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Title: Napoleon's Letters to Josephine
Author: Hall, Henry Foljambe
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  errors have been corrected.


  "_When all the lesser tumults, and lesser men of our age, shall
  have passed away into the darkness of oblivion, history will
  still inscribe one mighty era with the majestic name of
  Napoleon._"--LOCKHART (in Lang's "Life and Letters of J. G.
  Lockhart," 1897, vol. i. 170).











At the Ballantyne Press


I have no apology to offer for the subject of this book, in view of
Lord Rosebery's testimony that, until recently, we knew nothing about
Napoleon, and even now "prefer to drink at any other source than the

"Study of Napoleon's utterances, apart from any attempt to discover
the secret of his prodigious exploits, cannot be considered as lost
time." It is then absolutely necessary that we should, in the words of
an eminent but unsympathetic divine, know something of the "domestic
side of the monster," first hand from his own correspondence,
confirmed or corrected by contemporaries. There is no master mind that
we can less afford to be ignorant of. To know more of the doings of
Pericles and Aspasia, of the two Cæsars and the Serpent of old Nile,
of Mary Stuart and Rizzio, of the Green Faction and the Blue, of
Orsini and Colonna, than of the Bonapartes and Beauharnais, is worthy
of a student of folklore rather than of history.

Napoleon was not only a King of Kings, he was a King of Words and of
Facts, which "are the sons of heaven, while words are the daughters of
earth," and whose progeny, the Genii of the Code, still dominates
Christendom.[1] In the hurly-burly of the French War, on the chilling
morrow of its balance-sheet, in the Janus alliance of the Second
Empire, we could not get rid of the nightmare of the Great Shadow.
Most modern works on the Napoleonic period (Lord Rosebery's "Last
Phase" being a brilliant exception) seem to be (1) too long, (2) too
little confined to contemporary sources. The first fault, especially
if merely discursive enthusiasm, is excusable, the latter pernicious,
for, as Dr. Johnson says of Robertson, "You are sure he does not know
the people whom he paints, so you cannot suppose a likeness.
Characters should never be given by a historian unless he knew the
people whom he describes, _or copies from those who knew him_."

Now, if ever, we must _fix_ and _crystallise_ the life-work of
Napoleon for posterity, for "when an opinion has once become popular,
very few are willing to oppose it. Idleness is more willing to credit
than inquire ... and he that writes merely for sale is tempted to
court purchasers by flattering the prejudices of the public."[2] We
have accumulated practically all the evidence, and are not yet so
remote from the aspirations and springs of action of a century ago as
to be out of touch with them. The Vaccination and Education questions
are still before us; so is the cure of croup and the composition of
electricity. We have special reasons for sympathy with the first
failures of Fulton, and can appreciate Napoleon's primitive but
effective expedients for modern telegraphy and transport, which were
as far in advance of his era as his nephew's ignorance of railway
warfare in 1870 was behind it. We must admire The Man[3] who found
within the fields of France the command of the Tropics, and who needed
nothing but time to prosper Corsican cotton and Solingen steel. The
man's words and deeds are still vigorous and alive; in another
generation many of them will be dead as Marley--"dead as a door-nail."
Let us then each to his task, and each try, as best he may, to weigh
in honest scales the modern Hannibal--"our last great man,"[4] "the
mightiest genius of two thousand years."[5]

  H. F. HALL.


   [1] See _infra_, Napoleon's Heritage, p. xxiv., Introduction.

   [2] Dr. Johnson (_Gentleman's Magazine_, 1760), in defence of Mary

   [3] _L'Homme_, so spoken of during the Empire, outside military

   [4] Carlyle.

   [5] Napier.


  Difficulties of translation--Napoleon as lexicographer and
  bookworm--Historic value of his Bulletins--A few aspects of
  Napoleon's character--"Approfondissez!"--The need of a Creator--The
  influence of sea power--England's future rival---Napoleon as average
  adjuster--His use of Freemasonry--Of the Catholics and of the
  Jews--His neglect of women in politics--Josephine a failure--His
  incessant work, "which knew no rest save change of occupation"--His
  attachment to early friendships--The Bonaparte family--His influence
  on literary men--Conversations with Wieland and Müller--Verdict of
  a British tar--The character of Josephine--Sources of the Letters--The
  Tennant Collection--The Didot Collection--Archibald Constable and
  Sir Walter Scott--Correspondence of Napoleon I.--Report of the
  Commission--Contemporary sources--The Diary--Napoleon's heritage.

Napoleon is by no means an easy writer to translate adequately. He
had always a terse, concise mode of speaking, and this, with the
constant habit of dictating, became accentuated. Whenever he could
use a short, compact word he did so. The greatest temptation has
been to render his very modern ideas by modern colloquialisms.
Occasionally, where Murray's Dictionary proves that the word was
in vogue a century ago, we have used a somewhat rarer word than
Napoleon's equivalent, as _e.g._ "coolth," in Letter No. 6, Series
B (_pendant le frais_), in order to preserve as far as possible the
brevity and crispness of the original. Napoleon's vocabulary was not
specially wide, but always exact. In expletive it was extensive
and peculiar. Judging his brother by himself, he did not consider
Lucien sufficient of a purist in French literature to write epics;
and the same remark would have been partly true of the Emperor,
who, however, was always at considerable pains to verify any word
of which he did not know the exact meaning.[6] His own appetite
for literature was enormous, especially during the year's garrison
life he spent at Valence, where he read and re-read the contents of a
_bouquiniste's_ shop, and, what is more, remembered them, so much so
that, nearly a quarter of a century later, he was able to correct the
dates of ecclesiastical experts at Erfurt. Whatever he says or
whatever he writes, one always finds a specific gravity of stark,
staring facts altogether abnormal. For generations it was the fashion
to consider "as false as a bulletin" peculiar to Napoleon's
despatches; but the publication of Napoleon's correspondence, by
order of Napoleon III., has changed all that. In the first place,
as to dates. Not only have Haydn, Woodward and Cates, and the
_Encyclopædia Britannica_ made mistakes during this period, but
even the _Biographie Universelle_ (usually so careful) is not
immaculate. Secondly, with regard to the descriptions of the battles.
We have never found one that in accuracy and truthfulness would
not compare to conspicuous advantage with some of those with which
we were only too familiar in December 1899. Napoleon was sometimes
1200 miles away from home; he had to gauge the effect of his
bulletins from one end to the other of the largest effective empire
that the world has ever seen, and, like Dr. Johnson in Fleet
Street reporting Parliamentary debates (but with a hundred times more
reason), he was determined not to let the other dogs have the best of
it. The notes on the battles of Eylau (Series H) and Essling (Series
L), the two most conspicuous examples of where it was necessary to
colour the bulletins, will show what is meant. Carlyle was the first
to point out that his despatches are as instinct with genius as his
conquests--his very words have "Austerlitz battles" in them. The
reference to "General Danube," in 1809, as the best general the
Austrians had, was one of those flashes of inspiration which
military writers, from Napoleon to Lord Wolseley, have shown to be
a determining factor in every doubtful fray.

"_Approfondissez_--go to the bottom of things," wrote Lord Chesterfield;
and this might have been the life-motto of the Emperor. But to adopt
this fundamental common-sense with regard to the character of Napoleon
is almost impossible; it is, to use the metaphor of Lord Rosebery,
like trying to span a mountain with a tape. We can but indicate a few
leading features. In the first place, he had, like the great
Stagirite, an eye at once telescopic and microscopic. Beyond the
_mécanique céleste_, beyond the nebulous reign of chaos and old night,
his ken pierced the primal truth--the need of a Creator: "not every
one can be an atheist who wishes it." No man saw deeper into the causes
of things. The influence of sea power on history, to take one
example, was never absent from his thoughts. Slowly and laboriously he
built and rebuilt his fleets, only to fall into the hands of his "Punic"
rival. Beaten at sea, he has but two weapons left against England--to
"conquer her by land," or to stir up a maritime rival who will sooner
or later avenge him. We have the Emperor Alexander's testimony from
the merchants of Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool how nearly his
Continental System _had_ ruined us. The rival raised up beyond the
western waves by the astute sale of Louisiana is still growing. In less
than a decade Napoleon had a first crumb of comfort (when such crumbs
were rare) in hearing of the victories of the _Constitution_ over
British frigates.

As for his microscopic eye, we know of nothing like it in all history.
In focussing the facets, we seem to shadow out the main secret of his
success--his ceaseless survey of all sorts and conditions of
knowledge. "Never despise local information," he wrote Murat, who was
at Naples, little anticipating the extremes of good and evil fortune
which awaited him there. Another characteristic--one in which he
surpassed alike the theory of Macchiavelli and the practice of the
Medici--was his use of _la bascule_, with himself as equilibrist or
average adjuster, as the only safe principle of government. Opinions
on the whole[7] lean to the idea that, up to the First Consulate,
Napoleon was an active Freemason, at a time when politics were
permitted, and when the Grand Orient, having initiated Voltaire almost
on his deathbed, and having been submerged by the Terror, was
beginning to show new life. In any case, we have in O'Meara the
Emperor's statement (and this is rather against the theory of Napoleon
being more than his brother Joseph, a mere patron of the craft) that
he encouraged the brotherhood. Cambacérès had more Masonic degrees
than probably any man before or since, and no man was so long and so
consistently trusted by Napoleon, with one short and significant
exception. Then there was the _gendarmerie d'élite_, then the ordinary
police, the myrmidons of Fouché of Nantes--in fact, if we take Lord
Rosebery literally, Napoleon had "half-a-dozen police agencies of his
own." There was also Talleyrand and, during the Concordats, the whole
priest-craft of Christendom as enlisting sergeants and spies
extraordinary for the Emperor. Finally, when he wishes to attack
Russia, he convokes a Sanhedrim at Paris, and wins the active
sympathies of Israel. "He was his own War Office, his own Foreign
Office, his own Admiralty."[8] His weak spot was his neglect of woman
as a political factor; this department he left to Josephine, who was a
failure. She gained popularity, but no converts. The Faubourg St.
Germain mistrusted a woman whose chief friend was the wife of
Thermidorian Tallien--Notre Dame de Septembre. In vain Napoleon raged
and stormed about the Tallien friendship, till his final mandate in
1806; and then it was too late.

Another characteristic, very marked in these Home Letters, is the
desire not to give his wife anxiety. His ailments and his difficulties
are always minimised.

Perhaps no man ever worked so hard physically and mentally as Napoleon
from 1796 to 1814. Lord Rosebery reminds us that "he would post from
Poland to Paris, summon a council at once, and preside over it with
his usual vigour and acuteness." And his councils were no joke; they
would last eight or ten hours. Once, at two o'clock in the morning,
the councillors were all worn-out; the Minister of Marine was fast
asleep. Napoleon still urged them to further deliberation: "Come,
gentlemen, pull yourselves together; it is only two o'clock, we must
earn the money that the nation gives us." The Commission who first
sifted the _Correspondence_ may well speak of the ceaseless workings
of that mind, which _knew no rest save change of occupation_, and of
"that universal intelligence from which nothing escaped." The chief
fault in Napoleon as a statesman was intrinsically a virtue, viz., his
good nature. There was, as Sir Walter Scott has said, "gentleness and
even softness in his character. It was his common and expressive
phrase that the heart of a politician should be in his head; but his
feelings sometimes surprised him in a gentler mood."

To be a relation of his own or his wife's, to have been a friend in
his time of stress, was to have a claim on Napoleon's support which no
subsequent treachery to himself could efface. From the days of his new
power--political power, first the Consulate and then the Empire--he
lavished gifts and favours even on the most undeserving of his early
comrades. Fouché, Talleyrand, Bernadotte were forgiven once, twice,
and again, to his own final ruin. Like Medea, one of whose other
exploits he had evoked in a bulletin, he could say--but to his honour
and not to his shame--

          "Si possem, sanior essem.
  Sed trahit invitam nova vis; aliudque Cupido,
  Mens aliud suadet. Video meliora, proboque
  Deteriora sequor."

Treachery and peculation against the State was different, as Moreau,
Bourrienne, and even Massena and Murat discovered.

As for his family, they were a flabby and somewhat sensual lot, with
the exception of Lucien, who was sufficiently capable to be hopelessly
impracticable. He was, however, infinitely more competent than the
effeminate Joseph and the melancholy Louis, and seems to have had more
command of parliamentary oratory than Napoleon himself.

Napoleon's influence on literary men may be gauged by what Wieland[9]
and Müller[10] reported of their interview with him at Erfurt. That
with Wieland took place at the ball which followed the entertainment
on the field of Jena. "I was presented," he says, "by the Duchess of
Weimar, with the usual ceremonies; he then paid me some compliments in
an affable tone, and looked steadfastly at me. Few men have
appeared to me to possess, in the same degree, the art of reading
at the first glance the thoughts of other men. He saw, in an
instant, that notwithstanding my celebrity I was simple in my manners
and void of pretension; and, as he seemed desirous of making a
favourable impression on me, he assumed the tone most likely to
attain his end. I have never beheld any one more calm, more simple,
more mild, or less ostentatious in appearance; nothing about him
indicated the feeling of power in a great monarch; he spoke to me as
an old acquaintance would speak to an equal; and what was more
extraordinary on his part, he conversed with me exclusively for an
hour and a half, to the great surprise of the whole assembly."
Wieland has related part of their conversation, which is, as it could
not fail to be, highly interesting. They touched on a variety of
subjects; among others, the ancients. Napoleon declared his
preference of the Romans to the Greeks. "The eternal squabbles of
their petty republics," he said, "were not calculated to give birth
to anything grand; whereas the Romans were always occupied with great
things, and it was owing to this they raised up the Colossus which
bestrode the world." This preference was characteristic; the
following is anomalous: "He preferred Ossian to Homer." "He was fond
only of serious poetry," continues Wieland; "the pathetic and
vigorous writers; and, above all, the tragic poets. He appeared to
have no relish for anything gay; and in spite of the prepossessing
amenity of his manners, an observation struck me often, he seemed to
be of bronze. Nevertheless, he had put me so much at my ease that I
ventured to ask how it was that the public worship he had restored
in France was not more philosophical and in harmony with the
spirit of the times? 'My dear Wieland,' he replied, 'religion is not
meant for philosophers; they have no faith either in me or my
priests. As to those who do believe, it would be difficult to give
them or to leave them too much of the marvellous. If I had to
frame a religion for philosophers, it would be just the reverse of
that of the credulous part of mankind.'"[11]

Müller, the celebrated Swiss historian, who had a private interview
with Napoleon at this period, has left a still fuller account of the
impression he received. "The Emperor[12] began to speak," says Müller,
"of the history of Switzerland, told me that I ought to complete it,
that even the more recent times had their interest. He proceeded from
the Swiss to the old Greek constitutions and history; to the theory of
constitutions; to the complete diversity of those of Asia, and the
causes of this diversity in the climate, polygamy, &c.; the opposite
characters of the Arabian and the Tartar races; the peculiar value of
European culture, and the progress of freedom since the sixteenth
century; how everything was linked together, and in the inscrutable
guidance of an invisible hand; how he himself had become great through
his enemies; the great confederation of nations, the idea of which
Henry IV. had; the foundation of all religion, and its necessity; that
man could not bear clear truth, and required to be kept in order;
admitting the possibility, however, of a more happy condition if the
numerous feuds ceased, which were occasioned by too complicated
constitutions (such as the German), and the intolerable burden
suffered by states from excessive armies." These opinions clearly mark
the guiding motives of Napoleon's attempts to enforce upon different
nations uniformity of institutions and customs. "I opposed him
occasionally," says Müller, "and he entered into discussion. Quite
impartially and truly, as before God, I must say that the variety of
his knowledge, the acuteness of his observations, the solidity of his
understanding (not dazzling wit), his grand and comprehensive views,
filled me with astonishment, and his manner of speaking to me, with
love for him. By his genius and his disinterested goodness, he has
also conquered me." Slowly but surely they are conquering the world.
Of his goodness we have the well-weighed verdict of Lord Acton, that
it was "the most splendid that has appeared on earth." Of his
goodness, we may at least concur in the opinion of the old British tar
at Elba, quoted by Sir Walter, and evidently his own view, that "Boney
was a d--d good fellow after all."

With regard to the character of _Josephine_ opinions still differ
about every quality but one. Like the friend of Goldsmith's mad dog--

  "A kind and gentle heart she had
    To comfort friends and foes:"

either her brother Mason Cambacérès, or her brother Catholic and
unbrotherly brother-in-law Lucien.

From early days she had learnt "how to flirt and how to fib." Morality
was at a low ebb during the French Revolution, when women often saved
their necks at the expense of their bodies, and there is unfortunately
no doubt that Josephine was no exception. It is certain, however, from
his first letters to Josephine, that Napoleon knew nothing of this at
the time of his honeymoon (solus) in Italy. Gradually, but very
unwillingly, his eyes were opened, and by the time he had reached
Egypt he felt himself absolved from the absolute faithfulness he had
hitherto preserved towards his wife. On his return Josephine becomes
once more his consort, and even his friend--never again his only love.
Josephine's main characteristic henceforward is to make everybody
happy and comfortable--in spite of Napoleon's grumblings at her
reckless prodigality; never to say No! (except to her husband's
accusations) suits her Creole disposition best, especially as it costs
her no active exertion, and the Emperor pays for all. And so, having
been in turn Our Lady of Victories and Saint Mary the Egyptian, she
becomes from her coronation to her death-day "The Mother of the

THE SOURCES OF THE LETTERS.--These may be divided into three
parts--(1st) the Early Love-Letters of 1796; (2nd) the Collection
published by Didot Frères in 1833; and (3rd) the few scattered Letters
gathered from various outside sources.

(1st) With regard to the Early Love-Letters of 1796, these are found
most complete in a work published by Longmans in 1824, in two volumes,
with the title, "A Tour through Parts of the Netherlands, Holland,
Germany, Switzerland, Savoy, and France, in the year 1821-2, by
Charles Tennant, Esq.; also containing in an Appendix Fac-simile
Copies of Eight Letters in the handwriting of Napoleon Bonaparte to
his wife Josephine."

The author introduces them with an interesting preface, which shows
that then, as now, the interest in everything connected with Napoleon
was unabated:--

"Long after this fleeting book shall have passed away, and with its
author shall have been forgotten, these documents will remain; for
here, perhaps, is to be found the purest source of information which
exists, touching the private character of Napoleon Bonaparte, known,
probably, but to the few whose situations have enabled them to observe
that extraordinary man in the undisguised relations of domestic life.
Although much already has been said and written of him, yet the
eagerness with which every little anecdote and incident of his life is
sought for shows the interest which still attaches to his name, and
these, no doubt, will be bequests which posterity will duly estimate.
From these it will be the province of future historians to cull and
select simple and authenticated facts, and from these only can be
drawn a true picture of the man whose fame has already extended into
every distant region of the habitable globe.

       *       *       *       *       *

"I will now proceed to relate the means by which I am enabled to
introduce into this journal fac-simile copies of eight letters in the
handwriting of Napoleon Bonaparte, the originals of which are in my
possession. Had these been of a political nature, much as I should
prize any relics of such a man, yet they would not have appeared in a
book from which I have studiously excluded all controversial topics,
and more especially those of a political character. Neither should I
have ventured upon their publication if there were a possibility that
by so doing I might wound the feelings of any human being. Death has
closed the cares of the individuals connected with these letters. Like
the memorials of Alexander the Great or of Charlemagne, they are the
property of the possessor, and through him of the public; but not like
ancient documents, dependent upon legendary evidence for their
identity and truth.

"These have passed to me through two hands only, since they came into
possession of the Empress Josephine, to whom they are written by
their illustrious author. One of the individuals here alluded to, and
from whom I received these letters, is a Polish nobleman, who attached
himself and his fortunes to Bonaparte, whose confidence he enjoyed in
several important diplomatic negotiations."

This book and these letters were known to Sir Walter Scott, who made
use of some of them in his _History of Napoleon_. M. Aubenas, in his
_Histoire de l'Impératrice Joséphine_, published in 1857, which has
been lavishly made use of in a recent work on the same subject, seems
to have known, at any rate, four of these letters, which were
communicated to him by M. le Baron Feuillet de Conches. Monsieur
Aubenas seems never to have seen the Tennant Collection, of which
these undoubtedly form part, but as Baron Feuillet de Conches was an
expert in deciphering Bonaparte's extraordinary caligraphy, these
letters are very useful for reference in helping us to translate some
phrases which had been given up as illegible by Mr. Tennant and Sir
Walter Scott.

(2nd) The _Collection Didot_. This enormously valuable collection
forms by far the greater part of the Letters that we possess of
Napoleon to his wife. They are undoubtedly authentic, and have
been utilised largely by Aubenas, St. Amand, Masson, and the
_Correspondance de Napoléon I._ They were edited by Madame Salvage
de Faverolles. As is well known, Sir Walter Scott was very anxious to
obtain possession of these letters for his _Life of Napoleon_, and
his visit to Paris was partly on this account. In _Archibald
Constable and his Literary Correspondents_, edited in 1873 by his son,
we find the following:--


  "_August 30, 1825._

"I have had various conversations with Mr. Thomson on the subject of
Napoleon's correspondence with Josephine. Mr. Thomson communicated
with Count Flahault for me in the view of its being published, and
whether the letters could not, in the meantime, be rendered
accessible. The publication, it seems, under any circumstances, is by
no means determined on, but should they be given, the price expected
is five thousand guineas, which I should imagine greatly too much. I
have an enumeration of the letters, from whence written, &c. I shall
subjoin a copy of it."

When they were finally published in 1833, they seem to have been
stimulated into existence by publication of the _Mémorial de
Saint-Helène_, better known in England as _Las Cases_. Doubtless
Hortense only allowed such letters to be published as would not injure
the reputation of her mother or her relations. In the Preface it is
stated: "We think that these letters will afford an interest as
important as delightful. Everything that comes from Napoleon, and
everything that appertains to him, will always excite the lively
attention of contemporaries and posterity. If the lofty meditation of
philosophy concerns itself only with the general influence of great
men upon their own generation and future ones, a curiosity of another
nature, and not less greedy, loves to penetrate into the inmost
recesses of their soul, in order to elicit their most secret
inclinations. It likes to learn what has been left of the _man_, amid
the preoccupations of their projects and the elevation of their
fortune. It requires to know in what manner their character has
modified their genius, or has been subservient to it.

"It is this curiosity that we hope to satisfy by the publication of
these letters. They reveal the inmost thought of Napoleon, they will
reflect his earliest impulses, they will show how the General, the
Consul, and the Emperor felt and spoke, not in his discourses or his
proclamations--the official garb of his thought--but in the free
outpourings of the most passionate or the most tender affections....
This correspondence will prove, we strongly believe, that the
conqueror was human, the master of the world a good husband, the great
man in fact an excellent man.... We shall see in them how, up to the
last moment, he lavished on his wife proofs of his tenderness. Without
doubt the letters of the Emperor Napoleon are rarer and shorter than
those of the First Consul, and the First Consul writes no longer like
General Bonaparte, but everywhere the sentiment is fundamentally the

"We make no reflection on the style of these letters, written in haste
and in all the _abandon_ of intimacy. We can easily perceive they were
not destined to see the light. Nevertheless we publish them without
changing anything in them."

The _Collection Didot_ contains 228 letters from Napoleon to
Josephine, and 70 from Josephine to Hortense, and two from Josephine
to Napoleon, which seem to be the only two in existence of Josephine
to Napoleon whose authenticity is unquestioned.

(3rd) The fugitive letters are collected from various sources, and
their genuineness does not seem to be quite as well proved as those
of the Tennant or Didot Series. We have generally taken the
_Correspondence of Napoleon I._ as the touchstone of their merit to be
inserted here, although one of them--that republished from _Las
Cases_ (No. 85, Series G.)--is manifestly mainly the work of that
versatile author, who is utterly unreliable except when confirmed
by others. As Lord Rosebery has well said, the book is "an arsenal
of spurious documents."

We have relegated to an Appendix those published by Madame Ducrest, as
transparent forgeries, and have to acknowledge with thanks a letter
from M. Masson on this subject which thoroughly confirms these views.
There seems some reason to doubt No. I., Series E, but being in the
_Correspondence_, I have translated it.

The _Correspondence of Napoleon I._ is a splendid monument to the
memory of Napoleon. It is alluded to throughout the Notes as _The
Correspondence_, and it deserves special recognition here. Its
compilation was decreed by Napoleon III. from Boulogne, on 7th
September 1854, and the first volume appeared in 1858, and the last in
1870. With the first volume is inserted the Report of the Commission
to the Emperor, part of which we subjoin:--

"_Report of the Commission to the Emperor._

"SIRE,--Augustus numbered Cæsar among the gods, and dedicated to him a
temple; the temple has disappeared, the Commentaries remain. Your
Majesty, wishing to raise to the chief of your dynasty an imperishable
monument, has ordered us to gather together and publish the political,
military, and administrative correspondence of Napoleon I. It has
realised that the most conspicuous (_éclatant_) homage to render to
this incomparable genius was to make him known in his entirety. No one
is ignorant of his victories, of the laws with which he has endowed
our country, the institutions that he has founded and which dwell
immovable after so many revolutions; his prosperity and his reverses
are in every mouth; history has recounted what he has done, but it has
not always known his designs: it has not had the secret of so many
admirable combinations that have been the spoil of fortune (_que la
fortune a dejouées_), and so many grand projects for the execution of
which time alone was wanting. The traces of Napoleon's thoughts were
scattered; it was necessary to reunite them and to give them to the

"Such is the task which your Majesty confided to us, and of which we
were far from suspecting the extent. The thousands of letters which
were received from all parts have allowed us to follow, in spite of a
few regrettable _lacunæ_, the thoughts of Napoleon day by day, and to
assist, so to say, at the birth of his projects, at the ceaseless
workings of his mind, which knew no other rest than change of
occupation. But what is perhaps most surprising in the reading of a
correspondence so varied, is the power of that universal intelligence
from which nothing escaped, which in turn raised itself without an
effort to the most sublime conceptions, and which descends with the
same facility to the smallest details.... Nothing seems to him
unworthy of his attention that has to do with the realisation of his
designs; and it is not sufficient for him to give the most precise
orders, but he superintends himself the execution of them with an
indefatigable perseverance.

"The letters of Napoleon can add nothing to his glory, but they better
enable us to comprehend his prodigious destiny, the prestige that he
exercised over his contemporaries--'le culte universel dont sa mémoire
est l'objet, enfin, l'entraînement irrésistible par lequel la France a
replacé sa dynastie au sommet de l'édifice qu'il avait construit.'

"These letters also contain the most fruitful sources of information
... for peoples as for governments; for soldiers and for statesmen no
less than for historians. Perhaps some persons, greedy of knowing the
least details concerning the intimate life of great men, will regret
that we have not reproduced those letters which, published elsewhere
for the most part, have only dealt with family affairs and domestic
relations. Collected together by us as well as the others, they have
not found a place in the plan of which your Majesty has fixed for us
the limits.

"Let us haste to declare that, in conformity with the express
intentions of your Majesty, we have scrupulously avoided, in the
reproduction of the letters of the Emperor, any alteration,
curtailment, or modification of the text. Sometimes, thinking of the
legitimate sorrow which blame from so high a quarter may cause, we
have regretted not to be able to soften the vigorous judgment of
Napoleon on many of his contemporaries, but it was not our province to
discuss them, still less to explain them; but if, better informed or
calmer, the Emperor has rendered justice to those of his servants that
he had for a moment misunderstood, we have been glad to indicate that
these severe words have been followed by reparation.

"We have found it necessary to have the spelling of names of places
and of persons frequently altered, but we have allowed to remain
slight incorrectnesses of language which denote the impetuosity of
composition, and which often could not be rectified without weakening
the originality of an energetic style running right to its object,
brief and precise as the words of command. Some concise notes
necessary for clearing up obscure passages are the sole conditions
which we have allowed ourselves....

"The Commission has decided in favour of chronological order
throughout. It is, moreover, the only one which can reproduce
faithfully the sequence of the Emperor's thoughts. It is also the best
for putting in relief his universal aptitude and his marvellous

"Napoleon wrote little with his own hand; nearly all the items of his
correspondence were dictated to his secretaries, to his aides-de-camp
and his chief of staff, or to his ministers. Thus the Commission has
not hesitated to comprise in this collection a great number of items
which, although bearing another signature, evidently emanate from

"By declaring that his public life dated from the siege of Toulon,
Napoleon has himself determined the point of departure which the
Commission should choose. It is from this immortal date that commences
the present publication.


  "_Paris, January 20, 1858._"

CONTEMPORARY SOURCES.--It is a commonplace that the history of
Napoleon has yet to be written. His contemporaries were stunned or
overwhelmed by the whirlwind of his glory; the next generation was
blinded by meteoric fragments of his "system," which glowed with
impotent heat as they fell through an alien atmosphere into oblivion.
Such were the Bourriennes, the Jominis, the Talleyrands, and other
traitors of that ilk. But

  "The tumult and the shouting dies;
  The captains and the kings depart;"

and now, when all the lesser tumults and lesser men _have_ passed
away, each new century will, as Lockhart foretold, "inscribe one
mighty era with the majestic name of Napoleon." And yet the writings
of no contemporary can be ignored; neither Alison nor Scott, certainly
not Bignon, Montgaillard, Pelet, Mathieu Dumas, and Pasquier.
Constant, Bausset, Méneval, Rovigo, and D'Abrantès are full of
interest for their personal details, and D'Avrillon, Las Cases,
Marmont, Marbot, and Lejeune only a degree less so. Jung's _Memoirs of
Lucien_ are invaluable, and those of Joseph and Louis Bonaparte
useful. But the _Correspondence_ is worth everything else, including
Panckouke (1796-99), where, in spite of shocking arrangement, print,
and paper, we get the replies as well as the letters. The _Biographie
Universelle Michaud_ is hostile, except the interesting footnotes of
Bégin. It must, however, be read. The article in the _Encyclopædia
Britannica_ was the work of an avowed enemy of the Napoleonic system,
the editor of the _Life and Times of Stein_.

For the Diary, the _Revue Chronologique de l'Histoire de France_ or
Montgaillard (1823) has been heavily drawn upon, especially for the
later years, but wherever practicable the dates have been verified
from the _Correspondence_ and bulletins of the day. On the whole, the
records of respective losses in the battles are slightly favourable to
the French, as their figures have been usually taken; always, however,
the maximum French loss and the minimum of the allies is recorded,
when unverified from other sources.

The late Professor Seeley, in his monograph, asserts that Napoleon,
tried by his plan, is a failure--that even before death his words and
actions merited no monument. We must seek, however, for the mightiest
heritage of Napoleon in his brainchildren of the second generation,
the Genii of the Code.

The Code Napoleon claims to-day its two hundred million subjects. "The
Law should be clean, precise, uniform; to interpret is to corrupt it."
So ruled the Emperor; and now, a century later, Archbishop Temple
(born in one distant island the year Napoleon died in another) bears
testimony to the beneficent sway of Napoleon's Word-Empire.
Criticising English legal phraseology, the Archbishop of Canterbury
said, "The French Code is always welcome in every country where it has
been introduced; and where people have once got hold of it, they are
unwilling to have it changed for any other, because it is _a marvel of
clearness_." Surely if ever Style _is_ the Man, it is Napoleon,
otherwise the inspection of over seven million words, as marshalled
forth in his _Correspondence_, would not only confuse but confound. As
it is, its "hum of armies, gathering rank on rank," has left behind
what Bacon calls a conflation of sound, from which, however, as from
Kipling's steel-sinewed symphony,

                  "The clanging chorus goes--
  Law, Order, Duty and Restraint, Obedience, Discipline."


   [6] Sometimes he is perhaps more to be trusted than the leading
       lexicographer, as for example when, the day after Wagram, he
       writes his Minister of War that the _coup de Jarnac_ will come
       from the English in Spain. Now, when the Jarnac in question was
       slain in fair fight by La Chateignerie by a blow _au jarret_,
       it was an _unexpected_ blow, but not surely, as Littré tells
       us, _manoeuvre perfide_, _déloyale_. Nothing was too disloyal
       for perfidious Albion, but for 30,000 English to outmanoeuvre
       three marshals and 100,000 French veterans would be, and was,
       the unexpected which happened at Talavera three weeks later.

   [7] Findel's _History of Freemasonry_.

   [8] Lord Rosebery.

   [9] This versatile writer, the author of _Oberon_, the translator of
       Lucian and Shakespeare, and the founder of psychological
       romance in Germany, was then in his seventy-fifth year.

  [10] The historian (1755-1809), "the Thucydides of Switzerland."

  [11] Horne's _History of Napoleon_ (1841).

  [12] Ibid.


  Column Headings:

  A: Pages.
  B: Series.
  C: Dates.
  D: No. of Letters.
  E: Sources.
  F: Tennant.
  G: Didot.
  H: Various.
  I: Pages of Corresponding Notes.

  |       |  |       |      |                E                   |       |
  |  A    | B|   C   |  D   |----------------------------------- |   I   |
  |       |  |       |      |   F    |    G  |       H           |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |{No. 2, from    }  |       |
  |  1-16 | A|1796   |  8   |{ Nos.} |       |{ St. Amand,    }  |198-211|
  |       |  |       |      |{1,   } |       |{ _La Citoyenne_}  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |{3-8  } |       |{ _Bonaparte_   }  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |{Nos. }|{No. 15, from   }  |       |
  | 17-38 | B|1796-7 | 25   |        |{1-14 }|{ Bourrienne's  }  |211-223|
  |       |  |       |      |        |{16-25}|{ _Life of_     }  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |{ _Bonaparte_   }  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  | 39-46 | C|1800   |  4   | No. 3  | 1,2,4 |                   |223-225|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  | 47-53 | D|1801-2 |  5   |        |  all  |                   |225-231|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |{No. 1,         }  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |{ _Correspondence_}|
  | 55-60 | E|1804   |  6   |        |{Nos. }|{No. 5,         }  |232-237|
  |       |  |       |      |        |{2,3,} |{ Collection    }  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |{4,6 } |{ of Baron Heath}  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  | 61-74 | F|1805   | 19   |        |  all  |                   |237-243|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |{No. 9A, from   }  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |{ Mlle. }|243-264  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |{ D'Avrillon    }  |       |
  | 75-118| G|1806-7 | 87   |        |all but|{No. 85, from   }  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |{ Las Casas     }  |       |
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |119-122| H|1807   |  3   |        | all   |                   |264-267|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |123-128| I|1808   |  4   |        | all   |                   |267-269|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |129-132| J|1808   |  3   |        | all   |                   |269-273|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |133-140| K|1808-9 | 14   |        | all   |                   |273-278|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |141-154| L|1809   | 25   |        | all   |                   |278-295|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |155-165| M|1809-10| 22   |        | all   |                   |295-304|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |167-176| N|1810   |11[13]|        | all   |                   |304-310|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |177-181| O|1811   |  4   |        | all   |                   |311-312|
  |       |  |       |      |        |       |                   |       |
  |183-197| P|1812-14|  2   |        | all   |                   |312-315|
  |       |  |       |------|        |       |                   |       |
  |       |  |       | 242  |        |       |                   |       |

      316. APPENDIX (1).--Reputed Poem by Napoleon.

      317. APPENDIX (2).--Genealogy of the Bonaparte Family.

  317-321. APPENDIX (3).--Spurious Letters of Napoleon to Josephine.


  [13] Exclusive of two from Josephine to Napoleon.


  NAPOLEON                                            _Frontispiece_
          AN ORIGINAL DRAWING (_Photogravure_)

  EUGÈNE BEAUHARNAIS                                  _Face page_ 121
      AFTERWARDS VICEROY OF ITALY (_Photogravure_)

  JOSEPHINE BEAUHARNAIS                               _Face page_ 198
      _Circa_ 1795 (_Photogravure_)

      24, 1796                                        _Pages_ 202-3




"Only those who knew Napoleon in the intercourse of private life can
render justice to his character. For my own part, I know him, as it
were, by heart; and in proportion as time separates us, he appears to
me like a beautiful dream. And would you believe that, in my
recollections of Napoleon, that which seems to me to approach most
nearly to ideal excellence is not the hero, filling the world with his
gigantic fame, but the man, viewed in the relations of private
life?"--_Recollections of Caulaincourt_, _Duke of Vicenza_, vol. i.


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 198-211.)

  LETTER                                         PAGE

         _Bonaparte made Commander-in-Chief_      198

  No. 1. 7 A.M.                                   198

  No. 2. _Our good Ossian_                        199

  No. 4. _Chauvet is dead_                        199

  No. 5. Napoleon's suspicions                    199
         _The lovers of nineteen_                 200
         _My brother_                             200

  No. 6. _Unalterably good_                       201
         _If you want a place for any one_        201

  No. 7. A criticism by Aubenas                   201
         _June 15th_                              204
         _Presentiment of ill_                    210

  No. 8. The Treaty with Rome                     210
         _Fortuné_                                211


  _February 23rd.--Bonaparte made Commander-in-Chief of the Army of

No. 1.

  _Seven o'clock in the morning._

My waking thoughts are all of thee. Your portrait and the remembrance
of last night's delirium have robbed my senses of repose. Sweet and
incomparable Josephine, what an extraordinary influence you have over
my heart. Are you vexed? do I see you sad? are you ill at ease? My
soul is broken with grief, and there is no rest for your lover. But is
there more for me when, delivering ourselves up to the deep feelings
which master me, I breathe out upon your lips, upon your heart, a
flame which burns me up--ah, it was this past night I realised that
your portrait was not you. You start at noon; I shall see you in three
hours. Meanwhile, _mio dolce amor_, accept a thousand kisses,[14] but
give me none, for they fire my blood.

  N. B.

  _A Madame Beauharnais._

       *       *       *       *       *

  _March 9th.--Bonaparte marries Josephine._

  _March 11th.--Bonaparte leaves Paris to join his army._

No. 2.

  _Chanceaux Post House,
  March 14, 1796._

I wrote you at Chatillon, and sent you a power of attorney to enable
you to receive various sums of money in course of remittance to me.
Every moment separates me further from you, my beloved, and every
moment I have less energy to exist so far from you. You are the
constant object of my thoughts; I exhaust my imagination in thinking
of what you are doing. If I see you unhappy, my heart is torn, and my
grief grows greater. If you are gay and lively among your friends
(male and female), I reproach you with having so soon forgotten the
sorrowful separation three days ago; thence you must be fickle, and
henceforward stirred by no deep emotions. So you see I am not easy to
satisfy; but, my dear, I have quite different sensations when I fear
that your health may be affected, or that you have cause to be
annoyed; then I regret the haste with which I was separated from my
darling. I feel, in fact, that your natural kindness of heart exists
no longer for me, and it is only when I am quite sure you are not
vexed that I am satisfied. If I were asked how I slept, I feel that
before replying I should have to get a message to tell me that you had
had a good night. The ailments, the passions of men influence me only
when I imagine they may reach you, my dear. May my good genius, which
has always preserved me in the midst of great dangers, surround you,
enfold you, while I will face my fate unguarded. Ah! be not gay, but a
trifle melancholy; and especially may your soul be free from worries,
as your body from illness: you know what our good Ossian says on this
subject. Write me, dear, and at full length, and accept the thousand
and one kisses of your most devoted and faithful friend.

[This letter is translated from St. Amand's _La Citoyenne Bonaparte_,
p. 3, 1892.]

       *       *       *       *       *

  _March 27th.--Arrival at Nice and proclamation to the soldiers._

No. 3.

  _April 3rd.--He is at Mentone._

  _Port Maurice, April 3rd._

I have received all your letters, but none has affected me like the
last. How can you think, my charmer, of writing me in such terms? Do
you believe that my position is not already painful enough without
further increasing my regrets and subverting my reason. What
eloquence, what feelings you portray; they are of fire, they inflame
my poor heart! My unique Josephine, away from you there is no more
joy--away from thee the world is a wilderness, in which I stand alone,
and without experiencing the bliss of unburdening my soul. You have
robbed me of more than my soul; you are the one only thought of my
life. When I am weary of the worries of my profession, when I mistrust
the issue, when men disgust me, when I am ready to curse my life, I
put my hand on my heart where your portrait beats in unison. I look at
it, and love is for me complete happiness; and everything laughs for
joy, except the time during which I find myself absent from my

By what art have you learnt how to captivate all my faculties, to
concentrate in yourself my spiritual existence--it is witchery, dear
love, which will end only with me. To live for Josephine, that is the
history of my life. I am struggling to get near you, I am dying to be
by your side; fool that I am, I fail to realise how far off I am, that
lands and provinces separate us. What an age it will be before you
read these lines, the weak expressions of the fevered soul in which
you reign. Ah, my winsome wife, I know not what fate awaits me, but if
it keeps me much longer from you it will be unbearable--my strength
will not last out. There was a time in which I prided myself on my
strength, and, sometimes, when casting my eyes on the ills which men
might do me, on the fate that destiny might have in store for me, I
have gazed steadfastly on the most incredible misfortunes without a
wrinkle on my brow or a vestige of surprise: but to-day the thought
that my Josephine might be ill; and, above all, the cruel, the fatal
thought that she might love me less, blights my soul, stops my blood,
makes me wretched and dejected, without even leaving me the courage of
fury and despair. I often used to say that men have no power over him
who dies without regrets; but, to-day, to die without your love, to
die in uncertainty of that, is the torment of hell, it is a lifelike
and terrifying figure of absolute annihilation--I feel passion
strangling me. My unique companion! you whom Fate has destined to walk
with me the painful path of life! the day on which I no longer possess
your heart will be that on which parched Nature will be for me without
warmth and without vegetation. I stop, dear love! my soul is sad, my
body tired, my spirit dazed, men worry me--I ought indeed to detest
them; they keep me from my beloved.

I am at Port Maurice, near Oneille; to-morrow I shall be at Albenga.
The two armies are in motion. We are trying to deceive each
other--victory to the most skilful! I am pretty well satisfied with
Beaulieu; he need be a much stronger man than his predecessor to alarm
me much. I expect to give him a good drubbing. Don't be anxious; love
me as thine eyes, but that is not enough; as thyself, more than
thyself; as thy thoughts, thy mind, thy sight, thy all. Dear love,
forgive me, I am exhausted; nature is weak for him who feels acutely,
for him whom you inspire.

  N. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

Kind regards to Barras, Sussi, Madame Tallien; compliments to Madame
Chateau Renard; to Eugène and Hortense best love. Adieu, adieu! I lie
down without thee, I shall sleep without thee; I pray thee, let me
sleep. Many times I shall clasp thee in my arms, but, but--it is not

  _A la citoyenne Bonaparte chez la
  citoyenne Beauharnais,
  Rue Chantereine No. 6, Paris._

No. 4.

  _Albenga, April 5th._

It is an hour after midnight. They have just brought me a letter. It
is a sad one, my mind is distressed--it is the death of Chauvet. He
was _commissionaire ordinateur en chef_ of the army; you have
sometimes seen him at the house of Barras. My love, I feel the need of
consolation. It is by writing to thee, to thee alone, the thought of
whom can so influence my moral being, to whom I must pour out my
troubles. What means the future? what means the past? what are we
ourselves? what magic fluid surrounds and hides from us the things
that it behoves us most to know? We are born, we live, we die in the
midst of marvels; is it astounding that priests, astrologers,
charlatans have profited by this propensity, by this strange
circumstance, to exploit our ideas, and direct them to their own
advantage. Chauvet is dead. He was attached to me. He has rendered
essential service to the fatherland. His last words were that he was
starting to join me. Yes, I see his ghost; it hovers everywhere, it
whistles in the air. His soul is in the clouds, he will be propitious
to my destiny. But, fool that I am, I shed tears for our friendship,
and who shall tell me that I have not already to bewail the
irreparable. Soul of my life, write me by every courier, else I shall
not know how to exist. I am very busy here. Beaulieu is moving his
army again. We are face to face. I am rather tired; I am every day on
horseback. Adieu, adieu, adieu; I am going to dream of you. Sleep
consoles me; it places you by my side, I clasp you in my arms. But on
waking, alas! I find myself three hundred leagues from you.
Remembrances to Barras, Tallien, and his wife.

  N. B.

  _A la citoyenne Bonaparte chez la
  citoyenne Beauharnais,
  Rue Chantereine No. 6, Paris._

No. 5.

  _Albenga, April 7th._

I have received the letter that you break off, in order, you say, to
go into the country; and in spite of that you give me to understand
that you are jealous of me, who am here, overwhelmed with business and
fatigue. Ah, my dear, it is true I am wrong. In the spring the country
is beautiful, and then the lover of nineteen will doubtless find means
to spare an extra moment to write to him who, distant three hundred
leagues from thee, lives, enjoys, exists only in thoughts of thee, who
reads thy letters as one devours, after six hours' hunting, the meat
he likes best. I am not satisfied with your last letter; it is cold as
friendship. I have not found that fire which kindles your looks, and
which I have sometimes fancied I found there. But how infatuated I am.
I found your previous letters weigh too heavily on my mind. The
revolution which they produced there invaded my rest, and took my
faculties captive. I desired more frigid letters, but they gave me the
chill of death. Not to be loved by Josephine, the thought of finding
her inconstant ... but I am forging troubles--there are so many real
ones, there is no need to manufacture more! You cannot have inspired a
boundless love without sharing it, for a cultured mind and a soul like
yours cannot requite complete surrender and devotion with the

I have received the letter from Madame Chateau Renard. I have written
to the Minister. I will write to the former to-morrow, to whom you
will make the usual compliments. Kind regards to Madame Tallien and

You do not speak of your wretched indigestion--I hate it. Adieu, till
to-morrow, _mio dolce amor_. A remembrance from my unique wife, and a
victory from Destiny--these are my wishes: a unique remembrance
entirely worthy of him who thinks of thee every moment.

My brother is here; he has learnt of my marriage with pleasure. He
longs to see you. I am trying to prevail on him to go to Paris--his
wife has just borne him a girl. He sends you a gift of a box of Genoa
bonbons. You will receive oranges, perfumes, and orange-flower water,
which I am sending.

Junot and Murat present their respects to you.

  _A la citoyenne Bonaparte,_
  _Rue Chantereine No. 6,_ (Address not in B.'s writing.)
  _Chaussée d'Antin, Paris._

       *       *       *       *       *

  _April 10th.--Campaign opens (Napoleon's available troops about

  _April 11th.--Colonel Rampon, with 1200 men, breaks the attack of
  D'Argenteau, giving Napoleon time to come up._

  _April 12th.--Battle of Montenotte, Austrians defeated. Lose 3500
  men (2000 prisoners), 5 guns, and 4 stand of colours._

  _April 14th.--Battle of Millesimo, Austrians and Sardinians
  defeated. Lose over 6000 prisoners, 2 generals, 4500 killed and
  wounded, 32 guns, and 15 stand of colours. Lannes made Colonel on
  the battlefield._

  _April 15th.--Battle of Dego, the allies defeated and separated._

  _April 22nd.--Battle of Mondovi, Sardinians defeated. Lose 3000
  men, 8 guns, 10 stand of colours._

No. 6.

  _Carru, April 24th._

_To My Sweet Love._--My brother will remit you this letter. I have for
him the most lively affection. I trust he will obtain yours; he merits
it. Nature has endowed him with a gentle, even, and unalterably good
disposition; he is made up of good qualities. I am writing Barras to
help him to the Consulate of some Italian port. He wishes to live with
his little wife far from the great whirlwind, and from great events. I
recommend him to you. I have received your letters of (April) the
fifth and tenth. You have been several days without writing me. What
_are_ you doing then? Yes, my kind, kind love, I am not jealous, but
sometimes uneasy. Come soon. I warn you, if you tarry you will find me
ill; fatigue and your absence are too much for me at the same time.

Your letters make up my daily pleasure, and my happy days are not
often. Junot bears to Paris twenty-two flags. You ought to return with
him, do you understand? Be ready, if that is not disagreeable to you.
Should he not come, woe without remedy; should he come back to me
alone, grief without consolation, constant anxiety. My Beloved, he
will see you, he will breathe on your temples; perhaps you will accord
him the unique and priceless favour of kissing your cheek, and I, I
shall be alone and very far away; but you are about to come, are you
not? You will soon be beside me, on my breast, in my arms, over your
mouth. Take wings, come quickly, but travel gently. The route is long,
bad, fatiguing. If you should be overturned or be taken ill, if
fatigue--go gently, my beloved.

I have received a letter from Hortense. She is entirely lovable. I am
going to write to her. I love her much, and I will soon send her the
perfumes that she wants.

  N. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

I know not if you want money, for you never speak to me of business.
If you do, will you ask my brother for it--he has 200 louis of mine!
If you want a place for any one you can send him; I will give him one.
Chateau Renard may come too.

  _A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c._

       *       *       *       *       *

  _April 28th.--Armistice of Cherasco (submission of Sardinia to
  France): peace signed May 15th._

  _May 7th.--Bonaparte passed the Po at Placentia, and attacks
  Beaulieu, who has 40,000 Austrians._

  _May 8th.--Austrians defeated at Fombio. Lose 2500 prisoners,
  guns, and 3 standards. Skirmish of Codogno--death of General La

  _May 9th.--Capitulation of Parma by the Grand Duke, who pays
  ransom of 2 million francs, 1600 artillery horses, food, and 20

  _May 10th.--Passage of Bridge of Lodi. Austrians lose 2000 men and
  20 cannon._

  _May 14th.--Bonaparte was requested to divide his command, and
  thereupon tendered his resignation._

  _May 15th.--Bonaparte enters Milan. Lombardy pays ransom of 20
  million francs; and the Duke of Modena 10 millions, and 20

  _May 24th-25th.--Revolt of Lombardy, and punishment of Pavia by
  the French._

  _May 30th-31st.--Bonaparte defeats Beaulieu at Borghetto, crosses
  the Mincio, and makes French cavalry fight (a new feature for the
  Republican troops)._

  _June 3rd.--Occupies Verona, and secures the line of the Adige._

  _June 4th._--Battle of Altenkirchen (Franconia) won by Jourdan.

  _June 5th.--Armistice with Naples. Their troops secede from the
  Austrian army._

No. 7.


  _Tortona, Noon, June 15th._

My life is a perpetual nightmare. A presentiment of ill oppresses me.
I see you no longer. I have lost more than life, more than happiness,
more than my rest. I am almost without hope. I hasten to send a
courier to you. He will stay only four hours in Paris, and then
bring me your reply. Write me ten pages. That alone can console me a
little. You are ill, you love me, I have made you unhappy, you are in
delicate health, and I do not see you!--that thought overwhelms me. I
have done you so much wrong that I know not how to atone for it; I
accuse you of staying in Paris, and you were ill there. Forgive me,
my dear; the love with which you have inspired me has bereft me of
reason. I shall never find it again. It is an ill for which there
is no cure. My presentiments are so ominous that I would confine
myself to merely seeing you, to pressing you for two hours to my
heart--and then dying with you. Who looks after you? I expect you
have sent for Hortense. I love that sweet child a thousand times more
when I think she can console you a little, though for me there is
neither consolation nor repose, nor hope until the courier that I
have sent comes back; and until, in a long letter, you explain to me
what is the nature of your illness, and to what extent it is
serious; if it be dangerous, I warn you, I start at once for
Paris. My coming shall coincide with your illness. I have always
been fortunate, never has my destiny resisted my will, and to-day I
am hurt in what touches me solely (_uniquement_). Josephine, how
can you remain so long without writing to me; your last laconic
letter is dated May 22. Moreover, it is a distressing one for me, but
I always keep it in my pocket; your portrait and letters are
perpetually before my eyes.

I am nothing without you. I scarcely imagine how I existed without
knowing you. Ah! Josephine, had you known my heart would you have
waited from May 18th to June 4th before starting? Would you have given
an ear to perfidious friends who are perhaps desirous of keeping you
away from me? I openly avow it to every one, I hate everybody who is
near you. I expected you to set out on May 24th, and arrive on June

Josephine, if you love me, if you realise how everything depends on
your health, take care of yourself. I dare not tell you not to
undertake so long a journey, and that, too, in the hot weather. At
least, if you are fit to make it, come by short stages; write me at
every sleeping-place, and despatch your letters in advance.

All my thoughts are concentrated in thy boudoir, in thy bed, on thy
heart. Thy illness!--that is what occupies me night and day. Without
appetite, without sleep, without care for my friends, for glory, for
fatherland, you, you alone--the rest of the world exists no more for
me than if it were annihilated. I prize honour since you prize it, I
prize victory since it pleases you; without that I should leave
everything in order to fling myself at your feet.

Sometimes I tell myself that I alarm myself unnecessarily; that even
now she is better, that she is starting, has started, is perhaps
already at Lyons. Vain fancies! you are in bed suffering, more
beautiful, more interesting, more lovable. You are pale and your eyes
are more languishing, but when will you be cured? If one of us ought
to be ill it is I--more robust, more courageous; I should support
illness more easily. Destiny is cruel, it strikes at me through you.

What consoles me sometimes is to think that it is in the power of
destiny to make you ill; but it is in the power of no one to make me
survive you.

In your letter, dear, be sure to tell me that you are convinced that I
love you more than it is possible to imagine; that you are persuaded
that all my moments are consecrated to you; that to think of any other
woman has never entered my head--they are all in my eyes without
grace, wit, or beauty; that you, you alone, such as I see you, such as
you are, can please me, and absorb all the faculties of my mind; that
you have traversed its whole extent; that my heart has no recess into
which you have not seen, no thoughts which are not subordinate to
yours; that my strength, my prowess, my spirit are all yours; that my
soul is in your body; and that the day on which you change or cease to
live will be my death-day; that Nature, that Earth, is beautiful only
because you dwell therein. If you do not believe all this, if your
soul is not convinced, penetrated by it, you grieve me, you do not
love me--there is a magnetic fluid between people who love one
another--you know perfectly well that I could not brook a rival, much
less offer you one.[15] To tear out his heart and to see him would be
for me one and the same thing, and then if I were to carry my hands
against your sacred person--no, I should never dare to do it; but I
would quit a life in which the most virtuous of women had deceived

But I am sure and proud of your love; misfortunes are the trials which
reveal to each mutually the whole force of our passion. A child as
charming as its mamma will soon see the daylight, and will pass many
years in your arms. Hapless me! I would be happy with one _day_. A
thousand kisses on your eyes, your lips, your tongue, your heart. Most
charming of thy sex, what is thy power over me? I am very sick of thy
sickness; I have still a burning fever! Do not keep the courier more
than six hours, and let him return at once to bring me the longed-for
letter of my Beloved.

Do you remember my dream, in which I was your boots, your dress, and
in which I made you come bodily into my heart? Why has not Nature
arranged matters in this way; she has much to do yet.

  N. B.

  _A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c._

       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 18th.--Bonaparte enters Modena, and takes 50 cannon at

  _June 19th.--Occupies Bologna, and takes 114 cannon._

  _June 23rd.--Armistice with Rome. The Pope to pay 21 millions, 100
  rare pictures, 200 MSS., and to close his ports to the English._

  _June 24th._--Desaix, with part of Moreau's army, forces the
  passage of the Rhine.

No. 8.


  _Pistoia, Tuscany, June 26th._

For a month I have only received from my dear love two letters of
three lines each. Is she so busy, that writing to her dear love is not
then needful for her, nor, consequently, thinking about him? To live
without thinking of Josephine would be death and annihilation to your
husband. Your image gilds my fancies, and enlivens the black and
sombre picture of melancholy and grief. A day perhaps may come in
which I shall see you, for I doubt not you will be still at Paris, and
verily on that day I will show you my pockets stuffed with letters
that I have not sent you because they are too foolish (_bête_). Yes,
that's the word. Good heavens! tell me, you who know so well how to
make others love you without being in love yourself, do you know how
to cure me of love??? I will give a good price for that remedy.

You ought to have started on May 24th. Being good-natured, I waited
till June 1st, as if a pretty woman would give up her habits, her
friends, both Madame Tallien and a dinner with Barras, and the acting
of a new play, and Fortuné; yes, Fortuné, whom you love much more than
your husband, for whom you have only a little of the esteem, and a
share of that benevolence with which your heart abounds. Every day I
count up your misdeeds. I lash myself to fury in order to love you no
more. Bah, don't I love you the more? In fact, my peerless little
mother, I will tell you my secret. Set me at defiance, stay at Paris,
have lovers--let everybody know it--never write me a monosyllable!
then I shall love you ten times more for it; and it is not folly, a
delirious fever! and I shall not get the better of it. Oh! would to
heaven I could get better! but don't tell me you are ill, don't try to
justify yourself. Good heavens! you are pardoned. I love you to
distraction, and never will my poor heart cease to give all for love.
If you did not love me, my fate would be indeed grotesque. You have
not written me; you are ill, you do not come. But you have passed
Lyons; you will be at Turin on the 28th, at Milan on the 30th, where
you will wait for me. You will be in Italy, and I shall be still far
from you. Adieu, my well-beloved; a kiss on thy mouth, another on thy

We have made peace with Rome--who gives us money. To-morrow we shall
be at Leghorn, and as soon as I can in your arms, at your feet, on
your bosom.

  _A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c._

       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 27th.--Leghorn occupied by Murat and Vaubois._

  _June 29th.--Surrender of citadel of Milan; 1600 prisoners and 150
  cannon taken._


  [14] _Un millier de baise_ (sic).

  [15] So Tennant (_t'en offrir un_): but Baron Feuillet de Conches, an
       expert in Napoleonic graphology, renders the expression _t'en
       souffrir un_.



"Des 1796, lorsque, avec 30,000 hommes, il fait la conquête de l'Italie,
il est non-seulement grand général, mais profond politique."--_Des
Idées Napoléonniennes._

       *       *       *       *       *

"Your Government has sent against me four armies without Generals, and
this time a General without an army."--_Napoleon to the Austrian
Plenipotentiaries, at Leoben._


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 211-223.)

  LETTER                                                          PAGE

  No. 1. _Sortie from Mantua_                                      211

  No. 2. _Marmirolo_                                               211
          _Fortuné_                                                212

  No. 3. _The village of Virgil_                                   212

  No. 4. _Achille_                                                 212

  No. 5. _Will-o'-the-Wisp_                                        213

  No. 6. _The needs of the army_                                 213-5

  No. 7. _Brescia_                                                 215

  No. 9. _I hope we shall get into Trent_                          216

  No. 12. _One of these nights the doors will be burst open_     216-8

  No. 13. _Corsica is ours_                                        218

  No. 14. _Verona_                                                 219

  No. 15. _Once more I breathe freely_                             220

  No. 18. "_The 29th_"                                             220

  No. 20. _General Brune_                                          221

  No. 21. _February 3rd_                                           221

  No. 24. _Perhaps I shall make peace with the Pope_               222

  No. 25. _The unlimited power you hold over me_                   222

No. 1.

  _July 5th._--Archduke Charles defeated by Moreau at Radstadt.

  _July 6th.--Sortie from Mantua: Austrians fairly successful._


  _Roverbella, July 6, 1796._

I have beaten the enemy. Kilmaine will send you the copy of the
despatch. I am tired to death. Pray start at once for Verona. I need
you, for I think that I am going to be very ill.

I send you a thousand kisses. I am in bed.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 9th.--Bonaparte asks Kellermann for reinforcements._

  _July 14th._--Frankfort on the Main captured by Kléber.

  _July 16th.--Sortie from Mantua: Austrians defeated._

No. 2.

  _July 17th.--Attempted coup de main at Mantua: French unsuccessful._


  _Marmirolo_, _July 17, 1796_, 9 P.M.

I got your letter, my beloved; it has filled my heart with joy. I am
grateful to you for the trouble you have taken to send me news; your
health should be better to-day--I am sure you are cured. I urge you
strongly to ride, which cannot fail to do you good.

Ever since I left you, I have been sad. I am only happy when by your
side. Ceaselessly I recall your kisses, your tears, your enchanting
jealousy; and the charms of the incomparable Josephine keep constantly
alight a bright and burning flame in my heart and senses. When, free
from every worry, from all business, shall I spend all my moments by
your side, to have nothing to do but to love you, and to prove it to
you? I shall send your horse, but I am hoping that you will soon be
able to rejoin me. I thought I loved you some days ago; but, since I
saw you, I feel that I love you even a thousand times more. Ever since
I have known you, I worship you more every day; which proves how false
is the maxim of La Bruyère that "Love comes all at once." Everything
in nature has a regular course, and different degrees of growth. Ah!
pray let me see some of your faults; be less beautiful, less gracious,
less tender, and, especially, less kind; above all never be jealous,
never weep; your tears madden me, fire my blood. Be sure that it is no
longer possible for me to have a thought except for you, or an idea of
which you shall not be the judge.

Have a good rest. Haste to get well. Come and join me, so that, at
least, before dying, we could say--"We were happy for so many days!!"

Millions of kisses, and even to Fortuné, in spite of his naughtiness.


No. 3.

  _July 18th.--Trenches opened before Mantua._

  _July 18th._--Stuttgard occupied by Saint-Cyr, who, like Kléber,
  is under Moreau.

  _July 18th._--Wurtzburg captured by Klein and Ney (acting under


  _Marmirolo, July 18, 1796_, 2 P.M.

I passed the whole night under arms. I ought to have had Mantua by a
plucky and fortunate coup; but the waters of the lake have suddenly
fallen, so that the column I had shipped could not land. This evening
I shall begin a new attempt, but one that will not give such
satisfactory results.

I got a letter from Eugène, which I send you. Please write for me to
these charming children of yours, and send them some trinkets. Be sure
to tell them that I love them as if they were my own. What is yours or
mine is so mixed up in my heart, that there is no difference there.

I am very anxious to know how you are, what you are doing? I have been
in the village of Virgil, on the banks of the lake, by the silvery
light of the moon, and not a moment without dreaming of Josephine.

The enemy made a general sortie on June 16th; it has killed or wounded
two hundred of our men, but lost five hundred of its own in a
precipitous retreat.

I am well. I am Josephine's entirely, and I have no pleasure or
happiness except in her society.

Three Neapolitan regiments have arrived at Brescia; they have sundered
themselves from the Austrian army, in consequence of the convention I
have concluded with M. Pignatelli.

I've lost my snuff-box; please choose me another, rather flat-shaped,
and write something pretty inside, with your own hair.

A thousand kisses as burning as you are cold. Boundless love, and
fidelity up to every proof. Before Joseph starts, I wish to speak to


No. 4.


  _Marmirolo, July 19, 1796._

I have been without letters from you for two days. That is at least
the thirtieth time to-day that I have made this observation to myself;
you are thinking this particularly wearisome; yet you cannot doubt
the tender and unique anxiety with which you inspire me.

We attacked Mantua yesterday. We warmed it up from two batteries with
red-hot shot and from mortars. All night long that wretched town has
been on fire. The sight was horrible and majestic. We have secured
several of the outworks; we open the first parallel to-night.
To-morrow I start for Castiglione with the Staff, and I reckon on
sleeping there. I have received a courier from Paris. There were two
letters for you; I have read them. But though this action appears to
me quite natural, and though you gave me permission to do so the other
day, I fear you may be vexed, and that is a great trouble to me. I
should have liked to have sealed them up again: fie! that would have
been atrocious. If I am to blame, I beg your forgiveness. I swear that
it is not because I am jealous; assuredly not. I have too high an
opinion of my beloved for that. I should like you to give me full
permission to read your letters, then there would be no longer either
remorse or apprehension.

Achille has just ridden post from Milan; no letters from my beloved!
Adieu, my unique joy. When will you be able to rejoin me? I shall have
to fetch you myself from Milan.

A thousand kisses as fiery as my soul, as chaste as yourself.

I have summoned the courier; he tells me that he crossed over to your
house, and that you told him you had no commands. Fie! naughty,
undutiful, cruel, tyrannous, jolly little monster. You laugh at my
threats, at my infatuation; ah, you well know that if I could shut you
up in my breast, I would put you in prison there!

Tell me you are cheerful, in good health, and very affectionate.


No. 5.


  _Castiglione, July 21, 1796_, 8 A.M.

I am hoping that when I arrive to-night I shall get one of your
letters. You know, my dear Josephine, the pleasure they give me; and I
am sure you have pleasure in writing them. I shall start to-night for
Peschiera, for the mountains of ----, for Verona, and thence I shall
go to Mantua, and perhaps to Milan, to receive a kiss, since you
assure me they are not made of ice. I hope you will be perfectly well
by then, and will be able to accompany me to headquarters, so that we
may not part again. Are you not the soul of my life, and the
quintessence of my heart's affections?

Your protégés are a little excitable; they are like the will-o'-the-wisp.
How glad I am to do something for them which will please you. They will
go to Milan. A little patience is requisite in everything.

Adieu, _belle et bonne_, quite unequalled, quite divine. A thousand
loving kisses.


No. 6.


  _Castiglione, July 22, 1796._

The needs of the army require my presence hereabouts; it is impossible
that I can leave it to come to Milan. Five or six days would be
necessary, and during that time movements may occur whereby my
presence here would be imperative.

You assure me your health is good; I beg you therefore to come to
Brescia. Even now I am sending Murat to prepare apartments for you
there in the town, as you desire.

I think you will do well to spend the first night (July 24th) at
Cassano, setting out very late from Milan; and to arrive at Brescia on
July 25th, where the most affectionate of lovers awaits you. I am
disconsolate that you can believe, dear, that my heart can reveal
itself to others as to you; it belongs to you by right of conquest,
and that conquest will be durable and for ever. I do not know why you
speak of Madame T., with whom I do not concern myself in the
slightest, nor with the women of Brescia. As to the letters which you
are vexed at my opening, this shall be the last; your letter had not

Adieu, _ma tendre amie_, send me news often, come forthwith and join
me, and be happy and at ease; all goes well, and my heart is yours for

Be sure to return to the Adjutant-General Miollis the box of medals
that he writes me he has sent you. Men have such false tongues, and
are so wicked, that it is necessary to have everything exactly on the

Good health, love, and a prompt arrival at Brescia.

I have at Milan a carriage suitable alike for town or country; you can
make use of it for the journey. Bring your plate with you, and some of
the things you absolutely require.

Travel by easy stages, and during the coolth, so as not to tire
yourself. Troops only take three days coming to Brescia. Travelling
post it is only a fourteen hours' journey. I request you to sleep on
the 24th at Cassano; I shall come to meet you on the 25th at latest.

Adieu, my own Josephine. A thousand loving kisses.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 29th.--Advance of Wurmser, by the Adige valley, on Mantua,
  and of Quesdonowich on Brescia, who drives back Massena and

  _July 31st.--Siege of Mantua raised._

  _August 3rd.--Bonaparte victorious at Lonato._

  _August 5th.--Augereau victorious at Castiglione, completing the
  Campaign of Five Days, in which 10,000 prisoners are taken._

  _August 8th.--Verona occupied by Serrurier._

  _August 15th._--(Moreau arrives on the Danube) _Wurmser retreats
  upon Trent, the capital of Italian Tyrol_.

  _August 18th._--Alliance, offensive and defensive, between France
  and Spain.

  _September 3rd._--Jourdan routed by Archduke Charles at

No. 7.


  _Brescia, August 30, 1796._

Arriving, my beloved, my first thought is to write to you. Your
health, your sweet face and form have not been absent a moment from my
thoughts the whole day. I shall be comfortable only when I have got
letters from you. I await them impatiently. You cannot possibly
imagine my uneasiness. I left you vexed, annoyed, and not well. If the
deepest and sincerest affection can make you happy, you ought to
be.... I am worked to death.

Adieu, my kind Josephine: love me, keep well, and often, often think
of me.


No. 8.


  _Brescia, August 31, 1796._

I start at once for Verona. I had hoped to get a letter from you; and
I am terribly uneasy about you. You were rather ill when I left; I beg
you not to leave me in such uneasiness. You promised me to be more
regular; and, at the time, your tongue was in harmony with your heart.
You, to whom nature has given a kind, genial, and wholly charming
disposition, how can you forget the man who loves you with so much
fervour? No letters from you for three days; and yet I have written to
you several times. To be parted is dreadful, the nights are long,
stupid, and wearisome; the day's work is monotonous.

This evening, alone with my thoughts, work and correspondence, with
men and their stupid schemes, I have not even one letter from you
which I might press to my heart.

The Staff has gone; I set off in an hour. To-night I get an express
from Paris; there was for you only the enclosed letter, which will
please you.

Think of me, live for me, be often with your well-beloved, and be sure
that there is only one misfortune that he is afraid of--that of being
no longer loved by his Josephine. A thousand kisses, very sweet, very
affectionate, very exclusive.

Send M. Monclas at once to Verona; I will find him a place. He must
get there before September 4th.


       *       *       *       *       *

_September 1st.--Bonaparte leaves Verona and directs his troops on
Trent. Wurmser, reinforced by 20,000 men, leaves his right wing at
Roveredo, and marches viâ the Brenta Gorge on Verona._

No. 9.


  _Ala, September 3, 1796._

We are in the thick of the fight, my beloved; we have driven in the
enemy's outposts; we have taken eight or ten of their horses with a
like number of riders. My troops are good-humoured and in excellent
spirits. I hope that we shall do great things, and get into Trent by
the fifth.

No letters from you, which really makes me uneasy; yet they tell me
you are well, and have even had an excursion to Lake Como. Every day I
wait impatiently for the post which will bring me news of you--you
are well aware how I prize it. Far from you I cannot live, the
happiness of my life is near my gentle Josephine. Think of me! Write
me often, very often: in absence it is the only remedy: it is cruel,
but, I hope, will be only temporary.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _September 4th.--Austrian right wing defeated at Roveredo._

  _September 5th.--Bonaparte enters Trent, cutting off Wurmser from
  his base. Defeats Davidowich on the Lavis and leaves Vaubois to
  contain this general while he follows Wurmser._

  _September 6th.--Wurmser continues his advance, his outposts
  occupy Vicenza and Montebello._

  _September 7th.--Combat of Primolano: Austrians defeated. Austrian
  vanguard attack Verona, but are repulsed by General Kilmaine._

  _September 8th.--Battle of Bassano: Wurmser completely routed, and
  retires on Legnago._

No. 10.


  _Montebello, Noon, September 10, 1796._

_My Dear_,--The enemy has lost 18,000 men prisoners; the rest killed
or wounded. Wurmser, with a column of 1500 cavalry, and 500 infantry,
has no resource but to throw himself into Mantua.

Never have we had successes so unvarying and so great. Italy, Friuli,
the Tyrol, are assured to the Republic. The Emperor will have to
create a second army: artillery, pontoons, baggage, everything is

In a few days we shall meet; it is the sweetest reward for my labours
and anxieties.

A thousand fervent and very affectionate kisses.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _September 11th.--Skirmish at Cerea: Austrians successful.
  Bonaparte arrives alone, and is nearly captured._

No. 11.


  _Ronco, September 12, 1796_, 10 A.M.

_My dear Josephine_,--I have been here two days, badly lodged, badly
fed, and very cross at being so far from you.

Wurmser is hemmed in, he has with him 3000 cavalry and 5000 infantry.
He is at Porto-Legnago; he is trying to get back into Mantua, but for
him that has now become impossible. The moment this matter shall be
finished I will be in your arms.

I embrace you a million times.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _September 13th.--Wurmser, brushing aside the few French who
  oppose him, gains the suburbs of Mantua._

  _September 14th.--Massena attempts a surprise, but is repulsed._

  _September 15th.--Wurmser makes a sortie from St. Georges, but is
  driven back._

  _September 16th.--And at La Favorite, with like result._

No. 12.


  _Verona, September 17, 1796._

_My Dear_,--I write very often and you seldom. You are naughty, and
undutiful; very undutiful, as well as thoughtless. It is disloyal to
deceive a poor husband, an affectionate lover. Ought he to lose his
rights because he is far away, up to the neck in business, worries and
anxiety. Without his Josephine, without the assurance of her love,
what in the wide world remains for him. What will he do?

Yesterday we had a very sanguinary conflict; the enemy has lost
heavily, and been completely beaten. We have taken from him the
suburbs of Mantua.

Adieu, charming Josephine; one of these nights the door will be burst
open with a bang, as if by a jealous husband, and in a moment I shall
be in your arms.

A thousand affectionate kisses.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 2nd._--(Moreau defeats Latour at Biberach, but then
  continues his retreat.)

  _October 8th._--Spain declares war against England.

  _October 10th.--Peace with Naples signed._

No. 13.


  _Modena, October 17, 1796_, 9 P.M.

The day before yesterday I was out the whole day. Yesterday I kept my
bed. Fever and a racking headache both prevented me writing to my
beloved; but I got your letters. I have pressed them to my heart and
lips, and the grief of a hundred miles of separation has disappeared.
At the present moment I can see you by my side, not capricious and out
of humour, but gentle, affectionate, with that mellifluent kindness of
which my Josephine is the sole proprietor. It was a dream, judge if it
has cured my fever. Your letters are as cold as if you were fifty; we
might have been married fifteen years. One finds in them the
friendship and feelings of that winter of life. Fie! Josephine. It is
very naughty, very unkind, very undutiful of you. What more can you do
to make me indeed an object for compassion? Love me no longer? Eh,
that is already accomplished! Hate me? Well, I prefer that!
Everything grows stale except ill-will; but indifference, with its
marble pulse, its rigid stare, its monotonous demeanour!...

A thousand thousand very heartfelt kisses.

I am rather better. I start to-morrow. The English evacuate the
Mediterranean. Corsica is ours. Good news for France, and for the


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 25th._--(Moreau recrosses the Rhine.)

  _November 1st.--Advance of Marshal Alvinzi. Vaubois defeated by
  Davidovich on November 5th, after two days' fight._

  _November 6th.--Napoleon successful, but Vaubois' defeat compels
  the French army to return to Verona._

No. 14.


  _Verona, November 9, 1796._

_My Dear_,--I have been at Verona since the day before yesterday.
Although tired, I am very well, very busy; and I love you passionately
at all times. I am just off on horseback.

I embrace you a thousand times.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 12th.--Combat of Caldiero: Napoleon fails to turn the
  Austrian position, owing to heavy rains. His position desperate._

  _November 15th.--First battle of Arcola. French gain partial

  _November 16th and 17th.--Second battle of Arcola. French
  completely victorious "Lodi was nothing to Arcola" (Bourrienne)._

  _November 17th._--Death of Czarina Catherine II. of Russia.

  _November 18th.--Napoleon victoriously re-enters Verona by the
  Venice gate, having left it, apparently in full retreat, on the
  night of the 14th by the Milan gate._

No. 15.

From BOURRIENNE'S "LIFE OF NAPOLEON," vol. i. chap. 4.

  _Verona, November 19th, Noon._

_My Adored Josephine_,--Once more I breathe freely. Death is no
longer before me, and glory and honour are once more re-established.
The enemy is beaten at Arcola. To-morrow we will repair Vaubois'
blunder of abandoning Rivoli. In a week Mantua will be ours, and
then your husband will clasp you in his arms, and give you a
thousand proofs of his ardent affection. I shall proceed to Milan as
soon as I can; I am rather tired. I have received letters from
Eugène and Hortense--charming young people. I will send them to
you as soon as I find my belongings, which are at present somewhat

We have made five thousand prisoners, and killed at least six thousand
of the enemy. Good-bye, my adored Josephine. Think of me often. If you
cease to love your Achilles, if for him your heart grows cold, you
will be very cruel, very unjust. But I am sure you will always remain
my faithful mistress, as I shall ever remain your fond lover. Death
alone can break the chain which sympathy, love, and sentiment have
forged. Let me have news of your health. A thousand and a thousand

No. 16.


  _Verona, November 23, 1796._

I don't love you an atom; on the contrary, I detest you. You are a
good for nothing, very ungraceful, very tactless, very tatterdemalion.
You never write to me; you don't care for your husband; you know the
pleasure your letters give him, and you write him barely half-a-dozen
lines, thrown off anyhow.

How, then, do you spend the livelong day, madam? What business of
such importance robs you of the time to write to your very kind lover?
What inclination stifles and alienates love, the affectionate and
unvarying love which you promised me? Who may this paragon be, this
new lover who engrosses all your time, is master of your days, and
prevents you from concerning yourself about your husband? Josephine,
be vigilant; one fine night the doors will be broken in, and I shall
be before you.

Truly, my dear, I am uneasy at getting no news from you. Write me four
pages immediately, and some of those charming remarks which fill my
heart with the pleasures of imagination.

I hope that before long I shall clasp you in my arms, and cover you
with a million kisses as burning as if under the equator.


No. 17.

  _Verona, November 24, 1796._

I hope soon, darling, to be in your arms. I love you to distraction. I
am writing to Paris by this courier. All goes well. Wurmser was beaten
yesterday under Mantua. Your husband only needs Josephine's love to be


No. 18.


  _Milan_, _November 27, 1796_, 3 P.M.

I get to Milan; I fling myself into your room; I have left all in
order to see you, to clasp you in my arms.... You were not there. You
gad about the towns amid junketings; you run farther from me when I am
at hand; you care no longer for your dear Napoleon. A passing fancy
made you love him; fickleness renders him indifferent to you.

Used to perils, I know the remedy for weariness and the ills of life.
The ill-luck that I now suffer is past all calculations; I did right
not to anticipate it.

I shall be here till the evening of the 29th. Don't alter your plans;
have your fling of pleasure; happiness was invented for you. The whole
world is only too happy if it can please you, and only your husband is
very, very unhappy.


No. 19.


  _Milan_, _November 28, 1796_, 8 P.M.

I have received the courier whom Berthier had hurried on to Genoa. You
have not had time to write me, I feel it intuitively. Surrounded with
pleasures and pastimes, you would be wrong to make the least sacrifice
for me. Berthier has been good enough to show me the letter which you
wrote him. My intention is that you should not make the least change
in your plans, nor with respect to the pleasure parties in your
honour; I am of no consequence, either the happiness or the misery of
a man whom you don't love is a matter of no moment.

For my part, to love you only, to make you happy, to do nothing which
may vex you, that is the object and goal of my life.

Be happy, do not reproach me, do not concern yourself in the happiness
of a man who lives only in your life, rejoices only in your pleasure
and happiness. When I exacted from you a love like my own I was wrong;
why expect lace to weigh as heavy as gold? When I sacrifice to you all
my desires, all my thoughts, every moment of my life, I obey the sway
which your charms, your disposition, and your whole personality have
so effectively exerted over my unfortunate heart. I was wrong, since
nature has not given me attractions with which to captivate you; but
what I do deserve from Josephine is her regard and esteem, for I love
her frantically and uniquely.

Farewell, beloved wife; farewell, my Josephine. May fate concentrate
in my breast all the griefs and troubles, but may it give Josephine
happy and prosperous days. Who deserves them more? When it shall be
quite settled that she can love me no more, I will hide my profound
grief, and will content myself with the power of being useful and
serviceable to her.

I reopen my letter to give you a kiss.... Ah! Josephine!...


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 24th._--French under Hoche sail for Ireland; return
  "foiled by the elements."

  _January 7th, 1797.--Alvinzi begins his new attack on Rivoli,
  while Provera tries to get to Mantua with 11,000 men viâ Padua and
  Legnago. Alvinzi's total forces 48,000, but only 28,000 at Rivoli
  against Bonaparte's 23,000._

  _January 9th._--Kehl (after 48 days' siege) surrenders to Archduke

  _January 10th.--Napoleon at Bologna advised of the advance, and
  hastens to make Verona, as before, the pivot of his movements._

No. 20.

  _January 12th.--Combat of St. Michel: Massena defeats Austrians._


  _Verona, January 12, 1797._

Scarcely set out from Roverbella, I learnt that the enemy had appeared
at Verona. Massena made some dispositions, which have been very
successful. We have made six hundred prisoners, and have taken three
pieces of cannon. General Brune got seven bullets in his clothes,
without being touched by one of them--this is what it is to be lucky.

I give you a thousand kisses. I am very well. We have had only ten men
killed, and a hundred wounded.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _January 13th.--Joubert attacked; retires from Corona on Rivoli in
  the morning, joined by Bonaparte at night._

  _January 14th.--Battle of Rivoli: Austrian centre defeated.
  Bonaparte_ _at close of day hurries off with Massena's troops to
  overtake Provera, marching sixteen leagues during the night.
  Massena named next day enfant chéri de la victoire by Bonaparte,
  and later Duc de Rivoli._

  _January 15th.--Joubert continues battle of Rivoli: complete
  defeat of Austrians. Provera, however, has reached St. Georges,
  outside Mantua._

  _January 16th--Sortie of Wurmser at La Favorite repulsed. Provera,
  hurled back by Victor (named the Terrible on this day), is
  surrounded by skilful manoeuvres of Bonaparte, and surrenders with
  6000 men. In three days Bonaparte had taken 18,000 prisoners and
  all Alvinzi's artillery. Colonel Graham gives Austrian losses at
  14,000 to 15,000, exclusive of Provera's 6000._

  _January 26th.--Combat of Carpenedolo: Massena defeats the

  _February 2nd.--Joubert occupies Lawis. Capitulation of Mantua, by
  Wurmser, with 13,000 men (and 6000 in hospital), but he, his
  staff, and 200 cavalry allowed to return. Enormous capture of
  artillery, including siege-train abandoned by Bonaparte before the
  battle of Castiglione. Advance of Victor on Rome._

No. 21.


  _Forli, February 3, 1797._

I wrote you this morning. I start to-night. Our forces are at Rimini.
This country is beginning to be tranquillised. My cold makes me always
rather tired.

I idolise you, and send you a thousand kisses.

A thousand kind messages to my sister.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _February 9th.--Capture of Ancona._

No. 22.


  _Ancona, February 10, 1797._

We have been at Ancona these two days. We took the citadel, after a
slight fusillade, and by a _coup de main_. We made 1200 prisoners. I
sent back the fifty officers to their homes.

I am still at Ancona. I do not press you to come, because everything
is not yet settled, but in a few days I am hoping that it will be.
Besides, this country is still discontented, and everybody is

I start to-morrow for the mountains. You don't write to me at all, yet
you ought to let me have news of you every day.

Please go out every day; it will do you good.

I send you a million kisses. I never was so sick of anything as of
this vile war.

Good-bye, my darling. Think of me!


No. 23.


  _Ancona, February 13, 1797._

I get no news from you, and I feel sure that you no longer love me. I
have sent you the papers, and various letters. I start immediately to
cross the mountains. The moment that I know something definite, I will
arrange for you to accompany me; it is the dearest wish of my heart.

A thousand and a thousand kisses.


No. 24.


  _February 16, 1797._

You are melancholy, you are ill; you no longer write to me, you want
to go back to Paris. Is it possible that you no longer love your
comrade? The very thought makes me wretched. My darling, life is
unbearable to me now that I am aware of your melancholy.

I make haste to send you Moscati, so that he may look after you. My
health is rather bad; my cold gets no better. Please take care of
yourself, love me as much as I love you, and write me every day. I am
more uneasy than ever.

I have told Moscati to escort you to Ancona, if you care to come
there. I will write to you there, to let you know where I am.

Perhaps I shall make peace with the Pope, then I shall soon be by your
side; it is my soul's most ardent wish.

I send you a hundred kisses. Be sure that nothing equals my love,
unless it be my uneasiness. Write to me every day yourself. Good-bye,


No. 25.

  _February 19th.--Peace of Tolentino with the Pope, who has to pay
  for his equivocal attitude and broken treaty._


  _Tolentino, February 19, 1797._

Peace with Rome has just been signed. Bologna, Ferrara, Romagna, are
ceded to the Republic. The Pope is to pay us thirty millions shortly,
and various works of art.

I start to-morrow morning for Ancona, and thence for Rimini, Ravenna,
and Bologna. If your health permit, come to Rimini or Ravenna, but, I
beseech you, take care of yourself.

Not a word from you--what on earth have I done? To think only of you,
to love only Josephine, to live only for my wife, to enjoy happiness
only with my dear one--does this deserve such harsh treatment from
her? My dear, I beg you, think often of me, and write me every day.

You are ill, or else you do not love me! Do you think, then, that I
have a heart of stone? and do my sufferings concern you so little? You
must know me very ill! I cannot believe it! You to whom nature has
given intelligence, tenderness, and beauty, you who alone can rule my
heart, you who doubtless know only too well the unlimited power you
hold over me!

Write to me, think of me, and love me.--Yours ever, for life.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _March 16th.--Bonaparte defeats Archduke Charles on the

  _March 25th.--Bonaparte writes the Directory from Goritz that "up
  till now Prince Charles has manoeuvred worse than Beaulieu and

  _March 29th.--Klagenfurt taken by Massena._

  _April 1st.--Laybach by Bernadotte._

  _April 17th.--Preliminaries of peace at Leoben signed by

  _April 18th._--Hoche crosses the Rhine at Neuwied.

  _April 21st_.--Moreau at Kehl.

  _April 23rd._--Armistice of two Rhine armies follows preliminaries
  of Leoben.

  _May 16th.--Augereau enters Venice._

  _June 28th._--French capture Corfu, and 600 guns.

  _July 8th._--Death of Edmund Burke, aged sixty-eight.

  _July 18th._--Talleyrand becomes French Minister of Foreign

  _September 4th._--Day of 18th Fructidor at Paris. Coup d'État _of
  Rewbell, Larévellière-Lépeaux, and Barras, secretly aided by
  Bonaparte, who has sent them Augereau to command Paris_.

  _September 18th._--Death of Lazare Hoche, aged twenty-nine,
  _probably poisoned by the Directory, which has recalled
  Moreau, retired Bernadotte, and will soon launch Bonaparte on
  the seas, so that he may find failure and Bantry Bay at Aboukir_

  _September 30th._--National bankruptcy admitted in France, _the
  sixth time in two centuries_.

  _October 17th.---Treaty of Campo-Formio; Bonaparte called
  thereupon by Talleyrand "General Pacificator."_

  _November 16th._--Death of Frederick William II., _King of
  Prussia, aged fifty-three_; _succeeded by his son, Frederick
  William III., aged twenty-seven_.

  _December 1st.--Bonaparte Minister Plenipotentiary at Congress of
  Rastadt, and_

  _December 5th.--Arrives at Paris._

  _December 10th.--Bonaparte presented to the Directory by

  _December 27th.--Riots at Rome: Joseph Bonaparte (ambassador)
  insulted; General Duphot (engaged to Joseph's sister-in-law,
  Desirée) killed._




  _3rd Outlaw._ "By the bare scalp of Robin Hood's fat friar,
              This fellow were a king for our wild faction!

  _1st Outlaw._ "We'll have him; sirs, a word.

  _Speed._      "Master, be one of them,
              It is an honourable kind of thievery."

  _The Two Gentlemen of Verona_,
  Act iv., Scene I.


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 223-225.)

  LETTER                             PAGE

         Christmas Day, 1799          223

  No. 3. Ivrea, May 29th              224
         _M.'s_                       224
         _Cherries_                   224

  No. 4. _Milan_                      224



  NAPOLEONIC HISTORY.--_May 20th._--_Napoleon sails from Toulon for

  _June 11th.--Takes Malta; sails for Egypt (June 20th)._

  _July 4th.--Captures Alexandria._

  _July 21st.--Defeats Mamelukes at Battle of the Pyramids, and
  enters Cairo the following day._

  _August 1st.--French Fleet destroyed by Nelson at the Battle of
  the Nile._

  _October 7th.--Desaix defeats Mourad Bey at Sedyman (Upper

       *       *       *       *       *

  GENERAL HISTORY.--_January 4th._--Confiscation of all English
  merchandise in France. Commencement of Continental system.

  _January 5th._--Directory fail to float a loan of 80 millions
  (francs), and

  _January 28th._--Forthwith invade Switzerland, ostensibly to
  defend the Vaudois, under a sixteenth-century treaty, really to
  revolutionise the country, and seize upon the treasure of Berne.

  _February 15th._--Republic proclaimed at Rome. French occupy the
  Vatican, and

  _February 20th._--Drive Pope Pius VI. into exile to the convent of

  _March 5th._--Capture of Berne by General Brune.

  _April 13th._--Bernadotte, ambassador, attacked at the French
  Embassy in Vienna.

  _May 19th._--Fitzgerald, a leader in the Irish rebellion,

  _August 22nd._--General Humbert and 1100 French troops land at
  Killala, County Mayo.

  _September 8th._--Humbert and 800 men taken by Lord Cornwallis at

  _September 12th._--Turkey declares war with France, and forms
  alliance with England and Russia.

  _November 19th._--Wolfe-Tone commits suicide.

  _December 5th._--Macdonald defeats Mack and 40,000 Neapolitans at
  Civita Castellana.

  _December 9th._--Joubert occupies Turin.

  _December 15th._--French occupy Rome.

  _December 29th._--Coalition of Russia, Austria, and England
  against France.


  NAPOLEONIC HISTORY.--_January 23rd._--_Desaix defeats Mourad Bey
  at Samhoud (Upper Egypt). February 3rd.--Desaix defeats Mourad Bey
  at the Isle of Philae (near Assouan)--furthest limit of the Roman
  Empire. Napoleon crosses Syrian desert and takes El Arish
  (February 20th) and Gaza (February 25th), captures Jaffa (March
  7th) and Sour, formerly Tyre (April 3rd). Junot defeats Turks and
  Arabs at Nazareth (April 8th), and Kléber defeats them at Mount
  Tabor (April 16th). Napoleon invests Acre but retires (May 21st),
  re-enters Cairo (June 14th), annihilates Turkish army at Aboukir
  (July 25th); secretly sails for France (August 23rd), lands at
  Frejus (October 9th), arrives at Paris (October 13th); dissolves
  the Directory (November 9th) and Council of Five Hundred (November
  10th), and is proclaimed First Consul (December 24th)._

       *       *       *       *       *

  GENERAL HISTORY.--_January 10th._--Championnet occupies Capua.

  _January 20th._--Pacification of La Vendée by General Hédouville.

  _January 23rd._--Championnet occupies Naples.

  _March 3rd._--Corfu taken from the French by a Russo-Turkish

  _March 7th._--Massena defeats the Austrians, and conquers the
  country of the Grisons.

  _March 25th._--Archduke Charles defeats Jourdan at Stockach.

  _March 30th._--Kray defeats French (under Schérer) near Verona,

  _April 5th._--And again at Magnano.

  _April 14th._--Suwarrow takes command of Austrian army at Verona;

  _April 22nd._--Defeats French at Cassano, with heavy loss.

  _April 28th._--French plenipotentiaries, returning from Radstadt,
  murdered by men in Austrian uniforms--Montgaillard thinks by
  creatures of the Directory.

  _May 4th._--Capture of Seringapatam by General Baird.

  _May 12th._--Austro-Russian army checked at Bassignana.

  _May 16th._--Sièyes becomes one of the Directory.

  _May 20th._--Suwarrow takes Brescia,

  _May 24th._--And Milan (citadel).

  _June 5th._--Massena defeated at Zurich by Archduke Charles; and
  Macdonald (_June 19th_) by Suwarrow at the Trebbia.

  _June 18th._--Gohier, Roger-Ducos, and Moulin replace Treilhard,
  Laréveillère-Lépeaux, and Merlin on the Directory.

  _June 20th._--Turin surrenders to Austro-Russians.

  _June 22nd._--Turkey, Portugal, and Naples join the coalition
  against France.

  _July 14th._--French carry their prisoner, Pope Pius VI., to
  Valence, where he dies (_August 29th_).

  _July 22nd._--Alessandria surrenders to Austro-Russians.

  _July 30th._--Mantua, after 72 days' siege, surrenders to Kray.

  _August 15th._--French defeated at Novi by Suwarrow. French lose
  Joubert and 20,000 men.

  _August 17th._--French, under Lecombe, force the St. Gothard.

  _August 27th._--English army disembark at the Helder.

  _August 30th._--Dutch fleet surrendered to the British Admiral.

  _September 19th._--Brune defeats Duke of York at Bergen.

  _September 25th._--Massena defeats allies at Zurich, who lose
  16,000 men and 100 guns. "Massena saves France at Zurich, as
  Villars saved it at Denain."--_Montgaillard._

  _October 6th._--Brune defeats Duke of York at Kastrikum.

  _October 7th._--French take Constance.

  _October 16th._--Saint-Cyr, without cavalry or cannon, defeats
  Austrians at Bosco.

  _October 18th._--Capitulation at Alkmaar by Duke of York to
  General Brune. "The son of George III. capitulates at Alkmaar as
  little honourably as the son of George II. had capitulated at
  Kloster-Seven in 1757."--_Montgaillard._

  _November 4th._--Melas defeats French at Fossano.

  _November 13th._--Ancona surrendered to the Austrians by Monnier,
  after a six months' siege.

  _November 24th._--Moreau made commander of the armies of the Rhine
  (being in disgrace, has served as a volunteer in Italy most of
  this year); Massena sent to the army of Italy.

  _December 5th._--Coni, the key of Piedmont, surrenders to the

  _December 14th._--Death of George Washington.

  _December 15th._--Battle of Montefaccio, near Genoa. Saint-Cyr
  defeats Austrians.


  _February 11th._--Bank of France constituted.

  _February 20th._--Kléber defeats Turks at Heliopolis.

  _May 3rd._--Battle of Engen. Moreau defeats Kray, who loses 10,000
  men, and--

  _May 5th._--Again defeats Austrians at Moeskirch.

  _May 6th.--Napoleon leaves Paris._

  _May 8th.--Arrives at Auxonne, and on the 9th at Geneva, from
  thence moves to Lausanne (May 12th), where he is delighted with
  reception accorded to the French troops, and hears of Moreau's
  victory at Bibernach (May 11th). On the 14th he hears of Desaix's
  safe arrival at Toulon from Egypt, together with Davoust, and
  orders the praises of their past achievements to be sung in the_
  Moniteur. _The same day writes Massena that in Genoa a man like
  himself (Massena) is worth 20,000. On the 16th is still at

No. 1.


  _Lausanne, May 15, 1800._

I have been at Lausanne since yesterday. I start to-morrow. My health
is fairly good. The country round here is very beautiful. I see no
reason why, in ten or twelve days, you should not join me here; you
must travel incognito, and not say where you are going, because I want
no one to know what I am about to do. You can say you are going to

I will send you Moustache,[16] who has just arrived.

My very kindest regards to Hortense. Eugène will not be here for eight
days; he is _en route_.


No. 2.


  _Torre di Garofolo, May 16, 1800._

I start immediately to spend the night at Saint-Maurice. I have not
received a single letter from you; that is not well. I have written
you by every courier.

Eugène may arrive the day after to-morrow. I have rather a cold, but
it will have no ill effects.

My very kindest regards to you, my good little Josephine, and to all
who belong to you.


  _May 17th-19th.--At Martigny, "struggling against ice, snow-storms,
  and avalanches," and astonishing the great St. Bernard "with the
  passage of our 'pieces of 8,' and especially of our limbers--a new
  experience for it." On May 20th he climbed the St. Bernard on a
  mule, and descended it on a sledge. On May 21st he is at Aosta,
  hoping to be back in Paris within a fortnight. His army had passed
  the mountain in four days. On May 27th he is at Ivrea, taken by
  Lannes on the 24th._

No. 3.[17]

[_From Tennant's Tour, &c._, vol. ii.]

  11 P.M.

I hardly know which way to turn. In an hour I start for Vercelli.
Murat ought to be at Novaro to-night. The enemy is thoroughly
demoralised; he cannot even yet understand us. I hope within ten days
to be in the arms of my Josephine, who is always very good when she is
not crying and not flirting. Your son arrived this evening. I have had
him examined; he is in excellent health. Accept a thousand tender
thoughts. I have received M.'s letter. I will send her by the next
courier a box of excellent cherries.

We are here--within two months for Paris.--Yours entirely,

  N. B.

_To Madame Bonaparte._ (Address not in Bonaparte's writing.)

       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 1st._--First experiments with vaccination at Paris, with
  fluid sent from London.

  _On June 2nd Napoleon enters Milan, where he spends a week._

No. 4.



I am at Milan, with a very bad cold. I can't stand rain, and I have
been wet to the skin for several hours, but all goes well. I don't
persuade you to come here. I shall be home in a month. I trust to
find you flourishing. I am just starting for Pavia and Stradella. We
are masters of Brescia, Cremona, and Placentia.

Kindest regards. Murat has borne himself splendidly.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 5th._--Massena gives up Genoa, but leaves with all the
  honours of war.

  _June 7th._--Lannes takes Pavia, 350 cannon, and 10,000 muskets.

  _June 9th.--Battle of Montebello. Bonaparte defeats Austrians, who
  lose 8000 men._

  _June 14th.--Bonaparte wins Marengo, but loses Desaix--"the man I
  loved and esteemed the most." In his bulletin he admits the battle
  at one time was lost, until he cried to his troops "Children,
  remember it is my custom to sleep upon the battlefield." He
  mentions the charges of Desaix and Kellermann, and especially
  eulogises the latter--a fact interesting on account of the false
  statements made of his ignoring it. In the bulletin of June 21st
  he blames the "punic faith" of Lord Keith at Genoa, a criticism
  the Admiral repaid with usury fifteen years later._

  _June 14th._--Assassination of Kléber, in Egypt.

  _June 16th.--Convention of Alessandria between Bonaparte and
  Melas; end of the "Campaign of Thirty Days."_

  _June 19th._--Moreau defeats Kray at Hochstedt, and occupies Ulm.

  _June 23rd._--Genoa re-entered by the French.

  _June 26th.--Bonaparte leaves Massena in command of the Army of
  Reserve, now united with the Army of Italy._

  _July 3rd.--The First Consul is back in Paris unexpectedly--not
  wishing triumphal arches or such-like "colifichets" In spite of
  which the plaudits he receives are very dear to him, "sweet as the
  voice of Josephine."_

  _September 5th._--Vaubois surrenders Malta to the English, after
  two years' blockade.

  _September 15th._--Armistice between France and Austria in

  _September 30th._--Treaty of Friendship and Commerce between
  France and U.S.--agreed that the flag covers the goods.

  _October 3rd._--To facilitate peace King George renounces his
  title of King of France.

  _November 12th._--Rupture of Armistice between France and

  _December 3rd._--Moreau wins the battle of Hohenlinden (Austrian
  loss, 16,000 men, 80 guns; French 3000).

  _December 20th._--Moreau occupies Lintz (100 miles from Vienna).

  _December 24th.--Royalist conspirators fail to kill Bonaparte with
  an infernal machine._

  _December 25th._--Armistice at Steyer between Moreau and Archduke
  Charles (sent for by the Austrians a fortnight before as their
  last hope).


  [16] Bonaparte's courier.

  [17] The date of this letter is May 29, 1800. See Notes.


  "The peace of Amiens had always been regarded from the side of
  England as an armed truce: on the side of Napoleon it had a very
  different character.... A careful reader must admit that we were
  guilty of a breach of faith in not surrendering Malta. The promise
  of its surrender was the principal article of the treaty."

    _England and Napoleon in 1803._

  (Edited for the R. Hist. S. by Oscar Browning, 1887.)


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 225-231.)

  LETTER                                            PAGE
         Date                                        225

  No. 1. _The blister_                               225
         _Some plants_                               225
         _If the weather is as bad_                  226
         _Malmaison, without you_                    228

  No. 2. _The fat Eugène_                            228

  No. 3. _Your letter has come_                      229
         _Injured whilst shooting a boar_            229
         "_The Barber of Seville_"                   229

  No. 4. _The Sèvres Manufactory_                    230

  No. 5. _Your lover, who is tired of being alone_   230
         _General Ney_                               231


1801 AND 1802.


  _January 1st._--Legislative Union of Great Britain and Ireland.

  _January 3rd._--French under Brune occupy Verona, and

  _January 8th._--Vicenza.

  _January 11th._--Cross the Brenta.

  _January 16th._---Armistice at Treviso between Brune and the
  Austrian General Bellegarde.

  _February 9th._--Treaty of Luneville, by which the Thalweg of the
  Rhine became the boundary of Germany and France.

  _March 8th._--English land at Aboukir.

  _March 21st._--Battle of Alexandria (Canopus). Menou defeated by
  Abercromby, with loss of 2000.

  _March 24th._--The Czar Paul is assassinated.

  _March 28th._--Treaty of Peace between France and Naples, who
  cedes Elba and Piombino.

  _April 2nd._--Nelson bombards Copenhagen.

  _May 23rd._--General Baird lands at Kosseir on the Red Sea with
  1000 English and 10,000 Sepoys.

  _June 7th._--French evacuate Cairo.

  _July 1st._--Toussaint-Louverture elected Life-Governor of St.
  Domingo. Slavery abolished there. The new ruler declares, "I am
  the Bonaparte of St. Domingo, and the Colony cannot exist without
  me;" and heads his letters to the First Consul, "From the First of
  the Blacks to the First of the Whites."

  _July 15th.--Concordat between Bonaparte and the Pope, signed at
  Paris by Bonaparte, ratified by the Pope (August 15th)._

  _August 4th._--Nelson attacks Boulogne flotilla and is repulsed.

  _August 15th._--Attacks again, and suffers severely.

  _August 31st._--Menou capitulates to Hutchinson at Alexandria.

  _September 29th._--Treaty of Peace between France and Portugal;
  boundaries of French Guiana extended to the Amazon.

  _October 1st._--Treaty between France and Spain, who restores
  Louisiana. Preliminaries of Peace between France and England
  signed in London.

  _October 8th._--Treaty of Peace between France and Russia.

  _October 9th._--And between France and Turkey.

  _December 14th._--Expedition sent out to St. Domingo by the French
  under General Leclerc.

No. 1.


  _Paris the "27" ..., 1801._

The weather is so bad here that I have remained in Paris. Malmaison,
without you, is too dreary. The fête has been a great success; it has
rather tired me. The blister they have put on my arm gives me constant

Some plants have come for you from London, which I have sent to your
gardener. If the weather is as bad at Plombières as it is here, you
will suffer severely from floods.

Best love to "Maman" and Hortense.


       *       *       *       *       *


  _January 4th.--Louis Bonaparte marries Hortense Beauharnais, both

  _January 9th.--The First Consul, with Josephine, leaves for Lyons,

  _January 25th.--He remodels the Cisalpine Republic as the Italian
  Republic, under his Presidency._

  _March 25th._--Treaty of Amiens signed in London. French lose only
  Ceylon and Trinidad. Malta to be restored to the Order of Knights,

  _May 7th._--Toussaint surrenders to Leclerc.

  _May 19th._--Institution of the Legion of Honour.

No. 2.


  _Malmaison, June 19, 1802._

I have as yet received no news from you, but I think you must already
have begun to take the waters. It is rather dull for us here, although
your charming daughter does the honours of the house to perfection.
For the last two days I have suffered slightly from my complaint. The
fat Eugène arrived yesterday evening; he is very hale and hearty.

I love you as I did the first hour, because you are kind and sweet
beyond compare.

Hortense told me that she was often writing you.

Best wishes, and a love-kiss.--Yours ever,


No. 3.


  _Malmaison, June 23, 1802._

_My Good Little Josephine_,--Your letter has come. I am sorry to see
you have been poorly on the journey, but a few days' rest will put you
right. I am very fairly well. Yesterday I was at the Marly hunt, and
one of my fingers was very slightly injured whilst shooting a boar.

Hortense is usually in good health. Your fat son has been rather
unwell, but is getting better. I think the ladies are playing "The
Barber of Seville" to-night. The weather is perfect.

Rest assured that my truest wishes are ever for my little
Josephine.--Yours ever,


No. 4.


  _Malmaison, June 27, 1802._

Your letter, dear little wife, has apprised me that you are out of
sorts. Corvisart tells me that it is a good sign that the baths are
having the desired effect, and that your health will soon be
re-established. But I am most truly grieved to know that you are in

Yesterday I went to see the Sèvres manufactory at St. Cloud.

Best wishes to all.--Yours for life,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 29th.--Pope withdraws excommunication from Talleyrand._

No. 5.


  _Malmaison, July 1, 1802._

Your letter of June 29th has arrived. You say nothing of your health
nor of the effect of the baths. I see that you expect to be home in a
week; that is good news for your lover, who is tired of being alone!

You ought to have seen General Ney, who started for Plombières; he
will be married on his return.

Yesterday Hortense played Rosina in "The Barber of Seville" with her
usual skill.

Rest assured of my love, and that I await your return impatiently.
Without you everything here is dreary.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _August 2nd.--Napoleon Bonaparte made First Consul for life._
  "_The conduct and the language of Bonaparte represents at once
  Augustus, Mahomet, Louis XI., Masaniello_" (Montgaillard, _an
  avowed enemy_).

  _September 22nd._--Opening of the Ourcq Waterworks for the supply
  of Paris.

  _September 25th.--Mass celebrated at St. Cloud for the first time.
  In this month Napoleon annexes Piedmont, and the next sends Ney to
  occupy Switzerland._

  _October 11th.--Birth of Napoleon Charles, son of Louis Bonaparte
  and Hortense._

  _October 29th.--Napoleon and Josephine visit Normandy, and,
  contrary to expectation, receive ovations everywhere. They return
  to Paris, November 14th._


  _February 19th._--New constitution imposed by France on

  _April 14th.--Bank of France reorganised by Bonaparte; it alone
  allowed to issue notes._

  _April 27th._--Death of Toussaint-Louverture at Besançon.

  _April 30th._--France sells Louisiana to U.S. for £4,000,000 (15
  million dollars).

  _May 22nd.--France declares war against England, chiefly
  respecting Malta. England having seized all French ships in
  British harbours previous to war being declared, Napoleon seizes
  all British tourists in France._

  _May 31st.--His soldiers occupy Electorate of Hanover._

  _June 14th.--He visits North of France and Belgium, accompanied by
  Josephine, and returns to Paris August 12th._

  _September 27th._--Press censorship established in France.

  _November 30th._--French evacuate St. Domingo.



"Everywhere the king of the earth found once more, to put a bridle on
his pride, the inevitable lords of the sea."--BIGNON, v. 130.


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 232-237.)

  LETTER                                              PAGE

  No. 1. _Madame_                                      232
         _Pont de Bricques_                            232
         _The wind having considerably freshened_      232

  No. 2. _The waters_                                  233
         _All the vexations_                           233
         _Eugène has started for Blois_                234

  No. 3. _Aix-la-Chapelle_                             234

  No. 4. _During the past week_                        235
         _The day after to-morrow_                     235
         _Hortense_                                    235
         _I am very well satisfied_                    235

  No. 5. Its authenticity                              236
         _Arras, August 29th_                          236
         _I am rather impatient to see you_            236

  No. 6. _T._                                          237
         _B._                                          237



  _February 15th._--The conspiracy of Pichegru. Moreau arrested,
  Pichegru (_February 28th_), and Georges Cadoudal (_March 9th_).

  _March 21st._--Duc D'Enghien shot at Vincennes.

  _April 6th._--Suicide of Pichegru.

  _April 30th.--Proposal to make Bonaparte Emperor._

  _May 4th.--Tribune adopts the proposal._

  _May 18th.--The First Consul becomes the Emperor Napoleon._

  _May 19th.--Napoleon confers the dignity of Marshal of the Empire
  on Berthier, Murat, Moncey, Jourdan, Massena, Augereau,
  Bernadotte, Soult, Brune, Lannes, Mortier, Ney, Davoust,
  Bessières, Kellermann, Lefebvre, Perignon, Serrurier._

  _July 14th._--Inauguration of the Legion of Honour.

No. 1.


  _Pont-de-Bricques, July 21, 1804._

_Madame and dear Wife_,--During the four days that I have been away
from you I have always been either on horseback or in a conveyance,
without any ill effect on my health.

M. Maret tells me that you intend starting on Monday; travelling by
easy stages, you can take your time and reach the Spa without tiring

The wind having considerably freshened last night, one of our
gunboats, which was in the harbour, broke loose and ran on the
rocks about a league from Boulogne. I believed all lost--men and
merchandise; but we managed to save both. The spectacle was
grand: the shore sheeted in fire from the alarm guns, the sea
raging and bellowing, the whole night spent in anxiety to save
these unfortunates or to see them perish! My soul hovered between
eternity, the ocean, and the night. At 5 A.M. all was calm,
everything saved; and I went to bed with the feeling of having
had a romantic and epic dream--a circumstance which might have
reminded me that I was all alone, had weariness and soaked garments
left me any other need but that of sleep.


  [_Correspondence of Napoleon I., No. 7861,
  communicated by M. Chambry._]

No. 2.


  _Boulogne, August 3, 1804._

_My Dear_,--I trust soon to learn that the waters have done you much
good. I am sorry to hear of all the vexations you have undergone.
Please write me often. My health is very good, although I am rather
tired. I shall be at Dunkirk in a very few days, and shall write you
from there.

Eugène has started for Blois.

_Je te couvre de baisers._


No. 3.


  _Calais, August 6, 1804._

_My Dear_,--I arrived at Calais at midnight; I expect to start
to-night for Dunkirk. I am in very fair health, and satisfied with
what I see. I trust that the waters are doing you as much good as
exercise, camp, and seascape are doing me.

Eugène has set off for Blois. Hortense is well. Louis is at

I am longing to see you. You are always necessary to my happiness. My
very best love.


No. 4.


  _Ostend, August 14, 1804._

_My Dear_,--I have had no letter from you for several days; yet I
should be more comfortable if I knew that the waters were efficacious,
and how you spend your time. During the past week I have been at
Ostend. The day after to-morrow I shall be at Boulogne for a somewhat
special fête. Advise me by the courier what you intend to do, and how
soon you expect to end your baths.

I am very well satisfied with the army and the flotillas. Eugène is
still at Blois. I hear no more of Hortense than if she were on the
Congo. I am writing to scold her.

My best love to all.


No. 5.


  _Arras, Wednesday, August 29, 1804._

_Madame and dear Wife_,--I have just reached Arras. I shall stay
there to-morrow. I shall be at Mons on Friday, and on Sunday at
Aix-la-Chapelle. I am as well satisfied with my journey as with the
army. I think I shall pass through Brussels without stopping
there; thence I shall go to Maestricht. I am rather impatient to see
you. I am glad to hear you have tried the waters; they cannot fail
to do you good. My health is excellent. Eugène is well, and is with

Very kindest regards to every one.


  [_Translated from a Letter in the Collection of Baron Heath,
  Philobiblon Society, vol. xiv._]

       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 2nd._--Sir Sydney Smith attacks flotilla at Boulogne

No. 6.


  _Trèves, October 6, 1804._

_My Dear,_--I arrive at Trèves the same moment that you arrive at St.
Cloud. I am in good health. Do not grant an audience to T----, and
refuse to see him. Receive B---- only in general company, and do not
give him a private interview. Make promises to sign marriage contracts
only after I have signed them.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 1st.--Plebiscite confirms election of Napoleon as
  Emperor, by 3,500,000 votes to 2000._

  _December 2nd.--Napoleon crowns himself Emperor, and Josephine
  Empress, in the presence and with the benediction of the Pope._

  GENERAL EVENTS.--_October 8th._--The negro Dessalines crowned
  Emperor of St. Domingo, under title of James I.

  _December 12th._--Spain declares war against England.



  "To convey an idea of the brilliant campaign of 1805 ... I should,
  like the almanack-makers, be obliged to note down a victory for
  every day."--BOURRIENNE, vol. ii. 323.

  "Si jamais correspondence de mari à femme a été intime et
  fréquente, si jamais continuité et permanence de tendresse a été
  marquée, c'est bien dans ces lettres écrites, chaque jour presque,
  par Napoléon à sa femme durant la campagne de l'an XIV."--F.
  MASSON, _Joséphine, Impératrice et Reine_, 1899, p. 427.


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 237-243.)

  LETTER                                             PAGE

  No. 1. _To Josephine_                               237
        _Strasburg_                                   237
        _Stuttgard_                                   237
        _I am well placed_                            237

  No. 2. _Louisburg_                                  238
         _In a few days_                              238
         _A new bride_                                238
         _Electress_                                  238

  No. 3. _I have assisted at a marriage_              238

  No. 5. The abbey of Elchingen                       238

  No. 6. _Spent the whole of to-day indoors_          238
         _Vicenza_                                    238

  No. 7. _Elchingen_                                  239
         _Such a catastrophe_                         239

  No. 9. _Munich_                                     239
         _Lemarois_                                   239
         _I was grieved_                              239
         _Amuse yourself_                             239
         _Talleyrand has come_                        240

  No. 10. _We are always in forests_                  240
          _My enemies_                                240

  No. 11. Lintz                                       240

  No. 12. Schoenbrunn                                 241

  No. 13. _They owe everything to you_                241

  No. 14. _Austerlitz_                                241
          _December 2nd_                              241

  No. 17. _A long time since I had news of you_       241

  No. 19. _I await events_                            242
          _I, for my part, am sufficiently busy_      242



  _March 13th.--Napoleon proclaimed King of Italy._

  _May 26th.--Crowned at Milan._

  _June 8th.--Prince Eugène named Viceroy of Italy._

  _June 23rd.--Lucca made a principality, and given to Elisa

  _July 22nd._--Naval battle between Villeneuve and Sir Robert
  Calder, which saves England from invasion.

  _August 16th.--Napoleon breaks up camp of Boulogne._

  _September 8th._--Third Continental Coalition (Russia, Austria,
  and England against France). Austrians cross the Inn, and invade

  _September 21st._--Treaty of Paris between France and Naples,
  which engages to take no part in the war.

  _September 23rd._--_Moniteur_ announces invasion of Bavaria by

  _September 24th.--Napoleon leaves Paris._

  _September 27th.--Joins at Strasburg his Grand Army(160,000

  _October 1st.--Arrives at Ettlingen._

  _October 2nd.--Arrives at Louisbourg. Hostilities commence._

No. 1.


  _Imperial Headquarters, Ettlingen_,

  _October 2, 1805_, 10 A.M.

I am well, and still here. I am starting for Stuttgard, where I shall
be to-night. Great operations are now in progress. The armies of
Wurtemberg and Baden have joined mine. I am well placed for the
campaign, and I love you.


No. 2.


  _Louisbourg, October 4, 1805, Noon._

I am at Louisbourg. I start to-night. There is as yet nothing new. My
whole army is on the march. The weather is splendid. My junction with
the Bavarians is effected. I am well. I trust in a few days to have
something interesting to communicate.

Keep well, and believe in my entire affection. There is a brilliant
Court here, a new bride who is very beautiful, and upon the whole some
very pleasant people, even our Electress, who appears extremely kind,
although the daughter of the King of England.


No. 3.


  _Louisbourg, October 5, 1805._

I continue my march immediately. You will, my dear, be five or six
days without hearing from me; don't be uneasy, it is connected with
operations now taking place. All goes well, and just as I could wish.

I have assisted at a marriage between the son of the Elector and a
niece of the King of Prussia. I wish to give the young princess a
wedding present to cost 36,000 to 40,000 francs. Please attend to
this, and send it to the bride by one of my chamberlains, when they
shall come to rejoin me. This matter must be attended to immediately.

Adieu, dear, I love you and embrace you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 6th-7th.--French cross the Danube and turn Mack's army._

  _October 8th.--Battle of Wertingen. (Murat defeats the Austrians.)_

  _October 9th.--Battle of Gunzburg. (Ney defeats Mack.)_

No. 4.

  _October 10th.--French enter Augsbourg._


  _Augsbourg, Thursday, October 10, 1805_,

  11 A.M.

I slept last night[18] with the former Elector of Trèves, who is very
well lodged. For the past week I have been hurrying forward. The
campaign has been successful enough so far. I am very well, although
it rains almost every day. Events crowd on us rapidly. I have sent to
France 4000 prisoners, 8 flags, and have 14 of the enemy's cannon.

Adieu, dear, I embrace you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 11th.--Battle of Hasslach. Dupont holds his own against
  much superior forces._

No. 5.

  _October 12th.--French enter Munich._


  _October 12, 1805_, 11 P.M.

My army has entered Munich. On one side the enemy is beyond the Inn; I
hold the other army, 60,000 strong, blocked on the Iller, between Ulm
and Memmingen. The enemy is beaten, has lost its head, and everything
points to a most glorious campaign, the shortest and most brilliant
which has been made. In an hour I start for Burgau-sur-l'Iller.

I am well, but the weather is frightful. It rains so much that I
change my clothes twice a day.

I love and embrace you.


  _October 14th.--Capture of Memmingen and 4OOO Austrians by

  _October 15th.--Battle of Elchingen. Ney defeats Laudon._

  _October 17th.--Capitulation of Ulm._

No. 6.

  _October 19th.--Werneck and 8000 men surrender to Murat._


  _Abbaye d'Elchingen, October 19, 1805._

_My dear Josephine_,--I have tired myself more than I ought. Soaked
garments and cold feet every day for a week have made me rather ill,
but I have spent the whole of to-day indoors, which has rested me.

My design has been accomplished; I have destroyed the Austrian army by
marches alone; I have made 60,000 prisoners, taken 120 pieces of
cannon, more than 90 flags, and more than 30 generals. I am about to
fling myself on the Russians; they are lost men. I am satisfied with
my army. I have only lost 1500 men, of whom two-thirds are but
slightly wounded.

Prince Charles is on his way to cover Vienna. I think Massena should
be already at Vicenza.

The moment I can give my thoughts to Italy, I will make Eugène win a

Very best wishes to Hortense.

Adieu, my Josephine; kindest regards to every one.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 20th.--Mack and his army defile before Napoleon._

No. 7.

  _October 21st._--Battle of Trafalgar; Franco-Spanish fleet
  destroyed after a five hours' fight. "The result of the battle of
  Trafalgar compensates, for England, the results of the operations
  of Ulm. It has been justly observed that this power alone, of all
  those who fought France from 1793 to 1812, never experienced a
  check in her political or military combinations without seeing
  herself compensated forthwith by a signal success in some other
  part of the world" (_Montgaillard_).


  _Elchingen, October 21, 1805, Noon._

I am fairly well, my dear. I start at once for Augsbourg. I have made
33,000 men lay down their arms, I have from 60,000 to 70,000
prisoners, more than 90 flags, and 200 pieces of cannon. Never has
there been such a catastrophe in military annals!

Take care of yourself. I am rather jaded. The weather has been fine
for the last three days. The first column of prisoners files off for
France to-day. Each column consists of 6000 men.


No. 8.

  _October 25th._--The Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia swear,
  at the tomb of the Great Frederick, to make implacable war on
  France (Convention signed November 3rd).


  _Augsburg, October 25, 1805._

The two past nights have thoroughly rested me, and I am going to start
to-morrow for Munich. I am sending word to M. de Talleyrand and M.
Maret to be near at hand. I shall see something of them, and I am
going to advance upon the Inn in order to attack Austria in the heart
of her hereditary states. I should much have liked to see you; but do
not reckon upon my sending for you, unless there should be an
armistice or winter quarters.

Adieu, dear; a thousand kisses. Give my compliments to the ladies.


No. 9.


  _Munich, Sunday, October 27, 1805._

I received your letter per Lemarois. I was grieved to see how
needlessly you have made yourself unhappy. I have heard particulars
which have proved how much you love me, but you should have more
fortitude and confidence. Besides, I had advised you that I should be
six days without writing you.

To-morrow I expect the Elector. At noon I start to support my advance
on the Inn. My health is fair. You need not think of crossing the
Rhine for two or three weeks. You must be cheerful, amuse yourself,
and hope that before the end of the month[19] we shall meet.

I am advancing against the Russian army. In a few days I shall have
crossed the Inn.

Adieu, my dear; kindest regards to Hortense, Eugène, and the two

Keep back the wedding present a little longer.

Yesterday I gave a concert to the ladies of this court. The precentor
is a superior man.

I took part in the Elector's pheasant-shoot; you see by that that I am
not so tired. M. de Talleyrand has come.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 28th._--Grand Army cross the Inn. Lannes occupies

  _October 28th to October 29th-30th.--Battle of Caldiero._--Massena
  with 55,000 men attacks Archduke Charles entrenched with 70,000;
  after two days' fight French repulsed at this place, previously
  disastrous to their arms.

No. 10.


  _Haag, November 3, 1805_, 10 P.M.

I am in full march; the weather is very cold, the earth covered with a
foot of snow. This is rather trying. Luckily there is no want of wood;
here we are always in forests. I am fairly well. My campaign proceeds
satisfactorily; my enemies must have more anxieties than I.

I wish to hear from you and to learn that you are not worrying

Adieu, dear; I am going to lie down.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 4th._--Combat of Amstetten. Lannes and Murat drive back
  the Russians. Davoust occupies Steyer. Army of Italy takes

No. 11.


  _Tuesday, November 5, 1805._

I am at Lintz. The weather is fine. We are within seventy miles of
Vienna. The Russians do not stand; they are in full retreat. The house
of Austria is at its wit's end, and in Vienna they are removing all
the court belongings. It is probable that something new will occur
within five or six days. I much desire to see you again. My health is

I embrace you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 7th._--Ney occupies Innsbruck.

  _November 9th._--Davoust defeats Meerfeldt at Marienzell.

  _November 10th._--Marmont arrives at Leoben.

  _November 11th._---Battle of Diernstein; Mortier overwhelmed by
  Russians, but saved by Dupont.

  _November 13th._--Vienna entered and bridge over the Danube
  seized. Massena crosses the Tagliamento.

  _November 14th._--Ney enters Trent.

No. 12.


  _November 15, 1805_, 9 P.M.

I have been at Vienna two days, my dear, rather fagged. I have not yet
seen the city by day; I have traversed it by night. To-morrow I
receive the notables and public bodies. Nearly all my troops are
beyond the Danube, in pursuit of the Russians.

Adieu, Josephine; as soon as it is possible I will send for you. My
very best love.


No. 13.

  _November 16th._--Jellachich surrenders to Augereau at Feldkirch
  with 7000 men.


  _Vienna, November 16, 1805._

I am writing to M. d'Harville, so that you can set out and make your
way to Baden, thence to Stuttgard, and from there to Munich. At
Stuttgard you will give the wedding present to the Princess Paul. If
it costs fifteen to twenty thousand francs, that will suffice; the
rest will do for giving presents at Munich to the daughters of the
Electress of Bavaria. All that Madame de Serent[20] has advised you is
definitely arranged. Take with you the wherewithal to make presents to
the ladies and officers who will wait upon you. Be civil, but receive
full homage; they owe everything to you, and you owe nothing save
civility. The Electress of Wurtemberg is daughter of the King of
England. She is an excellent woman; you should be very kind to her,
but yet without affectation.

I shall be very glad to see you, the moment circumstances permit me. I
start to join my vanguard. The weather is frightful; it snows heavily.
Otherwise my affairs go excellently.

Adieu, my dear.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 19th.--French occupy Brunn, and Napoleon establishes his
  headquarters at Wischau._

  _November 24th._--Massena occupies Trieste.

  _November 28th._--Army of Italy joins troops of the Grand Army at

  _December 2nd._--Battle of the Three Emperors (Austerlitz). French
  forces 80,000; allies 95,000.

No. 14.


  _Austerlitz, December 3, 1805._

I have despatched to you Lebrun from the field of battle. I have
beaten the Russian and Austrian army commanded by the two Emperors. I
am rather fagged. I have bivouacked eight days in the open air,
through nights sufficiently keen. To-night I rest in the château of
Prince Kaunitz, where I shall sleep for the next two or three hours.
The Russian army is not only beaten, but destroyed.

I embrace you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 4th.--Haugwitz, the Prussian Minister, congratulates
  Napoleon on his victory. "Voilà!" replied the Emperor; "un
  compliment dont la fortune a changé l'addresse."_

No. 15.


  _Austerlitz, December 5, 1805._

I have concluded a truce. The Russians have gone. The battle of
Austerlitz is the grandest of all I have fought. Forty-five flags,
more than 150 pieces of cannon, the standards of the Russian Guard, 20
generals, 30,000 prisoners, more than 20,000 slain--a horrible sight.

The Emperor Alexander is in despair, and on his way to Russia.
Yesterday, at my bivouac, I saw the Emperor of Germany. We conversed
for two hours; we have agreed to make peace quickly.

The weather is not now very bad. At last behold peace restored to the
Continent; it is to be hoped that it is going to be to the world. The
English will not know how to face us.

I look forward with much pleasure to the moment when I can once more
be near you. My eyes have been rather bad the last two days; I have
never suffered from them before.

Adieu, my dear. I am fairly well, and very anxious to embrace you.


No. 16.


  _Austerlitz, December 7, 1805._

I have concluded an armistice; within a week peace will be made. I am
anxious to hear that you reached Munich in good health. The Russians
are returning; they have lost enormously--more than 20,000 dead and
30,000 taken. Their army is reduced by three-quarters. Buxhowden,
their general-in-chief, was killed. I have 3000 wounded and 700 to 800

My eyes are rather bad; it is a prevailing complaint, and scarcely
worth mentioning.

Adieu, dear. I am very anxious to see you again.

I am going to sleep to-night at Vienna.


No. 17.


  _Brunn, December 10, 1805._

It is a long time since I had news of you. Have the grand fêtes at
Baden, Stuttgard, and Munich made you forget the poor soldiers, who
live covered with mud, rain, and blood?

I shall start in a few days for Vienna.

We are endeavouring to conclude peace. The Russians have gone, and are
in flight far from here; they are on their way back to Russia, well
drubbed and very much humiliated.

I am very anxious to be with you again.

Adieu, dear.

My bad eyes are cured.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 15th.--Treaty with Prussia._

No. 18.


  _December 19, 1805._

_Great Empress_,--Not a single letter from you since your departure
from Strasburg. You have gone to Baden, Stuttgard, Munich, without
writing us a word. This is neither very kind nor very affectionate.

I am still at Brunn. The Russians are gone. I have a truce. In a few
days I shall see what I may expect. Deign from the height of your
grandeur to concern yourself a little with your slaves.


No. 19.


  _Schönbrunn, December 20, 1805._

I got your letter of the 16th. I am sorry to learn you are in pain.
You are not strong enough to travel two hundred and fifty miles at
this time of the year. I know not what I shall do; I await events. I
have no will in the matter; everything depends on their issue. Stay at
Munich; amuse yourself. That is not difficult when you have so many
kind friends and so beautiful a country. I, for my part, am
sufficiently busy. In a few days my decision will be made.

Adieu, dear. Kindest and most affectionate regards.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 27th.[21]--Peace of Presburg._

  _December 31st.--Napoleon arrives outside Munich, and joins
  Josephine the next morning._


  [18] _J'ai couché aujourd'hui_--_i.e._ a few hours' morning sleep.

  [19] The month _Brumaire--i.e._ before November 21st.

  [20] Countess de Serent, the Empress's lady-in-waiting.

  [21] _VI. Nivose_, which for the year 1805 was December 27 (see Harris
       Nicolas' "Chronology of History"). Haydn, Woodward, Bouillet,
       all have December 26th; Alison and _Biographie Universelle_
       have December 27th; but, as usual, the "Correspondence of
       Napoleon I." is taken here as the final court of appeal.


"Battles then lasted a few hours, campaigns a few days."

  --BIGNON, _On Friedland_ (vol. vi. 292).


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 243-264.)

  LETTER                                        PAGE

  No. 1. _Princess of Baden_                     244
           _Hortense_                            244
           _The Grand Duke_                      244
           _Florence_                            244

  No. 2. _Bamberg_                               244
           _Eugène_                              244
           _Her husband_                         245

  No. 3. _Erfurt_                                245
           _If she wants to see a battle_        245

  No. 4. _I nearly captured him and
               the Queen_                        246
           _I have bivouacked_                   246

  No. 5. _Fatigues, bivouacs
               have made me fat_                 246
           _The great M. Napoleon_               247

  No. 7. _Potsdam_                               247

  No. 8. _You do nothing but cry_                247

  No. 9_a_. _Madame Tallien_                     247

  No. 10. _The bad things I say
               about women_                      248

  No. 11. _Lubeck_                               250

  No. 13. _Madame L._                            250

  No. 17. _December 2nd_                          250

  No. 18. _Jealousy_                             250

  No. 19. _Desir de femme est un feu
               qui dévore_                       251

  No. 23. _I am dependent on events_             251

  No. 26. _The fair ones of Great
               Poland_                           251
           _A wretched barn_                     252
           _Such things become common
               property_                         252

  No. 27. _Warsaw, January 3rd_                  252

  No. 28. _Be cheerful--gai_                     253

  No. 29. _Roads unsafe and detestable_          253

  No. 35. _I hope that you are at Paris_         254
           _T._                                  254

  No. 36. _Paris_                                254

  No. 38. Arensdorf                              254

  No. 39. _The Battle of Preussich-Eylau_        254

  No. 40. _Corbineau_                            256
           _Dahlmann_                            256

  No. 41. _Young Tascher_                        256

  No. 42. Napoleon's Correspondence              256

  No. 43. _I am still at Eylau_                  257
           _This country is covered
               with dead and wounded_            257

  No. 50. _Osterode_                             257
           _It is not as good as the
               great city_                       258
           _I have ordered what you
               wish for Malmaison_               258

  No. 54. _Minerva_                              259

  No. 55. The first use of _Vous_                259

  No. 56. _Dupuis_                               260

  No. 58. _M. de T._                             260

  No. 60. _Marshal Bessières_                    260

  No. 63. Date                                   260

  No. 67. _Sweet, pouting, and capricious_       260

  No. 68. _Madame_ ----                          261
           _Measles_                             261

  No. 69. _I trust I may hear you
               have been rational_               261

  No. 71. _May 20th_                             262

  No. 74. _I am vexed with Hortense_             262

  No. 78. _Friedland_                            263

  No. 79. _Tilsit_                               264



  _January 1st.--The Elector of Bavaria and the Duke of Wurtemberg
  created Kings by France._

  _January 23rd._--Death of William Pitt, aged 47.

  _February 15th.--Joseph Bonaparte enters Naples, and on_

  _March 10th is declared King of the Two Sicilies._

  _April 1st.--Prussia seizes Hanover._

  _June 5th.--Louis Bonaparte made King of Holland._

  _July 6th.--Battle of Maida (Calabria. English defeat General
  Reynier. French loss 4000; English 500)._

  _July 12th.--Napoleon forms Confederation of the Rhine, with
  himself as Chief and Protector._

  _July 18th.--Gaeta surrenders to Massena._

  _August 6th.--Francis II., Emperor of Germany, becomes Emperor of
  Austria as Francis I._

  _August 15th.--Russia refuses to ratify peace preliminaries signed
  by her ambassador at Paris on July 25th._

  _September 13th._--Death of Charles James Fox, aged 57.

No. 1.

  _October 5th.--Proclamation by the Prince of the Peace against
  France (germ of Spanish War)._


  _October 5, 1806._

It will be quite in order for the Princess of Baden to come to
Mayence. I cannot think why you weep; you do wrong to make yourself
ill. Hortense is inclined to pedantry; she loves to air her views. She
has written me; I am sending her a reply. She ought to be happy and
cheerful. Pluck and a merry heart--that's the recipe.

Adieu, dear. The Grand Duke has spoken to me about you; he saw you at
Florence at the time of the retreat.


No. 2.


  _Bamberg, October 7, 1806._

I start this evening, my dear, for Cronach. The whole of my army is
advancing. All goes well. My health is perfect. I have only received
as yet one letter from you. I have some from Eugène and from Hortense.
Stephanie should now be with you. Her husband wishes to make the
campaign; he is with me.

Adieu. A thousand kisses and the best of health.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 8th.--Prussia, assisted by Saxony, Russia, and England,
  declares war against France._

  _October 9th.--Campaign opens. Prussians defeated at Schleitz._

  _October 10th.--Lannes defeats them at Saalfeld. Prince Louis of
  Prussia killed; 1000 men and 30 guns taken._

  _October 11th.--French peace negotiations with England broken

No. 3.


  _Gera_, _October 13, 1806_, 2 A.M.

_My Dear_,--I am at Gera to-day. My affairs go excellently well, and
everything as I could wish. With the aid of God, they will, I believe,
in a few days have taken a terrible course for the poor King of
Prussia, whom I am sorry for personally, because he is a good man.
The Queen is at Erfurt with the King. If she wants to see a battle,
she shall have that cruel pleasure. I am in splendid health. I have
already put on flesh since my departure; yet I am doing, in person,
twenty and twenty-five leagues a day, on horseback, in my carriage, in
all sorts of ways. I lie down at eight, and get up at midnight. I
fancy at times that you have not yet gone to bed.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 14th.--Battles of Jena and Auerstadt._

No. 4.

  _October 15th.--Napoleon at Weimar, He releases 6000 Saxon
  prisoners, which soon causes peace with Saxony._


  _Jena_, _October 15, 1806_, 3 A.M.

_My Dear_,--I have made excellent manoeuvres against the Prussians.
Yesterday I won a great victory. They had 150,000 men. I have made
20,000 prisoners, taken 100 pieces of cannon, and flags. I was in
presence of the King of Prussia, and near to him; I nearly captured
him and the Queen. For the past two days I have bivouacked. I am in
excellent health.

Adieu, dear. Keep well, and love me.

If Hortense is at Mayence, give her a kiss; also to Napoleon and to
the little one.


No. 5.

  _October 16th.--Soult routs Kalkreuth at Greussen; Erfurt and
  16,000 men capitulate to Murat._


  _Weimar_, _October 16, 1806_, 5 P.M.

M. Talleyrand will have shown you the bulletin, my dear; you will see
my successes therein. All has happened as I calculated, and never was
an army more thoroughly beaten and more entirely destroyed. I need
only add that I am very well, and that fatigue, bivouacs, and
night-watches have made me fat.

Adieu, dear. Kindest regards to Hortense and to the great M.
Napoleon.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 17th.--Bernadotte defeats Prussian reserve at Halle._

  _October 18th.--Davoust takes Leipsic, and an enormous stock of
  English merchandise._

  _October 19th.--Napoleon at Halle._

  _October 20th.--Lannes takes Dessau, and Davoust Wittenberg._

  _October 21st.--Napoleon at Dessau._

No. 6.

  _October 23rd.--Napoleon makes Wittenberg central depôt for his


  _Wittenberg, October 23, 1806, Noon._

I have received several of your letters. I write you only a line. My
affairs prosper. To-morrow I shall be at Potsdam, and at Berlin on the
25th. I am wonderfully well, and thrive on hard work. I am very glad
to hear you are with Hortense and Stephanie, _en grande compagnie_. So
far, the weather has been fine.

Kind regards to Stephanie, and to everybody, not forgetting M.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 7.

  _October 24th.--Lannes occupies Potsdam._


  _Potsdam, October 24, 1806._

_My Dear_,--I have been at Potsdam since yesterday, and shall remain
there to-day. I continue satisfied with my undertakings. My health is
good; the weather very fine. I find Sans-Souci very pleasant.

Adieu, dear. Best wishes to Hortense and to M. Napoleon.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 25th.--Marshal Davoust enters Berlin; Bernadotte occupies

  _October 28th.--Prince Hohenlohe surrenders at Prenzlau to Murat
  with 16,000 men, including the Prussian Guard._

  _October 30th.--Stettin surrenders with 5000 men and 150 cannon._

No. 8.

  _November 1st.--Anklam surrenders, with 4000 men, to General


  _November 1, 1806_, 2 A.M.

Talleyrand has just arrived and tells me, my dear, that you do nothing
but cry. What on earth do you want? You have your daughter, your
grandchildren, and good news; surely these are sufficient reasons for
being happy and contented.

The weather here is superb; there has not yet fallen during the whole
campaign a single drop of water. I am very well, and all goes

Adieu, dear; I have received a letter from M. Napoleon; I do not
believe it is from him, but from Hortense. Kindest regards to


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 2nd.--Kustrin surrenders, with 4000 men and 90 guns, to

No. 9.


  _Berlin, November 2, 1806._

Your letter of October 26th to hand. We have splendid weather here.
You will see by the bulletin that we have taken Stettin--it is a very
strong place. All my affairs go as well as possible, and I am
thoroughly satisfied. One pleasure is alone wanting--that of seeing
you, but I hope that will not long be deferred.

Kindest regards to Hortense, Stephanie, and to the little Napoleon.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 9A.

From the Memoirs of Mademoiselle d'Avrillon (vol. i. 128).


  _Berlin, Monday, Noon._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter. I am glad to know that you
are in a place which pleases me, and especially to know that you are
very well there. Who should be happier than you? You should live
without a worry, and pass your time as pleasantly as possible; that,
indeed, is my intention.

I forbid you to see Madame Tallien, under any pretext whatever. I will
admit of no excuse. If you desire a continuance of my esteem, if you
wish to please me, never transgress the present order. She may
possibly come to your apartments, to enter them by night; forbid your
porter to admit her.

       *       *       *       *       *

I shall soon be at Malmaison. I warn you to have no lovers there that
night; I should be sorry to disturb them. Adieu, dear; I long to see
you and assure you of my love and affection.


No. 10.


  _November 6, 1806_, 9 P.M.

Yours to hand, in which you seem annoyed at the bad things I say about
women; it is true that I hate intriguing women more than anything. I
am used to kind, gentle, persuasive women; these are the kind I like.
If I have been spoilt, it is not my fault, but yours. Moreover, you
shall learn how kind I have been to one who showed herself sensible
and good, Madame d'Hatzfeld. When I showed her husband's letter to her
she admitted to me, amid her sobs, with profound emotion, and frankly,
"Ah! it is indeed his writing!" While she was reading, her voice went
to my heart; it pained me. I said, "Well, madame, throw that letter on
the fire, I shall then have no longer the power to punish your
husband." She burnt the letter, and seemed very happy. Her husband now
feels at ease; two hours later he would have been a dead man. You see
then how I like kind, frank, gentle women; but it is because such
alone resemble you.

Adieu, dear; my health is good.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 6th and 7th.--Blucher and his army (17,000 men)
  surrender at Lubeck to Soult, Murat, and Bernadotte._

  _November 8th.--Magdeburg surrenders to Ney, with 20,000 men,
  immense stores, and nearly 800 cannon._

No. 11.

  _November 9th.--Napoleon levies a contribution of 150 million
  francs on Prussia and her allies._


  _Berlin, November 9, 1806._

_My Dear_,--I am sending good news. Magdeburg has capitulated, and on
November 7th I took 20,000 men at Lubeck who escaped me last week. The
whole Prussian army, therefore, is captured; even beyond the Vistula
there does not remain to Prussia 20,000 men. Several of my army corps
are in Poland. I am still at Berlin. I am very fairly well.

Adieu, dear; heartiest good wishes to Hortense, Stephanie, and the two
little Napoleons.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 10th.--Davoust occupies Posen. Hanover occupied by
  Marshal Mortier._

No. 12.


  _Berlin, November 16, 1806._

I received your letter of November 11th. I note with satisfaction that
my convictions give you pleasure. You are wrong to think flattery was
intended; I was telling you of yourself as I see you. I am grieved to
think that you are tired of Mayence. Were the journey less long, you
might come here, for there is no longer an enemy, or, if there is, he
is beyond the Vistula; that is to say, more than three hundred miles
away. I will wait to hear what you think about it. I should also be
delighted to see M. Napoleon.

Adieu, my dear.--Yours ever,


I have still too much business here for me to return to Paris.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 17th.--Suspension of arms signed at Charlottenburg._

  _November 19th.--French occupy Hamburg._

  _November 20th.--French occupy Hameln._

  _November 21st.--French occupy Bremen. Berlin decree. Napoleon
  interdicts trade with England._

No. 13.


  _November 22, 1806_, 10 P.M.

Your letter received. I am sorry to find you in the dumps; yet you
have every reason to be cheerful. You are wrong to show so much
kindness to people who show themselves unworthy of it. Madame L----
is a fool; such an idiot that you ought to know her by this time, and
pay no heed to her. Be contented, happy in my friendship, and in the
great influence you possess. In a few days I shall decide whether to
summon you hither or send you to Paris.

Adieu, dear; you can go at once, if you like, to Darmstadt, or to
Frankfort; that will make you forget your troubles.

Kindest regards to Hortense.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 25th.--Napoleon leaves Berlin._

No. 14.


  _Kustrin, November 26, 1806._

I am at Kustrin, making a tour and spying out the land a little; I
shall see in a day or two whether you should come. You can keep ready.
I shall be very pleased if the Queen of Holland be of the party. The
Grand Duchess of Baden must write to her husband about it.

It is 2 A.M. I am just getting up; it is the usage of war.

Kindest regards to you and to every one.


No. 15.

  _November 27th.--Napoleon arrives at Posen._


  _Meseritz, November 27, 1806_, 2 A.M.

I am about to make a tour in Poland. This is the first town there.
To-night I shall be at Posen, after which I shall send for you to come
to Berlin, so that you can arrive there the same day as I. My health
is good, the weather rather bad; it has rained for the past three
days. My affairs prosper. The Russians are in flight.

Adieu, dear; kindest regards to Hortense, Stephanie, and the little


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 28th.--Murat enters Warsaw. French occupy Duchies of

No. 16.


  _Posen, November 29, 1806, Noon._

I am at Posen, capital of Great Poland. The cold weather has set in; I
am in good health. I am about to take a circuit round Poland. My
troops are at the gates of Warsaw.

Adieu, dear; very kindest regards, and a hearty embrace.

No. 17.

  _December 2nd.--Glogau surrenders to Vandamme._


  _Posen, December 2, 1806._

To-day is the anniversary of Austerlitz. I have been to a city ball.
It is raining; I am in good health. I love you and long for you. My
troops are at Warsaw. So far the cold has not been severe. All these
fair Poles are Frenchwomen at heart; but there is only one woman
for me. Would you know her? I could draw her portrait very well;
but I should have to flatter it too much for you to recognise
yourself;--yet, to tell the truth, my heart would only have nice
things to say to you. These nights are long, all alone.--Yours ever,


No. 18.


_December 3, 1806, Noon._

Yours of November 26th received. I notice two things in it. You say I
do not read your letters: it is an unkind thought. I take your bad
opinion anything but kindly. You tell me that perhaps it is a mere
phantasy of the night, and you add that you are not jealous. I found
out long ago that angry persons always assert that they are not angry;
that those who are afraid keep on repeating that they have no fear;
you therefore are convinced of jealousy. I am delighted to hear it!
Nevertheless, you are wrong; I think of nothing less, and in the
desert plains of Poland one thinks little about beauties....

I had yesterday a ball of the provincial nobility--the women
good-looking enough, rich enough, dowdy enough, although in Paris

Adieu, dear; I am in good health.--Yours ever,


No. 19.


  _Posen, December 3, 1806_, 6 P.M.

Yours of November 27th received, from which I see that your little
head is quite turned. I am reminded of the verse--

  "Désir de femme est un feu qui dévore."

Still you must calm yourself. I wrote you that I was in Poland; that,
when we were established in winter quarters, you could come; you will
have to wait a few days. The greater one becomes, the less one can
consult one's wishes--being dependent on events and circumstances. You
can come to Frankfort or Darmstadt. I am hoping to send for you in a
few days; that is, if circumstances will permit. The warmth of your
letter makes me realise that you, like other pretty women, know no
bounds. What you will, must be; but, as for me, I declare that of all
men I am the greatest slave; my master has no pity, and this master is
the nature of things.

Adieu, dear; keep well. The person that I wished to speak to you about
is Madame L----, of whom every one is speaking ill; they assure me
that she is more Prussian than French woman. I don't believe it, but I
think her an idiot who talks nothing but trash.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 6th.--Thorn (on the Vistula) occupied by Ney._

No. 20.


_Posen, December 9, 1806._

Yours of December 1st received. I see with pleasure that you are more
cheerful; that the Queen of Holland wishes to come with you. I long to
give the order; but you must still wait a few days. My affairs

Adieu, dear; I love you and wish to see you happy.


No. 21.


_Posen, December 10, 1806_, 5 P.M.

An officer has just brought me a rug, a gift from you; it is somewhat
short and narrow, but I thank you for it none the less. I am in fair
health. The weather is very changeable. My affairs prosper pretty
well. I love you and long for you much.

Adieu, dear; I shall write for you to come with at least as much
pleasure as you will have in coming.--Yours ever,


A kiss to Hortense, Stephanie, and Napoleon.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 11th.--Davoust forces the passage of the Bug._

No. 22.

  _December 12th.--Treaty of peace and alliance between France and
  Saxony signed at Posen._


  _Posen, December 12th, 1806_, 7 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I have not received any letters from you, but know,
nevertheless, that you are well. My health is good, the weather very
mild; the bad season has not begun yet, but the roads are bad in a
country where there are no highways. Hortense will come then with
Napoleon; I am delighted to hear it. I long to see things shape
themselves into a position to enable you to come.

I have made peace with Saxony. The Elector is King and one of the

Adieu, my well-beloved Josephine.--Yours ever,


A kiss to Hortense, Napoleon, and Stephanie.

Päer, the famous musician, his wife, a virtuoso whom you saw at Milan
twelve years ago, and Brizzi are here; they give me a little music
every evening.

No. 23.


  _December 15, 1806_, 3 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I start for Warsaw. In a fortnight I shall be back; I hope
then to be able to send for you. But if that seems a long time, I
should be very glad if you would return to Paris, where you are
wanted. You well know that I am dependent on events. All my affairs go
excellently. My health is very good; I am as well as possible.

Adieu, dear. I have made peace with Saxony.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 17th._--Turkey declares war on Russia. (_So Montgaillard;
  but Napoleon refers to it in the thirty-ninth bulletin, dated
  December 7th, while Haydn dates it January 7th._)

No. 24.


  _Warsaw, December 20, 1806_, 3 P.M.

I have no news from you, dear. I am very well. The last two days I
have been at Warsaw. My affairs prosper. The weather is very mild, and
even somewhat humid. It has as yet barely begun to freeze; it is
October weather.

Adieu, dear; I should much have liked to see you, but trust that in
five or six days I shall be able to send for you.

Kindest regards to the Queen of Holland and to her little
Napoleons.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 22nd.--Napoleon crosses the Narew, and the next day
  defeats Russians at Czarnowo; also_

  _December 24th.--At Nasielsk._

  _December 26th.--Ney defeats Lestocq at Soldau; Lannes defeats
  Beningsen at Pultusk_;

  _December 28th.--And Augereau defeats Buxhowden at Golymin._

No. 25.


  _Golymin, December 29, 1806_, 5 A.M.

I write you only a line, my dear. I am in a wretched barn. I have
beaten the Russians, taken thirty pieces of cannon, their baggage,
and 6000 prisoners; but the weather is frightful. It is raining; we
have mud up to our knees.

In two days I shall be at Warsaw, whence I shall write you.--Yours


No. 26.


  _Pultusk, December 31, 1806._

I have had a good laugh over your last letters. You idealise the fair
ones of Great Poland in a way they do not deserve. I have had for two
or three days the pleasure of hearing Päer and two lady singers, who
have given me some very good music. I received your letter in a
wretched barn, having mud, wind, and straw for my only bed. To-morrow
I shall be at Warsaw. I think all is over for this year. The army is
entering winter quarters. I shrug my shoulders at the stupidity of
Madame de L----; still you should show her your displeasure, and
counsel her not to be so idiotic. Such things become common property,
and make many people indignant.

For my part, I scorn ingratitude as the worst fault in a human heart.
I know that instead of comforting you, these people have given you

Adieu, dear; I am in good health. I do not think you ought to go to
Cassel; that place is not suitable. You may go to Darmstadt.


No. 27.


  _Warsaw, January 3, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter. Your grief pains me; but one
must bow to events. There is too much country to travel between
Mayence and Warsaw; you must, therefore, wait till circumstances
allow me to come to Berlin, in order that I may write you to come
thither. It is true that the enemy, defeated, is far away; but I have
many things here to put to rights. I should be inclined to think that
you might return to Paris, where you are needed. Send away those
ladies who have their affairs to look after; you will be better
without people who have given you so much worry.

My health is good; the weather bad. I love you from my heart.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _January 5th.--Capture of Breslau, with 7000 men, by Vandamme and

No. 28.

  _January 7th.--English Orders in Council against Berlin Decree._


  _Warsaw, January 7, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I am pained by all that you tell me; but the season being
cold, the roads very bad and not at all safe, I cannot consent to
expose you to so many fatigues and dangers. Return to Paris in order
to spend the winter there. Go to the Tuileries; receive, and lead the
same life as you are accustomed to do when I am there; that is my
wish. Perhaps I shall not be long in rejoining you there; but it is
absolutely necessary for you to give up the idea of making a journey
of 750 miles at this time of the year, through the enemy's country,
and in the rear of the army. Believe that it costs me more than you to
put off for some weeks the pleasure of seeing you, but so events and
the success of my enterprise order it.

Adieu, my dear; be cheerful, and show character.


No. 29.


  _Warsaw, January 8, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I received your letter of the 27th with those of M.
Napoleon and Hortense, which were enclosed with it. I had begged you
to return to Paris. The season is too inclement, the roads unsafe and
detestable; the distances too great for me to permit you to come
hither, where my affairs detain me. It would take you at least a month
to come. You would arrive ill; by that time it might perhaps be
necessary to start back again; it would therefore be folly. Your
residence at Mayence is too dull; Paris reclaims you; go there, it is
my wish. I am more vexed about it than you. I should have liked to
spend the long nights of this season with you, but we must obey

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 30.


  _Warsaw, January 11, 1807._

Your letter of the 27th received, from which I note that you are
somewhat uneasy about military events. Everything is settled, as I
have told you, to my satisfaction; my affairs prosper. The distance is
too great for me to allow you to come so far at this time of year. I
am in splendid health, sometimes rather wearied by the length of the

Up to the present I have seen few people here.

Adieu, dear. I wish you to be cheerful, and to give a little life to
the capital. I would much like to be there.--Yours ever,


I hope that the Queen has gone to the Hague with M. Napoleon.

No. 31.

  _January 16th.--Capture of Brieg by the French._


  _January 16, 1807._

MY DEAR,--I have received your letter of the 5th of January; all that
you tell me of your unhappiness pains me. Why these tears, these
repinings? Have you then no longer any fortitude? I shall see you
soon. Never doubt my feelings; and if you wish to be still dearer to
me, show character and strength of mind. I am humiliated to think that
my wife can distrust my destinies.

Adieu, dear. I love you, I long to see you, and wish to learn that you
are content and happy.


No. 32.


  _Warsaw, January 18, 1807._

I fear that you are greatly grieved at our separation and at your
return to Paris, which must last for some weeks longer. I insist on
your having more fortitude. I hear you are always weeping. Fie! how
unbecoming it is! Your letter of January 7th makes me unhappy. Be
worthy of me; assume more character. Cut a suitable figure at Paris;
and, above all, be contented.

I am very well, and I love you much; but, if you are always crying, I
shall think you without courage and without character. I do not love
cowards. An empress ought to have fortitude.


No. 33.


  _Warsaw, January 19, 1807._

_My Dear_,--Your letter to hand. I have laughed at your fear of fire.
I am in despair at the tone of your letters and at what I hear. I
forbid you to weep, to be petulant and uneasy; I want you to be
cheerful, lovable, and happy.


No. 34.


  _Warsaw, January 23, 1807._

Your letter of January 15th to hand. It is impossible to allow women
to make such a journey as this--bad roads, miry and unsafe. Return to
Paris; be cheerful and content there. Perhaps even I shall soon be
there. I have laughed at what you say about your having taken a
husband to be with him. I thought, in my ignorance, that the wife was
made for the husband, the husband for his country, his family, and
glory. Pardon my ignorance; one is always learning from our fair

Adieu, my dear. Think how much it costs me not to send for you. Say to
yourself, "It is a proof how precious I am to him."


No. 35.

  _January 25th.--Russians defeated at Mohrungen by Bernadotte._


  _January 25, 1807._

I am very unhappy to see you are in pain. I hope that you are at
Paris; you will get better there. I share your griefs, and do not
groan. For I could not risk losing you by exposing you to fatigues and
dangers which befit neither your rank nor your sex.

I wish you never to receive T---- at Paris; he is a black sheep. You
would grieve me by doing otherwise.

Adieu, my dear. Love me, and be courageous.


No. 36.


  _Warsaw, January 26, 1807, Noon._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter. It pains me to see how you
are fretting yourself. The bridge of Mayence neither increases nor
decreases the distance which separates us. Remain, therefore, at
Paris. I should be vexed and uneasy to know that you were so miserable
and so isolated at Mayence. You must know that I ought, that I can,
consider only the success of my enterprise. If I could consult my
heart I should be with you, or you with me; for you would be most
unjust if you doubted my love and entire affection.


No. 37.


  _Willemberg, February 1, 1807, Noon._

Your letter of the 11th, from Mayence, has made me laugh.

To-day, I am a hundred miles from Warsaw; the weather is cold, but

Adieu, dear; be happy, show character.


No. 38.


_My Dear_,--Your letter of January 20th has given me pain; it is too
sad. That's the fault of not being a little more devout! You tell me
that your glory consists in your happiness. That is narrow-minded; one
should say, my glory consists in the happiness of others. It is not
conjugal; one should say, my glory consists in the happiness of my
husband. It is not maternal; one should say, my glory consists in the
happiness of my children. Now, since nations--your husband, your
children--can only be happy with a certain amount of glory, you must
not make little of it. Fie, Josephine! your heart is excellent and
your arguments weak. You feel acutely, but you don't argue as well.

That's sufficient quarrelling. I want you to be cheerful, happy in
your lot, and that you should obey, not with grumbling and tears, but
with gaiety of heart and a little more good temper.

Adieu, dear; I start to-night to examine my outposts.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _February 5th.--Combats of Bergfriede, Waltersdorf, and Deppen;
  Russians forced back._

  _February 6th.--Combat of Hof. Murat victorious._

  _February 8th.--Battle of Eylau; retreat of Russians._

No. 39.


  _Eylau, February 9, 1807_, 3 A.M.

_My Dear_,--Yesterday there was a great battle; the victory has
remained with me, but I have lost many men. The loss of the enemy,
which is still more considerable, does not console me. To conclude, I
write you these two lines myself, although I am very tired, to tell
you that I am well and that I love you.--Yours ever,


No. 40.


  _Eylau, February 9, 1807_, 6 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I write you a line in order that you may not be uneasy.
The enemy has lost the battle, 40 pieces of cannon, 10 flags, 12,000
prisoners; he has suffered frightfully. I have lost many: 1600 killed,
3000 or 4000 wounded.

Your cousin Tascher conducts himself well; I have summoned him near me
with the title of orderly officer.

Corbineau has been killed by a shell; I was singularly attached to
that officer, who had much merit; I am very unhappy about him. My
mounted guard has covered itself with glory. Dahlman is dangerously

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 41.


  _Eylau, February 11, 1807_, 3 A.M.

_My Dear_,--I write you a line; you must have been very anxious. I
have beaten the enemy in a fight to be remembered, but it has cost
many brave lives. The bad weather that has set in forces me to take

Do not afflict yourself, please; all this will soon be over, and the
happiness of seeing you will make me promptly forget my fatigues.
Besides, I have never been in better health.

Young Tascher, of the 4th Regiment, has behaved well; he has had a
rough time of it. I have summoned him near me; I have made him an
orderly officer--there's an end to his troubles. This young man
interests me.

Adieu, dear; a thousand kisses.


No. 42.


  _Preussich-Eylau, February 12, 1807._

I send you a letter from General Darmagnac. He is a very good soldier,
who commanded the 32nd. He is much attached to me. If this Madame de
Richmond be well off, and it is a good match, I shall see this
marriage with pleasure. Make this known to both of them.


No. 43.


  _Eylau, February 14, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I am still at Eylau. This country is covered with dead and
wounded. It is not the bright side of warfare; one suffers, and the
mind is oppressed at the sight of so many victims. My health is good.
I have done as I wished, and driven back the enemy, while making his
projects fail.

You are sure to be uneasy, and that thought troubles me. Nevertheless,
calm yourself, my dear, and be cheerful.--Yours ever,


Tell Caroline and Pauline that the Grand Duke and the Prince[22] are
in excellent health.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _February 16th.--Savary defeats Russians at Ostrolenka._

No. 44.


  _Eylau_, _February 17, 1807_, 3 A.M.

Your letter to hand, informing me of your arrival at Paris. I am very
glad to know you are there. My health is good.

The battle of Eylau was very sanguinary, and very hardly contested.
Corbineau was slain. He was a very brave man. I had grown very fond of

Adieu, dear; it is as warm here as in the month of April; everything
is thawing. My health is good.


No. 45.


  _Landsberg_, _February 18, 1807_, 3 A.M.

I write you two lines. My health is good. I am moving to set my army
in winter quarters.

It rains and thaws as in the month of April. We have not yet had one
cold day.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 46.


  _Liebstadt_, _February 20, 1807_, 2 A.M.

I write you two lines, dear, in order that you may not be uneasy. My
health is very good, and my affairs prosper.

I have again put my army into cantonments.

The weather is extraordinary; it freezes and thaws; it is wet and

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 47.


  _Liebstadt_, _February 21, 1807_, 2 A.M.

Your letter of the 4th February to hand; I see with pleasure that your
health is good. Paris will thoroughly re-establish it by giving you
cheerfulness and rest, and a return to your accustomed habits.

I am wonderfully well. The weather and the country are vile. My affairs
are fairly satisfactory. It thaws and freezes within twenty-four hours;
there can never have been known such an extraordinary winter.

Adieu, dear; I love you, I think of you, and wish to know that you are
contented, cheerful, and happy.--Yours ever,


No. 48.


  _Liebstadt, February 21, 1807, Noon._

_My Dear_,--Your letter of the 8th received; I see with pleasure that
you have been to the opera, and that you propose holding receptions
weekly. Go occasionally to the theatre, and always into the Royal box.
I notice also with pleasure the banquets you are giving.

I am very well. The weather is still unsettled; it freezes and thaws.

I have once more put my army into cantonments in order to rest them.

Never be doleful, love me, and believe in my entire affection.


No. 49.


  _Osterode_, _February 23, 1807_, 2 P.M.

_My Dear_,--Your letter of the 10th received. I am sorry to see you
are a little out of sorts.

I have been in the country for the past month, experiencing frightful
weather, because it has been unsettled, and varying from cold to warm
within a week. Still, I am very well.

Try and pass your time pleasantly; have no anxieties, and never doubt
the love I bear you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _February 26th.--Dupont defeats Russians at Braunsberg._

No. 50.


  _Osterode, March 2, 1807._

_My Dear_,--It is two or three days since I wrote to you; I reproach
myself for it; I know your uneasiness. I am very well; my affairs
prosper. I am in a wretched village, where I shall pass a considerable
time; it is not as good as the great city! I again assure you, I was
never in such good health; you will find me very much stouter.

It is spring weather here; the snow has gone, the streams are
thawing--which is what I want.

I have ordered what you wish for Malmaison; be cheerful and happy; it
is my will.

Adieu, dear; I embrace you heartily.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _March 9th._--The Grand Sanhedrim, which assembled at Paris on
  February 9, terminates its sittings.

No. 51.


  _Osterode_, _March 10, 1807_, 4 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter of the 25th. I see with
pleasure that you are well, and that you sometimes make a pilgrimage
to Malmaison.

My health is good, and my affairs prosper.

The weather has become rather cold again. I see that the winter has
been very variable everywhere.

Adieu, dear; keep well, be cheerful, and never doubt my affection,--Yours


No. 52.


  _Osterode, March 11, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I received your letter of the 27th. I am sorry to see from
it that you are ill; take courage. My health is good; my affairs
prosper. I am waiting for fine weather, which should soon be here. I
love you and want to know that you are content and cheerful.

A great deal of nonsense will be talked of the battle of Eylau; the
bulletin tells everything; our losses are rather exaggerated in it
than minimised.--Yours ever,


No. 53.


  _Osterode_, _March 13, 1807_, 2 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I learn that the vexatious tittle-tattle that occurred in
your salon at Mayence has begun again; make people hold their tongues.
I shall be seriously annoyed with you if you do not find a remedy. You
allow yourself to be worried by the chatter of people who ought to
console you. I desire you to have a little character, and to know how
to put everybody into his (or her) proper place.

I am in excellent health. My affairs here are good. We are resting a
little, and organising our food supply.

Adieu, dear; keep well.


No. 54.


  _Osterode, March 15, 1807._

I received your letter of the 1st of March, from which I see that you
were much upset by the catastrophe of Minerva at the opera. I am very
glad to see that you go out and seek distractions.

My health is very good. My affairs go excellently. Take no heed of all
the unfavourable rumours that may be circulated. Never doubt my
affection, and be without the least uneasiness.--Yours ever,


No. 55.


  Osterode, March 17, 1807.

_My Dear_,--It is not necessary for you to go to the small plays and
into a private box; it ill befits your rank; you should only go to the
four great theatres, and always into the Royal box. Live as you would
do if I were at Paris.

My health is very good. The cold weather has recommenced. The
thermometer has been down to 8°.--Yours ever,


No. 56.


  _Osterode_, _March 17, 1807_, 10 P.M.

I have received yours of March 5th, from which I see with pleasure
that you are well. My health is perfect. Yet the weather of the past
two days has been cold again; the thermometer to-night has been at
10°, but the sun has given us a very fine day.

Adieu, dear. Very kindest regards to everybody.

Tell me something about the death of that poor Dupuis; have his
brother told that I wish to help him.

My affairs here go excellently.--Yours ever,


No. 57.

  _March 25th.--Abolition of slave trade in Great Britain by


  _March 25, 1807._

I have received your letter of March 13th. If you really wish to
please me, you must live exactly as you live when I am at Paris. Then
you were not in the habit of visiting the second-rate theatres or
other places. You ought always to go into the Royal box. As for your
home life: hold receptions there, and have your fixed circles of
friends; that, my dear, is the only way to deserve my approbation.
Greatness has its inconveniences; an Empress cannot go where a private
individual may.

Very best love. My health is good. My affairs prosper.


No. 58.


  _Osterode_, _March 27, 1807_, 7 P.M.

_My Dear_,--Your letter pains me. There is no question of your dying.
You are in good health, and you can have no just ground for grief.

I think you should go during May to St. Cloud; but you must spend the
whole month of April at Paris.

My health is good. My affairs prosper.

You must not think of travelling this summer; nothing of that sort is
feasible. You ought not to frequent inns and camps. I long as much as
you for our meeting and for a quiet life.

I can do other things besides fight; but duty stands first and
foremost. All my life long I have sacrificed everything to my
destiny--peace of mind, personal advantage, happiness.

Adieu, dear. See as little as possible of that Madame de P----. She
is a woman who belongs to the lowest grade of society; she is
thoroughly common and vulgar.


I have had occasion to find fault with M. de T----. I have sent him to
his country house in Burgundy. I wish no longer to hear his name

No. 59.


  _Osterode, April 1, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I have just got your letter of the 20th. I am sorry to see
you are ill. I wrote you to stay at Paris the whole month of April,
and to go to St. Cloud on May 1st. You may go and spend the Sundays,
and a day or two, at Malmaison. At St. Cloud you may have your usual

My health is good. It is still quite cold enough here. All is quiet.

I have named the little princess Josephine.[23] Eugène should be well
pleased.--Yours ever,


No. 60.


  _Finckenstein, April 2, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I write you a line. I have just moved my headquarters into
a very fine château, after the style of Bessières', where I have
several fireplaces, which is a great comfort to me; getting up often
in the night, I like to see the fire.

My health is perfect. The weather is fine, but still cold. The
thermometer is at four to five degrees.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 61.


  _Finckenstein_, _April 6, 1807_, 3 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter, from which I see you have
spent Holy Week at Malmaison, and that your health is better. I long
to hear that you are thoroughly well.

I am in a fine château, where there are fireplaces, which I find a
great comfort. It is still very cold here; everything is frozen.

You will have seen that I have good news from Constantinople.

My health is good. There is nothing fresh here.--Yours ever,


No. 62.


  _Finckenstein_, _April 10, 1807_, 6 P.M.

_My Dear_,--My health is excellent. Here spring is beginning; but as
yet there is no vegetation. I wish you to be cheerful and contented,
and never to doubt my attachment. Here all goes well.


No. 63.


  _Finckenstein_, _April 14, 1807_, 7 P.M.

I have received your letter of April 3rd. I see from it that you are
well, and that it has been very cold in Paris. The weather here is
very unsettled; still I think the spring has come at length; already
the ice has almost gone. I am in splendid health.

Adieu, dear. I ordered some time ago for Malmaison all that you ask
for,--Yours ever,


No. 64.


  _Finckenstein, April 18, 1807._

I have received your letter of April 5th. I am sorry to see from it
that you are grieved at what I have told you. As usual, your little
Creole head becomes flurried and excited in a moment. Let us not,
therefore, speak of it again. I am very well, but yet the weather is
rainy. Savary is very ill of a bilious fever, before Dantzic; I hope
it will be nothing serious.

Adieu, dear; my very best wishes to you.


No. 65.


  _Finckenstein_, _April 24, 1807_, 7 P.M.

I have received your letter of the 12th. I see from it that your
health is good, and that you are very happy at the thought of going to

The weather has changed to fine; I hope it may continue so.

There is nothing fresh here. I am very well.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 66.


  _Finckenstein_, _May 2, 1807_, 4 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I have just received your letter of the 23rd; I see with
pleasure that you are well, and that you are as fond as ever of
Malmaison. I hear the Arch-Chancellor is in love. Is this a joke, or a
fact? It has amused me; you might have given me a hint about it!

I am very well, and the fine season commences. Spring shows itself at
length, and the leaves begin to shoot.

Adieu, dear; very best wishes.--Yours ever,


No. 67.


  _Finckenstein, May 10, 1807._

I have just received your letter. I know not what you tell me about
ladies in correspondence with me. I love only my little Josephine,
sweet, pouting, and capricious, who can quarrel with grace, as she
does everything else, for she is always lovable, except when she is
jealous; then she becomes a regular shrew.[24] But let us come back to
these ladies. If I had leisure for any among them, I assure you that I
should like them to be pretty rosebuds.

Are those of whom you speak of this kind?

I wish you to have only those persons to dinner who have dined with
me; that your list be the same for your assemblies; that you never
make intimates at Malmaison of ambassadors and foreigners. If you
should do the contrary, you would displease me. Finally, do not allow
yourself to be duped too much by persons whom I do not know, and who
would not come to the house, if I were there.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 68.


  _Finckenstein, May 12, 1807._

I have just received your letter of May 2nd, in which I see that you
are getting ready to go to St. Cloud. I was sorry to see the bad
conduct of Madame ----. Might you not speak to her about mending her
ways, which at present might easily cause unpleasantness on the part
of her husband?

From what I hear, Napoleon is cured; I can well imagine how unhappy
his mother has been; but measles is an ailment to which every one is
liable. I hope that he has been vaccinated, and that he will at least
be safe from the smallpox.

Adieu, dear. The weather is very warm, and vegetation has begun; but
it will be some days before there is any grass.


No. 69.


  _Finckenstein, May 14, 1807._

I realise the grief which the death of this poor Napoleon[25] must
cause you; you can imagine what I am enduring. I should like to be by
your side, in order that your sorrow might be kept within reasonable
bounds. You have had the good fortune never to lose children; but it
is one of the pains and conditions attached to our miseries here
below. I trust I may hear you have been rational in your sorrow, and
that your health remains good! Would you willingly augment my grief?

Adieu, dear.


No. 70.


  _Finckenstein, May 16, 1807._

I have just received your letter of May 6th. I see from it how ill you
are already; and I fear that you are not rational, and that you are
making yourself too wretched about the misfortune which has come upon

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 71.


  _Finckenstein, May 20, 1807._

I have just received your letter of May 10th. I see that you have gone
to Lacken. I think you might stay there a fortnight; it would please
the Belgians and serve to distract you.

I am sorry to see that you have not been rational. Grief has bounds
which should not be passed. Take care of yourself for the sake of your
friend, and believe in my entire affection.


No. 72.

  _May 24th.--Dantzic surrenders to Lefebvre after two months'
  siege, with 800 guns and immense stores._


  _Finckenstein, May 24, 1807._

Your letter from Lacken just received. I am sorry to see your grief
undiminished, and that Hortense has not yet come; she is unreasonable,
and does not deserve our love, since she only loves her children.

Try to calm her, and do not make me wretched. For every ill without a
remedy consolations must be found.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 73.


  _Finckenstein, May 26, 1807._

I have just received your letter of the 16th. I have seen with
pleasure that Hortense has arrived at Lacken. I am annoyed at what you
tell me of the state of stupor in which she still is. She must have
more courage, and force herself to have it. I cannot imagine why they
want her to go to take the waters; she will forget her trouble much
better at Paris, and find more sources of consolation.

Show force of character, be cheerful, and keep well. My health is

Adieu, dear. I suffer much from all your griefs; it is a great trouble
to me not to be by your side.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _May 28th.--Lefebvre made Duke of Dantzic by Napoleon._

  _May 29th._--Selim III. deposed in Turkey by Mustapha IV., his

  _June 1st.--22,000 Spanish troops, sent by Charles IV., join the
  French army in Germany._

No. 74.


  _Dantzig, June 2, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I note your arrival at Malmaison. I have no letters from
you; I am vexed with Hortense, she has never written me a line. All
that you tell me about her grieves me. Why have you not found her some
distractions? Weeping won't do it! I trust you will take care of
yourself in order that I may not find you utterly woebegone.

I have been the two past days at Dantzic; the weather is very fine, my
health excellent. I think more of you than you are thinking of a
husband far away.

Adieu, dear; very kindest regards. Pass on this letter to Hortense.


No. 75.


  _Marienburg, June 3, 1807._

This morning I slept at Marienburg. Yesterday I left Dantzic; my
health is very good. Every letter that comes from St. Cloud tells me
you are always weeping. That is not well; it is necessary for you to
keep well and be cheerful.

Hortense is still unwell; what you tell me of her makes me very sorry
for her.

Adieu, dear; think of all the affection I bear for you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 5th.--Russians defeated at Spanden; Bernadotte wounded._

No. 76.

  _June 6th.--Russians defeated at Deppen by Soult._


  _Finckenstein, June 6, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I am in flourishing health. Your yesterday's letter pained
me; it seems to me that you are always grieving, and that you are not
reasonable. The weather is very fine.

Adieu, dear; I love you and wish to see you cheerful and contented.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 9th.--Russians defeated at Guttstadt by Napoleon, and_

  _June 10th.--At Heilsberg._

  _June 14th.--Battle of Friedland, completing the "Campaign of Ten

No. 77.


  _Friedland, June 15, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I write you only a line, for I am very tired, by reason of
several days' bivouacking. My children have worthily celebrated the
anniversary of the battle of Marengo.

The battle of Friedland will be as celebrated for my people, and
equally glorious. The entire Russian army routed, 80 pieces of cannon
captured, 30,000 men taken or slain, 25 Russian generals killed,
wounded, or taken, the Russian Guard wiped out. The battle is worthy
of her sisters--Marengo, Austerlitz, Jena. The bulletin will tell you
the rest. My loss is not considerable. I out-manoeuvred the enemy

Be content and without uneasiness.

Adieu, dear; my horse is waiting.


You may give this news as official, if it arrives before the bulletin.
They may also fire salvoes. Cambacères will make the proclamation.

No. 78.

  _June 16th.--Königsberg captured by Soult--"what was left to the
  King of Prussia is conquered."_


  _Friedland_, _June 16, 1807_, 4 P.M.

_My Dear_,--Yesterday I despatched Moustache with the news of the
battle of Friedland. Since then I have continued to pursue the enemy.
Königsberg, which is a town of 80,000 souls, is in my power. I have
found there many cannon, large stores, and, lastly, more than 160,000
muskets, which have come from England.

Adieu, dear. My health is perfect, although I have a slight
catarrh caused by bivouacking in the rain and cold. Be happy and
cheerful.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 17th.--Neisse, in Silesia, with 6000 men, surrenders to the
  French; also_

  _June 18th--Glatz._

No. 79.


  _Tilsit, June 19, 1807._

This morning I despatched Tascher to you, to calm all your fears. Here
all goes splendidly. The battle of Friedland has decided everything.
The enemy is confounded, overwhelmed, and greatly weakened.

My health is good, and my army is superb.

Adieu, dear. Be cheerful and contented.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 21st.--Armistice concluded at Tilsit._

No. 80.


  _Tilsit, June 22, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I have your letter of June 10th. I am sorry to see you are
so depressed. You will see by the bulletin that I have concluded a
suspension of arms, and that we are negotiating peace. Be contented
and cheerful.

I despatched Borghèse to you, and, twelve hours later, Moustache;
therefore you should have received in good time my letters and the
news of the grand battle of Friedland.

I am wonderfully well, and wish to hear that you are happy.--Yours


No. 81.


  _Tilsit, June 25, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I have just seen the Emperor Alexander. I was much pleased
with him. He is a very handsome, young, and kind-hearted Emperor; he
has more intelligence than people usually give him credit for.
To-morrow he will lodge in the town of Tilsit.

Adieu, dear. I am very anxious to hear that you are well and happy. My
health is very good.


No. 82.


  _Tilsit, July 3, 1807._

_My Dear_,--M. de Turenne will give you full details of all that
has occurred here. Everything goes excellently. I think I told you
that the Emperor of Russia drinks your health with much cordiality.
He, as well as the King of Prussia, dines with me every day. I
sincerely trust that you are happy. Adieu, dear. A thousand loving


No. 83.


  _Tilsit, July 6, 1807._

I have your letter of June 25th. I was grieved to see that you were
selfish, and that the success of my arms should have no charm for

The beautiful Queen of Prussia is to come to-morrow to dine with me.

I am well, and am longing to see you again, when destiny shall so
order it. Still, it may be sooner than we expect.

Adieu, dear; a thousand loving remembrances.


No. 84.

_July 7th.--Peace signed between France and Russia._


  _Tilsit, July 7, 1807._

_My Dear_,--Yesterday the Queen of Prussia dined with me. I had to be
on the defence against some further concessions she wished me to make
to her husband; but I was very polite, and yet held firmly to my
policy. She is very charming. I shall soon give you the details, which
I could not possibly give you now unless at great length. When you
read this letter, peace with Prussia and Russia will be concluded, and
Jerome acknowledged King of Westphalia, with a population of three
millions. This news is for yourself alone.

Adieu, dear; I love you, and wish to know that you are cheerful and


No. 85.


  _Tilsit, July 8,[26] 1807._

The Queen of Prussia is really charming; she is full of _coquetterie_
for me; but don't be jealous; I am an oil-cloth over which all that
can only glide. It would cost me too much to play the lover.


No. 12,875 of the _Correspondence_ (taken from Las Cases).

       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 9th.--Peace signed between France and Prussia, the latter
  resigning all its possessions between the Rhine and the Elbe._

No. 86.


  _Dresden, July 18, 1807, Noon._

_My Dear_,--Yesterday I arrived at Dresden at 5 P.M., in excellent
health, although I remained a hundred hours in the carriage without
getting out. I am staying here with the King of Saxony, with whom I am
highly pleased. I have now therefore traversed more than half the
distance that separates us.

It is very likely that one of these fine nights I may descend upon St.
Cloud like a jealous husband, so beware.

Adieu, dear; I shall have great pleasure in seeing you.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 25th._--Plot of Prince Ferdinand of Asturias against his
  parents, the King and Queen of Spain.

  _July 27th.--Napoleon arrives at St. Cloud,_ 5 A.M.

  _August 19th.--Napoleon suppresses the French Tribunate._

  _August 20th.--Marshal Brune captures Stralsund from the Swedes._

  _September 1st.--The Ionian Isles become part of the French

  _September 5th to 7th._--Bombardment of Copenhagen by the

  _September 7th.--Occupation of Rugen by Marshal Brune._

  _October 6th._--War between Russia and Sweden.

  _October 16th.--Treaty of alliance between France and Denmark._

  _October 17th.--Junot with 27,000 men starts for Portugal, with
  whom France has been nominally at war since 1801._

  _October 27th.--Treaty of Fontainebleau signed between France and
  Spain. (Plot of Prince Ferdinand against his father discovered at
  Madrid the same day.)_

  _November 8th._--Russia declares war against England.

  _November 15th.--Napoleon constitutes the kingdom of Westphalia,
  with his brother Jerome as king._

  _November 26th.--Junot enters Abrantès, and on_

  _November 30th, enters Lisbon._

  _December 9th._--Trade suspended between England and the United
  States (_re_ rights of neutrals).

  _December 23rd.--France levies a contribution of 100 million
  francs on Portugal._


  [22] Murat and Borghèse.

  [23] Eugène's eldest daughter, the Princess Josephine Maximilienne
       Auguste, born March 14, 1807; married Bernadotte's son, Prince
       Oscar, June 18, 1827.

  [24] _Toute diablesse._

  [25] Charles Napoleon, Prince Royal of Holland, died at the Hague, May
       5, 1807.

  [26] Presumed date.


"Napoleon was received with unbounded adulation by all the towns of
Italy.... He was the Redeemer of France, but the Creator of
Italy."--ALISON, _Hist. of Europe_ (vol. xi. 280).


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 264-267.)

  LETTER                                PAGE

  No. 1. _Milan_                         264
         _Mont Cenis_                    264
         _Eugène_                        264

  No. 2. _Venice_                        265
         _November 30th_                 265

  No. 3. _Udine_                       265-7
         _I may soon be in Paris_        267


  _November 16th.--Napoleon leaves Fontainebleau._

  _November 22nd-25th.--At Milan._

No. 1.


  _Milan, November 25, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I have been here two days. I am very glad that I did not
bring you here; you would have suffered dreadfully in crossing Mont
Cenis, where a storm detained me twenty-four hours.

I found Eugène in good health; I am very pleased with him. The Princess
is ill; I went to see her at Monza. She has had a miscarriage; she is
getting better.

Adieu, dear.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 29th to December 7th.--At Venice (writes Talleyrand,
  "This land is a phenomenon of the power of commerce")._

No. 2.


  _Venice, November 30, 1807._

I have your letter of November 22nd. The last two days I have been at
Venice. The weather is very bad, which has not prevented me from
sailing over the lagoons in order to see the different forts.

I am glad to see you are enjoying yourself at Paris.

The King of Bavaria, with his family, as well as the Princess Eliza,
are here.

I am spending December 2nd[27] here, and that past I shall be on my
way home, and very glad to see you.

Adieu, dear.


No. 3.


  _Udine, December 11, 1807._

_My Dear_,--I have your letter of December 3rd, from which I note that
you were much pleased with the Jardin des Plantes. Here I am at the
extreme limit of my journey; it is possible I may soon be in Paris,
where I shall be very glad to see you again. The weather has not as
yet been cold here, but very rainy. I have profited by this good
season up to the last moment, for I suppose that at Christmas the
winter will at length make itself felt.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 12th.--At Udine._

  _December 14th.--At Mantua._

  _December 16th.--At Milan (till December 26th)._

  _December 17th.--His Milan decree against English commerce._

  _December 27th-28th.--At Turin._


  _January 1st.--At Paris._


  [27] His Coronation Day.


"The imbecility of Charles IV., the vileness of Ferdinand, and the
corruption of Godoy were undoubtedly the proximate causes of the
calamities which overwhelmed Spain."--NAPIER'S _Peninsular War_ (vol.
i. preface).


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 267-269.)

  LETTER                                          PAGE

  No. 1. _Bayonne_                                 267

  No. 2. _A country-house_                         267
         _Everything is still most primitive_      267

  No. 3. _Prince of the Asturias_                  268
         _The Queen_                               268

  No. 4. _A son has been born_                     268
         _Arrive on the 27th_                      269


  "This year offers a strange picture. The Emperor Napoleon was at
  Venice in the month of January, surrounded by the homage of all
  the courts and princes of Italy; in the month of April he was at
  Bayonne, surrounded by that of Spain, and the great personages of
  that country; and, finally, in the month of October he is at
  Erfurth, with his _parterre_ of kings."--_Mémoires du Duc de

       *       *       *       *       *

  _January 27th.--Queen and Prince Regent of Portugal reach Rio de

  _February 2nd.--French troops enter Rome._

  _February 17th.--French occupy Pampeluna, and_

  _February 29th.--Barcelona._

  _March 19th.--Charles IV. abdicates, and his son proclaimed
  Ferdinand VII._

  _March 20th.--Godoy imprisoned by Ferdinand._

  _March 23rd.--Murat enters Madrid._

  _March 27th.--Napoleon excommunicated._

  _April 15th.--Napoleon arrives at Bayonne._

No. 1.


  _Bayonne, April 16, 1808._

I have arrived here in good health, rather tired by a dull journey and
a very bad road.

I am very glad you stayed behind, for the houses here are wretched and
very small.

I go to-day into a small house in the country, about a mile from the

Adieu, dear. Take care of yourself.

No. 2.


  _Bayonne, April 17, 1808._

I have just received yours of April 15th. What you tell me of the
owner of the country-house pleases me. Go and spend the day there

I am sending an order for you to have 20,000 francs per month
additional while I am away, counting from the 1st of April.

I am lodged atrociously. I am leaving this place in an hour, to occupy
a country-house (_bastide_) about a mile away. The Infant Don Carlos
and five or six Spanish grandees are here, the Prince of the Asturias
fifty miles away. King Charles and the Queen are due. I know not how I
shall lodge all these people. Everything here is still most primitive
(_à l'auberge_). The health of my troops in Spain is good.

It took me some time to understand your little jokes; I have laughed
at your recollections. O you women, what memories you have!

My health is fairly good, and I love you most affectionately. I wish
you to give my kind regards to everybody at Bordeaux; I have been too
busy to send them to anybody.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _April 20th.--Ferdinand arrives at Bayonne._

No. 3.


  _April 21, 1808._

I have just received your letter of April 19th. Yesterday I had the
Prince of the Asturias and his suite to dinner, which occasioned me
considerable embarrassment. I am waiting for Charles IV. and the

My health is good. I am now sufficiently recovered for the campaign.

Adieu, dear. Your letters always give me much pleasure.


No. 4.


  _Bayonne, April 23, 1808._

_My Dear_,--A son has been born to Hortense;[28] I am highly
delighted. I am not surprised that you tell me nothing of it, since
your letter is dated the 21st, and the child was only born on the
20th,[29] during the night.

You can start on the 26th, sleep at Mont de Marsan, and arrive here on
the 27th. Have your best dinner-service sent on here on the 25th, in
the evening. I have made arrangements for you to have a little house
in the country, next to the one I have. My health is good.

I am waiting for Charles IV. and his wife.

Adieu, dear.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _April 30th.--Charles IV. and the Queen arrive at Bayonne._

  _May 1st.--Ferdinand gives back the crown to his father._

  _May 2nd.--Murat subdues insurrection at Madrid._

  _May 5th.--Treaty of Bayonne; Charles IV. and Ferdinand (May 6)
  surrender to Napoleon their rights to the Spanish crown._

  _May 13th.--Spanish Junta ask for Joseph Bonaparte to be their

  _June 6th.--King Joseph proclaimed King of Spain and the Indies by
  Napoleon, in an imperial decree, dated Bayonne._

  _June 7th.--French, under Dupont, sacked Cordova._

  _June 9th.--Emperor of Austria calls out his militia._

  _June 15th.--French fleet at Cadiz surrender to the Spanish._

  _July 4th.--English cease hostilities with Spain, and recognise
  Ferdinand VII._

  _July 7th.--Spanish new constitution sworn to by Joseph and by the

  _July 9th.--Commences the siege of Saragossa._

  _July 14th.--Bessières defeats 40,000 Spaniards at Medina de Rio

  _July 15th.--Murat declared King of Naples._

  _July 20th.--Joseph enters Madrid._ Mahmoud deposed by his younger
  brother at Constantinople.

  _July 22nd.--Dupont capitulates at Baylen--"the only stain on
  French arms for twenty years (1792-1812)."_--Montgaillard.

  _July 30th.--French protest against Austrian armaments._

  _August 1st.--Wellington landed in Portugal._

  _August 21st.--Battle of Vimiera, creditable to Junot._

  _August 25th.--Spanish troops reoccupy Madrid._

  _August 30th.--Convention of Cintra. French only hold Barcelona,
  Biscay, Navarre, and Alava, in the whole of Spain._

  _September 8th.--Convention of Paris (Prussia and France);
  Prussian army not to exceed 40,000 men._


  [28] Charles Louis Napoleon, afterwards Napoleon III.

  [29] At 17 Rue Lafitte.


  "When he shows as seeking quarter, with paws like hands in prayer,
  _That_ is the time of peril--the time of the truce of the Bear!"



(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 269-273.)

  LETTER                                             PAGE

  No. 1. _I have rather a cold_                       270
         _I am pleased with the Emperor_              270

  No. 2. _Shooting over the battlefield of Jena_      271
         _The Weimar ball_                            271
         _A few trifling ailments_                    271

  No. 3. _I am pleased with Alexander_                272
         _He ought to be with me_                     272
         _Erfurt_                                     273


No. 1.


  _Erfurt, September 29, 1808._

I have rather a cold. I have received your letter, dated Malmaison. I
am well pleased with the Emperor and every one here.

It is an hour after midnight, and I am tired.

Adieu, dear; take care of yourself.


No. 2.


  _October 9, 1808._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter. I note with pleasure that you
are well. I have just been shooting over the battlefield of Jena. We
had breakfast (_déjeuné_) at the spot where I bivouacked on the night
of the battle.

I assisted at the Weimar ball. The Emperor Alexander dances; but not
I. Forty years are forty years.

My health is really sound, in spite of a few trifling ailments.

Adieu, dear; I hope to see you soon.--Yours ever,


No. 3.


_My Dear_,--I write you seldom; I am very busy. Conversations which
last whole days, and which do not improve my cold. Still all goes
well. I am pleased with Alexander; he ought to be with me. If he were
a woman, I think I should make him my sweetheart.

I shall be back to you shortly; keep well and let me find you plump
and rosy.

Adieu, dear.



"The winter campaign commenced on the 1st of November 1808, and
terminated on the 1st of March 1809, to the advantage of the
French, who, for that reason, denominate it the _Imperial Campaign_.
The Spaniards were long before they could recover from the terror
caused by the defeat of their armies, the capture of Madrid, the
surrender of Saragossa, and the departure of the English from
Corunna."--_Sarrazin's History of the War in Spain and Portugal_,


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 273-278.)

  LETTER                                                           PAGE

  No. 5. Aranda                                                     273

  No. 6. Madrid                                                     273
          _Parisian weather_                                        273

  No. 8. _Kourakin_                                                 274

  No. 9. _The English_ appear to have received reinforcements       274

  No. 10. _Benavente_                                               274
          _The English flee panic-stricken_                         274
          _The weather_                                             274
          _Lefebvre_                                                275

  No. 11. _Your letters_                                          275-6

  No. 12. _The English are in utter rout_                           276

  Nos. 13 & 14. Valladolid                                          277
          _Eugène has a daughter_                                   277
          _They are foolish in Paris_                               277


  _October 29th.--English enter Spain._

  _October 31st.--Blake defeated by Lefebvre at Tornosa._

No. 1.


  _November 3, 1808._

I arrived to-night[30] with considerable trouble. I had ridden several
stages at full speed. Still, I am well.

To-morrow I start for Spain.

My troops are arriving in force.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 4th.--Napoleon enters Spain._

No. 2.


  _Tolosa, November 5, 1808._

I am at Tolosa. I am starting for Vittoria, where I shall be in a few
hours. I am fairly well, and I hope everything will soon be


No. 3.


  _Vittoria, November 7._

_My Dear_,--I have been the last two days at Vittoria. I am in good
health. My troops are arriving daily; the Guard arrived to-day.

The King is in very good health. I am very busy.

I know that you are in Paris. Never doubt my affection.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 10th._--Battle of Burgos. _Soult and Bessières defeat
  Spaniards, who lose 3000 killed and 3000 prisoners, and 20

  _November 12th._--Battle of Espinosa. _Marshal Victor defeats La
  Romana and Blake, who lose 20,000 men and 50 cannon._

No. 4.

  _November 14th._--Third revolution at Constantinople. _Mahmoud IV.
  assassinated (November 15th)._


  _Burgos, November 14, 1808._

Matters here are progressing at a great rate. The weather is very
fine. We are successful. My health is very good.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 23rd.--Battle of Tudela. Castaños and Palafox
  defeated, with loss of 7000 men and 30 cannon, by Marshal
  Lannes. "The battle of Tudela makes the pendant of that of

No. 5.


  _November 26, 1808._

I have received your letter. I trust that your health be as good as
mine is, although I am very busy. All goes well here.

I think you should return to the Tuileries on December 21st, and from
that date give a concert daily for eight days.--Yours ever,


Kind regards to Hortense and to M. Napoleon.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 3rd.--French voluntarily evacuate Berlin._

  _December 4th.--Surrender of Madrid. Napoleon abolishes the
  Inquisition and feudal rights._ ("_He regards the taking of a
  capital as decisive for the submission of a whole kingdom; thus in
  1814 will act his adversaries, pale but judicious imitators of his

No. 6.


  _December 7, 1808._

Your letter of the 28th to hand. I am glad to see that you are well.
You will have seen that young Tascher has distinguished himself, which
has pleased me. My health is good.

Here we are enjoying Parisian weather of the last fortnight in May. We
are hot, and have no fires; but the nights are rather cool.

Madrid is quiet. All my affairs prosper.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


Kind regards to Hortense and to M. Napoleon.

No. 7.


  _Chamartin, December 10, 1808._

_My Dear_,--Yours to hand, in which you tell me what bad weather you
are having in Paris; here it is the best weather imaginable. Please
tell me what mean these alterations Hortense is making; I hear she is
sending away her servants. Is it because they have refused to do what
was required? Give me some particulars. Reforms are not desirable.

Adieu, dear. The weather here is delightful. All goes excellently, and
I pray you to keep well.


No. 8.


  _December 21, 1808._

You ought to have been at the Tuileries on the 12th. I trust you may
have been pleased with your rooms.

I have authorised the presentation of Kourakin to you and the family;
be kind to him, and let him take part in your plays.

Adieu, dear. I am well. The weather is rainy; it is rather cold.


No. 9.

  _December 22nd.--Napoleon quits Madrid._


  _Madrid, December 22, 1808._

I start at once to outmanoeuvre the English, who appear to have
received reinforcements and wish to look big.

The weather is fine, my health perfect; don't be uneasy.


No. 10.


  _Benavento, December 31, 1808._

_My Dear_,--The last few days I have been in pursuit of the English,
but they flee panic-stricken. They have pusillanimously abandoned the
remnant of La Romana's army in order not to delay its retreat a single
half day. More than a hundred waggons of their baggage have already
been taken. The weather is very bad.

Lefebvre[31] has been captured. He took part in a skirmish with 300 of
his chasseurs; these idiots crossed a river by swimming and threw
themselves in the midst of the English cavalry; they killed several,
but on their return Lefebvre had his horse wounded; it was swimming,
the current took him to the bank where the English were; he was taken.
Console his wife.

Adieu, dear. Bessières, with 10,000 cavalry, is at Astorga.


A happy New Year to everybody.

No. 11.


  _January 3, 1809._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letters of the 18th and 21st. I am
close behind the English.

The weather is cold and rigorous, but all goes well.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


A happy New Year, and a very happy one, to my Josephine.

No. 12.


  _Benavento, January 5, 1809._

_My Dear_,--I write you a line. The English are in utter rout; I have
instructed the Duke of Dalmatia to pursue them closely (_l'épee dans
les reins_). I am well; the weather bad.

Adieu, dear.


No. 13.


  _January 8, 1809._

I have received yours of the 23rd and 26th. I am sorry to see you have
toothache. I have been here two days. The weather is what we must
expect at this season. The English are embarking. I am in good

Adieu, dear.

I am writing Hortense. Eugène has a daughter.

Yours ever,


No. 14.


  _January 9, 1809._

Moustache brings me your letter of 31st December. I see from it, dear,
that you are sad and have very gloomy disquietudes. Austria will not
make war on me; if she does, I have 150,000 men in Germany and as many
on the Rhine, and 400,000 Germans to reply to her. Russia will not
separate herself from me. They are foolish in Paris; all goes well.

I shall be at Paris the moment I think it worth while. I advise you to
beware of ghosts; one fine day, at two o'clock in the morning.

But adieu, dear; I am well, and am yours ever,



  [30] At Bayonne.

  [31] General Lefebvre--Desnouettes.


"Berthier, incapable of acting a principal part, was surprised, and
making a succession of false movements that would have been fatal to
the French army, if the Emperor, journeying night and day, had not
arrived at the very hour when his lieutenant was on the point of
consummating the ruin of the army. But then was seen the supernatural
force of Napoleon's genius. In a few hours he changed the aspect of
affairs, and in a few days, maugre their immense number, his enemies,
baffled and flying in all directions, proclaimed his mastery in an art
which, up to that moment, was imperfect; for never, since troops first
trod a field of battle, was such a display of military genius made by


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 278-295.)

  LETTER                                                            PAGE

          Napoleon's position in Europe                              278

  No. 1. _Donauwerth_                                                281
          The Ratisbon proclamation, and first successes of
            the campaign up to April 23rd                          281-2

  No. 2. _May 6th_                                                   282
          _The ball that touched me_                                 283

  No. 3. Baron Marbot's foray; and memories of Richard
            Coeur de Lion                                            284

  No. 4. _Schoenbrunn_                                             284-5
          _May 12th_                                                 285

  No. 5. _Ebersdorf_                                                 286
          _Eugène... has completely performed the task_              287

  No. 6. _May 29th_                                                  288

  No. 7. _I have ordered the two princes_                          288-9
          _The Duke of Montebello_                                   289
          _Thus everything ends_                                     289

  No. 9. _Eugène won a battle_                                       290

  No. 11. _Wagram_                                                   290
          _Lasalle_                                                  291
          _I am sunburnt_                                            291

  No. 12. _A surfeit of bile_                                        291
          _Wolkersdorf_                                              291

  No. 16. _My affairs follow my wishes_                              292

  No. 17. _August 21st_                                              292

  No. 18. _Comedians_                                                292
          _Women ... not having been presented_                      293

  No. 19. _All this is very suspicious_                              293

  No. 20. _Krems_                                                    293
          _My health has never been better_                          293

  No. 23. _October 14th_                                             294

  No. 24. _Stuttgard_                                                295



  _January 7th._--King and Queen of Prussia visit Alexander at St.

  _January 12th._--Cayenne and French Guiana captured by Spanish and
  Portuguese South Americans.

  _January 13th._--Combat of Alcazar. Victor defeats Spaniards.

  _January 14th._--Treaty of Alliance between England and Spain.

  _January 16th._--Battle of Corunna. Moore killed; Baird wounded.

  _January 17th._--English army sails for England.

  _January 22nd._--King Joseph returns to Madrid.

  _January 27th._--Soult takes Ferrol (retaken by English, June

  _February 21st._--Lannes takes Saragossa.

  _February 23rd._--English capture Martinique.

  _March 4th._--Madison made President of United States.

  _March 29th._--Soult fights battle of Oporto. Spaniards lose
  20,000 men and 200 guns. Gustavus Adolphus abdicates throne of

  _April 9th._--Austrians under Archduke Charles cross the Inn,
  enter Bavaria, and take Munich. _Napoleon receives this news April
  12th, and reaches Strasburg April 15th._

  _April 15th._--Eugène defeated on the Tagliamento.

  _April 16th._--And at Sacile.

  _April 19th._--Combat of Pfafferhofen. Oudinot repulses Austrians,
  while Davoust wins the Battle of Thann. _Napoleon joins the

  _April 20th._--Battle of Abensberg. Archduke Louis defeated.
  Austrians take Ratisbon, and 1800 prisoners. Poles defeated by
  Archduke Ferdinand at Baszy.

  _April 21st._--Combat of Landshut; heavy Austrian losses.
  Austrians under Archduke Ferdinand take Warsaw.

  _April 22nd.--Battle of Eckmühl. Napoleon defeats Archduke

  _April 23rd._--French take Ratisbon.

  _April 25th._--King of Bavaria re-enters Munich.

  _April 26th._--French army crosses the Inn.

  _April 28th-30th._--French force the Salza, and cut in two the
  main Austrian army--"One of the most beautiful manoeuvres of
  modern tactics" (_Montgaillard_).

  _April 29th._--Combat of Caldiero. Eugène defeats Archduke John.

  _May 3rd._--Russia declares war on Austria, and enters Galicia.

  _May 4th._--Combat of Ebersberg. Massena defeats Austrians, but
  loses a large number of men.

No. 1.


  _Donauwoerth, April 17, 1809._

I arrived here yesterday at 4 A.M.; I am just leaving it. Everything
is under way. Military operations are in full activity. Up to the
present, there is nothing new.

My health is good.--Yours ever,


No. 2.


  _Enns, May 6, 1809, Noon._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter. The ball that touched me has
not wounded me; it barely grazed the tendon Achilles.

My health is very good. You are wrong to be uneasy.

My affairs here go excellently.--Yours ever,


Kind regards to Hortense and the Duke de Berg.[32]

       *       *       *       *       *

  _May 8th._--Eugène crosses the Piave, and defeats Archduke John.

No. 3.


  _Saint-Polten, May 9, 1809._

_My Dear_,--I write you from Saint-Polten. To-morrow I shall be before
Vienna; it will be exactly a month to the day after the Austrians
crossed the Inn, and violated peace.

My health is good, the weather splendid, and the soldiery very
cheerful; there is wine here.

Keep well.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _May 13th._--French occupy Vienna, after a bombardment of
  thirty-six hours.

  _May 17th._--Roman States united to the French Empire.

  _May 18th._--French occupy Trieste.

  _May 19th._--Lefebvre occupies Innsbruck.

  _May 20th._--Eugène reaches Klagenfurt.

  _May 21st-22nd._--Battle of Essling. A drawn battle, unfavourable
  to the French, who lose Marshal Lannes, three generals killed, and
  500 officers and 18,000 men wounded. The Archduke admits a loss of
  4200 killed and 16,000 wounded.

  _May 22nd._--Meerveldt with 4000 men surrenders at Laybach to

  _May 25th._--Eugène reaches Leoben in Styria, and captures most of
  the corps of Jellachich.

  _May 26th._--Eugène joins the army of Germany, at Bruck in

No. 4.

  _May 12th._--Soult evacuates Portugal. Wellington crosses the
  Douro, and enters Spain.


  _Schoenbrunn, May 12, 1809._

I am despatching the brother of the Duchess of Montebello to let you
know that I am master of Vienna, and that everything here goes
perfectly. My health is very good.


No. 5.


  _Ebersdorf, May 27, 1809._

I am despatching a page to tell you that Eugène has rejoined me with
all his army; that he has completely performed the task that I
entrusted him with; and has almost entirely destroyed the enemy's army
opposed to him.

I send you my proclamation to the army of Italy, which will make you
understand all this.

I am very well.--Yours ever,


_P.S._--You can have this proclamation printed at Strasburg, and have
it translated into French and German, in order that it may be
scattered broadcast over Germany. Give a copy of the proclamation to
the page who goes on to Paris.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _May 28th._--Hofer defeats Bavarians at Innsbruck.

No. 6.


  _Ebersdorf_, _May 29, 1809_, 7 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I have been here since yesterday; I am stopped by the
river. The bridge has been burnt; I shall cross at midnight.
Everything here goes as I wish it, viz., very well.

The Austrians have been overwhelmed (_frappès de la foudre_).

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 7.


  _Ebersdorf May 31, 1809._

Your letter of the 26th to hand. I have written you that you can go to
Plombières. I do not care for you to go to Baden; it is not necessary
to leave France. I have ordered the two princes to re-enter

The loss of the Duke of Montebello, who died this morning, has grieved
me exceedingly. Thus everything ends!!

Adieu, dear; if you can help to console the poor Maréchale, do
so.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 1st._--Archduke Ferdinand evacuates Warsaw.

  _June 6th._--Regent of Sweden proclaimed King as Charles XIII.

No. 8.


  _Schoenbrunn, June 9, 1809._

I have received your letter; I see with pleasure that you are going to
the waters at Plombières, they will do you good.

Eugène is in Hungary with his army. I am well, the weather very fine.
I note with pleasure that Hortense and the Duke of Berg are in

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 10th._--Union of the Papal States to France promulgated in

  _June 11th.--Napoleon and all his abettors excommunicated._

  _June 14th._--Eugène, aided by Macdonald and Lauriston, defeats
  Archduke Ferdinand at Raab.

No. 9.


  _Schoenbrunn, June 16, 1809._

I despatch a page to tell you that, on the 14th, the anniversary of
Marengo, Eugène won a battle against the Archduke John and the
Archduke Palatine, at Raab, in Hungary; that he has taken 3000 men,
many pieces of cannon, 4 flags, and pursued them a long way on the
road to Buda-Pesth.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 18th._--Combat of Belchite. Blake defeated by Suchet near

No. 10.


  _Schoenbrunn, June 19, 1809, Noon._

I have your letter, which tells me of your departure for Plombières. I
am glad you are making this journey, because I trust it may do you

Eugène is in Hungary, and is well. My health is very good, and the
army in fighting trim.

I am very glad to know that the Grand Duke of Berg is with you.

Adieu, dear. You know my affection for my Josephine; it never
varies.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 4th-5th._--French cross Danube, and win battle of

  _July 5th-6th._--Pope Pius VII. carried off from Rome by order of
  Murat; eventually kept at Savona.

  _July 6th.--Battle of Wagram._ The most formidable artillery
  battle ever fought up to this date (900 guns in action). The
  Austrians had 120,000 men, with more guns and of larger calibre
  than those of the French.

No. 11.

  _July 7th._--St. Domingo surrenders to the English.


  _Ebersdorf_, _July 7, 1809_, 5 A.M.

I am despatching a page to bring you the good tidings of the victory
of Enzersdorf, which I won on the 5th, and that of Wagram, which I won
on the 6th.

The enemy's army flies in disorder, and all goes according to my
prayers (_voeux_).

Eugène is well. Prince Aldobrandini is wounded, but slightly.

Bessières has been shot through the fleshy part of his thigh; the
wound is very slight. Lasalle was killed. My losses are full heavy,
but the victory is decisive and complete. We have taken more than 100
pieces of cannon, 12 flags, many prisoners.

I am sunburnt.

Adieu, dear. I send you a kiss. Kind regards to Hortense.


No. 12.


  _Wolkersdorf_, _July 9, 1809_, 2 A.M.

_My Dear_,--All goes here as I wish. My enemies are defeated, beaten,
utterly routed. They were in great numbers; I have wiped them out.
To-day my health is good; yesterday I was rather ill with a surfeit of
bile, occasioned by so many hardships, but it has done me much good.

Adieu, dear. I am in excellent health.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 12th._--Armistice of Znaim. Archduke Charles resigns his

No. 13.


  _In the Camp, before Znaim, July 13, 1809._

I send you the suspension of arms concluded yesterday with the
Austrian General. Eugène is on the Hungary side, and is well. Send a
copy of the suspension of arms to Cambacérès, in case he has not yet
received one.

I send you a kiss, and am very well.


You may cause this suspension of arms to be printed at Nancy.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 14th._--English seize Senegal. Oudinot, Marmont, Macdonald
  made Marshals.

No. 14.


  _Schoenbrunn, July 17, 1809._

_My Dear_,--I have sent you one of my pages. You will have learnt the
result of the battle of Wagram, and, later, of the suspension of arms
of Znaim.

My health is good. Eugène is well, and I long to know that you, as
well as Hortense, are the same.

Give a kiss for me to Monsieur, the Grand Duke of Berg.


No. 15.


  _Schoenbrunn, July 24, 1809._

I have just received yours of July 18th. I note with pleasure that the
waters are doing you good. I see no objection to you going back to
Malmaison after you have finished your treatment.

It is hot enough here in all conscience. My health is excellent.

Adieu, dear. Eugène is at Vienna, in the best of health.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 28th.--Battle of Talavera._ Wellington repulses Victor, who
  attacks by King Joseph's order, without waiting for the arrival of
  Soult with the main army. Wellington retires on Portugal.

  _July 29th-31st._--Walcheren Expedition; 17,000 English land in

No. 16.


  _Schoenbrunn, August 7, 1809._

I see from your letter that you are at Plombières, and intend to stay
there. You do well; the waters and the fine climate can only do you

I remain here. My health and my affairs follow my wishes.

Please give my kind regards to Hortense and the Napoleons.--Yours


       *       *       *       *       *

  _August 8th._--Combat of Arzobispo. Soult defeats the Spaniards.

  _August 15th._--Flushing surrenders to the English.

No. 17.


  _Schoenbrunn, August 21, 1809._

I have received your letter of August 14th, from Plombières; I see
from it that by the 18th you will be either at Paris or Malmaison. The
heat, which is very great here, will have upset you. Malmaison must be
very dry and parched at this time of year.

My health is good. The heat, however, has brought on a slight

Adieu, dear.


No. 18.


  _Schoenbrunn, August 26, 1809._

I have your letter from Malmaison. They bring me word that you are
plump, florid, and in the best of health, I assure you Vienna is not
an amusing city. I would very much rather be back again in Paris.

Adieu, dear. Twice a week I listen to the comedians (_bouffons_); they
are but very middling; it, however, passes the evenings. There are
fifty or sixty women of Vienna, but outsiders (_au parterre_), as not
having been presented.


No. 19.


  _Schoenbrunn, August 31, 1809._

I have had no letter from you for several days; the pleasures of
Malmaison, the beautiful greenhouses, the beautiful gardens, cause the
absent to be forgotten. It is, they say, the rule of your sex. Every
one speaks only of your good health; all this is very suspicious.

To-morrow I am off with Eugène for two days in Hungary.

My health is fairly good.

Adieu, dear.--Yours ever,


No. 20.


  _Krems, September 9, 1809._

_My Dear_,--I arrived here yesterday at 2 A.M.; I have come here to
see my troops. My health has never been better. I know that you are
very well.

I shall be in Paris at a moment when nobody will expect me. Everything
here goes excellently and to my satisfaction.

Adieu, dear.


No. 21.


  _Schoenbrunn, September 23, 1809._

I have received your letter of the 16th, and note that you are well.
The old maid's house is only worth 120,000[34] francs; they will never
get more for it. Still, I leave you mistress to do what you like,
since it amuses you; only, once purchased, don't pull it down to put a
rockery there.

Adieu, dear.


No. 22.


  _Schoenbrunn, September 25, 1809._

I have received your letter. Be careful, and I advise you to be
vigilant, for one of these nights you will hear a loud knocking.

My health is good. I know nothing about the rumours; I have never been
better for many a long year. Corvisart was no use to me.

Adieu, dear; everything here prospers.--Yours ever,


       *       *       *       *       *

  _September 26th._--Battle of Silistria; Turks defeat Russians.

No. 23.

  _October 14th._--Treaty of Vienna, between France and Austria.


  _Schoenbrunn, October 14, 1809._

_My Dear_,--I write to advise you that Peace was signed two hours ago
between Champagny and Prince Metternich.

Adieu, dear.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 19th._--Mortier routs Spaniards at Oçana.

No. 24.


  _Nymphenburg, near Munich, October 21, 1809._

I arrived here yesterday in the best of health, but shall not start
till to-morrow. I shall spend a day at Stuttgard. You will be advised
twenty-four hours in advance of my arrival at Fontainebleau.

I look forward with pleasure to seeing you again, and I await that
moment impatiently.

I send you a kiss.--Yours ever,


No. 25.


  _Munich, October 22, 1809._

_My Dear_,--I start in an hour. I shall be at Fontainebleau from the
26th to 27th; you may meet me there with some of your ladies.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _November 25th._--Disappearance of Benjamin Bathurst, erroneously
  thought to have been murdered by the French, really by robbers.

  _December 1st._--Capture of Gerona and 200 cannon by Augereau.

  _December 16th.--French Senate pronounce the divorce of Napoleon
  and Josephine._

  _December 24th._--English re-embark from Flushing.


  [32] Napoleon Louis, Prince Royal of Holland, and Grand Duke of Berg
       from March 3, 1809.

  [33] Her two grandsons, who, with Hortense, their mother, were at

  [34] Boispréau, belonging to Mademoiselle Julien.


"Josephine, my excellent Josephine, thou knowest if I have loved thee!
To thee, to thee alone do I owe the only moments of happiness which I
have enjoyed in this world. Josephine, my destiny overmasters my will.
My dearest affections must be silent before the interests of
France."--BOURRIENNE'S _Napoleon_.[35]


  [35] Also MEME'S _Memoirs of Josephine_, p. 333.


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 295-304.)

  LETTER                                       PAGE

  No. 1. A Family Council                       295

  No. 2. _Savary_                               297
         _Queen of Naples_                      298
         _The hunt_                             298

  No. 4. _The weather is very damp_             298

  No. 5. _King of Bavaria_                      299

  No. 6. Their last dinner together             299

  No. 7. _Tuileries_                            299

  No. 8. _A house vacant in Paris_              299

  No. 9. _Hortense_                             300

  No. 10. A visit to Josephine                  300

  No. 11. _What charms your society has_        300

  No. 12. _King of Westphalia_                  301

  No. 13. _Sensible_                            301

  No. 14. _D'Audenarde_                         302

  No. 16. The choosing of a bride               302

  No. 17. Date                                  302

  Nos. 18 & 19. _L'Élysée_                    302-3

  No. 20. _Bessières' country-house_            303

  No. 21. _Rambouillet_                         303
          _Adieu_                               303


DECEMBER, 1809, TO APRIL 2, 1810.

No. 1.


  _December 1809_, 8 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I found you to-day weaker than you ought to be. You have
shown courage; it is necessary that you should maintain it and not
give way to a doleful melancholy. You must be contented and take
special care of your health, which is so precious to me.

If you are attached to me and if you love me, you should show strength
of mind and force yourself to be happy. You cannot question my
constant and tender friendship, and you would know very imperfectly
all the affection I have for you if you imagined that I can be happy
if you are unhappy, and contented if you are ill at ease.

Adieu, dear. Sleep well; dream that I wish it.


No. 2.


  _Tuesday, 6 o'clock._

The Queen of Naples, whom I saw at the hunt in the Bois de Boulogne,
where I rode down a stag, told me that she left you yesterday at 1
P.M. in the best of health.

Please tell me what you are doing to-day. As for me, I am very well.
Yesterday, when I saw you, I was ill. I expect you will have been for
a drive.

Adieu, dear.


No. 3.


  _Trianon_, 7 P.M.

_My Dear_,--I have just received your letter. Savary tells me that you
are always crying; that is not well. I trust that you have been for a
drive to-day. I sent you my quarry. I shall come to see you when you
tell me you are reasonable, and that your courage has the upper hand.

To-morrow, the whole day, I am receiving Ministers.

Adieu, dear. I also am sad to-day; I need to know that you are
satisfied and to learn that your equilibrium (_aplomb_) is restored.
Sleep well.


No. 4.


  _Thursday, Noon, 1809._

_My Dear_,--I wished to come and see you to-day, but I was very busy
and rather unwell. Still, I am just off to the Council.

Please tell me how you are.

This weather is very damp, and not at all healthy.


No. 5.



I should have come to see you to-day if I had not been obliged to come
to see the King of Bavaria, who has just arrived in Paris. I shall
come to see you to-night at eight o'clock, and return at ten.

I hope to see you to-morrow, and to see you cheerful and placid.

Adieu, dear.


No. 6.


  _Trianon, Tuesday._

_My Dear_,--I lay down after you left me yesterday;[36] I am going to
Paris. I wish to hear that you are cheerful. I shall come to see you
during the week.

I have received your letters, which I am going to read in the


No. 7.


  _Paris, Wednesday, Noon, 27th December 1809._

Eugène told me that you were very miserable all yesterday. That is not
well, my dear; it is contrary to what you promised me.

I have been thoroughly tired in revisiting the Tuileries; that great
palace seemed empty to me, and I felt lost in it.

Adieu, dear. Keep well.


No. 8.


  _Paris, Sunday, December 31_, 10 A.M., 1809.

_My Dear_,--To-day I have a grand parade; I shall see all my Old Guard
and more than sixty artillery trains.

The King of Westphalia is returning home, which will leave a house
vacant in Paris. I am sad not to see you. If the parade finishes
before 3 o'clock, I will come; otherwise, to-morrow.

Adieu, dear.


No. 9.


  _Thursday Evening_, 1810.

_My Dear_,--Hortense, whom I saw this afternoon, has given me news of
you. I trust that you will have been able to see your plants to-day,
the weather having been fine. I have only been out for a few minutes
at three o'clock to shoot some hares.

Adieu, dear; sleep well.


No. 10.


  _Friday_, 8 P.M., 1810.

I wished to come and see you to-day, but I cannot; it will be, I hope,
in the morning. It is a long time since I heard from you. I learnt
with pleasure that you take walks in your garden these cold days.

Adieu, dear; keep well, and never doubt my affection.


No. 11.


  _Sunday_, 8 P.M., 1810.

I was very glad to see you yesterday; I feel what charms your society
has for me.

To-day I walked with Estève.[37] I have allowed £4000 for 1810, for
the extraordinary expenses at Malmaison. You can therefore do as much
planting as you like; you will distribute that sum as you may require.
I have instructed Estève to send £8000 the moment the contract for the
Maison Julien shall be made. I have ordered them to pay for your
_parure_ of rubies, which will be valued by the Department, for I do
not wish to be robbed by jewellers. So, there goes the £16,000 that
this may cost me.

I have ordered them to hold the million which the Civil List owes you
for 1810 at the disposal of your man of business, in order to pay your

You should find in the coffers of Malmaison twenty to twenty-five
thousand pounds; you can take them to buy your plate and linen.

I have instructed them to make you a very fine porcelain service; they
will take your commands in order that it may be a very fine one.


No. 12.


  _Wednesday_, 6 P.M., 1810.

_My Dear_,--I see no objection to your receiving the King of
Westphalia whenever you wish. The King and Queen of Bavaria will
probably come to see you on Friday.

I long to come to Malmaison, but you must really show fortitude and
self-restraint; the page on duty this morning told me that he saw you

I am going to dine quite alone.

Adieu, dear. Never doubt the depth of my feelings for you; you would
be unjust and unfair if you did.


No. 13.


  _Saturday_, 1 P.M., 1810.

_My Dear_,--Yesterday I saw Eugène, who told me that you gave a
reception to the kings. I was at the concert till eight o'clock, and
only dined, quite alone, at that hour.

I long to see you. If I do not come to-day, I will come after mass.

Adieu, dear. I hope to find you sensible and in good health. This
weather should indeed make you put on flesh.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _January 9.--The clergy of Paris annul the religious marriage of
  Napoleon with Josephine_ (so _Biographie Universelle_, Michaud;
  Montgaillard gives January 18). _Confirmed by the Metropolitan
  Officialité, January 12_ (Pasquier).

No. 14.


  _Trianon, January 17, 1810._

_My Dear_,--D'Audenarde, whom I sent to you this morning, tells me
that since you have been at Malmaison you have no longer any courage.
Yet that place is full of our happy memories, which can and ought
never to change, at least on my side.

I want badly to see you, but I must have some assurance that you are
strong and not weak; I too am rather like you, and it makes me
frightfully wretched.

Adieu, Josephine; good-night. If you doubted me, you would be very


No. 15.


  _January 20, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I send you the box that I promised you the day before
yesterday--representing the Island of Lobau. I was rather tired
yesterday. I work much, and do not go out.

Adieu, dear.


No. 16.


  _Noon, Tuesday, 1810._

I hear that you are making yourself miserable; this is too bad. You
have no confidence in me, and all the rumours that are being spread
strike you; this is not knowing me, Josephine. I am much annoyed, and
if I do not find you cheerful and contented, I shall scold you right

Adieu, dear.


No. 17.


  _Sunday_, 9 P.M., 1810.

_My Dear_,--I was very glad to see you the day before yesterday.

I hope to go to Malmaison during the week. I have had all your affairs
looked after here, and ordered that everything be brought to the

Please take care of yourself.

Adieu, dear.


No. 18.


  _January 30, 1810._

_My Dear_,--Your letter to hand. I hope the walk you had yesterday, in
order to show people your conservatories, has done you good.

I will gladly see you at the Elysée, and shall be very glad to see you
oftener, for you know how I love you.


No. 19.


  _Saturday_, 6 P.M., 1810.

I told Eugène that you would rather give ear to the vulgar gossip of a
great city than to what I told you; yet people should not be allowed
to invent fictions to make you miserable.

I have had all your effects moved to the Elysée. You shall come to
Paris at once; but be at ease and contented, and have full confidence
in me.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _February 2._--Soult occupies Seville. The Junta takes refuge at

  _February 6._--Guadeloupe surrenders to the English.

  _February 7.--Convention of marriage between the Emperor Napoleon
  and the Archduchess Marie Louise._

No. 20.


  _February 19, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter. I long to see you, but the
reflections that you make may be true. It is, perhaps, not desirable
that we should be under the same roof for the first year. Yet
Bessières' country-house is too far off to go and return in one day;
moreover I have rather a cold, and am not sure of being able to go

Adieu, dear.


No. 21.


  _Friday_, 6 P.M., 1810.

Savary, as soon as he arrived, brought me your letter; I am sorry to
see you are unhappy. I am very glad that you saw nothing of the fire.

I had fine weather at Rambouillet.

Hortense told me that you had some idea of coming to a dinner at
Bessières, and of returning to Paris to sleep. I am sorry that you
have not been able to manage it.

Adieu, dear. Be cheerful, and consider how much you please me


No. 22.


  _March 12, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I trust that you will be pleased with what I have done for
Navarre. You must see from that how anxious I am to make myself
agreeable to you.

Get ready to take possession of Navarre; you will go there on March
25, to pass the month of April.

Adieu, dear.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _April 1.--Civil marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise._
  (_Religious marriage, April 2._)


  [36] The Empress, with Hortense, had been to dine at Trianon.

  [37] General Treasurer of the Crown.




(_after the Marriage with Marie Louise_).

"Bella gerant alii, tu, felix Austria! nube."


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 304-310.)

  LETTER                                              PAGE

  No. 1. _Navarre_                                     304
         _To Malmaison_                                305

  No. 1_a_. _It is written in a bad style_             305

  No. 2. Josephine's wishes                            305

  No. 2_a_. _Two letters_                              306

  No. 3. The northern tour of 1810                     306
         _I will come to see you_                      307

  No. 4. _July 8th_                                    308
         _You will have seen Eugène_                   308
         _That unfortunate daughter_                   308

  No. 5. _The conduct of the King of Holland_          308

  No. 6. _To die in a lake_                            309

  No. 8. _Paris, this Friday_                          309

  No. 9. _The only suitable places_                    310

  No. 10. Malmaison                                    310
          _The Empress progresses satisfactorily_      310

No. 1.


  _Navarre, April 19, 1810._

_Sire_,-I have received, by my son, the assurance that your Majesty
consents to my return to Malmaison, and grants to me the advances
asked for in order to make the château of Navarre habitable. This
double favour, Sire, dispels to a great extent the uneasiness, nay,
even the fears which your Majesty's long silence had inspired. I was
afraid that I might be entirely banished from your memory; I see that
I am not. I am therefore less wretched to-day, and even as happy as
henceforward it will be possible for me to be.

I shall go at the end of the month to Malmaison, since your Majesty
sees no objection to it. But I ought to tell you, Sire, that I should
not so soon have taken advantage of the latitude which your Majesty
left me in this respect had the house of Navarre not required, for my
health's sake and for that of my household, repairs which are urgent.
My idea is to stay at Malmaison a very short time; I shall soon leave
it in order to go to the waters. But while I am at Malmaison, your
Majesty may be sure that I shall live there as if I were a thousand
leagues from Paris. I have made a great sacrifice, Sire, and every day
I realise more its full extent. Yet that sacrifice will be, as it
ought to be, a complete one on my part. Your Highness, amid your
happiness, shall be troubled by no expression of my regret.

I shall pray unceasingly for your Majesty's happiness, perhaps even I
shall pray that I may see you again; but your Majesty may be assured
that I shall always respect our new relationship. I shall respect it
in silence, relying on the attachment that you had to me formerly; I
shall call for no new proof; I shall trust to everything from your
justice and your heart.

I limit myself to asking from you one favour: it is, that you will
deign to find a way of sometimes convincing both myself and my
_entourage_ that I have still a small place in your memory and a great
place in your esteem and friendship. By this means, whatever happens,
my sorrows will be mitigated without, as it seems to me, compromising
that which is of permanent importance to me, the happiness of your


No. 1A.

(_Reply of the Emperor Napoleon to the preceding._)


  _Compiègne, April 21, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I have yours of April 18th; it is written in a bad style.
I am always the same; people like me do not change. I know not what
Eugène has told you. I have not written to you because you have not
written to me, and my sole desire is to fulfil your slightest

I see with pleasure that you are going to Malmaison and that you are
contented; as for me, I shall be so likewise on hearing news from you
and in giving you mine. I say no more about it until you have compared
this letter with yours, and after that I will leave you to judge which
of us two is the better friend.

Adieu, dear; keep well, and be just for your sake and mine.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _April 23rd._--Battle of Lerida. Suchet defeats Spaniards.

No. 2.


A thousand, thousand loving thanks for not having forgotten me. My son
has just brought me your letter. With what impetuosity I read it, and
yet I took a long time over it, for there was not a word which did not
make me weep; but these tears were very pleasant ones. I have found my
whole heart again--such as it will always be; there are affections
which are life itself, and which can only end with it.

I was in despair to find my letter of the 19th had displeased you; I
do not remember the exact expressions, but I know what torture I felt
in writing it--the grief at having no news from you.

I wrote you on my departure from Malmaison, and since then how often
have I wished to write you! but I appreciated the causes of your
silence and feared to be importunate with a letter. Yours has been the
true balm for me. Be happy, be as much so as you deserve; it is my
whole heart which speaks to you. You have also just given me my share
of happiness, and a share which I value the most, for nothing can
equal in my estimation a proof that you still remember me.

Adieu, dear; I again thank you as affectionately as I shall always
love you.


No. 2A.


  _Compiègne, April 28, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I have just received two letters from you. I am writing to
Eugène. I have ordered that the marriage of Tascher with the Princess
de la Leyen shall take place.

To-morrow I shall go to Antwerp to see my fleet and to give orders
about the works. I shall return on May 15th.

Eugène tells me that you wish to go to the waters; trouble yourself
about nothing. Do not listen to the gossip of Paris; it is idle and
far from knowing the real state of things. My affection for you does
not change, and I long to know that you are happy and contented.


No. 3.


_My Dear_,--I have your letter. Eugène will give you tidings of my
journey and of the Empress. I am very glad that you are going to the
waters. I trust they may do you good.

I wish very much to see you. If you are at Malmaison at the end of the
month, I will come to see you. I expect to be at St. Cloud on the 30th
of the month. My health is very good ... it only needs to hear that
you are contented and well. Let me know in what name you intend to

Never doubt the whole truth of my affection for you; it will last as
long as I. You would be very unjust if you doubted it.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 1st.--Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, abdicates in favour
  of his son._

No. 4.


  _Rambouillet, July 8, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I have your letter of July 8th. You will have seen Eugène,
and his presence will have done you good. I learn with pleasure that
the waters are beneficial to you. The King of Holland has just
abdicated the throne, while leaving the Regency, according to the
Constitution, in the hands of the Queen. He has quitted Amsterdam and
left the Grand Duke of Berg behind.

I have reunited Holland to France, which has, however, the advantage
of setting the Queen at liberty, and that[38] unfortunate girl is
coming to Paris with her son the Grand Duke of Berg--that will make
her perfectly happy.

My health is good. I have come here to hunt for a few days. I shall
see you this autumn with pleasure. Never doubt my friendship; I never

Keep well, be cheerful, and believe in the truth of my attachment.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July 9th._--Holland incorporated with the French Empire.

  _July 10th._--Ney takes Ciudad Rodrigo, after twenty-five days
  open trenches.

No. 5.


  _St. Cloud, July 20, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter of July 14th, and note with
pleasure that the waters are doing you good, and that you like Geneva.
I think that you are doing well to go there for a few weeks.

My health is fairly good. The conduct of the King of Holland has
worried me.

Hortense is shortly coming to Paris. The Grand Duke of Berg is on his
way; I expect him to-morrow.

Adieu, dear.


No. 6.


  _Trianon, August 10, 1810._

Your letter to hand. I was pained to see what a risk you had run. For
an inhabitant of the isles of the ocean to die in a lake would have
been a fatality indeed!

The Queen is better, and I hope her health will be re-established. Her
husband is in Bohemia, apparently not knowing what to do.

I am fairly well, and beg you to believe in my sincere attachment.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _August 21st._--Swedes elect Marshal Bernadotte Crown Prince of

  _August 27th._--Massena takes Almeida.

No. 7.


  _St. Cloud, September 14, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I have your letter of September 9th. I learn with pleasure
that you keep well. There is no longer the slightest doubt that the
Empress has entered on the fourth month of her pregnancy; she is well,
and is much attached to me. The young Princes Napoleon are very well;
they are in the Pavillon d'Italie, in the Park of St. Cloud.

My health is fairly good. I wish to learn that you are happy and
contented. I hear that one of your _entourage_ has broken a leg while
going on the glacier.

Adieu, dear. Never doubt the interest I take in you and the affection
that I bear towards you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _September 27th.--Battle of Busaco._ Like Ebersburg, another of
  Massena's expensive and unnecessary frontal attacks. He loses 5000
  men, but next day turns the position of Wellington, who continues
  to retire.

No. 8.


  _Paris, this Friday._

_My Dear_,--Yours to hand. I am sorry to see that you have been ill; I
fear it must be this bad weather.

Madame de la T---- is one of the most foolish women of the Faubourg. I
have borne her cackle for a very long time; I am sick of it, and have
ordered that she does not come again to Paris. There are five or six
other old women that I equally wish to send away from Paris; they are
spoiling the young ones by their follies.

I will name Madame de Makau Baroness since you wish it, and carry out
your other commissions.

My health is pretty good. The conduct of B---- appears to me very
ridiculous. I trust to hear that you are better.

Adieu, dear.


No. 9.


  _Fontainebleau, October 1, 1810._

I have received your letter. Hortense, whom I have seen, will have
told you what I think. Go to see your son this winter; come back to
the waters of Aix next year, or, still better, wait for the spring at
Navarre. I would advise you to go to Navarre at once, if I did not
fear you would get tired of it. In my view, the only suitable places
for you this winter are either Milan or Navarre; after that, I approve
of whatever you may do, for I do not wish to vex you in anything.

Adieu, dear. The Empress is as I told you in my last letter. I am
naming Madame de Montesquiou governess of the Children of France. Be
contented, and do not get excited; never doubt my affection for you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 6th._--Wellington reaches the lines of Torres Vedras.

  _November 9th._--Opening of St. Quentin Canal at Paris.

No. 10.


  _Fontainebleau, November 14, 1810._

_My Dear_,--I have received your letter. Hortense has spoken to me
about it. I note with pleasure that you are contented. I hope that you
are not very tired of Navarre.

My health is very good. The Empress progresses satisfactorily. I will
do the various things you ask regarding your household. Take care of
your health, and never doubt my affection for you.


No. 11.


I have your letter. I see no objection to the marriage of Mackau with
Wattier, if he wishes it; this general is a very brave man. I am in
good health. I hope to have a son; I shall let you know immediately.

Adieu, dear. I am very glad that Madame d'Arberg[39] has told you
things which please you. When you see me, you will find me with my old
affection for you.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _December 3rd._--English take Mauritius.


  [38] So _Collection Didot_, followed by Aubenas. St. Amand has "ton
       infortunée fille."

  [39] Josephine's chief maid-of-honour.



  "Nun steht das Reich gesichert, wie gegründet,
  Nun fühlt er froh im Sohne sich gegründet.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Und sei durch Sie dies letzte Glück beschieden--
  Der alles wollen kann, will auch den Frieden."

  --GOETHE (_Ihro der Kaiserin von Frankreich Majestät_).


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 311-312.)

  LETTER                                           PAGE

  No. 1. _The New Year_                             311
         _More women than men_                      311
         _Keep well_                                311

  No. 2. Birth of the King of Rome                  311
         _Eugène_                                   311

  No. 4. _As fat as a good Normandy farmeress_      312

No. 1.


  _Paris, January 8th, 1811._

I have your New Year's letter. I thank you for its contents. I note
with pleasure that you are well and happy. I hear that there are more
women than men at Navarre.

My health is excellent, though I have not been out for a fortnight.
Eugène appears to have no fears about his wife; he gives you a

Adieu, dear; keep well.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _February 19th._--Soult defeats Spaniards at the Gébora, near

  _February 28th._--French occupy Duchy of Oldenburg, to complete
  the line of the North Sea blockade against England. This
  occupation embitters the Emperor of Russia and his family.

  _March 10th._--Mortier captures Badajoz after a siege of 54 days.

  _March 20th._--Birth of the _King of Rome_--"a pompous title
  buried in the tomb of the Ostrogoths."

No. 2.


  _Paris, March 22nd, 1811._

_My Dear_,--I have your letter. I thank you for it.

My son is fat, and in excellent health. I trust he may continue to
improve. He has my chest, my mouth, and my eyes. I hope he may fulfil
his destiny. I am always well pleased with Eugène; he has never given
me the least anxiety.


  _April 4th._--Battle of Fuentes d'Onoro. Massena attacks English,
  and is repulsed.

  _June 18th._--Wellington raises siege of Badajoz, and retires on

  _June 29th._--French storm Tarragona, whereupon Suchet created

No. 3.


  _Trianon, August 25th, 1811._

I have your letter. I see with pleasure that you are in good health. I
have been for some days at Trianon. I expect to go to Compiègne. My
health is very good.

Put some order into your affairs. Spend only £60,000, and save as much
every year; that will make a reserve of £600,000 in ten years for your
grandchildren. It is pleasant to be able to give them something, and
be helpful to them. Instead of that, I hear you have debts, which
would be really too bad. Look after your affairs, and don't give to
every one who wants to help himself. If you wish to please me, let me
hear that you have accumulated a large fortune. Consider how ill I
must think of you, if I know that you, with £125,000 a year, are in

Adieu, dear; keep well.


No. 4.


  _Friday_, 8 A.M., 1811.

I send to know how you are, for Hortense tells me you were in bed
yesterday. I was annoyed with you about your debts. I do not wish you
to have any; on the contrary, I wish you to put a million aside every
year, to give to your grandchildren when they get married.

Nevertheless, never doubt my affection for you, and don't worry any
more about the present embarrassment.

Adieu, dear. Send me word that you are well. They say that you are as
fat as a good Normandy farmeress.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _October 25th-26th._--Battle of Murviedro and capture of Sagunto:
  Blake and O'Donnell heavily defeated by Suchet.

  _December 20th._--Senatus Consultus puts 120,000 conscripts (born
  in 1792) at disposal of Government for 1812.

  _December 26th._--Suchet defeats Spanish, and crosses Guadalaviar.



  "'Tis the same landscape which the modern Mars saw
  Who march'd to Moscow, led by Fame, the siren!
  To lose by one month's frost, some twenty years
  Of conquest, and his guard of grenadiers."

  --BYRON (_Don Juan_, canto x. stanza 58).


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 312-315.)

  LETTER                  PAGE

  No. 1. Konigsberg        312

  No. 2. _Gumbinnen_       313


  Montgaillard sums up his tirade against Napoleon for the Russian
  campaign by noting that it took the Romans _ten_ years to conquer
  Gaul, while Napoleon "would not give _two_ to the conquest of that
  vast desert of Scythia which forced Darius to flee, Alexander to
  draw back, Crassus to perish; where Julian terminated his career,
  where Valerian covered himself with shame, and which saw the
  disasters of Charles XII."

  _January 9th._--Suchet captures Valencia, 18,000 Spanish troops,
  and 400 cannon. The marshal is made Duke of Albuféra.

  _January 15th._--Imperial decree ordains 100,000 acres to be put
  under cultivation of beetroot, for the manufacture of indigenous

  _January 19th._--Taking of Ciudad Rodrigo by Wellington.

  _January 26th._--French, under General Friand, occupy Stralsund
  and Swedish Pomerania.

  _February 24th._--Treaty of alliance between France and Prussia;
  the latter to support France in case of a war with Russia.

  _March 13th._--Senatus Consultus divides the National Guards into
  three bans, to include all capable men not already in military
  service. They are not to serve outside France. A hundred cohorts,
  each 970 strong, of the first ban (men between 20 and 26), put at
  disposal of Government.

  _March 14th._--Treaty between France and Austria; reciprocal help,
  in need, of 30,000 men and 60 guns. The integrity of European
  Turkey mutually guaranteed.

  _March 26th._--Treaty between Russia and Sweden. Bernadotte is
  promised Norway by Alexander.

  _April 7th._--The English take Badajoz by assault. "The French
  General, Philippon, with but 3000 men, has been besieged thrice
  within thirteen months by armies of 50,000 men" (_Montgaillard_).

  _April 24th._--Alexander leaves St. Petersburg, to take command of
  his Grand Army.

  _May 9th.--Napoleon leaves Paris for Germany._

  _May 11th._--Assassination of English Prime Minister, Perceval.

  _May 17th-28th.--Napoleon at Dresden; joined there by the Emperor
  and Empress of Austria, and a fresh_ "parterre _of kings"._

  _May 28th._---Treaty of Bucharest, between Turkey and Russia. The
  Pruth as boundary, and Servia restored to Turkey. This treaty, so
  fatal to Napoleon, and of which he only heard in October, was
  mainly the work of Stratford de Redcliffe, then aged twenty-five.
  Wellington, thinking the treaty his brother's work, speaks of it
  as "the most important service that ever fell to the lot of any
  individual to perform."

No. 1.

  _June 12th._--Suchet defeats an Anglo-Spanish army outside


  _June 12th, 1812._

_My Dear_,--I shall always receive news from you with great interest.

The waters will, I hope, do you good, and I shall see you with much
pleasure on your return.

Never doubt the interest I feel in you. I will arrange all the matters
of which you speak.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 16th._--Lord Liverpool Prime Minister of England.

  _June 18th._--United States declares war against England
  concerning rights of neutrals.

  _June 19th._--The captive Pope (Pius VII.) brought to Fontainebleau.

No. 2.


  _Gumbinnen, June 20th, 1812._

I have your letter of June 10th. I see no obstacle to your going to
Milan, to be near the Vice-Reine. You will do well to go _incognito_.
You will find it very hot.

My health is very good. Eugène is well, and is doing good work. Never
doubt the interest I have in you, and my friendship.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _June 22nd.--Napoleon from his headquarters, Wilkowyszki, declares
  war against Russia. His army comprised 550,000 men and 1200
  cannon, and he held sway at this epoch over 85,000,000 souls--half
  the then population of Europe._

  _June 24th._--French cross the Niemen, over 450,000 strong.[40] Of
  these 20,000 are Italians, 80,000 from Confederation of the Rhine,
  30,000 Poles, 30,000 Austrians, and 20,000 Prussians. The Russian
  army numbers 360,000.

  _June 28th._--French enter Wilna, the old capital of Lithuania.
  _Napoleon remains here till July 16th, establishing a provisional
  government, and leaving his Foreign Minister, Maret, there._

  _July 12th._--Americans invade Canada.

  _July 18th._--Treaty of peace between England and Sweden; and
  between Russia and the Spanish Regency at Cadiz.

  _July 22nd._--_Battle of Salamanca_ (Arapiles). Marmont defeated
  by Wellington, and badly wounded. French lose nearly 8000 men and
  5000 prisoners; English loss, 5200. The Spanish Regency had
  decided to submit to Joseph Bonaparte, but this battle deters
  them. French retire behind the Douro.

  _July 23rd._--Combat of Mohilow, on the Dneiper. Davoust defeats

  _July 28th._--French enter Witepsk.

  _August 1st._--Treaty of alliance between Great Britain and
  Russia. English fleet henceforward guards the Gulf of Riga. Combat
  of Obaiarzma, on the bank of the Drissa. Marshal Oudinot defeats
  Wittgenstein. Russians lose 5000 men and 14 guns.

  _August 9th._--Battle of Brownstown (near Toronto). Americans
  defeated; surrender August 16th with 2500 men and 33 guns to
  General Brock.

  _August 12th._--Wellington enters Madrid.

  _August 17th-18th.--Battle and capture of Smolensk. Napoleon
  defeats Barclay de Tolly; Russians lose 12,000, French less than

  _August 18th._--Battle of Polotsk, fifty miles from Witepsk, down
  the Dwina. St. Cyr defeats Wittgenstein's much larger army, and
  takes 20 guns. (St. Cyr made marshal for this battle, August

  _August 19th._--Combat of Volontino-Cova, beyond Smolensk. Ney
  defeats Russians.

  _August 27th._--Norway guaranteed Sweden in lieu of Finland by

  _August 28th._--Interview at Abo, in Finland, between Alexander,
  Bernadotte, and Lord Cathcart (English ambassador). Decided that
  Sweden shall join the crusade against France, and that Moreau be
  imported from U.S.A. to command another army.

  _August 29th._--Viazma, burnt by Russians, entered by the French.

  _September 7th._--Battle of Borodino (_La Moskowa_). Nearly all
  the Russian generals are present: Barclay de Tolly, Beningsen,
  Bagration (who is killed), all under Kutusoff. Russians lose
  30,000 men, French 20,000, including many generals who had
  survived all the campaigns of the Revolution. The French, hungry
  and soaked in rain, have no energy to pursue.

  _September 14th._--Occupation of Moscow; fired by emissaries of
  Rostopchin, its late governor. Of 4000 stone houses only 200
  remain, of 8000 wooden ones 500. Over 20,000 sick and wounded
  burnt in their beds. Fire lasts till September 20th.

  _September 18th._--Russian Army of the Danube under Admiral
  Tschitchagow joins the Army of Reserve.

  _September 26th._--Russian troops from Finland disembark at Riga.

  _September 30th.--Napoleon finds a copy of Treaty of Bucharest at

  _October 11th._--Admiral Tschitchagow with 36,000 men reaches
  Bresc, on the Bug, threatening the French communications with

  _October 17th-19th._--Second combat of Polotsk. Wittgenstein again
  defeated by St. Cyr, who is wounded.

  _October 18th._--Combat of Winkowo; Kutusoff defeats Murat.
  Americans defeated at Queenston Heights, on the Niagara, and lose
  900 men.

  _October 19th._--Commencement of the Retreat from Moscow.

  _October 22nd._--Burgos captured by Wellington.

  _October 23rd._--Conspiracy of Malet at Paris; Cambacérès to the
  rescue. Evacuation of Moscow by Mortier after forty days'
  occupation. The French army now retreating has only half its
  original strength, and the best cavalry regiments boast only 100

  _October 24th.--Battle of Malo-Jaroslavitz. Eugène with 17,000_
  _men defeats Kutusoff with 60,000; but Napoleon finds the enemy
  too strong and too tenacious to risk the fertile Kaluga route._

  _November 3rd._--Battle of Wiazma. Rearguard action, in which Ney
  and Eugène are distinguished.

  _November 9th.--Napoleon reaches Smolensk and hears of Malet

  _November 14th._--Evacuation of Smolensk.

  _November 16th._--Russian Army (of the Danube) takes Minsk, and
  cuts off the French from the Niemen.

  _November 16th-19th._--Combat of Krasnoi, twenty-five miles west
  of Smolensk. Kutusoff with 30,000 horse and 70,000 foot tries to
  stop the French, who have only 25,000 effective combatants.
  Magnificent fighting by Ney with his rearguard of 6000.

  _November 21st._--Russians seize at Borizow the bridges over the
  Beresina, which are

  _November 23rd._--Retaken by Oudinot.

  _November 26th-28th._--French cross the Beresina, but lose 20,000
  prisoners and nearly all their cannon (150).

  _November 29th.--Napoleon writes Maret he has heard nothing of
  France or Spain for fifteen days._

  _December 3rd._--Twenty-ninth bulletin dated Malodeczna, fifty
  miles west of Borisow.

  _December 5th.--Napoleon reaches Smorgoni, and starts for

  _December 10th._--Murat, left in command, evacuates Wilna. French
  retreat in utter rout; "It is not General Kutusoff who routed the
  French, it is General Morosow" (the frost), said the Russians.

  _December 14th.--Napoleon reaches Dresden, and_

  _December 18th.--Paris._

  _December 19th._--Evacuation of Kovno and passage of the Niemen.

  _December 20th.--Napoleon welcomed by the Senate in a speech by
  the naturalist Lacépède: "The absence of your Majesty, sire, is
  always a national calamity."_

  _December 30th._--Defection of the Prussian General York and
  Convention of Taurogen, near Tilsit, between Russia and Prussia.
  This defection is the signal for the uprising of Germany from the
  Oder to the Rhine, from the Baltic to the Julienne Alps.


  _January 5th._--Konigsberg occupied by the Russians.

  _January 13th._--Senatus Consultus calls up 250,000 conscripts.

  _January 22nd._--Americans defeated at Frenchtown, near Detroit,
  and lose 1200 men.

  _January 25th.--Concordat at Fontainebleau between Napoleon and
  Pope Pius VII., with advantageous terms for the Papacy. The Pope,
  however, soon breaks faith._

  _January 28th.--Murat deserts the French army for Naples, and
  leaves Posen. "Your husband is very brave on the battlefield, but
  he is weaker than a woman or a monk when he is not face to face
  with an enemy. He has no moral courage"_ (_Napoleon to his sister
  Caroline, January 24, 1813._ Brotonne, 1032). _Replaced by Eugène
  (Napoleon's letter dated January 22nd)._

  _February 1st._--Proclamation of Louis XVIII. to the French people
  (dated London).

  _February 8th._--Warsaw surrenders to Russia.

  _February 10th._--Proclamation of Emperor Alexander calling on the
  people of Germany to shake off the yoke of "one man."

  _February 28th._--Sixth Continental Coalition against France.
  Treaty signed between Russia and Prussia at Kalisch.

  _March 3rd._--New treaty between England and Sweden at Stockholm:
  Sweden to receive a subsidy of a million sterling and the island
  of Guadaloupe in return for supporting the Coalition with 30,000

  _March 4th._--Cossacks occupy Berlin. Madison inaugurated
  President U.S.A.

  _March 9th._--Eugène removes his headquarters to Leipsic.

  _March 12th._--French evacuate Hamburg.

  _March 21st._--Russians and Prussians take new town of Dresden.

  _April 1st._--France declares war on Prussia.

  _April 10th._--_Death of Lagrange, mathematician_; _greatly bemoaned
  by Napoleon, who considered his death as a "presentiment"_

  _April 14th._--Swedish army lands in Germany.

  _April 15th.--Napoleon leaves Paris; arrives Erfurt (April 25th)._
  Americans take Mobile.

  _April 16th._--Thorn (garrisoned by 900 Bavarians) surrenders to
  the Russians. Fort York (now Toronto) and

  _April 27th._--Upper Canada taken by the Americans.

  _May 1st._--Death of the Abbé Delille, poet. Opening of campaign.
  French forces scattered in Germany, 166,000 men; Allies' forces
  ready for action, 225,000 men. Marshal Bessières killed by a
  cannon-ball at Poserna.

  _May 2nd.--Napoleon with 90,000 men defeats Prussians and Russians
  at Lutzen (Gross-Goerschen) with 110,000; French loss, 10,000.
  Battle won_ _chiefly by French artillery. Emperor of Russia and
  King of Prussia present._

  _May 8th.--Napoleon and the French reoccupy Dresden._

  _May 18th._--Eugène reaches Milan, and enrols an Italian army
  47,000 strong.

  _May 19th-21st.--Combats of Konigswartha, Bautzen, Hochkirch,
  Würschen. Napoleon defeats Prussians and Russians; French loss,
  12,000; Allies, 20,000._

  _May 23rd.--Duroc (shot on May 22nd) dies. "Duroc," said the
  Emperor, "there is another life. It is there you will go to await
  me, and there we shall meet again some day."_

  _May 27th._--Americans capture Fort George (Lake Ontario) and

  _May 29th._--Defeat English at Sackett's Harbour.

  _May 30th._--French re-enter Hamburg and

  _June 1st._--Occupy Breslau. British frigate _Shannon_ captures
  _Chesapeake_ in fifteen minutes outside Boston harbour.

  _June 4th.--Armistice of Plesswitz, between Napoleon and the

  _June 6th._--Americans (3500) surprised at Burlington Heights by
  700 British.

  _June 15th.--Siege of Tarragona raised by Suchet; English
  re-embark, leaving their artillery. "If I had had two marshals
  such as Suchet, I should not only have conquered Spain, but I
  should have kept it"_ (_Napoleon in_ Campan's Memoirs).

  _June 21st._--Battle of Vittoria; total rout of the French under
  Marshal Jourdan and King Joseph. In retreat the army is much more
  harassed by the guerillas than by the English.

  _June 23rd._--Admiral Cockburn defeated at Craney Island by

  _June 24th._--Five hundred Americans surrender to two hundred
  Canadians at Beaver's Dams.

  _June 25th._--Combat of Tolosa. Foy stops the advance of the
  English right wing.

  _June 30th.--Convention at Dresden. Napoleon accepts the mediation
  of Austria; armistice prolonged to August 10th._

  _July 1st._--Soult sent to take chief command in Spain.

  _July 10th._--Alliance between France and Denmark.

  _July 12th.--Congress of Prague. Austria, Prussia, and Russia
  decide that Germany must be independent, and the French Empire
  bounded by the Rhine and the Alps; "but to reign over 36,000,000
  men did not appear to Napoleon a sufficiently great destiny"_
  (Montgaillard). _Congress breaks up July 28th._

  _July 26th._--Moreau arrives from U.S., and lands at Gothenburg.

  _July 31st._--Soult attacks Anglo-Spanish army near Roncesvalles
  in order to succour Pampeluna. Is repulsed, with loss of 8000

  _August 12th._--Austria notifies its adhesion to the Allies.

  _August 15th.--Jomini, the Swiss tactician, turns traitor and
  escapes to the Allies. He advises them of Napoleon's plans to
  seize Berlin and relieve Dantzic [see letter to Ney, No. 19,714,
  20,006, and especially 20,360 (August 12th) in_ Correspondence].
  _On August 16th Napoleon writes to Cambacérès: "Jomini, Ney's
  chief of staff, has deserted. It is he who published some volumes
  on the campaigns and who has been in the pay of Russia for a long
  time. He has yielded to corruption. He is a soldier of little
  value, yet he is a writer who has grasped some of the sound
  principles of war."_

  _August 17th.--Renewal of hostilities in Germany. Napoleon's army,
  280,000, of whom half recruits who had never seen a battle; the
  Allies 520,000, excluding militia. In his counter-manifesto to
  Austria, dated Bautzen, Napoleon declares "Austria, the enemy of
  France, and cloaking her ambition under the mask of a mediation,
  complicated everything.... But Austria, our avowed foe, is in a
  truer guise, and one perfectly obvious. Europe is therefore much
  nearer peace; there is one complication the less."_

  _August 18th._--Suchet, having blown up fortifications of
  Tarragona, evacuates Valentia.

  _August 21st._--Opening of the campaign in Italy. Eugène, with
  50,000 men, commands the Franco-Italian army.

  _August 23rd._--Combats of Gross-Beeren and Ahrensdorf, near
  Berlin. Bernadotte defeats Oudinot with loss of 1500 men and 20
  guns. Berlin is preserved to the Allies. Oudinot replaced by Ney.
  Lauriston defeats Army of Silesia at Goldberg with heavy loss.

  _August 26th-27th.--Battle of Dresden.--Napoleon marches a hundred
  miles in seventy hours to the rescue. With less than 100,000 men
  he defeats the Allied Army of 180,000 under Schwartzenberg,
  Wittgenstein, and Kleist. Austrians lose 20,000 prisoners and 60
  guns. Moreau is mortally wounded (dies September 1st)._ Combat of
  the Katzbach, in Silesia. Blucher defeats Macdonald with heavy
  loss, who loses 10,000 to 12,000 men in his retreat.

  _August 30th._--Combat of Kulm. Vandamme enveloped in Bohemia, and
  surrenders with 12,000 men.

  _August 31st._--Combat of Irun. Soult attacks Wellington to save
  San Sebastian, but is repulsed. Graham storms San Sebastian.

  _September 6th._--Combat of Dennewitz (near Berlin). Ney routed by
  Bulow and Bernadotte; loses his artillery, baggage, and 12,000

  _September 10th_--Americans capture the English flotilla on Lake

  _September 12th._--Combat of Villafranca (near Barcelona). Suchet
  defeats English General Bentinck.

  _October 7th._--Wellington crosses the Bidassoa into France. "It
  is on the frontier of France itself that ends the enterprise of
  Napoleon on Spain. The Spaniards have given the first conception
  of a people's war versus a war of professionals. For it would be a
  mistake to think that the battles of Salamanca (July 22nd, 1812)
  and Vittoria (June 21st, 1813) forced the French to abandon the
  Peninsula.... It was the daily losses, the destruction of man by
  man, the drops of French blood falling one by one, which in five
  years aggregated a death-roll of 150,000 men. As to the English,
  they appeared in this war only as they do in every world-crisis,
  to gather, in the midst of general desolation, the fruits of their
  policy, and to consolidate their plans of maritime despotism, of
  exclusive commerce" (Montgaillard).

  _October 15th._--Bavarian army secedes and joins the Austrians.

  _October 16th-19th.--Battles of Leipsic._ _Allied army_ 330,000
  men (_Schwartzenberg_, _Bernadotte_, _Blucher_, _Beningsen_),
  _Napoleon_ 175,000. _Twenty-six battalions and ten squadrons of
  Saxon and Wurtemberg men leave Napoleon and turn their guns
  against the French. Napoleon is not defeated, but determines to
  retreat. The rearguard (20,000 men) and 200 cannon taken.
  Poniatowski drowned; Reynier and Lauriston captured._

  _October 20th._--Blucher made Field-Marshal.

  _October 23rd._--French army reach Erfurt.

  _October 30th.--Combat of Hanau. Napoleon defeats Wrede with heavy

  _October 31st._--Combat and capture of Bassano by Eugène. English
  capture Pampeluna.

  _November 2nd.--Napoleon arrives at Mayence (where typhus carries
  off 40,000 French), and is_

  _November 9th.--At St. Cloud._

  _November 10th._--Wellington defeats Soult at St. Jean de Luz.

  _November 11th._--Surrender of Dresden by Gouvion St. Cyr; its
  French soldiers to return under parole to France. Austrians refuse
  to ratify the convention, and 1700 officers and 23,000 men remain
  prisoners of war.

  _November 14th.--Napoleon addresses the Senate: "All Europe
  marched with us a year ago; all Europe marches against us to-day.
  That is because the world's opinion is directed either by France
  or England."_

  _November 15th._--Eugène defeats Austrians at Caldiero.
  Senatus-Consultus puts 300,000 conscripts at disposal of

  _November 24th._--Capture of Amsterdam by Prussian General Bulow.

  _December 1st._--Allies declare at Frankfort that they are at war
  with the Emperor and not with France.

  _December 2nd._--Bulow occupies Utrecht. Holland secedes from the
  French Empire.

  _December 5th._--Capture of Lubeck by the Swedes, and surrender of
  Stettin (7000 prisoners), Zamosk (December 22nd), Modlin (December
  25th), and Torgau (December 26th, with 10,000 men).

  _December 8th-13th._--Soult defends the passage of the Nive--costly
  to both sides. Murat (now hostile to Napoleon) enters Ancona.

  _December 9th-10th._--French evacuate Breda.

  _December 11th.--Treaty of Valençay between Napoleon and his
  prisoner Ferdinand VII., who is to reign over Spain, but not to
  cede Minorca or Ceuta (now in their power} to the English._

  _December 15th._--Denmark secedes from French alliance.

  _December 21st._--Allies, 100,000 strong, cross the Rhine in ten
  divisions (Bâle to Schaffhausen). Jomini is said to have
  contributed to this violation of Swiss territory.

  _December 24th._--Final evacuation of Holland by the French.

  _December 28th._--Austrians capture Ragusa.

  _December 31st.--Napoleon, having trouble with his Commons,
  dissolves the Corps Législatif._ Austrians capture Geneva. Blucher
  crosses the Rhine at Mannheim and Coblentz. Exclusive of Landwehr
  and levies en masse, there are now a million trained men in arms
  against Napoleon.

       *       *       *       *       *


  "The Allied Powers having proclaimed that the Emperor Napoleon was
  the sole obstacle to the re-establishment of the Peace of Europe,
  the Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he
  renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and
  Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of life
  itself, that he will not be ready to make for the sake of
  France."--(_Act of Abdication._)

       *       *       *       *       *

  _January 1st._--Capitulation of Danzic, which General Rapp had
  defended for nearly a year, having lost 20,000 (out of 30,000) men
  by fever. Russians, who had promised to send the French home,
  break faith, following the example of Schwartzenberg at Dresden.

  _January 2nd._--Russians take Fort Louis (Lower Rhine); and

  _January 3rd._--Austrians Montbéliard; and Bavarians Colmar.

  _January 6th._--General York occupies Trèves. Convention between
  Murat and England and (January 11th) with Austria. Murat is to
  join Allies with 30,000 men.

  _January 7th._--Austrians occupy Vesoul.

  _January 8th._--French Rentes 5 per cents. at 47.50. Wurtemberg
  troops occupy Epinal.

  _January 10th._--General York reaches Forbach (on the Moselle).

  _January 15th._--Cossacks occupy Cologne.

  _January 16th._--Russians occupy Nancy.

  _January 19th._--Austrians occupy Dijon; Bavarians, Neufchâteau.
  Murat's troops occupy Rome.

  _January 20th._--Capture of Toul by the Russians; and of Chambéry
  by the Austrians.

  _January 21st._--Austrians occupy Châlons-sur-Saône. General York
  crosses the Meuse.

  _January 23rd._--Pope Pius VII. returns to Rome.

  _January 25th._--General York and Army of Silesia established at
  St. Dizier and Joinville on the Marne. Austrians occupy
  Bar-sur-Aube. _Napoleon leaves Paris; and_

  _January 26th.--Reaches Châlons-sur-Marne; and_

  _January 27th.--Retakes St. Dizier in person._

  _January 29th.--Combat of Brienne. Napoleon defeats Blucher._

  _February 1st._--Battle of La Rothière, six miles north of
  Brienne. French, 40,000; Allies, 110,000. Drawn battle, but French
  retreat on Troyes; French evacuate Brussels.

  _February 4th._--Eugène retires upon the Mincio.

  _February 5th.--Cortes disavow Napoleon's treaty of Valençay with
  Ferdinand VII._ Opening of Congress of Châtillon. General York
  occupies Châlons-sur-Marne.

  _February 7th._--Allies seize Troyes.

  _February 8th._--Battle of the Mincio. Eugène with 30,000
  conscripts defeats Austrians under Bellegarde with 50,000

  _February 10th.--Combat of Champaubert. Napoleon defeats

  _February 11th.--Combat of Montmirail. Napoleon defeats Sacken.
  Russians occupy Nogent-sur-Seine; and_

  _February 12th.--Laon._

  _February 14th.--Napoleon routs Blucher at Vauchamp. His losses,
  10,000 men; French loss, 600 men. In five days Napoleon has wiped
  out the five corps of the Army of Silesia, inflicting a loss of
  25,000 men._

  _February 17th.--Combat near Nangis. Napoleon defeats Austro-Russians
  with loss of 10,000 men and 12 cannon._

  _February 18th._--Combat of Montereau. Prince Royal of Wurtemberg
  defeated with loss of 7000.

  _February 21st._--Comte d'Artois arrives at Vesoul.

  _February 22nd._--Combat of Méry-sur-Seine. Sacken defeated by
  Boyer's Division, who fight in masks--it being Shrove Tuesday.

  _February 24th._--French re-enter Troyes.

  _February 27th._--Bulow captures La Fère with large stores. Battle
  of Orthes (Pyrenees), Wellington with 70,000 defeats Soult
  entrenched with 38,000. Foy badly wounded.

  _February 27th-28th._--Combats of Bar and Ferté-sur-Aube. Marshals
  Oudinot and Macdonald forced to retire on the Seine.

  _March 1st._--Treaty of Chaumont--Allies against Napoleon.

  _March 2nd._--Bulow takes Soissons.

  _March 4th._--Macdonald evacuates Troyes.

  _March 7th.--Battle of Craonne between Napoleon (30,000 men) and
  Sacken (100,000)._ Indecisive.

  _March 9th._--English driven from Berg-op-Zoom.

  _March 9th-10th.--Combat under Laon: depôt of Allied army.
  Napoleon fails to capture it._

  _March 12th._--Duc d'Angoulême arrives at Bordeaux. This town is
  the first to declare for the Bourbons, and to welcome him as Louis

  _March 13th._--Ferdinand VII. set at liberty.

  _March 14th.--Napoleon retakes Rheims from the Russians._

  _March 19th._--Rupture of Treaty of Châtillon.

  _March 20th._--Battle of Tarbes. Wellington defeats French.

  _March 20th-21st._--Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube. Indecisive.

  _March 21st._--Austrians enter Lyons. Augereau retires on Valence.
  Had Eugène joined him with his 40,000 men he might have saved
  France after Vauchamp.

  _March 25th._--Combat of Fère-Champenoise. Marmont and Mortier
  defeated with loss of 9000 men.

  _March 26th.--Combat of St. Dizier. Napoleon defeats Russians, and
  starts to save Paris._

  _March 29th.--Allies outside Paris. Napoleon at Troyes (125 miles

  _March 30th.--Battle of Paris._ The Emperor's orders disobeyed.
  Heavy cannon from Cherbourg left outside Paris, also 20,000
  men. Clarke deserts to the Allies. Joseph runs away, leaving
  Marmont permission to capitulate. After losing 5000 men (and
  Allies 8000) Marmont evacuates Paris and retires. _Napoleon
  reaches Fontainebleau in the evening, and hears the bad news._

  _March 31st._--Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, and 36,000 men
  enter Paris. Stocks and shares advance. Emperor Alexander states,
  "The Allied Sovereigns will treat no longer with Napoleon
  Bonaparte, nor any of his family."

  _April 1st._--Senate, with Talleyrand as President, institute a
  Provisional Government.

  _April 2nd._--Provisional Government address the army: "You are no
  longer the soldiers of Napoleon; the Senate and the whole of
  France absolve you from your oaths." They also declare Napoleon
  deposed from the throne, and his family from the succession.

  _April 4th.--Napoleon signs a declaration of abdication in favour
  of his son, but after two days' deliberation, and Marmont's
  defection, Alexander insists on an absolute abdication._

  _April 5th._--Convention of Chevilly. Marmont agrees to join the
  Provisional Government, and disband his army under promise that
  Allies will guarantee life and liberty to Napoleon Bonaparte.
  Funds on March 29th at 45, now at 63.75.

  _April 6th._--New Constitution decreed by the Senate. The National
  Guard ordered to wear the White Cockade in lieu of the Tricolor.

  _April 10th._--Battle of Toulouse. Hotly contested; almost a
  defeat for Wellington.

  _April 11th.--Treaty of Paris between Napoleon and Allies
  (Austria, Russia, and Prussia). Isle of Elba reserved for Napoleon
  and his family, with a revenue of £200,000; the Duchies of Parma
  and Placentia for Marie Louise and her son. England accedes to
  this Treaty. Act of Abdication of the Emperor Napoleon._

  _April 12th._--Count d'Artois enters Paris.

  _April 16th._--Convention between Eugène and Austrian General
  Bellegarde. Emperor of Austria sees Marie Louise at the little
  Trianon, and decides upon his daughter's return to Vienna.

  _April 18th._--Armistice of Soult and Wellington.

  _April 20th.--Napoleon leaves Fontainebleau, and bids adieu to his
  Old Guard: "Do not mourn over my fate; if I have determined to
  survive, it is in order still to dedicate myself to your glory; I
  wish to write about the great things we have done together."_

  _April 24th._--Louis XVIII. lands at Calais, and

  _May 3rd._---Enters Paris.

  _May 4th.---Napoleon reaches Elba._

  _May 29th.--Death of Josephine, aged 51._

  _May 30th.--Peace of Paris._


  [40] Averaged from early historians of the campaigns. Marbot gives the
       numbers 155,400 French and 175,000 Allies. Allowing for the
       secession of the Austrian and Prussian contingents and for
       30,000 prisoners, he gives the actual French death-roll by
       February 1813 at 65,000. This is a minimum estimate.




(_The numbers correspond to the numbers of the Letters._)

No. 1.

_Bonaparte made Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Italy._--Marmont's
account of how this came to pass is probably substantially correct, as
he has less interest in distorting the facts than any other writer as
well fitted for the task. The winter had rolled by in the midst of
pleasures--soirées at the Luxembourg, dinners of Madame Tallien,
"nor," he adds, "were we hard to please." "The Directory often
conversed with General Bonaparte about the army of Italy, whose
general--Schérer--was always representing the position as difficult,
and never ceasing to ask for help in men, victuals, and money. General
Bonaparte showed, in many concise observations, that all that was
superfluous. He strongly blamed the little advantage taken from the
victory at Loano, and asserted that, even yet, all that could be put
right. Thus a sort of controversy was maintained between Schérer and
the Directory, counselled and inspired by Bonaparte." At last when
Bonaparte drew up plans--afterwards followed--for the invasion of
Piedmont, Schérer replied roughly that he who had drawn up the plan of
campaign had better come and execute it. They took him at his word,
and Bonaparte was named General-in-Chief of the army of Italy (vol. i.

"_7 A.M._"--Probably written early in March. Leaving Paris on March
11th, Napoleon writes Letourneur, President of the Directory, of his
marriage with the "citoyenne Tascher Beauharnais," and tells him that
he has already asked Barras to inform them of the fact. "The
confidence which the Directory has shown me under all circumstances
makes it my duty to keep it advised of all my actions. It is a new
link which binds me to the fatherland; it is one more proof of my
fixed determination to find safety only in the Republic."[41]

No. 2.

"_Our good Ossian._"--The Italian translation of Ossian by Cesarotti
was a masterpiece; better, in fact, than the original. He was a friend
of Macpherson, and had learnt English in order to translate his work.
Cesarotti lived till an advanced age, and was sought out in his
retirement in order to receive honours and pensions from the Emperor

"Our good Ossian" speaks, like Homer, of the joy of grief.

No. 4.

"_Chauvet is dead._"--Chauvet is first mentioned in Napoleon's
correspondence in a letter to his brother Joseph, August 9, 1795.
Mdme. Junot, _Memoirs_, i. 138, tells us that Bonaparte was very fond
of him, and that he was a man of gentle manners and very ordinary
conversation. She declares that Bonaparte had been a suitor for the
hand of her mother shortly before his marriage with Josephine, and
that because the former rejected him, the general had refused a favour
to her son; this had caused a quarrel which Chauvet had in vain tried
to settle. On March 27th Bonaparte had written Chauvet from Nice that
every day that he delayed joining him, "takes away from my operations
one chance of probability for their success."

No. 5.

St. Amand notes that Bonaparte begins to suspect his wife in this
letter, while the previous ones, especially that of April 3rd, show
perfect confidence. Napoleon is on the eve of a serious battle, and
has only just put his forces into fighting trim. On the previous day
(April 6th) he wrote to the Directory that the movement against Genoa,
of which he does not approve, has brought the enemy out of their
winter quarters almost before he has had time to make ready. "The army
is in a state of alarming destitution; I have still great difficulties
to surmount, but they are surmountable: misery has excused want of
discipline, and without discipline never a victory. I hope to have all
in good trim shortly--there are signs already; in a few days we shall
be fighting. The Sardinian army consists of 50,000 foot, and 5000
horse; I have only 45,000 men at my disposal, all told. Chauvet, the
commissary-general, died at Genoa: it is a heavy loss to the army, he
was active and enterprising."

Two days later Napoleon, still at Albenga, reports that he has found
Royalist traitors in the army, and complains that the Treasury had not
sent the promised pay for the men, "but in spite of all, we shall
advance." Massena, eleven years older than his new commander-in-chief,
had received him coldly, but soon became his right-hand man, always
genial, and full of good ideas. Massena's men are ill with too much
salt meat, they have hardly any shoes, but, as in 1800,[42] he has
never a doubt that Bonaparte will make a good campaign, and determines
to loyally support him. Poor Laharpe, so soon to die, is a man of a
different stamp--one of those, doubtless, of whom Bonaparte thinks
when he writes to Josephine, "Men worry me." The Swiss, in fact, was a
chronic grumbler, but a first-rate fighting man, even when his men
were using their last cartridges.

"_The lovers of nineteen._"--The allusion is lost. Aubenas, who
reproduces two or three of these letters, makes a comment to this
sentence, "Nous n'avons pu trouver un nom à mettre sous cette
fantasque imagination" (vol. i. 317).

"_My brother_," viz. Joseph.--He and Junot reached Paris in five days,
and had a great ovation. Carnot, at a dinner-party, showed Napoleon's
portrait next to his heart, because "I foresee he will be the saviour
of France, and I wish him to know that he has at the Directory only
admirers and friends."

No. 6.

_Unalterably good._--"C'est Joseph peint d'un seul trait."--Aubenas
(vol. i. 320).

"_If you want a place for any one, you can send him here. I will give
him one._"--Bonaparte was beginning to feel firm in the saddle,
while at Paris Josephine was treated like a princess. Under date
April 25th, Letourneur, as one of the Directory, writes him, "A vast
career opens itself before you; the Directory has measured the
whole extent of it." They little knew! The letter concludes by
expressing confidence that their general will never be reproached
with the shameful repose of Capua. In a further letter, bearing
the same date, Letourneur insists on a full and accurate account of
the battles being sent, as they will be necessary "for the history of
the triumphs of the Republic." In a private letter to the Directory
(No. 220, vol. i. of the _Correspondence_, 1858), dated Carru, April
24th, Bonaparte tells them that when he returns to camp, worn-out,
he has to work all night to put matters straight, and repress
pillage. "Soldiery without bread work themselves into an excess of
frenzy which makes one blush to be a man."[43]... "I intend to make
terrible examples. I shall restore order, or cease to command these
brigands. The campaign is not yet decided. The enemy is desperate,
numerous, and fights well. He knows I am in want of everything, and
trusts entirely to time; but I trust entirely to the good genius of
the Republic, to the bravery of the soldiers, to the harmony of the
officers, and even to the confidence they repose in me."

No. 7.

Aubenas goes into ecstasies over this letter, "the longest, most
eloquent, and most impassioned of the whole series" (vol. i. 322).

Facsimile of Letter dated April 24, 1796.

_June 15._--Here occurs the first gap in the correspondence, but
his letters to the Directory between this date and the last letter
to Josephine extant (April 24) are full of interest, including his
conscientious disobedience at Cherasco, and the aura of his destiny
to "ride the whirlwind and direct the storm" which first inspired him
after Lodi. On April 28th was signed the armistice of Cherasco, by
which his rear was secured by three strong fortresses.[44] He writes
the Directory that Piedmont is at their mercy, and that in making the
armistice into a definite peace he trusts they will not forget the
little island of Saint-Pierre, which will be more useful in the
future than Corsica and Sardinia combined. He looks upon northern
Italy as practically conquered, and speaks of invading Bavaria
through the Tyrol. "Prodigious" is practically the verdict of the
Directory, and later of Jomini. "My columns are marching; Beaulieu
flees. I hope to catch him. I shall impose a contribution of some
millions on the Duke of Parma: he will sue for peace: don't be in a
hurry, so that I may have time to make him also contribute to the
cost of the campaign, by replenishing our stores and rehorsing our
waggons at his expense." Bonaparte suggests that Genoa should pay
fifteen millions indemnity for the frigates and vessels taken in the
port. Certain risks had to be run in invading Lombardy, owing to want
of horse artillery, but at Cherasco he secured artillery and horses.
When writing to the Directory for a dozen companies, he tells them
not to entrust the execution of this measure "to the men of the
bureaus, for it takes them ten days to forward an order." Writing to
Carnot on the same day he states he is marching against Beaulieu,
who has 26,000 foot out of 38,000 at commencement of campaign.
Napoleon's force is 28,000, but he has less cavalry. On May 1st, in a
letter dated Acqui to Citizen Faipoult, he asks for particulars of
the pictures, statues, &c., of Milan, Parma, Placentia, Modena, and
Bologna. On the same day Massena writes that his men are needing
shoes. On May 6th Bonaparte announces the capture of Tortona, "a very
fine fortress, which cost the King of Sardinia over fifteen
millions," while Cherasco has furnished him with twenty-eight guns.
Meanwhile Massena has taken possession of Alessandria, with all its
stores. On May 9th Napoleon writes to Carnot, "We have at last
crossed the Po. The second campaign is begun; Beaulieu ... has
fool-hardiness but no genius. One more victory, and Italy is ours." A
clever commissary-general is all he needs, and his men are growing
fat--with good meat and good wine. He sends to Paris twenty old
masters, with fine examples of Correggio and Michael-Angelo. It is
pleasant to find Napoleon's confidence in Carnot, in view of Barras'
insinuations that the latter had cared only for Moreau--his type
of Xenophon. In this very letter Napoleon writes Carnot, "I owe you
my special thanks for the care that you have kindly given to my wife;
I recommend her to you, she is a sincere patriot, and I love her to
distraction." He is sending "a dozen millions" to France, and hopes
that some of it will be useful to the army of the Rhine. Meanwhile,
and two days before Napoleon's letter to Carnot just mentioned, the
latter, on behalf of the Directory, suggests the division of his
command with the old Alsatian General Kellermann. The Directory's
idea of a gilded pill seems to be a prodigiously long letter. It is
one of those heart-breaking effusions that, even to this day,
emanate from board-rooms, to the dismay and disgust of their
recipients. After plastering him with sickening sophistries as to
his "sweetest recompense," it gives the utterly unnecessary
monition, "March! no fatal repose, there are still laurels to
gather"! Nevertheless, his plan of ending the war by an advance
through the Tyrol strikes them as too risky. He is to conquer the
Milanais, and then divide his army with Kellermann, who is to guard
the conquered province, while he goes south to Naples and Rome. As an
implied excuse for not sending adequate reinforcements, Carnot adds,
"The exaggerated rumours that you have skilfully disseminated as to
the numbers of the French troops in Italy, will augment the fear
of our enemies and almost double your means of action." The
Milanais is to be heavily mulcted, but he is to be prudent. If Rome
makes advances, his first demand should be that the Pope may order
immediate public prayers for the prosperity and success of the French
Republic! The sending of old masters to France to adorn her National
Galleries seems to have been entirely a conception of Napoleon's. He
has given sufficiently good reasons, from a patriotic point of view;
for money is soon spent, but a masterpiece may encourage Art among
his countrymen a generation later. The plunderers of the Parthenon of
1800 could not henceforward throw stones at him in this respect. But
his real object was to win the people of Paris by thus sending them
Glory personified in unique works of genius.

The Directory, already jealous of his fame, endeavour to neutralise
the effect of his initiative by hearty concurrence, and write, "Italy
has been illumined and enriched by their possession, but the time is
now come when their reign should pass to France to stablish and
beautify that of Liberty." The despatch adds somewhat naïvely that the
effects of the vandalism committed during their own Republican orgies
would be obliterated by this glorious campaign, which should "join to
the splendour of military trophies the charm of beneficent and restful
arts." The Directory ends by inviting him to choose one or two artists
to select the most valuable pictures and other masterpieces.

Meanwhile, the Directory's supineness in pushing on the war on the
Rhine is enabling the Austrians to send large reinforcements against
Napoleon. Bonaparte, who has recently suffered (Jomini, vol. viii.
113) from Kellermann's tardiness in sending reinforcements at an
important moment, replies to the letters of May 7th a week later, and
writes direct to Citizen Carnot from Lodi, as well as to the Executive
Directory. "On the receipt of the Directory's letter of the 7th your
wishes were fulfilled, and the Milanais is ours. I shall shortly
march, to carry out your intentions, on Leghorn and Rome; all that
will soon be done. I am writing the Directory relatively to their idea
of dividing the army. I swear that I have no thought beyond the
interest of my country. Moreover, you will always find me straight
(_dans la ligne droite_).... As it might happen that this letter to
the Directory may be badly construed, and since you have assured me
of your friendship, I take this opportunity of addressing you, begging
you to make what use of it your prudence and attachment for me may
suggest.... Kellermann will command the army as well as I, for no one
is more convinced than I am that the victories are due to the courage
and pluck of the army; but I think joining Kellermann and myself in
Italy is to lose everything. I cannot serve willingly with a man who
considers himself the first general in Europe; and, besides, I believe
one bad general is better than two good ones. War is like government:
it is an affair of tact. To be of any use, I must enjoy the same
confidence that you testified to me in Paris. Where I make war, here
or there, is a matter of indifference. To serve my country, to deserve
from posterity a page in our history, to give the Government proofs of
my attachment and devotion--that is the sum of my ambition. But I am
very anxious not to lose in a week the fatigues, anxieties, and
dangers of two months, and to find myself fettered. I began with a
certain amount of fame; I wish to continue worthy of you." To the
Directory he writes that the expeditions to Leghorn, Rome, and Naples
are small affairs, but to be safely conducted must have one general in
command. "I have made the campaign without consulting a soul; I should
have done no good if I had had to share my views with another. I have
gained some advantages over superior forces, and in utter want of
everything, because, certain of your confidence, my marches have been
as quick as my thoughts." He foretells disaster if he is shackled with
another general. "Every one has his own method of making war. General
Kellermann has more experience, and will do it better than I; but both
together will do it very badly." With Barras he knew eloquence was
useless, and therefore bribed him with a million francs. On May 10th
was gained the terrible battle of the Bridge of Lodi, where he won
promotion from his soldiers, and became their "little corporal," and
where he told Las Cases that he "was struck with the possibility of
becoming famous. It was then that the first spark of my ambition was
kindled." On entering Milan he told Marmont, "Fortune has smiled on me
to-day, only because I despise her favours; she is a woman, and the
more she does for me, the more I shall exact from her. In our day no
one has originated anything great; it is for me to give the example."

On May 15th, thirty-five days after the commencement of the campaign,
he entered Milan, under a triumphal arch and amid the acclamations of
the populace. On the previous evening he was guilty of what Dr.
Johnson would have considered a fitting herald of his spoliation of
picture-galleries--the perpetration of a pun. At a dinner-table the
hostess observed that his youth was remarkable in so great a
conqueror, whereat he replied, "Truly, madam, I am not very old at
present--barely twenty-seven--but in less than twenty-four hours I
shall count many more, for I shall have attained Milan" (_mille

On May 22nd he returned to Lodi, but heard immediately that Lombardy
in general, and Pavia in particular, was in open revolt. He makes a
terrible example of Pavia, shooting its chief citizens, and, for the
only time, giving up a town to three hours' pillage. The Directory
congratulates him on these severe measures: "The laws of war and the
safety of the army render them legitimate in such circumstances." He
writes them that had the blood of a single Frenchman been spilt, he
would have erected a column on the ruins of Pavia, on which should
have been inscribed, "Here was the town of Pavia."

On May 21st, Carnot replies to the letter from Lodi: "You appear
desirous, citizen general, of continuing to conduct the whole series
of military operations in Italy, at the actual seat of war. The
Directory has carefully considered your proposition, and the
confidence that they place in your talents and republican zeal has
decided this question in the affirmative.... The rest of the military
operations towards the Austrian frontier and round Mantua are
absolutely dependent on your success against Beaulieu. The Directory
feels how difficult it would be to direct them from Paris. It leaves
to you in this respect the greatest latitude, while recommending the
most extreme prudence. Its intention is, however, that the army shall
cross into the Tyrol only after the expedition to the south of

This was a complete victory for Bonaparte (Bingham calls it the
Directory's "abject apology"), and, as Scott points out, he now
"obtained an ascendency which he took admirable care not to
relinquish; and it became the sole task of the Directory, so far as
Italy was concerned, to study phrases for intimating their approbation
of the young general's measures."

He had forged a sword for France, and he now won her heart by gilding
it. On May 16th the Directory had asked him to supply Kellermann with
money for the army of the Alps, and by May 22nd he is able to write
that six or eight million francs in gold, silver, ingots, or jewels is
lying at their disposal with one of the best bankers in Genoa, being
superfluous to the needs of the army. "If you wish it, I can have a
million sent to Bâle for the army of the Rhine." He has already helped
Kellermann, and paid his men. He also announces a further million
requisitioned from Modena. "As it has neither fortresses nor muskets,
I could not ask for them."

Henceforth he lubricates the manifold wheels of French policy with
Italian gold, and gains thereby the approbation and gratitude of the
French armies and people. Meanwhile he does not neglect those who
might bear him a grudge. To Kellermann and to all the Directors he
sends splendid chargers. From Parma he has the five best pictures
chosen for Paris--the Saint Jerome and the Madonna della Scodella,
both by Correggio; the Preaching of St. John in the Desert, a Paul
Veronese, and a Van Dyck, besides fine examples of Raphael, Caracci,

The Directory is anxious that he shall chastise the English at
Leghorn, as the fate of Corsica is somewhat dependent on it, whose
loss "will make London tremble." They secretly dread a war in the
Tyrol, forgetting that Bonaparte is a specialist in mountain fighting,
educated under Paoli. They remind him that he has not sent the plans
of his battles. "You ought not to lack draughtsmen in Italy. Eh! what
are your young engineer officers doing?"

On May 31st Carnot writes to urge him to press the siege of Mantua,
reasserting that the reinforcements which Beaulieu has received will
not take from that army its sense of inferiority, and that ten
battalions of Hoche's army are on the way. It approves and confirms
the "generous fraternity" with which Bonaparte offers a million francs
to the armies on the Rhine. On June 7th he tells the Directory that
Rome is about to fulminate a bull against the French Royalists, but
that he thinks the expedition to Naples should be deferred, and also a
quarrel with Venice--at least till he has beaten his other enemies; it
is not expedient to tackle every one at once. On June 6th he thanks
Carnot for a kind letter, adding that the best reward to sweeten
labour and perils is the esteem of the few men one really admires. He
fears the hot weather for his men: "we shall soon be in July, when
every march will cost us 200 sick." The same day he writes General
Clarke that all is flourishing, but that the dog-star is coming on at
a gallop, and that there is no remedy against its malign influence.
"Luckless beings that we are! Our position with nature is merely
observation, without control." He holds that the only safe way to end
the campaign without being beaten is not to go to the south of Italy.
On the 9th he thanks Kellermann for the troops he sends, and their
excellent discipline. On the 11th--always as anxious to help his
generals as himself--he urges the Directory to press the Swiss
Government to refund La Harpe's property to his children.

"_Presentiment of ill._"--Marmont tells us what this was. The glass of
his wife's portrait, which he always carried with him, was found to be
broken. Turning frightfully pale, he said to Marmont, "My wife is
either very ill, or unfaithful." She left Paris June 24th. Marmont
says, "Once at Milan, General Bonaparte was very happy, for at that
time he lived only for his wife.... Never love more pure, more true,
more exclusive, has possessed the heart of any man."

No. 8.

Between June 15th and the renewal of Josephine's correspondence a
glance at the intervening dates will show that Bonaparte and his army
were not wasting time. The treaty with Rome was a masterpiece, as in
addition to money and works of art, he obtained the port of Ancona,
siege-guns with which to bombard Mantua, and best of all, a letter
from the Pope to the faithful of France, recommending submission to
the new government there. In consideration of this, and possibly
yielding to the religious sentiments of Josephine, he spared Rome his
presence--the only capital which he abstained from entering, when he
had, as in the present case, the opportunity. It was not, however,
until February 1797 that the Pope fulfilled his obligations under this
Treaty, and then under new compulsion.

_Fortuné._--Josephine's dog (see note to Letter 2, Series B).


  [41] No. 89 of Napoleon III.'s Correspondence of Napoleon I., vol. i.,
       the last letter signed Buonaparte; after March 24 we only find

  [42] Compelled to surrender Genoa, before Marengo takes place, he
       swears to the Austrian general he will be back there in
       fourteen days, and keeps his word.

  [43] Two days later he evidently feels this letter too severe, and
       writes: "All goes well. Pillage is less pronounced. This first
       thirst of an army destitute of everything is quenched. The poor
       fellows are excusable; after having sighed for three years at
       the top of the Alps, they arrive in the Promised Land, and wish
       to taste of it."

  [44] Bingham, with his customary ill-nature, remarks that Bonaparte,
       "in spite of the orders of the Directory, took upon himself to
       sign the armistice." These orders, dated March 6th, were
       intended for a novice, and no longer applicable to the
       conqueror of two armies, and which a Despatch on the way, dated
       April 25th, already modified. Jomini admits the wisdom of this
       advantageous peace, which secured Nice and Savoy to France, and
       gave her all the chief mountain-passes leading into Italy.


No. 1.

_July 6, Sortie from Mantua of the Austrians._--According to Jomini
the French on this occasion were not successful (vol. viii. 162). In
one of his several letters to the Directory on this date is seen
Bonaparte's anxiety for reinforcements; the enemy has already 67,000
men against his available 40,000. Meanwhile he is helping the
Corsicans to throw off the British yoke, and believes that the French
possession of Leghorn will enable the French to gain that island
without firing a shot.

No. 2.

_Marmirolo._--On July 12th he writes to the Directory from Verona that
for some days he and the enemy have been watching each other. "Woe to
him who makes a false move." He indicates that he is about to make a
_coup de main_ on Mantua, with 300 men dressed in Austrian uniforms.
He is by no means certain of success, which "depends entirely on
luck--either on a dog[45] or a goose." He complains of much sickness
among his men round Mantua, owing to the heat and miasmata from the
marshes, but so far no deaths. He will be ready to make Venice
disgorge a few millions shortly, if the Directory make a quarrel in
the interim.

On the 13th he was with Josephine, as he writes from Milan, but leaves
on the 14th, and on the 17th is preparing a _coup de_ _main_ with 800
grenadiers, which, as we see from the next letter, fails.

_Fortuné._--Arnault tells an anecdote of this lap-dog, which in 1794,
in the days of the Terror, had been used as a bearer of secret
despatches between Josephine in prison and the governess of her
children outside the grille. Henceforward Josephine would never be
parted from it. One day in June 1797 the dog was lying on the same
couch as its mistress, and Bonaparte, accosting Arnault and pointing
to the dog with his finger, said, "You see that dog there. He is my
rival. He was in possession of Madame's bed when I married her. I
wished to make him get out--vain hope! I was told I must resign
myself to sleep elsewhere, or consent to share with him. That was
sufficiently exasperating, but it was a question of taking or
leaving, and I resigned myself. The favourite was less accommodating
than I. I bear the proof of it in this leg."

Not content with barking at every one, he bit not only men but other
dogs, and was finally killed by a mastiff, much to Bonaparte's secret
satisfaction; for, as St. Amand adds, "he could easily win battles,
accomplish miracles, make or unmake principalities, but could not show
a dog the door."

No. 3.

"_The village of Virgil._"--Michelet (Jusqu'au 18 _Brumaire_) thinks
that here he got the idea of the Fête of Virgil, established a few
months later. In engravings of the hero of Italy we see him near the
tomb of Virgil, his brows shaded by a laurel crown.

No. 4.

_Achille._--Murat. He had been appointed one of Bonaparte's
aides-de-camp February 29th, made General of Brigade after the Battle
of Lodi (May 10th); is sent to Paris after Junot with nine trophies,
and arrives there first. He flirts there outrageously with Josephine,
but does not escort her back to her husband.

No. 5.

'_Will o' the wisp_,' _i.e._ _l'ardent_.--This word, according to
Ménage, was given by the Sieur de St. Germain to those lively young
sparks who, about the year 1634, used to meet at the house of Mr.
Marsh (M. de Marest), who was one of them.

No. 6.

_The needs of the army._--Difficulties were accumulating, and Napoleon
was, as he admits at St. Helena, seriously alarmed. Wurmser's force
proves to be large, Piedmont is angry with the Republic and ready to
rise, and Venice and Rome would willingly follow its example; the
English have taken Porto-Ferrajo, and their skilful minister, Windham,
is sowing the seeds of discord at Naples. Although on July 20th he has
written a friend in Corsica that "all smiles on the Republic," he
writes Saliceti, another brother Corsican, very differently on August
1st. "Fortune appears to oppose us at present.... I have raised the
siege of Mantua; I am at Brescia with nearly all my army. I shall take
the first opportunity of fighting a battle with the enemy which will
decide the fate of Italy--if I'm beaten, I shall retire on the Adda;
if I win, I shall not stop in the marshes of Mantua.... Let the
citadels of Milan, Tortona, Alessandria, and Pavia be provisioned....
We are all very tired; I have ridden five horses to death." Reading
between the lines of this letter to Josephine, it is evident that he
thinks she will be safer with him than at Milan--Wurmser having the
option of advancing _viâ_ Brescia on Milan, and cutting off the French
communications. The Marshal's fatal mistake was in using only half his
army for the purpose. This raising of the siege of Mantua (July 31st)
was heart-rending work for Bonaparte, but, as Jomini shows, he had no
artillery horses, and it was better to lose the siege train,
consisting of guns taken from the enemy, than to jeopardise the whole
army. Wurmser had begun his campaign successfully by defeating
Massena, and pushing back Sauret at Salo. "The Austrians," wrote
Massena, "are drunk with brandy, and fight furiously," while his men
are famished and can only hang on by their teeth. Bonaparte calls his
first war council, and thinks for a moment of retreat, but Augereau
insists on fighting, which is successfully accomplished while Wurmser
is basking himself among the captured artillery outside Mantua.
Bonaparte had been perfectly honest in telling the Directory his
difficulties, and sends his brother Louis to the Directory for that
purpose on the eve of battle. He is complimented in a letter from the
Directory dated August 12th--a letter probably the more genuine as
they had just received a further despatch announcing a victory. On
August 3rd Bonaparte won a battle at Lonato, and the next day Augereau
gained great laurels at Castiglione; in later years the Emperor often
incited Augereau by referring to those "fine days of Castiglione."
Between July 29th and August 12th the French army took 15,000
prisoners, 70 guns, and wounded or killed 25,000, with little more
than half the forces of the Austrians. Bonaparte gives his losses at
7000, exclusive of the 15,000 sick he has in hospital; from July 31st
to August 6th he never changed his boots, or lay down in a bed.
Nevertheless, Jomini thinks that he showed less vigour in the
execution of his plans than in the earlier part of the campaign; but,
as an opinion _per contra_, we may note that the French grenadiers
made their "little Corporal" _Sergeant_ at Castiglione. Doubtless the
proximity of his wife at the commencement (July 31st) made him more
careful, and therefore less intrepid. On August 18th he wrote
Kellermann with an urgent request for troops. On August 17th Colonel
Graham, after hinting at the frightful excesses committed by the
Austrians in their retreat, adds in a postscript--"From generals to
subalterns the universal language of the army is that we must make
peace, as we do not know how to make war."[46]

On August 13th Bonaparte sent to the Directory his opinion of most of
his generals, in order to show that he required some better ones. Some
of his criticisms are interesting:--

  Berthier--"Talents, activity, courage, character; he has them

  Augereau--"Much character, courage, firmness, activity; is

  accustomed to war, beloved by the soldiers, lucky in his

  Massena--"Active, indefatigable, has boldness, grasp, and
  promptitude in making his decisions."

  Serrurier--"Fights like a soldier, takes no responsibility;
  determined, has not much opinion of his troops, is often ailing."

  Despinois--"Flabby, inactive, slack, has not the genius for war,
  is not liked by the soldiers, does not fight with his head; has
  nevertheless good, sound political principles: would do well to
  command in the interior."

  Sauret--"A good, very good soldier, not sufficiently enlightened
  to be a general; unlucky."

Of eight more he has little good to say, but the Directory in
acknowledging his letter of August 23rd remarks that he has forgotten
several officers, and especially the Irish general Kilmaine.

About the same time Colonel Graham (Lord Lynedoch) was writing to the
British Government from Trent that the Austrians, despite their
defeats, were "undoubtedly brave fine troops, and an able chief would
put all to rights in a little time."[47] On August 18th he adds--"When
the wonderful activity, energy, and attention that prevail in the
French service, from the commander-in-chief downward, are compared to
the indecision, indifference, and indolence universal here, the
success of their rash but skilful manoeuvres is not surprising."

No. 7.

_Brescia._--Napoleon was here on July 27th, meeting Josephine about
the date arranged (July 25th), and she returned with him. On July 29th
they were nearly captured by an Austrian ambuscade near Ceronione, and
Josephine wept with fright. "Wurmser," said Napoleon, embracing her,
"shall pay dearly for those tears." She accompanies him to Castel
Nova, and sees a skirmish at Verona; but the sight of wounded men
makes her leave the army, and, finding it impossible to reach Brescia,
she flees _viâ_ Ferrara and Bologna to Lucca. She leaves the French
army in dire straits and awaits news anxiously, while the Senate of
Lucca presents her with the oil kept exclusively for royalty. Thence
she goes _viâ_ Florence to Milan. By August 7th the Austrian army was
broken and in full retreat, and Bonaparte conducts his correspondence
from Brescia from August 11th to 18th. On the 25th he is at Milan,
where he meets his wife after her long pilgrimage, and spends four
days. By August 30th he is again at Brescia, and reminds her that he
left her "vexed, annoyed, and not well." From a letter to her aunt,
Madame de Renaudin, at this time, quoted by Aubenas, we can see her
real feelings: "I am fêted wherever I go; all the princes of Italy
give me fêtes, even the Grand Duke of Tuscany, brother of the Emperor.
Ah, well, I prefer being a private individual in France. I care not
for honours bestowed in this country. I get sadly bored. My health has
undoubtedly a great deal to do with making me unhappy; I am often out
of sorts. If happiness could assure health, I ought to be in the best
of health. I have the most amiable husband imaginable. I have no time
to long for anything. My wishes are his. He is all day long in
adoration before me, as if I were a divinity; there could not possibly
be a better husband. M. Serbelloni will tell you how he loves me. He
often writes to my children; he loves them dearly. He is sending
Hortense, by M. Serbelloni, a lovely repeater, jewelled and enamelled;
to Eugène a splendid gold watch."

No. 9.

"_I hope we shall get into Trent by the 5th._"--He entered the city on
that day. In his pursuit of Wurmser, he and his army cover sixty miles
in two days, through the terrific Val Saguna and Brenta gorges,
brushing aside opposition by the way.

No. 12.

"_One of these nights the doors will be burst open with a
bang._"--Apparently within two or three days, for Bonaparte is at
Milan on September 21st, and stays with his wife till October 12th.
On October 1st he writes to the Directory that his total forces are
only 27,900; and that the Austrians, within six weeks, will have
50,000. He asks for 26,000 more men to end the war satisfactorily: "If
the preservation of Italy is dear to you, citizen directors, send me
help." On the 8th they reply with the promise of 10,000 to 12,000, to
which he replies (October 11th) that if 10,000 have started only 5000
will reach him. The Directory at this time are very poverty stricken,
and ask him once more to pay Kellermann's Army of the Alps, as being
"to some extent part of that which you command." This must have been
"nuts and wine" for the general who was to have been superseded by
Kellermann a few months earlier. On October 1st they advise him that
Wurmser's name is on the list of emigrants, and that if the Marshal
will surrender Mantua at once he need not be sent to Paris for trial.
If, however, Bonaparte thinks that this knowledge will make the old
Marshal more desperate, he is not to be told. Bonaparte, of course,
does not send the message. For some time these letters had been signed
by the President Lareveillère Lépeaux, but on September 19th there was
a charming letter from Carnot: "Although accustomed to unprecedented
deeds on your part, our hopes have been surpassed by the victory of
Bassano. What glory is yours, immortal Bonaparte! Moreau was about to
effect a juncture with you when that wretched _reculade_ of Jourdan
upset all our plans. Do not forget that immediately the armies go into
winter quarters on the Rhine the Austrians will have forces available
to help Wurmser." At Milan Bonaparte advises the Directory that he is
dealing with unpunished "fripponeries" in the commissariat department.
Here he receives from young Kellermann, afterwards the hero of
Marengo, a _précis_ of the condition of the Brescia fever-hospitals,
dated October 6th: "A wretched mattress, dirty and full of vermin, a
coarse sheet to each bed, rarely washed, no counterpanes, much
dilatoriness, such is the spectacle that the fever-hospitals of
Brescia present; it is heart-rending. The soldiers justly complain
that, having conquered opulent Italy at the cost of their life-blood,
they might, without enjoying comforts, at least find the help and
attention which their situation demands. Bread and rice are the only
passable foods, but the meat is hard. I beg that the general-in-chief
will immediately give attention to his companions in glory, who wish
for restored health only that they may gather fresh laurels." Thus
Bonaparte had his Bloemfontein, and perhaps his Burdett-Coutts.

On October 12th he tells the Directory that Mantua will not fall till
February--the exact date of its capitulation. One is tempted to wonder
if Napoleon was human enough to have inserted one little paragraph of
his despatch of October 12th from Milan with one eye on its perusal by
his wife, as it contains a veiled sneer at Hoche's exploits: "Send me
rather generals of brigade than generals of division. All that comes
to us from La Vendée is unaccustomed to war on a large scale; we have
the same reproach against the troops, but they are well-hardened." On
the same day he shows them that all the marvels of his six months'
campaign have cost the French Government only £440,000 (eleven million
francs). He pleads, however, for special auditors to have charge of
the accounts. Napoleon had not only made war support war, but had sent
twenty million francs requisitioned in Italy to the Republic. On
October 12th he leaves Milan for Modena, where he remains from the
14th to the 18th, is at Bologna on the 19th, and Ferrara from the 19th
to the 22nd, reaching Verona on the 24th.

Jomini has well pointed out that Napoleon's conception of making two
or three large Italian republics in place of many small ones minimised
the power of the Pope, and also that of Austria, by abolishing its
feudal rigours.

By this time Bonaparte is heartily sick of the war. On October 2nd he
writes direct to the Emperor of Germany: "Europe wants peace. This
disastrous war has lasted too long;" and on the 16th to Marshal
Wurmser: "The siege of Mantua, sir, is more disastrous than two
campaigns." His weariness is tempered with policy, as Alvinzi was _en
route_, and the French reinforcements had not arrived, not even the
10,000 promised in May.

No. 13.

"_Corsica is ours._"--At St. Helena he told his generals, "The King of
England wore the Corsican crown only two years. This whim cost the
British treasury five millions sterling. John Bull's riches could not
have been worse employed." He writes to the Directory on the same day:
"The expulsion of the English from the Mediterranean has considerable
influence on the success of our military operations in Italy. We can
exact more onerous conditions from Naples, which will have the
greatest moral effect on the minds of the Italians, assures our
communications, and makes Naples tremble as far as Sicily." On October
25th he writes: "Wurmser is at his last gasp; he is short of wine,
meat, and forage; he is eating his horses, and has 15,000 sick. In
fifty days Mantua will either be taken or delivered."

No. 14.

_Verona._--Bonaparte had made a long stay at Verona, to November 4th,
waiting reinforcements which never came. On November 5th he writes to
the Directory: "All the troops of the Directory arrive post-haste at
an alarming rate, and we--we are left to ourselves. Fine promises and
a few driblets of men are all we have received;" and on November 13th
he writes again: "Perchance we are on the eve of losing Italy. None of
the expected reinforcements have arrived.... I am doing my duty, the
officers and men are doing theirs; my heart is breaking, but my
conscience is at rest. Help--send me help!... I despair of preventing
the relief of Mantua, which in a week would have been ours. The
wounded are the pick of the army; all our superior officers, all our
picked generals are _hors de combat_; those who have come to me are so
incompetent, and they have not the soldiers' confidence. The army of
Italy, reduced to a handful of men, is exhausted. The heroes of Lodi,
Millesimo, Castiglione, and Bassano have died for their country, or
are in hospital;[48] to the corps remain only their reputation and
their glory. Joubert, Lannes, Lanusse, Victor, Murat, Chabot, Dupuy,
Rampon, Pijon, Menard, Chabran, and St. Hilaire are wounded.... In a
few days we shall make a last effort. Had I received the 83rd, 3500
strong, and of good repute in the army, I would have answered for
everything. Perhaps in a few days 40,000 will not suffice." The reason
for this unwonted pessimism was the state of his troops. His brother
Louis reported that Vaubois' men had no shoes and were almost naked,
in the midst of snow and mountains; that desertions were taking place
of soldiers with bare and bleeding feet, who told the enemy the plans
and conditions of their army. Finally Vaubois bungles, through not
knowing the ground, and is put under the orders of Massena, while two
of his half-brigades are severely censured by Napoleon in person for
their cowardice.

No. 15.

"_Once more I breathe freely._"--Thrice had Napoleon been foiled, as
much by the weather and his shoeless soldiers as by numbers (40,000
Austrians to his 28,000), and his position was well-nigh hopeless on
November 14th. He trusts Verona to 3000 men, and the blockade of
Mantua to Kilmaine, and the defence of Rivoli to Vaubois--the weakest
link in the chain--and determines to manoeuvre by the Lower Adige upon
the Austrian communications. He gets forty-eight hours' start, and
wins Arcola; in 1814 he deserved equal success, but bad luck and
treachery turned the scale. The battle of Arcola lasted seventy-two
hours, and for forty-eight hours was in favour of the Austrians.
Pending the arrival of the promised reinforcements, the battle was
bought too dear, and weakened Bonaparte more than the Austrians, who
received new troops almost daily. He replaced Vaubois by Joubert.

No. 18.

"_The 29th._"--But he is at Milan from November 27th to December 16th.
Most people know, from some print or other, the picture by Gros of
Bonaparte, flag in hand, leading his men across the murderous bridge
of Arcola. It was during this visit to Milan that his portrait was
taken, and Lavalette has preserved for us the domestic rather than the
dignified manner of the sitting accorded. He refused to give a fixed
time, and the artist was in despair, until Josephine came to his aid
by taking her husband on her knees every morning after breakfast, and
keeping him there a short time. Lavalette assisted at three of these
sittings--apparently to remove the bashful embarrassment of the young
painter. St. Amand suggests that Gros taking the portrait of Bonaparte
at Milan, just after Arcola, would, especially under such novel
conditions, prove a fitting theme for our artists to-day! From
December 16th to 21st Bonaparte is at Verona, whence he returns to
Milan. There is perhaps a veiled innuendo in Barras' letter of
December 30th. Clarke had advised the Directory that Alvinzi was
planning an attack, which Barras mentions, but adds: "Your return to
Milan shows that you consider another attack in favour of Wurmser
unlikely, or, at least, not imminent." He is at Milan till January
7th, whence he goes to Bologna, the city which, he says, "of all the
Italian cities has constantly shown the greatest energy and the most
considerable share of real information."

No. 20.

_General Brune._--This incident fixes the date of this letter to be 23
_Nivôse_ (January 12), and not 23 _Messidor_ (July 11), as hitherto
published in the French editions of this letter. On January 12, 1797,
he wrote General Clarke from Verona (No. 1375 of the _Correspondence_)
almost an exact duplicate of this letter--a very rare coincidence in
the epistles of Napoleon. "Scarcely set out from Roverbella, I learnt
that the enemy had appeared at Verona. Massena made his dispositions,
which have been very successful; we have made 600 prisoners, and we
have taken three pieces of cannon. General Brune has had seven bullets
in his clothes, without having been touched by one of them; this is
what it is to be lucky. We have had only ten men killed, and a hundred
wounded." Bonaparte had left Bologna on January 10, reaching Verona
_viâ_ Roverbella on the 12th.

No. 21.

_February 3rd._--"_I wrote you this morning._"--This and probably
other letters describing Rivoli, La Favorite, and the imminent fall
of Mantua, are missing. In summing up the campaign Thiers declares
that in ten months 55,000 French (all told, including reinforcements)
had beaten more than 200,000 Austrians, taken 80,000 of them
prisoners, killed and wounded 20,000. They had fought twelve pitched
battles, and sixty actions. These figures are probably as much above
the mark as those of Napoleon's detractors are below it.

One does not know which to admire most, Bonaparte's absence from
Marshal Wurmser's humiliation, or his abstention from entering Rome as
a conqueror. The first was the act of a perfect gentleman, worthy of
the best traditions of chivalry, the second was the very quintessence
of far-seeing sagacity, not "baulking the end half-won, for an instant
dole of praise." As he told Mdme. de Rémusat at Passeriano, "I
conquered the Pope better by not going to Rome than if I had burnt his
capital." Scott has compared his treatment of Wurmser to that of the
Black Prince with his royal prisoner, King John of France. Wurmser was
an Alsatian on the list of _émigrés_, and Bonaparte gave the Marshal
his life by sending him back to Austria, a fact which Wurmser requited
by warning Bonaparte of a conspiracy to poison him[49] in Romagna,
which Napoleon thinks would otherwise have been successful.

No. 24.

"_Perhaps I shall make peace with the Pope._"--On February 12th the
Pope had written to "his dear son, General Bonaparte," to depute
plenipotentiaries for a peace, and ends by assuring him "of our
highest esteem," and concluding with the paternal apostolic
benediction. Meanwhile Napoleon, instead of sacking Faenza, has just
invoked the monks and priests to follow the precepts of the Gospel.

No. 25.

"_The unlimited power you hold over me._"--There seems no question
that during the Italian campaigns he was absolutely faithful to
Josephine, although there was scarcely a beauty in Milan who did not
aspire to please him and to conquer him. In his fidelity there was,
says St. Amand, much love and a little calculation. As Napoleon has
said himself, his position was delicate in the extreme; he commanded
old generals; every one of his movements was jealously watched; his
circumspection was extreme. His fortune lay in his wisdom. He would
have to forget himself for one hour, and how many of his victories
depended upon no more! The celebrated singer, La Grassini, who had all
Italy at her feet, cared only for the young general who would not at
that time vouchsafe her a glance.


  [45] Murat, says Marmont, who hated him, was the culprit here.

  [46] J. H. Rose in _Eng. Hist. Review_, January 1899.

  [47] See Essay by J. H. Rose in _Eng. Hist. Review_, January 1899.

  [48] With fevers caught in the rice-swamps of Lombardy.

  [49] With aqua tofana, says Marmont.



Elected to the joint consulate by the events of the 18th _Brumaire_
(November 9), 1799, Napoleon spent the first Christmas Day after his
return from Egypt in writing personal letters to the King of England
and Emperor of Austria, with a view to peace. He asks King George how
it is that the two most enlightened nations of Europe do not realise
that peace is the chief need as well as the chief glory ... and
concludes by asserting that the fate of all civilised nations is bound
up in the conclusion of a war "which embraces the entire world." His
efforts fail in both cases. On December 27th he makes the _Moniteur_
the sole official journal. On February 7th, 1800, he orders ten days'
military mourning for the death of Washington--that "great man who,
like the French, had fought for equality and liberty." On April 22nd
he urges Moreau to begin his campaign with the army of the Rhine, an
order reiterated on April 24th through Carnot, again made Minister of
War. A diversion to save the army of Italy was now imperative. On May
5th he congratulated Moreau on the battle of Stockach, but informs him
that Massena's position is critical, shut up in Genoa, and with food
only till May 25th. He advises Massena the same day that he leaves
Paris that night to join the Army of Reserve, that the cherished
child of victory must hold out as long as possible, at least until May
30th. At Geneva he met M. Necker. On May 14th he writes General
Mortier, commandant of Paris, to keep that city quiet, as he will have
still to be away a few days longer, which he trusts "will not be
indifferent to M. de Mélas."

No. 3.

This letter was written from Ivrea, May 29th, 1800. On the 30th
Napoleon is at Vercelli, on June 1st at Novara, and on June 2nd in
Milan. Eugène served under Murat at the passage of the Ticino, May

_M.'s_; probably "Maman," _i.e._ his mother.

_Cherries._--This fruit had already tender associations. Las Cases
tells us that when Napoleon was only sixteen he met at Valence
Mademoiselle du Colombier, who was not insensible to his merits. It
was the first love of both.... "We were the most innocent creatures
imaginable," the Emperor used to say; "we contrived little meetings
together. I well remember one which took place on a midsummer morning,
just as daylight began to dawn. It will scarcely be believed that all
our happiness consisted in eating cherries together" (vol. i. 81,

No. 4.

_Milan._--He arrived here on June 2nd, and met with a great reception.
In his bulletin of June 5th we find him assisting at an improvised
concert. It ends, somewhat quaintly for a bulletin, as follows:
"Italian music has a charm ever new. The celebrated singers,
Billington,[50] La Grassini, and Marchesi are expected at Milan. They
say they are about to start for Paris to give concerts there."
According to M. Frédéric Masson, this Paris visit masked ulterior
motives, and was arranged at a _déjeûner_ on the same day, where La
Grassini, Napoleon, and Berthier breakfasted together. Henceforward to
Marengo Napoleon spends every spare day listening to the marvellous
songstress, and as at Eylau, seven years later, runs great risks by
admitting Venus into the camp of Mars. At St. Helena he declares that
from June 3rd to 8th he was busy "receiving deputations, and showing
himself to people assembled from all parts of Lombardy to see their
liberator." The Austrians had declared that he had died in Egypt. The
date of No. 4 should probably be June 9th, on which day the rain was
very heavy. He reached Stradella the next day.


  [50] On reaching London a few months later Mistress Billington was
       engaged simultaneously by Drury Lane and Covent Garden, and
       during the following year harvested £10,000 from these two


No. 1.

The date is doubtless 27 _Messidor_ (July 16), and the fête alluded to
that of July 14. The following day Napoleon signed the Concordat with
the Pope, which paved the way for the restoration of the Roman
Catholic religion in France (September 11).

_The blister._--On July 7 he quaintly writes Talleyrand: "They have
put a second blister on my arm, which prevented me giving audience
yesterday. Time of sickness is an opportune moment for coming to terms
with the priests."

_Some plants._--No trait in Josephine's character is more characteristic
than her love of flowers--not the selfish love of a mere collector,[51]
but the bountiful joy of one who wishes to share her treasures.
Malmaison had become the "veritable Jardin des Plantes" of the
epoch,[52] far better than its Paris namesake in those days. The
splendid hothouses, constructed by M. Thibaut, had been modelled on
those of Kew, and enabled Josephine to collect exotics from every
clime, and especially from her beloved Martinique. No jewel was so
precious to her as a rare and beautiful flower. The Minister of
Marine never forgot to instruct the deep-sea captains to bring back
floral tributes from the far-off tropics. These often fell, together
with the ships, into the hands of the British sea-dogs, but the
Prince Regent always had them sent on from London, and thus
rendered, says Aubenas, "the gallant homage of a courtly enemy to the
charming tastes and to the popularity already acquired by this
universally beloved woman." Her curator, M. Aimé Bonpland, was an
accomplished naturalist, who had been with Humboldt in America, and
brought thence 6000 new plants. On his return in 1804 he was nominated
by Josephine manager of the gardens of Malmaison and Navarre.

In the splendid work, _Le Jardin de la Malmaison_, in three volumes,
are plates, with descriptions of 184 plants, mostly new, collected
there from Egypt, Arabia, the United States, the Antilles, Mexico,
Madeira, the Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, the East Indies, New
Caledonia, Australia, and China. To Josephine we owe the Camellia, and
the Catalpa, from the flora of Peru, whilst her maiden name (La
Pagerie) was perpetuated by Messrs. Pavon and Ruiz in the Lapageria.

_If the weather is as bad._--As we shall see later, Bourrienne was
invaluable to Josephine's court for his histrionic powers, and he
seems to have been a prime favourite. On the present occasion he
received the following "Account of the Journey to Plombières. To the
Inhabitants of Malmaison,"--probably the work of Count Rapp, touched
up by Hortense (Bourrienne's _Napoleon_, vol. ii. 85. Bentley,

"The whole party left Malmaison in tears, which brought on such
dreadful headaches that all the amiable company were quite overcome by
the idea of the journey. Madame Bonaparte, mère, supported the
fatigues of this memorable day with the greatest courage; but Madame
Bonaparte, consulesse, did not show any. The two young ladies who sat
in the dormeuse, Mademoiselle Hortense and Madame Lavalette, were
rival candidates for a bottle of Eau de Cologne; and every now and
then the amiable M. Rapp made the carriage stop for the comfort of his
poor little sick heart, which overflowed with bile; in fact, he was
obliged to take to bed on arriving at Epernay, while the rest of the
amiable party tried to drown their sorrows in champagne. The second
day was more fortunate on the score of health and spirits, but
provisions were wanting, and great were the sufferings of the stomach.
The travellers lived on in the hope of a good supper at Toul, but
despair was at its height when on arriving there they found only a
wretched inn, and nothing in it. We saw some odd-looking folks there,
which indemnified us a little for spinach dressed with lamp-oil, and
red asparagus fried with curdled milk. Who would not have been amused
to see the Malmaison gourmands seated at a table so shockingly

"In no record of history is there to be found a day passed in distress
so dreadful as that on which we arrived at Plombières. On departing
from Toul we intended to breakfast at Nancy, for every stomach had
been empty for two days, but the civil and military authorities came
out to meet us, and prevented us from executing our plan. We continued
our route, wasting away, so that you might see us growing thinner
every moment. To complete our misfortune, the dormeuse, which seemed
to have taken a fancy to embark on the Moselle for Metz, barely
escaped an overturn. But at Plombières we have been well compensated
for this unlucky journey, for on our arrival we were received with all
kinds of rejoicings. The town was illuminated, the cannon fired, and
the faces of handsome women at all the windows gave us reason to hope
that we shall bear our absence from Malmaison with the less regret.

"With the exception of some anecdotes, which we reserve for chit-chat
on our return, you have here a correct account of our journey, which
we, the undersigned, hereby certify.


"The company ask pardon for the blots."

  _"21 Messidor (July 10)._

"It is requested that the person who receives this journal will show
it to all who take an interest in the fair travellers."

At this time Hortense was madly in love with Napoleon's favourite
general, Duroc, who, however, loved his master more, and preferred not
to interfere with his projects, especially as a marriage with Hortense
would mean separation from Napoleon. Hortense and Bourrienne were both
excellent billiard players, and the latter used this opportunity to
carry letters from Hortense to her lukewarm lover.

_Malmaison, without you, is too dreary._--Although Madame la Grassini
had been specially summoned to sing at the Fête de la Concorde the day

No. 2.

This is the third pilgrimage Josephine has made, under the doctor's
orders, to Plombières; but the longed-for heir will have to be sought
for elsewhere, by fair means or foul. Lucien, who as Spanish
Ambassador had vainly spent the previous year in arranging the divorce
and remarriage of Napoleon to a daughter of the King of Spain,
suggests adultery at Plombières, or a "warming-pan conspiracy," as the
last alternatives.[53] Josephine complains to Napoleon of his
brother's "poisonous" suggestions, and Lucien is again disgraced. In a
few months an heir is found in Hortense's first-born, Napoleon
Charles, born October 10.

_The fat Eugène_ had come partly to be near his sister in her mother's
absence, and partly to receive his colonelcy. Josephine is wretched to
be absent, and writes to Hortense (June 16):--"I am utterly wretched,
my dear Hortense, to be separated from you, and my mind is as sick as
my body. I feel that I was not born, my dear child, for so much
grandeur.... By now Eugène should be with you; that thought consoles
me." Aubenas has found in the Tascher archives a charming letter from
Josephine to her mother in Martinique, announcing how soon she may
hope to find herself a great-grandmother.

No. 3.

_Your letter has come._--Possibly the one to Hortense quoted above, as
Josephine was not fond of writing many letters.

_Injured whilst shooting a boar._--Constant was not aware of this
occurrence, and was therefore somewhat incredulous of Las Cases
(vol. i. 289). The account in the "Memorial of St. Helena" is as
follows:--"Another time, while hunting the wild boar at Marly, all his
suite were put to flight; it was like the rout of an army. The
Emperor, with Soult and Berthier,[54] maintained their ground against
three enormous boars. 'We killed all three, but I received a hurt
from my adversary, and nearly lost this finger,' said the Emperor,
pointing to the third finger of his left hand, which indeed bore the
mark of a severe wound. 'But the most laughable circumstance of all
was to see the multitude of men, surrounded by their dogs, screening
themselves behind the three heroes, and calling out lustily "Save the
Emperor![55] save the Emperor!" while not one advanced to my
assistance'" (vol. ii. 202. Colburn, 1836).

"_The Barber of Seville._"--This was their best piece, and spectators
(except Lucien) agree that in it the little theatre at Malmaison and
its actors were unsurpassed in Paris. Bourrienne as Bartholo, Hortense
as Rosina, carried off the palm. According to the Duchesse d'Abrantès,
Wednesday was the usual day of representation, when the First Consul
was wont to ask forty persons to dinner, and a hundred and fifty for
the evening. As the Duchess had reason to know, Bonaparte was the
severest of critics. "Lauriston made a noble lover," says the
Duchess--"rather heavy" being Bourrienne's more professional comment.
Eugène, says Méneval, excelled in footman's parts.[56] Michot, from
the Theatre Français, was stage manager; and Bonaparte provided what
Constant has called "the Malmaison Troupe," with their dresses and a
collection of dramas. He was always spurring them on to more ambitious
flights, and by complimenting Bourrienne on his prodigious memory,
would stimulate him to learn the longest parts. Lucien, who refused to
act, declares that Bonaparte quoted the saying of Louis XVI.
concerning Marie Antoinette and her company, that the performances
"were royally badly played." Junot, however, even in these days played
the part of a drunkard only too well (Jung, vol. ii. 256).

No. 4.

_The Sèvres Manufactory._--After his visit, he wrote Duroc: "This
morning I gave, in the form of gratuity, a week's wages to the workmen
of the Sèvres manufactory. Have the amount given to the director. It
should not exceed a thousand écus."

No. 5.

_Your lover, who is tired of being alone._--So much so that he got up
at five o'clock in the morning to read his letters in a young bride's
bed-chamber. The story is brightly told by the lady in question,
Madame d'Abrantès (vol. ii. ch. 19). A few days before the Marly hunt,
mentioned in No. 3, the young wife of seventeen, whom Bonaparte had
known from infancy, and whose mother (Madame Permon) he had wished to
marry, found the First Consul seated by her bedside with a thick
packet of letters, which he was carefully opening and making marginal
notes upon. At six he went off singing, pinching the lady's foot
through the bed-clothes as he went. The next day the same thing
happened, and the third day she locked herself in, and prevented her
maid from finding the key. In vain--the unwelcome visitor fetched a
master-key. As a last resource, she wheedled her husband, General
Junot, into breaking orders and spending the night with her; and the
next day (June 22) Bonaparte came in to proclaim the hunting morning,
but by her side found his old comrade of Toulon, fast asleep. The
latter dreamily but good-humouredly asked, "Why, General, what are you
doing in a lady's chamber at this hour?" and the former replied, "I
came to awake Madame Junot for the chase, but I find her provided with
an alarum still earlier than myself. I might scold, for you are
contraband here, M. Junot." He then withdrew, after offering Junot a
horse for the hunt. The husband jumped up, exclaiming, "Faith! that is
an amiable man! What goodness! Instead of scolding, instead of sending
me sneaking back to my duty in Paris! Confess, my Laura, that he is
not only an admirable being, but above the sphere of human nature."
Laura, however, was still dubious. Later in the day she was taken to
task by the First Consul, who was astounded when she told him that his
action might compromise her. "I shall never forget," she says,
"Napoleon's expression of countenance at this moment; it displayed a
rapid succession of emotions, none of them evil." Josephine heard of
the affair, and was jealous for some little time to come.

_General Ney._--Bonaparte had instructed Josephine to find him a nice
wife, and she had chosen Mlle. Aglaé-Louise Auguié, the intimate
friend and schoolfellow of Hortense, and daughter of a former
Receveur-Général des Finances. To the latter Ney goes fortified with a
charming letter from Josephine, dated May 30--the month which the
_Encyclopædia Britannica_ has erroneously given for that of the
marriage, which seems to have taken place at the end of July
(_Biographie Universelle, Michaud_, vol. xxx.). Napoleon (who stood
godfather to all the children of his generals) and Hortense were
sponsors for the firstborn of this union, Napoleon Joseph, born May 8,
1803. The Duchess d'Abrantès describes her first meeting with Madame
Ney at the Boulogne fête of August 15, 1802. Her simplicity and
timidity "were the more attractive inasmuch as they formed a contrast
to most of the ladies by whom she was surrounded at the court of
France.... The softness and benevolence of Madame Ney's smile,
together with the intelligent expression of her large dark eyes,
rendered her a very beautiful woman, and her lively manners and
accomplishments enhanced her personal graces" (vol. iii. 31). The
brave way in which she bore her husband's execution won the admiration
of Napoleon, who at St. Helena coupled her with Mdme. de Lavalette and
Mdme. Labedoyère.


  [51] She was, however, no mere amateur, and knew, says Mlle.
       d'Avrillon, the names of all her plants, the family to which
       they belonged, their native soil, and special properties.

  [52] _Rueil, le château de Richelieu et la Malmaison_, by Jacquin and
       Duesberg, p. 130; in Aubenas' _Joséphine_, vol. i.

  [53] Lucien declares that Napoleon said to his wife, in his presence
       and that of Joseph, "Imitate Livia, and you will find me
       Augustus."--(Jung, vol. ii. 206.) Lucien evidently suspects an
       occult sinister allusion here, but Napoleon is only alluding to
       the succession devolving on the first child of their joint
       families. Lucien refused Hortense, but Louis was more amenable
       to his brother's wishes. On her triumphal entry into Mühlberg
       (November 1805), the Empress reads on a column a hundred feet
       high--"Josephinae, Galliarum Augustae."

  [54] Made Grand Huntsman in 1804.

  [55] An anachronism; he was at this time First Consul.

  [56] An euphuistic way of saying he could not learn longer ones. In
       war time Napoleon had to insist on Eugène keeping his letters
       with him and constantly re-reading them.


No. 1.

_Madame._--Napoleon became Emperor on May 18th, and this was the first
letter to his wife since Imperial etiquette had become _de rigueur_,
and the first letter to Josephine signed Napoleon. Méneval gives a
somewhat amusing description of the fine gradations of instructions he
received on this head from his master. This would seem to be a reason
for this uncommon form of salutation; but, _per contra_, Las Cases
(vol. i. 276) mentions some so-called letters beginning _Madame et
chère épouse_, which Napoleon declares to be spurious.

_Pont de Bricques_, a little village about a mile from Boulogne. On
his first visit to the latter he was met by a deputation of farmers,
of whom one read out the following address: "General, here we are,
twenty farmers, and we offer you a score of big, sturdy lads, who are,
and always shall be, at your service. Take them along with you,
General; they will help you to give England a good thrashing. As for
ourselves, we have another duty to fulfil: with our arms we will till
the ground, so that bread be not wanting to the brave fellows who are
destined to destroy the English." Napoleon thanked the honest yeomen,
and determined to make the only habitable dwelling there his
headquarters. The place is called from the foundations of bricks found
there--the remains of one of Cæsar's camps.

_The wind having considerably freshened._--Constant tells a good story
of the Emperor's obstinacy, but also of his bravery, a few days later.
Napoleon had ordered a review of his ships, which Admiral Bruix had
ignored, seeing a storm imminent. Napoleon sends off Bruix to Holland
in disgrace, and orders the review to take place; but when, amid the
wild storm, he sees "more than twenty gunboats run aground," and no
succour vouchsafed to the drowning men, he springs into the nearest
lifeboat, crying, "We must save them somehow." A wave breaks over the
boat; he is drenched and nearly carried overboard, losing the hat he
had worn at Marengo. Such pluck begets enthusiasm; but, in spite of
all they could do, two hundred lives were lost. This is Constant's
version; probably his loss is exaggerated. The Emperor, writing
Talleyrand on August 1st, speaks only of three or four ships lost, and
"une quinzaine d'hommes."

No. 2.

_The waters._--Mlle. d'Avrillon describes them and their effect--the
sulphur baths giving erysipelas to people in poor health. Corvisart
had accompanied the Empress, to superintend their effect, which was as
usual nil.

_All the vexations._--Constant (vol. i. 230, &c., 1896) is of use to
explain what these were--having obtained possession of a diary of the
tour by one of Josephine's ladies-in-waiting, which had fallen into
Napoleon's hands. In the first place, the roads (where there were
any[57]) were frightful, especially in the Ardennes forest, and the
diary for August 1st concludes by stating "that some of the carriages
were so battered that they had to be bound together with ropes. One
ought not to expect women to travel about like a lot of dragoons." The
writer of the diary, however, preferred to stay in the carriage, and
let Josephine and the rest get wet feet, thinking the risk she ran the
least. Another vexation to Josephine was the published report of her
gift to the Mayoress of Rheims of a malachite medallion set in
brilliants, and of her saying as she did so, "It is the colour of
Hope." Although she had really used this expression, it was the last
thing she would like to see in print, taking into consideration the
reason for her yearly peregrinations to Plombières, and now to Aix,
and their invariable inefficiency. Under the date August 14th, the
writer of the diary gives a severe criticism of Josephine. "She is
exactly like a ten-year-old child--good-natured, frivolous,
impressionable; in tears at one moment, and comforted the next.... She
has just wit enough not to be an utter idiot. Ignorant--as are most
Creoles--she has learned nothing, or next to nothing, except by
conversation; but, having passed her life in good society, she has got
good manners, grace, and a mastery of that sort of jargon which, in
society, sometimes passes for wit. Social events constitute the canvas
which she embroiders, which she arranges, and which give her a subject
for conversation. She is witty for quite a whole quarter of an hour
every day.... Her diffidence is charming ... her temper very sweet and
even; it is impossible not to be fond of her. I fear that ... this
need of unbosoming, of communicating all her thoughts and impressions,
of telling all that passes between herself and the Emperor, keeps the
latter from taking her into his confidence.... She told me this
morning that, during all the years she had spent with him, never once
had she seen him let himself go."

_Eugène has started for Blois_, where he became the head of the
electoral college of Loir et Cher, having just been made Colonel-General
of the Chasseurs by Napoleon. The Beauharnais family were originally
natives of Blois.

No. 3.

_Aix-la-Chapelle._--In this, the first Imperial pilgrimage to take the
waters, great preparations had been made, forty-seven horses bought at
an average cost of £60 apiece; and eight carriages, which are not dear
at £1000 for the lot, with £400 additional for harness and fittings.

At Aix they had fox-hunting and hare-coursing so called, but probably
the final tragedy was consummated with a gun. Lord Rosebery reminds us
that at St. Helena the Emperor actually shot a cow! They explored coal
mines, and examined all the local manufactories, including the relics
of Charlemagne--of which great warrior and statesman Josephine refused
an arm, as having a still more puissant one ever at hand for her

When tidings come that the Emperor will arrive on September 2, and
prolong their stay from Paris, there is general lamentation among
Josephine's womenkind, especially on the part of that perennial wet
blanket and busybody, Madame de Larochefoucauld, who will make herself
a still greater nuisance at Mayence two years later.

No. 4.

_During the past week._--As a matter of fact he only reached Ostend on
April 12th from Boulogne, having left Dunkirk on the 11th.

_The day after to-morrow._--This fête was the distribution of the
Legion of Honour at Boulogne and a review of 80,000 men. The
decorations were enshrined in the helmet of Bertrand du Guesclin,
which in its turn was supported on the shield of the Chevalier

_Hortense_ arrived at Boulogne, with her son, and the Prince and
Princess Murat, a few days later, and saw the Emperor. Josephine
received a letter from Hortense soon after Napoleon joined her
(September 2nd), to which she replied on September 8th. "The Emperor
has read your letter; he has been rather vexed not to hear from you
occasionally. He would not doubt your kind heart if he knew it as well
as I, but appearances are against you. Since he can think you are
neglecting him, lose no time in repairing the wrongs which are not
real," for "Bonaparte loves you like his own child, which adds much to
my affection for him."

_I am very well satisfied ... with the flotillas._--The descent upon
England was to have taken place in September, when the death of
Admiral Latouche-Tréville at Toulon, August 19th, altered all
Napoleon's plans. Just about this time also _Fulton_ submitted his
steamship invention to Bonaparte. The latter, however, had recently
been heavily mulcted in other valueless discoveries, and refers Fulton
to the savants of the Institute, who report it chimerical and
impracticable. The fate of England probably lay in the balance at this
moment, more than in 1588 or 1798.

Napoleon and Josephine leave Aix for Cologne on September 12, and it
is now the ladies' turn to institute a hunt--the "real chamois hunt";
for each country inn swarms with this pestilence that walketh in
darkness, and which, alas! is no respecter of persons.

No. 5.

Two points are noteworthy in this letter--(1) that like No. 1 of this
series (see note thereto) it commences _Madame and dear Wife_; and (2)
it is signed Bonaparte and not Napoleon, which somewhat militates
against its authenticity.

_Arras, August 29th._--Early on this day he had been at St. Cloud. On
the 30th he writes Cambacérès from Arras that he is "satisfied with
the spirit of this department." On the same day he writes thence to
the King of Prussia and Fouché. To his Minister of Police he writes:
"That detestable journal, _Le Citoyen français_, seems only to wish to
wallow in blood. For eight days running we have been entertained with
nothing but the Saint Bartholomew. Who on earth is the editor
(_rédacteur_) of this paper? With what gusto this wretch relishes the
crimes and misfortunes of our fathers! My intention is that you should
put a stop to it. Have the editor (_directeur_) of this paper changed,
or suppress it." On Friday he is at Mons (writing interesting letters
respecting the removal of church ruins), and reaches his wife on the
Sunday (September 2nd) as his letter foreshadowed.

_I am rather impatient to see you._--The past few months had been an
anxious time for Josephine. Talleyrand (who, having insulted her in
1799, thought her his enemy) was scheming for her divorce, and wished
Napoleon to marry the Princess Wilhelmina of Baden, and thus cement an
alliance with Bavaria and Russia (Constant, vol. i. 240). The
Bonaparte family were very anxious that Josephine should not be
crowned. Napoleon had too great a contempt for the weaknesses of
average human nature to expect much honesty from Talleyrand. But he
was not as yet case-hardened to ingratitude, and was always highly
sensitive to caricature and hostile criticism. Talleyrand had been the
main cause of the death of the Duc d'Enghien, and was now trying to
show that he had wished to prevent it; but possibly the crowning
offence was contained in a lady's diary, that fell into the emperor's
hands, where Talleyrand is said to have called his master "a regular
little Nero" in his system of espionage. The diary in question is in
Constant's "Memoirs," vol. i., and this letter helps to fix the error
in the dates, probably caused by confusion between the Revolutionary
and Gregorian Calendars.

No. 6.

_T._--This may be Talleyrand, whom Mdme. de Remusat in a letter to her
husband (September 21st) at Aix, hinted to be on bad terms with the
Emperor--a fact confirmed and explained by Méneval. It may also have
been Tallien, who returned to France in 1802, where he had been
divorced from his unfaithful wife.

_B._--Doubtlessly Bourrienne, who was in disgrace with Napoleon, and
who was always trying to impose on Josephine's good nature. No sooner
had Napoleon left for Boulogne on July 14th than his former secretary
inflicts himself on the wife at Malmaison.

Napoleon joins Josephine at St. Cloud on or before October 13th, where
preparations are already being made for the Coronation by the
Pope--the first ceremony of the kind for eight centuries.


  [57] The Emperor had himself planned the Itinerary, and had mistaken a
       projected road for a completed one, between Rethel and Marche.


No. 1.

_To Josephine._--She was at Plombières from August 2 to September 10,
but no letter is available for the period, neither to Hortense nor
from Napoleon.

_Strasburg._--She is in the former Episcopal Palace, at the foot of
the cathedral.

_Stuttgard._--He is driven over from Ludwigsburg on October 4th, and
hears the German opera of "Don Juan."

_I am well placed._--On the same day Napoleon writes his brother
Joseph that he has already won two great victories--(1) by having no
sick or deserters, but many new conscripts; and (2) because the
Badenese army and those of Bavaria and Wurtemberg had joined him, and
all Germany well disposed.

No. 2.


_In a few days._--To Talleyrand he wrote from Strasburg on September
27: "Within a fortnight we shall see several things."

_A new bride._--This letter, in the collection of his Correspondence
ordered by Napoleon III., concludes at this point.

_Electress._--The Princess Charlotte-Auguste-Mathilde (1766-1828),
daughter of George III., our Princess Royal, who married Frederick I.
Napoleon says she is "not well treated by the Elector, to whom,
nevertheless, she seems much attached" (Brotonne, No. 111). She was
equally pleased with Napoleon, and wrote home how astonished she was
to find him so polite and agreeable a person.

No. 3.

_I have assisted at a marriage._--The bride was the Princess of
Saxe-Hildburghhausen, who was marrying the second son of the Elector.

No. 5.

Written at Augsburg. On October 15th he reaches the abbey of
Elchingen, which is situated on a height, from whence a wide view is
obtained, and establishes his headquarters there.

No. 6.

_Spent the whole of to-day indoors._--This is also mentioned in his
Seventh Bulletin (dated the same day), which adds, "But repose is not
compatible with the direction of this immense army."

_Vicenza._--Massena did not, however, reach this place till November
3rd. The French editions have _Vienna_, but _Vicenza_ is evidently

No. 7.

He is still at Elchingen, but at Augsburg the next day. On the 21st he
issues a decree to his army that Vendémiaire,[58] of which this was
the last day but one, should be counted as a campaign for pensions and
military services.

_Elchingen._--Méneval speaks of this village "rising in an amphitheatre
above the Danube, surrounded by walled gardens, and houses rising one
above the other." From it Napoleon saw the city of Ulm below,
commanded by his cannon. Marshal Ney won his title of Duke of Elchingen
by capturing it on October 14th, and fully deserved it. The Emperor
used to leave the abbey every morning to go to the camp before Ulm,
where he used to spend the day, and sometimes the night. The rain
was so heavy that, until a plank was found, Napoleon sat in a tent
with his feet in water (Savary, vol. ii. 196).

_Such a catastrophe._--At Ulm General Mack, with eight field-marshals,
seven lieutenant-generals, and 33,000 men surrender. Napoleon had
despised Mack even in 1800, when he told Bourrienne at Malmaison,
"Mack is a man of the lowest mediocrity I ever saw in my life; he is
full of self-sufficiency and conceit, and believes himself equal to
anything. He has no talent. I should like to see him some day opposed
to one of our good generals; we should then see fine work. He is a
boaster, and that is all. He is really one of the most silly men
existing, and besides all that, he is unlucky" (vol. i. 304). Napoleon
stipulated for Mack's life in one of the articles of the Treaty of

No. 9.

_Munich._--Napoleon arrived here on October 24th.

_Lemarois._--A trusty aide-de-camp, who had witnessed Napoleon's civil
marriage in March 1796, at 10 P.M.

_I was grieved._--They had no news from October 12th to 21st in Paris,
where they learnt daily that Strasburg was in the same predicament.
Mdme. de Rémusat, at Paris, was equally anxious, and such women, in
the Emperor's absence, tended by their presence or even by their
correspondence to increase the alarms of Josephine.

_Amuse yourself._--M. Masson (_Josephine, Impératrice et Reine_, p.
424) has an interesting note of how she used to attend lodge at the
Orient in Strasburg, to preside at a "loge d'adoption sous la
direction de Madame de Dietrich, grand maîtresse titulaire."

_Talleyrand has come._--He was urgently needed to help in the
correspondence with the King of Prussia (concerning the French
violation of his Anspach territory), with whom Napoleon's relations
were becoming more strained.

No. 10.

_We are always in forests._--Baron Lejeune, with his artist's eye,
describes his impressions of the Amstetten forest as he travelled
through it with Murat the following morning (November 4th). "Those
of us who came from the south of Europe had never before realised
how beautiful Nature can be in the winter. In this particular
instance everything was robed in the most gleaming attire; the
silvery rime softening the rich colours of the decaying oak leaves,
and the sombre vegetation of the pines. The frozen drapery, combined
with the mist, in which everything was more or less enveloped, gave
a soft, mysterious charm to the surrounding objects, producing a
most beautiful picture. Lit up by the sunshine, thousands of long
icicles, such as those which sometimes droop from our fountains and
water-wheels, hung like shining lustres from the trees. Never did
ball-room shine with so many diamonds; the long branches of the
oaks, pines, and other forest trees were weighed down by the
masses of hoar-frost, while the snow converted their summits into
rounded roofs, forming beneath them grottoes resembling those of the
Pyrenean mountains, with their shining stalactites and graceful
columns" (vol. i. 24).

_My enemies._--Later in the day Napoleon writes from Lambach to the
Emperor of Austria a pacific letter, which contains the paragraph, "My
ambition is wholly concentrated on the re-establishment of my commerce
and of my marine, and England grievously opposes itself to both."

No. 11.

Written from Lintz, the capital of Upper Austria, where Napoleon was
on the 4th.

No. 12.

Napoleon took up his abode at the palace of Schoenbrunn on the 14th,
and proves his "two-o'clock-in-the-morning courage" by passing through
Vienna at that time the following morning.

No. 13.

_They owe everything to you._--Aubenas quotes this, and remarks (vol.
ii. 326): "No one had pride in France more than Napoleon, stronger
even than his conviction of her superiority in the presence of other
contemporary sovereigns and courts. He wishes that in Germany, where
she will meet families with all the pride and sometimes all the
haughtiness of their ancestry, Josephine will not forget that she is
Empress of the French, superior to those who are about to receive her,
and who owe full respect and homage to her."

No. 14.

_Austerlitz._--Never was a victory more needful; but never was the
Emperor more confident. Savary says that it would take a volume to
contain all that emanated from his mind during that twenty-four hours
(December 1-2). Nor was it confined to military considerations.
General Ségur describes how he spent his evening meal with his
marshals, discussing with Junot the last new tragedy (_Les Templiers_,
by Raynouard), and from it to Racine, Corneille, and the fatalism of
our ancestors.

_December 2nd_ was a veritable Black Monday for the Coalition in
general, and for Russia in particular, where Monday is always looked
upon as an unlucky day. Their forebodings increased when, on the eve
of the battle, the Emperor Alexander was thrown from his horse
(Czartoriski, vol. ii. 106).

No. 17.

_A long time since I had news of you._--Josephine was always a bad
correspondent, but at this juncture was reading that stilted but
sensational romance--"Caleb Williams;" or hearing the "Achilles" of
Paër, or the "Romeo and Juliet" of Zingarelli in the intervals of her
imperial progress through Germany. M. Masson, not often too indulgent
to Josephine, thinks her conduct excusable at this period--paying and
receiving visits, dressing and redressing, always in gala costume, and
without a moment's solitude.

No. 19.

_I await events._--A phrase usually attributed to Talleyrand in
1815. However, the Treaty of Presburg was soon signed (December
2nd), and the same day Napoleon met the Archduke Charles at
Stamersdorf, a meeting arranged from mutual esteem. Napoleon had
an unswerving admiration for this past and future foe, and said to
Madame d'Abrantès, "That man has a soul, a golden heart."[59]
Napoleon, however, did not wish to discuss politics, and only
arranged for an interview of two hours, "one of which," he wrote
Talleyrand, "will be employed in dining, the other in talking war and
in mutual protestations."

_I, for my part, am sufficiently busy._--No part of Napoleon's career
is more wonderful than the way in which he conducts the affairs of
France and of Europe from a hostile capital. This was his first
experience of the kind, and perhaps the easiest, although Prussian
diplomacy had needed very delicate and astute handling. But when
Napoleon determined, without even consulting his wife, to cement
political alliances by matrimonial ones with his and her relatives, he
was treading on somewhat new and difficult ground. First and foremost,
he wanted a princess for his ideal young man, Josephine's son Eugène,
and he preferred Auguste, the daughter of the King of Bavaria, to the
offered Austrian Archduchess. But the young Hereditary Prince of Baden
was in love and accepted by his beautiful cousin Auguste; so, to
compensate him for his loss, the handsome and vivacious Stephanie
Beauharnais, fresh from Madame Campan's finishing touches, was sent
for. For his brother Jerome a bride is found by Napoleon in the
daughter of the King of Wurtemberg. Baden, Bavaria, and Wurtemberg
were too much indebted to France for the spoils they were getting from
Austria to object, provided the ladies and their mammas were
agreeable; but the conqueror of Austerlitz found this part the most
difficult, and had to be so attentive to the Queen of Bavaria that
Josephine was jealous. However, all the matches came off, and still
more remarkable, all turned out happily, a fact which certainly
redounds to Napoleon's credit as a match-maker.

On December 31st, at 1.45 A.M., he entered Munich by torchlight and
under a triumphal arch. His chamberlain, M. de Thiard, assured him
that if he left Munich the marriage with Eugène would fall through,
and he agrees to stay, although he declared that his absence, which
accentuated the Bank crisis, is costing him 1,500,000 francs a day.
The marriage took place on January 14th, four days after Eugène
arrived at Munich and three days after that young Bayard had been
bereft of his cherished moustache. Henceforth the bridegroom is called
"Mon fils" in Napoleon's correspondence, and in the contract of
marriage Napoleon-Eugène de France. The Emperor and Empress reached
the Tuileries on January 27th. The marriage of Stephanie was even more
difficult to manage, for, as St. Amand points out, the Prince of Baden
had for brothers-in-law the Emperor of Russia, the King of Sweden, and
the King of Bavaria--two of whom at least were friends of England.
Josephine had once an uncle-in-law, the Count Beauharnais, whose wife
Fanny was a well-known literary character of the time, but of whom the
poet Lebrun made the epigram--

  "Elle fait son visage, et ne fait pas ses vers."

Stephanie was the grand-daughter of this couple, and as Grand-Duchess
of Baden was beloved and respected, and lived on until 1860.


  [58] The first month of the Republican calendar.

  [59] Memoirs, vol. ii. 165.


No. 1.

Napoleon left St. Cloud with Josephine on September 25th, and had
reached Mayence on the 28th, where his Foot Guard were awaiting him.
He left Mayence on October 1st, and reached Würzburg the next day,
whence this letter was written, just before starting for Bamberg.
Josephine was installed in the Teutonic palace at Mayence.

_Princess of Baden_, Stephanie Beauharnais. (For her marriage, see
note, end of Series F.)

_Hortense_ was by no means happy with her husband at the best of
times, and she cordially hated Holland. She was said to be very
frightened of Napoleon, but (like most people) could easily influence
her mother. Napoleon's letter to her of this date (October 5th) is
certainly not a severe one:--"I have received yours of September 14th.
I am sending to the Chief Justice in order to accord pardon to the
individual in whom you are interested. Your news always gives me
pleasure. I trust you will keep well, and never doubt my great
friendship for you."

_The Grand Duke_, _i.e._ of Würzburg. The castle where Napoleon
was staying seemed to him sufficiently strong to be armed and
provisioned, and he made a great depôt in the city. "Volumes," says
Méneval, "would not suffice to describe the multitude of his
military and administrative measures here, and the precautions which
he took against even the most improbable hazards of war."

_Florence._--Probably September 1796, when Napoleon was hard pressed,
and Josephine had to fetch a compass from Verona to regain Milan, and
thus evade Wurmser's troops.

No. 2.

_Bamberg._--Arriving at Bamberg on the 6th, Napoleon issued a
proclamation to his army which concluded--"Let the Prussian army
experience the same fate that it experienced fourteen years ago. Let
it learn that, if it is easy to acquire increase of territory and
power by means of the friendship of the great people, their enmity,
which can be provoked only by the abandonment of all spirit of wisdom
and sense, is more terrible than the tempests of the ocean."

_Eugène._--Napoleon wrote him on the 5th, and twice on the 7th, on
which date we have _eighteen_ letters in the _Correspondence_.

_Her husband._--The Hereditary Grand Duke of Baden, to whom Napoleon
had written from Mayence on September 30th, accepting his services,
and fixing the rendezvous at Bamberg for October 4th or 5th.

On this day Napoleon invaded Prussian territory by entering Bayreuth,
having preceded by one day the date of their ultimatum--a rhapsody of
twenty pages, which Napoleon in his First Bulletin compares to "one of
those which the English Cabinet pay their literary men £500 per annum
to write." It is in this Bulletin where he describes the Queen of
Prussia (dressed as an Amazon, in the uniform of her regiment of
dragoons, and writing twenty letters a day) to be like Armida in her
frenzy, setting fire to her own palace.

No. 3.

By this time the Prussian army is already in a tight corner, with its
back on the Rhine, which, as Napoleon says in his Third Bulletin
written on this day, is "_assez bizarre_, from which very important
events should ensue." On the previous day he concludes a letter to
Talleyrand--"One cannot conceive how the Duke of Brunswick, to whom
one allows some talent, can direct the operations of this army in so
ridiculous a manner."

_Erfurt._--Here endless discussions, but, as Napoleon says in his
bulletin of this day--"Consternation is at Erfurt, ... but while they
deliberate, the French army is marching.... Still the wishes of the
King of Prussia have been executed; he wished that by October 8th the
French army should have evacuated the territory of the Confederation
which _has_ been evacuated, but in place of repassing the Rhine, it
has passed the Saal."

_If she wants to see a battle._--_Queen Louise_, great-grandmother of
the present Emperor William, and in 1806 aged thirty. St. Amand says
that "when she rode on horseback before her troops, with her helmet of
polished steel, shaded by a plume, her gleaming golden cuirass, her
tunic of cloth of silver, her red buskins with golden spurs," she
resembled, as the bulletin said, one of the heroines of Tasso. She
hated France, and especially Napoleon, as the child of the French

No. 4.

_I nearly captured him and the Queen._--They escaped only by an hour,
Napoleon writes Berthier. Blucher aided their escape by telling a
French General about an imaginary armistice, which the latter was
severely reprimanded by Napoleon for believing.

No battle was more beautifully worked out than the battle of
Jena--Davoust performing specially well his move in the combinations
by which the Prussian army was hopelessly entangled, as Mack at Ulm a
year before. Bernadotte alone, and as usual, gave cause for
dissatisfaction. He had a personal hatred for his chief, caused by the
knowledge that his wife (Désirée Clary) had never ceased to regret
that she had missed her opportunity of being the wife of Napoleon.
Bernadotte, therefore, was loth to give initial impetus to the
victories of the French Emperor, though, when success was no longer
doubtful, he would prove that it was not want of capacity but want of
will that had kept him back. He was the Talleyrand of the camp, and
had an equal aptitude for fishing in troubled waters.

_I have bivouacked._--Whether the issue of a battle was decisive,
or, as at Eylau, only partially so, Napoleon never shunned the
disagreeable part of battle--the tending of the wounded and the
burial of the dead. Savary tells us that at Jena, as at Austerlitz,
the Emperor rode round the field of battle, alighting from his horse
with a little brandy flask (constantly refilled), putting his hand
to each unconscious soldier's breast, and when he found unexpected
life, giving way to a joy "impossible to describe" (vol. ii. 184).
Méneval also speaks of his performing this "pious duty, in the
fulfilment of which nothing was allowed to stand in his way."

No. 5.

_Fatigues, bivouacs ... have made me fat._--The Austerlitz campaign
had the same effect. See a remarkable letter to Count Miot de Melito
on January 30th, 1806: "The campaign I have just terminated, the
movement, the excitement have made me stout. I believe that if all the
kings of Europe were to coalesce against me I should have a ridiculous
paunch." And it was so!

_The great M. Napoleon_, aged four, and the younger, aged two, are
with Hortense and their grandmother at Mayence, where a Court had
assembled, including most of the wives of Napoleon's generals, burning
for news. A look-out had been placed by the Empress some two miles on
the main-road beyond Mayence, whence sight of a courier was signalled
in advance.

No. 7.

_Potsdam._--As a reward for Auerstadt, Napoleon orders Davoust and his
famous Third Corps to be the first to enter Berlin the following day.

No. 8.

Written from Berlin, where he is from October 28th to November 25th.

_You do nothing but cry._--Josephine spent her evenings gauging
futurity with a card-pack, and although it announced Jena and
Auerstadt before the messenger, it may possibly, thinks M. Masson,
have been less propitious for the future--and behind all was the
sinister portion of the spae-wife's prophecy still unfulfilled.

No. 9A.

_Madame Tallien_ had been in her time, especially in the years
1795-99, one of the most beautiful and witty women in France. Madame
d'Abrantès calls her the Venus of the Capitol; and Lucien Bonaparte
speaks of the court of the voluptuous Director, Barras, where the
beautiful Tallien was the veritable Calypso. The people, however,
could not forget her second husband, Tallien, from whom she was
divorced in 1802 (having had three children born while he was in
Egypt, 1798-1802); and whilst they called Josephine "Notre Dame des
Victoires," they called Madame Tallien "Notre Dame de Septembre."

The latter was, however, celebrated both for her beauty and her
intrigues;[60] and when, in 1799, Bonaparte seized supreme power the
fair lady[61] invaded Barras in his bath to inform him of it; but
found her indolent Ulysses only capable of ejaculating, "What can be
done? that man has taken us all in!" Napoleon probably remembered
this, and may refer to her rather than to the Queen of Prussia in the
next letter, where he makes severe strictures on intriguing women.
Moreover, Napoleon in his early campaigns had played a ridiculous part
in some of Gillray's most indecent cartoons, where Mmes. Tallien and
Josephine took with Barras the leading rôles; and as Madame Tallien
was not considered respectable in 1796, she was hardly a fit friend
for the Empress of the French ten years later. In the interval this
lady, divorced a second time, had married the Prince de Chimay
(Caraman). Napoleon knew also that she had been the mistress of
Ouvrard, the banker, who in his Spanish speculations a few months
earlier had involved the Bank of France to the tune of four millions
sterling, and forced Napoleon to make a premature peace after
Austerlitz. The Emperor had returned at white heat to Paris, and
wished he could build a gallows for Ouvrard high enough for him to be
on view throughout France. Madame Tallien's own father, M. de
Cabarrus, was a French banker in Spain, and probably in close relation
with Ouvrard.

No. 10.

Written from Berlin.

_The bad things I say about women._--Napoleon looked upon this as a
woman's war, and his temper occasionally gets the mastery of him. No
war had ever been so distasteful to him or so personal. Prussia, whose
alliance he had been courting for nearly ten years, was now worthless
to him, and all because of petticoat government at Berlin. In the
Fifteenth Bulletin (dated Wittenburg, October 23rd) he states that
the Queen had accused her husband of cowardice in order to bring about
the war. But it is doubtless the Sixteenth Bulletin (dated Potsdam,
October 25th) to which Josephine refers, and which refers to the oath
of alliance of the Emperor Alexander and the King of Prussia in the
death chamber of Frederick the Great. "It is from this moment that the
Queen quitted the care of her domestic concerns and the serious
occupations of the toilet in order to meddle with the affairs of
State." He refers to a Berlin caricature of the scene which was at the
time in all the shops, "exciting even the laughter of clodhoppers."
The handsome Emperor of Russia was portrayed, by his side the Queen,
and on his other side the King of Prussia with his hand raised above
the tomb of the Great Frederick; the Queen herself, draped in a shawl
nearly as the London engravings represent Lady Hamilton, pressing her
hand on her heart, and apparently gazing upon the Emperor of Russia."
In the Eighteenth Bulletin (October 26th) it is said the Prussian
people did not want war, that a handful of women and young officers
had alone made this "tapage," and that the Queen, "formerly a timid
and modest woman looking after her domestic concerns," had become
turbulent and warlike, and had "conducted the monarchy within a few
days to the brink of the precipice."

As the Queen of Prussia was a beautiful woman, she has had nearly as
many partisans as Mary Stuart or Marie Antoinette, but with far less
cause. Napoleon, who was the incarnation of practical common sense,
saw in her the first cause of the war, and considered that so far as
verbal flagellation could punish her, she should have it. He had
neither time nor sympathy for the "Please you, do not hurt us"
attitude of a bellicose new woman, who, as Imogen or Ida, have played
with edged tools from the time of Shakespeare to that of Sullivan.

As an antidote, however, to his severe words against women he put,
perhaps somewhat ostentatiously, the Princess d'Hatzfeld episode in
his Twenty-second Bulletin (Berlin, October 29th). A year later
(November 26th, 1807), when his Old Guard return to Paris and free
performances are given at all the theatres, there is the "Triumph of
Trajan" at the Opera, where Trajan, burning with his own hand the
papers enclosing the secrets of a conspiracy, is a somewhat skilful
allusion to the present episode.

No. 11.

Magdeburg had surrendered on November 8th, with 20 generals, 800
officers and 22,000 men, 800 pieces of cannon, and immense stores.

_Lubeck._--This capitulation was that of Blucher, who had escaped
after Jena through a rather dishonourable ruse. It had taken three
army corps to hem him in.

No. 13.

Written from Berlin, but not included in the _Correspondence_.

_Madame L----_, _i.e._ Madame de la Rochefoucauld, a third or fourth
cousin (by her first marriage) of Josephine, and her chief lady of
honour. She was an incorrigible Royalist, and hated Napoleon; but as
she had been useful at the Tuileries in establishing the Court,
Napoleon, as usual, could not make up his mind to cause her dismissal.
In 1806, however, she made Josephine miserable and Mayence unbearable.
She foretold that the Prussians would win every battle, and even after
Jena she (to use an expression of M. Masson), "continued her music on
the sly" (_en sourdine_). See Letters 19 and 26 of this Series.

No. 17.

_December 2_, the anniversary of Austerlitz (1805) and of Napoleon's
coronation (1804). He now announces to his soldiers the Polish

No. 18.

Not in the _Correspondence_.

_Jealousy._--If Josephine's letters and conduct had been a little more
worthy of her position, she might have saved herself. Madame Walewski,
who had not yet appeared on the scene.

No. 19.

_Désir de femme est un feu qui dévore._--The quotation is given in
Jung's "Memoirs of Lucien" (vol. ii. 62). "Ce qu'une femme desire est
un feu qui consume, celui d'une reine un vulcan qui dévore."

No. 23.

_I am dependent on events._--He says the same at St. Helena.
"Throughout my whole reign I was the keystone of an edifice entirely
new, and resting on the most slender foundations. Its duration
depended on the issue of my battles. I was never, in truth, master of
my own movements; I was never at my own disposal."

No. 26.

_The fair ones of Great Poland._--If Berthier and other regular
correspondents of Josephine were like Savary in their enthusiasm, no
wonder the Mayence coterie began to stir up jealousy. Here is the
description of the Duke of Rovigo (vol. ii. 17): "The stay at Warsaw
had for us something of witchery; even with regard to amusements it
was practically the same life as at Paris: the Emperor had his concert
twice a week, at the end of which he held a reception, where many of
the leading people met. A great number of ladies from the best
families were admired alike for the brilliancy of their beauty, and
for their wonderful amiability. One may rightly say that the Polish
ladies inspired with jealousy the charming women of every other
civilised clime. They united, for the most part, to the manners of
good society a fund of information which is not commonly found even
among Frenchwomen, and is very far above anything we see in towns,
where the custom of meeting in public has become a necessity. It
seemed to us that the Polish ladies, compelled to spend the greater
part of the year in their country-houses, applied themselves there to
reading as well as to the cultivation of their talents, and it was
thus that in the chief towns, where they went to pass the winter, they
appeared successful over all their rivals." St. Amand says: "In the
intoxication of their enthusiasm and admiration, the most beautiful
among them--and Poland is the country of beauty--lavished on him,
like sirens, their most seducing smiles...." Josephine was right to be
jealous, for, as the artist Baron Lejeune adds, "They were, moreover,
as graceful as the Creole women so often are."

_A wretched barn_, reached over still more wretched roads. The Emperor
and his horse had nearly been lost in the mud, and Marshal Duroc had a
shoulder put out by his carriage being upset.

_Such things become common property._--So was another event, much to
Josephine's chagrin. On this date Napoleon heard of a son (Léon) born
to him by Eléanore, a former schoolfellow of Madame Murat. M. Masson
thinks this event epoch-making in the life of Napoleon. "Henceforth
the charm is broken, and the Emperor assured of having an heir of his
own blood."

No. 27.

_Warsaw, January 3._--On his way from Pultusk on January 1, he had
received a Polish ovation at Bronie, where he first met Madame
Walewski. The whole story is well told by M. Masson in _Napoléon et
les Femmes_; but here we must content ourselves with the mere facts,
and first, for the sake of comparison, cite his love-letters to the
lady in question:--(1.) "I have seen only you, I have admired only
you, I desire only you. A very prompt answer to calm the impatient
ardour of N." (2.) "Have I displeased you? I have still the right to
hope the contrary. Have I been mistaken? Your eagerness diminishes,
while mine augments. You take away my rest! Oh, give a little joy, a
little happiness to a poor heart all ready to worship you. Is it so
difficult to get a reply? You owe me one.--N." (3.) "There are moments
when too high rank is a burden, and that is what I feel. How can I
satisfy the needs of a heart hopelessly in love, which would fling
itself at your feet, and which finds itself stopped by the weight of
lofty considerations paralysing the most lively desires? Oh, if you
would! Only you could remove the obstacles that lie between us. My
friend Duroc will clear the way. Oh, come! come! All your wishes shall
be gratified. Your native land will be dearer to me when you have had
pity on my poor heart,--N." (4.) "Marie, my sweet Marie! My first
thought is for you, my first desire to see you again. You will come
again, will you not? You promised me to do so. If not, the eagle will
fly to you. I shall see you at dinner, a friend tells me. Deign, then,
to accept this bouquet; let it become a mysterious link which shall
establish between us a secret union in the midst of the crowd
surrounding us. Exposed to the glances of the crowd, we shall still
understand each other. When my hand presses my heart, you will know
that it is full of thoughts of you; and in answer you will press
closer your bouquet. Love me, my bonny Marie, and never let your hand
leave your bouquet.--N." In this letter, in which he has substituted
_tu_ for _vous_, there is more passion than we have seen since 1796.
The fair lady now leaves her decrepit old husband, nearly fifty years
her senior, and takes up her abode in Finckenstein Castle, for nearly
two months of the interval between Eylau and Friedland. "In order,"
says Pasquier, "that nothing should be lacking to characterise the
calm state of his mind and the security of his position, it was soon
known that he had seen fit to enjoy a pleasurable relaxation by
calling to him a Polish gentlewoman of excellent birth, with whom he
had contracted a _liaison_ while passing through Warsaw, and who, as a
consequence of this journey, had the honour of bearing him a son."
Repudiated by her husband, she came to Paris, where she was very
kindly treated by Josephine, who, having once seen her, found in her
no rival, but an enthusiastic patriot, "sacrificed to Plutus," as
Napoleon told Lucien at Mantua a few months later, adding that "her
soul was as beautiful as her face."

No. 28.

_Be cheerful--gai._--This adjective is a favourite one in letters to
his wife, and dates from 1796.

No. 29.

_Roads unsafe and detestable._--The French troops used to say that the
four following words constituted the whole language of the Poles:
_Kleba?_ _Niema._ _Vota?_ _Sara._ ("Some bread? There is none. Some
water? We will go and fetch it.") Napoleon one day passed by a
column of infantry suffering the greatest privations on account of the
mud, which prevented the arrival of provisions. "Papa, kleba?"
exclaimed a soldier. "Niema," replied the Emperor. The whole column
burst into a fit of laughter; they asked for nothing more. Baron
Lejeune, Constant, and Méneval have variants of the same story.

No. 35.

Written from Warsaw, and omitted from the _Correspondence_.

_I hope that you are at Paris._--Madame Junot hints that her husband,
as Governor of Paris, was being sounded by Bonaparte's sister, Murat's
wife (with whom Junot was in love), if he would make Murat Napoleon's
successor, in lieu of Eugène, if the Emperor were killed. If Napoleon
had an inkling of this, he would wish Josephine to be on the spot.

_T._--Is probably Tallien, who had misconducted himself in Egypt.
Madame Junot met him at Madrid, but she and others had not forgotten
the September massacres. "The wretch! how did he drag on his loathsome
existence?" she exclaims.

No. 36.

_Paris._--Josephine arrived here January 31st; Queen Hortense going to
the Hague and the Princess Stephanie to Mannheim.

No. 38.

Probably written from Arensdorf, on the eve of the battle of Eylau
(February 9th), on which day a great ball took place in Paris, given
by the Minister of Marine.

No. 39.

_Eylau._--The battle of Preussich-Eylau was splendidly fought on both
sides, but the Russian general, Beningsen, had all the luck. (1) His
Cossacks capture Napoleon's letter to Bernadotte, which enables him to
escape all Napoleon's plans, which otherwise would have destroyed half
the Russian army. (2) A snowstorm in the middle of the day in the
faces of the French ruins Augereau's corps and saves the Russians
from a total rout. (3) The arrival of a Prussian army corps, under
General Lestocq, robbed Davoust of his glorious victory on the right,
and much of the ground gained--including the village of Kuschnitten.
(4) The night came on just in time to save the rest of the Russian
army, and to prevent Ney taking any decisive part in the battle.
Bernadotte, as usual, failed to march to the sound of the guns, but,
as Napoleon's orders to do so were captured by Cossacks, he might have
had an excuse rather better than usual, had not General Hautpoult,[62]
in touch both with him and Napoleon, advised him of his own orders and
an imminent battle. Under such circumstances, no general save the
Prince of Ponte-Corvo, says Bignon, would have remained inactive, "but
it was the destiny of this marshal to have a rôle apart in all the
great battles fought by the Emperor. His conduct was at least strange
at Jena, it will not be less so, in 1809, at Wagram." The forces,
according to Matthieu Dumas (_Précis des Evénements Militaires_,
volume 18), were approximately 65,000 French against 80,000
allies[63]--the latter in a strong chosen position. Napoleon saved
1500, the wreckage of Augereau's[64] corps, that went astray in the
blizzard (costing the French more than half their loss in the two
days' fight), by a charge of his Horse Guard, but his Foot Guard never
fired a shot. The allies lost 5000 to 6000 dead and 20,000 wounded.
Napoleon told Montholon that his loss at Eylau was 18,000, which
probably included 2000 dead, and 15,000 to 16,000 wounded and
prisoners. As the French remained masters of the field of battle, the
slightly wounded were evidently not counted by Napoleon, who in his
bulletin gives 1900 dead and 5700 wounded. The list of wounded inmates
of the hospital a month later, March 8th, totalled only 4600, which
astonished Napoleon, who sent back for a recount. On receipt of this
he wrote Daru (March 15): "From your advices to hand, I see we are
not far out of count. There were at the battle of Eylau 4000 or 5000
wounded, and 1000 in the combats preceding the battle."

No. 40.

_Corbineau._--Mlle. d'Avrillon (vol. ii. 101) tells how, in haste to
join his regiment at Paris, Corbineau had asked for a seat in her
carriage from St. Cloud. She was delighted, as he was a charming man,
"with no side on like Lauriston and Lemarois." He had just been made
general, and said, "Either I will get killed or deserve the favour
which the Emperor has granted me. M'selle, you shall hear me spoken
of; if I am not killed I will perform some startling deed."

_Dahlmann._--General Nicholas Dahlmann, commanding the chasseurs of
the guard, was killed in the charge on the Russian infantry which
saved the battle. On April 22nd Napoleon wrote Vice-Admiral Decrés to
have three frigates put on the stocks to be called Dahlmann,
Corbineau, and Hautpoul, and in each captain's cabin a marble
inscription recounting their brave deeds.

No. 41.

_Young Tascher._--The third of Josephine's cousins-germain of that
name. He was afterwards aide-de-camp of Prince Eugène, and later
major-domo of the Empress Eugénie.

No. 42.

After this letter St. Amand declares that Napoleon's letters to his
wife become "cold, short, banal, absolutely insignificant." "They
consisted of a few remarks about the rain or the fine weather, and
always the same refrain--the invitation to be cheerful.... Napoleon,
occupied elsewhere, wrote no longer to his legitimate wife, but as a
duty, as paying a debt of conscience." He was occupied, indeed, but
barely as the author supposes. It is Bingham (vol. ii. 281) who
reminds us that in the first three months of 1807 we have 1715 letters
and despatches preserved of his work during that period, while he
often rode forty leagues a day, and had instructed his librarian to
send him by each morning's courier two or three new books from Paris.
Aubenas is more just than St. Amand. "If his style is no longer that
of the First Consul, still less of the General of Italy, he was
solicitous, punctilious, attentive, affectionate even although
laconic, in that correspondence (with Josephine) which, in the midst
of his much greater preoccupations, seems for him as much a pleasure
as a duty."

No. 43.

_I am still at Eylau._--It took Napoleon and his army eight days to
bury the dead and remove the wounded. Lejeune says, "His whole time
was given up now to seeing that the wounded received proper care, and
he insisted on the Russians being as well treated as the French" (vol.
i. 48). The Emperor wrote Daru that if more surgeons had been on the
spot he could have saved at least 200 lives; although, to look at the
surgical instruments used on these fields, and now preserved in the
museum of Les Invalides, it is wonderful that the men survived
operations with such ghastly implements of torture. A few days later
Napoleon tells Daru on no account to begrudge money for medicines, and
especially for quinine.

_This country is covered with dead and wounded._--"Napoleon," says
Dumas (vol. i. 18, 41), "having given order that the succour to the
wounded on both sides might be multiplied, rode over the field of
battle, which all eye-witnesses agree to have been the most horrible
field of carnage which war has ever offered. In a space of less than a
square league, the ground covered with snow, and the frozen lakes,
were heaped up with 10,000 dead, and 3000 to 4000 dead horses, débris
of artillery, arms of all kinds, cannon-balls, and shells. Six
thousand Russians, expiring of their wounds, and of hunger and thirst,
were left abandoned to the generosity of the conqueror."

No. 50.

_Osterode._--"A wretched village, where I shall pass a considerable
time." Owing to the messenger to Bernadotte being captured by
Cossacks, the Emperor, if not surprised at Eylau on the second day,
found at least all his own intentions anticipated. He could not
risk the same misfortune again, and at Osterode all his army were
within easy hailing distance, "within two marches at most" (Dumas).
Savary speaks of him there, "working, eating, giving audience, and
sleeping--all in the same room," alone keeping head against the storm
of his marshals, who wished him to retire across the Vistula. He
remained over five weeks at Osterode, and more than two months at
Finckenstein Castle, interesting himself in the affairs of Teheran
and Monte Video, offering prizes for discoveries in electricity
and medicine, giving advice as to the most scientific modes of
teaching history and geography, while objecting to the creation of
poet-laureates or Cæsarians whose exaggerated praises would be sure to
awaken the ridicule of the French people, even if it attained its
object of finding a place of emolument for poets. Bignon says
(vol. vi. 227): "From Osterode or from Finckenstein he supervised,
as from Paris or St. Cloud, the needs of France; he sought means to
alleviate the hindrances to commerce, discussed the best ways to
encourage literature and art, corresponded with all his ministers,
and while awaiting the renewal of the fray, having a war of
figures with his Chancellor of Exchequer."

_It is not as good as the great city._--The day before he had written
his brother Joseph that neither his officers nor his staff had taken
their clothes off for two months; that he had not taken his boots off
for a fortnight; that the wounded had to be moved 120 miles in
sledges, in the open air; that bread was unprocurable; that the
Emperor had been living for weeks upon potatoes, and the officers upon
mere meat. "After having destroyed the Prussian monarchy, we are
fighting against the remnant of the Prussians, against Russians,
Cossacks, and Kalmucks, those roving tribes of the north, who formerly
invaded the Roman Empire."

_I have ordered what you wish for Malmaison._--About this time he also
gave orders for what afterwards became the Bourse and the Madeleine,
and gave hints for a new journal (March 7th), whose "criticism should
be enlightened, well-intentioned, impartial, and robbed of that
noxious brutality which characterises the discussions of existing
journals, and which is so at variance with the true sentiments of the

No. 54.

_Minerva._--In a letter of March 7th Josephine writes to Hortense: "A
few days ago I saw a frightful accident at the Opera. The actress who
represented Minerva in the ballet of 'Ulysses' fell twenty feet and
broke her arm. As she is poor, and has a family to support, I have
sent her fifty louis." This was probably the ballet, "The Return of
Ulysses," a subject given by Napoleon to Fouché as a suitable subject
for representation. In the same letter Josephine writes: "All the
private letters I have received agree in saying that the Emperor was
very much exposed at the battle of Eylau. I get news of him very
often, sometimes two letters a day, but that does not replace him."
This special danger at Eylau is told by Las Cases, who heard it from
Bertrand. Napoleon was on foot, with only a few officers of his staff;
a column of four to five thousand Russians came almost in contact with
him. Berthier instantly ordered up the horses. The Emperor gave him a
reproachful look; then sent orders to a battalion of his guard to
advance, which was a good way behind, and standing still. As the
Russians advanced he repeated several times, "What audacity, what
audacity!" At the sight of his Grenadiers of the Guard the Russians
stopped short. It was high time for them to do so, as Bertrand said.
The Emperor had never stirred; all who surrounded him had been much

No. 55.

"It is the first and only time," says Aubenas, "that, in these two
volumes of letters (_Collection Didot_), Napoleon says _vous_ to his
wife. But his vexation does not last more than a few lines, and this
short letter ends, '_Tout à toi_.' Not content with this softening,
and convinced how grieved Josephine will be at this language of cold
etiquette, he writes to her the same day, at ten o'clock at night,
before going to bed, a second letter in his old style, which ends,
'_Mille et mille amitiés_.'" It is a later letter (March 25th) which
ends as described, but No. 56 is, nevertheless, a kind letter.

No. 56.

_Dupuis._--Former principal of the Brienne Military School. Napoleon,
always solicitous for the happiness of those whom he had known in his
youth, had made Dupuis his own librarian at Malmaison. His brother,
who died in 1809, was the learned Egyptologist.

No. 58.

_M. de T----_, _i.e._ M. de Thiard. In _Lettres Inedites de Napoleon
I._ (Brotonne), No. 176, to Talleyrand, March 22nd, the Emperor
writes: "I have had M. de Thiard effaced from the list of officers. I
have sent him away, after having testified all my displeasure, and
told him to stay on his estate. He is a man without military honour
and civic fidelity.... My intention is that he shall also be struck
off from the number of my chamberlains. I have been poignantly grieved
at such black ingratitude, but I think myself fortunate to have found
out such a wicked man in time." De Thiard seems to have been
corresponding with the enemy from Warsaw.

No. 60.

_Marshal Bessières._--His château of Grignon, now destroyed, was one
of the most beautiful of Provence. Madame de Sevigné lived and was
buried in the town of Grignon.

_No. 63._

This was printed April 24th in the French editions, but April 14th is
evidently the correct date.

No. 67.

"_Sweet, pouting, and capricious._"--Aubenas speaks of these lines "in
the style of the Italian period, which seemed in fact to calm the
fears of the Empress."

No. 68.

_Madame ----._ His own sister, Madame Murat, afterwards Queen of
Naples. See note to Letter 35 for her influence over Junot. The latter
was severely reprimanded by Napoleon on his return and banished from
Paris. "Why, for example, does the Grand Duchess occupy your boxes at
the theatres? Why does she go thither in your carriage? Hey! M. Junot!
you are surprised that I am so well acquainted with your affairs and
those of that little fool, Madame Murat?" ("Memoirs of the Duchess
d'Abrantès," vol. iii. 328.)

_Measles._--As the poor child was ill four days, it was probably
laryngitis from which he died--an ailment hardly distinguishable from
croup, and one of the commonest sequelæ of measles. He died on May

The best account is the Memoirs of Stanislaus Giraudin. They had
applied leeches to the child's chest, and had finally recourse to some
English powders of unknown composition, which caused a rally, followed
by the final collapse. King Louis said the child's death was caused by
the Dutch damp climate, which was bad for his own health. Josephine
hastens to join her daughter, but breaks down at Lacken, where
Hortense, more dead than alive, joins her, and returns to Paris with

No. 69.

_I trust I may hear you have been rational in your sorrow._--As a
matter of fact he had heard the opposite, for the following day
(May 15th) he writes to his brother Jerome: "Napoleon died in three
days at the Hague; I know not if the King has advised you of it.
This event gives me the more pain insomuch as his father and mother
are not rational, and are giving themselves up to all the transports
of their grief." To Fouché he writes three days later: "I have
been very much afflicted by the misfortune which has befallen me.
I had hoped for a more brilliant destiny for that poor child;" and on
May 20th, "I have felt the loss of the little Napoleon very acutely.
I would have wished that his father and mother should have received
from their temperament as much courage as I for knowing how to bear
all the ills of life. But they are younger, and have reflected less on
the frailty of our worldly possessions." It is typical of Napoleon
that the only man to whom, as far as we know, he unbosomed his
sorrow should be one of his early friends, even though that friend
should be the false and faithless Fouché, who requited his confidence
later by vile and baseless allegations respecting the parentage of
this very child. In one respect only did Napoleon resemble David in
his supposititious sin, which was, that when the child was dead, he
had neither time nor temperament to waste in futile regrets. As he
said on another occasion, if his wife had died during the Austerlitz
Campaign it would not have delayed his operations a quarter of an
hour. But he considers practical succour to the living as the most
fitting memorial to the dead, and writes on June 4th to De Champagny:
"Twenty years ago a malady called croup showed itself in the north
of Europe. Some years ago it spread into France. I require you to
offer a prize of £500 (12,000 francs), to be given to the doctor who
writes the best essay on this malady and its mode of treatment."
Commenting on this letter Bignon (vol. vi. p. 262) adds, "It is,
however, fortunate when, on the eve of battles, warlike princes are
pondering over ways of preserving the population of their states."

No. 71.

_May 20th._--On this date he writes Hortense: "My daughter, all the
news I get from the Hague tells me that you are not rational. However
legitimate your grief, it must have limits: never impair your health;
seek distractions, and know that life is strewn with so many rocks,
and may be the source of so many miseries, that death is not the
greatest of all.--Your affectionate father, NAPOLEON."

No. 74.

_I am vexed with Hortense._--The same day he encloses with this a
letter to Hortense. "My daughter, you have not written me a line
during your great and righteous grief. You have forgotten everything,
as if you had nothing more to lose. They say you care no longer for
any one, that you are callous about everything; I note the truth of it
by your silence. This is not well, Hortense, it is not what you
promised me. Your son was everything for you. Are your mother and
myself nothing? Had I been at Malmaison I should have shared your
grief, but I should have wished you at the same time to turn to your
best friends. Good-bye, my daughter, be cheerful; it is necessary to
be resigned; keep well, in order to fulfil all your duties. My wife is
utterly miserable about your condition; do not increase her
sorrow.--Your affectionate father, NAPOLEON."

Hortense had been on such bad terms with her husband for several
months past that Napoleon evidently thinks it wiser not to allude to
him, although he had written Louis a very strong letter on his
treatment of his wife two months earlier (see letter 12,294 of the
_Correspondence_, April 4th). There is, however, a temporary reunion
between husband and wife in their common sorrow.

No. 78.

_Friedland._--On this day he wrote a further letter to the Queen of
Holland (No. 12,761 of the _Correspondence_): "My daughter, I have
your letter dated Orleans. Your grief pains me, but I should like you
to possess more courage; to live is to suffer, and the true man is
always fighting for mastery over himself. I do not like to see you
unjust towards the little Napoleon Louis, and towards all your
friends. Your mother and I had hoped to be more to you than we are."
She had been sent to take the waters of Cauterets, and had left her
child Napoleon Louis (who died at Forli, 1831) with Josephine, who
writes to her daughter (June 11th): "He amuses me much; he is so
gentle. I find he has all the ways of that poor child that we mourn."
And a few days later: "There remains to you a husband, an interesting
child, and a mother whose love you know." Josephine had with women the
same tact that her husband had with men, but the Bonaparte family,
with all its good qualities, strained the tact and tempers of both to
the utmost.

No. 79.

_Tilsit._--Referring to Napoleon and Alexander at Tilsit, Michaud
says: "Both full of wiles and devices, they affected nevertheless the
most perfect sentiments of generosity, which at the bottom they
scarcely dreamed of practising. Reunited, they were the masters of the
world, but such a union seemed impossible; they would rather share it
among themselves. Allies and rivals, friends and enemies, all were
sacrificed; henceforth there were to be only two powers, that of the
East and that of the West. Bonaparte at this time actually ruled from
the Niemen to the Straits of Gibraltar, from the North Sea to the base
of the Italian Peninsula."


  [60] Bouillet, _Dictionnaire Universelle_, &c.

  [61] "The Queen of that Court was the fair Madame Tallien. All that
       imagination can conceive will scarcely approach the reality;
       beautiful after the antique fashion, she had at once grace and
       dignity; without being endowed with a superior wit, she
       possessed the art of making the best of it, and won people's
       hearts by her great kindness."--_Memoirs of Marmont_, vol. i.,
       p. 887.

  [62] This brave general was mortally wounded in the cavalry charge
       which saved the battle, and the friends of Bernadotte assert
       that the message was never given--an assertion more credible if
       the future king's record had been better on other occasions.

  [63] Alison says 75,000 allies, 85,000 French, but admits allies had
       100 more cannon.

  [64] Augereau, says Méneval, went out of his mind during this battle,
       and had to be sent back to France.


No. 1.

_Milan._--Magnificent public works were set on foot by Napoleon at
Milan, and the Cathedral daily adorned with fresh marvels of
sculpture. Arriving here on the morning of the 22nd, Napoleon goes
first to hear the _Te Deum_ at the Cathedral, then to see Eugène's
wife at the Monza Palace; in the evening to the La Scala Theatre, and
finishes the day (to use an Irishism) by working most of the night.

_Mont Cenis._--"The roads of the Simplon and Mont Cenis were kept in
the finest order, and daily attracted fresh crowds of strangers to the
Italian plains." So says Alison, but on the present occasion Napoleon
was overtaken by a storm which put his life in danger. He was
fortunate enough to reach a cave in which he took refuge. This cave
appeared to him, as he afterwards said, "a cave of diamonds"

_Eugène._--The writer in _Biog. Univ._ (art. Josephine) says: "During
a journey that Napoleon made in Italy (November 1807) he wished, while
loading Eugène with favours, to prepare his mind for his mother's
divorce. The Decree of Milan, by which, in default of male and
legitimate children[65] of _the direct_ _line_, he adopted Eugène for
his son and his successor to the throne of Italy, gave to those who
knew how to read the secret thoughts of the Emperor in his patent acts
the proof that he had excluded him from all inheritance in the
Imperial Crown of France, and that he dreamed seriously of a new
alliance himself."

No. 2.

_Venice._--The Venetians gave Napoleon a wonderful ovation--many
nobles spending a year's income on the fêtes. "Innumerable gondolas
glittering with a thousand colours and resounding with the harmony of
instruments, escorted the barges which bore, together with the master
of the world, the Viceroy and the Vice-Queen of Italy, the King and
Queen of Bavaria, the Princess of Lucca, the King of Naples (Joseph,
who stayed six days with his brother), the Grand Duke of Berg, the
Prince of Neufchâtel, and the greater part of the generals of the old
army of Italy" (Thiers). While at Venice Napoleon was in easy touch
with the Porte, of which he doubtless made full use, while, _per
contra_, he was expected to give Greece her independence.

_November 30th._--Leaving Milan, Napoleon came straight through
Brescia to Verona, where he supped with the King and Queen of
Bavaria. The next morning he started for Vicenza through avenues of
vine-encircled poplars and broad yellow wheat-fields which "lay all
golden in the sunlight and the breeze" (Constant). The Emperor
went to the theatre at Vicenza, and left again at 2 A.M. Spending the
night at Stra, he met the Venetian authorities early the next morning
at Fusina.

No. 3.

_Udine._--He is here on the 12th, and then hastens to meet his brother
Lucien at Mantua--the main but secret object of his journey to Italy.
It is _most_ difficult to gauge the details--was it a political or a
conjugal question that made the interview a failure? Madame
D'Abrantès, voicing the rumours of the day, thinks the former; Lucien,
writing Memoirs for his wife and children, declares it to be the
latter. Napoleon was prepared to legalise the children of his first
wife, and marry the eldest to Prince Ferdinand, the heir to the
Spanish crown; but Lucien considers the Bourbons to be enemies of
France and of the Bonapartes. These Memoirs of Lucien are not perhaps
very trustworthy, especially where his prejudices overlap his memory
or his judgment, but always instructive and very readable. When the
account of this interview was written (early in 1812), Lucien was an
English prisoner, furious that his brother has just refused to
exchange him for "some English Lords." Speaking of Josephine, the
Emperor tells him that in spite of her reputation for good-nature, she
is more malicious than generally supposed, although for her husband
"she has no nails"; but he adds that rumours of impending divorce have
made life between them very constrained. "Only imagine," continued the
Emperor, "that wife of mine weeps every time she has indigestion,
because she says she thinks herself poisoned by those who wish me to
marry some one else. It is perfectly hateful." He said that Joseph
also thought of a divorce, as his wife gave him only daughters, and
that the three brothers might be remarried on the same day. The
Emperor regretted not having taken the Princess Augusta, daughter of
his "best friend, the King of Bavaria," for himself, instead of for
Eugène, who did not know how to appreciate her and was unfaithful. He
was convinced that Russia by invading India would overthrow England,
and that his own soldiers were ready to follow him to the antipodes.
He ends by offering Lucien his choice of thrones--Naples, Italy, "the
brightest jewel of my Imperial crown," or Spain[66] (Madame D'Abrantès
adds _Prussia_), if he will give way about Madame Jouberthon and her
children. "Tout pour Lucien divorcé, rien pour Lucien sans divorce."
When Napoleon finds his brother obdurate he makes Eugène Prince of
Venice, and his eldest daughter Princess of Bologna, with a large
appanage. Lucien is in fresh disgrace within less than three months of
the Mantuan interview, for on March 11, 1808, Napoleon writes brother
Joseph, "Lucien is misconducting himself at Rome ... and is more Roman
than the Pope himself. His conduct has been scandalous; he is my open
enemy, and that of France.... I will not permit a Frenchman, and one
of my own brothers, to be the first to conspire and act against me,
with a rabble of priests."

_I may soon be in Paris._--After leaving Milan he visits the
fortifications at Alessandria, and is met by a torchlight procession
at Marengo. Letters for two days (December 27-28th) are dated Turin,
although Constant says he did not stop there. Crossing Mont Cenis on
December 30th he reaches the Tuileries on the evening of New Year's
Day (1808).


  [65] The Decree itself says "nos enfants et descendants males,
       legitimes et naturels."

  [66] On October 11th Prince Ferdinand had written Napoleon for "the
       honour of allying himself to a Princess of his august family";
       and Lucien's eldest daughter was Napoleon's only choice.


No. 1.

_Bayonne_ is half-way between Paris and Madrid, nearly 600 miles from
each. Napoleon arrived here April 15th, and left July 21st, returning
with Josephine _viâ_ Pau, Tarbes, Auch, Montauban, Agen, Bordeaux,
Rochefort, Nantes. Everywhere he received a hearty welcome, even, and
especially, in La Vendée. He arrives at Paris August 14th, hearing on
August 3rd at Bordeaux of (what he calls) the "horrible catastrophe"
of General Dupont at Baylen.

No. 2.

_A country-house._--The Château of Marrac. Marbot had stayed there in
1803 with Augereau. Bausset informs us that this château had been
built either for the Infanta Marie Victoire engaged to Louis XV., or
for the Dowager Queen of Charles II., "the bewitched," when she was
packed off from Madrid to Bayonne (see Hume's _Spain_, 1479-1788).

_Everything is still most primitive._--Nevertheless he enjoyed the
_pamperruque_ which was danced before the château by seven men and ten
maidens, gaily dressed--the women armed with tambourines and the men
with castanets. Saint-Amand speaks of thirteen performers (seven men
and six maidens) chosen from the leading families of the town, to
render what for time immemorial had been considered fit homage for the
most illustrious persons.

No. 3.

_Prince of the Asturias._--The Emperor had received him at the château
of Marrac, paid him all the honours due to royalty, while evading the
word "Majesty," and insisting the same day on his giving up all claim
to the Crown of Spain. Constant says he was heavy of gait, and rarely

_The Queen._--A woman of violent passions. The Prince of the Asturias
had designs on his mother's life, while the Queen openly begged
Napoleon to put the Prince to death. On May 9th Napoleon writes
Talleyrand to prepare to take charge of Ferdinand at Valençay, adding
that if the latter were "to become attached to some pretty woman, whom
we are sure of, it would be no disadvantage." A new experience for a
Montmorency to become the keeper of a Bourbon, rather than his
Constable. Pasquier, with his usual Malvolian decorum, gives fuller
details. Napoleon, he says, "enumerates with care (to Talleyrand) all
the precautions that are to be taken to prevent his escape, and even
goes so far as to busy himself with the distractions which may be
permitted him. And, be it noted, the principal one thrown in his way
was given him by a young person who lived at the time under M. De
Talleyrand's roof. This liaison, of which Ferdinand soon became
distrustful, did not last as long as it was desired to."

No. 4.

_A son has been born._--By a plebiscite of the year XII. (1804-5), the
children of Louis and Hortense were to be the heirs of Napoleon, and
in conformity with this the child born on April 20th at 17 Rue Lafitte
(now the residence of the Turkish Ambassador), was inscribed on the
register of the Civil List destined for princes of the blood. His two
elder brothers had not been so honoured, but in due course the King of
Rome was entered thereon. Had Louis accepted the Crown of Spain which
Napoleon had in vain offered to him, and of which Hortense would have
made an ideal Queen, the chances are that Napoleon would never have
divorced Josephine. St. Amand shows at length that the future Napoleon
III. is truly the child of Louis, and neither of Admiral Verhuell nor
of the Duke Decazes. Louis and Hortense in the present case are
sufficiently agreed to insist that the father's name be preserved by
the child, who is called Charles Louis Napoleon, and not Charles
Napoleon, which was the Emperor's first choice. In either case the
name of the croup-stricken firstborn had been preserved. On April 23rd
Josephine had already two letters from Cambacérès respecting mother
and child, and on this day the Empress writes her daughter: "I know
that Napoleon is consoled for not having a sister."

_Arrive on the 27th._--Josephine, always wishful to humour her
husband's love of punctuality, duly arrived on the day fixed, and took
up her abode with her husband in the château of Marrac. Ferdinand
wrote to his uncle in Madrid to beware of the cursed Frenchmen,
telling him also that Josephine had been badly received at Bayonne.
The letter was intercepted, and Napoleon wrote Murat that the writer
was a liar, a fool, and a hypocrite. The Emperor, in fact, never
trusted the Prince henceforward. Bausset, who translated the letter,
tells how the Emperor could scarcely believe that the Prince would use
so strong an adjective, but was convinced on seeing the word
_maldittos_, which he remarked was almost the Italian--_maledetto_.


Leaving St. Cloud September 22nd, Napoleon is at Metz on the 23rd, at
Kaiserlautern on the 24th, where he sends a message to the Empress in
a letter to Cambacérès, and on the 27th is at Erfurt. On the 28th the
Emperors of France and Russia sign a Convention of Alliance. Napoleon
leaves Erfurt October 14th (the anniversary of Jena), travels
incognito, and arrives St. Cloud October 18th.

No. 1.

_I have rather a cold._--Napoleon had insisted on going to explore a
new road he had ordered between Metz and Mayence, and which no one had
ventured to say was not complete. The road was so bad that the
carriage of the _maître des requêtes_, who had been summoned to
account for the faulty work, was precipitated a hundred feet down a
ravine near Kaiserlautern.

_I am pleased with the Emperor and every one here._--Which included
what he had promised Talma for his audience--a _parterre_ of kings.
Besides the two Emperors, the King of Prussia was represented by his
brother Prince William, Austria by General Vincent, and there were
also the Kings of Saxony, Bavaria, Würtemberg, Westphalia, and Naples,
the Prince Primate, the Princes of Anhalt, Coburg, Saxe-Weimar,
Darmstadt, Baden, and Nassau. Talleyrand, Champagny, Maret, Duroc,
Berthier, and Caulaincourt, with Generals Oudinot, Soult, and
Lauriston accompanied Napoleon. Literature was represented by Goethe,
Wieland, Müller; and feminine attractions by the Duchess of
Saxe-Weimar and the wily Princess of Tour and Taxis, sister of the
Queen of Prussia. Pasquier and others have proved that at Erfurt
Talleyrand did far more harm than good to his master's cause, and in
fact intended to do so. On his arrival he spent his first evening with
the Princess of Tour and Taxis, in order to meet the Emperor
Alexander, and said: "Sire ... It is for you to save Europe, and the
only way of attaining this object is by resisting Napoleon. The French
people are civilised, their Emperor is not: the sovereign of Russia is
civilised, his people are not. It is therefore for the sovereign of
Russia to be the ally of the French people,"--of whom Talleyrand
declared himself to be the representative. By squaring Alexander this
transcendental (unfrocked) Vicar of Bray, "with an oar in every boat,"
is once more hedging, or, to use his own phrase, guaranteeing the
future, and at the same time securing the daughter of the Duchess of
Courland for his nephew, Edmond de Périgord. "The Arch-apostate"
carried his treason so far as to advise Alexander of Napoleon's
ulterior views, and thus enabled the former to forestall them--no easy
matter in conversations with Napoleon "lasting whole days" (see
Letter No. 3, this Series). Talleyrand had also a grievance. He had
been replaced as Foreign Minister by Champagny. He had accepted the
surrender of his portfolio gladly, as now, becoming Vice-Grand
Elector, he ranked with Cambacérès and Maret. But when he found that
Napoleon, who liked to have credit for his own diplomacy, seldom
consulted him, or allowed Champagny to do so, jealousy and ill-will
naturally resulted.

No. 2.

_Shooting over the battlefield of Jena._--The presence of the Emperor
Alexander on this occasion was considered a great affront to his
recent ally, the King of Prussia, and is severely commented on by Von
Moltke in one of his Essays. In fairness to Alexander, we must
remember that their host, the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, had married his
sister. Von Moltke, by the way, speaks of _hares_ forming the sport in
question, but Savary of a second battle of Jena fought against the
_partridges_. The fact seems to be that all kinds of game, including
stags and deer, were driven by the beaters to the royal sportsmen in
their huts, and the Emperor Alexander, albeit short-sighted, succeeded
in killing a stag, at eight feet distance, _at the first shot_.

_The Weimar ball._--This followed the Jena shoot, and the dancing
lasted all night. The Russian courtiers were scandalised at their
Emperor dancing, but while he was present the dancing was conventional
enough, consisting of promenading two and two to the strains of a
Polish march. "Imperial Waltz, imported from the Rhine," was already
the rage in Germany, and Napoleon, in order to be more worthy of his
Austrian princess, tried next year to master this new science of
tactics, but after a trial with the Princess Stephanie, the lady
declared that her pupil should always give lessons, and never receive
them. He was rather more successful at billiards, pursued under the
same praiseworthy incentive.

_A few trifling ailments._--Mainly a fearful nightmare; a new
experience, in which he imagines his vitals torn out by a bear.
"Significant of much!" As when also the Russian Emperor finds
himself without a sword and accepts that of Napoleon as a gift: and
when, on the last night, the latter orders his comedians to play
"Bajazet,"--little thinking the appointed Tamerlane was by his side.

No. 3.

_I am pleased with Alexander._--For the time being Josephine had most
reason to be pleased with Alexander, who failed to secure his sister's
hand for Napoleon.

_He ought to be with me._--He might have been, had not Napoleon
purposely evaded the Eastern Question. On this subject Savary
writes (vol. ii. 297):--"Since Tilsit, Napoleon had sounded the
personal views of his ambassador at Constantinople, General
Sebastiani, as to this proposition of the Emperor of Russia (_i.e._
the partition of Turkey). This ambassador was utterly opposed to
this project, and in a long report that he sent to the Emperor on his
return from Constantinople, he demonstrated to him that it was
absolutely necessary for France never to consent to the dismemberment
of the Turkish Empire; the Emperor Napoleon adopted his views." And
these Talleyrand knew. The whirligig of time brings about its
revenges, and in less than fifty years Lord Palmerston had to seek
an alliance with France and the house of Napoleon in order to
maintain the fixed policy that sent Napoleon I. to Moscow and to
St. Helena. "Alexander, with justice," says Alison, "looked upon
Constantinople as the back-door of his empire, and was earnest that
its key should be placed in his hands." "Alexander," Napoleon told
O'Meara, "wanted to get Constantinople, which I would not allow,
as it would have destroyed the equilibrium of power in Europe. I
reflected that France would gain Egypt, Syria, and the islands,
which would have been nothing in comparison with what Russia would
have obtained. I considered that the barbarians of the north were
already too powerful, and probably in the course of time would
overwhelm all Europe, as I now think they will. Austria already
trembles: Russia and Prussia united, Austria falls, and England
cannot prevent it."

_Erfurt_ is the meridian of Napoleon's first thirteen years
(1796-1808)--each more glorious; henceforward (1809-1821) ever faster
he "rolls, darkling, down the torrent of his fate."


No. 5.

Written from Aranda.

No. 6.

Written from the Imperial Camp outside Madrid. Neither Napoleon[67]
nor Joseph entered the capital, but King Joseph took up his abode at
the Prado, the castle of the Kings of Spain, two miles away; while the
Emperor was generally at Chamartin, some five miles distant. He had
arrived on the heights surrounding Madrid on his Coronation Day
(December 2nd), and does not fail to remind his soldiers and his
people of this auspicious coincidence. The bulletin concludes with a
tirade against England, whose conduct is "shameful," but her troops
"well disciplined and superb." It declares that Spain has been treated
by them as they have treated Holland, Sardinia, Austria, Russia, and
Sweden. "They foment war everywhere; they distribute weapons like
poison; but they shed their blood only for their direct and personal

_Parisian weather of the last fortnight in May._--In his bulletin of
the 13th, he says: "Never has such a month of December been known in
this country; one would think it the beginning of spring." But ten
days later all was changed, and the storm of Guadarrama undoubtedly
saved Moore and the English army. "Was it then decreed," groans
Thiers, "that we, who were always successful against combined Europe,
should on no single occasion prevail against those implacable foes?"

No. 8.

Other letters of this date are headed Madrid.

_Kourakin._--Alexander Kourakin was the new Russian Ambassador at
Paris, removed thence from Vienna to please Napoleon, and to replace
Tolstoi, who, according to Savary, was always quarrelling with French
officers on military points, but who could hardly be so narrow-minded
a novice on these points as his namesake of to-day. This matter had
been arranged at Erfurt.

No. 9.

_The English appear to have received reinforcements._--Imagine a
Transvaal with a population of ten millions, and one has a fair idea
of the French difficulties in Spain, even without Portugal. The
Spaniards could not fight a scientific battle like Jena or Friedland,
but they were incomparable at guerilla warfare. The Memoirs of Barons
Marbot and Lejeune have well demonstrated this. The latter, an
accomplished linguist, sent to locate Moore's army, found that to pass
as an Englishman the magic words "Damn it," won him complete success.

No. 10.

_Benavente._--Here they found 600 horses, which had been hamstrung by
the English.

_The English flee panic-stricken._--The next day Napoleon writes
Fouché to have songs written, and caricatures made of them, which are
also to be translated into German and Italian, and circulated in
Germany and Italy.

_The weather is very bad._--Including 18 degrees of frost. Savary says
they had never felt the cold so severe in Poland--and that they ran a
risk of being buried in the snow. The Emperor had to march on foot and
was very much tired. "On these occasions," adds Savary, "the Emperor
was not selfish, as people would have us believe ... he shared his
supper[68] and his fire with all who accompanied him: he went so far
as to make those eat whom he saw in need of it." Napier gives other
details: "Napoleon, on December 22nd, has 50,000 men at the foot of
the Guadarrama. A deep snow choked the passes of the Sierra, and after
twelve hours' toil the advanced guards were still on the wrong side:
the general commanding reported the road impracticable, but Napoleon,
dismounting, placed himself at the head of the column, and amidst
storms of hail and driving snow, led his soldiers over the mountain."
At the passage of the Esla Moore escapes Napoleon by twelve hours.
Marbot, as usual, gives picturesque details. Officers and men marched
with locked arms, the Emperor between Lannes and Duroc. Half-way up,
the marshals and generals, who wore jack-boots, could go no further.
Napoleon, however, got hoisted on to a gun, and bestrode it: the
marshals and generals did the same, and in this grotesque order they
reached, after four hours' toil, the convent at the summit.

_Lefebvre._--As they neared Benavente the slush became frightful, and
the artillery could not keep pace. General Lefebvre-Desnouette went
forward, with the horse regiment of the Guard, forded the Esla with
four squadrons, was outnumbered by the English (3000 to 300), but he
and sixty (Lejeune, who escaped, says a hundred) of his chasseurs were
captured. He was brought in great triumph to Sir John Moore. "That
general," says Thiers, "possessed the courtesy characteristic of all
great nations; he received with the greatest respect the brilliant
general who commanded Napoleon's light cavalry, seated him at his
table, and presented him with a magnificent Indian sabre."

No. 11.

Probably written from Astorga, where he arrived on January 1st, having
brought 50,000 men two hundred miles in ten days.

_Your letters._--These probably, and others received by a courier,
decided him to let Soult follow the English to Corunna--especially as
he knew that transports were awaiting the enemy there. He himself
prepares to return, for Fouché and Talleyrand are in league, the slim
and slippery Metternich is ambassador at Paris, Austria is arming, and
the whole political horizon, apparently bright at Erfurt, completely
overcast. Murat, balked of the Crown of Spain, is now hoping for that
of France if Napoleon is killed or assassinated. It is Talleyrand and
Fouché who have decided on Murat, and on the ultimate overthrow of the
Beauharnais. Unfortunately for their plans Eugène is apprised by
Lavalette, and an incriminating letter to Murat captured and sent
post-haste to Napoleon. This, says Pasquier, undoubtedly hastened the
Emperor's return. Ignoring the complicity of Fouché, the whole weight
of his anger falls on Talleyrand, who loses the post of High
Chamberlain, which he had enjoyed since 1804. For half-an-hour this
"arch-apostate," as Lord Rosebery calls him, receives a torrent of
invectives. "You are a thief, a coward, a man without honour; you do
not believe in God; you have all your life been a traitor to your
duties; you have deceived and betrayed everybody: nothing is sacred to
you; you would sell your own father. I have loaded you down with
gifts, and there is nothing that you would not undertake against me.
Thus, for the past ten months, you have been shameless enough, because
you supposed, rightly or wrongly, that my affairs in Spain were going
astray, to say to all who would listen to you that you always blamed
my undertaking there, whereas it was yourself who first put it into my
head, and who persistently urged it. And that man, _that unfortunate_
(he was thus designating the Duc d'Enghien), by whom was I advised of
the place of his residence? Who drove me to deal cruelly with him?
What then are you aiming at? What do you wish for? What do you hope?
Do you dare to say? You deserve that I should smash you like a
wine-glass. I can do it, but I despise you too much to take the
trouble." This we are assured by the impartial Pasquier, who heard it
from an ear-witness, and second-hand from Talleyrand, is an abstract
of what Napoleon said, and to which the ex-Bishop made no reply.

No. 12.

_The English are in utter rout._--Still little but dead men and horses
fell into his hands. Savary adds the interesting fact that all the
(800) dead cavalry horses had a foot missing, which the English had
to show their officers to prove that they had not sold their horses.
Scott, on barely sufficient evidence perhaps, states, "The very
treasure-chests of the army were thrown away and abandoned. There was
never so complete an example of a disastrous retreat." The fact seems
to have been that the soldiership was bad, but Moore's generalship
excellent. Napier writes, "No wild horde of Tartars ever fell with
more license upon their rich effeminate neighbours than did the
English troops upon the Spanish towns taken by storm." What could be
expected of such men in retreat, when even Lord Melville had just said
in extenuation of our army that the worst men make the best soldiers?

NOS. 13 AND 14.

Written at Valladolid. Here he received a deputation asking that his
brother may reside in Madrid, to which he agrees, and awaits its
arrangement before setting out for Paris.

At Valladolid he met De Pradt, whom he mistrusted; but who, like
Talleyrand, always amused him. In the present case the Abbé told him
that "the Spaniards would never thank him for interfering in their
behalf, and that they were like Sganarelle in the farce, who
quarrelled with a stranger for interfering with her husband when he
was beating her" (Scott's "Napoleon").

He leaves Valladolid January 17th, and is in Paris on January 24th. He
rode the first seventy miles, to Burgos, in five and a half hours,
stopping only to change horses.[69] Well might Savary say, "Never had
a sovereign ridden at such a speed."

_Eugène has a daughter._--The Princess Eugénie-Hortense, born December
23rd at Milan; married the hereditary Prince of Hohenzollern

_They are foolish in Paris_--if not worse. Talleyrand, Fouché, and
others were forming what amounted to a conspiracy, and the Empress
herself, wittingly or unwittingly, had served as their tool. For the
first time she answers a deputation of the Corps Législatif, who come
to congratulate her on her husband's victories, and says that
doubtless his Majesty would be very sensible of the homage of an
assembly _which represents the nation_. Napoleon sees in this remark a
germ of aggression on behalf of his House of Commons, more especially
when emphasised by 125 blackballs against a Government Bill. He takes
the effective but somewhat severe step of contradicting his wife in
the _Moniteur_, or rather declaring that the Empress knew the laws too
well not to know that the Emperor was the chief representative of the
People, then the Senate, and last the Corps Législatif.

"It would be a wild and even criminal assertion to try to represent
the nation before the Emperor."

All through the first half of 1809 another dangerous plot, of which
the centre was the Princess of Tour and Taxis, had its threads far and
wide. Many of Soult's generals were implicated, and in communication
with the English, preventing their commander getting news of
Wellesley's movements (Napier). When they find Soult cannot be
traduced, they lend a willing ear to stirring up strife between the
Emperor and Soult, by suggesting that the latter should be made King
of Portugal. Madame d'Abrantès, who heard in 1814 that the idea had
found favour with English statesmen, thinks such a step would have
seriously injured Napoleon (vol. iv. 53).


  [67] Napoleon visited Madrid and its Palais Royal incognito, and (like
       Vienna) by night (Bausset).

  [68] With Lejeune on one occasion.

  [69] _Biographie Universelle._ Michaud says _ponies_.



The dangers surrounding Napoleon were immense. The Austrian army,
320,000 strong (with her Landwehr, 544,000 men) and 800 cannon, had
never been so great, never so fitted for war. Prussia was already
seething with secret societies, of which as yet the only formidable
one was the Tugendbund, whose headquarters were Konigsburg, and whose
chief members were Stein, Stadion, Blucher, Jahn. Perhaps their most
sensible scheme was to form a united German empire, with the Archduke
Charles[70] as its head. The Archduke Ferdinand invaded the Duchy of
Warsaw, and had he taken Thorn with its park of 100 cannon, Prussia
was to join Austria. In Italy the Carbonari and Adelphes[71] only
waited for the French troops to go north to meet the Austrians to
spread revolt in Italy. Of the former the head lodge was at Capua and
its constitutions written in English, since England was aiding this
_chouanerie religieuse_ as a lever against Napoleon. England had an
army of 40,000 men ready to embark in any direction--to Holland,
Belgium, Naples, or Biscay, while the French troops in Portugal were
being tampered with to receive Moreau as their leader, and to march
with Spaniards and English for the Pyrenees. At Paris Talleyrand was
in partial disgrace, but he and Fouché were still plotting--the
latter, says Pelet, forwarding daily a copy of the private bulletin
(prepared for Napoleon's eye alone) to the Bourbons. After Essling and
the breaking of the Danube bridge, he hesitated between seizing
supreme power himself or offering it to Bernadotte.

Up to the last--up to March 27th--the _Correspondence_ proves that
Napoleon had hoped that war would be averted through the influence of
Russia. "All initiative," he declared, "rested on the heads of the
court of Austria." "Menaced on all sides; warned of the intentions of his
enemies by their movements and by their intercepted correspondence;
seeing from that moment hostilities imminent, he wishes to prove to
France and Europe that all the wrongs are on their side, and awaits in his
capital the news of an aggression that nothing justifies, nothing
warrants. Vain prudence! Europe will accuse him of having been the
instigator on every occasion, even in this."[72] On April 8th the
Austrians violated Bavarian territory, and during his supreme command for
the next five days Berthier endangered the safety of the French empire
in spite of the most elaborate and lucid instructions from Napoleon, which
he failed to comprehend. "Never," says Pelet, "was so much written, never
so little done. Each of his letters (Berthier's) attests the great
difference which existed between his own correspondence and that which
was dictated to him." An ideal chief of staff, he utterly lacked the
decision necessary for a commander-in-chief. The arrival of Napoleon
changed in a moment the position of affairs. "The sudden apparition of the
Emperor produced the effect of the head of Medusa, and paralysed the
enemy."[73] Within five days the Austrians were four times defeated, and
Ratisbon, the _passe-partout_ of Southern Germany and half-way house
between Strasburg and Vienna, is once more in the hands of France and her
allies. Pelet considers these operations as the finest which have been
executed either in ancient or modern times, at any rate those of which the
projects are authentically proved. He foretells that military men from
every country of Europe, but specially young Frenchmen, will religiously
visit the fields of the Laber. They will visit, with Napoleon's
_Correspondence_ in their hands, "much more precious than every other
commentary, the hills of Pfaffenhofen, the bridge of Landshut, and that
of Eckmühl, the mill of Stangl, and the woods of Roking." A few days
later the Archduke Charles writes a letter to Napoleon, which is a fair
type of those charming yet stately manners which made him at that
moment the most popular man in Europe. "Sire," he writes, "your
Majesty's arrival was announced to me by the thunder of artillery, without
giving me time to compliment you thereon. Scarcely advised of your
presence, I was made sensible of it by the losses which you have caused
me. You have taken many of my men, Sire; my troops also have made some
thousands of prisoners in places where you did not direct the
operations. I propose to your Majesty to exchange them man for man, grade
for grade, and if that offer is agreeable to you, please let me know your
intentions for the place destined for the exchange. I feel flattered,
sire, in fighting against the greatest captain of the age. I should be
more happy if destiny had chosen me to procure for my country the
benefit of a lasting peace. Whichsoever they be, the events of war or
the approach of peace, I beg your Majesty to believe that my desires
always carry me to meet you, and that I hold myself equally honoured in
finding the sword, or the olive branch, in the hand of your Majesty."

No. 1.

n the same day napoleon writes almost an identical
letter to cambacérès, adding, however, the news that the tyrolese are
in full revolt.

On april 20th he placed himself at the head of the wurtembergers and
bavarians at abensberg. he made a stirring speech (no. 15,099 of
_correspondence_), and lejeune tells us that the prince royal of
bavaria translated into german one sentence after another as the
emperor spoke, and officers repeated the translations throughout the

On april 24th is issued from Ratisbon his proclamation to the
army:--"Soldiers, you have justified my expectations. You have made
up for your number by your bravery. You have gloriously marked the
difference between the soldiers of Cæsar and the armed cohorts of
Xerxes. In a few days we have triumphed in the pitched battles of
Thann, Abensberg, and Eckmühl, and in the combats of Peising,
Landshut, and Ratisbon. A hundred cannon, forty flags, fifty thousand
prisoners.... before a month we shall be at Vienna." It was within
three weeks! He was specially proud of Eckmühl, and we are probably
indebted to a remark of Pasquier for his chief but never divulged
reason. "A noteworthy fact in connection with this battle was that
the triumphant army was composed principally of Bavarians and
Wurtembergers. Under his direction, these allies were as greatly to be
feared as the French themselves." At St. Helena was written: "The
battle of Abensberg, the manoeuvres of Landshut, and the battle of
Eckmühl were the most brilliant and the most skilful manoeuvres of
Napoleon." Eckmühl ended with a fine exhibition of a "white arm"
mêlée by moonlight, in which the French proved the superiority of
their double cuirasses over the breastplates of the Austrians.
Pelet gives this useful abstract of the campaign of five days:--

_April 19th._--Union of the french army whilst fighting the Archduke,
whose base is already menaced.

_April 20th._--Napoleon, at Abensberg and on the banks of the Laber,
breaks the Austrian line, totally separating the centre from the left,
which he causes to be turned by Massena.

_April 21st._--He destroys their left wing at Landshut, and captures
the magazines, artillery, and train, as well as the communications of
the enemy's grand army, fixing definitely his own line of operations,
which he already directs on Vienna.

_April 22nd._--He descends the Laber to Eckmühl, gives the last blow
to the Archduke's army, of which the remnant takes refuge in

_april 23rd._--He takes that strong place, and forces the Archduke to
take refuge in the mountains of Bohemia.

No. 2.

_May 6th._--On May 1st Napoleon was still at Braunau, waiting for news
from Davoust. Travelling by night at his usual speed he reached
Lambach at noon on May 2nd, and Wels on the 3rd. The next morning he
heard Massena's cannon at Ebersberg, but reaches the field at the fall
of night--too late to save the heavy cost of Massena's frontal attack.
The French lost at least 1500 killed and wounded; the Austrians (under
Hiller) the same number killed and 7000 prisoners. Pelet defends
Massena, and quotes the bulletin of May 4th (omitted from the
_Correspondence_): "It is one of the finest feats of arms of which
history can preserve the memory! The traveller will stop and say, 'It
is here, it is here, in these superb positions, that an army of 35,000
Austrians was routed by two French divisions'" (Pelet, ii. 225).
Lejeune, and most writers, blame Massena, referring to the Emperor's
letter of May 1st in Pelet's Appendix (vol. ii.), but not in the

Between April 17th and May 6th there is no letter to Josephine
preserved, but plenty to Eugène, and all severe--not so much for
incapacity as for not keeping the Emperor advised of what was really
happening. On May 6th he had received no news for over a week.

_The ball that touched me_--_i.e._ at Ratisbon. This was the second
time Napoleon had been wounded in battle--the first time by an
English bayonet at Toulon. On the present occasion (April 23rd)
Méneval seems to be the best authority: "Napoleon was seated on a
spot from which he could see the attack on the town of Ratisbon. He
was beating the ground with his riding-whip,[74] when a bullet,
supposed to have been fired from a Tyrolean carbine, struck him on the
big toe (Marbot says 'right ankle,' which is correct). The news of
his wound spread rapidly[75] from file to file, and he was forced
to mount on horseback to show himself to his troops. Although his
boot had not been cut the contusion was a very painful one," and in
the first house he went to for a moment's rest, he fainted. The next
day, however, he saw the wounded and reviewed his troops as usual,
and Lejeune has preserved a highly characteristic story, somewhat
similar to an experience of the Great Frederick's: "When he had
reached the seventh or eighth sergeant the Emperor noticed a
handsome young fellow with fine but stern-looking eyes and of
resolute and martial bearing, who made his musket ring again as he
presented arms. 'How many wounds?' inquired the Emperor. 'Thirty,'
replied the sergeant. 'I am not asking you your age,' said the Emperor
graciously; 'I am asking how many wounds you have received.' Raising
his voice, the sergeant again replied with the one word, 'Thirty.'
Annoyed at this reply, the Emperor turned to the colonel and said,
'The man does not understand; he thinks I am asking about his
age.' 'He understands well enough, sire,' was the reply; 'he has been
wounded thirty times.' 'What!' exclaimed the Emperor, 'you have been
wounded so often and have not got the cross!' The sergeant looked
down at his chest, and seeing that the strap of his cartridge-pouch
hid his decoration, he raised it so as to show the cross. He said
to the Emperor, with great earnestness, 'Yes, I've got one; but I've
merited a dozen!' The Emperor, who was always pleased to meet
spirited fellows such as this, pronounced the sacramental words,
'I make you an officer!' 'That's right, Emperor,' said the new
sub-lieutenant as he proudly drew himself up; 'you couldn't have
done better!'"

No. 3.

Almost an exact duplicate of this letter goes on to Paris to
Cambacérès, as also of No. 4. The moment the Emperor had heard that
the Archduke had left Budweiss and was going by the circuitous route
_viâ_ Krems to Vienna, he left Enns (May 7th) and reached Moelk the
same evening. Seeing a camp of the enemy on the other side of the
river he sends Marbot with a sergeant and six picked men to kidnap a
few Austrians during the night. The foray is successful, and three are
brought before Napoleon, one weeping bitterly. The Emperor asked the
reason, and found it was because he had charge of his master's girdle,
and would be thought to have robbed him. The Emperor had him set free
and ferried across the river, saying, "We must honour and aid virtue
wherever it shows itself." The next day he started for Saint-Polten
(already evacuated by Hiller). On his way he saw the ruins of
Dirnstein Castle, where Richard Coeur de Lion had been imprisoned. The
Emperor's comments were interesting, but are now hackneyed, and are in
most histories and memoirs--the parent source being Pelet (vol. ii.

No. 4.

_Schoenbrunn_, situated a mile from Vienna, across the little river of
that name. Constant thus describes it: "Built in 1754 by the
Empress Marie Thérèse, Schoenbrunn had an admirable position; its
architecture, if defective and irregular, was yet of a majestic,
imposing type. To reach it one has to cross the bridge across the
little river Vienna. Four stone sphinxes ornament this bridge, which
is very large and well built. Facing the bridge there is a handsome
gate opening on to a large courtyard, spacious enough for seven or
eight thousand men to manoeuvre in. The courtyard is in the form
of a quadrangle surrounded by covered galleries and ornamented with
two large basins, in which are marble statues. On both sides of
the gateway are two huge obelisks of pink stone surmounted by gilt

"In German, Schoenbrunn means 'fair spring,' and the name is derived
from a fresh and sparkling spring which is situated in the park. It
wells forth from a little mound on which a tiny grotto has been built,
carved within so as to resemble stalactites. Inside the grotto is a
recumbent naiad holding a horn, from which the water falls down into a
marble basin. In summer this little nook is deliciously cool.

"The interior of the palace merits nothing but praise. The furniture
is sumptuous, and in taste both original and distinguished. The
Emperor's bedroom (the only place in the whole edifice where there was
a chimney) was upholstered in Chinese lacquer-wood of great antiquity,
yet the painting and gilding were still quite fresh. The study
adjoining was decorated in a like way. All these apartments, except
the bedroom, were heated in winter by immense stoves, which sadly
spoilt the effect of the other furniture. Between the study and the
bedroom there was a strange apparatus called a 'flying chair,' a sort
of mechanical seat, which had been constructed for the Empress Marie
Thérèse, and which served to transport her from one floor to another,
so that she was not obliged to go up and down the staircase like every
one else. The machine was worked in the same way as at theatres, by
cords, pulleys, and a counter-weight." The Emperor drank a glassful
from the beautiful spring, Schoen Brunn, every morning. Napoleon found
the people of Vienna less favourable to the French than in 1805; and
Count Rapp told him "the people were everywhere tired of us and of our
victories." "He did not like these sort of reflections."

_May 12th._--On May 13th is dated the _seventh_ bulletin of the
army of Germany, but none of the Bulletins 2 to 6 are in the
_Correspondence_. It states that on the 10th he is before Vienna; the
Archduke Maximilian refuses to surrender; on the 11th, at 9 P.M., the
bombardment commences, and by daybreak the city capitulated, and the
Archduke fled. In his proclamation Napoleon blamed him and the
house of Austria for the bombardment. "While fleeing from the city,
their adieux to the inhabitants have been murder and arson; like
Medea, they have with their own hands slain their children." The
Viennese had sworn to emulate their ancestors in 1683, and the heroes
of Saragossa. But Alison (than whom none can do the "big bow-wow"
style better) has a thoughtful comment on what really occurred. "All
history demonstrates that there is one stage of civilisation when the
inhabitants of a metropolis are capable of such a sacrifice in defence
of their country, and only one; and that when passed, it is never
recovered. The event has proved that the Russians, in 1812, were in
the state of progress when such a heroic act was possible, but
that the inhabitants of Vienna and Paris had passed it. Most
certainly the citizens of London would never have buried themselves
under the ruins of the Bank, the Treasury, or Leadenhall Street
before capitulating to Napoleon." 1870 and the siege of Paris modify
this judgment; but the Prussian bombardment came only at the last,
and barely reached the centre of the city.

No. 5.

_Ebersdorf._--Written five days after the murderous battle of Essling.
Montgaillard, whose temper and judgment, as Alison remarks, are not
equal to his talents, cannot resist a covert sneer (writing under the
Bourbons) at Napoleon's generalship on this occasion, although he adds
a veneer by reminding us that Cæsar was defeated at Dyrrachium,
Turenne at Marienthal, Eugène at Denain, Frederick the Great at Kolin.
The crossing of the river was one which none but a victorious army,
with another[76] about to join it, could afford to risk, but which
having effected, the French had to make the best of. As Napoleon said
in his tenth bulletin, "The passage of a river like the Danube, in
front of an enemy knowing perfectly the localities, and having the
inhabitants on its side, is one of the greatest operations of war
which it is possible to conceive." The Danube hereabouts is a thousand
yards broad, and thirty feet deep. But the rising of its water
fourteen feet in three days was what no one had expected. At Ebersdorf
the first branch of the Danube was 500 yards across to an islet,
thence 340 yards across the main current to Lobau, the vast island
three miles broad and nearly three miles long, separated from the
farther bank by another 150 yards of Danube. Bertrand had made
excellent bridges, but on the 22nd the main one was carried away by a
floating mill.

_Eugène ... has completely performed the task._--At the commencement
of the campaign the Viceroy was taken unprepared. The Archduke John,
exactly his own age (twenty-seven), was burning with hatred of France.
Eugène had the impudence, with far inferior forces, to attack him at
Sacile on April 16th, but was repulsed with a loss (including
prisoners) of 6000 men. It is now necessary to retire, and the
Archduke follows him leisurely, almost within sight of Verona. By the
end of April the news of Eckmühl has reached both armies, and by May
1st the Austrians are in full retreat. As usual, Napoleon has already
divined their altered plan of campaign, and writes from Braunau on
this very day, "I doubt not that the enemy may have retired before
you; it is necessary to pursue him with activity, whilst coming to
join me as soon as possible _viâ_ Carinthia. The junction with my army
will probably take place beyond Bruck. It is probable I shall be at
Vienna by the 10th to the 15th of May." It is the successful
performance of this task of joining him and of driving back the enemy
to which Napoleon alludes in the letter. The Viceroy had been reproved
for fighting at Sacile without his cavalry, for his precipitous
retreat on Verona; and only two days earlier the Emperor had told him
that if affairs went worse he was to send for the King of Naples
(Murat) to take command. "I am no longer grieved at the blunders you
have committed, but because you do not write to me, and give me no
chance of advising you, and even of regulating my own affairs here
conformably." On May 8th Eugène defeats the Austrians on the Piave,
and the Archduke John loses nearly 10,000 men and 15 cannon. Harassed
in their retreat, they regain their own territory on May 14th--the day
after the capitulation of Vienna. Henceforward Eugène with part of the
army, and Macdonald with the rest, force their way past all
difficulties, so that when the junction with the Grand Army occurs at
Bruck, Napoleon sends (May 27th) the following proclamation: "Soldiers
of the army of Italy, you have gloriously attained the goal that I
marked out for you.... Surprised by a perfidious enemy before your
columns were united, you had to retreat to the Adige. But when you
received the order to advance, you were on the memorable fields of
Arcola, and there you swore on the manes of our heroes to triumph. You
have kept your word at the battle of the Piave, at the combats of
San-Daniel, Tarvis, and Goritz; you have taken by assault the forts of
Malborghetto, of Prediel, and made the enemy's divisions, entrenched
in Prewald and Laybach, surrender. You had not then passed the Drave,
and already 25,000 prisoners, 60 cannon, and 10 flags signalised your
valour." This is the proclamation alluded to in this letter to

No. 6.

_May 29th._--The date is wrong; it should be May 19th or 24th,
probably the latter. It sets at rest the vexed question how the Danube
bridge was broken, and seems to confirm Marbot's version of a floating
mill on fire, purposely sent down by an Austrian officer of Jägers,
who won the rare order of Maria Theresa thereby--for performing _more_
than his duty. Bertrand gained his Emperor's lifelong admiration by
his expedients at this time. Everything had to be utilised--anchors
for the boat bridges were made by filling fishermen's baskets with
bullets; and a naval contingent of 1200 bluejackets from Antwerp
proved invaluable.

No. 7.

_I have ordered the two princes to re-enter France._--After so
critical a battle as the battle of Essling the Emperor's first
thoughts were concerning his succession--had he been killed or
captured. He was therefore seriously annoyed that the heir-apparent
and his younger brother had both been taken out of the country without
his permission. He therefore writes the Queen of Holland on May 28th
from Ebersdorf: "My daughter, I am seriously annoyed that you have
left France without my permission, and especially that you have taken
my nephews out of it. Since you are at Baden stay there, but an hour
after receiving the present letter send my two nephews back to
Strasburg to be near the Empress--they ought never to go out of
France. It is the first time I have had reason to be annoyed with
you, but you should not dispose of my nephews without my permission,
you should realise what a bad effect it will have. Since the waters at
Baden are doing you good you can stay there a few days, but, I repeat,
lose not a moment in sending my nephews back to Strasburg. If the
Empress is going to the waters at Plombières they may accompany her
there, but they must never pass the bridge of Strasburg.--Your
affectionate father, Napoleon." This letter passed through the hands
of Josephine at Strasburg, who was so unhappy at not having heard from
her husband that she opened it, and writes to Hortense on June 1st
when forwarding the letter: "I advise you to write to him immediately
that you have anticipated his intentions, and that your children are
with me: that you have only had them a few days in order to see them,
and to give them a change of air. The page who is announced in
Méneval's letter has not yet arrived. I hope he will bring me a letter
from the Emperor, and that at least he will not be as vexed with me
for your being at Baden. Your children have arrived in excellent

_The Duke of Montebello, who died this morning._--The same day he
writes to La Maréchale as follows:--

"_Ma Cousine_,--The Marshal died this morning of the wounds that he
received on the field of honour. My sorrow equals yours. I lose the
most distinguished general in my whole army, my comrade-in-arms for
sixteen years, he whom I looked upon as my best friend. His family and
children will always have a special claim on my protection. It is to
give you this assurance that I wished to write you this letter, for I
feel that nothing can alleviate the righteous sorrow that you will
experience." The following year he bestowed the highest honour on the
Maréchale that she could receive.

_Thus everything ends._--The fourteenth bulletin says that the end was
caused by a pernicious fever, and in spite of Dr. Franck, one of the
best physicians in Europe. "Thus ends one of the most distinguished
soldiers France ever possessed."[77] He had received thirteen wounds.
The death of Lannes, and the whole of the Essling period, is best
told by Marbot. The loss of Lannes was a more serious one to Napoleon
than the whole 20,000 men lost in this battle. The master himself has
told us that "in war men are nothing, a man is everything." They could
be replaced: Lannes never. Like Kléber and Desaix, he stood on a
higher platform than the older Marshals--except Massena, who had
serious drawbacks, and who was the only one of Napoleon's best
generals that Wellington met in the Peninsula. Lannes had always the
ear of the Emperor, and always told him facts, not flattery. His life
had been specially crowded the last few weeks. Rebuked by Napoleon for
tardiness in supporting Massena at Ebersberg, his life was saved by
Napoleon himself when he was thrown from his horse into the flooded
Danube; and finally, on the field of Essling, he had under his orders
Bessières, the man who had a dozen years before prevented his
engagement to Caroline Bonaparte by tittle-tattling to Napoleon.

No. 9.

_Eugène won a battle._--The remnant of the Archduke John's army,
together with Hungarian levies, in all 31,000 men, hold the
entrenched camp and banks of the Raab. Eugène defeats it, with a
loss of 6000 men, of whom 3700 were prisoners. Napoleon, in
commemoration of the anniversary of Marengo (and Friedland) calls it
the little granddaughter of Marengo.

No. 11.

The curtain of the war's final act was rung up in the twenty-fourth
bulletin. "At length there exists no longer the Danube for the French
army; General Count Bertrand has completed works which excite
astonishment and inspire admiration. For 800 yards over the most rapid
river in the world he has, in a fortnight, constructed a bridge of
sixteen arches where three carriages can pass abreast."

_Wagram_ is, according to Pelet, the masterpiece of _tactical_
battles, while the five days' campaign (Thann to Ratisbon) was one
long _strategic_ battle. Nevertheless, respecting Wagram, had the
Archduke John, with his 40,000 men, turned up, as the Archduke had
more right to expect than Wellington had to expect Blucher, Waterloo
might have been antedated six years.

_Lasalle_ was a prime favourite of Napoleon, for his sure eye and
active bearing. His capture of Stettin with two regiments of hussars
was specially noteworthy. Like Lannes he had a strong premonition of
his death. Marbot tells a story of how Napoleon gave him 200,000
francs to get married with. A week later the Emperor asked, "When is
the wedding?" "As soon as I have got some money to furnish with,
sire." "Why, I gave you 200,000 francs to furnish with last week! What
have you done with them?" "Paid my debts with half, and lost the other
half at cards." Such an admission would have ruined any other general.
The Emperor laughed, and merely giving a sharp tug at Lasalle's
moustache, ordered Duroc to give him another 200,000.

_I am sunburnt_, and, as he writes Cambacérès the same day, tired out,
having been sixty out of the previous seventy-two hours in the

No. 12.

_Wolkersdorf._--On July 8th he writes General Clarke: "I have the
headquarters lately occupied by the craven Francis II., who contented
himself with watching the whole affair from the top of a tower, ten
miles from the scene of battle." On this day also he dictated his
twenty-fifth bulletin, of which the last portion is so skilfully
utilised in the last scene of Act V. in L'Aiglon. One concluding
sentence is all that can here be quoted: "Such is the recital of the
battle of Wagram, a decisive and ever illustrious battle, where three
to four hundred thousand men, twelve to fifteen hundred guns, fought
for great stakes on a field of battle, studied, meditated on, and
fortified by the enemy for many months."

_A surfeit of bile._--His usual source of relief after extra work or
worry. In this case both. Bernadotte had behaved so badly at Wagram,
that Napoleon sent him to Paris with the stern rebuke, "A bungler like
you is no good to me." But as usual his anger against an old comrade
is short-lived, and he gives General Clarke permission to send
Bernadotte to command at Antwerp against the English.

No. 16.

_My affairs follow my wishes._--In Austria, possibly, but not
elsewhere. Prussia was seething with conspiracy, Russia with
ill-concealed hatred, the English had just landed in Belgium, and
Wellesley had just won Talavera. Soult was apparently no longer
trustworthy, Bernadotte a conceited boaster, who had to be publicly
snubbed (see The Order of the Day, August 5th, No. 15,614). Clarke and
Cambacérès are so slow that Napoleon writes them (August 10th) "not to
let the English come and take you in bed." Fouché shows more energy
than every one else put together, calls out National Guards, and sends
them off to meet the northern invasion. The Minister of the Interior,
M. Cretet, had just died, and the Emperor had wisely put Fouché, the
most competent man available, into his place for the time being.

No. 17.

_August 21st._--The list of birthday honours (August 15th) had been a
fairly long one, Berthier becoming Prince of Wagram, Massena of
Essling, Davoust of Eckmühl. Marshals Oudinot and Macdonald, Generals
Clarke, Reynier, Gaudin and Champagny, as also M. Maret, became Dukes.
Marmont had already, says Savary, been made delirious with the joy of
possessing a bâton.

No. 18.

_Comedians._--Napoleon found relaxation more after his own heart in
conversing with the savants of Germany, including the great mechanic
Mäelzel, with whose automaton chess-player he played a game. Constant
gives a highly-coloured picture of the sequel: "The automaton was
seated before a chess-board, and the Emperor, taking a chair opposite
the figure, said laughingly, 'Now, my friend, we'll have a game.' The
automaton, bowing, made signs for the Emperor to begin. After two or
three moves the Emperor made a wrong one on purpose; the automaton
bowed and replaced the piece on the board. His Majesty cheated again,
when the automaton bowed again, but this time took the pawn. 'Quite
right,' said his Majesty, as he promptly cheated for the third time.
The automaton then shook its head, and with one sweep of its hand
knocked all the chessmen down."

_Women ... not having been presented._--One woman, however, the
mistress of Lord Paget, was quite willing to be presented at a late
hour and to murder him at the same time--at least so says Constant.

No. 19.

_All this is very suspicious._--For perfectly natural reasons Cæsar's
wife was now above suspicion, but Cæsar himself was not so. Madame
Walewski had been more than a month at Schoenbrunn, and on May 4th,
1810, Napoleon has a second son born, who fifty years later helped to
edit his father's _Correspondence_.

No. 20.

_Krems._--He left here to review Davoust's corps on the field of
Austerlitz. Afterwards all the generals dined with him, and the
Emperor said, "This is the second time I come upon the field of
Austerlitz; shall I come to it a third time?" "Sire," replied one,
"from what we see every day none dare wager that you will not!" It was
this suppressed hatred that probably determined the Emperor to
dismantle the fortifications of Vienna, an act that intensified the
hatred of the Viennese more than his allowing the poor people to help
themselves to wood for the winter in the imperial forests had
mollified them.

_My health has never been better._--His reason for this remark is
found in his letter to Cambacérès of the same date, "They have spread
in Paris the rumour that I was ill, I know not why; I was never
better." The reason of the rumour was that Corvisart had been sent for
to Vienna, as there had been an outbreak of dysentery among the
troops. This was kept a profound secret from France, and Napoleon even
allowed Josephine to think that Corvisart had attended him (see Letter

No. 23.

_October 14th._--Two days before, Stabs, the young Tugendbundist and
an admirer of Joan of Arc, had attempted to assassinate Napoleon on
parade with a carving-knife. The Emperor's letter to Fouché of the
12th October gives the most succinct account:--

"A youth of seventeen, son of a Lutheran minister of Erfurt, sought to
approach me on parade to-day. He was arrested by the officers, and as
the little man's agitation had been noticed, suspicion was aroused; he
was searched, and a dagger found upon him. I had him brought before
me, and the little wretch, who seemed to me fairly well educated, told
me that he wished to assassinate me to deliver Austria from the
presence of the French. I could distinguish in him neither religious
nor political fanaticism. He did not appear to know exactly who or
what Brutus was. The fever of excitement he was in prevented our
knowing more. He will be examined when he has cooled down and fasted.
It is possible that it will come to nothing. He will be arraigned
before a military commission.

"I wished to inform you of this circumstance in order that it may not
be made out more important than it appears to be. I hope it will not
leak out; if it does, we shall have to represent the fellow as a
madman. If it is not spoken of at all, keep it to yourself. The whole
affair made no disturbance at the parade; I myself saw nothing of it.

"_P.S._--I repeat once more, and you understand clearly, that there is
to be no discussion of this occurrence."

Count Rapp saved the Emperor's life on this occasion, and he, Savary,
and Constant, all give detailed accounts. Their narratives are a
remarkable object-lesson of the carelessness of the average
contemporary spectator in recording dates. Savary gives vaguely the
end of September, Constant October 13th, and Count Rapp October 23rd.
In the present case the date of this otherwise trivial incident is
important, for careless historians assert that it influenced Napoleon
in concluding peace. In any case it would have taken twenty such
occurrences to affect Napoleon one hairbreadth, and in the present
instance his letter of October 10th to the Russian Emperor proves that
the Peace was already settled--all but the signing.

No. 24.

_Stuttgard._--General Rapp describes this journey as follows: "Peace
was ratified. We left Nymphenburg and arrived at Stuttgard. Napoleon
was received in a style of magnificence, and was lodged in the palace
together with his suite. The King was laying out a spacious garden,
and men who had been condemned to the galleys were employed to labour
in it. The Emperor asked the King who the men were who worked in
chains; he replied that they were for the most part rebels who had
been taken in his new possessions. We set out on the following day. On
the way Napoleon alluded to the unfortunate wretches whom he had seen
at Stuttgard. 'The King of Würtemberg,' said he, 'is a very harsh man;
but he is very faithful. Of all the sovereigns in Europe he possesses
the greatest share of understanding.'

"We stopped for an hour at Rastadt, where the Princess of Baden and
Princess Stephanie had arrived for the purpose of paying their
respects to the Emperor. The Grand Duke and Duchess accompanied him as
far as Strasburg. On his arrival in that city he received despatches
which again excited his displeasure against the Faubourg St. Germain.
We proceeded to Fontainebleau; no preparations had been made for the
Emperor's reception; there was not even a guard on duty."

This was on October 26th, at 10 A.M. Méneval asserts that Napoleon's
subsequent bad temper was feigned. In any case, the meeting--that
moment so impatiently awaited--was a very bad _quart d'heure_ for
Josephine, accentuated doubtless by Fouché's report of bad conduct on
the part of the ladies of St. Germain.


  [70] This Archduke was the "international man" at this juncture. Louis
       Bonaparte speaks of a society at Saragossa, of which the object
       was to make the Archduke Charles king of Spain.

  [71] These Adelphes or Philadelphes were the socialists or educated
       anarchists of that day. They wished for the _statu quo_ before
       Napoleon became supreme ruler. They had members in his army,
       and it seems quite probable that Bernadotte gave them passive
       support. General Oudet was their recognised head, and he died
       under suspicious circumstances after Wagram. The society was,
       unlike the Carbonari, anti-Catholic.

  [72] Pelet, vol. i. 127.

  [73] Pelet, vol. i. 282.

  [74] "Gaily asking his staff to breakfast with him" (Pelet).

  [75] Lejeune says "some hours afterwards."

  [76] Eugène's.

  [77] "What a loss for France and for me," groaned Napoleon, as he left
       his dead friend.


No. 1.

According to the _Correspondence of Napoleon I._, No. 16,058, the date
of this letter is December 17th. It seems, however, possible that it
is the letter written immediately after his arrival at Trianon,
referred to by Méneval, who was, in fact, responsible for it.
Thiers, working from unpublished memoirs of Hortense and Cambacérès,
gives a most interesting account of the family council, held at 9
P.M. on Friday, December 15th, at the Tuileries. Constant also
describes the scene, but gives the Empress credit for showing the
most self-command of those chiefly interested. The next day, 11 A.M.,
Count Lacépède introduced the resolutions of the family council to the
Senatus-Consultus.[78] "It is to-day that, more than ever before,
the Emperor has proved that he wishes to reign only to serve his
subjects, and that the Empress has merited that posterity should
associate her name with that of Napoleon." He pointed out that
thirteen of Napoleon's predecessors had broken the bonds of matrimony
in order to fulfil better those of sovereign, and that among these
were the most admired and beloved of French monarchs--Charlemagne,
Philip Augustus, Louis XII. and Henry IV. This speech and the Decrees
(carried by 76 votes to 7) are found in the _Moniteur_ of December
17th, which Napoleon considers sufficiently authentic to send to his
brother Joseph as a full account of what occurred, and with no
further comment of his own but that it was the step which he thought
it his duty to take. The Decrees of the Committee of the Senate
were:--"(1) The marriage contracted between the Emperor Napoleon and
the Empress Josephine is dissolved. (2) The Empress Josephine will
retain the titles and rank of a crowned Empress-Queen.[79] (3) Her
jointure is fixed at an annual revenue of £80,000 from the public
treasury.[80] (4) Every provision which may be made by the Emperor
in favour of the Empress Josephine, out of the funds of the Civil
List, shall be obligatory on his successors." They added separate
addresses to the Emperor and Empress, and that to the latter seems
worthy of quotation:--"Your Imperial and Royal Majesty is about
to make for France the greatest of sacrifices; history will preserve
the memory of it for ever. The august spouse of the greatest of
monarchs cannot be united to his immortal glory by more heroic
devotion. For long, Madame, the French people has revered your
virtues; it holds dear that loving kindness which inspires your every
word, as it directs your every action; it will admire your sublime
devotion; it will award for ever to your Majesty, Empress and
Queen, the homage of gratitude, respect, and love."

From a letter of Eugène's to his wife, quoted by Aubenas, it
appears that he, with his mother, arrived at Malmaison on Saturday
evening,[81] December 16th, and that it never ceased raining all
the next day, which added to the general depression, in spite of, or
because of, Eugène's bad puns. On the evening of the 16th Napoleon
was at Trianon, writing letters, and we cannot think that if the
Emperor had been to Malmaison on the Sunday,[82] Eugène would have
included this without comment in the "some visits" they had
received. The Emperor, as we see from the next letter, paid
Josephine a visit on the Monday.

No. 2.

The date of this is Tuesday, December 19th, while No. 3 is Wednesday
the 20th.

_Savary_, always unpopular with the Court ladies, has now nothing but
kind words for Josephine. "She quitted the Court, but the Court did
not quit her; it had always loved her, for never had any one been so
kind.... She never injured any one in the time of her power; she
protected even her enemies"--such as Fouché at this juncture, and
Lucien earlier. "During her stay at Malmaison, the highroad from Paris
to this château was only one long procession, in spite of the bad
weather; every one considered it a duty to present themselves at least
once a week." Later, Marie Louise became jealous of this, and poor
Josephine had to go to the château of Navarre, and finally to leave

_Queen of Naples._--For some reason Napoleon had not wanted this
sister at Paris this winter, and had written her to this effect from
Schoenbrunn on October 15th. "If you were not so far off, and the
season so advanced, I would have asked Murat to spend two months in
Paris. But you cannot be there before December, which is a horrible
season, especially for a Neapolitan."[83] But sister Caroline, "with
the head of a Cromwell on the shoulders of a pretty woman," was not
easy to lead; and her husband had in consequence to bear the full
weight of the Emperor's displeasure. Murat's finances were in
disorder, and Napoleon wrote Champagny on December 30th to tell Murat
plainly that if the borrowed money was not returned to France, it
would be taken by main force.[84]

_The hunt._--In pouring rain, in the forest of St. Germain.

No. 4.

Thursday, December 21st, is the date.

_The weather is very damp._--Making Malmaison as unhealthy as its
very name warranted, and rendering more difficult the task which
Madame de Rémusat had set herself of resting Josephine mentally by
tiring her physically. This typical toady--Napoleon's Eavesdropper
Extraordinary--had arrived at Malmaison on December 18th. She
writes on the Friday (December 22nd), beseeching her husband to
advise the Emperor to moderate the tone of his letters, especially
this one (Thursday, December 21st), which had upset Josephine
frightfully. Surely a more harmless letter was never penned. But
it is the Rémusat all over; she lives in a chronic atmosphere of
suspicion that all her letters are read by the Emperor, and
therefore, like Stevenson's nursery rhymes, they are always written
with "one eye on the grown-up person"[85]--on the grown-up person
_par excellence_ of France and the century. The opening of letters by
the government was doubtless a blemish, which, however, Napoleon
tried to neutralise by entrusting the Post Office to his wife's
relative, Lavalette, a man whose ever-kind heart prevented this
necessary espionage degenerating into unnecessary interference
with individual rights.

No. 5.

Date probably Sunday, December 24th.

_King of Bavaria._--Eugène had gone to Meaux to meet his father-in-law,
who had put off the "dog's humour" which he had shown since the 16th.

No. 6.

Josephine had gone by special invitation to dine at the little Trianon
with Napoleon on Christmas Day, and Madame d'Avrillon says she had a
very happy day there. "On her return she told me how kind the Emperor
had been to her, that he had kept her all the evening, saying the
kindest things to her." Aubenas says, "The repast was eaten in silence
and gloom," but does not give his authority. Eugène, moreover,
confirms Madame d'Avrillon in his letter to his wife of December 26th:
"My dear Auguste, the Emperor came on Sunday to see the Empress.
Yesterday she went to Trianon to see him, and stayed to dinner. The
Emperor was very kind and amiable to her, and she seemed to be much
better. Everything points to the Empress being more happy in her new
position, and we also." On this Christmas Day Napoleon had his last
meal with Josephine.

No. 7.

_Tuileries._--His return from Trianon to this, his official residence,
made the divorce more apparent to every one.

No. 8.

_A house vacant in Paris._--This seems a hint for Josephine. She
wishes to come to Paris, to the Élysée, and to try a little diplomacy
of her own in favour of the Austrian match, and she sends secretly to
Madame de Metternich--whose husband was absent. Eugène more officially
is approaching Prince Schwartzenberg, the ambassador. Josephine, like
Talleyrand, wished to heal the schism with Rome by an Austrian
alliance; while Cambacérès, foreseeing a war with the power not allied
by marriage, would have preferred the Russian match.

No. 9.

Thursday, January 4th.

_Hortense._--Louis had tried to obtain a divorce. Cambacérès was
ordered on December 22nd to summon a family council (_New Letters of
Napoleon I._, No. 234); but the wish of the King was refused
(verbally, says Louis in his _Historical Documents of Holland_),
whereupon he refused to agree to Josephine's divorce, but had to give
way, and was present at what he calls the farewell festival given by
the city of Paris to the Empress Josephine on January 1st. The
ecclesiastical divorce was pronounced on January 12th.

No. 10.

January 5th. He duly visits Josephine the next day.

No. 11.

January 7th is the date.

_What charms your society has._--Her repertoire of small talk and
scandal. He had also lost in her his Agenda, his Journal of Paris.
Still the visits are growing rarer. This long kind letter was
doubtless intended to be specially so, for two days later the clergy
of Paris pronounced the annulment of her marriage. This was far worse
than the pronouncement by the Senate in December, as it meant to her
that she and Napoleon had never been properly married at all. The
Emperor, who hated divorces, and especially _divorcées_, had found
great difficulty in breaking down the barriers he had helped to build,
for which purpose _he_ had to be subordinated to his own Senate, _the
Pope_ to his own bishops. Seven of them allowed the annulment of the
marriage of 1804 on account of (1) its secrecy, (2) the insufficiency
of consent of the contracting parties, and (3) the absence of the
local parish priest at the ceremony. The last reason was merely a
technical one; but with respect to the first two it is only fair to
admit that Napoleon had undoubtedly, and perhaps for the only time in
his life, been completely "rushed," _i.e._ by the Pope and Josephine.
The coronation ceremony was waiting, and the Pope, secretly solicited
by Josephine, insisted on a religious marriage first and foremost. The
Pope suffered forthwith, but the other bill of costs was not exacted
till five years after date.

No. 12.

Wednesday, January 12th.

_King of Westphalia._--Madame Durand (_Napoleon and Marie Louise_)
says that, forced to abandon his wife (the beautiful and energetic
Miss Paterson) and child, Jerome "had vowed he would never have any
relations with a wife who had been thus forced upon him." For three
years he lavished his attentions upon almost all the beauties of the
Westphalian court. The queen, an eye-witness of this conduct, bore it
with mild and forbearing dignity; she seemed to see and hear nothing;
in short, her demeanour was perfect. The king, touched by her
goodness, weary of his conquests, and repentant of his behaviour, was
only anxious for an opportunity of altering the state of things.
Happily the propitious moment presented itself. The right wing of the
palace of Cassel, in which the queen's apartments were situated, took
fire; alarmed by the screams of her women the queen awoke and sprang
out of her bed, to be caught in the arms of the king and carried to a
place of safety. From that time forth the royal couple were united and

No. 13.

Saturday, January 13th.

_Sensible._--This was now possible after a month's mourning. In the
early days, according to Madame Rémusat, her mind often wandered, But
Napoleon himself encouraged the Court to visit her, and the road to
Malmaison was soon a crowded one. As the days passed, however, life
became sadly monotonous. Reading palled on Josephine, as did whist and
the daily feeding of her golden pheasants and guinea-fowls. Remained
"Patience"! Was it the "General" she played or the "Emperor," or did
she find distraction in the "Demon"?

No. 14.

_D'Audenarde._--Napoleon's handsome equerry, whom Mlle. d'Avrillon
calls "un homme superbe." His mother was Josephine's favourite _dame
du palais_. Madame Lalaing, Viscountess d'Audenarde, _née_ Peyrac, was
one of the old régime who had been ruined by the Revolution.

No. 16.

Tuesday, January 23rd.

On January 21st a Privy Council was summoned to approve of Marie
Louise as their "choice of a consort, who may give an heir to the
throne" (Thiers). Cambacérès, Fouché, and Murat wished for the Russian
princess; Lebrun, Cardinal Fesch, and King Louis for a Saxon one; but
Talleyrand, Champagny, Maret, Berthier, Fontanes were for Austria.

No. 17.

Sunday, January 28th.

No. 18.

Josephine had heard she was to be banished from Paris, and so had
asked to come to the Élysée to prove the truth or otherwise of the

_L'Élysée._--St. Amand gives the following interesting _précis_:
"Built by the Count d'Evreux in 1718, it had belonged in succession to
the Marchioness de Pompadour, to the financier Beaujon, a Croesus of
the eighteenth century, and to the Duchesse de Bourbon. Having, under
the Revolution, become national property, it had been hired by the
caterers of public entertainments, who gave it the name of L'Élysée.
In 1803 it became the property of Murat, who, becoming King of Naples,
ceded it to Napoleon in 1808. Here Napoleon signed his second
abdication, here resided Alexander I. in 1815, and here Josephine's
grandson effected the _Coup d'État_ (1851). When the Senatus-Consultus
fixed the revenue of Josephine, Napoleon not only gave her whatever
rights he had in Malmaison, viz., at least 90 per cent. of the total
cost, but the palace of the Élysée, its gardens and dependencies, with
the furniture then in use." The latter residence was, however, for her
life only.

No. 19.

February 3rd is the date.

_L'Élysée._--After the first receptions the place is far worse than
Malmaison. Schwartzenberg, Talleyrand, the Princess Pauline, Berthier,
even her old friend Cambacérès are giving balls,[86] while the Emperor
goes nearly every night to a theatre. The carriages pass by the
Élysée, but do not stop. "It is as if the palace were in quarantine,
with the yellow flag floating."

No. 20.

_Bessières' country-house._--M. Masson says Grignon, but unless this
house is called after the château of that name in Provence, he must be

No. 21.

_Rambouillet._--He had taken the Court with him, and was there from
February 19th to the 23rd, the date of this letter. While there he had
been in the best of humours. On his return he finds it necessary to
write his future wife and to her father--and to pen a legible letter
to the latter gives him far more trouble than winning a battle against
the Austrians, if not assisted by General Danube.

_Adieu._--Sick and weary, Josephine returns to Malmaison, Friday,
March 9th, and even this is not long to be hers, for the new Empress
is almost already on her way. The marriage at Vienna took place on
March 11th, with her uncle Charles,[87] the hero of Essling, for
Napoleon's proxy; on the 13th she leaves Vienna, and on the 23rd
reaches Strasbourg. On the 27th she meets Napoleon at Compiègne,
spends three days with him in the château there, and arrives at St.
Cloud on April 1st, where the civil marriage is renewed, followed by
the triumphal entry into Paris, and the religious ceremony on April
2nd. This day Josephine reaches the château of Navarre.


  [78] By here subordinating himself to the Senate, the Emperor was
       preparing a rod for his own back hereafter.

  [79] This clause gives considerable trouble to Lacépède and Regnauld.
       They cannot even find a precedent whether, if they met,
       Josephine or Marie Louise would take precedence of the other.

  [80] In addition to this, Napoleon gives her £40,000 a year from his
       privy purse, but keeps most of it back for the first two years
       to pay her 120 creditors. (For interesting details see Masson,
       _Josephine Répudiée_.)

  [81] Which agrees with Madame d'Avrillon, who says they left the
       Tuileries at 2.30. Méneval says Napoleon left for Trianon a few
       hours later. Savary writes erroneously that they left the
       following morning.

  [82] M. Masson seems to indicate a visit on December 16th, but does
       not give his authority (_Josephine Repudiée_, 114).

  [83] _Correspondence of Napoleon I._, No. 15,952.

  [84] _New Letters of Napoleon_, 1898.

  [85] Canon Ainger's comparison.

  [86] See Baron Lejeune for an interesting account of a chess quadrille
       at a dance given by the Italian Minister, Marescalchi.


_Navarre_, on the site of an old dwelling of Rollo the Sea-King, was
built by Jeanne of France, Queen of Navarre, Countess of Evreux. At
the time of the Revolution it belonged to the Dukes of Bouillon, and
was confiscated. In February 1810, Napoleon determined to purchase it,
and on March 10th instructed his secretary of state, Maret, to confer
the Duchy of Navarre, purchased by letters patent, on Josephine and
her heirs male. The old square building was, however, utterly unfit to
be inhabited: not a window would shut, there was neither paper nor
tapestry, all the wainscoting was rotten, draughts and damp
everywhere, and no heating apparatus.[88] What solace to know its
beautiful situation, its capabilities? No wonder if her household,
banished to such a place, sixty-five miles from the "capital of
capitals," should rebel, and secessions headed by Madame Ney become
for a time general. Whist and piquet soon grow stale in such a house
and with such surroundings, and even _trictrac_ with the old bishop of
Evreux becomes tedious. Eugène as usual brings sunshine in his path,
and helps to dispel the gloom caused by the idle gossip imported from
Paris--that Josephine is not to return to Malmaison, and the like.

No. 1.

This was Josephine's second letter, says D'Avrillon, the first being
answered _vivâ voce_ by Eugène.

_To Malmaison._--Napoleon had promised Josephine permission to return
to Malmaison, and would not recant: his new wife was, however, very
jealous of Josephine, and very much hurt at her presence at Malmaison.
Napoleon managed to be away from Paris for six weeks after Josephine's
arrival at Malmaison.

No. 1A.

_It is written in a bad style._--M. Masson, however, is loud in
its praises, and adds, "Voilà donc le protocol du tutoiement"
re-established between them in spite of the second marriage, and
their correspondence re-established on the old terms.

No. 2.

This letter seems to have been taken by Eugène to Paris, and thence
forwarded to the Emperor with a letter from that Prince in which he
enumerates Josephine's suggestions and wishes--(1) that she will not
go to Aix-la-Chapelle if other waters are suggested by Corvisart;
(2) that after stopping a few days at Malmaison she will go in June
for three months to the baths, and afterwards to the south of
France; visit Rome, Florence, and Naples incognito, spend the winter
at Milan, and return to Malmaison and Navarre in the spring of
1811; (3) that in her absence Navarre shall be made habitable, for
which fresh funds are required; (4) that Josephine wishes her
cousins the Taschers to marry, one a relative of King Joseph, the
other the Princess Amelie de la Leyen, niece of the Prince Primate.
To this Napoleon replies from Compiègne, April 26th, that the De Leyen
match with Louis Tascher may take place,[89] but that he will not
interest himself in the other (Henry) Tascher, who is giddy-headed
and bad-tempered. "I consent to whatever the Empress does, but I will
not confer any mark of my regard on a person who has behaved ill
to me. I am very glad that the Empress likes Navarre. I am giving
orders to have £12,000 which I owe her for 1810, and £12,000 for 1811
advanced to her. She will then have only the £80,000 from the public
treasury to come in.... She is free to go to whatever spa she cares
for, and even to return to Paris afterwards." He thinks, however, she
would be happier in new scenes which they had never visited together,
as they had Aix-la-Chapelle. If, however, the last are the best she
may go to them, for "what I desire above all is that she may keep
calm, and not allow herself to be excited by the gossip of Paris."
This letter goes far to soothe the poor châtelaine of Navarre.

No. 2A.

_Two letters._--The other, now missing, may have some reference to the
pictures to which he refers in his letter to Fouché the next day. "Is
it true that engravings are being published with the title of
_Josephine Beauharnais née La Pagerie_? If this is true, have the
prints seized, and let the engravers be punished" (_New Letters_, No.

No. 3.

Probably written from Boulogne about the 25th. His northern tour
with Marie Louise had been very similar to one taken in 1804,
but his _entourage_ found the new bride very cold and callous
compared to Josephine. Leaving Paris on April 29th Napoleon's
_Correspondence_ till June is dated Laeken (April 30th); Antwerp
(May 3rd); Bois-le-Duc; Middleburg, Gand, Bruges, Ostend (May
20th); Lille, Boulogne, Dieppe, Le Havre, Rouen (May 31st). He
takes the Empress in a canal barge from Brussels to Malines and
himself descends the subterranean vault of the Escaut-Oise canal,
between St. Quentin and Cambrai. He is at St. Cloud on June 2nd.

Josephine has felt his wanderings less, as she has the future
Emperor, her favourite grandson, with her, the little Oui-Oui, as she
calls him, and for whom the damp spring weather of Holland was
dangerous. She was also at Malmaison from the middle of May to June
18th. The original collection of _Letters_ (Didot Frères, 1833) heads
the letter correctly to the Empress Josephine at _Malmaison_, but the
_Correspondence_, published by order of Napoleon III., gives it
erroneously, to the Empress Josephine, _at the Château of Navarre_
(No. 16,537).

_I will come to see you._--He comes for two hours on June 13th, and
makes himself thoroughly agreeable. Poor Josephine is light-headed
with joy all the evening after. The meeting of the two Empresses
is, however, indefinitely postponed, and Josephine had now no
further reason to delay her departure. Leaving her little grandson
Louis behind, she travels under the name of the Countess d'Arberg,
and she is accompanied by Madame d'Audenarde and Mlle. de Mackau, who
left the Princess Stephanie to come to Navarre. M. Masson notes that
Madame de Rémusat needs the Aix waters, and will rejoin Josephine
(within a week), under pretext of service, and thus obtain her
cure gratuitously. They go _viâ_ Lyons and Geneva to Aix-les-Bains.
M. Masson, who has recently made a careful and complete study of
this period, describes the daily round. "Josephine, on getting out
of bed, takes conscientiously her baths and douches, then, as usual,
lies down again until _déjeuner_, 11 A.M., for which the whole of the
little Court are assembled at _The Palace_--wherever she lives, and
however squalid the dwelling-place, her abode always bears this name.
Afterwards she and her women-folk ply their interminable tapestry,
while the latest novel or play (sent by Barbier from Paris) is read
aloud. And so the day passes till five, when they dress for dinner at
six; after dinner a ride. At nine the Empress's friends assemble in
her room, Mlle. de Mackau sings; at eleven every one goes to bed."
This programme, however, varies with the weather. Here is St.
Amand's version (_Dernières Années de l'Impératrice Joséphine_, p.
237): "A little reading in the morning, an airing (_le promenade_)
afterwards, dinner at eight on account of the heat, games afterwards,
and some little music; so passed existence."

No. 4.

_July 8th._--On July 5th, driving along the Chambéry road, Josephine
met the courier with a letter from Eugène describing the terrible fire
at Prince Schwartzenberg's ball, where the Princess de la Leyen,
mother of young Taschre's bride-elect, was burnt. It is noteworthy
that the Emperor makes no allusion to the conflagration. As, however,
this is the first letter since the end of May, others may have been
lost or destroyed.

_You will have seen Eugène_--_i.e._ on his way to Milan, who arrived
at Aix on July 10th. He had just been made heir to the Grand Duchy of
Frankfort--a broad hint to him and to Europe that Italy would be
eventually united to France under Napoleon's dynasty. This was the
nadir of the Beauharnais family--Josephine _repudiée_, Hortense
unqueened and unwed,[90] and Eugène's expectations dissipated, and all
within a few short months. Eugène had left his wife ill at Geneva,
whither Josephine goes to visit her the next day, duly reporting her
visit to Napoleon in her letter of July 14th (see No. 5). Geneva was
always the home of the disaffected, and so the Empress had to be
specially tactful, and the De Rémusat reports: "She speaks of the
Emperor as of a brother, of the new Empress as the one who will give
children to France, and if the rumours of the latter's condition be
correct, I am certain she will be delighted about it."

_That unfortunate daughter is coming to France_--_i.e._ to reside when
she is not at St. Leu (given to her by Napoleon) or at the waters. On
the present occasion she has been at Plombières a month or more. On
July 10th Napoleon instructs the Countess de Boubers to bring the
Grand Duke of Berg to Paris, "whom he awaits with impatience"
(_Brotonne_, 625).

No. 5.

_The conduct of the King of Holland has worried me._--This was in
March, and by May the crisis was still more acute and Napoleon's
patience exhausted. On May 20th he writes: "Before all things be a
Frenchman and the Emperor's brother, and then you may be sure you are
in the path of the true interests of Holland. Good sense and policy
are necessary to the government of states, not sour unhealthy bile."
And three days later: "Write me no more of your customary twaddle;
three years now it has been going on, and every instant proves its
falsehood! This is the last letter I shall ever write you in my

Louis at one time determined on war, and rather than surrender
Amsterdam, to cut the dykes. The Emperor hears of this, summons his
brother, and practically imprisons him until he countermands the
defence of Amsterdam.

On July 1st Louis abdicated and fled to Toeplitz in Bohemia. Napoleon
is terribly grieved at the conduct of his brother, who would never
realise that the effective Continental blockade was Napoleon's last
sheet-anchor to force peace upon England.

No. 6.

_To die in a lake_--_i.e._ the Lake of Bourget, shut in by the Dent du
Chat, where a white squall had nearly capsized the sailing boat.
Josephine had been on July 26th to visit the abbey Haute-Combe, place
of sepulture of the Princes of Savoy, and the storm had overtaken her
on the return voyage.

No. 8.

_Paris, this Friday._--A very valuable note of M. Masson (_Josephine
Repudiée_, 198) enables us to fix this letter at its correct date. He
says: "It has to do with the exile of Madame de la T---- (viz., the
Princess Louis de la Trémoille), which takes place on September 28th,
1810, and this 28th September is also a Friday: there is also the
question of Mlle. de Mackau being made a baroness" (and this lady had
not joined the Court of Josephine till May 1810); "lastly, the B----
mentioned therein can only be Barante, the Prefect, whose dismissal
(from Geneva) almost coincides with this letter." It may be added
that the La Trémoille family was one of the oldest in France, allied
with the Condés, and consequently with the Bourbons. Barante's fault
had been connivance at the letters and conduct of Madame de Staël.

No. 9.

_The only suitable places ... are either Milan or Navarre._--Milan had
been her own suggestion conveyed by Eugène, but Napoleon, two months
later, had told her she could spend the winter in France, and in spite
of danger signals ("inspired by diplomacy rather than devotion" [91])
from Madame de Rémusat (in her fulsome and tedious "despatch" sent
from Paris in September, and probably inspired by the Emperor himself)
she manages to get to Navarre, and even to spend the first fortnight
of November at Malmaison. Before leaving Switzerland Josephine refuses
to risk an interview with Madame de Staël. "In the first book she
publishes she will not fail to report our conversation, and heaven
knows how many things she will make me say that I have never even
thought of."

No. 10.

In spite of the heading Josephine was at Malmaison on this day, and
Napoleon writes Cambacérès: "My cousin, the Empress Josephine not
leaving for Navarre till Monday or Tuesday, I wish you to pay her a
visit. You will let me know on your return how you find her"
(_Brotonne_,721). The real reason is to hasten her departure, and she
gets to Navarre November 22nd (Thursday).

_The Empress progresses satisfactorily._--Napoleon writes to this
effect to her father, the Emperor of Austria, on the same day: "The
Empress is very well.... It is impossible that the wife for whom I am
indebted to you should be more perfect. Moreover, I beg your Majesty
to rest assured that she and I are equally attached to you."


  [87] On this occasion Baron Lejeune sees the Archduke Charles, and
       remarks: "There was nothing in his quiet face with its grave
       and gentle expression, or in his simple, modest, unassuming
       manner, to denote the mighty man of war; but no one who met his
       eyes could doubt him to be a genius."

  [88] "This gloomy and forsaken château," says St. Amand, "whose only
       attraction was the half-forgotten memory of its vanished
       splendours, was a fit image of the woman who came to seek
       sanctuary there."

  [89] He endows the husband with £4000 a year, and the title of Count

  [90] "Une épouse sans époux, et une reine sans royaume"--St. Amand.

  [91] Aubenas.


No. 1.

_The New Year._--On this occasion, instead of her usual gifts
(_étrennes_) she organised a lottery of jewels, of which Madame
Ducrest gives a full account. Needless to say, Josephine worked the
oracle so that every one got a suitable gift--including the old Bishop
(see next note).

_More women than men._--The Bishop of Evreux (Mgr. Bourlier) was the
most welcome guest. He amused Josephine, and although eighty years of
age, could play _trictrac_ and talk well on any subject. Madame de
Rémusat wrote her husband concerning him, "We understand each other
very well, he and I."

_Keep well._--At Navarre Josephine lost her headaches, and put on

No. 2.

There is a full account of the birth of the King of Rome in Napoleon's
letter to the Emperor of Austria on March 20 (No. 17,496). The letter
of this date to Josephine is missing, but is referred to by
D'Avrillon. It began, "My dear Josephine, I have a son. I am _au
comble de bonheur_."

_Eugène._--Josephine much appreciated this allusion. "Is it possible,"
she said, "for any one to be kinder than the Emperor, and more anxious
to mitigate whatever might be painful for me at the present moment, if
I loved him less sincerely? This association of my son with his own is
well worthy of him who, when he likes, is the most fascinating of all
men." She gave a costly ring to the page who brought the letter.

On the previous day Eugène had arrived at Navarre,--sent by the
Emperor. "You are going to see your mother, Eugène; tell her I am sure
that she will rejoice more than any one at my happiness. I should have
already written to her if I had not been absorbed by the pleasure of
watching my boy. The moments I snatch from his side are only for
matters of urgent necessity. This event, I shall acquit myself of the
most pleasant of them all by writing to Josephine."

No. 4.

Written in November 1811.

_As fat as a good Normandy farmeress._--Madame d'Abrantès, who saw her
about this time, writes: "I observed that Josephine had grown very
stout[92] since the time of my departure for Spain. This change was at
once for the better and the worse. It imparted a more youthful
appearance to her face; but her slender and elegant figure, which had
been one of her principal attractions, had entirely disappeared. She
had now decided _embonpoint_, and her figure had assumed that matronly
air which we find in the statues of Agrippina, Cornelia, &c. Still,
however, she looked uncommonly well, and she wore a dress which became
her admirably. Her judicious taste in these matters contributed to
make her appear young much longer than she otherwise would. The best
proof of the admirable taste of Josephine is the marked absence of
elegance shown by Marie Louise, though both Empresses employed the
same milliners and dressmakers, and Marie Louise had a large sum
allotted for the expenses of her toilet."

St. Amand says that 1811 was for Josephine a happy year, compared to
those which followed.


No. 1.

Written from Konigsberg (M. Masson, in _Josephine Repudiée_, says
Dantzig; but on June 11th Napoleon writes to Eugène, "I shall be at
Konigsberg to-morrow," where his correspondence is dated from
henceforward). A day or two later he writes the King of Rome's
governess that he trusts to hear soon that the fifteen months old
child has cut his first four teeth.

No. 2.

_Gumbinnen, June 20th._--From this place and on this date goes forth
the first bulletin of the _Grande Armée_. It gives a _résumé_ of the
causes of the war, dating from the end of 1810, when English influence
again gained ascendency.

On July 29th he writes Hortense from Witepsk to congratulate her on
her eldest son's recovery from an illness. A week later he writes his
librarian for some amusing novels--new ones for choice, or old ones
that he has not read--or good memoirs.

Josephine meanwhile has permission to go to Italy. Owing to her
grandson's illness she defers starting till July 16th. Through
frightful weather she reaches Milan _viâ_ Geneva on July 28th, and has
a splendid reception. On the 29th she writes to Hortense: "I have
found the three letters from Eugène, the last one dated the 13th; his
health is excellent. He still pursues the Russians, without being able
to overtake them. It is generally hoped the campaign may be a short
one. May that hope be realised!" Two days later she announces the
birth of Eugène's daughter Amelia, afterwards Empress of Brazil.
Towards the end of August Josephine goes to Aix and meets the Queen of
Spain with her sister Desirée Bernadotte, the former "kind and amiable
as usual," the latter "very gracious to me"--rather a new experience.
From Aix she goes to Prégny-la-Tour, on the Lake of Geneva, and shocks
the good people in various ways, says M. Masson, especially by
innuendoes against Napoleon; and he adds, "if one traces back to their
source the worst calumnies against the morals of the Emperor, it is
Josephine that one encounters there." She gets to Malmaison October
24th. Soon after his return from Moscow Napoleon pays her a visit, and
about this time she begins to see the King of Rome, whose mother has
always thought more of her daily music and drawing lessons than of
whether she was making her son happy or not.

1812 closed in gloom, but 1813 was in itself terribly ominous to so
superstitious a woman as Josephine. Thirteen is always unlucky, and
moreover the numbers of 1813 add up to 13; also the doom-dealing year
began on a Friday. Every one felt the hour approaching. As Napoleon
said at St. Helena: "The star grew pale; I felt the reins slipping
from my hand, and I could do no more. A thunderbolt could alone have
saved us, and every day, by some new fatality or other, our chances
diminished. Sinister designs began to creep in among us; fatigue and
discouragement had won over the majority; my lieutenants became lax,
clumsy, careless, and consequently unfortunate; they were no longer
the men of the commencement of the Revolution, nor even of the time of
my good fortune. The chief generals were sick of the war; I had gorged
them too much with my high esteem, with too many honours and too much
wealth. They had drunk from the cup of pleasure, and wished to enjoy
peace at any price. _The sacred fire was quenched._"

Up to August Fortune had smiled again upon her favourite. With
conscripts for infantry and without cavalry he had won Lutzen,
Bautzen, and Dresden; and even so late as September Byron was writing
that "bar epilepsy and the elements he would back Napoleon against the
field." But treachery and incompetence had undermined the Empire, and
Leipsic (that battle of giants, where 110,000 soldiers were killed and
wounded) made final success hopeless. In 1814 his brothers Lucien and
Louis rallied to him, and Hortense was for the only time proud of her
husband. She thinks if he had shown less suspicion and she less pride
they might have been happy after all. "My husband is a good Frenchman
... he is an honest man." Meanwhile, Talleyrand is watching to guide
the _coup de grâce_. Napoleon makes a dash for Lorraine to gather his
garrisons and cut off the enemy's supplies. The Allies hesitate and
are about to follow him, as per the rules of war. Talleyrand, the only
man who could ever divine Napoleon, sends them the message, "You can
do everything, and you dare nothing; dare therefore _once_!" Hortense
is the only _man_ left in Paris, and in vain she tries to keep Marie
Louise, whose presence would have stimulated the Parisians to hold the
Allies at bay. It is in vain. Unlike Prussia or Austria who fought
for months, or Spain who fought for years, after their capitals were

  "Like Nineveh, Carthage, Babylon and Rome,
  France yields to the conqueror, vanquished at home."

After Marmont's betrayal Napoleon attempts suicide, and when he
believes death imminent sends a last message to Josephine by
Caulaincourt, "You will tell Josephine that my thoughts were of her
before life departed."

It was on Monday, May 23rd, that Josephine's illness commenced, after
receiving at dinner the King of Prussia and his sons (one afterwards
Wilhelm der Greise, first Emperor of Germany). Whether the sore throat
which killed her was a quinsy or diphtheria[93] is difficult to prove,
but the latter seems the more probable. Corvisart, who was himself ill
and unable to attend, told Napoleon that she died of grief and worry.
Before leaving for the Waterloo campaign Napoleon visited Malmaison,
and there, as Lord Rosebery reminds us, allowed his only oblique
reproach to Marie Louise to escape him: "Poor Josephine. Her death, of
which the news took me by surprise at Elba, was one of the most acute
griefs of that fatal year, 1814. She had her failings, of course; _but
she, at any rate, would never have abandoned me_."


  [92] Mlle. d'Avrillon says that during the Swiss voyage Josephine
       found it desirable, for the first time, to "wear whalebone in
       her corsets."

  [93] The same question may be asked respecting the death of




FABLE.--_Composée a l'âge de 13 ans, par_ NAPOLEON I.

      César, chien d'arrêt renommé,
      Mais trop enflé de son mérite,
      Tennait arrêté dans son gîte
  Un malheureux lapin de peur inanimé.
  "Rends-toi!" lui cria-t-il, d'une voix de tonerre
  Qui fit au loin trembler les peuplades des bois.
  "Je suis César, connu par ses exploits,
  Et dont le nom remplit toute la terre."
      A ce grand nom, Jeannot Lapin,
  Recommandant a Dieu son âme pénitente,
      Demande d'une voix tremblante:
      "Trés-sérénissime mâtin,
  Si je me rends quel sera mon destin?"
  "Tu mourras." "Je mourrai!" dit la bête innocente.
  "Et si je fuis?" "Ton trépas est certain."
  "Quoi!" reprit l'animal qui se nourrit de thym,
  "Des deux côtés je dois perdre la vie!
      Que votre auguste seigneurie
  Veuille me pardonner, puisqu'il me faut mourir,
      Si j'ose tenter de m'enfuir."
  Il dit, et fuit en héros de garenne.
  Caton l'aurait blamé; je dis qu'il n'eut pas tort.
      Car le chasseur le voit à peine
  Qu'il l'ajuste, le tire--et le chien tombe mort
  Que dirait de ceci notre bon La Fontaine?
      Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera.
      I'approuve fort cette méthode-là.



Many more or less fictitious genealogies of the Bonapartes have been
published, some going back to mythical times. The first reliable
record, however, seems to be that of a certain Bonaparte of Sarzana,
in Northern Italy, an imperial notary, who was living towards the end
of the thirteenth century, and from whom both the Corsican and the
Trevisan or Florentine Bonapartes claim their origin. From him in
direct line was descended Francois de Sarzana, who was sent to Corsica
in 1509 to fight for the Republic of Genoa. His son Gabriel, having
sold his patrimony in Italy, settled in Ajaccio, where he bore the
honourable title of Messire, and where, being left a widower, he
assumed the tonsure and died Canon of the cathedral.

From him an unbroken line of Bonapartes, all of whom in turn were
elected to the dignity of Elder of Ajaccio, brings us to Charles
Bonaparte Napoleon, father of the Emperor.



The author asked the advice of Monsieur Frédéric Masson about
these Letters, to which he at once received the courteous reply, "Il
faut absolument rejeter les Lettres publiées par Regnault Varin[94] et
reproduites par Georgette Ducrest; pas une n'est authentique." No one
who has read much of Napoleon's correspondence can in fact believe for
a moment in their authenticity. They are interesting, however, as
showing the sort of stuff which went to form our grandfathers'
fallacies about the relations of Napoleon and Josephine. Madame
Ducrest occasionally played and sang for Josephine after the
divorce. Her father was a nephew of Madame de Genlis. Madame
Ducrest married a musical composer, M. Bochsa, the then celebrated
author of _Dansomanie_ and _Noces de Gamache_. He afterwards
deserted her, and her voice having completely failed, she was
compelled to write her Memoirs to earn sustenance thereby. Of these
Memoirs M. Masson has said,[95] that "in the midst of apocryphal
documents, uncontroverted anecdotes, impossible situations, are yet
to be found some first-hand personal observations."

No. 1.--1796.


My first laurel, my love, must be for my country; my second shall be
for you. While beating Alvinzi I thought of France; when I had
defeated him I thought of you. Your son will present to you a standard
which he received from Colonel Morbach, whom he made prisoner with his
own hands. Our Eugène, you see, is worthy of his father; and I trust
you do not think me an unworthy successor of the great and unfortunate
general, under whom 1 should have been proud to learn to conquer. I
embrace you.


No. 2.--1804.


I have read over your letter, my dear, perhaps for the tenth time, and
I must confess that the astonishment it caused me has given way only
to feelings of regret and alarm. You wish to raise up the throne of
France, and that, not for the purpose of seating upon it those whom
the Revolution overthrew, but to place yourself upon it. You say, how
enterprising, how grand and, above all, useful is this design; but I
should say, how many obstacles oppose its execution, what sacrifices
will its accomplishment demand, and when realised, how incalculable
will be its results? But let us suppose that your object were already
attained, would you stop at the foundation of the new empire? That new
creation, being opposed by neighbouring states, would stir up war with
them and perhaps entail their ruin. Their neighbours, in their turn,
will not behold it without alarm or without endeavouring to gratify
their revenge by checking it. And at home, how much envy and
dissatisfaction will arise; how many plots must be put down, how many
conspiracies punished! Kings will despise you as an upstart, subjects
will hate you as an usurper, and your equals will denounce you as a
tyrant. None will understand the necessity of your elevation; all will
attribute it to ambition or pride. You will not want for slaves to
crouch beneath your authority until, seconded by some more formidable
power, they rise up to oppose you; happy will it be if poison or the
poignard!... But how can a wife, a friend dwell on these dreadful

This brings my thoughts back to myself, about whom I should care but
little were my personal interests alone concerned. But will not the
throne inspire you with the wish to contract new alliances? Will you
not seek to support your power by new family connections? Alas!
whatever those connections may be, will they compensate for those
which were first knit by corresponding fitness, and which affection
promised to perpetuate? My thoughts linger on the picture which
fear--may I say love, traces in the future. Your ambitious project has
excited my alarm; console me by the assurance of your moderation.

No. 3.--_December 1809._


My forebodings are realised! You have just pronounced the word which
separates us for ever; the rest is nothing more than mere formality.
Such, then, is the result, I shall not say of so many sacrifices (they
were light to me, since they had you for their object), but of an
unbounded friendship on my part and of the most solemn oaths on yours!
It would be a consolation for me if the state which you allege as your
motive were to repay my sacrifice by justifying your conduct! But that
public consideration which you urge as the ground for deserting me is
a mere pretence on your part. Your mistaken ambition has ever been,
and will continue to be, the guide of all your actions, a guide which
has led you to conquests and to the assumption of a crown, and is now
driving you on to disasters and to the brink of a precipice.

You speak of the necessity of contracting an alliance, of giving an
heir to your empire, of founding a dynasty! But with whom are you
about to form an alliance? with the natural enemy of France, that
artful house of Austria, whose detestation of our country has its rise
in its innate feelings, in its system, in the laws of necessity. Do
you believe that this hatred, of which she has given us such abundant
proof, more particularly for the last fifty years, has not been
transferred by her from the kingdom of France to the French empire?
That the children of Maria Theresa, that skilful sovereign, who
purchased from Madame de Pompadour the fatal treaty of 1756, which you
never mention without shuddering; do you imagine, I repeat, that her
posterity, when inheriting her power, has not also inherited her
spirit? I am merely repeating what you have so often said to me; but
at that time your ambition was satisfied with humbling a power which
you now find it convenient to restore to its former rank. Believe me,
as long as you shall exercise a sway over Europe, that power will be
submissive to you; but beware of reverses of fortune.

As to the necessity of an heir, I must speak out, at the risk of
appearing in the character of a mother prejudiced in favour of her
son; ought I, in fact, to be silent when I consider the interests of
one who is my only delight, and upon whom alone you had built all your
hopes? That adoption of the 12th of January 1806 was then another
political falsehood! Nevertheless the talents, the virtues of my
Eugène are no illusion. How often have you not spoken in his praise? I
may say more; you thought it right to reward him by the gift of a
throne, and have repeatedly said that he was deserving of greater
favours. Well, then! France has frequently re-echoed these praises;
but you are now indifferent to the wishes of France.

I say nothing to you at present of the person who is destined to
succeed me, and you do not expect that I should make any allusion to
this subject. You might suspect the feelings which dictated my
language; nevertheless, you can never doubt of the sincerity of my
wishes for your happiness; may it at least afford me some consolation
for my sufferings. Great indeed will be that happiness if it should
ever bear any proportion to them!

No. 4.


"... On revisiting this spot, where I passed my youthful days, and
contrasting the peaceful condition I then enjoyed with the state of
terror and agitation to which my mind is now a prey, often have I
addressed myself in these words: 'I have sought death in numberless
engagements; I can no longer dread its approach; I should now hail it
as a boon ... nevertheless, I could still wish to see Josephine once

No. 5.


  _Fontainebleau, 16th April 1814_.

_My dear Josephine_,--I wrote to you on the 8th instant (it was on a
Friday). You have perhaps not received my letter; fighting was still
going on; it is possible that it may have been stopped on its way. The
communications must now be re-established. My determination is taken;
I have no doubt of this note coming to your hands.

I do not repeat what I have already told you. I then complained of my
situation; I now rejoice at it. My mind and attention are relieved
from an enormous weight; my downfall is great, but it is at least said
to be productive of good.

In my retreat I intend to substitute the pen for the sword. The
history of my reign will gratify the cravings of curiosity. Hitherto,
I have only been seen in profile; I will now show myself in full to
the world. What facts have I not to disclose! how many men are
incorrectly estimated! I have heaped favours upon a countless number
of wretches; what have they latterly done for me?

They have all betrayed me, one and all, save and except the excellent
Eugène, so worthy of you and of me. May he ever enjoy happiness under
a sovereign fully competent to appreciate the feelings of nature and
of honour!

Adieu, my dear Josephine; follow my example and be resigned. Never
dismiss from your recollection one who has never forgotten, and never
will forget you! Farewell, Josephine.


_P.S._--I expect to hear from you when I shall have reached the island
of Elba. I am far from being in good health.


  [94] _Memoires et Correspondance de l'Impératrice Joséphine_, par _J.
       B. J. Innocert Philadelphe Regnault Varin_. Paris, 1820, 8^o.
       This book is not in the British Museum Catalogue.

  [95] _Josephine Impératrice et Reine_, Paris, 1899.


_Excluding_ NAPOLEON _and_ JOSEPHINE, _which occur on nearly every

  Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 49

  Abrantès, Mdme. Junot, Duchesse d', 190, 199, 229, 230, 231, 242, 247,
        254, 261, 265, 266, 278, 312

  Achille. (_See_ Murat)

  Agrippina, 312

  Ainger, Canon, 298

  Albufera, Duke of. (_See_ Suchet)

  Aldobrandini, Prince, 149

  Alexander the Great, 185

  Alison, Sir A. (historian), 74, 119, 255, 264, 272, 286

  Alvinzi, Marshal, 30, 34, 35, 218, 221, 318

  Amand, Saint, _see_ S. Imbert de (author), 4, 172, 199, 212, 221, 223,
        243, 245, 251, 256, 257, 267, 269, 302, 304, 307, 308, 312

  Amelia (daughter of Eugène), 313

  Angoulême, Duc d', 190, 196, 197

  Anhalt, Prince of, 270

  Arberg, Mdme. d', 176

  Arch-Chancellor. (_See_ Cambacérès)

  Argenteau, D', 9

  Arnault (author), 212

  Artois, Comte d', 196, 197

  Aubenas, 172, 200, 201, 216, 225, 226, 228, 241, 257, 259, 260, 297,

  Audenarde, D', 162, 302
  ----  Madame Lalaing, Viscountess d', 302, 307

  Augereau, Marshal, 24, 38, 57, 70, 90, 154, 196, 214, 254, 255, 267

  Auguié, Mlle. Aglaé Louise, 231

  Auguste, Princess of Bavaria (then wife of Eugène). (_See_ Beauharnais,

  Augustus, Emperor, 52, 228

  Austria, Emperor of, 186, 197, 218, 223, 240
  ----  Empress of, 186

  Avrillon, Mlle, d', 82, 174, 225, 233, 256, 297, 299, 302, 305, 311,

  Baccioli, Eliza (Bonaparte), 63, 122

  Baden, Princess Wilhelmina of, 77, 236, 295
  ----  Grand Duchess of. (_See_ Beauharnais, Stephanie)
  ----  Prince of, 242, 243, 245, 270

  Bagration, General, 187, 188

  Baird, General Sir David, 42, 49, 143

  Bajazet, 272

  Barante, De (Prefect of Geneva), 309, 310

  Barbier (Napoleon's librarian), 307

  Barras, Count de, 6, 7, 8, 9, 15, 38, 199, 205, 207, 221, 247, 248

  Bathurst, Benj., 154

  Bausset (Prefect of Imperial Palace), 267, 269, 273

  Bavaria, Elector, then King of, 77, 122, 144, 159, 161, 242, 243, 265,
        266, 270, 299
  ----  Electress, then Queen of, 70, 161, 243, 265
  ----  Prince Royal of, 281

  Bayard, Chevalier, 235, 243

  Beauharnais, Eugène (Viceroy of Italy), 6, 21, 31, 44, 51, 58, 59, 60,
        63, 66, 68, 78, 106, 121, 140, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149,
        150, 152, 159, 162, 164, 170, 171, 172, 179, 187, 188, 189, 190,
        191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 216, 224, 228, 229, 234, 242,
        243, 244, 254, 256, 264, 265, 266, 276, 277, 282, 286, 287, 290,
        297, 299, 305, 308, 310, 311, 312, 313, 318, 320, 321

  Beauharnais, Auguste (wife of Eugène), 121, 186, 242, 264, 265, 266,
  ----  Hortense, 6, 10, 11, 12, 31, 44, 50, 51, 52, 53, 59, 66, 68, 78,
        79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 93, 111, 112, 113, 127,
        137, 140, 144, 147, 149, 150, 151, 159, 160, 165, 172, 173, 175,
        176, 180, 216, 226, 227, 228, 229, 231, 235, 237, 244, 247, 254,
        259, 261, 262, 263, 268, 269, 288, 289, 296, 300, 308, 313, 314
  ----  Stephanie, 78, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 89, 242, 243, 244, 254, 271,
  ----  Fanny (daughter of Count), 243

  Beaujon (financier), 302

  Beaulieu, General, 6, 7, 10, 11, 38, 204, 205, 208, 209

  Becker, General, 81

  Bellegarde, General, 49, 195, 197

  Bennigsen or Beningsen, General, 90, 188, 193, 254

  Bentinck, General, 193

  Bentley, 227

  Berg, Napoleon Louis, Grand Duke of, 82, 137, 144, 147, 148, 150, 172,
        173, 263, 308

  Bernadotte, Marshal, 38, 41, 57, 80, 81, 83, 95, 106, 113, 174, 185,
        188, 192, 193, 246, 254, 255, 257, 279, 291, 292
  ----  Desirée (_née_ Clary), 38, 246, 313

  Berthier, Marshal, 33, 57, 141, 214, 224, 229, 246, 251, 259, 265, 270,
        280, 292, 302, 303

  Bertrand, General, 259, 287, 288, 290

  Bessières, Marshal, 57, 106, 128, 136, 139, 149, 165, 190, 260, 290,

  Bignon, Baron (historian), 55, 75, 255, 258, 262

  Billington, Mistress, 224

  Bingham, Captain D. A., 204, 208, 256

  Blake (Field-Marshal and Spanish General), 135, 136, 148, 181

  Blucher, Field-Marshal, 83, 192, 193, 194, 195, 246, 250, 278, 291

  Bonaparte, Joseph (King of Spain), 21, 38, 77, 128, 143, 150, 187, 191,
        196, 199, 200, 201, 228, 237, 258, 265, 266, 273, 296, 305
  ----  Louis, 50, 53, 59, 77, 172, 173, 214, 220, 228, 261, 263, 268,
        269, 279, 300, 302, 308, 309, 314
  ----  Jerome (King of Westphalia), 117 118, 160, 161, 242, 261, 270,
  ----  Lucien, 228, 229, 230, 247, 253, 265, 266, 297, 314
  ----  Caroline. (_See_ Murat, Madame)
  ----  Eliza. (_See_ Lucca, Princess of)

  Bonaparte Family, The, 317. (Appendix 2)

  Bonpland, Aimé, 226

  Borghèse, Prince, 99, 115
  ----  Pauline, 99, 303

  Boubers, Countess de, 308

  Bouillet (lexicographer), 74, 248

  Bouillon, Duke of, 304

  Bourbon, Duchesse de, 302

  Bourlier, Bishop of Evreux, 311

  Bourrienne, L. de, 30, 31, 61, 155, 226, 228, 229, 230, 237, 239

  Boyer (French general, "Pierre le Cruel"), 196

  Brizzi, 89

  Brock, General, 187

  Brotonne, L. de, 190, 238, 260, 310

  Browning, Oscar, 47

  Bruix, Admiral, 232

  Brune, Marshal, 34, 41, 43, 49, 57, 118, 221

  Brunswick, Duke of, 245

  Brutus, 294

  Bulow, General von, 192, 194, 196

  Burdett-Coutts, Mr., 218

  Burke, Edmund, 38

  Buxhowden, General, 72, 90

  Byron, Lord, 183, 314

  "B----" (probably Bourrienne), 60, 175

  Cabarrus, M. de, 248

  Cadoudal, Georges (Vendéen chief and conspirator), 57

  Cæsar, Julius, 232, 281, 286, 293

  Calder, Sir Robert, 63

  Cambacérès, Arch-Chancellor, 108, 114, 150, 188, 192, 236, 269, 271,
  284, 291, 292, 293, 296, 300, 302, 303, 310

  Campan, Madame, 191, 242

  Caracci, 209

  Carnot (member of the Directory and "organiser of victory"), 200, 204,
        205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 217, 223

  Castaños, General, Duke of Baylen, 136

  Cathcart, Lord, 188

  Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza, 1, 270, 315.

  Cesarotti, 199

  Chabot, 219

  Chabran, 219

  Chambry, M., 58

  Champagny, De (Duc de Cadore), 153, 262, 270, 271, 292, 298, 302

  Championnet, General, 42

  Charlemagne, 234, 296

  Charles, Archduke, 19, 25, 34, 38, 42, 46, 66, 68, 143, 144, 145, 149,
        242, 279, 280, 282, 284, 304

  Charles, Prince. (_See_ Charles, Archduke)

  Charles XII., 185. (_See_ Sweden, King of)

  Chauvet, 7, 199, 200

  Chimay, Prince de, 248

  Clarke, General, 196, 210, 221, 291, 292

  Clary, Desirée. (_See_ Bernadotte, Desirée).

  Coburg, Prince of, 270

  Cockburn, Admiral, 191

  Colburn, 229

  Colombier, Mlle. du, 224

  Conches, Baron Feuillet de, 13

  Constant, 229, 230, 232, 233, 236, 254, 265, 267, 268, 284, 292, 293,
        294, 296

  Corbineau, Constant (one of three brothers, known as les trois Horaces),
        98, 99, 256

  Corneille, 241

  Cornelia, 312

  Cornwallis, Lord, 41

  Correggio, 205, 209

  Corvisart, Baron, 52, 153, 233, 293, 305, 315

  Courland, Duchess of, 270

  Crassus, 185

  Crétet, Count, 292

  Cromwell, Oliver, 298

  Czartoriski, Prince, 241

  Dahlmann, General, 98, 256

  Dantzic, Duke of. (_See_ Lefebvre, Marshal)

  Darius, 185

  Darmagnac, General, 98

  Darmstadt, Prince of, 270

  Daru, Count, 256, 257

  David, King, 262

  Davidowich, Baron (Austrian General), 27, 30

  Davoust, Marshal, 44, 57, 69, 80, 81, 84, 89, 143, 187, 246, 247, 255,
        282, 292, 293

  Decazes, Duke, 269

  Decrès, Vice-Admiral, Minister of Marine, 225, 254, 256

  Delille, Abbé, 190

  Desaix, General, 14, 41, 42, 44, 46, 290

  Despinois, General, 215

  Dessalines ("James I."), of Hayti, 60

  Didot, 172

  Dietrich, Mdme. de, 240

  Don Carlos, Infant, 126

  Ducrest, Madame, 311, 317, 318

  Duesberg (botanist), 225

  Dumas, Matthieu, Count (General and historian), 255, 257, 258

  Duphot, General, 38

  Dupont, General, 65, 69, 101, 128, 267

  Dupuis, 104, 260

  Dupuy, 219

  Durand, Madame, 301

  Duroc, Marshal, 191, 228, 230, 252, 270, 275, 291

  Edward, the Black Prince, 222

  Elchingen, Duke of. (_See_ Ney, Marshal)

  "Eleanore," 252

  Enghien, Duc d', 57, 236, 276

  England, King George II. of, 43
  ----  King George III. of, 43, 46, 64, 70, 218, 223, 238

  Estève (General Treasurer of the Crown), 161

  Eugène, Prince of Savoy, 286

  Eugénie, Empress, 256
  ----  Hortense, Princess, 277

  Evreux, Count d', 302

  Faipoult, Citizen, 204

  Ferdinand, Archduke, 143, 147, 279
  ----  Prince of Asturias (afterwards Ferdinand VII.), 118, 123, 125, 126,
        127, 128, 194, 195, 196, 266, 268, 269

  Fesch, Cardinal, 302

  Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 41

  Fontanès, Marquis de, 302

  Fouché (de Nantes, Duke of Otranto), 236, 259, 261, 262, 274, 275,
        276, 277, 279, 292, 294, 295, 297, 302, 306

  Fox, C. J., 77

  Foy, General, 191, 196

  Francis II., Emperor of Austria (and Germany), 71, 77, 128, 291, 310,

  Franck, Doctor, 289

  Frederick the Great, 67, 249, 283, 286

  Frederick I. (Duke, Elector, and King of Wurtemberg), 238

  Frederick William II., 38. (_See_ Prussia, King of)

  Frederick William III., 38. (_See_ Prussia, King of)

  Friand, General, 185

  Fulton, Robert, 235

  Gaudin, Duke of Gaeta, 292

  Genlis, Mdme. de, 318

  George II. (_See_ England, King of)

  George III. (_See_ England, King of)

  Georges. (_See_ Cadoudal)

  Germany, Emperor of. (_See_ Austria, Emperor of)

  Gillray, James, 248

  Giraudin, Stanislaus, 261

  Godoy, Don Manuel, Prince of the Peace, 77, 123, 125

  Goethe, J. W. Von, 177, 270

  Gohier, Louis (member of the Directory), 43

  Graham, Colonel, 35, 192, 214, 215

  Gros, Baron (artist), 220, 221

  Guesclin, Bertrand du, 235

  Hamilton, Lady, 249

  Harpe, General La. (_See_ Laharpe, General)

  Harville, M. d', 70

  Hatzfeld, Princess d', 83, 249

  Haugwitz, Count von, 71

  Hautpoult, General, 255

  Haydn, Joseph, 74, 90

  Heath, Baron, 60

  Hédouville, General, 42, 92

  Henri IV., 296

  Hiller, General, 282, 284

  Hoche, General Lazare, 34, 38, 209, 218

  Hofer, Andreas, 146

  Hohenlohe, Prince, 81

  Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Prince of, 277

  Holland, King of. (_See_ Bonaparte, Louis)
  ----  Queen of. (_See_ Beauharnais, Hortense)

  Homer, 199

  Hood, Robin, 39

  Humbert, General, 41

  Humboldt, Baron von, 226

  Hume, Martin, 267

  Hutchinson, General, 49

  Jacquin, Von (Austrian botanist), 225

  Jahn, F. L. (German patriot), 278

  Jeanne of France (Queen of Navarre), 304

  Jellachich, General, 70, 145

  Joan of Arc, 294

  John, Archduke, 144, 147, 287, 290, 291
  ----  King of France, 222

  Johnson, Dr., vi., 208

  Jomini, Baron (Swiss strategist), 192, 194, 204, 206, 211, 213, 214,

  Joseph. (_See_ Bonaparte, Joseph)

  Josephine Maximilienne Auguste, 106

  Joubert, General, 34, 35, 42, 43, 219, 220

  Jouberthon, Madame (wife of Lucien), 266

  Jourdan, Marshal, 11, 20, 25,42, 57, 191, 217

  Julian, Emperor, 185

  Julien, Mlle., 153

  Jung, Thomas (or Iung), 228, 230, 251

  Junot (Duc d'Abrantès), 9, 10, 42, 118, 128, 200, 212, 230, 231, 241,

  Kalkreuth, Count (Russian Field-Marshal), 79

  Kaunitz, Prince, 71

  Keith, Lord, 46

  Kellerman, Marshal (Duke of Valmy), 19, 57, 205, 206, 207, 209, 210,
        214, 217

  Kellermann, General, 46

  Kilmaine, General, 19, 27, 215, 220

  King. (_See_ Bonaparte, Joseph), 136

  Kipling, R., 129

  Kléber, General, 19, 20, 42, 43, 46, 290

  Klein, General, 20

  Kleist, 192

  Kourakin, Alexander, 138, 274

  Kray, Baron von (Austrian General), 42, 43, 44, 46

  Kutusoff, General (Prince of Smolensk), 188, 189

  Labédoyère, Madame, 231

  La Bruyère, 20

  Lacépède, Count de, 189, 296

  La Fontaine, 316

  Lagrange (mathematician), 190

  La Grassini, 223, 224, 228

  Laharpe, General, 10, 200, 210

  Lannes, Marshal (Duke of Montebello), 9, 45, 46, 57, 68, 69, 78, 80, 90,
        136, 143, 145, 147, 219, 275, 289, 290, 291

  Lanusse, General François, 219

  Larévellière-Lépeaux (Member of the Directory), 38, 43, 217

  Larochefoucauld, Mdme. de, 234, 250

  La Romana (Spanish General), 136, 138

  Lasalle, General, 149, 291

  Las Cases, Count de, 117, 207, 224, 229, 232, 259

  Latouche-Tréville, Admiral, 235

  Latour, Von, Count (Austrian General), 29

  Laudon (Austrian General), 65

  Lauriston, General, 147, 192, 193, 229, 256, 270

  Lavalette, Count de, 220, 221, 276, 299
  ----  Madame, 226, 227, 231

  Lebrun (statesman, Duke of Placentia), 71, 302
  ----  (the poet), 243

  Leclerc, General, 50

  Lecombe, General, 43

  Lefebvre-Desnouettes, General, 139, 275

  Lefebvre, Marshal, 57, 111, 112, 135, 145

  Lejeune, Baron, 240, 252, 254, 257, 274, 275, 281, 282, 283, 303, 304

  Lemarois, General, 67, 239, 256

  "Leon," 252

  Lestocq, General, 255

  Letourneur (Member of the Directory), 198, 201

  Leyen, Amélie de la, 305
  ----  Princess de la, 171, 308

  Liverpool, Lord, 186

  Livia (wife of Augustus), 228

  Louis, Archduke, 143

  Louis XI., 52

  Louis XII., 296

  Louis XV., 267

  Louis XVI., 230

  Louis XVIII. (_See_ Angoulême, Duc d')

  Lucca, Eliza Bonaparte, Princess of, 265

  Lynedoch, Lord. (_See_ Graham, Col.)

  L----, Mdme. (_See_ Larochefoucauld, Mdme. de)

  Macdonald, Marshal, 41, 42, 145, 147, 150, 192, 196, 287, 292

  Mack, General, 41, 64, 66, 239, 246

  Macpherson, James, 199

  Madison, President, 143, 190

  Maelzel, Leonard (German mechanic), 292

  Mahmoud IV., 128, 136

  Mahomet, 52

  Makau, Madame de, 175, 176, 307, 309

  Malet, General, 188, 189

  "Maman" (Madame Mère, mother of Napoleon), 45, 50, 224, 227

  Marbot, Baron, 187, 267, 274, 275, 283, 284, 288, 290, 291

  Marchesi (artiste), 224

  Marescalchi, 303

  Marest, M. de, 213

  Maret (Duc de Bassano), 57, 67, 187, 189, 270, 271, 292, 302, 304

  Marie Antoinette, 230, 249

  Marie Louise, 157, 164, 165, 167, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 197, 271,
        296, 298, 301, 302, 304, 306, 310, 312, 314, 315

  Marie Thérèse, 284, 285, 320

  Marie Victoire, Infanta, 267

  Marmont, Marshal, 69, 150, 187, 196, 197, 198, 207, 210, 211, 222, 248,
        292, 315

  Masaniello, 52

  Massena, Marshal (Duke of Rivoli), 24, 28, 34, 35, 38, 42, 43, 44, 46,
        57, 66, 68, 69, 71, 77, 144, 174, 180, 200, 205, 213, 215, 220,
        221, 223, 238, 282, 290, 292

  Masson, M. Frédéric, 61, 224, 239, 242, 247, 250, 252, 296, 297, 303,
        305, 307, 309, 312, 313, 317, 318

  Maximilian, Archduke, 285

  Meerfeldt or Meerveldt, Count von, 69, 145

  Melas, General, 43, 46, 224

  Melito, Count Miot de, 246

  Melville, Lord, 277

  Ménage, Gilles (scholar), 213

  Menard, 219

  Méneval, Baron de, 229, 232, 237, 239, 244, 246, 254, 255, 264, 283,
        289, 295, 296, 297

  Menou, General Baron de, 49

  Merlin (member of the Directory), 43

  Metternich, Prince, 153, 275
  ----   Madame de, 300

  Michael Angelo, 205

  Michaud, L. G., 162, 231, 264, 277

  Michelet, Jules (historian), 212

  Michot (actor), 229

  Miollis, Adjutant-General, 24

  Modena, Duke of, 11

  Moltke, Von, 271

  Moncey, Marshal, 57

  Monclas, 26

  Monnier, General J. C., 43

  Montaigne, Michel de, 315

  Montebello, Duke of. (_See_ Lannes, Marshal)

  Montebello, Duchess of (La Maréchale Lannes), 145, 147, 289

  Montesquiou, Madame de, 175

  Montgaillard, l'Abbé de (historian), 38, 42, 43, 52, 66, 90, 128, 137,
        144, 162, 185, 191, 193, 286

  Montholon, Count de, 255

  Moore, Sir John, 143, 273, 275, 277

  Morbach, Colonel, 318

  Moreau, General, 14, 19, 20, 25, 29, 30, 38, 43, 44, 46, 57, 188, 192,
        205, 217, 223, 279

  Mortier, Marshal, 57, 69, 84, 153, 179, 188, 196, 224

  Moscati, 36, 37

  Moulin, General (member of the Directory), 43

  Mourad Bey, 41, 42

  Moustache, 44, 114, 115, 140

  Müller (Swiss historian), 270

  Murat, King of Naples, 9, 16, 22, 23, 45, 46, 57, 64, 66, 69, 79, 81,
        83, 86, 97. 99, 125, 127, 128, 148, 188, 189, 190, 194, 195, 211,
        212, 219, 224, 235, 240, 254, 265, 269, 270, 276, 287, 298, 302,
  ----  Madame Caroline, Queen of Naples, 99, 158, 190, 235, 252, 254, 261,
        290, 298

  Mustapha IV., 112

  "M----," 45. (See "Maman")

  Napier, Sir William, 123, 141, 275, 277, 278

  Naples, King of. (_See_ Bonaparte, Joseph)

  Napoleon Charles Bonaparte (eldest son of Hortense), 53, 79, 80, 81, 82,
        84. 89, 93, 110, 137, 228, 247

  Napoleon Louis (second son of Hortense). (_See_ Berg, Grand Duke of)

  Napoleons ("the two"), sons of Hortense and Louis, 68, 79, 80, 84, 86,
        90, 151, 174

  Napoleon III. (Charles Louis Napoleon, third son of Hortense), 127, 238,
        269, 303, 307

  Nassau, Prince of, 270

  Necker, M., 224

  Nelson, Lord, 41, 49

  Nero, Emperor, 236

  Ney, Marshal (Prince of the Moskowa), 20, 52, 53, 57, 64, 65, 69, 83,
        88, 90, 173, 187, 188, 189, 192, 231, 239, 255
  ----, Madame, 231, 304

  Nicolas, Sir Harris (historian), 74

  O'Donnell (Spanish General), 181

  O'Meara, Dr., 272

  Oscar, Prince (son of Bernadotte), 106

  Ossian, 4, 199

  Oudet, General, 279

  Oudinot, Marshal, Duke of Reggio, 143, 150, 187, 189, 192, 196, 270,

  Ouvrard (financier), 248

  Paër, Ferdinando (musical composer), 89, 91, 242

  Paget, Lord, 293

  Palafox y Melzi, Duke of Saragossa, 136

  Palatine, The Archduke (Joseph-Antoine of Hungary), 148

  Palmerston, Lord, 272

  Paoli, General de, 209

  Parma, Grand Duke of, 11, 204

  Pasquier, E. D., Duke, 162, 253, 268, 270, 276, 281

  Paterson, Miss (repudiated wife of Jerome Bonaparte), 301

  Paul, Princess, 70

  Paul I. (_See_ Russia, Czar of)

  Pauline. (_See_ Borghèse, Princess)

  Pavon, 226

  Pelet, General and Baron, 279, 280, 282, 283, 284, 290

  Perceval, Spencer (British Premier), 185

  Perignon, Marshal, 57

  Périgord, Edmond de, 270

  Permon, Madame (mother of Madame D'Abrantès), 230

  Philip Augustus, King of France, 296

  Philippon, General, 185

  Pichegru, General, 57

  Pignatelli, Prince of Strongoli, and Minister of Ferdinand, King of
        Naples, 21

  Pijon, General, 219

  Pitt, William, 77

  Pius VI., Pope, 14, 37, 41, 43, 195, 206, 210, 211, 218, 222

  Pius VII., Pope, 49, 52, 60, 148, 186, 189, 190, 225, 237, 300, 301

  Pompadour, Madame de, 302, 320

  Poniatowski, Prince, and Marshal of France, 193

  Portugal, Prince Regent of, 125 ---- Queen of, 125

  Pradt, Abbé de, 277

  Primate, The Prince, 270

  Prince Regent, 226. (_See_ George IV.)

  Princess, 121. (_See_ Beauharnais, Auguste)

  Provera (Austrian General), 34, 35

  Prussia, Frederick William II., King of, 38
  ----  Frederick William III., King of, 38, 64, 67, 78, 79, 114, 116,
        143, 191, 197, 236, 240, 245, 249, 270, 271, 315
  ----  Louise, Queen of, 79, 116, 117, 143, 245, 248, 249
  ----  Prince Louis of, 78
  ----  Prince William of, 270

  P----, Madame de, 106

  Quesdonowich (Austrian General), 24

  Racine, 241

  Rampon, Colonel, 9, 219

  Raphael, 209

  Rapp, Count, 194, 226, 227, 285, 294, 295

  Raynouard (author), 241

  Redcliffe, Stratford de, 186

  Regnauld, Count (State Secretary of the Imperial Court), 296

  Rémusat, Madame de, 222, 237, 239, 298, 301, 307, 308, 310, 311

  Renard, Madame Château, 6, 8, 10

  Renaudin, Madame de, 216

  Rewbell (member of the Directory), 38

  Reynier, General, 77, 193, 292

  Rheims, Mayoress of, 233

  Richard Coeur de Lion, 284

  Richmond, Madame, 99

  Rivoli, Duc de, 35. (_See_ Massena)

  Rochefoucauld. (_See_ Larochefoucauld, Mdme. de)

  Roger-Ducos (member of the Directory), 43

  Rollo the Sea King, 304

  Rome, King of (Napoleon II.), "l'Aiglon," 179, 268, 311, 313

  Rosebery, Lord, 234, 276, 315

  Rose, J. H., 214, 215

  Rostopchin, Count and General, 188

  Ruiz, 226

  Russia, Alexander I., Emperor of, 67, 71, 115, 116, 131, 132, 143, 179,
        185, 188, 190, 191, 197, 241, 243, 249, 264, 269, 270, 271, 272,
  ----  Catherine II., Czarina of, 30
  ----  Paul I., Czar of, 49

  Sacken, General, 195, 196

  Saint Amand, Imbert de, 4, 172, 199, 212, 221, 223, 243, 245, 251, 256,
        257, 267, 269, 302, 304, 307, 308, 312

  Saint Cyr, Gouvion, Marquis and Marshal, 20, 43, 187, 188, 193

  Saint-Hilaire, General, 219

  Saliceti, C., 213

  Sardinia, King of, 205

  Sarrazin, General, 133

  Sauret, General, 24, 213, 215

  Savary (Duc de Rovigo), 99, 108, 125, 158, 165, 239, 241, 246, 251, 258,
        271, 272, 274, 276, 277, 292, 294, 297

  Saxe-Hildburghausen, Princess of, 238

  Saxony, Elector, then King of, 89, 117, 270

  Saxe-Weimar, Prince of, 270, 271
  ----  Princess of, 270

  Schérer, General (French), 42, 198

  Schwartzenberg, Marshal, 192, 193, 194, 300, 303, 308

  Scott, Sir Walter, 208, 222, 277

  Sebastiani, General, 272

  Ségur, General Count, 241

  Selim III., 112

  Serbelloni, M., 216

  Serent, Madame de, 70

  Serrurier, Marshal, 25, 57, 215

  Sevigné, Madame de, 260

  Shakespeare, 249

  Sièyes, Abbé and Count (member of the Directory), 42

  Smith, Sir Sydney, 60

  Soult, Marshal, Duke of Dalmatia, 57, 65, 79, 83, 113, 114, 136, 139,
        143, 145, 150, 151, 164, 179, 191, 192, 193, 194, 196, 197, 229,
        270, 275, 278, 292

  Spain, Charles II. of, and his Queen, 267
  ----  Charles IV., King of, 112, 118, 123, 125, 126, 127, 228
  ----  Queen of (mother of Ferdinand VII.), 118, 126, 127, 268
  ----  Queen of (wife of Joseph), 313

  Stabs, 294

  Stadion, Count von (Austrian diplomatist), 278

  Staël, Madame de, Holstein, 310

  Stein, Baron Von, 278

  Stephanie. (See Beauharnais)

  Stevenson, R. L., 298

  Stuart, Marie, 249

  Suchet, Marshal (Duke of Albufera), 148, 170, 180, 181, 185, 186, 191,
        192, 193

  Sullivan, Sir A., 249

  Sussi, 6

  Suwarrow, Marshal, 42, 43

  Sweden, Charles XII., King of, 185
  ----  Charles XIII., King of, 147
  ----  Gustavus Adolphus IV., King of, 143, 243

  Talleyrand-Périgord, Prince, 38, 52, 67, 68, 79, 81, 121, 197, 225,
        233, 236, 237, 238, 240, 242, 245, 246, 260, 268, 270, 271,
        272, 275, 276, 277, 279, 300, 302, 303, 314

  Tallien, "Thermidorian," 7, 237, 247, 254
  ----  Madame (Princesse de Chimay), 6, 7, 8, 15, 82, 198, 247, 248

  Talma, 270

  Tamerlane, 272

  Tascher, Louis, 98, 114, 137, 171, 256, 305
  ----  Henri, 305

  Tasso, 245

  Tennant, Charles, 13, 45

  Thiard, M. de, 106, 243, 260

  Thibaut, M., 225

  Thiers, M. (statesman), 265, 273, 275, 296, 302

  Tolly, Barclay de, 187, 188

  Tolstoi, Count, 274

  Tone, Wolfe, 41

  Tour and Taxis, Princess of, 270, 278

  Toussaint-Louverture, 49, 50, 53

  Treilhard, Count (member of the Directory), 43

  Trémoille, Princess de la, 309, 310

  Trèves, Elector of, 65

  Tschitchagow, Admiral, 188

  Turenne, M. de, 116
  ----  Marshal, 286

  Tuscany, Grand Duke of, 216

  T----, Madame, 24. (Probably Madame Tallien)

  T----, Madame de la, 175. (_See_ Trémoille)

  T----, 60. (Probably Talleyrand)

  T----, 96. (Probably Tallien)

  T----, de, 106. (_See_ Thiard, M. de)

  T----, 237. (_See_ Tallien)

  Valerian, Emperor, 185

  Vandamme, General, 86, 92, 192

  Van Dyck, 209

  Varin, Regnault, 317

  Vaubois, General, 16, 27, 30, 31, 46, 220

  Verhuell, Admiral, 269

  Veronese, Paul, 209

  Victoire, Marie, 267. (_See_ Marie)

  Victor, Marshal, 35, 136, 143, 150, 219

  Villars, Marshal, 43

  Villeneuve, Admiral, 63

  Vincent, General, 270

  Virgil, 21, 212

  Walewski, Marie, 250, 252, 253, 293

  Washington, George, 43, 223

  Wattier, General, 176

  Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of, 128, 145, 150, 174, 176, 180,
        185, 186, 187, 188, 192, 193, 196, 197, 278, 290, 291, 292

  Westphalia, King of. (_See_ Bonaparte, Jerome)

  Wieland, C. M., 270

  Wilhelmina, Princess, 236. (_See_ Baden, Princess of)

  William I., Emperor of Germany, 245, 315

  Windham, William (British Secretary at War), 213

  Wittgenstein, General and Count, 187, 188, 192

  Woodward (and Cates), 74

  Wrede, Marshal (Bavarian Marshal), 193

  Wurmser, Marshal, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 35, 38, 213, 214, 215, 216,
        217, 218, 219, 221, 222, 224

  Wurtemberg, Duke of, 64, 68, 77
  ----  Electress of, 64, 70, 238
  ----  King of, 242, 270, 295
  ----  Prince Royal of, 196

  Würzburg, Grand Duke of, 78, 244

  Xenophon, 205

  Xerxes, 281

  York, Duke of, 43
  ----  General von, 189, 195

  Zingarelli, N. (musician), 242


  Edinburgh & London

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