently than
    once a month from a known office of publication or news agency, and
    addressed and posted by and from the same to regular subscribers or
    news agents, shall be one cent for each pound weight, or any
    fraction of a pound weight, to be prepaid by postage stamps or
    otherwise as the Postmaster General may, from time to time, direct;
    and such newspapers and periodicals shall be put into packages and
    delivered into the post office, and the postage rate thereon prepaid
    by the sender thereof, under such regulations as the Postmaster
    General may, from time to time, direct.

    23. Newspapers and periodicals weighing less than one ounce each may
    be posted singly at a postage rate of half a cent each, which must
    be in all cases prepaid by postage stamp affixed to each.

    24. On all newspapers and periodicals posted in Canada, except in
    the cases hereinbefore expressly provided for, and on books, etc.,
    etc., [_repeats Sec. 26 of Act of 1867_], the rate of postage shall
    be one cent for each four ounces or fraction of four ounces, ... and
    this postage rate shall be prepaid by postage stamps or stamped post
    bands or wrappers....

    27. [_Repeats Sec. 29 of Act of 1867_] And when any letter or other
    mailable matter is posted in Canada without prepayment, or
    insufficiently prepaid, in any case in which prepayment is by this
    Act made obligatory, the Postmaster General may detain the same, and
    cause it to be returned, when practicable, to the sender.

    28. [_Replaces Sec. 30 of Act of 1867_] And for avoiding doubts, and
    preventing inconvenient delay in the posting and delivery of
    letters,--no Postmaster shall be bound to give change, but the exact
    amount of the postage on any letter or other mailable matter shall
    be tendered or paid to him in current coin as respects letters or
    other things delivered, bearing unpaid postage, as shall also the
    exact value in current coin as respects postage stamps, registration
    stamps, stamped envelopes or post cards, post bands or wrappers,
    purchased from any Postmaster and the exact amount of postage
    payable to any letter-carrier on any letter or mailable matter
    delivered by him.

    38. [_Repeats Sec. 40 of Act of 1867 concerning dead letters, but
    lowers the charge for returning to three cents and allows for
    deduction of postage prepaid in the case of insufficiently prepaid
    matter._]

    87. The foregoing sections of this Act shall come into force and
    effect on the first day of October, in the present year one thousand
    eight hundred and seventy-five, except only in so far as they relate
    to the rates of postage on newspapers and periodicals sent to the
    United States, as to which they shall come into force on the first
    day of May now next....

From the above quotations we see that the new Act made prepayment of
letters by stamps obligatory, and imposed a fine of double the
deficiency if insufficiently prepaid; that the unlimited weight of drop
letters was restricted to 1/2 oz. per rate; that newspapers and
periodicals were classed together and publishers given the low rate of 1
cent per pound; that the rate of 2 cents on transient newspapers was
reduced to 1/2 cent per ounce, and 1 cent up to four ounces; etc.

The Report of 1875 further informs us that the free delivery of letters
by carrier had been commenced in the following cities on the dates
given:--

      Montreal        1st October, 1874.
      Toronto         1st March,   1875.
      Quebec          1st April,     "
      Ottawa          1st May,       "
      Hamilton        1st  "         "
      St. John, N.B.  1st  "         "
      Halifax, N.S.   1st July,      "

    Previous to the above dates a charge (in addition to the ordinary
    postage) of two cents on each letter received by mail, of one cent
    on each letter posted in the city, and of one cent on each
    newspaper, was collected by the letter-carrier on delivery of the
    same. Halifax was an exception, as letters and papers sent out for
    delivery by letter-carrier had been delivered without extra charge
    since 1851.

The British American Bank Note Co. was paid for

    Engraving and printing postage stamps for Post Office Department,
    $22,675.50.

The Report of 1876 contains no special items not already noted, but that
of 1877 states that the letter rate of postage with Newfoundland had
been reduced from 6 cents to 5 cents per 1/2 oz., and the same rate had
been obtained with Germany from 1st April, 1877.

The Report of 1878 announces the admission of Canada into the Universal
Postal Union from the 1st July, as we have already detailed.[113] The
Report of 1879 says: "A reduction has been made, from the 1st September
last, in the postage rate on closed parcels sent by post within the
Dominion, from 12-1/2 cents per 8 oz. of weight to 6 cents per 4 oz.
Under this change small parcels not exceeding 4 ounces in weight are
admitted to pass for 6 cents instead of 12-1/2 cents as before." This
sounded the death knell of the 12-1/2 cent stamp, which dropped in the
number issued to postmasters from 84,150 in 1879 to 13,400 in 1880 and
4950 in 1881. It was issued in decreasing numbers down to 1888, when it
disappears from the accounts.

[113] See page 109.

Nothing further of importance transpired until 1881, when a
supplementary agreement touching certain points was signed with the
United States Post Office Department:--

    ADDITIONAL ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE DOMINION OF CANADA AND
    THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

    For the purpose of affording to the public increased facilities for
    the exchange of written correspondence, and also of preventing
    evasions by publishers, of the postal laws and regulations of the
    United States, the undersigned, duly authorized by their respective
    Governments, have agreed upon the following additional articles to
    the Postal Agreement of 27th January and 1st February, 1875:


    Article I.

    Insufficiently paid letters mailed in the United States and
    addressed to Canada, or _vice versâ_, mailed in Canada and addressed
    to the United States, on which a single rate of postage or more has
    been prepaid, shall be forwarded charged with the amount of the
    deficient postage, to be collected on delivery and retained by the
    Post Department of the country of destination. The amount of such
    deficient postage shall be indicated in figures, by the despatching
    exchange office, on the upper left-hand corner of the address.


    Article II.

    When newspapers, periodicals and other printed matter, published or
    originating in the United States, are brought into Canada and posted
    there for destinations in the United States, apparently to evade the
    postage rates or regulations applicable to such matter in the United
    States, the Canada Post Office may require prepayment of the same to
    be made at a rate equivalent to double the Canada domestic rates.

    * * * * *


    Article IV.

    The present articles shall be considered additional to those agreed
    upon between the two offices on the 27th January and 1st February,
    1875, and shall come into operation on the 1st of May, 1881.

    * * * * *

The Report of June 30, 1882 states that newspapers and periodicals
published in Canada (under certain conditions as to form and manner of
posting) are transmitted free by Post within the Dominion when posted
from the office of publication to regular subscribers, from 1st June,
1882. This must have been due to a Department Order, as the Statutes of
Canada reveal no such enactment at this time. The same Report announces
the issue of reply post cards, but those will be dealt with later.

Statistics make up most of the Reports until that of 1886, when an item
of interest in connection with the completion of the Canadian Pacific
Railway is found: "The first through train left Montreal on Monday the
28th June, 1885, and arrived at Port Moody, the Pacific terminus of the
road on the 4th July. Mails for British Columbia commenced to pass over
the Canadian Pacific Railway by this first train." This marked the
independence of Canada from the United States in the matter of
transcontinental transportation of mails. The distance from Montreal to
Port Moody is given as 2892 miles.

In connection with this event the following note may be of
interest:[114]--

    Up to the time the Canadian Pacific Railway was built, nearly all
    letters from the Northwest bore United States stamps. The Northwest
    mounted police took their mail to Bismarck, Dak., and others were
    sent to Fargo, from whence they were sent around to Detroit and
    thence into Canada. The pony express was used in the Canadian
    Northwest, but no system, no stamps and probably no stipulated
    charges were made to get a letter to the frontier of the United
    States.

[114] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, II: 32: 2.

The Report of 1887 says that:--

    Provision has been made for the transmission by mail between all
    places in Canada, from 1st February, 1888, of small articles of
    ordinary goods and manufactures in packages, open to inspection, on
    payment of a postage charge of 1 cent per oz. Also a new convention
    with the United States Post Office providing that from the 1st
    March, 1888, the same class of matter will be admitted to pass
    between Canada and the United States, subject to Customs inspection.

The Report of 1888 announces the extension of free delivery by letter
carriers to Victoria, B. C. Since the list of free delivery offices
given on page 133, there are to be added as well:--

      London, Ontario        24th April, 1876.
      Winnipeg, Manitoba,     1st April, 1882.
      Kingston, Ontario,      1st July,  1882.

The Report of 1889 states that "the Post Office Act of 1889 increased
the limit of weight of a single rate letter from 1/2 ounce to 1 ounce.
The rate on drop letters at the same time was fixed at 2 cents per
ounce." The Act[115] referred to was an amendment to the Post Office
Act, (assented to on the 2nd May, 1889), and the notice of the changes
issued to the public was as follows:--

    NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC.

    * * * * *

    CHANGES IN POSTAGE RATES UNDER AUTHORITY OF POST OFFICE ACT 1889.

    The rate of postage upon Letters posted in Canada, addressed to
    places within the Dominion or in the United States, will be 3 cents
    per ounce instead of 3 cents per half ounce as heretofore.

    Upon Drop Letters posted at an Office from which letters are
    delivered by Letter Carrier, the postage rate will be 2 cents per
    ounce, instead of 1 cent per half ounce. The rate of postage upon
    Drop Letters, except in the Cities where free delivery by Letter
    Carrier has been established, will be 1 cent per ounce.

    The fee for the Registration of a letter or other article of mail
    matter, will be five cents upon all classes of correspondence
    passing within the Dominion. For the present and until further
    instructed, the registration fee may be prepaid by using the 2 cent
    Registration Stamps and Postage Stamps to make up the amount.

    Letters insufficiently prepaid will be charged double the deficiency
    as heretofore, provided at least a partial prepayment has been made.

    Letters posted wholly unpaid will be sent to the Dead Letter Office
    for return to the writer.

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,                                 JOHN G. HAGGART.
   OTTAWA, 8th MAY, 1889                              _Postmaster General_

[115] 52^o Vict. Chap. 20.

The Act also made another change, not noted in the circular, by which
section 24 of _The Post Office Act_, 1875, which provided a rate of 1
cent per 4 ounces on printed matter, seeds, etc., and samples of
merchandise, was amended so as to limit the weight of printed matter to
2 ounces for the 1 cent rate.

The 1889 Report also chronicles the "removal of the British American
Bank Note Co. from Montreal to Ottawa," a fact which we have already
commented upon at length in its results upon the stamps issued after the
transfer.[116]

[116] See page 128.

In 1890 we find that "the complaints which were so prevalent some time
since, of the want of adhesiveness in the postage stamps have almost
entirely ceased. It is hoped, therefore, that the efforts of the
manufacturer to remove the cause of complaint have been successful." And
again in 1891: "Complaints of defective mucilage would be far less
frequent if the public would kindly bear in mind that it is the
_envelope_ of a letter, or the _cover_ of a packet, and _not the postage
stamp_, which should be moistened when stamps are affixed in prepayment
of postage. When a stamp is passed over the tongue the mucilage is
frequently almost wholly removed." They should have had these
instructions engraved on the margins of the plates, as did the British
authorities with the old one penny black!

The Report for 1892 announces the preparation of letter cards, which
will be treated of later, and also says: "Postage stamps of the value of
20 cents and 50 cents are about to be issued. These will be useful in
prepayment of parcel post." And this brings us to our next chapter.



CHAPTER X

THE SUPPLEMENTARY VALUES OF 1893


Before proceeding with the subject matter of this chapter in detail, it
may be well to reproduce here a synopsis of the Canadian Postal Rates
and Regulations as set forth in the _Dominion Philatelist_ in December,
1893, and taken from the then current _Canada Postal Guide_. This will
give a comprehensive review of the results of the various Acts and
Amendments and Department Orders that we have quoted--and of some of the
last that we have been unable to obtain.

    _1st. Class Matter._--Includes Letters, Post Cards, Legal and
    Commercial Papers wholly or partially written, with the exception of
    those specially exempted, and all matter of the nature of a letter
    or written correspondence.

    The letter rate for Canada, Newfoundland and the United States is 3
    cents per oz., and for all other destinations 5 cents per 1/2 oz.

    Insufficiently paid letters posted in and addressed to Canada are
    charged with double the amount of the postage due thereon.

    When posted wholly unpaid they will be sent to the Dead Letter
    Office.

    Insufficiently paid letters for or from the United States, are
    charged with the deficient postage on delivery. Letters for the
    United States must be prepaid at least one full rate, 3 cents.

    Wholly unpaid letters for and from the United Kingdom and other
    countries, are charged double postage on delivery, and
    insufficiently prepaid letters double the deficiency.

    Letters addressed to mere initials, or to fictitious names, will not
    be delivered, unless a street address, the number of a box, or some
    other definite direction is added.

    Letters bearing mutilated stamps, or stamps so soiled and defaced as
    to make it impossible for the sorting clerks to decide whether they
    have been used before or not, will be sent to the Dead Letter
    Office.

    _Post Cards._ Nothing whatever may be attached to a post card, nor
    may it be cut or altered in any way. A previously used post card,
    bearing a 1 cent stamp, will not be accepted as a post card.

    _2nd Class Matter.--For Canada, Newfoundland and the United
    States._--Newspapers and Periodicals posted from the office of
    publication, for regular subscribers in other places in Canada,
    Newfoundland and the United States, pass free of postage.

    Newspapers and periodicals issued less frequently than once a month,
    and addressed to regular subscribers or news agents, and on all
    specimen newspapers, one cent per pound or fraction of a pound.

    British newspapers and periodicals brought by mail to Canadian
    booksellers, or News Agents, for regular subscribers in Canada are
    liable to 1 cent per lb. or fraction of a lb.

    Newspapers from offices of publication for city delivery are subject
    to ordinary transient newspaper rates.

    _3rd Class Matter.--Addressed to Canada._--1. Transient newspapers
    and periodicals. Rate, 1 cent per 4 oz.; prepayment compulsory;
    limit of weight, 5 lbs. A single paper weighing not more than 1 oz.
    may pass for 1/2 cent.

    2. Book packets. Rate, 1 cent per 4 oz.; limit of weight, 5 lbs.,
    except for a single book, in which case the limit is 7 lbs.

    3. Miscellaneous matter. (_a_) Printed pamphlets, printed circulars,
    etc., and also seeds, cuttings, bulbs, etc.; rate, 1 cent per 4 oz.
    (_b_) Maps, lithographs, photographs, circulars produced by a
    multiplying process easy to recognize, deeds, mortgages, insurance
    policies, militia, school and municipal returns, printed stationery,
    etc.; rate, 1 cent per 2 oz.

    Circulars, Prices Current, etc., to pass at 1 c. rate must be
    ENTIRELY PRINTED. Any insertion in ink is not permissible, except
    the name and address of the addressee, the name of the sender and
    the date of the circular itself.

    Circulars type-written, or in such form as to resemble type-written,
    are liable to letter rate.

    All miscellaneous matter must be put up so as to admit of easy
    inspection. The limit of weight is 5 lbs.

    4. Patterns and samples. Rate, 1 cent per 4 oz.; limit of weight 24
    oz.; must be securely put up and open to inspection, and boxes or
    linen bags should be used for flour and similar matter.

    _Miscellaneous Matter for the United States._--(_a_) Newspapers and
    periodicals; rate 1 cent per 4 oz. (_b_) Other miscellaneous matter,
    including books; rate, 1 cent per 2 oz., but a minimum prepayment of
    5 cents is required for legal and commercial papers.

    The limit of weight for patterns and samples is 8 oz., and for other
    matter under this head 5 lbs.

    _4th Class Matter.--Parcel Post for Canada._--Parcels must not
    exceed five lbs. in weight nor two feet in length by one foot in
    breadth or thickness. The postage is 6 cents per 4 oz., and the
    parcel should be marked "by PARCEL POST." Parcels may be registered
    by affixing a 5 cent Registration Stamp thereto, in addition to the
    postage.

    Insufficiently paid parcels may be forwarded charged with simply
    the deficient postage, provided one full rate is paid and the
    deficiency does not exceed one rate.

    _5th Class Matter._--Comprises such articles of general merchandise
    as are not entitled to any lower rate of postage. Postage 1 cent per
    oz., or fraction of an ounce. Limit of weight, 5 lbs.; of size, two
    feet in length by one foot in width or depth. Matter claiming to be
    5th Class _must be open to inspection_ and there must be no
    correspondence enclosed. Packages of 5th Class matter, including
    Seeds, Bulbs, Cuttings, Roots, may be sent to the United States for
    the same prepayment as required within the Dominion, but the
    contents will be liable to Customs inspection and collection of duty
    in the United States. Sealed tins containing fish, lobster,
    vegetables, meats, &c., if put up in a solid manner and labelled in
    such a way as to fully indicate the nature of their contents may be
    sent as 5th Class Matter within the Dominion, but no sealed matter
    can be forwarded to the United States under this head. Liquids, oils
    and fatty substances may be sent to places in Canada and the United
    States as 5th Class Matter, if put up in accordance with the ruling
    referring to such articles in the Canada Postal Guide. Electrotype
    blocks are included in this class. An insufficiently prepaid packet
    of 5th Class Matter may be forwarded charged with double the
    deficient postage, provided the deficiency does not exceed 5 cents.

    _Parcel Post.--For the United Kingdom and the Countries and Colonies
    with which the United Kingdom maintains Parcel Post relations, and
    for Newfoundland, Barbados, British Guiana, Grenada, St. Lucia, St.
    Vincent, Jamaica, Turks Island, Curacoa and Japan._--Parcels
    securely and substantially packed and closed for the United Kingdom,
    and other countries and colonies to which parcels may be sent via
    England, and for Newfoundland, limited in size to 2 feet in length
    by one foot in width or depth. The postage for the United Kingdom,
    which must be prepaid, is 20c. for the first lb. and 16c. for each
    additional lb. or fraction of a pound; the limit of weight is 11
    lbs. For Japan the postage is 25c., the limit of weight is 7 lbs.
    For Newfoundland, 15 c. per lb., or fraction of a pound. For
    Barbados, British Guiana, Jamaica, Grenada, St. Lucia and St.
    Vincent, 20 c. per lb. Parcels for Newfoundland are daily forwarded
    on to Halifax, N.S. For Japan, on to Vancouver, B. C. For Barbados,
    British Guiana, Grenada, St. Lucia and St. Vincent, on to St. John,
    N.B., and for the United Kingdom and other countries and colonies by
    the weekly mail and conveyed by the steamers of the Canadian Lines.
    Parcels posted without the formalities required are sent to the Dead
    Letter Office, Ottawa.

    _Registration._--All classes of matter may be registered to places
    in Canada, the United States and Postal Union Countries, and the
    sender may entitle himself to an acknowledgement of delivery from
    the party addressed by the payment of a fee of 5 cents in addition
    to the registration fee.

    (A) _Commercial Papers_, (B) _Books and_ (C) _Samples, for Postal
    Union Countries_.

    "Commercial papers" comprise all papers or documents, written or
    drawn, wholly or partly by hand, (except letters or communications
    in the nature of letters, or other documents having the character of
    an actual and personal correspondence), documents of legal
    procedure, Deeds drawn up by public functionaries, copies of, or
    extracts from Deeds under private seal, Way-Bills, Bills of Lading,
    Invoices and other documents of a mercantile character, documents of
    Insurance and other public companies, all kinds of manuscript music,
    the manuscript of books and other literary works, and other papers
    of a similar description.

    "Printed Papers" include periodical works, books, stitched or bound,
    sheets of printed music, visiting cards, address cards, proofs of
    printing with or without the manuscript relating thereto,
    engravings, photographs, when not on glass or in frames containing
    glass, drawings, plans, maps, catalogues, prospectuses,
    announcements and notices of various kinds, printed, engraved,
    lithographed, printed circulars.

    (A) Limits of weight and size: 5 lbs. for the United Kingdom, and 4
    lbs. for other countries, 18 inches in length and 12 inches in width
    or depth.

    (B) 5 lbs. for the United Kingdom, and 4 lbs. to other countries, 2
    feet long and 1 foot wide or deep.

    (C) United Kingdom, 5 lbs. in weight, 2 feet in length by 1 foot in
    breadth or depth.

    (D) Limits of weight to Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Egypt, France,
    Hawaii, Italy, Portugal, Roumania and Switzerland, is 12 ozs., limit
    of size 1 foot in length by 8 inches in width and 4 inches in depth.
    If in form of a roll it may be 12 inches in length and 6 inches in
    diameter.

    The limit of weight to other Postal Union Countries is 8 ozs., limit
    of size same as to Austria-Hungary, &c., &c.

    _Matter Which Cannot be Forwarded Through the Post._--Liquids, Oils,
    etc., not properly put up. Explosive Substances and other matter
    likely to entail risk or injury to the ordinary contents of the
    mail, cannot be sent by post.

    Letters containing Gold or Silver Money, Jewels, or precious
    articles, or anything liable to Customs duties, cannot be forwarded
    by Post to any of the Postal Union Countries except the United
    States.

We see from the above postal packet rates where the use of a 20 cent
stamp would be convenient, which accounts for the announcement of the
new value in the Postmaster General's Report last quoted in the
preceding chapter. The 50 cent stamp of course would serve a useful
purpose in making up relatively large amounts of postage. The above
rates also show that there was still use for the 15 cent stamp in
payment of parcels to Newfoundland.

We find notice of the issue of the new values in the _Dominion
Philatelist_[117] as follows:--

    As foreshadowed in the Postmaster General's report, there have
    appeared Canada postage stamps of the value of 20c. and 50c.; the
    20c. is a bright deep orange and the 50c. is indigo blue, they are
    of similar design and resemble very much the third issue bill stamp
    and may be described as follows: head and shoulders of Queen to
    left, with widow's cap and chin resting on right hand, enclosed in a
    circle; above the circle the words "Canada Postage", below the
    circle at either side the value in figures and across the bottom the
    value in words.... The above were all placed on sale Feb. 22nd. The
    20c. and 50c. stamps were intended for parcel post.

[117] =Dominion Philatelist=, V: 31.

The somewhat ambiguous description will be more readily understood by
reference to the illustrations, numbers 33 and 35 on Plate II.

The stamps, as stated, are very evidently copied from the design of the
dollar values of the Bill Stamps issued in 1868. The portrait of the
Queen in her widow's weeds, in fact, is doubtless reproduced directly
from the original die engraved twenty-five years previously. The stamps
were of course line engraved on steel, and printed in the usual sheet
arrangement of 100, ten rows of ten. The plates of course emanated from
Ottawa, but bear a new imprint, similar to the second one used in
Montreal. The colored strip is now 38 mm. long and 2-1/2 mm. high with
square ends, and bears the legend: "British American Bank Note Co.
Ottawa." within a pearled border. It appears only twice, in the center
of the top and of the bottom margins, and can be seen in illustrations
Nos. 106 and 108 on Plate IX. The colors are not exactly as described in
our quotation, the 20 cent being a vermilion or bright red, similar to
the colors of the 3 cent, and the 50 cent a deep blue, but not indigo.
According to the advices of the _American Journal of Philately_ (VI:
102) the stamps were issued on the 17th February--five days earlier than
the above quotation states.

Both values were printed on a medium white wove paper and perforated 12.
Both were ordered to the number of half a million copies in 1893, and in
1895 25,000 more of the 20 cent and 30,000 more of the 50 cent were
delivered, with a final 200 copies of each in 1896. These quantities
were sufficient to last until the 20 cent was superseded by the newer
type in 1901, and the 50 cent by the King's head stamp in 1908. Some
1500 of the 20 cent were returned for destruction and about 10,000 of
the 50 cent!

Both these stamps are found imperforate and in this condition are to be
classed in the same category as the imperforates of the "small cents
issue," which we have already considered.[118] Illustrations of blocks
of four of each will be found as numbers 106 and 108 on Plate IX. The 50
cent is in a peculiar black blue shade.

[118] See page 130.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the preceding chapter we quoted a circular from the Postmaster
General which called attention to the changes made by _The Post Office
Act, 1889_. A uniform registration fee of 5 cents was one of these, and
to enable the 2 cent registration stamps to be used up permission was
given to make up the difference by postage stamps when registering mail
matter. Four years later it was decided to discontinue the use of the
special stamp for the registration fee, and to permit its prepayment by
ordinary postage stamps. As the combined letter and registration rate
was eight cents, a stamp of this value for use on registered letters was
deemed advisable. We read under "Canadian Notes" in _Mekeel's Weekly
Stamp News_ for August 10, 1893:--

    The following orders were posted up in all the Canadian post-offices
    on August 1st:

    "A new postage stamp of the value of 8c. is now being put into
    circulation. This stamp will be available for the prepayment either
    of registration fee and postage combined, or of postage only. The
    5c. registration stamp, when the present supply is exhausted, will
    be withdrawn."

The new stamp reverted to the small size and general design of the
"small cents issue", but with the important difference that the head was
turned to the _left_ instead of the right, as with all the others of
that series. It was line engraved on steel, as usual, and the only
entire sheet we have seen was of 200, in ten horizontal rows of twenty
stamps, but without a sign of any marginal imprints. The perforation
variety 11-1/2 × 12 is reported as occurring in this value also, as well
as the regular gauge 12. The color was at first a bluish gray, which
soon darkened and ran through a series of shades as if in emulation of
the old 6 pence stamp. Mr. Horsley states[119] that it appeared in
slate-blue in October of 1893, and slate in 1895. _Alfred Smith's
Monthly Circular_ for December, 1895, records it in a "dark
slate-black," and the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ for November 30, 1895,
says that "a peculiar feature in connection with the new shade of the
current eight cent Canada postage stamp is that upon being put in water
and left there for a few minutes the paper becomes of a pinkish tint
which after the stamp becomes dry still remains." This "new shade" was
doubtless the dark slate color referred to, which must have been issued,
therefore, in October or November of 1895. In December, 1897, the
_Monthly Journal_ notes it in a "deep purple", similar in shade to the 8
cent Jubilee stamp, and very likely printed from the same mixing of ink.

[119] =London Philatelist=, XVI: 88.

The stamp was printed upon a medium white wove paper, and is found in
imperforate condition like the other values of the then current stamps,
which we have already described.[120] The imperforates are in the early
bluish gray color, so that it is fair to suppose they were from the
first printings in 1893. A block of four is illustrated as number 110 on
Plate X.

[120] See page 130.

The first delivery of these stamps--and of course the first
printing--was of 100,000, as recorded in the stamp accounts for 1893. As
these accounts were made up to 30th June, and there is no record of any
"issue to postmasters," the stamps were doubtless delivered just before
the accounts were closed, so that opportunity had not been given to
distribute the new value. For the next few fiscal years the amount
received from the manufacturers averaged over a million and a half
annually, so that by the time it was superseded it had been printed to
the number of at least 7-1/2 millions.

There is nothing of special importance concerning postage stamps in the
Postmaster General's Reports from 1893 to 1897, but we glean an item of
interest from _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_ of December 3, 1896:--

    A new regulation has been put in force by the Canadian post-office
    department. Until a few days ago it was unlawful for any person to
    sell unused current Canadian stamps without a government license [as
    a stamp vendor]. Merchants and others who received a great many
    unused stamps as remittances, have heretofore been compelled to send
    them to the department at a discount of five per cent, or dispose of
    them by illegitimate means, running the risk of being prosecuted for
    selling without license. A great deal of complaint was made to the
    department concerning this matter, and last week Hon. Mr. Mulock
    announced that thenceforth, all unused Canadian stamps would be
    cashed at one per cent. discount in amounts of over $1.00. The
    stamps may be pasted on paper, as they will not be put in
    circulation again.



CHAPTER XI

THE JUBILEE ISSUE OF 1897


The so-called "Diamond Jubilee" of the accession of Queen Victoria, who
had then been on the throne of the United Kingdom for sixty years,
occurred on the 20th June, 1897, and several of the British Colonies, as
on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary, considered it fitting to
celebrate the event with a commemorative issue of postage stamps.
Probably no proprieties would be violated were it observed, sub rosa,
that the pecuniary gains connected with such issues were probably more
of a factor in determining their birth than the superabundance of
jubilation over the auspicious occurrence. Such a suspicion is quite
readily aroused when considering all the facts in connection with the
special set of stamps that Canada felt it necessary to put forth at this
time.

But the story runs a little farther back and hinges on other changes.
What proved a prophetic utterance appeared under "Canadian Notes" in the
_Weekly Philatelic Era_ of August 1, 1896, as follows:--

    For the first time in 18 years a Liberal, or Reform government has
    full control of the Dominion.... Mr. William Mulock, J. C., of
    Toronto, is the new Postmaster General and I am informed that
    considerable pressure is being brought to bear upon him to have an
    entirely new set of stamps issued to replace those which have been
    in use in Canada for something over a quarter of a century.

Under the same "Notes" in the issue of the above paper for January 23,
1897, we find the result of the "pressure":--

    The British American Bank Note Company, which for so many years have
    had the contract for printing Canada's paper currency and postage
    stamps, have been notified that their services will no longer be
    required. The shareholders in that company were not of the right
    political stripe for the new Government. The contract has now been
    given to the American Bank Note Company of New York. This company
    will have to establish a branch office at Ottawa and all the work
    will have to be done in Canada.

_Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_ gives further details in a clipping from
the _Montreal Herald_, dated "Ottawa, Jan. 11," [1897]:[121]--

    The contract for the Government engraving, for which tenders were
    called two months ago, has been awarded to the American Bank Note
    Company, of New York, for a period of five and a quarter years. The
    contract is worth $600,000, and may be renewed for a similar period.
    The work consists of engraving Dominion bank notes, revenue and
    postage stamps, postal cards, etc. At present the British American
    Bank Note Company, better known as Burland and Company, formerly of
    Montreal, have the contract. They tendered this time, but the New
    York company was the lowest. The New York company is one of the
    largest and best known in the world. The firm engraves notes for
    some of the banks in Canada, including the Canadian Bank of
    Commerce. Under the terms of the new contract, the Company will
    require to establish a place in Ottawa to do the work, where the
    Government can have supervision of it. As compared with the prices
    paid under the Burland contract, the Government will effect a saving
    of $120,000 by the new contract.

[121] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, IX: 25.

The next step appears in the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ of January 30,
1897, where we read under "Canadian Notes":--

    Many suggestions are being made and many plans laid for the fitting
    celebration of the sixtieth year of Her Majesty's reign. In Canada
    this celebration is being coupled with that of the four hundredth
    anniversary of Cabot's discovery of America. Tn this connection a
    proposal has been made and an agitation started for the issue of a
    commemorative set of postage stamps by the Dominion government....
    It has been suggested that the new stamps be made a trifle larger
    than the present ones, that a somewhat recent picture of Her Majesty
    replace the present one, and that the figures and colors be made
    more pronounced. If possible some reference to the combined
    celebrations will likely be made. The agitation for a new issue is
    quite pronounced and is by no means confined to philatelists. There
    appears to be general desire on the part of the people to have a
    change.

A step further is recorded in the _Era_ for March 27th, as follows:--

    The _Toronto World_ in its edition of March 15th. contained the
    following as one of its leaders: "Here is good news for postage
    stamp collectors. The Postmaster-General proposes, as far as his
    department is concerned, to commemorate Her Majesty's diamond
    jubilee by the issue of a new 3-cent postage stamp appropriate to
    the occasion. It will have a limited circulation only, probably for
    a period of months covering the jubilee celebrations during the
    coming summer. When the sale is stopped the present 3-cent stamp
    will be put in circulation again.... So far the design of the new
    stamp has not been made public although the Hon. Mr. Mulock, the
    Postmaster-General, has sent a sketch of it to the British-American
    [_sic_] Bank Note Company to be engraved. It it said to be oblong
    and nearly as large as the Columbian issue".

If only this original intention had been adhered to!

More precise information finally appeared in the _Era_ for May 29th:--

    During the last week the Canadian papers have been full of Canada's
    Jubilee issue, which has now been definitely decided upon.

    _The Toronto Evening Telegram_ of a few days ago has perhaps the
    most to say concerning the stamps, and it is to that paper that your
    correspondent is indebted for the following. The new Jubilee stamp
    will be issued in another month. The design represents Her Majesty
    at two important eras in her life, namely at her accession on the
    20th of June, 1837, and within a few weeks of her Jubilee in 1897.
    The first vignette, showing her on her coronation day, is from a
    well known portrait of that period. It is a full faced portrait and
    her Majesty wears the crown. Looking at the stamp this vignette is
    at the left side. To the right is a picture of Her Majesty as she
    appears today; the face is profile looking toward the vignette of
    1837. The latter picture represents Her Majesty wearing the Empress
    crown. Between and above the two vignettes is a beautifully executed
    copy of the Imperial crown of England and under it the letter "V"
    with the letters "R. I." in the fork of the "V". The three letters
    meaning Victoria Regina (Queen), Imperatrix (Empress). In the
    semi-circle or upper part of the vignette are the words "Canada
    Postage" and underneath these are respectively the dates 1837-1897
    and between the vignettes are ornamentation of maple leaves, while
    in the lower corners of the stamps are also maple leaves, and
    between these and at the base of the stamp is its denomination in
    black letters on a white ground. There will be sixteen varieties of
    the new stamp and a post card.

    * * * * *

    The first set of stamps printed will be sent to H. R. H. the Prince
    of York [_sic_], who is an enthusiastic stamp collector. The second
    set will be presented to Her Excellency Lady Aberdeen (wife of the
    Canadian Governor General).

The same paper credits the suggestion of the general idea of the Jubilee
design to Mr. Pareira, an official of the Interior Department.

A few days later the matter of the proposed issue came up in Parliament,
and the Postmaster General was interpellated in the House of Commons.
His reply was published in the _Canadian Hansard_, the official record,
of 20th May, 1897, as follows:--

    The Postmaster-General (Mr. Mulock): It is the intention of the
    Government to issue a set of Jubilee postage stamps. Such stamps
    will be put into public use by being delivered to postmasters
    throughout Canada for sale to the public in the same manner as
    ordinary postage stamps are sold. There will be a limit to the
    quantity to be issued. The denominations of Jubilee stamps, and the
    total number of such Jubilee stamps to be issued, are set forth in
    the following schedule:--

    Schedule showing the Denominations and Total Number of Jubilee
    Stamps to be issued:

      Number to be issued.    Denomination.

         150,000              1/2 c. stamps
       8,000,000                1 c.   "
       2,500,000                2 c.   "
      20,000,000                3 c.   "
         750,000                5 c.   "
          75,000                6 c.   "
         200,000                8 c.   "
         150,000               10 c.   "
         100,000               15 c.   "
         100,000               20 c.   "
         100,000               50 c.   "
          25,000              $ 1 00   "
          25,000              $ 2 00   "
          25,000              $ 3 00   "
          25,000              $ 4 00   "
          25,000              $ 5 00   "
       7,000,000                1 c. post cards.

      Total value of one stamp of each kind, $ 16.21-1/2.

    As soon as the total number of stamps mentioned in said schedule is
    issued the plates from which they will have been engraved will be
    destroyed in the presence of the head and two officers of the
    department. On the 10th June the Post Office Department will proceed
    to supply Jubilee postage stamps to the principal post offices in
    Canada, and through them the minor post offices will obtain their
    supply until the issue is exhausted. If this Jubilee issue were to
    wholly displace the ordinary postage stamps it would supply the
    ordinary wants of the country for between two and three months, but
    as the use of the ordinary postage stamps will proceed concurrently
    with that of the Jubilee stamps, it is expected that the Jubilee
    stamp will last beyond the three months. Inasmuch as the department
    is already receiving applications for the purchase of Jubilee
    stamps, it may be stated that the department will adhere to the
    established practice of supplying them only to postmasters, and
    through them to the public, who may purchase them on and after the
    19th June, 1897.



Promptly, "as advertised", the stamps were placed on sale throughout the
Dominion on the morning of Saturday, the 19th of June. The natural
result followed: an expectant populace, for various reasons but with one
main object, literally besieged the post offices for the coveted
treasures. The advance publication of the quantities of the various
denominations to be issued gave speculators the hint as to the most
desirable values to "corner", and as a result the 1/2 cent and 6 cent
stamps were a special mark in all quarters. This action seems to have
been more or less anticipated, for these values were doled out in very
small quantities, if at all, in spite of the large orders that were
everywhere given for them. This was doubtless largely due to the
following circular, sent out with the initial supply of the stamps to
all postmasters:[122]--

    N. B.--Requisitions for _full sets_ of the Jubilee stamps will be
    filled until the issue is exhausted.--E. P. S.

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
       POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH,
                                  OTTAWA, _June_,1897.

    SIR,--I am directed by the Postmaster-General to send you herewith a
    supply of the Jubilee stamps and 1 c. post card, equal to one
    month's ordinary requirements of your office. Should this quantity
    prove insufficient it will, on your requisition addressed to this
    branch, be supplemented; but as the Jubilee issue is limited, it
    would be necessary for you to apply early in order to secure further
    supplies of the same.

    I am also to instruct you not to sell any of the accompanying stamps
    or post cards before the opening of your office at the regular
    office hours on the 19th June instant--the eve of the anniversary
    they are intended to commemorate.

    These stamps and cards are, of course, like the ordinary issues, to
    be sold at face value.

    I am, Sir, your obedient Servant,

                             E. P. STANTON, _Superintendent_.

  THE POSTMASTER.

    P. S.--As there appears to be a somewhat general desire on the part
    of many persons to purchase, for souvenir purposes, complete sets of
    the Jubilee stamps, it is hoped that you will so manage the sale of
    such stamps that persons applying to purchase full sets may be able
    to get them.

  E. P. S.

[122] =Monthly Journal=, VIII. 177.

The conditions that developed when the stamps were actually issued seem
to have surprised the Department, and caused additional measures to be
taken for an equable distribution. We quote Mr. F. W. Wurtele:[123]--

    The experience of the first day's sale convinced our government that
    halves and sixes would very soon be bought up by speculators unless
    some action was taken to further restrict their sale; they therefore
    came to the conclusion that those persons who were willing to
    contribute to the revenues of the Canadian Government to the extent
    of $16.22 for a complete set of jubilee stamps were entitled to
    protection, and decided that they at least should not pay more than
    face value for their 1/2 and 6. In consequence the following
    circular was issued by the post-office department, and no more of
    these values could be obtained from any licensed vendor.

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
       POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH,
                              OTTAWA, 26th June, 1897.

    SIR,--With reference to the numerous demands upon this office for
    the 1/2 c. and 6c. Jubilee stamps, I am directed to explain that the
    respective quantities of Jubilee stamps ordered bear, relatively,
    the same proportions to the actual requirements of the Postal
    Service, but the tendency to exhaust the HALVES and SIXES has
    increased to such a degree, that it has become necessary to restrict
    their sale to the purchasers of full sets. Hence I am to express the
    Postmaster-General's regret that he is unable, having regard to the
    limited character of the Jubilee issue, to comply with any requests
    for the 1/2c or 6c denomination, apart from those for full sets.
    These sets may be obtained as long as the series of Jubilee stamps
    lasts, but as the demands upon it are unusually heavy, it would be
    advisable to apply for full sets at the earliest possible moment.

    When Postmasters obtain such sets to fill orders actual or
    prospective at their respective offices, they must not, in any case,
    break the sets.

    I am, Sir, your obedient Servant,

  E. P. STANTON, _Superintendent_.

    P. S.--Under no circumstances will there be any issue of Jubilee
    stamps, beyond the limits mentioned in the accompanying extract from
    Hansard, containing the Postmaster-General's statement on the
    subject.

       *       *       *       *       *

    It was necessary to print 3,000 copies of the foregoing circular in
    order to reply to all the demands on the department at Ottawa for
    1/2 c. and 6 c.

[123] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, X: 54.

Not only were the sales of the 1/2 and 6 cent stamps thus restricted,
but notices were posted in the offices that none of the 1/2c., 6c., 8c.,
$1.00, $2.00, $3.00, $4.00, or $5.00 stamps would be sold unless the
whole set were taken. This proceeding naturally resulted in considerably
more protest on the part of stamp collectors and the public (?). Rumor
had it just after the issue was placed on sale that the 8 cent stamp had
been withdrawn, which probably accounts for the "run" upon that value
and its inclusion in the above restrictions. In fact a correspondent of
_Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_, writing from Winnipeg, Man., on 25th June,
stated that "a sensation was caused amongst those interested by the
government on Tuesday [22nd June] recalling, by wire, all the 8c. stamps
of the new issue on hand at this office." This was later explained by a
letter published in the _Weekly Philatelic Era_:[124]--

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
       POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH,
                              OTTAWA, 29th July, 1897.

    SIR,--In reply to your letter of the 26th inst., I am directed to
    say that the question of issuing partial sets of Jubilee stamps is
    now under the consideration of the Department. In respect to the
    recall of the 8 c. Jubilee stamps, I may say that it was but a
    partial one, and intended to render possible a re-distribution of
    that stamp on a basis more in accordance with the actual demand
    therefor.

    * * * * *

  I am, Sir,
      Your obdt. servant,
          E. P. STANTON,
               Superintendent.


[124] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XI: 416.

Under date of 31st July it was announced from Ottawa that "the demand
for complete sets has been very large, about nine thousand sets having
already been issued".[125] The "partial sets" referred to in the above
letter were the next step in the unbending process, the decision to put
them on sale having been reached on 31st July, and their issue to the
public beginning on 4th August. Concerning this concession Mr. Donald A.
King says:[126]--

    So soon as the demand for these [complete] sets was, to some extent
    satisfied, the department yielding to another class of enquiries and
    requests for sets up to and including the 50 cents and $1.00
    respectively, made a distribution of such sets, the numbers being
    apportioned upon a basis of the revenue of each money order office
    throughout the Dominion. Between 30,000 and 40,000 sets were thus
    distributed, and rapidly sold, as a very large number of requests
    for further supplies came in from the different offices. The
    following is the circular sent to postmasters regulating the sale of
    these partial sets:

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT. CANADA,
       POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH,
                                OTTAWA, [August] 1897.

    SIR.--I am directed to transmit to you the accompanying partial sets
    of Jubilee stamps. These sets consist of two kinds: one from a 1/2c.
    to $1.00 (value $2.20-1/2), the other from 1/2c. to 50c. (value
    $1.20-1/2). You are instructed to sell these stamps as sets, and as
    sets only, representations having been made to the department that
    in various parts of the Dominion there is a desire to obtain such
    sets for souvenir purposes. You must not, under any circumstances,
    break a set; for, besides the disappointment that such a course
    would cause, you would render yourself liable to loss, the
    department having decided not to allow credit for any broken sets
    returned to it by a postmaster who, notwithstanding the instructions
    herein given, sells any denominations of the stamps making up a set
    apart from the rest.

    I am also to ask you to use your best judgment in the sale of these
    sets, checking, as far as possible, any attempt on the part of
    speculators to monopolize them, and thus securing as general a
    distribution of such sets in your vicinity as the circumstances may
    permit. To enable you to make change in connection with the sale of
    the enclosed sets I include a sufficient quantity of ordinary 1/2 c.
    postage stamps.

    I may add that the accompanying supply has been based strictly upon
    the annual revenue of your office, and, having regard to the total
    number of sets available and the extent of their distribution,
    represents that proportion to which you are entitled.

    I am, Sir, your obedient Servant,

                      E. P. STANTON, _Superintendent_.
  THE POSTMASTER.

[125] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XI: 78.

[126] =Monthly Journal=, VIII: 178.

For disingenuousness, for pathetic regard for the public and the
postmaster, and yet withal a keen eye for the "interests" of the
department, this circular is a model which should be preserved for
posterity--and "businesslike" post office departments.

Mr. King continues:--

    The demand for the small sets was so great that the supply was
    exhausted almost all at once, and in reply to repeated requests for
    more sets the department issued the following circular:--#/

                POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.
  (_Office of the Superintendent of the Postage Stamp Branch_).
                                                    Ottawa,... 1897.

    SIR,--The partial sets of Jubilee stamps already issued to your
    office constituted its share of these sets, having regard to their
    limited number and the area of their distribution, which comprised
    all the money order offices in the Dominion.

    Except a reserve for complete sets (from 1/2c. to $5.00 inclusive,
    cost $16.20-1/2) there is not a Jubilee stamp left in the
    department--all having been issued to postmasters. The plates, I may
    add, were destroyed on the 10th September instant.

    I am, Sir, your obedient Servant,

                             E. P. STANTON, _Superintendent_.
  THE POSTMASTER.



Such is the history of the Diamond Jubilee set of Canadian stamps. We
make no comment on it--it seems as if none were necessary and that the
presentation is amply sufficient for each to judge for himself
concerning it. We will only add Major Evans sapient remark[127]: "All
the trouble was the natural result of pretending to treat a
commemorative and limited issue as if it had been an ordinary and
permanent one. Ordinary common sense should have suggested the issue of
large supplies of the lowest value, and a certain number of all values
to every office."

[127] =Monthly Journal=, VIII: 230.

To revert to the stamps themselves. We have already given a description
of the design in one of our previous quotations, but it needs to be
amended in one or two particulars. The portrait of Queen Victoria
labelled "1837" on the stamp will be recognized as identical with that
on the old 12 pence and later 7-1/2 pence values. In fact Mr. Wurtele
tells us[128] that a prominent Montreal collector, whose advice was
asked when the issue was under consideration, gave the government a
magnificent unused copy of the 7-1/2d. green, to be used in engraving
the picture. It does not, as stated, show Her Majesty on her coronation
day, but is from the painting representing her on the occasion of the
prorogation of Parliament, on 17th July, 1837, as already
described.[129] The portrait labelled "1897" is from a full length
painting executed by command in 1886 by Prof. Von Angelo of Vienna. It
represents Her Majesty as she appeared on the assumption of the title
"Empress of India", and the curious may find the entire figure copied on
the 3 pence post card of Great Britain issued in 1889, and also on the
1 penny card of 1892. This State portrait of the Queen is now in
Buckingham Palace. The crown at the top center of the stamp is not the
Imperial State Crown of Great Britain but the so-called Tudor Crown. The
Imperial Crown is well illustrated on the 3 pence and 5 cent "beaver"
stamps, and a comparison with the Jubilee issue will plainly show the
difference in the "style" of these two crowns.

[128] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, X: 63.

[129] See page 33.

Our illustration (No. 34 on Plate II) shows a sample of the whole set,
the only variation, outside of the color, being the denomination in the
label at the bottom. This is in each case expressed in words. The stamps
are beautifully engraved on steel as usual, and are printed on stout
wove paper and perforated 12. The values from 1/2 cent through 5 cents
were printed in sheets of 100, ten rows of ten. Above the 5 cent, that
is from 6 cents through 5 dollars, they were printed in sheets of 50,
ten horizontal rows of five stamps each. The marginal inscriptions are
very meagre, consisting merely of "OTTAWA--No--1" (or some other plate
number) in hair-line Roman capitals 2-1/2 mm. high, at the top of the
sheet only. The inscription is 40 mm. long, being centered over stamps 5
and 6 of the top row in the sheets of 100, and over stamp number 3 in
the sheets of 50. This is the first time that plate numbers appear on
the sheets of Canadian postage stamps, and it is well to record them.
Taking them serially we find the plates of the various values were made
as follows:--

  Plate 1    3 cents
        2    3   "
        3    3   "
        4    3   "
        5    1   "
        6    1   "
        7    2   "
        8    2   "
        9  1/2   "
       10    5   "
       11    3   "
       12    3   "
       13    3   "
       14    3   "
       15    1   "
       16    1   "
       17    6 cents
       18   15   "
       19   10   "
       20    8   "
       21   20   "
       22    4 dollars
       23   50 cents
       24    3 dollars
       25    5   "
       26    2   "
       27    1   "
       28    3 cents
       29    3   "
       30    3   "
       31    3   "

The colors, which will be found in the Reference List, are quite
constant, as would be expected. The principal variation is only one of
tone in a few values.

A newspaper despatch from Ottawa tells us that "A return brought down
to-day shows that the cost of printing the jubilee stamp was 20 cents
per thousand."[130]

[130] =Post Office=, IX: 37.

Considerable criticism was naturally aroused by the inclusion of the
values from one to five dollars, and outside of the palpable attempt to
"make capital" from stamp collectors and others, it was claimed that the
four and five dollar values were useless, as the "highest amount that
can _possibly_ be required on a parcel sent by mail from Canada is $3.59
(including registration). This owing to limitations of weight, etc., and
the highest amount that can be required on a letter is $1.65".[131] An
"official" replied[132] that "very frequently parcels leave the Toronto
Post Office with $15 and $20 postage on them, and in some cases the
postage has reached the amount of $63. There is another way in which the
$4 and $5 stamps may be used, viz.:--in second class rate books. Canada
does not issue Newspaper or Periodical stamps so these two high values
can be used in this way."

[131] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XI: 383.

[132] =ibid.=, XI: 406.

Someone wrote the Postmaster General, quoting the above letter and
asking further particulars. The reply stated[133] that "the regulations
do not fix any limit to the weight of letters.... According to the
regulations of this Department 'Second Class Matter' comprises
newspapers and periodicals addressed to regular subscribers, (including
sample copies) and that, postage being payable upon such matter at a
bulk rate of 1c. per lb., the stamps required for prepayment are not
affixed to the packages, but are placed in small books and cancelled.
The books for this purpose are supplied by the Department to all Post
Offices where they are required." This was analogous to the practice in
the United States, only regular postage stamps were employed instead of
special newspaper and periodical stamps. As a matter of fact the high
value Jubilee stamps, which later became a drug on the market, were
largely used for this purpose. Mr. King confirms the fact of large
postage payments:[134] "I have seen packages originating at and passing
through the post office here [Halifax] that had from $12.00 to $15.00
postage on them ... and the case can be recalled of a letter on which
$40 was prepaid."

[133] =ibid.=, XI: 426.

[134] =Monthly Journal=, VIII: 177.

The question of the unlimited validity of the Jubilee stamps for postage
was also brought up, doubtless because of the temporary nature of their
issue, and a special circular was issued touching this point, of which
the following is a copy:[135]--


  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.
       POSTAGE STAMP BRANCH.
                              OTTAWA, 24th June, 1897.

    SIR--I am directed to send you for your information and guidance,
    the following statement, which has just been given to the press:

    "Enquiry having been made at the Post Office Department as to
    whether the Canadian Jubilee Postage Stamps would continue good as
    postage for a limited period only, it has been officially stated
    that the Jubilee stamp will remain valid for postage purposes so
    long as they may continue in circulation. _They will not, however,
    be redeemed by the Department, a distinction being drawn in this
    respect between them and the ordinary postage stamps._"

  I am Sir,
      Your obedient Servant,
          E. P. STANTON,
               Superintendent.


[135] =Weekly Philatelic Era= XII: 210.

A curious case of splits is recorded from the _Sussex, N. B.,
News_:[136]--

    The _Railway News_ last week on account of not receiving permission
    from the Post-Master General to allow papers to go through the mails
    free, was compelled to pay postage. No half cent stamps being
    available, the post office department allowed one cent stamps to be
    cut in halves for postage. This is the first time on record we
    believe where such was allowed and the stamps have been eagerly
    sought after, one dollar being paid for a single stamp with the post
    office stamp on it. The _News_ will pay twenty-five cents each for
    the one cent Jubilee stamps cut in halves bearing the post office
    stamp of November 5th, 6th, or 8th, which was allowed to pass
    through the mails on that date owing to there being no regular half
    cent stamps obtainable.

[136] =ibid.=, XII: 96.

The 1 cent ordinary also did duty at some offices for like reasons, but
the practice was not approved from headquarters, as postmasters were
officially instructed in such cases to use whole 1 cent stamps and get a
refund on the difference in value.

       *       *       *       *       *

It may be recalled that one of our quotations stated that the first set
of Jubilee stamps printed would be presented to the "Prince of York"--a
slip for the "Duke of York," afterwards Prince of Wales, and now His
Most Gracious Majesty King George V. An account of this presentation
set may not be without interest here:[137]--

    A very unique and handsome piece of work is the postal portfolio
    which is to be presented to His Royal Highness, the Duke of York, by
    the Dominion Government, and which is on exhibition in the window of
    Kyrie Brothers, Jewelers, Toronto. The portfolio is in the form of
    an album, the cover of which is of royal blue morocco leather,
    handsomely decorated in gold. In the center of the front cover is a
    raised shield in white on which are the words in gold letters,
    "Dominion of Canada, Diamond Jubilee Postage Stamps, 22nd June,
    1897." The corners of the portfolio are decorated with guards of
    Canadian gold made from British Columbia and Ramey district ore. The
    right hand upper corner decoration is a design of maple leaves, and
    the lower corner of English oak leaves and acorns. The portfolio is
    fastened with a clasp of Canadian gold in the form of oak leaves,
    while the bracket on the front holding the clasps in position is
    entwined with maple leaves with the monogram of H. R. H. the Duke of
    York--G. F. E. A.--George Frederick Ernest Albert. On the third page
    is the inscription, "This collection of postage stamps issued at
    Ottawa by the Dominion of Canada in commemoration of the Diamond
    Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria is presented to
    H. R. H. the Duke of York, K. G., by the Government of Canada,
    1897." The last page of this unique stamp album will contain the
    certificate of the destruction of the dies and plates in the
    presence of Hon. Wm. Mulock, postmaster-general of Canada.... This
    is probably the dearest stamp album in the world, and contains only
    a single specimen of each denomination of the jubilee issue.

[137] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, X: 28

It will be noted that the Superintendent's last circular concerning the
exhaustion of the Jubilee stamps stated that the plates had been
destroyed. An eye witness sent _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_ (X: 166) an
account of the process which is interesting enough to reproduce.

    On Friday afternoon, Sept. 10th, ... I presented myself at the
    Post-Office Department and joined a party who were just leaving the
    building to go over to the American Bank Note Co's. building, a
    couple of blocks away.... Arriving, we were conducted to the top
    floor by the manager. The plates, dies, etc., were brought out by
    those in charge, and the seventeen original dies after inspection by
    those present were placed one by one under a press and an
    obliterating roller passed over them several times: proofs were then
    pulled which faintly showed the outline of the ovals, etc., but the
    words showing the value could not even be made out. Next the rolls
    for transferring the impression from the dies to the plates came in
    for their share of attention. There were nineteen of them, and a few
    burns from an emery wheel quickly put each one "out of sight". The
    plates, 31 in number, were subjected to the same treatment as the
    dies and the total time occupied in the destruction of the various
    parts occupied almost two hours.

The Postmaster General's Report for the 30th June, 1897, reprints the
extract from the _Canadian Hansard_ of 20th May, which we have already
given.[138] The stamp accounts show a few curious things. In the first
place the announcement of the issue gave the quantity of 8 cent stamps
as 200,000. The accounts for 1897 give the number received from the
manufacturers as 240,000, and we find in the column headed "Returned by
Postmasters as unfit for use," 40,000 copies, and in the column headed
"Stamps destroyed as unfit for use", a like amount! When the Post Office
Department estimates for the ensuing year were being discussed in
Parliament in May, 1898, the following interpellation occurred and was
replied to by the Postmaster General:[139]--

    _Mr. Ingram._ I notice that 40,000 eight cent stamps were returned
    by the postmasters as unfit for use, and that 40,000 were destroyed
    as unfit for use.

    _The Postmaster-General._ The explanation of that is this: The total
    number issued was limited to the schedule mentioned in the answer
    that I gave to Parliament. By a mistake a larger quantity was
    delivered to the department, and before it was discovered the
    department had distributed a larger quantity than was mentioned in
    the schedule.[140] They discovered it when the mail had gone out,
    and at once recalled the over-issue. Of course they were at once
    destroyed, so as to keep the amount within the figure named by
    Parliament.

    _Mr. Ingram._ Then it was not through stamps being unfit?

    _The Postmaster-General._ I do not know how it is worded there;
    "Unfit for use" is not a proper description. There was not one stamp
    in excess of the limit stated in Parliament that got into the hands
    of the public. There was that little error I speak of, but it was
    detected at once and corrected, and of course the extra amount was
    at once destroyed--I suppose by the Auditor-General and by Mr.
    Stanton of the stamp department.

[138] See page 148.

[139] =Monthly Journal=, VIII: 230.

[140] The stamp accounts show that 223,600 8 cent stamps had been
"issued to postmasters" previous to 30th June, 1897.

Well, perhaps the excess did not reach the public, but the stamp
accounts exhibit a peculiar coincidence in connection therewith. The
tables of receipt and issue of stamp supplies for 1897, as already
stated, contain the memos of the return of 40,000 8 cent stamps, by
postmasters, and their destruction. The tables for 1898 contain two
columns, one of stamps returned by postmasters, "unfit for use", and the
other "fit for use". The former were supposed to be destroyed, the
latter placed in stock again. Now note: the values from 1/2 cent to 50
cents inclusive, "fit for use", were returned in quantities varying from
200 to 250 copies, with two exceptions; the dollar values in quantities
from 400 to 675. The two exceptions were the 6 cent at 1,148 copies,
_and the 8 cent at 42,300 copies_!! This last figure looks so familiar
that we cannot help wondering whether a second call had been sent out
for the return of 40,000 _more_ of the 8 cent, subsequent to the closing
of the 1897 accounts, or if (which seems more probable) the first return
had not been slipped into stock instead of being actually destroyed, and
reappeared thus in the 1898 accounts! _Quien sabe?_

All the other values to and including the 2 dollars, were received in
their proper amounts and were all issued to postmasters, the last record
of the series from 1/2 cent to 1 dollar, inclusive, appearing in the
1900 Report. The figures for the dollar values prove rather interesting
so we give them here:--

                                                            1905     Ret'd and
                 1897.   1898.  1899.  1900.  1901.  Total. On hand. Destroyed.
  $1.00 received 7,500  15,000  2,400   100   ...    25,000    ...        94
        issued   5,830  16,771  3,599   500   ...    26,700

  $2.00 received 7,500   5,000    ...  6,000  6,500  25,000    ...        66
        issued   5,830   4,334    888  7,225  8,775  27,052

  $3.00 received 7,500   5,000    ...   500   1,000  14,000   2,650    1,835
        issued   5,830   4,044    591 1,700   1,250  13,415

  $4.00 received 7,500   5,000    ...   500   2,000  15,000   3,050    2,013
        issued   5,830   3,945    640 1,675   1,775  13,865

  $5.00 received 7,500   5,000    ...   500   3,000  16,000   2,100    1,240
        issued   5,830   3,844    689 2,075   3,325  15,763

Comment:--The three highest dollar values were apparently never
delivered to their full requisition--25,000 each. All but the 1 dollar
were issued in goodly numbers in 1901,--four years after their first
appearance! The 1 and 2 dollar stamps were both issued to an amount of
about 2,000 more than were received from the manufacturers, but this
excess is easily explained by the reissue of stamps returned by
postmasters and placed again in stock. The entire issue drops out of
sight with the 1901 Report, but the 1905 Report suddenly presents the
figures given for the three high values still on hand, and records 30 of
the 5 dollar stamps turned in for destruction. Once more, in the 1909
Report, we find 1,783 of the 3 dollar, 1,954 of the 4 dollar and 1,151
of the 5 dollar stamps returned for destruction, so that allowing for
the total number destroyed and the amount on hand (which may be) we have
for the actual issue of the three high values, instead of 25,000 each,
but 9,515 of the 3 dollar, 9,937 of the 4 dollar and 12,660 of the 5
dollar stamps.



CHAPTER XII

THE "MAPLE LEAF" ISSUE OF 1897


Rumors of a new issue, as we know, had been "in the air" ever since the
change in the contractors for supplying stamps had been announced. Of
course the Jubilee issue was a special affair, and for a time
sidetracked other considerations. A new permanent series was not
forgotten, however, and under "Ottawa Notes" in the _Weekly Philatelic
Era_ for October 9, 1897, we find the following advance information
concerning it:--

    A new general issue of Canadian postage stamps is imminent, being
    necessitated by the fact that the present Liberal government has
    entered into a new contract for engraving and printing Dominion
    treasury notes, postage and revenue stamps, and in short, all
    government matter. The previous contractors were the British
    American Bank Note Co. of Montreal.... When the bids for a renewal
    of the engraving contract were opened last winter, it was found that
    the American Bank Note Company of New York were the lowest bidders,
    and that they bound themselves in the event of the acceptance of
    their tender to build and equip a printing establishment in Ottawa,
    in compliance with the conditions of the bids. Their tender was
    accepted and they have carried out their undertaking by building a
    commodious and fully equipped establishment near that of their
    rivals on Wellington Street. Of the new presses the Jubilee issue of
    postage stamps were the first fruits. The impending general issue
    will be required as soon as the existing stock of the current issue
    is exhausted, and it is rumored that the supply of some values is
    running low.

    This much is announced,--that the design for the new issue has been
    decided upon; that the center of the stamp will contain a portrait
    of the Queen taken at the time of the Jubilee, approved and signed
    by the Queen as the best existing likeness of her, and that our
    national emblem, the maple leaf, will appear in the corners--not the
    unnatural and misshapen leaf that appears on the Jubilee issue, but
    the real article, copied from actual leaves gathered on Parliament
    hill. This would indicate that there will be only one die for all
    the values, but I have as yet no information as to size, colours, or
    details.

A couple of weeks later a circular was sent to postmasters announcing
the new stamps, etc., of which the following is a copy:[141]--

    Circular to Postmaster.

  NEW ISSUE OF POSTAGE STAMPS, ETC.

    The Postmaster-General has made arrangements for a new issue of
    postage stamps, letter cards, stamped envelopes, post cards and post
    bands. These will be supplied to postmasters in the usual way.

    Postmasters are, however, instructed not to sell the stamps of any
    denomination of the new issue until the stamps of the corresponding
    denomination of the present issue are disposed of. The filling of
    requisitions by the Postage Stamp Branch will be regulated by the
    same principle--that is to say, no item of the proposed issue will
    be sent out until the corresponding item of the present issue has
    been exhausted.

    To conform to the requirements of the International Postal Union,
    the color of the new 1c. stamp will be green and that of the 5c.
    stamp a deep blue.

                                R. M. COULTER,
                                          Deputy Postmaster-General.
  Post-Office Department, Canada.
      Ottawa, 25th October, 1897.

[141] =American Journal of Philately=, 2nd Series, X: 502.

These instructions were followed out, and the issue of the new series
was thus stretched over a considerable length of time. The first to
appear was the 1/2 cent, two weeks after the date of the above circular.
The circumstances of its début are told under "Ottawa Notes" in the
_Weekly Philatelic Era_:[142]--

    The half cent stamp of the new issue was placed on sale today [9th
    November, 1897], its appearance having been precipitated by events
    over which the postal authorities had no control.... The
    philatelists, anticipating an early exhaustion of the old half cent
    stamp, helped the thing along by quietly but assiduously buying in
    every copy in sight. As a consequence the stock ran down much faster
    than that of other values, and a few weeks ago orders were issued
    that no more were to be sold to the public, but that publishers
    entitled to the half cent rate should take their papers to the
    post-offices and there have the stamps affixed by the staff. Even
    that did not save the distance [_sic_]. I hear that in Montreal it
    was found necessary to use cent stamps to prepay the half cent
    rate.[143] Fortunately for the reputation of Canadian stamps, these
    stamps were not over-printed with new value, and we have been spared
    a surcharge. However, the postal authorities hurried forward the
    printing and circulation of the new issue, in that value at least,
    and it is an accomplished fact.

[142] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XII: 86.

[143] See page 156.

The next value to appear was the 6 cent, which was announced in the
_Weekly Philatelic Era_ under date of 4th December, 1897 as having been
put in circulation. Following closely upon this came the 1, 2, 5 and 8
cent stamps, and in January, 1898 the 3 and 10 cent.

The new stamps were very simple in design, the central oval containing a
portrait of Queen Victoria copied from a photograph by W. & D. Downey of
London, taken at the time of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations. CANADA
POSTAGE and the value in words only appear in Egyptian capitals on the
oval frame to the portrait, and each spandrel is occupied by a maple
leaf. Much criticism was engendered by the fact that the portrait was
too large for its frame, making the design appear cramped and thus
giving a disappointing effect to what otherwise might have proved a most
neat and effective stamp. [Illustration No. 36 on Plate II].

The stamps were as usual line engraved on steel, and printed on the same
stout white wove paper that was employed for the Jubilee issue, as well
as on a thinner and more brittle quality. The 5 cent, for the first time
in Canadian philatelic history, appeared on a colored paper, the stock
having a decidedly bluish tint. The perforation was the regulation gauge
12. But one irregularity seems to be known, and that is the 5 cents
imperforate, a block of four of which we are able to illustrate as No.
112 on Plate X.

The sheet arrangement was intended to be the usual block of 100
impressions, ten by ten, but the Ottawa correspondent of the _Weekly
Philatelic Era_ tells us that in the case of the 1/2 cent stamp the
first plate was twice this size.

    By some misunderstanding the contractors, the American Bank Note
    Co., set the sheet up with 200 stamps, and the first five hundred
    sheets were so printed. The sheets were afterwards cut in two
    through the imprint, and we have these half sheets with a close
    imperforated margin on either the left or right edge. Afterwards
    sheets of 100 stamps were issued, all the stamps perforated on all
    four sides. Plate number collectors will find the earliest sheets
    difficult to obtain. Both sheets bear the plate number 1.[144]

[144] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XII: 132.

The imprint on the sheets was the same as that on the Jubilee sheets,
OTTAWA--No--1, etc., but instead of numbering the plates all
consecutively, each denomination began its own series with "No 1." The
imprint is placed in the top margin only, over the middle two stamps (5
and 6) of the top row. In the case of the 14 cent stamps each style of
the first two plates was numbered "1". The plate of 200 impressions was
arranged in ten horizontal rows of twenty stamps each, thus bringing the
imprint over stamps 10 and 11 of the top row, and as it was between
these that the large sheets were severed, the imprint was cut in two in
the process. All the other values were made up in sheets of 100 only.

For the information of plate number collectors we give a list of such
numbers as we have been able to ascertain.

  1/2 cent, No.  1 (2 plates).
   1   "    Nos. 1, 2.
   2   "    Nos. 1, 2, 3.
   3   "    Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
   5   "    No.  1,.
   6   "    No.  1.
   8   "    No.  1.
  10   "    No.  1.

The quantity of each value issued before they were replaced by the
stamps with numerals is stated to have been as follows:[145]--

  1/2 cent          2,000,000
   1   "           34,000,000
   2   "           12,000,000
   3   "           44,000,000
   5   "            3,500,000
   6   "              500,000
   8   "            1,400,000
  10   "              500,000

[145] =Metropolitan Philatelist=, X: 117.

A similar variation is found in the dimensions of these stamps to that
occurring in the 7-1/2 d. and 10d. stamps and the issue of 1868, and has
caused quite a little comment from those unfamiliar with this
phenomenon. As much as 1/2 mm. in the vertical measurements can be found
between many stamps. The cause is of course the uneven shrinking of the
dampened paper when drying after being printed upon. This was fully
discussed in an earlier chapter.[146] As the paper in the present
instance is very similar in quality to that used for printing the
United States stamps, in which the same peculiarity occurs, we will
quote Mr. Melville's comment on the subject:[147]--

    As we have said, the paper is impressed when damp.... This
    wetting-down business has another effect which has always puzzled
    philatelists. The wet paper is taken into a hot room to dry, and in
    drying it contracts. The contraction is not uniform and the
    philatelist in trying to prove the existence of more than one
    original die will pin his faith to the idea that if the varieties
    noticeable were due to contraction of the paper the contraction
    would be proportionate on all sides of the stamp. This is not the
    case however.

    Paper, when absorbing moisture, expands more in one direction than
    the other. The direction of greater expansion is what is technically
    known as the "cross direction", and is the direction _across_ the
    flow of pulp in the paper making machine. During the flow of the
    pulp the bulk of the fibres lie parallel with the movement of the
    wire gauze, and it is a scientific fact that the diameter of a fibre
    is increased by absorption of water much more than is the length.
    The subsequent shrinking on drying also is uneven.

[146] See page 53 =et seq.=

[147] =United States Postage Stamps=, 1894-1910, page 16.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Postmaster General's Report for 1897 says:--

    The contract with the British American Bank Note Company expired on
    the 22nd April, 1897, and a contract was entered into with the
    American Bank Note Company for the manufacture and supply of postage
    stamps &c. An estimate of the probable ordinary requirements for the
    next fiscal year and the comparison based thereon between the old
    and the present rates show that, under the new contract, stamp
    supplies will cost the department, say, $10,000 per annum less than
    under the old contract, a reduction in outlay of about 20%.

It is also noted that during 1896-7 electric cancelling ("mail marking")
machines were introduced, six of which were rented and installed in the
Montreal Post Office and one at Ottawa.

The reduction in the domestic letter rate from 3 cents to 2 cents per
ounce is forecasted, as well as a proposed reduction from 5 cents to 2
cents per 1/2 ounce on letters between Great Britain and many of her
colonial possessions. This will be more thoroughly discussed later.

Concerning the postal changes we have been considering the report
says:--

    Owing to the change of contract for the manufacture and supply of
    postage stamps, a new series of stamps became necessary at the
    beginning of the present fiscal year. New stamps ranging in value
    from the 1/2 cent to the 10 cent denomination (inclusive) were
    printed, and the first supplies thereof sent out to postmasters as
    the corresponding denominations of the old stamps became exhausted.
    A considerable quantity of the higher values of that series (15
    cents, 20 cents and 50 cents) remaining over from the late contract,
    these three stamps continued to be issued, so that the department,
    previous to the introduction of the same denominations in the new
    series, might, in accordance with the universal practice, dispose of
    the old stamps in each case before issuing any of the new. The
    design of the new stamps is of a uniform character, and consists of
    an engraved copy (reduced) of an authorized photograph of Her
    Majesty taken during the Diamond Jubilee year. This, placed within
    an oval bearing the usual inscriptions, is enclosed in a rectangular
    frame, a maple leaf on a lined ground occupying each of the
    triangular spaces between the two frames. To conform to the
    regulations of the Universal Postal Union, the colour of the new 1
    cent stamp is green, and that of the 5 cents a deep blue. This
    necessitated corresponding changes in the colours of the other
    stamps of the new series; for example, purple, instead of green,
    being selected for the 2 cent denomination, and orange instead of
    slate for the 8 cent.

The special delivery system was also introduced, and will be treated of
later.



CHAPTER XIII

THE "NUMERALS" ISSUE, 1898-1902


Hardly had the "maple leaf" issue gotten generally into use before
complaints began to be heard about the difficulty of distinguishing the
different values. The _Weekly Philatelic Era_ for June 4, 1898, quotes a
plaint of this character as follows:--

    The Toronto _World_ says: "We take the liberty of suggesting to the
    Postmaster-General that we have a large figure indicating the value
    in cents of the various issues of Canadian stamps. It is hard to
    make them out at present."

    This is only one of the numerous complaints made daily against our
    new issue. Some changes ought to be made.

But the _Metropolitan Philatelist_ in its issue for April 2, 1898, had
already given information of an impending change which in the main
proved correct. It says:--

    Much dissatisfaction is expressed by the French speaking inhabitants
    of the rural parts at the lack of figures of value on the stamps,
    the denomination in all cases being printed in English which they
    are unable to understand. It has, therefore, been decided to alter
    the new stamps by removing the maple leaves from the lower corners
    and inserting large numerals of value in their place. The space
    occupied by the head will also be somewhat enlarged and the value
    will be placed on a straight band below.

All of which transpired save the placing of the value on the "straight
band". In the issue of the _American Journal of Philately_ for June 1,
1898, a Canadian correspondent reported: "I saw yesterday the proof of
the new Canadian stamps. The frame is slightly changed and the value in
figures is at the bottom on each side of the stamp, in place of the
maple leaves." No date is given, but it was doubtless early in May.
Finally _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_ reported the actual issue of the 1
cent and 3 cent stamps, stating that a Montreal correspondent had
purchased them at the post office on June 21st, which was doubtless
their approximate date of issue.

No further news of the numeral set is recorded until the issue of the
_Weekly Philatelic Era_ for September 17th, wherein its Toronto
correspondent says that "Last week the 2c. purple with numerals in lower
corners made its debut, a few days later the 1/2c arrived similarly
altered, followed closely by the 6c." This evidently puts the issue of
these three values within the first ten days of September. The 8 cent
was recorded in the same paper for October 15th, so that it must have
been issued about the first of the month. The 10 cent did not make its
appearance until November, being noticed under the "Toronto Letter" in
the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ for November 19th, so that again it was
doubtless the early part of the month that saw its advent.

For six months nothing further was heard of new "numeral" stamps, when
finally the 5 cent, which was the one value lacking to complete the set
in its altered form, made its appearance on July 3, 1899, according to a
correspondent of _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_.[148]

[148] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XIII: 265.

The new type of stamp, as already stated, was merely an alteration of
the preceding "maple leaf" design, due to two criticisms--that no
numerals were shown, making it often difficult without a close look to
tell the denomination, and bothersome to the large population of French
origin who did not speak English; and that the portrait was too large
for its oval frame, giving a somewhat cramped effect. In the new design,
illustrated as number 40 on Plate II, the first objection was met by
placing the proper numerals in small squares in the lower corners, which
necessitated the removal of the maple leaves from the lower spandrels;
and the second objection was met by enlarging the oval frame containing
the portrait, thus giving a much better effect. To do this the oval was
extended to the outside of the stamp, cutting the rectangular border
lines instead of lying wholly within them, as in the design it
superseded.

The stamps were of course line engraved on steel and printed in the
usual sheets of 100, ten rows of ten. The imprint was the same as on the
last issue, and the plates again began with No. 1 for each denomination.
As far as we have been able to ascertain, the plate numbers are as
follows:--

  1/2 cent       No. 1.
   1   "          "  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
   2   "          "  1, 2, 3, 4.
   3   "          "  1, 2, 3, 4.
   5   "          "  1, 2, 3.
   6   "          "  1.
   8   "          "  1.
  10   "          "  1.



There were of course many more plates of the 1 cent stamp, at least,
which remained in use for five years, and probably several more of the
2, 3, and 10 cent, but there seems to have been very little interest in
Canada in keeping track of these.

But during the life of this series there were important changes taking
place which were reflected in the stamp issues, and we must keep track
of them.

In the first place, the Hon. William Mulock, the Canadian
Postmaster-General, was a firm believer in and an active agitator for
Imperial Penny Postage. At the Imperial Conference on Postal Rates in
London, in July, 1898, the project was carried through, and a rate of
one penny (2 cents) per half ounce established by certain colonies in
connection with the Mother Country, to take effect on Christmas Day of
1898. Concerning this we shall have more to say in the next chapter; but
meanwhile Canada's domestic rate stood at 3 cents per ounce or fraction,
in spite of attempts to reduce it, particularly since the United States
had lowered its internal rate in 1883. The anomaly would be presented
under such conditions of a letter mailed from one town to another in
Canada costing three cents, even if weighing a half ounce or less, while
the same letter could cross to Great Britain and travel to Cape Colony,
for instance, on payment of but two cents postage.

The agitation and the London conference evidently had their effect, for
on the 13th June, 1898, a bill[149] in amendment of the Post Office Act
was assented to in Parliament which substituted 2 cents for 3 cents as
the domestic postage rate per ounce weight. It also provided that the
new rate should not take effect until a date to be named by the Governor
General. After the date for the inauguration of Imperial Penny Postage
was fixed, the Governor General named New Year's day following as the
date for the change in Canada's domestic rate. The following notice was
published in the _Canada Gazette_:[150]--

  Order in Council,

           Post Office Department.

    By Proclamation dated the 29th day of December, 1898, in virtue of
    the Act further to amend the Post Office Act (61 Victoria, chapter
    20) and of an Order in Council in accordance therewith, it was
    declared that the postage rate payable on all letters originating in
    and transmitted by post for any distance in Canada for delivery in
    Canada, should be one uniform rate of two cents per ounce weight,
    from the 1st January, 1899.

[149] 61 Vict. Chap. 20.

[150] =Canada Gazette=, XXXII: 1223.

This of course had the immediate effect of vastly increasing the
consumption of 2 cent stamps and also of rendering the 3 cent stamps
practically useless. Another point would be that whereas the Postal
Union requirements named red as the color for the stamp used for
domestic postage, and the 3 cent had been in its proper hue, the stamp
for the new internal rate was printed in purple and would therefore have
to be changed. This change was not forced, however, the Post Office
Department as usual preferring to use up the stock on hand of the
current 2 cent stamp before issuing the new one. It took considerable
time to do this, so that the 2 cent carmine did not make its appearance
until the 20th August, according to a correspondent of _Mekeel's Weekly
Stamp News_.[151] It was of course the same stamp as before but printed
in the color of the 3 cent value, and we have to record plate numbers 3,
4, 5, 6 and 7, though there were doubtless many more.

[151] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XIII: 324.

But the 3 cent stamp still remained on hand in large quantities, and in
order to use them up more quickly and perhaps save confusion between
them and the new 2 cent stamps, the Post Office Department decided upon
surcharging the stock on hand down to 2 cents, thus making Canada's
first offence in this line. The notice concerning this change and some
others that were decided upon was as follows:--


  _Department Circular_.
                    POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
                                               OTTAWA, 1st July, 1899.

    Owing to the reduction in the Domestic letter rate of postage, the
    issue of the 3 c. letter-card, the 3c. stamped envelope and the 3
    cent postage stamp from the Department has ceased. Any unused 3c.
    letter-cards, 3c. stamped envelopes or 3c. stamps, still extant,
    will, however, continue available for postage purposes, or may be
    exchanged at any Post Office, at their full face value, for postage
    stamps of other denominations.

    The color of the Domestic-rate postage stamp, as prescribed by the
    Universal Postal Union, is red, and it is intended to discontinue
    the issue of the ordinary two cents purple colored stamps as soon as
    the present supply on hand is exhausted. This will be about the 20th
    July, 1899. Thereafter the Department will issue two cents stamps in
    red, first, however, surcharging down to two cents the unissued
    remnant of the three cents stamps in red, now in the possession of
    the Department, and as soon as the supply of such surcharged
    _threes_ is exhausted, the issue of two cents stamps in red will
    begin. The surcharged stamps will be issued to Postmasters as 2c.
    postage stamps and be recognized as postage stamps of that
    denomination.

    Postmasters are requested to exchange, as above mentioned, all
    unused 3c. letter-cards, 3c. stamped envelopes and 3c. stamps which
    may be offered them to be exchanged for other postage stamps of an
    equal value.

    Postmasters, who as a result of such exchange, may find the 3c.
    stamps, etc., unsaleable, are at liberty, in the case of an
    _Accounting Post Office_, to send them direct to the Department for
    credit; and in the case of a _Non-Accounting Post Office_, to send
    them to the City Post Office from which it obtains its supplies,
    asking in lieu of those returned other stamps to an equal value.

    It is especially requested that, in the case of stamps sent direct
    to the Department, under this authority, that is to say, _by
    Accounting Post Offices_,--Postmasters will be so good as to carry
    out the following instructions:--

    (1) Each transmission should be registered, and accompanied with a
    brief memorandum, plainly stamped with the date stamp of the Post
    Office, and indicating the number and value of the 3c. stamps, etc.,
    claimed to be enclosed. If other stamps are required to replace
    those returned, a separate requisition therefor (not enclosed in the
    package) should be sent direct to the Department in the usual way.

    (2) Single stamps, and stamps that are not in complete sheets,
    should be pasted on alternate pages of separate sheets of paper,
    with _not more than one hundred stamps on each page_. Any stamps
    that have stuck together whilst in the possession of the Postmaster,
    must be taken apart (which can easily be done by immersing them for
    a few minutes in water) and then pasted on sheets of paper as above
    directed.

    Postmasters of _Non-Accounting_ Offices are particularly asked to
    bear in mind that any 3c. letter-cards, 3c. stamped envelopes or 3c.
    postage stamps which conformably to this instruction, they may
    receive from the public in exchange for other stamps and find
    unsaleable, _must be returned, as above directed, to the City Post
    Offices from which they respectively obtain their supplies_, and not
    to the Department.

    _As only the unused remnant of 3c. stamps now in the Department will
    be surcharged_, Postmasters must not send in, with a view to their
    surcharge, any 3c. stamps in their possession nor accept 3c. stamps
    from the public for that purpose.

    Postmasters must distinctly understand that the exchange of stamps
    herein permitted applies _only_ to the 3c. letter-card, the 3c.
    stamped envelope and 3c postage stamp.

  R. M. COULTER,
  _Deputy Postmaster General_.



As a matter of fact the 2 cent purple seems to have lasted about a week
longer than was anticipated in the above circular, so that the
surcharged 3 cent stamps were not issued until the 28th July.[152] A
correspondent of the _Weekly Philatelic Era_, in its issue for 22nd
July, said: "I learn that the 3c numeral and some 3c with the four maple
leaves will be surcharged," which proved correct; those first issued on
the date mentioned above were of the numeral type, while on the 8th
August[153] the "maple leaf" 3 cent made its appearance with the same
surcharge.

[152] =Monthly Journal=, X: 35.

[153] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XIII: 308.

Illustrations of the two stamps will be found as numbers 41 and 42 on
Plate II. It is stated that the surcharge was made up in its peculiar
form so as to prevent counterfeiting by the use of ordinary type. At any
rate the graded height of the numeral and letters, giving the concave
effect to the top of the surcharge, shows it to have been specially
prepared. There is some variation in the thickness of the surcharge, due
perhaps to inking and to wearing of the plates. The overprinting was
done in full sheets of one hundred from a special plate, in black ink,
and should normally be horizontally across the bottom of the stamps.
Poor registering of the sheets in printing caused the position to vary
even up to about the middle of the stamp in some cases, and of course
there had to be some inverted surcharges in both varieties. The number
of these has not been published. Illustrations of the inverts will be
found as numbers 44 and 45 on Plate II.

The quantity of 3 cent stamps surcharged was reported by the Ottawa
correspondent of the _Weekly Philatelic Era_[154] as "variously stated
to be 9,000,000 to 11,000,000," while _Stanley Gibbons Monthly Journal_
is more definite[155] in saying that "there are some 9,000,000 of 3c.
stamps in stock, of which about 6,000,000 are of the four leaves type,
and the rest have the numerals in the lower corners." Just where these
figures were obtained does not appear, but the Postmaster General's
report for 30th June, 1900, makes the following statement:--"Included in
the stamp output of the year was $123,600 worth of 3 cent stamps, which
constituted the unissued remnant of 3 cent stamps in the possession of
the department; on the occasion of the reduction of the domestic letter
rate of postage they were surcharged and issued as 2 cent stamps." The
figures quoted account for only 4,120,000 of the 3 cent stamps, and
this quantity is confirmed in the Report for 1901, which says:--"In
1899-1900 3 cent stamps to the number of 4,120,000 were included in the
output solely with a view to surcharging them down to 2 cents and
transference to that column." The two varieties, however, are not
separated in the accounts, but inasmuch as the catalogue prices are now,
after ten years, at the same figure for each, it is reasonable to
suppose that one is as common as the other and that therefore they must
have been issued in approximately equal amounts.

[154] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XIII: 393.

[155] =Monthly Journal=, X: 35.

Plate numbers for the surcharges seem to be again recorded in only a
half hearted way. But one reference has been found to those of the
numeral type, plates 5 and 6[156], and none for the "maple leaf" type.

[156] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XIII: 400, 403.

The reduction in the domestic rate of postage was also the cause of
another provisional, but of quite a different character. _Stanley
Gibbons Monthly Journal_ for January 31, 1899, says:--

    In some offices 1c. and 2c. stamps ran short, and their places were
    supplied by one-third and two-thirds portions of 3c. stamps divided
    vertically. In some places, our correspondent says, these divided
    stamps were employed without further alteration, but in others we
    regret to hear that they were surcharged with a figure "2", in
    _purple_, upon the figure "3" of the larger portion, or the word
    "one" in _green_, upon the smaller part; or, to further complicate
    matters, when thirds of two adjoining stamps were used for 2c. each
    part was impressed with a figure "2". Our informant's letter is
    franked in part by 2/3 of a 3c. stamp surcharged "2" so we fear that
    this horrible tale is founded on fact.

In the _Journal_ for March 31, 1899, is further light:--

    The surcharged fractions appear to have been used only at the office
    at Port Hood, N. S., where the Postmaster apparently did not
    consider it safe to use divided stamps without some distinguishing
    mark. We have seen other copies since, and find that a figure "1"
    was struck upon the smaller portion; not the word "one" as
    previously stated.

Again in the _Journal_ for April 29, 1899, we find:--

    In reference to the cut and surcharged 3c. stamps, a correspondent
    sends us the following extract from a letter from the postmaster of
    Port Hood:--

    "When the change in Canadian postage was made--of which we got
    notice by wire--I had only very few two cent stamps in stock, so
    that before I got my supply from Ottawa I ran completely out of
    them, and, to keep my account straight, I was compelled to cut
    threes. This was for one day only, and not over 300 stamps were cut.
    I would say about 200 '2' and 100 '1' were used. Those stamps I put
    on letters for delivery within the county as much as possible. About
    100 '2' and probably nearly as many '1' were marked with the figures
    3 and 1 as you describe, and were placed on letters for delivery in
    towns throughout the Dominion. Those were the only provisional
    stamps used by this office."

Mr. Horsley reports having a copy on the original cover with the
postmark of Port Hood dated 5 January, 1899, which is doubtless the "one
day" that they were employed.

A Canada correspondent, writing in _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_[157]
concerning these "splits", says that "the Dominion Government has
announced that they were not authorized and letters having them on for
postage should have been charged double rate when delivered." They may
be interesting as curiosities, but they are assuredly not worthy of any
great attention from collectors. Illustrations of the "2" cent and a
pair of the "1" cent will be found as Nos. 37 and 39 respectively on
Plate II.

[157] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XIII: 187.

Nothing further in the line of novelties is to be reported until the
29th December, 1900, when a new 20 cent stamp suddenly made its
appearance as a companion in design to the rest of the "numeral" series.
The large 20 cent stamp of 1893 had finally been exhausted, and the new
comer in its neat olive green was a welcome addition to the current set.
It of course conformed to the others in engraving, sheet arrangement,
etc., and had the plate number 1. An examination of the stamp accounts
during its term of life make it appear probable that approximately
500,000 were issued.

Finally the long heralded 7 cent stamp, which was supposed to take the
place of the 8 cent stamp after the reduction of domestic postage, made
its appearance nearly four years late! It was announced in a despatch to
the _Toronto Mail and Empire_ as follows:--

    Ottawa, Dec. 18th, [1902].--The Post Office Department announces
    that on the 24th instant it will be in a position to supply a
    seven-cent postage stamp to accounting post offices throughout
    Canada. This stamp, which is of a yellow color, will be especially
    convenient for postage and registration fee on single rate letters,
    while it may also be used for other postage purposes to the extent
    of its face value. Non-accounting offices can obtain their supply
    through the city post offices. This new stamp will bear the Queen's
    head, the department not having yet decided on the design for the
    King's head issue.



The Postmaster General's Report for 1903, however, gives the issue of 7
cent stamps as occurring on the 23rd December, 1902. The stamp, as was
the case with the 20 cent, conformed in all respects to the others of
the numeral issue, but was printed in a hideous shade of olive yellow.
There was but one plate number, No. 1. It seems probable that about one
million copies constituted its total issue.

       *       *       *       *       *

The above completes the issues of the numeral type stamps with the
Queen's head. Glancing over the Reports of the Postmaster General, as
usual, for the period during which they were in issue, we find the
following items of interest.

In the Report for 30th June, 1899, the introduction of "Domestic Penny
Postage" is thus recorded:--

    On the 1st January, 1899, the letter rate within Canada was reduced
    from 3 to 2 cents per ounce. This change has been accompanied by
    such a marked and continuous increase in the number of domestic
    letters being transmitted through the mails, as to warrant the
    conclusion that the loss of revenue consequent on such reduction
    will soon be overcome.

    As a result of the reduction in the Domestic Letter rate of postage,
    the issue of the 3c. letter card, 3c. stamped envelope and 3c.
    postage stamp has been discontinued, unused quantities of these,
    however, continuing available for postage purposes or exchangeable
    at any post office for their equivalent in postage stamps of other
    denominations.

On the 1st January, 1899, also, the provisions of the Act which
reimposed postage payment on newspapers and periodicals went into
effect. This was _An Act further to amend the Post Office Act_ (assented
to 13th June, 1898)[158] which we have already quoted as being the Act
authorizing the reduction in the domestic postage rate to 2 cents per
ounce. The third section of this Act repealed section 26 of the _Post
Office Act_ and substituted the following therefor:--

    =26.= On and after the first day of January, one thousand eight
    hundred and ninety-nine, newspapers and periodicals, printed and
    published in Canada, mailed by the publisher in the post office at
    the place where they are published and addressed to regular
    subscribers or newsdealers in Canada, resident elsewhere than in
    the place of publication, shall be transmitted by mail to their
    respective addresses as follows:--

    If they are required to be transmitted by mail a distance within
    twenty miles from the place of publication or within a circular area
    of a diameter not exceeding forty miles, and if their publication is
    of no greater frequency than once a week, they shall be so
    transmitted free of postage within one or other of such areas to be
    selected by the publisher in accordance with regulations in that
    behalf to be established by the Postmaster General; if they are
    required to be transmitted a greater distance, or if their
    publication is of greater frequency than once a week, then in either
    of such cases postage thereon shall be paid on and after the said
    first day of January, and until and inclusive of the thirtieth day
    of June next following, at the rate of one-quarter of one cent, and
    thereafter at the rate of one-half of one cent, for each pound
    weight or any fraction of a pound weight, which shall be prepaid by
    postage stamps or otherwise, as the Postmaster General from time to
    time directs; provided  that--

        (_a_) such newspaper or periodical is known and recognized as a
        newspaper or periodical in the generally received sense of the
        word, and consists wholly or in great part of political or other
        news or of articles relative thereto or to other current topics,
        and is published regularly at intervals of not more than one
        month;

        (_b_) the full title, place and date of publication, and the
        distinguishing number of the issue are printed at the top of the
        first page, and every subsequent page, and also on any paper,
        print, lithograph or engraving purporting to be a supplement to
        it and sent with it;

        (_c_) it is addressed to a _bonâ fide_ subscriber, or to a known
        news-dealer in Canada; and--

        (_d_) it is delivered into the post office under such
        regulations as the Postmaster General, from time to time, makes
        for that purpose.

    2. For the purpose of determining the weights of such newspapers or
    periodicals, each newspaper or periodical transmitted separately
    through the mails shall be held to weight not less than one-half of
    one ounce.

    3. [_The Postmaster General to decide whether any publication comes
    under this section, and whether the requirements have been complied
    with in any case._]

    4. [_Books for the blind transmitted free of Canadian postage._]

[158] 61 Vict. Chap. 20.

One other item, not strictly philatelic perhaps, but interesting to
record here, is the announcement of the issue of postal notes, the
system having been inaugurated throughout Canada on the 4th August,
1898. It was intended mainly to obviate the need of remitting small
sums by mail in postage stamps, with the consequent difficulty to the
recipient of disposing of any quantity. The notes were for certain fixed
values, odd amounts between values being made up by affixing postage
stamps.

Their denominations and dates of issue are recorded as follows:--

   4th August        issued notes of 25, 50 and 70 cents.
  23rd    "            "      "   "  $1, $2.50 and $5.
  21st October         "      "   "  40 cents, $1.50 and $2.
  25th November        "      "   "  20, 30, 60 and 80 cents.
  23rd January, 1899   "      "   "  90 cents, $3. and $4.

In the Report for 1900 we find mention of the issue of stamp books.

    In the month of June, 1900, the department commenced the issue to
    Postmasters, of a small book of 2 cent postage stamps, containing 12
    stamps, disposed on two sheets of 6 stamps each, and interleaved
    with wax paper to prevent adhesion of the sheets. The size of the
    book is such as to make it convenient to be carried in the pocket or
    pocket-book. Printed on the cover is postal information calculated
    to be of interest to the public. The price at which the book is
    issued is 25 cents, one cent over the face value of the stamps being
    charged to cover the cost of binding, etc.

The stamp accounts give the date of issue of the stamp books as 11th
June, 1900. That they have proved popular is evidenced by the increase
in the number issued to postmasters from some 320,000 in 1901 to about
1,400,000 in 1910.

The books are about two by three inches in size, with stiff cardboard
covers which are bound together by red cloth. The coat-of-arms of Canada
with the words CANADA POSTAGE beneath are engraved in red on the front
cover, while inside are four pages of postal information and the two
sheets of six stamps each--three horizontal pairs--backed by leaves of
paraffined tissue paper.

Notice is also given of the discontinuance of two denominations of
postage stamps, the old 15 cent of 1868 passing quietly away at the age
of 31 years, 1 month and 1 day--or on the 2nd November, 1899, to be
exact. The 6 cent stamp, for which there was but little call since the
reduction of the letter postage to 2 cents, was discontinued on the 10th
February, 1900.

From the Report of 1901 we learn that the last issue of the $1 Jubilee
stamps took place on 27th June 1900, but nothing is said of dates for
the cents values, all of which appear for the last time in the "issued
to postmasters" column in amounts of 700 or 800, and even 2000 in the
case of the 1/2 cent.

The Report of 1902 notes the last issue of the 3 cent stamp in March,
1901, and of the 8 cent stamp, which had been of but little use since
the reduction of postage, on the 16th December, 1901.

The Report of 1903 announces the issue of the new King Edward stamps,
and of the prepayment of printed matter in cash, instead of by stamps,
under the "permit" system. Both of these subjects will be considered in
their proper chapters.

Though the Report for 1904 takes us into the period of the King Edward
stamps, yet we find it noted therein that the last issue of 6 cent and 8
cent stamps (Queen's head) took place on the 4th September, 1902. Both
these values had already been disposed of apparently, but it seems that
100,000 of the 6 cent and 125,000 of the 8 cent were "received from
manufacturers" and "issued to postmasters", according to the stamp
accounts of 1902-3, and rumor has it that some large concern ordered
them for the mailing of catalogues. The date, 4th September, was
probably that of delivery to the purchasers.



CHAPTER XIV

THE "CHRISTMAS" STAMP OF 1898


Ocean Penny Postage, which became the dream of Postal Reformers almost
from the date of the adoption of the plan of Rowland Hill, is at length
within measurable distance of becoming an accomplished fact. It is
true that it is not yet to be the Universal Penny Postage, or
even the Imperial Penny Postage so perseveringly advocated by Mr.
Henniker-Heaton; but these will come in time, and an immense step in the
desired direction has been taken by the adoption of the partial scheme,
which is to come into force within a few months." So wrote Major Evans
in July, 1898,[159] upon the conclusion of the Imperial Conference on
Postal Rates which took place in London during that month.

[159] =Monthly Journal, IX=: 1.

Many of our readers may have seen the illustrated envelopes, in various
designs, which were issued some fifty or sixty years ago in advocacy of
an "Ocean Penny Postage." Great Britain, having committed herself to
domestic penny postage in 1840, after the herculean labors of Sir
Rowland Hill in that behalf, seems to have been looked to by succeeding
postal reformers to furnish over-sea transportation along the same
lines. Chief among these advocates was Elihu Burritt, the "learned
blacksmith" of New Britain, Conn., who not only published documents on
the subject but went to England and delivered addresses in support of
the idea. Major Evans says:[160]--"What appears to have been the first
pamphlet on 'Ocean Penny Postage', issued by Elihu Burritt, was probably
published quite at the end of 1848, or early in 1849. It contains a poem
dated Christmas, 1848, which may give us approximately the date of
publication." This proves extremely interesting, inasmuch as Imperial
Penny Postage was put into effect on Christmas, 1898, just a half
century later to a day.

[160] =Stamp Lover, I=: 263.

But Burritt's proposal was not that which was accomplished so long
afterward. In his own words:[161]--

    By the term "_Ocean Penny Postage_" we mean simply this:--That the
    single service of transporting a letter, weighing under
    half-an-ounce, from any port of the United Kingdom to any port
    beyond the sea, at which the British mail-packets may touch, shall
    be performed by the British Government for _one penny_; or one penny
    for its mere conveyance from Folkestone to Boulogne, Liverpool to
    Boston, &c., and _vice versa_. Thus the entire charge upon a letter
    transmitted from any town in the United Kingdom to any port beyond
    the sea, would be two pence;--one penny for the inland rate, and the
    other for the ocean rate.

[161] =A Penny All the Way=, Melville, p. 23.

Of course this does not reckon in what might be added for an inland rate
at the "port beyond the sea", but the main point was the transportation
on the ocean part of the journey at a uniform rate of one penny.

This was practically accomplished--and even bettered--by the
establishment of the Universal Postal Union in 1875; for where Burritt
wrote:[162]--"It would meet the terms of our proposition if every letter
under half an ounce, from any town in Great Britain to any town in the
Colonies, should pay _three pence_; one penny for the home inland rate,
another penny for the ocean, and the third for the colonial inland rate,
and _vice versa_" the Postal Union fixed a charge of but twopence
halfpenny as the standard rate between _all_ countries that subscribed
to its provisions.

[162] =ibid.=, page 22.

To quote further:[163]--

    The later discussion in England on the extension of Penny Postage
    across the seas has alternated between the proposals for Universal
    Penny Postage and Imperial Penny Postage. Mr. Henry Fawcett, who was
    Postmaster-General in 1880, was keenly interested in endeavouring to
    get the Colonies to accept a lower postal rate to and from the
    Mother Country, but the Colonies were afraid to lower their
    rates.... Mr. Henniker-Heaton brought up the subject in the House of
    Commons in 1885 by moving for the opening of negotiations with other
    Governments, with a view to establishing Universal Penny Postage....
    In 1890 the Jubilee of the introduction of Uniform Penny Postage was
    celebrated in London and throughout the United Kingdom, and public
    interest in postal matters received a new stimulus.... The long
    sustained agitation for Imperial Penny Postage was at last brought
    to a definite issue at the Imperial Conference on Postal Rates in
    1898. The London _Standard_ of 13th July, 1898, stated:--

    "We are authorized by the Postmaster-General to state that, as the
    result of the Imperial Conference on Postal Rates, it has been
    agreed, on the proposal of the Representative of the Dominion of
    Canada, that letter postage of one penny per half-ounce should be
    established between the United Kingdom, Canada, Newfoundland, the
    Cape Colony, Natal, and such of the Crown Colonies as may, after
    communication with, and approval of, Her Majesty's Government, be
    willing to adopt it. The date on which the reduction will come into
    effect will be announced later on. The question of a uniform reduced
    rate for the whole Empire was carefully considered; but it was not
    found possible to fix upon a rate acceptable to all the Governments
    concerned. A resolution was therefore adopted, leaving it to those
    parts of the Empire which were prepared for penny postage to make
    the necessary arrangements among themselves".

    The Postmaster-General who had the distinction of issuing this
    important communication was the Duke of Norfolk, and the
    representative of Canada was the Hon. (now Sir) William Mulock, LL.
    D., Q. C., Postmaster-General of Canada, who gave the chief credit
    for the reform to the British Empire League.

[163] =ibid.=, page 36.

Nevertheless, Mr. Mulock had been interested not only in the scheme of
Imperial Penny Postage but also in endeavoring to obtain a reduction of
the Canadian domestic postage to the penny (2 cents) basis. The inland
letter rate, it may be remembered, was made 3 cents per half ounce
throughout the new Dominion on the 1st April, 1868. Not until the 2nd
May, 1889, did legislative enactment raise the limit of weight to one
ounce. Meanwhile the United States, on the 1st October, 1883, had
lowered its inland rate, which also applied to letters for Canada, to 2
cents per ounce. Agitation for the same reduction had naturally taken
place in Canada, but instead of this it was proposed late in 1897[164]
to reduce the Postal Union rate of 5 cents per half ounce to the
domestic rate of 3 cents per ounce on letters to Great Britain and the
Colonies. An Order in Council was actually passed announcing a rate of 3
cents per half ounce to any place in the British Empire, to take effect
on 1st January, 1898, but the Imperial authorities objected to it as
exceeding Canada's powers as a member of the Postal Union, and it was
necessarily abandoned.

[164] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XII: 129.

Finally legislative enactment was passed on the 13th June, 1898, making
the long desired reduction in the domestic rate to 2 cents, but not to
come into operation until the date named by the Governor-General[165].
Within a month, as we have already detailed, the Imperial Conference in
London decided on a penny (2 cent) rate for the British Empire and in
November it was decided to put this in operation on Christmas day of
1898. Thus the anomaly was created of a 2 cent rate from Canada to
England or Africa, but a 3 cent rate from one town to another in Canada.
This was remedied a week later, as we have seen, by the proclamation
putting the domestic 2 cent rate into force from 1st January, 1899.

[165] See page 169.

As a leader in the final adoption of Imperial Penny Postage, Canada
could look with pride upon its accomplishment and may be pardoned for
its mild celebration of the event in the guise of a _single_
commemorative stamp. It was unnecessary, of course, and no other Colony
attempted it, but Mr. Mulock recognized the opportunity and rose to the
occasion. The following clipping from the _Ottawa Evening Journal_[166]
gives some interesting details:--

    The new Imperial Penny Postage Stamp, to be used between Great
    Britain and a number of her colonies after Christmas Day next, has
    been designed by the Postmaster-General and is ready to be issued.
    It is not to be a special issue, but will take its place among the
    regular issues. When Mr. Mulock was in Britain he was surprised to
    notice that the great mass of the people did not appreciate the
    value of the greatness of the British possessions abroad. This was
    especially true of Canada. The idea therefore suggested itself to
    him, when he was considering a new stamp, to prepare something that
    would show the dimensions of Great Britain compared with all other
    countries. Mr. Mulock asked for some designs from a few artists when
    he came back to Canada, but they did not meet with his views, and he
    roughly sketched out something himself and passed it over to an
    artist to have it touched up.

    The feature of the new stamp is a neatly executed map in miniature
    of the world, showing the British possessions as compared with all
    other countries. The empire is distinguished from the possessions of
    the other powers by being in red. Surmounting this map is a
    representation of the crown, underneath which is a bunch of oak and
    maple leaves, symbolizing the unity of the Mother Country and
    Canada. At the upper edge of the stamp are the words "Canada
    Postage" in a neat letter. Underneath the map is placed "Xmas,
    1898", so that the date of the inauguration of Imperial Penny
    Postage shall be a matter of record. On the lower corners are the
    figures "2", indicating the denomination of the stamp, and at the
    lower edge is this suggestive passage taken from the works of one
    of our patriotic poets: "We hold a vaster empire than has been". Mr.
    Mulock will be able to claim the credit of giving the public the
    cheapest map of the world ever issued. The size of the stamp is
    about the same as the Jubilee issue.

[166] =Monthly Journal, IX=: 87.

A reproduction of this _multum in parvo_ composition is shown as No. 38
on Plate II.

This remarkable stamp caused no end of criticism, at home and abroad,
not only because of its novel and startling design, but also because of
the bombastic legend which appeared upon it. The following clipping from
the _Chicago Tribune_[167] explains the origin of the motto:--

    The motto chosen by Mr. Mulock, "We hold a vaster empire than has
    been," is from the jubilee ode of Sir Lewis Morris, entitled a "Song
    of Empire", with the date, June 20, 1897, as a subtitle, indicating
    its tone and purpose. An excerpt from the last stanza, from which
    the motto was taken, is as follows:

      "We love not war, but only peace,
      Yet never shall our England's power decrease!
      Whoever guides our helm of state,
      Let all men know it, England shall be great!
      We hold a vaster empire than has been!
      Nigh half the race of man is subject to our Queen!
      Nigh half the wide, wide earth is ours in fee!
      And where her rule comes all are free.
      And therefore 'tis, O Queen, that we,
      Knit fast in bonds of temperate liberty,
      Rejoice to-day, and make our solemn jubilee!"

[167] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XIII: 76.

In consequence of the peculiar legend, the stamp has been dubbed, not
ineptly, the "has been" stamp.

We learn from a despatch to the _Toronto Telegram_ that the printing of
the stamp began on the 1st December:--

    Ottawa, Dec. 2, 1898.--(Special)--The Governor-General and Hon.
    William Mulock, Postmaster-General, presided yesterday at the
    printing of the first copies of the new imperial penny postage
    stamp. The design is Mr. Mulock's own[168].

[168] =Ibid.=, XII: 206.

It was thus brought into the world under distinguished patronage--that
of its official father and god-father, so to speak. Its baptism came on
the 7th December, rather earlier than expected, but explained by the
following newspaper clipping[169]:

    Ottawa, Ont., Dec. 5--It having been stated in some newspapers that
    the new two-cent Imperial stamp would not become available until
    Christmas day, inquiry made at the Post Office Department today to
    ascertain the truth of this statement elicits the fact that,
    although it was the original intention of the department that the
    new stamp should not come into use until the 25th inst., the demand
    from the public for it has become so pressing that the department
    has decided to issue it at once, and permit its immediate use to the
    extent of its face value for all postage purposes. In other words,
    as soon as it reaches the public it may, if preferred by the
    purchaser, be used instead of the ordinary two-cent stamp. The
    two-cent inter-Imperial rate does not, of course, come into effect
    until Christmas Day.

[169] =Ibid.=, XII. 213.

In the _Weekly Philatelic Era_, the Canadian correspondent discourses
upon its advent as follows, under date of 7th December[170]:--

    The new Imperial stamps referred to in past numbers of the _Era_
    were issued this morning, and although the new Imperial rate does
    not come into effect until Xmas-day, and they bear that inscription,
    they are receivable for ordinary postage now.

    The general design has already been described, but it may be well to
    say that the stamps are printed in three colours. The frame is in
    black with white letters, the seas are in a pale blue, or rather a
    lavender, and the British possessions are in a bright red. The map
    of the world is on Mercator's projection, which magnifies high
    latitudes; consequently the Dominion of Canada, which occupies the
    middle of the upper part of the stamp, looks bigger than all the
    other British possessions put together. The border of the stamp is
    of cable pattern and measures 32 mm. in width by 22-1/2 in height.
    The stamp is printed on medium, machine-wove, white paper, similar
    to that used for the Jubilee and subsequent Canadian issues, and is
    perforated 12.

[170] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XIII: 105.

The above quotation settles the fact that the first color in which the
"seas" were printed was lavender. There has been some discussion on this
point. Again, a correspondent of the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ wrote under
date of "Dec. 20th" that "A government official of Canada states that
the 2c Imperial postage stamp is to be changed in color from a lavender
to a blue. One of your contemporaries states that the color is to be
green[171]." Under date of "Ottawa, Dec. 29," another correspondent of
the same paper writes[172]:--"The first issue of these geographical
stamps, on the 7th instant, had the sea coloured a light lavender. About
the 20th, I cannot fix the exact day, a second supply had the sea
coloured a light blue, as nearly as I can judge Prussian blue. And now I
am told the third lot are to have the seas much darker in colour, but
that is only a rumour." A clipping from the _Winnipeg Free Press_,
however, states that "the second shipment, which arrived on Dec. 13th,
were of an entirely different print, although the fact passed unnoticed
for some days. The sea on these stamps--and on all the thousands
received since--is printed in pale green!" The first shipment is noted
as "lavender or pale blue" as usual. Evidently the change in color took
place within the first week or ten days after printing began. A dark
shade of green is apparently as common as the pale green, and a
cancelled copy dated January 13, 1899, is noted in _Ewen's Weekly Stamp
News_. Doubtless it was issued much earlier. The lavender shade seems to
have been reverted to in the later issues of the stamp, for it is noted
in chronicles as having been received from Canada in February and March,
1899, and the stamp was considered obsolete in April. We venture to
think, however, that it was not a reversion to lavender in the printing
of the stamp, but rather the remainder of the first printings--for it is
well known that when bundles of stamp sheets are placed in stock some of
the first packages received may remain at the bottom of the pile for
years, while the later ones, placed on top, are used to fill orders.

[171] =ibid.=, XIII: 121.

[172] =ibid.=, XIII: 129.

The stamps were printed in the usual sheet arrangement of 100, ten rows
of ten. The black portion was from line engraved plates, but the red and
lavender (or green) portions were doubtless printed on the sheets by
lithography previous to the impression of the main design of the stamp
in black. There are four marginal imprints reading AMERICAN BANK NOTE
CO. OTTAWA in Roman capitals 1/2 mm. high, the inscription being about
29 mm. long, (see illustration number 113 on Plate X). They are placed
above the third and eighth stamps of the top row and beneath the
corresponding stamps of the bottom row. A plate number, in hair line
figures about 4 mm. high, is placed over the division between the fifth
and sixth stamps of the top row, and higher up than the imprints. Plates
1, 2, 3 and 5 are known, but we have been unable to find plate 4
recorded, though it would be presumed to exist. All four known plates
come with the lavender sea, and probably all four were used with the
light green and dark green seas, although we have only been able to find
record of plate 1 with the former and plate 2 with the latter.[173]

[173] =Ewen's Weekly Stamp News=, II: 122.

Mr. Ewen, in his exhaustive article on these stamps,[174] notes an
apparent retouching of one of the plates. He says:--"Readers will have
noted that the stamps are each surrounded by what appears to be a rope.
On the sheet of plate 3 before us, the outer edge of this rope on the
stamps at the end of each row (right hand side of each sheet) has worn
away and has been replaced by a straight line engraved on the plate,
except on stamp No. 80, which still shows the very defective nature of
the rope." Much space is also given to a description of minor varieties
in the red portions of the stamp--omission of islands, extra islands,
peninsulas instead of islands, etc., etc. The chief variety, however,
occurs in the two dots representing two islands in mid-Pacific: in the
normal stamps these two lie one above and one below the "equator", if
properly placed; in the variety, which is the sixth stamp in the fifth
row (No. 46 in the sheet) both islands lie horizontally just below the
equator.

[174] =Ewen's Weekly Stamp News=, II: 122.

A further variety is the stamp in imperforate condition, of which we are
able to illustrate a block of four from the Worthington collection as
number 113 on Plate X. This occurs with the bluish, the pale green and
the deep green oceans.

It would be interesting to know the number of stamps printed in each of
the distinct shades, but we do not know even the total issue of the map
stamps. The only reference is in the _London Philatelist_,[175] where it
is remarked that "we understand [it] has been issued to the number of
sixteen millions." They were not separated in the stamp accounts, but
were reckoned in with the ordinary 2 cent stamps, and the above figure
may very likely be the correct one as the number must have been large.
We find from a newspaper clipping that the cost of manufacture of these
stamps was 45 cents per thousand.[176]

[175] =London Philatelist=, VIII: 79.

[176] =Post Office=, IX: 37.

In closing this account of the Christmas stamp it may be interesting to
record the story of the first letter sent from Canada at the new rate
and bearing the commemorative stamp in prepayment. It is taken from a
Toronto newspaper.

    Penny ocean postage came into force at midnight on Saturday. The
    first letter to be posted was one by Mr. J. Ross Robertson, written
    to Mr. Edward Letchworth, the Grand Secretary, at Freemason's Hall,
    Great Queen-street, London.... The letter was received at the
    General Post-Office, Adelaide-street, Toronto, at one second past 12
    o'clock on the morning of Sunday, Dec. 25th, by Mr. John Carruthers,
    the Assistant Postmaster, who certified to the posting with his
    signature on the envelope. At five seconds past 12 it was handed to
    Mr. H. S. Allen, chief of the night staff, who, at twelve seconds
    past the hour, dropped it into one of the electric stamping
    machines, and at fifteen seconds past midnight it came out in due
    and proper form, bearing the Toronto postmark of Dec. 25, and the
    new two-cent stamp in the right-hand corner, duly cancelled, so that
    it was all ready for the London mail bag, waiting for it and
    succeeding letters going by the next British mail.

    On the envelope was the name of the sender in the upper left-hand
    corner and the following endorsation in the lower left-hand corner.

    "This is to certify that this letter was mailed at the Toronto
    Post-Office at one-quarter of a minute past 12 o'clock on the
    morning of Dec. 25, 1898, and is the first letter to be posted and
    cancelled at the Toronto postoffice, bearing the new imperial penny
    postage stamp, addressed to Great Britain, (signed) John Carruthers,
    assistant postmaster."

    And under this:

    "Received at Freemason's Hall, London, Eng., at ... o'clock, ... day
    of January, 1899.

  ...
  "Grand Secretary."


This is probably the first time in philatelic history that race-track
timing has been employed on the passage of mail matter through the
post!



CHAPTER XV

THE "KING'S HEAD" ISSUE OF 1903-1908


The death of the beloved Queen Victoria on January 22, 1901, portended
momentous changes in the multitude of stamps bearing her effigy
throughout the Empire. Canada of course was expected to make the proper
substitution of the portrait of the new ruler, King Edward the Seventh,
but as time went on seemed in no hurry to do so. In fact it was nearly
two years and a half after the Queen's death before the King Edward
stamps appeared, and in the meantime but little could be learned
concerning Canada's intentions in the matter.

       *       *       *       *       *

About the first of January, 1903, it was reported in the newspapers that
Postmaster-General Mulock had announced "that designs had been
submitted, and it has been decided to select one bearing an excellent
likeness of His Majesty." In its issue for 18th April, 1903, the
_Metropolitan Philatelist_ again gave advance information concerning
Canadian stamp matters in the following detailed account:--

    The King's head series of Canadian stamps will probably shortly make
    its appearance. The die has been received by the Post Office
    Department and approved of. The stamp will be very similar to the
    present stamp except that the maple leaf in each of the upper
    corners will be replaced by a crown. The figures of value will
    appear in the lower corner as at present and the value will be
    spelled out as at present in the oval frame which surrounds the
    portrait. This frame will be as in the present stamp. The portrait
    of the King shows him three-quarters to the right--head and
    shoulders, as the Queen is in the present stamp, but there is no
    crown on his head. The portrait is an exceptionally nice one and it
    is understood that Royalty has had something to do with its
    selection. The die was made in England, although the American Bank
    Note Co. are contractors for the government work.

The details given proved correct. The official announcement of the
forthcoming issue was given in a circular to postmasters dated 10th June
and signed by the Deputy Postmaster-General:[177]--

    Postmasters are hereby informed that a new issue of postage stamps,
    bearing the portrait of His Majesty King Edward VII., and comprising
    five denominations (1c., 2c., 5c., 7c., and 10c.), is about to be
    supplied to Postmasters for sale in the usual way, but none of these
    stamps are to be sold until the first of July, 1903.

    The colours of the forthcoming series will be the same respectively,
    as those now used for the denominations specified, except that the
    shade of the 7c. will be slightly deeper.

    Postmasters will please bear in mind that, notwithstanding the new
    issue, they are not to return to the Department any of the old
    stamps on hand, but will sell them in the ordinary way. At first,
    the public may prefer getting new stamps, and if so, there is no
    objection to this wish being acceded to, but it is also desirable to
    work off in due course all remnants of old stamps.

    A change in the design of the stamp of the present series of
    post-cards, post-bands and stamped envelopes, to correspond with
    that above referred to, will be made as soon as the present stock of
    these items shall have been exhausted.

[177] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XVII: 254.

The new stamps were accordingly issued on "Dominion Day" (July 1st) of
1903. Their actual appearance brought forth the following interesting
account of their preparation in the _London Philatelist_:[178]--

    Although for a long time past we have been aware of the
    circumstances attending the preparation of the new postage stamps
    for Canada, and in a position to illustrate the approved design, we
    have refrained from publishing the facts in compliance with the
    desire of the authorities that no details should be made public
    until the stamps had been completed and were ready to be put into
    circulation.

    We believe that the delay which has taken place in bringing out the
    new issue has been due to questions arising out of the existing
    contract under which the postage stamps of the Dominion are
    produced, and that even after the approval of the design and the
    receipt of the die some difficulties were experienced in connection
    with the preparation of the plates by the contractors.

    These have happily been surmounted, and now that the issue is an
    accomplished fact it is with much gratification that we illustrate
    the design of the new stamp, our illustration, prepared some time
    back, being taken from a proof from the steel die engraved by
    Messrs. Perkins, Bacon and Co., of London, and used in the
    manufacture of the plates of the several values issued by the
    Canadian postal authorities on the 1st. instant. By comparing our
    illustration with the stamp as issued it will be seen that the
    contractors or the postal authorities have made some alterations in
    the design, which, in our judgement, are by no means improvements.
    The leaves in the lower corners have been redrawn on a smaller
    scale, and hardly impinge upon the frame; their drawing is vastly
    inferior, and the graceful effect of the broken circle is lost. The
    numerals of value are in colour on a white ground, reversing the
    original design, the labels being larger and the figures taller and
    thinner; this also detracting materially from the charming
    homogeneity of the stamp as first proposed. The greatest alteration,
    and the worst, is the substitution of heavy diagonal lines for
    horizontal ones in the background. The latter were finely drawn and
    delicately shaded, leaving the King's Head in clear outline, and
    _framed_ by the dark oval band containing the inscriptions. The
    background and frame no longer present this artistic effect, and the
    whole design materially suffers thereby.

    [Illustration]

    The circumstances connected with the inception of the issue are as
    gratifying as they are novel, and will be hailed with acclamation by
    the Philatelists of the British Empire.

    The Postmaster of Canada, Sir William Mulock, being one of the many
    distinguished visitors to this country during the Coronation
    festivities, took the opportunity afforded by his visit of
    approaching the Prince of Wales, and of meeting His Royal Highness's
    suggestions and advice in the preparation of a new die for the
    Canadian stamps. The Prince, with his characteristic energy and
    courtesy, cheerfully undertook the task, and it will be seen from
    our illustration with absolute and conspicuous success. H. R. H.
    wisely decided, in the first instance, that it is advisable to have
    some continuity of design in succeeding issues, and therefore
    adopted the frame and groundwork of the then current stamps as a
    basis. In selecting a portrait of His Majesty the Prince decided to
    rely upon a photograph giving a true likeness of the King as we know
    him, in lieu of an idealised representation by an artist. The
    photograph eventually chosen, with the full approval of His Majesty,
    was one taken shortly before the Coronation.

    The likeness is undoubtedly what is termed a speaking one, and with
    the addition of the Coronation robes represents as faithful and as
    pleasing a picture of the King, at the time of his accession to the
    throne, as it is possible to find. The introduction of the Tudor
    crowns in the upper angles, which was another of the Prince's
    innovations, obviates the difficulty that has so often made "the
    head that wears a crown" lie "uneasy" on a postage stamp. These
    emblems of sovereignty, taken in conjunction with the Canadian
    maple leaves in the lower angles, complete a design that for
    harmony, boldness, and simplicity has assuredly not been excelled by
    any hitherto issued stamps of the British Empire. It is palpable, on
    analyzing the stamp, (1) that the attractiveness of the design has
    in no way been allowed to militate against its utility, for its
    country of origin and denomination are clearly expressed; (2) that
    the boldness of the design has not been detracted from (as is so
    often the case) by superfluous ornamentation, and that the design
    has been artistically balanced by the introduction of the
    _right-sized portrait_ and the proper treatment of light and shade.

[178] =London Philatelist=, XII: 162.

We think it will be obvious, on comparing the illustration of the
original design above with the issued stamps, that the modifications
introduced into the lower corners by the American Bank Note Co. did not
improve the appearance of the design. [Illustration No. 43 on Plate II.]

As stated in the Post Office circular, the colors followed those of the
Queen's head stamps, except that the 7 cent value was given a darker
shade, more of an olive than before and an improvement on its
predecessor. The stamps were of course line engraved and printed in the
usual sheet arrangement of ten rows of ten. The imprint was the same as
on the Queen's head plates, being placed only over stamps 5 and 6 of the
top row. The plate numbers began as before at No. 1 for each stamp, and
up to the present writing, (Dec. 1910) there have been recorded the
following:--

   1 cent--1-10, 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 34, 47, 48, 51, 52, 55, 58
   2 cent--1-30, 35-40, 47, 53-59, 62, 63, 67-74, 78
   5 cent--1, 2
   7 cent--1
  10 cent--1, 2

Over a year elapsed before any additions were made to the above set.
Finally _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_[179] published in its chronicle the
following note from a correspondent:--"On Tuesday, 27th September,
[1904] the last sheets of the 20c numerals were issued to the
distributing offices, and the first issue of the 20c King's Head was
made on the same day." The stamp of course corresponds in all
particulars with the others of the set and continues the fine olive
green color of its predecessor. But one plate number, 1, has so far
appeared. The amount delivered by the manufacturers since its appearance
has averaged about 400,000 per year.

[179] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XVIII: 338.

The remaining value of the regular Canadian series, the 50 cent, because
of its limited use and the stock of the 1893 issue still on hand, had
escaped being included in either of the Queen's Head issues. But the old
stock at last ran out in 1908 and on the 19th November, according to
_Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_,[180] this value appeared in the King's
Head type, printed in a rich violet and making a very handsome addition
to the series. It conforms in all respects to the other values, and
bears the plate number 1. The supply of the stamp received up to 31st
March, 1910, was 300,000 copies.

[180] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XXII: 414.

It may have been noticed, however, that no 1/2 cent stamp has appeared
in the King's head design. Trouble over this value seems to have begun
to brew with the Jubilee stamps. We have already detailed the story as
far as that issue is concerned, and also the manner in which the 1/2
cent "maple leaf" was forced to appear before the authorities reckoned.
Primarily intended for prepaying the rate on transient newspapers, this
value was supposed to be employed only in that way, though its use had
never been so restricted. Its yearly issue to postmasters had gradually
increased from some 300,000 in 1869 to 900,000 in 1895. In 1898 the
latter number had doubled, and by 1902 had only fallen to about
1,200,000. The trouble seemed to be partly due, at least, to the fact
that stamp collectors were buying them up, and using them largely on
their letter mail. This came to the attention of the Post Office
Department, and resulted in the following Department Circular, published
in the _Montreal Star_ for the 6th December, 1902:[181]--

    The attention of postmasters is drawn to the fact that the postal
    necessity for the 1/2 cent stamp, as such, is now confined to one
    purpose--prepayment of newspapers and periodicals posted singly, and
    weighing not more than one ounce each (see Postal Guide, page xii,
    section 47). As publications of the kind referred to must, in the
    nature of things, be few, and as in the case of their being mailed
    to subscribers by the office of publication, the bulk rate of
    postage would be far cheaper and more convenient for the publisher,
    the demand for the 1/2 cent stamp throughout the Dominion must be
    appreciably diminished as a result of this restriction of its use.
    While, of course, any number of 1/2 cent stamps on an article of
    correspondence will be recognized to the full extent of their
    aggregate face value, it is not the wish of the Department to supply
    them except for the sole specific purpose above mentioned, and an
    intimation to that effect should be given by postmasters to patrons
    of their office who are in the habit of buying 1/2 cent stamps for
    other postal purposes.

[181] =ibid.=, XVI: 471.

This circular seems to have had the desired effect, at least in good
measure, for the stamp accounts in the Reports for succeeding years
showed an average issue to postmasters of approximately 400,000 1/2 cent
stamps, being a reduction of two-thirds. Finally, on the 19th May, 1909,
an amendment[182] to the Post Office Act was passed which repealed the
provision granting the 1/2 cent rate to newspapers and periodicals
weighing less than one ounce, when posted singly. This placed them in
the one cent per ounce class and sounded the death knell of the 1/2 cent
stamp. The stamp accounts in the 1910 Report show 1,700 1/2 cent stamps
on hand April 1, 1909, and 600,000 more received from the manufacturers.
These were all issued to postmasters and a foot-note finishes the story:
"Discontinued June 10, 1909."

[182] 8-9 Edward VII, Chap. 30.

Just why the 1/2 cent stamp never was issued in the King's head type
cannot be stated. All the other values then in use in Canada had made
their appearance in this design, the 20 cent and 50 cent even having
delayed their advent until the stock of previous types had been
exhausted; but the 1/2 cent Queen's Head with numerals was regularly
received from the printers and distributed to postmasters down to the
middle of 1909, six years after the King's Heads first made their
appearance. With the end of its usefulness at that time, of course,
disappeared all hope of ever seeing it in the King's Head set.

In the issue for October 10, 1908, _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_
published the following editorial:--

    We are enabled to report the existence of the two-cent Canada,
    current issue, imperforate, a reader having-shown us a sheet of one
    hundred of these varieties bearing the plate number 18. This is a
    discovery of momentous interest which must attract much attention
    not alone from specialists but from collectors, as we may say for
    the sake of distinction, as well. The fact that the pane bears so
    early a plate number removes it from any inclusion in the theory
    that the Canadian authorities propose to issue stamps in imperforate
    sheets in the manner that has been employed by the United States.
    Without doubt, the sheet under notice was regularly prepared for
    issue in the accepted way and it is the belief from information at
    hand that a sheet of four hundred of the stamps was printed and
    reached the public.

This announcement created some comment and was made the subject of
enquiry of the Post Office Department at Ottawa. The officials
repudiated the idea that any such irregularity could have happened, but
finally took steps to authenticate the report. In the issue of February
20, 1909, of the paper already quoted, is the full story of the "find",
which has a peculiar interest, as will be seen later.

    The sheet as found was not of 400 stamps but of over 200 stamps, as
    the right hand half of the sheet on which our report was based and
    which was not before us when we wrote, contained a pane of 100
    stamps, plate number 14 and an irregularly torn part of plate number
    13, showing about fifteen whole stamps and parts of others. Assuming
    that the lower pane in the left half was torn approximately in the
    manner of the right lower pane, or plate number 13, the find
    consisted originally of 230 stamps, more or less. This reckoning
    agrees, we believe, with the recollection of the person who rescued
    the imperforates from oblivion, in a philatelic sense. The plate
    numbers on the sheet that gave authority for the chronicling of the
    stamps by the _Weekly_ are 13 and 14, respectively, and not 18 as
    first printed.

    A. N. Lemieux of Chicago is the man who found the stamps. While in
    Ottawa five years ago or so[183], when he was in business in that
    city, he saw the stamps just within the iron fence that has been
    described as surrounding the establishment of the bank note company
    that prints the Canadian stamps. The day was a rainy one and the
    sheet had evidently been blown out of the window. Mr. Lemieux
    apparently attached no value to the sheet of over two hundred stamps
    which was in a wet, crumpled condition and without gum. Mr. Lemieux
    was under the impression, no doubt, that, gum had been on the sheet
    but had been washed off by the rain.... Before he showed the stamps
    to the _Weekly_, Mr. Lemieux had disposed of the left half of the
    sheet or about 115 whole stamps to a collector ... on an exchange
    basis.... Mr. Lemieux was informed that the stamps still in his
    possession had no little philatelic interest as curiosities and he
    sold the specimens to Mr. Severn.

[183] This was later corrected to June, 1906.

Mr. Severn subsequently submitted the stamps to the officials at Ottawa,
who pronounced them "printer's waste" and stated that "they seemingly
had been trampled upon and subjected to the usage that would be given
such cast off material. Further, it was said that they had been blown or
thrown out of a window, no doubt. It was suggested that the stamps be
returned to Ottawa and that there were moral grounds for such a course
on the part of the holders. The description of 'printer's waste' seems
to be correct and the inference is that the stamps never had been
gummed. They belong to that class of curiosities that appeals strongly
to the specialist but which the ordinary collector regards as something
apart from his collecting policy."[184]

[184] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XXIII: 66.

But now mark the result. The stamps very naturally did not go back to
Ottawa, so Ottawa took pains to "get back" at the stamps! In the
_Weekly_ of May 22, 1909, a correspondent writes:--

    It may be of interest to know that the last supplement to the
    Canadian Post Office Guide contains the following: "In view of
    representations which have been made to the Department, it has been
    decided to permit the sale of the 2-cent denomination of Canadian
    postage stamps of the current issue, in sheets of 100, _without the
    usual perforation_." I at once asked for a sheet of 2-cent and
    incidentally said I would take a sheet of the other denominations if
    available. A reply came today informing me that only the 2-cent
    would be available, and then, not for some time, as the department
    intends to make a separate printing of these stamps, to supply
    whatever demand may occur.

The quotation from the _Guide_ appeared in the supplement for April,
1909, and concluded with the sentence:--"Applications for the same
should be made to the Postmaster at Ottawa."

It might be inferred, perhaps, from the announcement in the _Guide_,
that the activities of the mailing machine companies had induced the
Canadian Post Office Department to cater to their convenience, as had
been done in the United States, by issuing sheets of stamps, only
purchaseable as such, in imperforate form. But no! The Department gave
itself away! Note the following points:--Mr. Severn sent the original
imperforates to Ottawa for examination. They had the plate numbers 13
and 14 on them. They were returned with the intimation that "it would be
safer not to dispose of the sheet in view of the circumstances under
which it reached the public. It was suggested that Mr. Severn might be
'recouped' the amount that he paid for the stamps if he relinquished
them."[185] Naturally the stamps did not again see Ottawa. Six months
later the Department placed on sale the 2 cent stamp in imperforate
sheets of 100, BUT--it was announced that they could only be procured
from the Postmaster at Ottawa; that only the 2 cent would be available;
that the Department intended to make a _separate printing_ of the
stamps; and when collectors obtained them they were found to be from the
identical plates 13 and 14 of the "irregular" imperforates that Mr.
Severn held, although the regular issues of 2 cent stamps at that time
were being printed from plates numbered at least up to 62. We said
"identical plates," but in view of the early plate numbers and the
delay in issuing the imperforates, the suspicion is strong that new
plates may have been made and given the old numbers.

[185] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XXIII: 190.

As no other values have since been issued imperforate, and as no other
plate numbers have appeared in the 2 cent imperforate except the
original 13 and 14, there is but one explanation for this "special
printing" on these early plates, and that is an attempt to checkmate the
holder of the originals and "to destroy what may be called an accidental
monopoly of a stamp, the issue of which was not intended previously." As
a clincher we make one more quotation:--"Now that Mr. Lemieux, the
finder of the imperforates, has received the Quarterly Supplement
alluded to, containing the order creating the imperforates neatly
blue-pencilled, it is assumed that the issue of the stamps in this form
has been made with the idea of rendering the sheet that escaped the
department of no value. Thus philately plainly has its influence in this
new emission ... and an interesting variety has been added to the
philatelic supply by reason of the refusal to return the sheet that
accidentally escaped some years ago."

       *       *       *       *       *

The Postmaster General's Reports for the several years of the King's
Head issue (1903 to date) have but little of special interest. The
Report of 30th June, 1903, says:--"Towards the end of the fiscal year a
new series of postage stamps, bearing the portrait of His Majesty King
Edward VII, and comprising five denominations was supplied to Post
Masters so as to be on sale throughout the Dominion on the 1st July,
1903."

The Report of 1905 states that a Postal Convention between Canada and
Mexico came into operation on 1st July, 1905 by which first, second and
third class matter can be sent from either country to the other at the
domestic rates of the country of origin.

The fiscal year was once more changed from the 1st July to the 1st April
of each year, so that the Reports of the Postmaster General have been
made up to the 31st March since 1907. The Report of 1908 states that
"for some time past the provisions of the Postal Convention between
Canada and the United States relative to the postage on newspapers and
periodicals passing between the two countries were felt to be
unsatisfactory, and an amendment was made to the Convention (taking
effect on 8th May, 1907) by which the rate was fixed at 1 cent for each
4 ounces, calculated on the weight of each package of newspapers or
periodicals, and prepaid by means of postage stamps affixed. The
amendment was subsequently modified: and copies of legitimate daily
newspapers posted from the office of publication addressed to regular
subscribers and newsdealers, can now be sent from Canada to the United
States and from the United States to Canada at the rate of 1 cent per
pound. Newspapers and periodicals published less frequently than daily
are still subject to the rate of 1 cent per 4 ounces."

The issue of the "6c. International Reply Coupon" is recorded as having
taken place on the 5th October, 1907. A supply of 500,000 was received
from Berne, and of these 62,625 were distributed. The Report for 1909
gives but 2,475 issued from headquarters, and the 1910 Report 14,050.

The 1908 Report also notes the extension of free delivery of letters by
carrier to the following places: in Ontario:--Peterboro, Guelph, Berlin,
Stratford, Windsor, St. Catherines; in Quebec:--Sherbrooke, St.
Hyacinthe, Trois Rivières; in Prince Edward Island:--Charlottetown; in
Manitoba:--Brandon; in Alberta:--Calgary, Edmonton.

The Report for 1909 states that "a greatly desired reduction was made in
August 1908, in the rate of postage on letters posted for local delivery
in cities and other places having free letter carrier delivery service.
The former rate was two cents per ounce; the present rate is one cent
per ounce."

Further changes in newspaper regulations are noted as follows:--

    Some changes have been made in the regulations respecting newspapers
    and periodicals posted from the office of publication addressed to
    regular subscribers and newsdealers. (1) The former rate of 1/2 cent
    per pound applicable to newspapers and periodicals which required to
    be transmitted a distance in Canada exceeding three hundred miles,
    or which were addressed for delivery in a place having Free Letter
    Carrier Delivery service has been abolished; and now all newspapers
    and periodicals published not less frequently than once a month can
    be posted from the place of publication to any place in Canada at
    the bulk rate of a quarter of a cent per pound. (2) The extent of
    the circular area in Canada within which newspapers and periodicals
    published no more frequently than weekly and no less frequently than
    monthly can be sent free of postage to regular subscribers has been
    increased from an area having a radius of 20 miles to an area having
    a radius of 40 miles, the center of which may either be the place of
    publication or some place not more than 40 miles distant therefrom,
    according to the wish of the publisher.

The following places are given as having had the system of free delivery
of letters by carrier extended to them: in Ontario:--Chatham, Fort
William, Port Arthur, Sarnia, St. Thomas; in New Brunswick:--Moncton; in
Saskatchewan:--Regina; in British Columbia:--New Westminster.

The Report for 1910 contains nothing special. New Parcels Post
regulations are noted with the United Kingdom, British West Indies,
British Guiana and Mexico, by which the rate is made 12 cents per pound
or fraction, with a limit of 11 pounds.

In closing the chapter on the King Edward stamps, doubtless ere long to
be superseded by "King George" stamps, it may be well to record the
following statistics in order to note the progress made in the Post
Office Department for the period we have been considering.

                                           _31st. Mar. '03._  _31st. Mar. '10._
  Number of Post Offices,                             10,150          12,887
    "    "  letters and post cards annually,     262,437,000     501,189,000
    "    "  registered letters annually,           5,470,000      10,465,000
    "    "  pieces of 3rd class matter annually,  46,794,000      87,237,000
    "    "  packets and parcels annually,          3,790,740       7,112,660
  Mileage travelled on mail routes annually,      35,752,087      46,773,727
  Net revenue,                                    $4,366,127.75   $7,958,547.72

A very important fact is also to be found on examining the financial
reports of the Department--that from a deficit (as usual for many years)
of $416,183.99 in 1901, and a wee surplus of $5,109.14 in 1902, there
has grown to be a surplus of $743,210.25 in 1910. Evidently Canada's
Post Office Department is at least run efficiently and economically!



CHAPTER XVI

THE "TERCENTENARY" ISSUE OF 1908


It may be remembered, perhaps, that in our introductory chapter we noted
the fact that the first permanent settlement in Canada was made by
Champlain at Quebec in 1608. As the year 1908 approached, the idea of
celebrating in proper manner the three hundredth anniversary of this
event was strongly agitated, particularly by the French population of
the Province of Quebec. Plans were formed and materialized in the shape
of fetes, historical pageants, etc., which took place at Quebec in July,
1908, and to be present at which the Prince and Princess of Wales made a
special trip across the Atlantic in one of Britain's most powerful
warships.

In view of former precedents it was to be expected that the Canadian
Post Office Department would also celebrate in a fitting way, and
although a new Postmaster General had taken the place of Sir William
Mulock, he nevertheless arose to the occasion as the following newspaper
despatch shows:--

    QUEBEC, March 31.--Hon. Rudolphe Lemieux, Postmaster Gen. of Canada,
    announces that a series of postage stamps commemorative of the
    Champlain tercentenary will be issued at Ottawa on the third of
    July, which marks the exact anniversary of the foundation of Quebec
    by Champlain.

No sooner was this fact made known than the Postmaster General was
showered with suggestions of all kinds as to the designs of stamps
appropriate to the occasion. But after the first announcement the Post
Office Department was very reticent in regard to the matter, and letters
of enquiry concerning the proposed issue were answered as evasively as
possible.

At last the veil was lifted and the following despatch to the _Toronto
Globe_[186] gave definite information concerning the proposed issue:--

    OTTAWA, July 3, (Special).--Postmaster-General Lemieux has given
    instructions to issue a series of postage stamps commemorating the
    tercentenary.

    They are eight in number. Four of them bear portraits of persons
    dear to Canada, or whose names recall great events. The first
    represents the Prince and Princess of Wales; the second the King and
    Queen. Next come Cartier and Champlain, and then, in connection with
    the battlefields park scheme, Wolfe and Montcalm.

    The second part of the issue represents Cartier's arrival before
    Quebec. On the calm waters of the mighty St. Lawrence stand in bold
    relief three ships of the discoverer of Canada, flying the
    fleur-de-lys.

    As a sequel to the above is a very picturesque tableau. In
    Champlain's narrative of his third voyage to Canada is found the
    following passage:

    "With our canoes laden with provisions, our arms and some
    merchandise to be given as presents to the Indians, I started on
    Monday, May 27, from the Isle of Saincte Hélaine, accompanied by
    four Frenchmen and one Indian. A salute was given in my honor from
    some small pieces of artillery."

    The artist, under the inspiration of these few lines, has depicted
    Champlain's departure for the west. There stand two canoes. In one
    Champlain's companions have already taken their places, paddle in
    hand, whilst the great explorer is still on shore, bidding good-bye
    to a few friends. The picture is full of life. The legend underneath
    reads as follows: "Partement de Champlain pour L'ouest." The word
    "partement", now obsolete, is the one used by Champlain for the
    modern one "départ."

    The same note of old France is used in connection with a view of the
    first house in Quebec, indeed in Canada, Champlain's habitation,
    which is called in his narrative "l'abitation de Québecq." This
    stamp is a clear reproduction of a cut from Champlain's work.

    Quebec as it was in 1700 is the next view, copied from Bacqueville
    de la Potherie's "Histoire de la Nouvelle France." It is a quaint
    picture of the old city, showing steeples here and there, the fort
    on the river front and in faint lines the Laurentide Mountains in
    the background.

    All stamps bear with the words "Canada Postage" the line "IIIe
    centenaire de Québec."

    The postmaster-general has given special attention to the selection
    of portraits and historical scenes to be represented. His choice has
    been an excellent one.

    The carrying out of the engraving part of the plan has been
    entrusted to Mr. Machado, of the American Bank Note Co., who, with
    keen artistic sense, has performed his part of the work with great
    success.

[186] =Ewen's Weekly Stamp News=, No. 462.

Excellent reproductions of this attractive series will be found as Nos.
46-53 on Plate III.

The stamps were placed on sale at Ottawa on the 16th July. They are of
the same shape as the Jubilee issue, though the dimensions are 1 mm.
higher and nearly 3 mm. longer. The designs are as already described,
except that the legend "Partement pour l'ouest" does not have
Champlain's name in it, and the dates 1608 and 1908 are placed in the
upper corners. The colors do not wholly correspond with the regular set;
the 1, 2 and 5 cent naturally conform, but the 1/2 cent is in a
black-brown and the 7 cent in the fine olive green of the regular 20
cent. The 10 cent is also changed to a handsome violet, while the 15
cent is in orange and the 20 cent in a dark brown.

The stamps are beautifully engraved, as usual, and printed in sheets of
100, ten rows of ten. Above the 5th and 6th stamps of the top row is the
regular marginal imprint: "OTTAWA--No.--" and the figure representing
the plate number. A peculiar variety has been recorded, however, in the
sheets of the 2 cent value, some of those with plate numbers 3 and 4
having the imprint _inverted_ in the _bottom_ margin of the sheet.[187]
As it occurs both ways, the only explanation seems to be that the plates
may have printed _two panes_, which were afterwards separated into post
office sheets of 100 stamps each, and that by error, perhaps, the
imprint was inverted on one of these panes.

[187] =Ewen's Weekly Stamp News=, Nos. 478, 480.

The plate numbers of the several values are as follows:--

  Plate No.  1.            1/2c., 7c., 10c., 15c., 20c.
    "   Nos. 1, 2.                                  5c.
    "   Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4.                       1c., 2c.

The stamps are on stout white wove paper and perforated 12.

It may not be out of place to further describe some of the designs of
these stamps because of their historical interest. Of course the
portraits of the British Royal Family are familiar, that of the Princess
of Wales being the one used on the handsome 4 cent stamp of
Newfoundland, and that of the Prince of Wales being from a photograph
taken by W. and D. Downey of London, just before the Prince's journey to
India in 1906. The portrait of Cartier will also be recognized as the
one that appeared on the early 10d. stamp of the Province of Canada.

Concerning the picture on the 20 cent stamp, "Arrivée de Cartier, Québec
1535," we find some interesting details given by M. Th. Lemaire:[188]--

    In 1533 Jacques Cartier obtained from Philippe de Chabot, Admiral of
    France, authority to arm ships "to voyage, discover and conquer in
    New France, as well as to find, by the North-west, the passage to
    Cathay." On his first voyage he touched Newfoundland, but the
    advanced season obliged him to return to France. King Francis I
    thereupon ordered him, as a "royal pilot", to arm three vessels for
    a second voyage. On the 19th of May, 1535, the flotilla set out from
    St. Malo. It was composed of two ships, the _Grande-Hermine_ of 120
    tons and the _Petit-Hermine_ of 80 tons, and a galley, the
    _Hémerillon_, of 40 tons. These are the ones shown on the stamp. The
    ships were built with the high bows and sterns of those days, and
    were armed with "falconets" (small cannon) along the sides and
    "culverins" (long cannon) in a battery on the bridge. The galley was
    long and narrow, low in the water, and was propelled both by sails
    and oars; it was armed with two small cannon forward and a dozen
    large arquebuses. The complement of the three ships comprised in
    all--officers, gentlemen, volunteers, chaplains, sailors, workmen,
    servants--a hundred and ten men.

    On the 14th September, Cartier arrived at an Indian village,
    Stadaconé, called also by the natives Canada (or _the town_), the
    residence of the chief Donnacona. This village was built on the bay
    which the river St. Charles forms where it flows into the St.
    Lawrence, against the steep flank of a mountain, on the spot where
    now is built the south-eastern section of Quebec. The 20-cent stamp
    represents this arrival of Cartier at Stadaconé, the future Quebec.

    Samuel de Champlain, whose effigy figures on the 1 cent stamp beside
    that of Cartier, was sent by Henri IV in 1603 to found a settlement
    in Canada. On his first voyage he sailed up the St. Lawrence river
    and established friendly relations with the native chiefs. On the
    second expedition, in 1608, he disembarked on the 3d July at the
    foot of the promontory of Stadaconé, accompanied by only thirty men.

    His first care was to find a favorable place to built a "habitation"
    with a view to wintering there. "I could find nothing more
    convenient or better situated, said he, than the point of Québecq,
    so called by the savages, which was filled with walnut trees." It
    was on the same spot where, seventy-three years before, Cartier had
    constructed a fort of tree trunks.

    Thanks to the activity displayed by all, the "habitation" was
    quickly finished. It was composed of three main houses of two
    stories, each measuring fifteen by eighteen feet. The magazine was
    thirty-six by eighteen feet, with a six foot cellar. Champlain
    lodged in the same building with part of the workmen, but on the
    first story. The other buildings served for the workmen and for
    storing the arms and munitions. In an ell back of Champlain's
    quarters, several artisans slept beside their forge. All around the
    buildings a gallery six feet wide served as a promenade. A ditch
    fifteen feet wide and six feet deep served to protect the colonists
    from the aggressions of the savages. Champlain had several
    breastworks thrown up outside the ditch where he placed his cannon.
    There remained, between the habitation and the river, only a strip
    of land about twenty-five feet wide, and behind, on the side of the
    cape, a plot of cultivated ground about 100 to 120 paces by 60
    paces. There Champlain had wheat and rye planted and also set out
    vines.

[188] =Journal des Philatélistes=, 5th Series, page 298.

As with the Jubilee stamps, some special sets were made up for
presentation purposes. The following press clipping gives the
details:[189]--

    As the Prince of Wales is an enthusiastic collector of stamps, His
    Royal Highness will no doubt be very pleased to receive the set of
    the special tercentenary stamps which will be presented to him at
    Quebec. The stamps will be held in small gold boxes, enclosed in a
    handsome large box of Morocco leather. A second set accompanies the
    gift in a special gold box. On the cover of the large box is the
    Prince's crest and a gold plate inscribed as follows: "Set of
    Canadian postage stamps issued upon the occasion of the Quebec
    tercentenary, 1908. Presented to His Royal Highness the Prince of
    Wales by Hon Rodolphe Lemieux, Postmaster-General of Canada." Sets
    of these stamps, in boxes with appropriate crests and monograms,
    will be presented to Earl Grey, Sir Wilfred Laurier and Hon.
    Rodolphe Lemieux.

[189] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XXII: 265.

Unlike the Jubilee issue, no advance information concerning quantities
printed was given out. Many attempts were made to get this interesting
detail, but without result. Even an interpellation of the
Postmaster-General in the House of Commons was unproductive, as witness
the following excerpt:[190]--

    Mr. McKechnie sends us information regarding the issue, indicating
    that there is to be no such vexatious limits set upon the number to
    be printed as was the case with the Jubilee 1/2c. Postmaster-General
    Lemieux is reported, in the _Canadian Hansard_, to have said in
    answer to a query as to the number printed of each denomination:
    "Since the arrangements as to the respective quantities comprising
    the series are thus far of a necessarily tentative character, being
    largely dependent upon the demand therefor that may arise, no final
    estimate has been made of the number to be issued in each
    denomination."

[190] =Canadian Hansard=, 31st March, 1909, page 3754.

All of which was simply a parliamentary way of saying "mind your own
business", as the full quota of stamps was doubtless printed and
delivered at that time. At any rate, a _Memorandum for the Postmaster_,
issued from headquarters under date of 12th September, 1908, states that
"With the exception of the 10c, 15c and 20c stamps, all of the
Tercentenary postage stamps are now exhausted." However, the question of
the quantity issued was again brought up in the House of Commons, after
some time, and the following two questions propounded by a
member:[191]--

    1. What was the total amount received by the Post Office Department
    from the sale of the special Tercentenary stamps? 2. What part of
    this sum would probably have been received as ordinary revenue if
    there had been no special issue of stamps?

    To these questions the Hon. Rodolphe Lemieux, Postmaster-General,
    responded: The following was the issue to Postmasters of the
    Tercentenary postage stamps:

  Denominations.               Quantities.               Value.
   1/2 cent                     2,000,000                $10,000
   1    "                      22,530,000                225,300
   2    "                      35,100,000                702,000
   5    "                       1,200,000                 60,000
   7    "                         700,000                 49,000
  10    "                         500,000                 50,000
  15    "                         300,000                 45,000
  20    "                         304,200                 60,840
                               ----------              ---------
  Totals,                      62,634,200             $1,202,140

    The department has no knowledge whether the stamps in question have
    all been sold, as during their issue the ordinary postage stamps
    were also on sale, both issues being in use as preferred by the
    public. The proceeds derived from the sale of stamps of the two
    issues were not kept separately, but treated as arising from a
    common source. It is, therefore, impossible to state to what extent
    the issue of the Tercentenary postage stamps may have affected the
    ordinary revenue.

[191] =Ibid.=, XXII: 256.

The Report of 1909, in referring to this issue, had the following
remarks:--

    To meet what appeared to be a general wish a special series of
    postage stamps, which has come to be known as the Tercentenary
    Series, was introduced as a feature of the celebration in July,
    1908, of the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of Quebec
    by Champlain. The first supply of these stamps was sent out to
    Postmasters about the middle of that month, and was on sale to the
    public by the time His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales reached
    Quebec for the celebration. The demand for the new stamps was
    extraordinary, and for the better part of a month was steadily kept
    up. The interest taken in them was, in no small measure, due to the
    historic associations with which in design they were so happily
    linked, the subjects depicted in the several denominations of the
    series being in variety and appropriateness admirably adapted to the
    end in view,--popular recognition of an epoch-making event.

The Report of 1910 notes that the last issue of the Tercentenary stamps
was on Oct. 14, 1908,--apparently the 15 cent denomination. The whole
issue was thus exhausted in three months' time.



CHAPTER XVII

THE REGISTRATION STAMPS


The first mention that we find concerning the registration system in
Canada is in the Postmaster General's report for the year ending 31st
March, 1856, in the following words:--"The number of letters passing
through the Post under the Registration System commenced in May 1855, is
very great, and is rapidly increasing." The number of letters is given
in even figures as 350,000 during the first year. The Report states
further:--"In October 1856, an agreement with the Post Office Department
of the United States took effect for a system of Registration to be
applied to letters passing between the two countries. Under this
arrangement a person posting a letter on either side can, by the
pre-payment of a fee of 3d. in addition to the ordinary postage, secure
a continuous record of its transmission from the place of posting to the
place of destination, where a receipt will be taken and preserved of the
due delivery of the letter so registered." Further details are found in
the postal section of the Canadian Directory for 1857-8, as follows:--

    Persons transmitting letters, which they desire should pass through
    the post as "registered letters," must observe that no record is
    taken of any letter unless specially handed in for registration at
    the time of posting. Upon all such letters, with the exception of
    those addressed to the United States, one penny must be prepaid as a
    registration charge. If addressed to the United States, the ordinary
    postage rate on the letters to that country _must be prepaid_, and
    in addition a registration charge of 3d. per letter. The registry
    thus effected in Canada will be carried on by the United States Post
    office until the letter arrives at its destination.

    In like manner, letters addressed to Canada may be registered at the
    place of posting in the United States, and the registry made there
    will accompany the letter to the place of delivery in Canada.

    A certificate of registration will be given by the postmaster if
    required.

    The registration system can be applied to the letter portion of the
    mail only....

    _[The Postal Department is not liable for the loss of any registered
    letters._]

The next year's Report gives the number of registered letters posted
annually as computed at 500,000. The Report of 30th September, 1858 also
says: "About 500,000 letters were registered last year", and goes on to
state:--"It is also considered that it would be an improvement on the
system if the charge for registration were made pre-payable by a stamp,
instead of by money as at present." From this it is evident that the
postage stamps were not then used for indicating the payment of the
registration fee. Just when they were permitted to be so employed does
not appear, but it was doubtless within a comparatively short time
thereafter, as we have seen a cover with stamp so used which was dated
in 1862; in fact it seems probable that arrangements for using stamps to
indicate the payment for registration may have accompanied the
introduction of the decimal stamps in 1859.

Further remarks upon the registration system are found in the Report for
1860, as follows:--

    A rate of charge for Registration so low as, in no probable degree,
    to operate as a motive, with persons posting letters of value, to
    deny themselves the advantage of securing from the Post Office an
    acknowledgement of the receipt of the specific letter, has always
    been considered to be a cardinal point in the Canadian Registration
    System.

    The Registration fee, or charge, has, therefore, under the influence
    of this consideration, been maintained at 2 cents, though it is
    doubtful whether such a rate of charge covers the actual cost of the
    process; the address of the Registered Letter having, in the course
    of transmission, to be entered on an average not less than six
    times, and forms of certificate or receipt, and Books in which to
    preserve permanent records at each Post Office, to to supplied.

From the above it is evident that the domestic rate of registration was
2 cents in 1860, the equivalent of the 1 penny rate already noted as
being in force in 1857, and doubtless the original rate when the system
was inaugurated in 1855--certainly a remarkably cheap fee for the
service. Of course the rate for letters to the United States, which had
been fixed at 3 pence in 1856, was held at the equivalent of 5 cents
upon the change to decimal currency in 1859.

Nothing further of special interest is found until the Report of 1864,
in which the following dissertation occurs:--

    When a letter is _registered_, that is to say marked and recorded in
    the Post Office so as to individualize it from the bulk of ordinary
    letter correspondence, its presence in the Post Office can be
    identified and its course of transmission traced, and a registered
    letter is thus secured from the chance of abstraction by an
    unfaithful messenger employed to post it (as it is always open to
    proof whether the letter was posted for registration or not), from
    risk of loss by accidental misdirection on the part of the sender,
    and from mistakes in the Post Office--such as mis-sending or
    delivery to a wrong party. Against actual dishonesty on the part of
    the Post Office employés, a registered letter is incomparably more
    secure than an unregistered one, for an unregistered money-letter
    leaves no trace behind it whilst passing in the great stream of
    ordinary correspondence, though its presence as a money-letter and
    the nature of its contents are, to any person accustomed to handle
    letters, as manifest as though the letter had been singled out and
    marked by the registered stamp. Moreover, the safety of an
    unregistered letter in dependent on the integrity of a Post Office
    Clerk during the whole time that it remains in his custody,
    frequently for hours or even days; whilst a registered letter will
    almost invariably have to be acknowledged at the moment of its
    passing into an officer's hands, and cannot thereafter be suppressed
    without leaving him individually accountable for its disposal.

In the Report for 1865 it is stated that "there has been a reduction in
the charge on Registered letters" between Canada and the United Kingdom,
but we are left in the dark as to the amount of the reduction or the new
rate, as far as the Report goes, but in a _Post Office Directory for
1866_ (dated October 1, 1865) we find the following table which gives us
the information desired:--

    REGISTRATION OF LETTERS.

    The charge for Registration, in addition to the Postage, is as
    follows, viz.:

    On Letters to any other place in Canada,
        or British North America                               2 cents
    On Letters for the United States                           5  "
    On Letters for the United Kingdom                     12-1/2  "
    On Letters for British Colonies or Possessions, sent
        _via_ England                                         25  "
    On Letters for France and other Foreign Countries,
        _via_ England, an amount equal to the postage rate.

    Both the postage charge and registration fee must in all cases be
    prepaid.

The _Post Office Act_ 1867 made the domestic registration of letters
containing valuables compulsory, the Postmaster General being empowered
to prescribe and enforce regulations "in respect to the registration by
the officers of the Post Office of letters unquestionably containing
money or other valuable enclosure when posted without registration by
the senders of the same, and to imposing a rate of two cents
registration charge upon such letters."[192]

[192] 31^o Vict. Cap. X. Sec. 10, par. 11. See page 96.

The Report for 1868, which was the first of the Dominion of Canada, gave
the statistics of registered letters as 640,000 for Ontario and Quebec
(the former Province of Canada), 24,700 for New Brunswick, and 40,000
for Nova Scotia, a total registered correspondence of 704,700. The next
year's Report especially notes the increase in the use of the
registration system, the total having advanced to 850,000 pieces, while
the Report for 1870 records an even million.

Finally in the Report for 1872, we find the first hint of special stamps
for registration purposes, as follows:--

    It seems expedient to adopt some distinctive postage stamp to be
    used only in prepayment of the Registration charge, both to make it
    clear that this charge has been duly paid and accounted for in every
    case, and to diminish the risk which is occasionally felt at points
    of distribution of omitting to carry on the Registration in cases
    where the ordinary Registration postmark is not as distinct and
    calculated to arrest attention as it should be.

    It has always been the policy of the Canadian Post Office to admit
    letters to Registration at a low rate of charge for the additional
    security thus given, so as to leave no adequate motive, on the score
    of cost, for sending valuable letters through the mails
    unregistered; and, doubtless, the very large proportion of such
    letters offered for registration demonstrates a gratifying measure
    of success in attaining the desired object.

We have here the reason for the extremely cheap domestic registry fee of
2 cents--a reason which might, possibly with profit, even, enter more
deeply into the calculations and published rates of even larger
countries than Canada.

The above recommendation did not bear immediate fruit, but after a delay
of three years the suggested special stamps made their appearance on
November 15, 1875. The Report of that year says of them:--

    Registration stamps have been issued, to be used by the public in
    prepaying the registration charges on letters passing within the
    Dominion, or to the United Kingdom or United States, each
    destination being distinguished by a different colour in the stamp,
    as well as by a variation in the amount of registration charge and
    corresponding value of the stamp.

    There is a red stamp of the value of two cents for prepayment of the
    registration charges on letters within the Dominion.

    There is a green stamp of five cents value for registered letters
    addressed to the United States.

    There is a blue stamp of eight cents value for registered letters
    addressed to the United Kingdom.

    These stamps are to apply exclusively to the registration charges,
    and the postage rates on registered letters are to be prepaid by the
    ordinary postage stamps.

    It is believed that the use of these distinctive stamps for the
    registration charges, will tend to give registered letters
    additional security against the risk which is sometimes felt of the
    registration escaping observation, when such letters are dealt with
    hurriedly or handled at night, whilst passing through the post.

The special registration stamps are too well known to need any
particular description, especially as they are excellently illustrated
as Numbers 54, 55 and 56 on Plate III. Like the ordinary postage stamps,
they are engraved on steel and were originally printed in sheets of 50,
ten horizontal rows of five stamps each, which made a sheet of nearly
the same size, only turned through an angle of 90°, as the ordinary
sheet of 100 postage stamps. The imprint was the same as the second type
employed for the "small" cents issue--"British American Bank Note Co.
Montreal" in a pearled frame--and likewise appeared four times on the
sheet, as already fully described in the chapter dealing with that
issue.[193] The denomination of the stamp was also expressed as TWO
CENTS, in the shaded Roman capitals which we found in the case of the
postage stamps, over the first stamp in the top row of that value, but
with the 5 cent the word FIVE alone appears. The 8 cent we have not
seen. On the 2 cent there is also a large numeral 2, 7-1/2 mm. high,
over the last stamp in the top row (number 5) but the 5 cent has none.

[193] See page 125.

The normal colors for the stamps were:--

  2 cents, orange varying through orange red to vermilion.
  5 cents, a slightly yellow green varying from pale to dark.
  8 cents, both bright and dull blue.

The stamps were printed upon the same ordinary white wove paper as was
used for the contemporary postage stamps. The variation from thin to
thick quality is found in the case of the 2 cent and 5 cent stamps, but
very little variation in the 8 cent stamp. This is explained by the fact
that there were probably but two printings of the latter stamp, 100,000
having been delivered by the manufacturers according to the Postmaster
General's Report for 30th June, 1875, and 25,000 more according to the
next year's report.

The stamps were normally perforated 12, but the 2 cents in orange and
the 5 cents in dark green are both known in imperforate condition, the
latter having been chronicled in the _Halifax Philatelist_ for November,
1888. A vertical pair of the 5 cent is shown as illustration No. 115 on
Plate X.

In the Report for 1877 we find the following:--"The Registration charge
on registered letters between the United Kingdom and Canada has been
reduced from 8 cents to 5 cents by the Post Offices of the United
Kingdom." This naturally dealt a heavy blow at the use of the 8 cent
stamp. The _Stamp Journal_ for February, 1878, said:--"Mr. E. Burpee
states that the 8 cent 'Registered' stamps have been called in, and that
hereafter the fee to Great Britain and foreign countries will be the
same as to the United States--5 cents." The next issue, however,
corrected this:--"After January, 1878, the cost of registering letters
to Great Britain has been fixed at 5 c, the same as to the United
States.... To foreign countries the rate is as before, 8 cents, and
therefore there is no suppression of the 8 cent registered stamps."

Nevertheless, the rate to foreign countries must have been reduced not
long after, as the statistics for stamps issued to postmasters between
the 1st July, 1878 and the 1st July, 1879 give but 25 of the 8 cent
registered stamp, which must therefore have been sent out early in the
fiscal year. The total issues to postmasters, according to the Reports,
were as under:--

  1876    71,950
  1877    17,200
  1878     9,400
  1879        25
          ------
  Total   98,575

The number returned as "unfit for use" and presumably destroyed during
the several years was 8,872. This gives a total issue of 89,700 for the
8 cent stamp, according to the Reports; but the Canadian correspondent
of _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_ stated:[194]--"In 1878 a little over
75,000 of these [original 125,000] were destroyed by order of the
Postmaster-General." This probably means that the stamps were called in
after their usefulness ceased, and allowing for the amount destroyed
during the period of issue gives us perhaps 40,000 as the number
actually issued to the public from post offices.

[194] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, II: 45:2.

The 2 cent and 5 cent stamps remained in use, but when the general
revision of rates took place in 1889 the domestic rate was raised to 5
cents, and the 2 cent stamp lost its usefulness, the 5 cent alone
remaining. We have already reproduced the circular announcing these
changes,[195] and will only repeat here the paragraph relating to the
registration fee:--

    The fee for the registration of a letter or other article of mail
    matter will be five cents upon all classes of correspondence passing
    within the Dominion. For the present, and until further instructed,
    the registration fee may be prepaid by using the _2 cent
    Registration stamps and postage stamps to make up the amount_.

[195] See page 136.

This notice was dated 8th May, 1889, and the Report of 30th June
following remarks further:--

    The charge for the registration of a letter, parcel, book or other
    articles of mail matter was also made uniform, and fixed at 5 cents
    for all classes of matter. The frequent delay consequent upon the
    prepayment of a wrong registration fee will no longer take place.

The removal of the British American Bank Note Co. from Montreal to
Ottawa, which we have already noted as resulting in some marked changes
in the shades of the regular postage stamps,[196] was not without its
effect upon the registration stamps. Apparently the same ink used for
printing the ordinary 3 cent stamp was used for the 2 cent registration,
for we find both stamps chronicled in the _Halifax Philatelist_ for
October, 1888, as having appeared in a "bright carmine." The usual
catalog designation for this 2 cent registration stamp is "scarlet
vermilion", but we think that "brick red" best describes the ordinary
shade in which these Ottawa printings are found, though the _Halifax
Philatelist_ recorded a "dull rose" tint in March, 1889.

[196] See page 128.

The 5 cent stamp was also noted in blue green in the November, 1889,
issue of the _Philatelic Record_, a few months after the regular 2 cent
postage stamp appeared in the same shade, again apparently showing the
use of the same ink in printing both stamps.

During its regular currency the 2 cent stamp had risen from an issue to
postmasters of 937,000 in 1876 to 2,800,000 in 1889, but the change in
rates caused a drop to 600,000 in 1890, 14,850 in 1891, and 100 in 1892,
while a straggling lot of 400 appeared in 1896.

The 5 cent stamp was distributed to the amount of about 232,000 in 1876,
but ran up gradually from 135,000 in the next year to half a million in
1889. The increase in rates jumped it to nearly three times this amount
in 1890, and by 1893, when the regular 8 cent stamp was issued for
combined postage and registration, the annual output of the 5 cent
registration stamp was 2,260,000.

It may be remembered that after the removal of the engraving company
from Montreal to Ottawa certain of the low value postage stamps appeared
printed from plates of two hundred impressions instead of the ordinary
one hundred. In like manner we find that new plates of double size were
made for the 5 cent registration stamp also, these being in one hundred
impressions, ten rows of ten, but without the "Ottawa" imprint which
appeared on the enlarged plates of the regular postage stamps, according
to the _Dominion Philatelist_, which noted the new sheet arrangement in
October, 1892.

On the 1st August, 1893, the regular 8 cent stamp was issued to prepay
the combined postage and registration fee, and the notice we have
already quoted in that connection stated[197] that when the supply of
the 5 cent registration stamp on hand was exhausted no more would be
issued. The Report for 1894 states that 307,900 were issued to
postmasters for the year ending 30th June, and as over two and a half
millions had been issued in the previous twelve-month, the probability
is that the supply was exhausted about the time of the appearance of the
8 cent postage stamp, and therefore the stock in the hands of
postmasters must have been pretty well used up by 1894.

[197] See page 143.

There is one point left in connection with the registration stamps that
deserves mention, as it has so frequently been a bone of contention. The
2 cent stamp was formerly listed in _brown_, and quantities of printer's
ink and valuable space have been wasted in discussing its merits. Mr.
Donald A. King seems to have been the discoverer of the variety,
according to the _Halifax Philatelist_,[198] where it was exploited in
an article which is worth quoting here for its historical value.

[198] =Halifax Philatelist=, II: 8.

    THE CANADIAN ERROR.

    The Canada 2c. brown registration is at this time mentioned
    frequently in the _Figaro_ and several other philatelic
    publications. As there seems to be considerable doubt as to the
    origin, and as I was in the main instrumental in introducing them to
    the philatelic public, I have decided to give the information I
    possess on this subject to them.

    About the beginning of January, 1887, I was shown a registered
    letter received from Miscou Light House Post Office in New
    Brunswick. It had a BROWN 2c. registration stamp on it--a clear
    unmistakable dark brown. I immediately wrote the postmaster there
    for information relative to them. He answered and said that he had
    23 on hand. That he had originally received 50 from the P. O. Dept.
    at Ottawa, and that they were BROWN when he received them. This he
    stated positively. I then sent to him for them, but before my letter
    reached him he had used two of them so that I received only 21.

    Those stamps I showed to several philatelists, and could not get two
    to agree as to their origin. Some said the change in color was due
    to the gum, others to chemical changes, others again said it was due
    to the atmosphere from the salt water. Very few would allow a
    misprint. In the meantime Mr. F. C. Kaye also came across another
    registered letter with brown registration stamp. This time it was
    from the P. O. of New Ross in Lunenberg Co., N. S. From this office
    about 50 were obtained. The postmaster at this office was also
    positive as to having received them from the Dept. at Ottawa in
    brown. The same objections were raised to those as to the others, as
    to whether they were a genuine misprint or not. In this case the
    atmosphere of salt water was not the cause as New Ross is in the
    interior. If the gum was the cause of their changing color, it is
    peculiar that we do not get more of them. Changes by chemical means
    were also tried. The only thing which would turn the red of the
    genuine color to brown, was sulphuric acid mixed with water, and
    this did not give a good clear color, having a somewhat greyish
    shade in it. Those experiments have, in my opinion, confirmed their
    genuineness. And now as if to make assurances in regard to their
    genuineness more sure, we find a third post office with them. This
    was Beauly, in Antigonish Co., N. S. There were, however, only 6
    received from there, the postmaster had the same story as the
    others, he had received them from the Dept. at Ottawa in a brown
    color.

    The Department at Ottawa was written to in regard to them, but as
    was to be expected, knew nothing of them whatsoever. No doubt if
    they had been seen they would not have been allowed to be issued to
    the public.

Again we find some details given in _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_[199]
under "Canadian Notes" which evidently refer to another lot:--

    In this color the stamps were first issued in 1885, and were
    distributed to a number of small towns in Ontario. Some months later
    the attention of the Postmaster at Toronto was called to this stamp,
    and as he had received no official notification of an emission in
    this color, he caused inquiry to be made as to the authenticity of
    these stamps. A number of offices that had them on hand were
    communicated with, and all the answers were positive in the
    statement that the color of the stamps when received had been a
    decided brown, and had not undergone the slightest change by the
    action of either time or chemicals. A number of these letters are in
    the hands of a collector here, and are proof positive that this
    stamp was issued in a brown color.

[199] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, VI: 96.

In spite of this brave showing, however, it is practically certain that
the stamps are not a misprint but color changelings caused by oxidation,
or rather "sulphuretting" to be more exact, an effect peculiarly liable
to take place with stamps printed in red or orange. The same thing is
found to occur in other Canadian stamps, the 3 pence and 5 cent of the
Beaver type, the first issues of Newfoundland and the 3 cent, 1851, of
the United States, as well as some of the red and orange colored revenue
stamps of the Civil War period. In fact the change is carried almost to
a black, at times, but can be restored to the original color by the
application of hydrogen peroxide.



CHAPTER XVIII

THE POSTAGE DUE STAMPS


Canada managed for years, like many other countries, to collect the
postage due on insufficiently prepaid mail matter by merely marking the
amount on the cover. The use of stamps as checks on those responsible
for making the collections seems not to have been appreciated, or more
probably was not deemed necessary. At last the advantages of such a
system seem to have become manifest, and in the Postmaster General's
Report for the 30th June, 1906, we find the following:--

    A system of accounting for short paid postage collected by
    Postmasters, by means of special stamps known as "Postage Due"
    stamps, has been adopted by the Department. These stamps are to be
    affixed to short paid mail matter and cancelled by Postmasters when
    such matter is delivered to the addressee, and are not to be used
    for any other purpose. They cannot be used for the payment of
    ordinary postage, nor are they to be sold to the public.

    The denominations of these stamps are 1, 2 and 5 cents.

The first issue of the stamps to postmasters was on the 1st June, 1906,
but the system did not come into operation until a month later. The
following is the official notice with the technical portions omitted:--

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.

                             OTTAWA, 1st June, 1906.

    _Circular to Postmasters of Accounting Offices._

    Commencing on the 1st July, 1906, the present system of collecting
    unpaid postage will be discontinued and thereafter the following
    arrangements will supersede the regulations now in force:--

    (1) The Department will issue a special stamp which will be known as
    the "POSTAGE DUE" stamp and on delivery of any article of mail
    matter on which unpaid or additional postage is to be collected the
    Postmaster will affix and cancel as ordinary stamps are cancelled,
    postage due stamps to the amount of extra postage charged on such
    article.

    (2) The short paid postage must be collected from the addressee
    before postage due stamps are affixed; otherwise the Postmaster is
    liable to lose the amount of such postage.

    (3) Postmasters will obtain postage due stamps on requisition to the
    Department but the initial supply will be furnished without
    requisition, so that the new system may go into operation on the
    date above mentioned. When a new form is ordered "postage due"
    stamps will be included in the printed list, but it is proposed to
    use the stock on hand at present which would otherwise have to be
    destroyed. The denominations of the new stamps will be 1, 2 and 5
    cents.

The new stamps were of the same size as the regular postage stamps, but
with the longer dimension horizontal. A large numeral in a central
tablet flanked by an acanthus scroll at each side, CANADA above, CENTS
below, and POSTAGE DUE in block letters along the bottom, all on an
engine-turned groundwork, make a very neat and effective design for the
purpose intended. [Illustrations Nos. 58, 59 and 60 on Plate III.] The
engraving is of course in the usual steel plate process, and the sheets
are of 100 stamps in ten rows of ten. The marginal imprint is at the
center of the top of the sheet and is the same as for the later postage
issues, "OTTAWA--No--1" or "2". So far there have appeared the following
plate numbers:--

  1 cent No. 1
  2  "   "   1 and 2
  5  "   "   1

The numbers printed, according to the Reports, have been as follows:--

              1906      1907      1908      1909       1910
  1 cent    500,000   700,000             300,000     600,000
  2  "    1,100,000   500,000   900,000   900,000   1,300,000
  5  "      200,000   200,000   200,000   200,000     400,000

All three values were printed in the same shade of dark violet, but in
1909 the 5 cent was reported in a red violet.



CHAPTER XIX

THE SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMP


The Postmaster General's Report for 30th June, 1898, contained the
following announcements:--

    The calendar year has witnessed the introduction of the special
    delivery stamp, whereby on the payment of a delivery fee of 10 cents
    in addition to the ordinary postage, a letter immediately upon its
    arrival at the office of destination is sent by special messenger
    for delivery to the addressee.

    A special-delivery stamp of the face-value of 10 cents was prepared,
    and the first supplies thereof were sent out sufficiently early to
    Postmasters to permit of the inauguration of the special delivery
    service on the 1st July, 1898. The object of this service is to
    secure special and prompt delivery of a letter on which a
    special-delivery stamp, in addition to the ordinary postage, has
    been affixed.

The following circular gives the details of the new system:--

                POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.

                                     OTTAWA, 7th June, 1898.

  _Circular to Postmasters._

    The Postmaster General has approved of arrangements whereby, on and
    from the first of July proximo, the senders of letters posted at any
    Post Office in Canada and addressed to a City Post Office now having
    Free Delivery by Letter Carriers shall, on prepayment by Special
    Delivery stamps of the face-value of ten cents, affixed one to each
    letter, in addition to the ordinary postage to which the same are
    liable, secure their special delivery to the persons to whom they
    are addressed within the limits of Letter Carrier Delivery at any
    one of the following Post Offices in Cities, viz:--Halifax, St.
    John, N. B., Fredericton, Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Kingston,
    Toronto, Brantford, Hamilton, London, Winnipeg, Victoria and
    Vancouver. The hours of delivery to be within 7 a. m. and 11 p. m.
    daily, except Sunday. These hours are subject to change as dictated
    by local circumstances.

    Drop-letters posted for local delivery, and bearing Special-Delivery
    stamps, in addition to the postage, will also be entitled to special
    delivery in the same manner as letters received at the Post Office
    by mail.

    Registered letters may likewise come under the operations of this
    scheme of Special Delivery, in the same way as ordinary letters,
    provided they bear Special-Delivery stamps, in addition to the full
    postage and the registration fee fixed by law, and the regulations
    respecting the record and receipting of registered matter are
    observed. In despatching registered letters that bear
    Special-Delivery stamps, the Postmaster should write prominently
    across the registered-package envelope the words "For Special
    Delivery". When Special-Delivery letters (unregistered) number five
    or more for any one office the Postmaster should make a separate
    package of them, marking it "For Special Delivery"; if such letters
    are fewer than five, he should place them immediately under the
    "facing-slip" of the letter-package which he makes up, either
    directly or indirectly, for the Special-Delivery office for which
    they are intended, so that the most prompt attention may be secured
    therefor.

    Special-Delivery stamps will be sold at all Money Order Post Offices
    in Canada, (which may secure a supply of such stamps in the same way
    as ordinary stamps are obtained,) for which the Postmasters will
    have to account as they do for ordinary stamps, and on the sales of
    which a total commission of 10 per cent, shall be allowed to
    Postmasters, except to Postmasters having fixed salaries. For the
    present Postmasters will use the existing forms of requisition in
    applying for Special-Delivery stamps. (The usual discount may be
    allowed to a licensed stamp vendor at the time that he purchases
    Special-Delivery stamps from the Postmaster). Special-Delivery
    stamps are to be cancelled as postage stamps are cancelled. Stamps
    intended for Special Delivery are not available for any other
    purpose, and the article upon which one is affixed must have,
    besides, the ordinary postage prepaid by postage stamps. Under no
    circumstances will Special-Delivery stamps be recognized in payment
    of postage or of registration fee, nor can any other stamp be used
    to secure Special Delivery, except the Special-Delivery stamp.
    Special-Delivery stamps are not redeemable.

    Letters intended for Special Delivery at any one of the City Post
    Offices above mentioned, and prepaid as directed, may be mailed at
    any Post Office in Canada.

    The regulations relating to First Class Matter (Inland Post) apply
    also and equally to Special-Delivery letters, the only difference
    being the special treatment which the latter receive with a view to
    accelerating their delivery.

    The object sought by the establishment of Special Delivery,--namely,
    the special delivery of letters transmitted thereunder,--will be
    much promoted if the senders of all such letters are careful to
    address them plainly and fully, giving, if possible, the street and
    number in every case. Such care will serve not only to prevent
    mistakes, but also to facilitate delivery.

    All employees of the Post Office are enjoined to expedite, in every
    way in their power, the posting, transmission and delivery of
    letters intended for Special Delivery.

    * * * * *

      R. M. COULTER,
  _Deputy Postmaster General_.

For a description of the stamp itself we cannot do better than quote the
_Montreal Witness_:--

    The Special Delivery stamp differs materially in design and size
    from the ordinary series, the dimensions of the engraved work being
    1-1/4 inches long by 7/8 of an inch wide [31 × 23 mm.]. The
    advantage of such a contrast is obvious. The letter to which a
    Special Delivery stamp is affixed can thus be at once picked out by
    those handling the mails including it, and its delivery greatly
    hastened. The design of the Special Delivery stamp is without any
    vignette, and consists substantially of a panel across the top
    containing the words "CANADA POST OFFICE", with a lathe-work border
    round the other three sides of the stamp. The center of the stamp is
    occupied by an oval containing lathe-work, with the word "TEN" in
    the center, and the phrase "SPECIAL DELIVERY WITHIN CITY LIMITS" in
    a white letter, on a solid panel encircling the word "TEN". On each
    side of the stamp, connecting the oval with the border, is a circle
    with the numeral "10"; the space between the oval and the border is
    occupied by ornamental work. At the bottom of the stamp, in the
    lathe-work border, appears a white panel with the words "TEN CENTS".

The stamp is illustrated as Number 57 on Plate III. It is line engraved
and printed in sheets of 50, ten rows of five. The usual imprint,
OTTAWA--No.--1, is found in the margin at the top of the sheet, over the
third stamp. But one plate number has yet appeared. The color was at
first a deep green which in 1908 took on a bluish cast. The paper used
is the thick white wove ordinarily employed for the regular postage
series, and the stamp has also appeared on the toned paper on which the
1 cent postage is known. The annual requisitions from the manufacturers
have increased from 25,000 in 1898 to 112,500 in 1910.

       *       *       *       *       *

To return to the Postmaster General's Reports. That of the 30th June,
1899, states:--"The 10 cent Special-Delivery stamp, to which reference
was made in the last report, came into use at the beginning of the
current fiscal year, simultaneously with the commencement of the
Special-Delivery Service, and of this stamp 52,940 were issued to meet
the demands, which would go to show that the service is being availed
of to a considerable extent throughout the country." The date of the
first issue of the special delivery stamp to postmasters is given as the
28th June, 1898.

No further mention is made of the service until the Report dated 31st
March, 1908, which says that the special delivery service had been
extended to thirteen places where free carrier service had been
installed,[200] and further that "the regulations respecting special
delivery have been so modified that it is no longer necessary for a
person despatching a letter, which he desires to have delivered
immediately, to provide himself with the 'special delivery' stamp issued
by the department. He may now place upon his letter ordinary postage
stamps to the value of ten cents in addition to the stamps required for
prepayment of postage and write across the corner of the envelope the
words 'special delivery'. This will ensure the special delivery of the
letter as provided for in the regulations."

[200] See page 197.

The Report for 1909 states that the service has been extended to the
eight places where free letter delivery by carrier had been installed
during the year.[201]

[201] =Ibid.=



CHAPTER XX

THE "OFFICIALLY SEALED" LABELS


Strictly speaking, the so-called "officially sealed stamps" are not
stamps, as that term is technically employed in philately. To the
uninitiated any design impressed upon a label, whether gummed and
perforated or not, may be termed a stamp; but the ordinarily accepted
use of the term has been restricted, at least in philatelic lore, to the
label that represents a value, collected or chargeable, in the service
in which it is employed. There may therefore be postal, telegraph or
fiscal stamps, and because of the identity in use--to show that _no_ fee
is required,--we can stretch our definition to include franking labels,
such as are often used officially. But the "officially sealed" label
performs no such function, and is, as its name implies, simply a _seal_
which fulfils that purpose alone and therefore does not properly belong
in the company of postage stamps. Our only reason for touching upon
these labels here is that they have been included in some of the
catalogs for years and many collectors possess them; consequently it
seems desirable to give their history along with that of their more
worthy prototypes.

The label figured as Number 117 on Plate X, seems to have been first
reported in _Le Timbre-Poste_ for October, 1879, and its date of issue
is usually given as that year. But little seems to have been known about
it for some time, which perhaps was partly due to its scarcity and
partly because it did not attract the notice that a regular postage
stamp issue would have.

The London Society's book quoted a somewhat ambiguous explanation of the
use to which the label was put, which had appeared in the _Halifax
Philatelist_;[202] but it remained for Major Evans to clear up the
matter in the columns of the _Philatelic Record_.[203] We cannot do
better than quote this in full:--

    With reference to what is said about the Canadian
    _officially-sealed_ label in the London Society's new book, I am
    glad to be able to throw some light upon the question as to the
    manner of its employment.

    When I was in Canada last July [1889] I made special enquiries about
    these labels, as there appeared to be some mystery about their use.
    Everyone agreed that they were not placed upon _all_ letters opened
    at the Dead Letter Office and returned to their senders, and no two
    persons seemed to have quite the same theory as to the rules for
    their employment or non-employment in any particular case. Even
    gentlemen connected with the Post-Office at Halifax, such as Mr.
    King and others, could give me no definite information. I therefore
    determined to see what I could do at the head-quarters at Ottawa.

    Fortunately, I was able, through a collector in an official
    position, to obtain an introduction to the Deputy
    Postmaster-General, who most kindly gave me the following
    particulars, which show that the employment of the _officially
    sealed_ labels is very restricted, thus accounting for their rarity.

    Letters in Canada, as in the United States, very frequently have on
    the outside the well-known notice containing the address of the
    sender, and a request that the letter may be returned if not
    delivered within a certain time. These of course are not opened at
    the Dead Letter Office, and in fact, I think, are ordered not to be
    sent there, but are returned direct from the office to which they
    were originally addressed or from the head office of the district.
    On the other hand, those that have no indication of the address of
    the sender on the outside are sent to the Dead Letter Office, and
    there necessarily opened; but neither of these classes thus properly
    dealt with is considered to require the _officially-sealed_ label.
    It is only if one of the former class, having the sender's name and
    address on the outside, is sent to the Dead Letter Office and there
    opened in _error_ that the _officially-sealed_ label is applied, to
    show that such letter has been opened officially, and not by any
    unauthorized person. Whether these pieces of gummed paper ever had a
    more extended use or not I cannot say, but I was assured that the
    above was the substance of the regulations as to their employment.

    The Deputy Postmaster-General further stated that there had been so
    many requests for specimens of these labels that the Department had
    been obliged to make it a rule to turn a deaf ear to all of them.

    In any case they are not _postage stamps_, properly speaking, at
    all. They indicate neither postage paid nor postage due, but simply
    that the letters to which they are attached have been opened by
    proper authority, and they at the same time afford a means for
    reclosing them.

[202] =North American Colonies of Great Britain=, page 19; =Halifax
Philatelist=, I: 15.

[203] =Philatelic Record=, XI: 210.

The labels are of relatively large size, being 25-1/2 by 38 mm. The
design is mostly engine-turned work, with the words OFFICIALLY SEALED on
a label across the center; above this appears, in a curve, POST OFFICE
CANADA, and beneath likewise DEAD LETTER OFFICE. The label is a fine
piece of line engraving, but we have been unable to ascertain the size
of the sheets in which it was printed. Doubtless the usual four
marginal imprints were employed, being the "Montreal" type in pearled
border.

It seems to be the general idea that the first printing of the labels,
which were in a dark red-brown, was the only one, but no information is
at hand concerning the quantity delivered. At any rate in the Canadian
Notes in _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_ for November 30, 1892 we read
that:--"From a reliable source it is learned that the old die of the
Canada official seal stamp has been spoiled or rather destroyed for
further use by the Bank Note Company, who have possession of it." We
suggest that the words "spoiled" and "destroyed" have been transposed in
the original, the meaning evidently being that the die had been defaced
as of no further use.

The labels were normally perforated the usual 12, but the same journal
for April 13, 1892 reports that a whole sheet had been seen in an
imperforate condition.

Though various rumors that the use of these labels was to be
discontinued are to be found in the late "90's" and early "00's", and
though the defacing of the die would perhaps indicate such intention,
yet a new issue in changed design made its appearance about 1905, which
was of course engraved by the American Bank Note Co., who then held the
contract for furnishing stamps. This handsome label, figured as Number
116 on Plate X, was adapted from the magnificent "Law Stamps" of the
"series of 1897", which stand as some of the finest fiscal stamps ever
issued. The central vignette, with its portrait of Queen Victoria at the
time of the Diamond Jubilee, the word CANADA arched above, and the
engine-turned border, are reproduced in their entirety from the fiscal
stamp; DEAD LETTER OFFICE and more engine-turned work replace the LAW
STAMP inscription of the prototype beneath the vignette, and OFFICIALLY
SEALED is filled in in block letters of varying heights at the top.

The labels are of course line engraved and perforated 12, but the sheet
arrangement or details of quantity printed cannot be given. They were
issued at first on a pale blue paper, but subsequently, about 1907,
appeared on plain white paper.



CHAPTER XXI

THE STAMPED ENVELOPES


In its issue for June, 1904, the _London Philatelist_[204] illustrated a
cover, submitted by Mr. E. B. Greenshields of Montreal, which had the
appearance of a provisional 3d. envelope. Concerning it Mr. Greenshields
said:--"This letter was posted in New Carlisle, Gaspé, Lower Canada, on
April 7th, 1851, and was stamped 'Three Pence' in two lines, inside a
square, with a black border of neat design round the sides. Across this
was written 'Letter R. W. Kelly Apl. 1851'. The letter was addressed to
Toronto, C. W., and on the other side was stamped the date the letter
was received, 'Apl. 16, 1851.'" The design was printed on the right
upper corner of the envelope, "Three Pence" being in script type of a
style then in vogue, and the border being a common type of loops. No
stamp appeared on the cover nor the word PAID.

[204] =London Philatelist=, XIII: 153.

On enquiry of the Post Office Department at Ottawa the following reply
was sent:--

  OTTAWA, _2nd. March_, 1904.

    SIR,--I am directed to acknowledge receipt of your communication of
    the 26th ultimo, inquiring whether R. W. Kelly was Postmaster of New
    Carlisle, Co. Gaspé, Quebec, in 1851, and in reply am directed to
    inform you that R. W. Kelly, doubtless the same man, was Postmaster
    of New Carlisle in 1851....

    As regards your inquiry as to whether postage stamps were used on
    the 7th April, 1851, and your statement that you have an envelope
    sent on that date from New Carlisle to Toronto with "Three Pence"
    printed on it, inside a fancy border, I have to say that postage
    stamps were issued to the public for the first time on the 23d
    April, 1851, and that stamped envelopes were not issued until some
    years later. The stamped envelope to which you refer may have been
    an envelope so stamped on the prepayment in the New Carlisle Post
    Office of three pence, the required charge for postage.

    I am, sir, your obedient servant,

  WILLIAM SMITH, _Secretary_.



Inasmuch as the impression is type-set and printed, it was doubtless a
scheme of the Postmaster to prepare the envelopes and save stamping them
with the office seals afterwards, as would be necessary if no adhesive
stamp were attached. The cover in question was evidently used for his
own convenience, but its use as a stamped envelope would depend upon
whether it was sold to the public for their convenience as a prepaid
cover. Under such conditions it would assume a character akin to the
Postmaster's Provisionals of the United States, but no such evidence has
been forthcoming, nor are other copies known. It is an interesting
cover, particularly because of the lack of the word PAID, which should
have been stamped upon it as well as the indication of the amount,
according to the rules in force before adhesive stamps were used to
indicate prepayment in themselves; but it had no government sanction,
and has not yet been shown to have even the rank of a "semi-official
issue."

Although following closely upon the heels of the United States in
issuing postage stamps, less than four years having intervened, Canada
was not so eager to introduce the stamped envelope, for she waited over
six years before following the example of her big neighbor. The first
reference to the innovation is found in the Postmaster General's Report
for 30th September, 1859 (although the Report is actually dated 20th
February, 1860), and reads as follows:--

    For the promotion of public convenience by facilitating the
    prepayment of letters, Stamped Envelopes bearing Medallion Stamps of
    the postage value of 5c. and of 10c. respectively have been procured
    and issued for sale to the public, at an advance of 1/2 a cent on
    the value of each stamp, to cover the cost of the envelope, and of
    engraving the stamp, &c.

The precise date of issue does not seem to be on record, but the year
1860 is always given. From the stamp accounts, quoted below, we find the
quantity issued for sale is qualified by the remark "during 8 months to
Sept. 30", which would indicate that the envelopes were issued about the
1st February, 1860; and we have therefore assigned this date to them
until a more authoritative one is produced.

The next reference to the envelopes, including the accounts, appears in
the Report for the year ending 30th September, 1860, as follows:--

      STAMPED ENVELOPES.
                                                     5c.     10c.    Value
      Received from Mfrs.                          200,000 100,000 21,500.00
      Issued for sale during 8 months to Sept. 30, 136,177  45,651 12,283.09
                                                   ------- ------- ---------
      Remaining,                                    63,823  54,349  9,216.91

    The number of Stamped Envelopes, actually used by the public, has
    been but small, as a considerable proportion of those issued remain
    in the hands of Postmasters.

The cost of manufacture of the stamped envelopes was included, as we
have already seen,[205] in the payments made to the American Bank Note
Co. for stamps, etc., in 1860, so that they were obtained from that
firm. They were not manufactured by them, however, but by George F.
Nesbitt & Co. of New York, who at that time held the contract for
supplying the United States Government with stamped envelopes. The
similarity of the stamped impression, both in size and general
arrangement, to the United States envelope dies of 1860 will be noted,
and the paper used for the envelopes will be found to be similar, even
to the watermark, while the two "knives" used for cutting the envelope
blanks will be found to agree with numbers 2 and 11 of the Tiffany,
Bogert and Rechert catalog. It was evidently a case of the Bank Note Co.
subletting the contract to Nesbitt, who was regularly in the business.

[205] See page 90.

Nothing further appears in the Reports in regard to the stamped
envelopes, except the tables of statistics, until the Report of 30th
June, 1864, which says:--"In order to promote the use of the Stamped
Envelopes a reduction in the price to the public was made from 1st
October, 1864, from $5.50 per 100 for the five cent and $10.50 per 100
for the ten cent envelopes, to $5.30 and $10.30 per 100 respectively."
But even this bait did not attract, for the next year's Report
remarks:--"The recent reduction in the price of stamped envelopes has
not led to any material increase in the demand." For two years longer
the accounts are given, but with the first Report of the Dominion of
Canada, for the year ending 30th June, 1868, they disappear, the
envelopes evidently having been given up as a bad investment at the
close of the accounts of the Province of Canada, when it was merged into
the Dominion.

We have already quoted the figures for the first supplies received and
the quantities first issued to postmasters. It may be well to give the
entire record for its historical value:--

                                      5 cent.  10 cent.
  Balance on hand, 30th Sept. 1860,    63,823    54,349
  Returned by Post Masters, unsold,     1,529     1,905
                                       ------    ------
                                       65,352    56,254
  Issued for sale during year,         20,700       806
                                       ------    ------
  Balance on hand, 30th Sept. 1861,    44,652    55,448
  Returned by Post Masters, unsold,       251       314
                                       ------    ------
                                       44,903    55,762
  Issued for sale during year,          9,595       844
                                       ------    ------
  Balance on hand, 30th Sept. 1862,    35,308    54,918
  Returned by Post Masters, unsold,                   4
                                       ------    ------
                                       35,308    54,922
  Issued for sale during year,         15,200       900
                                       ------    ------
  Balance on hand, 30th Sept. 1863,    20,108    54,022
  Returned by Post Masters, unsold,     5,000     2,997
                                       ------    ------
                                       25,108    57,019
  Issued during 9 months,              14,800       850
                                       ------    ------
  Balance on hand, 30th June, 1864,    10,308    56,169
  Returned by Post Masters, unsold,     6,444     5,632
  Received from manufacturers,         25,000
                                       ------    ------
                                       41,752    61,801
  Issued for sale during year,         23,583     5,698

  Balance on hand 30th June, 1865,     18,169    56,103
  Returned by Post Masters, unsold,       382       225
                                       ------    ------
                                       18,551    56,328
  Issued to 30th June, 1866,           16,225       625
                                       ------    ------
  Balance 30th June, 1866,              2,326    55,703
  Returned by Post Masters, unsold,                 193
                                       ------    ------
                                        2,326    55,896
  Deduct envelopes short received,         10
                                       ------    ------
                                        2,316    55,896
  Issued to 30th. June, 1867,           2,270       172
                                       ------    ------
  Balance 30th. June, 1867,                46    55,724



These figures are the last that appear concerning the first issue of
envelopes, the next Report, as already stated, having no mention of them
at all. It was very probably because there were not enough to supply the
added Provinces of the Dominion, in the case of the 5 cent envelopes,
and principally because they did not seem to be popular enough to
warrant continuing their use that the envelopes did not remain in issue
under the Dominion Government.

An inspection of the above table shows that the 5 cent envelopes were
apparently issued at an average rate of perhaps 15,000 a year, while 800
only of the 10 cent were ordinarily put forth. This might indicate a
fair consumption of the lower value by the public, particularly as the
total receipt from the manufacturers was 225,000 and but 46 remainders
are given at the close of the account. But it must be remembered that
the table gives the quantities "issued to postmasters" and not the sales
to the public by the postmasters. We know the public did not take
particularly to the use of the envelopes, so that there were doubtless
large quantities of them in postmaster's hands when their sale was
discontinued. These would naturally be returned to the Department and
destroyed, which would of course materially reduce the quantity issued
as taken from the tables. Unfortunately these latter figures have not
been obtainable; but it is certain from the rarity of used copies that
nothing like 224,954 of the 5 cent and 44,276 of the 10 cent envelopes
could have been sold to the public. We are able to illustrate an entire
used copy of each value as Numbers 130 and 131 on Plate XIV.

[Illustration]

As already stated, the envelope stamps were very similar in size and
style to the United States envelope dies of 1860. The inscription CANADA
POSTAGE is in the frame above the head and the value below, reversing
the United States arrangement, and there are no stars separating the
legends. The embossed head of Queen Victoria was evidently copied from
the profile used on the 1 cent stamp of 1859. The 5 cent stamp is
printed in vermilion and the 10 cent in dark brown. There was but one
size of envelope, 5-1/2 × 3-1/4 inches (140 × 83 mm.), and but one
quality of paper for the first order--a white laid paper with a slightly
yellowish tone, watermarked with the letters Ca over POD (Canada Post
Office Department) which appears about twice in each envelope. The paper
was cut so that the laid lines run diagonally, and the knife used was
that numbered 2 in the Tiffany, Bogert and Rechert catalog of United
States envelopes, with rounded flap and yellowish gum, extending nearly
the length of the flap.

In the table given it will be noticed that 25,000 more 5 cent envelopes
were received from the manufacturers in 1865. These latter were on a
white paper of similar quality with a slightly bluish tone, and a
slightly different knife had been used in cutting the blanks, which
corresponds to that numbered 11 in the catalog quoted. The difference
consists mainly in a more pointed flap than the first knife.

The _London Philatelist_ for December, 1896, contained the following
startling announcement under the head of CANADA:[206]--

    Mr. L. Gibb, of Montreal, kindly submitted to his fellow members of
    the London Philatelic Society, at a recent meeting, a curious
    variety among the stamps of the Colony he resides in. The specimen
    in question was the 10 c. envelope of 1860 impressed in vermilion,
    instead of its normal colour--brown, and being presumably printed in
    error in the color of the 5c. The stamp was unfortunately cut round,
    but was on the diagonally laid paper usual to the Issue, duly
    postmarked, and, in the opinion of the members present, had every
    appearance of authenticity, although surprise was expressed that so
    marked a variety should never have been noted before.

[206] =London Philatelist=, V: 345.

Nothing further has apparently been learned about it since, but in the
face of the above statements and opinions it seems necessary to record
it.

Both values were reprinted[207] by the Nesbitt Company in 1868 on pieces
of white wove paper and also vertically laid buff paper, the 5 cent
copying the color of the original, but the 10 cent being in a dark red
brown instead of black brown. They were also printed in the same colors
on entire envelopes of white and buff laid paper with the POD over US
watermark of the regular United States stationery. These were a size
smaller than the regular Canadian envelopes, being 137×77 mm. A further
variety is noted in the _Catalogue for Advanced Collectors_,[208] as
follows:--"There is also a second type of the 5c to be found on the same
papers as above reprints which was probably struck off in the same year.
The stamp is a trifle larger and the head smaller than on the accepted
die; this is probably a die prepared by Nesbitt but refused by the
Canadian Government."

[207] =American Journal of Philately=, 2nd Series, III: 165.

[208] =Ibid.=

The Dominion Government, which discarded the Provincial stamped
envelopes from the beginning, did not essay anything in that line for
nearly ten years. Finally the following notice was sent out:--

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA

                          OTTAWA, 6th October, 1877.

        STAMPED ENVELOPES.

    1. Letter envelopes bearing an impressed postage stamp of one cent,
    and three cents respectively, are ready for issue to Postmasters and
    through their agency to Stamp Vendors for sale to the public.

    2. These envelopes when issued to Postmasters will be charged to
    them, and will have to be accounted for by them at the following
    rates:

      One cent envelopes,              $1.30
      Three cent  do      No. 1 size,   3.30
          do      do      No. 2 size,   3.35

    3. The three-cent envelopes are of two sizes, No. 2 being larger
    than No. 1 and Postmasters, when asking at any time for a supply,
    will be careful to state how many of each size they want.

    4. Postmasters and Stamp Vendors will be required to sell these
    envelopes at the above rates per hundred to the public, and when a
    request is made for a single envelope, or for any number less than a
    hundred, the charge for the same must be made by the Postmaster or
    Stamp Vendor, as near the exact proportionate value, as compared
    with the above rates per hundred, as the fraction will permit
    without loss to the Postmaster or Stamp Vendor, thus ten of the
    three-cent envelopes, No. 1 size, should be sold for thirty-three
    cents, five for seventeen cents, and two for seven cents.

    5. When used these envelopes will represent the pre-payment of
    postage to the amount of the stamp impressed thereon, and when used
    for letters weighing more than 1/2 an oz., or on which the
    pre-payment is required of more than is represented by the impressed
    stamp, the difference may be affixed by ordinary postage stamps.

    6. The impressed stamp must be carefully cancelled by Postmasters
    when the envelopes are posted.

    7. An impressed stamp cut from an envelope cannot be used for
    pre-payment of postage in any shape, and when detached from the
    envelope on which it was impressed, it loses all value as a postage
    stamp.

    8. In the accounts rendered by Postmasters, the amounts of stamped
    envelopes received from the Department and sold to the public or to
    Vendors, are to be added to the postage stamp items.

    * * * * *

                                         L. S. HUNTINGTON,
                                            _Postmaster General._
  */

  /#
  _Memo._--Stamped Envelopes are to be sold to the public at the following
  prices by Postmasters and Stamp Vendors:--
  #/

                              Per
                            Hundred.   Per Ten.    For Single Envelopes.

  1 Cent Envelopes             $1.30   13 cents  2 cents, or 3 cents for 2
  3  do     do    No. 1 size   $3.30   33 cents  4 cents, or 7 cents for 2
     do     do    No. 2 size   $3.35   34 cents  4 cents, or 7 cents for 2

Curiously enough no mention is made in the Postmaster General's Report
of either the issue of the stamped envelopes or their reception by the
public, such as was the case with their predecessors in 1860. We find
from the stamp accounts, however, that the first supplies received from
the manufactures were 554,250 of the 1 cent; 1,257,000 of the 3 cent
size 1; and 564,250 of the 3 cent size 2. Further supplies of the 1 cent
were not needed until two years later, of the 3 cent size 1 until three
years later, and of the 3 cent size 2 until four years later, so it is
evident that no great popular demand sprang up for them.

The 1 cent envelope, which was intended for the local or "drop letter"
rate, was issued in numbers averaging about 150,000 a year up to 1889,
when the Post Office Act of that year, which increased the limit of
weight of the single rate letter from 1/2 to 1 ounce and fixed the drop
letter rate at 2 cents per ounce for cities having a free delivery
service,[209] caused a falling off in the issue to 62,000 in the 1890
Report, and this gradually diminished to about 25,000 per annum in the
Report for 1897, when the stamp under discussion was superseded by a new
design.

[209] See page 136.

The 3 cent envelopes, being the regular letter rate, had a larger use;
nevertheless the issue of the No. 1 size fell gradually from some
250,000 in 1879 to about 50,000 in 1897. The No. 2 size proved more
popular, though the demand was somewhat erratic. The issue went from
78,000 in 1879 to 116,000 in 1884; then averaged about 85,000 for three
years; next averaged about 120,000 for four years; and finally returned
to the 85,000 mark for the next six years, when a new issue took its
place.

The design of these envelope stamps is in all respects similar to the
early type, but they are about half again as large. The embossed head
of the Queen is copied from the profile on the "large" cent stamps of
1868 and is tilted forward rather awkwardly in the frame. The 3 cent is
printed in bright red varying to rose, but the 1 cent instead of
following the yellow color of the adhesive is printed in blue, which
varies from quite pale to very dark. The envelopes were manufactured by
the British American Bank Note Co. from white laid unwatermarked paper,
and have a pointed flap with gum extending nearly the whole length. The
smaller sized envelope was also issued with the flap rounded into a
tongue, but the larger sized envelope is not known in this form. These
"tongued flap" envelopes were apparently an early variety, as the
_Philatelic Monthly_ records the 3 cent in its issue for April, 1878.
The 1 cent, however, does not seem to have been noted until the June,
1884 issue of _Le Timbre-Poste_.

[Illustration]

The earlier printings of the envelopes were upon a laid paper that had
the "cross vergures", or single laid lines that regularly cross the
general run, at a spacing of 18 mm. from each other. About 1888 another
paper came into use which had these "cross vergures" spaced 24 mm.
apart, and in some cases 27 mm. The two papers can be told at a glance
as they varied in tone, the latter variety having a slight cream tint
and the former being a pure white. These two varieties are of course
more noticeable in the entire envelope than in cut squares, and have
been listed as "rosy white" and "bluish white" papers, but we feel
unable to distinguish them thus as the terms seem wholly inapplicable.

The 1 cent envelope was chronicled in ultramarine in April, 1897, of
course on the small sized envelope and the cream toned laid paper.[210]

[210] =Monthly Journal=, VII: 175.

In May, 1896, the _Philatelic Record_ stated[211] that "Our publishers
have the envelope of the 3 cents red value with stamp roughly
lithographed instead of being embossed. Mr. J. B. Lewis, of Ottawa, says
only 110 were printed." This was a somewhat startling statement, and
Major Evans thus comments on it:[212]--

    There have been reports of late, in various quarters, of a certain
    number of the 3c. envelopes, of the current type, having had the
    stamp impressed upon them by lithography instead of in the usual
    manner.

    The story goes that the embossing die was lost, or mislaid, that a
    small supply of envelopes was wanted immediately by a business firm,
    and that a few hundreds were lithographed to fill this demand. The
    whole story sounds somewhat doubtful, to any one who knows how
    stamped envelopes are produced, but until quite recently we had not
    seen a specimen of the supposed lithographed envelopes, and
    therefore would not express any opinion upon them. A copy has lately
    been sent to our publishers, and we find it to be practically
    identical, as far as _almost_ entire absence of embossing is
    concerned, with some specimens which we obtained in Canada a few
    years ago; the embossing, in the copy shown us, is not absolutely
    invisible, there being slight traces of it about the head, and
    especially the chignon; and if any envelopes have been lithographed,
    which we greatly doubt, this is not one of them.

[211] =Philatelic Record=, XVIII: 135.

[212] =Monthly Journal=, VI: 188.

The lithographing of a comparatively few envelopes by a country like
Canada appears somewhat incredulous on the face of it, and even more so
does the "loss" or "misplacing" of the embossing die; the true
explanation of the occurrence is doubtless found in the use of a much
worn die, or more likely a defective "counter-die" or "bed-plate" which
backs the paper.

In the issue for January 1895, the _American Journal of Philately_ had
this statement:--"Mr. G. A. Lowe informs us that the 3c envelope exists
on wove paper and was issued in 1891, probably in error." Referring to
this, the _Monthly Journal_ for May 1895, states:--

    Mr. King tells us that he found some packets of this variety in the
    Post-office at Halifax, and that he thinks that they may be a new
    edition, on a better paper than the last. He is not certain yet
    about this, as the great majority of the stock consisted of the
    _laid_ paper envelopes, and therefore the use of the wove may have
    been unintentional or temporary.

Again in the August 1895 issue, the last quoted paper says:--

    In further reference to the 3c envelopes on _wove_ paper, Mr. King
    sends us replies which he received from the P. O. Department to his
    enquiries on the subject. The replies are vague, if not evasive, but
    show plainly that no intentional change was made in the paper used;
    they seemed to indicate, however, that the contractors are not
    restricted to a particular nature of paper, so long as the envelopes
    supplied are of sufficiently good quality.



The references to Mr. King in 1895 seem to show that he discovered the
envelopes at about that time, so if the first statement about their
appearing in 1891 is correct there must have been two lots issued at two
different periods. That they were errors seems to admit of no doubt, as
the usual paper for these envelopes was of the laid variety. They were
only found in the large size envelope, known officially as No. 2.

In the issue for September 1899, the _American Journal of Philately_
noted two unusual varieties:--

    Mr. Charles A. Benedict of Brantford has sent us samples of two
    envelopes with stamp of the 1877 type, which have not as yet been
    chronicled and which should probably be classed as printed-to-order
    envelopes. They are said to be used by a certain firm in Brantford
    for circulars and letters, and are printed on large manila amber
    envelopes.

The size of the envelopes is given as 265×113 mm., and both the 1 cent
and 3 cent stamps were impressed upon them. No further information seems
to have been obtained concerning these curiosities, which must have been
issued previous to the termination of the contract with the British
American Bank Note Co. in 1897.

Although the rate on "drop letters" at free delivery offices was fixed
at 2 cents per ounce by the Post Office Act of 1889, in place of the
previous 1 cent per half ounce, it did not occur that a 2 cent envelope
might be desirable until about five years later. In the Postmaster
General's Report of 30th June, 1894, we read:--"It is proposed to issue
for use for drop letters, that is for letters passing within the limits
of a free delivery in cities, a 2 cent envelope which will no doubt be
found a convenience to the public."

In the next year's Report we find:--"The 2 cent envelopes, used mainly
for drop letters, that is, for letters passing within the limits of a
free delivery in cities, and referred to in the report for last year,
have been issued during the year. Judging from the demand made for these
envelopes already, they are likely to prove a convenience to the
public."

The new denomination was issued on the 14th June, 1895,[213] on the
larger sized envelope, the paper being the cream toned laid. It is a
rather bizarre production, being circular in form with a medallion of
the Queen's head in the center, and a beaver perched outside the design
at the top, while the sides are broken by maple leaves. The inscriptions
are in colored letters, and the numeral of value appears for the only
time on a Canadian envelope stamp. In spite of the "demand" for these
envelopes, a total supply of 94,970 received from the manufacturers was
found sufficient to last until the new type was issued from the
Government Printing Bureau in 1899, after the contract with the British
American Bank Note Co. had expired.

[213] =American Journal of Philately=, 2nd Series, VIII: 365.

[Illustration]

The Postmaster General's Report for 30th June, 1898, says:--

    New stamped envelopes also came into use, and the price thereof
    _above the face value_ as compared with the old envelopes of the
    same size, was reduced by 10 cents per 100, a reduction of 33-1/3 %.
    A further concession given the public was that a blank form of
    request (to return letter if not delivered within the specified
    time) is printed without extra charge on the envelope, so that at
    the option of the purchaser stamped envelopes with or without this
    form of request may be obtained. Whilst the three denominations of
    stamped envelopes (1 cent, 2 cents and 3 cents) are retained, it was
    deemed advisable to have only one size instead of two as was the
    case with the old envelopes,--the small size of the latter (known as
    No. 1) being discontinued because of the tendency on the part of the
    mercantile community to use envelopes of the larger size (known
    officially as No. 2) or what in the commercial world is classed as
    No. 7. The latter is now the uniform size of the new stamped
    envelopes.

The stamped envelopes referred to at the beginning of the above
quotation were the 3 cent envelopes, the first value to appear in a new
design, and the price, as stated, was reduced from the former rate of
$3.30 per hundred to $3.20 per hundred. But this apparently applied only
to the new style, for the old style envelopes returned to the department
as "unfit for use" in 1898, 1899 and 1900 were credited at the old
rates, while the new style envelopes in the same condition were credited
at the new rates in these same years. The Report for 1899 states that
the old style envelopes in their two sizes were discontinued on 31st
March, 1898.

The new stamp, while perhaps not as bizarre as the 2 cent of 1895, was
yet a conspicuously ugly production by reason of the profile portrait of
Queen Victoria that was employed. The die was engraved by Messrs. De La
Rue & Co., of London, and outside of the embossed head is a very neat
design of engine turned work, with POSTAGE in small white letters above
the inner oval and THREE CENTS beneath. The word CANADA was added,
apparently as an afterthought, in colored letters _outside_ the design
at the top of the stamp, where it breaks the colored line surrounding
the oval! The impression is in a bright red on a white wove paper of a
slightly cream tone, and the flap is rounded, with gum extending its
full length. The return request referred to in the Report is printed in
black in the upper left hand corner and reads:--

[Illustration]

    If not called for in ten days return to....

It seems that the American Bank Note Co., upon taking the contract for
supplying the Canadian stamps in 1897, asked to be excused from printing
the stamped envelopes as well, because such a small number were used.
This work was therefore given to the Government Printing Bureau at
Ottawa,[214] which accounts for the dies having been furnished by
Messrs. De La Rue & Co. The stamp accounts give the number of 3 cent
envelopes furnished in the new type as 110,000 in 1898 and 70,000 in
1899, a total of 180,000; but the reduction of the domestic letter rate
from 3 cents to 2 cents on the 1st January, 1899, made the 3 cent
envelope useless, and large quantities were surcharged with the new
rate, so that it is impossible to tell what proportion of the amount
given is now represented by each variety. If catalog pricing is any
criterion, the unsurcharged issue of the envelope should be perhaps
80,000.

[214] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XI: 308.

The Report for 1899 states:--

    As a result of the reduction in the Domestic Letter rate of postage,
    the issue of the 3c. letter card, 3c. stamped envelope and 3c.
    postage stamp has been discontinued, unused quantities of these,
    however, continuing available for postage purposes, or exchangeable
    at any post office for their equivalent in postage stamps of other
    denominations.

The Report does not give the date of issue of the 3 cent stamped
envelope, but it was chronicled in _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News_ for May
5, 1898, and therefore was probably issued sometime in April. The date
of discontinuance is given, however, as December, 1898, so that it had a
life, unsurcharged, of only about nine months.

[Illustration]

But meanwhile the 1 cent envelope was being prepared, and evidently
because of the dissatisfaction expressed over the embossed head of the
Queen on the 3 cent value, the new envelope appeared with the familiar
youthful profile similar to that used on the British envelope dies for
so many years. This improved the appearance of the stamp, which
otherwise corresponded in design with the 3 cent and was likewise
engraved by Messrs. De La Rue & Co. It was printed in a dark green on
paper like that of the 3 cent value, and in the same size and cut of
envelope. The new type was issued on July 22, 1898, according to the
1899 Report, and was sold at $1.20 per hundred. The distribution of the
old style 1 cent envelopes was discontinued in the same month, according
to the stamp accounts.

Following the 1 cent envelope came the 2 cent, being identical in every
respect save the expressed value and color, and emanating from the same
source as its two predecessors. The Report of 1899 gives the date of
issue of this envelope as the 2nd January, 1899, and, as the
corresponding value in the adhesive set was a deep violet, we should
expect the envelope stamp to follow suit. This it did, but was almost
immediately followed by an issue in bright red, because of the reduction
of the domestic letter rate from 3 cents to 2 cents. It will be
remembered that when Imperial Penny Postage was inaugurated on December
25, 1898, it was almost immediately announced that the internal postage
in Canada would be reduced to the 2 cent rate on and from the 1st
January, 1899. As the Postal Union requirements called for carmine as
the color of the stamp for the domestic letter rate, the change from
violet was necessary in the Canadian 2 cent stamp, but owing to the
large stock of the violet stamps on hand and the surcharging of the 3
cent stamps down to 2 cent value, the change in color from violet to
carmine did not take place in the adhesives for some eight months. Not
so with the envelopes; the new 2 cent ones were about to be issued and
had been printed to the amount of 10,000 in dark violet. But with the
change in rates and therefore in color requirements, orders were given
to print further supplies of the 2 cent envelope in red, and the latter
color therefore appeared about a week after the violet stamp.

We have gone thus into detail in the matter in order to make it evident
why the violet stamp was so short lived, and why the change was made.
This seems necessary because such a furor was created at the time, when
it became known that the issue of violet envelopes was small, and
speculation ran high; the Government was accused of speculating in them
and of putting them in the hands of favored ones, and finally, as in the
case of the alleged speculation in the Jubilee stamps, the matter came
up in Parliament. The following is an extract from the official report
of the debates in the House of Commons at Ottawa:[215]--

  ISSUE OF STAMPED ENVELOPES.

    Mr. Hughes asked: 1. When will the present 2 cent purple stamped
    envelope cease to be issued, and the red issued in its place? 2. How
    many 2 cent purple envelopes were issued, and how many distributed?
    At what offices were they distributed, how many at each office? Are
    there any more to be distributed, and if so, where will they be
    distributed? 3. Is it the intention of the Government to issue an
    entire new set of stamped envelopes to replace those at present in
    use? If so, when? * * *

    The Postmaster-General (Mr. Mulock): The issue of 2 cent
    purple-stamp envelopes ceased when the supply thereof in the
    department became exhausted, the last issue having been made on the
    7th January, 1899. The subsequent issue of 2-cent stamped envelopes
    was in red, in accordance with the recommendation of the Postal
    Convention. *

    * * The schedule hereto annexed shows the names of the post offices
    supplied with such purple-stamp envelopes and the respective
    quantities so supplied them.

    List of Post Offices to which 2c. purple envelopes were issued, and
    the quantity in each case.

         Post Office.     Quantity.
      Belleville, Ont.          500
      St. Catherine's, Ont.     500
      Toronto, Ont.            2000
      Corinth, Ont.             100
      Haliburton, Ont.          100
      Mount Albert, Ont.        100
      Tamworth, Ont.            500
      Hagersville, Ont.         100
      Hamilton, Ont.            500
      Loring, Ont.              100
      Newton, Ont.              100
      Ottawa, Ont.              700
      St. Casimir, Que.         100
      Sherbrooke, Que.          500
      Montreal, Que.           1000
      Rigaud, Que.              100
      Maitland, N. S.           100
      Truro, N. S.              100
      Yarmouth, N. S.           100
      Andover, N. B.            200
      Centreville, N. B.        100
      Shoal Lake, Man.          100
      Winnipeg, Man.           2000
      New Westminster, B. C.    100
      Greenwood, B. C.          200

[215] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XIII: 285.

Further questioning by the same gentleman, in an effort to show that
"inside" information had been given concerning the remainder of the 2
cent green envelopes at Toronto and the limited issue of the so-called
"purple" ones, in order that favored parties might "corner" them,
resulted in nothing definite except that in replying to the question
"Was the issue of the 2c. purple stamped envelopes done by mistake?" the
Postmaster-General said: "There was no mistake whatever made in the
issue of said envelopes, but, on the contrary, the issue took place in
the ordinary course of business, and was made on requisitions in the
usual way, coming from postmasters." Considering the date of their
issue, the cause of the change in color and the above reply of the
Postmaster-General, in connection with an examination of the table of
distribution of the 2c. violet envelopes, we must say that it seems
clear that the whole business, as far as the Department was concerned,
was legitimate and straightforward, and the aspersions cast upon the
issue of this envelope were only animated by a spirit of jealousy or
revenge on the part of those who unfortunately did not happen to get
any, whether "tipped off" by friends in or out of the post-office, or
not.

The 2 cent envelope in red may have been issued on the 8th January,
1899, or within a day or two of that date, and corresponds of course
with the one in violet and the 1 cent envelope in all respects. It was
sold at $2.20 per hundred.

We have already spoken of the 3 cent envelope, issued in April, 1898, as
having been surcharged. This was due, of course, to the same reduction
in the domestic rate of postage that operated to change the 2 cent
envelope from violet to red, and which also rendered the 3 cent envelope
practically useless. In order to utilize the stock of the latter
envelopes, therefore, the Department decided on surcharging them down to
a 2 cent value. This was done sometime during the week of 6-11 February,
1899, and we can do no better than quote the letter of a Canadian
correspondent in the _Weekly Philatelic Era_[216] for details concerning
it.

[216] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XIII: 204.

  OTTAWA, 17th Feb'y, 1899.

    Our weekly sensation was duly on tap last week, in the shape of
    surcharges, Canada's first offence, but an aggravated case. The Post
    Office Department announced that any holders of 3c. envelopes or
    letter cards might send them in to the postage stamp branch, and
    have them surcharged, and re-issued as 2c. emissions, the difference
    in value being made good by an additional supply of surcharged
    stationery or in some other equivalent stamps.

    It was not anticipated that a very large supply of 3c. stationery
    was on hand, and consequently the arrangements for surcharging are
    of the most primitive description. Stamps of soft rubber bearing the
    figures 2c. are provided, and the surcharge is put on by hand, the
    stamps being inked on black pads. The consequence is that the work
    is ill done, and we have as many varieties of surcharge as there are
    impressions, with quantities[217] of ink varying from a black blue
    to a light grey. I have seen one envelope with the surcharge on
    sidewise reading from bottom to top.

    Independently of the variations in printing, there are two types of
    surcharge. In the first, which I shall christen the "capital
    surcharge", the figure 2 is 10-1/2 mm. high by 8 wide, the heavy
    parts of the figure being 2 mm. thick, the thin parts 3/4 mm. The C
    is a capital letter 4-1/2 × 3-1/2 mm. There was only one stamp of
    this type, and when it had been in use for two or three days the
    difference in type was noticed and the stamp was destroyed. Any
    stationery surcharged with it will be exceedingly rare.

    The other type, which I suggest should be called the "lower case
    surcharge", has a similar figure 2 but the C is a heavy face lower
    case letter 4 × 3-1/2 mm. It is possible that there may be varieties
    of this type, as there are several stamps in use, but the printing
    is so badly done, and the stamps so subject to distortion by
    pressure, that one cannot depend on either inspection or
    measurement, a change in pressure in printing altering the
    appearance of the surcharge very materially.

[217] Query: "qualities"?

[Illustration]

In the same issue of the _Era_ appeared further notes from another
correspondent. In regard to the then current 3 cent envelopes (the
so-called "Bureau print") he says:--"The P. O. Department has surcharged
the stock on hand, a few thousand. * * * Some of the old British
American Bank Note 3c envelopes were also surcharged, but it is
understood that there were very few of them on hand,--less than a
thousand."

The opportunity given the public, however, to have 3 cent envelopes in
their possession surcharged, as well as the stock held by postmasters,
which was returned to a considerable extent (15,848 of the 3c. 1898
returned 1899-1901; 6,788 of the 3c. No. 1, 1877, returned 1899-1900;
and 3,081 of the 3c. No. 2, 1877, returned 1899) and doubtless reissued
in surcharged condition, has made these provisional envelopes fairly
common. No details of the numbers so treated are available, but if the
catalogue value is any criterion the 3 cent of 1898 surcharged is half
again as common as the unsurcharged variety, or, as before remarked,
the numbers issued may be divided up roughly as perhaps 100,000 of the
former to 80,000 of the latter. Of the old envelopes of 1877, both sizes
of which are found surcharged, it is impossible to hazard any guesses,
save that a considerable number--several thousands of each size at
least--must have been operated upon to render them as reasonable in
catalogue price as we find them.

The surcharge in its first type, as described in the quotation given,
with the capital C, has only been found on the 3 cent envelope of 1898,
which was the one in the reserve stock of the Department when the
reduction in postage took effect; but the second type, with the "lower
case" C is found not only on this envelope but also on both sizes of the
old "Burland & Co." envelopes of the 1877 issue.

It will be remembered that it took considerably more than two years
after the death of Queen Victoria before the change to King's head
adhesives was made in Canada. It took even longer for the change in the
envelope dies, as the first one to appear, the 2 cent, was not issued
until the beginning of 1905. It was thus described in _Mekeel's Weekly
Stamp News_:[218]--

    Mr. Wm. P. Anderson writes that the 2c Canada envelope, Queen's
    Head, is now obsolete, and that a new issue bearing the King's Head
    was first sent out Jan. 12. It is very similar to the existing
    type--same colour, shape and size and same description of paper and
    size of envelope. The bust of the King, a profile to the left, is
    larger, filling more of the central oval than did that of the young
    Queen. It is a very beautifully cut piece of embossing, the work of
    Wyon, the celebrated London die sinker. The engine turned border is
    not, Mr. Anderson thinks, so neat as that on the old stamp, from
    which it differs in detail. The word Canada has been removed from
    outside the frame to the upper label, which now reads Canada
    Postage. This and the value, two cents, on a label below the bust,
    are in white letters on a ground of solid colour. The lettering is
    very thin, which is the only blemish in a very neat and effective
    design.

[218] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XIX: 22.

[Illustration]

The size of the envelope was not exactly the same as the previous issue,
for it measures 152 × 90 mm., about 4 mm. longer than before and 3 mm.
wider, the rough measurements being 6 × 3-5/8 inches. The paper is a
very white wove variety, and the color of the impression is in carmine.

The 1 cent envelope did not appear until about two months later, the
exact date not being available, but being very close to the 1st March,
1905. It is in all respects the same as the 2 cent envelope except that
it is printed in a deep green.

The use of stamped envelopes in Canada, though never so popular as in
the United States, yet seems to be largely on the increase in the last
twelve years, the 1 cent having risen in number from 85,500 in 1899 to
1,360,100 in 1910, and the 2 cent from 262,000 to 2,928,400 during the
same period.



CHAPTER XXII

THE NEWSPAPER WRAPPERS


In the Postmaster General's Report for the 30th June, 1875, we find the
following:--"Post bands bearing an impressed stamp of one cent each have
been issued for sale to the public, at the rate of four for five cents,
to be used in putting up newspapers and such other transmissions
requiring to be prepaid one cent, for which they may be found
convenient."

[Illustration]

The issue took place in May, 1875, and consisted of a wrapper of light
buff wove paper measuring 9-1/2 inches in height by 5 inches in width
(235 × 127 mm.), with the stamp impressed at the right side, about 2-1/2
inches from the top. The sheet is cut square and gummed along the top on
the back side. The stamp is typographed, and consists of an upright oval
containing the head of Queen Victoria copied from that on the adhesive
stamps, CANADA POSTAGE above, ONE CENT below, and the figure 1 in a
circle at each side. In this first type of the wrapper stamp these
circles containing the numerals are surrounded by foliations of acanthus
pattern, and each has a little quatrefoil ornament in the label beneath
it. There is also a thin, colored, wavy line which follows the border of
the inner oval, giving a scalloped effect, and serves as the
distinguishing feature of the first type. The impression is in dark
blue. The stamp accounts give the receipts from the manufacturers as
554,000 during 1875, and 918,000 during 1876. No further supplies were
received until 1879 so these figures doubtless represent the total
supply printed on the buff paper, as the small supply received in 1879
is probably otherwise accounted for.[219]

[219] See page 270.

In its issue for June 1, 1878, the _Philatelic Monthly_ states that "We
have received specimens of the newspaper wrappers with the stamp on the
left and half way from the top." M. Moens lists it in his catalogue,
where he gives the dimensions as 290 × 165 mm., or about 11-1/2 × 6-1/2
inches. This is somewhat larger than the previous size and we have been
unable to confirm it by a specimen, but the accuracy of M. Moens'
observations is seldom to be questioned. The London Society's work
states that this wrapper is unknown to the members of the Society, but a
cancelled copy, used by a business firm, is recorded in the _Monthly
Journal_ in 1892.[220] Evidently this variety was an error in the
cutting of the sheet.

[220] =Monthly Journal=, III: 3.

In the _Philatelic Record_ for December, 1881,[221] a change is noted in
the wrapper itself, the paper being described as white instead of buff;
but in Moens' catalogue it is listed as "very pale buff" and in fact is
what we might call "cream toned", being more correctly described later
in the _Philatelic Record_ as "almost white".[222] The wrapper was also
cut to a new size, 11 × 5 inches or 280 × 127 mm. It is very probable
that this wrapper comes from the lot of 197,000 received according to
the stamp accounts for 1880--the first since 1876, barring the small lot
in 1879.[223]

[221] =Philatelic Record=, III: 205; corrected, III: 227.

[222] =ibid=., IV: 142.

[223] See page 270.

[Illustration]

Again, in its issue for June 1, 1882, the _Philatelic Monthly_
illustrates a new variety in the stamp for the wrapper, stating that the
color is light blue. The distinguishing features of the new die are the
removal of the wavy line from the inner border of the oval, the removal
of the foliations from around the circles enclosing the numerals, and
the replacing of the little quatrefoil ornament beneath these circles by
an inverted triangular ornament. This wrapper was presumably of the
usual light buff tint as no mention is made of its color; but in the
issue of the same paper for October 1, 1882, it is recorded that "We
have received specimens of the newspaper wrapper, stamp of latest type,
on yellow-buff paper." The same wrapper is chronicled in the _Philatelic
Record_ which was issued the latter part of September as upon
"straw-colored wove paper," so it had doubtless appeared as early as
August, 1882. The size was the same as the last wrapper, 11 × 5 inches.

From 1882 on the wrappers have been issued in numbers approaching half a
million per year, and as no note is made in the stamp accounts even of
changes in design, it is of course impossible to estimate the quantities
printed or issued of any one variety.

In an article in the _Dominion Philatelist_ upon the postal stationery
of Canada,[224] the "yellow paper" wrapper is given as the first issued,
in 1882, and the date 1883 is given the ordinary "pale buff" paper. The
chronicles we have quoted, however, show that both were doubtless issued
in 1882 and that the straw colored paper was not the first. The wrapper
also appears on a cream paper, and the year of issue in the article
quoted is given as 1885, but we have been unable to find any
contemporary chronicle to confirm this.

[224] =Dominion Philatelist=, V: 130.

[Illustration]

Once again, in 1887, we find a change in the impressed stamp. This time
the first design is reverted to, but with slight modifications which
readily distinguished the new type; these are the absence of the wavy
line running around the border of the inner oval, and the coarser
shading on the face and neck--dotted in the first type and composed of
lines in this third type. The new variety seems to have been chronicled
first in the _Philatelic Monthly_ for June 1, 1887, but nothing is said
about the color of the wrapper. The article in the _Dominion
Philatelist_, however, gives it as thin white paper with a variety in
"very thin tough white paper, fine quality." The same article under date
of 1888 gives this wrapper in cream toned paper of both thick and thin
quality, and in manila paper. The size of all these wrappers was the
usual one of 11 × 5 inches.

[Illustration]

Five years of the third type seemed to be sufficient, for in 1892 a
fourth variety made its appearance. This, curiously enough, reverts to
the second type in similarity, for the foliations around the numerals
again disappear and the only distinguishing feature is the ornaments
beneath the numerals--now little quatrefoils instead of the triangular
ornaments found on the second type. This fourth type seems to have been
first noted in the _Canadian Philatelist_ for March, 1892, and is more
fully described in the _Monthly Journal_ for 30th April, 1892, as being
upon "thin, surfaced, straw coloured paper." This wrapper was cut to a
slightly smaller size, 10-3/4 × 5 inches. The article in the _Dominion
Philatelist_ lists it upon "cream colored paper" alone, but both
varieties exist, though it would seem that the straw colored one was
perhaps the first issued.

There is one variety analogous to the "stamp at left" wrapper of the
first type, and which is also doubtless due to faulty cutting of the
sheets; this has the stamp at the usual distance from the top of the
wrapper, but nearly in the middle as far as the spacing from the sides
goes. The impression is in dark blue on the straw colored paper.

In its issue for 31 March, 1894, the _Monthly Journal_ chronicles a
change in the color of the wrapper stamp (fourth type) from blue to
"grey-black", the wrapper itself remaining a "straw" color as before. We
find the impression to be a plain black, though if lightly inked it
might show as gray black. Besides the pale straw colored wrapper there
exists a cream toned one and also one of stouter paper in a very light
brown tone. All these are cut to the last size noted, viz., 10-3/4 × 5
inches.

All the preceding wrappers were the product of the British American Bank
Note Co., but when their contract for supplying stamps ceased in 1897 a
new issue was naturally looked for. This did not materialize until June
or July, 1898, when a new wrapper of the usual size and of light manila
paper made its appearance with an impression of the 1 cent adhesive
stamp (maple leaves in the four corners) in dark green. Unlike the
stamped envelopes, it was manufactured by the American Bank Note Co.,
but the die for stamping it, instead of being a reproduction of the
adhesive, was newly engraved for typographic work and is therefore much
coarser in appearance than the adhesive stamps.

No change was made in the wrapper die to include the numeral of value
until the new issue with head of King Edward took place. As before, the
design of the adhesive was copied but the die was engraved for surface
printing and is coarser in its lines. The new wrapper probably appeared
early in October, 1903, as we find it recorded in _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp
News_ for the 24th October of that year. The size was as before and the
paper a light manila.

As a result of the changes in newspaper rates, due to the amending of
the Postal Convention with the United States in 1907,[225] we find a set
of special wrappers issued in that year, concerning which the Postmaster
General's Report for 1908 says:--

    To facilitate the mailing of second class matter sent by publishers
    to their subscribers in the United States, special newspaper
    wrappers of the 1 cent, 2 cents and 3 cents denominations were
    introduced. As a result of the reduction in rate of this class of
    matter, made in February, so far as daily editions of newspapers
    were concerned, the demand for 2c. and 3c. wrappers ceased, and
    their issue was, accordingly, discontinued.

[225] See page 196.

The first issue of these wrappers is given as the 11th July, 1907, and a
reference to the Report of 1908, already quoted,[226] shows the reason
for their appearance. The rate on periodicals had been raised to 1 cent
per 4 ounces when sent to the United States, which in turn had made
provision for a like rate on periodicals addressed to Canada, at the
latter's behest. This move on Canada's part was aimed principally to
prevent the flooding of Canadian mails with cheap American monthlies.
But such a protest went up against this heavy increase, that the rates
were lowered, in February 1908, to 1 cent per pound on newspapers only,
which of course rendered any wrappers save the 1 cent of but little use.
With becoming thrift, however, the unissued remainder of the two
discarded values was surcharged "1c." in large block type in black and
used up in that way.

[226] See page 196.

[Illustration]

The quantities of these special wrappers delivered to the Department are
given in the stamp accounts as:--

             _1908._      _1909._      _1910._
  1 cent  1,501,000    353,000    884,000
  2  "      367,000      ...        ...
  3  "       54,000      ...        ...

Of the 2 cent wrapper the accounts give 300,300 as issued in 1908 and of
the 3 cent wrapper 15,600. But during 1908 and 1909 213,546 of the
former and 13,790 of the latter were returned "fit for use" by
postmasters, and 4,574 2 cent and 790 3 cent "unfit for use" were
destroyed. It would appear from this that the actual issue to the public
of these two wrappers was 82,180 of the 2 cent and but 1,020 of the 3
cent! The 1909 tables, however, record the issue to postmasters of the
total quantity of these wrappers then on hand, and the 1910 tables
explain this by the statement:--"Withdrawn from issue and surcharged one
cent, June 18, 1908." The quantities of the surcharged wrappers are
therefore 280,246 of the 1 c. on 2 cents, and 52,190 of the 1c. on 3
cents. As these wrappers were not on sale to the general public but only
to publishers, who were obliged to purchase in quantity, their use was
considerably restricted; and as the wrappers often enclosed papers in
quantity, addressed to any one post office, they were removed in the
United States post offices before distributing the papers, and very many
probably lost sight of there as waste paper.

While the usual newspaper wrappers are designated officially as "Post
Bands," these we have been describing are called "Special Wrappers."
They were of stout manila paper, cut to 15 × 6-1/2 inches (378 × 165
mm.) in size for the 1 cent and 2 cent, and 13 × 8 inches (308 × 223
mm.) for the 3 cent, and ungummed. The stamp occupied the usual
position, but at its left was the following two line legend in block
letters, printed in the same color as the stamp, and occupying a length
of 92 mm:--

  =THIS WRAPPER TO BE USED ONLY BY PUBLISHERS AND FOR THE SOLE
  PURPOSE OF MAILING SECOND CLASS MATTER TO THE UNITED STATES.=

The 1 cent value was printed in dark green, the 2 cent in carmine, and
the 3 cent in a slate violet. The surcharges were first noted in
_Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News of_ 12th September, 1908, though they were
probably issued soon after the date quoted above. The overprint in each
case is in shiny black ink, the figure being 13 mm. high and the "c" 6
mm. high, with a period after it.

One curious circumstance has been noted in connection with the use of
these wrappers--large numbers have been used without the Post Office
authorities taking the trouble to cancel them, while in other cases they
have been cancelled in the usual manner.



CHAPTER XXIII

THE POST CARDS


We have already remarked that Canada lagged behind the United States in
adopting adhesive stamps and also stamped envelopes, but when we come to
post cards we find the United States to be the laggard by nearly two
years. In the Postmaster General's Report for 30th June, 1870, we find
the following:--

    The introduction of what are known as "post cards" in the United
    Kingdom, and the convenience which is stated to have attended their
    use, have induced the Department to make arrangements for the
    manufacture of similar post cards for the use of the public in
    Canada. These post cards will be sold at one cent each, and may be
    posted for any address within the Dominion--and will be conveyed to
    destination, and be delivered in like manner with letters--the one
    cent covering the cost both of the card and of postage.

    They may be used for any communication, which can advantageously be
    written and sent by such a medium; and, it would seem
    unquestionable, must, in Canada as in England, prove to be extremely
    convenient for many objects and purposes.

The next year's Report states:--"Post Cards have been issued to the
public from June, 1871, and it is believed have been found to be of
material convenience. The number issued up to the 31st December was
1,470,600."

[Illustration]

These cards were cut to a size approximately 4-5/8 × 3 inches (116 × 75
mm.). The design consists of an engine turned border set about 3/16 of
an inch in from the edge, with the stamp in the upper right corner of
the enclosed space. This stamp shows a medallion bearing the head of
Queen Victoria that appears on the "large" cents issue of 1868,
surrounded by a frame that makes a roughly rectangular outline. The
arrangement and style of the inscriptions on the card are shown by the
illustration. At the bottom, just above the frame, is the imprint in
letters of "diamond" size, "British American Bank Note Co. Montreal &
Ottawa." The card is not of particularly heavy stock, has a somewhat
rough surface, and is of a light buff tint that varies some in tone. The
printing was done in sheets of several impressions and the engravings
were separated by thin colored lines running the whole length between
them. The color of the impression is a deep blue, though specimens in a
lighter tone are not uncommon.

In the Postmaster General's Report for 1872 we learn that on the 1st
November of that year, amongst other changes in connection with rates to
Newfoundland, the exchange of post cards at the ordinary domestic rate
was provided for. In the Report for 1873 we read:--"By arrangement with
the United States Post Office, the post cards of Canada and of the
United States have, from the 1st July 1873, passed freely to destination
between the two countries on prepayment of 2 cents each, by affixing a 1
cent postage stamp to the card in addition to the one cent stamp printed
thereon." The postal arrangement concluded between Canada and the United
States in 1874,[227] however, by which mail matter was to be exchanged
between the two countries at the domestic rates of each, obviated the
necessity of the extra cent on the post cards from the 1st January,
1875.

[227] See page 120.

It may be remembered that the marginal imprints on the sheets of
adhesive stamps began to be changed in 1875 and that the word "Ottawa"
was dropped. The same change took place in the post card some time
during 1876, it being first noted in _Le Timbre-Poste_ for January,
1877. The new card had the imprint at the bottom reading "British
American Bank Note Co. Montreal" in letters slightly larger than on the
first type. The frame of the card also seems to have been re-engraved as
slight differences can be detected, and the outside or "over all"
measurements are found to be about 1-1/2 mm. greater each way. Otherwise
the appearance of the card is the same, but it is cut a little larger,
measuring 4-3/4 × 3 inches (120 × 75 mm.), and the stock is a little
heavier than the first card and of a slightly paler buff. The engravings
on the plate were this time separated by short lines of color at the
center of the sides of the cards. The color of the impression was the
same as before and at times the front of the card was tinted bluish
because of imperfectly wiped plates during printing.

[Illustration]

Although Canada failed to obtain entrance into the Universal Postal
Union on its establishment in 1875, as already detailed,[228] yet she
was granted the new rates in her correspondence with the Mother
Country. This included a 2 cent rate for post cards, and on the 1st
January, 1877, a 2 cent post card made its appearance which was intended
particularly for British correspondence as is shown by the sub-heading
"TO UNITED KINGDOM." It was quite similar in design to the 1 cent card,
with the same medallion portrait of Queen Victoria on the stamp. The
frame of the card is of engine-turned work but of different pattern from
the 1 cent card, and has corner pieces. The arrangement of the
inscriptions is shown by the illustration. The card is cut to the same
size as the 1 cent (4-3/4 × 3 inches) and is of medium thickness and of
a very light yellowish buff. The impression is in a deep yellow green.

[228] See page 108.

Of these 2 cent cards the stamp accounts give 200,000 as having been
delivered in 1877 and 5000 more in 1879. But the issues to postmasters
are given as 98,300 in 1877, 6090 in 1878, and 13,680 in 1879, a total
of 118,070; and as there is a record of the return of but 35, it seems
fair to assume that the remaining 87,000 were destroyed.

[Illustration]

Canada was finally admitted to the Postal Union on the 1st July, 1878,
and consequently the 2 cent rate on post cards became applicable to all
the other Postal Union countries. We therefore find the "United Kingdom"
card altered to conform to the new conditions, the words "Union Postale
Universelle" now appearing at the top as shown in the illustration. The
stamp has also been re-engraved, the frame being changed and the words
CANADA and POSTCARD added in small capitals above and below the
medallion. The card is of the same size as before, on good stock of a
very pale yellowish tone and with a smooth surface, and the impression
is in a strong yellow green.

This card appeared early in 1879 and continued in use until 1896. Its
issue to postmasters increased from 27,300 in 1879, to 67,400 in 1892,
though it dropped to 47,000 in 1895.

[Illustration]

All the previous cards had been line engraved on steel plates and of
artistic appearance and fine workmanship. Beginning with 1882, however,
a cheaper form of production began to be employed, the impression being
typographed probably from electrotypes. The frame of the card is now
omitted, the design consisting simply of a curved banderole bearing the
words CANADA POST CARD with the instructions beneath, and at the right
the oval stamp which, from now on, corresponds to the contemporary stamp
of the newspaper wrapper.

The _Philatelic Monthly_ for 1st May, 1882, chronicled a new one cent
card as having just appeared, but did not describe it. It doubtless
appeared early in April and was of the design detailed in the last
paragraph, the stamp being that of the second type of the newspaper
wrapper, which lacked the foliations around the numerals and had the
inverted triangular ornaments beneath the circles containing the figures
"1". The impression was in blue or in ultramarine on a very light buff
card of stout quality and cut to 5-1/8 × 3 inches (129 × 76 mm.)

About the end of the same year a reply card made its appearance
concerning which the following notice was issued:--

POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

                                        OTTAWA, 13th December, 1882.

  Departmental Order
             No. 27

    * * * * *

    _Reply Post Cards._

    2. For the convenience of correspondence by Post Card within the
    Dominion, a double Post Card has been prepared and is now ready for
    issue, which will afford to the original sender of this form of Card
    the means of sending with his communication, a blank prepaid Post
    Card to be used in reply. Each half of the double card will bear a
    one-cent postage stamp impressed thereon in prepayment.

    The ordinary Post Card regulations will apply to these reply cards,
    both when originally posted, and with respect to the reply half when
    re-posted.

    The reply or double Post Cards, will be issued at two cents each,
    and are to be sold to the public at that rate by Postmasters and
    stamp vendors.

    Canada reply Post Cards, to be used in correspondence with the
    United Kingdom, will also be supplied at an early date, and when
    Post Cards of this description originating in the United Kingdom and
    bearing the impressed postage stamp thereof on both halves, have
    been received here by mail, the reply half may be re-posted in
    Canada, for return _to an address in the United Kingdom_, as a
    prepaid Post Card, and may be forwarded to destination without
    requiring the addition of any Canada postage stamp or other postage
    prepayment in Canada.

     JOHN CARLING,
  _Postmaster General._

Judging by the date of the circular the reply card was probably issued
the middle of December, 1882, although it was not reported in the stamp
journals until the next February. The stock used was the same as that
for the single cards and cut so as to be the same size as the latter
when folded. The design was the same as the single cards but printed in
a gray black on the first and third faces of the folded card. The reply
half is only distinguished by the word "(REPLY.)" placed between the
banderole and the line of instructions.

Considerable interest was aroused among philatelists in 1891-2 by a
controversy that sprung up over a reported "error" in this reply card,
which occurred with the stamp at the left side and the inscriptions to
the right. Curiously enough, this card had been chronicled as a new
issue in the _Philatelic Monthly_ for March, 1885, where we read:--"We
are indebted to Mr. De Wolf for the first specimen of a new double 1
cent card we have seen. It is slightly smaller than those first issued
and the stamp is placed on the left side instead of the right." The fact
of its existence had apparently lain dormant, except among post card
specialists, until the Canadian correspondent of _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp
News_ rose to remark[229] that they could be produced by manipulating an
uncut sheet of the regular cards. This called forth a rejoinder from Mr.
A. Lohmeyer[230] who wrote:--

    In the first place, the _Error Cards_, for such they are, do not
    exist among the 1 cent cards, but only among the 1-1 cent of 1882,
    or reply-paid cards. Of this issue a comparatively small quantity
    were printed with the stamp in the upper left corner, and the
    _error_ was not discovered until after a number of post-offices had
    been supplied with them, whereupon they were recalled, withdrawn
    from circulation and destroyed. This accounts for the great scarcity
    of these error cards, which have, in reality, been in circulation,
    for I have several used specimens (halves) in my collection.

    I will now proceed to prove the absurdity of the manipulation
    described in the article referred to by facts and figures: The space
    between the stamp and the points of the ribbon bearing the
    inscription "Canada Post Card" on the correct issue, where the cards
    would have to be cut to manufacture Canadensis' error (?) cards, is
    4 millimeters. If this space is equally divided in cutting the
    sheet, it would leave a margin to the left of the stamp and to the
    right of the ribbon, after being cut, of 2 millimeters, while the
    space between the right side of the stamp and the ribbon would be 10
    millimeters.

    Now take an error card, and you will find the latter space to
    measure only 3 millimeters, and the outer margin to the left of the
    stamp and the right of the ribbon to be respectively 5 millimeters.

    "Figures do not lie".

                        A. Lohmeyer.
  Baltimore, Oct. 31, 1891.

[229] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, I: 43: 1.

[230] =ibid.=, I: 44: 2.

This would seem conclusive proof, and also serve as a means of detecting
any false error cards which might possibly be made from an uncut sheet
as printed--but which have never been found. Yet six months later we
find the _Monthly Journal_ making inquiries along practically the same
lines. This brought out the following reply in _The Postal Card_:--

    By referring to our paper No. 55, issued on the 14th of May, 1890,
    you will find there a copy of a letter received by us, from the
    Secretary of the Post Office Department at Ottawa regarding this
    very card as follows:

    "I am directed to acknowledge your letter stating that you have in
    your possession a Canadian reply post card, upon which the stamp
    appears in the upper left-hand corner, and inquiring whether this
    stamp was officially issued by the department, or whether the
    position of the stamps was due to a mistake in cutting the sheets.

    "In reply, I am to say that the position of the stamp on the card to
    which you refer (a certain number of specimens of which were
    inadvertently issued by this Department) was due to a mistake in
    printing."

    We have never seen one of these cards which could have been produced
    by wrong cutting.

    If any Error cards _have_ been made by such a manipulation, either
    by accident or design, we do not know it. However, the difference
    between a wrongly cut card and a genuine error is so apparent that
    it can be detected even without the use of a millimetre scale.

    The distance of the stamp from the end of the scroll on the error
    card is 4 mm., while if produced by wrong cutting of a sheet of the
    correct issue (stamp at right), the distance will be 14 mm.

    To prove this we take two of the latter cards (in the absence of an
    uncut sheet which we have never seen), place them end against end,
    measure the distance from the left end of the scroll on one card to
    the outer circle enclosing the figure "1" on the other card, and
    the result will be as stated above.

    This fact and the letter from the Canadian P. O. Department, quoted
    above, removes all doubts as to the true character of this rarity,
    known as the "Canada Error Card".

    We have several used specimens in our collection.

The _Monthly Journal_[231] later received a copy of the error card which
was postmarked in September, 1884, and which is the earliest date that
has been recorded for it.

[231] =Monthly Journal=, IV: 171.

Direct evidence is given in a letter from H. F. Ketcheson to _Mekeel's
Weekly Stamp News_; he writes as follows:[232]--

    Regarding the Canadian reply card (error with stamp on upper left
    hand corner) issued in 1884 (not 1885) would say that I purchased a
    quantity of them from various post-offices. I was at that time an
    employe of the Canada Post-Office Department and saw a number of
    these passing through the mails and writing to the offices at which
    they were posted found that they had received a supply from Ottawa,
    and one office informed me at the same time that they had
    re-received instructions to forward all they had on hand to Ottawa
    as they had been issued in error.

[232] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, VI: 216.

The cards were identical in every respect with the regular ones, except
for the peculiarity, and therefore call for no further description than
has already been given them.

[Illustration]

In the _Philatelic Monthly_ for March, 1887, is noted a change in the
stamp on the single post card, which otherwise remained as before. The
new stamp has the foliations around the numerals and is identical with
Type 3 of the wrapper stamps, already described, and which it preceded,
in fact, by two or three months. As was to be expected, the reply card
followed with the same change in the stamps, but no particular notice
seems to have been taken of it in the contemporary magazines. The
article in the _Dominion Philatelist_ records it as having appeared in
1887 in "black" and in 1888 in "dark green", but the only chronicles
that seem to have noted it were the _Philatelic World_ for January,
1888, which says merely that "the stamp on the reply paid card has been
slightly altered," and the _American Journal of Philately_ for February,
1888, which says a new reply card in "gray on buff" has just been
issued. The information is added that the inscription "Postage" had been
changed to "Postcard", but inasmuch as this was a hoax which apparently
started with _Le Timbre-Poste_ in the fall of 1887[233] and went the
rounds of the philatelic press, the value of the rest of the information
is considerably lessened in consequence and we shall therefore take the
dates as given in the _Dominion Philatelist_, which seem in the main to
be correct. The wrapper stamp of 1875, with wavy line inside the oval,
illustrated by _Le Timbre-Poste_ as appearing on the cards in May, 1888,
was never employed. It was probably confounded with the third type.

[233] =Le Timbre-Poste=, XXV: 94.

[Illustration]

The next change in the cards was likewise due to a new variety in the
stamp, which once more lost its foliations and had only a quatrefoil
ornament beneath the numerals, as described for Type 4 of the wrappers,
which it again preceded by a couple of months. The new card was
apparently first noted in the _Canadian Philatelist_[234] as having been
issued at London, Ont., on the 7th December, 1891. This of course may
not have been its earliest date of issue but is doubtless not far from
it. The normal color of the impression is a dull ultramarine, but the
_Dominion Philatelist_ chronicled it in January, 1892, in a "very light
skim milk shade of blue", which may be listed as a very pale
ultramarine.

[234] =Canadian Philatelist=, I: 49.

The reply card in the new type is again an uncertainty. _Le
Timbre-Poste_ for June, 1892, chronicled it in _blue_, which it never
appeared in. _The Philatelic Monthly_ for July, 1892, noted that the
reply card had appeared in the latest type, but gave no color; probably
the item was borrowed from the French Journal without credit. Meanwhile
the _Dominion Philatelist_ for June, 1892, merely mentions that "the
reply cards of Canada are now appearing on a glazed thin card; design
same as before," which would indicate no change from the current type 3.
In December, 1892, however, the _Philatelic Journal of America_ reported
that it had received from Toronto "one of the new Canadian reply cards.
The message card bears a stamp the same type as that of the current 1
cent postal card, but on the reply card the stamp is of the old type.
Perhaps this is an error as the former double card had the same die on
both." It may have been an error but it troubled no one but the
philatelist. The _Monthly Journal_ for 31st January, 1893, also notes
the receipt of a similar copy from Mr. D. A. King. The account
says:--"The specimen was found in a packet of reply-paid cards, the
remainder of which had the stamp of the now obsolete type upon both
halves." It would seem that the end of 1892 was therefore about the time
of the "semi-appearance" of the stamp of type 4 upon the reply cards;
nor does it appear that the double card with stamp of type 4 on both
halves was issued _before_ the "half-breed" card, as the latter
continued to be used for nearly two years, the card with type 4 alone
not being definitely chronicled until the issue of 30th November, 1894,
of the _Monthly Journal_.

The next change recorded was the issue of a large sized card for
business purposes, which took place, according to the _American Journal
of Philately,_[235] on the 17th February, 1893, in company with the two
high value postage stamps and the letter card. The new card was of the
usual light buff stock and measured 6 × 3-1/8 inches (152 × 92 mm.). The
design was the same as for the ordinary card, the stamp being of the
wrapper type 4 but at a slightly greater distance from the end of the
banderole--4 mm. in the small card and 12 mm. in the large card. The
impression was in black. This new card was designated as No. 1, and the
ordinary small card became known as No. 2. The small sized card, 5 × 3
inches, soon followed the large one in the color of its impression,
appearing in a very dark slate that was almost a black and being first
chronicled in the _Monthly Journal_ for 31st July, 1893.

[235] =American Journal of Philately=, 2nd Series, VI: 102.

In the Postmaster General's Report for 1893 we find the following:--"The
introduction of the large size post card has not met with the success
which was anticipated, and it has been found expedient in Canada, as in
the United States, where the experiment has also been tried, to return
to the former practice, and for the future to have only one size which
will be somewhat smaller than the large card and a little larger than
that first issued." As the stamp accounts kept the number of large sized
cards separate from the small sized, we are able to give the amount
received from the manufacturer, which was 5,396,000. The number issued
is given as 4,983,900, but nothing is said about the disposition of the
remaining 412,100.

The new medium sized card, which took the place of both the large and
the small sized cards, was apparently issued about February, 1894, as it
was chronicled in the _Monthly Journal_ for 31st March, 1894. The new
card measured 5-1/2 × 3-3/8 inches (140 × 85 mm.) and the stock was of a
lighter tone than before--almost a cream. The impression was in black
and the distance between the banderole and the stamp was changed to 8
mm.

Whether issued especially for advertising purposes or not, this new card
appeared on a heavier stock of rough surface and straw color early in
1896, being chronicled in _Meheel's Weekly Stamp News_ for 30th April,
1896, as on a "thin card board."

In its issue for 30th May, 1896, the _Monthly Journal_ chronicles the
receipt of the reply card in black on a very smooth buff card. This
indicates that the better grade of stock first used for the medium sized
single card was being employed for the reply card, and that the latter
was being printed in the dead black ink used for the medium card instead
of the dark slate color previously employed.

It may be of interest to note here that on the 1st January, 1895,
regulations went into force in Canada providing for the admission to the
mails of advertising cards with a 1 cent stamp attached. This was very
likely due to the failure of the Department's large sized card which was
intended to fill such a want. As a sort of "rider" upon the circular
dealing with the special delivery service and stamps, issued by the
Department on 7th June, 1898, there is a paragraph headed:--

    PRIVATE POST CARDS.

    Postmasters are informed that, as regards Private Post Cards posted
    in Canada addressed to places in Canada, the words "Private Post
    Card" may either be placed thereon or omitted according to the
    option of the sender. Private Post Cards addressed to other
    countries must, however, in every case bear on the address side the
    words "Private Post Card."

It is understood, however, that only in the domestic mails were private
cards allowed to pass at the usual post card rate. If addressed to a
foreign country a private card, if in writing, would be taxed at letter
rates. In the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ for 19th November, 1898, however,
it is announced that the Postmaster General had issued an order
admitting private mailing cards into the foreign mails provided the size
conformed to that of the official post cards.

[Illustration]

The next official card that we have to consider is a new Postal Union
card which made its appearance suddenly in the latter part of 1896. This
is one of the most striking cards that Canada has produced, being
beautifully engraved on steel and printed in a brilliant orange red.
There is no frame, such as bordered the previous 2 cent card, and the
stamp in the upper right corner much resembles in size and design the
large 2 cent adhesive of the 1868 issue, except that the head of the
Queen is turned to the left. The inscriptions follow out, in a way, the
general style of British Colonial Postal Union cards, a small
reproduction of the British arms with supporters occupying the center at
the top. The arrangement will be seen from the illustration.

The card is approximately 5-1/8 × 3-1/8 inches (130 × 80 mm.) in size
and printed on a very light buff stock. A variety in shade occurs, of
some degree of rarity, printed in carmine. The card was first chronicled
in the _American Journal of Philately_ for 1st November, 1896, and was
the last "new issue" put forth by the British American Bank Note Co.
before its long contract was closed. The card was noted in the
Postmaster General's Report for 1897 as follows:--"During the year a
Universal Postal Union Card, conforming more closely to the regulations
of the Union was introduced, thus superseding the old card." The new
dimensions of the card, the removal of the frame, and the completing of
the inscriptions in both English and French were among these
requirements.

The American Bank Note Co., as we all know, began its work for the
Canadian Government by the production of the Jubilee Issue. As will be
seen by reference to the prospectus of this series already given,[236]
there was included a special post card of 1 cent to the number of 7
millions. These were delivered and all issued with the exception of 3000
on hand as shown by the stamp accounts in 1903. They do not appear in
the 1904 accounts, so it is not known what became of them.

[236] See page 148.

[Illustration]

The cards were issued with the Jubilee stamps on the 19th June,
1897.[237] They were the size of the ordinary 1 cent cards and on the
same quality of stock. The stamp is a reproduction of the 1 cent
adhesive of the Jubilee issue, but engraved for typographic printing.
"Canada Post Card" is enclosed in a fancy frame at the left and the
usual instructions are found beneath it.

[237] =Ibid.=

A curious variety of this card was noted in the _Metropolitan
Philatelist_ for August, 1897, as follows:--"We have seen the new
jubilee card bearing the stamp only. This is an error caused by the
design being in two pieces and in this case the inscription has dropped
out."

The regular post cards produced by the new contractors did not make
their appearance until several months after the first adhesives of the
new type were out. The two cent card was the first issued, having been
reported by the Canadian correspondent of the _Weekly Philatelic Era_
under date of 4th December, 1897, as just out. It was a copy of the 2
cent card of 1896 in every respect except the stamp, which was naturally
of the new maple leaf type, and the color was a deeper shade of orange
red.

The 1 cent card does not appear to have been chronicled until the number
for 1st February, 1898, of the _American Journal of Philately_, so that
it doubtless appeared early in January or possibly the latter part of
December, 1897, following closely the 2 cent card. It was also of the
usual size and same stock as before and, like the Jubilee card, had a
copy of the 1 cent adhesive printed in the corner. This was of the maple
leaf type, engraved for typographic printing and therefore of rather
coarser appearance than its prototype. The inscriptions were simply
CANADA POST CARD in plain Gothic letters, with the usual line of
instructions beneath, all printed in black; while the stamp was printed
in dark green.

Early in December, 1897, the following news item appeared in the
Canadian daily press:--

    Postmaster-General Mulock has formulated a scheme with respect to
    postal cards which he has been thinking over for some time and which
    he has now got so far into shape as to be ready for publication. It
    is to remove the restriction which has hitherto existed with respect
    to using the address side of the card for any purpose other than the
    address. It is intended to allow pictures, ads., etc., on the face
    of the card so long as there is room for the address. This will
    enable a business man to advertise his business and will no doubt be
    appreciated by both the advertiser and the public. It is intended
    the cards shall be printed in sheets instead of singly for the
    benefit of printers and lithographers.



The following was the official announcement:--

    NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC.

    Regulations under which designs, illustrations, portraits, sketches,
    or other forms of advertisement may be engraved, lithographed,
    printed, etc., on the "address" side of the one-cent Post-Card.

    1. A clear space of, at least, a quarter of an inch shall be left
    along each of the four sides of the postage stamp.

    2. There shall be reserved for the address a clear space at the
    lower right hand corner on the "address" side of the card
    immediately below the words "The space below is reserved for address
    only," such space so reserved for the address being, at least, 3-1/4
    inches long by 1-1/2 inches wide.

    N. B. It is in the interest of both the Department and those
    availing themselves of the privilege hereby, granted that the spaces
    in question should be unconditionally reserved for the purposes
    intended. If any printing, engraving, or other matter appears on the
    spaces thus reserved, the Post-Cards cannot be permitted to pass
    through the mails.

    Post-Cards may be ordered in sheets of sixteen or less, as desired,
    or singly; orders therefor, specifying quantity of cards required
    and number to the sheet, to be given in writing to the nearest
    Postmaster.

      POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.
        OTTAWA, 9th December, 1897.


These "advertisement" cards were issued by the Post Office Department
singly, or printed in sheets of eight or sixteen. The single cards came
in packages of 100 like the ordinary cards; the eight card sheets were
made up in packages of 125 sheets, or 1000 cards all told; and the
sixteen card sheets also in packages of 125 sheets, or 2000 cards all
told. The reason for this is seen in the requirement that orders for
these cards should be for not less than 1000. It is seen from the stamp
accounts that the eight card sheets have proven the most popular, about
six times as many sheets of this size as of the larger size having been
issued in 1910, while the number of cards represented was five times the
number of single cards issued.

The stock is the same as used for the ordinary cards and the size of the
single card is the same, while the arrangement on the sheets and the
regulations require that they be cut up into cards of the proper size.
The stamp is impressed in the right hand upper corner and is the same as
for the ordinary card but printed in carmine. The only other thing on
the card as issued is the directions, printed in small black Gothic
capitals:--THE SPACE BELOW IS RESERVED FOR ADDRESS ONLY. This is placed
about midway between the top and bottom of the card and about as far to
the right as it will go.

The last of the Queen's head cards were chronicled in the _Monthly
Journal_ for 30th July, 1898. These were the reply card and the Postal
Union card in a change of color. The reply card was of the usual size, 5
× 3 inches, and had printed inscriptions in black like the single card,
save that the word REPLY is placed between the two lines on the card for
answer. The stamp is from the same die as the single card but printed in
black instead of green. The stock is the usual pale buff.

The same paper for 31st March, 1899, notes an error of impression in
this card, the reply portion being printed on the back of the message
card, so that the second card has no impression at all upon it.

The Postal Union card was identical with the one it superseded, except
that it was printed in deep blue, and the card is of a cream tint rather
than a buff. The cause of the sudden change in color is not known.

The King's head cards soon followed the adhesives. _Mekeel's Weekly
Stamp News_ reported the 1 cent in its issue for 5th September, 1903. It
needs no further description than to say it is a counterpart of the
preceding Queen's Head card, the stamp as before being a copy of the
adhesive engraved for typographic work. The impression is in green for
the stamp and black for the inscriptions.

The advertising card or "Business Post-Card" was the next to appear,
having been issued early in December, 1903. Again it is in every way
similar to its predecessor save that the impression of the stamp is
lighter--rather a pink than a carmine.

Finally, in its issue for 20th February, 1904, _Mekeel's Weekly Stamp
News_ reports the issue of the reply card in its usual form and the
Postal Union card, identical with the former save for the stamp, which
is of course line engraved on this card. The issue of cards in 1910
comprised over 26 millions of the 1 cent, 430,000 of the reply cards and
70,000 of the Postal Union cards.



CHAPTER XXIV

THE LETTER CARDS


[Illustration:

  CANADA
  LETTER CARD]

The Postmaster General's Report for 1892 contained the following
announcement:--"Letter cards, similar to those in use in Great Britain,
Austria, and other European countries, are being prepared, and will be
issued to the public in a short time." Only one value was issued, the 3
cents, and it appeared in company with the 20 and 50 cent adhesives and
large sized post card on the 17th February, 1893. Artistically it is a
pretty poor production, the stamp being apparently a rough wood-cut
imitation of the stock type used by Messrs. De La Rue & Co. at that time
for British Colonial stamps. The profile of the Queen is on a solid
ground within an octagonal frame, and the labels at top and bottom
contain the words POSTAGE and THREE CENTS respectively. At the left of
the stamp, in two lines, is CANADA--LETTER CARD, the first being in
Gothic, the second in Roman capitals. The entire impression is in
carmine. The size of the card, opened out, is 5-1/2 × 7 inches (138 ×
175 mm.), the longer dimension being reduced one half by folding of
course. The perforation gauges 12 and is in Form A of Senf's catalogue
(both lines crossing at the corner intersections). The margin outside
the perforations measures 3/8 inch (10 mm.) and is gummed only around
the third face of the folded card. The stock is of fair quality and of a
light greenish-blue tint.

The Postmaster General's Report for 1894 says that "so far the demand
for these letter cards has not equalled the expectations of the
Department." On looking at the stamp accounts we find that from their
date of issue to the 30th June, 1893, 265,350 of the letter cards were
distributed; but during the whole of the next fiscal year but 104,650
were issued and for the third year the amount had dropped to 77,750. The
Postmaster General's plaint was therefore justified.

It is perhaps best to record here a curious semi-official issue of what
might be termed a "letter sheet" for the use of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. It was first noted in the _Monthly Journal_ for 31st January,
1894, as "a sheet stamped with the current 1 cent wrapper die, upon
which is printed the monthly statement of receipts and expenditure for
transmission to shareholders." Perhaps for the reason that the wrapper
stamp was impressed upon it, this variety has been listed under the
newspaper wrappers, but such it is not. The circular was printed upon a
stout gray-blue paper, and had the wrapper stamp of type 4 impressed
upon the back in black. Above the stamp appears the inscription "Printed
Matter Only," while in the lower left corner of the address side of the
folded sheet are two lines reading:--

  Canadian Pacific Ry.
  Monthly Statement of Earnings and Expenses.

Three guide lines are printed for the address, as upon the old post
cards. The sheet must have been issued in 1893 subsequent to the
appearance of the large post card with the stamp of type 4 in black. It
is stated to have been issued as an experiment and was in use but a
short time. A second variety is known, however, on white laid paper,
which was probably issued subsequently to the blue variety, but at what
date is not known. Both sheets are rare so the experiment evidently was
not carried on for long.

Returning to the regular letter cards we find again in the Postmaster
General's Report for 1895 that "arrangements have been made for the
issue of letter cards of the denominations of 1, 2 and 3c. for the use
of banks in transmitting certain notices to their customers, as well as
for ordinary letters within those postal limits to which their
denominations respectively apply." The next year's Report explains their
use a little more fully:--

    During the year the 1 and 2 cent letter cards were introduced--the
    former to serve the purpose of the "drop letter" (_i. e._, a letter
    posted at, and delivered from, the same office) in places where
    there is no free delivery by letter carrier; the latter to meet a
    similar object in cities where there is such a delivery. Already
    this extension of postal facilities appears to be appreciated--more
    especially by banks, which largely use these cards in transmitting
    notices to their customers.

The 2 cent letter card is chronicled in the _Monthly Journal_ for 31st
October, 1895, and the 1 cent in the same paper for the 30th November,
1895. Both were doubtless issued the early part of October. They
conformed in all respects to the 3 cent letter card issued two years and
a half previously, except for the stamp. If the 3 cent was wretched, the
two new ones were hideous. They were not only more poorly engraved,
which was needless, but the label at the bottom was enlarged by
extending it at either side. The 1 cent was printed in black and the 2
cent in green--inscription and stamp in the same color in each case.

In 1903 the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ published the following:[238]--

    A correspondent in Vermont sends Mr. Lohmeyer a 1c. letter card of
    the first issue, which he discovered in a Canadian post office
    recently, it being the only copy there and damaged at that, the
    perforated margin on the right hand side being torn off. In the
    lower left corner the bottom perforation runs to the left side
    perforation only, instead of crossing it, as on all Canadian letter
    cards previously seen.

[238] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XVII: 149.

This is the style of perforation designated as C in Senf's catalogue--in
which the horizontal line does not project beyond the vertical lines at
either side. We have seen a perfect copy of the above described 1 cent
letter card, which seems to be unlisted; but the 3 cent card with this
perforation, listed and priced in Senf, we have not ourselves seen. It
is possible that if two of these cards exist with perforation C, the
third one--the 2 cent--will some day come to light.

The change in the stamp contractors in 1897 and the use of a new design
naturally brought changes in the letter cards as well as the other
postal requisites. The new 2 cent letter card was chronicled in the
_Monthly Journal_ for 31st January, 1898, so it is safe to assume that
it appeared in December, 1897. The 1 cent and 3 cents are chronicled in
the same paper for 28th February, 1898, and must therefore have been
issued as early as January, 1898. The new letter cards were in all
respects the counterparts of the previous ones save the stamp, which was
now the same as that used for the new post cards and wrappers, viz., a
copy of the "maple leaf" Queen's head type engraved for typographic
work. These three letter cards are known only with the perforation A.

The reduction in domestic postage to the 2 cent rate on the 1st January,
1899, rendered the 3 cent letter cards useless as well as the envelopes
of like denomination. We have already recounted the story of the
surcharged envelopes and the two types of the handstamp which were used
in doing the work.[239] Suffice it to say, therefore, that we have but
to add the letter cards to the same story to make it complete. Both the
3 cent letter cards of 1893 and 1898 were turned in for surcharging
purposes, and the former not only received both types of the rubber
hand-stamped surcharge in the usual blue-black or gray-black color, but
is found also with the second and common type in a violet color.[240]
The surcharging was begun and the letter cards so treated were issued as
early as February, 1899. The perforation, so far as known, is always A.

[239] See page 240.

[240] =Monthly Journal=, IX: 175.

In its issue for 27th January, 1900, the _Weekly Philatelic Era_ notes
the receipt of the 1 cent and 2 cent letter cards of the maple leaf type
in new colors, conforming with the requirements of the Postal Union, the
one cent in green instead of black and the 2 cent in carmine instead of
green. In all other respects these letter cards conformed to their
predecessors. They were doubtless issued early in January, 1900.

The letter cards had been used in considerable quantities each year,
particularly after 1895, when the 1 cent and 2 cent values were added to
the previous 3 cent; but in 1902 they were withdrawn without any
particular reason having been given that we have been able to discover.
The stamp accounts for the Report of 1902 give the numbers issued in
that fiscal year as 195,100 for the 1 cent and 352,000 for the 2 cent.
The only item of information we have to quote concerning their demise is
confined to the dates: the last issue of the 1 cent letter card is
recorded as the 4th April, 1902, and of the 2 cent letter card as the
28th June, 1902.



CHAPTER XXV

OFFICIAL STATIONERY


Outside of the Dead Letter Office seals the Canadian Government has
issued no official adhesive stamps. An attempt, however, to foist a
series of official stationery upon an unsuspecting philatelic public was
made by one Henry Hechler, a stamp collector and dealer, who thought he
saw his opportunity in the Indian troubles which broke out in the
Canadian Northwest in 1884-5. Mr. Hechler belonged to the Militia and
accompanied the troops that were sent to quell the disturbance. He took
it upon himself to have a quantity of envelopes, post cards and wrappers
surcharged OFFICIAL or SERVICE and evidently expected they would be
accepted without question.

The first news of these surcharges seems to have come, very strangely,
from Germany. The _Philatelic Record_ for December, 1884,[241] says:--

    _Der Philatelist_ chronicles, on the faith of a correspondent, Herr
    Von Jerzabek, of Temesvar, a set of the adhesives with Queen's head
    ..., two envelopes, and the 1 cent post card, all surcharged in
    black, with the word OFFICIAL. It is alleged that they were prepared
    and issued in 1877, but after a short time were called in again. The
    surcharges are in some cases oblique, and in others perpendicular.
    It is at least strange that, considering our intercourse with
    Canada, our first knowledge of the issue of official stamps so far
    back as 1877 should reach us from Temesvar, wherever that may be.

[241] =Philatelic Record=, VI: 210.

The Secretary of the Philatelic Society, London, whose official journal
the _Philatelic Record_ then was, wrote direct to the Canadian
Government to inquire into the authenticity of these so-called official
issues, and received the following reply:[242]--


  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.
                             OTTAWA, _18th May_, 1885.

    SIR:--I am directed by the Postmaster-General to acknowledge receipt
    of your letter of the 29th ult., inquiring whether postage stamps
    bearing the word "_Official_" on their face are in circulation in
    the Dominion of Canada, and beg, in reply, to say that no such
    stamp, card, newspaper wrapper, or envelope has _ever_ been issued
    by this department.

      I am, sir, your obedient servant,
                             (_Signed_)        Wm. White, _Secretary_.

[242] =Ibid.=, VII: 84.

This would ordinarily seem to have been enough of a disclaimer, but like
Banquo's ghost the official stationery would not down, though the stamps
seem to have been lost sight of. Not only were the envelopes of 1 cent
and 3 cents of the 1877 issue, but the newspaper wrappers of 1875 and
1882, and the post card of 1882, surcharged across the stamp with the
word "OFFICIAL" or "Service" in black, blue or red ink, but sometimes
the arms of Great Britain were added at the left of the stamp, and also,
in the lower left corner, the words

  "63RD. RIFLES" or HEADQUARTERS, }
                    63RD. RIFLES. }

The lack of uniformity, or rather attempt at variety, was enough in
itself to condemn the articles. Yet in the _American Philatelist_ for
June, 1888, we find an attempted defence of them. We quote:[243]--

    Henry Hechler writes us as follows: "When the Indian outbreak in the
    Northwest occurred in 1885, and some of the militia of the various
    provinces were hurriedly ordered out for active service, stringent
    measures for notifying the men calling for prompt attention had to
    be adopted. To distinguish them from ordinary mail matter by showing
    their official character they were stamped across the "adhesive"
    with the word _Service_ and at the lower left corner _O. [H.] M. S.
    only_. Some were thus printed in black, others in blue, and yet
    others in red. They served for that purpose only, until an Act of
    Parliament was passed to carry all military mail matter on active
    service free."

    Mr. Hechler was captain of one of the companies of the Halifax
    Battalion, and, therefore, in a position to obtain definite
    information.

[243] =American Philatelist=, II: 207.

In other words Mr. Hechler knew all about these "official" stamps and
the Postmaster-General and his secretary, as we have seen, knew
absolutely nothing about them! This seems to tell its own story. In fact
another letter from the Post Office Department, dated 13th April, 1888,
and published in this same volume of the _American Philatelist_,[244]
reiterates the denials of the previous letter which we have already
quoted. The _Philatelic Record_ received later,[245] from the
Postmaster of Halifax, the information that Mr. Hechler had had this
stationery surcharged and that it was neither issued nor recognized by
the Government of Canada. The _Record_ says:--"It was a smart notion of
Mr. Hechler to turn his military duties into the direction of his
business as a stamp dealer." Mr. Hechler "came back" at this in the
columns of the _Philatelic Journal of America_[246] with the statement
that "the Post Office Inspector here referred the question to
headquarters, and, in reply, was instructed to allow such matter to pass
through the mails without question or delay." The communication was
enclosed in one of the envelopes in question, but the Editor's remarks
on this are conclusive:--

    The surcharging has not impaired the postal value of the envelope
    and they are permitted to pass through the Canadian mails, but as to
    their value from a philatelic standpoint it is quite another thing.

    The printing in this case is of no more importance than any notice
    or inscription that might be placed on an envelope bearing a regular
    government stamp that in itself is sufficient to pay the postage.

    In fact the above writer admits that the surcharge had no other
    value than to enable the recipient to distinguish the letter from
    his other mail. They are of no philatelic value whatever.

[244] =Ibid.=, II: 173.

[245] =Philatelic Record=, XI: 44.

[246] =Philatelic Journal of America=, V: 202.

It was a private speculation, pure and simple, in spite of any claims of
"recognition", and of the fact that copies passed the post. The only
other quotation to make in the case is from Shakespeare--_Exeunt_.

We now come to an actual official issue in the shape of a newspaper
wrapper. It seems to have been first noted in _Le Timbre-Poste_ for
February, 1883, but is stated to have been issued in 1879. The stamp is
of the 1875 issue (type 1) and at its left is printed in blue the
following:--

[Illustration:

  Inland Revenue, Canada.

  WEIGHTS & MEASURES SERVICE.

  _Official Circular._

  _To_

  This band is to be used =On Her Majesty's Service= only and must have
  no writing thereon but the name and address.

]

Above the English inscription is its counterpart in French. The wrapper
itself is of a cream tone and measures 280 × 132 mm.

The history of this wrapper does not seem to be known, save that it is
accredited to be what it purports to be. It is quite rare, and as far as
we have been able to find out is not known used. No mention is made of
it in the Department reports, but it happens that the stamp accounts for
1879, the year of its supposed issue, give only 8,000 wrappers as
received from the manufacturers. None had been received the two years
previously, as there were plenty on hand, and 192,000 were received the
next year. It would thus appear, on the face of it, that this small lot
of 8,000 was quite probably the order of the Inland Revenue wrappers. If
so, it was probably the only lot ever received and though they may have
been used, the chances seem somewhat against any such number having
actually been issued.

One other official issue comes in the form of a Customs' post card
notice. It was first chronicled in the _American Philatelist_ for 10th
May, 1888, as having been issued in connection with the parcel post
system just then inaugurated with the United States. Postmasters
received instructions to forward these cards free through the mails,
although there was no stamp or notice on the address side. It is of
manila card, 130 × 88 mm., blank on one side and having printed on the
other:--

                 Customs Postal Package Office.
                                 ...........................188
  _There has arrived at this office by mail from the United States,
  addressed to you as over, the following dutiable package, which will
  be delivered or forwarded to you on the receipt of the duty payable
  and the return of this card._

  ==============================================================
   NO. OF   |    NO. OF   |    DESCRIPTION.     |      DUTY
  MANIFEST. |   PACKAGE.  |                     |    PAYABLE.
  ----------+-------------+---------------------+-------+-------
            |             |                     |    $  |  cts.
            |             |                     |       |
            |             |                     |       |
            |             |                     |       |
            |             |                     |       |
  --------------------------------------------------------------
  E. 14.                        ................_Collector_.

In its September, 1888, number the _Halifax Philatelist_ notes that the
blank address side has been supplied with three dotted lines for the
address, and inscriptions reading, in the upper left corner, "_Advice
Note_", and in the upper right corner, "_Free, by order of the Post
Master General_."

One further official variety is somewhat unusual. The _American
Philatelist_ for September, 1889,[247] says:--

    "We are indebted to Donald A. King ... for information concerning
    what is certainly a novelty in the postal line, namely, an unpaid
    letter stamped envelope. When a letter is returned from the
    dead-letter office the sender is required to pay the regular postage
    and these envelopes have been prepared of various values. The only
    one we have seen is the 3 cent value. It is about 175 × 120 mm., and
    is made of manila paper. In the place for the stamp is a figure 3
    about 23 mm. high. In the left hand upper corner RETURNED DEAD
    LETTER; in the lower  corner--

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA,
       DEAD LETTER OFFICE.

    On the reverse, _The enclosed Dead Letter is returned by order of
    the Postmaster-General for the reasons thereon assigned_. The
    following values are said to exist:

       3 cents, black on manila.
       6   "      "   "    ?
       9   "      "   "    ?
      12   "      "   "    ?
      18   "      "   "    ?

    We have no further information concerning them.

[247] =American Philatelist=, III: 350.



CHAPTER XXVI

PRECANCELLATIONS AND PERMITS


As a matter of record and without any attempt at lists of varieties,
which would prove futile, we deem it interesting and important to give
such information as is at hand concerning the precancellation of stamps
for use on large quantities of identical mail matter, and of the more
recent substitute for the precancelled stamp which is known as the
"permit". Both ideas were of course borrowed from the United States,
which was the originator of this form of labor saving expedient.

The _London Philatelist_ for April, 1892, quoted a letter from Mr. L.
Gibb of Montreal which enclosed "a specimen used on the letter, but with
the obliteration on the stamp only, and also portions of sheets gummed
and unsevered, but neatly postmarked with horizontal wavy lines." Mr.
Gibb wrote:[248]--

    Sometime back I received the enclosed stamp paying the postage on an
    open envelope containing a circular from Toronto; it has not been
    moved from its original place, and one could see it had not been
    obliterated on the envelope. After some little trouble I found the
    P. O. would, upon receiving whole sheets of stamps, cancel them, and
    then hand them back to any known firm to be placed on letters in
    quantity, these letters are then taken to a private part of the
    office in bulk, and are allowed to pass through the post without
    further marking.

[248] =London Philatelist=. I: 100.

The system in the United States made use of a cancellation giving the
town and state name, printed on the sheets by a press; but the Canadian
precancellation was of simpler form, being of two fairly heavy
horizontal lines with a wavy line between. No name occurs in the
cancellation and it was applied with a roller, thus making a universal
style which is more convenient in application than the type set form,
varying for every post office.

Further information in regard to this cancellation is found in _Mekeel's
Weekly Stamp News_[249] where we read:--"The Canadian one-cent stamp
cancelled on circulars is obliterated by a revolving self-inking
canceler and is issued for use on the 5th class matter, i. e. parcels,
etc., to post offices with an annual revenue of $3000 and over."

[249] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XIII: 388.

In 1904 precancelled stamps began to appear with the town name and that
of the province, separated by two horizontal bars. In answer to an
inquiry concerning them the Department replied as follows:[250]--

    The main conditions governing the case are the quantities required
    for a given mailing and the limitation of the use of precancelled
    stamps to the particular kind or class of mail matter for which they
    have been issued. The minimum quantity in each such case is 25,000
    pieces.... As requisitions for precancelled stamps necessarily take
    longer to fill than the ordinary, postmasters are expected to send
    requisitions for them to the Department a few days in advance of
    actual needs.

[250] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XVIII: 131.

It is evident that the latter form of printed precancellation was the
only one intended to be employed by the Department, and that the earlier
form of impression from the roller canceller was unauthorized, for the
following circular was issued to make matters plain for
postmasters:[251]--

     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.

                          OTTAWA, 16th September, 1904.

  PRE-CANCELLATION OF POSTAGE STAMPS.

    The use of pre-cancelled stamps (or stamps cancelled before actually
    used for payment of postage) is permitted in some of the larger
    cities under very stringent regulations and only when required for
    any one mailing in quantities of not less than 25,000 stamps, but
    postage stamps cancelled with the small roller canceller have been
    observed on letters and other matter passing in the mails, and
    Postmasters are accordingly instructed that UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES
    are they permitted to precancel postage stamps. The roller canceller
    is reserved for the cancellation of postage stamps on Second, Third
    and Fourth Class Matter and must be used only on stamps after being
    ACTUALLY AFFIXED to such matter.

    ANY POSTMASTER FOUND TO BE PRECANCELLING STAMPS IN ANY WAY OR
    SELLING STAMPS PRE-CANCELLED WITHOUT AUTHORITY WILL BE HELD
    RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FULL VALUE OF SUCH CANCELLED STAMPS.

    It is proper to explain that the authorized pre-cancelled stamps are
    struck with a special die bearing the name of the mailing office and
    are sold only to the largest mailing concerns under conditions
    which it is considered preclude any danger of such stamps being used
    a second time for postage. Such conditions would not attend the use
    of stamps pre-cancelled with the ordinary roller stamp, and in
    consequence the use of the roller stamps for such a purpose is
    strictly forbidden, under the penalty above mentioned.

    Requisitions for pre-cancelled stamps must be made direct to the
    Department (Stamp Branch). No request for pre-cancelled stamps can
    be considered where the number of pieces to be prepaid thereby is
    less than 25,000.

  R. M. COULTER,
    Deputy Postmaster General.


[251] =Ibid.=, XVIII: 322.

Not long afterward the bars were lowered somewhat on the size of the
mailing required for the use of precancelled stamps, as the following
circular shows:[252]--

  POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.

                         OTTAWA, 29th October, 1904.

       PRECANCELLED STAMPS.

    (Amending Departmental Circulars of 11th March and 16th September.)

    It is desired that the use of precancelled stamps should be attended
    with every possible degree of precaution and security and for that
    purpose only requisitions for precancelled stamps to cover mailings
    of _25,000 pieces at a time_ have been allowed. It is considered,
    however, in the light of experience, that this limit is somewhat
    high, and in future, therefore, postmasters will be allowed to make
    requisition for precancelled stamps for mailings of _10,000 pieces
    at a time_.

  R. M. COULTER,
     Deputy Postmaster General.


[252] =Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News=, XVIII: 402.

The style of cancellation which is employed by the Department at Ottawa,
where all the pre-cancelling is evidently done, is a three line one--the
town name above and the province name below, separated by two parallel
lines. It is applied in black ink. Evidently considerable mail is sent
out under this method for the precancelled stamps are fairly common. One
other variety comes from Montreal with "FOR-THIRD-CLASS-MATTER-ONLY", (a
line for a word) beneath MONTREAL and separated from it by two thin
parallel lines.

The issuing of "Permits" was an outgrowth of the precancelled stamp
system, it being in effect a _stamped cover_ fulfilling the same purpose
as a cover with a precancelled adhesive affixed to it. The idea was
again borrowed from the United States. The circular issued to
postmasters will fully explain the methods adopted under this new
plan:[253]--

              POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CANADA.

                                     OTTAWA, 2nd February, 1903.

  PREPAYMENT OF THIRD-CLASS (PRINTED) MATTER IN CASH.

    The Postmaster General in order to facilitate the posting of printed
    matter mailed in considerable quantities addressed for delivery at
    post-offices within the Dominion of Canada, has decided that
    prepayment of postage on same may be effected in cash (instead of
    postage stamps) in conformity with the following

    REGULATIONS.

    1. Each lot of mail matter which is posted under this arrangement
    must be accompanied by a Permit, which has been obtained from the
    Postmaster of the office at which it is posted. The application must
    be made in writing on one of the forms provided for the purpose, in
    which shall be stated approximately the number of pieces it is
    intended to mail, and the postage on each piece at the rate of one
    cent per two ounces or fraction thereof.

    2. The articles posted must be of an uniform weight, and must be put
    up in such a way as to admit of their being readily counted. The
    weight and number must be verified beyond doubt. Circulars to be put
    up in packages of 50, 75 or 100, with addressed sides faced all one
    way. Catalogues must be tied up in neat bundles.

    3. Each article must have printed upon its wrapper or cover an
    impression of an official stamp, a fac-simile of which is here
    given, which shall be furnished by the Postmaster of the office of
    posting, mentioning the name of the office at which posted, and
    stating that the postage was prepaid in cash.

[Illustration:

  POSTAGE PAID IN CASH
  At OTTAWA, Canada
  Authorized under Permit No.
  ANYBODY USING THIS STAMP WITHOUT AUTHORITY
  WILL RENDER HIMSELF LIABLE TO PROSECUTION

]

    4. The lowest amount which may be received in payment for matter
    mailed under these regulations is $25.00.

    5. Under these regulations payment may be made only by marked
    cheque drawn in favour of the Postmaster of the office of posting
    for deposit to the credit of the Receiver General. The cheque must
    accompany the mail matter at the time it is posted. The cheque is to
    be drawn as follows:

    "Pay to the Postmaster of ... for deposit to credit of Receiver
    General."

  R. M. COULTER.
      Deputy Postmaster General.


[253] =Weekly Philatelic Era=, XVIII: 63.

Electrotypes of the "stamp" shown were furnished to all offices where
there was a large output of the class of matter described, and the
permit number was printed in with the impression when the order under
which it was issued was being struck off. The "stamp" is usually printed
in black, but has been seen in dark blue.

In the stamp account for the year ending 30th June, 1903, no returns
were given for mailings under these "Permits", but in 1904 we find that
"Postage Paid in Cash on 3d Class (Printed) Matter" is given as
$53,970.47, while in 1910 it had risen to $256,468.20--a quite
respectable amount for the use of the "Permits".



REFERENCE LIST



PROVINCE OF CANADA

1st. SERIES. Engraved and printed by Messrs. Rawdon, Wright, Hatch &
Edson, New York. Unperforated.

  1851.              =THIN GRAYISH LAID PAPER.=

    April 23.  3 pence, deep red, red, vermilion.
                 _double strike_, deep red, red, vermilion.
    May 15 (?) 6 pence, black violet, deep brown violet, slate.
                 _diagonal half_ used as 3d.
    June 15.  12 pence, black.

                     =STOUT WHITE LAID PAPER.=

               3 pence, red.
               6 pence, dull purple.

  1851-7.            =GRAYISH WOVE PAPER, THIN TO STOUT.=

               3 pence, deep red, red, vermilion.
                     _double strike_, deep red, red, vermilion.
               6 pence, black brown, brownish black, greenish black, slate,
                        slate violet, deep violet.
              12 pence, black.

                     =SOFT WHITE WOVE PAPER.=

               3 pence, deep red, red.
                    _double strike_, deep red, red.

                     =STOUT HARD WHITE WOVE PAPER.=

               3 pence, deep red, red, vermilion.
               6 pence, deep violet, slate violet, brown violet.

                     =VERY THICK HARD PAPER.=

               6 pence, slate violet.

                     =VERY THICK SOFT PAPER.=

               6 pence, dull purple.
                    _diagonal half_ used as 3d.

                     =THIN SOFT RIBBED PAPER.=

               3 pence, red.
                    _double strike_, red.

                     =STOUT HARD RIBBED PAPER.=

               3 pence, red.
                    _double strike_, red.
               6 pence, black violet.

  1855, Jan.         =THIN WOVE PAPER.=

              10 pence, deep blue, Prussian blue.
                    _wide impression._
                    _narrow impression._
                    _double strike._

                     =STOUT HARD WOVE PAPER.=

              10 pence, deep blue, Prussian blue.
                    _wide impression._

  1857, June 2 (?)  =THIN WOVE PAPER.=

           7-1/2 pence, dark yellow green.
                    _wide impression._
                    _narrow impression._

                     =STOUT HARD WOVE PAPER.=

           7-1/2 pence, dark yellow green.
                    _wide impression_.

  1857, Aug. 1.      =THIN WOVE PAPER.=

             1/2 penny, deep rose.

                     =STOUT HARD WOVE PAPER.=

             1/2 penny, deep rose.

                     =THIN SOFT RIBBED PAPER.=

             1/2 penny, deep rose.
                    _horizontal ribbing._
                    _vertical ribbing._

Same as before, but perforated 12 by the American Bank Note Co. (?)

  1859, Jan. (?)     =STOUT WOVE PAPER.=

             1/2 penny, deep rose.
               3 pence, red.
                    _double strike._
                    _percé en scie 13_, (unofficial).
                    _perforated 14_, (unofficial).
               6 pence, black violet, slate violet, deep brown violet,
                        black brown.

                     =THIN RIBBED PAPER=

             1/2 penny, deep rose (?)
               3 pence, red.
                    _double strike._

2nd. SERIES. Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co., New
York. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1859, July 1.
               1 cent, dull red, rose red, rose carmine.
                   _imperforate_, rose red.
                   _thick hard paper_, rose red.
                   _ribbed paper_, dull red.
               5 cents, bright red, brick red, deep red.
                   _double strike_, bright red, red, deep red.
                   _worn plate_, red.
                   _imperforate_, red.
                   _worn plate imperforate_, red.
                   _ribbed paper_, red, deep red.
                   _diagonal half_ used as 2-1/2c., red.

              10 cents, bright red violet, dull red violet, deep red violet,
                        deep violet, slate violet, brown violet, yellowish
                        brown, brown, dark brown, black brown, gray brown.
                   _imperforate_, red violet, violet.
                   _ribbed paper_, deep red violet, brown violet, brown
                                        (light to dark).
                   _diagonal half_ used as 5c., red violet, black brown.

          12-1/2 cents, light yellow green, deep yellow green, green,
                        blue green.
                    _imperforate_, blue green.
                    _ribbed paper_, light yellow green.
              17 cents, deep blue, Prussian blue.
                    _imperforate_, Prussian blue.
                    _ribbed paper_, Prussian blue.
  1864, Aug. 1.
               2 cents, rose red, dull red.
                    _imperforate_, rose red, dull red.
                    _ribbed paper_, rose red.


DOMINION OF CANADA

3rd. SERIES. LARGE STAMPS. Engraved and printed by the British American
Bank Note Co., Montreal & Ottawa. Perforated 12, Wove paper.

  1868, April 1.
             1/2 cent, gray black, black.
                   _horizontal pair, imperforate between._
                   _very thin paper._
               1 cent, brown red, deep brown red.
                   _watermarked_, brown red.
                   _laid paper_, brown red, deep brown red.
                   _very thin paper_, deep brown red.
               2 cents, pale yellow green, pale green, green,
                        deep yellow green, deep blue green.
                    _watermarked_, green.
                    _very thin paper_, deep yellow green.
               3 cents, vermilion, bright red, deep red, brown red.
                    _watermarked_, brown red, red.
                    _laid paper_, vermilion, bright red.
                    _very thin paper_, deep red.
                    _very thick paper_, brown red.

               6 cents, pale brown, brown, deep brown, gray brown,
                        pale yellow brown, deep yellow brown.
                    _watermarked_, deep brown.
                    _very thin paper_, deep brown.
                    _diagonal half_ used for 3c., deep brown.
          12-1/2 cents, dull blue, deep blue, pale blue.
                    _watermarked_, deep blue.
                    _very thin paper_, dull blue.
              15 cents, mauve, deep mauve, lilac gray, gray violet,
                        deep gray violet, blue gray, slate blue,
                        greenish blue.
                    _watermarked_, lilac gray, gray violet.
                    _thin laid paper_, mauve.
                    _ribbed paper_, lilac gray.
                    _very thick paper_, mauve, slate blue, purple.
                    _imperforate_, brown violet.
  1869,  Jan.
               1 cent, yellow, pale orange, orange yellow, orange.
                    _imperforate_, yellow.
  1875, Oct. 1.
               5 cents, light olive gray, dark olive gray.



4th SERIES. SMALL STAMPS. Engraved and printed by the British American
Bank Note Company, Montreal & Ottawa. Perforated 12. Thin to thick wove
paper.

  1870, Jan. (?)
             3 cents, dull rose red, deep rose red, rose carmine (1888),
                         brown red, red, bright red, vermilion, orange red.
                  _imperforate_, dull red, vermilion.
                  _ribbed paper_, red.

  1870, Mar. (?)
             1 cent, orange, orange yellow, deep yellow, bright yellow,
                         pale yellow, olive yellow.
                  _imperforate_, bright yellow.
                  _ribbed paper_, yellow.
                  _vertical half_, used for 1/2c.

  1872, Jan. (?)
             6 cents, pale yellow brown, brown, dark yellow brown;
                         (1888) pale chestnut, deep chestnut.
                  _imperforate_, deep chestnut.
                  _ribbed paper_, deep chestnut.
                  _vertical half_, used for 3c.

  1872, Feb. (?)
             2 cents, pale green, green, deep green; (1888) blue green,
                         deep blue green.
                  _imperforate_, green.
                  _ribbed paper_, green.
                  _vertical half_, used for 1c.

  1874. Nov. 1. (?)
            10 cents, pale lilac, lilac, mauve, red violet, violet;
                        (1888) dull rose red, dull rose, salmon red,
                        brown red, indian red.
                  _imperforate_, brown red, indian red.
                  _ribbed paper_, dull rose red, dull rose.

  1876, Feb. 1. (?)
             5 cents, pale olive gray, olive gray, dark olive gray;
                         (1888) gray, brownish gray, brownish black.
                  _imperforate_, brownish gray.
                  _ribbed paper_, brownish black.

  1882, July.
            1/2 cent, gray black, black.
                  _imperforate._
                  _horizontal pair, imperforate between._
                  _vertical pair, imperforate between._
                  _ribbed paper._

5th SERIES. Engraved and printed by the British American Bank Note Co.,
Ottawa. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1893, Feb. 17.
            20 cents, bright red, vermilion.
                  _imperforate_, vermilion.
            50 cents, deep blue.
                  _imperforate_, black blue.

  1893, Aug. 1.
             8 cents, bluish gray, bluish slate, slate violet, dark slate,
                         black violet, gray black.
                  _imperforate_, bluish gray.



6th SERIES. JUBILEE ISSUE. Engraved and printed by the American Bank
Note Co., Ottawa. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1897, June 19.
                  1/2 cent,  gray black, black.
                  1   "      yellow orange, orange, deep orange.
                             _vertical half_, used for 1/2c.
                  2  cents,  green, deep green.
                  3   "      carmine.
                  5   "      deep blue.
                  6   "      deep brown, deep yellow brown.
                  8   "      slate violet.
                  10  "      brown lilac.
                  15  "      bluish slate.
                  20  "      vermilion, bright scarlet.
                  50  "      ultramarine.
                  1  dollar, carmine lake.
                  2  dollars deep violet.
                  3   "      orange brown.
                  4   "      violet.
                  5   "      olive green.

7th SERIES. "MAPLE LEAF" ISSUE. Engraved and printed by the American
Bank Note Company, Ottawa. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1897,  Nov. 9. 1/2 cent, gray black, black.
         Dec. 1. (?) 6 cents, deep brown.
         Dec.     1  cent,    dark blue green.
                  2  cents,   red violet, violet, deep violet.
                  5  cents,   dark blue on _bluish_
                                (_pale_ and _strong_).
                              _imperforate_, dark blue on
                                _pale bluish_.
                  8  cents,   yellow orange, deep orange.

  1898,  Jan.     3   "       deep carmine.
                 10   "       brown lilac.

8th SERIES. "NUMERALS" ISSUE. Engraved and printed by the American Bank
Note Co., Ottawa. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1898,  June.     1 cent,  blue green, deep blue green.
                            _toned paper_, deep green.
                   3 cents, carmine, deep carmine.
         Sept.   1/2 cent,  gray black, black.
                   2 cents, purple, pale violet, violet, deep violet.
                   6  "     deep yellow brown, dark brown.
         Oct.      8  "     yellow orange, orange, deep orange.
         Nov.     10  "     brown violet, deep brown violet.
  1899,  July, 3.  5  "     dark blue on _bluish
                              (pale_ and _strong)._
         Aug. 20.  2  "     rose carmine, carmine.
  1900,  Dec. 29. 20  "     olive green.
  1902,  Dec. 23.  7  "     olive yellow.



9th SERIES. IMPERIAL PENNY POSTAGE ISSUE. Engraved and printed by the
American Bank Note Co., Ottawa. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1898,  Dec. 7
                           {black, red and lavender.
                           {  "     "   "  bluish.
                  2 cents, {  "     "   "  greenish blue.
                           {  "     "   "  green.
                          _imperforate._

                           {black, red and bluish.
                  2 cents, {  "     "   "  greenish blue.
                           {  "     "   "  green.
                          _Unofficial Provisional._ Used at Port Hood only.
  1899,  Jan. 5.  1 cent, greenish surcharge on vertical third of 3c. 1898.
                  2 cents, purple surcharge on vertical two-thirds of 3c. 1898.
                          (These two occur as both "lefts" and "rights")

10th SERIES. PROVISIONALS. Surcharge typographed in black.

  1899, July 28.  2 cents on 3 cents, 1898, _carmine_.
                          _inverted surcharge_, carmine.
         Aug. 8.  2 cents on 3 cents, 1897, carmine.
                          _inverted surcharge_, carmine.

11th SERIES. KING'S HEAD ISSUE. Engraved and printed by the American
Bank Note Co., Ottawa. (Portrait engraved by Perkins, Bacon & Co.,
London). Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1903, July 1.
                  1 cent, blue green, deep blue green.
                          _toned paper_, deep yellow green.
                  2 cents, rose carmine, carmine.
                          _imperforate_, rose carmine.
                  5 cents deep blue on _bluish_
                            (_pale_ and _strong_).
                          indigo on _bluish_
                            (_pale_ and _strong_).
                  7 cents, deep olive yellow.
                 10 cents, brown lilac, brown violet, deep brown violet.
  1904, Sept. 27.
                 20 cents, deep olive green.
  1908, Nov. 19.
                 50 cents, violet.

12th SERIES. QUEBEC TERCENTENARY ISSUE. Engraved and printed by the
American Bank Note Co., Ottawa. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1908, July 16.
                 1/2 cent, black brown, brown.
                   1  "  deep blue green.
                   2 cents, carmine.
                   5  "  deep blue.
                   7  "  olive green.
                  10  "  deep violet.
                  15  "  red orange.
                  20  "  deep brown.


=STAMP BOOKS.=

Manufactured by American Bank Note Co., Ottawa. 12-2 cent stamps.

  1900, June 11. 2 cents, issue of 1898.
  1904,   (?)    2  "      "    "  1904.


=REGISTRATION STAMPS=.

1875, Nov. 15. Engraved and printed by the British American Bank Note
Co., Montreal and Ottawa. Perforated 12. Thin to thick wove paper.

  2 cents, orange, orange red, vermilion; (1888) brick red.
           _imperforate_, orange.
  5 cents, yellow green, green, dark green; (1888) deep blue green.
           _imperforate_, dark green.
  8 cents, bright blue, dull blue.


=POSTAGE DUE STAMPS=.

1906, July 1. Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
Ottawa. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1 cent,  deep violet.
  2 cents, deep violet.
  5  "     deep violet, red violet.


=SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMP=.

1898, July 1. Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co.,
Ottawa. Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  10 cents, deep green, deep blue green.
            _toned paper_, deep green.


=OFFICIALLY SEALED LABELS=.

Engraved and printed by the British American Bank Note Co., Montreal.
Perforated 12. Wove paper.

  1879 (?)  (_no value_), dark brown.
            _imperforate_ (?)

Engraved and printed by the American Bank Note Co., Ottawa. Perforated
12. Wove paper.

  1905 (?)  (_no value_), black on _light green._
  1907 (?)  (_no value_), black.


=Stamped Envelopes.=

PROVINCE OF CANADA.

                          Ca
  Laid paper, watermarked POD Size 5-1/2 × 3-1/4 inches (138 × 83 mm.)

  1860, Feb. 1.(?) _Cream toned paper_, flap rounded.
                5 cents, bright red.
               10 cents, black brown.
                        _error_(?)
               10 cents, bright red.
  1864 (?)     _Very white paper_, flap more pointed.
                5 cents, bright red.



=UNOFFICIAL REPRINTS, 1868.=

    _On pieces of white wove or vertically laid buff paper._
   _5 cents, bright red._
  _10 cents, dark red brown_.

  _On diagonally laid white or buff envelopes, watermarked_ POD
                                                                  US

          _Size 5-1/2 × 3 inches (138 × 77 mm)._
   _5 cents, bright red._
  _10 cents, dark red brown_.

       *       *       *       *       *

DOMINION OF CANADA.

  Sizes: A--5-1/2 × 3-1/8 inches (138 × 79 mm.)
         B--6     × 3-3/8 inches (150 × 85 mm.)
         C--9-5/8 × 4-1/2 inches (265 × 113 mm.)
         D--5-7/8 × 3-1/2 inches (148 × 87 mm.)
         E--6     × 3-5/8 inches (152 × 90 mm.)

        Laid paper, cross vergures 18 mm. apart. Pointed flap.

  1877, Oct. 6.  White paper.
        Size A: 1 cent, pale blue, deep blue.
                3 cents, red, rose.
        Size B: 3 cents,  "    "
        Same paper, tongued flap.
        Size A: 1 cent, blue.
                3 cents, red.

        Laid paper, cross vergures 24 mm. apart. Pointed flap.

  1888 (?) Cream toned paper.
       Size A: 1 cent, blue, deep blue.
               3 cents, red, carmine.
       Size B: 3 cents,   "     "

        Same paper, cross vergures 27 mm. apart.
       Size A: 1 cent, deep blue.

        White wove paper.
  1895  (?) Size B: 3 cents, carmine.

        Laid paper, cream toned.
  1895, June 14.
            Size B: 2 cents, blue green.
  1896  (?) Size A: 1 cent, ultramarine.

        Manila amber paper.
  1896 (?) Size C: 1 cent, ultramarine.
                   3 cents, red.

        Wove paper, cream toned.
  1898, Apr.  1 (?) Size D: 3 cents, bright red.
  1898, July 22.    Size D: 1 cent, dark green.
  1899, Jan.  2.    Size D: 2 cents, deep violet.
  1899, Jan.  8 (?) Size D: 2 cents, bright red, vermilion.
  1899, Feb.  6. (?) Surcharged 2c in blue-black.
  Type 1.
          Size D: 2 c. on 3 cents, red, of 1898.
  Type 2.
          Size A: 2c. on 3 cents, red, of 1877; white paper, pointed flap.
                  2c. on 3  "     "    "  1888 (?) cream toned paper.
          Size B: 2c. on 3  "     "    "    "        "     "     "
          Size D: 2c. on 3  "     "    "  1898.

  1901 (?)  Size D: 1 cent, dark green.
                    2 cents, bright red.

  Very white wove paper.

  1905, Jan. 12.   Size E: 2 cents, bright red.
        Mar. 1 (?) Size E: 1 cent, deep blue green.


=WRAPPERS.=

  TYPE 1. Size 9-1/2 × 5 inches (235 × 127 mm.).

  1875, May  1 cent, dark blue, _light buff paper_.
                "    _variety_, stamp at left.
                        [Size 11-1/2 × 6-1/2 inches (290 × 165 mm.)]

             Size 11-1/8 × 4-7/8 inches (285 × 124 mm.).

  1881,  Nov. (?) 1 cent, dark blue, blue, _cream paper_.

  TYPE 2. Size as last.

  1882,  May (?) 1 cent, pale blue, _light buff paper_.
         Aug.(?) 1  "  blue, _straw paper_.
  1885,          1  "  ultramarine, _cream paper_.

  TYPE 3. Size as last.

  1887,  May (?) 1 cent, ultramarine, _thin white paper_.
  1888,          1  "      "     _cream paper_.
                 1  "      "     _light manila paper_.

  TYPE 4. Size 10-3/8 × 4-7/8 inches (264 × 124 mm.).

  1892, Feb. (?) 1 cent, dark blue, _thin straw paper_.
                    " _variety_, stamp half way across wrapper.
                 1  " blue, _cream paper_.

  Size 10-3/4 × 4-7/8 inches (272 × 125 mm.).

                 1 cent, dark blue, _straw paper_.
  1894, Feb. (?) 1  "   black, _light buff paper_.
                 1  "      "   _light brown paper_.

  1898, June (?) 1  "   dark green, _manila paper_.

  1903, Oct. (?) 1  "      "    "         "      "

  Size 15 × 6-1/2 inches (378 × 165 mm.). Inscription.

  1907, July 11. 1 cent, dark green, _manila paper_.
                 2  "    carmine, _manila paper_.

  Size 13 × 8 inches (308 × 223 mm.). Inscription.

                 3  cents, slate violet, _manila paper_.
  1908,  June 18 (?) Last two wrappers, surcharged.
                 1 c. on 2 cents, carmine.
                 1 c. "  3 "      slate violet.


=POST CARDS.=

Size 4-5/8 × 3 inches (116 × 75 mm.). Imprint "Montreal & Ottawa."

  1871.  June     1 cent, dull blue, deep blue, _light buff
                            and pale buff card_.

Size 4-3/4 × 3 inches (120 × 75 mm.). Imprint "Montreal" only.

  1876.  (end)    1  cent, dull blue, deep blue, _pale buff card_.
                         Inscribed "To United Kingdom."

  1877.  Jan. 1.  2  cents, deep yellow green, _pale buff card_.
                         Inscribed "Union Postale Universelle."

  1879,         2 cents, yellow green, _pale yellowish card_.
                         Size 5 × 3 inches (127 × 76 mm.). No frame.

TYPE 2 of wrapper stamp.

  1882,  Apr. (?) 1 cent, light blue, _pale buff card_.
         Dec. (?) 1 plus 1 cent, slate, _pale buff card_.
                          _Error_, stamps at left.

  1884,  Sept. (?) 1 plus 1 cent, slate, _pale buff card_.

TYPE 3 of wrapper stamp.

  1887,  Feb.  (?) 1 cent, dull blue, _pale buff card_.
               (?) 1 plus 1 cent, slate, _pale buff card_.

  1888,        (?) 1 plus 1  "  slate green, _pale buff card_.

TYPE 4 of wrapper stamp.

  1891,  Dec.  (?)  1 cent, dull ultramarine, pale ultramarine,
                              _pale buff card_.

  1892,  Dec.  (?)  1 plus 1 cent, slate green, (Type 3 on reply card),
                                     _pale buff card_.

  1894,  Oct.  (?)  1 plus 1  "  gray black, (Type 4 on each card),
                                   _pale buff card_.

Size 6 × 3-5/8 inches (152 × 92 mm.).

  1893, Feb. 17.   1 cent, black, _pale buff card_.

Size 5-1/2 × 3-3/8 inches (140 × 85 mm.).

  1894, Feb.  (?)  1 cent, black, _pale yellowish card_.

  1895, Apr.  (?)  1  "     "  _rough straw card_.

Size 5-1/8 × 3-1/8 inches (130 × 80 mm.).

  1896, Oct.  (?)  2  cents, orange red, carmine, _pale buff card_.

Size 5-1/2 × 3-3/8 inches (140 × 85 mm.).

  1897, June 19.  1  cent, black, _pale buff card_.
                      "  _variety_, inscriptions lacking.

Size 5-1/8 × 3-1/8 inches (130 × 80 mm.).

  1897, Dec. 1 (?) 2  cents, deep orange red, _pale buff card_.

Size 5-1/2 × 3-3/8 inches (140 × 85 mm.).

  1898, Jan.  (?)  1 cent, green, dark green, _pale buff card_.
                   1 "  carmine, _pale buff card_.

Size 5 × 3 inches (127 × 76 mm.).

  1898, June (?)   1  plus 1 cent, black, _pale buff card_.
                       "      "  _variety_, reply printed on back
                                                   of message card.

Size 5-1/8 × 3-1/8 inches (130 × 80 mm.).

  1898, June (?)   2  cents, deep blue, _cream card_.

Size 5-1/2 × 3-3/8 inches (140 × 85 mm.).

  1903, Aug. (?)   1 cent, green, _pale buff card_.
        Dec. (?)   1  "  rose,        "    "    "

Size 5 × 3 inches (127 × 76 mm.).

  1904, Feb. (?) 1 plus 1 cent, black, _pale buff card_.

Size 5-1/8 × 3-1/8 inches (130 × 80 mm.).

  1904, Feb. (?) 2 cents, deep blue, _pale buff card_.


=LETTER CARDS.=

  1893. Feb. 17. 3 cents, carmine, _blue-green card_. Perf. A. and C.

  1895, Oct. (?) 1  "     black,   "   "  "  Perf. A and C.
                 2  "     green,   "   "  "  Perf. A.

  1897, Dec. (?) 2  "       "      "   "  "  Perf. A.

  1898, Jan. (?) 1  "     black,   "   "  "  Perf. A.
                 3  "     carmine, "   "  "  Perf. A.

Surcharged "2c." in blue-black.

  1899,  Feb. (?) 2 cents on 3 c. card of 1893, type 1.
                  2  "    "  3 c.  "   "   "     "   2.
                  2  "    "  3 c.  "   "  1898,  "   2.


Surcharged in violet.

                  2 cents on 3 c. card of 1893, type 2.

  1900,  Jan. (?) 1 cent, green, _blue-green card_. Perf. A.
                  2  "    carmine, "   "   "  Perf. A.


=LETTER SHEET.=

  1894  (?)  1 cent, black, _gray blue laid paper_.
             1  "     "     _white laid paper_.


=OFFICIAL STATIONERY.=

  Inland Revenue Wrapper, Size 11 × 5-1/8 inches (280 × 132 mm.).

  1879  (?)  1 cent, dark blue, _cream paper_.

  Customs Post Card, Size 5-1/8 × 3-1/8 inches (130 × 88 mm.).

  1888  (?)  [plain front], _manila card_.
  [inscriptions on front], _manila card._

  Returned Dead Letter Envelopes. Size 6-7/8 × 4-3/4 inches
    (175 × 120 mm.).

  1889  (?)  3 cents, black, _manila paper_.
                ?       ?          ?



[Illustration: PLATE I]

[Illustration: PLATE II]

[Illustration: PLATE III]

[Illustration: PLATE IV]

[Illustration: PLATE V]

[Illustration: PLATE VI]

[Illustration: PLATE VII]

[Illustration: PLATE VIII]

[Illustration: PLATE IX]

[Illustration: PLATE X]

[Illustration: PLATE XI]

[Illustration: PLATE XII]

[Illustration: PLATE XIII]

[Illustration: PLATE XIV]



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

Page 21: changed "or" to "of" ( ... from the sender of such letter or
packet ...)

Page 23: missing or unreadable value in the original ( ... the rate on
Letters by those mails, viâ Halifax, of 1s. [missing value] sterling, if
_un-paid_, ...)

Page 90: changed "setttled" to "settled" ( ... newly settled portions of
the country ...)

Page 99: changed "fradulent" to "fraudulent" (To remove with fraudulent
intent from any letter, newspaper or other mailable matter ...)

Page 141: changed "(C)" to "(D)" ((D) Limits of weight to
Austria-Hungary, ...)

Page 149: changed "beseiged" to "besieged" ( ... literally besieged the
post offices for the coveted treasures.)

Page 149: changed "neceessary" to "necessary" ( ... it would be
necessary for you to apply early ...)

Page 154: duplicate word "in" deleted (The principal variation is only
one of tone in a few values.)

Page 196: changed "monoply" to "monopoly" ( ... an accidental monopoly
of a stamp, ...)

Page 202: changed "promotory" to "promontory" ( ... he disembarked on
the 3d July at the foot of the promontory of Stadaconé, ...)

Page 228: changed "Qneen" (with inverted "u") to "Queen" (The embossed
head of Queen Victoria was evidently copied ...)

Page 238: changed "suppy" to "supply" ( ... when the supply thereof in
the department became exhausted, ...)

Page 256: changed "uncertainity" to "uncertainty" (The reply card in the
new type is again an uncertainty.)

Page 286: corrected "130 × 80" to "140 × 85" (Size 5-1/2 × 3-3/8 inches
(140 × 85 mm.).)





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