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Title: Text books of art education, v. 2 of 7 - Book II, Second Year
Author: Froehlich, Hugo B., Snow, Bonnie E.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Text books of art education, v. 2 of 7 - Book II, Second Year" ***

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    R. I.


















We are indebted to the publishers, Charles Scribner's Sons, for
permission to use the verses, "At the Seaside" (page 46), the lines from
"Good and Bad Children" (page 13), and the lines from "Singing" (page
36)--all from "A Child's Garden of Verses," by Robert Louis Stevenson;
to the Macmillan Company for the lines by Christina Rossetti (page 16);
to Houghton, Mifflin and Company for the stanza from Longfellow's "The
Fiftieth Birthday of Agassiz" (page 1).

For the Theory of Color Relations used in these books, special
acknowledgment is due to Dr. Denman W. Ross, of Harvard University. The
lessons in Design are preparatory to the fuller exposition in the upper
books of Dr. Ross's principles of arrangement--Balance, Rhythm and

    "_I took a piece of plastic clay,
    And idly fashioned it one day,
    And as my fingers pressed it, still
    It moved and yielded to my will.
    I came again when days were past,--
    The bit of clay was hard at last.
    The form I gave it still it bore,
    But I could change that form no more._

    "_I took a piece of living clay,
    And gently formed it day by day,
    And moulded, with my power and art,
    A young child's soft and yielding heart.
    I came again, when years were gone,--
    It was a man I looked upon.
    He still that early impress bore,
    And I could change it nevermore!_"


    And Nature, the old nurse, took
    The child upon her knee,
    Saying; "Here is a story-book
    Thy Father has written for thee."


Come out of doors with paint-box and brush!

Come to a clear little pool in a meadow!

The world is dressed in blue, yellow and green.

The green in the distant trees looks blue-green; but the color of the
meadow is yellow-green.

The pool is the color of the sky.

Paint the picture and choose a name for it.


Autumn likes bright red and yellow, with orange, violet, and deep, deep

See how she has dressed our meadow.

Look at the trees and the clear little pool.

What color is the grass? Where is the deep blue?

Where does the violet look more red than blue?

Paint an autumn picture of our meadow.





Name each of these four trees.

Tell how you know them.

Which tree is like a leafy tent or umbrella? Its arms reach far and wide
to bend over us.

Which tree looks like a spire? Its arms are raised toward the sky.

Which tree stands with trunk tall and straight from the root to the
pointed top?

See "the brave old oak, with broad green crown and fifty arms so

Paint a set of shadow pictures (silhouettes) of the trees you like best.

Study the trunk: its shape; its size; the way it sends out its branches.

Study the branches: their shapes; their length; the way they stretch
out, or stretch up, or droop.

Paint the true shape of the whole big tree.


The maple-tree in autumn looks like a great bouquet of reds and yellows
in a dark vase.

You can tell it from all others by the shape and the color.

Paint the bright bouquet.

Drop in clear colors to show the shape of the maple-tree.


When the trees are bare of leaves, we see how beautiful the branches

No two trees stretch out their arms in just the same way. But the
largest boughs always spring from the big round trunk.

See how the smaller boughs spring from larger ones and rock the winter
buds in the air.

Paint a tree as it looks in November.


    "There's a ship on the sea
      And it's sailing to-night, sailing to-night,--
    And father's aboard, and the moon is all bright.
      Dear moon, he'll be sailing for many a night--
    Sailing from mother and me.
      O follow the ship with your silvery light,
    As father sails over the sea."]


Ship, sky and sea in the soft grays of night!

Which is darker, the sky or the sea?

Look at the light in the sky where it seems to meet the sea.

The ship looks darkest gray.

We see it against the lighter grays.

Paint a "ship on the sea, sailing to-night."


Have you seen how sunset light over snow warms the white to a violet

Have you seen an evergreen tree against a sunset sky? The green looks
very dark.

Have you noticed the beautiful shape of Christmas trees?

Paint a winter sunset, with an evergreen against the sunset sky.


Words make us see pictures. We can paint the same pictures with the

Paint what the next lines make you see.

    "A little swerve; a tricky curve,--
    And such a tumble!
    A whirl; a stop; the sled on top;
    A merry laugh,--yet this is not half
    The fun of sliding!"


Here is Susan in the rain again! Now there are sky and trees in the

Think how the little girl is placed to show that she is walking on the

Which is lightest gray--sky, trees, or ground?

Draw the picture with pencil, or paint it with brush and ink.


    "Happy hearts and happy faces,
    Happy play in grassy places."

Do these lines tell the truth about your field-day picnic?

Were you in the fields or in the woods?

Show with brush or pencil the best fun of the day.


    Daisies are dancing, dancing, dancing,--
      Daisies are dancing, list to the call
    Sung by the Katydid, gay little fiddler
      "Come all ye Flowers and dance at the Ball!"


When the dandelion looks up at the sun, it shakes out its golden tresses
from the green flower-cup.

See the tall, round stem--pale green, with tints of red.

What colors do you see in the long, narrow, hooked leaves? Do they grow
on the flower-stem?

Paint your dandelions with their leaves just as you see them.


    "Wheat sways heavy, oats are airy,
    Barley bows a graceful head."

Bring stalks of wheat, oats, and other grains.

Look at the shapes of the heads.

See how each slender stalk holds its beautiful crown.

Paint with ink from grasses, grains, or weeds of slender growth.


How do you know this plant without seeing its colors?

Paint a shadow picture of this flower, or of some other blossom that is
a bunch of many little flowers in one head.

Does the blossom droop, or nod, or stand erect?

Show just how each leaf grows on the stem.

Our pictures must tell the truth.


Look closely at the two pictures of the chrysanthemum.

See the two ways of painting the same plant.

Which is easier to paint--this flower, or the dandelion?

In what ways is this stem not like the flower-stem of the dandelion?

In what ways are the leaves not like the dandelion leaves?

Can you see the flower-cup?

What colors will you use to paint your flower?


    "Many fingered maple
    Spreads her palms on high."

Study the shape of your own bright maple leaf.

Are the leaf stems the same color as the bough?

What do you see where the stems join the bough?

Is your bough bent or straight?

Does it grow smaller toward the end?

What colors do you see in the leaves?

Paint this bit of autumn glory.


Plums on their twigs,

Cherries and figs,

Peaches, pears, and apples,--growing in the sun.

Which fruit is shown in the picture?

Try to find fruit growing.

Paint a twig with leaves and fruit. Use ink.

Show how the leaves and the fruit grow on the bough.

Show true shapes.

[Illustration: "APPLES! RIPE APPLES! WHO'LL BUY?"]


An apple growing on a twig is as beautiful as a flower.

See how the leaves hide part of the bough.

Paint the shape of the apple with water; drop in fresh, clear colors.

Study the growth and color of the stem.

Paint what you see.


When you painted pussy-willows last year, you painted them in grays. Now
show them in colors.

The budding twigs of spring often show colors as bright as those of

Look for color in the stems and buds of bushes, and in the tiny twigs of
many trees.

For willow catkins spring chooses her daintiest colors: soft silvery
grays; rosy pink; pale green; bits of yellow; and never are two dressed
alike! Paint them as they look now.


Would you like to tell the story of the life of the bean from seed to

You can tell it by shadow pictures.

Now let us paint its flower and fruit.

Look closely at the shape of each pod.

Show by the stem how your bean grows.


This little wild fellow of the woods is very like another flower we
love. The other is a queenly lady in pure, spotless white. Her name is
calla lily. Tell how the two plants are alike; how unlike.

Paint shadow pictures of both.



Alice is glad to find the ground covered with snow this morning. She
wishes to take her new sled to school.

She sees the bright, blue sky; she sees the snow sparkle in the
sunlight; she sees the soft violet of the far-off trees.

Paint the little girl and what she sees.




We have very good times taking care of our goldfish. The beautiful
shapes darting about in the water glow and flash like the brightest of
jewels. They seem to have all the colors of the rainbow. We often paint



    "Said the rooster, 'I'd have you all know
    I am nearly the whole of the show;
        Why, the sun every morn
        Gets up with the dawn
    For the purpose of hearing me crow!'"


Cut pictures to show animals you have seen in a circus parade.


Look at this picture. See how it shows that the little girl is jumping.


Who can jump the rope without tripping? Alice may try it.

Draw or paint the picture these verses make you see:

    "Over your head, and under your toes,
    That is the way the merry rope goes.
    Up with this foot, down with that,
    Happy heart, go pit-a-pat."


    This is the way we wash our clothes,
    wash our clothes, wash our clothes;
    This is the way we wash our clothes,
    on a cold and frosty morning!

    This is the way we dry our clothes,
    dry our clothes, dry our clothes;
    This is the way we dry our clothes
    on a cold and frosty morning!]


    This is the way the ladies walk,
      ladies walk, ladies walk;
    This is the way the ladies walk,
    on a cold and frosty morning!

    This is the way the gentlemen walk,
      gentlemen walk, gentlemen walk;
    This is the way the gentlemen walk,
    on a cold and frosty morning.]


    The children sing in far Japan,
    The children sing in Spain;
    The organ with the organ man
    Is singing in the rain.

Show in a Picture:

1. What you can do to help mother.

2. A game the girls play at recess.

3. What the boys play at recess.

4. What the wind does.

5. Something that can swim.

6. Something that can fly.

7. What you play with at home.

8. What you do in school.

9. What the birds do in the spring.

10. A picnic in the grove.


"Does your little Mary drink tea, Mrs. Brown?"

"Oh, no, Mrs. Bird! but she likes to drink milk out of these pretty

"My little Ruth likes the cups, too. You see I have a new tea-set. It
was my Christmas present. I have a tea-party almost every day."



    Sing a song of sixpence,
        A pocket full of rye;
    Four-and-twenty blackbirds
        Baked in a pie.

    When the pie was opened,
        The birds began to sing;
    Was not that a dainty dish
        To set before a King?

    The King was in his counting-house
        Counting out his money;
    The Queen was in the parlor,
        Eating bread and honey.

    The maid was in the garden,
        Hanging out the clothes;
    When up came a blackbird,
        And snapt off her nose.


Look over your toys. Choose two you would like to see together in a

What would you like with a doll? Why not a drum? Why not a flat-iron and
a whip?

Why do you like the picture of a tub with a wash-board?

Place your two toys as they look best.

Draw their picture as you see them.


What dishes do you use in your play kitchen when you are getting ready
for a tea-party?

Choose two you would like to see together in a picture.

Place them as you think they look best.

Look at them very closely. Be sure to see their true shapes. Draw just
what you see.


Mrs. Marsh was getting ready to take Roy and Grace to spend a week at
Clear Lake. Grace saw the open trunk.

"Oh, Roy!" said she, "here's our trunk open, ready to be packed. Let's
pack it ourselves and surprise mother."

"All right! That will be great fun! Then we can take just what we like."

       *       *       *       *       *

Draw the open trunk.

Draw it after it was packed and closed.

Guess what they put into it.

How do you think mother liked to be surprised in this way?


    "When I was down beside the sea
    A wooden spade they gave to me
    To dig the sandy shore."


    "In the sunlit garden
      Through the glad spring day,
    Watch the happy little folk
      Turning work to play."


Mould clay to make a sphere. With thread, cut it into two parts of just
the same size.

You have cut your sphere into two equal parts. Each is called a

Mould clay to make half an apple on a square tablet.

Think how many things shaped like a hemisphere you can mould and draw.


Mould a square prism of clay. Draw it standing on a square face. Draw it
lying on an oblong face.

Think of things shaped like a square prism: things you see out of doors;
at home; at school; everywhere you go. Tell what you have seen.

Choose some to draw, mould or paint.


Mould a square prism of clay.

With thread, cut it into two equal parts like those in the picture. Each
of these two equal parts is a right tri-prism.

Look at the three oblong faces of your right tri-prism. One face is
wider than either of the others. When a right tri-prism is resting on
its widest oblong face, it looks like a roof.

What does it look like in other positions?

Show by drawing or painting.


Draw a circle. Fold and cut it into two equal parts. Each is a

Place a hemisphere on a book. Raise the book to the level of your eyes.
Draw the shape of the hemisphere. You have drawn a semicircle.

What plant is shaped like a hemisphere on a round stem?

Do you see how to draw a row of these shapes, or a border of


These pictures show you how to get a square and an oblong from a square

Draw an oblong four inches long and two inches wide. Draw a three-inch

Draw an oblong table-cloth with a border of squares in a row.

Lay a row of tablets: first, an oblong; then a square. Draw this border
on a paper towel.


One of the drawings on this page is called a right triangle. Can you
find it?

Think how you can get a right triangle from a right tri-prism.

Lay tablets of the same shape to make a border across the ends of a rug.

Draw a house with a triangle in the roof.


[Illustration: COLOR CHART]


What pleasure to paint a window like this, beautiful in shape, beautiful
in color!

Draw a two-inch square. On this lay tablets--the inch square in the
center, with semicircles about it. Draw around it. Draw around the

Paint the shape with water. Drop in the fresh colors and let the water
blend them.

Finish with the dark edge.

In the two bright circles of color, point out the six rainbow colors:
yellow, orange, red, violet, blue, green.

Find in the circles the color that is between yellow and orange. These
two colors are blended in one, named yellow-orange. Find the color
between red and orange. What two colors are blended in red-orange?

Find the color between red and violet, named red-violet. Why? Find

Find blue-green. What two colors blend to make yellow-green? Find it in
the circles.

How many of these colors are in your stained glass window? Paint another
window, and watch the colors come.


Draw or paint a picture of the animal you know best.

Draw or paint a row of these shapes, all just alike.

Take pictures of your animal as it looks when it stands; sits up; lies
down; walks or runs.

Make rows of these shapes. Which row would you like best for a border on
your book cover?


Look at the shapes on these book covers.

In the borders you have made, the shapes have always faced the same way.
Do these?

Place two sweet-peas, daffodils, or other flowers, as the grasses are

Choose those that seem to look toward each other.

Place shapes of animals in the same way.

Draw or paint them on book covers.


This is a good pattern for a floor of wood, or for oil-cloth to cover a

You may draw it for your play house.

On an eight-inch square of paper draw sixteen two-inch squares. In the
center of each, lay an inch tablet. Draw around it.

With the pencil, color the squares like the squares in the picture.


Look at bowls at home and in stores. Choose the shape you like best. We
will make one out of clay.

Does it not seem strange that you can make a lump of moist clay into a
beautiful bowl?

With the thumbs, press a deep hollow in the lump of clay for the inside
of the bowl. Press and pull up the outside into the shape you wish. If
you need more clay, work in a small lump at a time.

Let the bowls stand one day to dry. Then wash the inside with a glaze.
When the bowl is very dry, it is ready to be baked in the kiln.


This clay match-safe is not so easy to make as the round bowls we have

Shape a lump of clay like a square prism. With the thumbs, press the
hollow inside until the bottom is like an oblong tablet.

Press and pull the walls into good shape. Leave square corners. Work in
the handle.

Let the match-safe stand one day to dry. Then, with the brush, paint
upon it a row of shapes in red.

When the match-safe is very dry, it may be fired in a kiln.



Look at this pattern for wall-paper. It would be good for a bedroom.

You may make your own patterns for different rooms in your house.

Choose your shapes. Think how to place them.

Choose two colors you like to see together. Color with brush or pencil.

Choose the best patterns for your rooms.



See how this table is made from a box like a cube without a cover. Make

Look at this stove, and at the one in the play house. We can make such a

Make a solid cube of stiff black paper. Cut pieces for doors, covers,
grate, hearth and pipe. Paste them on. The bottom is a very low box with
a little larger face than the cube. Make one. If you like, cut out the
sides to leave wide legs. Paste the bottom of the stove on this base.


Fold, cut, and paste an eight-inch square to make a square prism for the

Cut a sheet six inches by eight inches.

Fold and crease two inches from each short edge. Shape the sides. Fold
around the seat. Paste.


To make a short book-mark, fold four strips ten inches long into double
five-inch strips. Hold two of them side by side in the left hand, with
the open ends of the outer strip at the top, and the open ends of the
inner strip at the bottom.

With a third strip in the right hand, pass its two parts around the
outer strip in the left hand. Pass its two ends between the two parts of
the inner strip.

Then hold the work in the right hand. With the fourth strip in the left
hand, pass it around the outer strip and between the parts of the inner
strip in the right hand. To draw the strips tight, pull the open ends.
Cut two ends. Trim the other ends. (See the picture.) Paste the parts in
place. You have made a pretty gift.



    "Hi, weavers! Ho, weavers!
    Come, and weave with me!
    You'll rarely find, go where you will,
    A happier band than we!"


Choose, for the body of your rug, carpet yarn of a color you will like
in the room where you will put it.

What color that looks well with this, will you choose for the stripes?

String your loom with one long piece of warp. Draw it so it feels firm.
Leave long, free ends.

Thread your needle or shuttle, and weave from both ends to the middle.

Lift the rug from the loom when it is woven full.

Run the ends of the warp strings along the sides of the rug; or, tie
them to the next warp strings.

Is your rug for a hall, a parlor, a dining-room or a bedroom?


    "There is work that is work;
      There is play that is play;
    There is play that is work;
      There is work that is play--
    And one of these four
      Is the very best way."

    Transcriber's note:
    _Underscores_ have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts.

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