By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. III, Number 87, June 28, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. III, Number 87, June 28, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_
fonts. Original spelling varieties have not been standardized. A list of
volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. III.--No. 87. SATURDAY, JUNE 28. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4_d._


      On the proposed Scheme for preserving a Record of Existing
      Monuments                                                  513


      Illustrations of Chaucer, No. IX.: Astronomical Evidence
      of True Date of Canterbury Pilgrimage                      515

      Curious Epigrams on Oliver Cromwell, by J. Friswell        515

      Folk Lore:--Popular Superstitions in Lancashire--Folk Lore
      in Lancashire--Lancashire Customs--Od--Pigeons             516

      Minor Notes:--Lord Nelson's Dress and Sword at
      Trafalgar--Crucifix of Mary Queen of Scots--Jonah
      and the Whale--Anachronisms of Painters                    517


      Minor Queries:--Rifles--Stanbridge Earls--Montchesni
      Coleridge's Table Talk--"Men may live Fools, but Fools
      they cannot die"--Etymology of Bicêtre--Theobald
      Anguilbert and Michael Scott--"Suum cuique tribuere," &c.  518

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Organs first put up in
      Churches--Ignoramus, Comœdia, &c.--Drake's Historia
      Anglo-Scotica                                              518


      Corpse passing makes a Right of Way, by C. H. Cooper       519

      Dozen of Bread; Baker's Dozen, by J. B. Colman             520

      Mosaic                                                     521

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Prenzie--Lady Flora Hastings'
      Bequest--Arches of Pelaga--Engraved Warming-pans--St.
      Pancras--Pallavicino and Count d'Olivarez--Mind your
      P's and Q's--Banks Family--National Debts--Monte di
      Pietà--Registry of Dissenting Baptisms--Eisell--English
      Sapphics--Mints at Norwich--Joseph Nobbs--Voltaire,
      where situated--Meaning of Pilcher--Catalogues of Coins
      of Canute--Pontoppidan's Natural History of Norway--The
      First Panorama--Written Sermons--Bogatsky                  522


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     526

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               527

      Notices to Correspondents                                  527

      Advertisements                                             527


  The following letters, which we have received since we last
  brought the proposed scheme for preserving a record of existing
  monuments under the notice of our readers, afford a striking proof
  how widely the interest in the subject is extending.

  We print them now, partly because the Number of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES" now in the reader's hands completes the present volume,
  and it is desirable that the various communications upon this
  point should, as far as possible, be found together; and partly
  because the time is at hand when many of our readers may have the
  opportunity, during their summer excursions, of following out the
  plan described by our valued correspondent YORK HERALD in the
  following letter:--

References to this subject having appeared in your valuable miscellany,
I am unwilling to lose an opportunity it affords me of throwing in my
mite of contribution towards the means of preserving monumental
inscriptions. It may be better perhaps, to state the humble method I
adopt in attempting to rescue from oblivion those memorials of the dead,
than to suggest any. I avail myself of occasions, whenever I visit the
country, to take notes of monumental inscriptions in churches and other
places of sepulture; generally of all within the walls of the sacred
edifice, and those of the principal tombs in the surrounding graveyard.
Time very often will not allow me to take _verbatim_ copies of
inscriptions; so I merely transcribe faithfully every date, genealogical
note, and prominent event recorded upon monuments; omitting all
circumlocution and mere eulogistical epitaphs. By this means, much time
and labour are saved, and much useful and valuable information is
secured. I should prefer taking exact copies, or even drawings of the
most remarkable monuments; but this would occupy much time, and narrow
the means of collecting; and by which I should have lost much that is
valuable and interesting; copies, howsoever much they would have been
desirable, would not possess the character of legal evidence. Thus, upon
mere incidental occasions, I have collected sepulchral memorials from
many churches in various parts of the country; and, in some instances,
all contained in the village church, and the adjacent burying-ground. I
have frequently found also that preserving an account of the relative
positions of gravestones is important; especially when groups of family
memorials occur in the same locality. I need scarcely add that I
preserve memoranda of all armorial insignia found upon tombs and
hatchments, forming a collection of arms borne by various families; and
whether they stand the test of authority or not, at all events such
information is useful.

What store of information might be obtained, by persons having leisure
and inclination to pursue such an object, by the simple means of an
ordinary pocket-memorandum-book!

    Thomas William King.

  Our next communication, from the Rev. Canon Raines, is valuable,
  as showing that unless some limit is placed to the antiquarian
  ardour of those who would "collect and record every existing
  monumental inscription," the historical and genealogical inquirer
  will be embarrassed by a mass of materials in which, like
  Gratiano's reasons, the two grains of wheat will be hid in two
  bushels of chaff--a mass, indeed, which, from its extent, would
  require to be deposited with the Registrar-General, and arranged
  by the practised hands of his official staff.

MR. DUNKIN'S proposed record of existing monuments will be, if carried
into effect, a very useful contribution to genealogists. Many years
since I transcribed all the inscriptions _inside_ the parish church of
Rochdale, in Lancashire; but I never contemplated the possibility of any
antiquary having the ardour to undertake a similar _task outside_. There
are many thousands of gravestones, covering some _acres_; and I have
understood that when one side of a grave-stone has been covered with
inscriptions, the stone has been turned upside down, and the sculptor
has again commenced his endless work on the smooth surface. In a great
majority of these frail records nothing would be obtained which the
parish register could not supply.

    F. R. RAINES.

  Milnrow Parsonage, Rochdale, June 4.

  Our correspondent from Bruges furnishes, like YORK HERALD,
  valuable evidence as to what individual exertion may accomplish;
  and we are sure, that if he will take the trouble of securing,
  while he has the opportunity, a copy of the inscriptions in the
  cemetery allotted to the English at Bruges, confining himself
  merely to the names, dates, and genealogical information contained
  in them, and will then deposit his collections either in the
  Library of the Society of Antiquaries, or the Manuscript
  Department of the British Museum, he will not only be setting a
  good example to all antiquaries who may reside in any of the
  cities of the Continent, but earn for himself hereafter the thanks
  of many an anxious inquirer after genealogical truth.

The communications made in your interesting "NOTES AND QUERIES" have
occasioned me much gratification, and if it be in my power to contribute
but a mite to this rich treasury of information, I should consider it a
privilege to be allowed to do so. To show that I am actuated by a
kindred spirit, permit me to inform you, that a few years ago I
undertook the formation of a desultory collection of "memorials of the
ancient dead," and with that view corresponded with several hundred
clergymen, inviting their local assistance; and I need scarcely add that
a prompt and courteous attention to my wishes, encouraged my labours,
and accomplished (so far as time and opportunity permitted) my object.
It will be obvious that I had no intention of aiming at specimens in the
higher department of monumental art, which have been so ably executed by
Gough, Stothard, Neale, and others, but to content myself with those
humbler efforts of skill which lay neglected and sometimes buried in
holes and corners in many a rural church in remote districts.

The result has put me in possession of a collection of about three
hundred illustrations, consisting of pen-and-ink outlines, pencil
sketches, Indian ink drawings, and some more highly finished paintings
in water colour; and in addition to these, upwards of two hundred
autograph letters from clergymen, many of which contain not only
inscriptions, but interesting parochial and topographical information.

The illustrations I have arranged (as well as I am able) in centuries,
commencing with the plain cope lid of the eleventh century, according to
the plan adopted by M. H. Bloxam, Esq., in his admirable treatise
modestly intitled _A Glimpse at the Monumental Architecture and
Sculpture of Great Britain_. The volume made for their reception is an
atlas-folio, guarded; on one leaf is inserted the drawing, on the other
the letter (if any) which accompanied it, to which are added a few brief
memoranda of my own: it is still, however, in an unfinished state.

The book is a very cumbrous one, so that its transmission would be no
very easy task; if, however, it should be thought desirable, and the
practicability explained, I shall have much pleasure in placing its
contents at the disposal of any one engaged in following out the plan

Allow me to add that, about a mile distant from the quaint and
interesting city from whence this "note" is dated (and in which I have
resided for some time), we come to the cemetery, a portion of which is
allotted to the interment of those English residents, or visitors, who
may have terminated their earthly career at this place. Should a copy of
the inscriptions in this receptacle (which are numerous) be acceptable,
I will endeavour to procure one; but in this case I should be glad to
know whether these extracts should be confined to names, dates, and
genealogical information only, or include the various tributes of
affection or of friendship, by which they are generally accompanied.

    M. W. B.




_The Astronomical Evidence of the True Date of the Canterbury

As a conclusion to my investigation of this subject, I wish to place
upon record the astronomical results on which I have relied in the
course of my observations; in order that their correctness may be open
to challenge, and that each reader may compare the actual phenomena,
rigidly ascertained with all the helps that modern science affords, with
the several approximations arrived at by Chaucer. And when it is
recollected that some at least of the facts recorded by him must have
been theoretical--incapable of the test of actual observation--it must
be admitted that his near approach to truth is remarkable: not the less
so that his ideas on some points were certainly erroneous; as, for
example, his adoption, in the _Treatise on the Astrolabe_, of Ptolemy's
determination of the obliquity of the ecliptic in preference to the more
correct value assigned to it by the Arabians of the middle ages.

Assuming that the true date intended by Chaucer was Saturday the 18th of
April, 1388, the following particulars of that day are those which have
reference to his description:--

                                                            H.    M.

      Right       { Of the Sun at noon -                     2 . 17·2
      Ascension   { Of the Moon at 4 p. m.                  12 .  5·7
                  { Of the star (δ. Virginis)   12 . 25

                                                             °    ′
      North       { Of the Sun at noon -                    13 . 47·5
      Declination { Of the Moon at 4 p. m.                   4 . 49·8
                  { Of the star (δ. Virginis)    6 . 43·3

                                             °    ′

                  { Of the Sun at 10 a. m.   45 . 15
      Altitude    { Of the Sun at 4 p. m.    29 . 15
                  { Of the Moon at 4 p. m.    4 . 53
                  { Of the star at 4 p. m.    4 . 20

      Azimuth -     Of the Sun at rising -  112 . 30

                                                   H.  M.

                  { Of the Sun at half Azimuth     9 . 17 a. m.
                  { Of the Sun at altitude 45°     9 . 58 a. m.
      Apparent    { Of the Sun at altitude 29°     4 .  2 p. m.
      Time        { Of apparent entrance
                  { of Moon's centre into Libra    3 . 45 p. m.

It will be seen that, if the place here assigned to the moon be correct,
Chaucer could not have described it more appropriately than by the
phrase "In méné Libra:" providing (of which there can be little doubt)
that he used those words as synonymous with "in hedde of Libra." "Hedde
of Libra," "hedde of Aries," are expressions constantly used by him to
describe the equinoctial points; and the analogy that exists between
"head," in the sense head-land or promontory, as, for example, "Orme's
Head," "Holyhead," "Lizard Head," and the like; and "menez" in the same
sense, need not be further insisted upon. Evidence fully sufficient to
justify a much less obvious inference has been already produced, and I
am enabled to strengthen it still further by the following reference,
for which I am indebted to a private communication from H. B. C.

   "Menez, _s. m._ Grande masse de terre, ou de roche, fort élevée
   au-dessus du sol de la terre.

   "Mean, ou Maen, _s. m._ Pierre, corps dur et solide qui se forme
   dans la terre.

   "(En Treguier et Cornouailes), MÉNÉ."

   (Gonidec, _Dictionnaire Celto-Breton_.
   Angoulême, 1821.)

This last reference is doubly valuable, in referring the word _méné_ to
the very neighbourhood of the scene of Chaucer's "Frankleine's Tale,"
and in dispensing with the terminal letter _z_, thereby giving us the
_verbum ipsissimum_ used by Chaucer.

I must not be understood as entertaining the opinion that Chaucer's
knowledge of astronomy--although undoubtedly great, considering the age
in which he lived and the nature of his pursuits--would have enabled him
to determine the moon's true place, with such correctness, wholly from
theory; on the contrary, I look upon it as more probably the result of
real observation at the time named, and, as such, adding another link to
the chain of presumptive evidence that renders it more probable that
Chaucer wrote the prologues to his _Canterbury Tales_ more as a
narration (_with some embellishments_) of events that really took place,
than that they were altogether the work of his imagination.

    A. E. B.

  Leeds, June, 1851.


Looking carefully over a curious copy of the _Flagellum, or the Life and
Death, Birth and Buriall of O. Cromwell, the late Usurper_, printed for
Randal Taylor, 1672, I found on the back of the title the following
epigrams, written in a handwriting and ink corresponding to the date of
the book (which, by the way, is a late edition of the "little brown
lying book," by Heath, which Carlyle notices): as they are curious and
worth preserving, and I believe not to be met with elsewhere, I presume
they may be of some interest to your readers. The book is also full of
MS. marginal notes and remarks, evidently by some red-hot royalist,
which are also curious in themselves, and with a selection of which I
may some day trouble you should you wish it.

  _Under Gen. Cromwell's Picture, hung up in the Royal Exchange,
  these Lines were written._

      "Ascend ye Throne Greate Captaine and Divine
      By th' will of God, oh Lyon, for they'r thine;
      Come priest of God, bring oyle, bring Robes, bring Golde,
      Bring crowns, bring scepters, 'tis high time t' unfold
      Yor cloyster'd Buggs, yor State cheates, Lifte ye Rod
      Of Steele, of Iron, of the King of God,--
      Pay all in wrath with interest. Kneeling pray
      To Olivr Torch of Syon, Starr of Day.
      Shoute then you Townds and Cyties, loudly Sing,
      And all bare-headed cry, God save ye King!"

  _The Repartee, unto this Blasphemie._

      "Descende thou great Usurper from ye throne,
      Thou, throughe thy pride, tooke what was not thine owne;
      A Rope did better fitte thee than a Crowne,
      Come Carnifex, and put ye Traytor downe,
      For crownes and sceptres, and such sacred things
      Doe not belong to Traytors, but to Kings;
      Let therefoe all true Loyall subjects sing,
      Vive le Roy! Long Live! God bless ye King!"

In regard to the little controversy which I started regarding Bunyan's
claim to be author of the _Visions of Heaven and Hell_, I hope soon to
decide it, as I am on the scent of a copy of, I believe, a first
edition, which does not claim him for author.


  12. Brooke Street, Holborn.


_Popular Superstitions in Lancashire._--That a man must never "go a
courting" on a Friday. If an unlucky fellow is caught with his lady-love
on that day, he is followed home by a band of musicians playing on
pokers, tongs, pan-lids, &c., unless he can rid himself of his
tormentors by giving them money to drink with.

That hooping-cough will never be taken by any child which has ridden
upon a bear. While bear baiting was in fashion, great part of the
owner's profits arose from the money given by parents whose children had
had a ride. The writer knows of cases in which the charm is said
certainly to have been effectual.

That hooping-cough may be cured by tying a hairy caterpillar in a small
bag round the child's neck, and as the caterpillar dies the cough goes.

That Good Friday is the best day of all the year to begin weaning
children, which ought if possible to be put off till that day; and a
strong hope is sometimes entertained that a very cross child will "be
better" after it has been christened.

That May cats are unlucky, and will suck the breath of children.

That crickets are lucky about a house, and will do no harm to those who
use them well; but that they eat holes in the worsted stockings of such
members of the family as kill them. I was assured of this on the
experience of a respectable farmer's family.

The belief in ghosts, or bogards, as they are termed, is universal.

In my neighbourhood I hardly know a dell where a running stream crosses
a road by a small bridge or stone plat, where there is not frectnin
(frightening) to be expected. Wells, ponds, gates, &c., have often this
bad repute. I have heard of a calf with eyes like a saucer, a woman
without a head, a white greyhound, a column of white foam like a large
sugar-loaf in the midst of a pond, a group of little cats, &c., &c., as
the shape of the bogard, and sometimes a lady who jumped behind hapless
passengers on horseback. It is supposed that a Romish priest can lay
them, and that it is best to cheat them to consent to being laid while
hollies are green. Hollies being evergreens, the ghosts can reappear no

    P. P.

_Folk Lore in Lancashire_ (Vol. iii., p. 55.).--Most of, if not all the
instances mentioned under this head by Mr. Wilkinson are, as might be
expected, current also in the adjacent district of the West Riding of
Yorkshire; and, by his leave, I will add a few more, which are familiar
to me:

1. If a cock near the door crows with his face towards it, it is a sure
prediction of the arrival of a stranger.

2. If the cat frisks about the house in an unusually lively manner,
windy or stormy weather is approaching.

3. If a dog howls under a window at night, a death will shortly happen
in that house.

4. If a _female_ be the first to enter a house on Christmas or New
Year's day, she brings ill luck to that house for the coming year.

5. For hooping-cough, pass the child nine times over the back and under
the belly of an ass. (This ceremony I once witnessed, but cannot vouch
for its having had the desired effect.)

6. For warts, rub them with a cinder, and this tied up in paper and
dropped where four roads meet, will transfer the warts to whoever opens
the packet.



_Lancashire Customs._--The curfew is continued in many of the villages,
and until the last ten or fifteen years it was usual at a Roman Catholic
funeral to ring a merry peal on the bells as soon as the interment was
over. The Roman Catholics seem now to have discontinued this practice.

Carol singing and hand-bell ringing prevail at Christmas, and troops of
men and children calling themselves _pace eggers_, go about in Passion
Week, and especially Good Friday, as mummers in the south of England do
at Christmas. Large tallow candles may often be seen decorated with
evergreens, hanging up in the houses of the poor at Christmas time.

    P. P.

_Od._--One of the experiments by which the existence of this agency is
tested, consists in attaching a horsehair to the first joint of the
forefinger, and suspending to it a smooth gold ring. When the elbow is
rested on the table, and the finger held in a horizontal position, the
ring begins to oscillate in the plane of the direction of the finger;
but if a female takes hold of the left hand of the person thus
experimenting, the ring begins forthwith to oscillate in a plane at
right angles to that of its former direction. I have never tried the
experiment, for the simple reason that I have not been able to prevail
upon any married lady of my acquaintance to lend me her wedding-ring for
the purpose; and even if I had found it come true, I should still doubt
whether the motion were not owing to the pulsations of the finger veins;
but whatever be the cause, the fact is not new. My father recently told
me, that in his boyhood he had often seen it tried as a charm. For this
purpose it is essential, as may be supposed, that the ring be a
wedding-ring, and of course the lady towards whom it oscillates is set
down as the future spouse of the gentleman experimenting.

    R. D. H.

_Pigeons._--The popular belief, that a person cannot die with his head
resting on a pillow containing pigeons' feathers, is well known; but the
following will probably be as new to many of your readers as it was to
myself. On applying the other day to a highly respectable farmer's wife
to know if she had any pigeons ready to eat, as a sick person had
expressed a longing for one, she said, "Ah! poor fellow! is he so far
gone? A pigeon is generally almost the last thing they want; I have
supplied many a one for the like purpose."


Minor Notes.

_Lord Nelson's Dress and Sword at Trafalgar._--Perhaps you may think it
worth while to preserve a note written by the late Rev. Dr. Scott on the
498th page of the second volume of Harrison's _Life of Lord Nelson_, in
contradiction of a bombastic description therein given of the admiral's
dress and appearance at the battle of Trafalgar.

  "This is wrong, he wore the same coat he did the day before; nor
  was there the smallest alteration in his dress whatsoever from
  other days. In this action he had not his sword with him on deck,
  which in other actions he had always carried.--_A. J. Scott._"

Dr. Scott was the chaplain and friend in whose arms Lord Nelson died.

When the late Sir N. Harris Nicolas was engaged in a controversy in _The
Times_, respecting the sale of Lord Nelson's sword, I sent him a copy of
the above note, and told him I had heard Dr. Scott say that "the sword
was left hanging in the admiral's cabin." It was not found necessary to
make use of this testimony, as the dispute had subsided.


_Crucifix of Mary Queen of Scots._--The crucifix that belonged to this
unfortunate queen, and which she is said to have held in her hands on
the scaffold, is still preserved with great care by its present owners
(a titled family in the neighbourhood of Winchester), and at whose seat
I have frequently seen it. If I mistake not, the figure of our Saviour
is of ivory, and the cross of ebony.


_Jonah and the Whale._--In No. 76., p. 275., Mr. Gallatly calls
attention to the popular error in misquoting the expression from
Genesis: "In the sweat of thy face," &c. There is another popular error
which may not be known to some of your correspondents: it is generally
supposed that Jonah is recorded in the book bearing his name as having
been swallowed by a _whale_,--this is quite an error. The expressions is
"a great fish," and no such word as _whale_ occurs in the entire "Book
of Jonah."

    E. J. K.

_Anachronisms of Painters._--I send you a further addition to the
"Anachronisms of Painters," mentioned in Vol. iii., p. 369., and, like
them, not in D'Israeli's list.

My father (R. Robinson, of the Heath House, Wombourne) has in his
collection a picture by Steenwyk, of the "Woman taken in Adultery," in
which our Lord is made to write in _Dutch_! The scene also takes place
in a church of the architecture of the thirteenth century!

    G. T. R.

  Wombourne, near Wolverhampton.


Minor Queries.

_Rifles._--"_We_ make the best rifles, and you follow us," said the
exhibitor of Colt's revolvers, in my hearing, with a most satisfied
assurance, in a way "particularly communicative and easy," as _The
Times_ of the 9th of June says of his general manner. I am always
desirous of information, but desire the highest authority and evidence
before I believe. I would therefore ask the opinion of all experienced
sportsmen, such as Mr. Gordon Cumming, or of travelled officers of our
Rifle Brigade. I may say, that if the above unqualified remark came from
the mouth of an English maker, I should be equally incredulous. Is there
any use for which an American rifle is to be preferred to an English

    A. C.

_Stanbridge or Standbridge Earls._--Can any of your correspondents give
me any information respecting Stanbridge or Standbridge Earls, near
Romsey, Hants? There are the remains of a palace of the Saxon kings
still there, many parts of which are in good preservation, the chapel
being now used as the kitchen of Stanbridge House?

I have also read that one of the kings was buried in this chapel, and
afterwards removed to Winchester; but, having no note of the book,
should be glad to be referred to it.


_Montchesni, or Muncey Family._--Can any of your correspondents inform
us what has become of the Norman line of Montchesni, or Muncey, a family
which, like those of Maldebauge and De Loges, held baronial rank in
England for several generations after the Conquest, though it is now


_Epitaph on Voltaire._--The late Sir F. Jeffrey, in a review of the
correspondence of Baron de Grimm, quotes an epitaph on Voltaire, which
he states to have been made by a lady of Lausanne:

      "Ci gît l'enfant gaté du monde qu'il gata."

Has the name of this lady been ascertained?


  St. Lucia, May, 1851.

_Passage in Coleridge's Table Talk._--In _Specimens of Coleridge's Table
Talk_ (p. 165., Murray, 1851) appears the following:--

  "So little did the early bishops and preachers think their
  Christian faith wrapped up in, and solely to be learned from, the
  New Testament, that I remember a letter from ----[1] to a friend
  of his, a bishop in the East, in which he most evidently speaks of
  the _Christian_ scriptures as of works of which the bishop knew
  little or nothing."

  [Footnote 1: "I have lost the name which Mr. Coleridge
  mentioned."--_Editor's Note._]

My object is to know how this blank is to be filled up--probably by the
name of some well-known father of the Church.


  Oxford, May 28.

_"Men may live fools, but fools they cannot die."_--These words are
given in Young's _Night Thoughts_ as a quotation. Can any of your
correspondents inform me whence they are taken?

    E. J. K.

_Etymology of Bicêtre._--In a work entitled _Description routière et
géographique de l'Empire Français_, by R. V., Paris, 1813, the following
notice of Bicêtre occurs in vol. i. p. 84.:--

  "On voit bientôt, à peu de distance à droite, d'abord dans un
  bas-fond, arrosé par la petite rivière de Bièvre ou des Gobelins,
  le village de Gentilly, qui se vante de quelqu'ancienneté, et d'un
  Concile tenu en 767; ensuite, sur une éminence, au bout d'une
  jolie avenue en berceau, l'hôpital de Bicêtre, qui, fondé en 1290
  par un Evêque de Paris, appartint depuis, dit-on, à un Evêque de
  Wincester ou Wincestre, d'où par corruption on a fait Bicêtre.

  "C'est une chose assez piquante que cette étymologie anglaise. Les
  auteurs qui nous l'apprennent eussent bien dû nous en apprendre
  aussi les circonstances. J'ai consulté à cet égard tout ce qui
  était à consulter, sans faire d'autre découverte que quelques
  contradictions dans les dates, et sans pouvoir offrir aucun
  éclaircissement historique à mes lecteurs, aussi curieux que moi,
  sans doute, de savoir comment un prélat anglais est venu donner le
  nom de son évêché à un château de France."

Is there any warrant in English history for this derivation of Bicêtre;
and if so, who was the Bishop of Winchester that gave the name of his
diocese to that celebrated hospital?


  St. Lucia, June, 1851.

_Theobald Anguilbert and Michael Scott._--M. Barbier, in his
_Dictionnaire des Ouvrages anonymes et pseudonymes_, says that Michael
Scott is a pseudonyme for Theobald Anguilbert, and ascribes the _Mensa
philosophica_ to the latter as the real author. Can any one tell me who
is Theobald Anguilbert, for I can find no account of him anywhere? and
if there ever was such a person, whether _all_ the writings bearing the
name of Michael Scott, who, by all accounts, appears to have been a real
person, are to be assigned to the said Anguilbert?



_"Suum cuique tribuere," &c._--Can any of your readers tell me where the
following passage is to be found?

  "Suum cuique tribuere, ea demum summa justitia est."

All persons of whom I have inquired, tell me it is from Cicero, but no
one can inform me _where_ it is to be found.

    M. D.

Minor Queries Answered.

_Organs first put up in Churches._--In the parish register of Buxted, in
Sussex, allusion is made to the time when the organs were put up in the
church, but which had been taken down. This entry was made in the year
1558. Any information as to the earliest period when organs were placed
in our churches will much oblige.

    R. W. B.

  [Our correspondent will find some interesting matter on the early
  use of organs in churches in the Rev. F. D. Wackerbath's _Music
  and the Anglo-Saxons_, pp. 6-24. London. 8vo. 1837.]

_Ignoramus, Comœdia, &c._--Perhaps some of your correspondents can
enlighten me on the following points.

1. Who was the author of this play? The Latin is sufficiently
ultra-canine for his pedantic majesty himself.

2. Do the words "coram Regia Maiestate _Jacobi, Regis Angliæ_," &c.,
mean that the play was acted in the presence of the king? I am inclined
to give them that interpretation from some allusions at the end of the
last act, as well as from its being written in Latin.

3. Are any of the race-courses therein mentioned still used as such?

  "In Stadio Roystoniensi, Brackliensi, Gatterliensi, Coddington."

This is the earliest mention of _fixed_ English race-courses that I have
met with, and not being much versed in the secrets of the modern
"cespite vivo," I am obliged to inquire of those who are better informed
on that subject.

    F. J.

  [The author of _Ignoramus_ was George Ruggles, A. M., of Clare
  Hall, Cambridge. This comedy, as well as that of _Albumazar_, were
  both acted before King James I. and the Prince of Wales, during a
  visit to Cambridge in March, 1614-15. The edition of _Ignoramus_,
  edited by J. S. Hawkins, 8vo., 1787, contains a Life of Ruggles,
  and a valuable Glossary to his "ultra-canine Latin" legal terms.
  There is also a translation of this comedy, with the following
  title: "_Ignoramus: a Comedy as it was several times acted with
  extraordinary applause before the Majesty of King James._ With a
  Supplement, which (out of respect to the Students of the Common
  Law) was hitherto wanting. Written in Latine by R. Ruggles,
  sometime Master of Arts in Clare Hall, in Cambridge, and
  translated into English by R. C. [Robert Codrington, A. M.] of
  Magdalen Colledge, in Oxford. London. 4to. 1662."]

_Drake's Historia Anglo-Scotica._--Will any of your learned readers
inform me, for what reason and by what authority Drake's _Historia
Anglo-Scotica_, published in 1703, was ordered to be burned by the
hangman? And where I can meet with a report of the proceedings relating
to it?



  [Dr. Drake was not the author, but merely the editor of _Historia
  Anglo-Scotica_. In the dedication he says, "Upon a diligent
  revisal, in order, if possible, to discover the name of the
  author, and the age of his writing, he found that it was written
  in, or at least not finished till, the time of Charles I." It is
  singular, however, that he does not give the least intimation by
  what mysterious influence the manuscript came to be wafted into
  his library. It was ordered by the parliament of Scotland, on the
  30th of June, 1703, to be burned by the common hangman.]



(Vol. iii., p. 477.)

The fact of the passage of a funeral procession over land, from being an
act of user of a very public character, must always have had some
influence on the trial of the question whether the owner of the land had
dedicated the same to the public; and it is not improbable that in early
times very great weight was attached to evidence of this kind: so that
the passage of a corpse across land came to be considered in the popular
mind as conclusive and incontrovertible evidence of a public right of
way over that land. With the reverence for the dead which is so pleasing
a characteristic of modern refinement, it is probable that acts of user
of this description would now have little weight, inasmuch as no man of
right feeling would be disposed to interrupt parties assembled on so
mournful and solemn an occasion. I recollect, however, having read a
trial in modern times for a riot, arising out of a forcible attempt to
carry a corpse over a field against the will of the landowner; the
object of the parties in care of the corpse was believed to be the
establishment of a public right of way over the field in question, the
owner of which, with a body of partisans, forcibly resisted the attempt,
on the apparent belief that the act of carrying a corpse across the
field would certainly have established the right claimed. I regret I did
not "make a Note" of the case, so as to be able to specify the time,
place, and circumstances with certainty.

That the notion in question is of great antiquity may I think be
inferred from the following passage in _Prynne's Records_, iii. 213.,
referring to Walter Bronescombe, Bishop of Exeter, 1258-1280 (and as the
authority for which, Prynne cites Holinshed's _Chronicle_, 1303, 1304;
and Godwin's _Catalogue of Bishops_, 326.):--

  "He did by a Policy purchase the Lordship and House of Clift
  Sachfeld, and enlarged the Barton thereof by gaining of Cornish
  Wood from the Dean and Chapter fraudulently; building then a very
  fair and sumptuous house there; he called it Bishop's Clift, and
  left the same to his successors. Likewise he got the Patronage of
  Clift Fomesone, now called Sowton, and annexed the same to his new
  Lordship, which (as it was said) he procured by this means. He had
  a Frier to be his Chaplain and Confessor, which died in his said
  House of Clift, and should have been buried at the Parish Church
  of Faringdon, because the said House was and is in that Parish;
  but because the Parish Church was somewhat farre off, the wayes
  foul, and the weather rainy, or for some other causes, the Bishop
  commanded the corps to be carryed to the parish church of Sowton,
  then called Clift Fomeson, which is very near, and bordereth upon
  the Bishop's Lordship; the two Parishes being then divided by a
  little Lake called Clift. At this time one Fomeson, a Gentleman,
  was Lord and Patron of Clift Fomeson; and he, being advertised of
  such a Burial towards in his Parish, and a leech way to be made
  over to his Land, without his leave or consent required therein;
  calleth his Tenants together, goeth to the Bridge over the lake
  between the Bishop's Land and his; there meeteth the Bishop's men,
  bringing the said Corps, and forbiddeth them to come over the
  water. The men nothing regarding the Prohibition, do press
  forwards to come over the water, and the others do withstand, so
  long, that in the end, my Lord's Fryer is fallen into the Water.
  The Bishop taketh this matter in such grief, that a holy Fryer, a
  Religious man, his own Chaplain and Confessor, should be so
  unreverently cast into the Water, that he falleth out with the
  Gentleman, and upon what occasion I know not, he sueth him in the
  Law (in his own Ecclesiastical Court, where he was both party and
  Judge), and so vexeth and tormenteth him, that in the end he was
  fain to yeeld himself to the Bishop's devotion, and seeketh all
  the wayes he could to carry the Bishop's good will, which he could
  not obtain, until for redemption he had given up and surrendered
  his patronage of Sowton, with a piece of land; all which the said
  Bishop annexed to his new Lordship."

In "An Exhortation, to be spoken to such Parishes where they use their
Perambulation in Rogation Week; for the Oversight of the Bounds and
Limits of their Town," is a curious passage, which I subjoin:

  "It is a shame to behold the insatiableness of some covetous
  persons in their doings; that where their ancestors left of their
  land a broad and sufficient bier-balk, to carry the corpse to the
  Christian sepulture, how men pinch at such bier-balks, which by
  long use and custom ought to be inviolably kept for that purpose;
  and now they quite eat them up, and turn the dead body to be borne
  farther about in the high streets; or else, if they leave any such
  meer, it is too straight for two to walk on."--_Homilies_, ed.
  Corrie, p. 499.

It may perhaps be considered not quite irrelevant here to state that
there seems once to have been an opinion, that the passage of the
sovereign across land had the effect of making a highway thereon. The
only allusion, however, to this opinion which I can call to mind, occurs
in Peck's _Antiquarian Annals of Stanford_, lib. xi. s. xii.; an extract
from which follows:--

  "From Stanford King Edward, as I conceive, went to Huntingdon; for
  in a letter of one of our kings dated at that town the 12th of
  July (without any year or king's name to ascertain the time and
  person it belongs to), the King writes to the aldermen and
  bailiffs of Stanford, acquainting them, that, when he came to
  Stanford, he went through Pilsgate field (coming then I suppose
  from Peterborough), and, it being usual it seems that whatever way
  the King rides to any place (though the same was no public way
  before) for everybody else to claim the same liberty afterwards,
  and thenceforth to call any such new passage the King's highway;
  being followed to Huntingdon by divers of his own tenants,
  inhabitants of Pilsgate, who then and there represented the damage
  they should sustain by such a practice, the King by his letters
  immediately commanded that his passing that way should not be made
  a precedent for other people's so doing, but did utterly forbid
  and discharge them therefrom. His letter, directed 'to our dearly
  beloved the alderman, bailiffs, and good people of our Town of
  Stanford,' upon this occasion, is thus worded:--'Dear and
  well-beloved friends, by the grievous complaint of our beloved
  lieges and tenents of the town of Pillesyate near our town of
  Staunford, we have understood, that, in as much as, on Tuesday
  last, we passed through the middle of a meadow and a certain
  pasture there called Pillesyate meadow appertaining to the said
  town of Pillesyate, you, and others of the country circumjacent,
  claim to have and use an high way royal to pass through the middle
  of the said meadow and pasture, to the great damage and disseisin
  of our said lieges and tenents, whereupon they have supplicated
  for a remedy; so we will, if it be so, and we command and charge
  firmly, that you neither make nor use, nor suffer to be made nor
  used by others of our said town of Staunford, nor others
  whatsoever, no high road through the middle of the said meadow and
  pasture; but that you forbear from it entirely, and that you cause
  it to be openly proclaimed in our said town, that all others of
  our said town and the country round it, do likewise; to the end
  that our said tenents may have and peaceably enjoy the said meadow
  and pasture, so, and in the manner, as they have done before these
  times, without disturbance or impeachment of you or others, of
  what estate or condition soever they be, notwithstanding that we
  passed that way in manner as is said. And this in no manner fail
  ye. Given under our signet at Huntyngdon the 12th day of July.'"

I am unable to say whether the opinion it was the object of the above
royal letter to refute was general, or was peculiar to the "good people"
of Stanford, "and others of the country circumjacent."

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, June 18. 1851.


(Vol. ii., p. 298.; Vol iii., p. 153.).

From the following extracts from two of the "Bury Wills" recently
published by the Camden Society, it would appear that a dozen of bread
always consisted of _twelve_ loaves; and that the term "Baker's dozen"
arose from the practice of giving, in addition to the _twelve_ loaves, a
further quantity as "_inbread_," in the same manner as it is (or until
recently was) the custom to give an extra bushel of coals as "ingrain"
upon the sale of a large quantity; a chaldron, I believe.

Francis Pynner, of Bury, Gent., by will, dated April 26, 1639, gave to
feoffees certain property upon trust (_inter alia_) out of the rents,
upon the last Friday in every month in the year, to provide one twopenny
loaf for each of forty poor people in Bury, to be distributed by the
clerk, sexton, and beadle of St. Mary's parish, who were to have the
"_inbread of the said bread_." And the testator also bequeathed certain
other property to feoffees upon trust to employ the rents as follows
(that is to say):--

  "The yerely sūme of ffiue pounds p'cell of the said yerely
  rents to be bestowed in wheaten bread, to be made into _penny_
  loaves, and upon eu'y Lord's day, called Sonday, throughout eu'y
  yere of the said terme [40 years or thereabouts], _fowre_ and
  _twenty_ loaves of the said bread, with the _inbread_ allowed by
  the baker for those _twoe dosens_ of bread, to be timely brought
  and sett vpon a forme towards the vpp' end of the chancell of the
  said p'ish church of St. Marie, and ... the same _twoe dosens_ of
  bread to be giuen and distributed ... to and amongst fowre and
  twentie poore people ... the p'ish clarke and sexton of the said
  church, and the beadle of the said p'ish of St. Marie for the time
  then being, shall alwaies be three which from time to time shall
  haue their shares and parts in the said bread. And they, the said
  clarke, sexton, and bedell, shall alwaies haue the _inbread_ of
  all the bread aforesaid ovr and besides their shares in the said
  twoe dosens of bread from time to time----"

And William Fiske, of Pakenham, Gent., by will, dated March 20, 1648,
provided twelvepence a week to pay weekly for _one dozen_ of bread which
his mind was, should "be weekly given vnto twelue _or thirteene_"
persons therein referred to.

    J. B. COLMAN.

  Eye, June 16. 1851.


(Vol. iii., p. 389.)

Among the various kinds of picturesque representation, practised by the
Greeks and Romans, and transmitted by them to after times, is that of
_Mosaic_, a mode of execution which, in its durability of form, and
permanency of colour, possesses distinguished advantages, being
unaffected by heat or cold, drought or moisture, and perishing only with
the building to which it has been originally attached. This art has been
known in Rome since the days of the Republic. The severer rulers of that
period forbade the introduction of foreign marbles, and the republican
mosaics are all in black and white. Under the Empire the art was greatly
improved, and not merely by the introduction of marbles of various
colours, but by the invention of artificial stones, termed by the
Italians _Smalti_, which can be made of every variety of tint. This art
was never entirely lost. On the introduction of pictures into Christian
temples, they were first made of _mosaic_: remaining specimens of them
are rude, but profoundly interesting in an historical point of view.
When art was restored in Italy, mosaic also was improved; but it
attained its greatest perfection in the last and present century. _Roman
mosaic, as now practised, may be described as being the production of
pictures by connecting together numerous minute pieces of coloured
marble or artificial stones. These are attached to a ground of copper,
by means of a strong cement of gum mastic, and other materials, and are
afterwards ground and polished, as a stone would be, to a perfectly
level surface._ By this art not only are ornaments made on a small
scale, but pictures of the largest size are copied. The most remarkable
modern works are the copies which have been executed of some of the most
important works of the great masters, for the altars in St. Peter's.
These are, in every respect, perfect imitations of the originals; and
when the originals, in spite of every care, must change and perish,
these mosaics will still convey to distant ages a perfect idea of the
triumphs of art achieved in the fifteenth century. _Twenty years_ were
employed in making one of the copies I have mentioned. The pieces of
mosaic vary in size from an eighth to a sixteenth of an inch, and eleven
men were employed for that time on each picture. A great improvement was
introduced into the art in 1775, by Signor Raffaeli, who thought of
preparing the _smalti_ in what may be termed fine threads. _The pastes
or smalti are manufactured at Venice, in the shape of crayons, or like
sticks of sealing-wax, and are afterwards drawn out by the workman, by a
blowpipe, into the thickness he requires, often almost to an hair, and
are seldom thicker than the finest grass stalk._ For tables, and large
articles, of course, the pieces are thicker; but the beauty of the
workmanship, the soft gradation of the tints, and the cost, depend upon
the _minuteness_ of the pieces, and the skill displayed by the artist. A
ruin, a group of flowers or figures, will employ a good artist about two
months, when only two inches square; and a specimen of such a
description costs from 5_l._ to 20_l._, according to the execution: a
landscape, six inches by four, would require eighteen months, and would
cost from 40_l._ to 50_l._ For a picture of Pæstum, eight feet long by
twenty inches broad, on which four men were occupied for three years,
1000_l._ sterling was asked. The mosaic work of Florence differs
entirely from Roman mosaic, being composed of stones inserted in
comparatively large masses. It is called work in _pietra dura_; the
stones used are all of a more or less precious nature. In old specimens,
the most beautiful works are those in which the designs are of an
arabesque character. The most remarkable specimen of this description of
_pietra dura_, is an octagonal table, in the _Gubinetto di Baroccio_, in
the Florence Gallery. It is valued at 20,000_l._ sterling, and was
commenced in 1623 by Jacopo Detelli, from designs by Ligozzi. Twenty-two
artists worked upon it without interruption till it was terminated, in
the year 1649.

One principal distinction between the ancient and modern mosaic is, I
believe, that the former was arranged in _patterns_, the latter
_coloured in shades_. I shall not take up your columns by dwelling on
the ancient mosaic, which, as all know was in use among the Orientals,
especially the Persians and Assyrians; and from the Easterns the Greeks
received the art. In the Book of Esther, i. 6., we have an allusion to a
mosaic pavement; and Schleusner understands the Λιθόστρωτον of
St. John, xix. 13., to mean a sort of elevated mosaic pavement. Andrea
Tafi, towards the close of the thirteenth century, is said to have
revived this art in Italy, having learned it from a Greek named
Apollonius, who worked at the church of St. Mark at Venice, and to have
been the founder of the modern mosaic.

Now for the derivation. The Lithostrata, or tesselated pavements of the
Romans, being worked in a regular and mechanical manner, were called
_opus musivum, opera qua ad amussim facta sunt_. Hence the Italian
_musaico_, from whence is derived our appellation of _mosaic_; but, like
most of our arts, through the channel of the French _mosaïque_. (Vide
Pitisci _Lexicon_, ii. 242.; Roscoe's _Life of Lorenzo de Medici_;
Winkelman; _Pompeiana_, by Gell; Smith's _Greek and Roman Antiq._;
Beckman's _Inventions_; and _Récherches sur la Peinture en Mosaïque chez
les Anciens_, &c., annexed to his _Description d'un Pavé en Mosaïque_,
&c.: Paris, 1802.)


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Prenzie_ (Vol. iii., p. 401.)--Several words have been suggested to
take the place of the unintelligible "_prenzie_" in _Measure for
Measure_; but none of them appear to me to satisfy all the four
conditions justly required by Leges.

I would suggest _phrensied_ or _phrenzied_, a word extremely like
_prenzie_ both in sound and appearance, and of the proper metre, thus
perfectly satisfying two of the conditions.

With respect to the propriety of using this word in the two instances
where _prenzie_ occurs, Claudio, in the first place, when informed by
his sister of the villany of Angelo, may well exclaim in astonishment--

      "The _phrenzied_ Angelo?"

_i.e._ "What, is he mad?" or, with a note of admiration, "Why, Angelo
must be mad!" Then, I think, naturally follows Isabella's reply:--

      "O 'tis the cunning livery of Hell,
      The damned'st body to invest and cover
      In _phrenzied_ guards!"

that is, in the disguise or under the cloak of madness.

Johnson defines Frenzy to be

   "Madness; distraction of mind; alienation of understanding; any
   violent passion approaching to madness."

and surely Angelo's _violent passion_ for Isabella, and his
determination to gratify it at all risks, may, properly be said to
_approach to madness_.

    W. G. M.

There is a Scotch word so nearly resembling this, and at the same time
so exactly answering to the sense which the passage in _Measure for
Measure_ requires, that it may be worth while calling the attention of
the Shakspearian commentators to it. In Allan Cunningham's Glossary to
Burns, I find _Primsie_, which he defines to mean _demure_, _precise_.
An old Scotch proverb is quoted, in which the word is used:

      "A _primsie_ damsel makes a laidlae dame."

The term is evidently connected with, or formed from, the English
_prim_, which has the same sense. It seems this was formerly sometimes
written _prin_. Halliwell cites from Fletcher's poems the lines--

      "He looks as gaunt and prin, as he that spent
      A tedious twelve years in an eager Lent."

Now if from _prim_ be formed the secondary adjective _primsie_, so from
_prin_ we get _prinsie_ or _prinzie_. But without resorting to the
supposition of the existence of this latter word, it is evident that in
_primzie_, which does or did exist, we have a word answering all the
conditions laid down by Leges for determining the true reading, more
nearly than any other that has been suggested.


  [Dr. Jamieson, in his _Scottish Dictionary_, defines Primsie,
  demure, precise, S. from E. _prim_.

      "Poor Willie, wi' his bow-kail runt
      Was brunt wi' primsie Mallie."

      Burns, iii. 129.]

_Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest_ (Vol. iii., p. 443.).--Were the beautiful
lines entitled "Lady Flora's Bequest" in reality written by that
lamented lady? They are not to be found in the volume of her Poems
published after her death by her sister, the Marchioness of Bute; and
they did appear in _The Christian Lady's Magazine_ for September, 1839,
with the signature of Miss M. A. S. Barber appended to them.

In the preceding Number of the same magazine there is a very touching
account of Lady Flora, from the pen of its talented editress, who
mentions the fact of Lady Flora having with her _dying hand_ "delivered
to her fond brother a little Bible, the gift of her mother, requesting
him to restore it to that beloved parent with the assurance that from
the age of seven years, when she received it from her, it had been her
best treasure; and, she added, her sole support under all her recent

If your correspondent Erza has never seen that obituary notice (Seeleys,
publishers) I think she will be glad to meet with it.

    L. H. K.

_Arches of Pelaga_ (Vol. iii., p. 478.)--This term is in common use
among sailors, meaning the Mediterranean Archipelago, and they may very
often be heard saying--"When I was up the Arches."

    E. N. W.

  Southwark, June 16. 1851.

_Engraved Warming-Pans_ (Vol. iii., pp. 84. 115.).--I beg to add to the
lists of H. G. T., and E. B. Price.

Some years ago I purchased one in Bradford, Wilts, and several at
Bedwyn Magna in the same county. The Bradford one bears an heraldic
nondescript animal with horns on its head and nose, and a coronet round
its neck, surrounded by--

      "The . Lord . reseve . us . into . His . kingdom . 1616."

One of the Bedwyn ones bears a lion passant holding a scimitar, with the

      "Feare . God . and . obay . the . king . 161--."

The last figure of the date is obliterated. Another has a shield bearing
three tuns, surrounded by--

      "The Vintners' arms."

One in the possession of a farmer in the parish of Barton Turf, Norfolk,
bears an eagle with a human head at its feet, surrounded by--

      "The . Erl . of . Darbeyes . arms." 1660.

    W. C. LUKIS.

  Great Bedwyn, June, 1851.

_St. Pancras_ (Vol. iii., pp. 285. 397.).--St. Pancras was a native of
the province of Phrygia, the son of a nobleman of the name of Cledonius;
who, when at the point of death, strongly recommended this his only son,
together with his fortune, which was very great, to the care of his
brother Dionysius, he being the only near relative in being, the mother
having previously deceased.

This trust Dionysius faithfully fulfilled, bringing up and loving his
nephew as he would have done his own son; and when, three years after
the death of Cledonius, he quitted his native country and proceeded to
Rome, the youthful Pancras accompanied him. Upon reaching the imperial
city, the uncle and nephew took up their residence in the same suburb
where the Pope Marcellinus had fled for concealment from the persecution
which had been raised against the Christians by the Emperors Diocletian
and Maximianus. Here they had not been long resident before the fame of
the great sanctity and virtue of Marcellinus reached their ears, and
caused an ardent desire in both to see and converse with one so highly
spoken of. A convenient opportunity was soon found, and in a short time
both the uncle and nephew, renouncing their idolatry, became converted
to the Christian faith.

So strong was the effect produced upon them by this change, that the
chief desire of both was to die for their religion; and, without waiting
for the arrival of the officers who were continually searching for the
hidden Christians, they voluntarily surrendered themselves to the
ministers of justice.

A few days after this event, however, Dionysius was called hence by a
natural death.

Diocletian, who is said to have been a friend of Cledonius, and moved
perhaps by the youth and graceful appearance of Pancras, strove by
flattery and caresses to induce him to do sacrifice to the heathen gods;
to this proposition Pancras absolutely refused to consent, and
reproached the Emperor for his weakness in believing to be gods, men,
who, while on earth, had been remarkable for their vices. Diocletian,
stung by these reproaches, commanded that the youth should be instantly
beheaded, which sentence was immediately carried into execution. His
death is said to have taken place on 12th May, 303; the martyr being
then but fourteen years of age.

The gate in Rome, rendered so remarkable lately as having been the chief
point attacked by the French troops, was formerly called Porta Aurelia;
but was subsequently named Porta Pancrazio, after this youthful

    R. R. M.

_Pallavicino and Count d'Olivarez_ (Vol. iii., p. 478.)--Ferrante
Pallavicino was descended from a noble family, seated in Placenza. He
entered the monastery of Augustine Friars at Milan, where he became a
regular canon of the Lateran congregation. He was a man of fine genius,
and possessed great wit, but having employed it in writing several
satirical pieces against Urban VIII. during the war between the
Barberini and the Duke of Parma and Placenza, he became so detested at
the court of Rome, that a price was set on his head. One Charles Morfu,
a French villain, was bribed to ensnare him, and pretending to pass for
his friend and pity his misfortunes, persuaded him to go to France,
which he said would be much to his advantage. Pallavicino gave himself
up entirely to the direction of this false friend, who conducted him
over the bridge at Sorgues into the territory of Venaissin, where he was
arrested by people suborned for that purpose, was carried to Avignon,
thrown into a dungeon, from which he tried to make his escape, and in
the year 1644, after a fourteen months' imprisonment, was beheaded in
the flower of his age. He was the author of a number of small pieces,
all of which are marked by the lively genius of the author. They were
collected and published at Venice in 1655, and amongst them I found one
entitled "La disgracia del Conte d'Olivarez," which, perhaps, may be the
work Mr. Souley has in MS.

For a more lengthy account of this unhappy and extraordinary man, I
would refer Mr. Souley to the life prefixed to his collected works, and
to that prefixed to a French translation of his _Divortio celeste_,
printed at Amsterdam in 1696; and also to the preface to the English
translation of that same very curious work, printed at London in 1718.


_Mind your P's and Q's_ (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 357. 463.).--When I
proposed this Query, I mentioned that I had heard one derivation of the
phrase. As it is different from either of those which have been sent,
it may, perhaps, be worth insertion. I was told by a printer that the
phrase had originated among those of his craft, since young compositors
experience great difficulty in discriminating between the types of the
two letters.

    R. D. H.

[A correspondent has kindly suggested a new version of this saying, and
suggests that for the future our readers should be reminded to mind, not
their P's and Q's, but their N's and Q's.]

_Banks, Family of_ (Vol. iii., pp. 390. 458.).--In No. 81. R. C. H. H.
asks if John Banks the philosopher was descended from Sir John Banks,
Lord Chief Justice in Charles I.'s reign.

As a grandson of the former, I take great interest in this, but am sorry
to say that I can give no information at present on that branch of the
subject. The philosopher's family were settled for some generations at
Grange, near Keswick. I should be obliged if R. C. H. H. would
communicate the name and publisher of the book on the Lakes which he
quotes from, as I am exceedingly anxious to trace the genealogy.


  Liverpool, June 19. 1851.

_National Debts_ (Vol. iii., p. 374.).--The following extract from _La
Cronica di Giovanni Villani_, lib. xii. c. 35., appears to have some
reference to the Query made by F. E. M.:

  "E nel detto mese di Febbraio, 1344, per lo comune si fece ordine,
  che qualunque cittadino dovesse avere dal comune per le prestanze
  fatte al tempo de' venti della balia, come addieto facemmo
  menzione, che si trovarono fiorini cinquecento-settantamila d'oro,
  sanza il debito di Messer Mastino della Scala, ch' erano presso a
  centomila fiorini d'oro, che si mettessono in uno registro
  ordinatemente; e dare il comune ogni anno di provvisione e
  usufrutto cinque per centinaio, dando ogni mese la paga per rata;
  e diputossi a fornire il detto guiderdone parte alla gabella delle
  parti, e parte ad altre gabelle, che montava l'anno da fiorini
  venticinque mila d'oro, dov' erano assegnate le paghe di Messer
  Mastino; e pagato lui, fossone assignati alla detta satisfazione;
  il quale Messer Mastino fu pagato del mese di Dicembre per lo modo
  che diremo innanzi. E cominciossi la paga della detta provvisione
  del mese d'Ottobre 1345."

    R. R. M.

_Monte di Pietà_ (Vol. iii., p. 372.)--In reply to your correspondent W.
B. H., requesting to be informed of the connexion between a "Pietà" and
a "Monte di Pietà," it may be observed that there does not appear to be
any necessary connexion between the two expressions. The term "a Pietà"
is generally used to denote the figure of the dead Saviour attended by
His Blessed Mother: for example, the celebrated one in St. Peter's at
Rome. The word "Monte," besides its signification of "montagna,"
expresses also "luogo publico ove si danno oi si pigliano denari ad
interesse;" also "luogo publico altresì dove col pegno si prestano
denari con piccolo interesse."

"Pietà," in addition to its signification of "devozione," or "virtù per
cui si ama ed onora Dia," &c., which would apply to the figure of the
dead Saviour, expresses "compassione amorevole verso il suo simile."

Monte di Pietà would therefore be a place where money was lent at
interest, on such terms as were in unison with a kind and compassionate
feeling towards our neighbour. This species of establishment was first
commenced in Italy towards the end of the fifteenth century, by Il Beato
Bernardino da Feltri, who carried his opposition to the Jews so far as
to preach a crusade against them. The earliest Monte of which any record
appears to exist was founded in the city of Padua in 1491; the effect of
which was to cause the closing of twelve loan banks belonging to the

From Italy they were shortly afterwards introduced into France.

The first legal sanction given to these establishments was granted by
Pope Leo X. in 1551.

    R. R. M.

_Registry of Dissenting Baptisms_ (Vol. iii., pp. 370. 460.).--From the
replies to my Query on this subject that have been published, it is
plain that in all parts of England Dissenters have wished to procure the
registry of their children's births or baptisms in their parish
churches. In some instances they have been registered _as dissenting
baptisms_; and then the fact appears from the Registry itself. In other
instances, and probably far the more numerous (though this would be
difficult to _prove_), they were registered among the canonical
baptisms; and the fact of their being performed by Dissenting Ministers
is only discoverable by reference to the Dissenting Register, when it
happens to have been preserved. So in the instances referred to in p.
370., the baptisms are registered without distinction from others in the
Registry of St. Peter's Church, Chester; but a duplicate registry _as on
the same day_ was made at Cross Lane Meeting House, which is, I believe,
not in St. Peter's parish; though, I presume, the residence of the
parents was in it.

    D. X.

_Eisell_ (Vol. iii., pp. 66. 397.).--I am not aware that the following
passage has been quoted by any of the disputants in the late "Eisell"
controversy. It occurs in Jewel's _Controversy with Harding_, pp. 651-2.
of vol. ii. of the Parker Society's edition of Jewel's works.

  "A Christian man removeth his household, and, having there an
  image of Christ, equal unto him in length, and breadth, and all
  proportion, by forgetfulness leaveth it there in a secret place
  behind him. A Jew after him inhabiteth the same house a long
  while, and seeth it not; another strange Jew, sitting there at
  dinner, immediately espieth it standing open against a wall....
  Afterward the priests and rulers of the Jews come together, and
  abuse it with all villany. They crown it with a thorn, make it
  drink _esel_ and gall, and stick it to the heart with a spear. Out
  issueth blood in great quantity, the powers of Heaven are shaken;
  the sun is darkened; the moon loseth her light."


_English Sapphics_ (Vol. iii., p. 494.).--A beautiful specimen of this
measure, far superior in rhythm to the attempt of Dr. Watts, appeared in
the _Youth's Magazine_ twenty-five years ago. It consisted of the Psalm
"By the Waters of Babylon." I remember the last verse only.

      "Dumb be my tuneful eloquence, if ever
      Strange echoes answer to a song of Zion;
      Blasted this right hand, if I should forget thee,
                              Land of my fathers."
    H. E. H.

_Mints at Norwich--Joseph Nobbs_ (Vol. iii., p. 447.).--I beg to inform
Cowgill that the operation of the Mint of the Great Recoinage of 1696-7
was performed in a room at St. Andrew's Hall, in this city; but the
amount there coined, or at any of the other places mentioned, I am not
able to inform him. The total amount said to be recoined was
6,882,908_l._ 19_s._ 7_d._

                                    £          _s._   _d._

      The amount at the Tower    5,091,121       7     7

      And in the Country Mints   1,791,787      12     0


                                £6,882,908      19     7

The following are the names of persons employed in the Mint at

  Francis Gardener, Esq., Treasurer.

  Thomas Moore, Gent., Warder; Thomas Allen, his clerk.

  Anthony Redhead, Gent., Master Worker; Mr. Beaser, his clerk.

  William Lamb, Comptroller; Mr. Samuel Oliver, his clerk.

  Heneage Price, Gent., King's clerk.

  Mr. Rapier, Weigher and Teller.

  Henry Yaxley, Surveyor of the Meltings.

  Mr. John Young, Deputy Graver.

  John Seabrook, Provost, and Master of the Moneyers.

  Mr. Hartstongue, Assay Master, and his servant.--His brother,
  Edger, and Lotterer of the Half-Crowns, Shillings, and Sixpences.
  It is said crowns were not struck here, and I have never seen one
  of this Mint.

The whole of the work was finished here, September 29, 1698.

In pulling up the floor of an old house, in Tombland, in 1847, a
quantity of the silver coin minted here was discovered, which, from the
appearance of the coins, were never in circulation: they were sold to
Mr. Cooper, silversmith, in London Street, for about 20_l._ No doubt the
coins were abstracted from the Mint during the process of coining.

In the Register of Burials at St. Gregory's is the following entry, A.
D. 1717:

  "Joseph Nobbs, Parish Clerk of St. Gregory's, aged 89, was buried
  November. 4, 1717, being the year following the last entry in his
  Chronology. He was then 89 years of age, and, what is somewhat
  remarkable, that is the age of the present Clerk of St.

    G. H. I.

P. S. Some other matters relative to this Mint are among my memoranda.

  Norwich, June 16. 1851.

_Voltaire, where situated_ (Vol. iii., p. 329.).--Your correspondent V.
is informed, that the following particulars on the subject of his Query
are given in a note to the article "Voltaire," in Quérard's _France
Littéraire_, vol. x. p. 276.:--

  "Voltaire est le nom d'un petit bien de famille, qui appartenait à
  la mère de l'auteur de la '_Henriade_,'--Marie Catherine Daumart,
  d'une famille noble du Poitou."


  St. Lucia, May, 1851.

_Meaning of Pilcher_ (Vol. iii., p. 476).--I must say I can see no
difficulty at all about _pilcher_. If the _r_ at the end makes it so
strange a word, leave that out, and then you will have a word, as it
seems, quite well established--_pylche_, toga pellice: Lye. Skinner
thinks _pilchard_ may be derived from it.

"Pilch, an outer garment generally worn in cold weather, and made of
skins of fur. 'Pelicium, a pylche.' (_Nominale MS._) The term is still
retained in connected senses in our dialects. 'A piece of flannel, or
other woollen, put under a child next the clout is, in Kent, called a
_pilch_; a coarse shagged piece of rug laid over a saddle, for ease of a
rider, is, in our midland parts, called a pilch.' (_MS. Lansd._ 1033.)
'Warme pilche and warme shon.' (_MS. Digby_, 86.) 'In our old dramatists
the term is applied to a buff or leather jerkin; and Shakspeare has
_pilcher_ for the sheath of a sword." (Halliwell's _Dictionary_.)

"_Pilche_, or _pilcher_, a scabbard, from _pylche_, a skin coat, Saxon.
A pilche, or leather coat, seems to have been the common dress for a
carman. Coles has 'a pilch for a saddle, instratum,' which explains that
it was an external covering, and probably of leather. Kersey also calls
it a covering for a saddle; but he likewise gives it the sense of 'a
piece of flannel to be wrapt about a young child.' It seems, therefore,
to have been used for any covering." (Nares' _Glossary_.)

    C. B.

_Catalogues of Coins of Canute_ (Vol. iii., p. 326.).--The following is
a copy of the title-page of the work referred to by Βορεας:--_A
Catalogue of the Coins of Canute, King of Denmark and England; with
Specimens._ London: Printed by W. Bowyer and J. Nichols. 4to. 1777. It
consists of twenty-four pages, and was compiled by Richard Gough, Esq.

    J. Y.

_Pontoppidan's Natural History of Norway_ (Vol. iii., p. 326.).--An
interesting notice of this work occurs in the _Retrospective Review_,
vol. xiii., pp. 181-213.; but neither in that article nor in any
bibliographical or biographical dictionary is the name of the translator

    J. Y.

_The First Panorama_ (Vol. iii., p. 406.).--I have often heard my father
say, that the first panorama exhibited was painted by Thomas Girtin, and
was a semicircular view of London, from the top of the Albion Mills,
near Blackfriars Bridge. It was exhibited in St. Martin's Lane, where,
not many years back, I saw it, it having been found rolled up in a loft
over a carpenter's shop. It was painted about 1793 or 1794, and my
father has some of the original sketches.

    E. N. W.

  Southwark, June 2.

_Written Sermons_ (Vol. iii., p. 478.).--If M. C. L. asks, when and why
written sermons took the place of extemporaneous discourses, I believe
it may be said that written sermons were first in vogue. Certainly, the
inability of most men to preach "without book," would be sufficient to
ensure their early introduction. According to Bingham (see _Ant. of the
Christian Church_, book xiv. chap. 4.), Origen was the first who
preached extemporaneously, and not until after he was sixty years old.
The great divines of the time of the English Reformation preached both
written and oral sermons: many of these, especially of the former, are
included in their printed works. The same remark also applies to the
early Fathers of the Church. The use of the homilies, which were drawn
up for the ignorant clergy at the Reformation, at once gave a sanction
to the practice of _writing_ sermons. The story of the preacher turning
over his hour-glass at Paul's Cross, and starting afresh, must of course
refer to an _unwritten_ discourse. Sermons, being explications of
scripture, used to follow the reading of the psalms and lessons: now,
for the same reason, they come after the epistle and gospel. In olden
time, the bishop was the only preacher, going from church to church, as
now-a-days[2], with the same sermon or charge; and he addressed the
people from the altar steps: afterwards the priest, as his deputy,
preached in the pulpit, but the deacons were not allowed to preach at

  [Footnote 2: One of the highest dignitaries in our Church recently
  declined to print a sermon, as requested; because, he frankly
  said, he should want to preach it again.]


_Bogatsky_ (Vol. iii., p. 478.).--The little work, so justly popular in
England, under the title of Bogatsky's _Golden Treasury_, is by no means
a literal translation of the original; but was almost entirely
re-written by Venn, the author of the _Complete Duty of Man_. This I
state on good authority, as I believe; but I have never seen the

    R. D. H.



Under the title of a _Hand-Book of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy:
First Course--Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Sound,
Optics_, Dr. Lardner has just issued a small closely printed volume with
the object of supplying that "information relating to physical and
mechanical science, which is required by the medical and law student,
the engineer and artisan, by those who are preparing for the
universities, and, in short, by those who, having already entered upon
the active pursuits of business, are still desirous to sustain and
improve their knowledge of the general truths of physics, and of those
laws by which the order and stability of the material world are
maintained." The work, which is illustrated with upwards of four hundred
woodcuts, is extremely well adapted for the object in question; and
will, we have no doubt, obtain, as it deserves, a very extensive
circulation among the various classes of readers for whose use it has
been composed; and, in short, among all readers who desire to obtain a
knowledge of the elements of physics without pursuing them through their
mathematical consequences and details. The illustrations are generally
of a popular character, and therefore the better calculated to impress
upon the mind of the student the principles they are intended to

The new volume of Mr. Bohn's _Standard Library_ consists of the third of
Mr. Torrey's translation of Dr. Neander's _General History of the
Christian Religion and Church_. The period included in the present
division of this important contribution to ecclesiastical history
extends from the end of the Diocletian persecution to the time of
Gregory the Great, or from the year 312 to 590. A translation of _The
Fasti, Tristia, Pontic Epistles, Ibis and Halieuticon of Ovid_, with
copious notes by Henry T. Riley, B.A., is the last addition made by Mr.
Bohn to his _Classical Library_. Though these translations furnish very
imperfect pictures of the manner and style of the original writers, they
supply the mere English reader with a good general notion of their
matter, especially when they are as copiously annotated as the work
before us.

We are informed that, in consequence of the great care and delicacy
which is found to be required in the presswork of the _Lansdowne
Shakspeare_, a beautiful volume, unique as a specimen of the art of
typography, the publication will be unavoidably postponed for a few

Messrs. Sotheby and Co. (3. Wellington Street, Strand) will commence, on
Wednesday next, a seven days' sale of the valuable Library of the date
Rev. Dr. Penrose, which is particularly rich in books illustrated with

Books Received.--_Illustrations of Mediæval Costume in England, &c._,
by C. A. Day and J. H. Dines: Part IV., illustrating what the editors
call the "mediæval foppery" of Richard II. and his court.--_The
Traveller's Library, No. IV._, _Sir Roger de Coverley, by "The
Spectator," with Notes and Illustrations, by W. Henry Wills._ A
delightful shilling's worth, well calculated to make the traveller a
wiser and better man.






ALBERT LUNEL, a Novel in 3 Vols.






ART JOURNAL, 1839 to 1844 inclusive. Also 1849.

BULWER'S NOVELS. 12mo. Published at 6_s._ per Vol. Pilgrims of the
Rhine, Alice, and Zanoni.




MITFORD'S HISTORY OF GREECE, continued by Davenport. 12mo. 8 Vols.
Published by Tegg and Son, 1835. Volume _Eight_ wanted.

Utrecht, 1713.

Longmans and Co. 1821. Vols. I. V. and VIII. wanted.

CAXTON'S REYNARD THE FOX (Percy Society Edition). Sm. 8vo. 1844.

CONTRE L'HOMME. 8vo. Francfort, 1581.

CHEVALIER RAMSAY, ESSAI DE POLITIQUE, où l'on traite de la Nécessité, de
l'Origine, des Droits, des Bornes et des différentes Formes de la
Souveraineté, selon les Principes de l'Auteur de Télémaque. 2 Vols.
12mo. La Haye, without date, but printed in 1719.

The same. Second Edition, under the title "Essai Philosophique sur le
Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fénélon," 12mo. Londres,

THE CRY OF THE OPPRESSED, being a True and Tragical Account of the
unparalleled Sufferings of Multitudes of Poor Imprisoned Debtors, &c.
London, 1691. 12mo.


MARKHAM'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. II. 1836. Sixth Edition.

JAMES'S NAVAL HISTORY. (6 Vols. 8vo.) 1822-4. Vol. VI.

HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. (8 Vols. 1818.) Vol. IV.

RUSSELL'S EUROPE, from the Peace of Utrecht. 4to. 1824. Vol. II.




OLD BAYLEY SESSIONS PAPERS, 1744 To 1774, or any portion thereof. 4to.

Lond. 1755.






  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Notices to Correspondents.

_We this week conclude our Third Volume, and regret that want of space
has compelled us to omit from the present Number the_ Rev. Dr. Todd's
_Letter on the Edition of Ussher's Works;_ C. _on "The Lord Mayor of
London not a Privy Councillor;" and many other communications of great
interest; and we have to trust to the kindness of our Correspondents for
omitting our usual acknowledgment of_ REPLIES RECEIVED.

THE INDEX TO VOLUME THE THIRD _is ready for Press. It will be issued on
Saturday the 12th, if not ready by next Saturday._

_The commencement of a New Volume on Saturday next affords a favourable
opportunity to gentlemen resident in the country to commence the work.
The Subscription for the Stamped Edition of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES" _is ten
shillings for six months, which may be paid by Post-Office Order, drawn
in favour of our Publisher_, MR. GEORGE BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

T. E. H._, that by way of hastening the period when we shall be
justified in permanently enlarging our Paper to 24 pages, we should
forward copies of our_ Prospectus _to correspondents who would kindly
enclose them to such friends as they think likely, from their love of
literature, to become subscribers to_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," _has already
been acted upon by several friendly correspondents, to whom we are
greatly indebted. We shall be most happy to forward Prospectuses for
this purpose to any other of our friends able and willing thus to assist
towards increasing our circulation._

VOLS. I. _and_ II., _each with very copious Index, may still be had,
price_ 9_s._ 6_d._ _each_.

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet
aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
QUERIES _in their Saturday parcels_.

_All communications for the Editor of_ NOTES AND QUERIES _should be
addressed to the care of_ MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.


  contains the following articles: 1. The Present State of English
  Historical Literature: the Record Offices; 2. Bill for King
  Charles's Pedestal at Charing Cross; 3. Anecdotes from the
  Day-books of Dr. Henry Sampson; 4. The Infinity of Geometric
  Design (with Engravings); 5. Christian Iconography, by J. G.
  Walter: Principalities, Archangels, and Angels (with Engravings);
  6. Companions of my Solitude; 7. Mr. P. Cunningham's Story of Nell
  Gwyn, Chapter VII. (with Portraits of her two Sons); 8. Sussex
  Archæology (with Engravings); 9. Horace Walpole and Mason; 10.
  National Education; With Notes of the Month, Review of New
  Publications, Reports of Scientific and Antiquarian Societies, and
  Obituary, including Memoirs of the Earl of Shaftesbury, the Earl
  of Cottenham, Right Hon. R. L. Shiel, Rev. W. M. Kinsey, Mrs.
  Shelley, Mr. Dowton, and other eminent persons recently deceased.
  Price 2_s._ 6_d._

  NICHOLS AND SON, Parliament Street.

LITERARY AGENCY.--Mr. F. G. Tomlins (Secretary to the Shakespeare
Society; Author of "A Brief View of the English Drama," "A Variorum
History of England," "Garcia, a Tragedy," "The Topic," "The
Self-Educator," &c. &c.) is desirous to make it known that a Twenty
years' experience with the Press and Literature, as Author and
Publisher, enables him to give advice and information to Authors,
Publishers and Persons wishing to communicate with the Public, either as
to the Editing, Advertising, or Authorship of Books, Pamphlets, or
Literary productions of any kind. Opinions obtained on manuscripts
previous to publication, and Works edited, written, or supervised for
the Press by acknowledged writers in their various departments.


  Where Works of Reference for Literary purposes may be obtained or
  referred to.

Chippenham, Wilts.

  MR. F. ALEXANDER has been favoured with instructions to prepare
  for SALE by AUCTION, on the Premises, on TUESDAY, the 1st of July,
  1851, and two following days, commencing at 12 o'clock each day
  precisely, the Valuable and Select Library of Mr. John Provis, of
  Chippenham, comprising 3,500 Volumes, including many Works of
  great value. Among those remarkable for their rarity, &c., will be
  found a fine copy of Purchas's Pilgrimes, 5 vols., 1625; Nuremburg
  Chronicle, 1493; Dante, printed at Rome, 1487; Coverdale's Bible,
  1539; Cranmer's Bible, 1585; Musée Français, 4 vols.; Chaucer's
  Works; Philosophical Transactions, 88 vols.; Houbraken's Heads,
  &c., &c.

  May be viewed two days previous to the Sale, by Catalogues only
  (6_d._ each), which may be obtained five days prior to the sale,
  of Messrs. Wickham & Yelland, 163. Strand, London; at the White
  Hart Hotel, Bristol; Castle Hotel, Bath; Star Hotel, Oxford; Royal
  Hotel, Cheltenham; Bear Inn, Devizes; and of the Auctioneer,


  On 1st July, 1851, Price 2_s._ 6_d._, an Enduring Record, full of
  Interesting Details--Vivid Descriptions--Moral Sentiments--and
  Beautiful Pictures, entitled


  By the Editor of "Pleasant Pages."

  PLEASANT PAGES.--Double Numbers are now publishing, containing a
  Course of "OBJECT LESSONS" from the Great Exhibition.--Volume II.
  is just out. Third Edition of Volume I. is now ready.

  London: HOULSTON AND STONEMAN; and all Booksellers.



  Payment of premiums may be occasionally suspended without
  forfeiting the policy, on a new and valuable plan, adopted by this
  society only, as fully detailed in the prospectus.

  A. Scratchley, M.A.,

  Actuary and Secretary: Author of "Industrial Investment and
  Emigration; being a Second Edition of a Treatise on Benefit
  Building Societies, &c." Price 10_s._ 6_d._

  London: J. W. PARKER, West Strand.

Nearly ready, Second Edition, revised and corrected. Dedicated by
Special Permission to


  by the Very Rev. H. H. Milman, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music
  arranged for Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One,
  including Chants for the Services, Responses to the Commandments,
  and a Concise System Of Chanting, by J. B. SALE. Musical
  Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco
  cloth, price 25_s._ To be had of Mr. J. B. Sale, 21. Holywell
  Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post Office
  Order for that amount: and, by order, of the principal Booksellers
  and Music Warehouses.

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with
    our Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it
    appears."--_Musical World._

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of
    Chanting of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

  Also, lately published,

  J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the
  Chapel Royal St. James, price 2_s._

  C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.

Now ready, price 28_s._, cloth boards, Volumes III. and IV. of

  THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND. By Edward Foss, F.S.A. Comprehending the
  period from Edward I. to Richard III., 1272 to 1485.

  Lately published, price 28_s._

  Volumes I. and II. of the same Work; from the Conquest to the end
  of Henry III., 1066 to 1272.

  "A work in which a subject of great historical importance is
  treated with the care, diligence, and learning it deserves; in
  which Mr. Foss has brought to light many points previously
  unknown, corrected many errors, and shown such ample knowledge of
  his subject as to conduct it successfully through all the
  intricacies of a difficult investigation; and such taste and
  judgment as will enable him to quit, when occasion requires, the
  dry details of a professional inquiry, and to impart to his work
  as he proceeds, the grace and dignity of a philosophical
  history."--_Gent. Mag._


In fcap. 8vo., price 7_s._ 6_d._, a Third Series of

  PLAIN SERMONS, addressed to a Country Congregation. By the late
  Rev. Edward Blencowe, Curate of Teversal, Notts, and formerly
  Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.


  SECOND SERIES, price 7_s._ 6_d._ each.

    "Their style is simple, the sentences are not artfully
    constructed, and there is an utter absence of all attempt at
    rhetoric. The language is plain Saxon language, from which 'the
    men on the wall' can easily gather what it most concerns them to

    "The numerous possessors of Mr. Blencowe's former plain but
    excellent volumes will be glad to receive the third series of his
    Plain Sermons, addressed to a Country Congregation, similar in
    character and texture to the two series which have preceded

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

THE CHURCHES OF THE MIDDLE AGES; or, Select Specimens of Early and
Middle Pointed Structures; with a few of the Purest Late Pointed
Examples, illustrated by Geometric and Perspective Drawings. By Henry
Bowman and J. S. Crowther, Architects, Manchester. To be completed in
Twenty Parts, each containing Six Plates, imperial folio. Price 9_s._,
plain; 10_s._ 6_d._ tinted; proofs, large paper, 12_s._ each. Issued at
intervals of Two months. Thirteen parts now published.

    "We can hardly conceive anything more perfect. We heartily
    recommend the series to all who are able to patronize

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

GOTHIC ORNAMENTS: being a Series of Examples of Enriched Details and
Accessories of the Architecture of Great Britain. Drawn from existing
Authorities. By James K. Colling, Architect. In 2 vols. royal 4to.,
price 7_l._ 10_s._ in appropriate cloth binding, containing 209 plates,
nearly 50 of which illustrate the existing finely painted and gilt
decorations of the Cathedrals and Churches of the Middle Ages. The work
may be also had in numbers, price 3_s_., or in parts, together or

    "The completion of this elaborate work affords us an opportunity
    of doing justice to its great merits. It was necessary to the
    appreciation of the characteristics and the beauties of Gothic
    architecture, that some more extensive series of illustrations
    should be given to the world. Until the appearance of this work,
    that of Pugin was the only one of any importance and
    accuracy."--_Architectural Quarterly Review._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Sketches and measurements taken on the Spot, with descriptive
Letter-press. By Francis T. Dollman, Architect. Royal 4to., cloth, price
2_l._ 2_s._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Second Edition, 4to., having the plates of the Tesselated Pavements all
coloured, 25_s._, 8vo., plain, 15_s._

  F.L.S., F.G.S., and C. H. Newmarch, Esq.

    "A work which will not only gratify the antiquary by its details,
    and the beauty and fidelity of its engravings, but enable the
    general reader to picture to himself the social condition of
    Corinium when garrisoned by Roman cohorts."--_Notes and Queries._

    "A handsome book, of much research, where the various topics are
    fully and carefully handled, in a conscientious spirit. There are
    also well-executed fac-similes of the chief objects and mosaic

    "The field successfully explored by Professor Buckman and Mr.
    Newmarch has produced a series, unique perhaps in Britain, of
    those interesting decorations in mosaic work which so strikingly
    evince, in this remote colony, the power of Roman art."--_Journal
    of the Archæological Institute._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Just published, and may be had for the Postage, Six Stamps,

  BIOGRAPHY, ANTIQUITIES, COUNCILS, &c., comprising the best works
  on these subjects, and interspersed with general and secular
  history, with a Classified Index.

  C. J. STEWART, 11. King William Street, West Strand, London.

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 28, 1851.

  List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-III:

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1-15  | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17-32  | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33-48  | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49-64  | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65-79  | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81-96  | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |  1-15   | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  | 17-31   | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  | 33-47   | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  | 49-78   | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 | 81-95   | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 | 97-111  | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June 7, 1851      | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. III, Number 87, June 28, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.