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Title: Hand-Craft - The Most Reliable Basis of Technical Education in Schools and Classes
Author: Sutcliffe, John D.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  HAND-CRAFT.



     DRAWING BOOKS.

     Kindergarten Drawing Book. Part I. Compiled by T. G. Rooper.

     Two Hundred Blackboard Drawing Exercises for Infants' Classes.
     Small quarto, cloth, price 1s. 6d.

     Kindergarten Drawing Book. Part II. Compiled by T. G. Rooper.
     (Curved lines.) Small quarto, cloth, price 1s.


     INFANTS' DRAWING BOOKS.

     _A Varied Occupation._

     Book I. Vertical and Horizontal Lines of varying lengths in
     combination.

     Book II. Vertical and Horizontal Lines, with Oblique Lines drawn
     at Angles of 45 Degrees.

     Book III. Vertical and Horizontal Lines, with Oblique Lines drawn
     at various Angles.

     PRICE TWOPENCE EACH.

     _Recommended by the Science and Art Department for Beginning in
     Elementary Day Schools._


     JUNIOR DRAWING BOOKS.

     =Three Books. PRICE TWOPENCE EACH.=


     DRAWING BOOKS.

     _To meet the requirements of the New Class Subject--Drawing--and
     forming a complete course of Instruction in Freehand and
     Geometry, with full directions and space for working._


     FREEHAND.

     Book I. Lines, Angles, Parallels. Simple Right-lined Forms.

     Book II. Simple Right-lined Forms.

     Book III. Simple Combinations of Straight and Curved Lines,
     forming familiar Symmetrical Figures.

     Book IV. More Advanced Combinations of Straight and Curved Lines,
     forming Symmetrical Figures.

     Books V. & VI. Familiar Symmetrical Objects of the Home.

     Books VII. & VIII. Stage II. of the Science and Art Department.

     Books IX. & X. Common Objects in Light and Shade.

     _11 inches by 7-1/2 inches, paper covers, Twopence each._

     _BOOKS I.-VIII. have SIXTEEN PAGES. BOOKS IX. and X. EIGHT
     PAGES._


     GEOMETRY.

     Book I. Lines, Parallels, Angles and Triangles drawn with Rulers.

     Book II. Quadrilaterals and Simple Geometrical Figures drawn with
     Rulers.

     Book III. Lines and Angles.

     Book IV. Drawing to Scale.

     Book V. Triangles, Quadrilaterals, Circles and Tangents.

     Book VI. Polygons, Ellipses, Inscribed and Described Figures.

     Book VII. Inscribed and Described Figures.

     Book VIII. Proportionals and Areas.

     Book IX. Simple Scales, Projection of Rectangular Solids, and
     Plane Figures.

     Book X. Ditto (more advanced), and with Sections.

     Book XI. Projection of Circular Solids and Sections.

     _BOOKS I.-VIII., 11 inches by 7-1/4 inches, paper covers,
     Twopence each._

     _BOOKS IX.-XI., 14 inches by 10-3/4 inches, paper covers,
     Threepence each._

     [***] _A Book of Specimen Pages of this Series will be forwarded
     free to Head-Teachers on application. Single Copies of any of the
     Books are sent post-free on receipt of the published price._


     STUDIES IN MACHINE DESIGN.

     By C. F. ARCHER, Certificated Teacher, Subject II.


     ELEMENTARY STAGE.

     1. Hexagon and Square-headed Bolts and Nuts.

     2. Flange Coupling of Shafts of different diameter.

     3. Hydraulic Pipe Joint.

     4. Steam Piston.

     5. Cylinder Cover and Stuffing Box.

     6. Full Way Stop Valve.

     _On Separate Sheets, 13-1/2 inches by 9-1/2 inches, the Six in a
     Packet_, =Sixpence=.


     ADVANCED STAGE.

     1. Launch Engine.

     2. Details of Crank Shaft and Columns.

     3. Details of Slide Valve and Link Motion.

     4. Details of Piston, Crosshead, and Connecting Rod.

     5. Launch Engine Cylinder.

     6. Details of Bed-plate.

     _On Separate Sheets, 13-1/2 inches by 9-1/2 inches, the Six in a
     Packet_, =Sixpence=.


     GRIFFITH, FARRAN, OKEDEN & WELSH, LONDON.



  HAND-CRAFT:

  _THE MOST RELIABLE BASIS OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
  IN SCHOOLS AND CLASSES._

  A TEXT BOOK

  EMBODYING A SYSTEM OF PURE MECHANICAL ART, WITHOUT THE AID OF
  MACHINERY; BEING AN ENGLISH EXPOSITION OF

  SLÖJD

  AS CULTIVATED IN SWEDEN, AND GENERALLY ADOPTED BY ALL
  SCANDINAVIAN PEOPLES, TO THEIR GREAT ADVANTAGE.

  _EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED_

  BY
  JOHN D. SUTCLIFFE,
  OF THE MANCHESTER RECREATIVE EVENING CLASSES.

  WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
  T. C. HORSFALL, J.P.

  NEW YORK
  CHARLES E. MERRILL & CO.
  52 & 54 LAFAYETTE PLACE
  1890



INTRODUCTION.


It is surprising that so few efforts have hitherto been made in this
country to introduce manual training into Elementary Schools. Adequate
reason for making such training part of the national system of education
exists in the fact, that a large proportion of the people have to earn
their livelihood by industries for the attainment of a high degree of
skill in which early training of hand and eye is as necessary as it is
for success in the use of musical instruments. There can be no doubt
that if, in 1870, a system, resembling that of Sloyd, had been generally
introduced into English Elementary Schools, the joiners, metal-workers,
and most other craftsmen of to-day, would possess more skill in their
own work, and more interest in all kinds of manual work, than they do
now possess, and that English workpeople, finding that their children
received at school kinds of training obviously well fitted to increase
wage-earning power, would less commonly than now be careless with regard
to their children's attendance at school.

This reason for desiring the introduction of manual training into
Elementary Schools might have been expected to suggest itself to all
persons who are acquainted with the conditions under which the mass of
English people live; but experience gained in Sweden and other countries
where the Sloyd system has been largely used, proves that there are also
strong educational reasons for desiring that Sloyd shall be introduced
into all English Elementary Schools as soon as possible. It has been
found that this admirably graduated system of training not only fosters
deftness of hand and correctness of eye, as it might be expected to do,
but also has distinctly moral and intellectual effects, as it promotes
patient attention, steady application, and interest in work, to a very
high degree.

Its effect on many of the large class of children who, though not
dullards, show lack of interest in, and deficiency in the power to
understand, the subjects comprised in the ordinary school-curriculum,
has been most beneficial. In their Sloyd-lessons many of these children
have found themselves the equals, some more than the equals, of
companions far their superiors at book-work, and have by this gained a
confidence in their own ability which has often reacted on their power
and their will to conquer their other lessons. Thus many children who,
when they first began Sloyd, were distinctly below the average in
intelligence, have become under its influence completely "normal." On
nearly all children the effect of this kind of training has been so
vivifying that, at least, as much progress has been made with other
subjects, when several hours weekly have been given to Sloyd, as had
been made previously when all the school-time was given to them. The
general educational value of Sloyd has, indeed, been found to be so
great, that in some schools in Swedish towns as many as eight hours are
given to it each week.

All persons who know how badly prepared are the majority of the children
who now leave our Elementary Schools for gaining rapidly skill in the
work by which they have to live, or for taking an intelligent interest
in their own work or in the best handiwork of others, most strongly
desire that the educational authorities in this country will no longer
delay the introduction of a system, the great usefulness of which has
been so fully ascertained in other lands, and for which many
well-trained English teachers can now be obtained. Mr Sutcliffe brought
to the careful study of Sloyd, knowledge of the methods of wood-carving;
and his treatise will doubtless be found to be helpful to all teachers
of the new system.

  T. C. HORSFALL, J.P.

  SWANSCOE PARK,

  near MACCLESFIELD.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTE BY THE AUTHOR.

Some friends have advised that elementary suggestions should have been
given as guidance for the use of the tools. Everything of the kind has
been omitted, because it is vain to rely upon book knowledge in such
matters. How to handle and use the tools can only be well imparted by a
competent teacher in practice. The author avails himself of two more
lines, wherein to acknowledge the valuable literary assistance he has
received from his friend, Mr Richard Russell, of Ashbourne House, Herne
Hill, London.

  J. D. S.

  PENDLETON, MANCHESTER,

  _March 1890._



HAND-CRAFT.


For some generations there has been cultivated in Sweden, and amongst
Scandinavian and kindred peoples, a course of training in personal
ingenuity, unknown in most other countries. It does not seem to have
ever been persevered in after the manner of trading industry, but as a
means of promoting throughout the community a taste and skill for the
performance of highly-finished productions in mechanical art, proceeding
from the simple to the complex, and resulting in a widely-diffused
facility for all kinds of constructive occupations.

Such course or system of training is called Sloyd, and written Slöjd.
For the majority of English people such a word cannot have a meaning,
and cannot appeal with adequate force to popular appreciation. The
nearest equivalent in English to the Swedish word Slöjd would seem to be
Hand-Craft, or mechanical training for the hand, undertaken voluntarily
for the satisfaction of acquiring manual skill in general, as
distinguished from a handicraft of limited application, pursued of
necessity from day to day, rather by routine than by skill.

Hand-Craft is therefore adopted as synonymous in England with the word
Slöjd in Sweden.

As cultivated in Sweden, it involves all kinds of manual training, and
is applicable to highly finished productions in leather, metal, and
various other substances, but it suffices, for educational purposes, to
limit teaching and exercise to objects made of wood.

It must always be borne in mind that Hand-Craft is mainly educational,
and is valuable, not for what it produces, but for the training which
the production involves; just as the letters of the alphabet, and their
accurate use, are the essential preliminaries to literary attainments.
It imparts and cultivates mechanical dexterity, just as learning to read
and write spontaneously developes mental capacity. Therefore, whoever
masters a course of Hand-Craft acquires an aptitude for all kinds of
material processes. Such an aptitude, while useful and gratifying to the
individual, is of the greatest consequence amongst people so deeply
interested as the English are in manufacturing pursuits.

Hand-Craft also has strong claims to be cultivated as a recreation, and
experience proves that it may be so regarded, with every prospect of
becoming popular as such.

Touching this matter of recreation, and those who have not the faculty
for viewing the subject in that light, reference may be made to familiar
facts with reference to chess. Perhaps there is nothing that, to the
uninitiated, appears more stupid, insipid, and purposeless than the
progress of that game. Yet there are thousands, who have so regarded it,
who, after being well initiated, have become interested and absorbed by
it, to an extent exceeding the possibilities of their original belief.

So it is with Hand-Craft, with this difference, that Hand-Craft, while
supplying an incentive to wholesome perseverance, developing into a
fascinating recreation, is suggestive at every turn of life-long
utility, with reference to an infinite variety of probable subsequent
experience. It promotes a delightful consciousness of the merits of
neat, natty tastefulness and judgment with reference to every material
thing, and trains the mind and the eye, as well as the hand, to perceive
and appreciate excellence of design and finish, proportion, beauty, and
adaptability of the most familiar appliances.

Training of this kind has, in recent years, been much stimulated by the
establishment of an Institute or Seminary for its teaching and
cultivation at Nääs in Sweden, where very generous accommodation and
facilities are provided for the instruction of teachers from all parts
of Sweden and the rest of the world. The subsequent mission of each of
those teachers is to diffuse the taste and knowledge he has thus
acquired amongst his own people on his return to them, or amongst other
people where he may find encouragement to settle for that purpose.

Thus have the foundations been laid for this genial drawing out and
exercise of latent mechanical genius amongst the people of England. With
the object of widening those foundations, these pages have been
prepared; primarily as forming a Text Book for Teachers, but also as an
incentive to parents, educationists, and statesmen to fortify the rising
generation of England against the opprobrium so justly alleged against
the English of the present day, that they are behind the rest of the
industrial world in those elements of mechanical taste and skill, which
are becoming more and more essential to the maintenance of manufacturing
and commercial prosperity.

An earnest determination to promote amendment in these respects cannot
be better carried into effect than by insisting that Hand-Craft shall be
regarded as an essential branch of the Technical Education that is now
struggling to assert itself usefully. If such a branch be left out, the
mere teaching of routine trade processes will inevitably fail. Such
routine processes are many of them in heavy-handed, rough disregard of
the nicety, accuracy, finish, and judgment which intelligent exercise in
Hand-Craft can alone impart; which is the only reliable basis for the
superior mechanical results so much needed.

Hand-Craft in wood is distinguished from carpentry or joinery in many
important respects.

There is no division of labour.

Everything produced is the entire work of one operator, for the defects
of which he is solely responsible.

This directness of responsibility is one of the great merits of
Hand-Craft, being calculated to promote wholesome pride in the
excellence of complete work; a sentiment that is apt to be very weak, or
totally wanting, where division of labour is much relied upon.

The intellectual faculties are brought into unison with the hand, by
knowledge and experience developing together with increasing dexterity.

Genuine respect and sympathy are developed for manual toil by
familiarity with its application.

Love of work in general is developed, and a taste for it instilled by
practical experience of its utility.

Habits of attention, perseverance, industry, and discipline are formed,
cultivated, and unconsciously grafted upon the pupil, by the application
necessary to excel.

Independence, order, and cleanliness spontaneously grow and become part
of the nature of the operator.

Manual dexterity being thoroughly established, the operator is endowed
with the consequent acquired ability for dealing with the practical
business of life.

Education being the object that should be constantly kept in view, in
the teaching and practice of Hand-Craft, it should be thoroughly
appreciated that it is adapted for forming and shaping the entire bent
of all the faculties.

The objects recommended to work upon are all small, and are therefore
within the capacity of the very young, and of both sexes.

For the same reason, the eye, the hand, and the judgment are trained to
precise form and finish in the minutest details. This is important, for,
though it is generally easier to make something large and rough than
small and smooth, no one who is incapable of making a small model well
can make a large one any better. Small objects are invariably the best
training to work upon, as being certain to inspire appreciation for
neatness, exactness, and accuracy.


BASIS OF TEACHING.

Practical teaching of Hand-Craft is based upon models for imitation.


These models, distinguished by numbering from 1A and 1B to 25, are
represented by the drawings accompanying these pages, and the
instructions hereafter subjoined are explained by reference to the
drawings.

The following is a


LIST OF THE MODELS.

[***] The second column indicates the kind of wood required--B.
signifying Beech or Birch, and F. signifying Fir, commonly called Deal
or Pine; the class of wood usually distinguished as Pine being
preferable to the rougher-grained wood generally classed as Deal.

  No.   Wood.          Names of Models.

   1A.   B.        Kindergarten Pointer.
   1B.   B.        Another variety of the same.
   2.    B.        Parcel-Pin or Carrier.
   3.    F.        Flower-Stick.
   4.    B.        Envelope Opener.
   5.    F.        Rectangular Flower-Stick.
   6.    F.        Pencil Holder.
   7.    F.        Key Label.
   8.    B.        Thread-Winder.
   9.    F.        Dibble for the Garden.
  10.    B.        Pen-Rest.
  11.    F.        Flower-pot Stand.
  12.    B.        Paper-Knife.
  13.    B.        Knife-Rest.
  14.    B.        Bowl, for Toilette, &c.
  15.    B.        Hammer Handle.
  16.    B.        Handle for Chisel or File.
  17.    B.        Spoon.
  18.    F.        Chopping-Board.
  19.    B.        Measure (Half-yard).
  20.    B.        Scoop for Flour, Sugar, &c.
  21.    F.        Hanging-Pegs.
  22.    F.        Stand for Flower-Pot, &c.
  23.    F.        Footstool.
  24.    F. & B.   Book Carrier.
  25.    B.        Ladle.


TOOLS AND APPLIANCES.

The following is a List of Tools and Appliances necessary for producing
the models before enumerated, with the cost of each, both Swedish and
English.

  Descriptions of Articles.                 Best Swedish.  Best English.
                                             _s._  _d._    _s._  _d._

  Carpenter's Bench in Pine, 6 ft. long       11     3      13     0
  Knife (resembling a Shoemaker's)             0     4       0     8
  Two Frame Saws, blades 3/8 and 1-1/4 wide    2     7[1]   10     6
  Tenon or Dovetail Saw (small)                2     0       3     0
  Jack Plane                                   1     8       4     9
  Smooth Plane                                 1     1       3     9
  Three Furmer Chisels, 3/8, 3/4, and 1-1/4
    wide                                       1     2       2     4
  Three Outside Gouges, 1/2, 7/8, and 1-1/8
    wide                                       1     4       2     8
  Two-foot Rule                                0     6       0     6
  Square (6 in.)                               1     6       1    10
  Bevel (6 in.)                                0     8       2     3
  Marking Gauge                                0     6       0     6
  Compasses                                    1     0       1     8
  Hammer (small)                               0     8       0     8
  Mallet                                       0     6       1     0
  Oilstone                                     0     7       1     0
  Scraper, with round end                      0     2       0     5
  Two Files (half round), one rough, the other
    smooth                                     1     0       3     0
  Chopper or Axe                               1    10       1     6
  Spokeshave (iron)                            0     5       1     0
  Screw-driver                                 0     3       0     7
  Glue-Pot and Brush                           1     6       0    10
  Pincers                                      0     7       0     9
  Two Brad-Awls                                0     2       0     4
  Brace and twenty-four Bits                   4     0       6     9
  Sand-paper No. 1A
  Pencil
                                          ---------------------------
                                           [2]37     3      65     3
                                          ===========================

  [1] Nothing exactly like this Swedish Saw is made in England.

  [2] Exclusive of carriage from Gothenburg.

Although the prices of the English tools are so much higher than the
Swedish (with few exceptions), they are cheaper in the end. They are
more carefully made; the wood is drier and better selected; and Swedish
steel is not to be compared with English. At the same time, the Swedish
tools are good enough to put into the hands of school boys and girls,
and they have also the advantage of being considerably lighter in
weight.


THE BENCH.

A drawing of the Bench is annexed, to show the difference between one
adapted for Sloyd or Hand-Craft and the kind in common use by
carpenters. The Sloyd Bench is usually about 7 ft. long, 2 ft. wide, and
3 ft. 3 in. high. As shown in the drawing, it has an extra Bench Screw
at the end, which enables the student to fix a piece of level wood
rigidly on the top of the Bench, by placing the end against a Stop, as
shown in the drawing, and bringing the pressure of the End Screw to bear
on the other end. The numerous holes (shown in the drawing) on the Bench
Top, are so arranged that the Stop can be fixed in any of them. For
school work the Benches are often made double--that is, with a Screw on
each side and on each end of the Bench. This arrangement economises
space, and answers all practical purposes; enabling two students to work
at one bench. The Sloyder will find it an advantage to fix a small
drawer under the bench top. In this he should keep his sand-paper and
files, as nothing is so detrimental to the edges of the sharp tools as
these two articles.

[Illustration]


TOOL EXERCISES.

The making of the models involves training in the exercises enumerated
in the following list, the numbering being for subsequent reference.

   1. Long Cut (with grain).
   2. End Cut (across grain).
   3. Oblique Cut.
   4. Bevel Cut.
   5. Sawing off.
   6. Convex Cut.
   7. Long Sawing.
   8. Edge Planing.
   9. Squaring with Set Square.
  10. Gauging.
  11. Drilling with Brace and Shell-Bit.
  12. Flat Planing.
  13. Filing.
  14. Drilling with Brace and Centre-Bit.
  15. Curved Sawing.
  16. Concave Cut.
  17. Bevelled Planing.
  18. Shaping with Plane.
  19. Chopping.
  20. Cross-Sawing.
  21. Mortising with Knife.
  22. Wave-Sawing.
  23. Plane Surface-Cut with Knife.
  24. Scraping.
  25. Obstacle-Planing.
  26. Perpendicular Chiselling.
  27. Concave Chiselling or Gouging.
  28. Gouging with Spoon-Iron.
  29. Oblique Chiselling.
  30. Smoothing with Spokeshave.
  31. Shaping with Spokeshave.
  32. Oblique Sawing.
  33. Oblique Planing.
  34. End Planing.
  35. Exercises with Smoothing Plane.
  36. Work in Hard Wood.
  37. Dowelling or Round Mortising.
  38. Bevelling Edge with Plane Oblique.
  39. Gluing.
  40. Sinking in of Iron Plates.
  41. Nailing.
  42. Sinking of Nails.
  43. Bevelling with Shaping Knife.
  44. Perpendicular Gouging.
  45. Point Planing.
  46. Oblique Grooving.
  47. Circular Sawing.
  48. Fixing with Screws.
  49. Modelling with Knife.



MAKING OF THE MODELS.


The following are the descriptions of how to apply the Exercises to the
making of the Models.


NO. 1A. KINDERGARTEN POINTER.

(Requiring Exercises 1 and 2.)

Commence with a piece of Beech, rather more than 5 in. long, and not
less than 3/4 in. thick. It is all the better, for this and other
exercises, if it is split from a larger piece, and has no side either
square or straight. With the knife, make one side level and smooth, to a
width rather exceeding 3/8 in. When that is done perfectly, make another
straight side at right angles to the first. Trim the ends; then mark
with the pencil at each end a 3/8-in. square, with the two straight
sides as bases. Then cut two additional straight sides in unison with
those squares. This will produce a stem a shade more than 5 in. long and
3/8 in. square. Mark each end with a diagram thus [Figure]; then draw
corresponding lines along each side. Then, letting one end remain the
same size; reduce the other end to 1/8 in. square (as shown in centre of
diagram) by tapering each side symmetrically throughout. This will
result in the stem being 3/8 in. square at one end and 1/8 in. square at
the other end. Then, guided by the diagram at the thicker end, take off
the four corners symmetrically throughout, thus producing a tapered
octagonal stem. Then, in like manner, take off the eight corners with
great precision, so as to maintain uniform symmetry, and the result will
be a tapered stem, approximately round throughout and pointed at one
end.

The Long Cut having, thus far, been solely resorted to, measure from the
point, and make a mark at 4 in.; then cut off at the mark, thus
exercising the Cross Cut. Then, by judiciously applying sand-paper, the
pointer may be made perfectly smooth and almost perfectly round, as it
should be throughout.


NO. 1B. KINDERGARTEN POINTER.

(Requiring Exercises 1, 2, and 3.)

Proceed as for the previous model until the round pointer is produced.
Then apply Exercise 3 to the two Oblique Cuts shown from _A_ to _a_ in
the figures 1, 2, and 3, of drawings No. 1B. These Oblique Cuts demand
great care and precision, as the Cuts should be precisely opposite each
other, perfectly level and symmetrical.


NO. 2. PARCEL-PIN OR CARRIER.

(Requiring Exercises 1, 2, and 4.)

Commence with a piece of Beech rather more than 3 in. long and 5/8 in.
thick. Reduce it in like manner as previously described to a stem 3 in.
long and 3/8 in. square throughout. Then apply Exercise 4, and so bevel
the sides and ends as to make chamfers, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3 of
drawings No. 2. Then draw a line across the centre of one side, and
there cut a [V]-shaped notch as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, so as to provide
for a string. Then finish with a piece of sand-paper laid upon a flat
surface, upon which first rub the sides, then the chamfers, and lastly
the ends.


NO. 3. FLOWER-STICK.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 1, 2, and 6.)

This is the first model made in soft wood, and introduces Exercise 5,
Sawing Off. From the edge of a 3/4-in. board saw off a piece the same
width as the thickness, and about 14 in. long. Proceed as for No. 1A
until a rod is produced 1/2 in. square throughout. Then, by a cross made
from corner to corner [Figure] find the centre of one end. Then take off
the corners throughout until an octagonal rod is produced; then take off
the eight corners so as to make the rod round and the same thickness
throughout. Then apply Exercise 6, the Convex Cut, and point the end
where the centre is marked. Then measure from the point and mark at 12
in., and there cut off at right angles. Then apply sand-paper, and the
result will be a tapered symmetrical round rod, pointed at one end, as
shown in drawings No. 3.

[Illustration: _No. 1A._

_Kindergarten Pointer_]

[Illustration: _No. 1B._

_Kindergarten Pointer_]

[Illustration: _No. 2._

_Parcel Carrier_]

[Illustration: _No. 3._

_Round Plant Stick_]



NO. 4. ENVELOPE OPENER.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 1, 2, and 6.)

Saw from Beech, a piece about 8 in. long, 3/4 in. wide and 1/2 in.
thick. With the knife, make one of the flat sides perfectly level and
smooth throughout, and cut one end across at right angles. With a fine
pencil, draw on the level side the outline of Fig 1 of drawings No. 4,
and also, with compasses, describe on the end the semicircle shown by
Fig 3 of drawings No. 4, with the flat edge for the base. Apply the long
cut to the edges at right angles to the flat side. Then, on each of the
edges thus flattened, draw a line showing the course of the tapering
illustration on the first side of Fig. 2 of drawings No. 4. Apply the
long cut to each of those lines, at right angles to the edges. This will
produce a rod, flat on one side, and presenting a tapered half square on
the other. Then shave off the corners of that square, so as to produce
half a tapered octagon; then shave off the corners of that octagon,
being careful that the work is in unison with the semicircle previously
described on the thick end. When so far done to satisfaction, round both
ends symmetrically, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 of drawings No. 4, and
finish with sand-paper.


NO. 5. RECTANGULAR FLOWER-STICK, WITH CHAMFERED OR BEVELLED CORNERS.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 8, 9, 6, and 3.)

In this model the Jack Plane and the Try Square are used for the first
time. Saw off from Pine a piece about 16 in. long and 3/4 in. square.
Plane one side straight and true, and one of the other sides at right
angles. Cut each end across at right angles, and on each end, using the
planed edges as basis, mark Fig. 2 of drawings No. 5. Then plane the
other two sides at right angles, so as to produce a square rod, which,
at every part throughout its length, should fit the try square. Then,
with the plane, take about two shavings off each corner, in unison with
the figures at the ends. Then, with the knife, cut the point from _a_ to
_a_ as shown in Fig. 1 of drawings No. 5. Then measure from the
long-pointed end, mark the exact length, cut across at the mark, and cut
the other end to a point with eight sides as shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
Finish with sand-paper at the long-pointed end only.

[Illustration: _No. 4._

_Envelope Opener_]

[Illustration: _No. 5._

_Plant Stick_]

[Illustration: _No. 6._

_Pencil Holder_]


NO. 6. PENCIL HOLDER.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 1, 11, 6, and 2.)

This model for the first time introduces the Brace and Bit. Saw off from
Pine a piece 10 in. long, and 3/4 in. square. With the knife, cut one
end across at right angles, and make it smooth. Find the centre of the
end as for model No. 1. Fix the stem vertically in the Bench Screw, with
the smooth end upwards. Fit a 3/16-Shell-Bit into the Brace, and bore a
centre hole in the end of the stem as shown in Fig. 2 of drawings No. 6,
and to the depth dotted in Fig. 1. Great care must be taken in drilling,
so that the hole may be clean and perpendicular. With the knife, pare
down each side so as to leave a 1/2-in. square, with the drilled hole in
the centre. Find the centre in the opposite end. Mark a line about 2-1/4
in. from the drilled end, as shown in Fig. 1. From that line, shave each
side down to the centre last found. Then take off the corners so as to
make a tapered octagon. Then take off the corners of the octagon, so as
to produce a round tapered rod. Measure from the thick end and mark the
exact length, and, at the mark, cut across. Then round the end as shown
in Fig. 1, and finish with sand-paper.

NOTE.--This is a repetition to a considerable extent of Model 1 on a
larger scale. The student may be tempted to proceed without going
through the processes described, but the temptation should be
rigorously resisted, as a satisfactory result cannot be obtained except
by adhering to all the details prescribed.


NO. 7. KEY LABEL.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 12, 8, 9, 10, 11, 6, 2, and 13.)

This is mainly intended for an exercise in planing, and it is better to
get out a piece of Pine sufficient for two models--that is, about 9 in.
long, 1-3/4 in. wide, and 1 in. thick.

Plane one side, and then one edge, perfectly straight and square to each
other. Then set the gauge to 1-1/2 in. to fit Fig. 1 of drawings No. 7.
Apply the gauge to the straightened edge and mark off the width along
the smooth side. Then plane that edge down to the line so made, using
the try-square to keep the edge at right angles with the straightened
side. Next find the centre 3/4 in. from the top end, as shown in Fig. 1.
From that centre describe with the compasses a semicircle. Then fit a
3/16-Shell-bit into the Brace, and bore a hole, at the centre of the
semicircle, right through. Then set the gauge to 5/16 in. for the
thickness, as shown by Fig. 2. Apply the gauge to the straightened side,
and mark the line for thickness along each edge. Then plane the rough
side down to those lines. Then, with the knife, cut round precisely to
the semicircle, using the try-square frequently.

[If a double length is commenced with, as before recommended, the
centering, marking, drilling, and rounding must be done at both ends.]

Measure from the rounded end, and rule with the square, the length of
4-1/4 in. Then, with Tenon or Dovetail Saw, cut off just outside the
line. Then, with the knife, pare down to the line, and with a file,
smooth that end as well as the rounded end, finishing throughout with
sand-paper.


NO. 8. THREAD-WINDER.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 12, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 1, 6, 16, and 13.)

Beech is required, about 7 in. long, 3 in. wide, and 1/2 in. thick.
Plane one side and one edge. Draw the centre line _A_ to _B_ in Fig. 1
of drawings No. 8. With square and compasses draw all the other lines
shown in the same Fig. Then fit a 3/4 in. Centre-bit to the Brace, and
bore two holes, one at _A_ and the other at _B_. Then, with the smaller
turning saw, cut the two outside curved edges as shown in Fig. 1. With
the knife, trim to the lines, making the edges square, as shown in Fig.
3. Then shave and slightly round each semicircle, as shown in Figs. 1
and 2, smoothing the edges with the file. Then set the Marking Gauge to
1/4 in., and, with the smooth side for a base, mark gauge lines on each
edge for thickness, and plane the rough side down to those lines. Then
set the plane very fine and take a shaving off the face side so as to
remove the pencil and compass marks. Then finish with sand-paper.


NO. 9. DIBBLE FOR GARDEN.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 6, 2, and 13.)

Saw out from Fir a piece 14 in. long and 1-1/4 in. square. Plane one
side straight and another side at right angles. Set the Marking Gauge to
1 in., and with the planed side as base, mark lines for thickness along
each planed side. Then plane the rough sides down to those lines, using
the Try Square frequently. Then, at each end find the centre thus
[Figure] with additional lines showing octagons thus [Figure]. With the
Marking Gauge draw lines from end to end of each side corresponding with
the corners of each octagon. Plane the corners of the square down to
those octagon lines, thus producing an octagonal rod, and completing the
first exercise in bevel planing. Plane off the corners of the octagon
throughout, thus producing a rod approximately round, shown in Fig. 2 of
drawings No. 9, and so completing the first exercise in shaping with
plane. Measure from one end for the point as shown in Fig. 1, and, with
the knife, cut the point as roundly and symmetrically as possible,
referring to the centre marked at the end as a guide for the precise
place of the point. Then measure from the point and mark at 12 in. Cut
across at that mark, and round the blunt end thus made, as shown at top
of Fig. 1. With the file, dress the end and stray angles throughout, and
finish with sand-paper.

[Illustration: _No. 7._

_Key Label_]

[Illustration: _No. 8._

_Pack Thread Winder_]

[Illustration: _No. 9._

_Garden Dibble_]


NO. 10. PEN REST.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 8, 9, 10, 20, 1, 2, 18, and 13.)

Cut from Beech a piece 5 in. long, 1 in. wide, and 3/4 in. thick. Plane
one side and one edge at right angles, then gauge and plane to thickness
and height, as shown in Fig. 2 of drawings No. 10, but flat on all
sides. Saw across both ends at right angles, so as to reduce the length
to 3-1/2 in. Select one edge as the top, and, with the square, rule a
central line from _e_ to _e_, and a line across at each of the places
marked _a_, _b_, _c_, and _d_ in Fig. 1, continuing each line down both
sides. Then, at each end, mark the central place represented by the dot
in Fig. 2. From each of those central places describe the semicircle
shown at top of Fig. 2. Then mark a line from end to end on each side
half way between the top and the bottom.

Then, with the knife, and working to the semicircle at each end, take
off the corners of the top, so making half an octagon, and, by taking
off the corners of the half octagon, produce a top corresponding to the
semicircle at each end, as shown in Fig. 2, taking care that the top of
the semicircle throughout centres to the line previously drawn from _e_
to _e_. Then, with the tenon saw, at each of the places marked _a_, _b_,
_c_, and _d_, saw across a right angle slit 3/16 in. deep. Then, with
the knife or a chisel, cut out the space shown in Fig. 1 from _a_ to _b_
and from _c_ to _d_, taking care that the side of each space is true
and square. Then, with the file, round each base as shown at the top of
the shaded section in Fig. 2. Then smooth with the file where required,
and finish with sand-paper.


NO. 11. FLOWER-POT STAND.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 2, 1, 6, 13, and 21.)

This consists of two pieces, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 of drawings No.
11, each piece so made as to cross and fit the other at the centre,
hence called a Flower-Pot Cross, the whole being a test of exactness and
good work, surpassing any preceding model.

Cut from Pine a piece 12 in. long, 1-1/4 in. wide, and 1/2 in. thick.
Plane one side and one edge at right angles; then gauge for height and
thickness, and plane the other side and edge as shown by the section
represented in Fig. 3. Saw across the middle so as to make two pieces,
and, from the end of each so cut, measure off and saw both to the equal
length of 5-1/4 in. each, taking care that both ends of each are
accurate right angles. Then place them on their sides and draw the
centre line indicated by _A B_, continuing the line all round each
piece. From the centre, mark off the places indicated by _e f_ and _g
h_. At _c_ and _d_ of each, with the compasses, describe the quarter
circle shown at each top corner of the figures, striking the segments
from the respective dots shown for the purpose near each top corner.
Then, with the bottom edge for a base, draw a gauge line on each side
of both pieces to the depth represented by _i j_, and with the tenon
saw, make a slit at _e_ and _f_ to the depth of such gauge line. Then,
with the knife or chisel, cut out the openings between _e_ and _f_ to
the depth of the gauge line, taking care to finish the opening perfectly
level and true. Then, at the bottom of one piece and the top of the
other, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, gauge, saw, and cut out the spaces
from _g_ to _h_ in the same manner as for the spaces before mentioned.
The openings from _g_ to _h_, if well done, will fit accurately in all
directions, and, when put together, will form a firm cross. Then, with
the knife, round the corners of each piece, at _c_ and _d_. Then smooth
with file where required, and finish with sand-paper.


NO. 13. KNIFE REST.[3]

  [3] No. 12 (Paper Knife) appears, for convenience of illustration, on
  page 41, but it should be proceeded with before No. 13.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 18, 26, 1, 2, 27, 13, and 24.)

Cut from Beech a piece about 5 in. long, 1 in. wide, and 7/8 in. thick.
Plane one side and one edge at right angles. Then saw across one end at
right angles, and, measuring from that end, mark off the length at 4-1/4
in., and saw off that end at the mark, taking care to maintain right
angles. Then gauge and plane the rough side and rough edge to a width of
7/8 in. and a thickness of 5/8 in. Then choose one edge for the top,
and, along the centre of that edge, draw a line from _c_ to _c_, as
shown in Fig. 1 of drawings No. 13, and continue the line to the
extremities of both ends. Then, in manner described for No. 10, gauge,
slit, and cut out with chisel the spaces shown in the same Fig. 1 of
drawings No. 13, from _a_ to _a_ and _b_ to _b_. Then, with compasses,
as indicated in the same Fig., describe on both sides of each top
corner, the segment of a circle represented in each case from _c_ to
_d_. Then, for the first time, resort to Concave Chiselling, and with a
broad chisel cut away the corners down to the segments previously
described. This process requires great care and judgment. Fix one end of
the work upwards in the bench screw, with the top side nearest to the
operator, and, after taking off the corner to a considerable extent,
with the bevelled side of the chisel towards the wood, shave small
pieces away until the segment marks are reached, taking care to keep the
whole curve at right angles to the sides throughout. Then, turn the
work, and dress the corner at the other end in like manner. Then file
judiciously where required, and finish with sand-paper.

[Illustration: _No. 10._

_Pen Rest._]

[Illustration: _No. 11._

_Flower Pot Cross._]

[Illustration: _No. 13._

_Knife Rest._]


NO. 12. PAPER-KNIFE.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 12, 8, 9, 10, 22, 16, 6, 23, 13, and 24.)

Cut from Beech a very straight-grained piece, 14 in. long, 2 in. wide,
and 3/8 in. thick. Plane one side and one edge at right angles. Then, on
the planed side, to the size and shape indicated, draw the whole of Fig.
1 of drawings No. 12, letting the straight edge serve as the line from
_A_ to _B_. With the smaller turning saw cut round all the curved parts,
carefully adhering to the drawn figure. Then gauge all round for
thickness, as shown in Fig. 2, plane the rough side down to the gauge
lines, and with the knife trim the curved edges where required. With the
set gauge, mark the centre of the straight edge from _A_ to _B_, and
guided by that centre, pare down each corner of the straight edge, so as
to make a straight chamfer on each side about 1/8 in. wide, terminating
with a sharp edge at the place where the gauge line was drawn, as shown
in Fig. 2. Pare down the corners of both chamfers, and pare each side
symmetrically, so as to produce a blade gradually diminishing throughout
from a back 3/16 in. thick to a sharp edge. Then pare down the end of
the back to a lancet-shaped point, as shown in Fig. 2. Round the corners
of both edges of the handle, so as to make them symmetrical throughout,
and also pare the corners of the back of the blade so as to round it on
both sides very slightly. File judiciously with a light hand where
required, and then, for the first time using the scraper, complete the
blade with great care by scraping, finishing as usual with sand-paper.


NO. 14. BOWL FOR TOILETTE, &C.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 12, 8, 9, 10, 15, 26, 13, 28, 29, 6, and 24.)

This model is shown in the perspective Fig. 1 of drawings No. 14.
Commence for it by cutting from Beech a piece about 5 in. long, 3 in.
wide, and 1-1/4 in. thick. Plane one side and one edge at right angles.
Then gauge for a thickness of 1 in. and plane the rough side to the
gauge lines. Determine by choice which side shall be the bottom of the
bowl and which the top. Find the centre of the bottom side by drawing
the lines from _A_ to _B_ and from _C_ to _D_ as shown in Fig. 2. Repeat
these lines on the edges and top side, using the try square. Then, on
the bottom side, with compasses and square, draw the whole of the
figures constituting the entire diagram shown by Fig. 2, and on the top
side draw freehand the larger oval or ellipse diagram shown by Fig. 3,
being guided by the points of the guide-lines first drawn for the
purpose.

Then, with the turning saw, cut round by the line of the ellipse on the
top side, and finish the edge square with chisel and file. Then, with
finger and pencil, mark a line about 1/8 in. inside the outer edge all
round the larger ellipse. With a 7/8-in. gouge cut out the centre so as
to form the inside of the bowl, the depth and shape being shown by the
dotted lines of Fig 4. Having so symmetrically shaped the inside and
made it as smooth as the gouge is capable of, with the round end of the
scraper dress as smoothly as possible, and finish with sand-paper,
before proceeding with the bottom side.

[Illustration: _No. 12._

_Paper Knife_]

[Illustration: _No. 14._

_Bowl for toilette or writing table_]

To complete the bottom side, leave the ellipse in the centre untouched,
and from its outline to the outer edge of the lip of the bowl, shave
with the knife so as to produce in all directions a curve corresponding
to those at each end of Fig. 4. Take a shaving off the flat bottom with
the smoothing plane, so as to remove the compass marks. Then file
judiciously and lightly where required, scrape perfectly smooth, and
finish with sand-paper.

[***] This No. 14 is a very interesting study and a keen test of
application, care, and skill, anything like carelessness being sure to
leave its tell-tale marks.


NO. 15. HAMMER-HANDLE.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 12, 8, 9, 22, 30, 4, 31, 2, 13, and 24.)

This study exercises ability in the mastery of elliptical lines, and in
the use of the spokeshave in Exercises 30 and 31.

Cut from Beech a piece about 13 in. long, 1-1/2 in. wide, and 1-1/4 in.
thick. Plane one side and one edge at right angles. On the smooth side
thus produced, with the pencil sketch throughout the whole of Fig. 1 of
drawings No. 15. Then, with the turning saw, cut at right angles to the
curved lines on both edges throughout, and finish the shaping with the
spokeshave, taking care to maintain right angles. Then, on one of the
edges, with pencil, sketch throughout the whole of Fig. 2, and, with saw
and spokeshave, shape both sides in unison with that sketch, still
carefully maintaining right angles throughout. Then, with the knife,
shave off the corners so as to make four symmetrical chamfers
throughout. Then, with the spokeshave, remove the corners of the
chamfers, and proceed with the paring down until the required
symmetrical elliptical shape is arrived at, as shown by Figs. 1, 2, and
3. Saw across at right angles at each end to the exact length, and
finish with file, scraper, and sand-paper.


NO. 16. HANDLE FOR CHISEL OR FILE.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 33, 18, 6, 2, 13, and 24.)

From Beech cut a piece 6 in. long, 2 in. wide, and 1-1/4 in. thick.
Plane one side and one edge at right angles. Gauge for greatest width
shown from _A_ to _B_ in Fig. 1 of drawings No. 16, and also for
greatest thickness shown by _A_ to _B_ in Fig. 2. Plane the rough side
and edge down to the respective gauge lines, thus producing a piece of
equal thickness throughout, with the sides and edges at right angles.
Saw across one end at right angles. On the face thus produced on that
end sketch Fig. 3 complete. Fit a 1/4-in. Bit to the Brace and bore a
hole in the centre of the same end to the depth shown by the dotted
lines in the upper part of Fig. 1. Plane from _A_ to _C_ and from _B_ to
_D_, thus slightly tapering the sides and edges, but maintaining right
angles throughout. Measure from the thin flat end and mark the length of
5 in. Then, from the centre of the line _A_ to _B_ of Fig. 1, describe a
semicircle on each side as shown at bottom of Fig. 1. With turning saw
and chisel, shape each side of that end to the semicircle. Then plane
off the angles so far as to make the shape in unison throughout with
Fig. 3, presenting sides corresponding to Fig. 1, and edges
corresponding to Fig. 2. Then complete the shape of the thick end with
knife, as shown in Fig. 2, and finish with file, scraper, and
sand-paper.

[Illustration: _No. 15._

_Hammer Handle_]

[Illustration: _No. 16._

_Chisel Handle_]


NO. 17. SPOON.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 19, 12, 8, 9, 10, 32, 22, 29, 14, 15, 26, 13, 2,
8, 6, 24, 16, and 1.)

From very carefully selected Beech cut a piece 10 in. long, 2-1/2 in.
wide, and 1-3/4 in. thick. Plane one side and one edge at right angles.
Sketch on the flat edge the complete outline of Fig. 1 of drawings No.
17. With the turning saw, cut to the outline at right angles on the
upper side only, completing with chisel and file. On the shaped side
thus produced, make a centre line as shown in Fig. 2, then the cross
lines. Then, with compasses as guides and checks, mark the outlines of
the handle shown in Fig. 2, and, with freehand, sketch the ellipse. With
bits and brace drill a 7/8-in. hole right through at each centre marked
_b_, and a 5/8-in. hole at each centre marked _c_. Then, with the
turning saw, cut to the outline at right angles throughout, completing
the process with gouge, knife, and file. Then, in the manner described
for making the inside of No. 14, make the inside of the Spoon in unison
with the dotted curve of Fig. 1.

The inside of the Spoon being thus completed, proceed with the outside.
Mark on the edge the outline _d d d d d_ for the under side of the
spoon. With the turning saw, cut out to that outline, and round with the
knife, as shown in the sections of Figs. 3, 4, and 5. Take care to keep
carefully outside the lines when cutting with the knife, and apply the
file, scraper, and sand-paper for finishing.

[***] The under part of the spoon is a capital exercise in modelling
with the knife, and, if one process is completed before the next is
commenced, requires no more than ordinary application and care.


NO. 18. CHOPPING-BOARD.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 12, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 26, 34, 13, 25, and 24.)

[Illustration: _No. 17._

_Spoon._]

This especially involves straight and square planing. Cut from Deal a
piece 20 in. long, 6-1/2 in. wide, and 1 in. thick. Plane one side
perfectly level and one edge perfectly straight at right angles. Gauge
and mark for width at 5-3/4 in. Find and mark the centre line _A_ to _B_
in Fig. 1 of drawings No. 18. Set the compasses to a radius from _A_ to
_B_, and describe, with _A_ for the centre, the semicircle shown at the
top of the Fig. Fit a 1-in. Centre-bit to the Brace, and drill a hole
with _A_ for the centre, taking care that it goes vertically through at
right angles, and that there is no splitting when the bit is nearly
through. With the small turning saw, cut round the semicircle at right
angles, and, with the chisel, shave off and round the two corners that
spring from the semicircle, also at right angles. Then, measuring from
the centre of the rounded end at _B_, mark the entire length at 16-7/8
in., and, with the tenon saw, cut off at the mark at right angles. Then
shave and round at right angles the two bottom corners. Plane the bottom
edge smooth, and file the edges where necessary. Set the gauge at 3/4
in., mark with it the edge all round for thickness, and plane the rough
side down to the mark, perfectly level throughout. Then, with the
smoothing plane, take a thin shaving from the first side, merely enough
to remove the marks, taking care to maintain an accurate level. Finish
throughout with sand-paper.

[***] The object of deferring the planing of the second side until so
late a period, is that, at the same time, minute chipping and roughness
of edge on that side, almost certain to result from the boring and
sawing, are at the same time disposed of.


NO. 19. HALF-YARD MEASURE.

(In the original Sloyd model this is a half-metre measure.)

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 12, 8, 9, 10, 25, 30, 15, 16, 6, 2, 13, and
24.)

Select from Beech an exceptionally straight-grained piece 24 in. long,
1-1/4 in. wide, and 3/4 in. thick. Plane one side and one edge at right
angles, both scrupulously straight and even; then gauge, mark to a
nicety for 1-1/8 in. wide and 1/2 in. thick, and plane to the gauge
marks with great exactitude, thus producing a four-cornered rod of
uniform size throughout. Saw across one end at right angles. Measure
from that cut end, mark the length of 18 in., and saw across at the
mark. Then set the gauge precisely at 7/8 in., and, passing it along
each edge, mark on both sides for the lines _a_ to _b_ in Fig. 1 of
drawings No. 19, continuing the lines from end to end of the entire rod.
Then, with the square, mark across the place for _a a_, and there saw a
slit on each side down to the gauge line. Then proceed to the first
exercise in Obstacle Planing (No. 25.) Thus, pass the smooth plane along
each edge from _b_ to _a_, as far as the obstacle of the corner will
allow. Of course the planing cannot be continued into the corners, but,
whatever is left by the plane must be got out by the chisel and file.
Then, on each side, sketch for the handle, as shown in Fig. 1, the gauge
line, previously there, forming part of the sketch. Then, with the
turning-saw, cut out to the sketch and gauge lines. With the knife, make
the chamfers shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Then shave the corners and round
the end of the handle, as shown in Fig. 1. File and scrape lightly where
required, and finish with sand-paper.

[Illustration: _No. 18._

_Knife or Chopping Board._]

[Illustration: _No. 19._

_Yard Measure._]


NO. 20. SCOOP.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 19, 12, 9, 14, 7, 15, 26, 32, 33, 29, 28, 13,
18, 6, 16, 2, and 24.)

Cut from Beech a carefully-selected piece 11 in. long, 3 in. wide, and 3
in. thick. Plane one side and one edge at right angles, with exceptional
care. Then, on the smooth edge sketch the outline of the upper side _a_
to _a_ of Fig. 1 of drawings No. 20. Saw to the outline at right angles
throughout, afterwards correcting inaccuracies with chisel and plane. On
the smooth shaped side thus produced, sketch the outline of Fig. 2. With
1-1/2-in. centre bit drill the holes indicated by _b b_, right through.
Saw to the outline all round, carefully maintaining right angles
throughout and, as before, correcting inaccuracies with chisel and
plane.

Then, at the upper edge of the invisible end at the bottom of Fig. 2,
find the centre represented by _c_ in Fig. 3. Fix compasses to a radius
from _c_ to _d_, and, from the centre before found, describe a
semicircle, and from the same centre another semicircle with a radius
about 1/8 in. longer. The centre of the inner of those semicircles
represents the bottom of the inside of the Scoop at _f_ of Fig. 1, and
the outer one represents the bottom of the outside at the same point.

Next, with 1/8-in. gouge, make a furrow just inside the outline of the
face of the scoop, as previously recommended for Model No. 17. Then,
from that furrow as a starting-point, in all directions, with 7/8-gouge,
scoop out from back to front, to the depth indicated by the dotted line
of Fig. 1, and to the width at front of the semicircle previously drawn
on the end, but gradually diminishing the inner capacity so as to make
it smallest near the handle, in about the same proportion as indicated
for the bottom by the dotted line in Fig. 1. Then file and scrape inside
where required, and finish so far with sand-paper.

Then, upon each edge, draw the outline of the bottom of the Scoop, shown
in Fig. 1. Saw throughout that outline at right angles. Then from _e_ to
_f_ plane all round to the semicircle indicated by the outer line of
Fig. 3 previously described on the end. Then, with the knife, cut the
handle to the section indicated by Fig. 4, and continue the shaping to
_e_ as indicated by the shaded lines of Fig. 1. File the handle and
outside of Scoop where required, and finish with sand-paper.

[***] The most difficult part of this model is that shaded in Fig. 1,
which requires special attention and care.

[Illustration: _No. 20._

_Scoop._]


NO. 21. HANGING PEGS OR RACK.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 12, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 26, 13, 18, 4, 26, 37,
29, 35, 39, 40, and 42.)

From Deal cut out two pieces, one 18 in. long, 3-1/2 in. wide, and 7/8
in. thick; the other 15 in. long, 1 in. wide, and 7/8 in. thick.

Commencing with the larger piece, plane one side and one edge at right
angles. Then gauge-mark to a width of 3 in., and plane the rough edge
down to that mark. At the centre of the width draw a line from end, as
shown in Fig. 1, _f_ to _f_. On that line, with compasses, mark the
points indicated by _a_, _b_, _c_, of Fig. 1 of the drawings No. 21. At
each point drill a 5/8 in. hole right through, taking great care to
drill vertically. With the square, draw the cross lines at _d d_, the
intersections with the central line forming additional central points.
Set compasses to a radius of 7/8 in., and, from each of those central
points, describe a semicircle as shown in the Fig.; then from each of
the same central points describe an outer semicircle as also shown in
the Fig. With tenon saw make a nick at each of the four points _g_, in
each case reaching to the outer of the semicircles, each nick being
strictly at right angles. Then, with turning saw, follow the line of
each of the outer semicircles. Then dress the edges all round with
chisel and file as required. Then gauge-mark all round for a thickness
of 3/4 in., and plane the rough side down to the mark, evenly
throughout. Gauge-mark all round for the chamfer, in the proportion
shown in Fig. 1, and chamfer to the mark accordingly, using the plane
for the sides and the knife for the curves and corners. File throughout
where necessary, and finish with sand-paper.

The smaller piece of Deal being to make the pegs with, plane it on one
side and one edge at right angles, then gauge-mark for a width of 3/4
in. and for a thickness of 5/8 in., as illustrated in section by Fig. 4.
Saw across into three lengths of 5 in. each. Place them together on
their sides, and sketch one side of each as shown from _j_ to _k_ and
_l_ in Fig. 3, leaving the space from _j_ to _m_ untouched. With the try
square repeat the lines of this sketch on both sides of each. With saw
and knife cut each peg to the sketch, finishing the whole, excepting the
circular plug. Then at the inner end, find the centre as denoted in Fig.
4, and, using the same centre-bit as for Fig. 1, describe a circle mark
as dotted in Fig. 4. Then, with the tenon saw, cut by the "shoulder" to
a depth of 1/8 in., and pare the circle with the knife to the shoulder
_j_, so making a round plug, a little too large to go into the holes of
Fig. 1. Then, with the file, carefully reduce the size of each plug so
as to very accurately and tightly fit one hole at a time in Fig 1, where
wedging must not be tolerated. The perfection of this part of the work
is to be tested by ascertaining that the pegs are precisely in a line,
and that each one fits all round to the face of the board into which it
is inserted.

[Illustration: _No. 21._

_Clothes Rack._]

Having thus fitted each plug to its own hole, and marked it for
identification, the pegs may be completed. Cut down each one, with the
tenon saw, from _k_ to _x_, and, with the chisel, pare down from _j_ to
_k_, first making it square and afterwards slightly rounding it, as
shown in section of Fig. 4. With a sharp chisel cut round to the outside
of the semicircle for the top of the peg. File this round and then cut
the chamfer with the knife. File as required, and finish with
sand-paper.

The pegs being thus made ready for fixing, clean the face of the board
(Fig. 1) with the smooth plane, and the edges and chamfers with
sand-paper. Then glue in each plug, using the try square to make sure
that they project at right angles. Then put the whole away for not less
than six hours, to allow the glue to set well. Then, as each plug has
been purposely made slightly too long, saw off each projection at the
back, and smooth the whole of the back with the plane, so effecting the
finishing touches.

To avoid the necessity for nailing to the wall, get two pieces of
hoop-iron about 1-1/2 in. long and 1/2 in. wide. To adapt each piece for
its purpose, cut one end round and punch in a nail hole and two smaller
screw holes, as shown in Fig. 1. With a chisel cut a neat recess for
each iron so that it can be sunk flush with the back, as shown in Fig.
2, and, inserting the screws, the work will be complete.


NO. 22. FLOWER-POT STAND.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 12, 8, 9, 10, 34, 20, 2, 1, 13, 41, 42, and
35.)

This is an especially good subject for straight sawing, straight
planing, and nailing.

Cut from Deal a piece about 22 in. long, 6 in. wide, and 1 in. thick.
With the jack-plane face one side and one edge perfectly straight and
true at right angles. Gauge-mark for 13/16 in. thick, and plane the
rough side down to the gauge-line. Square one end with the plane, mark
to length shown in Fig. 1 of drawings No. 22, cut with tenon saw to
mark, and square the end with smooth plane. Then gauge-mark for
thickness of lath shown in Fig. 4, and saw off a shade inside the
gauge-lines. In like manner cut five laths, and plane each to the gauge
line.

The laths being thus made, sufficient wood will be left for the
supports. Make the width of the supports the same as that of the laths.
After gauging and planing the supports to depth as Fig. 4, saw off to
the 6-in. length. Square the ends with a chisel and set out on each the
distance _a a_, Fig. 3. Gauge to _b b_, Fig. 4, and with the tenon saw,
cut to the gauge-line at _a a_, and with the knife remove the piece
between _a_ and _a_. Then mark on each lath the distance the supports
are from each end of the laths, and nail on the laths--the outside laths
first, then the centre one, and finally the other two.

[Illustration: _No. 22._

_Flower Pot Stand._]


NO. 23. FOOT-STOOL.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 7, 12, 8, 9, 10, 3, 4, 15, 44, 32, 29, 14, 13,
3, 5, 41, and 42.)

Cut from Deal two pieces, one 12 in. long, 6 in. wide, and 1-1/4 in.
thick; the other 18 in. long, 3-1/4 in. wide, and 1 in. thick.

The former piece is for the laths, and it must be prepared and cut as in
No. 22, making each lath to finish 1 in. wide, 1/2 in. thick, and 10-3/4
in. long.

The wood for the support must now be proceeded with. Plane one side and
one edge at right angles, and gauge-mark for width of 3 in. and
thickness of 1-7/8 in. Plane the rough side and edge down to the
gauge-marks. Then saw through the centre so as to make two pieces of 7/8
in. thickness each. Place the pieces side by side, and nail them
together with two 1-1/2-in. wrought nails, so that both pieces can be
operated upon together. Then draw on one outer side the diagram shown on
the unshaded part of Fig. 1 of drawings No. 23, and, with the aid of
try-square and compasses, repeat the diagram on the other outer side.
Then cut off each end nearly to the end lines of the diagrams, and, with
the smoothing plane, finish at perfect right angles. Then, with a
5/8-in. centre-bit, drill at the spots marked _a a_ on each diagram,
penetrating on one side a little more than an inch, and finishing by
drilling from the other side in precise unison. The drilling throughout
must be exactly vertical. Then proceed with the arch shown in Fig. 1,
with the turning saw cutting out the three semicircles, which finish
with gouge and file, taking care to maintain right angles at every
point. Then separate the pieces, smooth each face with the smoothing
plane, and the circular parts with file and sand-paper.

The respective parts being now complete, mark on each lath the distance
the supports are from the ends shown in Fig. 2. Then nail on the laths,
_b b_ first, _c_ next, and the others afterwards. Then, having first
taken care to punch down all the nails sufficiently, plane a few
shavings off the tops of the laths to make them clean and level.

[***] If the laths are well and truly nailed on, their ends should be in
perfect line. Any defect in that respect must be remedied by carefully
and judiciously planing; but the perfection of work is when no such
planing is necessary.


NO. 24. BOOK-CARRIER.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 12, 8, 9, 10, 3, 4, 15, 44, 32, 29, 14, 13, 3,
5, 41, and 42.)

This is made partly in hard and partly in soft wood.

[Illustration: _No. 23._

_Foot Stool._]

[Illustration: _No. 24._

_Book Carrier_]

For the handle, cut from Beech a piece 8 in. long, 2 in. wide, and 7/8
in. thick. Plane one side and one edge. Then gauge-mark for 1-1/2 in.
wide and 3/4 in. thick, and plane the rough side and edge down to each
gauge-mark. Then draw on one side the diagram of the handle shown in
Fig. 1 of drawings No. 24. With the turning saw, cut to the inner and
outer lines of the diagram. With the plane, round the top of the handle,
as shown in Fig. 1, and, with the knife, round and smooth the other
parts, taking care that all the right angles are strictly maintained.
Then, with an 1/8-in. centre-bit, drill a hole for each screw, as shown
in the Fig., and, with the knife, counter-sink for the heads of the
screws. With the knife, make the chamfers at the corners of the curves,
as shown in Fig. 2, and finish completely with scraper and sand-paper.

The handle being thus finished, cut from Deal a piece 24 in. long, 6-1/2
in. wide, and 5/8 in. thick, and plane one side and one edge at right
angles. Gauge-mark for 6 in. wide, and 1/2 in. thick, and plane the
rough side and edge down to the gauge-marks. Square one end, measuring
from that end, saw off at 9 in. On the larger piece remaining, draw the
lines _a b_ and _a b_ in the positions shown in Fig. 2; then, with the
compasses, set off the spaces from _a_ to _c_ and from _a_ to _c_, _b_
to _c_ and _b_ to _c_, _a_ to _d_ and _a_ to _d_, _b_ to _d_ and _b_ to
_d_. Then set the gauge to half the thickness, and with it mark the
edges on the four places indicated in each case from _c_ to _d_. Set the
bevel to the oblique line at each side of the dovetails, and transfer
this bevelled line to each side at points _c c c c_ and _d d d d_. Then,
with tenon saw, cut down each line _c d_ to the depth of the gauge line,
and, with a small chisel, remove the whole of the pieces between the
nicks made by the saw. This will result in two grooves for dovetailed
tongues, as shown above, _a a_ in Fig. 1, designed to strengthen and
prevent from warping the upper half of the holder.

The grooves having been thus made ready, the dovetails must be prepared.
From Deal cut two pieces, each 9 in. long, 2-1/2 in. wide, and 3/4 in.
thick. Plane one side of each and bevel one edge to the pitch the bevel
was previously set for. Then, on the planed side, mark 2-1/4 in. at one
end, 1-1/4 in. at the other end, and take to that width, afterwards
bevelling the edge as before. Then fit each of the tongues provided,
driving them tight into their places. When they fit exactly, glue the
planed side and the edges, and drive them to their positions, being
careful not to split off the ends. Then allow time for the glue to set,
and cut off the projecting ends of the tongues and plane them and the
face of the board to a level. Cut off to exact length, measuring from
the lines _a b_. Then smooth both boards with the plane, nail them
together with two small nails, and square the ends. Then gauge and nick
with the saw for the recesses _e e_, removing the wood from each recess
with the knife, so making grooves for a strap to pass round. Then screw
on the handle in the manner indicated by both Figs., and finish as
required with sand-paper.


NO. 25. LADLE.

(Requiring Exercises 5, 19, 12, 9, 10, 32, 15, 33, 29, 14, 26, 28, 22,
49, 31, 1, 6, 16, 13, and 24.)

[Illustration: _No. 25._

_Ladle._]

Cut from Beech a piece 16 in. long, 4 in. wide, and 4 in. thick. The
manner of proceeding resembles that required for No. 17. Plane one side
and one edge at right angles, and draw on the planed side the diagram
shown in Fig. 2 of drawings No. 25. With a 1-1/4-in. centre-bit, drill
two holes right through, as indicated by the dotted circles. Saw round
the outside lines of the diagram, taking care not to obliterate the
lines. Trim exactly to the lines with a chisel, gouge, and file. Then
mark on each edge the upper curved line of Fig. 1. Saw to that line
without obliterating it, finishing with spokeshave, plane, chisel, and
file. Then cut out the bowl of the ladle, using a small gouge for the
edge, and a larger one for obtaining the depth, which must be governed
by the white section shown in Fig. 3, and finished with file, scraper,
and sand-paper before proceeding with the under side. When the bowl is
thus finished, mark on each side the curve for the under side shown in
Fig. 1. Saw just outside the line, and proceed to shape the under
side--the bowl to the shaded section of Fig. 3, and the handle to the
section of Fig. 4. For finishing the bowl, fix the handle in the bench
screw, and pare with a wide chisel, afterwards applying the knife for
completing the bowl and handle. For the finishing touches use the file,
scraper, and sand-paper.


END.


TURNBULL AND SPEARS, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH.





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