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Title: Curiosities of Great Britain: England and Wales Delineated Vol.1-11 - Historical, Entertaining & Commercial; Alphabetically - Arranged. 11 Volume set.
Author: Dugdale, Thomas Cantrell, 1880-1952
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: Frontispiece.

_Designed & Engraved for_ Dugdales England & Wales _Delineated._]



CURIOSITIES of GREAT BRITAIN.

ENGLAND & WALES

Delineated.

_Historical, Entertaining & Commercial._

Alphabetically arranged

_By Thomas Dugdale. Antiquarian._

_assisted by WILLIAM BURNETT. CIVIL ENGINEER._ --1835--

[Illustration]

Warkworth Hermitage. Northumberland.

Drawn and Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated. _London
Published by L. Tallis. S. Jewin Street. City._

[Illustration: Drawn by J. Satmon

KNARESBOROUGH CASTLE.

Engraved by E. Mansill

Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.]

[Illustration: Drawn by J. Marchant.

THEBERTON HOUSE THE SEAT of THOS GIBSON ESQ.

Engraved by D. Buckle.

Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.]

[Illustration: CITY OF DURHAM,

DURHAM.

Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.]

[Illustration: THE QUEEN'S PALACE, PIMLICO.

_MIDDLESEX._

The birth place of The Prince of Wales, born, Novr 9. 1911, also of
the Princess Royal, born. Novr 21, 1810.

Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.]

[Illustration: WESTMINSTER ABBEY.

Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.]

[Illustration: YORK.

_OLD BRIDGE OVER THE RIVER FOSS._]

[Illustration: PENRICE CASTLE.

_GLAMORGANSHIRE_

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: TRETWR.

_BRECKNOCKSHIRE._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: NEW POST OFFICE.

_St. Martins le-Grand_

_LONDON._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: NEW ROYAL EXCHANGE.

_LONDON._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: DUNSTABLE PRIORY CHURCH,

(WEST FRONT.)

BEDFORDSHIRE.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: PLYMOUTH SOUND.

FROM MOUNT EDGCOMBE.]

[Illustration: MANERBEER CASTLE,

_PEMBROKESHIRE._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: _West Tower of_

GOODRICH CASTLE,

_HEREFORDSHIRE._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: Drawn & Engraved by J. Grey]

CARLISLE CASTLE,

CUMBERLAND.

[Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: BANK OF ENGLAND.

_LONDON._]

[Illustration: CITY OF BRISTOL,

_GLOUCESTERSHIRE AND SOMERSETSHIRE._

Among the numerous distinguished individuals to whom Bristol has had the
honour of giving birth, are Lilly, Chatterton, Mrs. Mary Robinson,
Mrs. Hannah More, Southey, Sebastian Cabot, the first discoverer of the
continent of America, & many others.]

[Illustration: KNARESBOROUGH CASTLE,

_YORKSHIRE._

About a mile down the river from this Castle, is St. Robert's Cave, the
scene of the murder committed by Eugene Aram, which was discovered
thirteen years afterwards.]

[Illustration: BATTERSEA BRIDGE.

_SURREY._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: BATTLE ABBEY.

_SUSSEX._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: LLANTHONEY ABBEY.

_MONMOUTHSHIRE._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: COWBRIDGE,

_GLAMORGANSHIRE._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: VALE OF TAFF.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: LAUGHARNE CASTLE,

_CAERMARTHENSHIRE._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: RUNNEY MEAD, OR MAGNA CHARTA ISLAND.

_NEAR EGHAM, SURREY._

This place is celebrated in history as the spot where the assembled
barons in 1215, obtained from King John, the grant of Magna Charta.]

[Illustration: KIRKSTALL ABBEY, NEAR LEEDS.

_YORKSHIRE._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: GOLDSMITH'S HALL.

_FOSTER LANE, CHEAPSIDE, LONDON._

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.]

[Illustration: MIDDLESEX HOSPITAL.

Charles Street Mary-le-bone.

This Hospital was instituted for sick & lame patients in 1745. The
present substantial building was completed in 1835.]

[Illustration: ENGLAND & WALES]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration: ENGLAND & WALES

With its Railroads & Canals.]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration: BEDFORDSHIRE.]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration: BERKSHIRE.]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration: BUCKINGHAMSHIRE.]

[Illustration: CAMBRIDGESHIRE]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration: CHESHIRE]

[Illustration: CORNWALL.]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration: CUMBERLAND.]

[Illustration:]

[Illustration: DERBYSHIRE.]

[Illustration:]



CURIOSITIES OF GREAT BRITAIN.

ENGLAND AND WALES DELINEATED:

HISTORICAL, ENTERTAINING, AND COMMERCIAL.

EXPLANATION OF THE LETTERS SUBJOINED TO THE NAMES OF PLACES.

   bo         borough
   chap       chapelry
   co         county
   dis        district
   div        division
   ext. p.    extra parochial
   ham        hamlet
   hun        hundred
   la         lathe
   lib        liberty
   m. t.      market town
   pa         parish
   pre        precinct
   qr         quarter
   ra         rape
   ti         tithing
   to         township
   vil        village
   wap        wapentake
   ward       wardship
   E.         East
   W.         West
   N.         North
   S.         South
   S.E.      South-East
   S.W.      South-West
   N.E.      North-East
   N.W.      North-West

E.R. York.--N.R. York.--or W.R. York ... East, North, or West Riding
of Yorkshire.

   Map|  Names of Places.| County.  |     Number of Miles From
   +--+------------------+----------+------------+---------------+
    34|Abbas Combe     pa|Somerset  |Wincanton  3|Milborne Port 6|
    15|Abbenhall       pa|Gloucester|Newnham    4|Mitchel Dean  1|
    33|Abberbury[A]    pa|Salop     |Shrewsbury 8|Melverly      3|
    42|Abberley        pa|Worcester |Bewdley    6|Tenbury      11|
    14|Abberton        pa|Essex     |Colchester 4|Witham       12|
    42|Abberton        pa|Worcester |Pershore   6|Alcester      8|
    29|Abberwick       to|Northumber|Alnwick    3|Wooler       14|
    58|Abber-cwm-Hir chap|Radnor    |Rhayader   6|Knighton     15|
     9|Abbey-Dore      pa|Hereford  |Hereford  11|Hay          14|
    17|Abbey-Holm[B]   pa|Cumberland|Wigton     6|Allonby       7|
   +--+------------------+----------+------------+---------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.| Number of Miles From      |Lond.|population.
   +--+------------------+---------------------------+-----+-----+
    34|Abbas Combe     pa|Shaftesbury               8|  105|  448|
    15|Abbenhall       pa|Monmouth                 13|  116|  235|
    33|Abberbury[A]    pa|Montgomery               15|  161| 1798|
    42|Abberley        pa|Kidderminst               8|  125|  590|
    14|Abberton        pa|Maldon                   13|   47|  203|
    42|Abberton        pa|Worcester                10|  103|   90|
    29|Abberwick       to|Rothbury                  7|  311|  135|
    58|Abber-cwm-Hir chap|Presteign                18|  186|  368|
     9|Abbey-Dore      pa|Ross                     16|  140|  533|
    17|Abbey-Holm[B]   pa|Carlisle                 17|  309| 3056|
   +--+------------------+---------------------------+-----+-----+


[A] ABBERBURY, or Alberbury, a parish and township, partly in the
hundreds of Cawrse and Deythur, in the county of Montgomery, and partly
in that of Ford, in the county of Salop. Warine, sheriff of this county
in the reign of Henry I., founded an abbey for black monks, a cell to
Guardmont, in Limosin, which, at the suppression of alien priories was
bestowed by Henry VI. upon the college founded by Archbishop Chiechley.
Benthall, Eyton, Rowton, Amaston, and Wollaston, are all townships of
this parish. At Glyn, in this parish, is the celebrated Old Parr's
cottage, which has undergone but little alteration since his time; it is
timber-framed, rare, and picturesque, within view of Rodney's Pillar on
Bredden Hill, in Montgomeryshire. In Wollaston Chapel is a brass plate,
with his portrait thus inscribed: "The old, old, very old man, Thomas
Parr, was born at the Glyn, in the township of Wennington, within the
chapelry of Great Wollaston, and parish of Alberbury, in the county of
Salop, in 1483. He lived in the reigns of ten kings and queens of
England, viz. King Edward IV., King Edward V., King Richard III., King
Henry VII., King Henry VIII., King Edward VI., Queen Mary, Queen
Elizabeth, King James I., and Charles I.; he died in London, (sixteen
years after his presentation to King Charles,) on the 13th of November,
1635, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, on the 15th of the same
month, aged one hundred and fifty-two years and nine months. At the age
of one hundred and five, he did penance in the church of Alberbury, for
criminal connexion with Catherine Milton, by whom he had offspring."

[Sidenote: Old Parr's cottage and birth-place, who lived in the reigns
of ten kings and queens.]

[Sidenote: Did penance at the age of 105.]


[B] ABBEY-HOLM is a small town in the ward of Allerdale. The original
consequence of this little town was derived from an abbey of Cistercian
monks, founded here, about the twelfth century, by Henry I. of England,
as the crown rolls imply. Its benefactors were many in number, and by
the magnificent grants and privileges with which it was endowed, it
acquired so much importance, that during the reigns of Edward I. and II.
its abbots, though not mitred, were frequently summoned to sit in
parliament. The abbey was pillaged and burnt during the incursion of
Robert Bruce, but afterwards rebuilt with great magnificence; few
vestiges, however, of its monastic buildings now remain. From the ruins
the Parochial Chapel was formed, and there yet stands a part of the
church in its original form. During the reign of Henry VIII. the abbey
was chiefly dilapidated; the church continued in good condition till the
year 1600, when the steeple, one hundred and fourteen feet high,
suddenly fell down, and by its fall destroyed great part of the chancel.
Its total ruin was nearly accomplished by an accidental fire five years
afterwards. This fire took place on April 18, 1604, and was occasioned
by a servant carrying a live coal into the roof of the church, to search
for an iron chisel; the boisterous wind blew the coal out of his hand
into a daw's nest, by which the whole was ignited, and within less than
three hours it consumed both the body of the chancel and the whole
church, except the south side of the low church, which was saved by
means of a stone vault. Almost due-west from Abbey-Holm, in a strong
situation near the sea coast, are some remains of Wulstey Castle, a
fortress, which was erected by the abbots to secure their treasures,
books, and charters from the sudden depredations of the Scots. "In this
castle," observes Camden, "tradition reports, that the magic works of
Sir Michael Scot (or Scotus), were preserved, till they were mouldering
into dust. He professed a religious life here about the year 1290, and
became so versed in the mathematics, and other abstruse sciences, that
he obtained the character of a magician, and was believed, in that
credulous age, to have performed many miracles." The story of Michael
Scot forms a beautiful episode in Scott's "Lay of the Last Minstrel,"
the notes to which furnish some curious information respecting that
extraordinary personage. Sir Michael Scot, of Balwearie, we are told,
flourished during the thirteenth century, and was one of the ambassadors
sent to bring the Maid of Norway to Scotland, upon the death of
Alexander III. His memory survives in many a legend; and in the south of
Scotland, any work of great labour and antiquity is ascribed either to
the agency of auld Michael, of Sir William Wallace, or the devil. The
following are amongst the current traditions concerning Michael
Scot:--He was chosen, it is said, to go upon an embassy, to obtain from
the King of France satisfaction for certain piracies committed by his
subjects upon those of Scotland. Instead of preparing a new equipage and
splendid retinue, he evoked a fiend in the shape of a huge black horse,
mounted upon his back, and forced him to fly through the air towards
France. When he arrived at Paris, he tied his horse to the gate of the
palace, and boldly delivered his message. An ambassador with so little
of the pomp and circumstance of diplomacy was not received with much
respect, and the king was about to return a contemptuous refusal to his
demand, when Michael besought him to suspend his resolution till he had
seen his horse stamp three times: the first stamp shook every steeple in
Paris, and caused all the bells to ring; the second threw down three of
the towers of the palace; and the infernal steed had lifted up his hoof
to give the third stamp, when the king rather chose to dismiss Michael,
with the most ample concessions, than to stand to the probable
consequences. Another time, it is said that, while residing at the tower
of Oakwood, upon the Ettrick, about three miles above Selkirk, having
heard of the fame of a sorceress, called the Witch of Falsehope, who
lived on the opposite side of the river, Michael went one morning to put
her skill to the test, but was disappointed by her positively denying
any knowledge of the necromantic art. In his discourse with her, he laid
his wand inadvertently on the table which the hag observing, suddenly
snatched it up and struck him with it. Feeling the force of the charm,
he rushed out of the house; but as it had conferred on him the external
appearance of a hare, his servant, who waited without, hallooed upon the
discomfited wizard his own greyhounds, and pursued him so close, that,
in order to obtain a moment's breathing to reverse the charm, Michael,
after a very fatiguing course, was fain to take refuge in his own common
sewer.

   _Fair_, October 29, for horses and horned cattle.

[Sidenote: The Abbey destroyed by the accidental firing of a daw's
nest.]

[Sidenote: Michael Scot, the magician.]

[Sidenote: Scottish legends.]

[Sidenote: The fiend horse.]

[Sidenote: French King's concession.]

[Sidenote: The witch of Falsehope.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  | County.|     Number of Miles From  |
   +--+--------------------+--------+-------------+-------------+
    16|Abbots Ann        pa|Hants   |Andover     2|Salisbury  16|
    11|Abbots Bickington pa|Devon   |Holsworthy  6|Torrington  9|
    35|Abbots Bromley[A] pa|Stafford|Uttoxeter   7|Lichfield  10|
    12|Abbotsbury[B]     pa|Dorset  |Dorchester 10|Bridport   10|
   +--+--------------------+--------+-------------+-------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  |Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+--------+-------------+-----+-------+
    16|Abbots Ann        pa|Stockbridge          6|   66|    562|
    11|Abbots Bickington pa|Hartland            13|  220|     77|
    35|Abbots Bromley[A] pa|tafford             11| 1129|   1621|
    12|Abbotsbury[B]     pa|Weymouth            10|  127|    874|
   +--+--------------------+----------------------+-------------+


[A] ABBOTS BROMLEY. The hobby-horse dance, an ancient custom, was
observed here till the civil war.--Ten or twelve of the dancers carried,
on their shoulders, deers' heads, painted with the arms of Paget, Bagot,
and Welles, to whom the chief property of the town belonged. The horns
yet hang up in the church, but the custom is now discontinued. The
parish includes Bromley, Bagot's liberty, and Bromley Hurst township.
Bagot's park is the deer-park of Lord Bagot, whose seat is at
Blithefield.

   _Market, Tuesday._--_Fairs_, Tuesday before Mid-lent Sunday, May 22,
   September 4, for horses and horned cattle.

[Sidenote: Hobby-horse dance]


[B] ABBOTSBURY consists of a single parish, divided into three streets,
nearly in the form of the letter Y, lying in a valley surrounded and
protected by bold hills near the sea. There is a tradition that this
place was called Abodesbyry by St. Peter himself, in the infancy of
Christianity, but it is more probably supposed to have derived its name
from the magnificent abbey, originally founded here, in the early part
of the eleventh century. The ruins of the abbey (which was once large
and splendid, but is now nearly demolished), consist of a large barn, a
stable, supposed to have been the dormitory, a porch which belonged to
the conventual church, the principal entrance, a portion of the walls,
and two buildings conjectured to have been used for domestic purposes.
The barn, which, when entire, was the largest in the county, is now so
dilapidated, that only a part of it can be used. The church, in which
Orcus and his wife, the founders, were buried, is, with the exception of
the porch and a pile of ruins under some neighbouring elms, totally
destroyed; but the numerous chantries and chapels which belonged to it
sufficiently prove its ancient magnificence. On an eminence, at a short
distance from the town, stands a small building called St. Catherine's
Chapel, which is supposed to have been erected about the time of Edward
IV., and which from its height and lofty situation, serves both for a
sea and land mark. Abbotsbury Church appears to have been built a short
time before the reformation; the pulpit is pierced by musket balls, said
to have been fired by Cromwell's soldiers, at the officiating minister,
whom, however, they missed. But it is more likely to have occurred at
the time of Sir Anthony Astley Cooper's attack on the royalists, at the
siege of Sir John Strangeway's house, in 1651. About a mile to the
south-west of Abbotsbury, is the "decoy," where great quantities of wild
fowl are annually taken. But the object which most engages the attention
of strangers, in the neighbourhood of this town, is the celebrated
"swannery," which, not long since, was the property of the Earl of
Ilchester. In the open or broad space of the fleet are kept six or seven
hundred swans, formerly one thousand five hundred, including hoppers--a
small species of swans, who feed and range, and return home again.

_Fair_, July 10, for sheep and toys.

[Sidenote: Tradition of St. Peter]

[Sidenote: A ruined abbey.]

[Sidenote: St. Catherine's chapel, a sea mark.]

[Sidenote: Wild fowl decoy, and swannery.]

   Map|  Names of Places.   | County.  |     Number of Miles From
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
    11|Abbotsham    m.t.& pa|Devon     |Bideford     2| Torrington   7|
    44|Abbotside, H.&Low  pa|N.R. York |Askrigg      0| Middleham    7|
    34|Abbotts Isle       pa|Somerset  |Ilminster    4| Ilchester   11|
    11|Abbotts Kerswell   pa|Devon     |Newton Bush  2| Totness      7|
    18|Abbotts Langley[A] pa|Herts     |St. Albans   4| Watford      4|
    34|Abbots Leigh       pa|Somerset  |Bristol      3| Bedminster   3|
    15|Abbotsley          pa|Hunts     |St. Neots    4| Huntingdon  12|
    42|Abbots Morton      pa|Worcester |Evesham      4| Alcester     8|
    12|Abbots Stoke       pa|Dorset    |Beaminster   3| Crewkerne   10|
    16|Abbotston          pa|Hants     |Alresford    4| Basingstoke 12|
    33|Abdon              pa|Salop     |Ludlow       9| Bridgenorth 11|
    53|Abenbury Fecham    to|Flintshire|Wrexham      4| Chester     10|
    52|Abenbury Vawr      to|Denbigh   |Wrexham      3| Llangollen  12|
    50|Aber[B]            pa|Caernavon |Bangor       6| Aberconway   9|
    51|Aberaeron          to|Cardigan  |Aberystwith 17| Lampeter    14|
    51|Aberarth     vil & pa|Cardigan  |Lampeter    14| Aberystwith 14|
    56|Aber Bechan        to|Montgomery|Newtown      2| Montgomery   7|
    52|Abercwhiler        to|Denbigh   |Denbigh      4| St. Asaph    3|
    54|Aberavon [C] bo. & pa|Glamorgan |Neath        6| Bridgend    14|
    48|Aberbaidon         am|Brecknock |Abergavenny  5| Crickhowel   3|
    50|Aberconway [D]   m.t.|Caernarvon|Bangor      15| Llanrwst    12|
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   |  Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-----+---------+
    11|Abbotsham    m.t.& pa|Barnstaple            10|   204|      386|
    44|Abbotside, H.&Low  pa|Richmond              12|   208|      762|
    34|Abbotts Isle       pa|Taunton               10|   133|      380|
    11|Abbotts Kerswell   pa|Torquay                6|   189|      442|
    18|Abbotts Langley[A] pa|Hemel Hemp             6|    17|     1980|
    34|Abbots Leigh       pa|Keynsham               9|   116|      360|
    15|Abbotsley          pa|Potton                 4|    58|      369|
    42|Abbots Morton      pa|Pershore               6|    99|      236|
    12|Abbots Stoke       pa| Bridport              6|   143|      587|
    16|Abbotston          pa|Winchester             9|    57|      248|
    33|Abdon              pa|Ch. Stretton           9|   153|      170|
    53|Abenbury Fecham    to|Mold                   7|   187|      111|
    52|Abenbury Vawr      to|Mold                   8|   187|      214|
    50|Aber[B]            pa|Caernarvon            15|   240|      552|
    51|Aberaeron          to|Cardigan              23|   208|      ...|
    51|Aberarth     vil & pa|Tregaron              13|   222|      976|
    56|Aber Bechan        to|Welsh Pool            11|   178|      ...|
    52|Abercwhiler        to|Caerwys                4|   208|      487|
    54|Aberavon [C] bo. & pa|Swansea               11|   192|      572|
    48|Aberbaidon         am|Brecon                14|   148|     1781|
    50|Aberconway [D]   m.t.| Caernarvon           24|   236|     1245|
   +--+---------------------+------------------------+------+---------+


[A] ABBOTTS LANGLEY. Before the Conquest, and till the dissolution of
the monasteries, this place was in the possession of the abbots of St.
Albans. About the time of Henry I., Nicholas Breakspear, a native of
this place, was advanced to the rank of cardinal, and at length became
pope, by the title of Adrian IV.; being the only Englishman that ever
attained that dignity. He died, not without suspicion of poison, in
1158.

[Sidenote: Englishman made Pope.]


[B] ABER (which signifies the mouth of a river, port, or harbour) is
situated on the river Gwyngregyr, which here discharges itself into the
Irish Sea. The native Welsh princes had a palace at this place, some
remains of which are shewn as the residence of Llewelyn ap Griffith. It
is one of the ferries to Anglesea, and a convenient place from which to
visit the formidable Penmaen Mawr mountain. The passage from hence
across the Laven Sands to Beaumaris is by no means safe, as the sands
frequently shift; but the large bell of this village is constantly rung
in foggy weather, in the hope that its sound may serve to direct those
whom imperious necessity obliges to cross under all disadvantages. Two
miles from this pleasing village, following the banks of the stream,
which flows through highly picturesque scenery, there is a most romantic
glen, and a very fine waterfall; the upper part of this cataract is
sometimes broken into three or four divisions, by the rugged force of
the impending cliff, but the lower one forms a broad sheet, and descends
about sixty feet, in a very grand style.

   _Mail_ arrives 3.15 A.M., departs 9.32 P.M.--_Inn_, Bull.

[Sidenote: Ferry to Anglesea.]

[Sidenote: Laven sands dangerous. The bell constantly tolled in foggy
weather.]

[Sidenote: Romantic glen, and waterfall.]


[C] ABERAVON is situated at the mouth of the river Avon, on Swansea Bay,
and has a harbour for small vessels. Although no charter exists for a
market, one has been held here, more than a century past. There is a
ridiculous belief, amongst the people of this place, that every
Christmas Day, and that day alone, a large salmon presents himself in
the river, and allows himself to be caught and handled by any one who
chooses; but it would be considered an act of impiety to detain him.

   _Fair_, April 30.

[Sidenote: Singular account of a Salmon.]


[D] ABERCONWAY is an ancient fortified town, beautifully situated upon
the estuary of the river Conway. The town is nearly of a triangular
shape, and is thought by some to have been the Conovium of the Romans.
The annals of this place commence no earlier than with the history of
its castle, which was erected in 1284, by command of Edward I., as a
security against the insurrections of the Welsh. Soon after its
erection, the royal founder was besieged in it, and the garrison almost
reduced by famine to surrender, when they were extricated by the arrival
of a fleet with provision. At the commencement of the civil wars, it
was garrisoned on behalf of the king, by Dr. John Williams, Archbishop
of York. In 1645 he gave the government of the castle to his nephew,
William Hookes. Two years after, Prince Rupert superseded the Archbishop
in the command of North Wales. He endeavoured to obtain redress from the
king, but failed. Enraged at this injury, he joined Mytton, and assisted
in the reduction of the place. The town was taken by storm, August 15,
1646, but the castle did not surrender till November 10. This fortress
remained in tranquillity till a grant was made of it, by King Charles,
to the Earl of Conway and Kilulta; when he had scarcely obtained
possession, before he ordered an agent to remove the timber, iron, lead,
and other materials. It was held on lease, by Owen Holland, Esq. from
the crown, at an annual rent of six shillings and eightpence, and a dish
of fish to Lord Holland, as often as he passed through the town. Thus,
unprotected, it has suffered material injuries from wind and weather,
and is reduced to a state of rapid decay. The ruins are remarkably
picturesque, and very extensive. The town was surrounded by high massive
walls, twelve feet thick, strengthened at intervals by twenty-four
circular and semi-circular towers; these, with the four principal
gateways, remain in tolerable preservation. There are scarcely any
remains of the Cistercian Abbey, founded by Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, in
1185. The church contains a few modern monuments, belonging to the
family of the Wynnes, formerly of this place. The font appears ancient;
it is composed of black marble, curiously carved, and supported by a
cluster of pilasters, standing upon a pedestal. In Castle Street is a
very old house, called the college, which has a singular window,
decorated with several coats of arms of the Stanley family. A day school
is also kept in an ancient mansion, called Plas Mawr, situated near the
market place, which was erected in 1585, by Robert Wynne, Esq. of
Gwyder. The river Conway rises out of Llyn Conway, at the south
extremity of the county, in the mountains of Penmachno. The ferry is of
importance, as it lies upon one of the great roads from London to
Ireland, but is justly considered a dangerous passage, and many are the
accidents which have occurred. On Christmas Day, 1806, the boat
conveying the Irish mail coach, was lost, and all the passengers,
including the coachman and guard, were drowned, except two. At the
Ferry-house a noble bay is formed where the tide enters the river. In
this view, indeed, there are all the ingredients of a sublime and
beautiful landscape. Few rivers, in England or Wales, in so short a
course as twenty-nine miles, present so great a variety of beautiful
scenery. Below Luna Hall, the falls of the Conway exhibit a noble
cataract, about fifty feet; the stream of water, shooting directly from
one aperture in the solid rock to a considerable distance, descends into
a rocky basin, surrounded by hanging woods. One mile below this town, at
Trefriw, the river becomes navigable, and contributes to the supply of
the surrounding county. In Conway town there still exists a pearl
fishery, and a chain suspension bridge has been recently erected in lieu
of a dangerous ferry. The vale of Conway teems with interesting objects.
Upon the west side is the abrupt termination of the Snowdon chain, down
the declivities of which, through innumerable chasms, fissures, and
channels, rush the superfluous waters of the lakes above, to mingle with
the parent ocean. The principal employment of the poor, in this
neighbourhood, is gathering the different species of fuci, commonly
called sea-wreck, thrown up by the tide, or growing upon the breakers.
This wreck they put into a kind of square fireplace, made upon the sand,
and heat it till it becomes a liquid and forms a cake; when further
baked or burnt it resembles cinders, and is called barilla or impure
fossil alkali; in this state it is sold to manufacturers of soap and
glass.

   _Market_, Friday.--_Fairs_, March 26, April 30, June 20, August 19,
   September 16, October 20, and November 15.--Inns, Harp, Bull's Head,
   and White Lien.--_Mail_ arrives 2 A.M., departs 10-3/4 P.M.

[Sidenote: The Conovium of the Romans.]

[Sidenote: Town taken by storm, in 1646.]

[Sidenote: Curious tenure--6s. 8d. and a dish of fish.]

[Sidenote: Cistercian Abbey, founded by Llewelyn ap Jorwerth in 1185.]

[Sidenote: The ferry considered dangerous; loss of the Irish mail and 14
passengers, in 1806.]

[Sidenote: Falls of the Conway present a noble cataract, shooting from a
solid rock.]

[Sidenote: Pearl fishery and suspension bridge.]

[Sidenote: Manufactory of barilla.]

   Map|  Names of Places.      | County.  |     Number of Miles From
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
    54|Aberdare[A]           pa|Glamorg   |Mer. Tydvil 6|Bridgend   18|
    50|Aberdaron             pa|Caernarvon|Pwllheli   16|Nevin      16|
    54|Aberddaw, East       ham|Glamorg   |Cowbridge   5|Bridgend   10|
    55|Aberdyfi              to|Merion    |Aberystwith 9|Towyn       5|
    58|Aberedwy[B]           pa|Radnor    |Builth      4|Hay        12|
    56|Abererch              pa|Caernarvon|Pwllheli    3|Crickieth   8|
    45|Aberford[C]   m.t. &  pa|W.R. York |Tadcaster   6|Leeds       8|
    47|Aberffraw             pa|Anglesea  |Bangor     17|Newborough  6|
    26|Abergavenny[D] m.t. & pa|Monmouth  |Monmouth   17|Crickhowell 7|
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                        |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.      |Number of Miles From    |Lond.|population.
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+
    54|Aberdare[A]           pa|Brecon                20|  182|     3961|
    50|Aberdaron             pa|Bardsey Isle           5|  258|     1389|
    54|Aberddaw, East       ham|Llandaff              12|  179|      ...|
    55|Aberdyfi              to|Machynlleth            9|  217|      ...|
    58|Aberedwy[B]           pa|Radnor                13|  169|      344|
    56|Abererch              pa|Nevin                  8|  234|     1365|
    45|Aberford[C]   m.t. &  pa|Ferry Bridge           9|  186|      925|
    47|Aberffraw             pa|Holyhead              12|  258|     1367|
    26|Abergavenny[D] m.t. & pa|Usk                    9|  145|     4230|
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+---------+


[A] ABERDARE. _Fairs_, for cattle, April 19, Whit-Monday, November 14.


[B] ABEREDWY. This delightful village derived its name from its
situation, near the junction of the River Wye and Edwy. Nothing in
nature can exceed the beauty of the neighbouring scenery. The Edwy
descends through lofty walls of rock; in some places, broken into crags,
which frightfully overhang the abyss. Near the place are the ruins of a
castle, the retreat of the last native Welsh Prince, Llewelyn ap
Gruffydd. The object of Llewelyn's journey to Aberedwy was to consult
the chief persons of the district, upon the best means of successfully
opposing the King of England, then invading Wales. On his arrival he
found himself disappointed. Instead of meeting with friends, he was
surrounded by the enemy. Edmund Mortimer and John Gyfford, acquainted
with his route, marched from Herefordshire, with their troops to meet
him. The enemy were numerous--resistance was in vain--Llewelyn withdrew
to Builth. The mountains being covered with snow, he caused the shoes of
his horse to be reversed, in order to baffle pursuit, but the
treacherous _smith_ betrayed him. Llewelyn broke down the bridge of
Builth, but was closely followed by the English forces, who fruitlessly
attempted to gain it. Sir Elias Walwyn crossed the river, with a
detachment, about eight miles below, at a place called Little Tom's
Ferry Boat, and coming unexpectedly on the Welsh army, routed them.
Llewelyn himself was attacked and slain, unarmed, in a narrow valley,
not two hundred yards from the scene of action. Adam Francton, the
murderer of Llewelyn, took no notice of his victim, but joined in the
pursuit of the Welsh. Returning with the view of plundering the slain,
he discovered the wounded person was no other than the Prince of Wales;
for on stripping him, he found a letter in cipher and his privy seal.
The brutal Francton, overjoyed that the Welsh prince had fallen into his
hands, cut off his head, and sent it to the King of England, and thus
perished the last native Prince of Wales.

[Sidenote: Ruined castle--the retreat of Llewelyn, the last native
Prince of Wales.]

[Sidenote: His horses shoes reversed.]

[Sidenote: Betrayed by his smith.]

[Sidenote: His army routed, and himself slain.]

[Sidenote: His head sent to the King of England.]


[C] ABERFORD is situated upon the River Cock, on the great northern
road, on the banks of which river was fought the famous battle of
Towton, in 1461, so called from a village in the vicinity. The town
consists of a long straggling street, in the north of which are the
remains of a Norman fortification, called Castle Carey; and the whole is
in the line of the ancient Roman road. This town is curiously situated,
as respects township: the west side is in Aberford-cum-Parlington; the
east of the same end is Lotherton-cum-Aberford, and the north of the
river is Aberford alone.

   _Mail_ arrives 4.11 P.M., departs 8.46 A.M.--_Inn_,
   Swan.

[Sidenote: Here the famous battle of Towton was fought.]


[D] ABERGAVENNY, (the ancient Gobanium of the Romans,) and its environs,
have strong claims to the traveller's attention. Its castle and
delightful terrace overlook the rich vale of Usk; its church, abounding
in costly sculptured tombs, its beautifully variegated mountains, all
conspire to render this place particularly attractive. This town was
once fortified, and many portions of the work remain, particularly
Tudor's Gate. The western entrance is furnished with two portcullises,
and remarkable for the beautifully composed landscape seen through it.
The style of building which forms the remains of this fortress marks its
origin to have been subsequent to the Norman epoch. Excursions are
frequently made to Blaenavon Iron Works, about six miles distant, which
employ upwards of four thousand men. The mountainous territory
containing these mineral treasures of iron, was demised by the crown to
the Earl of Abergavenny, and is held under a lease by Hill and Co. A
principal excursion from Abergavenny is that which leads northwards to
Llanthony Abbey, a majestic ruin, seated in a deep recess of the black
mountains, at the very extremity of Monmouthshire. Abergavenny is a
place of much resort, being the thoroughfare from the west of Wales to
Bath, Bristol, and Gloucestershire. Its principal manufacture is
flannel, and its annual fairs for cattle are well attended.

   _Mail_ arrives 2 P.M., departs 11 A.M.--INNS, Angel, and
   Greyhound.--_Bankers_, Hill and Co., draw upon Esdaile and
   Co.,--Jones and Co., draw upon Williams and Co.--_Fairs_, May 14,
   lean cattle and sheep; 1st Monday after Trinity, linen and woollen
   cloths; September 25, horses, hogs, and flannel.--_Market_ Tuesday.

[Sidenote: Gobanium of the Romans.]

[Sidenote: Tudor's Gate.]

[Sidenote: Blaenavon Iron Works. 4000 men employed.]

[Sidenote: Llanthony Abbey, a majestic ruin in the black mountains.]

   Map|  Names of Places.      | County   |    Number of Miles From
   +--+------------------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
    26|Abergavenny          hun|Monmouth  |      ...     |     ...       |
    52|Abergele       m.t. & pa|Denbigh   |St. Asaph    7|Holywell     17|
    49|Abergorlech         chap|Caermar   |Llandilo Var 7|Lampeter      9|
    49|Abergwilley      to & pa|Caermar   |Caermar      2|Llandilo Var 15|
    56|Aberhafesp            pa|Montgomery|Newton,      3|Llanydloes   11|
    56|Aberhaly              to|Montgomery|Llanfair     6|Newton        5|
    49|Abermarles            to|Caermar   |Llandovery   7|Llangadock    3|
    48|Aberlyfni            ham|Brecknock |Hay          4|Brecon       11|
    49|Abernant              pa|Caermar   |Caermar      4|Llaugharne   10|
    54|Aberpergwm          chap|Glamorg   |Neath       10|Brecon       20|
    56|Aber-Rhiw             pa|Montgomery|Welsh Pool   5|Montgomery    4|
    51|Aber-Porth            pa|Cardigan  |Cardigan     7|Newcastle     9|
    48|Aberyskir             pa|Brecknock |Brecon       4|Llandovery   16|
    51|Aberystwith[A] m.t. & pa|Cardigan  |Tregaron    15|Machynlleth  18|
    26|Aberystwith    pa & chap|Monmouth  |Abergaven    7|Crickhowell   7|
     4|Abingdon[B]         m.t.|Berks     |Oxford       6|Wallingford  11|
   +--+------------------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
                                                         |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.      |  Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------------+-------------------------+---------------+
    26|Abergavenny          hun|Monmouth  |   ...        | ... |    30818|
    52|Abergele       m.t. & pa|Denbigh   |Aberconway  12|  224|     2506|
    49|Abergorlech         chap|Caermar   |Caermar     14|  209|      ...|
    49|Abergwilley      to & pa|Caermar   |Newcastle   16|  214|     2675|
    56|Aberhafesp            pa|Montgomery|Llanfair    10|  180|      535|
    56|Aberhaly              to|Montgomery|Montgomery  10|  180|      ...|
    49|Abermarles            to|Caermar   |Lampeter    14|  198|      ...|
    48|Aberlyfni            ham|Brecknock |Builth      12|  160|      100|
    49|Abernant              pa|Caermar   |Newcastle   11|  222|      654|
    54|Aberpergwm          chap|Glamorg   |Merthyr Tyd 13|  188|      ...|
    56|Aber-Rhiw             pa|Montgomery|Newtown      9|  172|     2429|
    51|Aber-Porth            pa|Cardigan  |Lampeter    24|  235|      485|
    48|Aberyskir             pa|Brecknock |Builth      14|  173|      110|
    51|Aberystwith[A] m.t. & pa|Cardigan  |Aberllelwyn  5|  208|     4128|
    26|Aberystwith    pa & chap|Monmouth  |Pontypool    8|  153|     5992|
     4|Abingdon[B]         m.t.|Berks     |Wantage     10|   56|     5259|
   +--+-----------------------+-----------+--------------+-----+---------+


[A] ABERYSTWITH, a market town and seaport in the hundred of Glenaur
Glynn, and also a township in the parish of Llanbadarn Vawr. It is
situated at the confluence of the rivers Ystwith and Rhyddol, at which
the former falls into the sea in the bay of Cardigan. The building of a
castle, of which some vestiges remain, is attributed to Edward I. It
stands on a craggy eminence projecting into the sea at the west of the
town, and affords a magnificent view of the whole line of Welsh coast
within the bay of Cardigan. The streets are steep and uneven.--The
houses, which are principally formed of dark slate, present a very
singular appearance. For some years past its celebrity, as a summer
retreat and bathing-place, has been annually increasing, which is
greatly contributed to by the beauty of the neighbourhood, and the
commanding prospects around. The roads to it have been made excellent,
and the customary amusements of plays and assemblies during the season
add to the attractions for summer visitants. There was formerly a
herring fishery, and the practice of fishing is still carried on with
considerable advantage by the natives. About seven miles north of
Aberystwith, on the sea coast, a considerable extent of land, has, by
drainage, been recovered; twelve miles of embankment have been formed;
and two navigable cuts, with a road of three miles and a stone bridge
completed.

   _Mail_ arrives 7 A.M. departs 5 P.M.--_Fairs_, 1st Monday in May and
   November, chiefly for hiring servants.--_Bankers_, W. Davis and Co.,
   draw on Esdaile and Co.--_Inns_, Gogerddon Arms, Old Lion, and
   Talbot.--_Markets_, Monday and Saturday.

[Sidenote: Fine bathing place.]

[Sidenote: Twelve miles of embankment.]


[B] ABINGDON, at the very edge of the county of Berkshire, was called
Shovesham, by the Anglo-Saxons, until the foundation of the abbey, from
which period it began to assume the name of Abbandeen, or the Town of
the Abbey. This monastery, the monks of which were Benedictines, was
founded by Cissa, an Anglo-Saxon monarch, in 675. During the reign of
Alfred it was demolished by the Danes, and remained in ruins till King
Edgar partly restored it, in 954. Ethelwold, the abbot at that time,
erected and embellished the church, and his successors contributed to
its increase. After the Conquest, the wealth and grandeur of the abbey
were equal to any similar foundation in England. William the Conqueror
kept Easter in the abbey, A.D. 1084; and here was educated his youngest
son, Henry, surnamed Beauclerc, afterwards King Henry I., in whose
reign, one of the most eminent characters who received sepulture within
the abbey, was the celebrated Jeffery of Monmouth, author of the British
History,--a work, from which some of our best poets have derived
materials for their sublime compositions. Shakspeare's Lear, and
Milton's Comus, were both supplied from Jeffery's history. He flourished
in the reign of Henry I. Among the natives of Abingdon, whose talents
have rendered their possessors eminent, was Sir John Mason, a statesman
of the sixteenth century. His memory is the more worthy to be revered,
because, from a very obscure origin, his genius and perseverance
advanced him to the rank of privy-counsellor, ambassador to France, and
chancellor of the University of Oxford. His father was a cow-herd and
his mother, sister to one of the abbey monks, who attended to his early
tuition, and sent him to Oxford, where he became a fellow of All Souls'
college. While in this situation, the liveliness of his temper
occasioned him to be chosen to compliment Henry VIII. on his visit to
the University, in the year 1523, which being executed in a most
graceful manner, engaged the favour of the monarch, who promoted him to
the honourable offices above-mentioned. He died in 1566, and was buried
in St. Paul's cathedral.

   _Mail_ arrives 2.49 A.M., departs 12.10 A.M.--_Fairs_, 1st Monday in
   Lent, May 6, June 20, August 6, September 19, cattle; Monday before
   Old Michaelmas, statute, and December 11, horses and
   cattle.--_Bankers_, Knapp and Co., draw on Williams and Co.--_Inns_,
   Crown and Thistle, and Queen's Arms.--_Markets_, Monday and Friday.

[Sidenote: Monastery of Benedictine monks.]

[Sidenote: William the Conqueror kept Easter, and his son was educated
here. Jeffery of Monmouth buried in the abbey.]

[Sidenote: Sir J. Mason, born here--his father a cow-herd.]

   Map|  Names of Places.     | County   |      Number of Miles From      |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+--------------+-----------------+
    37|Abinger              pa|Surrey    |Dorking      4|Guildford      10|
    15|Abinghall            pa|Gloucester|Newnham      6|Mitchel Dean    1|
    28|Abington             pa|Northam   |Northam      2|Wellingboro     9|
     6|Abington, Gt.& Lit.  pa|Cambridge |Linton       3|Cambridge       9|
     6|Abington in the Clay pa|Cambridge |Royston      5|Potton          7|
    23|Ab Kettleby          pa|Leicester |Melton Mow   3|Leicester      16|
    15|Ablington            ti|Gloucester|Fairford     5|Cirencester     7|
    10|Abney               ham|Derby     |Tideswell    5|Sheffield      14|
    49|Above Sawdde        ham|Caermar   |Llangadock   1|Llandovery      7|
    22|Above Town          div|Lancashire|Garstang    11|Burton         11|
    22|Abram                to|Lancashire|Wigan        4|Bolton          9|
    15|Abson with Wick    chap|Gloucester|Bristol      8|Sodbury         5|
    21|Abthorp            chap|Northam   |Towcester    3|Brackley        9|
    54|Aburthin             pa|Glamorg   |Llantrissant 8|Bridgend        7|
    24|Aby                  pa|Lincoln   |Alford       2|Louth           9|
    46|Acaster Malbis       pa|W.R. York |York         4|Selby           8|
    46|Acaster Selby        to|W.R. York |  ...        5| ...            7|
    22|Accrington, New      to|Lancaster |Blackburn    4|Haslingden      5|
    22|Accrington, Old    chap|Lancaster |  ...        6| ...            4|
    30|Achurch              pa|Northam   |Thrapston    4|Oundle          4|
    43|Acklam               pa|N.R. York |New Malton   6|Gt. Driffield  15|
    44|Acklam             chap|N.R. York |Yarm         5|Stockton        3|
    28|Acklington           to|Northum   |Alnwick      8|Morpeth        13|
    45|Ackton               to|W.R. York |Pontefract   3|Wakefield       5|
    45|Ackworth[A]          pa|W.R. York |  ...        3| ...            7|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+--------------+-----------------+
                                                        |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.     | number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+-----+-----------+
    37|Abinger              pa|Ockley                  5|    2|        767|
    15|Abinghall            pa|Monmouth               12|  118|        235|
    28|Abington             pa|Moulton                 3|   67|        155|
     6|Abington, Gt. & Lit. pa|Newmarket              12|   50|        594|
     6|Abington in the Clay pa|Cambridge              15|   42|        259|
    23|Ab Kettleby          pa|Loughboro              13|  108|        331|
    15|Ablington            ti|Northleach              7|   85|        103|
    10|Abney               ham|Chapel-Frith            8|  164|        112|
    49|Above Sawdde        ham|Llandilo Var            8|  195|        803|
    22|Above Town          div|KirkbyLons             15|  240|        591|
    22|Abram                to|Chorley                11|  197|        511|
    15|Abson with Wick    chap|Marshfield              4|  107|        824|
    21|Abthorp            chap|Banbury                15|   63|        477|
    54|Aburthin             pa|Cowbridge               1|  173|        ...|
    24|Aby                  pa|Horncastle             12|  142|        204|
    46|Acaster Malbis       pa|Tadcaster               8|  190|        707|
    46|Acaster Selby        to| ...                    8|  190|        201|
    22|Accrington, New      to|Burnley                 8|  208|       4960|
    22|Accrington, Old    chap| ...                    6|  208|       1323|
    30|Achurch              pa|Kettering              12|   73|        239|
    43|Acklam               pa|York                   14|  210|        827|
    44|Acklam             chap|Guisboro                9|  244|        371|
    28|Acklington           to|Rothbury               13|  300|        285|
    45|Ackton               to|Leeds                   9|  174|         51|
    45|Ackworth[A]          pa| ...                   11|  174|       1660|
   +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+-----+-----------+


[A] ACKWORTH is a parish and township, in the upper division of Osgold
Cross Wapentake, nominally divided into higher and lower Ackworth. It is
celebrated for its Quakers' School, which was purchased in 1777, with
eighty-five acres of land, from the trustees of the Foundling Hospital,
and rendered a seminary for the children of the more humble class of
Friends. The number of pupils, is one hundred and eighty boys, and one
hundred and twenty girls.

[Sidenote: Quakers' school.]

   Map| Names of Places.       | County   |      Number of Miles From
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+---------------+
    27|Acle[A]       m. t. & pa|Norfolk   |Norwich    11|Yarmouth      9|
    45|Acomb                 pa|W.R. York |York        2|Wetherby     10|
    29|Acomb East            to|Northumb  |Corbridge  15|Aldston Moor  9|
    29|Acomb West            to|Northumb  |  ...       5|             18|
    17|Aconbury[B]         chap|Hereford  |Hereford    4|Ross          9|
    21|Acrise                pa|Kent      |Folkstone   4|Dover         8|
    7 |Acton            to & pa|Chester   |Nantwich    2|Tarporley     9|
    7 |Acton                 to|Chester   |Northwich   4|Frodsham      7|
    52|Acton                 to|Denbigh   |Wrexham     1|Holt          5|
    25|Acton                 pa|Middlesex |Harrow      8|Brentford     3|
    29|Acton                 to|Northumb  |Alnwick     8|Rothbury      8|
    36|Acton                 pa|Suffolk   |Lavenham    3|Sudbury       3|
    42|Acton Beauchamp       pa|Worcester |Bromyard    4|Worcester    11|
    33|Acton Burnell[C] to & pa|Salop     |Wenlock     7|Shrewsbury    7|
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+---------------+
                                                        |Dist. |
   Map| Names of Places.       | Number of Miles From   |Lond. |Population
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+------+------+
    27|Acle[A]       m. t. & pa|Loddon                 8|   121|   820|
    45|Acomb                 pa|New Malton            20|   201|   882|
    29|Acomb East            to|Hexham                11|   275|    36|
    29|Acomb West            to|  ...                  3|   275|   523|
    17|Aconbury[B]         chap|Ledbury               14|   130|   163|
    21|Acrise                pa|Canterbury            11|    67|   194|
    7 |Acton            to & pa|Middlewich            11|   166|  3928|
    7 |Acton                 to|Chester               15|   177|   309|
    52|Acton                 to|  ...                  9|   190|   215|
    25|Acton                 pa|Uxbridge              10|     5|  2453|
    29|Acton                 to|Morpeth               10|   300|    91|
    36|Acton                 pa|Bildeston              8|    57|   565|
    42|Acton Beauchamp       pa|Ledbury               10|   122|   239|
    33|ACTON Burnell[C] to & pa|Ch. Stretton           7|   155|   381|
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+------+------+


[A] ACLE. _Market_, Thursday.--_Fair_, Wednesday before Michaelmas day.


[B] ACONBURY. At this place a nunnery of the order of St. Augustine was
founded by Margery, wife of Walter de Lacey, in the reign of King John.
The Cliffords were large benefactors to this house, which, at the
dissolution, possessed _£75. 7s. 6d._ per annum. There are some remains
yet standing, occupied as a farm house. On the summit of Aconbury Hill,
a bold and extensive eminence, well wooded, and commanding a charming
view over the adjacent county, are traces of a large encampment.

[Sidenote: Nunnery.]


[C] ACTON BURNELL is celebrated for the remains of an ancient castle,
founded by Robert Burnell, bishop of Bath and Wells, a man of eminent
abilities, first treasurer, and afterwards chancellor of England, who
was much employed by King Edward I. in Welsh affairs. He died at
Berwick, in 1292, and was buried in the cathedral at Wells. The castle
is a quadrangular building, with a square tower at each corner. The hall
in which King Edward I. held his parliament, in 1283, was 183 feet long,
by 41 broad, but the gable ends only remain. The Statutum de
Mercatoribus enacted here, is from that circumstance better known as the
Statute of Acton Burnell. The successor of the bishop, at the castle,
was Sir Edward Burnell, son of Philip Burnell and Maud, daughter of
Richard Arundel. He served in many actions in Scotland, under Edward I.,
and always appeared in great splendour, attended by a chariot decked
with banners of his arms. He was summoned to parliament from the fifth
to the eighth year of Edward the second's reign, and died in 1315. In
1346, the castle came into the possession of Nicholas Lord Burnell, who
died in 1382, and is buried in the church under an altar tomb, inlaid
with his effigy in brass. In the reign of Henry VI. the Lovell family
were in possession of this estate, which was forfeited by Lord Lovell,
in consequence of his adherence to King Richard III. Henry VII. being
seated on the throne, granted Acton Burnell, together with other estates
in this county, to Jasper Tudor, Earl of Bedford; after whose death it
reverted to the crown, and Henry VIII. granted it to Thomas Howard, Earl
of Surrey, distinguished for his valour at the battle of Flodden. Sir
Humphrey Lee, of Langley, in this parish, was created a baronet, May 3,
1620. Acton Burnell Park is now the residence of Sir Edward Joseph
Smythe, Bart. whose family have been seated here from the time of
Charles II., when Sir Edward Smythe, of Esh, in Durham, created a
baronet, Feb. 23, 1660, married the daughter and heiress of Sir Richard
Lee, Bart. of Langley. The mansion, on a verdant lawn, bordered by a
shrubbery, presents a handsome elevation of fine white stone, having a
noble Ionic portico, under which is the carriage entrance. Behind the
house is the deer park, on a finely wooded eminence, affording one of
the most beautiful prospects in the county. The chapelry of Ruckley and
Langley is in this parish.

[Sidenote: Edward I. held his parliament here in 1283.]

[Sidenote: Lord Burnell's effigy in brass on the altar tomb.]

[Sidenote: The seat of Sir E.J. Smythe.]

   Map| Names of Places.      | County   |         Number of Miles From |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
     7|Acton Grange         to|Chester   |Warrington   4|Northwich    10|
    15|Acton Iron           pa|Gloucester|Chip. Sodbu  2|Thornbury     7|
    33|Acton Pigott       chap|Salop     |Much Wenlo   6|Shrewsbury    8|
    33|Acton Reynold        to|Salop     |Shrewsbury   8|Wem           6|
    33|Acton Round        chap|Salop     |Wenlock      3|Bridgenorth   6|
    33|Acton Scott          pa|Salop     |Ch. Stretton 4|Bish. Castle 10|
    35|Acton Trussell  to & pa|Stafford  |Penkridge    3|Stafford      4|
    15|Acton Turville     chap|Gloucester|Tetbury     11|Chippenham   12|
    35|Adbaston             pa|Stafford  |Eccleshall  14|Newport       5|
    31|Adderbury East  to & pa|Oxford    |Banbury      3|Deddington    3|
    33|Adderley             pa|Salop     |Drayton      4|Whitchurch    8|
    29|Adderston            to|Northumb  |Beiford      3|Alnwick      12|
    17|Adforton             to|Hereford  |Ludlow       8|Presteign     8|
     9|Addingham            pa|Cumberland|Kirk Oswald  2|Penrith       8|
    45|Addingham            pa|W.R. York |Skipton      5|Ottley        8|
    37|Addington[A]         pa|Surrey    |Croydon      4|Westerham    10|
     5|Addington            pa|Bucks     |Winslow      2|Buckingham    5|
    21|Addington            pa|Kent      |Maidstone    7|Rochester     8|
    28|Addington, Gt   to & pa|Northamp  |Thrapston    4|Kettering     7|
    28|Addington, Lit  to & pa|Northamp  |   ...       5|   ...        8|
    21|Addisham             pa|Kent      |Wingham      3|Canterbury    6|
    45|Addle[B]        to & pa|W.R. York |Leeds        5|Ottley        6|
    46|Addle-cum-Eccup      to|W.R. York |             5|   ...        6|
    45|Addlingfleet[C]      pa|W.R. York |Snaith      11|Burton        2|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
                                                        |Dist.
   Map| Names of Places.      |Number of Miles From     |Lond.|Population
   +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+-----+---------+
     7|Acton Grange         to|Runcorn                 5|  183|      148|
    15|Acton Iron           pa|Bristol                 9|  112|     1372|
    33|Acton Pigott       chap|Ch. Stretton            9|  154|     ... |
    33|Acton Reynold        to|Drayton                12|  152|      173|
    33|Acton Round        chap|Ludlow                 17|  145|      203|
    33|Acton Scott          pa|Ludlow                 10|  155|      204|
    35|Acton Trussell  to & pa|Lichfield              15|  131|      551|
    31|Acton Turville     chap|Sodbury                 5|  102|      236|
    35|Adbaston             pa|Hodnet                  7|  152|      601|
    31|Adderbury East  to & pa|Aynhoe                  4|   70|     2471|
    33|Adderley             pa|Wem                    12|  157|      468|
    29|Adderston            to|Wooler                 10|  319|      322|
    17|Adforton             to|Knighton                8|  150|      218|
     9|Addingham            pa|Aldstn Moor            12|  291|      719|
    45|Addingham            pa|Keighley                5|  213|     2251|
    37|Addington[A]         pa|Bromley                 5|   12|      463|
     5|Addington            pa|Bicester               11|   50|       74|
    21|Addington            pa|Wrotham                 3|   27|      206|
    28|Addington, Gt   to & pa|Higam Ferrers           5|   70|      282|
    28|Addington, Lit  to & pa|    ...                 5|   70|      264|
    21|Addisham             pa|Sandwich                6|   62|      390|
    45|Addle[B]        to & pa|Bradford                8|  205|     1063|
    46|Addle-cum-Eccup      to| ...                    8|  291|      703|
    45|Addlingfleet[C]      pa||Howden                 6|  170|      478|
   +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+-----+---------+


[A] ADDINGTON is on the borders of Kent. Addington Place, a seat erected
by Alderman Trecothick, in 1772, was purchased in 1807, for the
residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The manor of Addington is
held by the feudal service of finding a man to make a mess, called
Gerout, in the king's kitchen, at the coronation, and serving it up in
his own person at Westminster Hall. In the reign of William the
Conqueror, Addington appears to have been held by Tezelin, cook to the
king, which accounts for the origin of the required culinary service.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is now the claimant of the service alluded
to. Near the village is a curious cluster of tumuli, or mounds of earth
raised over the bodies of the slain, about twenty-five in number, of
inconsiderable height. One of them is nearly forty feet in diameter, two
are about half that size, and the rest very small.

[Sidenote: Coronation custom.]

[Sidenote: Cluster of tumuli.]


[B] ADDLE. The church in this town is considered to be one of the most
perfect specimens of Roman architecture remaining in England. In 1702,
the traces of an ancient Roman town, with fragments of urns, and of an
aqueduct of stone were found in the adjacent moor.

[Sidenote: Roman architecture.]


[C] ADDLINGFLEET. A parish and township in the lower division of Osgold
Cross, including the townships of Fockerby, Haldenby, and Eastoft. The
village is situated very near the junction of the Trent with the Humber,
the latter river being one of the largest in the kingdom, formed by the
united waters of the Trent, Ouse, Derwent, Aire, and other minor
streams. At this part it is about a mile broad, it is the Abus of
Ptolemy. It runs towards the east, washing the port of Hull, where it
receives the river called by the same name; from thence, taking a
south-easterly direction, it expands itself into an estuary nearly seven
miles across, and mingles with the German ocean. This river, which, with
very few exceptions, receives all the waters of Yorkshire from the Ouse,
and the greater part of those from the midland counties from the Trent,
commands the inland navigation of very extensive and commercial parts of
England; namely, those of the Mersey, Dee, Ribble, Severn, Thames, and
Avon; it also forms the boundary between Yorkshire and Lincolnshire.

[Sidenote: Boundary between Yorkshire and Lincolnshire.]

   Map| Names of Places.  | County   | Number of Miles From       |
   +--+-------------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
     7|Adlington        to|Cheshire  |Macclesfield 6|Stockport   6|
    22|Adlington[A]     to|Lancaster |Wigan        4|Chorley     4|
    24|Addlethorpe to & pa|Lincoln   |Alford       7|Spilsby    11|
    15|Adlestrop        pa|Gloucester|Stow         4|Burford    11|
    22|Admarsh        chap|Lancaster |Burton      11|Kirkby Lon 15|
     5|Adstock          pa|Bucks     |Winslow      3|Buckingham  4|
    28|Adstone         ham|Northamp  |Towcester    7|Daventry    8|
     8|Advent         chap|Cornwall  |Camelford    2|Bodmin     10|
    45|Adwalton[B]     ham|W.R. York |Bradford     4|Leeds       7|
    31|Adwell           pa|Oxford    |Tetsworth    2|Thame       5|
    45|Adwick-on-Dearne ch|W.R. York |Rotherham    6|Barnsley    8|
    45|Adwick      pa & to|W.R. York |Doncaster    4|Thorne     10|
    12|Aff-Piddle       pa|Dorset    |Dorchester   9|Bere Regis  4|
     7|Agden            to|Chester   |Malpas       3|Whitchurch  3|
     7|Agden            to|Chester   |Knutsford    6|Warrington 10|
    43|Agelthorpe       to|N.R. York |Middleham    3|Bedale      6|
     8|Agnes, St[C]    cha|Cornwall  |Truro        9|Redruth     7|
   +--+-------------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
                                                    |Dist. |
   Map| Names of Places.  |Number of Miles From     |Lond. |Population
   +--+-------------------+-------------------------+------+------+
     7|Adlington        to|Altringham             10|     2|  1066|
    22|Adlington[A]     to|Bolton                  9|   264|  1082|
    24|Addlethorpe to & pa|Wainfleet               9|   134|   176|
    15|Adlestrop        pa|Moreton                 6|    86|   196|
    22|Admarsh        chap|Garstang               12|   240|  ... |
     5|Adstock          pa|Bicester               11|    52|   445|
    28|Adstone         ham|Brackley               10|    67|   166|
     8|Advent         chap|Launceston             15|   230|   246|
    45|Adwalton[B]     ham|Huddersfield            8|   192|  ... |
    31|Adwell           pa|Watlington              4|    41|    48|
    45|Adwick-on-Dearne ch|Doncaster               7|   167|   145|
    45|Adwick      pa & to|Pontefract              9|   166|   918|
    12|Aff-Piddle       pa|Blandford              12|   111|   442|
     7|Agden            to|Nantwich               11|   177|   104|
     7|Agden            to|Altringham              1|   179|    99|
    43|Agelthorpe       to|Masham                  4|   226|   188|
     8|Agnes, St[C]    cha|Falmouth               14|   256|  6642|
   +--+-------------------+-------------------------+------+------+


[A] ADLINGTON. Through this township runs the Leeds and Liverpool Canal.
It contains several coal mines. Adlington Hall, the seat of Sir Robert
Clayton, Bart., was rebuilt about 1780; it stands in a low situation, on
the borders of an extensive park, and contains some very good pictures,
amongst which is a head of Charles I., taken after death. Ellerbeck Hall
is the seat of John Hodson, Esq. In this neighbourhood is Park Hall, the
seat of R.P. German, Esq. The inhabitants of Adlington are chiefly
employed in the cotton manufactories of the vicinity.

[Sidenote: Seat of Sir. Robert Clayton, Bart.]


[B] ADWALTON formerly possessed a market which is now disused. On
Adwalton Moor, a battle was fought, in 1642, between the Earl of
Newcastle, commanding for the king, and the parliamentary general, Lord
Fairfax, in which the latter was defeated.

   _Fairs_, February 6, March 9, Easter Thursday, Thursday fortnight
   after Easter, Whit-Thursday; and every second Thursday thence to
   Michaelmas, for lean cattle; November 5, and December 23.

[Sidenote: Battle fought here in 1642.]


[C] St. AGNES is situated on the Bristol Channel. The town and parish,
including a considerable mining district, is thickly strewed with the
cottages of the miners. It is more frequently called Lighthouse Island,
from a very high and strong light-house erected here, to warn the
mariner from the rocks, which are more numerous about this than any
other of the Scilly Islands. This building is upwards of sixty feet
high, and stands on the most elevated ground. The light is produced by
twenty-one parabolic reflectors of copper, plated with silver, and
having each an argand lamp in its focus. The reflectors are disposed of
in three clusters, of seven in each cluster, and the frame in which they
are fixed stands perpendicularly to the horizon, on a shaft united to a
machine below, which makes the whole revolve every two minutes. By this
motion the light progressively sweeps the whole horizon; and by its
gradual intermission and increase, it is readily distinguished from any
other. Its brilliancy is also extraordinary; and by these combined
efforts its benefits are greatly increased, as the seaman is at once
rendered completely sensible of his situation. This light was designed
by the ingenious Mr. Adam Walker, (lecturer on natural and experimental
philosophy,) under whose inspection it was constructed. The light-house
itself is of stone, and was erected, as appears from an inscription over
the door, by Captain Hugh Till, and Captain Simon Bayley, in the year
1680. The charges attending the light are defrayed by the Trinity House.
At St. Agnes is a pilchard fishery. St. Agnes' Beacon, six hundred and
sixty-four feet above the level of the sea, is formed out of an ancient
cairn, or tumulus of stones; near which, a summer-house has been built,
from whence is a fine view of St. Ives, and an extensive sea prospect.
Near the same spot is St. Agnes' Well, of which many miraculous stories
are in circulation, from its presumed holy and sanative properties.

This place gave birth to John Opie, whose persevering genius advanced
him to the highest rank in his profession. He was born at Harmony Cot,
in May 1761. The opening years of his existence indicated that he must
plod through life in the dull occupation of a carpenter, as successor to
his father and grandfather. He distinguished himself at a very early
period, for originality and strength of mind, and at twelve years of age
commenced an evening school in St. Agnes, teaching arithmetic and
writing, and reckoning amongst his scholars some who had nearly doubled
his years. His first humble attempts at portrait painting were with a
smutty stick, against the white-washed wall of his paternal cottage,
where he exhibited, in _dark colours_, very striking likenesses of the
whole family. His next step was to draw with ochre on cartridge paper.
He was apprenticed to his father, but from some unascertainable cause
was turned over to a sawyer; and it was literally in the bottom of a
saw-pit that Dr. Walcot, better known by the appellation of Peter
Pindar, (who had previously seen and admired some of Opie's rude
drawings,) first beheld this untutored child of genius, under whose
patronage he was protected, and his fame promoted. After visiting
Exeter, (where he was persuaded to change his surname, which originally
was Hoppy, to that of Opie,) finding his success was commensurate with
his abilities, it was soon determined they should be brought to act in a
wider sphere; and, in 1780, the Doctor and his pupil repaired to London,
where not agreeing as to the mode of living together, they separated,
and although their attachment had been cemented by long-continued
kindness, subsequently to this period, yet they were never after
cordially united. The opinion Opie entertained of the services which he
had received from the Doctor, may be gathered from the following curious
_note of hand_, which was said to be in the possession of the latter: "I
promise to paint, for Dr. Walcot, any picture or pictures, he may
demand, as long as I live; otherwise, I desire the world will consider
me as a ... ungrateful son of a ..., John Opie." It is not certain that
he ever deviated from this voluntary obligation, but it is matter of
pleasant remark, that he always made his friend pay eighteen-pence for
the canvass! Opie was as fortunate in London as he had been at Exeter.
To Pindar, however, he was indebted for his introduction to public
notice. Through him his pictures were shown to Mrs. Boscawen, by whom
Opie was introduced to the late Mrs. Delaney, who procured for him the
notice of King George III. An opportunity was contrived for the royal
family to see his picture of the _The Old Beggar Man_; soon after which,
Opie was honoured with a command to repair to Buckingham House. The
artist's account of this interview was given in the following
characteristical manner to Walcot, who has often been heard to relate it
with great humour. "There was Mr. West," said Opie, "in the room, and
another gentleman. First, her majesty came in; and I made a sad mistake
in respect to her, till I saw her face, and discovered by her features
that she was the queen. In a few minutes his majesty came hopping in. I
suppose," said Opie, "because he did not wish to frighten me. He looked
at the pictures and liked them; but he whispered to Mr. West--'tell the
young man I can only pay a gentleman's price for them.'" The picture
which his majesty bought was that of _A Man Struck by Lightning_. The
price given was £10, with which Opie returned to the Doctor full of
spirits. His friend, when he heard the story, said, "Why, John, thou
hast only got £8. for thy picture." "Indeed, but I have though," cried
Opie, "for I have got the £10. safe in my pocket." On this he showed him
the money. "Aye," rejoined the Doctor, "but dost thou know his majesty
has got the frame for nothing, and that is worth £2." "D--- it, so he
has," cried Opie--"I'll go back and knock at the door, and ask for the
frame; D--- it, I will." He was actually about to put his resolve into
execution, till dissuaded by the Doctor. Popularity naturally followed
this notice of royalty. The ladies, however, soon deserted him, as his
likenesses were not flattering; for where Nature had been niggardly,
Opie refused to be liberal. He afterwards became better acquainted with
the art of pleasing them; a change which has been attributed to Mrs.
Opie, who used to stand over him, and endeavour to make him sensible of
the graces of the female form. It was in the year 1786, that Mr. Opie
became known as an exhibitor at Somerset House; soon after which he
aspired to academical honours, and ultimately attained the rank of Royal
Academician, and afterwards succeeded Fuseli, in the professorship of
painting. He was twice married, but at what period his first hymeneal
union occurred we are not informed--it was inauspicious. His second
marriage, which took place on May 8, 1798, was more fortunate; and in
the society of the late Mrs. Opie, the amiable author of many beautiful
and interesting literary compositions, he enjoyed a delightful relief
from the toilsome duties of his profession. Mr. Opie was in the daily
acquisition of wealth and fame, and rapidly advancing to the very zenith
of popularity, when his mortal career was suddenly closed by death, on
Thursday, April 9, 1807, in the forty-sixth year of his age. "As a
portrait painter he has great claims to praise, particularly in his men,
which are firm, bold, and freely delineated, and occasionally well
coloured. His women are heavy, inelegant, and chiefly accompanied with a
hardness that destroys all beauty."

[Sidenote: Very high and strong light-house.]

[Sidenote: St. Agnes' beacon.]

[Sidenote: Birth-place of John Opie, the painter.]

[Sidenote: First attempts at portrait painting.]

[Sidenote: Genius fostered by Dr. Walcot.]

[Sidenote: Anecdotes of Opie.]

[Sidenote: Introduction to the King.]

[Sidenote: Opie's relation of his interview with royalty.]

[Sidenote: Royal economy.]

[Sidenote: First known as an exhibitor at Somerset House, 1786.]

[Sidenote: Died in 1807.]

   Map|  Names of Places.      |   County.  |       Number of Miles From  |
   +--+------------------------+------------+-------------+---------------+
     9|Aglionby              to|Cumberland  |Carlisle    3|Brampton      6|
    22|Aighton               to|Lancaster   |Clitheroe   6|Blackburn     7|
    43|Aikber                to|N.R. York   |Middleham   5|Richmond      6|
    46|Aike                  to|E.R. York   |Beverley    6|M. Weighton   9|
     9|Aikton           to & pa|Cumberland  |Wigton      4|Carlisle      9|
    24|Ailsby                pa|Lincolnshire|Gt. Grimsby 4|Caistor       9|
    28|Ailsworth            ham|Northamp    |Peterboro   4|M. Deeping    9|
    43|Ainderby Myers        to|N.R. York   |Catterick   3|Richmond      4|
    43|Ainderby Quernhow     to|N.R. York   |Thirsk      6|Northallerton 8|
    43|Ainderby Steeple to & pa|N.R. York   |Bedale      5|              2|
     9|Ainstable             pa|Cumberland  |Penrith    11|Carlisle     11|
    46|Ainstie              dis|W.R. York   |             |               |
    43|Aiskew                to|N.R. York   |Bedale      1|Northallerton 6|
    44|Aismondersly            |W.R. York   |Ripon       1|Aldborough    5|
    22|Ainsworth             to|Lancaster   |Manchester  7|Bury          3|
     9|Ainthorn              to|Cumberland  |Wigton     10|Carlisle     12|
    22|Aintree               to|Lancaster   |Liverpool   6|Ormskirk      8|
    44|Airton                to|W.R. York   |Settle      6|Skipton       6|
    43|Airyholme             to|N.R. York   |New Malton  7|York         16|
    43|Aisenby               to|N.R. York   |Borobridge  6|Ripon         6|
    43|Aislaby          to & pa|N.R. York   |Whitby      2|Scarboro     18|
    13|Aislaby               to|Durham      |Stockton    4|Darlington   11|
    24|Aisthorpe        to & pa|Lincoln     |Lincoln     7|Gainsboro    12|
    29|Akeld                 to|Northumb    |Wooler      2|Coldstream    9|
     5|Akeley           to & pa|Bucks       |Brackley    9|Buckingham    3|
    36|Akenham               pa|Suffolk     |Ipswich     4|Woodbridge    9|
    18|Albans, St[A]    bo & to|Herts       |Watford     8|Dunstable    12|
   +--+------------------------+------------+-------------+---------------+
                                                          |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.      |Number of Miles From      |Lond.|Population
   +--+-----------------------+---------------------------+-----+---------+
     9|Aglionby              to|Penrith                 18|  302|      107|
    22|Aighton               to|Preston                 12|  210|     1980|
    43|Aikber                to|Bedale                   4|  234|       43|
    46|Aike                  to|Gt. Driffield            7|  190|       86|
     9|Aikton           to & pa|Abbey-holm               7|  309|      753|
    24|Ailsby                pa|Barton                  15|  165|         |
    28|Ailsworth            ham|Stamford                 9|   83|      289|
    43|Ainderby Myers        to|Middleham                7|  222|         |
    43|Ainderby Quernhow     to|Ripon                    7|  217|      107|
    43|Ainderby Steeple to & pa|Darlington              12|  223|      802|
     9|Ainstable             pa|Kirk Oswald              5|  295|         |
    46|Ainstie              dis|   ...                    |  199|     8740|
    43|Aiskew                to|Richmond                 9|  223|      586|
    44|Aismondersly            |Masham                   7|  212|         |
    22|Ainsworth             to|Bolton                   8|  189|     1584|
     9|Ainthorn              to|Gretna Green             8|  315|      203|
    22|Aintree               to|Prescott                10|  212|      247|
    44|Airton                to|Arnecliff                7|  230|      179|
    43|Airyholme             to|Helmsley                 6|  223|         |
    43|Aiseny                to|Thirsk                   5|  211|         |
    43|Aislaby          to & pa|Pickering               15|  237|      402|
    43|Aislaby               to|Yarm                     1|  244|      143|
    24|Aisthorpe        to & pa|Kirton                  12|  140|       89|
    29|Akeld                 to|Kirk Newton              3|  322|      171|
     5|Akeley           to & pa|Sto. Stratford           6|   59|      291|
    36|Akenham               pa|Needham                  7|   73|      119|
    18|Albans, St[A]    bo & to|Hatfield                 6|   21|     4772|
   +--+------------------------+--------------------------+-----+---------+


[A] St. ALBANS is situated on the river Ver, or Muss, and consists of
three parishes; parts of two of which, extend beyond the limits of the
borough. It is said to have been the site of the ancient British
metropolis of Cassibelanus, and is very near that of the ancient Roman
Verulam, mentioned by Tacitus, being the same as the Saxon
Watlingceaster, so called because seated on the road called
Watling-street. It was here that Queen Boadicea made her celebrated
assault on the Romans, and failed, after an immense slaughter of seventy
thousand men. In 795, Offa, king of Mercia, erected an abbey here, in
memory of St. Alban, the British protomartyr, who was born here in the
third century. He served in the Roman army, but was converted to
Christianity by a monk, named Amphilabus, and suffered during the
Dioclesian persecution, A.D. 303. The abbey subsequently obtained great
privileges, and became very rich, the revenues at the dissolution
amounting to upwards of £2500. per annum. Monastic foundations had their
origin in this country, about the time of St. Augustine, who came from
Rome, to convert the Pagan Saxons to Christianity; and when Offa
ascended the throne of Mercia, about twenty great monasteries had been
founded in England, and about the same number of episcopal sees
established. Offa's zeal prompted him to do what many of his crowned
predecessors had done; but being undetermined whom to select as the
patron saint of his establishment, it is recorded that, while at the
city of Bath, an angel appeared to him in the silence of the night,
desiring him to raise out of the earth the body of Alban, the first
British martyr, and place his remains in a suitable shrine. Even the
memory of Alban had been lost for three hundred and forty years; but the
king assembling his clergy and people at Verulam, an active search was
made for his body with prayer, fasting, and alms; when it is said a ray
of light was seen by all to stand over the place of burial, similar to
the star that conducted the magi to Bethlehem. The ground was therefore
opened, and, in the presence of the king, the body of Alban was found.
Offa is said to have placed a golden circle round the head of the
deceased, with an inscription, to signify his name and title, and
immediately caused the remains of the saint to be conveyed to a small
chapel, without the walls of Verulam, as the town was then called, until
a more noble edifice could be raised for its reception. This is said to
have occurred on the 1st day of August, 791, four hundred and
ninety-four years after the martyrdom of Alban. Offa afterwards made a
journey to Rome, and obtained the desired privileges of his intended
foundation, with great commendations for his zeal and piety, from the
pope, when he undertook to build a stately church and monastery, to the
memory of St. Alban. From this abbey the town originated, which early
obtained considerable importance. The abbey church, which claims
particular attention for its size, beauty, and antiquity, is constructed
of Roman brick, to which age has given the appearance of stone. A stone
screen, erected before the communion table, in 1461, is much admired for
the richness and lightness of its sculpture. The tombs of the founder,
Offa, and that of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, are shown here; and, not
many years ago, the leaden coffin, containing the body of the latter,
was opened, and the corpse found nearly entire. The Roman antiquities
discovered on the site have been very numerous. The effect of the
venerable abbey, when seen from a distance, is extremely imposing;
situated upon an eminence, its massive towers rise majestically above
the houses of the ancient town, which is well, known to have derived its
first importance from the Romans, since which, it has increased chiefly
under the protecting influence of successive abbots of this rich and
powerful monastery. The prospect of its mouldering ruins, forces upon
the mind a melancholy train of reflection on the instability of all
human institutions.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, March 25 and 26; October 10 and 11, for
   horses, cows, sheep, and hiring servants.--_Inns_, Angel, and White
   Hart.--_Mail_ arrives 10.15 P.M. Departs 4.30 A.M.

[Sidenote: Originally the British metropolis.]

[Sidenote: King Offa's extraordinary vision, which induced him to build
the abbey.]

[Sidenote: St. Alban's body found after a lapse of 494 years; a golden
circle placed round his head.]

[Sidenote: Duke of Gloucester's body found nearly entire.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  |County.|Number of Miles From            |
   +--+--------------------+-------+---------------+----------------+
    38|Albourn           pa|Sussex |Hurst         2|Brighton       8|
    33|Albrighton to & chap|Salop  |Shrewsbury    4|Wem            7|
    33|Albrighton        pa|Salop  |Shiffnall     6|Bridgnorth    10|
    27|Alburgh           pa|Norfolk|Harleston     3|Bungay         5|
    31|Albury            pa|Oxford |Tetsworth     3|Thame          4|
   +--+--------------------+-------+---------------+----------------+
                                                   |Dist. |
   Map|  Names of Places.  |Number of Miles From   |Lond. |Population.
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+------+---------+
    38|Albourn           pa|Cuckfield             6|    42|      362|
    33|Albrighton to & chap|Ellesmere            12|   157|     1054|
    33|Albrighton        pa|Wolverhamp            7|   137|       98|
    27|Alburgh           pa|Norwich              16|   103|      586|
    31|Albury            pa|Wheatley              3|    45|      239|
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+------+---------+

   Map|  Names of Places.   | County. |  Number of Miles From       |
   +--+---------------------+---------+----------------+------------+
   18 |Albury             pa|Herts    |Bp Stortford   5|Standon    4|
   37 |Albury             pa|Surrey   |Guildford      6|Dorking    7|
   27 |Alby               pa|Norfolk  |Aylesham       6|Cromer     5|
   12 |Alcester          lib|Dorset   |Shaftesbury    1|Sherborne 16|
   39 |Alcester[A] m.t. & pa|Warwick  |Warwick       16|Stratford  8|
   38 |Alciston           pa|Sussex   |Seaford        5|Hailsham   5|
   19 |Alconbury          pa|Hunts    |Huntingdon     4|Kimbolton  8|
   19 |Alconbury Weston chap|Hunts    |  ...          5|  ...      8|
   27 |Aldborough         pa|Norfolk  |Aylesham       5|Cromer     6|
   43 |Aldborough         to|N.R. York|Richmond       7|Darlington 5|
   46 |Aldborough    to & pa|E.R. York|Hull          11|Hornsea    6|
   45 |Aldborough[B] pa & to|W.R. York|York          18|Thirsk    10|
   41 |Aldbourn[C]   to & pa|Wilts    |Marlboro       7|Ramsbury   3|
   18 |Aldbury            pa|Herts    |Tring          3|Dunstable  7|
   22 |Aldcliffe         ham|Lancaster|Lancaster      2|Garstang  10|
   36 |Aldeburgh[D]     m.t.|Suffolk  |Orford         5|Saxmundha  7|
   +--+---------------------+---------+----------------+------------+
                                                       |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   |  Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+--------------------------+-----+------+
   18 |Albury             pa|Buntingford              7|   35|   631|
   37 |Albury             pa|Godalming                7|   29|   929|
   27 |Alby               pa|N. Walsham               6|   26|   346|
   12 |Alcester          lib|Salisbury               20|  101|   227|
   39 |Alcester[A] m.t. & pa|Bromsgrove              12|  103|  2405|
   38 |Alciston           pa|Lewes                    7|   64|   266|
   19 |Alconbury          pa|Stilton                  9|   63|   765|
   19 |Alconbury Weston chap| ...                     8|   63|   441|
   27 |Aldborough         pa|Holt                     9|  126|   275|
   43 |Aldborough         to|Bernard Cas             10|  240|   522|
   46 |Aldborough    to & pa|Hedon                    6|  185|   620|
   45 |Aldborough[B] pa & to|Ripon                    6|  207|  2447|
   41 |Aldbourn[C]   to & pa|Swindon                  8|   73|  1418|
   18 |Aldbury            pa|Berkhampst               4|   34|   695|
   22 |Aldcliffe         ham|Kirk. Londs             17|  238|    96|
   36 |Aldeburgh[D]     m.t.|Dunwich                 10|   94|  1341|
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+------+------+


[A] ALCESTER is situated at the confluence of the two small rivers, Alne
and Arrow, having a bridge over each. It is supposed to have been a
Roman station; Roman coins, urns, and similar relics, having been
frequently found here. The Roman way of Icknield Street also passed
through it, and from its situation it is deemed the Alana of Richard of
Cirencester. It was anciently a borough by prescription, and of some
note in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when it became the
property of the Beauchamps, and afterwards of the Grevilles. The church
is a fine gothic structure; the market is well supplied with corn; and
the manufacture of needles is very extensive. Here is a Free School,
founded by Walter Newport, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and various
alms-houses and small charities, originating in different benefactors.
Traces of the site of an abbey, founded in the reign of King Stephen, to
the north of the town, are still visible.

   _Market_, Tuesday.--_Mail_ arrives 9-1/2 A.M., departs 8-1/2
   P.M.--_Inn_, Angel.--_Fairs_, March 20, June 23, Tuesday before April
   5, May 18, 2nd Tuesday in July, for cheese.

[Sidenote: A Roman station.]

[Sidenote: Many relics of antiquity found.]

[Sidenote: Traces of an abbey founded by King Stephen.]



[B] ALDBOROUGH. _Fair_, September 4.


[C] ALDBOURN. _Market_, Tuesday.


[D] ALDEBURGH is pleasantly situated in the valley of Slaughton, and
bounded on the eastern side by the sea, which has made considerable
encroachments, and nearly washed a street away. The river Ald runs on
the south side, and forms a convenient quay. The town is mean in
construction, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen and seafaring people.
Soles, lobsters, and other fish are abundant. It is remarkable as the
birth-place of the late Rev. George Crabbe, emphatically styled the
_Poet of the Poor_, who was born December 24, 1754. His father was an
officer in the Customs, and at first gave him an education, merely
suitable to follow the same pursuit; but when his prospects brightened,
he removed his son to a classical seminary, where he was instructed for
a surgeon and apothecary, to which profession he was in due time
apprenticed, but relinquished all views of establishing himself in
practice. At a very early period he became a versifier; and among his
precocious attempts was a prize poem, on _Hope_, which was inserted in
the _Lady's Magazine_, then published by Mr. Wheeble. Crabbe came to
London, in 1778, with £3. in his pocket, and made versification his
chief study. His first published work was _The Candidate_, a poem, in
quarto, which came into the world anonymously, in 1780, and was
favourably received. A short time afterwards, his poverty and poetry
induced him to seek the patronage of Edmund Burke, to whom he submitted
a large quantity of miscellaneous composition; he had no introduction to
Mr. Burke, excepting his own letter, stating his circumstances; no
recommendation but his distress, and yet his application was attended
with success. His patron introduced him to some of the first men in the
country, and soon after became the means of benefiting his fame and
fortune; he selected from young Crabbe's works, _The Library_ and _The
Village_, suggesting at the same time certain corrections and
improvements. Among the eminent persons to whom he was thus introduced,
was the Right Hon. Charles James Fox, Sir Joshua Reynolds, at whose
mansion he first beheld, and was made known to, Dr. Johnson, who gave
the young poet his opinion of _The Village_. Mr. Burke having directed
Mr. Crabbe's views to the church, in 1781 he was ordained a deacon by
the Bishop of Norwich, and priest by the same dignitary in the following
year; he was next appointed domestic chaplain to the Duke of Rutland at
Belvoir Castle. As Mr. Crabbe had not received a university education,
he was offered a degree by Trinity College, Cambridge, but eventually
received the grant from the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, and
thus became a Bachelor of Laws. Burke also introduced Mr. Crabbe to Lord
Chancellor Thurlow, who presented him to rectories in Dorset and Lincoln
consecutively. He had previously a curacy at Strathorn, a village near
Belvoir Castle, where he married and became a father; he was universally
respected for his talents and virtues, and died at Trowbridge, at seven
o'clock in the morning of the 8th of February, 1832. The publications of
Mr. Crabbe have placed him high on the roll of British Poets.

   _Market_, Wednesday and Saturday.--_Fairs_, March 1, and May 3, for
   toys.--_Inn_, White Lion.--_Mail_ arrives at 9-1/2 A.M. departs 5-1/2
   P.M.

[Sidenote: Birth place of the Rev. George Crabbe, the poet. Biographical
sketch of his life.]

[Sidenote: Crabbe's arrival in London, 1778.]

[Sidenote: His first published work well received.]

[Sidenote: Crabbe's introduction to eminent persons.]

[Sidenote: Promoted to the church.]

[Sidenote: Died at Trowbridge 1132.]

   Map| Names of Places.| County.  |     Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-----------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
    27|Aldeby         pa|Norfolk   |Beccles      3|Yarmouth     11|
    18|Aldenham       pa|Herts     |Watford      3|St. Albans    6|
    41|Alderbury      to|Wilts     |Salisbury    3|Downton       4|
    27|Alderford      pa|Norfolk   |Reepham      3|Norwich       9|
    15|Alderley       pa|Gloucester|Wickwar      4|Wooton        2|
     7|Alderley       pa|Chester   |Macclesfield 5|Knutsford     5|
     4|Aldermaston[A] pa|Berks     |Reading     10|Newbury       8|
    42|Alderminster   pa|Worcester |Evesham     10|Stratford-Av. 5|
    41|Alderton       pa|Wilts     |Malmsbury    6|Tetbury       7|
    15|Alderton       pa|Gloucester|Winchcomb    3|Cheltenham    7|
    28|Alderton       pa|Northamp  |Towcester    4|Northampton   9|
    36|Alderton       pa|Suffolk   |Woodbridge   7|Orford        9|
     7|Aldersey       to|Chester   |Chester      8|Tarporley     8|
    16|Aldershott     pa|Hants     |Farnham      3|Odiham        8|
    10|Alderwasley    to|Derby     |Wirksworth   1|Matlock       4|
     7|Aldford   to & pa|Chester   |Chester      5|Malpas       10|
    45|Aldfield       to|W.R. York |Ripon        3|Ripley        4|
    14|Aldham         pa|Essex     |Coggeshall   4|Colchester    6|
    36|Aldham         pa|Suffolk   |Hadley       2|Stow-Market   9|
    38|Aldingbourn    pa|Sussex    |Chichester   4|Arundel       7|
    22|Aldingham      pa|Lancaster |Ulverstone   5|Dalton        4|
    21|Aldington[B]   pa|Kent      |Hythe        6|Ashford       7|
   +--+-----------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
                                                  |Dist. |
   Map| Names of Places.| Number of Miles From    |Lond. |population.
   +--+-----------------+-------------------------+------+--------+
    27|Aldeby         pa|Lowestoft               7|   112|     530|
    18|Aldenham       pa|Elstree                 3|    17|    1494|
    41|Alderbury      to|Farley                  3|    80|    1323|
    27|Alderford      pa|Aylesham                7|   108|      40|
    15|Alderley       pa|Tetbury                 8|   108|     200|
     7|Alderley       pa|Congleton               8    172|    1338|
     4|Aldermaston[A] pa|Kingsclere              5|    49|     636|
    42|Alderminster   pa|Shipston-Sto.           6|    89|     454|
    41|Alderton       pa|Chippenham              8|   103|     213|
    15|Alderton       pa|Tewkesbury              7|   102|     330|
    28|Alderton       pa|Sto. Stratford          9|    58|     162|
    36|Alderton       pa|Ipswich                12|    79|     575|
     7|Aldersey       to|Malpas                  5|   175|     138|
    16|Aldershott     pa|Frimley                 6|    35|     665|
    10|Alderwasley    to|Bakewell                9|   138|     424|
     7|Aldford   to & pa|Tarporley               9|   177|     710|
    45|Aldfield       to|Borobridge              7|2   08|     133|
    14|Aldham         pa|Neyland                 6|    48|     407|
    36|Aldham         pa|Ipswich                 8|    66|     318|
    38|Aldingbourn    pa|Bognor                  5|    62|     833|
    22|Aldingham      pa|Lancaster              15|   277|     884|
    21|Aldington[B]   pa|New Romney              8|    60|     732|
   +--+-----------------+-------------------------+------+--------+


[A] ALDERMASTON. _Fairs_, May 6, July 7, for horses and cattle, and
October 11, for pedlery.


[B] ALDINGTON. Elizabeth Barton, commonly called the Holy Maid of Kent,
a religious impostor, lived in the reign of Henry VIII. She was a
servant at Aldington, and having been for a long time afflicted with
convulsions, which distorted her limbs and countenance, and threw her
body into the most violent agitations, acquired a power of
counterfeiting the same appearances whenever she pleased. Richard
Master, who then held this living, with other ecclesiastics, thinking
her a proper instrument for their purpose, induced her to pretend that
all she said and did, was by a supernatural impulse, and taught her to
act her part in the most perfect manner. Thus she pretended to be
honoured with visions; to hear heavenly voices and most ravishing
melody; she declaimed against the wickedness of the times, against
heresy and innovations; exhorting all persons to frequent the church, to
hear masses, to make frequent confessions, and to pray to our lady, and
all saints. This artful management, with her apparent piety, virtue, and
austerity of life, completely deceived even Sir Thomas More, Bishop
Fisher, and Archbishop Warham, the last of which appointed commissioners
to examine her, to whom she was instructed to say, in her counterfeit
trances, that she should never recover till she went to visit the image
of the Virgin Mary, in a chapel dedicated to her in this parish, which
was done. After that she pretended that she was called to be a nun, and
the Archbishop being fully satisfied with the reports, had her placed in
the nunnery of St. Sepulchre, Canterbury, where she alleged she had
visions and revelations of a divine nature, so as to completely impose
upon the public. The main object of the priests, her managers, was
directed publicly to announce how God had revealed to her, "that in case
the king should divorce Queen Catherine of Anjou, and take another wife
during her life, his royalty would not be of a month's duration, but
that he should die the death of a villain," which created considerable
excitement, and much controversy: encouraged by the lenity of the
government, the ecclesiastics in this conspiracy, resolved to publish
the revelations of the nun throughout the kingdom. They had communicated
them to the Pope's Ambassadors, and exhorted Queen Catherine to persist
in her resolutions. At length this confederacy became a serious affair,
and Henry ordered the maid and her accomplices to be examined in the
Star Chamber, where they confessed all the particulars of the imposture;
and afterwards, upon a scaffold erected at Paul's Cross, were compelled
to hear their confession publicly read; they were confined in the Tower
until the meeting of parliament, by whom the whole affair was pronounced
to be a conspiracy against the king's life, and crown. The nun, and her
confederates, were eventually attainted of high treason, and executed at
Tyburn, April 20th, 1534, where she confessed the imposture, laying the
blame on her accomplices, the priests; craving pardon of God, and the
King.

[Sidenote: The History of the Holy Maid of Kent.]

[Sidenote: Holy Maid of Kent.]

[Sidenote: The imposture detected.]

[Sidenote: Herself and confederates executed at Tyburn.]

  Map| Names of Places.      |  County. |  Number of Miles From         |
  +--+-----------------------+----------+--------------+----------------+
   42|Aldington            ham| Worcester|    Evesham 3|      Moreton 10|
   35|Aldridge              pa|  Stafford|    Walsall 3|Sut. Coldfield 4|
   36|Aldringham            pa|   Suffolk|  Aldeburgh 2|     Saxmundha 5|
   38|Aldrington            pa|    Sussex|   Brighton 5|      Steyning 6|
    9|Aldstone Moor[A] to & pa|Cumberland|  Carlisle 25|  Kirk Oswald 12|
   15|Aldsworth             pa|Gloucester| Northleach 4|      Fairford 6|
   16|Aldwark               to|     Derby| Wirksworth 4|      Ashbourn 6|
   44|Aldwark               to| N. R York| Borobridge 5|    Easingwold 4|
   45|Aldwarke              to| W. R York|  Rotherham 2|     Sheffield 4|
   28|Aldwinckle-all Saints  p|  Northamp|  Thrapston 3|    Kettering 10|
   28|Aldwinckle-St Peter   pa|  Northamp|       ...  3|         ...  10|
    4|Aldsworth[B]          pa|     Berks|East Ilsley 4|   Wallingford 7|
  +--+------------------------+----------+--------------+----------------+
                                                       |Dist. |
  Map| Names of Places.      | Number of Miles From    |Lond. |Population.
  +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+------+---------+
   42|Aldington            ham|Alcester              10|    96|     104|
   35|Aldridge              pa|Lichfleld              6|   116|    1804|
   36|Aldringham            pa|Dunwich                7|    94|     362|
   38|Aldrington            pa|Worthing               7|    55|     615|
    9|Aldstone Moor[A] to & pa|Haltwhistle           10|   272|    6858|
   15|Aldsworth             pa|Burford                4|    78|     353|
   16|Aldwark               to|Winster                6|   145|      97|
   44|Aldwark               to|Knaresboro             9|   202|     190|
   45|Aldwarke              to|Barnsley               8|   172|     ...|
   28|Aldwinckle-all Saints  p|Oundle                 5|    76|     247|
   28|Aldwinckle-St Peter   pa|  ...                  5|    76|     171|
    4|Aldsworth[B]          pa|Newbury               11|    50|     268|
  +--+------------------------+------------------------+------+--------+


[A] ALDSTONE MOOR, in Leath Ward, is situated on the borders of
Northumberland, in the most picturesque and romantic part of the county.
The town itself stands upon a hill, at the bottom of which runs the
river Tyne. The immediate vicinity abounds in lead-mines, on estates
which once belonged to the Derwentwater family. On the attainder of the
last earl, they were granted in aid of the support of Greenwich
Hospital, from the trustees of which national institution, the mines are
at present leased. Satin spar is found in this parish; there is also a
pool on Gildersdale Fell, the slime of which is used for painting
yellow. About three miles from the town, are the earthworks of Whitley
castle, where relics of antiquity have frequently been discovered.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, last Thursday in May, 1st Thursday in
   September, for cattle, horses, linen and woollen cloth.

[Sidenote: Picturesque and Romantic scenery.]

[Sidenote: The slime of a pool use for painting yellow.]


[B] ALDWORTH is pleasantly situated on a hill: here was anciently a
mansion belonging to the family of De La Beche, the site of which is now
Beach Farm. In the churchyard is a remarkable yew-tree, the trunk
measuring nine yards in circumference, at upwards of four feet from the
ground. The church is celebrated for its very ancient monuments, nine in
number, disposed in enriched arches on each side, and in the centre of
the interior; these are supposed to belong to the De La Beche family,
and from the costume of the figures upon the tombs, may be referred to
the fourteenth century; six of them are knights in armour; two are
females, and one in the common habit of the time; some of the knights
are represented lying cross-legged; these had vowed, or accompanied a
crusade; the workmanship is excellent, and the attitude and expression
of each of the figures that remain perfect, are exceedingly graceful,
but several of the monuments are now considerably mutilated. The font is
very ancient, and remarkably plain, but very capacious, and somewhat
singular in its form.

[Sidenote: Remarkable yew-tree, nine yards round.]

[Sidenote: Church celebrated for ancient monuments.]

  Map| Names of Places.       |  County. |  Number of Miles From       |
  +--+------------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
   29|Alemouth              to|Northumb  |Lesbury       2|Alnwick     5|
   28|Alesworth            ham|Northamp  |Deeping       7|Wandsford   3|
   37|Alfold                pa|Surrey    |Guildford    10|Godalming   7|
   24|Alford         m.t. & pa|Lincoln   |Saltfleet    12|Lincoln    34|
   34|Alford                pa|Somerset  |Shepton       7|Castle Cary 2|
   10|Alfreton[A]           pa|Derby     |Derby        14|Wirksworth 10|
   42|Alfrick             chap|Worcester |Bromvard      6|Worcester   8|
   38|Alfriston             pa|Sussex    |Newhaven      5|Seaford     3|
   24|Algarkirk             pa|Lincoln   |Fosdyke Br.   3|Boston      6|
   31|Alkerton              pa|Oxford    |Shipston      8|Banbury     6|
   21|Alkham                pa|Kent      |Canterbury   12|Dover       4|
   15|Alkington        ti & to|Gloucester|Old Passage  10|Berkeley    1|
   10|Alkmonton             to|Derby     |Derby        10|Ashbourn    5|
   22|Alkrington            to|Lancaster |Rochdale      7|Manchester  6|
   41|Alcannings       pa & to|Wilts     |Calne         7|Devizes     4|
   29|Allendale        pa & to|Northumb  |Aldsto. Moor  10|Hexham     8|
   29|Allen-Head            pa|Northumb  | ...          9|Hexham     12|
    8|Allen, St.            pa|Cornwall  |St. Michael   4|Truro       4|
   17|Allensmore            pa|Hereford  |Thruxton      2|Hereford    4|
   29|Allenton         pa & to|Northumb  |Wooler       16|Rothbury    8|
   34|Aller                 pa|Somerset  |Taunton      11|Somerton    6|
    9|Allerby               to|Cumberland|Wigton        8|Cockermout  7|
   43|Allerston             pa|N.R. York |New Malton    8|Pickering   5|
   46|Allerthorpe           pa|E.R. York |York         11|Pocklington 2|
   43|Allerthorpe           to|N.R. York |Northallerton 6|Bedale      5|
   22|Allerton              to|Lancaster |Warrington   12|Liverpool   6|
   34|Allerton Chapel       pa|Somerset  |Wells        10|Axbridge    3|
   45|Allerton Chapel       pa|W.R. York |Halifax       7|Leeds       2|
   45|Allerton              to|W.R. York |Ottley        5|Bradford    4|
   45|Allerton Bywater      to|W.R. York |Wakefield     6|Pontefract  5|
   45|Allerton Mauleverer[B] p|W.R. York |Wetherby      5|Knaresboro  4|
  +--+------------------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
                                                         |Dist.|
  Map| Names of Places.       |   Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
  +--+------------------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+
   29|Alemouth              to|Morpeth                 19|  311|    415|
   28|Alesworth            ham|Peterborough             5|   87|    289|
   37|Alfold                pa|Haslemere                9|   41|    514|
   24|Alford         m.t. & pa||Louth                  11|  142|   1784|
   34|Alford                pa|Glastonbury              8|  115|    137|
   10|Alfreton[A]           pa|Mansfield                9|  139|   5691|
   42|Alfrick             chap||Gt. Malvern            10|  119|    493|
   38|Alfriston             pa|Hailsham                 6|   55|    694|
   24|Algarkirk             pa|Donnington               7|  111|    651|
   31|Alkerton              pa|Kineton                  6|   77|    192|
   21|Alkham                pa|Folkestone               4|   69|    542|
   15|Alkington        ti & to|Dursley                  3|  113|   1167|
   10|Alkmonton             to|Uttoxeter                7|  134|     79|
   22|Alkrington            to|Oldham                   1|  187|    367|
   41|Alcannings       pa & to|Marlborough              9|   88|    811|
   29|Allendale        pa & to|Haltwhistle             10|  273|   5540|
   29|Allen-Head            pa|Allendale                4|  268|    ...|
    8|Allen, St.            pa|Falmouth                12|  252|    637|
   17|Allensmore            pa|Ross                    12|  131|    592|
   29|Allenton         pa & to|Bellingham              15|  310|    822|
   34|Aller                 pa|Bridgewater              8|  128|    490|
    9|Allerby               to|Abbey-Holm               6|  313|    ...|
   43|Allerston             pa|Scarborough             10|  220|    385|
   46|Allerthorpe           pa|M. Weighton              6|  212|    185|
   43|Allerthorpe           to|Thirsk                   6|  218|    167|
   22|Allerton              to|Prescott                 6|  202|    374|
   34|Allerton Chapel       pa|Bridgewater             11|  132|    313|
   45|Allerton Chapel       pa|Bradford                 8|  194|   1730|
   45|Allerton              to|Keighly                  4|  200|   1733|
   45|Allerton Bywater      to|Leeds                    6|  182|    375|
   45|Allerton Mauleverer[B] p|Borobridge               5|  202|    ...|
  +--+------------------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ALFRETON, is situated about two miles from the commencement of the
moors, which extend so widely in this county. The town is supposed to
have been built by King Alfred, and to derive its name from him. The
spot is shown where the house stood in which he lived. The inhabitants
are principally employed in a stocking manufactory, and in the
neighbouring collieries. Earthenware is also made in this place, and the
Monday market, for corn, is considerable. In Greenhill Lane, near this
town, seven hundred Roman coins, were discovered by a labourer employed
in repairing a fence.

   _Markets_, Monday and Friday.--_Mail_ arrives 2-1/4 P.M., departs
   9-1/4 A.M.--_Fairs_, horses and cattle, October 8, and November 22,
   statute.--_Inns_, Angel, and George.

[Sidenote: Built by King Alfred.]

[Sidenote: 700 Roman coins found here.]


[B] ALLERTON MAULEVERER, is situated in a very beautiful part of
Yorkshire. The park now in the possession of _Lord Stourton_, consists
of about four hundred acres, in which is a superb mansion; the land is
very rich, and charmingly diversified by a variety of hills, dales, and
groves, which are considerably enlivened, and receive much additional
beauty, from a very fine expanse of water. An octagonal tower has been
built on a lofty hill, finely shaded with trees; it consists of two
rooms, and is approached by a double flight of steps, each of which, as
well as the terrace around the building, are protected by iron
palisades. From this commanding situation, all the various beauties of
the park are seen to the greatest advantage, and many extensive and
diversified prospects are enjoyed. Here was a priory of Benedictine
monks, founded by Richard Mauleverer, in the reign of Henry II., which
was dissolved about three centuries afterwards by King Henry VI. The
manor was the seat of the Mauleverer family for more than five hundred
years, when Sir Richard, the last heir, who died unmarried, left the
estate by will to his mother, who, afterwards by marriage, conveyed it
to the Arundel family, and from them it became the property of the
Honourable, William Monkton Arundel, Viscount Galway, whose son, the
late Lord Galway, sold it in the year 1786, to the late Duke of York,
who afterwards occasionally resided in the park, with George IV., then
Prince of Wales. The estate, comprising four thousand five hundred and
twenty-five acres, was sold by the Royal Duke to Colonel Thornton, for
£110,000; and was, in 1805, resold by that gentleman to the late Lord
Stourton, father of the present proprietor. The mansion stands on a
gentle elevation; it was erected by his Royal Highness the Duke of York,
and has since been considerably improved.

[Sidenote: Extensive park and mansion.]

[Sidenote: Picturesque tower.]

[Sidenote: Here was a Priory of Benedictine monks.]

[Sidenote: Sale of the estate by the late Duke of York, for £110,000.]

   Map|Names of Places.| County.  |  Number of Miles From     |
   +--+----------------+----------+------------+--------------+
    39|Allesley      pa|Warwick   |Coventry   2|Nuneaton     8|
    10|Allestrey     pa|Derby     |Derby      2|Ashbourn    14|
    23|Allexton      pa|Leicester |Rockingham 6|M. Harboro   9|
     9|Allhallows    pa|Cumberland|Wigton     5|Market Ireby 4|
    21|Allhallows    pa|Kent      |Rochester  7|Sheerness    5|
    12|Allington     pa|Dorset    |Bridport   1|Lyme Regis   8|
    21|Allington[A]  pa|Kent      |Maidstone  2|Rochester    7|
   +--+----------------+----------+------------+--------------+
                                               |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.| Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+--------------+
    39|Allesley      pa|Kenilworth            6|   93|     875|
    10|Allestrey     pa|Alfreton             13|  128|     501|
    23|Allexton      pa||Uppingham            5|   89|      68|
     9|Allhallows    pa|Allonby               7|  308|     205|
    21|Allhallows    pa|Queenboro             6|   36|     263|
    12|Allington     pa|Beaminster            5|  136|    1300|
    21|Allington[A]  pa|Wrotham               8|   32|      37|
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] ALLINGTON. Situated in the hundred of Larkefield, in the lathe of
Aylesford, near the river Medway. ALLINGTON CASTLE was originally
built in the Saxon times, by a noble family denominated _Columbary_,
but was razed afterwards by the Danes. The manor was given after the
conquest to Bishop Odo, (in whose time there was a _church_ at
Allington,) and on his disgrace, to the great Earl Warrenne, who is
stated to have had the castle rebuilt, which, however, seems to be
doubtful, as the famous Sir Stephen Penchester, constable of Dover
Castle, in the reign of Edward I., and then owner of this manor, had a
license to fortify, and embattle, his mansion-house here. It passed
afterwards to the _Cobham_ family; and from them to the _Brents_, by
whom it was alienated to Sir Henry Wyatt, a descendant from a worthy
Yorkshire family; who, besides losing seventeen manors, was deprived of
his liberty for engaging in the plot against Richard III. in favour of
the Earl of Richmond; but when success had crowned the attempts of the
latter, he was released by the new king, knighted, made banneret, a
knight of the bath, and a privy counsellor. He made this castle his
residence; and here was born his accomplished son and successor, Sir
Thomas Wyatt. This gentleman who was equally renowned, as a scholar, a
soldier, and a statesman, (in consequence of which he was considered to
be "the delight of the muses and mankind") made this a "fair seat," and
was visited here by Henry VIII., (as his father Sir Henry had also
been,) with whom he was a great favourite; though he appears in some
degree to have unintentionally excited his jealousy, through the
admiration which his accomplishments had raised in the breast of the
fascinating Anne Boleyn. He died in his thirty-eighth year, at
Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, of a violent fever. His son Sir Thomas Wyatt,
the younger, being deprived of his estates and life, for treason against
Queen Mary, this castle and manor became vested in the crown, and were
granted, on lease by Elizabeth, to John Astley Esq., master of her
jewels, in her eleventh year. His son, Sir John Astley, afterwards had
the whole granted to him by the queen's letters patent, dated in her
twenty-sixth year, and from his family it was transferred to that of
Lord Romney, and is now the property of the present earl. The remains of
the castle are particularly curious and interesting, but give the idea
rather of a fortified dwelling, than of a place of strength. The moat
still exists, as does the entrance gateway, which was erected by the
Cobhams. Besides the castle and parsonage, (a mere cottage,) there is
only one house in this parish; though Sir Stephen de Penchester is
recorded to have procured a grant of a market weekly, and a three days
annual fair for his manor of Allington.

[Sidenote: The castle.]

[Sidenote: Mansion given to Bishop Odo.]

[Sidenote: Sir Henry Wyatt deprived of seventeen manors and his liberty,
for treason.]

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Wyatt, was an accomplished scholar, soldier and
statesman.]

[Sidenote: Parish consists of one house, a church, and a cottage.]

   Map| Names of Places.      | County.  | Number of Miles From         |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+------------------------------+
    41|Allington            pa|Wilts     |Amesbury     4|Salisbury     6|
    41|Allington            to|Wilts     |Chippenham   2|Malmsbury     9|
    41|Allington            to|Wilts     |Devizes      4|Calne         7|
    11|Allington, East      pa|Devon     |Kingsbridge  4|Dartmouth     6|
    11|Allington, West      pa|Devon     | ...         1|Modbury       7|
    24|Allington, West      pa|Lincoln   |Grantham     5|Newark       10|
    22|Allithwaite, Upper   to|Lancaster |Cartmel      3|Hawkeshead   11|
    22|Allithwaite, Lower   to|Lancaster | ...         1| ...         13|
     9|Allonby              to|Cumberland|Wigton      11|Cockermouth   9|
     7|Allostock            to|Chester   |Knutsford    5|Middlewich    5|
    36|All Saints, St. Elm  pa|Suffolk   |Halesworth   5|Bungay        5|
    17|Almeley              pa|Hereford  |Weobly       5|Kington       4|
    12|Almer, West          pa|Dorset    |Blandford    6|Bere Regis    6|
    35|Almington            to|Stafford  |Drayton      1|Newcastle    12|
    39|Almington & Delph    to|Warwick   |Tamworth     2|Atherstone    7|
    38|Almodington          pa|Sussex    |Chichester   6|Bognor       10|
    45|Almondbury[A]   pa & to|W.R. York |Huddersfield 2|Barnsley     10|
    15|Almondsbury     pa & ti|Gloucester|Thornbury    4|Old Pas. Hou. 5|
    34|Almsford             pa|Somerset  |Castle Cary  1|Bruton        4|
    43|Alne            pa & to|N.R. York |Easingwold   3|Borobridge    6|
    39|Alne, Great   chap & to|Warwick   |Alcester     3|Henley-Arden  5|
    29|Alnham          pa & to|Northumb  |Alnwick     14|Wooler       11|
    29|Alnwick[B]    m.t. & pa|Northumb  |Newcastle   34|Morpeth       9|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+--------------+---------------+
                                                        |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.      | Number of Miles  From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+-----+---------+
    41|Allington            pa|Andover                11|   77|       80|
    41|Allington            to|Bath                   13|   95|      162|
    41|Allington            to|Marlboro               10|   88|      162|
    11|Allington, East      pa|Totness                 7|  205|      677|
    11|Allington, West      pa|Plymouth               18|  207|      872|
    24|Allington, West      pa|M. Mowbray             16|  115|      357|
    22|Allithwaite, Upper   to|Ulverstone             11|  255|      759|
    22|Allithwaite, Lower   to|..by Ferry              6|  257|      838|
     9|Allonby              to|Abbey-Holm              8|  315|      783|
     7|Allostock            to|Northwich               6|  168|      448|
    36|All Saints, St. Elm  pa|Harleston               5|  105|      439|
    17|Almeley              pa|Leominster              7|  107|      ...|
    35|Almington            to|Eccleshall             10|  158|      340|
    39|Almington & Delph    to|Coleshill              10|  112|      264|
    38|Almodington          pa|Selsea-Bill             4|   68|      ...|
    45|Almondbury[A]   pa & to|Wakefield               9|  186|    30606|
    15|Almondsbury     pa & ti|Bristol                 8|  117|     1408|
    34|Almsford             pa|Glastonbury             9|  114|      304|
    43|Alne            pa & to|Thirsk                  9|  212|     1967|
    39|Alne, Great   chap & to|Stratford               7|  103|      343|
    29|Alnham          pa & to|Rothbury                9|  314|      278|
    29|Alnwick[B]    m.t. & pa| ...                   11|  308|     6788|
   +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+-----+---------+


[A] ALMONDBURY is situated near the river Calder, in the upper division
of the wapentake of Aybrigg. Here is a grammar school, founded by patent
from James I. and endowed with about £120 per annum. This place is noted
for its extensive woollen manufactories. It was anciently called
Albanbury. In the neighbourhood traces of an ancient castle, on an
eminence, are still discernable. It is supposed, by some antiquarians,
to have been the Campodonum of the Romans, and subsequently a royal seat
of some of the Saxon kings.

[Sidenote: Grammar school founded by James I.]

[Sidenote: Ancient castle. Campodonum of the Romans.]


[B] ALNWICK, is on the high road from London to Berwick, and usually
regarded as the capital of the county. It is situated partly in the
southern division of Barnborough Ward, and partly in the eastern
division of Coquetdale Ward. It is built irregularly, on the declivities
of a hill, near the river Alne, over which a handsome stone bridge was
erected by the late Duke of Northumberland, which bears the Percy crest
on the parapet; there is also another bridge, of one arch, lower down
the river; these two bridges serve as boundaries to the fine lawns
surrounding the castle. At the head of Pottergate is a tower or
clock-house, built in 1786. An abbey of Premonstratension canons was
founded at Alnwick by Eustace St. John, in the year 1147. It was
pleasantly situated on the northern margin of the Alne, the site of
which was granted, in 1549, to Ralph Sadler, and Lawrence Wennington,
after which it became the seat of the Brandling family, and also of the
Doubleday family, by whom it was sold to the Duke of Northumberland. A
fine gate house still remains, on which the Percy arms is visible. This
town has a spacious market place, and a considerable town hall, in which
the sessions and county courts are held. It is paved, watched, and
lighted, under an act passed in 1821. Although the county town, the
assizes are held at Newcastle. Alnwick Castle has been for many
centuries a fortress of great strength, and the family mansion of the
Percys'; it stands on an eminence on the south side of the Alne,
opposite to the town, and commands a beautiful view of the country. The
walls are flanked with sixteen gothic towers, the battlements of which,
are ornamented with figures of ancient warriors: it is very celebrated
in border history, and was peculiarly fatal to the kings of Scotland, of
whom Malcolm II. and his son Edward, fell before it; and William,
surnamed the Lion, was taken prisoner. The castle has lately undergone a
complete repair; great attention having been paid to the restoration of
the gothic ornaments in their original style. The chapel has been
rendered extremely beautiful, by the introduction of a ceiling, in
imitation of the celebrated one of King's College, Cambridge. There is
also a handsome window, on the model of one at York Minster, and the
walls are painted in the manner of those of the cathedral of Milan. The
tenants of the estate at Alnwick, in the year 1818, erected a monument
to the memory of the late Duke of Northumberland, who died in 1817, and
was buried in Westminster Abbey. The Percy column, as it is called,
stands on a beautiful knoll, adjoining the road on the southern entrance
to the town; it rises without a pedestal, and may be seen in every
direction, it is eighty-three feet in height, but may be ascended easily
by a circular flight of stairs within. There is an immemorial custom
continued here on the proclamation of the several fairs; divers adjacent
townships, which are free of toll in the borough, by this service, send
their deputies to attend the bailiff, on the eve of the fair, when he
makes proclamation; after which they keep watch all night in every part
of the town, and this is the most perfect remains of watch and ward
retained in any part of this country. It is said that King John, having
endured considerable inconvenience from the miry state of the roads, in
humorous revenge, directed that for the future, the freemen of Alnwick,
should be made in the following manner, which is still observed.--On St.
Mark's day, those who are to be made free, assemble in the market place,
dressed in white, with white caps, and a sword by their side. They
proceed on horseback from this place to the town moor, headed by the
four chamberlains, attired in the same manner, where they alight and
rush through a muddy pool; having performed this ceremony, they change
their soiled garments, and return to the town. Here is a free school,
supported by a revenue arising out of the tolls, and various minor
charities.

   _Market_, Saturday,--_Mail_ arrives 6-1/4 A.M., departs 5-1/2
   P.M.--_Fairs_, Palm Sunday eve, for shoes, hats, &c.; May 12th,
   horses and horned cattle; last Monday in July, linen and woollen
   cloth; 1st Tuesday in October, and October 28th, horses and cattle;
   and Saturday before Christmas Day, for shoes, hats, and
   woollens.--_Bankers_, Ridley and Co., draw on Glynn and Co.--_Inn_,
   White Swan.

[Sidenote: An abbey of monks, founded in 1147.]

[Sidenote: Fortress of great strength.]

[Sidenote: The fall of Malcolm II. and his son Edward.]

[Sidenote: Monument to the memory of the late Duke of Northumberland.]

[Sidenote: Curious customs in Alnwick.]

[Sidenote: Making freemen at Alnwick through a muddy pool.]

   Map|  Names of Places.    |County.|   Number of Miles From  |
   +--+----------------------+-------+------------+------------+
    14|Alphamstone         pa|Essex  |Halstead   5|Sudbury    5|
    36|Alphaston           pa|Suffolk|Sudbury    7|Lavenham   3|
    11|Alphington          pa|Devon  |Exeter     1|Topsham    5|
    27|Alpington           pa|Norfolk|Norwich    6|Loddon     5|
     7|Alpraham            to|Chester|Tarporley  3|Malpas     8|
    14|Alresford           pa|Essex  |Colchester 5|St. Osyth  6|
    16|Alresford, New[A] m.t.|Hants  |Southamp. 19|Winchester 7|
   +--+----------------------+-------+------------+------------+
      |                                           |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.    |Number of Miles From|Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+--------------------+-----+------+
    14|Alphamstone         pa|Colchester        10|   50|   277|
    36|Alphaston           pa|Bury              10|   61|   309|
    11|Alphington          pa|Chudleigh          8|  167|  1236|
    27|Alpington           pa|Hempnell           6|  119|   197|
     7|Alpraham            to|Nantwich           7|  176|   418|
    14|Alresford           pa||Manningtre        8|   56|   297|
    16|Alresford, New[A] m.t.|Alton             10|   57|  1437|
   +--+----------------------+--------------------+-----+------+


[A] NEW ALRESFORD, is in the north division of the hundred of Alton:
seated on the river Itchin, at no great distance from its source. It was
anciently a more populous place than at present, the navigation of the
river, having at one time extended from Southampton to this town;
whereas, it now ceases at Winchester. Alresford is divided into two
parishes, of which that of Old Alresford is deemed the mother church.
The town, which formerly sent a member to parliament, is governed by a
bailiff and eight burgesses; and the petty sessions are held here. There
is a manufacture of linseys of some consequence, but generally speaking,
the trade is much decayed. At Tichbourne Hall, about two miles distant,
the seat of Sir H. Tichbourne, there has been bestowed annually, on Lady
Day, from the reign of Henry II. a gift to every applicant of twopence
in bread or money; of which bounty, in some years, no less than
seventeen hundred persons have partaken.

   _Market_, Thursday.--_Mail_ arrives 3-1/2 A.M. departs 11-1/2
   P.M.--_Fairs_, last Thursday in July, and October 17, sheep,
   &c.--_Bankers_, Knapp & Co. draw on Barclay & Co.--_Inn_, Swan.

[Sidenote: Formerly a populous place.]

[Sidenote: Tichbourne Hall, seat of Sir H. Tichbourne.]

   Map| Names of Places.   | County. | Number of Miles From      |
   +--+--------------------+---------+------------+--------------+
    16|Alresford, Old    pa|Hants    |Southamp. 19|Winchester   7|
    35|Alrewas           pa|Stafford |Lichfield  5|Burton       8|
    35|Alewas Hayes     dis|Stafford | ...       4| ...         9|
     7|Alsager           pa|Chester  |Sandbach   5|Congleton    9|
    10|Alsop-le-Dale     pa|Derby    |Ashbourn   6|Longnor      8|
    22|Alston            to|Lancaster|Preston    6|Blackburn    6|
    42|Alstone         chap|Worcester|Tewkesbury 5|Evesham      7|
    35|Alstonefield pa & to|Stafford |Ashbourn   6|Longnor      6|
    22|Altcar          chap|Lancaster|Ormskirk   6|Liverpool   11|
     8|Alternon          pa|Cornwall |Launceston 8|Camelford    8|
    22|Altham     to & chap|Lancaster|Burnley    5|Colne       11|
    14|Althorne          pa|Essex    |Maldon     6|Southminster 3|
    24|Althorp      pa & to|Lincoln  |Burton     5|Epworth      5|
    27|Althorpe         ham|Norfolk  |Fakenham   2|N. Walsingh. 3|
    48|Altmawr         chap|Brecon   |Builth     3|Brecon      12|
    45|Altofts           to|W.R. York|Wakefield  4|Leeds        8|
    16|Alton[A]   m.t. & pa|Hants    |Southamp. 29|Basingstoke 10|
    41|Alton Barnes      pa|Wilts    |Marlboro   7|Devizes      7|
    12|Alton Pancras     pa|Dorset   |Dorchester 7|Cerne-Abbas  3|
    41|Alton Priors    chap|Wilts    |Devizes    7|Marlboro     7|
     7|Altringham[B]   m.t.|Chester  |Knutsford  7|Stockport   10|
   +--+--------------------+---------+------------+--------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.   | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+----------------------+-----+--------+
    16|Alresford, Old    pa|Alton               10|   57|     459|
    35|Alrewas           pa|Bromley              5|  124|    1607|
    35|Alewas Hayes     dis ...                  6|  124|      77|
     7|Alsager           pa|Nantwich             8|  157|     446|
    10|Alsop-le-Dale     pa|Winster              6|  145|      61|
    22|Alston            to|Clitheroe            9|  222|    1030|
    42|Alstone         chap|Pershore             7|  101|      78|
    35|Alstonefield pa & to|Winster              8|  144|    5169|
    22|Altcar          chap|Prescott            13|  214|     505|
     8|Alternon          pa|Bodmin              16|  222|    1069|
    22|Altham     to & chap|Blackburn            6|  212|     413|
    14|Althorne          pa|Rochford             6|   42|     352|
    24|Althorp      pa & to|Glandford Br        12|  165|     981|
    27|Althorpe         ham|Holt                10|  111|       9|
    48|Altmawr         chap|Aberedwy             2|  170|      43|
    45|Altofts           to|Pontefract           3|  186|     502|
    16|Alton[A]   m.t. & pa|Farnham             10|   47|    2742|
    41|Alton Barnes      pa|Pewsey               4|   82|     138|
    12|Alton Pancras     pa|Sherborne           10|  120|     210|
    41|Alton Priors    chap|Pewsey               4|   82|     205|
     7|Altringham[B]   m.t.|Manchester           9|  179|    2708|
   +--+--------------------+----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] ALTON is seated on the river Wye; it is a pleasant open town,
consisting of three streets, of which the principal contains some
handsome houses. It is governed by a constable appointed by the
magistracy, and a petty sessions are held in the town. The district
around is celebrated for the superiority of its hop plantations, and
possesses manufactures of druggets, serges, and other worsted fabrics,
which are dyed in the wool. It was at Alton that Sir William Waller, in
December 1643, obtained some advantages over the forces of Lord Hopton,
who had taken his post in the town, the regiment commanded by Colonel
Bowles retreated to the church, but not having time to barricade the
doors, threw down their arms, and surrendered; but the Colonel himself,
refusing quarter, was slain on the spot. Amongst the celebrated men to
whom this town has given birth, may be mentioned William de Alton, a
Dominican Friar, who lived in the time of Edward II., and wrote on the
universality of the pollution of mankind by original sin. John Pitts,
the Roman Catholic Biographer, who was born in 1560, and died in 1616;
and William Curtis the Botanist, who was born about 1746, and died in
1799.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Mail_ arrives 2 A.M. departs 12-3/4
   A.M.--_Fairs_, Saturday before May, sheep and lambs, September 29,
   cattle and toys.--Commercial Banking Company, draw on Williams, and
   Co.--_Inn_, Swan.

[Sidenote: Celebrated for hops, and manufactures in serges and other
worsted fabrics.]

[Sidenote: Church converted to a fortress.]


[B] ALTRINGHAM is a very neat market-town in the parish of Bowden, and
hundred of Bucklow, near which the Duke of Bridgewater's canal passes
from the Mersey at Runcorn, to Manchester; it possesses several
factories of yarn, cotton, and worsted, and the vicinity supplies the
markets of Manchester well with fruit and vegetables. This town was
anciently a fee for the barons of Dunham Massey, one of whom granted to
it a guild mercatory in the thirteenth century.

   _Market_, Tuesday.--_Mail_ arrives 4-1/2 A.M., departs 9-1/2
   P.M.--_Fairs_, April 29, August 5, November 22, for cattle and
   drapery.--_Inns_, Bowling Green and Unicorn.

[Sidenote: Yarn, cotton, and worsted manufactories]

   Map| Names of Places.       | County.  | Number of Miles From      |
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
     7|Alvanley            chap|Chester   |Frodsham    3|Warrington  9|
     7|Alvaston              to|Chester   |Sandbach    9|Middlewich 10|
    10|Alvaston       to & chap|Derby     |Derby       4|Kegworth    8|
    40|Alvechurch[A]         pa|Worcester |Bromsgrove  4|Redditch    4|
    41|Alvediston            pa|Wilts     |Hindon      7|Wilton      8|
    33|Alvely           pa & to|Salop     |Bridgenorth 6|Bewdley     8|
    11|Alverdiscott          pa|Devon     |Bideford    4|Barnstaple  6|
    16|Alverstoke            pa|Hants     |Gosport     1|Tichfield   6|
    45|Alverthorpe           to|W.R. York |Wakefield   1|Leeds       7|
    30|Alverton             ham|Notts     |Newark      7|Bingham     7|
    31|Alvescott             pa|Oxford    |Burford     5|Bampton     3|
    15|Alveston[B]           pa|Gloucester|Thornbury   3|New Pas     6|
    39|Alveston              pa|Warwick   |Stratford   2|Warwick     7|
    35|Alveton          pa & to|Stafford  |Cheadle     4|Uttaxeter   6|
    24|Alvingham             pa|Lincoln   |Louth       4|Saltfleet   8|
    15|Alvington            ham|Gloucester|Blakeney    6|Coleford    6|
    19|Alwalton              pa|Hunts     |Peterboro   5|Stilton     6|
    11|Alwington             pa|Devon     |Bideford    4|Torrington  6|
    45|Alwoodley             to|W.R. York |Leeds       4|Ottley      5|
    17|Amberly              ham|Hereford  |Hereford    6|Bromyard    9|
    38|Amberly               pa|Sussex    |Arundel     4|Petworth    4|
    16|Ambersham,      North ti|Hants     |Midhurst    3| ...        4|
    16|Ambersham,      South ti|Hants     | ...        3| ...        4|
    29|Amble                 to|Northumb  |Alnwick     9|Morpeth    11|
    35|Amblecoat            ham|Stafford  |Stourbridge 1|Dudley      4|
    40|Ambleside[C] m.t. & chap|Westmorlnd|Kendal     13|Helvelyn    8|
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                        |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.       |  Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
     7|Alvanley            chap|Chester               10|  188|    341|
     7|Alvaston              to|Whitchurch            11|  164|     46|
    10|Alvaston       to & chap|Burton                12|  124|    364|
    40|Alvechurch[A]         pa|Birmingham            11|  114|   1548|
    41|Alvediston            pa|Shaftesbury            9|   92|    239|
    33|Alvely           pa & to|Cleobury               9|  133|    836|
    11|Alverdiscott          pa|Torrington             4|  200|    334|
    16|Alverstoke            pa|Fareham                6|   79|  12637|
    45|Alverthorpe           to|Dewsbury               5|  183|   4859|
    30|Alverton             ham|Southwell              9|  118|     16|
    31|Alvescott             pa|Whitney                6|   74|    361|
    15|Alveston[B]           pa|Bristol                9|  119|    800|
    39|Alveston              pa|Henley                 9|   96|    650|
    35|Alveton          pa & to|Ashbourn               8|   42|   2391|
    24|Alvingham             pa|Grimsby               18|  153|    292|
    15|Alvington            ham|Chepstow               7|  128|    281|
    19|Alwalton              pa|Wandsford              5|   80|    294|
    11|Alwington             pa|Barnstaple            12|  206|    486|
    45|Alwoodley             to|Wetherby               8|  193|    142|
    17|Amberly              ham|Leominster             8|  135|     25|
    38|Amberly               pa|Worthing              11|   51|    637|
    16|Ambersham,      North ti|Haslemere              6|   49|    121|
    16|Ambersham,      South ti| ...                   6|   49|    183|
    29|Amble                 to|Felton                 6|  301|    247|
    35|Amblecoat            ham|Wolverhamp             8|  122|   1157|
    40|Ambleside[C] m.t. & chap|Winanderm              1|  278|   1095|
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ALVECHURCH is situated in the middle division of the hundred of
Halfshire; it was formerly a borough and governed by a bailiff, chosen
annually at the court of the lord of the manor. The church is a large
structure of Anglo Norman architecture, but the tower is modern. It
however contains many ancient monuments: a hospital was founded here by
Nicholas Lewkenor, of Hadsor, in 1580. The bishops of the county
formerly had a palace here. Bishop Brain, Chancellor of England, in the
reign of Edward III., to whom the Black Prince, wrote a circumstantial
account of the battle of Poicters, died here in 1361. Bishop Latimer put
it in repair in the reign of Henry VIII., it seems to have been merely a
timber building. It has not been inhabited by any Bishop since the
restoration, and was nearly a century ago, entirely pulled down, when
the park was converted into farms. The river Arrow, which rises in the
Lickey Hills, runs through the parish, towards Beoley Park, and
Warwickshire; and the Ikenield Street, also passes it. This town
formerly consisted of several streets, but is now fallen into decay, it
however, receives some benefit from the Worcester canal, which passes
it, and joins the Stratford-and-Avon canal, at King's Norton.

[Sidenote: Church of Anglo Norman architecture.]

[Sidenote: Dilapidations of time.]


[B] ALVESTON. This parish contains the vestiges of two Roman camps; the
one on the top of a hill called Oldbury, near the Severn; the other
called Castle Hill; in both which places, various relics of antiquity
have been discovered.

[Sidenote: Two Roman camps.]


[C] AMBLESIDE is seated on the decline of a hill, at the extremity of
the romantic lake Winandermere, of which a branch passes through the
town. It is held by Horsley, to be the site of the Roman Dictus. It is
scarcely in the power of language to do justice to the romantic beauties
of this neighbourhood; perhaps the most beautiful scenery in England, is
to be found in its vicinity. Here is an extensive manufactory of woollen
cloth.

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fairs_, Wednesday after Whit-Sunday, for
   horned cattle October 29, ditto and sheep--_Mail_ arrives 9-1/2 A.M.,
   departs 7 A.M.

[Sidenote: Site of the Roman Dictus.]

   Map| Names of Places.         | County.|     Number of Miles From  |
   +--+--------------------------+--------+-------------+-------------+
    57|Ambleston               pa|Pembroke|Haverfrd.W. 5|Fishguard   3|
    31|Ambrosden          pa & to|Oxford  |Bicester    2|Aylesbury  14|
    24|Amcotts                ham|Lincoln |Burton      4|Glandford  10|
     5|Amersham[A] bo. m. t. & pa|Bucks   |Aylesbury  14|Chesham     3|
    41|Amesbury[B]      m.t. & pa|Wilts   |Salisbury   7|Stone-Henge 3|
   +--+--------------------------+--------+-------------+-------------+
                                                       |Dist. |
   Map| Names of Places.          Number of Miles From |Lond. |Population.
   +--+--------------------------+---------------------+-----+--------+
    57|Ambleston               pa|Newport            10|   266|    574|
    31|Ambrosden          pa & to|Oxford             12|    51|    914|
    24|Amcotts                ham|Epworth             9|   165|    359|
     5|Amersham[A] bo. m. t. & pa|Beaconsfield        5|    26|   2612|
    41|Amesbury[B]      m.t. & pa|Andover            14|    77|    544|
   +--+--------------------------+---------------------+------+-------+


[A] AMERSHAM, or Agmondesham is situated on the Misbourne, a branch of
the river Colne. The town which is seated in a vale between two wooded
hills, consists of a long street on the road from Uxbridge to Wendover;
it is intersected about the centre, by a cross street from Chesham to
High Wycombe, at the point of which stands the church. The market is
held in the Market House, or Town Hall, built by Sir William Drake,
about 1680; it is a brick building supported by pillars and arches, with
a lanthorn and clock, and said to be the handsomest in the county.
Amersham was a parliamentary borough by prescription, but by the Reform
Bill of 1832, is now disfranchised. The church was extensively repaired
in 1778, in the chancel of which are monuments of the family of the
Bents of Leicestershire, who had a seat in the parish; and a monument of
Henry, son of Sir Patrick Curwen, Bart., who died in 1638; and also
several monuments of the Drake family, in the chancel and the adjoining
mausoleum; among which are those of Montague Gerrard, by _Sheemaker_,
and the wife of the late Mr. Drake, by Henry Cheere. About a mile
northward from the town, is Shardeloes Park, the seat of Sir Thomas
Tyrwhitt Drake: the estate was formerly in the possession of the
Brudenell's, which family terminated in a peeress, and brought
Shardeloes to the Cheynes; afterwards it became the seat of William
Totehill, Esq., where he entertained Queen Elizabeth in one of her
progresses. Francis Drake, of East Sherwin, Surrey, who was one of the
gentlemen of the bedchamber to James I., married Jane, the daughter and
heiress of William Totehill, Esq. The mansion is beautifully situated on
the brow of a hill, overlooking an immense sheet of water, covering
thirty-five acres, and commands a delightful prospect, particularly
towards the east, where the town of Amersham, and the surrounding
eminences, covered with wood, present a very picturesque appearance. The
gardens, formerly much admired for their beauty, were originally formed
by Sir William Drake, about 1666, but have been modernized by Richmond,
for the late proprietor. Here is also a Free Grammar School, the
scholars of which are entitled to three exhibitions in Corpus Christi
College, Oxford, bequeathed by Dr. Challoner, a canon of Windsor, in
1620; and likewise four alms houses, with other minor charities. The
manufactures are chiefly lace, sacking, and all kinds of white cotton,
wrought by machinery; and the markets are well attended.

   _Market_, Tuesday.--_Fairs_, Whit-Monday for horned cattle, and
   September 19, for cattle, and statute.--_Inns_, Crown and
   Griffin.--_Mail_ arrives 7 A.M., departs 9-1/4 P.M.

[Sidenote: Town Hall, built by Sir W. Drake, 1680.]

[Sidenote: Shardeloes park.]

[Sidenote: Entertainment of Queen Elizabeth.]

[Sidenote: Picturesque views.]


[B] AMESBURY, or Ambresbury, is situated on the river Avon, and is said
to derive its name and origin from an abbey, founded by the British
Prince Ambrosius; which abbey was subsequently changed into a convent of
Benedictine monks, of which some remains are still to be seen. In the
parish, and about two miles from the town, is the celebrated British
monument, known by the name of Stone-henge. Antiquaries differ in their
opinions as to the probable application of this structure; the majority,
however, deem it to have been a druidical temple, or a grand tribunal of
justice. Out of twenty-four enormous stones, of which the outer circular
range appears to have been formed, seventeen are still standing, and
seven on the ground; of the inner circle, eleven out of the nineteen of
which it was formed are still upright, and the remainder prostrate. The
distance of the inner circle from the outer one is about eight feet,
forming a walk between the two of about three hundred feet in
circumference; the stones are from eighteen to twenty feet high, from
six to seven feet broad, and about three feet thick, and there is an
appearance of the whole having been surrounded with a trench, over which
were three passages. There are numerous barrows and tumuli around it,
where many skeletons and military weapons have been discovered.
Conjecture has been at a loss to ascertain the means by which such solid
masses could have been conveyed, and placed in so elevated a situation
without the aid of machinery. It stands near the summit of a hill; even
at the distance of half a mile the appearance is awful; but on a nearer
approach, the eye is still more delighted with the greatness of its
contour. On entering the building, either on foot or horseback, these
ruins fill the mind with astonishment, which it is impossible for the
pen adequately to describe. Other buildings have fallen by
piece-meal--here a single stone is a ruin. As you advance farther, the
greatness of every part, and the singular construction of the whole,
causes additional surprise. Some authors suppose that this noble temple
does not owe its defacement so much to the introduction of Christianity,
as to the rude and barbarous hands of the neighbouring peasantry, who
have carried away the stones for their own purposes. At a house which
occupies part of the ancient nunnery, a society of nuns of St.
Augustine, from Flanders, have taken up their abode, probably attracted
by the supposed sanctity of the situation. Near the town stands the once
celebrated house of the Dukes of Queensbury, built by Inigo Jones, and
subsequently improved by the Earl of Burlington. The neighbourhood
abounds with clay used for making tobacco pipes, and the river Avon
supplies a very much admired species of fish called loach. In the
vicinity is a camp, called Vespasians. It consists of a triangular area
of 39 acres, defended by a ditch and vallum, and bounded on two sides by
the Avon. This may have been occupied by the Romans, but its
construction and position indicate a British origin.

   _Market_, Friday.--_Mail_ arrives 11 P.M., departs 4 A.M.--_Fair_,
   May 17, June 22, December 18, for horses, sheep, and horned
   cattle.--_Inn_, George.

[Sidenote: Founded by the British Prince Ambrosius.]

[Sidenote: Stone-henge.]

[Sidenote: Its awful appearance.]

[Sidenote: Nunnery of St. Augustine.]

[Sidenote: Camp of 39 acres.]

   Map| Names of Places.| County.  |     Number of Miles From |
   +--+-----------------+----------+-------------+------------+
    47|Almwich[A]     pa|Anglesey  |Beaumaris  20|Llanerch   6|
    43|Amotherby      to|N.R. York |New Malton  3|Pickering  7|
    15|Ampney Cruci   pa|Gloucester|Cirencester 3|Northleach 9|
   +--+-----------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.|  Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+------------------------+-----+------+
    47|Almwich[A]     pa|Holyhead              21|  261|  6285|
    43|Amotherby      to|Helmsley              11|  221|   246|
    15|Ampney Cruci   pa|Lechlade               9|   87|   599|
   +--+-----------------+------------------------+-----+------+


[A] ALMWICH, a seaport town in the parish of the same name, in the
hundred of Twerclyn. It is situated on the north coast of the Island of
Anglesey; and from a small village (in consequence of the discovery of a
rich copper-mine in the Parys mountain) has been augmented into a
considerable town: the appearance of this celebrated mountain is very
rude; it is bare of vegetation, in consequence of the suffocating fumes
which issue from it. The Romans are supposed to have obtained copper ore
from this place, as many vestiges of what, it is imagined, were their
operations, are still traceable. The great riches of the site were not,
however, discovered until March 2, 1768, by the lessees of Sir Nicholas
Bayley, afterwards Earl of Uxbridge; and equally successful was the Rev.
Edward Hughes, proprietor of another part of the same ridge. The
substance of the mountain being ore, it has not been worked in the usual
way, by shafts and levels, but by direct excavation. "Nature," Mr.
Pennant observes, "hath been profuse in bestowing her mineral favours on
this spot, for above the copper ore, and not more than three-quarters of
a yard beneath the common soil, is a bed of yellowish greasy clay, from
one to four yards thick, containing lead ore, and yielding from six
hundred to a thousand pounds weight of lead from one ton; and one ton of
the metal yields not less than fifty-seven ounces of silver. Mixed with
the earth are frequently certain parts, of the colour of cinnabar;
whether these are symptomatic of the sulphurous arsenical silver ores,
or of quick-silver, I will not pretend to decide. Something interferes
with the successful smelting of this earth in the great, insomuch that
it has not yet been of that profit to the adventurers, which might
reasonably be expected from the crucible assays of it." From this
mountain arises a mineral water, which turns the syrup of violets red,
without any signs of chalybeate. To enumerate the mineral substances
found from time to time would prove a tedious employment, and perhaps an
unimportant one. The following are the principal and most useful:--1.
Yellow sulphurated copper ore; 2. Native copper, in small quantities; 3.
Sulphate of copper, both chrystallized and in solution; 4. Sulphate of
lead, containing a small portion of silver; 5. Black ore, containing
copper with galenea, calamine, and some silver; 6. Native sulphur. Not
far from Parys Mountain is the port whence the ore brought from the
mines is transported to Liverpool and Swansea; it is a chasm between two
rocks, large enough to receive thirty vessels, each 200 tons. The two
companies employ fifteen brigs, from 100 to 150 tons burden, besides
sloops and other craft. The articles exported from these copper mines
are principally a coarse copper from the smelting-house, a richer copper
ore, dried precipitate of copper from the vitriol pits, refined sulphur,
ochre, alum, and green vitriol. Though much improved by the copper
companies, this port is so exposed to the swell of the ocean, as to make
it difficult and dangerous of access, during the prevalence of high
northerly winds.

   _Fair_, November 12.

[Sidenote: From this place the Romans obtained copper ore.]

[Sidenote: Lead ore which yields silver also.]

[Sidenote: Various minerals.]

[Sidenote: The port, a chasm between the rocks.]

   Map| Names of Places.    | County.  |  Number of Miles From     |
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
    15|Ampney Down[A]     pa|Gloucester|Cirencester 6|Cricklade   3|
    15|Ampney, St. Mary,}   |          |             |             |
      |  or Ashbrook    } pa|Ditto     |Cirencester 4|Fairford    5|
    15|Ampney, St. Peter    |Ditto     |Cirencester 4|Fairford    4|
    43|Ampleforth    pa & to|N.R. York |Helmsley    4|New Malton 13|
    16|Amport             pa|Hants     |Andover     5|Ludgershall 5|
     3|Ampthill[B] m.t. & pa|Bedford   |Bedford     8|Woburn      7|
    36|Ampton             pa|Suffolk   |Bury        5|Ixworth     5|
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
    15|Ampney Down[A]     pa|Fairford               4|   85|    463|
    15|Ampney, St. Mary,}   |                        |     |       |
      |  or Ashbrook    } pa|Bibury                 3|   88|    115|
    15|Ampney, St. Peter    |Cricklade              5|   86|    180|
    43|Ampleforth    pa & to|York                  18|  223|    623|
    16|Amport             pa|Salisbury             13|   69|    731|
     3|Ampthill[B] m.t. & pa|Toddington             7|   46|   1688|
    36|Ampton             pa|Thetford               8|   76|    110|
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+


[A] AMPNEY DOWN. The church of this place is very curious, and is said
to have been built by the Knights Templars, about the year 1260. Under
the window at the south-end of the transept, is the tomb of Sir Nicholas
de Villiers and his lady, with their effigies, represented under an
arch. The knight is represented as a crusader, in mail and surtout, with
his legs crossed, his feet resting on a lion, and his right hand on the
hilt of his sword; on his left arm is a shield bearing the Cross of St.
George, charged with five escalop-shells. This figure is of hard blue
stone; that of the lady is of free-stone, and much mutilated. Below the
effigies of the knight is a mutilated inscription in the Saxon
character. An ancient mansion, built by the family of the Hungerfords,
in the reign of Henry the Eighth, was repaired and modernized, as to its
exterior, a few years ago. It belongs, with the manor, to the family of
Eliot, of Port Eliot, in Cornwall.

[Sidenote: The church built by the Knights Templars.]


[B] AMPTHILL is situated between two hills in the centre of the county.
Here is an obelisk of Portland stone, forming a receptacle for a pump;
and also a Gothic cross, which was erected in 1744, to the memory of
Catherine of Arragon, by the Earl of Upper Ossory, who was then
proprietor of Ampthill Park, at a former period the residence of that
ill-treated Queen. This park, which lies to the west of the town, is now
the seat of Lord Holland; it was constituted a royal domain by Henry
VIII., who conferred a name on the annexed estates, the "Honour of
Ampthill;" the old castle in which Queen Catherine resided, stood on a
more elevated ground than the present mansion, which is a magnificent
structure, with wings, and a flight of steps leading to a handsome hall;
the park, which is now united with that of Houghton, is spacious, and
presents several most delightful prospects. At the entrance of Ampthill
Park there is a pear tree, under which it is reported that Sir Philip
Sydney wrote a part of his Arcadia.

   _Mail_ arrives 6 A.M.. departs 8-1/2 P.M.--_Fairs_, May 4, and
   November 30, for cattle.--_Inn_, White Hart.

[Sidenote: Under a pear-tree in Ampthill park Sir Philip Sydney wrote
part of his Arcadia.]

   Map| Names of Places.   | County. |  Number of Miles From    |
   +--+--------------------+---------+------------+-------------+
    57|Amroth[A]         pa|Pembroke |Narbeth    6|Tenby       6|
    18|Amwell, Great[B]  pa|Hertford |Ware       1|Hoddesdon   3|
    18|Amwell, Little  chap|Hertford |Ware       1|Hoddesdon   3|
    24|Ancaster[C]       pa|Lincoln  |Grantham   6|Sleaford    8|
    13|Ancroft         chap|Durham   |Berwick    6|Coldstream 10|
    24|Anderby           pa|Lincoln  |Alford     6|Spilsby    10|
    32|Anderson, or        |         |            |             |
      |  Anderstone      pa|Dorset   |Blandford  7|Bere Regis  3|
     7|Anderton          pa|Chester  |Northwich  2|Warrington  9|
    22|Anderton          pa|Lancaster|Wigan      3|Bolton      4|
    36|Andover[D] m.t. & pa|Hants    |Salisbury 18|Stockbridge 7|
   +--+--------------------+---------+------------+-------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.   | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+
    57|Amroth[A]         pa|Llaugharne          10|  251|    654|
    18|Amwell, Great[B]  pa|Hertford             3|   20|   1321|
    18|Amwell, Little  chap|Hertford             3|   20|    369|
    24|Ancaster[C]       pa|Newark              14|  116|    491|
    13|Ancroft         chap|Wooler              10|  253|   1384|
    24|Anderby           pa|Saltfleet           12|  142|    217|
    32|Anderson, or        |                      |     |       |
      |  Anderstone      pa|Poole               12|  110|     54|
     7|Anderton          pa||Knutsford           6|  175|    327|
    22|Anderton          pa|Chorley              5|  201|    343|
    36|Andover[D] m.t. & pa|Whitchurch           7|   64|   4843|
   +--+--------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] AMROTH. The castle of Amroth, now modernized, from the house
formerly called Eare Wear, was in the 15th century, a settlement of the
Elliott's. The present proprietor is Captain Ackland, by purchase, from
a female representative of the Elliotts. The most judiciously
assimilating additions have been made so as to give it every appendage
of convenience and luxury. The antique porch is nicely preserved. The
conservatory and grapery are entered from the dining-rooms, which was
once a vaulted roofed ale cellar, or castle prison. A portion of this
vault remains unaltered. From the lawn is a beautiful and interesting
view of Tenby. The church of Amroth, on the road to Ludchurch, is
situated on a limestone rock, which has been reduced on every side, and
is remarkable for a curiously disposed tower.

[Sidenote: View of Tenby.]


[B] GREAT AMWELL is supposed to have derived its name from Emma's Well,
a pure water-fountain that issues from a hill, and forms one of the
sources of the New River. Here is a monument erected by Mr. Milne, to
the ill-requited Sir Hugh Middleton, in a small islet formed by the said
river. Sir Hugh, notwithstanding the assistance afforded him by
Parliament, and the City of London, ruined himself by procuring supplies
of water to the metropolis. Great mystery envelopes the latter period of
his life. It is traditionally reported that he retired to the village of
Kemberton, near Shiffnall, in Shropshire, where he resided some time in
great indigence, under the assumed name of Raymond, and it is said that
during such residence he was actually employed in paving the streets.
The poet Warner, author of "Albion's England," lies interred here. The
church is situated on an eminence, the picturesque beauty of which has
been justly celebrated by the admirable poet, usually denominated Scott
of Amwell, from his residence in the village, and the title of his poem.

[Sidenote: Emma's Well, one of sources of the New River]

[Sidenote: Indigence of Sir Hugh Middleton.]


[C] ANCASTER. This parish is situated on the great Roman road, called
Ermin-street, and bears strong evidence of having been a Roman station;
many authors unite to fix here the ancient Causennæ. It occupies a low
situation, and at the north end flows a small brook. From the vestiges
which remain of military works it has certainly been a place of great
strength. A great number of coins, and other antiquities, have been
found here in such quantities, as to become a source of considerable
emolument to the inhabitants of the place; so much so, that at one time
many became extensive dealers in them. These coins are of various
Emperors. Several mosaic pavements have also been discovered here. It is
highly probable from these circumstances, that Ancaster was the Causennæ
of Antoninus. About the town are several quarries of stone, which is
found very near the surface. Ancaster once gave the title of Duke to the
head of the Bertie family, but that Dukedom is now extinct.

[Sidenote: Mosaic pavements.]


[D] ANDOVER, situated on the river Anton, is supposed to have been the
Andaoreon of the Romans; and this opinion seems to have been
countenanced by the remains of several ancient encampments in the
neighbourhood, and by the Roman road, which runs from Winchester to
Cirencester, and passes through the town. The antiquity of the
corporation is as remote as the reign of John, but the present charter
was granted by Queen Elizabeth; the town is extensive, and two of the
streets are handsome and wide. There is a spacious town-hall, supported
by arches, under which the weekly market is held. The church, situated
at the north of the town, is a large Gothic building, consisting of a
nave, side aisles, and chancel, with a transept on the north, and a low
tower rising from the centre; it existed in the time of the Conqueror,
and is dedicated to St. Mary. Within four miles of the town is held the
great annual fair of Weyhill, which, as it lasts for a week, causes much
circulation of money in Andover. In addition to the many small Roman
encampments in the immediate neighbourhood, there is a very large one on
the summit of Bury Hill, about two miles to the S.S.W.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Mail_ arrives 2-3/4 A.M., departs 11-3/4
   P.M.--_Fairs_, Friday and Saturday after Mid-Lent, for cheese,
   horses, and leather; May 17, November 13, for sheep, horses, leather,
   and cheese.--_Bankers_, T. & W. Heath, draw on Masterman and
   Co.--_Inns_, Star and Garter, and White Hart.

[Sidenote: Weyhill Fair.]

   Map| Names of Places.        | County.   |  Number of Miles From    |
   +--+-------------------------+-----------+-----------+--------------+
    54|Andrew, St.            pa|Glamorgan  |Cardiff   5|Llandaff     5|
    54|Andrew, St. Minor      pa|Glamorgan  |Cowbridge 3|Bridgend     6|
    36|Andrew, St. Ilketshall pa|Suffolk    |Bungay    4|Beccles      4|
    34|Angersleigh            pa|Somerset   |Taunton   4|Wellington   4|
    29|Angerton (High)        to|Northumb   |Morpeth   9|Hartburn     1|
    29|Angerton, (Low)        to|Northumb   | ...      9| ...         2|
    57|Angle                  pa|Pembroke   |Pembroke  9|Milford by W 6|
    47|Anglesey, Isle of[A]     |North Wales|           |              |
    22|Anglezarke             to|Lancaster  |Bolton    6|Chorley      5|
   +--+-------------------------+-----------+-----------+--------------+
                                                        |Dist.
   Map| Names of Places.        | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+
    54|Andrew, St.            pa|Cowbridge             8|  165|     474|
    54|Andrew, St. Minor      pa|Cardiff              15|  175|      16|
    36|Andrew, St. Ilketshall pa|Halesworth            7|  106|     512|
    34|Angersleigh            pa|Ilminster            11|  145|      54|
    29|Angerton (High)        to|Rothbury             12|  290|      64|
    29|Angerton, (Low)        to| ...                 13|  289|      55|
    57|Angle                  pa|The Lightho.          4|  264|     458|
    47|Anglesey, Isle of[A]     |                       |     |   48328|
    22|Anglezarke             to|Blackburn             9|  203|     168|
   +--+-------------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] ANGLESEY (Isle and County of), forms one of the six counties of
North Wales, and is situated at the north western extremity of the
principality. It is watered on three sides by the Irish sea, and
separated on the eastern side from Caernarvonshire, by the serpentine
strait of Menai, from three-quarters to half a mile broad. Its form is
irregular, being indented with many small bays and creeks, which gave it
some maritime importance under its native princes. It has received
numerous appellations from the ancient Britons; the most approved of
which was Mon, signifying remote, Latinised by the Romans into Mona, the
"nurse of Wales," from its fruitfulness; and changed by the Saxons into
Angles-ey, or the Englishman's Island. It was the principal
establishment of the Druids in Britain, until this island was invaded by
the Romans, A.D. 59, under Suetonius Paulinus, who ordered their groves
to be cut down, and stationed a garrison to insure obedience. The
climate of Anglesey is mild, and the sea-breezes render the weather more
temperate here than in the other counties of North Wales, although from
the same cause it is less clear: that portion of the island which
borders on the Menai, the site of the terrific Druidical groves, is
richly wooded. The interior, on the contrary, owing to the great
scarcity of fuel, has been rendered nearly devoid of wood; and the
greater part of the island possesses little of hill and dale beyond a
gentle and undiversified undulation of surface; its general aspect is
uninviting and cheerless. The land, however, is good, and under proper
management very productive, as respects both tillage and pasturage.
About 25,000 head of black cattle (exclusive of sheep and hogs), are
annually supplied to the English market, where they are much admired for
their flavour and tenderness, occasioned by the short bite of the
pasturage on which they feed. Before the erection of the suspension
bridge, the passage of the numerous droves of cattle at the five
authorized ferries of the Menai, was a very extraordinary sight; they
were made to swim over, guided by the drovers in boats. Butter, cheese,
hides, tallow, wax, and honey, form also great articles of trade here;
throughout the island there are but few manufactures of any importance.
The shore abounds in some of the most highly prized marine productions,
and is especially celebrated for the variety and beauty of its sea
shells. Anglesey is as interesting to the antiquary, as to the natural
philosopher. The ancient British vestiges are very numerous; comprising
no less than twenty-eight cromlechs, or Druidical altars, together with
circles, monumental stones, entrenchments, and other remains of a
similar description, both British and Roman, which will receive
attention in their proper places; several of the parish churches (of
which the whole, seventy-four, stand near the coast), with various
monastic remains, also deserve examination on the score of antiquity.
Mona, now Anglesey, was the chief seat of the Druids, A.D. 59. Suetonius
Paulinus, in the reign of Nero, was invested with the command of an
army, and prepared to signalize his name by victories over those
barbarians. Finding this island the chief seat of the Druids, he
resolved to attack it, and bring into subjection a place which was the
centre of their superstition, and which afforded protection to all their
baffled forces. The Britons endeavoured to obstruct his landing on this
sacred island, both by the force of their arms, and the terrors of their
religion. The women and priests were intermingled with the soldiers upon
the shore; and running about with flaming torches in their hands, and
tossing their disheveled hair, they struck greater terror into the
astonished Romans by their howlings, cries and execrations, than the
real danger from the armed forces was able to inspire. But Suetonius,
exhorting his troops to disregard the menaces of a superstition which he
despised, impelled them to the attack, drove the Britons off the field,
burned the Druids in the same fires which those priests had prepared for
their captive enemies; destroyed all their consecrated groves and
altars--and having thus triumphed over the religion of the Britons, he
thought his future progress would be easy in reducing the people to
subjection; but in this expectation he was disappointed. The
circumference of the island is seventy-six miles. The sea-passage from
Holyhead to Dublin, is about sixty miles, which is now traversed by
steam packets daily. Next to agriculture, and the rearing of cattle,
mining affords most employment to the labouring population; a great
number of persons are also engaged in fishing and catching wild-fowl,
round the coast. It comprises 200,000 acres of land.

[Sidenote: Originally the principal establishment of the Druids.]

[Sidenote: Annual exportation of cattle.]

[Sidenote: Prized for its marine productions.]

[Sidenote: Invasion of the Romans]

[Sidenote: The Druids burnt in the fires they had prepared for their
enemies.]

   Map| Names of Places.     | County.  |     Number of Miles From    |
   +--+----------------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
   37 |Agmering            pa|Sussex    |L. Hampton    4|Arundel     4|
   46 |Angram              to|N.R. York |Tadcaster     3|Wetherby    7|
   43 |Angram Grange       to|N.R. York |Easingwold    4|Thirsk      7|
   29 |Anick               to|Northumb  |Hexham        2|Corbridge   3|
   29 |Anick Grange        to|Northumb  | ...          2| ...        3|
   46 |Anlaby              to|E.R. York |Hull          4|Beverley    7|
   27 |Anmer               pa|Norfolk   |Castle Rising 6|Burnham M. 10|
   30 |Annesley            pa|Nottingham|Mansfield     6|Nottingham 10|
   39 |Ansley[A]           pa|Warwick   |Nuneaton      5|Atherstone  3|
   35 |Anslow, or Annesley to|Stafford  |Burton-on-T.  3|Uttoxeter   9|
   +--+----------------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
                                                        |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.     | Number of Miles From     |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+--------------------------+-------------+
   37 |Agmering            pa|Steyning                 8|   58|    928|
   46 |Angram              to|York                     6|  194|     67|
   43 |Angram Grange       to|Borobridge              11|  217|     28|
   29 |Anick               to|Newcastle               18|  278|    163|
   29 |Anick Grange        to| ...                    18|  278|     36|
   46 |Anlaby              to|South Cave               7|  171|       |
   27 |Anmer               pa|Lynn                    11|  106|    132|
   30 |Annesley            pa|Newsted Ab.              3|  134|    402|
   39 |Ansley[A]           pa|Coventry                 9|  101|    773|
   35 |Anslow, or Annesley to|Abbots Brom              8|  128|    270|
   +--+----------------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ANSLEY became the property of the Ludford family, by purchase, in
1613. Ansley Hall, an irregular but commodious residence, the manorial
seat of John Newdigate Ludford, Esq., is situated in an extensive park,
rich in natural and artificial beauties, containing a hermitage erected
with the materials of an ancient oratory, in which Warton, who visited
it in 1758, left his beautiful verses, beginning:--

   Beneath this stony roof reclined,
   I sooth to peace my pensive mind.

On an insulated spot is also a Chinese temple, or cell, which contains a
monument of the Purefoy family, removed from Caldecote Church in 1796.
Ansley church has some remains of Saxon and early Norman architecture,
and a square tower of remarkable beauty at the west end.

[Sidenote: A hermitage and Chinese temple.]

   Map|  Names of Places.   | County.  |      Number of Miles From   |
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
    18|Anstey[A]          pa|Herts     |Barkway      3|Buntingford  4|
    23|Anstey           chap|Leicester |Leicester    4|Mount Sorrel 5|
    39|Anstey             pa|Warwick   |Coventry     5|Nuneaton     6|
    41|Anstey             pa|Wilts     |Hindon       5|Shaftesbury  6|
    11|Anstey, East       pa|Devon     |Dulverton    3|S. Moulton  10|
    11|Anstey, West       pa|Devon     | ...         4| ...         9|
    45|Anston        to & pa|W.R. York |Worksop      6|Tickhill     7|
     8|Anthony, St.       pa|Cornwall  |Falmouth     5|Helston      8|
     8|Anthony, St.       pa|Cornwall  |St. Mawes    2|Falmouth     3|
    27|Antingham          pa|Norfolk   |N. Walsham   3|Cromer       6|
     8|Anthony, West, or St.|          |              |              |
      |  Jacobs[B]        pa|Cornwall  |Devonport    4|Saltash      4|
     7|Antrobus           to|Chester   |Northwich    4|Warrington   8|
    24|Anwick             pa|Lincoln   |Sleaford     5|Tattershall  8|
    28|Apethorpe        chap|Northamp  |Wandesford   4|Stamford     7|
    24|Apley            chap|Lincoln   |Wragby       2|Lincoln     10|
    15|Apperley          ham|Gloucester|Tewkesbury   4|Cheltenham   6|
    24|Appleby[C]         pa|Lincoln   |Glandford B. 7|Burton       5|
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   |Number of Miles From     |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-----+--------+
    18|Anstey[A]          pa|Stocking Pel.           4|   33|     417|
    23|Anstey           chap|Loughboro'              8|  100|     850|
    39|Anstey             pa|Rugby                  10|   93|     268|
    41|Anstey             pa|Wilton                  9|   95|     348|
    11|Anstey, East       pa|Bampton                 6|  169|     166|
    11|Anstey, West       pa|  ...                   7|  169|     226|
    45|Anston        to & pa|Sheffield              10|  152|     776|
     8|Anthony, St.       pa|Lizard Point           12|  275|     300|
     8|Anthony, St.       pa|Truro                   9|  270|     144|
    27|Antingham          pa|Aylesham                6|  126|     248|
     8|Anthony, West, or St.|                         |     |        |
      |  Jacobs[B]        pa|St. Germains            3|  123|    3099|
     7|Antrobus           to|Frodsham               11|  179|     476|
    24|Anwick             pa|Metheringh              9|  120|     235|
    28|Apethorpe        chap|Oundle                  6|   84|     297|
    24|Apley            chap|Horncastle             12|  143|     152|
    15|Apperley          ham|Glocester               6|  104|     401|
    24|Appleby[C]         pa|Barton                  8|  163|     517|
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-----+--------+


[A] ANSTEY. In this village are the remains of a castle, built in the
reign of the Conqueror, by Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, for the purpose of
keeping the English in greater subjection; it was demolished in the time
of Henry III., and the parish church formed of its materials. The moat
surrounding the mount upon which the keep was built, with additional
works made in the reign of King John, still remains. In the south aisle
of the church is an ancient monument, with the effigies, as
traditionally reported, of Richard de Anstre the founder. The Roman road
called Ermine Street, passes through this village.

[Sidenote: Ruins of a Castle.]


[B] ST. ANTHONY, consists of the two manors of East and West Anthony,
formerly in the Dawney family, but now in that of the Carews. East
Anthony House, the seat of the Right Hon. Reginald Pole Carew, M.P., is
situated on a branch of the Lynher Creek, nearly opposite Trematon
Castle. It is a large square building, of Pentuan stone, finished by
Gibbs the architect, about the year 1721. This mansion contains a
respectable collection of old portraits, amongst which is one of Richard
Carew, the historian, with a device of a diamond on an anvil, with a
hammer suspended over it. The church contains several monuments well
deserving attention. Besides numerous memorials of the Carew family,
there is in the chancel, the form of a lady, on a brass plate, beneath
an elegant gothic canopy, in memory of Margery Arundell, who died Lady
of the Manor in the early part of the fifteenth century. Sir Alexander
Carew, a gentleman of large property, and one of the representatives of
the county, at the commencement of the civil wars, being averse to the
measures of the court, and having been intrusted by Parliament with the
command of St. Michael's Island and Fort, he attempted to deliver them
into the King's possession; but the design being discovered to the
Parliament, he was suddenly seized and carried prisoner to Plymouth, and
there the women were so enraged against him, that it was with difficulty
he was rescued from their vengeance. From thence he was conveyed by sea
to London, where he was expelled by the Commons, and being tried by a
court-martial, was found guilty and beheaded on Tower Hill, December 23,
1644. WEST ANTHONY, or St. Jacobs. This is a very pleasing
village, which has risen into importance from its proximity to the towns
of Devonport, Plymouth and Stonehouse; it is a favourite residence of
the officers connected with the dockyards and navy at these important
towns. Near this place is Mount Edgecomb, the residence of the Earl of
that title; it is celebrated for the beauty of its situation, near the
sea, and being a much admired stroll for the inhabitants of, and
visitors to Plymouth.

[Sidenote: Mount Edgecomb.]

[Sidenote: Seat of the Carew family.]

[Sidenote: Sir A. Crew beheaded.]


[C] APPLEBY is situate on the river Ancholme, which rises in the wolds
near Market Raisin, whence, it takes a northerly direction near
Glandford Bridge, it is navigable to the Humber for barges of small
burden. That very ancient British road--the Ermine-street--passes
through the village. This line of road was afterwards adopted by the
Romans; it enters the county to the west of Stamford, and preserving
nearly a due northerly direction, passing through the city of Lincoln,
continues its course to the banks of the Humber; it is cast up to a
great height, and is in some places seven yards in breadth.

   Map|  Names of Places.      | County.     | Number of Miles From |
   +--+------------------------+-------------+--------+-------------+
    10|Appleby, G. & Lit.[A] pa|Derb. & Leic.|Ashby  6|M. Bosworth 7|
    40|Appleby[B]     m.t. & pa|  Westmor    |Brough 8|Penrith    14|
   +--+------------------------+-------------+--------+-------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.      | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+
    10|Appleby, G. & Lit.[A] pa|Atherstone           7|  112|   1150|
    40|Appleby[B]     m.t. & pa|Orton                9|  270|   1459|
   +--+------------------------+---------------------+------+-------+


[A] APPLEBY, a populous village, which connects the four counties of
Leicester, Derby, Stafford, and Warwick. Here is a free grammar school
for 100 boys, founded by Sir John Moore, in 1697.


[B] APPLEBY. This town is situated on the river Eden, by which it is
almost surrounded, and by some antiquaries it is supposed to occupy the
site of the Roman station Aballaba. It has been the county town since
the reign of Edward the Confessor. It is governed by a Mayor, Aldermen,
and capital Burgesses; the Mayor having authority to arrest for any sum
without limitation. Appleby did send two representatives to Parliament,
but has been disfranchised by the Reform Bill. It has many times been
assailed by the Scots, who burnt it in 1388; and in 1598 it suffered
seriously by a pestilence, from which time it has never recovered its
former size and consequence. The town at present consists of one broad
street, built irregularly on the slope of a hill, at the upper part of
which stands the castle, which is of early Norman, if not of Saxon
origin; and at the lower end the parish church. The ancient market
houses or cloisters, were pulled down in 1811, and a handsome gothic
building, erected by Smirke, in their stead. Here are also a town-hall
and gaol; and at each end of the town stands a stone obelisk or cross.
Appleby received charters from Hen. II., John, and Hen. III., all which
were given up to James II., since which period it has subsisted as a
borough by prescription. Crackenthorpe Hall, a manorial residence in
this parish, was from the earliest period of authenticated record, the
mansion of the Machels, a Saxon family, who eventually alienated it to
the late Earl of Lonsdale. Near this seat, which is at present
neglected, is a Roman camp 300 yards long and 150 yards broad, with
three entrances, and a watch tower or fort, at the distance of bow-shot.
Appleby has produced some eminent characters, among whom should be
noticed Thomas de Veripont, Bishop of Carlisle, in 1255. Thomas de
Appleby, Bishop of Carlisle, in 1363. Roger de Appleby, Bishop of
Ossory, in 1404; and Dr. Christopher Potter, Provost of Queen's College,
Oxford, Prebendary of Windsor, and Dean of Worcester; the last named was
vice-chancellor of Oxford when the civil wars of Charles I. broke out,
and sent all his plate to the king, stating that he would drink as
Diogenes did, from the hollow of his hand, before his majesty should
want. Here is a free Grammar School, richly endowed, which is open to
all the children of the town upon paying 2s. 6d. per quarter to the
Master; and also five scholarships, founded by the Earl of Thanet at
Queen's College, Oxford, and entitled to participate in five exhibitions
of £60. per annum at the same college, on the foundation of Lady
Elizabeth Hastings. An Hospital for thirteen widows, founded by the
celebrated Anne, Countess of Pembroke and Montgomery, heiress of the
Cliffords, the possessors of the castle for several centuries; by the
marriage of whose eldest daughter it became the property of the family
of Tufton, Earl of Thanet. The main portion of the present castle which
is of a square form, was built in 1686 out of the ruins of a part of the
former, by Thomas, Earl of Thanet. Appleby Castle survived the attacks
of the Parliamentary Army, under the influence of its owner, the
aforesaid Countess Anne, but was compelled to yield in 1648. The church
of St. Lawrence, which was partly built by the same spirited lady,
contains a noble monument to her memory. The market is one of the best
supplied with corn in its vicinity. It however possesses but little
trade, and no manufacture of importance.

   _Market_, Saturday--_Mail_ arrives at 1-1/2 A.M., departs 11-3/4
   P.M.--_Fairs_, October 7 and 8, for sheep, &c; November 24, for
   sheep and oxen; November 5, for pigs.

[Sidenote: Burnt by the Scots.]

[Sidenote: Eminent characters born here.]

[Sidenote: Appleby castle.]

   Map|  Names of Places.       | County.  |   Number of Miles From      |
   +--+-------------------------+----------+-------------+---------------+
    11|Appledore              pa|Devon     |Bideford    2|Torrington   11|
    21|Appledore[A]    m.t. & pa|Kent      |Tenterden   4|New Romney    7|
    38|Appledram              pa|Sussex    |Chichester  2|Portsmouth   16|
    16|Appledurcombe         ham|Hants     |Newport     6|Niton         3|
     5|Appleford            chap|Berks     |Abingdon    4|Dorchester    3|
    16|Appleshaw,[B] vil. & chap|Hants     |Ludgershall 4|Andover       5|
    40|Applethwaite[C]        to|Westmor   |Ambleside   5|Bowness       3|
     4|Appleton[D]       to & pa|Berks     |Abingdon    5|Oxford        6|
    22|Appleton               to|Lancashire|Warrington  7|Prescot       5|
    44|Appleton               to|N.R. York |Catterick   3|Richmond      4|
    43|Appleton-le-Moors      to|N.R. York |Pickering   5|Kirkby        3|
    43|Appleton-le-Street     to|N.R. York |New Malton  4|Pickering     7|
    46|Appleton Roebuck       to|N.R. York |York        7|Selby         8|
    44|Appleton on Wisk       to|N.R. York |Yarm        7|Northallerton 7|
    30|Appletree             ham|Northamp  |Banbury     7|Daventry     10|
    44|Appletrewick[E]        to|N.R. York |Skipton     8|Settle       16|
   +--+-------------------------+----------+-------------+---------------+
                                                         |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.       |   Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------------+------------------------+-----+---------+
    11|Appledore              pa|Barnstaple             7|  204|     1450|
    21|Appledore[A]    m.t. & pa|Rye                    6|   61|      698|
    38|Appledram              pa|Petersfield           13|   64|      188|
    16|Appledurcombe         ham|Shanklin               3|   91|      ...|
     5|Appleford            chap|Wallingford            6|   52|      179|
    16|Appleshaw,[B] vil. & chap|Salisbury             13|   68|      355|
    40|Applethwaite[C]        to|Kendall                8|  270|      417|
     4|Appleton[D]       to & pa|Wantage               10|   61|      447|
    22|Appleton               to|Liverpool             11|  195|     1439|
    44|Appleton               to|Bedale                 6|  228|       83|
    43|Appleton-le-Moors      to|Helmsley               8|  231|      269|
    43|Appleton-le-Street     to|York                  18|  218|      860|
    46|Appleton Roebuck       to|Tadcaster              5|  189|      638|
    44|Appleton on Wisk       to|Darlington            11|  232|      553|
    30|Appletree             ham|Southam                9|   77|       83|
    44|Appletrewick[E]        to|Burnsall               1|  224|      425|
   +--+-------------------------+------------------------+-----+---------+


[A] APPLEDORE is situated on the banks of the river Rother, in the
hundred of Blackburn, lathe of Scray, and was a place of some maritime
consequence in the reign of Alfred. The town is at present chiefly
inhabited by graziers and others employed in the marshes, to which it is
very near. The church is built on the foundation of a castle or fort,
which had been erected by the Danes, who sailed up to this town in the
year 893.

   _Market_. Tuesday.--_Fairs_. Jan. 11, and 4th Mon. in June for cattle
   and pedlery.

[Sidenote: Principally inhabited by Graziers.]


[B] APPLESHAW.--Great Show Fair, Friday and Saturday before Weyhill
Fair. Nov. 4 and 5, all for sheep.


[C] APPLETHWAITE. All the fisheries on the lovely lake of Winandermere
belong to the inhabitants of this thriving village, and subject only to
a tithe of the fish caught to the Rector of Winandermere, who makes
composition for the same, by a sum prescribed by each boat. The red
char, esteemed so great a delicacy, is said to be peculiar to the lakes
of Winandermere and Ullswater; this delicious fish is taken in nets
during the months of October and May, when they are potted and sent to
different parts of the kingdom. About the beginning of September a grand
regatta is given on the lucid waters of the lake, attended by families
of the first distinction.

[Sidenote: Lake of Winandermere.]

[Sidenote: Grand Regatta.]


[D] APPLETON. This village was the birth place of the famous physician
and chemist, Edmund Dickinson, who was born in the year 1624. At 20
years of age he went to the university of Oxford; in 1655, (he published
a work to prove) that the Greeks borrowed the story of the Pythian
Apollo, and all that related to the Oracle of Delphos, from the Holy
Scriptures. In consequence of some excellent cures, he was appointed
Physician to Charles II., and afterwards became a convert to the
doctrine of the Transmutation of Metals; and wrote a work, the object of
which is to prove, "that the method and mode of the creation of the
universe, (according to the principles of true philosophy,) are strictly
and concisely laid down by Moses." He died in 1707.

[Sidenote: Birth place of the learned Edmund Dickinson]


[E] APPLETREWICK. In this village was born William Craven, the founder
of the noble House of Craven, who by his industry and good conduct arose
from an humble station to the dignity of Lord Mayor of London--a proof
of the advantages attendant on industry.

[Sidenote: House of Craven.]

  Map| Names of Places.              | County. |   Number of Miles From   |
  +--+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------+
    4|Arborfield[A]                to|Berks    |Wokingham 5|Swallowfield 3|
   22|Arbury                       to|Lancaster|Newton    3|Warrington   2|
    7|Arclid                       to|Chester  |Sandbach  2|Congleton    5|
   45|Arden                        to|W.R. York|Thirsk   10|Stokesley   11|
   38|Ardingley[B]                 pa|Sussex   |Cuckfield 4|E. Grinstead 7|
    4|Ardington                    pa|Berks    |Wantage   3|Abingdon     8|
   14|Ardleigh                     pa|Essex    |Colchester 5|Manningtree 4|
   31|Ardley                       pa|Oxford   |Bicester  4|Middleton    3|
   45|Ardsley                      to|W.R. York|Barnsley  2|Wakefield   11|
   45|Ardsley,[C] East & West to & pa|W.R. York|Wakefield 5|Leeds        6|
  +--+-------------------------------+---------+-----------+--------------+
                                                           |Dist.|Popul
  Map| Names of Places.              |Number of Miles From |Lond.|-ation.
  +--+-------------------------------+---------------------+-----+--------+
    4|Arborfield[A]                to|Reading             4|   36|     268|
   22|Arbury                       to|Liverpool          18|  186|     280|
    7|Arclid                       to|Middlewich          6|  162|      79|
   45|Arden                        to|Kirkby             10|  227|     130|
   38|Ardingley[B]                 pa|Crawley             7|   33|     587|
    4|Ardington                    pa|East Ilsley         7|   57|     404|
   14|Ardleigh                     pa|Dedham              2|   56|    1545|
   31|Ardley                       pa|Aynhoe              5|   58|     170|
   45|Ardsley                      to|Rotherham           8|  172|    1029|
   45|Ardsley,[C] East & West to & pa|Huddersfield       11|  187|    2303|
  +--+-------------------------------+---------------------+-----+--------+


[A] ARBORFIELD, in the hundred of Sonning. In this parish, near the
church, is an ancient Manor-house, well worthy of the observation of the
Antiquary; it was built by the family of the Standens, who were Lords of
the Manor in the 17th century. The last male heir of this ancient family
was Edward Standen, the person alluded to in the popular ballad of Molly
Mogg.

   _Fair_, October 5, cattle.

[Sidenote: Molly Mogg.]


[B] ARDINGLEY. In the parish church are several monuments of the ancient
families of the Wakehursts and Culpeppers; one of which is a tomb to the
memory of Nicholas Culpepper and his lady, who died in the beginning of
the sixteenth century. This monument bears his portraiture with that of
his wife and eighteen children. Nicholas Culpepper, the celebrated
herbalist and astrologer, was born in London in 1616, and after
receiving his education at the university of Cambridge, was apprenticed
to an apothecary. He came to London and settled in Spitalfields about
1642. He commenced a war with the College of Physicians, by accusing
them of deceit and ignorance, and published a translation of their
"Dispensary," giving an account of the supposed virtues of each drug,
and the complaints in which they were used. He was also author of the
"Herbal," which is written with much clearness, and distinctly
explained. It passed through many editions. From the tenor of his
writings, it may be gathered that he joined or at least favoured the
Jesuits.

   _Fair_, May 30, Pedlary.

[Sidenote: Culpepper, the herbalist and astrologer.]


[C] ARDSLEY. The birth place of James Nayler, a Quaker, who was
remarkable both on account of the extravagance of the delusions which
for some time possessed him and his followers, and the excessive
severity of the punishment which was inflicted upon him. He was the son
of an industrious little farmer, who supported his family by the
cultivation of his own estate. About the age of twenty-two he married,
and removed into the parish of Wakefield, where he continued till the
breaking out of the civil wars in 1641. He then entered into the
parliament army, and served as a soldier eight or nine years, at first
under Lord Fairfax, and afterwards as quarter-master in major-general
Lambert's troop in Scotland; till, being disabled by sickness, he
returned home about the year 1649. At this time he was a member of the
Independent party, and continued so till the year 1651, when the
preaching of George Fox made him a convert to the communion of the
Quakers, as they are called. Among them he soon commenced preacher, and,
according to their judgment, acquitted himself well both in speaking and
writing.

[Sidenote: J. Nayler, the Quaker, a remarkable fanatic;]

[Sidenote: becomes a soldier.]

In the beginning of the following year he imagined he heard a voice,
calling upon him to renounce his kindred and his father's house, and go
into the west, promising that God would be with him. In obedience to
this voice, which he believed to be the voice of God, he went about
preaching from place to place, and greatly increased the numbers of the
new sect. Towards the close of the year 1654, or early in 1655, he came
to London, where he found a meeting of Friends which had been
established by Edward Burrough and Francis Howgill, among whom he so
greatly distinguished himself by his preaching, that many drew invidious
comparisons between him and his brethren, which created uneasiness and
differences in the society. To such a length did these proceed, that
some women, admirers of Nayler, assumed the liberty of interrupting and
disputing with Howgill and Burrough in the midst of their preachings,
and thus disturbed the peace of the meetings. For this conduct they were
reproved by these preachers; upon which they complained so loudly and
passionately to Nayler, that he was weak enough to take their part, and
was so intoxicated with their flattering praises, that he became
estranged from his best friends, who strongly disapproved of and
lamented his conduct. In the year 1658 we find him in Devonshire, where
he was committed to Exeter jail for propagating his opinions. Here he
received letters from some of his female admirers and others, written in
the most extravagant strains, calling him the everlasting Son of
righteous--the Prince of peace--the only begotten Son of God--the
fairest among ten thousand, &c., and some of his followers kneeled
before him in the prison, and kissed his feet. It is but justice,
however, to the Quakers in general to mention, that they had now
disowned Nayler and his adherents.

[Sidenote: Committed to Exeter Jail for blasphemy.]

Soon afterwards Nayler was released from imprisonment, and intended to
return to London, but, taking Bristol in his way, as he passed through
Glastonbury and Wells, his deluded attendants strewed their garments
before him. When they came to Bedminster, about a mile from Bristol,
they carried their extravagance to the highest pitch; for they formed a
procession in imitation of our Saviour's entrance into Jerusalem, in
which a man walked bare-headed before Nayler, and a woman led his horse,
while other women spread their scarfs and hankerchiefs in the road, and
the company sung, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God of hosts; Hosanna in
the highest! holy, holy is the Lord God of Israel!" In this manner these
mad people made their entrance into Bristol, marching through the mire
and dirt, to the amazement of some, and the diversion of others; but the
magistrates thought proper to interfere, and, after what had passed,
committed them to prison. Soon afterwards they were sent to London and a
committee was appointed by parliament to examine witnesses against
Nayler, upon a charge of blasphemy, for admitting religious worship to
be paid ti him, and for assuming the names and incommunicable titles and
attributes of our blessed Saviour. Before the committee, he did not deny
what was alleged concerning the extraordinary proceeding in Exeter jail,
and at his entrance into Bristol; while defending himself by maintaining
that the honours which he received were not shown to him, but to Christ
who dwelt within him; and if they were offered to any other than to
Christ, he disowned them.

[Sidenote: Extravagant conduct of his admirers.]

However, the committee having made a report to the house on the fifth of
December, declaring the charge well founded, on the following day he was
sent for, and heard at the bar; and on the eighth they resolved that
"James Nayler is guilty of horrid blasphemy, and that he is a grand
impostor, and a great seducer of the people." The next business to be
determined on was, the nature of the punishment to be inflicted on him;
which occupied the debate of the house, both on forenoons and
afternoons, till the 16th of December, many members being for putting
him to death, (and losing their vote, as secretary Thurloe informs us,
only by fourteen voices,) while many other members totally disapproved
of the severity which was used against him. At length, on the following
day, after a considerable debate, the majority came to the resolution,
"That James Nayler be set in the pillory, in the Palace-yard,
Westminster, during the space of two hours, on Thursday next; and be
whipt by the hangman through the streets from Westminster to the Old
Exchange, and there likewise be set with his head in the pillory, for
the space of two hours, between the hours of eleven and one on Saturday
next; in each place wearing a paper, containing an inscription of his
crimes: And that at the Old Exchange, his tongue be bored through with a
hot iron; and that he be there also stigmatized in the forehead with the
letter B: That he be afterwards sent to Bristol, and be conveyed into
and through the said city on horseback, with his face backward, and
there also publicly whipt the next market-day after he comes thither:
And that from thence he be committed to prison in Bridewell, London, and
there to labour hard till he be released by parliament; and, during that
time, be debarred the use of pen, ink, and paper, and shall have no
relief but what he earns by his daily labour."

[Sidenote: Condemned by the House of Commons for blasphemy.]

[Sidenote: Cruel sentence--his tongue bored with a hot iron.]

On the eighteenth of December, the first part of it was carried into
execution with the greatest rigour; but he was brought into a state of
such extreme weakness by his cruel whipping, that, upon repeated
applications to the parliament, his punishment was respited for one
week. The Protector was then addressed, and wrote a letter to the house,
which, though it occasioned some debate, obtained no resolution in
favour of the prisoner. On this the petitioners presented a second
address to Cromwell; but, it is said the influence of the ministers
prevented its effect.

[Sidenote: His punishment respited]

On the twenty-seventh of December, the remainder of Nayler's sentence
was executed at the Old Exchange. Afterwards he was sent to Bristol,
where he was publicly whipt, from the middle of Thomas-street, over the
bridge to Broad-street. From Bristol, he was brought back to Bridewell,
London, where he was confined about two years; during which his mind
recovered from the frenzy which had governed it, and he felt deep
humiliation and sincere repentance on account of his past conduct.

After the protector's death, Nayler was released from prison, and went
to Bristol, where, in a public meeting, he made a confession of his
offence and fall, in a manner so affecting as to draw tears from most of
those who were present, and having afforded satisfactory evidence of his
unfeigned contrition, was again received into the communion of his
friends.

[Sidenote: His contrition and death.]

Nayler did not long survive his enlargement, for having left London in
October 1660, with the intention of going home to his wife and children
at Wakefield, he was taken ill in Huntingdonshire, where, it is said, he
was robbed and left bound in a field. Whether he received any personal
injury is not known, but being found towards evening by a countryman, he
was carried to a friend's house, at Holm, near King's Ripon, where he
expired in the month of December, when about 44 years of age. The
expressions uttered by him about two hours before his death, both in
justice to his name, which is so conspicuous in the history of the
reveries of the human imagination, and on account of their own
excellence, ought not to be omitted in the memoirs of his life.

"There is a spirit which I feel," said he, "that delights to do no evil,
nor to revenge any wrong, but delights to endure all things, in hopes to
enjoy its own in the end. Its hope is to outlive all wrath and
contention, and to weary out all exaltation and cruelty, or whatever is
of a nature contrary to itself. It sees to the end of all temptation: as
it bears no evil in itself, so it conceives none in thoughts to any
other. If it be betrayed, it bears it, for its ground and spring is the
mercies and forgiveness of God. Its crown is meekness, its life is
everlasting love unfeigned, and takes its kingdom with entreaty and not
with contention, and keeps it by lowliness of mind."

His writings were collected together, and published in an octavo volume
in 1716.

   Map| Names of Places.| County. |    Number of Miles From   |
   +--+-----------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
    22|Ardwick      chap|Lancaster|Manchester  1|Stockport   6|
    42|Areley, Kings  pa|Worcester|Bewdley     4|Kiddermin.  5|
    35|Areley, Upper  pa|Worcester|Bewdley     3|Kiddermin.  5|
    46|Argam          pa|E.R. York|Bridlington 5|Hunmanby    3|
    45|Arkendale    chap|W.R. York|Knaresboro' 3|Boro'bridge 4|
   +--+-----------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.|  Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    22|Ardwick      chap|Ashton                6|  182|   5524|
    42|Areley, Kings  pa|Worcester            11|  122|    372|
    35|Areley, Upper  pa|Stourbridge          10|  131|    735|
    46|Argam          pa|Gt. Driffield        12|  211|     29|
    45|Arkendale    chap|Ripley                6|  203|    260|
   +--+-----------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+

   Map|  Names of Places.   | County.  |   Number of Miles From     |
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
    45|Arkengarth-Dale[A]   |W.R. York |Richmond    11|Askrigg     7|
    14|Arkesden           pa|Essex     |Saff. Walden 7|Chesterford 7|
    23|Arkholm     to & chap|Lancaster |Kirby Lonsd  5|Lancaster  10|
    45|Arksey             pa|W.R. York |Doncaster    2|Thorne      8|
     9|Arlecdon           pa|Cumberland|Whitehaven   5|Workington  7|
    39|Arfey              pa|Warwick   |Nuneaton     6|Atherstone  6|
    16|Arlingham          pa|Gloucester|Newnham      3|Gloucester 12|
    11|Arlington          pa|Devon     |Barnstaple   6|Ilfracomb   8|
    15|Arlington          to|Gloucester|Fairford     4|Cirencester 6|
    38|Arlington          pa|Sussex    |Hailsham     4|Lewes       9|
     3|Arlsey[B]          pa|Bedford   |Baldock      4|Shefford    3|
     9|Armathwaite[C]   chap|Cumberland|Carlisle    10|Kirk Oswald 5|
    46|Armin            chap|W.R. York |Snaith       6|Howde       3|
    27|Armingall          pa|Norfolk   |Norwich      3|Bungay     12|
    35|Armitage[D]        pa|Stafford  |Rugeley      2|Abbots Brom 5|
    45|Armley[E]          to|W.R. York |Leeds        2|Bradford    7|
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   | Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-------------+
    45|Arkengarth-Dale[A]   |Reeth                   3|  245|   1446|
    14|Arkesden           pa|Royston                 7|   40|    490|
    23|Arkholm     to & chap|Burton                  4|  250|    349|
    45|Arksey             pa|Tickhill                8|  164|   1171|
     9|Arlecdon           pa|Buttermere              9|  299|    475|
    39|Arfey              pa|Coleshill               6|  100|    270|
    16|Arlingham          pa|Stroudwater            11|  120|    744|
    11|Arlington          pa|S. Molton              12|  193|    235|
    15|Arlington          to|Northleach              7|   85|    333|
    38|Arlington          pa|East Bourne             7|   62|    727|
     3|Arlsey[B]          pa|Hitchen                 6|   41|    689|
     9|Armathwaite[C]   chap|Penrith                 9|  292|    ...|
    46|Armin            chap|Thorne                  9|  175|    567|
    27|Armingall          pa|Blofield                6|  120|     88|
    35|Armitage[D]        pa|Lichfield               6|  124|    977|
    45|Armley[E]          to|Wakefield               9|  192|   5159|
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ARKENGARTH-DALE contains lead mines, which were worked in the reign
of King John, and they are still so valuable, that a few years ago the
produce was estimated at 2000 tons annually; the inhabitants are chiefly
miners.

[Sidenote: Valuable lead mines.]


[B] ARLSEY, or ARSLEY. This village was anciently a market town. In
"Doomsday Book," (a book made by order of William the Conqueror, in
which all the estates of the kingdom were registered;) its market on
Wednesday is recorded, and the tolls valued at 10s. per annum. A fair
was held here so long past as the year 1270; but both the market and
fair have long been disused. An ancient entrenchment near the road to
Baldock, called Etonbury, was probably the original site of the castle
occupied by the Lords of the Manor. This castle appears to have a place
of considerable strength. Amongst the ancient monuments in the church is
one erected to the memory of Richard Edwards, who is called on his
epitaph, the last Grand Reader of the Temple.

[Sidenote: An ancient entrenchment.]


[C] ARMATHWAITE. Near this village is a castle, situated on the of the
delightful river Eden, in a deep vale; the building from its monastic
gloom, appears rather to have been calculated for seclusion than
security. The front has been modernized, and is built of hewn stone. Its
antiquity has not been ascertained, certain it is the Skeltons resided
here as early as the reign of Henry VIII. The most romantic and
picturesque scenery surrounds this lovely spot. A magnificent hill
throws its solemn shade on the tranquil surface of the river, here
broadened into a lake like form. Amongst other grand masses of rock is a
projecting crag of a bold and grotesque form called the Cat Glent, the
rendezvous of many wild inhabitants of the feline tribe; beyond these is
a mill and a few sequestered cottages. From this spot the river Eden is
no longer tranquil, but rushing down a cataract pours in sonorous
violence over a bed of opposing rock, whose immovable crags whirl the
stream into eddies as it passes them in its fury. Near this place a
nunnery was established by William Rufus, who like other profligates,
"trembled amidst his impiety," and was willing enough to secure a chance
of heaven, provided it could be obtained by any other means than
virtuous practice. At the dissolution of Monasteries, owing to the
frequent hostilities between the Scots and English, their income
amounted to only 18 guineas per annum.

[Sidenote: Rendezvous of wild cats]

[Sidenote: Nunnery founded by William II.]


[D] ARMITAGE is situated on the river Soar, in the hundred of Offlow,
South, including the hamlet of Handsacre. The entrance to the church is
very curiously built in the Saxon style, and the chapel is separated
from the nave by a handsome arch. The Grand Trunk Canal passes through a
very noble subterraneous cavern or tunnel, in this parish. The town
received its name from having been the residence of a hermit.

[Sidenote: A remarkable tunnel.]


[E] ARMLEY. This township is in the parish of St. Patrick, and the
liberty of Leeds. It is situated on the banks of the Leeds and Liverpool
Canal, and of the river Aire, on which there are a number of mills
employed in various branches of the clothing trade. An object once of
great antiquarian curiosity, called Giants Hill, which was a Danish
fortification, is now scarcely traceable, in consequence of its having
been cut through to form the Leeds and Liverpool canal.

   Map|  Names of Places.    | County.  | Number of Miles From        |
   +--+----------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
    42|Armscott           ham|Worcester |Shipston     3|Evesham     10|
    28|Armston            ham|Northamp  |Oundle       3|Thrapston    7|
    45|Armthorpe           pa|W.R. York |Doncaster    3|Thorne       7|
    45|Arncliffe      to & pa|W.R. York |Settle       9|Askrigg     12|
    31|Arncott           vill|Oxford    |Bicester     3|Oxford      17|
    12|Arne                pa|Dorset    |Wareham      5|Poole        5|
    23|Arnesby             pa|Leicester |Leicester    8|Lutterworth  9|
    30|Arnold              pa|Nottingham|Nottingham   4|Mansfield   10|
    16|Arreton             pa|Hants     |Newport      3|Ryde         6|
     6|Arrington[A]        pa|Cambridge |Caxton       5|Cambridge   11|
     7|Arrow               to|Chester   |Great Neston 6|Liverpool    5|
    39|Arrow          to & pa|Warwick   |Alcester     1|Stratford    8|
    45|Arthington          to|W.R. York |Otley        5|Wetherby     9|
    28|Arthingworth        pa|Northamp  |Harborough   5|Rothwell     4|
     9|Arthuret[B]         pa|Cumberland|Longtown     1|Gretna Green 4|
    37|Arlington           ti|Surrey    |Guildford    1|Godalming    3|
    38|Arundel[C]  bo to & pa|Sussex    |Chichester  10|Bognor       7|
    26|Arvans, St.    to & pa|Monmouth  |Chepstow     3|Tintern Abb. 3|
   +--+----------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
                                                       |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+-------------------------+-----+--------+
    42|Armscott           ham|Alcester               13|   86|     130|
    28|Armston            ham|Peterboro'             13|   77|      25|
    45|Armthorpe           pa|Bawtry                  7|  162|     368|
    45|Arncliffe      to & pa|Middleham              15|  231|     964|
    31|Arncott           vill|Woodstock              11|   54|     ...|
    12|Arne                pa|Corfe Castle            5|  110|     171|
    23|Arnesby             pa|Harborough             10|   93|     442|
    30|Arnold              pa|Oxton                   4|  128|    4054|
    16|Arreton             pa|Niton                   7|   83|    1864|
     6|Arrington[A]        pa|Royston                11|   49|     254|
     7|Arrow               to|Chester                18|  200|      91|
    39|Arrow          to & pa|Henley in Ar.           8|  103|     466|
    45|Arthington          to|Leeds                   7|  198|     360|
    28|Arthingworth        pa|Northamp               11|   77|     225|
     9|Arthuret[B]         pa|Carlisle                7|  310|    2903|
    37|Arlington           ti|Farnham                10|   31|     ...|
    38|Arundel[C]  bo to & pa|Worthing.              10|   55|    2803|
    26|Arvans, St.    to & pa|Monmouth               10|  138|     304|
   +--+----------------------+-------------------------+-----+--------+


[A] ARRINGTON. This village was anciently called Ermington. It is near
Lord Hardwicke's Park. At this place, in the year 1721, the skeletons of
sixteen human bodies were found in digging for a water course, within
two feet of the surface of the ground. Some pieces of iron much rusted,
conjectured to have been pieces of swords were also found. It is
supposed the skeletons were the remains of persons who had been killed
in endeavouring to obtain possession of the pass over the river Cam,
during the civil wars.

[Sidenote: Sixteen skeletons found here.]


[B] ARTHURET. This village is situated on a point of land which in early
times was said to have been called Arthur's Head, from whence the name
is derived. In this place was both born and buried, Archibald Armstrong,
Jester to both King James I., and Charles I. By an incident suitable to
his profession, his funeral took place on "All Fools Day," the first of
April. He was banished the court for speaking too freely of Archbishop
Laud's measure of introducing the Liturgy into Scotland, which had
produced a considerable tumult. On the arrival of the news of these
riots in England, Archy facetiously asked his grace, "Who's the fool
now." The joke was bitterly resented by the prelate, who procured an
order of council to banish him from the court, for speaking
disrespectful words of the Archbishop of Canterbury. This parish is
bounded partly by Solway Frith, and forms part of the debateable lands
so celebrated in Scottish history; these lands and the celebrated Solway
Moss, we shall have occasion to speak further of in the course of the
work.

[Sidenote: A merry jester buried on "All Fool's Day."]


[C] ARUNDEL, is situated on the declivity of a hill, on the north bank
of the river Arun, over which there is a bridge. It consists of two
principal streets, one of which runs north and south, and the other
westward from the point of the union. Many of the houses are built in
the castellated style. The church, situated at the north end of the
town, originally belonged to a priory of Benedictines, and is supposed
to have been founded soon after the conquest of Roger de Montgomery,
Earl of Arundel. It is a handsome gothic building with transepts, from
the centre of which rises a square tower, with a wooden spire. Some
beautiful monuments of the Earls of Arundel may be seen; and one, more
magnificent than the rest, is of alabaster, a calcareous earth, which
differs from marble, in being combined not with carbonic, but with
sulphuric acid. This monument is erected to the memory of Thomas
Fitz-Alan, and Beatrice, his countess, a daughter of John, King of
Portugal. The charter by which the town is governed, was granted by
Queen Elizabeth. It formerly sent two members, but by the Reform Bill,
it now sends but one; the ten pound householders are calculated at 380.
The borough comprises the parish of Arundel and the returning officer is
the mayor. Here was formerly a harbour sufficient to contain vessels of
one hundred tons burthen, but it has suffered great damage by the sea.
Great quantities of timber for ship building, are still shipped from
this place, which has but little trade, yet it is much benefitted in
summer by the numerous visitors who resort to it for sea bathing. Of the
castle, which stands on the north-east side of the town, mention is
first made in the will of King Alfred, who bequeathed it, with the town,
to his nephew Adhelm. A popular tradition ascribes the foundation of it
to Beris, "a giant of ancient times," in confirmation of which opinion a
tower is still pointed out, called Beris Tower. The Conqueror gave it to
his kinsman Roger de Montgomery, whom he also created Earl of Arundel,
which title belonged to three persons of this family, till Robert
Bellesme was outlawed by Henry I. for the assistance he gave to that
monarch's brother, Robert. The castle was then settled on Queen Adeliza,
who, after the death of her royal consort, gave her hand to William de
Albini, one of the most accomplished men of his age. Here the
dowager-queen performed the rites of hospitality towards the Empress
Maud, in the attempt of that princess to ascend the throne. The last
male heir of the name of Albini, died in 1243, when the castle and manor
of Arundel fell to his sister, Isabel, whose husband, John Fitz-Alan,
made the castle his residence, and assumed the title of Earl of Arundel.
The fourth in descent from him forfeited his life and estates, in the
attempt to ruin the Despensers, favourites of Edward II.; but the
estates were restored to his son, whose successor, in the reign of
Richard II., being accused of a conspiracy to seize the king, and put to
death the lords of the council, was beheaded; the king presiding at the
execution. His son, Thomas Fitz-Alan, was reinstated by Henry IV.; but,
he dying without issue, in 1415, the castle devolved to his cousin, Sir
John Fitz-Alan, who laid claim to, and obtained the title, on which an
act was passed, that the possession of this castle and honour conferred
the dignity of Earl without creation. The last Fitz-Alan died in the 22d
of Elizabeth, leaving a daughter, who married Thomas Howard, Duke of
Norfolk, thus carrying the earldom and estate into that family, to whom
they still belong.

[Sidenote: Beautiful monuments in the church.]

[Sidenote: Quantities of Sussex oak shipped from this place.]

[Sidenote: Tradition ascribes the foundation of the castle to a giant.]

[Sidenote: The king presided at the execution of one of its lords.]

Concerning the true period of the foundation of this castle, many
conjectures have been entertained. On account of the bricks inserted in
the walls of the keep, it has been attributed to the Romans; but such a
proof is not allowed by the best antiquaries. Its pretensions to the era
of the Saxon kings are more explicit. The more ancient parts are the
keep or citadel, and the towers which flank the gateway, and connect the
whole by means of a sally port. The keep stands upon an artificial
mound, the height of which, from the fosse, is one hundred and ten feet
on one side, and eighty on the other. Of its external wall, the height
is thirty feet, supported by projecting ribs or buttresses. It is eight
feet thick, with a wall on the inside, guarded by a parapet as many feet
high. The diameter of the room which is faced with Norman or Caen stone,
is sixty-seven feet by fifty-nine. There are also Roman bricks placed in
the herring-bone fashion, which is observable in most Saxon buildings.
In the centre is a subterraneous room and passage; and in a tower
attached to the keep, is a well three hundred feet deep. The approach is
by a time-worn staircase, and over a narrow pass, commanding the
entrance to the building, which bears the marks of a portcullis. The
more ancient one towards the east still retains a very rich Saxon
door-case. In the tower above the present entrance, was a small chapel
or oratory, dedicated to St. George. The tower and gateway facing the
base court of the castle are apparently co-temporary with the keep. The
other towers are built with flint. The dungeons are on the right and
left of the gateway. They consist of eight wards, protected by a
draw-bridge from the castle moat. The lower wards are very deep, and
partly filled up with rubbish. The foundation walls of these dungeons
are not known, although efforts have been employed to discover the
length and depth of these frightful abodes. The Empress Maud's
apartments are in the tower, above the old gateway. They consist of
three bed-rooms. The Saxon keep may justly be termed the ivy-mantled
tower, for the walls are literally covered with its leaves. The late
Duke of Norfolk was very partial to this retired spot. Here are several
remarkably curious owls, elegant, and extremely large; some of them
measuring across the wings, from eight to ten feet. Their plumage is
particularly beautiful, and their eyes brilliant. The late duke
purchased them from North America. There are many traces of ancient
remains about the keep or tower. The spot where the boilers stood, for
the purpose of melting the lead to pour down upon the besiegers, and
those used for culinary purposes, are still visible. The marks of cannon
balls discharged against the tower during the siege of the parliamentary
forces, are observable in many places. The ground plan of the present
castle nearly resembles that of Windsor Castle, in the exact proportion
of nine to fourteen. When the late Duke of Norfolk took possession, the
castle was little better than a heap of ruins, but his Grace has
restored it to its original magnificence. The building is of free-stone,
from the quarries in Yorkshire; and those of a brown cast were carefully
selected, in order that they might assimilate in colour with the old
remains. The new walls have risen upon the ancient model, and correspond
with the old ones in solidity of fabric, as well as dignity of ornament.
An entire new front of massy stone, which differs materially from the
others, particularly in exhibiting the insignia of the Howards, mixed
with those of their predecessors, and two colossal figures of liberty
and hospitality, ornament the grand entrance. In raising this front, the
late duke had the opportunity of enlarging the mansion, and gaining the
space now occupied on the basement story, by a long range of servants'
offices, including a new kitchen, with two fire places, bake-house,
scullery, the steward's and housekeeper's rooms, &c. The cellars are of
immense length. The duke weekly employed from 100 to 200 labourers,
mechanics, and artists, in the improvement and decorations of this noble
edifice, for upwards of twenty-five years. The arrangements were formed
entirely from his own ideas, and in the progress of the plan, he was
exclusively his own architect. On the west wing is a beautiful
sculptured basso relievo historical representation of King Alfred
receiving the report of the jury, as established in his reign. The
costume and draperies are finely carved in stone. The interior of the
castle is fitted up with great taste and effect. The richest mahogany
has been used in almost every decoration. The walls being more than six
feet thick, form a kind of frame for each window, which is five feet
deep on the inside, and the whole of this spacious case is lined with
mahogany. The window frames which hold the magnificent plate glass
panes, three feet each in height, are of the same material; and the
solid mahogany doors are held in cases of the thickness of the inner
walls, perhaps, four feet deep, all lined with pannels of the richest
grain.

[Sidenote: The great antiquity of the castle.]

[Sidenote: The castle dungeons of remarkable depth.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable owls]

[Sidenote: The late Duke of Norfolk restored the castle to its ancient
magnificence.]

[Sidenote: Employed from 100 to 200 labourers for 25 years.]

In the Barons room the following inscription appears:--

    "CHARLES HOWARD, DUKE OF NORFOLK,

            EARL OF ARUNDEL,

       in the year of Christ, 1806,
       in the 60th year of his age,
           dedicated this stone
   To Liberty, asserted by the Barons,
          in the reign of John."

On the 15th of June, 1815, a great festival took place for celebrating
the centenary of the signing of Magna Charta. There was a splendid
assemblage of the nobility and persons of distinction. Complete suits of
ancient armour, with swords and spears, forged in ancient times, and for
very different purposes, were either suspended from, or hung around the
walls; and every adventitious aid was adopted to give state and majesty
to this celebration of the magnanimous conduct of the Barons of England.
Nearly three hundred distinguished guests sat down. The head of the
table was ornamented with a noble baron of beef, surmounted by the ducal
coronet, and the banners of the illustrious house of Norfolk.

[Sidenote: Festival to celebrate the signing of Magna Charter held
here.]

The castle occupies a mile in circumference, and the beautiful domains
which surround this magnificent structure, are more than seven miles and
a half in circumference, enclosed with a strong fence railing. The
grounds are well laid out, in gardens, shrubberies, and plantations.
There are three agreeable towers in the park; High Horn, commanding an
extensive prospect; and Mount Pleasant, covered with ivy, overlooking
the beautiful vale of Sussex. The late duke built another tower, facing
the road to Petworth, called the White Ways. The castle is open to the
inspection of visitors on the first Sunday in the month after divine
service, and on every Monday in the year.

[Sidenote: The times when the castle may be inspected by visitors.]

When the buildings on the Norfolk estate adjoining the Strand, London,
were erected, it was legally settled, that the whole of the rents,
should be expended for the sole purpose of keeping up Arundel Castle;
this has always been acted upon. The original rents having long since
fallen in--and the increased income that has been produced by that
cause, joined to the general increase of rents in that quarter, has been
so great, that it now requires very great ingenuity to contrive the
means of laying out all that money according to the directions of the
original entail; and this is the real cause of the magnificent style in
which that ancient baronial castle is still supported. The estate thus
mentioned, comprises the whole of Surrey-street, Arundel-street,
Howard-street, and Norfolk-street, which are the entire property of the
Norfolk family.

   _Markets_, Wednesday and Saturday.--_Mail_ arrives 7.40. A.M.,
   departs 5.30. P.M.--_Fairs_, May 14, cattle and hogs; August 21,
   hogs, cattle, and sheep; September 25, cattle and sheep; December 17,
   cattle and pedlary; second Tuesday in every month for
   cattle.--_Bankers_, Henty and Co., draw on Lubbock and Co.; Hopkins
   and Co., draw on Williams and Co.--_Inns_, Crown, and Norfolk Arms.

[Sidenote: Estates in London devoted to keep it in repair.]

   Map|  Names of Places.     | County.|  Number of Miles From |
   +--+-----------------------+--------+-----------+-----------+
    40|Asaph, St.[A] city & pa|Denbigh |Holywell 10|Abergeley 7|
    40|Asby[B]              pa|Westmor |Appleby   5|Orton     5|
    39|Ascote      ex. pa. ham|Warwick |Southam   2|Warwick   9|
   +--+-----------------------+--------+-----------+-----------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.     |Number of Miles From|Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+--------------------+-----+-----+
    40|Asaph, St.[A] city & pa|Holyhead          57|  208| 3144|
    40|Asby[B]              pa|Brough             9|  273|  436|
    39|Ascote      ex. pa. ham|Kineton            8|   82|   12|
   +--+-----------------------+--------------------+-----+-----+


[A] ST. ASAPH. This city is seated on the decline of a pleasant
eminence, between the rivers Clwyd and Elwy, which renders the first
appearance striking, though it contains little more than one street. The
church stands in the lower part of the town, and serves for the use of
the parishioners, the cathedral not being used for parochial purposes;
the latter was built about the close of the fifteenth century; it
consists of a choir, a nave, two aisles, and a transept. During the
protectorship of Cromwell the palace and cathedral were much injured by
the post-master, who made great havoc in the choir of the cathedral,
using the font as a trough for watering his horses; and by way of
venting his spleen on the clergy, tied up calves in the bishop's throne.
Several very eminent men have been bishops of St. Asaph, including Dr.
Isaac Barrow, William Beveridge, and Samuel Horsley, the former of whom
founded an alms-house for eight poor widows. Bishop Hughes, who died
1600, founded, and endowed the Free Grammar School. The neighbourhood
possesses several land proprietors who have given great encouragement to
agriculture, amongst whom may be included Dean Shipley, who stimulated
the practical farmers to emulation, by premiums, and other
encouragement. To this spirited dignitary, so well known in the history
of the law of libel, a very handsome monument has been erected in the
cathedral.

   _Market_ Saturday.--_Fairs_, Easter Tuesday, July 15, October 16,
   December 26, for cattle.--_Inn_, White Lion.

[Sidenote: The font of the cathedral used for watering horses.]


[B] ASBY, once called Askeby. This parish consists of four manors. The
church is ancient, its beauty has been much disfigured by repairs; it
has even been diminished in size, as appears by an arch now filled up in
the north wall. At Sayle Bottom are several tumuli--some circular,
others rectangular. At Garthorne Hall, a tumulus was found to contain
human bones and a large sword, and another containing three entire
skulls. Pate Hole, in this parish, is a remarkable cavern in a limestone
rock, consisting of two galleries, one 430 yards long, towards the north
east, the other, 230 yards long, making a large sweep from the extremity
of the first to its middle; together, they resemble the letter P. At the
end of the first gallery is a lofty dome, and a pool 20 yards long, 6
broad, and 3 deep; and in the second are two perpendicular chasms of
unknown extent, from whence proceed in rainy seasons torrents of water,
which fill the cavern and discharge themselves from its entrance. The
noise of these operations resemble at first gentle music, but increases
to the pitch of the loudest. In one part is a petrifying spring, which
always stands at one temperature.

[Sidenote: Pate Hole, an immense cavern.]

   Map| Names of Places.|County.|    Number of Miles From   |
   +--+-----------------+-------+------------+--------------+
    39|Ascott        ham|Warwick|Shipston   7|L. Compton   3|
    31|Ascott ham & chap|Oxford |Bensington 5|Dorchester   4|
    39|Ascott         pa|Oxford |  ...      5|   ...       4|
    34|Asgarby        pa|Lincoln|Sleaford   3|Tattershall 11|
    24|Asgarby        pa|Lincoln|Spilsby    6|Horncastle   6|
    10|Ash           ham|Derby  |Derby      7|Uttoxeter   11|
    21|Ash            pa|Kent   |Wingham    3|Sandwich     3|
    21|Ash            pa|Kent   |Farmingham 4|Gravesend    7|
    37|Ash            pa|Surrey |Farnham    4|Bagshot      9|
    16|Ash, or Ashe   pa|Hants  |Whitchurch 6|Basingstoke  7|
    11|Ashe[A]       ham|Devon  |Colyton    2|Lyme         4|
   +--+-----------------+-------+------------+--------------+
                                             |Dist.   |
   Map| Names of Places.|Number of Miles From|Lond.   |Population.
   +--+-----------------+--------------------+--------+------+
    39|Ascott        ham|Kineton           12|      78|   ...|
    31|Ascott ham & chap|Oxford            10|      61|    97|
    39|Ascott         pa|Oxford            10|      51|   419|
    34|Asgarby        pa|Falkingham         8|     114|   146|
    24|Asgarby        pa|Tattershall       10|     138|    57|
    10|Ash           ham|Burton-on-T.       7|     136|    50|
    21|Ash            pa|Ramsgate           8|      63|  2416|
    21|Ash            pa|Wrotham            4|      20|   586|
    37|Ash            pa|Godalming          8|      35|  2001|
    16|Ash, or Ashe   pa|Kingsclere         6|      53|   114|
    11|Ashe[A]       ham|Axminster          4|     148|   ...|
   +--+-----------------+--------------------+--------+------+


[A] ASHE is situated in Musbury parish, which lies in the hundred of
Axminster, two miles east by north from Colyton. It is the birth place
of the celebrated John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough: this
distinguished person was born here in the year 1650. He received only an
indifferent education, for his father took him to court at the age of
twelve years, when he became page, as his sister, Arabella, became
mistress to the Duke of York. In 1660, he obtained a pair of colours in
the Guards. His first service was at the siege of Tangier, and, on his
return from thence, he became the favourite of the Duchess of Cleveland,
who gave him £5,000 with which he purchased an annuity for life. He
afterwards served under the great Turenne, who was so pleased with his
person and bravery as to call him the handsome Englishman. At the siege
of Maestricht he so distinguished himself, that the King of France
publicly thanked him. On his return he was made lieutenant-colonel,
gentleman of the bedchamber, and master of the robes to the Duke of
York, whom he attended to Holland and Scotland; and about this time
married Miss Jennings, maid of honour to the Princess, afterwards Queen
Anne. In 1682, he was shipwrecked with the Duke of York, in their
passage to Scotland, on which occasion his royal highness expressed the
greatest anxiety to save his favourite. The same year he was made a
peer, by the title of Baron Eymouth, in Scotland; and when James came to
the crown, he was sent to France to notify the event. In 1685, he was
created Lord Churchill, of Sandridge. The same year he suppressed
Monmouth's rebellion, and took him prisoner. He continued to serve James
with great fidelity, till the arrival of the Prince of Orange, and then
left him, for which he has been stigmatized, and perhaps not unjustly,
with base ingratitude. His own apology was a regard for the religion and
constitution of his country. He was created Earl of Marlborough by King
William in 1689, and appointed commander of the English army in the low
countries. He next served in Ireland, and reduced Cork, with other
strong places. In 1692, he was suddenly dismissed from his employments,
and committed to the Tower: he was, however, very soon released, but the
cause of this disgrace was never clearly explained. After the death of
Queen Mary he was restored to favour; and at the close of that reign he
had the command of the English forces in Holland, and the States chose
him captain-general of their forces. On the commencement of the reign of
Anne, he recommended a war with France, and his advice was adopted. In
the first campaign of 1702, he took a number of strong towns,
particularly Liege. In the following year he was created a Duke. In
1704, he joined Prince Eugene, in conjunction with whom he conquered the
French at Hochstedt, took Marshal Tallard prisoner, and brought him to
England, with 26 other officers of rank, 121 standards, and 179 colours.
He then received the grant of the manor of Woodstock. In 1706, he fought
the famous battle of Ramilies. This battle accelerated the fall of
Louvain, Brussels, and other important places. He arrived in England,
and received fresh honours from the Queen and Parliament. Blenheim house
was ordered to be built, and a pension of £5,000. a year was awarded
him. In 1709, he defeated Marshal Villars at Malplaquet. In the year
1711, he returned to England with additional laurels, but was soon after
dismissed from his employments. To add to this unjust treatment, a
prosecution was commenced against him for applying the public money to
his private purposes. Indignant at such conduct, he went into voluntary
banishment till 1714, when he landed at Dover, amidst the acclamations
of the people. George I. restored him to his military employments, but
he retired from his appointments to Windsor, and died in 1722. His
remains were interred with great pomp in Westminster Abbey. His Duchess
outlived him several years. She was a woman of a strong mind, but
overbearing passions. Her letters have been printed, and display
uncommon sagacity, blended with a great share of vanity. The mansion
house in which the Duke was born, now in a state of ruin, was rebuilt
shortly after the civil wars, by Sir John Drake, whose daughter had
married Sir Winston Churchill.

   _Fairs_, April 6, and Oct. 11, for pedlary.

[Sidenote: The birth-place of the celebrated Duke of Marlboro'.]

[Sidenote: He took Monmouth prisoner in the reign of James II.]

[Sidenote: Created a Duke by Queen Anne.]

[Sidenote: Blenheim house built for him.]

[Sidenote: Died in the 8th year of the reign of Geo. I.]

   Map| Names of Places.    | County.|  Number of Miles From      |
   +--+---------------------+--------+-------------+--------------+
     4|Ashamstead       chap|Berks   |East Ilsley 5|Streatley    4|
    31|Ashamstead       chap|Oxford  |Gt. Marlow  4|H. Wycombe   4|
    36|Ash Bocking        pa|Suffolk |Needham     6|Ipswich      6|
    10|Ashbourn[A] m.t. & pa|Derby   |Derby      13|Leek        16|
    34|Ashbrittle         pa|Somerset|Wellington  6|Wiveliscombe 5|
   +--+---------------------+--------+-------------+--------------+
                                                   |Dist|
   Map| Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From |Lond|Population.
   +--+---------------------+----------------------+----+---------+
     4|Ashamstead       chap|Newbury              9|  49|      346|
    31|Ashamstead       chap|Henley               6|  35|      ...|
    36|Ash Bocking        pa|Woodbridge           8|  75|      234|
    10|Ashbourn[A] m.t. & pa|Wirksworth           9| 139|     4756|
    34|Ashbrittle         pa|Dulverton           10| 254|      635|
   +--+---------------------+--------+-------------+----+---------+


[A] ASHBOURN is very pleasantly situated in a rich valley on the eastern
side of the Dove, over which is a stone bridge. It is divided into two
parts by a rivulet, which is called Henmore, the southern part of which
is termed Compton, the ancient Campdene. From the descent of the hill on
the Derby road, the view of the place as it presents itself embosomed
amongst the hills is beautifully picturesque. It is a neat town, but
there is nothing remarkable in its buildings. At the time of the
conquest it was a royal manor, and subsequently became a part of the
Duchy of Lancaster, until it was sold by Charles I. It is supposed that
the church, which is dedicated to St. Oswald, was finished in the
thirteenth century; in it are many monuments to the Cockaines,
Bradburns, and Boothby's, successively possessors of the manors. Sir
Thomas Cockaine and other natives, founded a Free Grammar School, in the
reign of Elizabeth, for children of the town and neighbourhood, and also
a second for the poorer class of children of both sexes. Here are also a
chapel and a neat row of alms-houses, founded in 1800 by a native named
Cooper, who made a fortune in London, for six poor men and women, and
several other hospitals for decayed house-keepers, including one for the
maintenance of four clergymen's widows. A very considerable trade is
carried on here in cheese and malt, many horses and cattle are sold at
its fairs. Much lace is made here, and a great many persons are employed
in the iron and cotton factories in the neighbourhood. The romantic and
beautiful glen of Dovedale is within a short distance. This town is one
of the polling places for the southern division of the county.

   _Market_, Saturday.--Mail arrives 11 A.M., departs 2-3/4
   P.M.--_Fairs_, first Tuesday in January, and Feb. 13, for horses and
   horned cattle, April 3, May 21, and July 5, for horses, horned
   cattle, and wool. August 16, October 20, and November 29, for horses,
   and horned cattle; the fairs for horses begin two or three days
   before the fair-day.--_Inns_, Blackmoor's Head and Green
   Man.--_Bankers_, Arkwright and Co.; drawn on Smith, Payne, and Co.

[Sidenote: A royal manor of the Saxon Kings made part of the Duchy of
Lancaster.]

   Map| Names of Places. | County. | Number of Miles From     |
   +--+------------------+---------+-------------+------------+
    38|Ashburnham[A]   pa|Sussex   |Battle      6|Hailsham   6|
    11|Ashburton[B]     }|Devon    |Exeter     20|Torquay   13|
      |    bo. m.t. & pa}|         |             |            |
     4|Ashbury    to & pa|Berks    |Lambourn   16|Wantage   10|
    11|Ashbury         pa|Devon    |Hatherleigh 5|Oakhampton 6|
    24|Ashby           pa|Lincoln  |Gt. Grimsby 7|Caistor    9|
    24|Ashby           pa|Lincoln  |Spilsby     2|Burgh      3|
    24|Ashby           pa|Lincoln  |Sleaford    6|Lincoln   13|
    24|Ashby           to|Lincoln  |Brigg       6|Epworth    7|
    27|Ashby           pa|Norfolk  |Norwich     8|Acle       7|
    27|Ashby           pa|Norfolk  |Acle        3|Norwich   12|
    36|Ashby           pa|Suffolk  |Lowestoft   5|Yarmouth   8|
    28|Ashby, Cold     pa|Northamp |Northamp   12|Daventry  10|
    23|Ashby-de-la-Zouch}|Leicester|Leicester  18|Kegworth  10|
      |  [C]   m.t. & pa}|         |             |            |
   +--+------------------+---------+-------------+------------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places. |  Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    38|Ashburnham[A]   pa|East Bourne          11|   55|    721|
    11|Ashburton[B]     }|Totness               7|  192|   4165|
      |    bo. m.t. & pa}|                       |     |       |
     4|Ashbury    to & pa|Highworth             7|   70|    698|
    11|Ashbury         pa|Launceston           14|  201|     74|
    24|Ashby           pa|Louth                12|  160|    179|
    24|Ashby           pa|Wainfleet             6|  134|    170|
    24|Ashby           pa|Navenby               6|  121|    178|
    24|Ashby           to|Gainsboro'           14|  157|    378|
    27|Ashby           pa|Bungay                9|  116|     72|
    27|Ashby           pa|Yarmouth              8|  125|     82|
    36|Ashby           pa|Beccles               7|  119|     42|
    28|Ashby, Cold     pa|Harborough           10|  78 |    385|
    23|Ashby-de-la-Zouch}|M Bosworth           10|  115|   4727|
      |  [C]   m.t. & pa}|                       |     |       |
   +--+------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ASHBURNHAM is in the hundred of Foxearle, and rape of Hastings. This
village gives the name and title of Earl to the representatives of the
ancient family of Ashburnham, who possessed this manor before the
conquest. The shirt and white silk drawers in which Charles I. was
executed, on the 30th of January, 1649, and also the watch which he gave
to Mr. John Ashburnham, on the scaffold, are still preserved in the
church, having been bequeathed by one of his descendants to the clerk of
this parish for ever, and are exhibited as great curiosities.

[Sidenote: Bequests of Charles I. made on the scaffold.]


[B] ASHBURTON is situated in a valley encompassed by hills; it is about
a mile from the river Dart, and consists principally of one long street,
through which runs the high road from London to Plymouth. The houses are
neat, and most of them covered with slate, of which there is abundance
in the vicinity. The manor belonged to the crown in the reign of James
I., but it has since passed through various private hands. The town,
which is governed by a portreeve, chosen at the court leet and baron of
the manor, is a borough by prescription, (that is to say, a custom
continued until it has the force of law;) and was constituted one of the
four stannary towns of Devon, by a charter of Edward I., in the
twenty-sixth year of whose reign it sent two members to Parliament, but
only returned members once subsequently until 1640, in which year its
privilege was restored: by the late reform bill, it now returns but one
member; the electors on the old constituency were 101, and £10
householders 342. The portreeve is the returning-officer. The borough
comprises the parish of Ashburton.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, first Thursday in March; first Thursday
   in June; August 10; November 11, for horned cattle.--_Inns_, London
   and Golden Lion.--_Mail_ arrives 5 P.M., departs 9-3/4 A.M.

[Sidenote: One of the four stannary towns of the county.]


[C] ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH is situated in a fertile valley on the borders of
Derbyshire, through which runs the small river Gilwiskaw. Its
distinctive appellation is derived from the ancient family of the
Zouches, who came into possession of the manor in the reign of Henry
III. It afterwards devolved to the crown, by which it was granted to the
noble family of Hastings, in right of whom the Marquis of that title
still possesses it. The town is chiefly comprised in one street, from
which branches several smaller ones. The church is a handsome ancient
edifice, built of stone, consisting of a nave and two aisles, separated
by four lofty arches, springing from fluted pillars. Here are also
places of worship for the Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists,
Presbyterians, and others. A free grammar school was founded in this
town by Henry Earl of Huntingdon, in 1567; and another free school for
26 boys, by Isaac Dawson, in 1669. The manufactures established here are
chiefly those of cotton and woollen stockings, and hats. There is also a
good trade in malt, and the fairs are celebrated for the sale of fine
horses and cattle. The mansion at Ashby was remarkable for its magnitude
and strength, and continued for 200 years the residence of the family of
Sir William Hastings, knt., a particular favourite of Edward IV., who
was elevated by that monarch to several offices of high trust and
dignity. It stood on a rising ground, at the south end of the town, and
was composed of brick and stone from the ruins of Ashby Castle.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, Shrove-Monday, Easter Tuesday,
   Whit-Tuesday, last Monday in September, November 10, for horses,
   cows, and sheep.--_Bankers_, Fishers and Co.; draw upon Hoare,
   Barnet, and Co.--_Mail_ arrives 10.30 morning; departs 4.0
   afternoon.--_Inns_, Queen's Head, and White Hart.

[Sidenote: An ancient family gave their name to the town.]

[Sidenote: A noble mansion constructed out of the ruins of Ashby
Castle.]

   Map| Names of Places. | County. |   Number of Miles From       |
   +--+----------------------+---------+-------------+------------+
    23|Ashby Folville to & pa|Leicester|Melton Mow. 6|Leicester 10|
    23|Ashby Magna         pa|Leicester|Lutterworth 4|Hinckley  11|
    23|Ashby Parva         pa|Leicester|  ...       3|  ...      8|
    24|Ashby Puerorum[A]   pa|Lincoln  |Spilsby     5|Alford     7|
    28|Ashby St. Ledger[B] pa|Northamp |Daventry    4|Northamp  14|
   +--+----------------------+---------+-------------+------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.     | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    23|Ashby Folville to & pa|Houghton              6|  104|    391|
    23|Ashby Magna         pa|Leicester            11|   93|    330|
    23|Ashby Parva         pa|  ...                13|   92|    169|
    24|Ashby Puerorum[A]   pa|Louth                10|  137|    101|
    28|Ashby St. Ledger[B] pa|Welford               9|   76|    257|
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ASHBY PUERORUM. In the year 1804, a Roman sepulchre was discovered
near this place, by a labourer who was cutting a ditch. It consisted of
a stone chest, which laid 3 feet below the surface of the earth; the lid
fitted nearly to the sides, hanging a little over the edge, so that when
it was removed; no dirt of any kind was found to have gained admittance
during a period of nearly two thousand years. The chest was formed of
free stone, of a kind found in abundance on Lincoln Heath. The urn was
of strong glass well manufactured, and of a greenish colour. The glass
was as perfect and the surface as smooth as if just taken out of the
fire. This receptacle of the ashes was nearly filled with small pieces
of bone, many of which, from the effect of ignition, were white
throughout the whole substance. Among the fragments was discovered a
small lacrymatory, which had been broken, from the curiosity of the
person who discovered it, to ascertain whether it contained any thing of
value.

[Sidenote: A very ancient urn of green glass found here.]


[B] ASHBY ST. LEDGER is situated near a rivulet that flows into the
river Nen. The additional name of St. Ledger is borrowed from the patron
saint to whom the church is dedicated. This structure consists of a nave
and aisles, with a tower and spire. At the upper end of the north aisle
are still remaining the steps which led to the rude loft between the
chancel and the nave. Here are three piscinas for holy water. Several
ancient monumental inscriptions may be seen in the chancel. On an altar
tomb within the communion rails, are the recumbent figures of a man and
woman, with an inscription in black letter, commemorative of William
Catesby and Margaret his wife, bearing date 1493. Catesby was one of the
three families who ruled the nation under Richard's usurpation, and
constituted the triumvirate which is alluded to in the old distich:--

   The rat, and the cat, and Lovel the dog,
   Do govern all England under the hog.

The rat was Richard Ratcliff, the cat William Catesby, the dog Lord
Lovel, and the hog for Richard, it being then the regal crest. William
Catesby became a distinguished character; he was made esquire of the
King's body; Chancellor of the Marshes for life; and one of the
Chamberlains of the Exchequer. Being taken prisoner at the battle of
Bosworth field, while fighting by his patron's side, he was conducted to
Leicester, and beheaded as a traitor. At the eastern end of both aisles,
are two places, formerly appropriated as places of sepulture for the two
great Lords of Ashby. One of these belonged to the Catesby family; but
most of the inscriptions are effaced. The manorial house of Ashby is a
good old family mansion, occupied by the widow of the late John Ashby,
Esq. A small room in the detached offices belonging to the house is
still shown as having been the council-chamber, where the gunpowder-plot
conspirators held their deliberations. Robert Catesby, one of the
descendants of the family, was at the head of this conspiracy, for which
he was tried, condemned, and executed; and his head, together with that
of his father-in-law, Thomas Percie, who was involved in his guilt, were
fixed on the top of the Parliament-house.

[Sidenote: An ancient monument of the Catesby family.]

[Sidenote: Catesby taken prisoner at Bosworth field.]

[Sidenote: The gunpowder plot conspirators met here.]

   Map|  Names of Places.   |  County. |  Number of Miles From
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
    24|Ashby West         pa|Lincoln   |Horncastle   2|Louth       12|
    15|Ashchurch          pa|Gloucester|Tewkesbury   1|Winchcombe   9|
    11|Ashcombe[A]        pa|Devon     |Chudleigh    3|Exeter       9|
    34|Ashcott          chap|Somerset  |Glastonbury  6|Bridgewater 10|
    14|Ashdon or Ashingdon }|          |              |              |
      |             to & pa}|Essex     |Saff. Walden 4|Haverhill    6|
    14|Asheldam           pa|Essex     |Bradwell     4|Burnham      4|
    15|Ashelworth         pa|Gloucester|Gloucester   5|Tewkesbury   8|
    14|Ashen              pa|Essex     |Clare        2|Halstead     9|
     5|Ashenden[B]        pa|Bucks     |Thame        6|Bicester    11|
    36|Ashfield Great[C]  pa|Suffolk   |Stowmarket   7|Ixworth      5|
    36|Ashfield-cum-Thorpe p|Suffolk   |Framlingham  6|Debenham     2|
    10|Ashford[D]       chap|Derby     |Bakewell     2|Tideswell    6|
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   |    Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
    24|Ashby West         pa|Wragby                 13|  138|     391|
    15|Ashchurch          pa|Cheltenham              8|  103|     649|
    11|Ashcombe[A]        pa|Teignmouth              6|  177|     320|
    34|Ashcott          chap|Somerton                7|  129|     834|
    14|Ashdon or Ashingdon }|                         |     |        |
      |             to & pa}|Linton                  4|   45|    1103|
    14|Asheldam           pa|Maldon                  9|   46|     144|
    15|Ashelworth         pa|Newent                  7|  105|     540|
    14|Ashen              pa|Haverhill               5|   54|     373|
     5|Ashenden[B]        pa|Aylesbury               8|   46|     368|
    36|Ashfield Great[C]  pa|Botesdale               8|   76|     408|
    36|Ashfield-cum-Thorpe p|Eye                     9|   83|     375|
    10|Ashford[D]       chap|Buxton                 10|  155|     782|
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-----+--------+


[A] ASHCOMBE is a parish in the hundred of Exminster. Here is a mansion
of Lord Arundel's, situated in a large amphitheatre of hills, richly
wooded at their base, and at their summit often studded with herds of
sheep or deer. The only entrance to this romantic dale is from the
north, by a road, which though perfectly safe, falls precipitately down
a narrow ridge of one of the hills.


[B] ASHENDEN. This manor has been from time immemorial in the Grenville
family. John Bucktot, a priest, gave the manor of Little Pollicott, to
Lincoln College, in Oxford, about 1479; and what renders it particularly
remarkable, is the circumstance of the manor house being used as a
retiring place for the members of the college at the time of the plague.
In Ashenden Church, is an ancient figure of a crusader, under an arch,
rudely ornamented with foliage; which according to tradition, is the
tomb of John Bucktot; this appears however to be erroneous, as it is
evidently the tomb of a layman, and from the chevron on the shield, one
of the Stafford family, anciently lords of Great Pollicott.

[Sidenote: A retiring place for collegians in the time of the plague.]


[C] ASHFIELD. This obscure village gave birth to the celebrated Lord
Chancellor Thurlow, and his brother, the late Bishop of Durham; they
were the sons of the vicar, under whose auspices they were educated. On
leaving the university, the former entered himself of the Inner Temple,
but did not distinguish himself at the bar, until his abilities were
employed upon the Douglas case; after which he became successively
Solicitor-General, Attorney-General, and Lord High Chancellor. He was
elevated to the peerage by the title of Baron Thurlow, of Ashfield. In
1786, he was made Teller of the Exchequer, and created Baron Thurlow, of
Thurlow: he retired in 1793, and died at Brighton in 1806. He was
succeeded in the peerage by his nephew, the son of his brother, the
Bishop of Durham. He was never married, but he left three illegitimate
daughters, to two of whom he bequeathed large property; the other having
offended him by an imprudent marriage, he left her only a small annuity.

[Sidenote: The birth-place of Lord Chancellor Thurlow.]


[D] ASHFORD. This village is frequently called Ashford in the water,
from the lowness of its situation. It is seated on the banks of the
river Wye. The only remains of the residence of the Plantagenets of
Woodstock (who had a castle here) is a moat, half filled with rubbish.
Sir William Cavendish, the favourite of Cardinal Wolsey, purchased this
estate of the Earl of Westmoreland; and the Duke of Devonshire, a
descendant of that family, still continues the proprietor. The works in
this village for sawing and polishing marble, were the first ever
established in England. They were originally constructed by Mr. Henry
Watson, of Bakewell, about 80 years since, but though he obtained a
patent, to secure the gain arising from this invention, the advantages
were unequal to his expectations. Mr. John Platt, architect, of
Rotherham, in Yorkshire, rented the quarries of black and grey marble,
the only ones of the kind now worked in Derbyshire. The sweeping mill,
as it is called, from its circular motion, will level a floor of eighty
superficial feet of marble slabs at one time.

[Sidenote: Extensive works for sawing and polishing marble.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  | County. |   Number of Miles From
   +--+--------------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
    11|Ashford           pa|Devon    |Barnstaple  2|Ilfracomb   8|
    21|Ashford[A] m.t. & pa|Kent     |Canterbury 15|Folkestone 17|
    25|Ashford[B]      chap|Middlesex|Staines     3|Bedfont     2|
    33|Ashford Bowdler   pa|Salop    |Ludlow      3|Tenbury     6|
    33|Ashford Carbonel  pa|Salop    |...         3|...         6|
    23|Ashfordby         pa|Leicester|Melton Mow. 3|Loughbro'  11|
    29|Ash-holm         ham|Northumb |Hexham     19|Haltwhistle 4|
    27|Ashill            pa|Norfolk  |Watton      4|Swaffham    6|
    34|Ashill[C]         pa|Somerset |Ilminster   4|Taunton     8|
    14|Ashingdon[D]      pa|Essex    |Rochford    3|Maldon      9|
   +--+--------------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    11|Ashford           pa|Marwood               2|  194|     99|
    21|Ashford[A] m.t. & pa|Maidstone            19|   53|   2809|
    25|Ashford[B]      chap|Sunbury               3|   16|    458|
    33|Ashford Bowdler   pa|Leominster            9|  137|     99|
    33|Ashford Carbonel  pa|  ...                 9|  137|    289|
    23|Ashfordby         pa|Leicester            13|  108|    467|
    29|Ash-holm         ham|Aldstone              7|  279|    122|
    27|Ashill            pa|E. Dereham           10|   94|    700|
    34|Ashill[C]         pa|Chard                 7|  137|    403|
    14|Ashingdon[D]      pa|Chelmsford           13|   40|     98|
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ASHFORD is situated about twelve miles from the sea, on an eminence
rising from the northern bank of the small river Stour, and on the high
road between Hythe and Maidstone. The town, which is a liberty of
itself, originated from the ruins of Great Chart, an ancient market
town, which gave name to the hundred, and was destroyed in the Danish
wars. It was then called Asscheford, and, in some early documents,
Estefort and Enetesford, from the ford over the river Stour; the ancient
name of which was Esshe or Eschet. It is pleasantly situated near the
confluence of the upper branches of the river Stour, over one of which
there is a bridge. The manor received the privilege of a market so early
as Edward I. The town is governed by a mayor, and possesses a court of
record for the recovery of debts, not exceeding twenty marks. The church
is a spacious and handsome fabric, consisting of a nave, aisles, and
three chancels, with a lofty and well-proportioned tower. There are
several ancient monuments, especially one of a Countess of Athol, who
died in 1365, whose effigy exhibits the female costume of that age, in a
very remarkable manner. The ancient college, founded by Sir John Fogge
owner of the manor, in the reign of Edward IV., was dissolved in that of
Henry VII., and the house given to the vicar for a residence. It still
exists, although latterly much modernised. Here is a Free Grammar
School, founded by Sir Norton Knatchbull, in the reign of Charles I.,
and various minor charities. The inhabitants of this town and its
vicinity are much engaged in the rearing and fattening of cattle, for
the sale of which its markets and fairs are much celebrated.

   _Market_ Saturday. A stock market held on the 1st and 3rd Tuesday in
   every month.--_Fairs_ May 17, and August 2, for wool; September 9,
   October 12, and 24, for horses, cattle and pedlary.--_Inns_, George,
   Royal Oak, and Saracen's Head.--_Bankers_, G. and W. Jemmett, draw on
   Esdaile and Co.--_Mail_ arrives 8.0 morning; departs 5.15 afternoon.

[Sidenote: Origin of the town of Ashford.]

[Sidenote: The college made into a parsonage house:]


[B] ASHFORD. This place was originally called Exeford, from its ford
over the river Exe; the village is now but of little importance. It lies
in that level part of the county, formerly occupied by Hounslow Heath,
the terror of the western traveller, from the numerous robberies
committed on its highways. Ashford Common was selected for military
reviews; it has however, for some years been inclosed, and the review
ground is now near Hounslow. The chapel is a plain brick building,
possessing no claims on the attention of the antiquary; it was erected
in 1796 by voluntary contribution.

[Sidenote: Hounslow Heath.]


[C] ASHILL.--_Fairs_, April 9, and September 10.


[D] ASHINGDON. This place is memorable in the early periods of our
history. "Nothing is more surprising," observes Gough, in his Additions
to Camden, "than the errors all antiquaries have hitherto lain under
with respect to the scene of the battle between Edmund Ironside and the
Danes." Though they had the authority of Mr. Camden against them, they
have caried it quite across the county to the northern extremity and as
far from the sea as possible, in defiance of every circumstance that
could fix it there. In a marsh in Woodham Mortimer parish, on the river
Burnham or Crouch, are twenty-four barrows grouped in pairs, and most of
them surrounded by a ditch, supposed to be the burial places of the
Danes, who probably landed at Bradwell, a village near the mouth of the
Blackwater River, fourteen miles distant.

[Sidenote: The site of an engagement between Edm. Ironside and the
Danes.]

   Map|   Names of Places.  | County. |        Number of Miles From
   +--+-----------------------+--------+-------------+--------------+
    29|Ashington           to|Northump |Morpeth     5|Blyth        6|
    34|Ashington           pa|Somerset |Ilchester   3|Yeovil       4|
    38|Ashington           pa|Sussex   |Steyning    4|Arundel      9|
     7|Ashley              to|Chester  |Knutsford   5|Altringham   3|
    28|Ashley              pa|Northamp |Rockingham  6|Harborough   5|
    16|Ashley              pa|Hants    |Stockbridge 3|Winchester   8|
    35|Ashley              pa|Stafford |Eccleshall  6|Drayton      6|
    41|Ashley[A]           pa|Wilts    |Malmesbury  5|Tetbury      3|
     5|Ashley-Green       ham|Bucks    |Chesham     3|Berkhamp     2|
     6|Ashley-cum-Silvery, pa|Cambridge|Newmarket   5|Mildenhall  10|
    10|Ashley-Hay          to|Derby    |Wirksworth  2|Belper       6|
    27|Ashmanhaugh         pa|Norfolk  |Coltishall  3|Worsted      3|
    16|Ashmansworth      chap|Hants    |Whitchurch  8|Andover     10|
    12|Ashmore             pa|Dorset   |Shaftesbury 5|Cranborne   12|
    34|Asholt, or Aisholt  pa|Somerset |Bridgewater 7|Stowey       3|
    10|Ashover[B]     to & pa|Derby    |Alfreton    7|Chesterfield 7|
    39|Ashow               pa|Warwick  |Warwick     5|Kenilworth   3|
    17|Ashperton         chap|Hereford |Ledbury     5|Hereford    11|
    11|Ashprington         pa|Devon    |Totness     3|Brixham      6|
    34|Ash-Priors          pa|Somerset |Taunton     6|Wellington   6|
    11|Ashreigney          pa|Devon    |Chumleigh   4|Torrington  11|
     5|Ashridge[C]        ham|Bucks    |Chesham     2|Berkhamp     4|
   +--+----------------------+---------+-------------+--------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.   |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+
    29|Ashington           to|Ulgham                4|  290|      57|
    34|Ashington           pa|Sherborne             7|  121|      74|
    38|Ashington           pa|Horsham              10|   46|     285|
     7|Ashley              to|Cheadle               7|  177|     379|
    28|Ashley              pa|Rothwell              8|   86|     304|
    16|Ashley              pa|Romsey                8|   67|      93|
    35|Ashley              pa|Newcastle             9|  154|     825|
    41|Ashley[A]           pa|Kemble                5|   96|      99|
     5|Ashley-Green       ham|Tring                 5|   27|     ...|
     6|Ashley-cum-Silvery, pa|Bury                 11|   63|     361|
    10|Ashley-Hay          to|Turnditch             3|  138|     241|
    27|Ashmanhaugh         pa|Norwich              10|  118|     154|
    16|Ashmansworth      chap|Newbury               8|   64|     222|
    12|Ashmore             pa|Blandford             8|  101|     191|
    34|Asholt, or Aisholt  pa|Taunton               8|  146|     228|
    10|Ashover[B]     to & pa|Matlock               3|  147|    3179|
    39|Ashow               pa|Coventry              6|   95|     176|
    17|Ashperton         chap|Bromyard             11|  125|     398|
    11|Ashprington         pa|Dartmouth             6|  198|     549|
    34|Ash-Priors          pa|Stowey                9|  147|      201
    11|Ashreigney          pa|Hatherleigh           9|  198|    1038|
     5|Ashridge[C]        ham|Tring                 5|   29|     ...|
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] ASHLEY, was formerly distinguished by a fair and market, it is now
remarkable only for a large mansion, which was once the seat of the
Georges. The church, an ancient building, with a square embattled tower,
is principally interesting for its arches; some of which are round, and
others pointed, resting on slender clustered pillars, with massy
capitals of foliage. The font is large, round, and very rude in its
workmanship.


[B] ASHOVER. This village is of great antiquity, being mentioned in the
Doomsday Book, as having a church and a priest. In the church is an
ancient font, supposed to be Saxon; the base is of stone; the lower part
is of an hexagonal form; the upper part circular, surrounded with twenty
figures, in devotional attitudes, embossed in lead, in ornamental
niches. There are also some ancient monuments of the Babington family,
who were for a long time seated at Dithicke, a chapelry in this parish.
Anthony Babington was executed for high treason in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, having engaged in a conspiracy to destroy that princess. On
the declivity of a hill on Ashover Common is a rocking stone, called
Robin Hood's Mark, which measures about twenty-six feet in
circumference. From its extraordinary position, it appears not only to
have been the work of art, but to have been placed with great ingenuity.
About 200 yards to the north is a singularly shaped work, called the
Turning-stone, nine feet high: it is supposed to have been a rock idol.
Overton Hall, in this vicinity, was once the seat of Sir Joseph Banks,
the President of the Royal Society.

[Sidenote: A singular rocking stone, formerly an idol.]


[C] ASHRIDGE was formerly called Escrug. In very early times this
village is reported to have possessed a royal palace; which, when the
estate became the property of Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, son to Richard,
King of the Romans, was converted into a college for Bonhommes (or monks
who followed the rules of St. Augustine,) and endowed with the manors of
Ashridge, Gaddesden, and Hemel Hempstead. A parliament was held here by
Edward the First, in the year 1291; and, though of short continuance, it
was distinguished by a spirited debate on the origin and necessary use
of fines. After the dissolution, the monastery appears to have become
the seat of royalty; and Norden describes it as the place "wherein our
most worthy and ever famous Queen Elizabeth lodged, as in her owne,
being a more statelie house." This queen, in the 17th year of her reign,
granted it to John Dudley, and John Ayscough, who within the short
period of a fortnight, conveyed it to Henry, Lord Cheny, whose lady sold
it to Ralph Marshal, by whom it was again conveyed to Randolph Crew and
others, and soon afterwards granted to Egerton, Lord Ellesmere, ancestor
to the late Duke of Bridgewater; several of whose family are buried in
the neighbouring church of Little Gaddesden. The old college, the
greater part of which was standing in the year 1800, exhibited a fine
specimen of the gothic architecture of the thirteenth century. The
cloisters were particularly beautiful. The walls were painted in fresco
with Scripture subjects. The late Duke of Bridgewater pulled down the
whole of these buildings, the materials of which were disposed of in
lots; the present earl, the dukedom being extinct, has erected a most
magnificent mansion at a great expense. Ashridge Park, which contains
some very fine oak and beech trees, is pleasingly varied with hill and
dale. It is about five miles in circumference.

[Sidenote: A parliament held here by Edward I.]

[Sidenote: The manor house a favourite seat of Queen Elizabeth.]

   Map| Names of Places. | County.  |  Number of Miles From
   +--+------------------+----------+-----------+-------------+
    37|Ashtead         pa|Surrey    |Epsom     2|Leatherhead 2|
     7|Ashton          to|Chester   |Chester   8|Tarporley   7|
    11|Ashton          pa|Devon     |Chudleigh 4|Exeter      6|
    22|Ashton          to|Lancaster |Preston   2|Kirkham     7|
    22|Ashton[A]       to|Lancaster |Lancaster 3|Garstang    8|
    28|Ashton          pa|Northamp  |Northamp  7|Towcester   5|
    28|Ashton         ham|Northamp  |Wandsford 5|Stamford    5|
    28|Ashton         ham|Northamp  |Oundle    1|Wandsford   8|
    41|Ashton-Giffard  to|Wilts     |Warminste 7|Hindon      6|
    15|Ashton        chap|Gloucester|Evesham   5|Tewkesbury  8|
    41|Ashton-Keynes   pa|Wilts     |Cricklade 4|Cirencester 6|
    34|Ashton, Long[B] pa|Somerset  |Bristol   3|Keynsham    7|
   +--+------------------+----------+-----------+-------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places. |Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+
    37|Ashtead         pa|Ewell                4|   17|    607|
     7|Ashton          to|Frodsham             6|  185|    405|
    11|Ashton          pa|Moreton Ha.          6|  174|    333|
    22|Ashton          to|Garstang            11|  219|    ...|
    22|Ashton[A]       to|Overton              3|  237|    213|
    28|Ashton          pa|Stoney Strat.        7|   62|    380|
    28|Ashton         ham|M. Deeping           4|   89|    126|
    28|Ashton         ham|Stilton              8|   81|    129|
    41|Ashton-Giffard  to|Wilton              12|   90|    ...|
    15|Ashton        chap|Winchcomb            8|  102|    301|
    41|Ashton-Keynes   pa|Malmesbury           8|   89|   1182|
    34|Ashton, Long[B] pa|Axbridge            14|  120|   1423|
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ASHTON. Near this village is Ashton Hall, a seat of his Grace the
Duke of Hamilton. It formerly belonged to the family of the Laurences,
but came into the present family by the marriage of James, Earl of
Arran, afterwards Duke of Hamilton, with Elizabeth, daughter and heir of
Lord Gerrard Digby, of Bromley. The mansion is a large building, with
some square embattled towers, an ancient hall, and other features of a
magnificent baronial castle. It is situated in a fine park, through
which flows a small rivulet, forming a narrow bay, at the western side
of the grounds. The park abounds with wood, and is agreeably diversified
with hill and dale, and affords, from many parts, extensive views across
the river Lune to Morecambe Bay, the Irish sea, &c. The mansion has
undergone considerable alteration, yet care has been taken to preserve
its ancient character.

   _Mail_ arrives at Galgate Bridge, one mile distant, 9.20 P.M.;
   departs 2.20 morn.

[Sidenote: Seat of the Duke of Hamilton.]


[B] ASHTON, or LONG ASHTON, is situated in a rich woody vale, protected
on the north by a range of picturesque though bleak hills, and on the
north lies the lofty ridge of Dundry. In this parish the inhabitants
raise fruit and vegetables for the Bristol market. There is much
garden-ground in Long Ashton, in which many Roman coins have been
discovered. The houses are in general well-built, much company resorting
thither during the summer season. The circumjacent scenery is
delightful, and in the vicinity are the remains of two Roman
encampments, Stokeleigh and Burwalls. The church is an old but very
handsome building, founded by the family of Lyons; the nave and aisles
are divided from the chancel by a beautiful gothic screen of fret and
flower work, painted and gilt, and executed in the most admirable style.
One of the 6 bells contained in the tower is inscribed "Sancte Johannes
Baptiste ora pro nobis;" on the tower are the arms of Lyons, in stone.
Amongst several painted figures and coats of arms on the glass of the
windows, are the portraits of Edward IV. and his Queen, Elizabeth
Widville. Here are several handsome monuments, but that of Sir Richard
Choke and his lady is eminently magnificent and beautiful. Ashton Court,
the manor house, originally founded by the Lyons family, but materially
altered by Inigo Jones, occupies the S.E. slope of Ashton Down, and the
remains of another old manor house, called the Lower Court, still stands
in a valley to the S.W. of the village.

   Map|   Names of Places.      | County. |   Number of Miles From
   +--+-------------------------+---------+------------+------------+
    22|Ashton-under-Lyne[A]    p|Lancaster|Manchester 7|Stockport  7|
    22|Ashton-in-Mackerfield}[B]|         |            |            |
      |            o & chap }   |Lancaster|Newton     3|Prescot    7|
     7|Ashton-upon-Mersey   }   |         |            |            |
      |             to & pa }   |Chester  |Stockport  9|Manchester 7|
   +--+-------------------------+---------+------------+------------+
                                                       |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.      | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+
    22|Ashton-under-Lyne[A]    p|Mottram              5|  186|  33597|
    22|Ashton-in-Mackerfield}[B]|                      |     |       |
      |            o & chap }   |Wigan                5|  196|   5912|
     7|Ashton-upon-Mersey   }   |                      |     |       |
      |             to & pa }   |Altringham           4|  184|   2078|
   +--+-------------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE is a large town situated at the south-eastern
extremity of the county. It consists of several narrow streets, built on
a high bank, which rises from the river Tame. It appears from an ancient
manuscript, that Ashton was formerly a borough, yet for some centuries
it sent no members to Parliament; but, by the Reform Bill of 1832, it
now returns one member, and the mayor of the town is the returning
officer. The borough comprises the whole district, over which the
lighting and paving act of the 7th and 8th of Geo. IV. extends. A court
is held here for the recovery of debts, not exceeding five pounds, by
48th Geo. III. c. 18; any person may sue, under the general regulations,
and defendants sued elsewhere are to have their costs. Defendants
removing out of the jurisdiction, may be followed in person and goods,
by removing the record to the superior courts, but wagers, &c. are not
recoverable. The principal part of the landed property of this parish
belongs to the Earl of Stamford, in whose family it was conveyed, by the
marriage of Sir William Booth to the daughter of Sir Thomas Asheton,
whose family possessed some peculiar privileges in this manor: among
which was, the power of life and death over their tenantry. In
commemoration of this privilege, and its having been sometimes
exercised, a field near the old hall is still called Gallows Meadow.
There is also an ancient custom here, called "riding the black lad,"
celebrated every Easter Monday, to perpetuate some act of great tyranny
exercised by Sir Ralph Asheton, in 1483, when vice-constable of England.
The ceremony consists in exhibiting the effigies of a man on horseback
through the streets, which is afterwards suspended on the cross in the
market place, and there shot. The figure was formerly cased in armour,
and the expenses of it were defrayed by the court. Another account of
the origin of this custom states, that Thomas Asheton, in the reign of
Henry III., particularly distinguished himself at the battle of
Neville's Cross, and bore away the standard from the Scotch King's tent.
For this heroic deed the King conferred on Ashton the honour of
Knighthood, who, on his arrival at his manor instituted the custom
described. At the village of Fairfield, in this parish, there is a
Moravian settlement, who have erected a chapel for their followers. The
males are principally employed in spinning and weaving: they form a very
industrious and orderly community. On the western side of the town is
Ashton Moss, which supplies the poor with peat turf. Oak and fir trees
are frequently found by those who dig for the peat.

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fairs_, March 23, April 29, July 25, and
   November 21, for horned cattle, horses, and toys.--_Bankers_,
   Buckley, Roberts, and Co.; draw in London on Jones, Lloyd, and
   Co.--_Inn_, Commercial Hotel.

[Sidenote: Court of Requests for the recovery of £5. Defendants may be
followed.]

[Sidenote: The lord of the manor possessed a power of life and death.]

[Sidenote: Custom of riding the black lad.]

[Sidenote: Moravian settlement.]


[B] ASHTON. This village is generally called Ashton in Makerfield, or
Ashton in the Willows; it enjoys a very pleasant situation on the road
between Newton and Wigan. The hardware and cotton manufactories give
employment to the inhabitants. The church is a large old building, part
of which appears to have been erected by the lords of the manor. On the
pews are some ancient carvings; and in the windows are exhibited some
painted figures. Several of the Ashtons lie interred here, and their
names are inscribed on the windows. Near the church is a curious
mansion, called the Old Hall, the oldest parts of which are said to have
been built in 1483; adjoining this stands a pile, which was formerly
used as a prison.

   Map|   Names of Places.   | County. |        Number of Miles From
   +--+-------------------------+---------+--------------+---------------+
    41|Ashton-Steeple[A] pa & ti|Wilts    |Trowbridge   3|Melksham      4|
    41|Ashton, West           to|Wilts    |  ...        3|  ...         5|
    21|Ashurst                pa|Kent     |Tunbridge    7|Tunbr. Wells  5|
    38|Ashurst                pa|Sussex   |Steyning     4|Henfield      3|
    11|Ashwater               pa|Devon    |Holsworthy   7|Oakhampton   14|
    18|Ashwell[B]             pa|Herts    |Baldock      4|Royston       6|
    32|Ashwell                pa|Rutland  |Oakham       4|Cottesmere    3|
    27|Ashwell-Thorpe         pa|Norfolk  |Wymondham    3|Attleburgh    7|
    34|Ashwick                pa|Somerset |Shepton Mall 4|Frome         9|
    27|Ashwicken              pa|Norfolk  |Lynn         5|Castle Rising 5|
    35|Ashwood               ham|Stafford |Stourbridge  4|Dudley        3|
    22|Ashworth             chap|Lancaster|Rochdale     3|Bury          3|
    43|Aske                   to|N.R. York|Richmond     2|Reeth         8|
   +--+-------------------------+---------+--------------+---------------+
                                                         |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.   |   Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------------+------------------------+-----+---------+
    41|Ashton-Steeple[A] pa & ti|Devizes                7|   96|     1754|
    41|Ashton, West           to|  ...                  9|   98|      374|
    21|Ashurst                pa|Groombridge            2|   34|      206|
    38|Ashurst                pa|W. Grinstead           4|   47|      423|
    11|Ashwater               pa|Launceston             8|  209|      862|
    18|Ashwell[B]             pa|Biggleswade            6|   41|     1072|
    32|Ashwell                pa|Overton                3|   99|      209|
    27|Ashwell-Thorpe         pa|Buckenham              7|  100|      471|
    34|Ashwick                pa|Wells                  6|  118|      995|
    27|Ashwicken              pa|Swaffham              10|   98|       80|
    35|Ashwood               ham|Wolverhamp.            6|  123|      ...|
    22|Ashworth             chap|Manchester            11|  192|      294|
    43|Aske                   to|Darlington            11|  235|      105|
   +--+-------------------------+------------------------+-----+---------+


[A] ASHTON, or STEEPLE ASHTON is remarkable for its lofty and elegant
church, which was built about the year 1480, though the chapels and a
part of the chancel appear of a still earlier date. The tower which is
high and handsome, was formerly surmounted by a spire or steeple, whence
the village had its distinctive appellation. An inscription informs us
that, in the year 1670, the spire being in height 93 feet above the
tower, was rent by a violent thunder storm, and that in the same year,
being almost re-erected, it was by a second storm again destroyed. The
roof of the nave is formed by intersecting arches, which rest on
canopied niches, adorned with whole length figures or flowers; and that
of the aisles is profusely decorated with sculpture and tracery work,
while the windows display some splendid remains of painted glass, the
whole corresponding with the exterior in style and effect. Plot informs
us that there was dug up at Steeple Ashton, a pavement, which he
considered to be Roman, though different in materials and design from
those commonly regarded as such. The Madrepore stone is found among the
fossil productions of Ashton. Rowd Ashton, the seat of Richard Godolphin
Long, Esq., is situated in a large and well wooded park. The Kennet and
Avon canal from London to Bristol passes near this village.

[Sidenote: The church steeple twice thrown down by storms.]


[B] ASHWELL. This village, situate on the river Rhee, on the borders of
Cambridgeshire, derives its present name from Escewelle, and is supposed
by Camden to be of Roman origin, from the frequent discovery of Roman
coins, and sepulchral urns, in an adjacent earthwork, or fortification,
called Arbury banks. It is in a low situation on the northern edge of
the county. Here a considerable spring breaks out from a rocky bank
overhung with lofty ash-trees, from which a continued quantity of water
flows, and being quickly collected into one channel, turns a mill, and
soon after becomes a river. From this spring and these ash-trees, it is
supposed the Saxons gave it the name of Ashwell. The village was
anciently a demesne of the Saxon kings; but before the time of Edward
the Confessor, it was granted to the Abbots of St. Peter's, at
Westminster, to whom it continued to belong till the dissolution, when
the Abbey was erected into a deanery, and after that into a bishopric;
it, however, followed the fate of similar foundations; and when the
bishopric was dissolved, in the reign of Edward VI., it was granted,
with other manors, to the see of London, in which it is still invested.
The church consists of a nave, aisle, and chancel, with a tower at the
west-end, surmounted by a spire. In the chancel are several slabs,
formerly inlaid with brasses. Among the inscriptions, Weever notices one
with the words, "Orate pro--Walter Sommoner." "I reade," says Weever,
"that one Walter Sumner held the manor of Ashwell of the King, by pettie
sergeantie; viz. to find the king spits to rost his meate upon the day
of his coronation: and John Sumner, his sonne, held the same manor by
service, to turne a spit in the king's kitchen upon the day of his
coronation."

[Sidenote: Powerful spring oozing from a rock.]

   Map|   Names of Places.     |  County. |     Number of Miles From
   +--+------------------------+----------+------------+--------------+
    45|Askerne or Askeron[A] to|W.R. York |Doncaster  7|Ferry-bridge 8|
    11|Askerswell            pa|Dorset    |Bridport   4|Beaminster   8|
    9 |Askerton[B]           to|Cumberland|Carlisle  13|Longtown    12|
    30|Askham              chap|Nottingham|Tuxford    3|Gamston      3|
    40|Askham[C]        to & pa|Westmor   |Penrith    4|Lowther      2|
    43|Askham Bryan     to & pa|N.R. York |York       4|Tadcaster    6|
    43|Askham                pa|N.R. York |York       5|  ...        5|
    43|Askrigg[D]   m.t. & chap|N.R. York |Middleham 12|Reeth        7|
   +--+------------------------+----------+------------+--------------+
                                                       |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.     | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+
    45|Askerne or Askeron[A] to|Snaith               10|  169|     256|
    11|Askerswell            pa|Abbotsbury            7|  131|     228|
    9 |Askerton[B]           to|Brampton              5|  316|     473|
    30|Askham              chap|E. Retford            6|  140|     329|
    40|Askham[C]        to & pa|Bampton               4|  280|     587|
    43|Askham Bryan     to & pa|Wetherby             10|  196|     341|
    43|Askham                pa|  ...                 9|  195|     234|
    43|Askrigg[D]   m.t. & chap|Hawes                 5|  246|     737|
   +--+------------------------+----------+------------+--------------+


[A] ASKERNE. This village is one of the numerous places in the West
Riding, which enjoys the distinction of a mineral spring. The water
resembles that of Harrowgate Spa; but taken internally, differs
materially in its operation, acting chiefly as a diuretic without any of
that cathartic or purgative power, for which the Harrowgate waters are
so remarkable. The village is situated at the foot of a hill; the spring
rises at the distance of a few yards only from a piece of water called
Askerne Pool, seven acres in extent, and is much frequented by rheumatic
or scorbutic patients, who seldom fail to obtain the relief which they
seek. Near this place it is said the British Prince Ambrosius defeated
and put to death the fierce Saxon leader Hengist.

[Sidenote: The Saxon leader Hengist put to death.]


[B] ASKERTON. At this village there is a castle which was built by the
Barons Dacre. This well known name is derived from the exploits of one
of their ancestors at the siege of Acre, or Ptolemais, under Richard
Coeur de Lion. There were two powerful branches of that name. The
first family, called Lord Dacres of the South, held the castle of the
same name, and are ancestors to the present Lord Dacre. The other
family, descended from the same stock, were called Lord Dacres of the
North, and were Barons of Gillesland and Graystock. A chieftain of the
latter branch was warden of the West Marshes, during the reign of Edward
VI. He was a man of a hot and obstinate character, as appears from some
particulars of Lord Surrey's letter to Henry VIII., giving an account of
his behaviour at the siege and storm of Jedburgh. The castle was
formerly garrisoned by the Serjeant of Gillesland, who sometimes
commanded and led the inhabitants against the Scots.

[Sidenote: Seat of Lord Dacre.]


[C] ASKHAM. This place consists of two manors. The hall, built in 1574,
on the river Lowther, has an embattled roof, and a sombre aspect well
suited to the gloom of the surrounding scenery. Several remarkable heaps
of stones, among which, one is called the Druid's Cross, are in this
neighbourhood; and also a large cairn, called the White-raise.

   _Mail_ arrives at Lowther 1-1/2 miles distant 2.30 morning; departs 8
   evening.

[Sidenote: Druid's Cross.]


[D] ASKRIGG. This ancient market town is situated near the river Ure and
Swaledale Forest: it resembles a large village, and the occupations of
the inhabitants are principally the knitting of stockings and making
butter or cheese. It is remarkable, chiefly, for some considerable
cataracts in its neighbourhood: as Millgill Force, a fall of from twenty
to thirty yards; Whitfields Force, a grand specimen of the picturesque;
and Hardrow Force, where the water falls in one grand sheet from a
perpendicular height of one hundred feet. This town is one of the
polling places appointed under the Reform Bill of 1832, for the North
Riding.

   _Market_, Thursday.--_Fairs_, May 10, horned cattle; May 12, and
   first Thursday in June, woollen cloth, pewter, brass, and milliners'
   goods; October 28, horned cattle; October 29, woollens, &c.

[Sidenote: Cataract 100 feet in height.]

   Map|  Names of Places. |  County. |  Number of Miles From
   +--+-------------------+----------+---------------+------------+
    45|Askwith          to|W.R. York |Otley         3|Skipton   12|
    24|Aslackby[A]      pa|Lincoln   |Folkingham    2|Bourn      7|
    27|Aslacton         pa|Norfolk   |Stratton      4|Buckenham  5|
    30|Aslacton         pa|Nottingham|Bingham       2|Newark    12|
    36|Aspall           pa|Suffolk   |Eye           6|Debenham   2|
    36|Aspal Stoneham   pa|Suffolk   |Debenham      4|Needham    5|
     9|Aspatria[B] to & pa|Cumberland|Cockermouth   8|Wigton     9|
    18|Aspedon          pa|Herts     |Buntingford   1|Stevenage  9|
    35|Aspley           to|Stafford  |Eccleshall    1|Stone      6|
    39|Aspley          ham|Warwick   |Henley-in Ar. 2|Alcester   7|
     3|Aspley Guise     pa|Bedford   |Woburn        2|Ampthill   7|
    22|Aspull           to|Lancaster |Wigan         3|Bolton     8|
    46|Asselby          to|E.R. York |Howden        2|Selby      7|
    31|Assendon[C]      to|Oxford    |Henley-on-T.  4|Watlington 7|
   +--+-------------------+----------+---------------+------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places. | Number of Miles From     |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------+--------------------------+-----+------+
    45|Askwith          to|Ripley                  12|  208|   400|
    24|Aslackby[A]      pa|Corby                    9|  104|   455|
    27|Aslacton         pa|Diss                     9|   97|   359|
    30|Aslacton         pa|Nottingham              11|  123|   289|
    36|Aspall           pa|Framlingham              9|   85|   126|
    36|Aspal Stoneham   pa|Stowmarket               7|   80|   633|
     9|Aspatria[B] to & pa|Allonby                  4|  311|   761|
    18|Aspedon          pa|Puckeridge               9|   31|   560|
    35|Aspley           to|Stafford                 7|  148|    26|
    39|Aspley          ham|Stratford                7|   99|   106|
     3|Aspley Guise     pa|Wavenden                 3|   43|  1014|
    22|Aspull           to|Chorley                  7|  203|  2464|
    46|Asselby          to|Snaith                   7|  178|   297|
    31|Assendon[C]      to|Nettlebed                3|   39|   ...|
   +--+-------------------+--------------------------+-----+------+


[A] ASLACKBY. In this village, which is on the direct road from London
to Lincoln, there was a commandery, or associated body of Knights
Templars, founded in the time of Richard I., by John le Mareshall. It
afterwards served for the hospitallers, and at the suppression of this
society, the property was transferred to Edward, Lord Clinton. A
farm-house, which now occupies the site of the old circular church, is
called the temple. Of that ancient structure there yet remains a square
embattled tower of two stories. The lower story is vaulted, and formed
of eight groins, in the centre of which is displayed eight shields, and
various coats of arms. The parish church is a handsome building, with an
embattled tower at the west end. A castle formerly stood here, but no
vestiges of the walls can now be seen: remnants, however, of the foss
and earthworks point out the spot where it was situated.

   _Mail_ arrives 7.40 morn.; departs 6.45 evening.

[Sidenote: Ancient village.]


[B] ASPATRIA, or ASPATRIC, is a long straggling village on the side of a
hill, about five miles distant from the Irish sea. It now forms part of
the estate of the Earl of Egremont, but is supposed to have derived its
name from Gospatrick, Earl of Dunbar. On removing the earth of a barrow,
which stood at Beacon-hill, an eminence about 200 yards to the north of
the village, in the year 1790, a human skeleton was found in a kind of
chest, or kistvaen, formed by two large cobblestones at each end, and
the same on each side. The feet were decayed and rotted off, but from
the head to the ancle-bone, the skeleton measured seven feet. On
exposure to the atmospheric air the other bones soon mouldered away.
Near the shoulder, on the left side, was a broad sword five feet long,
the guard of which was elegantly inlaid with silver flowers: a dirk, or
dagger, lay on the right side; it was one foot and a half long, and the
handle seemed to have been studded with silver. There were likewise
found part of a golden fibula, or buckle, a broken battle-axe, an
ornament for the end of a belt, a part of which yet remained, part of a
spur, and a bit resembling a modern snaffle. Various figures, rudely
sculptured, remained on the stones which enclosed the left side of the
chest; they chiefly represented circles, each having within a cross in
relief. Hayman Rooke, Esq., the learned antiquary, from whose account
the above particulars are taken, supposed that the personage whose
remains were found was buried soon after the first dawning of
Christianity; and also, inferred from the rich ornaments found in the
tomb, that he was a chieftain of high rank.

[Sidenote: Prodigious skeleton, 7ft. from the head to the ancle-bone.]

[Sidenote: Ancient relics found.]


[C] ASSENDON. At this township is a land spring, reputed the most
eminent of its kind in England. The water only appears after a
continuance of wet weather, but then issues forth in such abundance,
that mills might be turned by the current, and the adjacent lowlands are
inundated. This spring has been supposed by some to act on the principle
of a natural syphon, and to be supplied from subterranean sources; but
this is evidently erroneous, as the seasons of its flowing are uniformly
after heavy rains.

[Sidenote: Wonderful spring.]

   Map|Names of Places.| County. |    Number of Miles From
   +--+----------------+---------+------------+-------------+
    36|Assington     pa|Suffolk  |Neyland    4|Sudbury     5|
    45|Asson-Thorpe ham|W.R. York|Thorne     4|Snaith      5|
     7|Astbury[A]    pa|Chester  |Congleton  2|Sandbach    6|
    24|Asterby       pa|Lincoln  |Horncastle 7|Louth       7|
    31|Asthall[B]    pa|Oxford   |Burford    2|Witney      6|
    22|Astley      chap|Lancaster|Newton     6|Manchester 11|
    33|Astley      chap|Salop    |Shrewsbury 0|Wellington 11|
    39|Astley[C]     pa|Warwick  |Nuneaton   4|Coleshill   7|
    42|Astley[D]     pa|Worcester|Bewdley    5|Worcester   9|
   +--+----------------+---------+------------+-------------+
                                              |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.|Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+----------------------+-----+-------+
    36|Assington     pa|Hadleigh             7|   57|    641|
    45|Asson-Thorpe ham|Doncaster            9|  170|       |
     7|Astbury[A]    pa|Leek                10|  160|  14637|
    24|Asterby       pa|M. Raisin.          13|  143|    231|
    31|Asthall[B]    pa|Charlbury            8|   70|    352|
    22|Astley      chap|Bolton               7|  195|   1832|
    33|Astley      chap|Oswestry            18|  153|    239|
    39|Astley[C]     pa|Coventry             7|   98|    340|
    42|Astley[D]     pa|Kiddermins           5|  121|    849|
   +--+----------------+----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ASTBURY, or AUSTBURY, is an extensive village and contains several
gentlemen's seats. The church is a handsome gothic structure, with a
lofty steeple. In the church yard are two ancient monuments, ornamented
with the insignia of knighthood, but the names of the families whose
memories they were intended to record are now lost. The parish of
Astbury contains no less than twelve townships, of which the market town
of Congleton is one. Each of these townships has its overseer and other
officers, but the whole parish is under the government of one
church-warden, the office of which is served in rotation by eight
persons, vulgarly denominated the "Posts of the Parish;" though they
should properly be called Provosts.

[Sidenote: Contains 12 townships.]


[B] ASTHALL. At this village is an old manorial mansion, now used as a
farm-house, which was formerly the residence of Sir Richard Jones, one
of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas in the reign of Charles the
First. In the north aisle of the church stands a large stone coffin,
said to contain the remains of Alice Corbett, concubine to Henry I.

   _Mail_ arrives 5 morning; departs 9.35 evening.

[Sidenote: Alice Corbett.]


[C] ASTLEY. This manor was held, in the reign of Henry II., by Philip de
Estley, of the Earl of Warwick, by the service of holding the Earl's
stirrup when he mounted or alighted from his horse. From this person are
descended two families, seated at Hill Morton, in this county, and at
Patshull, in Staffordshire. In the reign of Henry V. the estate passed
by marriage to the Greys of Ruthin, from whom it descended to Henry
Grey, Marquis of Dorset, and Duke of Suffolk, beheaded in the reign of
Queen Mary, for an attempt to make Lady Jane Grey queen. The manor
belongs at present to F.P. Newdigate, Esq. Astley Castle is surrounded
by a moat, along the inner edge of which lie the remains of massive
walls. The habitable part of the mansion is probably not older than the
time of Mary; but it is clad in a garb of ivy, and other evergreens,
which renders it singularly picturesque. In one room is preserved a
portrait of the factious Suffolk, respecting whose capture the following
particulars are related:--"Finding that he was forsaken, he put himself
under the trust of one Underwood, as it is said, a keeper of his park
here at Astley, who hid him for some few days in a large hollow tree,
standing about two bow-shots from the church; but, being promised a
reward, he betrayed him." The church of Astley having been made
collegiate, by Lord Thomas de Astley, was by him rebuilt, and adorned
with a spire, so lofty that it served as a land-mark in the deep
wood-lands of the district, and was popularly termed "The lanthorn of
Arden."--The interior is curious and interesting, although many
monuments and decorations have been removed or destroyed at various
times. On an altar-tomb at the west-end are the effigies, in alabaster,
of a warrior and a lady; and on another, is the mutilated figure of a
female in a recumbent posture: both are without inscription.

[Sidenote: Singular tenure.]

[Sidenote: Lord Suffolk betrayed by his keeper.]


[D] ASTLEY. This village is situated on the Severn, it was noted before
the dissolution, for its priory of Benedictines, and is now remarkable
chiefly for a hermitage formed in the living rock, and recently
converted into an ale-house. The church, built in the Saxon style of
architecture, contains some monuments and a few fragments of stained
glass. Here is the ancient seat called Glasshampton.

[Sidenote: Hermitage.]

   Map|Names of Places.| County. |      Number of Miles From
   +--+-----------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
    33|Astley Abbots  pa|Salop     |Bridgenorth   2|M. Wenlock  7|
     5|Aston         ham|Bucks     |Ivinghoe      1|Dunstable   7|
     7|Aston          to|Chester   |Northwich     3|Warrington  8|
     7|Aston   to & chap|Chester   |Frodsham      3|Northwich   8|
    10|Aston         ham|Derby     |Tideswell     6|Castleton   2|
    53|Aston          to|Flint     |Hawarden      2|Flint       6|
    17|Aston          pa|Hereford  |Ludlow        4|Leominster 10|
    18|Aston[A]       pa|Herts     |Stevenage     3|Watton      4|
    56|Aston          to|Montgomery|Ch. Stretton 10|Montgomery  7|
    31|Aston         ham|Oxford    |Witney        5|Bampton     2|
    35|Aston          to|Stafford  |Drayton       6|Newcastle   6|
    39|Aston[B]       pa|Warwick   |Birmingham    2|Tamworth   13|
    46|Aston[C]  to & pa|N.R. York |Rotherham     6|Sheffield   8|
   +--+-----------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.|    Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+
    33|Astley Abbots  pa|Madeley                  6|  142|    666|
     5|Aston         ham|Leighton                 5|   34|    406|
     7|Aston          to|Frodsham                 9|  176|    409|
     7|Aston   to & chap|Warrington               8|  181|    197|
    10|Aston         ham|Derwent                  3|  164|    104|
    53|Aston          to|Chester                  6|  197|    237|
    17|Aston          pa|Wigmore                  4|  143|     56|
    18|Aston[A]       pa|Welwyn                   6|   30|    494|
    56|Aston          to|Bishop's Cas.            2|  161|     84|
    31|Aston         ham|Ensham                   7|   69|    699|
    35|Aston          to|Eccleshall               8|  154|    277|
    39|Aston[B]       pa|Coleshill                9|  111|  32118|
    46|Aston[C]  to & pa|Maltby                   6|  156|    564|
   +--+-----------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ASTON. The village and manor of Aston was an ancient demesne of the
Saxon kings. Henry VIII. granted the manor to Sir John Boteler, of
Walton Wood Hall; but the house now standing at Aston Place, indicates
earlier antiquity than the time of that sovereign. Westward of the
village, on the eastern side of the great North road, are six large
barrows, thought to be of Danish origin; from their immediate proximity
to the road-side they excite the curiosity and attention of most persons
travelling northward: two of them have been opened, but were not found
to contain any thing of sufficient interest to be here recorded.

[Sidenote: The six hills.]


[B] ASTON is in the Birmingham division of the Hundred of Hemlingford.
It may be deemed a part of Birmingham, being inhabited chiefly by
artisans in the various branches of manufacture for which that town is
distinguished. Aston Hall, the seat of Heneage Legge, Esq., was first
erected by Sir Thomas Holt, Bart. in the reign of James I. It was
several times plundered during the troubles of his successor, who was
entertained here for two nights a short time before the battle of
Edgehill, which occurred on October 23, 1642, between the Royalists and
the Parliamentary forces. Sir T. Holt endowed an alms-house for five
poor men and women in this parish.

[Sidenote: Part of Birmingham.]


[C] ASTON, is a parish and township with Aughton, in the wapentake of
Strafforth and Tickhill. In the church, which is dedicated to All
Saints, is an ancient monument, under which lie buried Lord D'Arcy and
his three wives. There is also a marble slab to the memory of the poet
Mason, who was rector of this parish. This distinguished poet was the
son of a clergyman in Yorkshire, in which county he was born in the year
1725. He became a student of St. John's College, Cambridge, and
subsequently a fellow of Pembroke Hall, in the same university. His
debut in the literary world was made by the publication of "Isis," a
poem, in which he satirized the Jacobitish and High Church principles of
the University of Oxford. A reply was written by Thomas Warton, entitled
"The Triumph of Isis." In 1752 he published a tragedy with choral odes
on the ancient Greek model, called "Elfrida." Having taken orders in the
church, he was presented with the living of Aston, and appointed one of
the royal chaplains. In 1759 appeared his "Caractacus," a drama on a
kindred plan with the former. Both of these pieces were afterwards
introduced on the stage, they however met with very little success. In
1762, Mr. Mason was made precentor of York, to which preferment a
canonry was annexed. One of his principal works, entitled "The English
Garden," a poem, in four books, appeared in the years 1772, 1777, 1779,
and 1781. 4to.; this was translated into French and German. In 1775 he
published the exquisite poems of his friend Gray, with a Memoir of his
Life. At the beginning of the American War, Mr. Mason became so active
an advocate for freedom, as to give offence at court, and he was in
consequence dismissed from his chaplainship. It is said he felt alarmed
at the frightful consequences of the French Revolution, and his zeal
cooled towards the latter end of his life. He died April 7, 1797.

[Sidenote: The poet Mason's monument.]

[Sidenote: An advocate for freedom dismissed from his chaplainship.]

   Map|   Names of Places.        |  County. | Number of Miles From
   +--+---------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
     5|Aston-Abbots             pa|Bucks     |Aylesbury   5|Winslow     7|
    15|Aston-Blank              pa|Gloucester|Northleach  4|Stow        5|
    33|Aston-Botterill          pa|Salop     |Bridgenorth 9|Cleobury    7|
    39|Aston-Cantlow            pa|Warwick   |Alcester    4|Henley      4|
     5|Aston-Clinton[A]    to & pa|Bucks     |Tring       4|Ivinghoe    5|
    33|Aston-Eyre               to|Salop     |Bridgenorth 3|M. Wenlock  5|
    23|Aston-Flamville      to & p|Leicester |Hinckley    3|Lutterworth 8|
     7|Aston-Grange             to|Chester   |Frodsham    4|Northwich   7|
    17|Aston-Ingham             pa|Hereford  |Ross        6|Ledbury    10|
    28|Aston on the Walls, to & pa|Northamp  |Banbury     8|Daventry    9|
    42|Aston-Magna             ham|Worcester |Moreton     3|Shipston    6|
    31|Aston-Middle        to & pa|Oxford    |Deddington  3|Woodstock   8|
     7|Aston-Mondrum            to|Chester   |Nantwich    4|Tarporley   8|
    31|Aston-North              pa|Oxford    |Deddington  2|Bicester    9|
    31|Aston-Rowant             pa|Oxford    |Tetsworth   4|Thame       4|
     5|Aston-Sandford           pa|Bucks     |Thame       4|Aylesbury   6|
    15|Aston-Somerville         pa|Gloucester|Evesham     4|Broadway    4|
    31|Aston-Steeple[B]    to & pa|Oxford    |Deddington  4|Woodstock   7|
    15|Aston-Subege             pa|Gloucester|Campden     2|Evesham     6|
     4|Aston-Tirrold            pa|Berks     |Wallingford 6|E. Illsley  6|
    15|Aston-upon-Carron pa and ti|Gloucester|Tewkesbury  2|Cheltenham  9|
    10|Aston-upon-Trent         pa|Derby     |Derby       6|Ashby      10|
     4|Aston-Upthorpe          ham|Berks     |Wallingford 6|Wantage     9|
    28|Astrope, or Asthorpe[C] ham|Northamp  |Brackley    6|Banbury     4|
    28|Astwell[D]              ham|Northamp  |  ...       6|Towcester   5|
   +--+---------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                           |Dist.|Popul
   Map|   Names of Places.        |  Number of Miles From  |Lond.|-ation.
   +--+---------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
     5|Aston-Abbots             pa|Leighton               6|   40|    303|
    15|Aston-Blank              pa|Winchcomb             11|   86|    295|
    33|Aston-Botterill          pa|Ludlow                 9|  143|    260|
    39|Aston-Cantlow            pa|Stratford              6|   99|    940|
     5|Aston-Clinton[A]    to & pa|Aylesbury              4|   35|   1001|
    33|Aston-Eyre               to|Madeley                7|  143|     63|
    23|Aston-Flamville      to & p|Leicester             13|   97|   1703|
     7|Aston-Grange             to|Warrington             8|  181|     36|
    17|Aston-Ingham             pa|Newent                 3|  120|    591|
    28|Aston on the Walls, to & pa|Towcester             11|   71|    240|
    42|Aston-Magna             ham|Broadway               4|   89|    254|
    31|Aston-Middle        to & pa|Bicester               9|   64|    121|
     7|Aston-Mondrum            to|Middlewich             7|  168|    159|
    31|Aston-North              pa|Woodstock              9|   64|    305|
    31|Aston-Rowant             pa|Watlington             4|   39|    946|
     5|Aston-Sandford           pa|P. Risboro'            5|   42|     82|
    15|Aston-Somerville         pa|Winchcombe             7|   98|    103|
    31|Aston-Steeple[B]    to & pa|Bicester               9|   64|    562|
    15|Aston-Subege             pa|Broadway               4|   92|    103|
     4|Aston-Tirrold            pa|Streatley              5|   50|    343|
    15|Aston-upon-Carron pa and ti|Evesham               10|  104|    166|
    10|Aston-upon-Trent         pa|Loughboro             11|  121|    620|
     4|Aston-Upthorpe          ham|Abingdon               8|   52|    172|
    28|Astrope, or Asthorpe[C] ham|Deddington             5|   69|       |
    28|Astwell[D]              ham|Daventry              13|   64|    118|
   +--+---------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ASTON CLINTON is in the first division of Aylesbury hundred. The
manor was the property of the late Lord Lake, who died in 1808, during
the trial of General Whitelock, who was cashiered for his misconduct at
Buenos Ayres at the commencement of that year. At St. Leonard's, a
hamlet of this parish, about four miles from Aston church, is an ancient
chapel, said to have been a chantry chapel to the Abbey of Missenden. It
contains, among other monuments, that of General Cornelius Wood, an
officer who distinguished himself in the reign of Queen Anne, and who
died in 1712. It is ornamented with a bust of the general in white
marble, surrounded with military trophies. This chapel is endowed with
an estate, vested in ten trustees, who have the appointment of the
minister.

[Sidenote: Monument of one of Queen Anne's officers.]


[B] STEEPLE ASTON. At this village, Dr. Samuel Radcliffe, principal of
Brazennose College, Oxford, and rector of this church, founded a free
school in 1640, and endowed it with ten pounds per annum; he died in the
year 1648, and is buried in the church. He also endowed an alms-house
for poor women in this parish. A tessalated pavement was ploughed up
here in the 17th century.

[Sidenote: Dr. Samuel Radcliffe.]


[C] ASTROPE. This hamlet is in the parish of King's Sutton. The village
is worthy of remark, from the church having a tower crowned with a
handsome and lofty spire, decorated with crocketed pinnacles. Here is a
remarkably fine mineral spring, called St. Rumbald's Well, which was
formerly in considerable repute. When drank at the fountain head, the
water is considered a specific in cases of female obstructions, and in
the first and second stages of consumptions. In the jaundice it seldom
fails; and in dropsical cases is frequently administered with success.
Persons whose constitutions have been weakened by free living, find
themselves renovated by its virtues. The water has a brisk pleasant
taste, and is very clear and spirituous. Astrope Hall was formerly the
residence of the Lord Chief Justice Willes.

[Sidenote: A mineral spring famous for curing consumption, jaundice,
&c.]


[D] ASTWELL. In this hamlet is an ancient mansion, formerly the seat of
the Earl of Ferrers. Several of the rooms exhibit in the wainscot and
chimney pieces, armorial bearings and other carved decorations. A
dilapidated room at the east end was formerly a chapel.

[Sidenote: Seat of Earl Ferrers]

   Map|  Names of Places.          | County. |      Number of Miles From
   +--+----------------------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
     3|Astwick                   pa|Bedford  |Biggleswade 5|Shefford    6|
     5|Astwood                   pa|Bucks    |Newport Pag 6|Woburn     10|
    24|Aswarby                   pa|Lincoln  |Folkingham  4|Sleaford    5|
    24|Aswardby                  pa|Lincoln  |Spilsby     4|Alford      7|
    33|Atcham                    pa|Salop    |Shrewsbury  4|Acton Burn. 6|
    39|Atch-Lench               ham|Worcester|Evesham     4|Alcester    6|
    54|Athan, St.[A]             pa|Glamorgan|Cowbridge   4|Cardiff    15|
    12|Athelampton               pa|Dorset   |Dorchester  7|Bere Regis  7|
    36|Athelington, or Allington pa|Suffolk  |Eye         5|Framlingham 8|
    34|Athelney, Isle of           |Somerset |             |             |
    11|Atherington               pa|Devon    |Torrington  7|Barnstaple  8|
    39|Atherstone[B]      m.t. & pa|Warwick  |Nuneaton    6|Sheepy      3|
   +--+----------------------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
                                                           |Dist.|Popul
   Map|  Names of Places.          | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|-ation.
   +--+----------------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
     3|Astwick                   pa|Baldock               3|   40|     97|
     5|Astwood                   pa|Olney                 6|   51|    268|
    24|Aswarby                   pa|Grantham             12|  110|    113|
    24|Aswardby                  pa|Horncastle            8|  136|     80|
    33|Atcham                    pa|Shiffnal             14|  149|    463|
    39|Atch-Lench               ham|Pershore              7|  104|     82|
    54|Athan, St.[A]             pa|Bridgend             10|  174|    312|
    12|Athelampton               pa|Blandford            13|  116|     79|
    36|Athelington, or Allington pa|Debenham              6|   88|    129|
    34|Athelney, Isle of           |                       |     |       |
    11|Atherington               pa|S. Molton             9|  204|    592|
    39|Atherstone[B]      m.t. & pa|Tamworth              8|  105|   3870|
   +--+----------------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ST. ATHAN. In this village is a castle, called East Orchard, built
in the year 1691, by Roger Berkrols; it stands on the edge of an
extensive flat: a luxuriant wild fig tree grows out of the cement of the
chapel walls. Perhaps the Turkey fig tree might be propagated with more
success, grafted upon this wildling, which probably originated in the
cultivated fig planted in the gardens of the Norman lords. In St.
Athan's church there are two uncommonly fine gothic monuments of the
Berkrol's family: there are likewise in this parish the remains of two
castles--West Orchard and Castleton; but these are not of such great
antiquity. From this spot there is a good view of Fonmore, or Fronmon
Castle, which is the most extensive and august of the Welch inhabited
castles. The kitchen is said to be the largest in the kingdom. In
Fronmon castle is an excellent portrait of Oliver Cromwell. The flat and
steep-holms are seen from this neighbourhood: the former has its
light-house. It is situated nearly ten miles from the sea lock of the
canal, and three miles from the adjacent steep-holms, which is a smaller
island than the former, though more conspicuous from its great height
above the water; it is quite barren and uninhabited. The flat holms at
low tide is an extensive sheet of mud, excepting one deep channel. The
landing place is near the castle rock, a dangerous, but romantic beach,
so called from its similarity to a castle, it is very large, and is said
to resemble Abergavenny castle. In the centre is a bold arch, which at
high water is covered. The hollow sound of the sea roaring through the
arch, and the waves occasionally retreating, and then forcing their way
back with redoubled fury, has an uncommonly fine effect. At low tide the
shore all around the base is dry. The island is four or five miles in
circumference; the soil is good, and would, if well cultivated, be very
productive. From the light-house, which is 80 feet in height, is a
delightful prospect of the Bristol Channel and the shores of Somerset
and Glamorgan. It is the resort of many visitors in the summer season.

[Sidenote: The largest inhabited castle in Wales.]

[Sidenote: Account of the dangerous beach.]


[B] ATHERSTONE. This market town is supposed to have derived its name
from "a stone" under which an "adder" of enormous size was found; it is
situated on the Watling Street, and divided from Leicestershire by the
river Anker, and was a place of some importance at the Conquest: at
which time the town was given to the monks of Bee in Normandy, who
obtained for it a market day and an annual fair, which brought it into
consequence. A monastery of friars, (Hermits of Saint Augustine,) was
founded at Atherstone in the year 1375. The church belonging to the
friary was completed in the reign of Richard II. A free grammar school
was founded here by Sir William Devereux and two other benevolent
persons in the year 1573. The chancel of the friary church was
appropriated to the use of this seminary, and is still dedicated to the
same purpose. The mansion, or hall house was sometime after separated
from the chapel, and rebuilt at a short distance upon a pleasant bank,
commanding an extensive view over the adjacent counties of Leicester,
Derby, and Stafford. Two nights before the battle of Bosworth Field
(which is but nine miles distant), the Duke of Richmond lay at
Atherstone, where he had his interview with the two Stanley's, in which
such measures of co-operation were concerted as occasioned the overthrow
of King Richard III., and it is said, that many persons from the
subsequent battle were buried below this old mansion, from which the
spot has retained the name of the bloody bank. It appears, however, to
have been so called from being the place where contests of less serious
results were usually decided by the young champions of the ancient
foundation school, which is still supported by a respectable endowment.
Atherstone Hall has recently been much improved by extended buildings
and ornamental plantations. It is situated near Merevale Hall, the seat
of D.S. Dugdale, Esq., and Grendon Hall, that of Sir G. Chetwynd, Bart.
Here are manufactories of hats, ribbons, and shalloons, and considerable
business is done at the four annual fairs; that in September being the
most considerable in England for the sale of cheese. The passage of the
Coventry canal, uniting with that of the Trent and Mersey, within a
hundred yards of the town, adds very considerably to its facilities of
trading. The poet Drayton, author of the "Polyolbion," was a native of
Atherstone.

   _Market_, Tuesday.--_Fairs_, April 7, for horses, cows, and sheep;
   July 18, holyday; September 19, for horses, cows, and cheese;
   December 4, for horses and fat cattle.--_Mail_ arrives 8.41 A.M.;
   departs 5.36 P.M.--_Inns_, Red Lion, and Three Tuns.--_Bankers_, W.
   and J.H. Chapman; draw upon Spooner and Co.

[Sidenote: Some foreign monks obtained this market.]

[Sidenote: Atherstone Hall.]

   Map| Names of Places.       |  County. | Number of Miles From
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
    39|Atherstone-upon-Stour pa|Warwick   |Stratford   3|Shipston   9|
    22|Atherton, or        }   |Lancaster |Newton      7|Bolton     5|
      |Chowbents to & chap }   |          |             |            |
    10|Atlow               chap|Derby     |Ashbourn    4|Wirksworth 6|
    51|Atpar               m.t.|Cardigan  |Newcastle   1|Cardigan  10|
    30|Attenborough[A]       pa|Nottingham|Nottingham  6|Derby     10|
    24|Atterly               to|Lincoln   |Mar. Rising 9|Brigg     10|
    45|Attercliffe           to|W.R. York |Sheffield   2|Rotherham  4|
    23|Atterton             ham|Leicester |Atherstone  3|Hinckley   6|
    31|Attington ex.     p. ham|Oxford    |Tetsworth   1|Thame      3|
    27|Attleborough[B] m.t. & p|Norfolk   |Norwich    15|Buckenham  4|
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                        |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.       | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+------+
    39|Atherstone-upon-Stour pa|Campden                9|   92|    87|
    22|Atherton, or        }   |Wigan                  7|  198|  4181|
      |Chowbents to & chap }   |                        |     |      |
    10|Atlow               chap|Derby                 13|  139|   517|
    51|Atpar               m.t.|Carmarthen            21|  230|      |
    30|Attenborough[A]       pa|Loughboro'            10|  119|  1094|
    24|Atterly               to|Gainsboro'            12|  148|   110|
    45|Attercliffe           to|Barnsley              13|  162|  3741|
    23|Atterton             ham|Nuneaton               5|  105|    76|
    31|Attington ex.     p. ham|Watlington             6|   42|     7|
    27|Attleborough[B] m.t. & p|Watton                10|   94|  1939|
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+------+


[A] ATTENBOROUGH. This village, supposed to be the ancient Attenton,
lies nearly on the banks of the river Trent. Its church is large, and
also well filled: it serves for Chilwell, Toueton, and part of Bramcote.
This place is remarkable, for having given birth to Henry Ireton, the
regicide, son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell. He was the eldest son of
Gervase Ireton, Esq., and brother to Sir John Ireton, Lord Mayor of
London in 1658. He was a gentleman commoner of Trinity College, Oxford,
in 1629, and at the age of 19 he took one degree in Arts. Wood tells us,
that he had the character in that college of a stubborn and saucy fellow
towards the seniors. Afterwards he went to the Middle Temple, where he
became grounded in the common law. When the rebellion broke out he took
up arms against the king, was a recruiter in the long parliament, and
about that time married Bridget, one of the daughters of Cromwell, then
only colonel of a regiment. He became first a captain, afterwards
colonel, and at length commissary-general, in 1645. He is said to have
been the best prayer-maker and preacher in the whole army. He drew up
the famous remonstrance requiring justice to be done on their sovereign.
He sat as judge on the king's trial, and was one of the committee that
appointed the time and place of execution. In Cromwell's expedition to
Ireland, he was appointed second in command, with the rank of
major-general, and was afterwards made president of Munster; being left
as deputy by Cromwell, in 1649, he died the next year of a sudden
disorder at Limerick. On his death, the parliament settled a pension of
£2000. per annum on his widow and children, out of the estates of the
Duke of Buckingham.

[Sidenote: Birth-place of the regicide, son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.]


[B] ATTLEBOROUGH, or ATTLEBURGH. This small market town was formerly a
place of considerable consequence. During the Saxon era it was a post of
strength and served as a check to the Danes in their predatory
incursions. Its fortifications are said to have been conspicuous in the
time of Henry II. Attleborough formerly belonged to the Mortimers; from
them it passed to the Ratcliffe family, of whom it was purchased by Sir
Francis Blickley, Bart., whence it came into possession of the family of
Ash. A college, dedicated to the Holy Cross, was founded here in the
reign of Richard II., by Sir Robert de Mortimer, for a custos and four
fellows. The church, with the east end is entire; it is in the
collegiate form, and consists of a large nave with aisles and a north
and south transept; it contains the monuments of many persons of
distinction. On a flat stone in the nave is an inscription to the memory
of Captain John Gibbs, a celebrated horse racer and gamester, in the
reign of Charles I. This person having laid a wager that he would drive
his carriage and four horses up and down the steepest place of the
Devil's Ditch, on Newmarket Heath, succeeded in winning the bet, by
making a very light chaise, with a jointed perch, and without any pole.
It is worthy of remark, that the first turnpike road in the kingdom, was
made at Attleborough, by an Act passed for that purpose in 1707.

   _Market_, Thursday.--_Fairs_, Thursday before Easter; Thursday after
   Holy Trinity; August 15, for cattle and Toys.--_Mail_ arrives 7.27
   A.M.; departs 6.38 P.M.

[Sidenote: Anecdote of Captain J. Gibbs.]

   Map| Names of Places.     | County.|  Number of Miles From       |
   +--+----------------------+--------+--------------+--------------+
    39|Attleborough       ham|Warwick |Nuneaton     1|Coventry     9|
    27|Attlebridge         pa|Norfolk |Reepham      5|Aylesham     8|
    46|Atwicke        to & pa|E.R.York|Hornsea      2|Bridlington 12|
    24|Auborn         to & pa|Lincoln |Lincoln      8|Newark      10|
    13|Auckland, St.}        |        |              |              |
      |    Andrew[A]} to & pa|Durham  |Bp. Auckland 1|Darlington  11|
    13|Auckland, St. Helen ch|Durham  | ...         3| ...        10|
    13|Auckland, West      to|Durham  | ...         3| ...        10|
    14|Audley End[B]      ham|Essex   |Saff. Walden 1|Newport      2|
     7|Audlem         to & pa|Chester |Nantwich     6|Whitchurch   9|
   +--+----------------------+--------+--------------+--------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.     |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+--------------+
    39|Attleborough       ham|Hinckley              5| 100|         |
    27|Attlebridge         pa|Norwich               9| 112|      117|
    46|Atwicke        to & pa|Beverley             13| 189|      285|
    24|Auborn         to & pa|Navenby               6| 127|      356|
    13|Auckland, St.}        |                       |    |         |
      |    Andrew[A]} to & pa|Durham               11| 248|    11137|
    13|Auckland, St. Helen ch| ...                 13| 246|      410|
    13|Auckland, West      to| ...                 13| 246|     1106|
    14|Audley End[B]      ham|Chesterford           4|  42|         |
     7|Audlem         to & pa|Woore                 5| 163|     2978|
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+----+---------+


[A] ST. ANDREWS, AUCKLAND. This place is celebrated for the church
having been made collegiate by Bishop Beck, although it is probable
there was some foundation here before the time of that prelate. The
edifice is situated on a rising ground, in a valley near the banks of
the river Gaunless, and has the form of a cross with a tower at the west
end. In the inside is a curious wooden figure, said to be an effigy of
one of the family of Polland, which represents a knight sitting
cross-legged and dressed in a coat of mail, with his hands raised and
his feet resting on a lion.

[Sidenote: Curious effigy.]


[B] AUDLEY END is principally celebrated for its vicinity to Audley
House, which was sold by the third Earl of Suffolk, to Charles II., for
£50,000., the king, however, left a great part of the sum on mortgage.
The present mansion, though a large and magnificent structure, consists
only of a small part of the original building, owing to its curtailment
at various times. When in its perfect state, it was esteemed one of the
most splendid and capacious mansions in the country; and, if not
superior, was nearly equal to the palaces of Hampton Court, Nonsuch, and
Richmond. At the time when it was first built, large, rather than
comfortable or handsome houses were fashionable. Influenced by these
sentiments, Thomas Howard, the first Earl of Suffolk, (as Walpole
observes,) determined to have "an immense pile of building," and
£190,000. was expended upon its erection. It is said that, when the
house was finished, King James was invited to see it. Having surveyed
the structure with great astonishment, the earl asked him "how he liked
it?" "Very well," replied James, "but troth man," continued he
sarcastically, "it is too much for a king, but it may do for a Lord High
Treasurer." An elegant domestic chapel, constructed by the late Lord
Howard, occupies the north west corner of the house. It is fitted up
with clustered columns, pointed arches, and fan like tracery; and, in
imitation of a cathedral, it has a nave, side-aisles and transepts. The
windows are filled with painted glass, by Pickett of York, who executed
them in 1771, from Biaggio Rebecca's designs.

   _Fair_, August 5, for cheese.

[Sidenote: Anecdote of James I.]

   Map|  Names of Places.     | County.  |  Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+------------+--------------+
    35|Audley          to & pa|Stafford  |Newcastle  4|Leek        14|
    22|Aughton            chap|Lancaster |Lancaster  7|K. Lonsdale  8|
    22|Aughton              pa|Lancaster |Ormskirk   2|Liverpool   10|
    46|Aughton[A]      to & pa|E.R. York |Howden     7|Selby        7|
    45|Aughton              to|W.R. York |Rotherham  5|Sheffield    7|
    24|Aukborough[B]        pa|Lincoln   |Barton    10|Burton       3|
    30|Aukley               to|Nottingham|Bawtry     5|Gainsboro'  13|
    10|Ault-Hucknall        pa|Derby     |Mansfield  6|Chesterfield 7|
    24|Aunsby               pa|Lincoln   |Folkingham 6|Sleaford     6|
    15|Aust, or Aust-Clive[C]}|          |            |              |
      |            ti. & chap}|Gloucester|Thornbury  4|Bristol     11|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+------------+--------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.     | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+
    35|Audley          to & pa|Congleton             9|  154|    3617|
    22|Aughton            chap|Burton                7|  217|     199|
    22|Aughton              pa|Prescott             10|  208|    1462|
    46|Aughton[A]      to & pa|York                 11|  189|     665|
    45|Aughton              to|Tickhill             11|  156|        |
    24|Aukborough[B]        pa|Howden               10|  172|     467|
    30|Aukley               to|Doncaster             6|  158|     297|
    10|Ault-Hucknall        pa|Bolsover              4|  144|     618|
    24|Aunsby               pa|Grantham              9|  112|     117|
    15|Aust, or Aust-Clive[C]}|                       |     |        |
      |            ti. & chap}|Chepstow              5|  123|     203|
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] AUGHTON. This village is chiefly distinguished for having been the
seat of an ancient and respectable family long since extinct, or
dispersed. The Askes, who succeeded the family of Hai, resided here from
about the year 1365, till the reign of Charles I., when the head of the
family was one of the judges of that unfortunate monarch. Of this
family, also, was Sir Robert Aske, a man of daring and enthusiastic
courage, possessing considerable talents, who headed the insurrection
called "the Pilgrimage of Grace," in the days of Henry VIII. Of the
family seat, nothing remains but the site, marked by several moats.

[Sidenote: Once the seat of Sir Robert Aske.]


[B] AUKBOROUGH. Dr. Stukely having discovered a Roman castrum and a
vicinal road here, supposed it to be the Aquis of Ravennas. The Roman
station is square, each side 300 feet; the entrance is at the north, and
the west side faces the steep cliff that over-hangs the Trent. The
situation of this castle at the north-west angle of Lincolnshire,
renders it a kind of watch tower over Nottingham and Yorkshire, which it
surveys. The camp is now called "Countess Close," and tradition speaks
of a Countess of Warwick having resided here. The vallum and ditch are
nearly entire; a square plat called the "Oreen," is supposed to have
been appropriated for the soldiers when on duty. Within this is a round
walk into a labyrinth, called Julian's Bower; these bowers are usually
found in the neighbourhood of Roman towns, and are objects of great
curiosity to uninformed people. Dr. Stukeley is of opinion that they
were the arena of some of their ancient games, brought into Italy from
Troy, and that they derived their name from "borough," any work
consisting of ramparts of earth, and not from "bower" an arbour. The
views in this neighbourhood are very beautiful; the winding Trent with
its rich level plains of meadow, all alive with herds of cattle; the
cliff, commanding a noble view of the three rivers; the hanging woods
and ornamented walks, all form a great contrast to what Lincolnshire is
often represented by those who have visited only the fenny parts of this
fertile county.

[Sidenote: Julian's bower.]


[C] AUST, or AUST CLIVE. Here is a celebrated ferry over the Severn into
South Wales. The Proprætor, Ostorius Scapula, was accustomed to ferry
his legions over near this place. In the time of Edward the Elder, who
was lying here with his army, Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, was stationed
at Beachley, on the opposite bank. Llewellyn, who was required to pay
homage to the English Sovereign, refused to cross the passage; but
Edward immediately crossing in a boat, was seen, as he approached the
shore by Llewellyn, who, overcome by the condescension, rushed into the
water, and taking the monarch upon his shoulders, carried him to land,
and did him homage for the principality. The Severn is here nearly two
miles across.

[Sidenote: Celebrated passage into South Wales.]

   Map|  Names of Places. | County.  |      Number of Miles From  |
   +--+----------------------+----------+-----------+-------------+
     8|Austell, or St.      }|          |           |             |
      | Austle[A]  m.t. & pa}|Cornwall  |Truro    14|Lostwithiel 9|
    45|Austerfield  to & chap|W.R. York |Bawtry    2|Thorne     11|
     7|Austerson           to|Chester   |Northwich 4|Frodsham    6|
   +--+----------------------+----------+-----------+-------------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places. |  Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+
     8|Austell, or St.      }|                      |     |       |
      | Austle[A]  m.t. & pa}|Grampound            6|  243|   8758|
    45|Austerfield  to & chap|Doncaster            9|  155|    280|
     7|Austerson           to|Tarporley           10|  177|     69|
   +--+----------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] ST. AUSTELL is a considerable market town, which belongs to the
north-eastern division of the county, and is one of the polling places.
The petty sessions of the hundred of Powder are held here. Considerable
quantities of corn and other articles are brought to the market. The
town is seated on the eastern side of a hill which slopes gradually to a
rivulet which runs along a narrow valley; this stream, and the
inequality of the ground, have been rendered eminently useful to the
manufactories of the neighbourhood. The water which has been conducted
round the side of the hills, in its course impels the machinery of
several stamping-mills, which have been erected on different levels. It
is also employed to cleanse and separate the tin from the pounded mass.
Through its vicinity to the great tin mine of Polgooth, St. Austell has
within the last sixty or seventy years, considerably increased in the
number of its houses and inhabitants. The holding of the Blackmore Court
here, which is the most considerable of the stannary courts, or courts
relating to the tin works, have also contributed to augment its
prosperity. The old town, or rather village, was at some little distance
to the east, and its site is still marked by a few cottages; the present
town is the regular thoroughfare for travellers from Plymouth to
Falmouth; the streets are very narrow, and not having any pavement for
foot passengers are somewhat unsafe. The only blowing houses in the
county are at the east end of this town; they are three in number, and
very spacious; the old smelting houses are supplied with coals, and are
reverberatory; but in these blowing houses the fire is of charcoal, and
ignited by air impelled through tubes by cylinders instead of bellows;
this mode of fluxing the ore is considered by the workmen far preferable
to the other. The inhabitants of this town, from its proximity to the
sea, are principally employed in the pilchard fishery and in mining;
there is however a small manufactory of serges. The parish church is a
fine old fabric, consisting of three aisles; the tower and some other
parts of the structure are fancifully ornamented; various carvings,
monstrous heads, angels, and other figures appear on the cornices. From
the repetition of the shovel, pick, hammers, and other tools, it seems
probable that the miners were the principle contributors towards the
expences of the building. In the year 1774, as some tinners were
searching for tin in a stream work near the town, about seventeen feet
under the surface of the ground, they discovered a silver cup, which is
now used for wine at the Communion table, in which were several ancient
pieces of gold and silver ornaments; they consisted of bracelets, rings,
and buckles, evidently for a person of high rank, with many of the most
curious Saxon coins ever discovered at one time. All these articles fell
out on moving the ground, and some were probably lost in shovelling out
the rubbish; those which were picked up were dispersed about the
country, and many of them broken. The celebrated Pentuan stone quarry,
from which the materials of many churches and family seats have been
taken, is in this parish. Polgooth mine (before mentioned) was
considered the richest ever worked in England, and is situated about two
miles south-west of the town. The surrounding country appears for many
miles bleak, desolate, and barren, yet its bowels contain vast
treasures; though, as a talented author has observed, "like the shabby
mien of a miser, its aspect does not correspond with its hoards." The
shafts by which the miners descend, and through which the ore is raised
to the surface, are scattered over a considerable extent of sterile
ground, whose dreary appearance, and the sallow countenances of the
miners, concur to excite ideas of gloom, apprehension, and melancholy.
The number of shafts is not less than fifty, from twenty to thirty of
which are constantly in use. When a stranger is induced to descend, he
is previously accoutred in a flannel shirt and trowsers, a close cap, an
old hat to shelter his face from droppings, and a thick pair of shoes. A
lighted candle is put into one hand, and a spare one suspended to a
button of his jacket. Every part of the ordinary clothing is laid aside,
and the flannel dress worn close to the skin, in order to absorb the
profuse perspiration which the closeness of the mine or the labour of
mounting the ladders may occasion.

   _Market_, Friday.--_Fairs_, Whit Thursday, and Nov. 30, for oxen,
   sheep, and cloth.--_Mail_ arrives 12.35 afternoon; departs 10.27.
   morning.

[Sidenote: Blackmore Court held here.]

[Sidenote: Silver cup found 17 ft. under ground.]

   Map|   Names of Places.    | County.  |      Number of Miles From  |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
    45|Austhorpe[A]         to|W.R. York |Leeds        4|Wetherby   10|
     9|Austhwaite          ham|Cumberland|Ravenglass  11|Ulverston  10|
    45|Austonley            to|W.R. York |Huddersfield 8|Barnsley    9|
    39|Austrey              pa|Warwick   |Tamworth     6|Atherstone  7|
    45|Austwick             to|W.R. York |Settle       5|Ingleton    9|
    24|Authorpe             pa|Lincoln   |Alford       4|Louth       7|
    41|Avebury, or Abury[B] pa|Wilts     |Marlborough  7|Swindon    11|
    14|Aveley               pa|Essex     |Purfleet     2|G. Thurrock 4|
    17|Avenbury             pa|Hereford  |Bromyard     2|Ledbury    13|
    15|Avening              pa|Gloucester|Tetbury      4|M. Hampton  5|
    30|Averham[C]           pa|Nottingham|Newark       3|Southwell   5|
    11|Aveton-Gifford       pa|Devon     |Modbury      3|Dartmouth  13|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
                                                        |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+-------------+
    45|Austhorpe[A]         to|Abberford               5|  189|    150|
     9|Austhwaite          ham|Bootle                  7|  283|    101|
    45|Austonley            to|Wakefield              11|  181|   1420|
    39|Austrey              pa|Orton                   2|  112|    540|
    45|Austwick             to|Hawes                  20|  241|    614|
    24|Authorpe             pa|Horncastle             13|  144|    121|
    41|Avebury, or Abury[B] pa|Calne                   6|   82|    747|
    14|Aveley               pa|Wennington              4|   21|    758|
    17|Avenbury             pa|Hereford               15|  125|    314|
    15|Avening              pa|Horseley                3|   99|   2396|
    30|Averham[C]           pa|Tuxford                13|  127|    182|
    11|Aveton-Gifford       pa|Kingsbridge             5|  208|    939|
   +--+-----------------------+-------------------------+-------------+


[A] AUSTHORPE. This township gave birth to the celebrated civil engineer
John Smeaton, distinguished as the architect of Eddystone Light-house,
and, as the conductor of various other important undertakings. He was
the son of an attorney, who, observing that he had a strong taste for
mechanics, wisely allowed him to follow the impulse of his genius, and
become a mathematical instrument maker. He commenced business in that
capacity, in Holborn, London, in 1750. His great undertaking--the
erection of the light-house on the Eddystone rock, was accomplished in
the year 1759, and it was executed in such a manner as almost to bid
defiance to the power of time or accident. His death took place in his
native village, September 8, 1792.--See Eddystone Light-house.

[Sidenote: Birth-place of Smeaton the architect.]


[B] AVEBURY or ABURY, is situated within the very area of a British
temple, and claims the particular attention of the topographer and
antiquary. The enclosure, which is formed by a wide and deep ditch, and
a lofty external vallum, contains many large stones, some of which are
erect, and the others lying on the ground. Southward of this place, at
some distance, are other large stones, erect or prostrate; and,
westward, are two others, erect. Several walls and houses of the village
are constructed with broken masses of these ponderous monuments; yet
enough remains to excite curiosity and prompt research. The following is
a description of this great temple, in its original state:--Immediately
within the ditch, and encompassing the whole area, was a continued
series of large upright stones, consisting of one hundred in number;
these stones were placed at the distance of twenty-seven feet from each
other, and usually measured from fifteen to seventeen feet in height,
and about forty feet in circumference. Within the area of this circle,
the diameter of which was about 1400 feet, were two double circles; the
exterior circles were about 466 feet in diameter, and formed by thirty
stones of similar dimensions equally distant from each other, as in the
large enclosing circle. Of these singular stones there are but few
remaining; but from the extraordinary dimension of these relics of
antiquity, the traveller may judge for himself the correctness of our
notice.

   _Mail_ arrives at Beckhampton Inn, (1 mile distant,) at 5.20 morning;
   departs 9.45 night.

[Sidenote: A British temple formed of enormous stones.]


[C] AVERHAM. This place is principally remarkable for a monument
contained in the church erected to the memory of Sir William Sutton,
once lord of the manor, on which it is quaintly recorded that he had
sixteen children, and an equal number of each sex; of whom the one half

   "Ushered to heaven their father, and the other
   Remained behind him to attend their mother."

      |                        |          |
   Map|   Names of Places.     | County.  |     Number of Miles From   |
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+--------------+
     4|Avington[A]           pa|Berks     |Hungerford  3|Newbury      6|
    18|Avington[B]           pa|Hants     |Winchester  5|Alresford    4|
    41|Avon                chap|Wilts     |Chippenham  3|Malmsbury    9|
    39|Avon Dassett          pa|Warwick   |Banbury     6|Kineton      6|
    11|Awliscombe            pa|Devon     |Honiton     2|Ottery St.M. 6|
    16|Awre                  pa|Gloucester|Blakeney    3|Berkeley     3|
    34|Axbridge[C] bo. m.t. & p|Somerset  |Wells      10|Chedder      2|
    41|Axford                ti|Wilts     |Marlborough 3|Ramsbury     4|
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+--------------+
      |                        |                        |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.     |  Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+
     4|Avington[A]           pa|Kintbury               2|   62|     191|
    18|Avington[B]           pa|Basingstoke           14|   60|      26|
    41|Avon                chap|Calne                  7|   94|     226|
    39|Avon Dassett          pa|Southam                9|   75|        |
    11|Awliscombe            pa|Collumpton            10|  154|     598|
    16|Awre                  pa|Newnham                4|  124|    1309|
    34|Axbridge[C] bo. m.t. & p|Bristol               18|  130|     998|
    41|Axford                ti|Albourne               5|   73|     450|
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+


[A] AVINGTON. Sir Francis Burdett is lord of this manor, and patron of
the rectory. The church, which remains nearly in its original state,
exhibits a curious specimen of Saxon architecture. Within the walls it
measures 75 feet by 14 feet and a half. The nave is separated from the
chancel by an arch richly ornamented by a zig-zag moulding, and a great
variety of grotesque heads springing from two enriched piers; the arch
is formed of the segments of two circles, each having different centres.
In this church there is also a very singular font, of rude workmanship,
surrounded with grotesque figures, executed in bass-relief; that is to
say, sculpture, the figures of which do not stand out from the ground in
their full proportion.

[Sidenote: Sir Francis Burdett.]


[B] AVINGTON, anciently Abyngton, is remarkable for its beautiful park,
the seat of Chandos Grenville, Duke of Buckingham, Lord Lieutenant of
the county of Bucks. The manor was originally a royal demesne, or estate
in lands, and was given by king Edgar to the monastery of St. Swithin at
Winchester, in the year 961; it continued in the possession of that
house until the dissolution of monasteries, when it became the property
of the clerks of Mitcheldever, (a village about five miles distant,)
with whom it remained until the reign of Elizabeth; and then passed to
the Bruges, or Brydges family, afterwards raised to the dukedom of
Chandos. Anna Maria Brudenell, the infamous Countess of Shrewsbury,
married one of this family; her former husband, the Earl of Shrewsbury,
died from a wound received in a duel with the Duke of Buckingham, during
the fighting of which the Countess had the audacity to hold the horse of
her gallant, disguised as a page. Charles the Second was frequently the
guest of this notorious woman at the mansion of Avington, which thus
became the scene of that licentious monarch's pleasures. The mansion,
which is mostly built of brick, has been greatly improved since it came
into the possession of the present proprietor. It is situated in a well
planted and secluded valley, nearly environed with high downs, which
from their bare and open state, form a singular though not unpleasing
contrast with the scenery immediately contiguous to the house. Several
of the apartments are fitted up with great elegance, and enriched by a
choice collection of valuable paintings.

[Sidenote: Seat of the Duke of Buckingham.]

[Sidenote: A seat of one of the paramours of Charles II.]


[C] AXBRIDGE. This town is one of the polling places for the eastern
division of the county of Somerset, but the court for the election of
the Knights of the Shire is at Wells. The borough sent members to
parliament during the reigns of the three first Edwards, but was
afterwards excused on the plea of poverty. It consists chiefly of one
street, winding from east to west, about half a mile in length. The
shambles and market are towards the east end. Although so small, it is
governed by a corporation, consisting of a mayor, bailiff, and ten
aldermen, and twenty-two burgesses, with a recorder, town-clerk, and
other officers. Knit hose are manufactured in this town. The church,
occupying an eminence, near the market-house, is a large and handsome
gothic structure, in the form of a cross. The cloth of the communion
table is elegantly wrought in silk, by Mrs. Abigail, who employed seven
years in completing it. This lady, and several of her family, have
monuments in the church.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, Feb 23, and March 25, for cattle,
   sheep, cheese, and toys.--_Mail_ arrives 2.0 afternoon; departs 11.0
   morning.

[Sidenote: A borough excused on a plea of poverty.]

   Map|Names of Places. | County.  |    Number of Miles From    |
   +--+-----------------+----------+---------------+------------+
    11|Axminster[A] m.t.|Devon     |Bridport     12|Honiton   10|
    11|Axmouth        pa|Devon     |Colyton       3|Sidmouth   9|
    13|Aycliffe-Great}  |Durham    |Darlington    5|Sedgfield  7|
      |        to & p}  |          |               |            |
    29|Aydon          to|Northumb  |Hexham        6|Corbridge  2|
    29|Aydon-Castle   to|Northumb  |              6|           2|
    15|Aylburton    chap|Gloucester|Blakeney      5|Coleford   7|
    11|Aylesbear to&  pa|Devon     |Ottery, St.M. 5|Exeter    10|
     5|Aylesbury[B] bo.}|Bucks     |Tring         7|Winslow   11|
      |       m.t. & pa}|          |               |            |
   +--+-----------------+----------+---------------+------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places. |  Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+--------------------------+-----+------+
    11|Axminster[A]  m.t.|Lyme Regis              6|  147|  2719|
    11|Axmouth         pa|  "    "                6|  153|   646|
    13|Aycliffe-Great}   |Durham                 13|  246|  1564|
      |         to & p}  |                         |     |      |
    29|Aydon           to|Newcastle              15|  277|    99|
    29|Aydon-Castle    to|                       15|  277|    29|
    15|Aylburton     chap|Chepstow                8|  120|   388|
    11|Aylesbear to &  pa|Sidmouth                8|  166|  1025|
     5|Aylesbury[B]  bo.}|Wendover                5|   38|  4907|
      |        m.t. & pa}|                         |     |      |
   +--+-----------------+--------------------------+-----+------+


[A] AXMINSTER is very irregularly built, and the houses are inelegant,
but the air of the town is reckoned highly salubrious. The petty
sessions of the hundred of Axminster are held here. The lower orders are
mostly employed in manufacturing carpets, leather breeches, gloves, &c.
The manner of weaving carpets here is different from that pursued at
most other places; the carpets being woven in the piece, and several
hands employed at the same loom. The common patterns are flowers, roses,
&c., though the Turkey and Persian carpets have been imitated with
success. In many large pieces Roman tesselated pavements have been
copied, which have produced a very rich effect. The tunnel between
Charmouth and was opened in the month of January, 1832. This improvement
is substantially constructed with an elliptic arch, capable of allowing
two stage waggons of the largest size to pass on it, and is rather more
than seventy yards in length. By the completion of this tunnel the
longest and steepest hill between London and Exeter is avoided. A
gentleman who visited the tunnel during the height of the ensuing
summer, remarked the astonishing coolness which he felt within this
hill's enclosed semi-cylinder; no sooner, however, had he left it, than
he fainted from the difference of temperature between this subterraneous
passage and that of the open air.

   _Market_. Saturday--_Fairs_, St. Marks Day; April 30; Wednesday after
   June 24; Wednesday after Oct 10.--_Mail_ arrives 1.20 afternoon;
   departs 12.51 afternoon.

[Sidenote: Trade.]

[Sidenote: A remarkable tunnel through a lofty hill.]


[B] AYLESBURY. The Æglesbury of the Saxons, is a considerable market
town, situated near the centre of the county, rising gradually on all
sides in a rich and extensive tract, denominating the "Vale of
Aylesbury." Drayton in his Poly-Albion has the following lines
descriptive of this celebrated vale:--

   Aylesbury's vale that walloweth in her wealth,
   And (by her wholesome air continually in health)
   Is lusty, firm, and fat; and holds her youthful strength.

This was originally a strong British town, which maintained its
independence till the year 571, when it was reduced by the West Saxons.
In the year 600, it became famous as the burial place of St. Osyth, who
was born at Quarrendon, two miles distance, and beheaded in Essex by the
Pagans. Her relics were interred in this church, and are said to have
performed many miracles; a religious house was founded in honour of
William the Conqueror, who parcelled it out under the singular
tenure:--that the tenants should find litter or straw for the king's
bedchamber three times a year, if he came that way so often, and provide
him with three eels in winter, and three green geese in summer. In the
reign of Henry VIII., the manor was sold by Thomas Boleyn, Earl of
Wilts, father of Queen Anne Boleyn, to Sir John Baldwin, whose daughter
took it in marriage to Robert Pakington, who was murdered in the year
1537, on account of his zeal for the reformed religion. It continued in
this family till the year 1801, when it was sold by Sir John Pakington,
Bart., to the Marquis of Buckingham. How completely the manor and the
town itself were in the possession of the Pakington family, will appear
from the following remarkable letter preserved in the Chapel of the
Rolls, among the returns of Parliament writs of the fourteenth of Queen
Elizabeth:--"To all Christian people, to whom this present writing shall
come: I, Dorothy Pakington, late wife of Sir John Pakington, lord and
owner of the town of Aylesbury, send greeting. Know ye me, the said
Dorothy Pakington, to have chosen, named, and appointed my trusty and
well-beloved Thomas Litchfield, and George Burden, Esqrs., to be my
burgesses of my said town of Aylesbury; and whatever the said Thomas and
George, burgesses, shall do in the service of the Queen's Highness in
the Parliament to be holden at Westminster on the 8th of May next
ensuing the date hereof, I the same Dorothy Pakington do ratify and
approve to be of my own act as fully and wholly as if I were witness or
present there. In witness whereof, to these presents, I have set my
seal, this 4th day of May, in the 14th year of the reign of my Sovereign
Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God, of England, France, and Ireland,
Queen, &c." Aylesbury was made a borough town by a charter of Queen
Mary, in 1554. The Reform Bill has made no alteration in the number of
members. The electors are those of the old constituency, consisting of
freeholders of the hundred, and house-keepers not receiving alms; the
freeholders of the hundred are estimated at 838; and the ten pound
householders at 314; total 1152. The limits of the borough are
unaltered, and the returning officers are the constables of the borough.
The town is also one of the polling places for this county, which now
returns three members. The county gaol is still at Aylesbury, but the
Summer Assizes were restored to Buckingham, through the exertions of
Lord Cobham and the Grenville family in the year 1758. The only
manufacture at Aylesbury is that of lace-making: the weekly market is a
very plentiful one for provision, and much business is done here at the
annual fairs.

   _Market_, Saturday--_Fairs_, Friday after Jan. 18; Saturday before
   Palm Sunday; May 8; June 14; September 25; October 12, for cattle.
   _Bankers_, Rickford and Son, draw on Praed's and Co--_Mail_ arrives
   12.40 morning; departs 2.19 morning.--_Inns_, George, and White Hart.

[Sidenote: St. Osyth.]

[Sidenote: Singular tenure of this manor.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Parliamentary writ.]

   Map|Names of Places.  | County. |    Number of Miles From   |
   +--+------------------+---------+------------+--------------+
    24|Aylesby         pa|Lincoln  |G. Grimsby 4|Barton      17|
    21|Aylesford[A]    pa|Kent     |Maidstone  4|Rochester    5|
    23|Aylestone  to & pa|Leicester|Leicester  3|Lutterworth 10|
    27|Aylmerton       pa|Norfolk  |Cromer     3|Holt         9|
   +--+------------------+---------+------------+--------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+--------+
    24|Aylesby         pa|Caistor              9|  166|     144|
    21|Aylesford[A]    pa|Wrotham              8|   32|    1301|
    23|Aylestone  to & pa|Hinckley            10|   96|     758|
    27|Aylmerton       pa|Aylsham              2|  125|     284|
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] AYLESFORD is seated on the banks of the Medway, by which the parish
is divided. The church is so singularly situated, from being placed on a
rising ground, that persons in the churchyard can almost look down the
chimnies of the houses. The neighbourhood is famed as having been the
spot where, we are told by ancient historians, a sanguinary battle was
fought in 445, between the Britons and Saxons; the conflict having taken
place about five years after the first landing of the latter in Britain.
It appears from our chronicles that Vortimer, then monarch of this
island, having first defeated his enemies on the banks of the Darent, in
Kent, pursued their routed forces to Aylesford; at which place the
Saxons had passed to the eastern side of the Medway, where a most
obstinate and bloody battle took place between the contending armies,
when the fate of the day, having long remained undecided, at length
terminated favourably for the Britons. In that decisive affair, Horsa,
brother of Hengist, the Saxon chief, and Catigrinus, brother to King
Vortimer, are said to have contended hand to hand, when both died
bravely upon the spot. Horsa, | if tradition may be credited, was
interred about three miles north of Aylesford, at a spot still bearing
the name of Horsted; that is to say, "the place of Horsa;" where, in the
adjoining fields, large stones are still dispersed over the soil; some
in erect positions, while others, from lapse of time, have been thrown
down; being, there is little doubt, placed there as memorials of the
Saxon warriors slain in that famous encounter. Prince Cartigrinus is
supposed to have been inhumed still nearer the field of slaughter, on
the summit of an acclivity, about one mile north of Aylesford, and a
quarter of a mile west from the high road leading from Rochester to
Maidstone; at which place, Kitt's Cotty House still stands, as
represented in our engraving. This memorial consists of four large
stones, of the pebble kind, two placed in the ground, being partly
upright, forming two sides, a third standing in the middle between them,
while the fourth, being the largest, is laid transversely over them,
thus forming a covering. None of these stones bear the imprint of the
chisel, or any sign whatsoever of manual labour. Alfred and Edmund
Ironside defeated the Danes in this vicinity. Sir Charles Sedley, of
poetical and dissolute notoriety, was a native of this place; as was
also Sir Paul Rycaut, the celebrated eastern traveller.

[Sidenote: The site of a Saxon battle.]

[Sidenote: Kitt's Cotty House.]

   Map|  Names of Places.     | County. |    Number of Miles From  |
   +--+-----------------------+---------+-------------+------------+
    27|Aylsham[A]    m.t. & pa|Norfolk  |Norwich    12|Cromer    11|
    17|Aylton               pa|Hereford |Ledbury     4|Ross      11|
    17|Aymestery       to & pa|Hereford |Leominster  9|Kington   11|
    28|Aynho[B]             pa|Northamp |Brackley    6|Banbury    7|
    18|Ayott, St. Lawrence  pa|Herts    |Welwyn      3|Luton      7|
    18|Ayott, St. Peter     pa|Herts    |            2|Hatfield   5|
    43|Aysgarth        to & pa|N.R. York|Middleham   9|Askrigg    4|
    32|Ayston               pa|Rutland  |Uppingham   1|Okeham     6|
    43|Ayton East      to & pa|N.R. York|Scarborough 4|N. Malton 16|
    43|Ayton West           to|N.R. York|            5|          16|
    43|Ayton Great     to & pa|N.R. York|Stokesley   4|Guisboro'  5|
    43|Ayton Little    to & pa|N.R. York|            4|           5|
    45|Azerley, or Cozenley to|W.R. York|Ripon       5|Masham     5|
   +--+-----------------------+---------+-------------+------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.     | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+------+
    27|Aylsham[A]    m.t. & pa|Reepham               7|  118|  2334|
    17|Aylton               pa|Hereford             11|  124|   126|
    17|Aymestery       to & pa|Ludlow               11|  146|  1006|
    28|Aynho[B]             pa|Buckingham           11|   63|   664|
    18|Ayott, St. Lawrence  pa|St. Albans            7|   28|   134|
    18|Ayott, St. Peter     pa|                      7|   25|   271|
    43|Aysgarth        to & pa|Reeth                 7|  241|  5796|
    32|Ayston               pa|Rockingham            6|   90|   101|
    43|Ayton East      to & pa|Whitby               20|  217|   360|
    43|Ayton West           to|                     20|  217|   256|
    43|Ayton Great     to & pa|Stockton             10|  240|  1105|
    43|Ayton Little    to & pa|                     10|  240|    68|
    45|Azerley, or Cozenley to|Bedale               11|  217|   579|
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+------+


[A] AYLSHAM is situated on the southern side of the river Brue, which is
navigable hence to Yarmouth, for barges of about 13 tons burthen.
Aylsham during the reigns of Edward II. and III., was the chief town in
this part of the kingdom for the linen manufacture; but in succeeding
reigns, that business was superseded by the woollen manufacture; and in
the time of James I., the inhabitants were principally employed in
knitting worsted stockings, breeches, and waistcoat pieces. Since the
introduction of frame knitting, that trade has also been lost; the town
is governed by a bailiff. Aylsham church is said to have been erected by
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the court of which duchy was at one
period held here. There is a spa in the neighbourhood, the water of
which has obtained considerable reputation for its medicinal properties
in chronic disorders.

   _Market_, Tuesday.--_Fairs_, March 23; last Tuesday in September for
   lean cattle, ordinary horses, and pedlary; and October 6, for
   cattle.--_Mail_ arrives 12.30 afternoon; departs 2.0
   afternoon.--_Bankers_, Copeman and Co., draw upon Hankey and Co.

[Sidenote: Trade.]


[B] AYNHO is a large and respectable village seated on a rock, below
which issues a powerful spring of water, called the Town Well, which
after running through the vale below, contributes to the supply of the
Charwell. The church contains numerous monuments, several of which
belong to the Cartwright family, who have long been in possession of the
manor, and whose descendant R.W. Cartwright, Esq., has a handsome seat,
the interior of which is adorned with a fine collection of paintings. An
hospital was founded here for poor and sick travellers. The building is
still standing, but is now occupied as a private house.

[Sidenote: Town Well.]


       RIVERS.
   +-----------------+----------------+------------------------+
        Name.        |    Rises.      |        Falls.
   +-----------------+----------------+------------------------+
     Aire[A]         |  Yorkshire     |  Ouse.
     Alan            |  Cornwall      |  St. George's Channel.
     Ald             |  Suffolk       |  Sea near Aldborough.
     Alder           |  Sussex        |  Sea at Shoreham
     Allen           |  Dorsetshire   |  Stour
     Allen           |  Flintshire    |
     Allow, East     |  Durham        |  Tyne.
     Allow, West     |  Northum       |  Tyne.
     Allow, West     |  Anglesea      |  Irish Sea
     Alne[B]         |  Northumb      |  Tyne.
     Alt             |  Lancashire    |  Irish Sea
     Amond           |  Caermar       |  Lougher
     Ancholme[C]     |  Lincolnshire  |  Humber.
     Ande            |  Hants         |
     Angel           |  Montgom       |  Dovey.
     Ankham          |  Lincolnshire  |  Humber.
     Anker           |  Leicestersh   |  Tame.
     Annisor         |  Pembrokesh    |  Irish Sea
     Arrow           |  Herefordsh    |  Lug
     Arrow           |  Worcestersh   |  Avon.
     Arth            |  Cardigansh    |  Irish Sea.
     Artro           |  Merionethsh   |  Landeber.
     Arun            |  Sussex        |  Sea.
     Astery          |  Sussex        |  Sea.
     Atree           |  Cornwall      |  Tamer.
     Aune            |  Devonshire    |  Sea.
     Avon Upper[D]   |  Northamp      |  Severn.
     Avon Lower[E]   |  Wiltshire     |  English Channel.
     Avon            |  Glamorgansh   |  Severn.
     Avon, West      |  Goucestersh   |  Severn.
     Avon            |  Monmouthsh    |  Uske.
     Avon            |  Merionethsh   |  Irish Sea.
     Axe             |  Dorsetshire   |  British Channel.
     Axe             |  Somersetsh    |  Severn.
     Ayron           |  Cardigansh    |  Irish Sea.
   +-----------------+----------------+------------------------+


[A] AIRE, (The) rises from a small lake on the moors of Yorkshire,
north-east from Settle, descending through Aire-dale and Craven in its
course to the south-east, which it pursues as far as Leeds, where,
turning eastward, and meeting the Calder, it passes under Ferrybridge,
flowing through the flattest portion of Yorkshire; and receiving the
Don, a little north of Snaith, it unites with the Ouse above Booth
Ferry, near Howden. This river is of greater extent than the Calder, and
much its superior in navigation, being also joined by numerous canals
from the west. Its origin is almost mountainous, in the midst of the
wildest moors; and Aire-dale retains much of the same characteristic
features of that line of country. The district of Craven is singularly
romantic, being a rich vale, bounded by high hills, with the town of
Skipton in its centre; below which it forms a beautiful valley to
Keighley, full of trade and population; the Aire passes the picturesque
ruin of Kirkstall Abbey, in its way to Leeds, the manufactories and
villas of which flourishing place, and its vicinity, encompass its
banks; after which it divides one of the richest plains in the kingdom
to Ferrybridge, not far from the eminence where the town of Pontefract
appears a conspicuous object, with its ruined castle and ancient church.
Afterwards the Aire can boast little of beauty, as it advances through a
level district to join the Ouse.

[Sidenote: Booth Ferry.]

[Sidenote: Kirkstall Abbey.]


[B] ALNE, (The) is a small river which rises on the border of
Roxburgshire, but within the limits of Northumberland, and a little
north of the source of the Coquet. The great and attractive objects
which grace its borders are placed in the far-extended territory of the
Duke of Northumberland, at the entrance to which the lofty building,
called Brisley Tower, thickly environed by plantations, overlooks all
the wild country of Northumberland, including the bold range of
Cheviot-hills on the north-west, close to the Scottish border. The Alne
then enters a charming valley, beneath the ivied walls of Hulne Abbey,
winding delightfully between lawns, woods, and groupes of trees and
cottages, admirably disposed. From these monastic and rustic recesses,
the river emerges into a spacious park, widened considerably by art, and
gliding through the arches of a fine Castellan bridge, is proudly
overlooked by the numerous towers, and lofty citadel of Alnwick Castle,
the superb seat of the Northumberland family.

[Sidenote: Brisley Tower.]

[Sidenote: Alnwick Castle.]


[C] ANCHOLME. This small river, rising in the wolds of Lincolnshire, not
far from Market Raisin, is navigable from Glandford Bridge to the
Humber, and in its course intersecting the extensive tract of the Wolds,
which stretches out from Lincoln northward to Barton, and forms a ridge
across some intermediate valleys, terminates in the fens near Spilsby
Louth. Brocklesby Park, in the extensive domains of Lord Yarborough,
occupies the centre of this district, on the highest point of which his
lordship has built a superb chapel and mausoleum, in a very excellent
Grecian taste, adorned with appropriate statues and marbles, from Italy.
This building, from its position, commands the whole surrounding
country, with the port of Hull, across the Humber; forming also a
sea-mark, and an interesting object, admirable for the elegance of its
design and execution. Thornton College is a curious remnant of antiquity
in this neighbourhood, founded in the reign of King Stephen; great part
of which is yet preserved, with some modern additions.


[D] AVON, (The Upper) rising in Northamptonshire, on the borders of
Leicestershire, adds great beauty to the delightful territory of Warwick
Castle, as it flows beneath the cliff on which those lofty towers
projecting before the town and church are situated. It then glides
through a charming country to Stratford-on-Avon, celebrated as the
birth-place of Shakspeare, and where the remains of the immortal bard
are deposited. From thence it traverses the great level of
Worcestershire by Evesham, having received the lesser Stour at
Stratford, and turning to the South at Pershore, meets the Severn at the
flourishing town of Tewksbury.

[Sidenote: Warwick Castle.]


[E] AVON (The Lower) rises in the hilly district of North Wiltshire,
bordering on Gloucestershire, not far from Wootton Basset; its source is
near that of the great river Thames, and both are said to have their
origin from various springs, not accurately defined. Emerging from the
hills, it makes a compass to fall into the vale leading from Christian
Malford to Chippenham, advancing through the cloathing district of
Wiltshire, bordering upon that of Somersetshire, and for a considerable
extent divides those counties. Its course is at first southward, making
a long compass by the west towards the north, and then to the west; at
last, encircling the city of Bath on two sides, from whence it pursues
nearly the same direction, with frequent meanders to Bristol. It then
inclines to the north-west, as it conveys the abundant trade of that
opulent city to the Severn, by its conflux constituting the Bristol
Channel at King's-road.

[Sidenote: Bath.]



B.

   Map|Names of Places.| County. |    Number of Miles From  |
   +--+----------------+---------+-------------+------------+
    34|Babcary       pa|Somerset |Somerton    4|Ilchester  5|
    27|Babingley,[A] pa|Norfolk  |Cas. Rising 2|Lynn       6|
      |  or Baburghley |         |             |            |
    34|Babington     pa|Somerset |Frome       5|Bath      10|
     6|Babraham[B]   pa|Cambridge|Linton      4|Cambridge  5|
   +--+----------------+---------+-------------+------------+
                                               |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.| Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+------+
    34|Babcary       pa|Castle-Cary           7|  120|   453|
    27|Babingley,[A] pa|Heacham               8|  102|    38|
      |  or Baburghley |                       |     |      |
    34|Babington     pa|Shepton Mal.          9|  109|   206|
     6|Babraham[B]   pa|Newmarket            12|   51|   273|
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+------+


[A] BABINGLEY. In this parish, the first Christian church in East Anglia
is said to have been built. Several hills in the vicinity, called
Christian Hills, render the opinion highly probable. The village is
situated near that part of the Lincolnshire wash called Lynn Deeps.


[B] BABRAHAM, anciently Badburham, is situated in the hundred of
Chilford. This place, which was one of the manors of Algar, Earl of
Mercia, at the time of the Norman survey, formerly had a market on
Mondays. About the year 1576, the whole manorial property in the parish
fell into the possession of Sir Horatio Palavicini, a Genoese. According
to the tradition of the neighbourhood, this gentleman was collector of
the Pope's taxes in England, in the reign of Queen Mary, on whose death,
and the consequent change in religion under Elizabeth, he (like the
Vicar of Bray,) changed his faith, converted the Pope's money to his own
use, and settled in this country. The following whimsical epitaph
relates to this occurrence: it is printed in "Lord Orford's Anecdotes of
Painting"--

   "Here lyes Horatio Palavazine,
   Who robbed the Pope to lend the Queen.
   He was a thief--a thief? Thou lyest:
   For what! he robb'd but Antichrist,
   Him death with besome swept from Bab'ram.
   Into the bosom of ould Abraham:
   But then came Hercules with his club,
   And struck him down to Belzebub."

Sir Horatio was in great favour with Queen Elizabeth. He was
naturalised, by patent, in 1516, and commanded one of the English
men-of-war in the great battle with the Spanish Armada, in 1588; and he
was employed by the Queen, in her negotiations with the German Princes:
he died at his seat, in this parish, on the 6th of July, 1600. It
appears by the register kept in the church, that his children were
baptized and buried here: it is also recorded, that the marriage of Sir
Horatio's widow with Sir Oliver Cromwell, the Protector's uncle, took
place exactly a year and a day after her husband's decease. The poor of
this parish are partly maintained by a bequest of £97. a year, expended
under certain restrictions imposed by the donor. Here is an alms-house,
and a free school, founded by Levinus Bush, Esq., and his sister, Mrs.
Judith Bennet; and the yearly sum of £25. is appropriated to the
apprenticing of children.

[Sidenote: Singular anecdote of the Pope's Tax-gatherer.]

[Sidenote: The Queen's favorite.]

   Map|Names of Places.|  County. |   Number of Miles From     |
   +--+----------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
    30|Babworth[A]   pa|Nottingham|East Retford 1|Blyth       6|
    56|Bacheldre, or   |Montgomery|Bis. Castle  4|Montgomery  5|
      |  Bacheldref  to|          |              |             |
    10|Bachymbyd     to|Denbigh   |Ruthin       3|Denbigh     6|
    49|Bach-Yrys, or   |Caermarth |Llanelly     4|Lougher     4|
      |  Machunis  Isle|          |              |             |
     7|Backford to & pa|Chester   |Chester      3|Park Gate  12|
    34|Backwell, or    |Somerset  |Bristol      7|Pensford    8|
    34|  Bachwell    pa|          |              |             |
    29|Backworth, or   |Northumb  |N. Shields   6|Newcastle   7|
      |  Blackworth  to|          |              |             |
    27|Baconsthorpe  to|Norfolk   |Holt         4|Cromer      7|
    22|Bacop       chap|Lancaster |Rochdale     7|Haslingden  6|
    17|Bacton        pa|Hereford  |Hereford    12|Llanthony A 6|
    27|Bacton        pa|Norfolk   |N. Walsham   5|Cromer     10|
    36|Bacton        pa|Suffolk   |Stourmarket  6|Botesdale   7|
   +--+----------------+----------+--------------+-------------+

                                                 |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.|   Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+-------------------------+-----+-------+
    30|Babworth[A]   pa|Worksop                 7|  146|    449|
    56|Bacheldre, or   |Welshpool              12|  163|    ...|
      |  Bacheldref  to|                         |     |       |
    10|Bachymbyd     to|Mold                   11|  202|    ...|
    49|Bach-Yrys, or   |Pont ar                 7|  223|    ...|
      |  Machunis  Isle|Dulas                    |     |       |
     7|Backford to & pa|Liverpool              16|  186|    487|
    34|Backwell, or    |Axbridge               12|  125|   1038|
    34|  Bachwell    pa|                         |     |       |
    29|Backworth, or   |Blyth                   7|  281|    243|
      |  Blackworth  to|                         |     |       |
    27|Baconsthorpe  to|Aylsham                 8|  121|    333|
    22|Bacop       chap|Burnley                 6|  205|    ...|
    17|Bacton        pa|Hay                    14|  139|    178|
    27|Bacton        pa|Worsted                 7|  128|    498|
    36|Bacton        pa|Ixworth                 9|   76|    758|
   +--+----------------+-------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BABWORTH. The hall is the seat of the Hon. J.B. Simpson; it a plain
white-fronted edifice, the surrounding grounds which are very beautiful,
were laid out by the celebrated Repton. Babworth church is a neat gothic
building, with a small steeple; it is worthy of remark, that there are
two trees growing out of the roof of the south porch. Near this village
the ground begins to rise, and displays the most enchanting scenery of
woods, lawns, glades, heaths, cultivated farms, and ornamental seats.
The late Paul Sandby, Esq., R.A., who died on the 8th of November, 1809,
was descended from a branch of the Sandby family, of Babworth, and was
born at Nottingham, in 1732. In 1746 he went to London, and having an
early bias towards the arts, he got introduced into the drawing room of
the Tower. After two years he was appointed draughtsman, under the
inspection of Mr. David Watson, who was employed by the late Duke of
Cumberland to take a survey of the Highlands. During this excursion he
made several sketches from the terrific scenery of that romantic
country, from which he afterwards made a number of small etchings, which
were published in a folio volume. From this circumstance, perhaps, we
may account for the bold and striking style by which the paintings of
this excellent artist are so peculiarly distinguished. In 1752, he
quitted this employment and resided with his brother at Windsor. Several
of the most beautiful views in the neighbourhood of Windsor and Eton,
now became the subject of his pencil; here also he obtained that skill
in depicting gothic architecture which gave so beautiful an effect to
those landscapes that Sir Joseph Banks purchased them all at a very
liberal price. Mr. Sandby published several prints in ridicule of the
inimitable Hogarth's "Analysis of Beauty," but he afterwards declared,
that had he known the merits of that exquisite painter at the time, he
should not have dared to depreciate them. On the institution of "the
Royal Academy," he was elected one of the Academicians. He was
afterwards appointed chief drawing master of the Royal Academy at
Woolwich, and held the office with honour and credit to the day of his
death.

[Sidenote: Trees grow out of the roof of the church.]

[Sidenote: Paul Sandby, Esq.]

[Sidenote: Sandby the painter.]

   Map|Names of Places.      | County.|  Number of Miles From  |
   +--+----------------------+--------+------------+-----------+
    28|Badby[A]            pa|Northamp|Daventry   3|Banbury  14|
    39|Baddesley-Clinton   pa|Warwick |Warwick    7|Solihull  6|
    39|Baddesley-Ensor     pa|Warwick |Atherstone 3|Tamworth  6|
    16|Baddesley-North     pa|Hants   |Romsey     4|Wincheste 8|
    16|Baddesley-South[B] ham|Hants   |Lymington  2|Yarmouth  5|
     7|Baddiley[C]         pa|Chester |Nantwich   3|Malpas    9|
     7|Baddington          to|Chester |           2|Tarporley 9|
    14|Baddow (Great)[D]   pa|Essex   |Chelmsford 2|Witham   10|
   +--+---------------------+---------+------------+-----------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.      |Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+--------+------------+-----+-----+
    28|Badby[A]            pa|Northamp           13|   75|  583|
    39|Baddesley-Clinton   pa|Henley in A.        6|   97|  110|
    39|Baddesley-Ensor     pa|Coleshill           9|  108|  568|
    16|Baddesley-North     pa|Southampton         7|   70|  297|
    16|Baddesley-South[B] ham|Beaulieu            6|   88|  ...|
     7|Baddiley[C]         pa|Tarporley           9|  167|  267|
     7|Baddington          to|Malpas             11|  166|  132|
    14|Baddow (Great)[D]   pa|Maldon              9|   31| 1719|
   +--+----------------------+---------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BADBY. This extensive village is situated on the brow of a hill, in
the large uninclosed district of Badby-Down. Here are numerous springs,
and several quarries of flag-stone, which, from its excellence, is very
extensively employed for the purposes of building and paving. On the
summit of Arbury Hill, in this parish, is a large encampment, which is
attributed to the Romans: the ramparts are very steep, and the whole is
encompassed by a very wide and deep foss.

[Sidenote: Quarries.]


[B] BADDESLEY. This village was celebrated a short time ago for a
singular tree it contained, from which was frequently heard to issue
groans as though uttered by a person in acute agony. The tree was an
elm, young, vigorous, and to all appearance perfectly sound; and what is
most wonderful, naturalists could assign no physical reason for the
phenomena. Its fame spread far and wide; a pamphlet was written with an
account of it, and persons came miles to visit it. The tree, however, it
would seem with the fickleness attendant too often upon those who have
gained celebrity, would not always groan, yet no cause could be assigned
for its temporary cessations, either from seasons or weather. Many
superstitious tales were raised by the country people and alleged as
reasons for this singular occurrence; and for eighteen or twenty months
it continued an object of considerable interest; a gentleman of the name
of Forbes, making an experiment to discover its cause, by boring a hole
in its trunk, put a period to its agonies, it never groaned again. It
was afterwards rooted up with a further view to make a discovery, but in
vain. It is universally believed that there was no trick in the affair,
but that some natural cause really existed, though never understood.

[Sidenote: The groaning tree.]


[C] BADDILEY. A parish in the hundred of Nantwich. This place is
principally remarkable for its church, standing on a small green
surrounded by farm buildings. It consists of a small nave and chancel,
and was constructed entirely of English oak; it is of the most remote
antiquity, and presented a most unique specimen of ecclesiastical
buildings of timber, previous to the introduction of stone; the upright
timbers being much decayed were cased with brick in 1811, it having
stood so many centuries that it was in danger of falling; the roof and
ceiling are still in fine preservation. In the chancel are remains of
some ancient stalls, and two elegant marble monuments, erected to the
Mainwaring family, who were lords of the manor. Baddiley Hall, the
former residence of this family, was a very old irregular building of
timber and plaister, but has been lately pulled down.

[Sidenote: An oaken church.]


[D] BADDOW. (Great). This extensive, populous, and genteel village, from
its peculiarly delightful situation, has become the residence of a
considerable number of highly respectable families. Previous to the
conquest, the manor was part of the possessions of Algar, Earl of
Mercia. In consequence, however, of the rebellion of his son and
successor, Earl Eadwine, who was slain in battle, this lordship, with
other estates, was granted by King William to the monastery of the Holy
Trinity at Caen, in Normandy. In the reign of Henry I., the crown was
again possessed of it, and about the same period, the Earls of
Gloucester became its proprietors; from which time, after having been
vested in many noble families, it is now in the possession of the family
of Houblon. Two chauntries of some value were formerly in the church.

   Map|Names of Places.      |  County. |    Number of Miles From    |
   +--+----------------------+----------+-------------+--------------+
    14|Baddow, Little[A]   pa|Essex     |Chelmsford  5|Witham       6|
    33|Badger              pa|Salop     |Bridgenorth 6|Shifnal      6|
    15|Badgington          pa|Gloucester|Cirencester 4|Northleach   9|
    15|Badgworth           pa|Gloucester|Cheltenham  4|Painswick    8|
    34|Badgworth           pa|Somerset  |Axbridge    3|Bridgewater 12|
    36|Badingham           pa|Suffolk   |Framlingham 4|Halesworth   6|
    21|Badlesmere[B]       pa|Kent      |Faversham   4|Charing      6|
    36|Badley              pa|Suffolk   |Needham     2|Stowmarket   2|
    15|Badminton, Great[C] pa|Gloucester|Sodbury     6|Tetbury     10|
   +--+---------------------+-----------+-------------+--------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.      | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+
    14|Baddow, Little[A]   pa|Maldon                 7|   34|     548|
    33|Badger              pa|Madeley                6|  134|     142|
    15|Badgington          pa|Cheltenham            12|   93|     167|
    15|Badgworth           pa|Gloucester             5|   98|     859|
    34|Badgworth           pa|Wells                 12|  133|     352|
    36|Badingham           pa|Saxmundham             6|   91|     866|
    21|Badlesmere[B]       pa|Canterbury            11|   48|     135|
    36|Badley              pa|Bildeston              8|   71|      82|
    15|Badminton, Great[C] pa|Malmesbury            10|  106|     529|
   +--+----------------------+----------------------+-------+--------+


[A] BADDOW, (Little). The church at this place contains a rich and
splendid monument to the memory of Sir Henry Mildmay, Knight, who died
in October, 1639. He is represented in a full suit of armour, reposing
under a dome, which rests upon black marble pillars; two female figures
kneel at his feet; the one elderly, and dressed in a scarf and hood, the
other young, and magnificently attired in the fashion of the time. The
head of the knight is supported by a pillow. From a latin inscription
upon an oval tablet, we learn that Sir Henry having served as a soldier
in the Irish wars, was for his gallantry knighted in the field. The
carved effigies of two female figures, said by tradition to have been
sisters and founders of this church, occupy recesses in the south wall
of the centre aisle. Upon examining the two graves in which it was
supposed that the corpses of the persons whose figures stood in the
niches were interred, in one of them were found three skeletons, and two
in the other, but without the slightest vestige of wood, linen, coffin,
or any other covering to the bodies. In the year 1817, Edward Bullin,
Esq., bequeathed 196 acres of land, and a wood containing thirty-six
acres, for the purpose of clothing and educating the children in this
parish and that of Boreham.

[Sidenote: Sir Henry Mildmay.]

[Sidenote: Skeletons found.]


[B] BADLESMERE. Bartholomew de Badlesmere, lord of the manor in the
reign of Edward the Second, obtained a license for founding a house of
regular canons in this place. The church is a small and very plain Saxon
structure. In the porch are the fronts of two ancient wooden seats,
carved in high relief; one represents a shield, on which are the star,
ribbon, and motto of the order of the garter: on the other are some
Scriptural sentences, relative to the Holy Trinity, in four circles,
united by bands; so that the words Pater, Filius, Spisces and Deus,
though only once repeated in the circles, form a part of every sentence.

[Sidenote: Curious carvings in wood.]


[C] BADMINTON, (Great) has been the seat of the ducal family of
Beaufort, ever since the demolition of Ragland Castle, in the civil
wars. Badminton House, the family residence of the duke, is situated in
a noble park nearly nine miles in circumference, through which various
avenues have been formed. It was erected by the first duke of Beaufort
in the year 1682. It is a very extensive building, on the French model.
In the hall is a large sarcophagus of Roman sculpture, representing a
bacchanalian procession; this was given to the third duke of Beaufort,
by Cardinal Alberoni. By that distinguished prelate, who died in 1745,
many curious and original paintings were procured during his residence
in Italy; among them is a Holy Family, by Raphael; and several by Guido
and Carlo Dolci are much esteemed. He also purchased the very singular
and finely painted satirical picture by Salvator Rosa, for which that
artist was expelled Rome. "The Sovereigns of the different nations are
here depicted by different animals, as an eagle, a wolf, a sheep, a hog,
a fox, a cow, and an ass; the latter has the pontifical pall thrown over
him, and the blind goddess, Fortune, is represented showering her gifts
over the whole group." Some excellent landscapes, by the Italian
masters, are also preserved here; and a very fine series of fourteen
portraits, of the Beauforts, from John of Gaunt, from whom they trace
their genealogy. Badminton church is an elegant structure; it was built
by the late duke in 1785, and contains many monuments of the Beaufort
family.

[Sidenote: Duke of Beaufort's seat.]

[Sidenote: Fine paintings.]

   Map| Names of Places.  |  County. |   Number of Miles From    |
   +--+--------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
    15|Badminton, Little ti|Gloucester|Sodbury    6|Tetbury    10|
    42|Badsey            pa|Worcester |Evesham    2|Broadway    4|
    37|Badshot           ti|Surrey    |Farnham    2|Guildford   9|
    45|Badsworth         pa|W.R. York |Pontefract 5|Wakefield   9|
    36|Badwell-Ash       pa|Suffolk   |Stowmarket 8|Ixworth     4|
    34|Bagborough-West   pa|Somerset  |Taunton   12|Watchet     7|
    43|Bagby           chap|N.R. York |Thirsk     3|Borobridge 11|
    23|Baggrave         lib|Leicester |Leicester  9|Melton      7|
    39|Baginton[A]       pa|Warwick   |Coventry   4|Rugby      13|
    54|Baglan[B]         pa|Glamorgan |Neath      4|Aberavon    2|
   +--+--------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.   |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    15|Badminton, Little ti|Malmesbury           10|  106|    116|
    42|Badsey            pa|Alcester             15|   98|    463|
    37|Badshot           ti|Frimley               7|   37|       |
    45|Badsworth         pa|Doncaster            11|  171|    782|
    36|Badwell-Ash       pa|Bury                 12|   78|    490|
    34|Bagborough-West   pa|Stowey                8|  156|    453|
    43|Bagby           chap|Easingwold            8|  220|    289|
    23|Baggrave         lib|Houghton              5|  100|     16|
    39|Baginton[A]       pa|Kenilworth            4|   90|    257|
    54|Baglan[B]         pa|Swansea              13|  194|    410|
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BAGINTON. The Hall, a seat of a descendant of the Bromley family,
who purchased the estate in the reign of James I., was built by
secretary Bromley. This gentleman, one of the most honest and able
servants of Queen Anne, was Speaker of the House of Commons. In proof of
the high estimation in which he was held, it is necessary only to cite a
memorable circumstance relative to the residence under notice. In 1706,
the family seat at Baginton was reduced to the ground by fire.
Intelligence of this calamity was conveyed to the owner while attending
his duty in the House of Commons, and a considerable sum was immediately
voted by parliament towards a restoration of the structure. Here is
barely to be traced the site of the castellated residence of Sir William
Bagot, a firm adherent of Richard II., at which the Duke of Hereford,
afterwards Henry IV., lodged the night previous to his projected
personal contest with Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, in the presence
of the King on Gosford Green, where the lists were formed; the scene is
admirably described by Shakespeare.

[Sidenote: Once destroyed by fire].


[B] BAGLAN is a parish in the hundred of Neath. The village is of the
most romantic beauty, and the scenery in the neighbourhood is of a
delightful character. Near this place is Britton Ferry, which is
interesting, not only on account of its sylvan fascinations, but as
being the domain of Lord Jersey, whose extensive plantations spread over
several bold hills westward of the Neath river, a stream which here
emerges in a fine sweep, between woody banks, partly broken into cliffs
and at a short distance descends into the sea. "From a delightful shady
walk over the stream, we branched off," says Mr. Barber, "into an 'alley
green,' which led us up a steep hill, covered with large trees, and
tangled underwood; the ascent was judiciously traced, where several bare
crags, projecting from the soil, formed an opposite contrast to the
luxuriant verdure which prevailed around. On gaining the summit, the
charms of Britton Ferry disclosed themselves in 'an ample theatre of
sylvan grace,' of more than common beauty: beyond which, the Bristol
Channel, bounded by the aerial tint of its opposite coast, formed the
distance. From this roaming prospect, however, the eye gladly returned
to gaze on the local beauties of the scene, the tufted knoll, the dark
glade, and the majestic river." The mansion is a very ordinary building;
the house is low having two wings, with attic windows in the roof,
ornamented with a bullustraded parapet. The neat simplicity of the
hamlet deserves remark; perhaps the church is unrivalled, both for its
picturesque situation, and moral interest. The custom of planting
evergreens over the remains of departed friends, and bedecking them with
flowers at certain seasons of the year, is here attended to with
peculiar care; and to this pleasing tribute of tenderness and affection
the "Bard of Avon" refers in the following beautiful lines:--

   "With fairest flowers while summer lasts,
   I'll sweeten thy sad grave, thou shalt not lack
   The flower that's like thy face, pale primrose: nor
   The azured harebell, like thy veins: no, nor
   The leaf of eglantine, whom not to slander,
   Out-sweetened not thy breath."

David Ap Gwillym also beautifully alludes to this practice: "Oh, while
thy season of flowers, and thy tender sprays thick of leaves remain, I
will pluck the roses from the brakes, the flowers from the meads, the
vivid trefoils, beauties of the ground, and the gaily smiling bloom of
the verdant herbs, humbly will I lay them on the grave of Ivor!" This
part of Wales is so mild in its climate, that myrtles, magnolias, and
other tender exotics, grow luxuriantly in the open air. Near Baglan is a
well with medicinal properties, but many superstitious notices are
associated with its use in the neighbourhood.

   _Mail_ arrives at Aberavon, 2 miles distant, 6 evening; departs, 7.30
   morning.

[Sidenote: Lord Jersey's seat].

[Sidenote: Britton Ferry.]

[Sidenote: Planting evergreens over graves.]

   Map| Names of Places. |  County. |    Number of Miles From  |
   +--+------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
     4|Bagley Wood     ti|Berks     |Abingdon    3|Oxford     3|
    34|Bagnall         to|Stafford  |Leek        6|Newcastle  6|
     4|Bagnor          to|Berks     |Newbury     2|Hungerford 7|
    37|Bagshot[A]     vil|Surrey    |Staines    10|Blackwater 4|
    27|Bagthorpe       pa|Norfolk   |Burnham     7|Fakenham   9|
     7|Baguley         to|Chester   |Knutsford   2|Altringham 5|
    23|Bagworth      chap|Leicester |M. Bosworth 5|Ashby      9|
    45|Baildon[B] to&chap|W.R. York |Bradford    5|Otley      6|
    22|Bailey          to|Lancaster |Clithero    5|Blackburn  8|
   +--+------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                  |Dist.
   Map| Names of Places. | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+------------------------+-----+------+
     4|Bagley Wood     ti|Cumnor                 4|   57|    21|
    34|Bagnall         to|Cheadle                8|  154|   306|
     4|Bagnor          to|Lambourn              10|   58|   594|
    37|Bagshot[A]     vil|Windsor               11|   26|  1912|
    27|Bagthorpe       pa|Lynn                  14|  109|    73|
     7|Baguley         to|Stockport             11|  176|   468|
    23|Bagworth      chap|Leicester             10|  108|   328|
    45|Baildon[B] to&chap|Keighley               7|  201|  3041|
    22|Bailey          to|Preston               14|  219|      |
   +--+------------------+------------------------+-----+------+


[A] BAGSHOT is a village on the great western road, in the parish of
Windlesham, and hundred of Woking. Bagshot heath derives its name from
this village; it is one of the most extensive wastes in the kingdom, and
was formerly the scene of many highway robberies. Its appearance is
extremely desolate, but it is useful in supplying the inhabitants with
fuel, and feeds a great number of sheep, the mutton of which is
excellent; but like other animals fed on a similar pasture, the sheep
are small. On the edge of the heath are several noblemen's seats. Among
which, Hall Grove, the residence of Mrs. Birt; Chobham Place, S.
Thornton, Esq.; South Hill Park, the Earl of Limerick; and Easthampstead
Park, the seat of the Marquis of Downshire; are deserving the notice of
the curious traveller. Bagshot Park to the north of the village, was
once the seat of his late Majesty George IV. when Prince of Wales; after
which time it was inhabited by the late Duke of Gloucester,
(brother-in-law of his present Majesty) until the day of his decease,
which occurred on the 30th of November, 1834, in the 58th year of his
age; his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle,
on the 11th of the following month. Bagshot was formerly a lordship of
the kings of England, and was much resorted to by James I., and Charles
I., to enjoy the pleasures of the chace.

   _Mail_ arrives 10.14 night; departs 3.28 morning--_Inns_, King's
   Arms, and White Hart.

[Sidenote: Bagshot heath.]


[B] BAILDON is in the parish of Otley and wapentake of Skyrack, and is
situated on the river Aire. The inhabitants are principally engaged in
trade and manufactures. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes within a
mile and a half from this place.

   _Fair_, first Saturday in March and November, for horses, horned
   cattle &c.

   Map| Names of Places.  |  County. |    Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-------------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
     9|Bailie           to|Cumberland|Carlisle     18|Bewcastle   2|
    43|Bainbridge       to|N.R. York |Askrigg       2|Hawes       4|
    28|Bainton          pa|Northamp  |Wandsford     5|Deeping     4|
    31|Bainton         ham|Oxford    |Bicester      3|Deddington  8|
    46|Bainton          pa|E.R. York |G. Driffield  6|Beverley   11|
    10|Bakewell[A] mt & pa|Derby     |Chesterfield 11|Manchester 35|
   +--+-------------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.  |  Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+
     9|Bailie           to|Brampton                10|  312|    454|
    43|Bainbridge       to|Middleham               13|  246|    831|
    28|Bainton          pa|Stamford                 4|   89|    171|
    31|Bainton         ham|Aynhoe                   6|   56|     27|
    46|Bainton          pa|Weighton                10|  196|    300|
    10|Bakewell[A] mt & pa|Wirksworth              13|  153|   9503|
   +--+-------------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BAKEWELL. This ancient market town, in which the petty sessions for
the High Peak are holden, is situated on the western bank of the river
Wye. Of late years, the market has dwindled into insignificance, but the
parish is the most extensive in Derbyshire; its length is more than 20
miles, and its breadth upwards of eight. The pasturage in this
neighbourhood is remarkably good. The town was anciently called
Bath-quelle; it appears to have derived its name from its Bath-well, the
immediate site of which has been for many years occupied by a collector
of minerals and fossils for private cabinets. From the circumstance of a
Roman altar, and other antiquities having been discovered here, there
can be but little doubt that Bakewell was a place of some note in the
time of the Romans. At the Conquest, Bakewell had two priests and a
church. The manor then belonged to William Peverell, ancestor of the
Peveril celebrated in the admirable romance by Sir Walter Scott, styled
"Peveril of the Peak." Bakewell church is an ancient structure, with a
lofty spire. Near the entrance of the town, from Ashford, is a mill, for
the carding, roving, doubling, spinning, and twisting of cotton, in
which some hundreds of persons of both sexes are employed; the mill was
erected by the late Sir Richard Arkwright, the founder of the cotton
trade in this neighbourhood. This distinguished character, whose
perseverance and admirable inventions raised him from one of the most
humble occupations in society--that of a barber--to affluence and
honour, was the youngest of thirteen children, and was born in the year
1732, at Preston, in Lancashire. A considerable manufacture of linen
goods, and of linen and cotton mixed, was then carried on in that
neighbourhood, and Mr. Arkwright had an opportunity of becoming
intimately acquainted with the various operations; and being a man of
superior powers, he directed his thoughts to the improvement of the mode
of spinning, which had probably been conducted for ages without thought
of change. The first hint respecting the means of effecting this
improvement, he said, he accidentally received from seeing a red hot
iron bar elongated, by being passed between iron cylinders. The
difficulties which he experienced before he could bring his machine into
use, even after its construction was sufficiently complete to
demonstrate its value, would, perhaps, have for ever retarded its
completion, had his genius and application been less ardent. His
pecuniary means were not such as to enable him to commence business on
his own account, and few were willing to incur the necessary risk. At
length, however, he secured the co-operation of some persons who saw the
merits of the invention, and were willing to assist his endeavours, and
he obtained his first patent for spinning by means of rollers in the
year 1769. To avoid the inconvenience of establishing a manufacture of
this kind at the great seat of the cotton manufacture, as it then
existed, he removed to Nottingham, when, in conjunction with his
partners, he erected his first mill, which was worked by horses. This
mode being found too expensive, another mill on a larger scale was
erected at Cromford, the machinery of which was put in motion by water.
Mr. Arkwright soon effected many improvements in the mode of preparing
the cotton for spinning, and invented a variety of ingenious machines
for that purpose, in the most correct and expeditious manner, for all
which he obtained a patent in the year 1775, and thus completed a series
of machinery so various and complicated, yet so admirably combined as to
excite universal approbation. That all this should have been
accomplished by a single man, without education, without mechanical
knowledge, or even mechanic's experience, is truly extraordinary; and
is, perhaps, equal to any known example of the wonderful powers of the
human mind, when steadily directed to one object. However, at the same
time that he was inventing or improving the machinery, he was engaged in
various undertakings which might have been thought incompatible with
other pursuits. He was taking measures to secure himself a fair
proportion of the fruits of his industry and ingenuity--he was greatly
extending the business--he was introducing into every department of the
manufactory, a novel system of industry, economy, order, and
cleanliness; the whole of which he so effectually accomplished, that his
example may be regarded as the origin of almost all similar
improvements. During this entire period, he was afflicted with a violent
asthma, which sometimes threatened the immediate termination of his
existence; and for some time previously to his death, he was rendered
incapable of continuing his usual pursuits, by a complication of
diseases, which, at length, deprived him of life at the Rock House,
Cromford, on the 23d of August, 1792. The honour of Knighthood was
bestowed on him by George III., in December, 1786, when he presented an
address to that monarch. Dr. Thomas Denman, an eminent physician, was
born at this place in 1733; after the death of Dr. William Hunter, he
was considered as the most eminent man of his profession. Towards the
decline of his life he gradually relinquished the more laborious parts
of his profession to his son-in-law, Sir Richard Croft, and became a
consulting physician. His death, which was very sudden, took place on
the 26th of November, 1815. He left two daughters and a son, the latter
of whom, adopting the legal profession, is now Lord Chief Justice of the
Court of King's Bench.

   _Market_, Friday.--_Fairs_, Easter Monday; Whit Monday; August 26;
   Monday after October 10; Monday after November 22, for cattle and
   horses,--_Inn_, Rutland Arms, allowed to be one of the best Inns in
   the kingdom, and is much frequented by anglers during the summer
   season.--_Mail_ arrives 12.10 afternoon; departs 6.0 morning.

[Sidenote: Seat of the Peverils of the Peak.]

[Sidenote: Sir Richard Arkwright.]

[Sidenote: Cotton mills.]

[Sidenote: Dr. Thomas Denman.]

   Map|Names of Places.|  County. |  Number of Miles From    |
   +--+----------------+----------+-------------+------------+
    55|Bala[A]       to| Merioneth|Shrewsbury 41|Dolgelly  18|
   +--+----------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.| Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+------------------------+-----+------+
    55|Bala[A]       to| Corven               12|  195|  1163|
   +--+----------------+----------+-------------+------------+


[A] BALA is situated at the outlet of the lake of the same name. It is a
clean and populous market town, consisting of one wide principal street,
and others crossing it at right angles. The houses are in general built
very low. The young women commonly go barefooted; they are however well
formed, and have little of the strong Welsh physiognomy. At this place
is carried on a great trade in woollen gloves and stockings. Just before
the entrance of the town is an artificial mount called "Tommen y Bala,"
(the tumulus of Bala) which is supposed to be of Roman origin, and
placed here with a small castle on its summit to secure the pass towards
the sea, which is about twenty-five miles distant. Bala Lake, or Llyn
Tegid, is a quarter of a mile south of the town; it is the largest lake
in Wales, being about four miles long, and in some places near a mile in
breadth. At Bryn Goleu, its depth is several fathoms. The scenery around
is mountainous, and it forms the principal attraction of the vicinity,
yet it possesses none of the grand discriminating traits of the lakes of
Scotland or Ireland. The overflowings of this lake are sometimes
dreadful; but this only happens when the winds rush from the mountains
at the upper end. In stormy weather, when swelled by torrents, the water
is driven to the height of eight or nine feet, covering great part of
the vale of Edeirnion, and almost threatening the town with destruction.
In calm settled weather, it has been so smooth as to be frozen over. The
river Dee rises from under Arran ben Llyn, the high mountain at the head
of the lake; and according to Giraldus Cambriensis, Drayton, and others,
passes through this immense body of water without deigning to intermix
its waters, as the Rhone is said to pass through the lake of Geneva, and
the classic Alpheus through the waters of the Adriatic. Hence it has
been asserted, that salmon are never found in the lake, or gwiniad in
the river; it however abounds with a variety of excellent fish, among
which we may mention pike, trout, perch, and eels. The fishery in the
13th century belonged to the Abbey of Basingwerk; the whole property is
vested at present in Sir Watkyn Williams Wynne, Bart., who allows the
fishermen to be occasionally employed in attending fishing parties with
a boat and nets, without such privilege no person is allowed the use of
nets; but angling is freely permitted, and gentlemen as distant as from
London visit this place entirely for the sake of indulging in this
amusement. Of the inns at Bala, Mr. Hutton says, "although I have often
only reposed one night at an inn, yet from agreeable treatment and
conversation, I found some regret the next morning at parting; and
though I saw the people but once, my mind revolted at the idea of seeing
them no more." The town of Bala is governed by two bailiffs, and a
common council, and the assizes are held here and at Dolgelly
alternately; it is likewise one of the polling places for the county.

   _Market_ Saturday--_Fairs_, May 14; July 10; Sep. 11 and 22; Oct. 24;
   and Nov. 8.--_Mail_ arrives 8.0 morning; departs 5.0 afternoon.

[Sidenote: The largest lake in Wales.]

[Sidenote: The lake fisheries.]

   Map|Names of Places. |  County.|    Number of Miles From |
   +--+-----------------+---------+-------------+-----------+
    45|Balby[A]       to|W.R. York|Doncaster   2|Tickhill  6|
    38|Balcombe       pa|Sussex   |Cuckfield   4|Horsham  10|
   +--+-----------------+---------+-------------+-----------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places. | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+-----------------------+-----+-----+
    45|Balby[A]       to|Rotherham            11| 163 |  420|
    38|Balcombe       pa|E. Grinstead          9|  33 |  641|
   +--+-----------------+-----------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BALBY. In this village George Fox, the founder of the Society of
Friends, or Quakers, held his first meetings. His father, who was a
weaver, gave him a very religious education; he was apprenticed to a
grazier, and much employed as a shepherd. From his earliest infancy he
displayed a tendency to enthusiasm, and no doubt his solitary employment
tended to confirm it. At the early age of nineteen he persuaded himself
that he was called to exercise his faculties, solely in the affairs of
religion. Forsaking his relations, he determined to devote himself to
that alone. Equipped in a leathern doublet, he wandered from place to
place, subsisting by the charity of those who received his doctrines. At
length he reached the metropolis, where, being discovered by his
friends, he was earnestly invited to return. This, however, he refused
to do, and after remaining with them a short time, he again betook
himself to his itinerant habits. He now walked abroad in retired places,
fasting and studying the Bible by day and night, and sometimes a hollow
tree was his habitation, book in hand, for a day together. In 1648, he
publicly propagated his opinions, commencing as public preacher at
Manchester, which place he frequently left to perambulate the adjacent
towns, preaching in the market-houses. About this time he began to adopt
the manners and habits which are peculiar to the society following his
religious opinions; nor was he free from the persecution which
constantly follows novelty, in any thing regarded as an innovation of a
religious nature. At Derby, the disciples of Fox were first denominated
Quakers, from the trembling delivery of their sentences, and their calls
on the magistrates to tremble before the Lord. In 1655, Fox was sent a
prisoner to Cromwell, who immediately liberated him upon ascertaining
the peaceful nature of his doctrines. He was, however, treated by the
country magistracy with great severity, from his frequently interrupting
ministers, even during divine service, and more than once the Protector,
Oliver Cromwell, exerted himself to obtain his freedom. A fast having
been appointed on account of the persecution of Protestants in foreign
countries, he addressed a letter to the heads and governors of the
nation, descrying, in most forcible terms, the impropriety of having
recourse to severity of a similar nature at home. Charles II. liberated
him from prison in the year 1666, and from that time they formally
united as a "Society of Friends." Three years afterwards he married the
widow of Judge Fell, in the simple unostentatious manner practised by
the sect to the present day. His health, however, was impaired by
imprisonment and suffering, and he lived in a more retired manner to the
day of his death, which took place in the year 1690, in the 67th year of
his age.

[Sidenote: George Fox the Quaker.]

[Sidenote: His wanderings and imprisonment.]

   Map| Names of Places. |  County. | Number of Miles From    |
   +--+------------------+----------+-----------+-------------+
    43|Baldersley[A]   to|N.R. York |Ripon     6|Thirsk      6|
    22|Balderston    chap|Lancaster |Preston   7|Blackburn   5|
    30|Balderton       pa|Nottingham|Newark    2|Bingham    12|
    18|Baldock[B] m.t.&pa|Hertford  |Hertford 19|Biggleswade 8|
    31|Baldon Marsh    pa|Oxford    |Oxford    7|Abingdon    7|
    31|Baldon-Toot     pa|Oxford    |...       6|...         7|
   +--+-----------------+-----------+-----------+-------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places. | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-------------+
    43|Baldersley[A]   to|Borobridge           8|  214|    267|
    22|Balderston    chap|Clitheroe           12|  217|    658|
    30|Balderton       pa|Grantham            12|  122|    830|
    18|Baldock[B] m.t.&pa|Stevenage            6|   37|   1704|
    31|Baldon Marsh    pa|Wheatley             7|   52|    318|
    31|Baldon-Toot     pa|...                  7|   53|    272|
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BALDERSLEY. Near this village is an extensive common, called Hutton
Conyers Moor, on which there is a rabbit-warren; the inhabitants have a
right of estray for their sheep on this moor, in conjunction with some
other townships, and each township has a shepherd. The lord's shepherd
has a pre-eminence of tending his sheep on every part of the common; and
wherever he herds the lord's sheep, the several other shepherds are to
give place to him, and give up what is termed their hofiong place, so
long as they are depastured thereon. The lord's court is held on the
first of January; the shepherds attend the court, and each do fealty by
bringing a large apple-pye and a two-penny sweet-cake; each pye is
divided into two parts, and distributed by the bailiff between the
steward, the tenant of the rabbit-warren, and the shepherds of the
townships, reserving a portion however for himself. Each pye contains
about a peck of flour, and the bailiff measures them with a rule to see
that they are of the proper dimensions; should they not be so he
threatens to fine the town; he, however, has to provide furmenty (a food
made by boiling wheat in milk) and mustard. The furmenty is put into an
earthen pot, and the top of the dish placed level with the ground, all
persons present are invited to partake; those who do not accept the
invitation are deemed disloyal to their lord. Every shepherd is
compelled to bring a spoon with him, and in cases of neglect, or wilful
pleasantry, they are obliged to sup the hot furmenty from the pot, and
the bystanders not unfrequently plunge the offenders head into the
mixture, as a matter of diversion.

[Sidenote: Right of Common.]

[Sidenote: Singular custom.]


[B] BALDOCK is situated between two hills, at the intersection of the
great north road, and the Roman Ikeneld street. It was formerly the
property of the Knights Templars, to whom Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke,
gave the site; it was then called Baudoc: but some antiquarians, with
little reason, derive its name from Balbec, a city in Syria, from which
this order of knights was expelled by the Saracens. It principally
consists of one long ancient street. The church, dedicated to St. Mary,
is a spacious structure, and was built by the Knights Templars, and
again partly rebuilt in the early part of the fifteenth century. All the
early portion of this structure is of pure Roman architecture, and the
latter of the florid gothic. The steeple, which is octagonal, was
rebuilt a few years ago. In the church is a richly carved oaken screen,
part of the ancient rood-loft, and a very curious font. In cutting
through Baldock-hill, to form a new road, a number of fossils,
consisting of cornua ammonis, sharks' teeth, &c., were discovered. There
is a curious custom in this manor. When the Steward holds his Court
Leet, the bell tolls, to summons the copyhold tenants together, to do
their suit and service at dinner, to which every baker sends a loaf of
bread, and every victualler a flagon of ale or beer. The object of this
custom is intended for the Court Leet to examine the measures, as well
as to judge of the quality of the articles of food.

   _Market_, Thursday.--_Fairs_, March 7; last Thursday in May; August
   5; October 2; December 11, for cheese, cattle, and household
   goods.--_Mail_ arrives 12.31 morning, departs 2.16
   morning.--_Bankers_, Williamson and Co., draw on Hoare and
   Co.--_Inn_, White Hart.

[Sidenote: Sharks' teeth found in cutting through a hill.]

   Map| Names of Places.   | County. |    Number of Miles From     |
   +--+--------------------+---------+--------------+--------------+
    27|Bale              pa|Norfolk  |Holt         5|Cley         6|
    37|Balham           vil|Surrey   |Clapham      1|Tooting      2|
    43|Balke             to|N.R. York|Thirsk       4|Helmsley    10|
    46|Balke-Holme       to|E.R. York|Howden       2|South Cave  10|
    10|Ballidon          to|Derby    |Ashborne     6|Wirksworth   6|
    14|Ballingdon   pa chap|Essex    |Sudbury      1|Halstead     8|
    17|Ballingham        pa|Hereford |Hereford     7|Ross         6|
    45|Balne             to|W.R. York|Snaith       4|Pontefract  10|
    39|Balsall         chap|Warwick  |Warwick     10|Coventry    10|
    31|Balscott         ham|Oxford   |Banbury      5|Chip Norton 14|
     6|Balsham           pa|Cambridge|Linton       4|Cambridge    8|
    35|Balterley         to|Stafford |Newcastle    7|Congleton    9|
    34|Baltonsborough    pa|Somerset |Glastonbury  4|Somerton     4|
    29|Bambrough    to & pa|Northumb |Belford      5|Holy Island  6|
    29|Bambrough[A]      to|Northumb |...          5|...          6|
    10|Bamford          ham|Derby    |S. Middleton 6|Sheffield   11|
    22|Bamford           to|Lancaster|Rochdale     3|Manchester   7|
    11|Bampton[B] m.t. & pa|Devon    |Exeter      23|Tiverton     7|
    31|Bampton[C] m.t. & pa|Oxford   |Oxford      16|Witney       5|
   +--+--------------------+---------+--------------+--------------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.   | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+
    27|Bale              pa|Walsingham             6|  117|     275|
    37|Balham           vil|Epsom                  9|    5|     ...|
    43|Balke             to|Easingwold             9|  222|      72|
    46|Balke-Holme       to|Weighton              12|  182|     107|
    10|Ballidon          to|Winster                6|  142|     108|
    14|Ballingdon   pa chap|Bury                  17|   54|     283|
    17|Ballingham        pa|Ledbury               12|  126|     147|
    45|Balne             to|Thorne                 8|  173|     343|
    39|Balsall         chap|Solihul                5|  100|    1038|
    31|Balscott         ham|Deddington             9|   74|     213|
     6|Balsham           pa|Newmarket              9|   52|    1074|
    35|Balterley         to|Nantwich              12|  153|     ...|
    34|Baltonsborough    pa|Cas. Caray             8|  121|     675|
    29|Bambrough    to & pa|Alnwick               15|  324|    3949|
    29|Bambrough[A]      to|...                   15|   61|     324|
    10|Bamford          ham|Castleton              4|  165|     238|
    22|Bamford           to|Bury                   6|  189|    1207|
    11|Bampton[B] m.t. & pa|Morebath               2|  162|    1961|
    31|Bampton[C] m.t. & pa|Farringdon             7|   71|    2514|
   +--+--------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BAMBROUGH CASTLE is situated on the romantic coast of
Northumberland, near an obscure town of the same name; it stands upon a
triangular rock, high, rugged, and abrupt on the land side. But we leave
its description, which would be too lengthy, and turn rather to the
account of the benevolent institution founded in 1720, by Lord Crewe,
Bishop of Durham, of which it is the seat. The keep of the castle is
fitted up for suffering seamen, and property which may have been rescued
from the fury of the ocean. Regulations were also adopted to prevent
accidents on the coast, and to alleviate misfortunes when they had
occurred. A nine-pounder placed at the bottom of the great tower, gives
signals to ships in distress; and in case of a wreck announces it to the
Custom-house officers, who hasten to prevent its being plundered. In
addition to this, during a storm, horsemen patrol the coast, and rewards
are paid for the earliest intelligence of vessels in distress. A flag is
always hoisted when any ship is seen in distress on the Fern Islands or
Staples; or a rocket thrown up at night, which gives notice to the
fishermen of Holy Island, who put off to the spot when no boat from the
main can get over the breakers. There has also been life-boats added to
the establishment. Within the walls of the castle are supported two
free-schools, an infirmary, thirty beds for shipwrecked sailors, and a
granary, whence poor persons are supplied with provision at the first
price. There is also a library, the books of which are circulated
gratuitously for twenty miles round. This philanthropic endowment has
not been suffered to decay with the romance of olden time, but the
charitable intentions of the testator are fulfilled so as to exhibit a
lasting record of his active benevolence.

[Sidenote: Seat of the Bishop of Durham.]

[Sidenote: Noble charity.]


[B] BAMPTON. A market town, situated near the little river Batherme,
which flows into the Exe at about one mile distance. Mr. Polwhele
considers that this was a Roman station, and here, probably, the Romans
had artificial hot-baths. A chalybeate spring in this neighbourhood is
much celebrated for its medicinal qualities. John de Bampton, a
Carmelite, who was the first who publicly read Aristotle in Cambridge,
was born here: he died in 1391. The manufactures of the place are serges
and pottery.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, Whit Tuesday, and last Thursday in
   October, for cattle.

[Sidenote: John de Bampton.]


[C] BAMPTON. Here are some slight remains of an ancient castle, supposed
to have been erected in the reign of King John. The celebrated poet,
John Philips, the son of Dr. Stephen Philips, archdeacon of Salop, was
born in this town, on the 30th of December, 1676, and after the
preliminary process of juvenile education, was sent to Winchester, where
he was distinguished by the superiority of his exercises, and at school
endeared himself to all his companions and superiors: it is related of
him, that he seldom mingled in the play of other boys, but retired to
his chamber, and indulged in the study of the poets and of the ancient
and modern classics, particularly Milton. In 1694, he was removed to
Christchurch, Oxford, where he finished all his University acquirements;
but Milton--the immortal Milton--continued to be his uninterrupted day
dream: and he might have exclaimed in the language of that poet, I will
study the magnificence of thy etherial phantasy,

   "From morn till noon, from noon to dewey eve,
   When Urania visits my nightly
   Slumbers, or when morn purples the east."

It is said that there was not an allusion in "Paradise Lost," drawn from
any hint either in "Homer," or "Virgil," to which he could not
immediately refer. While at Oxford he was honoured with the friendship
of Mr. Edmund Smith, author of the Tragedy of "Phaedra and Hippolitus;"
and also with that of the most polite and favoured of the gentlemen in
the University. His first poem was published in 1703, entitled, "The
Splendid Shilling," which has the merit of an original design. His next
poem, entitled "Blenheim," which he wrote as a rival to Addison's poem
on the same subject, was published in 1705, and procured him the
patronage of Mr. Henry Saint John, afterwards Lord Bolingbroke.
Independent of poetry, Philips was an excellent botanist; in 1706 he
produced his third poem on "Cyder," founded on the model of Virgil's
Georgics, a book not only of entertainment but of science; and soon
afterwards, a latin Ode, "to Henry Saint John, Esq.," said to have been
the poet's masterpiece. "It is gay and elegant," says Dr. Johnson, "and
exhibits several artful accommodations of classic expressions to new
purposes." At the time of his illness, Philips was meditating a poem to
be called "The Last Day;" death put an end to so solemn and majestic a
finale of genius. He died at Hereford, of a lingering consumption,
February 15, 1708, in the thirty-third year of his age, and was buried
in the cathedral of that city. Sir Simon Harcourt, afterwards Lord
Chancellor, erected a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey, the
epitaph upon which was written by Doctor Atterbury. Philips was a
gentleman of a modest and amiable disposition, "and always praised
without contradiction," (says Dr. Johnson) "as a man, modest, blameless,
and pious, who bore a narrow fortune without discontent--and tedious and
painful maladies without impatience; beloved by those who knew him, but
not ambitious to be known."

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fairs_, March 26, and August 26, for cattle
   and toys.

[Sidenote: John Philips the poet.]

[Sidenote: Philips's poetical works.]

[Sidenote: Character and death.]

   Map| Names of Places.   | County.  |  Number of Miles From  |
   +--+--------------------+----------+------------+-----------+
    40|Bampton[A]   to & pa|Westmorlnd|Orton     10|Penrith   9|
    40|Bampton-Grange   ham|Westmorlnd|          10|          9|
     9|Bampton, Little   to|Cumberland|Wigton     5|Carlisle  7|
   +--+--------------------+----------+------------+-----------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.   |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-----+
    40|Bampton[A]   to & pa|Shap                 4 |  282|  636|
    40|Bampton-Grange   ham| ...                  4|  282|     |
     9|Bampton, Little   to|Longtown             10|  311|  213|
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BAMPTON. The river Lowther runs through this parish. Here is a
beautiful lake, called Haweswater, three miles long, and half a mile
broad; it is environed by lofty mountains, conveying to the mind a grand
and imposing appearance: its eastern side is sheltered by rocky
eminences, plentifully clothed with verdure, while the western side
displays the open fields, with all the sweet varieties of culture. A
lead mine has lately been discovered in the neighbourhood. The free
grammar-school was founded by Thomas Sutton, D.D., who vested in
trustees the sum of £500., collected from estates out of the parish of
St. Saviour, Southwark, and other places. Here, also, three parochial
libraries were established respectively, in the years 1710, 1750, 1752,
comprising about 800 volumes. Thomas Gibson, M.D., who married the
daughter of Richard Cromwell, Protector, was Physician-General of the
army, and a native of this parish. He was the author of a system of
anatomy. The learned doctor, having laid the foundation of his classical
learning at a school in this county, he entered as scholar at Queen's
College, Oxford, in 1686. The study of the northern languages about this
period was particularly cultivated at the University, and Mr. Gibson
rigidly applied himself to that branch of literature, in which he was
assisted by Dr. Hicks. In a short time he translated into Latin the
"Chronicon Saxonicum," and published it together with the Saxon
original. Dr. Gibson had an early and strong inclination to search the
antiquities of his own country, and being well versed in the knowledge
of its original languages, he applied himself with great diligence, and
in a few years produced his edition of "Camden's Britannica," and
concluded this branch of learning with "Reliquæ Spelmannianæ," or the
posthumous works of Sir Henry Spelman, relating to the laws and
antiquities of England, which, with a life of the author, he published
at Oxford, in 1698, and dedicated his work to Archbishop Tenison. About
this time he was taken as Domestic Chaplain to the Archbishop's family,
and soon afterwards was made Rector of Lambeth, and Archdeacon of
Surrey. Upon the death of the Archbishop, in 1715, Dr. Wake, Bishop of
Lincoln, succeeded him, and Dr. Gibson was appointed to that See; and
Dr. Robinson also dying, in 1720, Gibson was appointed Bishop of London.
The ministry were so sensible of his great abilities, that a sort of
ecclesiastical ministry was committed to his charge for several years.
He died on the 6th of September, 1748, with true Christian fortitude,
and in perfect tranquillity of mind.

[Sidenote: Haweswater lake.]

[Sidenote: Dr. Thomas Gibson.]

[Sidenote: An Antiquarian.]

[Sidenote: Made Bishop of London.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  | County.|  Number of Miles From   |
   +--+---------------------+--------+-----------+------------+
    53|Bannel             to|Flint   |Hawarden  3|Mold       4|
    31|Banbury[A] bo. & m.t.|Oxford  |Oxford   21|Woodstock 16|
   +--+---------------------+--------+-----------+------------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   |Number of Miles From|Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+--------------------+-----+------+
    53|Bannel             to|Wrexham           10| 196 |   ...|
    31|Banbury[A] bo. & m.t.|Southam           14|  76 |  5906|
   +--+---------------------+--------------------+-----+------+


[A] BANBURY is pleasantly situated on the small river Charwell, and its
staple commodities seem to be cheese and cakes; the former, even in
Shakspeare's time, appear to have been celebrated, for Bardolph, when
accused by "Slender" of robbing him of his two milled sixpences,
exclaims, "You Banbury cheese." The cakes have made this town more
celebrated than even its political engagements. The castle of Banbury
was founded in the year 1153, by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, and
continued an episcopal residence till the reign of Henry VI. During the
contentions between the houses of York and Lancaster, when civil discord
was a familiar incident in this neighbourhood, Banbury suffered much;
but more particularly in the memorable engagement, called "The Battle of
Banbury," fought about three miles from the town, in 1469. It took place
on a plane called Danesmoor, near Edgecote. The Earl of Warwick was the
commander of the Lancasterian forces, and the Yorkists were led by the
Earls of Stafford and Pembroke, who had possession of the town. After
one of the most determined conflicts ever recorded, the Yorkists were
routed; the Earl of Pembroke and his brother were both taken and
beheaded, and Edward IV. himself made prisoner a few days after. In
1642, the towns-people took part with the Parliament, but after the
battle of Edgehill, this castle was taken by the royalists, under Sir
William Compton, who defended it for 13 weeks against all the efforts of
Sir John Fiennes, until the garrison was relieved by the Earl of
Northampton. It suffered a further siege of 10 weeks, under Sir William
Waller, and surrendered on honourable terms. Leland, who wrote in the
Reign of Henry VIII., says, "In this castle is a terrible prison for
convict men." A stone vault, with grated windows, and traces of the
inner ditch, is supposed to have been the terrible prison alluded to,
but very small remains exist in the present day. The free grammar-school
is now wholly abandoned, and the school-house let out on lease by the
corporation. This is much to be regretted, as it was formerly held in
such high estimation, that the statutes of this establishment were taken
as a model for St. Paul's school, London; and the statutes of the free
grammar-school of Manchester, in 1524, ordain, that the grammar taught
in that school, should be taught only "after the manner of the school at
Banbury, in Oxfordshire, which is called Stanbridge's Grammar." Mr.
Stanbridge, the celebrated grammarian alluded to, was a highly learned
man, and tutor to Sir Thomas Pope. Adjoining the Ram Inn is a sulphurous
well, and at a small distance from the town is a chalybeate spring. The
pyrites aureus, or golden fire-stone, is frequently found in this
neighbourhood. Among other interesting remains about the town is an
ancient hospital, dedicated to St. John, now converted into a
farm-house. This borough returns one member to parliament, as it did
before the passing of the Reform Bill. The electors of the old
constituency were but 18 in number, but the £10. householders are about
365. The borough comprises the parish, and the returning-officer is the
Mayor.

   _Market_, Thursday.--_Fairs_, Thursday after Jan. 18, for cattle,
   horses, and sheep: first Thursday in Lent; second Thursday before
   Easter, cattle and sheep; Ascension Day; Thursday and Friday in
   Trinity week; August 13, horses, cows, and sheep; Thursday after Old
   Michaelmas, hogs and cheese; October 30; and second Thursday before
   Christmas. Cheese, hops, and cattle.--_Mail_ arrives 4.15 morning;
   departs 10.34 night.--_Bankers_, (Old Bank) Cobb and Co., draw on
   Jones, Lloyd, and Co.; Gibbons and Co., draw on Robarts and Co.;
   Gillett and Co., draw on Esdaile and Co.--_Inns_, Red Lion, and White
   Lion.

[Sidenote: Cheese and cakes.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Banbury.]

[Sidenote: Once a celebrated grammar school.]

[Sidenote: Electors.]

   Map| Names of Places.  |  County. | Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
    50|Bangor[A] city & pa|Caernarvon|Caernarvon 9|Aberconway 15|
   +--+-------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    50|Bangor[A] city & pa|Holyhead             24|  245|   4751|
   +--+-------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BANGOR, which signifies the beautiful choir, is a Bishop's See;
compared to its former size, it is now but an inconsiderable place. It
is seated at the mouth of the Menai, near its opening to the Lavan
sands, in a narrow valley, between two low ridges of slate rock, opening
to the south, towards the majestic mountain, Snowdon, which rises 3571
feet above the level of the sea. Mr. Warner, the intelligent Welsh
tourist, and his companion, spoke in raptures of this place. The beauty,
repose, and retirement of the whole pleased them wonderfully. The latter
observed, "If he were Bishop of Bangor, the only translation he would
covet would be, thence to heaven." The former agreed with him, that
"Were fate to throw him also into such a spot, very few attractions
would have sufficient force to elicit him from it." They had "Never seen
a place which united so many beauties in so narrow a circle." From this
city the new road finds its way through a low pass in the adjacent
ridge, and descends gently along the face of the sloping bank to the
great bridge: this road is very smooth and well protected, and worthy of
the magnificent scenery by which it is surrounded. Menai suspension
bridge is distant about two miles and a half from Bangor. This noble
bridge is substituted for the inconvenient ferry; it is 100 feet above
the level of high water, even at spring tides. The cathedral is a low
plain building, dedicated to St. Deiniol, to whom it owed its origin
about the year 525, and he was elected the first bishop in 550. He was
the son of Dinothus, Abbot of Bangor-iscoed, and reared under the
auspices of a Welsh prince, patron of the bard Talliesin, and perhaps
the most liberal prince of his time. In 1402 it was burnt down, during
the rebellion of Owen Glendower; and what is rather singular, it was
suffered to remain in ruins during the space of 90 years, when the choir
was rebuilt by the Bishop in the reign of Henry VII. But that cruel
ravager of ecclesiastical property, Bishop Bulkeley, not only alienated
the lands belonging to the cathedral, but even had the audacity to sell
the bells of the church. The choir is fitted up in a style of neat and
simple elegance, and ornamented with an excellent organ, the gift of Dr.
Thomas Lloyd, in 1779. The chapter consists of a dean, three
archdeacons, two precentors, two vicars choral, six minor canons, six
lay clerks, and eight choristers, with an income of £2,000. per annum.
The windows of the cathedral were formerly very handsomely ornamented
with stained glass, but in the civil wars of Charles I. the soldiers
destroyed these, amongst other things. The most conspicuous monument in
this building is that erected to the memory of Owen Gwynedd, one of the
ancient princes of Wales. Here are several Dissenting meeting-houses,
and the town is the resort of many visitors during the summer season;
upwards of 50,000 annually are said to remain for longer or shorter
periods. Steam-packets ply between this place and Liverpool.

   _Market_, Friday.--_Fairs_, April 5; June 25; September 16; and
   October 28.--_Mail_ arrives at Menai Bridge 4.15 morning; departs
   8.32 afternoon.

[Sidenote: The suspension bridge.]

[Sidenote: Cathedral.]

   Map|Names of Places.  |  County. |    Number of Miles From    |
   +--+------------------+----------+---------------+------------+
    53|Bangor[A] vil & pa|Flint     |Ellesmere    11|Overton    3|
    27|Banham          pa|Norfolk   |East Harling  5|Buckenham  2|
    45|Bank-Newton     to|W.R. York |Skipton       5|Settle    11|
     9|Banks           to|Cumberland|Carlisle     13|Brampton   3|
    27|Banningham      pa|Norfolk   |Aylesham      3|N. Walsham 5|
    37|Banstead[B]     pa|Surrey    |Ewell         3|Croydon    6|
    34|Banwell[C]      pa|Somerset  |Axbridge      4|Bristol   18|
    21|Bapchild        pa|Kent      |Sittingbourne 2|Milton     3|
    40|Barbon        chap|Westmorl. |Kirkby Lons.  3|Sedbergh   7|
   +--+------------------+----------+---------------+------------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From     |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+-----------+--------------+-----+------+
    53|Bangor[A] vil & pa|Wrexham                  5|  174|  1389|
    27|Banham          pa|Diss                     7|   92|  1297|
    45|Bank-Newton     to|Burnley                 15|  221|   125|
     9|Banks           to|Longtown                14|  314|   296|
    27|Banningham      pa|Cromer                   9|  121|   369|
    37|Banstead[B]     pa|Sutton                   3|   15|   991|
    34|Banwell[C]      pa|Fensford                16|  130|  1623|
    21|Bapchild        pa|Faversham                6|   41|   319|
    40|Barbon        chap|Kendal                  11|  258|   318|
   +--+------------------+--------------------------+-----+------+


[A] BANGOR ISCOED is situated on the banks of the river Dee, which here
passes under a bridge of five arches. This place, at present very
inconsiderable, is famed on account of having been the site of the most
ancient monastery in the kingdom, founded by Lucius, the son of Coel,
the first Christian King of Britain, sometime previous to the year 180.
This abbey was remarkable for its valuable library, and the number of
learned men trained within its venerable walls. Gildas Ninnius, who
lived in the 7th century, was one of its abbots. He wrote in Latin an
incorrect history of England, which is still extant. According to Speed,
this monastery, in the year 596, contained no less than 2,400 monks, 100
of which passed in their turns one hour of devotion; there are no
remains of the monastery existing.

[Sidenote: The first abbey established in Britain.]


[B] BANSTEAD is celebrated for the excellent herbage which the
neighbouring downs afford the sheep, which are highly prized for the
delicate flavour of the mutton. There are many elegant seats in the
vicinity, amongst which are Banstead House, Miss Motteux; Cold Blow
Cottage, General Sir Edward Howorth; and the Oaks, the seat of the Earl
of Derby. This celebrated villa was erected by a society of gentlemen,
called the "Hunter's Club," and the present noble proprietor can
accommodate his guests with more than 50 bed chambers; and a pack of
hounds are kept on the establishment, which has been long noted for its
hospitality. On the 26th of February, 1834, Mr. John Richardson, a
farmer, returning from Epsom to Banstead, was robbed and murdered on
these downs.

[Sidenote: Seat of the Earl of Derby.]


[C] BANWELL is an agreeable village, situated under the northern
declivity of the Mendip hills, and is supposed to derive its name from a
spring strongly impregnated with mineral properties, which expands into
a fine sheet of water, and after turning two mills, empties itself into
the channel near the ruins of Woodspring Priory. The church, which is a
fine specimen of the florid gothic of the Tudor age, contains a richly
carved screen and rood loft, a beautiful sculptured stone pulpit, and
several windows of the richest stained glass. This manor has been in the
possession of the Bishops of Bath and Wells, from the reign of Edward
the Confessor, with little exception, till the present time. They had
for many centuries a palace here, but nothing of it remains except a
private residence called Banwell Court, still interesting for its
antiquity. The park has been divided into enclosures, which afford at
every point a most pleasing variety of landscapes. The Bishop of Bath
and Wells has also a cottage ornee, for the accommodation of his family
and of the numerous visitors which are driven hither to view the two
singular caverns which have been discovered of late years in this
neighbourhood. The monastery of Banwell was founded by the early Saxon
monarchs. Asserius, or Asser, the scholar and biographer of King Alfred,
was made Abbot by that monarch. This Abbey was destroyed by the Danes;
it was afterwards restored, but never recovered its pristine importance;
for instead of arriving at the point of prosperity usual in Royal
foundations, it sunk into obscurity long prior to the dissolution of
religious houses. Banwell is remarkable for two extraordinary caverns
discovered in the year 1824, which occasioned no inconsiderable number
of the curious to resort to the village. They were first discovered by
some workmen digging a shaft in search of Calamine, which intersected a
steep narrow fissure; after they had descended about 80 feet it opened
into a spacious cavern, 150 feet long and 30 broad, and about 30 feet
high. This is called the stalactite cavern, from the beautiful specimens
of crystalized stalactite, which lay covering huge fragments of rock
about the floor. In this place were found two pieces of candle,
encrusted with lime, supposed to have been left by the miners after
working for ochre, calamine, &c. A rich vein of iron ore, with some
cobalt and manganese, was also discovered, the working of which has long
since commenced, and the produce is conveyed to the smelting works on
the southern coast of Wales. The workmen, in order to facilitate an
easier method of entrance, opened another fissure lower in the rock,
when suddenly another cavern presented itself, the floor of which was
covered with a mass of sand, limestone, teeth, bones, &c. Professor
Buckland, who surveyed this place, states, that a shaft being driven
into this mass, proved it to have been nearly 40 feet deep. The bones
consisted of various specimens of the ox tribe, including the elk.
Skeletons of the wolf, and a gigantic bear, in point of preservation,
like what are to be found in ordinary churchyards--supposed to be of
antediluvian origin, where found here. In the roof of the cave is a
large chimney-like shaft, formerly rising to the surface, but now
blocked up by fragments of limestone, mud, and sand, adhering together
by incrustation, and through which dreadful pitfall, it is presumed,
this immense number of beasts were precipitated at the great inundation.
The rubbish has been partially cleared, and the bones are used to
decorate the sides of the walls. A British earthwork crowns the summit
of the neighbouring eminence, enclosing, within its irregular rampart,
an area of about 20 acres; and, about a quarter of a mile further, is an
entrenchment nearly square, the ground in the centre of which is
elevated in the form of a cross.

   _Fairs_, Jan. 18, and July 18, for cattle, sheep, and cheese.

[Sidenote: Formerly a Bishop's Palace.]

[Sidenote: Extraordinary caverns.]

[Sidenote: Antediluvian bones.]

   Map|   Names of Places.   | County. |   Number of Miles From    |
   +--+-----------------------+---------+----------+---------------+
    28|Barby                pa|Northamp |Daventry 6|Welford      11|
    39|Barcheston           pa|Warwick  |Shipston 2|Kineton       9|
    38|Barcombe             pa|Sussex   |Lewes    3|Uckfield      6|
    44|Barden               pa|N.R. York|Leyburn  3|Richmond      4|
    44|Barden        to & chap|W.R. York|Skipton  8|Paitley Brid. 9|
    14|Bardfield,(Great)[A] pa|Essex    |Thaxted  5|Dunmow        7|
    14|Bardfield-Saling     pa|Essex    |         4|              7|
    24|Bardney[B]           pa|Lincoln  |Lincoln 12|Horncastle    9|
   +--+-----------------------+---------+----------+---------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.    |Number of Miles From|Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+--------------------+-----+---------+
    28|Barby                pa|Crick              4|   78|      637|
    39|Barcheston           pa|L. Compton         5|   83|      198|
    38|Barcombe             pa|Brighton          11|   48|      931|
    44|Barden               pa|Bedale             8|  231|      106|
    44|Barden        to & chap|Otley             13|  218|      214|
    14|Bardfield,(Great)[A] pa|Haverhill         10|   48|     1029|
    14|Bardfield-Saling     pa|                  10|   48|      359|
    24|Bardney[B]           pa|Wragby             9|  136|     1098|
   +--+-----------------------+--------------------+-----+---------+


[A] BARDFIELD, (Great.) _Market_, formerly Tuesday (now
disused.)--_Fair_, June 22, for cattle and toys.


[B] BARDNEY, anciently Beardanam, is situated in a marsh on the north
bank of the river Witham. An abbey was founded in the time of the
Saxons, prior to the year 641. Here Ethelred, divesting himself of the
splendour of royalty, retired to devote his days to religion, and became
superior of the monastery. King Oswald is said to have been buried here,
but the body was afterwards removed to the church of Gloucester. The
hand was retained by the monks as a relique, to which they ascribed the
power of working miracles, and for a long period imposed upon the
credulity of superstitious pilgrims. In the year 870 the monastery was
burned by the Danes, but was afterwards rebuilt by Gilbert De Gaunt,
Earl of Lincoln, who annexed to it several extensive estates. At the
dissolution its annual revenues were estimated at £429. 7s.

[Sidenote: King Oswald buried here.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  |  County. | Number of Miles From     |
   +--+----------------------+----------+-----------+------------+
    23|Bardon Park         to|Leicester |Leicester 9|Loughboro' 5|
    22|Bardsea             to|Lancaster |Ulverston 3|Dalton     5|
    50|Bardsey Isle[A]       |Caernarvon|Aberdaron 4|Pwllheli  20|
    45|Bardsey[B]     to & pa|W.R. York |Wetherby  5|Leeds      9|
   +--+----------------------+----------+-----------+------------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+
    23|Bardon Park         to|Ashby                9|  107|     65|
    22|Bardsea             to|Cartmel              8|  276|    ...|
    50|Bardsey Isle[A]       |Nevin               18|  256|     84|
    45|Bardsey[B]     to & pa|Tadcaster            8|  193|    331|
   +--+----------------------+----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BARDSEY ISLE, is near the south-east point of the promontory of
Llyn, in Caernarvonshire: it is of a moderate elevation; in length two
miles, and in breadth one. The third part of its contents of 370 acres,
occupied by a high mountain, affords sustenance to a few sheep and
rabbits. It is about a league distant from the main land, and only
accessible to the mariner on its south-east side, where there is a small
well-sheltered harbour. There is no reptile ever seen on this island,
except the common water-lizard. The soil is clayey, but produces
excellent barley and wheat. The inhabitants are employed in cultivating
the land, and in fishing. The abbot's house is a large stone building,
occupied by several families, and near it is a singular chapel, or
oratory, being a long arched edifice, with a insolated stone altar near
the east end. Dubricius, archbishop of Caerleon, almost worn out with
age, resigned his see to St. David, retired here, and died in 522. He
was interred upon the spot, but such was the veneration paid to his
memory in after ages, that about the year 1107, his remains were
removed, by the procurement of Urban, then Bishop of Llandaff, and
re-interred in the cathedral of that see, of which he had been the first
bishop. St. Dubricius was a man of singular eminence for learning and
piety. He was Archbishop of Caerleon, and Metropolitan of all Wales, in
the time of Aurelius Ambrosius; and prior to this elevation, he taught a
school on the banks of his native river, which was much resorted to from
all Christian countries.

[Sidenote: No reptiles on this island.]

[Sidenote: St. Dubricius.]


[B] BARDSEY, comprises the township of Bardsey, with Rigton and
Wathersome. Near the church is a mound called Castle Hill, supposed to
have been the site of a Roman fortress. At Bardsey Grange, in this
parish, resided occasionally, and died, Francis Thorpe, the tyrannical
Baron of the Exchequer; but the same house is rendered memorable as the
birth place of the poet Congreve, in 1670. This clever and celebrated
poet, was baptised in the church of this village in the month of
February of the same year. When an infant he was carried to Kilkenny, by
his father, who had the command of the army there. He received his
education in the school of Kilkenny, and from these circumstances it is
probable that persons had fallen into the erroneous impression that
Congreve was a native of Ireland. In 1685 he was admitted into the
university of Dublin. In 1691 he became a member of the society of the
Middle Temple, but soon relinquished the dry study of the Law. At the
age of twenty-one, he published his novel called "Incognita," or, "Love
and Duty Reconciled." Soon afterwards, he brought out the Comedy, called
"The Old Bachelor," of which Dryden says, "he never saw such a first
play in his life;" it was performed in 1793, with the most unbounded
applause. Lord Falkland wrote the prologue. The singular success and
merits of this production, recommended him to the patronage and notice
of the Earl of Halifax, who settled him in an office of six hundred a
year, and during his life patronised him in every way he could. His next
piece was "The Double Dealer." On the death of Queen Mary, in 1693, he
wrote a Pastoral on the occasion, entitled "The Mourning Muse of
Alexis," upon the appearance of which King William, her husband, granted
him an annuity of £100. per annum. In 1695, he produced his Comedy,
called "Love for Love;" and in 1697, the beautiful Tragedy of "The
Mourning Bride." Having lived a high and honorable life amongst the most
celebrated wits and classical men of the age, he died at his house in
Surrey-street, in the Strand, January 19, 1729. On the 26th his corpse
lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber, at Westminster, and the same
evening was carried into Henry the Seventh's Chapel, and afterwards
buried in the Abbey. His pall was supported by the Duke of Bridgewater,
Earl Godolphin, Lord Cobham, Lord Wilmington, Hon. George Berkeley,
Esq., and Brigadier-General Churchill. Dr. Johnson says, "He has merit
of the highest kind; he is an original writer, who borrowed neither the
models of his plot, nor the manner of his dialogue." And Voltaire
remarks, "That he raised the glory of comedy to a greater height than
any English writer before or since his time."

[Sidenote: Birth-place of Congreve, the poet.]

[Sidenote: His works.]

[Sidenote: Died in Surrey-st., London.]

   Map|   Names of Places.    | County. |Number of Miles From       |
   +--+-----------------------+---------+------------+--------------+
    36|Bardwell             pa|Suffolk  |Bury      10|Ixworth      3|
    22|Bare                 to|Lancaster|Lancaster  3|Burton      10|
    23|Baresley             to|Leicester|Leicester 10|Melton       8|
    27|Barford              pa|Norfolk  |Wymondham  5|Dereham     13|
    39|Barford              pa|Warwick  |Warwick    3|Stratford    7|
    31|Barford,(Great)[A]   pa|Bedford  |Bedford    6|St. Neots    7|
     3|Barford,(Great)      pa|Oxford   |Deddington 2|Banbury      6|
     3|Barford,(Little)[B]  pa|Bedford  |St. Neots  3|Potton       7|
    31|Barford, St. John's, ch|Oxford   |Deddington 3|Banbury      5|
    41|Barford, St. Martin, pa|Wilts    |Wilton     3|Salisbury    6|
    43|Barforth             to|N.R. York|Richmond  10|Barnard Cas 10|
   +--+-----------------------+---------+------------+--------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+----------------------+-----+--------+
    36|Bardwell             pa|Thetford             9|   80|     799|
    22|Bare                 to|K. Lonsdale         14|  243|     110|
    23|Baresley             to|M. Sorrel           10|  105|     ...|
    27|Barford              pa|Norwich             10|  105|     420|
    39|Barford              pa|Kineton              8|   92|     748|
    31|Barford,(Great)[A]   pa|Potton               7|   53|     731|
     3|Barford,(Great)      pa|Chip Norton         11|   71|     350|
     3|Barford,(Little)[B]  pa|Biggleswade          9|   54|     176|
    31|Barford, St. John's, ch|Chip Norton         11|   72|     131|
    41|Barford, St. Martin, pa|Hindon              10|   87|     570|
    43|Barforth             to|Darlington           9|  243|     128|
   +--+-----------------------+----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BARFORD, (Great). At this place is a piece of land, called White
Bread Close, left, as is generally believed, by one of the Shepherd
family, formerly residents of considerable opulence in the parish, for
the purpose of purchasing loaves of white bread, to be thrown among the
populace from the church porch. This whimsical custom at last became
such a scene of scrambling, fighting, and disorder, that it was
prohibited by the curate, and the money applied towards the purchase of
coals for the poor, at Christmas. The boys, and even men, seemed to have
participated in this sport, the same as at a game at foot-ball, or other
play; and an old gentleman in the adjoining village fully remembers
taking an active part in the scramble, and bearing off the wheaten loaf
in triumph.

[Sidenote: Curious custom.]


[B] BARFORD, (Little), is situated in the hundred of Biggleswade, and is
chiefly celebrated as the birth-place of Rowe, the dramatic poet, who
was born here in the year 1673. His father having designed him for the
study of the law, took him from school at the age of sixteen, and
entered him a student in the Middle Temple. He made considerable
progress, and was called to the bar, but Homer and Virgil had more
charms for him than either Coke or Littleton. He was strongly solicited
by his friends to practice, but nothing could overcome his affection for
the muses; and his play, the "Ambitious Step-mother," having been
received with great applause, he resolved to make poetry his profession.
He had imbibed in his youth the most noble sentiments of liberty, of
which he gave a specimen in his Tragedy of "Tamerlane." This was the
second play that he wrote, and until of late years it was usual to
perform it on the 4th and 5th of November, in commemoration of the
gunpowder treason, and the landing of King William. Mr. Rowe being out
of all employment, went one day to wait on the Earl of Oxford, Lord High
Treasurer of England, when, among other things his Lordship asked him,
whether he understood Spanish. He replied in the negative, and his
Lordship said he would advise him to learn it as soon as possible. Rowe
took his leave, applied himself to the study of that language, and
expecting some lucrative employment, again waited upon him. How great
was his disappointment, when his Lordship, on being informed of his
acquisition, merely exclaimed, "How happy are you, Mr. Rowe, that you
can now enjoy the pleasure of reading "Don Quixote" in the original!"
His death took place on the 6th of December, 1718, in the 45th year of
his age, and he was buried with great funeral pomp, in Westminster
Abbey, where a handsome monument is erected to his memory.

[Sidenote: Rowe, the Dramatist.]

[Sidenote: Anecdote.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  | County.  |  Number of Miles From    |
   +--+--------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
    21|Barfreston        pa|Kent      |Wingham    6|Dover       8|
    19|Barham            pa|Huntingdon|Kimbolton  6|Alconbury   4|
    21|Barham            pa|Kent      |Canterbury 7|Dover       9|
    36|Barham            pa|Suffolk   |Ipswich    5|Needham     5|
    24|Barholm           pa|Lincoln   |M. Deeping 4|Stamford    6|
    23|Barkby            pa|Leicester |Leicester  5|Melton     11|
    23|Barkby-Thorpe     to|Leicester |           4|           12|
     4|Barkham           pa|Berks     |Wokingham  4|Reading     7|
    14|Barking[A] m.t. & pa|Essex     |Romford    5|Woolwich    4|
    36|Barking           pa|Suffolk   |Needham Mt 1|Stow Market 4|
   +--+--------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    21|Barfreston        pa|Canterbury           10|   65|    114|
    19|Barham            pa|Huntingdon           10|   68|     73|
    21|Barham            pa|Sandwich             11|   62|   1053|
    36|Barham            pa|Debenham              9|   74|    825|
    24|Barholm           pa|Bourn                 8|   94|    155|
    23|Barkby            pa|Houghton              5|  100|    806|
    23|Barkby-Thorpe     to|                      5|  100|     72|
     4|Barkham           pa|Bagshot              11|   35|    247|
    14|Barking[A] m.t. & pa|Ilford                2|    7|   8036|
    36|Barking           pa|Ipswich              10|   70|   1884|
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BARKING, in the hundred of Beacontree. The name is derived,
according to some writers, from the Saxon words Beorce--a birch tree,
and Ing--a meadow; but the most natural presumption is, that it takes
its name from Berging, signifying a fortification in a meadow, and which
seems to be borne out, as there is an encampment still to be traced, of
the most extensive dimensions, being more than forty-eight acres in the
area; near to which is a spring of fine water, which no doubt supplied
the inmates. In 870, Barking was burnt by the Danes, and the abbey
destroyed, and the nuns either murdered or dispersed. Soon after the
conquest, King William retired to this place, while the Tower of London
was being erected, not deeming it safe to continue in that city; and
here he was visited during the preparation for his coronation, by Earl
Edwin, of Mercia; Morcar, Earl of Northumberland; and many others of the
nobility, who swore fealty to him, on the restoration of their estates.
It is situated on the river Roding, which branches off in two different
streams, and unites with the Thames about two miles distant. Barking
Creek is navigable for ships of 80 tons burden, and the coal and timber,
together with the fishing trade, is carried on to a considerable extent.
About a hundred fishing smacks sail from this town. Near the creek is a
large flour mill, formerly belonging to the abbey; and in the vicinity
of the town are extensive potatoe grounds for the supply of the London
market. Barking is rather a dull town, from the want of a main
thoroughfare; it has the appearance of antiquity stamped upon it,
particularly the market-house, which is an extensive and ancient
building of timber and plaster, of the age of Elizabeth. Here is a
town-hall and work-house. A free quay for landing goods, subject to a
table of regulations, and a spacious new road from the Commercial-road,
through Eastham and Wallend to Barking. The church is dedicated to St.
Margaret, and is a spacious ancient structure, with a lofty embattled
tower at the west end, having a beacon turret at one corner. A
free-school, which now occupies part of the work-house, was founded by
Sir James Campbell, in 1641, who bequeathed a sum of £666. 13s. 4d. for
that purpose. John Fowke, Esq., bequeathed certain lands for the
maintenance of eight boys in Christ's Hospital, two of whom are chosen
from this parish. The importance formerly attached to the town of
Barking was almost entirely to be attributed to the magnificent abbey
that was established here in the year 670, by Erkenwald, Bishop of
London, for nuns of the Benedictine order: it was dedicated to the
Virgin Mary. This abbey was governed by a succession of Abbesses, of
noble, and even royal descent After the destruction of the establishment
by the Danes, in the year 870, it was again rebuilt in a style of
greater splendour than before, and on the death of King Edgar, in 970,
his queen became Abbess. From the earliest period to the time of its
dissolution, it may be said to have been a seminary for the principal
gentry of England. Its revenues amounted, at the suppression of the
religious houses, to £1084. 6s. 2-3/4d. Destruction has done its worst
to this beautiful abbey, for at present little or nothing remains but
the gateway, an interesting object, and in good preservation; over which
is a room, called the Chapel of the Holy Ghost. This gateway was
denominated the fire-bell gate, from its having anciently contained the
curfew; it is a square embattled structure, with an octagonal turret at
one of the angles. The arch of the entrance is finely pointed, and
enriched with deeply receding mouldings; above is a canopied niche,
under a fine gothic window of three lights. Among the ruins of the abbey
were discovered a fibula, and a gold ring, on which were engraved, the
Salutation of the Virgin Mary, and the initials I.M. The tyranny
exercised over the tenants of this manor by the fraternity, would almost
create a feeling of surprise in our present liberal and enlightened age,
were they not perfectly well known in a thousand other instances. The
manor of Clayhall was held under the Abbess and convent of Barking, by
the following services: viz. that every tenant should come in person to
the Abbey Church, on the vigil of St. Ethelburg the Virgin, and there
attend and guard the high altar, from the first hours of Vespers till
nine the next morning; and that he should be ready at all times, with a
horse and a man, to attend the Abbess and her steward, when going upon
the business of the convent, any where within the four seas. And,
lastly, that the Abbess should have by way of herriot, upon the death of
every tenant, his best horse and accoutrements: these services, however,
did not exempt them from the quit rents. Besides the above tenure, there
were other vexatious contingencies; viz. one (Robert Gerard) was among
other services, to gather a full measure of nuts, called a pybot, four
of which should make a bushel; to go a long journey on foot once a year
to Colchester, Chelmsford, Ely, or the like distances, on the business
of the convent, carrying a pack; and other shorter distances, such as
Brentford, &c., and maintaining himself upon the road. He was to pay a
fine upon the marriage of his daughter, if she married beyond the limits
of the manor. If his daughter had an illegitimate child, he was to make
the best terms he could with the Abbess, for the fine called Kyldwyte.
It appears also, that he could not even sell his ox fed by himself,
without the Abbess's permission. Some of the tenants, according to
Blount, were obliged to watch and guard thieves in the Abbess's prison.
A few miles distant, in a glade in Hainhault Forest, formerly stood an
oak, famed through many centuries, and known by the name of Fairlop Oak.
Its age is traced by the traditions of the country half way through the
Christian era. Part of this noble tree has been converted into the
pulpit of St. Pancras new church. Its rough fluted stem was 36 feet in
circumference, and about a yard from the ground, divided into eleven
immense arms; yet not in the horizontal manner of an oak, but rather
that of a beech. Beneath its shade, which formerly overspread an area of
three hundred feet in circuit, an annual fair was held on the 2nd of
July, and no booth was suffered to be raised beyond the extent of its
boughs. The fair is still continued on the same spot the first Friday in
July.

   _Market_ disused.--_Fair_, October 22, for toys. It lies within the
   three-penny post delivery.

[Sidenote: Origin of its name.]

[Sidenote: Burnt by the Danes.]

[Sidenote: Once a town of importance.]

[Sidenote: Singular services by which the manor of Clayhall was held.]

[Sidenote: Fairlop oak.]

   Map|  Names of Places. | County. | Number of Miles From        |
   +--+-------------------+---------+--------------+--------------+
    45|Barkisland       to|W.R. York|Halifax      4|Huddersfield 8|
    23|Barkston         pa|Leicester|Melton      12|Belvoir Cas. 4|
    24|Barkstone        pa|Lincoln  |Grantham     4|Sleaford     9|
    46|Barkstone Ash    to|W.R. York|Tadcaster    6|Abberford    5|
    18|Barkway     to & pa|Herts    |Hertford    15|Puckeridge   8|
    24|Barkwith, East   pa|Lincoln  |Wragby       3|M. Raisin    8|
    24|Barkwith, West   pa|Lincoln  |             3|             8|
    35|Barlaston        pa|Stafford |Stone        4|Newcastle    6|
    38|Barlavington     pa|Sussex   |Petworth     5|Chichester  12|
    10|Barlborough      pa|Derby    |Chesterfield 8|Worksop      7|
    46|Barlby         chap|E.R. York|Selby        2|York        13|
    23|Barleston      chap|Leicester|Bosworth     3|Leicester   12|
    18|Barley           pa|Herts    |Barkway      3|Cambridge   14|
    22|Barley           to|Lancaster|Colne        5|Clitheroe    5|
    32|Barleythorpe   chap|Rutland  |Oakham       2|Melton       9|
    14|Barling          pa|Essex    |Prittlewell  5|Rochford     5|
    24|Barlings         pa|Lincoln  |Lincoln      7|Wragby       4|
    46|Barlow           to|W.R. York|Selby        3|Snaith       6|
    10|Barlow, Great  chap|Derby    |Chesterfield 4|Dronfield    3|
    10|Barlow, Little   to|Derby    |             5|             3|
   +--+-------------------+---------+--------------+--------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places. | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+
    45|Barkisland       to|Rochdale              13|  196|    2292|
    23|Barkston         pa|Bingham                7|  115|     297|
    24|Barkstone        pa|Folkingham            11|  114|     430|
    46|Barkstone Ash    to|York                  15|  185|     265|
    18|Barkway     to & pa|Cambridge             17|   35|    1108|
    24|Barkwith, East   pa|Louth                 12|  147|     187|
    24|Barkwith, West   pa|                      11|  146|     113|
    35|Barlaston        pa|Cheadle                8|  145|     514|
    38|Barlavington     pa|Arundel                8|   54|     111|
    10|Barlborough      pa|Sheffield             17|  150|     713|
    46|Barlby         chap|Howden                12|  183|     348|
    23|Barleston      chap|Ashby                  9|  109|     582|
    18|Barley           pa|Ware                  16|   37|     704|
    22|Barley           to|Burnley                5|  217|     707|
    32|Barleythorpe   chap|Stamford              13|   96|     ...|
    14|Barling          pa|Southend               6|   45|     317|
    24|Barlings         pa|Bardney                8|  140|     280|
    46|Barlow           to|Howden                 8|  179|     225|
    10|Barlow, Great  chap|Sheffield             10|  154|     581|
    10|Barlow, Little   to|                      10|  155|      58|
   +--+-------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+

   Map|  Names of Places.     | County. |  Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-----------------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
    46|Barmby on the M.   chap|E.R. York|Howden      5|Selby       6|
    46|Barnby on Don   to & pa|W.R. York|Doncaster   6|Thorne      7|
    46|Barmby on Moor,  to & p|E.R. York|Pocklington 2|York       11|
    53|Barmele              to|Flint    |Chester     7|Holywell   12|
    27|Barmer               pa|Norfolk  |Burnham     6|Fakenham    7|
    21|Barming[A]           pa|Kent     |Maidstone   3|Tonbridge  11|
    55|Barmouth[B]          to|Merioneth|Dolgelly   10|Harleigh   11|
    13|Barmpton             to|Durham   |Darlington  3|Stockton    9|
    13|Barmston             to|Durham   |Sunderland  5|Durham     10|
    43|Barmston             pa|E.R. York|Bridlington 7|Driffield  10|
    39|Barnacle            ham|Warwick  |Nuneaton    5|Coventry    7|
    30|Barnack              pa|Northamp |Wansford    4|Stamford    4|
    22|Barnaker             to|Lancaster|Garstang    3|Lancaster  12|
    13|Barnard Castle[C] t & p|Durham   |Middleton  10|Darlington 17|
   +--+-----------------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.     | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    46|Barmby on the M.   chap|Snaith                6|  180|    525|
    46|Barnby on Don   to & pa|                      9|  168|    617|
    46|Barmby on Moor,  to & p|M. Weighton           8|  210|    440|
    53|Barmele              to|Flint                 8|  196|    115|
    27|Barmer               pa|Lynn                 18|  115|     43|
    21|Barming[A]           pa|Chatham              13|   33|    565|
    55|Barmouth[B]          to|Towyn                11|  222   |1980|
    13|Barmpton             to|Durham               18|  244|     90|
    13|Barmston             to|Newcastle             7|  269|     73|
    43|Barmston             pa|Hornsea               8|  200|    223|
    39|Barnacle            ham|Rugby                12|   95|    219|
    30|Barnack              pa|Peterboro'           11|   88|    812|
    22|Barnaker             to|Preston              15|  232|    519|
    13|Barnard Castle[C] t & p|Staindrop             6|  246|   4430|
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BARMING. Of this village the learned antiquarian, Mark Noble, was
rector. His principal works were a history of the College of Arms, a
Genealogical History of the Royal Families of Europe, Memoirs of the
Protectorate House of Cromwell; and, also, of the illustrious house of
Medici. On St. Thomas's Day there is an annual solicitation for charity,
and with the money raised loaves of bread are purchased, and distributed
to the resident poor. Great quantities of hops, cherries, and filberts,
are grown in this parish.

[Sidenote: Mark Noble.]


[B] BARMOUTH, near the conflux of the river Maw, or Mawddach, is a
village singularly situated; the houses are disposed, either among the
sand, in a low situation, or at different heights on the side of a huge
rock, like a part of the city of Edinburgh, and are said to resemble the
town of Gibraltar. These houses form eight tiers, to which there is no
approach, but by steps cut in the rock. The floors of one row are about
level with the tops of the chimnies immediately in front; so that a
person standing at his door may look down the chimnies of the
neighbourhood below. The first range regales the second with its smoke,
the second the third, &c. till we arrive at the uppermost, which, in a
westerly wind, takes the mixed perfume of all. Barmouth is the port of
Merionethshire, not far from which the river Mawddach has its
commencement. "Proceeding along the banks of this river towards
Dolgelly," says Mr. Bingley, "when it was high water, the whole bed of
the river being filled, made the different landscapes in the scene
appear truly picturesque. The first two miles which lay along, what the
inhabitants of Barmouth call, the Beach, formed the most interesting
part of the journey. In the composition of the views, scarcely any thing
appeared wanting; there was every requisite of mountain and vale, wood,
water, meadows, and rocks, arranged in beautiful order. Beyond the
beach, the road winds at a little distance from the river, among the low
mountains; and from different stations, I had views of the most elegant
and picturesque landscapes, the river partly hidden by intervening
mountains. This stream is much diminished in width and depth: at present
it will not admit so much as a pleasure-boat to reach Dolgelly, which
obliges company to walk three-quarters of a mile to the town."

[Sidenote: A very curiously built town.]


[C] BARNARD CASTLE. The castle from which the town appears to have
derived its name, was founded by Barnard, son of Guy Baliol, who
accompanied William the Conqueror to England, and to whom William Rufus
granted the noble forests of Teesdale and Marwood. Edward the First,
determined to mortify the Bishop of Durham and to abridge his power; he,
therefore, gave this castle to Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in whose
family it continued for five generations. It afterwards came to the
crown, and the tyrant Richard III. who took very great delight in this
place, contributed much to its beauty by the most tasteful
embellishments; his armorial bearings still appear, not only on the
castle but over many parts of the town, and it has been a crown domain
ever since. Hutchinson in his history of the county of Durham, describes
the remains of the castle as covering about six acres and three quarters
of ground. The parts which were of chief strength, stand on the very
brink of a steep rock, about eighty feet above the level of the river
Tees, commanding a most beautiful prospect up the river. The area on the
side of the market-place, appears not to have had any communication with
the chief strongholds and bulwarks of the fortress, and is separated
from the interior buildings by a deep fosse which surrounds the rest of
the castle. In an adjoining ground called the Flatts, is a large
reservoir cut in swampy ground; water was collected and conveyed to the
castle in pipes, to supply the garrison and cattle enclosed within the
walls of the outer areas in times of public danger. This area is now a
pasture for sheep, and other parts enclosed by the walls have been
converted into orchards.

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fairs_, Wednesday in Easter and Whitsun Week,
   St. James's Day, and July 25, for horses, cattle, and
   sheep.--_Bankers_, W. Skinner and Co. draw on Barclay and
   Co.--_Inns_, King's Head, and Rose and Crown.--_Mail_ arrives 6.40
   morning; departs 2.40 afternoon.

[Sidenote: Guy Baliol.]

   Map| Names of Places.| County.  |   Number of Miles From   |
   +--+-----------------+----------+--------------+-----------+
    36|Barnardiston   pa|Suffolk   |Clare        4|Haverhill 4|
    45|Barnbow        to|W.R. York |Leeds        6|Tadcaster 9|
    45|Barnbrough[A]  pa|W.R. York |Doncaster    7|Rotherham 8|
    36|Barnby         pa|Suffolk   |Beccles      4|Lowestoft 7|
    43|Barnby         to|N.R. York |Whitby       5|Guisboro 16|
    30|Barnby-on-Moor to|Nottingham|East Retford 3|Bawtry    5|
   +--+-----------------+----------+--------------+-----------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.| Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+-------------------------+-----+-----+
    36|Barnardiston   pa|Newmarket              12|   59|  206|
    45|Barnbow        to|Abberford               4|  190|     |
    45|Barnbrough[A]  pa|Barnsley               10|  167|  520|
    36|Barnby         pa|Bungay                 11|  111|  303|
    43|Barnby         to|Scarborough            23|  238|  224|
    30|Barnby-on-Moor to|Blyth                   3|  148|  206|
   +--+-----------------+-------------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BARNBROUGH. The church is dedicated to Saint Peter, and contains a
rude painting commemorative of "a serious contest that took place
between a man and a wild cat." This conflict, which every body in
Barnbrough firmly believes, is said to have occurred about the middle of
the fifteenth century, between Percival Cresacre, lord of the manor, and
a wild cat o' mountain. He is reported to have been attacked in one of
the little woods in the neighbourhood, by this furious animal, and a
running fight was kept up till they reached the church porch, where the
mortal combat ended in the death of both. That some such circumstance
did occur, is conjectured from the crest which the family afterwards
adopted, viz. a cat o' mountain, which is still to be seen on the tower
of the church; and the tradition is said to be further confirmed by the
figure of an animal at the foot of the oak statue of this Cresacre, and
also a rubiginous stone in the pavement of the porch of the church. We
have many evidences in history that cats were beasts of chase,
particularly in the charter of Ranulph Piperking, granted by Edward the
Confessor:--

   Hart and hind, doe and bock,
   Fox and cat, hare and brock.

and again,

   Four greyhounds and six raches,
   For hare and fox and wild cates.

In the church is an ancient monument of Alicia Cresacre, wife of the
above gentleman, who died in 1450, on which is carved in old text:--

   Our bodys in stonys lye full still,
   Our saulys in wandyr at Godys will.

In the north chancel is the monument of Percival Cresacre, a richly
decorated altar-tomb under a flat arch, at the crown of which is the
family arms, viz. three lions rampant, purple, on a gold shield. The
effigies of Cresacre is in fine preservation, composed of carved oak,
and representing a knight in a suite of plate armour, with his arms
painted on a shield, and an animal (supposed to be a lion) at his feet.
His sword which hung from his belt has been taken away, and both
monuments are decorated with the favorite device of the family, a rosary
of beads.

[Sidenote: Contest between the lord of the manor and a wild cat.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  | County.  |Number of Miles From |
   +--+--------------------+----------+----------+----------+
    30|Barnby-in-Willows pa|Nottingham|Newark   4|Lincoln 16|
    37|Barnes            pa|Surrey    |Kingston 6|Chiswick 2|
    37|Barn-Elms[A]     ham|Surrey    | ...     6|  ...    2|
   +--+--------------------+----------+----------+----------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  |Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+---------------------+-----+----+
    30|Barnby-in-Willows pa|Grantham           14|  124| 237|
    37|Barnes            pa|Wandsworth          3|    5|1417|
    37|Barn-Elms[A]     ham|  ...               3|    5|    |
   +--+--------------------+---------------------+-----+----+


[A] BARN-ELMS. On the adjoining common stood the house in which the
members of the celebrated Kit Cat Club assembled. Their original place
of meeting was in London, but Jacob Tonson, the bookseller, who was
their secretary, caused it to be transferred to a house belonging to
himself, at Barn-Elms, and built a handsome room for their
accommodation. The portrait of each member was painted by Sir Godfrey
Kneller, but the apartment not being sufficiently large to receive
half-length pictures, a shorter canvas was adopted, and hence proceeded
the technical term of Kit Cat size. We give a further account of this
club from the graphic pen of Sir Richard Phillips, in his "Morning's
Walk from London to Kew," 1817. "A lane in the north-west corner of the
common brought me to Barn-Elms, where now resides a Mr. Hoare, a banker,
of London. The family were from home, and I had some difficulty to gain
admittance, the servants knowing nothing either of the club, or its
former occupant. A walk covered with docks, thistles, nettles, and high
grass, led from the remains of a gateway in the garden wall to the door
which opened into the building. Ah! thought I, through this desolate
avenue, the finest geniuses in England daily proceeded to meet their
friends. Yet, within a century, how changed--how deserted--how
revolting! A cold chill seized me as the man unfastened the decayed
door, and I beheld the once elegant hall filled with cobwebs, a fallen
ceiling, and accumulating rubbish. The door on the left led to a
spacious, and once superb, staircase--now in ruins. The entire building,
for want of ventilation, having become food for the fungus, called
dry-rot, the timbers had lost its cohesive powers. I ascended the
staircase, therefore, with a degree of danger to which my conductor
would not expose himself, but was well requited for my pains. Here I
found the Kit-Cat Club-room, nearly as it existed in the days of its
glory. It is 18 feet high, and 40 feet long, by 20 wide. The mouldings
and ornaments were in the most superb fashion of its age, but the whole
was falling to pieces from the effects of the dry-rot. My attention was
chiefly attracted by the faded cloth-hangings of the room, whose red
colour once set off the famous portraits of the club that hung around
it. Their marks and sizes were still visible, and their numbers and
names remained, as written in chalk for the guidance of the hanger. Thus
was I, as it were, brought into contact with Addison and Steele, and
Congreve, and Garth, and Dryden, and with many hereditary nobles,
remembered only because they were patrons of those natural nobles. I
read their names aloud--I invoked their departed spirits--I was appalled
by the echo of my own voice. The holes in the floor, the forest of
cobwebs in the windows, and a swallow's nest in the corner of the
ceiling, proclaimed that I was viewing a vision of the dreamers of a
past age; that I saw realized before me the speaking vanities of the
anxious career of man. On rejoining Mr. Hoare's servant in the hall
below, he informed me that his master intended to pull the building
down, and form of it a riding-house. I learn that this design has since
been executed. The Kit-Cat pictures were painted early in the eighteenth
century, and about the year 1710 were brought to this spot, but the room
I have been describing was not built till ten or fifteen years
afterwards. They were 42 in number, and are now in the possession of a
Mr. Baker, of Hertingford-bury, where I lately saw them splendidly
lodged, and in fine preservation. It may be proper to observe, that the
house of Mr. Hoare was not the house of Mr. Tonson, and that Mr.
Tonson's house stood nearer to the Kit-Cat club-rooms, having a few
years since been taken down." A person died in this place, leaving in
his will an annual sum, to be laid out in roses to be planted on his
grave. The spot is distinguished by a stone tablet on the outside of the
wall of the church, enclosed by pales, with some rose-trees planted on
each side of it. This tablet is dedicated to the memory of Edward Rose,
citizen of London, who died in 1653, and left £20. to the poor of
Barnes, for the purchase of an acre of land, on condition that the pales
should be kept up, and the rose-trees preserved.

[Sidenote: Kit Cat Club house.]

[Sidenote: As described by Sir Richard Phillips in 1817.]

   Map|   Names of Places.    | County. | Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-----------------------+---------+-------------+------------+
    18|Barnet-Chipping[A] m.t.|Herts    |St. Albans 10|Whetstone  2|
    18|Barnet, East         pa|Herts    |Enfield     5|Highgate   6|
    25|Barnet, Friern[B]    pa|Middlesex|Finchley    2|Barnet     3|
    24|Barnetby-le-Wold     pa|Lincoln  |Glanford-Br 6|Caistor    7|
    27|Barney               pa|Norfolk  |Fakenham    6|Walsingham 5|
    36|Barnham             vil|Suffolk  |Thetford    3|Ixworth    7|
    38|Barnham              pa|Sussex   |Arundel     5|Chichester 7|
    27|Barnham-Broom        pa|Norfolk  |Wymondham   5|Norwich    9|
   +--+-----------------------+---------+-------------+------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.    |  Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+----------+------------+-----+------+
    18|Barnet-Chipping[A] m.t.|Hatfield              9|   11|  2369|
    18|Barnet, East         pa|Barnet                3|   10|   547|
    25|Barnet, Friern[B]    pa|Hornsey               4|    9|   543|
    24|Barnetby-le-Wold     pa|Barton               10|  162|   532|
    27|Barney               pa|Holt                  7|  115|   263|
    36|Barnham             vil|Bury                 10|   81|   384|
    38|Barnham              pa|Bognor                3|   60|   148|
    27|Barnham-Broom        pa|Hingham               6|  105|   463|
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+------+


[A] BARNET. This small busy town occupies an elevated situation on the
high north road; and near this place was fought, in the year 1471, the
famous battle between the houses of York and Lancaster, which terminated
in the death of the Earl of Warwick, and established King Edward the
Fourth upon the throne. An obelisk was erected by Sir Jeremy Sambrook,
in memory of the battle in the year 1740. In the church is an altar
monument in commemoration of Thomas Ravensworth, Esquire, whose effigy,
in a recumbent position, is represented on the tomb in veined marble. He
died in 1630. Several others of his family are also buried here; and
among these, James, his eldest son, who erected and endowed an
alms-house, or hospital in Barnet, "for six poor ancient women, being
widows or maidens, inhabitants of the town; and neither common beggars,
common drunkards, back-biters, tale-bearers, common scolds, thieves or
other like persons of infamous life, or evil name or repute; or
vehemently suspected of sorcerie, witchcraft, or charming, or guilty of
perjury: nor any ideot or lunatic are admitted." The annual value of the
original endowment is now about £45.; besides which, the trustees have a
further income of £30. annually, arising from other sources. Another
alms-house for six poor widows, was built and endowed about the year
1723, under the will of John Garrett, Gent., who bequeathed £800. for
that purpose. Near the race ground, on Barnet Common, is a mineral
spring, of a mild purgative nature, that was discovered about the middle
of the 17th century, and was formerly in much repute. A few years ago a
subscription was made for arching it over and erecting a pump. The town
is at present governed by a presiding magistrate, a high constable and
subordinate officers. The inhabitants of this township enjoy a very
extensive common right over the adjoining wastes and chace. Between
Barnet and South Mims, an extensive improvement has been effected in the
road, which was a series of angular turnings and unnecessary hills, to
an extent which renders it surprising how such glaring imperfections
were suffered to exist, when a sufficiently direct line could be
obtained.

   _Market_, Monday. _Fairs_ April 8, 9, 10, linen drapery, mercery,
   toys, &c. The harvest fair or Welsh fair, September 4, 5, Welsh
   cattle and horses; Sept. 6, mercery, &c. and sometimes a few horses,
   pigs, &c. The Leeds Mail arrives 9.11 evening, departs 7.48 evening.
   The Glasgow mail arrives 9.20 evening; departs 4.18 morning. _Inns_,
   Duke of Wellington, Green Man, and Red Lion.

[Sidenote: Battle between the houses of York and Lancaster.]

[Sidenote: Mineral spring.]


[B] BARNET, (Friern). John Walker, the author of a celebrated
dictionary, was a native of this place, and was born in the year 1732.
About the year 1767, he joined with a Mr. Usher in setting up a school
at Kensington; this speculation not succeeding he removed to London,
where he gave lectures on elocution. It is said that in his early youth
he studied the art, intending to make the stage his profession, although
his very questionable success induced him to adopt another pursuit. Mr.
Walker was an amiable as well as a learned man; he was the author of
several elementary works: such as "The Rhetorical Grammar," "Elements of
Elocution," "Key to the correct pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and
Scriptural names," and a "Rhyming Dictionary." He died at his house in
Tottenham Court Road, August 1, 1807. This parish includes the hamlet of
Colney Hatch, half of Whetstone, and a part of Finchley Common.

[Sidenote: Birth place of Walker, author of the pronouncing dictionary.]

   Map|  Names of Places.   | County.  | Number of Miles From      |
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+------------+
     7|Barnhill          ham|Chester   |Chester     10|Tarporley  8|
    36|Barningham         pa|Suffolk   |Ixworth      5|Botesdale  7|
    44|Barningham    pa & to|N.R. York |Greta Bridge 2|Richmond  10|
    27|Barningham, Little pa|Norfolk   |Aylsham      6|Holt       6|
    27|Barningham         pa|Norfolk   |             8|           5|
    27|Barningham Winter  pa|Norfolk   |             6|           7|
    24|Barnoldby-le-Beck  pa|Lincoln   |Grimsby      6|Caistor    8|
    45|Barnoldswick  pa & to|W.R. York |Colne        5|Skipton    6|
     7|Barnsham           to|Chester   |Knutsford    6|Middlewich 7|
    15|Barnsley           pa|Gloucester|Cirencester  4|Burford   13|
    45|Barnsley[A] m.t. & to|W.R. York |York        39|Rotherham 13|
    11|Barnstaple[B] bo.& mt|Devon     |Exeter      38|S. Molton 12|
   +--+---------------------+----------+--------------+------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   | Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-----+------+
     7|Barnhill          ham|Malpas                  4|  172|      |
    36|Barningham         pa|Thetford                9|   82|   514|
    44|Barningham    pa & to|Barnard Cas.            5|  238|   550|
    27|Barningham, Little pa|Cromer                  8|  119|   227|
    27|Barningham         pa|                        5|  121|    42|
    27|Barningham Winter  pa|                        8|  120|   114|
    24|Barnoldby-le-Beck  pa|Louth                  16|  165|   232|
    45|Barnoldswick  pa & to|Clitheroe              10|  223|  2724|
     7|Barnsham           to|Congleton               8|  170|      |
    15|Barnsley           pa|Fairford                6|   86|   318|
    45|Barnsley[A] m.t. & to|Hudderfield            17|  172| 10330|
    11|Barnstaple[B] bo.& mt|Ilfracomb              10|  193|  6840|
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-----+------+


[A] BARNSLEY. This large market town is built chiefly of stone, but
being surrounded by coal pits and iron works, the smoke from which
obscures the air, it is generally known by the name of Black Barnsley.
The black glass bottles made here are of excellent quality, and the
manufacture of linen is carried on to a great extent. Here also is made
the best wire in the kingdom for needles. The town is seated on the side
of a hill; the trade and population have considerably increased since
the completion of the navigable canal, by means of which communications
are opened with Wakefield, and all parts of the kingdom. The land in the
vicinity of this town is highly distinguished for its fertility; the
manor is possessed by the Duke of Leeds.

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fairs_, Wednesday before Feb. 28, horned
   cattle and swine; May 12, ditto; October 10, ditto, horses, and
   cheese.--_Mail_ arrives 2.55 afternoon; departs 11.31
   night.--_Bankers_, Becket and Co., draw on Glyn and Co.--_Inns_,
   King's Head, and White Bear.

[Sidenote: The trade.]


[B] BARNSTAPLE is said to derive its name from Bar, which in the ancient
British signified the mouth of a river; and the Saxon word Staple, a
mart. It is situated in the hundred of Braunton, and returns two members
to parliament. The town appears to have been incorporated by Henry I.,
yet it retains some traces of feudal jurisdiction; a number of common
burgesses claiming a right to vote with the corporate officers for
members of parliament. The £10. householders are about 607; the
returning officer is the mayor, who with two bailiffs, two aldermen,
twenty-two common councilmen, and other officers form the corporation.
Barnstaple is one of the neatest and most respectable towns in the
county; it lies on the eastern bank of the river Taw, in a broad and
fertile vale, bounded by a semi-circular range of hills. The Taw here
spreads to a considerable breadth, but from the great accumulation of
sand, the port is shallow, and vessels of more than 200 tons are not
able to enter. Over the river is a bridge of sixteen arches, which is
said to have been built by one of the Tracys, at the time that family
were lords of the manor. The streets are spacious and regular, and the
buildings generally good. The town, indeed, boasts some of the marks of
a metropolis; there are balls every fortnight, and a regular theatre,
and nothing but a good pavement is wanted to make it highly agreeable. A
noble quay extends some way along the river, terminated by a handsome
piazza, over the centre of which stands the statue of Queen Anne, with
an inscription, testifying to the loyalty of Robert Rolle, of
Stevenstone, in this county, the erector. The woollen trade formerly
carried on here with considerable spirit, greatly increased the wealth
of the town, and enabled its inhabitants to erect a number of very
respectable houses: this trade has of late failed, but the manufacture
of baize, silk stockings and waistcoat pieces, still gives life to the
place. Besides this source of wealth and population, the beauty of the
surrounding country, and the cheapness of provisions, have induced many
respectable families to reside here entirely; a circumstance which
renders Barnstaple the most genteel town in the north of Devon. Here is
a celebrated Grammar School, which has been founded about three
centuries, and is famous for having educated a number of distinguished
men; among whom were John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury: his Theological
antagonist, Thomas Harding, Professor at Louvain: the poet Gay, and the
learned Dr. Musgrave. Bishop Jewel was a learned divine, who lived in
the reigns of the last sovereigns of the house of Tudor, and was born
near Ilfracombe, in 1522. Having acquired the rudiments of his learning
in this school, he was removed to Merton College, Oxford. He was a most
zealous and able champion of the Christian faith; and was indefatigable
in the pursuit of knowledge, even at the expense of his health, which
was materially injured by the closeness of his application. About the
year 1551, he obtained the rectory of Sunningwell, in Berkshire, where
he was much beloved for his zeal and assiduity as a parish priest. When
Queen Mary succeeded her brother Edward, Jewel was deprived of an office
he held in the university; and, notwithstanding he subscribed to a
confession of faith drawn up by the Catholics, yet suspicions were
entertained of his sincerity, and fearing he should be prosecuted as an
heretic, he withdrew from Oxford, and made his escape to the continent.
On the death of Queen Mary, Jewel returned to England, and was received
very favorably by Queen Elizabeth, who raised him to the bishoprick of
Salisbury, in the year 1560. From this time until the day of his death,
he was principally engaged in his pastoral duties, and in the defence
and support of the Protestant faith. He died September 1571. The
admirable moralist and poet, Gay, was also educated in this school; he
was the composer of "The Beggar's Opera," the notion of which appears to
have been afforded by Swift. The purpose of this singular performance,
was to bring into ridicule the Italian Opera, and it is not easy to
define the mixture of pathos and ridicule which distinguishes this
remarkable production. His celebrated "Fables," written for the
instruction of the Duke of Cumberland, have been the means of
unqualified delight to millions. His first poem, entitled "Rural
Sports," and dedicated to Mr. Pope, gained him the friendship of that
poet. The year following he was appointed Secretary to the Duchess of
Monmouth: at this time he printed his "Trivia," in the composition of
which he was assisted by Swift. He died of an inflammation of the
bowels, in 1732, (sincerely lamented by all who knew him,) and was
buried in Westminster Abbey, where his monument exhibits an epitaph by
Pope, which is written with tasteful tenderness.

   _Market_, Friday.--_Fairs_, September 19; Friday before April 21;
   second Friday in December, for cattle. These are considerable fairs,
   but are called great markets, as there is no charter to hold fairs on
   those days.--_Mail_ arrives 7.0 morning; departs 5.0
   afternoon.--_Bankers_, Pyke, Law and Co.; draw on Barclay and Co.;
   Drake and Co. draw on Esdaile and Co.--_Inns_, Fortescue Arms; Golden
   Lion; Kings Arms.

[Sidenote: Incorporated by Henry I.]

[Sidenote: Amusements, &c.]

[Sidenote: Eminent men educated here.]

[Sidenote: Gay, the Poet, born here.]

   Map|   Names of Places.   | County.| Number of Miles From   |
   +--+-----------------------+--------+-----------+-----------+
     7|Barnston             to|Chester |Park Gate 4|Liverpool 5|
    14|Barnston             pa|Essex   | Dunmow   2|Braintree 8|
     7|Barnton              to|Chester |Northwich 2|Knutsford 8|
    28|Barnwell-All-Sts.[A] pa|Northamp|Oundle    3|Thrapston 5|
   +--+-----------------------+--------+-----------+-----------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.  |Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+-------------+------+-----+-----+
     7|Barnston             to|Chester           14|  198|  112|
    14|Barnston             pa|Chelmsford        10|   38|  215|
     7|Barnton              to|Warrington         9|  175|  730|
    28|Barnwell-All-Sts.[A] pa|Stamford          18|   78|  126|
   +--+-----------------------+--------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BARNWELL derives its name from some wells, which in the age of
superstition, were widely famed for the miraculous cures they performed
in diseases of children. Sacred veneration was at length paid them, and
pilgrims from distant parts resorted hither to adore the spirit which
infused such wonderful virtues into the waters. A castle was erected
here in the reign of Henry I., by Reginald le Moine, and became
afterwards the baronial residence of the family of the Montagues. The
remains of this once magnificent structure consist of four circular
massy bastion towers, each forming an angle of a quadrangular court,
inclosed by walls three feet thick; the grand gateway on the south side
is flanked by similar towers. The whole forms a fine and curious ruin,
and is a rare specimen of the early Norman castellated form of
building.

   Map|   Names of Places.    |  County. | Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
    28|Barnwell, St. And    pa|Northamp  |Oundle     2|Thrapston   6|
    15|Barnwood             pa|Gloucester|Gloucester 2|Cheltenham  8|
    35|Barr, Great[A]       pa|Stafford  |Walsall    4|Wednesbury  4|
    35|Barr, Perry         ham|Stafford  |           5|Birmingham  5|
    29|Barrasford           to|Northumb. |Hexham     7|Bellingham 10|
     6|Barrington           pa|Cambridge |Cambridge  6|Caxton      8|
    34|Barrington           pa|Somerset  |Ilminster  4|Ilchester  10|
     4|Barrington, Great[B] pa|Berks&Glos|Burford    4|Northleach  7|
    15|Barrington, Little   pa|Gloucester|Burford    4|Stow        8|
    10|Barrow               pa|Derby     |Derby      6|Kegworth   12|
    15|Barrow               to|Gloucester|Cheltenham 4|Tewkesbury  5|
    29|Barrow               to|Northumb. |Allenton   5|Wooler     16|
    32|Barrow             chap|Rutland   |Oakham     5|Stamford   12|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+----------------------+------+-------+
    28|Barnwell, St. And    pa|Stamford            17|    79|    284|
    15|Barnwood             pa|Painswick            6|   104|    419|
    35|Barr, Great[A]       pa|Birmingham           5|   114|    779|
    35|Barr, Perry         ham|Sutton               3|   114|    777|
    29|Barrasford           to|Corbridge            9|   284|    232|
     6|Barrington           pa|Royston              8|    46|    485|
    34|Barrington           pa|Crewkherne           8|   134|    468|
     4|Barrington, Great[B] pa|Stow                 8|    76|    532|
    15|Barrington, Little   pa|Northleach           7|    76|    162|
    10|Barrow               pa|Burton              10|   125|    584|
    15|Barrow               to|Gloucester           7|    98|    238|
    29|Barrow               to|Bellingham          18|   314|     14|
    32|Barrow             chap|Cottesmore           2|   101|    144|
   +--+-----------------------+----------------------+------+-------+


[A] GREAT BARR is an agreeable village, which has long been the property
of the Scott family, who have here one of the finest mansions in the
county. This seat stands in a beautiful valley, affording the most
delightful prospects of hill and dale, varied by wood and water. Shady
walks and rustic seats furnish the most attractive conveniences for the
promenade. One object in particular fixes the attention; it is an urn
near the flower garden, to the memory of Miss Mary Dolman, the cousin of
Shenstone, whose elegant pen supplied a beautiful tribute in Latin. The
summit of Barr Beacon, which is 653 feet in height, was the spot from
whence the Druids gave notice, by watch-fires, of their periodical
sacrifices; and it was used both by the Saxons and the Danes, as a
beacon to alarm the country in times of danger. The chapel of the
village is of remarkable beauty; its eastern window contains a painting
on glass by Mr. Eginton, who has improved upon the design of the Rev.
Mr. Peter's "Spirit of a Child."

[Sidenote: Barr Beacon, 653 feet high.]


[B] GREAT BARRINGTON is a parish containing about 1000 acres, including
some portion of Oxfordshire within its limits, as well as a small tract
belonging to Berkshire. Previous to the conquest, the manor was held by
Earl Harold; the present owner is Lord Dynevor, Lord Lieut. and Cust.
Rot. of Carmarthen. Barrington church appears to have been erected about
the time of Henry VII. Beneath one of the windows of the aisle are the
monument and effigies of Captain Edward Bray, grandfather of Sir Giles
Bray, lord of the manor, who is represented in armour, with a ruff round
his neck and a sword girt on the "right" side. This peculiarity
originated from the captain having killed a man at Tilbury camp; and, in
token of his sorrow, he determined never more to use his right hand.
Lord Chancellor Talbot was buried in this church; he was the son of
William Talbot, Bishop of Durham, and was born in the year 1684. After
being elected a fellow of All Soul's College, Oxford, he married, and
consequently was compelled to give up his fellowship. When he left the
university, he was admitted a member of the society of Lincoln's Inn,
and was speedily called to the bar. He was chosen to represent the now
disfranchised borough of Tregony, in Cornwall, and afterwards was made
member for the city of Durham. He died in the enjoyment of the highest
character, after a short illness, on the 14th of February, 1737. Few
Chancellors have been more lamented, both in public and private life.
Lord Talbot acquired universal esteem. The Hall was built by him in the
year 1734, soon after which it was destroyed by fire. The grounds
furnish a good specimen of the "ferme ornee," (ornamental farm) and the
park, about three miles in circumference, is well planted with a variety
of beautiful trees.

[Sidenote: Capt. Edward Bray.]

   Map|   Names of Places.      | County. |   Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-------------------------+---------+--------------+-------------+
    33|Barrow                 pa|Salop    |M. Wenlock   4|Bridgenorth 6|
    36|Barrow                 pa|Suffolk  |Bury         6|Newmarket   9|
    34|Barrow-Gourney         pa|Somerset |Bristol      5|Axbridge   12|
     7|Barrow, Great     pa & to|Chester  |Chester      6|Northwich  13|
    24|Barrow-on-Humber       pa|Lincoln  |Barton       3|Grimsby    17|
    34|Barrow, North          pa|Somerset |Castle Carey 3|Ilchester   8|
    34|Barrow, South          pa|Somerset |...          4|...         7|
    23|Barrow-on-Soar[A] pa & to|Leicester|Mount Sorrel 2|Loughboro'  3|
    24|Barrowby               pa|Lincoln  |Grantham     2|Newark     12|
    32|Barrowden              pa|Rutland  |Uppingham    6|Stamford    8|
    22|Barrowford             to|Lancaster|Colne        2|Clitheroe   5|
    54|Barry                  pa|Glamorgan|Cardiff      9|Cowbridge   7|
    54|Barry Isle[B]        Isle|Glamorgan|...          9|...         8|
   +--+-------------------------+---------+--------------+-------------+
                                                         |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.      | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
    33|Barrow                 pa|Broseley               2|  146|    351|
    36|Barrow                 pa|Mildenhall             9|   69|    856|
    34|Barrow-Gourney         pa|Pensford               7|  120|    279|
     7|Barrow, Great     pa & to|Tarporley              5|  183|    436|
    24|Barrow-on-Humber       pa|Brigg                 11|  167|   1334|
    34|Barrow, North          pa|Wincanton              8|  116|    150|
    34|Barrow, South          pa|  ...                  9|  117|    139|
    23|Barrow-on-Soar[A] pa & to|Leicester              9|  107|   6254|
    24|Barrowby               pa|Colterswor            10|  112|    687|
    32|Barrowden              pa|Oakham                 8|   92|    485|
    22|Barrowford             to|Burnley                6|  216|   2633|
    54|Barry                  pa|Llandaff               9|  169|     72|
    54|Barry Isle[B]        Isle|  ...                  9|  169|    ...|
   +--+-------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+



[A] BARROW. This large and pleasant village appears to have taken its
name from an ancient tumulus. It is occupied principally by gentlemen
farmers, many of whom, however, derive great profit from the quantities
of lime which they get up and burn. This village having been for many
centuries celebrated for a hard blue stone, similar to that in the vale
of Belvoir, and when calcined, produces a very fine matter, from which
is prepared a particularly hard, firm, and greatly esteemed cement.
Various fossil remains are found amongst the limestone. One of the
petrifactions, still preserved at Cambridge, with Dr. Woodward's
fossils, is a plain and bold representation of a flat-fish, about twelve
inches long. Mr. Jones, in his "Philosophical Disquisitions," notices it
by saying, that "our country hath lately afforded what I apprehend to be
the greatest curiosity of the sort that ever appeared. It is the entire
figure of a bream, more than a foot in length, and of a proportionable
depth, with the scales, fins, and gills, fairly projecting from the
surface, like a sculpture in relievo, and with all the lineaments, even
to the most minute fibres of the tail, so complete, that the like was
never seen before." Dr. William Beveridge, one of the most learned
prelates of the English church, was born here in the year 1638. At St.
John's College, Cambridge, he applied himself with intense application
to the study of oriental literature. He reviewed the Hebrew, Chaldee,
Syriac, Arabic, and Samaritan tongues, and produced a Syriac grammar. He
was raised to the see of St. Asaph, in the year 1704, but he enjoyed his
new dignity for a short period,--his death took place in the year 1708.
In his divinity he was Calvinistic; from the simplicity and piety of his
character, he was beloved by all parties. He lies buried in St. Paul's
Cathedral.

[Sidenote: Superior lime quarries.]

[Sidenote: The pious Beveridge born here.]


[B] BARRY ISLAND, the name of which has been thought to have been
derived from St. Baroche, a hermit, who, according to Cressy, died here
in the year 700. This island, which lets for about £80. a year, is
estimated to contain about 300 acres. In Leland's time there was, in the
middle of it, a "fair little chapel used," but there was no dwelling.
Since that period, however, a house has been erected for the residence
of a farmer, which, in the summer, is converted into a boarding-house,
for the reception of sea-bathers. The family of Giraldus de Barri, are
said to have taken their title from this island, of which they were once
lords. "It is remarkable," observes Giraldus, "that in a rock near the
entrance of the island, there is a small cavity, to which, if the ear is
applied, a noise is heard like that of smiths at work--the blowing of
bellows, strokes of hammers, grinding of tools, and roaring of furnaces;
and it might easily have been imagined, that such noises which are
continued at the ebb and flow of the tides, were occasioned by the
influx of the sea under the cavities of the rocks." Sir Richard Hoare,
in his additions to Giraldus, observes as follows:--"Towards the
southern part of the island, on a spot called Nell's Point, is a fine
well, to which great numbers of women resort on Holy Thursday, and,
having washed their eyes at the spring, each drops a pin into it. The
landlord of the boarding-house told me, that on clearing out the well he
took out a pint full of these votive offerings." On the main land,
opposite the western extremity of the island, lies the village of Barry,
near which are some remains of the castle. A few miles north-westward
from Barry are the remains of Penmark castle, anciently the property of
Sir Gilbert Humphreville, one of the followers of Fitzhamon. Llancarvan,
in this vicinity, was once the seat of a religious house, said to have
been founded by Cadoc the Wise, in the 6th century. Llancarvan is also
distinguished as the birth-place of Caradoc, the Welsh annalist, who
compiled a history of the Principality, from the abdication of
Cadwaladyr, 686, to his own time. Tref Walter, or Walterston, in this
parish, was the residence of Walter de Mapes, a writer of some note
towards the middle of the 12th century. He was Archdeacon of Oxford, and
Chaplain to Henry I. He built the church of Llancarvan, a large
substantial edifice, and the village of Walterston, with a mansion for
himself. His literary labours comprise a translation of the British
Chronicle into Latin, and a Welsh version of Geoffrey of Monmouth's
fabulous paraphrase of the same work. He wrote also a Treatise on
Agriculture in the Welsh language.

[Sidenote: Remarkable noises heard here.]

[Sidenote: Curious custom.]

   Map|  Names of Places.   | County. | Number of Miles From      |
   +--+---------------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
    36|Barsham            pa|Suffolk  |Beccles     3|Bungay      5|
    27|Barsham, (East)    pa|Norfolk  |Fakenham    3|Walsingham  3|
    27|Barsham, (North)   pa|Norfolk  |Walsingham  2|Wells       6|
    27|Barsham, (West)    pa|Norfolk  |Fakenham    3|Walsingham  3|
    39|Barston            pa|Warwick  |Warwick    12|Coventry    9|
    17|Bartestree       chap|Hereford |Hereford    5|Bromyard   14|
     7|Bartherton         to|Chester  |Nantwich    2|Whitchurch 10|
    21|Bartholomew      lib.|Kent     |Canterbury 13|Deal        7|
     7|Barthomley[A] pa & to|Chester  |Sandbach    7|Newcastle   7|
     7|Bartington         to|Chester  |Northwick   4|Warrington  8|
     6|Bartlow[B]         pa|Cambridge|Linton      2|Haverhill   6|
    14|Bartlow End       ham|Essex    |            3|            6|
     4|Barton            ham|Berks    |Oxford      6|E. Illsley  9|
     6|Barton             pa|Cambridge|Cambridge   4|Caxton      8|
     7|Barton             to|Chester  |Chester    10|Malpas      7|
   +--+---------------------+---------+-------------+-------------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    36|Barsham            pa|Halesworth            9|  109|    182|
    27|Barsham, (East)    pa|Burnham M.           10|  102|    219|
    27|Barsham, (North)   pa|Fakenham              4|  113|     84|
    27|Barsham, (West)    pa|Creek                 4|  112|    101|
    39|Barston            pa|Birmingham           13|  100|    342|
    17|Bartestree       chap|Ledbury              12|  132|     50|
     7|Bartherton         to|Audlem                4|  163|     34|
    21|Bartholomew      lib.|Ramsgate              6|   68|     61|
     7|Barthomley[A] pa & to|Nantwich             11|  157|    449|
     7|Bartington         to|Knutsford             7|  177|     76|
     6|Bartlow[B]         pa|Saff. Walden          6|   48|    106|
    14|Bartlow End       ham|                      5|   47|    205|
     4|Barton            ham|Dorchester            7|   56|     14|
     6|Barton             pa|Royston              12|   49|    273|
     7|Barton             to|Tarporley            12|  175|    168|
   +--+---------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BARTHOMLEY contains several townships. The nave of the church has a
richly carved wooden roof, dated 1589. On the 22d of December, 1643, a
troop of Lord Byron's passing through the village, made an attack upon
this venerable edifice, into which several of the inhabitants had gone
for safety; they soon got possession of it, and having set fire to the
forms, rushes, and mats, made such a smoke that the men who had
retreated into the steeple were obliged to call for quarter, but their
assailants having got them into their power, are said to have stripped
them all, and most cruelly murdered twelve of them in cold blood, three
only being suffered to escape. A free school was founded here, in the
year 1676, by the Rev. Mr. Steele, in which ten children are educated.
In the year 1787, Mrs. Mary, Mrs. Margaret, and Mrs. Judith Alsager,
ladies of the manor, obtained an Act of Parliament to enable them to
finish a new church, or chapel, to be called Christ's Church, or Chapel,
in that township. The same ladies built a school-house, and founded a
school there, for the education of children of both sexes.

[Sidenote: Cruel murder.]


[B] BARTLOW. Near this place, are four contiguous barrows, known by the
name of Bartlow Hills, from their situation with respect to Bartlow
Church. These are vulgarly, though erroneously, regarded as the tumuli
raised over the slain in the battle fought between Edmund Ironside and
the Danish King, Canute, in the year 1016. It is evident, indeed, from
our account of Ashington, at page 50, that the place of action should be
sought for, rather in the vicinity of the sea than at the northern
extremity of the county. Camden states, that these stone coffins, with
broken human bones in them, were found in one of these barrows; and
Hollingshead affirms, that two bodies were found in one stone coffin.
Mr. Gough remarks, that we do not find the use of stone coffins amongst
the northern nations in their Pagan state; and the Danes were not
converted until long after the time of Canute. The origin of these
barrows, therefore, cannot now be traced.

   Map|Names of Places.            |County.   |Number of Miles from       |
   +--+----------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
    17|Barton                    to|Hereford  |Kington     1|Presteign   5|
    30|Barton                    pa|Nottingham|Nottingham  6|Rempstone   7|
    40|Barton, (High),[A]   pa & to|Westmorlnd|Appleby     3|Orton       6|
    23|Barton                   ham|Leicester |M. Bosworth 2|Leicester  14|
    27|Barton Bendish            pa|Norfolk   |Stoke Ferry 4|Swaffham    8|
    10|Barton-le-Blount          pa|Derby     |Derby      10|Ashborne    9|
     3|Barton in the Clay        pa|Bedford   |Silsoe      3|Luton       7|
    44|Barton, St. Cuthbert pa & to|N.R. York |Darlington  5|Richmond    7|
    34|Barton, St. David's,      pa|Somerset  |Somerton    4|Glastonbury 7|
    36|Barton, (Great)           pa|Suffolk   |Bury        3|Ixworth     4|
     5|Barton Hartshorne         pa|Buckingham|Buckingham  4|Bicester    8|
    39|Barton on the heath[B]    pa|Warwick   |Shipston    6|L. Compton  2|
   +--+----------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                            |Dist.|Popul
   Map|Names of Places.            |Number of Miles from    |Lond.|-ation.
   +--+----------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
    17|Barton                    to|Hereford              21|  156|    ...|
    30|Barton                    pa|Derby                 13|  121|    379|
    40|Barton, (High),[A]   pa & to|Brough                11|  272|   1537|
    23|Barton                   ham|Ashby                 10|  108|    163|
    27|Barton Bendish            pa|Downham                8|   92|    459|
    10|Barton-le-Blount          pa|Uttoxeter              8|  136|     60|
     3|Barton in the Clay        pa|Ampthill               4|   38|    720|
    44|Barton, St. Cuthbert pa & to|Barnard Cas           14|  238|    499|
    34|Barton, St. David's       pa|Castle Cary            7|  120|    410|
    36|Barton, (Great)           pa|Thetford              13|   74|    702|
     5|Barton Hartshorne         pa|Brackley               6|   59|    145|
    39|Barton on the heath[B]    pa|Chip. Norton           7|   79|    208|
   +--+----------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BARTON. Stockbridge Hall, an ancient edifice, was the seat of the
Lancasters, whose arms are yet seen on the ceiling of the dining-room,
and who continued here through twelve generations, when their estates
fell to the Lowthers. The church, which is a low and extensive building,
with a heavy tower between the chancel and the nave, contains the tomb
of one of the Lancasters; some escutcheons of several families in the
neighbourhood, and a brass plate, on which is this remarkable epitaph:--

   "Under this stone, reader, interred doth lie,
   Beauty and virtue's true epitomy.
   At her appearance the noone sun
   Blushed and shrunk in, 'cause quite undone.
   In her concentered did all graces dwell;
   God plucked my rose that he might take a smell.
   I'll say no more, but weeping, wish I may,
   Soone with thy dear chaste ashes come to lay."

The lady thus extravagantly eulogised, was Frances, the wife of
Launcelot Dawes; she died in 1673. Barton school was founded in 1641, by
four priests, natives of this parish.

[Sidenote: Remarkable epitaph.]


[B] BARTON. Near this village is a large stone, called Four-shire stone,
from its forming the point of junction of the four counties of
Gloucester, Worcester, Warwick, and Oxford. Here once resided an
attorney of so pacific a disposition that he usually acted as mediator
when disputes arose. This anomalous person, named Dover, instituted the
annual festivities termed Cotswold Games, and was for forty years their
chief supporter. These diversions were celebrated upon the Cotswold
Hills, in Gloucestershire, and prodigious multitudes are said to have
resorted to them. They consisted of wrestling, cudgel-playing, leaping,
pitching the bar, throwing the sledge, tossing the pike, with various
other feats of strength and activity. A castle of boards was erected on
this occasion, from which guns were frequently discharged. Dover
received permission from James I. to hold these sports, and he appeared
at their celebration in the very clothes which that monarch had formerly
worn; but it is said there was much more dignity in his form and aspect.
John Heywood, the epigramatist, speaking of these games, says--

   "He fometh like a bore, the beaste should seem bold,
   For he is as fierce as a lyon of Cotsolde."

[Sidenote: Cotswold games.]

   Map|   Names of Places.     | County.   |     Number of Miles From    |
   +--+------------------------+-----------+---------------+-------------+
    24|Barton[A]           m.t.|Lincoln    |Hull          7|Brigg      11|
    22|Barton on Irwell      to|Lancaster  |Manchester    6|Newton     14|
    36|Barton, Little        pa|Suffolk    |Mildenhall    1|Newmarket   9|
    44|Barton, St. Mary,   chap|N.R. York  |Darlington    5|Richmond    7|
    35|Barton              chap|Stafford   |Burton on Tr. 5|Lichfield   9|
    28|Barton Segrave        pa|Northamp.  |Kettering     2|Thrapston   8|
    16|Barton Stacey         pa|Hants.     |Whitchurch    6|Andover     6|
    31|Barton Steeple[B]     pa|Oxford     |Deddington    5|Woodstock   7|
    15|Barton Street        ham|Gloucester |Gloucester    1|Cheltenham  9|
    43|Barton in Street      pa|N.R. York  |New Malton    5|Pickering   5|
    27|Barton Turf           pa|Norfolk    |Coltishall    5|Worstead    4|
    31|Barton Westcott       pa|Oxford     |Enstone       4|Woodstock   7|
    43|Barton in the Willows, t|N.R. York  |York         10|New Malton  8|
    45|Barugh                to|W.R. York  |Barnsley      3|Wakefield   9|
    43|Barugh, Gt. & Little  pa|N.R. York  |Pickering     3|New Malton  5|
    23|Barwell               pa|Leicester  |Hinckley      2|M. Bosworth 7|
    14|Barwick               pa|Essex      |Chipp. Ongar  6|Dunmow      8|
    34|Barwick               pa|Somerset   |Yeovil        2|Sherborne   6|
    41|Barwick Basset        pa|Wilts      |Calne         7|Swindon     8|
   +--+-----------------------+------------+---------------+-------------+
                                                           |Dist.|Popul
   Map|   Names of Places.     | Number of Miles From      |Lond.|-ation.
   +--+------------------------+---------------------------+-----+-------+
    24|Barton[A]           m.t.|Lincoln                  34|  167|   3231|
    22|Barton on Irwell      to|Warrington               14|  185|   8976|
    36|Barton, Little        pa|Bury                     12|   70|    591|
    44|Barton, St. Mary,   chap|Barnard Cas.             14|  238|    ...|
    35|Barton              chap|Abbotts Brom              8|  130|   1344|
    28|Barton Segrave        pa|Wellingboro               8|   75|    203|
    16|Barton Stacey         pa|Winchester                9|   62|    626|
    31|Barton Steeple[B]     pa|Charlbury                 9|   63|    606|
    15|Barton Street        ham||Ross                    17|  103|    786|
    43|Barton in Street      pa|Helmsley                 10|  222|    436|
    27|Barton Turf           pa|Norwich                  13|  121|    391|
    31|Barton Westcott       pa|Deddington                5|   64|    258|
    43|Barton in the Willows, t|Sutton                   10|  206|    202|
    45|Barugh                to|Huddersfield             14|  175|    946|
    43|Barugh, Gt. & Little  pa|Scarborough              18|  223|    294|
    23|Barwell               pa|Leicester                11|  101|   1505|
    14|Barwick               pa|Chelmsford               10|   27|     97|
    34|Barwick               pa|Crewkherne                8|  123|    415|
    41|Barwick Basset        pa|Marlborough               8|   83|    164|
   +--+-----------------------+------------+---------------+-----+-------+


[A] BARTON. This ancient town is pleasantly situated about
three-quarters of a mile from the southern bank of the Humber. It was
formerly surrounded by a rampart and fossee, the remains of which are
still discernable. It was doubtless a place of great strength before the
conquest, and served as a barrier against the irruptions of the Saxons
and Danes. At the period of the conquest it was a principal port of the
Humber, and until the rise of Kingston-upon-Hull it enjoyed an extensive
commerce. At present its derives its principal consequence from being
the point whence the communication with the Lincoln road is continued
across the Humber to Hull, a distance of about six miles and a half.

   _Market_, Monday.--_Fair_, Trinity Thursday, for cattle.--_Mail_
   arrives 3.0 afternoon; departs 11.15 morning--_Inn_, The Waterside
   Inn.

[Sidenote: Once a place of importance.]


[B] STEEPLE BARTON. In this parish is situated Rowsham, which was, for
several centuries, the seat of the Dormers, and it continued in their
possession until the decease of General Dormer, in the year 1750. That
gentleman bequeathed the mansion and estates to his cousin, Sir Clement
Cottrell, Knight, Master of the Ceremonies to George II., who annexed
the name of Dormer to his own, and in whose family the property has
since remained. The situation is extremely fine, and the grounds, which
were laid out by Kent, during the life-time of General Dormer, afford a
variety of picturesque and pleasant views. The mansion was built in the
reign of Queen Elizabeth, but a few alterations were made at subsequent
periods. The walls are embattled, and the doors are singularly enough
perforated with holes (with slides to cover) so as to admit muskets
being pointed through them. There is a large hall, and valuable library,
containing many old and rare authors. A very excellent collection of
paintings, (about 180 in number), and of busts and other figures in
bronze, (amounting to fifty-five), has also been formed here. Horace
Walpole, in one of his eloquent letters to George Montague, has thus
spoken of this place:--"But the greatest pleasure we had, was in seeing
Sir Charles Cotterell's, at Rowsham: it reinstated Kent with me; he has
no where shewn so much taste. The house is old, and was bad; he has
improved it--stuck as close as he could to gothic; has made a delightful
library, and the whole is comfortable. The garden is Daphne in little,
the sweetest little groves, streams, glades, porticoes, cascades, and
rivers imaginable: all the scenes are perfectly classic. Well, if I had
such a house, such a library, so pretty a place, and so pretty a wife, I
think I should let King George send to Herenhausen for a Master of the
Ceremonies." The pleasure-grounds are beautifully shaded by flourishing
and noble beech trees; they are also ornamented by several stone
statues, which all throw up water, except a very fine one of the dying
gladiator, and a group of the lion tearing the horse, by Sheemacher.

[Sidenote: Rowsham House.]

   Map|  Names of Places.    | County.  | Number of Miles From     |
   +--+----------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
    27|Barwick             pa|Norfolk   |Burnham     4|Wells     11|
    45|Barwick        pa & to|W.R. York |Wetherby    7|Tadcaster  7|
    33|Baschurch           pa|Salop     |Shrewsbury  8|Oswestry  10|
     7|Basford             to|Chester   |Nantwich    5|Sandbach   8|
    30|Basford[A]          pa|Nottingham|Nottingham  3|Mansfield 12|
    35|Basford[B]          to|Stafford  |Leek        3|Longnor    7|
    45|Bashall             to|W.R. York |Clitheroe   5|Lancaster 16|
     4|Basilden            pa|Berks     |Reading     8|Streatley  2|
    14|Basildon          chap|Essex     |Billericay  4|Gravesend 12|
    16|Basing, Old[C] to & ch|Hants     |Basingstoke 2|Odiham     5|
   +--+----------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From     |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+
    27|Barwick             pa|Fakenham              11|  117|     35|
    45|Barwick        pa & to|Abberford              2|  188|   1922|
    33|Baschurch           pa|Ellesmere              9|  161|   1321|
     7|Basford             to|Woore                  7|  160|     85|
    30|Basford[A]          pa|Arnold                 3|  127|   6325|
    35|Basford[B]          to|Cheadle                7|  151|    300|
    45|Bashall             to|Blackburn             10|  222|    310|
     4|Basilden            pa|Wallingford            8|   47|    780|
    14|Basildon          chap|Rochford              12|   27|    124|
    16|Basing, Old[C] to & ch|Alton                 12|   44|   1113|
   +--+----------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BASFORD lies in a bottom, approached from the race-ground. The
scenery around it is rich in the extreme. This village has greatly
increased of late, from various manufactures, and the improvements
consequent upon them. Here are corn and cotton-mills, and the bleaching
and dying branches of business are carried on with considerable success.
The church has a very handsome spire, with a nave and side aisles in
very good order, but there are no ancient inscriptions. The importance
of this place has also been kept up, by its being the seat of the Court
of the Honour of Peverel, since it was removed from Nottingham. It sits
twice in the year, to try causes as high as £50. A jail for the court is
situated here, which Howard describes as having, at the time of his
writing, merely one room, with three beds; but the keepers told him he
had another little room for women prisoners, of whom there being none in
his custody, he applied the apartment to domestic uses. A bowling-green,
close by the jail, is much frequented by the inhabitants of Nottingham.
At Mapperley, a hamlet in this parish, is a handsome seat of Ichabod
Wright, Esq., a banker of Nottingham.

[Sidenote: The trade.]


[B] BASFORD. Here was born, in 1630, the celebrated Charles Cotton, a
burlesque poet of the seventeenth century. He received his education at
Cambridge, and afterwards travelled through France. On his return to
England he resided with his father at Basford, in the neighbourhood of
the Peak. His first production was, a poetical essay on the gallant Earl
of Derby. In 1656, he married a daughter of Sir Thomas Hutchinson, a
Nottinghamshire Knight. Two years after this his father died; he then
succeeded him in the family estate, which was encumbered with mortgages:
being of an improvident disposition, he was subject to constant
embarrassments, and was even confined for some months in a prison for
debt. After the death of his first wife, he married the Countess Dowager
of Ardglass. He died at Westminster in 1687. Some of his poems, of
considerable merit, were published after his death.

[Sidenote: Charles Cotton.]


[C] BASING, or OLD BASING, though a small village, is of some
importance, as the scene of a desperate and bloody battle between the
Danes and the Saxons, in 871, commanded by King Ethelred and his brother
Alfred, when the latter were defeated. It was, however, rendered more
famous by the gallant stand made against the parliamentary forces in the
reign of Charles I., by John Poulet, Marquis of Winchester, a lineal
descendant of Hugh de Port, who, at the time of the Domesday Survey,
held 55 lordships in this county. This small village was the principal
of these extensive possessions, and appears to have been the very site
of a castle, as mention of the land of the old castle of Basing is made
in a grant allowed by John de Port, to the neighbouring priory at Monks
Sherborne, in the reign of Henry II. His grandson, William, assumed the
surname of St. John; and Robert, Lord St. John, in the 43d of Henry
III., obtained a license to fix a pole upon the bann of his moat, at
Basing, with permission to continue it so fortified during the pleasure
of the King. In the reign of Richard II., Basing was transferred by
marriage to the Poynings; and again, in the time of Henry VI., to the
Paulets, by the alliance of Constance with Sir John Paulet, of Nunny
Castle, in Somersetshire. Sir William Paulet, Knt., third in descent
from this couple, created Baron St. John, of Basing, by Henry VIII.; and
Earl of Wiltshire, and Marquis of Winchester, by Edward VI., was a very
accomplished and polite nobleman, greatly in favour at court during most
of the successive changes that occurred in the reigns of Henry VIII.,
Edward VI., Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth. He held the office of
treasurer nearly 30 years, sustaining himself by the courtly maxim, of
"being a willow, and not an oak." He rebuilt Basing Castle, in a
magnificent, and even in a princely style; indeed, so much so, that
Camden, in allusion to the immense expense of living entailed on his
family by its splendour, observes that, "it was so overpowered by its
own weight, that his posterity has been forced to pull down a part of
it." Here, in 1560, he entertained Queen Elizabeth with "all good
cheer," and so much to her satisfaction, that she playfully lamented his
great age; "for by my troth," said she, "if my Lord Treasurer were but a
young man, I could find it in my heart to have him for a husband before
any man in England." William, the great-grandson of this nobleman, and
fourth Marquis of Winchester, had also, in 1601, the honour of having
Queen Elizabeth for a guest for "thirteen days, to the great charge of
the sayde Lorde Marquesse." During her residence here, the Duke of
Biron, accompanied by about 20 of the French nobility, and a retinue of
about 400 persons, were accommodated at the Vine, the seat of Lord
Sandys, which had been purposely furnished with hangings and plate from
the Tower, and Hampton Court, and with seven score beds and furniture,
"which the willing and obedient people of the countrie of Southampton,
upon two days' warning, had brought in thither to lend the Queen." When
Elizabeth departed from Basing, she affirmed, that "she had done that in
Hampshire, that none of her ancestors ever did; neither that any Prince
in Christendom could do: that was, she had in her progresses, in her
subject's houses, entertained a royal ambassador, and had royally
entertained him." John, son of the preceding, and fifth Marquis of
Winchester, was the brave nobleman who rendered his name immortal by his
gallant defence of Basing House, in the cause of Charles I., during a
tedious succession of sieges and blockades, which, with short
intermissions, continued upwards of two years. The journal of the siege,
printed in Oxford, in 1645, is one of the most eventful pieces of
history during the civil war. The final investment appears to have been
undertaken by Cromwell, who took it by storm, in October 1645, and burnt
it to the ground, in despite of the Aimez Loyaulte, which the Marquis
had written with a diamond in every window, and which has ever since
been the motto of the family arms. The plunder obtained on this occasion
is said to have amounted to £200,000. in cash, jewels, and rich
furniture. The number of soldiers slain before the walls from the
commencement of the siege, is recorded to have been upwards of 2,000.
There is a traditionary report, that the garrison was partly surprized
through some of the troops being engaged at cards when the assault
commenced. From a survey made in 1798, it appears that the area of the
works, including the garden and entrenchments, occupied about fourteen
acres and a half. The form was extremely irregular, the ditches very
deep, and the ramparts high and strong; some of the remains are yet very
bold and striking. The site of the ruins is particularly commanding. The
canal from Basingstoke has been cut through a part of the works, and the
outward entrenchments have been rendered very obscure and imperfect from
recent improvements in the grounds. The brave Marquis, whose property
was reduced to ruin in the cause of his Sovereign, lived to the
restoration, but received no recompence for his immense losses. He died
in 1674, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles, who, when he saw
that other men of sense were at their wits' end, in the arbitary and
tyrannical reign of James II., thought it prudent to assume the
character of a madman, as the first Brutus did, in the reign of Tarquin.
He danced, hunted, or hawked, a part of the day, went to bed before
noon, and constantly sat at table all night. He went to dinner at six or
seven in the evening, and his meal lasted till six or seven in the
morning; during which time he ate, drank, smoked, talked, or listened to
music. The company that dined with him were at liberty to rise and amuse
themselves, or to take a nap, whenever they were so disposed; but the
dishes and bottles were all the while standing upon the table. Such a
man as this was thought a very unlikely person to concern himself with
politics, or with religion. By this conduct, he was neither embroiled in
public affairs, nor gave the least umbrage to the court; but he exerted
himself so much in the revolution, that he was, for his eminent
services, created Duke of Bolton: he afterwards raised a regiment of
foot for the reduction of Ireland. Charles, son of the former, and
second Duke of Bolton, assisted in the great work of the revolution; and
was one of the noblemen appointed at Exeter, in November, 1688, to
manage the revenues of the Prince of Orange, as Sovereign of England. In
1717, he was declared Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Charles, the eldest
son, and third Duke of Bolton, filled several high offices in the state.
This nobleman, on the death of his first wife, from whom he had long
been separated, wedded the celebrated Lavinia Beswick, or Fenton, more
known by the name of Polly Peachem, from her celebrity in the
performance of that character in the "Beggar's Opera." The parish church
of Basing is a large, ancient, and curious structure, standing at a
short distance from the site of Basing House, with a tower rising in the
centre. In a niche at the west-end is a figure of the Virgin Mary: the
roof is supported by round arches, springing from massive columns. This
edifice was repaired in 1510, by Sir John Paulet, who, with his father,
John Paulet, Esq., and their respective wives, lie buried beneath two
arched tombs, one on each side the chancel. Beneath the south aisle is
the family vault of the Paulets, in which six Dukes of Bolton, with many
of their noble relations, are deposited. A mural monument has also been
erected in this church to the memory of Francis Russel, Esq., F.R.S. and
F.S.A., a native of Basingstoke, who assisted Mr. Nichols in his History
of Leicestershire. He died in 1795.

[Sidenote: Great battles fought here.]

[Sidenote: Queen Elizabeth splendidly entertained here for 13 days.]

[Sidenote: Burnt by Cromwell.]

[Sidenote: The sixth Marquis of Winchester, a singular character.]

[Sidenote: Polly Peachem.]

   Map|  Names of Places.      |County.|  Number of Miles From |
   +--+------------------------+-------+------------+-----------+
    16|Basingstoke[A]  m.t. & p|Hants. |Andover   13|Reading  15|
   +--+------------------------+-------+------------+-----------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.      |Number of Miles From|Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------------+--------------------+-----+----+
    16|Basingstoke[A]  m.t. & p|Winchester        17|   46|3581|
   +--+------------------------+--------------------+-----+----+


[A] BASINGSTOKE. This large, ancient, and populous town is situated in a
pleasant and well-wooded part of the county, and commands a considerable
trade from its standing at the junction of five great roads. In the
"Domesday Book" it is mentioned as always having been a royal manor, and
as never having paid any tax, nor been distributed into hides: it is
also noticed in that survey as having a market, whose tolls were worth
"thirty shillings": we presume this to have been the weekly
collection--a large sum in those days. From this town a canal was made
to the river Wey, in Surrey; it was commenced in 1778. Its length is
thirty-seven miles and a quarter, and the expense of cutting it amounted
to £100,000. A large portion of this sum was laid out in forming a
tunnel, nearly three quarters of a mile in length, through a hill near
Odiham. Besides corn and flour, coals, timber, manure, and goods of
almost every description are conveyed to different parts of the country
by this channel. The first barge arrived at Basingstoke Wharf in
January, 1794. Among the numerous projected advantages which led to the
formation of the canal, was, the presumed cultivation of Bagshot Heath,
and other heaths within the line of its course. A beautiful ruin
overlooks the town on the north side, called Holy Ghost chapel. This was
founded by Sir William, afterwards Lord Sandys, who with Bishop Fox,
obtained a licence from Henry VIII. to found a brotherhood, to continue
in perpetual succession, for the maintenance of a priest to perform
divine service, and for the instruction of youth in literature. On an
eminence in the vicinity, is an ancient encampment of an elliptical
form, supposed to be British, three thousand three hundred feet in
circumference; it is called "Aubrey Camp," or familiarly "Bury Bank;"
the ditch on the outside is partly filled up by the labours of the
agriculturist; and in Rook's Down, in this neighbourhood, while cutting
a new road in 1831, a number of human skeletons were discovered,
supposed to be of those who fell in some battle fought near this place.
The free grammar school adjoins the venerable ruins of the chapel of the
Holy Ghost; it is an ancient edifice, and is supposed originally to have
been the parish church. This grammar school was first founded by Sir
William Sandys, in connexion with the "Guild of the Holy Ghost," and was
re-established upon the dissolution of that fraternity, by Queen Mary,
in the succeeding reign. There are twelve boys at present on the
foundation. Drs. Jos. Warton, the refined poet and critic, and his
brother Thomas Warton, Poet Laureate, were both educated here, under
their father, Thomas Warton, B.D., Professor of Poetry in the university
of Oxford, a writer of considerable ability. John De Basinge, a learned
Greek scholar, a friend and contemporary of that intelligent historian,
Matthew Paris, was a native of this town. He was a man eminent for piety
and learning, and a perfect master of the Greek and Latin languages--an
eloquent orator--an able mathematician, and a sound divine. Having laid
the foundation of his university learning at Oxford, he went to Paris,
and from thence to Athens; upon his return to England, he brought over
several curious Greek manuscripts, and introduced the use of Greek
numerical figures into this country; and to facilitate the knowledge of
that rich language, which at that remote period was very little known or
appreciated in the western world. He translated from the Greek, into the
Latin, the celebrated Grammar, entitled "The Denatus of the Greeks," and
the learning and piety of this truly good man, recommended him to the
esteem of all the lovers of literature of that time: particularly that
of Robert Grosteste, Bishop of Lincoln, by whom he was promoted from the
Archdeaconry of London, to that of Leicester; he died in 1252. Among
other subjects he wrote a Latin translation of the harmony of the four
Gospels; and it was this learned individual that informed Robert, Bishop
of Lincoln, that he had seen at Athens, a book called "The Testament of
the Twelve Patriarchs," upon which the Bishop sent for it and translated
it into Latin; this valuable MS. was first printed in 1555, and has
often been reprinted in English. At Basingstoke, was also born Sir James
Lancaster, an eminent navigator, who in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,
explored the Arctic Sea. Thomas Warton, the historian of English Poetry,
was descended from an ancient and honorable family in Beverly, County
York, and born at Basingstoke, in 1728; from his infancy he discovered a
vein for poetry, and at the age of nine years he wrote to his sister
that remarkable production of his genius: viz. a translation from the
Latin of Martial:--

   "When bold Leander sought his distant fair,
   (Nor could the sea a braver burthen bear)
   Thus to the swelling waves he spake his woe,
   Drown me on my return--but spare me as I go."

This curious document bears date from the school of Basingstoke, Nov.
1737. In March 1773, at the age of sixteen, he was admitted a Commoner
at Trinity College, Oxford, and soon after elected a Scholar. At this
college Mr. Warton continued, with trifling intervals, forty-seven
years. In 1745, he published "The Pleasures of Melancholy." In 1749, in
consequence of a foolish riot occasioned by some of the scholars, Mason,
the Poet, produced a poem called the "Isis," reflecting upon the loyalty
of the college, upon which Mr. Warton immediately wrote the "Triumph of
Isis," a poem of some merit, and a severe commentary upon the other
production. About this time, his talents being generally acknowledged,
he became Poet Laureate, and in 1750 he took a Master's Degree, and in
1751 succeeded to a Fellowship. In 1754 he published his observations on
the "Faerie Queene of Spencer." In 1757, upon the resignation of Mr
Hawkins, of Pembroke College, he was elected Professor of Poetry, which
he held according to the usual custom for ten years. He died, May 21,
1790. Basingstoke is one of the polling places for the northern division
of the county.

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fairs_, Easter Tuesday, for cheese and cattle;
   Whit-Wednesday for pedlary; September 23, for cattle and hiring
   servants, Devonport. _Mail_ arrives 12.55 morning; departs 1.48
   morning.--_Bankers_, Raggett and Co., draw on Masterman and
   Co.--_Inn_, Crown.

[Sidenote: Royal manor.]

[Sidenote: Aubrey Camp.]

[Sidenote: Eminent men born here.]

   Map| Names of Places.|County. |Number of Miles From   |
   +--+-----------------+--------+------------+----------+
    24|Basingthorpe   pa|Lincoln |Corby      3|Grantham 8|
    53|Basingwerk[A] vil|Flint   |Holeywell  1|Flint    5|
    10|Baslow       chap|Derby   |Middleton  3|Bakewell 5|
   +--+-----------------+--------+------------+----------+
                                              |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.|Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+---------------------+-----+----+
    24|Basingthorpe   pa|Folingham          10| 105|  122|
    53|Basingwerk[A] vil|Park Gate           7| 204|     |
    10|Baslow       chap|Chesterfield       10| 158|  863|
   +--+-----------------+---------------------+----+-----+


[A] BASINGWERK. This place is chiefly celebrated for the remains of its
ancient abbey; for the vestiges of a house belonging to the Knights
Templars; and for a castle, once the key to this part of the country.
The abbey, which had the names also of Maes-Glas and Greenfield
monastery, is beautifully situated in a meadow between two hills, on the
eastern side of the mouth of the Holywell river. It was founded,
according to Tanner, in 1131, by Ranulph, Earl of Chester; others say in
1150, by Henry II. The abbot was frequently summoned to attend in
parliament by Edward I. and at the dissolution of monasteries, the
annual revenue amounted to £150 7s. 3d. The remains convey an imperfect
idea of the original architecture. The doors and lower arches were
semi-circular and unornamented, the windows were long, narrow, and
pointed; but the south wall of the transept, one doorway, and one
pointed arch, are all that remain of the church, and the offices have
entirely disappeared. At a short distance from the ruins is an oak of
great age, called the Abbot's Oak, which measures fifteen feet two
inches in circumference. But the oaks and elms in this neighbourhood,
though of a large size, appear withered and blasted by the effect of the
channel breezes; the sycamores and maples are the only trees that
flourish; a useful hint to planters. The house for the lay order of the
Knights Templars, was instituted by Henry II., for the purpose of
defence against the inroads of the Welsh, and of this no more than some
portion of the offices remain. Vestiges of the castle are yet visible in
the fragments and foundation of a wall at some distance from the abbey,
on the very margin of Watts-dyke. On a slope among hanging woods, near
the township of Bagilt, stands Bagilt hall, a substantial mansion of
ancient erection, late the seat of Paul Panton, Esq. Mostyn hall, a seat
of Sir Thomas Mostyn, exhibits a variety of interesting features.
Approached by a venerable avenue and a magnificent gateway, it stands in
a small but beautiful park; it consisted originally of a square tower
and two halls, in the larger of which the festive orgies of the baronial
board were performed; but large additions were made in 1631, and many of
its pristine features are defaced. Numerous paintings decorate the
rooms, consisting for the most part of portraits, which illustrate all
the varieties of costume in the several ages of their production; among
the treasures of art are also many unique statues, busts, bronzes, and
other articles of ancient or foreign production. In this neighbourhood
are numerous collieries, the different appearance of which are phenomena
interesting to the geologist. On the summit of a height called Mostyn
mountain, is a monumental stone denominated Maen Achwynfan (the stone of
lamentation). Its form is that of an obelisk; in height twelve feet, and
two feet-four in thickness. It is probably a memorial of the dead slain
in battle; but there appear to be no certain grounds for determining the
period of its formation.

[Sidenote: Ancient Abbey.]

[Sidenote: Mostyn Hall.]

   Map|  Names of Places.   | County.  |   Number of Miles From   |
   +--+---------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
    26|Bassaleg[A]        pa|Monmouth  |Newport    3|Cardiff    11|
     9|Bassenthwaite      pa|Cumberland|Keswick    5|Cockermth  10|
    23|Basset House ex.p.lib|Leicester |Leicester 13|Atherstone  8|
     6|Bassingbourn       pa|Cambridge |Royston    5|Potton      9|
    24|Bassingham         pa|Lincoln   |Newark     9|Lincoln     9|
    29|Bassington         to|Northumb  |Alnwick    4|Eglingham   4|
    24|Baston             pa|Lincoln   |M. Deeping 4|Bourn       4|
    27|Bastwick           pa|Norfolk   |Acle       5|Norwich     9|
    35|Baswich            pa|Stafford  |Stafford   2|Rugeley     8|
    12|Batcombe           pa|Dorset    |Sherborne 10|Cerne       4|
    34|Batcombe           pa|Somerset  |Bruton     3|Shepton     6|
    34|Bath[B]          city|Somerset  |Salisbury 38|Cheltenham 41|
   +--+---------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    26|Bassaleg[A]        pa|Bristol              12|  151|   1664|
     9|Bassenthwaite      pa|Ireby                 8|  296|    549|
    23|Basset House ex.p.lib|Lutterworth          11|  100|     23|
     6|Bassingbourn       pa|Caxton                9|   42|   1446|
    24|Bassingham         pa|Navenby               7|  133|    704|
    29|Bassington         to|Whittingham           7|  312|    613|
    24|Baston             pa|Stamford              9|   93|    709|
    27|Bastwick           pa|Yarmouth              9|  117|    219|
    35|Baswich            pa|Penkridge             6|  139|    546|
    12|Batcombe           pa|Dorchester           12|  127|    178|
    34|Batcombe           pa|Frome                10|  112|    839|
    34|Bath[B]          city|Bristol              14|  106|  38063|
   +--+---------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BASSALEG, a beautiful picturesque little village. In this parish was
a Priory of black monks of the Benedictine order, founded by Robert de
Haye, and Gundreda, his wife, between the years 1101 and 1120. No
remains of this building exist but a ruin in a wood, about one mile
distant from the church, called Coed-y-monachty, which is supposed to
have been part of the structure. At about one mile distant, near the
road to Llanfihangel, is a circular encampment, called Careg-y-saesson,
but almost obscured by underwood. Its name has induced some to attribute
it to the Saxons, but saesson is a term of reproach, which the Welsh
bestow on all foreigners. The entrenchment is a single foss and rampart
of earth. About one mile distant is another of a singular shape, with
loose stones lying in the foss, probably the remains of walls. These
fortresses are apparently British, and a meadow near Machen Place,
called Maes Arthur, records the memory of that celebrated hero. From
Bassaleg to the vale of Machen, the country is undulating and fertile.
This vale is pleasingly sequestered, yet intermixed with wildness and
cultivation. The hills which skirt it are partly covered with herbage,
and partly overhung with thick forests. The Rumney continues the
boundary of the two counties of Monmouth and Glamorgan. This river, with
the church, and Machen hill, almost covered with lime-kilns, give
variety and cheerfulness to the scenery. Machen Place lies at the
commencement of the vale, under the hanging groves of Rupara. A circular
apartment called the hunting-room is decorated with a rich stuccoed
ceiling, representing Diana in the middle, surrounded with seats,
churches, and parties, in twelve compartments.

[Sidenote: Machen place.]


[B] BATH. This ancient and far-famed city is the chief ornament of the
west of England; that it is indebted to its medicinal springs for its
origin as well as importance, there can be little doubt, but the period
of its foundation is altogether unknown. The discovery of its springs,
or rather, of their virtues, was for a long time ascribed to King
Bladud, traditionally recorded "as the son of Lud Hudibras, King of
Britain, about 2,500 years ago. In his youth he became infected with the
leprosy, and, at the petition of the courtiers, who feared the
contagion, was banished by his father from the palace. The Queen, on his
departure, gave him a ring, as a token by which he should make himself
known to her if ever he recovered. The young prince, when he reached
Keynsham, met with a swineherd, by whom he was retained as an assistant.
In a short time, he perceived that he had tainted the pigs with his
leprosy. To conceal this misfortune, he sought permission to drive the
herd to the opposite side of the Avon, under pretext that the acorns
there were finer, and more abundant. Passing the river at a ford, since
denominated Swineford, he led his herd to the hills on the north-side of
Bath. While he was addressing his prayers to the rising sun, the pigs,
impelled by a sudden phrenzy, ran up the valley to the spot where the
hot-springs, boiling up, mixed their waters with the decayed weeds and
foliage, and formed a bog. In this warm oozy-bed they began to roll, and
wallow with delight; nor could their keeper allure them away, until
extreme hunger pressed them to follow him. On washing them, he perceived
that some had shed their white scurf; and he had not been many days
longer in these parts, here he perceived that one of his best sows,
which had been long wandering in the mire about the waters, was
perfectly cured. Bladud, judging that the remedy which had succeeded in
a particular instance, would prove generally efficacious, stripped
himself naked, alternately rolled in the mud, and washed in the waters;
and, after a few repetitions of this discipline, came out perfectly
sound. Elated by this good fortune, he drove home his pigs, returned to
court, and, shewing his ring, was recognized with rapture, and restored
to his former rank and dignity. His father afterwards determined on
sending him to Athens, to improve his natural genius. A splendid retinue
was ordered to attend him; but Bladud preferred to travel as a private
person, considering the parade of grandeur as an impediment to the
acquisition of knowledge. After devoting eleven years to the study of
literature, mathematics, and necromancy, he returned to Britain, was
appointed Regent during his father's old age, and succeeded to the
throne after his death. One of his first public works was the erection
of a city near the springs, which thenceforward became the capital of
the British monarchs. In his old age he devoted himself to the formation
of visionary projects; the most daring of which was the construction of
a pair of wings to fly with. In one of his attempts he fell and broke
his neck, much to the grief of his subjects, who had enjoyed the
blessings of his wise government more than twenty years." This account
of the origin of Bath was long popular; but the inquiries of the present
day have proved it unworthy of credit, and have adduced reasons to
conclude that the city was founded by the Romans, about the middle of
the first century. The form of the city approached to a parallelogram,
extending on one side so as to form an outline somewhat pentagonal, and
stretching in length, from east to west, about 1200 feet, and in the
broadest parts, from north to south, 1140 feet. The wall, which enclosed
this space, appears, from subsequent discoveries, to have been twenty
feet above ground in height, and in thickness sixteen feet at the base,
and eight at the summit, strengthened with five towers, rising at the
angles, and having four portæ, or entrances, facing the cardinal points,
which were connected by two grand streets, dividing the city into four
parts, and intersecting each other at the centre. Near the point of
intersection were the springs, which the Romans converted into
magnificent baths, by attaching to them suitable edifices, which, when
complete, extended to two hundred and forty feet from east to west, and
one hundred and twenty from north to south. The Roman appellation of the
city, expressive of the genial heat and vigour derived from the springs,
was Aquæ Solis, the waters of the sun. Roads were soon constructed to
communicate with the neighbouring posts and encampments, and "a little
Rome began to adorn a dreary and inhospitable wild." Agricola passed a
winter here, after his successful campaign in Wales; and Arian erected
here a "fabrica," or college of armourers. About the year 208, Geta, the
younger son of Septimius Severus, resided in Bath, while his father was
in Caledonia, quelling an insurrection. Some complimentary statues were
raised on this and other occasions. The most eminent of the Roman
structures was the temple of Minerva, on the eastern side of the great
fosse-way, and nearly mid-way between the Porta Decumana, and the Porta
Flumentana. Its western front consisted of a portico, supported by large
fluted columns, of the Corinthian order. Behind this temple, towards the
east, stood the splendid baths, the foundations of which were discovered
in 1755, at the depth of twenty feet beneath the surface. Of the remains
of Roman grandeur discovered from time to time, various specimens are
preserved, and deposited, by order of the corporation, in a small
building erected for the purpose, at the end of Bath-street. In the year
493, a large army of Saxons, under the command of Ælla, and his three
sons, Cymenus, Pleting, and Cissa, encamped on Lansdown, and laid siege
to Bath. At this period the heroic Arthur was performing wonders in
favour of his countrymen. Apprized of the operations of the Saxon
general, he hastened after him, attacked, and defeated him in a bloody
and obstinate battle. About twenty-seven years afterwards, he again
delivered Bath from the assaults of these ferocious invaders, by
defeating a powerful army, on which occasion he is said to have slain
four hundred and forty men with his own hand. John de Villula, a native
of Tours, purchased the demesne of Rufus, in 1090, for five hundred
marks, and obtained permission to remove the Pontifical seat from Wells
thither; he rebuilt the monastery and church, restored the public and
private edifices, and thus became the founder of a new city, on the
ruins of the old one. Henry I. confirmed and extended the privileges
which his predecessor had granted, by adding the hidage of the city;
and, in 1106, Villula, then Bishop of Bath, conferred the whole on the
monastery of St. Peter. Henry paid a visit to Bath in the Easter of
1107. The city remained in the possession of the bishops until 1193,
when Savaric gave it to Richard I., in exchange for the rich Abbey of
Glastonbury. The prior, however, continued to hold the city under an
annual rent of thirty pounds, exclusive of the levies which were made by
the king on extraordinary emergencies. One of these occurred in the
forty-seventh year of Edward III., to the amount of £13. 6s. 8d., a sum
which conveys the idea of the inferiority of Bath, in point of
population, to Bristol, which paid seven times as much. Four years after
that period, the number of lay inhabitants in the city, above the age of
fourteen, amounted to 570, and that of the clerics, in the archdeaconry,
to 201. In this and succeeding reigns the property of the monastery was
greatly augmented; and the monks of Bath are said to have cultivated the
manufacture of cloth to such an extent as to render it one of the
principal cities in the west of England for that branch of trade. This
city sent Members to Parliament as early as 1297. Queen Elizabeth, in
1590, granted a charter, which declared Bath to be a city of itself, and
constituted a certain number of the citizens as a corporation, by "the
name of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the City of Bath." In the
reign of James II. the corporation shut the gates against the Duke of
Monmouth, when he summoned them, and apprehended the few adherents to
his cause that remained within their walls. Six of these unfortunate
persons afterwards fell victims to the vindictive cruelty of Jefferies.
The Jacobite principles prevailed at Bath long after the revolution; and
Carte, the historian, is said to have headed a party in favour of the
pretender, during the rebellion of 1715. Being discovered, he leaped out
of a window in his canonicals, and fled. The city is nearly surrounded
by an amphitheatre of hills of considerable height. This range of hills
opens to allow a course for the Avon, which winds around it, receiving
numerous articles of merchandize, from hence conveyed in barges to
Bristol. Bath is divided into four parishes: St. Peter and St. Paul, St.
James, St. Michael, and Walcot, exclusive of the out parishes of
Bath-Hampton, Bath-Wick, Bath-Ford, and Bath-Easton. The parish of St.
Peter and St. Paul occupies the centre of the city, and formerly
contained two churches, the abbey church, and the church of St. Mary of
Stall, which stood on the spot of ground now occupied by the houses
connected with the Pump-room Piazza. The Abbey church of Bath is of that
class of architecture commonly denominated the Florid Gothic. It remains
in the same form as when finished in 1532. It was founded by Oliver
King, Bishop of Bath and Wells. It is in length, from east to west, 210
feet; length of the cross aisles, from north to south, 126 feet; breadth
of the body and aisles, 72 feet; height of the tower, 152 feet; and the
height of the roof, or vaulting, 78 feet. The west window is of extreme
richness. The buttresses, on each side of the aisle windows, are
ornamented with rolls, containing inscriptions, not now legible, but are
said to contain the following allegorical allusion to the founder's
name, taken out of the book of Judges, chap. ix. verse 8:--

   "Trees, going to choose their king,
   Said--be to us the Olive king."

[Sidenote: King Bladud.]

[Sidenote: The discovery of the Baths.]

[Sidenote: Bladud and his pigs.]

[Sidenote: The Roman city.]

[Sidenote: Their temples and baths.]

[Sidenote: The monastery.]

[Sidenote: Monks were clothiers.]

[Sidenote: Cathedral and other churches.]

The windows of this church, fifty-two in number, are supposed to have
given rise to its appellation of the Lantern of England. Here are
various monuments, ancient and modern, and a handsome altar-piece,
representing The Wise Men's Offering, given by General Wade. Here is
also a fine specimen of monumental architecture in the little chapel, or
oratory of Prior Bird, who died in 1525. This chapel has suffered much
from having its tracery despoiled, and a part of it cut away to make
room for a wooden seat, called the Bishop's Throne. One of the most
beautiful and conspicuous monuments which ornament the transepts and
nave is, that of Bishop Montague, at the north centre end of the nave.
It is an altar-tomb, over which the effigy of the prelate in his robes,
lies prostrate on its back. Opposite to this is a pillar, bearing a neat
monument, having on a pyramid of Sienna marble, a medallion, with a
half-length figure of the witty and celebrated Quin. On a tablet below
is the following inscription:

   "That tongue which set the table in a roar,
   And charm'd the public ear, is heard no more:
   Closed are those eyes, the harbingers of wit,
   Which spake, before the tongue, what Shakspeare writ;
   Cold is that hand, which living was stretch'd forth,
   At friendship's call to succour modest worth.
   Here lies James Quin:--Deign, reader, to be taught,
   Whate'er thy strength of body, force of thought,
   In nature's happiest mould however cast,
   'To this complexion thou must come at last.'  D. GARRICK.
              Ob. MDCCLXVI. Etatis LXXIII."

[Sidenote: Quin's monumental inscription.]

Near the last mentioned monument lies buried the celebrated Beau Nash,
long master of the ceremonies at Bath. Richard Nash was a native of
Swansea in Glamorganshire, and was born October 18, 1674. His parents
were in a respectable situation of life; and young Nash received a
competent classical education at Carmarthen school, from whence he was
sent to Jesus College, Oxford, at the early age of sixteen. He was
intended for the profession of the law; but this study was too dull and
dry for a person of his volatile turn. Pleasure was the goddess he
adored; and to whose service he devoted himself. He soon involved
himself in an intrigue with an artful female in Oxford, of which
description there are always numbers who are laying baits for young men
of family or personal appearance, and in consequence of this he was
removed from the University. His relations now purchased a pair of
colours for him in the army; and here his taste for gallantry and
dissipation would have been fully gratified, had not his inferior rank,
and the duties attached to it, subjected him to subordination and
restraint, which appeared intolerable to a man born for empire, and
whose ruling passion was too strong to submit to control. He, therefore,
left the army in disgust, and returned to the law, which he had
discarded, by entering himself a student of the Middle Temple. Soon
afterwards Nash was presented with an opportunity of exercising his
natural talents. It had been an ancient custom with the society to which
he now belonged, to entertain every new sovereign with a revel and a
pageant. On the accession of William, Prince of Orange, Nash was
selected as the most proper person to conduct this mighty business; and
he succeeded so well, that, it is said, William offered to knight him,
an honour which he declined. His abilities, however, had attracted
public notice, and this paved the way to his future success. Bath then
beginning to rise into some little repute as a place of fashionable
resort, Nash was induced to visit it in pursuit of pleasure, and soon
made himself conspicuous by his taste, wit, and gaiety. At this period,
it was the fashion for both sexes to bathe together quite naked, and for
ladies to adorn their heads before they entered the bath with all the
lures of dress. By these means their charms were set off to such
advantage, that the husband of a lady in the Cross Bath, who with Nash
and other spectators were admiring the female dabblers, told his wife
"she looked like an angel, and he wished to be with her." Nash seized
the favourable occasion to establish his reputation as a man of
gallantry and spirit, and therefore suddenly taking the gentleman by the
collar and the waistband of his breeches, soused him over the parapet
into the bath. The consequence was a duel, in which Nash was wounded in
the sword-arm; and, as it does not appear he was fond of fighting, it is
probable that this incident prompted him when he rose to power, to issue
his edict against wearing swords at Bath, "except by such as were not
entitled to wear them at any other place." About this time a vacancy
happening in the office of master of the ceremonies, a place hitherto of
little profit or honour, the well known talent of Nash for the direction
and invention of amusements, operated so much in his favour, that he was
chosen "arbiter elegantiarum," and invested with the fullest power to
order, arrange, and improve, the manner of the company, routine of
amusements, and points of etiquette. Under the equal administration of
Nash, no rank could protect the offender, nor any dignity of situation
influence him to connive at a breach of his laws. He deliberately
desired the Duchess of Queensbury, who appeared at a dress ball in an
apron, to take it off; and when the Princess Amelia requested to have
one dance more after eleven o'clock, he replied, that the laws of Bath,
like those of Lycurgus, were unalterable. This firmness of character was
attended with the most beneficial consequences; and Nash, not ignorant
what majesty is when stripped of its externals, took care by his dress
and equipage to support the rank he assumed. He wore a large white hat,
and drove a carriage with six greys, escorted by several persons on
horseback, and foot, with French horns and other kinds of musical
instruments. The Prince of Wales, the Prince of Orange, the nobility and
gentry, all treated him with respect; and the corporation, who might be
considered as his privy council, never took any steps without his fiat.
His prosperity was of long duration; and, if a man who supported himself
by gambling and intrigues, can be said to deserve prosperity, it was
justly due to this celebrated character: but at length age and
infirmities approached! and though Horace says, we should preserve
consistency to the last, it appeared ridiculous to see grey hairs and
decrepitude aping the gaiety and hilarity of youth. His admirers in
consequence fell off; and he lived to be sensible of the folly of a life
solely devoted to pleasure, and the vanity of pomp, whether real or
affected.--Beau Nash died February 3, 1761, and was buried at the
expence of the corporation, in the abbey church, with much pomp and
solemnity. The crowd that attended his funeral was so great, that not
only the streets were filled, but the very tops of the houses were
covered with spectators.--Amongst the places of worship for the
Dissenters, are the Unitarian chapel, in Trim Street; the Baptist
chapel, in Garrard Street; the Quaker's meeting-house on St. James's
Parade; the chapel of the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravians, in Monmouth
Street; a chapel belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists, in New King
Street; an Independant Calvinist chapel, in Argyle Street; a sort of
semi-episcopal chapel, in the connection of the late Countess of
Huntingdon, in Harlequin Row; and a Roman Catholic chapel in Orchard
Street. The original pump-room, began in 1704, was opened under the
auspices of Mr. Nash. Its object was to enable the drinkers to take
exercise without exposing themselves to the weather. The room was
enlarged in 1751; a portico, stretching from it in a northerly
direction, was added in 1786; and a superb western frontispiece in 1791.
Five years afterwards, Mr. Baldwin the architect, erected a new
pump-room on the site of the old one, on a more extensive and
magnificent scale. During the full season, a company of musicians
perform in the gallery every morning. Those who drink the waters, are
expected to pay about a guinea per month, besides a gratuity to the
pumper. The public baths are the King's Bath, and Queen's Bath, which
are connected with each other; the Hot Bath, and the Cross Bath. The
private baths are those belonging to the corporation, in Stall Street,
adjoining the King's Bath, built in 1788, with dry pumps, sudatories,
and every other accommodation; and the neat and convenient baths, called
the Duke of Kingston's, or the Abbey Baths, belonging to Earl Manvers.
The latter are supplied from the same source as the great pump-room. The
Bath springs are said to have three distinct sources, the King's Bath,
the Hot Bath, and the Cross Bath, which arise within a small distance of
each other. They contain a small quantity of carbonic acid gas, and also
of azotic gas; some sulphate of soda, and muriate of soda; selenite,
carbonate of lime; siliceous earth; and a portion of oxyd of iron. These
waters, taken internally, operate as a stimulant; they increase the
action of the blood-vessels, and promote the various secretions,
particularly those of urine and perspiration. The diseases in which
their external and internal uses render most service, are affections of
the liver and stomach, jaundice, hypochondriasis, and chlorosis. They
are especially efficacious in that state of gout termed atonic. The
external application of the water is highly beneficial in palsy, chronic
rheumatism, cutaneous diseases, scrofula, lameness, contractions, &c.
The water, in all cases, should if practicable, be drunk hot from the
pump. Its effect on the stomach and nerves are sometimes remarkably
speedy; persons who have lost their appetites and spirits by high
living, have, by using them a few days, recovered their powers of
digestion and cheerfulness of mind. The quantity taken is seldom more
than a pint and a half in the course of the day, and is divided into
three portions, two before breakfast, allowing half an hour between
them, and a third at noon. The condition of the patient is, however, to
be strictly attended to: and the quantity must be regulated at the
discretion of the physician. The General Hospital of this city was
established for the reception of all the sick poor in the united
kingdom, whose complaints require relief from the springs of the place;
excepting the resident poor, who have the advantage of taking the waters
at their own houses, at a moderate charge. Edward the Sixth granted
upwards of eighty tenements, gardens, &c. within the city and its
suburbs, for the purpose of founding a grammar-school at Bath, and
maintaining ten poor folk within the said town for ever. The Bath
Theatre is scarcely inferior to those of the metropolis. The present
building was erected about the year 1805, in the centre of the city; and
from its height, it forms a prominent object in the distance from all
its environs. There are three entrances; the grand front being in
Beaufort Square. The audience part is somewhat smaller than was that of
the late Covent Garden Theatre, but the space behind the curtain is much
larger. The length, within the main walls, is one hundred and twenty
feet; the breadth sixty feet; and the height seventy. The exterior
buildings are very extensive; there are three lofty tiers of boxes,
affording a depth of rows towards the centre. Cast iron bronzed pillars
are placed at a distance of two feet from the front, by which the first
row of each circle appears as a balcony, independent of the main
structure, and thus an inconceivable lightness is obtained. The private
boxes are inclosed with gilt lattices: the entrance to them is by a
private house, part of the property connected with the theatre, and they
are accommodated with a suite of retiring rooms. The decorations are
very splendid, particularly the ceiling. The Harmonic Society was
instituted under the patronage of Dr. Harrington; and there is another
musical society, called the York House Catch Club. The Sydney Garden
Vauxhall, at the extremity of Great Pulteney Street, abounds with
groves, vistas, lawns, serpentine walks, alcoves, bowling-greens,
grottoes and labyrinths. It is known to have contained four thousand
persons. The riding school affords the public, amusement in wet weather.
Lansdown races are in June and July. Besides the Public Library, the
circulating libraries are numerous and well supplied, and the harmonic
concerts and local institutions of a literary character, are easily
accessible. It is intended to convert the common fields in the
neighbourhood of Marlborough Buildings into a public park, laid out with
numerous rides and walks, ornamental fountains, and plantations. Hackney
coaches, and chariots, on the same principle as those used in London,
are established here.

   _Markets_, Wednesday and Saturday.--_Fairs_, February 14; (Holloway)
   July 10; and Aug. 10, (Lansdown) for cattle, horses and all kinds of
   merchandise. The Falmouth Mail arrives 7.54 morning, and departs 6.30
   afternoon. The Carmarthen Mail arrives 7.48 morning, and departs 6.56
   afternoon.--_Bankers_, (Bladud Bank) Tufnell and Co.; draw on Jones,
   Lloyd and Co.; Tugwell and Co., draw on Barnard and Co.; (Old Bank)
   Hobhouse and Co., draw on Jones, Lloyd and Co.; (City Bank) Smith and
   Moger, draw on Barclay and Co.--_Inns_, York Hotel, White Hart, White
   Lion, Greyhound, Castle, and Elephant and Castle.

[Sidenote: Account of the celebrated Beau Nash.]

[Sidenote: Refused to be knighted.]

[Sidenote: Conduct of Nash towards the Princess Amelia.]

[Sidenote: His death.]

[Sidenote: Dissenting Chapels.]

[Sidenote: Use of the waters in certain disorders.]

[Sidenote: The Theatre.]

[Sidenote: Sydney Gardens.]

   Map| Names of Places.| County.  |Number of Miles From       |
   +--+-----------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
    34|Bathampton     pa|Somerset  |Bath        2|Chippenham 11|
    34|Bathealton     pa|Somerset  |Wiveliscomb 3|Milverton   3|
    34|Batheaston[A]  pa|Somerset  |Bath        3|Chippenham 10|
    34|Bathford       pa|Somerset  | ...        4|  ...       9|
    30|Bathley        to|Nottingham|Newark      4|Muskham     1|
    34|Bathwick       pa|Somerset  |Bath        1|Chippenham 12|
    45|Batley    pa & to|W.R. York |Wakefield   7|Leeds       8|
    15|Batsford       pa|Gloucester|Moreton     2|Campden     4|
    35|Batterley     ham|Stafford  |Sandbach    8|Barthomley  1|
    43|Battersly     ham|N.R. York |Stokesley   5|Gisborough  7|
    37|Battersea[B]   pa|Surrey    |Clapham     2|Putney      3|
    36|Battisford     pa|Suffolk   |Needham     2|Ipswich     4|
   +--+-----------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.|Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
    34|Bathampton     pa|Devizes               15|  104|    314|
    34|Bathealton     pa|Wellington             5|  153|     98|
    34|Batheaston[A]  pa|Devizes               14|  103|   1783|
    34|Bathford       pa|  ...                 13|  102|    870|
    30|Bathley        to|Southwell              7|  128|    197|
    34|Bathwick       pa|Devizes               16|  105|   4035|
    45|Batley    pa & to|Bradford               8|  189|  11335|
    15|Batsford       pa|Stow                   7|   88|    107|
    35|Batterley     ham|Newcastle              8|  158|    242|
    43|Battersly     ham|Helmsley              14|  242|     77|
    37|Battersea[B]   pa|Hammersmith            3|    4|   5540|
    36|Battisford     pa|Bildeston              8|   71|    436|
   +--+-----------------+------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BATHEASTON. This village is situated on the London road from Bath.
The upper part contains the church, and amongst some handsome houses, is
one which was formerly the residence of John Wood, Esq., the ingenious
architect, to whom Bath owes many of its noblest buildings. The church
is antique. At the west-end it has a fine square tower, one hundred feet
high. The inside is remarkable for its neat and decent appearance. A
custom long observed at the villa of Sir John Millar, Bart., displays
his elegance and refinement in the choice of his amusements, as well as
of his visitors. He had purchased an antique vase, discovered at
Frescati, in Italy, in 1759; and having placed it in a room convenient
for the purpose, he consecrated it to Apollo, and ordained Lady Miller,
high priestess. He then issued a general invitation to all votaries of
the muses, to assemble on a certain day in each week, and offer their
poetical oblations at the shrine; the degree of merit each possessed was
decided by the public voice, and the author of the best was crowned with
myrtle. A collation succeeded. This attic pastime continued for some
years, till some witling contaminated the purity of the urn by a
licentious composition, and the vessel was closed for ever. Two small
volumes of these effusions have been published.

[Sidenote: The vase of Apollo.]


[B] BATTERSEA is seated on the Thames, and gives the title of Baron to
the family of St. John. The church contains many monuments, chiefly of
the above noble family; particularly one in grey marble, to the memory
of the celebrated statesman, Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, and
of his second wife, whose profiles are sculptured in bass-relief. A
monument near the south wall, represents Sir Edward Wynter in the act of
performing two extraordinary exploits, thus described in his epitaph:--

   Alone, unarmed, a tyger he oppressed,
   And crush'd to death the monster of a beast.
   Twice twenty mounted Moors he overthrew,
   Singly on foot, some wounded, some he slew,
   Dispersed the rest--what more could Sampson do?

A neat tablet, at the east end of the church, commemorates Thomas Astle,
who was long a distinguished member of the Society of Antiquaries,
Keeper of the Records in the Tower, a Trustee of the British Museum, and
author of Treatise "on the Origin and Progress of Writing." He died in
1802, and left a valuable collection of manuscripts. Here are also
interred, Arthur Collins, Esq., known as the author of an "Historical
Account of the Peers and Baronets of England;" William Curtis, author of
the "Flora Londinensis," and the Rev. Joseph Gardner, author of "Views
on the Rhine," and otherwise distinguished by his attachment to the
arts. Bolingbroke House was a spacious edifice, said to have contained
fifty rooms on a floor, of which a few only remain; among which is the
favourite apartment of Lord Bolingbroke, wainscotted with cedar. A
horizontal air-mill now occupies the site of this mansion, and in the
gardens have been erected bullock-houses. Sherwood Lodge, near the
Thames, is the residence of James Wolf, Esq. whose valuable collection
of plaster-casts, from antique statues, are deposited in a gallery of
Doric architecture, remarkable for the purity of its style. A wooden
bridge was built over the Thames at this place, in 1771.

[Sidenote: Sir E. Wynter's exploits.]

[Sidenote: Bolingbroke house.]

   Map|  Names of Places. |County.|  Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-------------------+-------+-------------+-------------+
    38|Battle[A] m.t. & pa|Sussex |Tunbridge  26|Hastings    8|
    48|Battle[B]        pa|Brecon |Brecon      3|Trecastle   9|
   +--+-------------------+-------+-------------+-------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places. |Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------+---------------------+-----+-------+
    38|Battle[A] m.t. & pa|Bexhill            6|    56|   2999|
    48|Battle[B]        pa|Builth            15|   174|    192|
   +--+-------------------+--------------------+------+-------+


[A] BATTLE, anciently called Epiton, derived its present denomination
from the conflict between William the Norman, and Harold Harefoot, which
decided the fate of these realms, and gave to the former the surname of
Conqueror. This engagement happened on the 14th of October, 1066, and
continued from morning until sunset, when the Normans had sustained a
loss of 15000 men, and the English four times that number, among whom
was their king. The Conqueror, grateful for his victory, and in
performance of a vow, commenced the foundation of an abbey on that part
of the field where the battle had raged most fiercely, causing the high
altar to be raised on the spot where the body of his valiant antagonist;
or, as others say, his standard had been found. This abbey was dedicated
to St. Martin, and the privileges enjoyed by the superiors within its
precincts were almost regal; an exclusive right of inquest in cases of
murder--the property of all treasure discovered there--free warren and
exemption, even for their tenants, from all ecclesiastical
jurisdiction--right of sanctuary for their church in cases of
homicide--and the power of pardoning any condemned thief whom they
should meet going to execution. From the foundation of this abbey, till
its dissolution, it was governed by thirty-one abbots. Sometime after
the latter period, it was the property of the Montagues, who sold it to
Sir Thomas Webster, and that gentleman made it his residence. Sir
Godfrey Webster, Bart., is the present owner. In its present state,
Battle Abbey bears ample testimony to its ancient magnificence, the
ruins being extensive, and exhibiting a mixture of the light Norman with
the solid Saxon architecture. These remains occupy two sides of a
quadrangle, of which one is an ancient gateway. Nine elegant arches, now
filled up, are all that remain of the church. Two detached buildings,
supposed to have been refectories, are now converted into offices. The
town of Battle consists of one street, and has a handsome church, the
windows of which are embellished with stained glass. The chancel
contains a fine altar-monument to the memory of Sir Anthony Browne,
armour-bearer to Henry VIII. This place is celebrated for a manufacture
of gunpowder, inferior only to that at Dartford.

   _Market_, Thursday.--_Fairs_, Whit-Monday; Nov. 22, cattle and
   pedlary; second Tuesday in every month, cattle.--_Bankers_, Smith,
   Gill, and Co., draw on Spooner and Co.--_Mail_ arrives 4.20 morning;
   departs 9.40 afternoon.--_Inn_, George.

[Sidenote: The Abbey.]


[B] BATTLE. The church is placed upon an eminence on the east side of
the Escir river. It is a low edifice surrounded by a cemetry, bounded by
a wall. A few straggling houses give this place the name of a village.
History has fixed this spot as the scene of action where the fate of
Brecknockshire was decided, upon its attack by Bernard Newmarch. The
vestiges which indicate such an event, are, a well called Ffynon Pen
Rhys; a lane called Heol y Cymri, and a long upright stone below the
church on the south side; no other vestiges remain to recall the event.
Half a mile eastward from Battle, appears the stately residence of the
vicar of Llandevalle. Upon the wall of an inner court is an inscription
in Latin. From the windows of this house are three most beautiful views;
on the east side through a small vista, are seen the village of
Llanddew, and in the back ground the black mountain beyond Talgarth.
From the library, in which is a capital picture of our Saviour bearing
the Cross, by Correggio, looking west, is the vale of Usk, with the
highly ornamented grounds above Penpont; beyond which, Abercamlais, and
the mountains in Llywel and Devynock close the scene. Nearly opposite is
the gradually rising knoll of Benni, covered to the top on all sides
with wood, beyond which appear the precipitous and majestic summits of
the Beacons. Merthyr Cynog, or Saint Cynog, lies about four miles north.
Cynog or Canoc, was the illegitimate son of Brychan Brecheinog. He was
slain or murdered in one of the early eruptions of the Saxons into
Wales, in the 5th century, on the summit of a hill in this parish,
nearly opposite Castlemadoc, called Vanoleu, and according to Owen, was
buried in Merthyr church. The edifice which remains, does not appear to
be of an earlier date than the Norman era; it is situated upon a lofty
ridge between the vales of Escir fawr and Escir fechan, in nearly the
centre of the parish. It resembles a large barn, in which are some
divisions, like pens for sheep, thrown in disorder to rot, when unfit
for use.

[Sidenote: Scene of a Welsh battle.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  | County.  |Number of Miles From        |
   +--+--------------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
    25|Battle Bridge    ham|Middlesex |Holborn Bars 1|Paddington  2|
     3|Battleden[A]      pa|Bedford   |Woburn       3|Hockliffe   2|
    33|Battlefield[B]    pa|Salop     |Shrewsbury   4|Wem         9|
    16|Baughurst         pa|Hants     |Basingstoke  7|Kingsclere  3|
     4|Baulking         ham|Berks     |Farringdon   4|Wantage     6|
    34|Baumber           pa|Lincoln   |Horncastle   6|Wragby      8|
    15|Baunton           pa|Glocester |Cirencester  2|Northleach  9|
    56|Bauseley          to|Montgomery|Welch Pool  10|Shrewsbury 12|
    41|Baverstock        pa|Wilts     |Wilton       4|Salisbury   7|
    29|Bavington, Great  to|Northumb  |Hexham      12|Bellingham 12|
    29|Bavington, Little to|Northumb  |  ...       11|   ...     12|
   +--+--------------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+-------------------------+-----+-------+
    25|Battle Bridge    ham|Hoxton                  2|    1|       |
     3|Battleden[A]      pa|Leighton                4|   39|    145|
    33|Battlefield[B]    pa|Shawbury                4|  155|     70|
    16|Baughurst         pa|Newbury                11|   54|    434|
     4|Baulking         ham|Lambourne               7|   66|    185|
    34|Baumber           pa|Louth                  12|  141|    356|
    15|Baunton           pa|Gloucester             17|   91|    144|
    56|Bauseley          to|Oswestry               11|  165|    365|
    41|Baverstock        pa|Shaftesbury            13|  292|    166|
    29|Bavington, Great  to|Newcastle              20|   88|     70|
    29|Bavington, Little to|   ...                  2|  291|     72|
   +--+--------------------+-------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BATTLEDEN lies between the two great north-western roads. The family
of Firmband, or Fremband, twice represented the county in parliament, as
early as the reign of Edward III. In the reign of Elizabeth it became
the property of the Duncombes; and it is to one of this family that we
are indebted for the accommodation of the now antiquated sedans, or
close chairs; and in the year 1634, Duncombe is said to have procured a
patent, which vested in him and his heirs the right of carrying persons
"up and down in them," for a certain term. "It is probable, (observes
Lysons,) that Sir Saunders, who was a great traveller, had seen them at
Sedan, where Dr. Johnson, supposes that they were first made; and it is
remarkable that Captain Bayley first introduced the use of Hackney
Coaches in the same year." In the year 1706, this manor was purchased by
Allen Bathurst, Esq., a distinguished political character during the
reigns of Queen Anne and George I. It was for many years the country
seat of Lord Bathurst, and the resort of a celebrated constellation of
wits, of whom he was the patron and friend.

[Sidenote: The invention of Sedan chairs.]


[B] BATTLEFIELD is a parish in the liberties of Shrewsbury, and derives
its name from a sanguinary battle which was fought there on Saturday the
21st of July, 1403, between Henry the Fourth and the Rebels, under
Percy, Earl of Nothumberland, and in which Lord Henry Percy, well known
as the valiant Hotspur, was slain, together with nearly 2300 gentlemen
and others, and upwards of 600 common soldiers fell on that memorable
occasion. After this signal victory, Henry the fourth caused a
collegiate church to be erected on the spot for secular canons, which
was dedicated to Saint Mary Magdalene, the battle having been fought on
the anniversary of that day. This college was dissolved in the general
wreck of establishments of this kind, when its revenues amounted to £54
10s. 4d. per annum; it is now the parish church. At the east end, over
the altar window, is a figure of Henry the Fourth, much defaced by the
corroding hand of time. In a niche in the south wall, is a rude carving
in wood of the Virgin and child; and in the east window are still to be
traced some mutilated remains of stained glass; but the most interesting
object in this church, is a splendid gothic monument, recently erected
to the memory of the late John Corbet, Esq. of Sundorne. This beautiful
specimen of architecture is called the Tudor gothic; the interior
represents the miniature aisle of a cathedral or cloister, with its
elaborately groined roof, and the front is adorned by the heraldic
blazonings of the family. This fine and highly prized piece of art was
designed by the Rev. Archdeacon Owen, of Shrewsbury, and most admirably
executed by Messrs. Carline of that town, in a warmly tinted fine
grained stone, from the Grinshill quarries in the neighbourhood.

[Sidenote: Battle between Henry the Fourth and Percy of Northumberland.]

[Sidenote: Splendid monument.]

   Map|Names of Places.| County. |    Number of Miles From    |
   +--+----------------+---------+-------------+--------------+
    27|Bawburgh      pa|Norfolk  |Norwich     5|Wymondham    5|
    27|Bawdeswell    pa|Norfolk  |Reepham     4|Swanton      3|
    34|Bawdrip       pa|Somerset |Bridgewater 4|Glastonbury 11|
    36|Bawdsey       pa|Suffolk  |Woodbridge  8|Orford      10|
    27|Bawsey        pa|Norfolk  |Lynn        3|Cas. Rising  4|
    46|Bawtry[A]   m.t.|W.R. York|Doncaster   9|E. Retford   8|
    39|Baxterly      pa|Warwick  |Atherstone  5|Tamworth     7|
    41|Baydon        pa|Wilts    |Ramsbury    4|Lambourne    4|
    27|Bayfield      pa|Norfolk  |Holt        2|Cley         2|
    18|Bayford       pa|Herts    |Hertford    4|Hatfield     6|
    34|Bayford       pa|Somerset |Wincaunton  1|Bourton      3|
    36|Bayleham      pa|Suffolk  |Needham     3|Ipswich      7|
    22|Bayley        to|Lancaster|Clitheroe   6|Blackburn    7|
    25|Bayswater[B] ham|Middlesex|Tyburn      1|Acton        4|
   +--+----------------+---------+-------------+--------------+
                                               |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.|Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+
    27|Bawburgh      pa|E. Dereham           12|  105|     440|
    27|Bawdeswell    pa|                      7|  107|     587|
    34|Bawdrip       pa|Stowey               12|  136|     373|
    36|Bawdsey       pa|Ipswich              13|   80|     454|
    27|Bawsey        pa|Middleton             3|   99|      39|
    46|Bawtry[A]   m.t.|Gainsboro'           13|  153|    1149|
    39|Baxterly      pa|Coleshill             7|  111|     189|
    41|Baydon        pa|Swindon              10|   69|     358|
    27|Bayfield      pa|Wells                10|  122|      17|
    18|Bayford       pa|Hoddesdon             5|   21|     332|
    34|Bayford       pa|Mere                  6|  107|        |
    36|Bayleham      pa|Bildeston             9|   72|     238|
    22|Bayley        to|Preston              12|  219|        |
    25|Bayswater[B] ham|Southall              8|    1|        |
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BAWTRY is a small town situated on the edge of Yorkshire, adjoining
Nottinghamshire. It is handsome and well built; and the high street,
through which lies the great North Road from London to Edinburgh, is
very broad, and contains some elegant houses. At the upper part of this
street is the market-place, in which are some excellent shambles. The
town stands on a gentle but pleasant eminence, which slopes from the
north and east down to the river Idle, which river is navigable to this
place for small craft. On the western side of the town the ground is
high and exceedingly pleasant, but the eastern, or marshy side, is
subject to frequent winter inundations. The object which most travellers
consider more especially worthy of attention, is the elegant mansion of
the Viscountess Galway. The edifice is built of brick and is pleasantly
situated at the southern extremity of the town; it has an extensive and
handsome front, but a high brick wall secludes it from public view. The
pleasure grounds which are kept in excellent condition, are stocked with
Chinese pheasants, and other rare and curious birds. Near this place the
Archbishops of York had a palace; and at this mansion, Archbishop
Savage, in the time of Henry VII. delighted to take his pleasure in
hunting; and in the next reign it was the residence of Cardinal Wolsey.
The palace stood in a very low and damp situation, close to the
confluence of the small river Ryton with the Idle. The great gateway,
and the porter's lodge, were taken down towards the end of the last
century, and what remains of the palace has been converted into a farm
house.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, Whit-Tuesday; and November 22, for
   cattle and horses.--_Inn_, Crown--_Mail_ arrives 2.0 afternoon;
   departs 11.30 morning.

[Sidenote: Seat of the Viscountess Galway.]


[B] BAYSWATER is situated on the Oxford Road, and is the first place
passed after leaving London; it has been much increased of late by the
building of new streets and genteel residences. A reservoir, under the
same management as the water works of Chelsea, is in the neighbourhood.
Bayswater Tea Gardens were formerly the Botanic gardens of Sir John
Hill, who cultivated there his medicinal plants, and prepared his Water
Dock, Essence, and Balsam of Honey. The reservoir before mentioned, was
intended for the supply of the palace at Kensington, and the bason
before the palace was to be kept constantly full by the proprietors;
and, it was upon this condition that the property was granted them. It
now supplies that part of the city estates situated in about
Bond-street, with water.

   Map|  Names of Places.     |  County. |  Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
    14|Baythorne End          |Essex     |Haverhill   4|Ridgewell   2|
    42|Bayton               pa|Worcester |Bewdley     6|Tenbury     8|
    57|Bayvill              pa|Pembroke  |Newport     3|Cardigan    9|
     4|Bayworth            ham|Berks     |Abingdon    2|Oxford      4|
     5|Beachampton[A]       pa|Bucks     |Buckingham  6|Stratford   3|
    27|Beachamwell          pa|Norfolk   |Swaffham    6|Stoke Ferry 6|
    18|Beaches             ham|Herts     |Buntingford 7|Standon     7|
    15|Beachley[B]         ham|Gloucester|Chepstow    3|Bristol    13|
    27|Beacon                 |Norfolk   |Cromer      6|Lt. Houses 10|
     5|Beaconsfield[C] to & pa|Bucks     |Uxbridge    8|Wycombe     6|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                       |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.     | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
    14|Baythorne End          |G. Yeldham             5|   55|       |
    42|Bayton               pa|Mamble                 2|  130|    445|
    57|Bayvill              pa|Fishguard             10|  248|    160|
     4|Bayworth            ham|Cumnor                 5|   58|       |
     5|Beachampton[A]       pa|Newport                9|   53|    254|
    27|Beachamwell          pa|Marham                 5|   94|    263|
    18|Beaches             ham|Barkway                6|   32|       |
    15|Beachley[B]         ham|Monmouth              18|  131|       |
    27|Beacon                 |Bacton                 5|  135|       |
     5|Beaconsfield[C] to & pa|Amersham               6|   23|   1763|
   +--+-----------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BEACHAMPTON. The remains of the mansion of the Bennetts have been
converted into a farm-house, but the great hall is still standing. In
the parish church are some monuments of this family; among which there
is one to the memory of Sir Simon Bennett, who was created a baronet in
1627, and is recorded in history as having been a great friend to the
poor, and to University College, Oxford. This monument, it appears, was
set up by the college 100 years after his death, and great blame is
imputed to them for having delayed it so long. Mr. William Elmer, by his
will, bearing date 1648, founded a free grammar school in this parish.
The school-house was finished in 1667. The master, by an express clause
in the founder's will, must be a single man, and is to reside in the
school-house. It is endowed with lands, which are charged with the
payment of a certain pension of £2. per annum, to eight poor men, and
£1. per annum to as many poor women; and it is further provided, that
three of each of these shall be inhabitants of this parish.

[Sidenote: Free grammar school.]


[B] BEACHLEY from its almost insulated situation, has always been of
great importance in a military point of view, for there are extensive
earthworks of British origin still remaining. Offa's-dyke, which
terminates here, is still to be traced. In the civil wars this place was
considered of much importance, for Prince Rupert despatched a body of
500 horse and foot to occupy and fortify it. But history relates, that
even before the fortifications were completed, the garrison was
dislodged with great loss, by Governor Massie. After this, a battle was
fought between the royalists and the parliamentary forces, under Sir
John Wyntor, when the latter was defeated with the loss of 220 men; and
it is currently reported that he himself was forced to leap from the
cliff into the river Severn, where a small boat lay ready to receive
him; it is certain the place still goes by the name of "Wyntor's leap."
The ferry over the river Severn has been before mentioned at page 63.
Here is an inn called Beachley Passage House Inn. The time of high water
is nearly the same as at Bristol Quay, and is always to be seen in the
Bristol Newspapers. If the wind be northerly, this passage may be
crossed for five hours before high-water; and if the wind be southerly
or westerly, it may be passed for seven hours after high-water.

[Sidenote: Once a place of great importance.]

[Sidenote: Waller, the poet.]


[C] BEACONSFIELD is a small place, although it is one of great
thoroughfare, but the market is almost wholly disused; in fact, Wycombe
and Uxbridge appear to have drawn away the business. The manor,
anciently an estate of the Windsors, afterwards became the property of
the Monks of Burnham Abbey, a building but a few miles distant. Edmund
Waller, the poet, was born at Coleshill, in this neighbourhood, at which
place see his life; he was proprietor of the very pleasing seat, called
Hall Barns, an ancient mansion belonging to the family; he lies buried
in the churchyard, and a monument has been erected to his memory, with a
latin inscription, too long and too dry to be given in our work.
Gregories, in this parish, was the seat of the celebrated Edmund Burke,
who, for critical taste and brilliancy of language, will ever be ranked
amongst the most fascinating of English writers. His company was sought
for by all who could make the slightest pretension to kindred genius. He
died in this town, and was buried in the church, where a marble tablet
is set up, with a short inscription, to his memory. The apartments at
Butler's Court, formerly Gregories, contained some fine paintings, by
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and some valuable marbles. This seat, we believe,
came into the possession of Mr. Burke through the friendship of Lord
Verney and the Marquis of Rockingham, by whose munificence he was
enabled to purchase it. The widow of the late Mr. Burke continued to
reside at Butler's Court till the period of her death, which took place
a few years after that of her late husband; the mansion and estate was
afterwards purchased by James Dupre, Esq., who let the house to the
master of a boarding-school, and in whose occupation it was destroyed by
fire: the grounds have since been adapted to the purpose of agriculture.
For the following interesting sketch of the illustrious and
distinguished statesman, (Burke,) we are indebted to Dr. Watkin's
Biographical Dictionary:--"He was born at Dublin, in 1730. His father
was an attorney, and a Protestant. The son received his education under
Abraham Shackleton, a Quaker, who kept a school at Ballytore, near
Carlow, and it is recorded to the honour of Mr. Burke, that whenever he
visited Ireland he always paid his respects to his old tutors: in 1746
he entered as a scholar at Trinity College, which he left on taking his
bachelor's degree in 1749, and soon after became candidate for the
professorship of logic at Glasgow, but did not succeed. In 1753 he
entered of the Middle Temple, where he applied more to general
literature than to the law, and supported himself by writing for the
booksellers. Falling ill, through too close an application to his
studies, he removed to the house of Dr. Nugent, a physician, whose
daughter he afterwards married. In 1756 he published a pamphlet,
entitled, "A Vindication of Natural Society." This piece was purposely
drawn up in the manner of Lord Bolingbroke, and for a time imposed upon
the friends of that writer as his real productions. His next performance
was the Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful, published in 1757. This
philosophical piece of criticism, written in a fine and elegant style,
procured the author a great reputation, and the esteem of the first
literary characters of the age; the principal of whom was Dr. Johnson.
In 1758, he suggested to Mr. Dodsley, the bookseller, the plan of the
"Annual Register," the historical part of which he wrote for several
years. In 1761 he went to Ireland as the companion of his friend Mr.
Hamilton, secretary to the Earl of Halifax, then Lord-Lieutenant. That
gentleman, who was generally known by the name of Single-speech
Hamilton, from the circumstance of his making only one speech in
parliament, but one of uncommon eloquence, procured him a pension of
£300. on the Irish establishment. On his return from Ireland he was made
private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham, First Lord of the
Treasury, who brought him into parliament for Wendover. The Rockingham
party continued in power but a short time, and on going out of office,
Mr. Burke wrote a forcible pamphlet upon the subject, entitled, "A Short
Account of a Short Administration;" after which, he became an active
member of the opposition, as a senator and also as a writer. A pamphlet
of his, entitled, "Thoughts on the Causes of the present Discontents,"
excited considerable interest as a bold exposure of court intrigues and
favourites, in controlling the operations of ministers. In the struggle
between Great Britain and the colonies, Mr. Burke bore a distinguished
part as an opponent to the ministry. His speeches were vehement, and had
so powerful an influence upon the people, that the citizens of Bristol,
in 1774, invited him to be one of their representatives, without his
being at the least expense. But at the next election in 1780, he was
rejected by them for having supported the Irish petition for a free
trade, and the bill for relieving Roman Catholics. He was then returned
for Malton, in Yorkshire. At this time he gained great popularity by his
introduction of a bill for a reform in the national expenditure, on
which he spent prodigious labour, but it was unsuccessful. When the
Marquis of Rockingham returned to power on the resignation of Lord
North, in 1782, Mr. Burke obtained the post of Paymaster-general of the
Forces, and a seat in the Privy Council; but this was of short duration,
for on the death of his patron, Lord Shelbourne became First Lord of the
Treasury, and Mr. Burke, with several of his friends, resigned their
places. In the coalition, which for a little while succeeded the
Shelbourne administration, Mr. Burke had his share both of emolument and
abuse. The leading particulars of his political life, after this, were
his exertions against Mr. Hastings, in which he manifested uncommon
industry to fasten guilt upon that gentleman, with no small share of
personal asperity; his vigorous opposition to Mr. Pitt's design of
forming a limited regency on the King's illness in 1788; and above all,
his ardour against the actors and defenders of the French revolution. On
the latter subject he evinced peculiar sagacity at the outset, and when
many worthy men were rejoicing at the prospect of rising liberty and
happiness to the world, Mr. Burke predicted, with remarkable precision,
the desolation, bloodshed, anarchy, and misery which ensued. He
displayed his detestation of the revolutionists in the House of Commons,
and separated himself in consequence from Mr. Fox, and many other of his
old associates. In 1790 he published his famous "Reflections on the
Revolution in France," which attracted wonderful attention, and produced
a surprising effect upon the public mind. Many publications appeared in
answer to this book; the most noted of which was Paine's pamphlet,
entitled "The Rights of Man," wherein the principles of republicanism
were so artfully addressed to the feelings of ordinary persons, as to
excite for a time no small alarm to the friends of government. Mr.
Burke, after this, published a variety of pamphlets in support of his
positions: as, "A Letter to a Member of the National Assembly;" "An
Appeal from the New Whigs to the Old;" "Thoughts on a Regicide peace,"
&c. His zeal on this occasion, as well as his extraordinary talents,
recommended him to the royal favour, and he obtained a pension, which
gave room for those who had been galled by his arguments, to reproach
him, and some illiberal animadversions were made upon him in the senate,
which drew from him that admirable defence, his "Letter to a Noble
Lord," in which he retaliates upon a celebrated Duke in a strain of keen
irony and dignified remonstrance. Mr. Burke withdrew from parliament in
1794, leaving his seat for Malton to his son, an accomplished young man,
who died shortly after. This melancholy event hastened his death, which
happened the 8th of July, 1797. A little before his death he caused to
be read to him Addison's paper in the Spectator, on the Immortality of
the Soul. Mr. Burke was very amiable in his private life, of correct
deportment, faithful in his attachments; charitable to the poor, and
religious without being superstitious. He had a fine taste for the arts,
and was fond of gardening and architecture," Bulstrode, the seat of the
Duke of Portland, is within three miles of the town; a more detailed
account of this elegant mansion will be given in a future portion of our
work.

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fairs_, Feb. 13; and Holy Thursday, for
   horses, cows, and sheep.--_Mail_ arrives 11.10 night; departs, 3.30
   morning.--_Inn_, Saracen's Head.

[Sidenote: The celebrated Edmund Burke.]

[Sidenote: Sketch of his life.]

[Sidenote: Burke's reflections on the French revolution, &c.] [Sidenote:
His death.]

   Map|Names of Places.|  County. |  Number of Miles From   |
   +--+----------------+----------+------------+------------+
    43|Beadlam       to|N.R. York |Helmesley  3|Kirkby     2|
    29|Beadnell      to|Northumb  |Belford    9|Aluwick   13|
    11|Beaford       pa|Devon     |Torrington 5|Chumleigh 10|
    45|Beaghall      to|W.R. York |Pontefract 6|Snaith     7|
    21|Beaksbourne   pa|Kent      |Canterbury 4|Wingham    3|
    29|Beal         ham|Durham    |Belford    8|Berwick    8|
   +--+----------------+----------+------------+------------+
                                               |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.| Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+------+
    43|Beadlam       to|Gillamoor             3|  225|   157|
    29|Beadnell      to|Ellingham             8|  321|   251|
    11|Beaford       pa|Hatherleigh           9|  200|   624|
    45|Beaghall      to|Selby                 6|  178|   563|
    21|Beaksbourne   pa|Dover                 2|   59|   351|
    29|Beal         ham|Wooler                2|  330|    70|
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+------+

   Map|    Names of Places.    |  County. |Number of Miles from       |
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
    36|Bealing, Great        pa|Suffolk   |Woodbridge  3|Ipswich     7|
    36|Bealing, Little       pa|Suffolk   |...         4|...         6|
    34|Beamhurst             ..|Stafford  |Cheadle     7|Uttoxeter   3|
    12|Beaminster,[A] m.t. & ch|Dorset    |Dorchester 18|Bridport    6|
    13|Beamish               to|Durham    |Gateshead   6|Durham      6|
    45|Beamsley              to|W.R. York |Skipton     6|Addingham   2|
    29|Beanley               to|Northumb. |Alnwick     8|Wooler      9|
    10|Beard                 to|Derby     |Ashton      8|Manchester 15|
    37|Bear Green            ..|Surrey    |Dorking     4|Horsham     9|
    39|Bearly                pa|Warwick   |Stratford   4|Warwick     8|
    21|Bearsted              pa|Kent      |Maidstone   3|Milton     10|
    33|Bearston              to|Salop     |Drayton     4|Eccleshall  9|
    10|Bearward-Cote         to|Derby     |Derby       6|Sudbury     8|
    40|Beathwaite Green,    ham|Westmorlnd|Kendal      6|Millthorpe  3|
    10|Beauchief Abbey,   e.p.l|Derby     |Sheffield   4|Dronfield   4|
    39|Beaudesert[B]         pa|Warwick   |Henley      1|Stratford   9|
   +--+------------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                        |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.      |Number of Miles from    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
    36|Bealing, Great        pa|Wickham                8|   76|    367|
    36|Bealing, Little       pa|...                    9|   75|    272|
    34|Beamhurst             ..|Checkley               2|  139|       |
    12|Beaminster,[A] m.t. & ch|Crewkerne              7|  141|   2968|
    13|Beamish               to|Sunderland            10|  265|   1848|
    45|Beamsley              to|Otley                 10|  215|    279|
    29|Beanley               to|Belford               11|  314|    169|
    10|Beard                 to|Sheffield             23|  177|    283|
    37|Bear Green            ..|Capel                  2|   28|       |
    39|Bearly                pa|Henley                 5|   97|    230|
    21|Bearsted              pa|Chatham                9|   37|    594|
    33|Bearston              to|Nantwich              12|  157|     95|
    10|Bearward-Cote         to|Uttoxeter             13|  130|       |
    40|Beathwaite Green,    ham|Burton                 7|  258|       |
    10|Beauchief Abbey,   e.p.l|Chesterfield          10|  160|     85|
    39|Beaudesert[B]         pa|Birmingham            16|  102|    199|
   +--+------------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BEAMINSTER is a town of very great antiquity; it is situated on a
fertile spot near the banks of the small river Birt. The prebendaries of
Salisbury were formerly lords of the manor, until the parliamentary
commissioners (who appear to have made very free with church property)
seized it, and for a time it passed into other hands, but it was only
for a time: the right at length became acknowledged, and in the
possession of the prebendaries of Sarum it now remains. This town has
suffered much by the devastation of fire, and still more by the
destructive sword of civil, or rather uncivil, warfare. Britton speaks
of a record of the former being preserved in a blank leaf of an old
Bible, in the possession of a gentleman of this town, which memorandum
ran as follows:--"The towne of Beaminster was burnt on Palme Sunday,
being the 14th day of April, and in the year of our Lord 1644. At the
same time prince Maurice, being in the towne seven dayes before the
fire, and there continued till the fire burnt him out of his quarters.
The fire was first kindled in John Sergeant's house, in North-street; it
was a musket discharged in the gable; and it was wild-fire, and the
winde lying directly with the towne, the whole place was destroyed in
two hours; and those goods for the most part which were saved out of the
fire were carried away by the soldiers. There were seven score and four
dwelling-houses, besides barns and stables, burnt." An eye-witness in
Sir Thomas Fairfax's army describes it as "a place of the pitifullest
spectacle that man can behold; hardly a house left not consumed by
fire." Two thousand pounds were granted by the parliament to assist in
re-building the town: this, with other sums, raised by the neighbouring
gentry, answered the purpose. But it appears that the place was doomed
to destruction, for in June, 1684, it was again consumed, and the loss
is said to have amounted to £10,000.: nor did its misfortunes end here,
for in the gusty month of March, in the year 1781, upwards of fifty
dwelling-houses, besides barns, stables, and other buildings, were
reduced to ruins in the short space of three hours. Mrs. Tucker founded
a free-school here, in 1684, for the purpose of affording education to
twenty of the poorest boys in the town; three or four of these boys were
to be apprenticed annually, and it is necessary that one of these, at
least, should become a seaman. The Rev. Mr. Samuel Hood, father of Lord
Hood, was master of this school in the year 1715. The inhabitants are
principally engaged in the manufacture of sail-cloth, and in the
production of iron, tin, and copper ware. The work-house is a large
commodious building; formerly an alms-house.

   _Market_, Thursday.--_Fairs_, April 4; September 19, for horses,
   sheep, and cattle.

[Sidenote: Destroyed by fire in 1644.]

[Sidenote: Burnt down in 1684, and again in 1781.]


[B] BEAUDESERT. This place is situated in the hundred of Barlichway. The
church is dedicated to St. Nicholas, and exhibits some good specimens of
ancient architecture. The village was the birth-place of Richard Jago,
the poet, who was the son of the rector: he was born in 1715, and was
educated at Solihull grammar-school, about eleven miles distant from
this place. His first poetical production which attracted notice was an
"Elegy on the Death of a Blackbird," and this was followed by a poem,
descriptive of the "Battle of Edgehill," which is considered the most
finished of his works: the subject was in all probability suggested by
his residence in the neighbourhood of the scene of action. He died on
the 8th of April, 1781.

   Map|Names of Places. |County. |Number of Miles from        |
   +--+------------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
    16|Beaulieu[A]   pa. |Hants    |Lymington    7|Hythe     5|
    23|Beau Manor ex. pl.|Leicester|Mount Sorrel 3|Loughboro 3|
   +--+------------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
                                                  |Dist. |
   Map|Names of Places.  |Number of Miles from    |Lond. |Population.
   +--+------------------+------------------------+------+----+
    16|Beaulieu[A]   pa. |Southampton            7|    82|1298|
    23|Beau Manor ex. pl.|Leicester              8|   106|  98|
   +--+------------------+------------------------+------+----+


[A] BEAULIEU. The river Exe, over which there is a bridge, is navigable
up to this village. Here is a manufacture of coarse sacking. The ruins
of Beaulieu Abbey are beautifully situated on the eastern banks of the
river. The delightful valley which surrounds these venerable remains, is
of a circular form, bounded by well-wooded hills, and in itself,
consists of a rich variety of ground. The Abbey was founded, A.D. 1204,
by King John, for monks of the Cistercian order; a class of friars to
which that monarch had been previously particularly adverse. The king,
it is said, after various oppressive measures exercised against the
Cistercians, summoned the Abbots and principals of that order, to
Lincoln, whither they hastened, flattering themselves that he would
there confer upon them some marks of his grace and favor. Instead of
this, say the monkish historians, "the savage monarch ordered the Abbots
to be trodden to death, by horses: but none of his attendants being
found sufficiently cruel to obey the sanguinary command, the
ecclesiastics, dreadfully alarmed, retired hastily to their inn. In the
course of the ensuing night, when the monarch slumbered on his bed, he
dreamt that he was standing before a Judge, accompanied by the
Cistercian Abbots, who were commanded to scourge him severely with rods
and thongs; and when he awoke in the morning, he declared that he still
felt the smart of the beating. On relating this dream to a certain
ecclesiastic of his court, he was advised to crave pardon of the Abbots,
whom he had before so barbarously treated; and assured, that the
Almighty had been infinitely merciful to him, in thus revealing the
mysteries of his dispensations, and affording him paternal correction.
The king, adopting this counsel, ordered the Abbots to attend him; and,
contrary to their expectations, received them with kindness:" and the
remembrance of his dream still continuing to influence his conduct, he
shortly after granted a charter for the foundation of the Abbey of
Beaulieu. It was greatly enriched by succeeding grants; and at the
Dissolution, its possessions were estimated at the annual value of £428.
6s. 8d. The manor of Beaulieu, with all its rights, privileges, and
appurtenances, (the rectory and right of patronage excepted), was
granted to Thomas Wriothesley, Esq. afterwards Earl of Southampton. The
circumference of the manor embraces an extent of 28 miles, and the clear
annual revenue amounts to between £4000 and £5000. The immediate
precincts of the Abbey were encircled by a stone wall, the remains of
which are richly mantled with ivy. An edifice, nearly square, now called
the palace, but originally built for the Abbot's lodging, was converted
into a family seat after the Dissolution. Over the entrance is a
canopied niche, in which stood the image of the Virgin Mary. The hall is
a well proportioned room, handsomely vaulted, the ribs springing from
pilasters, and spreading over the roof in beautiful ramifications.
Eastward from this edifice is a long building, supposed from the extent
and height of the apartments, to have been the dormitory; beneath it are
several good cellars. The ancient kitchen is also standing, and near it
is the refectory, a plain stone edifice, with strong buttresses: this is
now the parish church of Beaulieu; the Abbey church, which stood to the
north-east, having been entirely destroyed. On the west side is the
ancient rostrum, or pulpit, from which lectures were read when the monks
were assembled at their meals below. The site of the Abbey Church may be
traced by the unevenness of the ground; but not a vestige of the
building is remaining. Fragments of demolished tombs are occasionally
dug up here, this having been the burial-place of various illustrious
and noble personages, and among them, Queen Eleanor, mother of King
John. Some traces of the cloisters are yet distinguishable. Whilst
Beaulieu Abbey was invested with the privilege of a sanctuary, its walls
afforded a temporary protection to Margaret of Anjou, Queen of Henry
VI.; who, returning from the continent, in expectation of being
reinstated in her former dignity, was informed of the imprisonment of
her husband, the destruction of his army, and the death of the Earl of
Warwick, and the elevation to the throne of Edward IV. Another
celebrated fugitive, to whom this abbey afforded sanctuary, was Perkin
Warbeck, who, after many vicissitudes, was executed at Tyburn, in 1499.

[Sidenote: The Abbey founded by King John.]

[Sidenote: The king's singular dream.]

[Sidenote: The manor extends 28 miles.]

[Sidenote: Burial place of Queen Eleanor.]

   Map|Names of Places.  |County.   | Number of Miles from |
   +--+------------------+----------+-----------+----------+
    47|Beaumaris[A]  m.t.|Anglesea  |Bangor    7|Aber     6|
     9|Beaumont       pa.|Cumberland|Carlisle  5|Gretna   7|
   +--+------------------+----------+-----------+----------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.  |Number of Miles from  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+-----+
    47|Beaumaris[A]  m.t.|Holyhead            22|  251| 2497|
     9|Beaumont       pa.|Longtown             8|  306|  276|
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BEAUMARIS, though but a small place, is the capital of the island;
it is finely situated on a low shore, called Beaumaris Bay. The present
town appears to have originated from the circumstance of a castle having
been erected here about the close of the 13th century, by Edward I. It
lies close to the town, covering a large space of ground, in a low
situation. Its erection was subsequent to its proud rivals Conway and
Caernarvon. The necessity of the present castle arose from Rhyddlan,
upon the opposite shore, being often possessed by the Welsh princes. It
appears to have been the last of the three great fortresses erected by
Edward. On the conquest of Wales in 1295, he fixed upon this spot with a
view of surrounding it with a fosse, for the double purpose of defence,
and bringing small craft to unload their cargoes under its walls, by a
canal, part of which was, till lately, remaining. From the period of its
erection to the time of Charles I., it does not appear to have been at
all conspicuous on the page of history. A communication was made between
various parts of the inner court, by means of a surrounding gallery,
about six feet wide, a considerable portion of which is yet entire.
Within recesses, in the sides of the gallery, are several square
apertures, apparently once furnished with trap doors, which opened into
rooms beneath; but their use has not been ascertained. Mr. Grose thinks
they might have been used for the purposes of imprisonment. A tennis,
fives court, and bowling-green, have been formed within the interior.
The town of Beaumaris was surrounded with walls, for its defence, and
placed under the government of a corporation, endowed with various
privileges and lands. Mr. Lloyd supposes, from local tokens being
circulated by opulent tradesmen, about the year 1650, of which he had
several in his possession, that it was a place of considerable traffic.
The present town consists of several streets, of which one terminated by
the castle is handsome, and the houses are generally well built.
Beaumaris is much frequented during the summer months, by numerous
genteel families, attracted by the pleasantness of this part of the
island, and to avail themselves of the benefit of sea-bathing. The
parochial church is a handsome structure, consisting of a chancel, nave,
and two aisles, with a large square embattled tower. In the vestry
adjoining were deposited the remains of lady Beatrice Herbert, daughter
of the celebrated mirror of chivalry, the Lord Herbert of Cherbury. Near
which lies interred the Rev. Gronwy Davies, with an inscription
concluding as follows:

   "Here lies learning, friendship, love;
   And innocency of the dove.
   Within this grave and in the dust
   His ever courteous body must
   Until the resurrection lie;
   Then he shall live and death shall die."

The free-school was erected and liberally endowed by David Hughes, Esq.,
in the year 1603, who ten years afterwards founded also an excellent
alms-house for six poor persons, to whom he granted small annuities. He
was born about the middle of the 16th century, in a cottage now in
ruins. He left the island early in life, in a very humble station, but
by prudence and propriety of conduct, he made a decent fortune.

   "'T is here the active worth of Hughes appears,
   A blessed asylum for the wreck of years!
   If there his views the opening mind engage,
   Here he supports the trembling limbs of age;
   His breast embrac'd within his godlike plan,
   At once the morn and evening hours of man!
   And ye who here his lasting bounty share,
   Whose tranquil days decline without a care!
   If still, as night shall close, day greet your eyes,
   No grateful aspirations reach the skies,
   Indignant heaven beholds you with a frown,
   Nor gives the ingrate, life's immortal crown."   LLOYD.

The old town-hall, built in 1563, has been taken down, and under the
patronage of Lord Viscount Bulkeley, another more elegant has been
erected upon its site. The town, re-incorporated in the 4th year of
Elizabeth, is governed by a mayor, recorder, two bailiffs, twenty-four
burgessess, two serjeants at mace, a town clerk, jailor, four
constables, and a water-bailiff. The county hall is a small low
building, being neither conveniently formed nor respectable in its
appearance. The custom-house stands upon the green near the edge of the
water. Beaumaris bay consists of an expansive opening in front of the
town, so sheltered by the island of Priesholme and the great Ormeshead,
as to allow vessels of considerable burden to ride in safety, during the
most stormy weather. The depth of water near the town, at ebb-tide, is
from six to seven fathoms, but the channel scarcely exceeds a quarter of
a mile in breadth. The greater part of the bay is left dry for several
miles when the tide is out, which part is called the Lavan Sands. These
once formed a habitable hundred, belonging to the territory of Arson.
They were formerly called Wylofaen, or the place of Weeping, from the
shrieks and lamentations of the inhabitants at the time when the land
was overwhelmed by the sea. Lavan is a corruption of Traeth Talaven, or
the fermented heap, allusive to the boiling up of water in the
quicksands. The ferry was granted by charter to the corporation in the
4th year of Elizabeth: it lies near the town. The place of embarking or
landing is the point anciently known under the appellation of Penrhyn
Safness, but afterwards Osmund's Air, from a malefactor, who on his way
to execution, being asked where he was going, answered, "To take the
air." The walk over the sand at low water is firm and good; they should
be passed three hours after high water, and will be safe for four hours;
or in other words, two hours before low water and two after. Precautions
are essentially necessary to be taken, for near the times of the sands
being covered by the sea they are frequently shifting, and in many
places become so watery or quick, as to have proved both dangerous and
fatal. This way is equally perilous in foggy weather, but as some
persons are necessitated to pass in every season, the large bell at Aber
is humanely rung, to direct them towards the sound.

   _Market_, Wednesday and Saturday.--_Fairs_, Feb. 13, Holy Thursday,
   Sept. 19, and Dec. 19, for cattle.--_Inn_, Bull's Head.

[Sidenote: Chief town in Anglesea.]

[Sidenote: Much frequented in summer.]

[Sidenote: Its government.]

[Sidenote: Lavan sands]

[Sidenote: Caution.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  | County. |  Number of Miles From      |
   +--+--------------------+---------+--------------+-------------+
    14|Beaumont          pa|Essex    |Manningtree  7|Colchester 16|
    13|Beaumont Hill     to|Durham   |Darlington   4|Sedgefield  9|
    23|BeaumontLeys  ex. pl|Leicester|Leicester    2|Belgrave    1|
    38|Beauport            |Sussex   |Battle       3|Hastings    5|
    39|Beausall         ham|Warwick  |Warwick      6|Kenilworth  4|
    16|Beaworth          ti|Southamp.|Alresford    5|Bis Waltham 7|
    11|Beaworthy         pa|Devon    |Hatherleigh  7|Holsworthy  9|
     7|Bebbington, Upper to|Chester  |Great Neston 7|Liverpool   6|
   +--+--------------------+---------+--------------+-------------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
    14|Beaumont          pa|Harwich                9|   67|    452|
    13|Beaumont Hill     to|Stockton              11|  245|       |
    23|BeaumontLeys  ex. pl|Grooby                 4|  100|     28|
    38|Beauport            |Robertsbridg           9|   59|       |
    39|Beausall         ham|Solihull               9|   96|       |
    16|Beaworth          ti|Winchester             5|   62|    156|
    11|Beaworthy         pa|Oakhampton             9|  204|    339|
     7|Bebbington, Upper to|Chester               13|  201|    273|
   +--+--------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+

   Map|  Names of Places.    | County. |Number of Miles From      |
   +--+----------------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
     7|Bebbington, Low. t & p|Chester  |Great Neston 5|Liverpool 7|
    29|Bebside             to|Northumb |Morpeth      6|Blyth     4|
    36|Beccles[A]        m.t.|Suffolk  |Yarmouth    15|Norwich  18|
    22|Beconsall         chap|Lancaster|Ormskirk    11|Chorley   8|
     7|Bechton             to|Chester  |Sandbach     2|Congleton 4|
    33|Beckbury            pa|Salop    |Bridgenorth  7|Shiffnal  5|
    21|Beckenham[B]        pa|Kent     |Croydon      5|Lewisham  4|
    24|Beckering             |Lincoln  |Wragby       1|Holton    1|
   +--+----------------------+---------+--------------+-----------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+------------------------+-----+-----+
     7|Bebbington, Low. t & p|Chester               13|  201|  440|
    29|Bebside             to|Horton                 1|  287|  100|
    36|Beccles[A]        m.t.|Bungay                 6|  112| 3862|
    22|Beconsall         chap|Preston                8|  216|  476|
     7|Bechton             to|Lawton                 4|  160|  818|
    33|Beckbury            pa|Madeley                5|  140|  307|
    21|Beckenham[B]        pa|Bromley                2|    9| 1288|
    24|Beckering             |Lincoln               12|  145|     |
   +--+----------------------+-------------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BECCLES is a large and well-built town, situated on the river
Waveny, which is navigable from this place to Yarmouth, and divides in
its course the counties of Suffolk and Norfolk. It is governed by a
portreeve and thirty-six burgesses, the office of the former being held
in rotation by twelve of the latter. The church is gothic, with a
steeple, containing twelve bells, and a porch, which is considered a
fine specimen of the florid gothic. The ruins of Endgate church may be
seen out of the town, but the inhabitants of the village appear to have
been long esteemed parishioners of Beccles. Here is a theatre, a town
hall, a jail, and a free school, endowed with 100 acres of land, in the
reign of James I.; and a good grammar-school founded by Dr. Falconberge,
and endowed with an estate, then worth forty pounds per annum, although
now considerably increased in value. Near the town is a large common, on
which the inhabitants of the town have the privilege of feeding their
cattle on easy terms. In 1586 a fire consumed eighty houses in this
place, and property to the amount of £20,000.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, Whit Monday, June 29, and October 2,
   for horses and pedlary.--_Bankers_, Gurney and Co., draw on Barclay
   and Co.--_Mail_ arrives 10.15 morning; departs 3.45
   afternoon.--_Inns_, King's Head, and White Lion.

[Sidenote: Fine gothic church.]


[B] BECKENHAM. The church of this village is a neat edifice, containing
many monuments of the Style, Raymond, Burrell, and other families. On a
slab in the chancel, is a remarkable brass, to the memory of dame
Margaret, wife of Sir William Dalsell, Knt., and daughter of John
Barnes. Esq., of Redhall, in Norfolk, who died 1563: she is represented
in a flowered petticoat, and close-bodied gown; the sleeves slashed at
the shoulders, and hanging down to the feet. Here is also the monument
of Mrs. Jane Clarke, wife of Dr. Clarke, physician at Epsom, with an
elegant inscription, by Gray. The parish register, under the date of
Oct. 24, 1740, also records the burial of Margaret Finch, who lived to
the age of 109 years. She was one of the people called gipsies, and had
the title of their queen. After travelling over various parts of the
kingdom, during the greater part of a century, she settled at Norwood,
whither her great age, and the fame of her fortune-telling, attracted
numerous visitors. From a habit of sitting on the ground, with her chin
resting on her knees, the sinews at length became so contracted, that
she could not rise from that posture: after her death, they were obliged
to inclose her body in a deep square box. Her funeral was attended by
two mourning coaches: a sermon was preached upon the occasion, and a
great concourse of people attended the ceremony. Her picture adorns the
sign-post of a house of public entertainment in Norwood, called the
Gipsy House. Beckenham-place, the seat of John Cator, Esq., is partly in
the parish of Bromley; but the mansion itself is in that of Beckenham.
Rear-Admiral Sir Piercy Brett, who died in 1781, (and with his lady,
lies buried in the church,) resided here. The estate, which had long
been owned by the St. Johns, was alienated to the Cators, in 1773. The
house is a handsome building, commanding a beautiful prospect. Kent
House, the ancient seat of the Lethieullers, in Beckenham parish, is now
occupied as a farm: the estate belongs to J.J. Angerstein, Esq. Clay
Hill, or the Oakery, also in this parish, was the property of the late
learned Edward King, Esq., F.R., and A.S. This gentleman, who was a
native of Norfolk, was elected president of the Society of Antiquaries
on the decease of Dr. Milles, in 1784; but, on the succeeding election
in the year following, he was obliged to relinquish the chair to the
Earl of Leicester, after an unprecedented contest. He was the author of
various works; the principal of which are, his "Observations on Ancient
Castles;" "Morsels of Criticism," tending to illustrate the Scriptures;
and the "Monumenta Antiqua." He died in 1806, at the age of 72.

[Sidenote: Queen of the gipsies died here, at the age of 109.]

   Map|   Names of Places.    | County.  |     Number of Miles From    |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
     9|Beckermet,  St.        |          |               |             |
      | Bridgetts           pa|Cumberland|Egremont      3|Ravenglass 10|
     9|Beckermet, St. Johns pa|Cumberland|              4|            9|
     4|Becket               ti|Berks     |Farringdon    6|Highworth   4|
    15|Beckford             pa|Gloucester|Tewkesbury    5|Sedgeberrow 4|
    27|Beckham, East        pa|Norfolk   |Cromer        5|Holt        5|
    27|Beckham, West        pa|Norfolk   | ...          5|  ...       5|
    41|Beckhampton[A]       ti|Wilts     |Marlbro'      7|Devizes     8|
    24|Beckingham           pa|Lincoln   |Newark        5|Leadenham   5|
    30|Beckingham           pa|Nottingham|Gainsbro'     3|E. Retford  7|
    34|Beckington[B]        pa|Somerset  |Frome         3|Trowbridge  6|
    31|Beckley              pa|Oxford    |Oxford        5|Islip       3|
    38|Beckley              pa|Sussex    |Rye           7|Newenden    3|
    45|Beckwith Shaw          |York      |West End      4|Otley       7|
    44|Bedale[C]     m.t. & pa|N.R. York |Northallerton 8|Leeming     3|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
                                                         |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From     |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+----------+---------------+-----+-------+
     9|Beckermet,  St.        |                          |     |       |
      | Bridgetts           pa|Whitehaven               9|  291|    545|
     9|Beckermet, St. Johns pa|                        10|  290|    549|
     4|Becket               ti|Lambourne               10|   73|       |
    15|Beckford             pa|Evesham                  7|  106|    433|
    27|Beckham, East        pa|Aylesham                 9|  124|     50|
    27|Beckham, West        pa| ...                     9|  124|    156|
    41|Beckhampton[A]       ti|Calne                    6|   81|       |
    24|Beckingham           pa|Sleaford                14|  126|     43|
    30|Beckingham           pa|Bawtry                  10|  152|    481|
    34|Beckington[B]        pa|Bath                    10|  105|   1340|
    31|Beckley              pa|Forest-hill              3|   53|    776|
    38|Beckley              pa|Lamberhurst             16|   56|   1477|
    45|Beckwith Shaw          |Ripley                   5|   64|       |
    44|Bedale[C]     m.t. & pa|Richmond                10|  223|   2707|
   +--+-----------------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BECKHAMPTON. Near this place is an enormous tumulus, perhaps the
largest in England; it is called Silbury Hill, and common belief
declares it the place of sepulchre of some British king. The two
antiquaries, Greethead and Stukeley differ, as antiquaries frequently
do, with regard to which of the British monarchs the honor of being
supposed to lie beneath this stupendous monument should belong. The
former learned writer asserting it to be that of Prydain, and the latter
calling it that of Cynneda. Scattered over the neighbouring downs are
numerous large stones called the Grey Wethers; they bear this name from
their resemblance to a flock of sheep. Beckhampton Inn, stands at the
junction of the two great Mail roads, leading from London to Bath; the
southern road passing through Devizes and Melksham; and the northern
through Calne and Chippenham. The inn is a large brick building, but has
a most desolate appearance, according well with the character of the
gloomy downs on the margin of which it stands; yet the traveller would
do well to refresh here, as there is but little accommodation for many
miles beyond.

   The Falmouth Mail which passes through Devizes, arrives 5.5 morning;
   departs 9.20 night. The Bristol Mail which passes through Calne,
   arrives 5.5 morning; departs 9.35 night.

[Sidenote: Silbury Hill.]


[B] BECKINGTON was formerly a place of much importance in the clothing
business, but the decline of that trade in the west of England has much
reduced the town. It was the birth-place of Thomas Beckington, an
English prelate, who was one of the three appointed to draw up a code of
laws in conformity with which the Wickliffites were to be proceeded
against. His book against the salique law is still in the possession of
the Lambeth library.


[C] BEDALE is a tolerably well built town, situated in a rich valley,
which with the surrounding country is exceedingly fertile, and both corn
and grass yield abundant crops. The town lies to the west of the Great;
Glasgow road, about two miles from Leeming Lane. Hornby Castle, the seat
of the Duke of Leeds, deserves the admiration of the tourist. Bedale
church is a large and handsome edifice, and the tower is said to have
been constructed with so much strength, as to enable the inhabitants to
defend themselves therein, during the inroads of the Scots.

   _Market_, Tuesday.--_Fairs_, Easter Tuesday, Whit-Tuesday; June 6 and
   7; July 5 and 6, for horses, cattle, sheep, leather, &c.; Oct. 11 and
   12, horned cattle, sheep, hogs and leather; and Monday-week before
   Christmas, for horned cattle and sheep. The Glasgow Mail arrives at
   Leeming Lane, two miles distant 7.54 evening; departs 4.58
   morning.--_Inns_, Black Swan, and the Swan.

[Sidenote: Seat of the Duke of Leeds.]

   Map|Names of Places. | County.  | Number of Miles From     |
   +--+-----------------+----------+-------------+------------+
    13|Bedburn, North to|Durham    |Bis. Auckld 6|Wolsingham 4|
    13|Bedburn, South to|Durham    | ...        6| ...       4|
    50|Beddgelart[A]  pa|Caernarvon|Caernarvon 12|Bettws     7|
   +--+-----------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places. |Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+------------------------+-----+------+
    13|Bedburn, North to|Durham                12|  254|   387|
    13|Bedburn, South to| ...                  12|  254|   296|
    50|Beddgelart[A]  pa|Tan-y-Bwlch            8|  223|  1071|
   +--+-----------------+------------------------+-----+------+


[A] BEDDGELART, is situated in a beautiful tract of meadows, at the
junction of three vales, near the conflux of the Glas Lyn, or Gwynant,
or Nant hwynant, and the Colwyn, which flows through Nant Colwyn, a vale
which leads to Caernarvon. Its situation was the fittest in the world,
says Mr. Pennant, to inspire religious meditation, amid lofty mountains,
woods, and murmuring streams. The church is small, yet the loftiest in
Snowdonia. The east window consists of three narrow slips. The roof is
neat, and there yet remains some very pretty fret work. A side chapel is
supported by two neat pillars and gothic arches. This church has been
conventual, belonging to a priory of Augustines, dedicated to the
Virgin. They were probably of the class called Gilbertines, consisting
of both men and women, living under the same roof, but divided by a
wall, as a piece of ground near the church is called Dol y Llein (the
meadow of the nun). No remnant of the priory however exists. The ground
on the south side of the church seems to have been the spot whereon the
buildings stood which the monks formerly inhabited. There are two or
three arched doors on that side the church, through which probably the
friars entered. The ancient mansion-house near the church might have
been the residence of the prior. In this house is shown an old pewter
mug, that will hold upwards of two quarts; and any person able to grasp
it with one hand, while full of ale, and to drink it off at one draught,
is entitled to the liquor gratis, and the tenant is to charge it to the
lord of the manor as part payment of his rent. Tradition says, that
Llewelyn the Great came to reside at Beddgelart during the hunting
season, with his wife and children; and one day, the family being
absent, a wolf had entered the house. On returning, his greyhound,
called Ciliart, met him, wagging his tail, but covered with blood. The
prince being alarmed, ran into the nursery, and found the cradle in
which the child had lain covered with blood. Imagining the greyhound had
killed the child, he immediately drew his sword and slew him, but on
turning up the cradle, he found under it the child alive, and the wolf
dead. This so affected the prince, that he erected a tomb over his
faithful dog's grave, where, afterwards, the parish church was built,
and called from this accident, Bedd-Cilihart, or the grave of Cilihart.
In the Welch annals this region is styled the forest of Snowdon. It is a
subject of great regret to most tourists, that many of the rocks which
surround Beddgelart, though once covered with oaks, are now naked. One
proprietor, however, is raising new plantations upon his estate.
Snowdonia, though once a forest, contains now scarcely a tree. Salmon is
very plentiful here, selling sometimes as low as three-farthings a
pound; the average price is about four-pence. The best land lets at 20s.
an acre; but the average of the neighbourhood is from 2s. 6d. to 5s.,
with unlimited right of common upon the mountains. In this little plain
is an almost inexhaustible turbary, or right of digging turf. There is a
comfortable inn at this place, called Beddgelart Hotel. It is marked by
the emblem of the goat, with the following appropriate motto. "Patria
mea Petra." My country is a rock. The guide to the mountains is the
harper of the house; or a resident in the village. William Lloyd, the
schoolmaster of this place, was long noted as an intelligent "conductor
to Snowdon, Moel Hebog, Dinas Emrys, Llanberis pass, the lakes,
waterfalls, &c.; he was also a collector of crystals, fossils, and
natural curiosities found in these regions. Dealer in superfine woollen
hose, socks, gloves, &c.," but in the year 1804, he finally emerged from
all sublunary avocations, to the regions beyond the grave. Opposite to
the village of Beddgelart, is Moel Hebog (the hill of flight) which Lord
Lyttelton ascended. [see Festiniog.] In a bog near that mountain, was
found in 1784, a most curious brass shield, which was deposited with Mr.
Williams, of Llanidan; its diameter was two feet two inches, the weight
four pounds; in the centre was a plain umbo projecting above two inches;
the surface was marked with twenty-seven smooth concentric elevated
circles, and between each a depressed space of the same breadth with the
elevated parts, marked by a single row of smooth studs. The whole shield
was flat and very flexible. This was probably Roman, for the Welsh
despised every species of defensive armour. In ascending the summit of
Snowdon from this place, a neighbouring vale is passed, which is by far
the most beautiful of the vales among these mountains. It is about six
miles long, and affords a great variety of wood, lakes, and meadows. The
vale of Llanberis is the only one which may be said to rival it; but
their characters are so different, that they cannot with propriety be
compared. On the left, about a mile and a half up the valley, is a lofty
wood-clad rock, called the fort of Ambrosius, or Merlin Ermys, a
magician who was sent for to this place from Caermarthen, by Vortigern,
who was king of Britain from 449 to 466. Upon its summit is a level
piece of ground, and the remains of a square fort; and upon the west
side, facing Beddgelart, there are traces of a long wall. It stands
detached from other rocks, and at a distance appears in the form of a
man's hat. Adjoining is a stony tract called the cells or groves of the
magicians. In the next field, a number of large stones are called the
tombs of the magicians. It was to this place that Vortigern retired,
when he found himself despised by his subjects, and unable to contend
longer with the treacherous Saxons, whom he had introduced into his
kingdom. It is probable that this insular rock afforded him a temporary
residence till he removed to his final retreat in Nant Gwrtheyrn, or
Vortigern's Valley. Speed says, probably without truth, that Vortigern
married his own child by Rowena, daughter of Hengist, the Saxon prince,
and had by her one son. There is a tradition, that Madog, the son of
prince Owen Gwynedd, resided in this vale for some time before he left
his country for America. The entrance from Beddgelart, is but the
breadth of a narrow rugged road, close by the river's side, in which
there is nothing inviting; but passing on, the traveller advances upon
enchanted ground, where he finds extensive meadows, expanding at every
turn of rock, smooth as a bowling green; beautiful lakes and meandering
rivers, abounding in fish; mountains towering one above the other in
succession, while to the left, Snowdon overtops them all, seeming like
another Atlas, to support the firmament. Mr. Pennant, says he continued
his walk along a narrow path above the lake, as far as the extremity;
then descending, reached the opposite side, in order to encounter a
third ascent, as arduous as the preceding. This brought him into the
horrible crater immediately beneath the great precipice of Wyddfa; its
situation is dreadful, surrounded by more than three parts of a circle,
with the most horrible precipices of the highest peak of Snowdon. The
strange break, called the pass of the Arrows, was probably a station for
the hunters to watch the wandering of the deer. The margin of
Ffynmon-las here appeared to be shallow and gravelly, the waters had a
greenish cast, but what is very singular, the rocks reflected into them
seemed varied with stripes of the richest colours, like the most
beautiful lute-strings, and changed almost to infinity. Here he observed
the wheat-ear, a small and seemingly tender bird, and yet almost the
only small one, or indeed the only one, (except the rock-ouzel) that
frequents these heights; the reason is evidently the want of food. The
mountainous tract near Snowdon, scarcely yields any corn; the produce is
cattle and sheep, which during summer they keep very high in the
mountains, followed by their owners with their families, who reside
during that season in their Havod-dai, or summer dwelling, or dairy
houses, as the farmers in the Swiss Alps do in their Sennes. These
houses consist of a long low room, with a hole at one end to let out the
smoke, from the fire which is made beneath. Their furniture is very
simple, stones are the substitutes for stools, and the beds are of hay,
ranged along the sides: they manufacture their own clothes and dye them
with plants, collected from the rocks. During summer, the men pass their
time in harvest work, or tending their herds; the women in milking, or
making butter and cheese of the milk for their own consumption. The diet
of these mountaineers is very plain, consisting of butter, cheese and
oat bread; their drink is whey, not but that they have their reserve of
a few bottles of very strong beer, by way of cordial, in sickness. They
are people of good understanding, wary, and circumspect; usually tall,
thin, and of strong constitutions, from their way of living. Towards
winter, they descend to their old dwelling, where they lead, during that
season, a vacant life, in carding, spinning, knitting, &c. The height of
Snowdon is 3571 feet.

[Sidenote: Nant Colwyn.]

[Sidenote: Ancient pewter mug.]

[Sidenote: Tradition of a wolf and child.]

[Sidenote: Guide to the mountains.]

[Sidenote: Brass shield found.]

[Sidenote: Groves of the magicians.]

[Sidenote: Snowdon.]

[Sidenote: The pass of the Arrows.]

[Sidenote: The summer habits of the mountaineers.]

   Map|   Names of Places. | County. | Number of Miles From    |
   +--+--------------------+---------+-------------+-----------+
    38|Beddingham        pa|Sussex   |Lewes       3|Seaford   8|
    37|Beddington   pa & to|Surrey   |Croydon     2|Sutton    3|
    36|Bedfield          pa|Suffolk  |Framlingham 5|Debenham  5|
    25|Bedfont, East     pa|Middlesex|Staines     3|Hounslow  4|
    25|Bedfont, West     pa|Middlesex| ...        3| ...      4|
     3|Bedfordshire[A]     |         |             |           |
   +--+--------------------+---------+-------------+-----------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|   Names of Places. | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------------+-----+
    38|Beddingham        pa|Brighton              9|   53|  264|
    37|Beddington   pa & to|Ewell                 6|   11| 1429|
    36|Bedfield          pa|Eye                   9|   88|  323|
    25|Bedfont, East     pa|Colnbrook             6|   13|  968|
    25|Bedfont, West     pa|...                   6| ... |     |
     3|Bedfordshire[A]     |                       |     |95383|
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BEDFORDSHIRE. This county, before the Roman invasion, was part of
the district inhabited by a race of people whom the invaders denominated
Cassii. Afterwards, in A.D. 310, it was a third part of the division
named Flavia Cæsariensis. After that, it was attached to the kingdom of
Mercia. In 827 it became subject to the West Saxons. It was first called
Bedfordshire in the reign of Alfred the Great, probably from Bedan
Forda: i.e. The Fortress on the Ford; there being fortifications on the
borders of the river Ouse. It is an inland county, bounded on the north
by Huntingdonshire and Northamptonshire; west by Buckinghamshire; south
by Bucks and Herts; and east by Herts and Cambridgeshire. Its form
approaches an irregular parallelogram, with many deep and almost
isolated indentations. The extent is about 36 miles in the greatest
length, and the greatest breadth about 22 miles; it contains 465 square
miles; circumference about 95 miles. It is divided into 9 hundreds, 125
parishes, 10 market towns, 58 vicarages, 550 villages, having a total
population of 95,383 inhabitants. It belongs to the Norfolk circuit, and
is in the diocese of Lincoln; subject to an archdeaconal jurisdiction,
being divided into six deaneries. The climate is deemed mild and genial.
The prevailing winds south westerly; the north east winds being regarded
as indicating a cold summer and a severe winter. The soil is of an
exceedingly mixed and varied character; but much the greatest portion is
of a clayey nature, particularly in parts north of Bedford. The south
districts are chalky. A slip extending diagonally from Woburn to near
Biggleswade is a mixed sand; an almost equal portion from the vicinity
of Biggleswade to the neighbourhood of Bedford, partakes of a rich
gravelly soil; part of which, near the town of Biggleswade and village
of Sandy, is successfully cultivated for the production of garden
vegetables to a considerable extent. So peculiarly is that soil adapted
for such produce, that it is in some instances let for more than £14.
per acre; and generally from £4. to £9. may be considered as a fair rent
for that luxuriant soil. There can be no standard or real average as to
the value of land; as the value, like the soil itself, is exceedingly
variable. Rivers.--The Ouse and the Ivel are the chief; both of which
abound with fish of various kinds. The Ouse is remarkable for very great
and sudden inundations. The Grand Junction Canal skirts this county at
Leighton Buzzard. The natural produce consists chiefly in corn, garden
vegetables, cheese and butter. There is a little ironstone, limestone,
and a few extraneous fossils. There are several mineral springs, but
none of any celebrity. The principal landed proprietor is the Duke of
Bedford. His Grace possesses estates in about 25 parishes; under the
auspices of whom and of his illustrious brother, the county is indebted
for immense agricultural improvements.

[Sidenote: An inland county.]

[Sidenote: Climate mild.]

[Sidenote: Value of the land.]

   Map|Names of Places.|  County. |  Number of Miles From    |
   +--+----------------+----------+-------------+------------+
     3|Bedford[A]    bo|Bedford   |St. Albans 30|Oxford    55|
    22|Bedford       to|Lancaster |Newton      7|Leigh      2|
    16|Bedhampton    pa|Hants     |Havant      1|Fareham    9|
    36|Bedingfield   pa|Suffolk   |Eye         4|Debenham   4|
    27|Bedingham     pa|Norfolk   |Bungay      4|Harleston  7|
    16|Bedlam        pa|Gloucester|Cheltenham  2|Gloucester 7|
   +---+---------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.| Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+------------------------+-----+------+
     3|Bedford[A]    bo|Cambridge             30|   51|  6959|
    22|Bedford       to|Bolton                 7|  199|  3087|
    16|Bedhampton    pa|Chichester            10|   66|   537|
    36|Bedingfield   pa|Framlingham            9|   87|   332|
    27|Bedingham     pa|Norwich               10|  106|   380|
    16|Bedlam        pa|Tewkesbury             7|   96|      |
   +--+----------------+------------------------+-----+------+


[A] BEDFORD. This is an ancient corporation, the earliest charter of
which is dated in 1160. It is governed by a mayor, recorder, aldermen,
two chamberlains, and thirteen common councilmen. Whoever may have been
a mayor is always afterwards reputed as an alderman. The mayor and
bailiffs are chosen annually out of the freemen. As early as the year
1295, it sent two members to parliament. The Duke of Bedford takes his
title from this town, which first gave title of duke to the victorious
prince John Plantagenet, Regent of France, during the minority of his
nephew, Henry VI. as it did in the reign of Edward IV. first to John
Nevil, Marquis of Montacute, and then to the king's third son, George
Plantagenet; but he dying an infant, the title lay vacant till Henry
VII. created his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, who also died
without issue; and thus far the title was enjoyed by the first possessor
only of each family. But King Edward VI. making John, Lord Russel, Earl
of Bedford, the dignity has ever since been in that illustrious house,
with an advancement of it to the title of Duke, by King William III. The
history of the noble family of Russell is curious and interesting. They
appear to have originated in Dorsetshire, and owe their greatness to an
accident on that coast. In the reign of Henry VII., Philip, Archduke of
Austria, being bound for Spain, the heiress of which kingdom he had
married, was obliged by a storm to put on shore at Weymouth, where he
was received by Sir Thomas Frenchard, of Wolverton, Knt., who, till he
could inform the court of the event, sent for his neighbour Mr. John
Russell, then lately returned from his travels, to entertain his
illustrious guests. The Archduke was so pleased with his conversation,
that he recommended him to the king of England, who soon advanced him to
several honourable posts, and his son Henry VIII. created him Baron
Russell of Cheneys, in the county of Bucks, which estate he afterwards
acquired by marriage. He was made by Henry VIII. lord warden of the
stannaries, and lord admiral of England and Ireland, knight of the
garter, and lord privy seal. In the reign of Edward VI. he was lord high
steward for the coronation, and had a grant of Woburn Abbey, and was in
the 3rd of Edward VI. 1549, created earl of Bedford. He had the honour
to conduct over to England, Philip of Spain, grandson to the prince who
first brought him to court and advancement. He died 1554, and was
succeeded by his son Francis, who died in 1585, and was buried at
Cheneys, as were most of his descendants. His son Francis being killed a
day or two before his father's death, by the Scotch in the marches, his
son Edward succeeded his grandfather, and died 1627; he was succeeded by
his cousin Francis, son of his uncle William, lord Russell, of
Thornhaugh, lord deputy of Ireland, in the reign of Elizabeth. This
Francis was the first projector of the draining of the great level of
the fens, called after him, Bedford Level, and dying 1641, was succeeded
by his eldest son William, who after having several times joined both
parties during the civil war, at last adhered to the royal cause, and
suffered a severe loss in the death of his only son by the very family
whom he had supported; to compensate for which he was created by King
William, Marquis of Tavistock, and Duke of Bedford, and dying in 1700,
was succeeded by his grandson Wriothesley. He, in 1711, by his son and
namesake, and he 1732, by his brother John, who, dying in 1771, was
succeeded by his grandson Francis, the late duke, who died rather
suddenly, of an illness occasioned by a rupture, on the 2nd of March,
1802, in the 37th year of his age. His brother, Lord John Russell,
succeeded him in his title and estates. This nobleman, so suddenly and
unexpectedly raised to ducal honours, was born on the sixth of July,
1766; and, on the 21st of March, 1786, before he had completed his
twentieth year, he married at Brussels, Georgiana Elizabeth, the second
daughter of Viscount Torrington. This lady died on the 11th of October,
1801; leaving issue, Francis, born May 10, 1788; George William, born
May 8, 1790; and John, born August 19, 1792. Shortly after his accession
to the title, his grace married a second time, Georgiana, the fifth
daughter of the duke of Gordon, by whom he had several children. After
the death of Mr. Pitt, when Mr. Fox and his friends succeeded to power,
his grace was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; a post which,
without distinguishing himself as a party man, he filled to the entire
and general satisfaction of the public. When Henry II. granted a charter
to the burgesses of the town of Bedford, he rendered it subject to the
payment of £40. per annum, as a fee-farm rent to the crown. Their
mercantile guild and ancient privileges were confirmed by the succeeding
monarch, who also granted new privileges and immunities similar to those
enjoyed by the burgesses of Oxford. Richard II. granted still more
extended privileges, and among others a view of Frankpledge within the
borough. In this monarch's charter the corporation are styled the mayor,
bailiffs, and burgesses. In the reign of Edward I. the liberties of the
town were seized by that monarch, the bailiffs having neglected to
discharge the fee-farm rent. In the reign of Henry VI. the town being
much decayed, many houses gone to ruin, and the trade of it brought low,
and the usual issues discontinued, the inhabitants petitioned the king
to shew them his grace: accordingly he granted that the yearly rent
should be remitted in part for a time. In the reign of Henry VII. it was
permanently reduced, through the interposition of Sir Reginald Bray,
then Prime Minister, to £20. per annum, and afterwards to £16. 5s. 8d.
which rent is now payable to their successors. The last renewal of the
charter of incorporation was in the reign of King James II. in whose
time the mayor and aldermen were removed from their respective offices,
by royal mandate, for neglecting to elect two burgesses to serve in
parliament. The members were in consequence chosen by his Majesty's
ministers. The right of election was determined in 1690, to be in the
burgesses, freemen, and inhabitant householders not receiving alms. The
number of voters is nearly 500. Bedford is a place of great antiquity,
and is supposed by some writers to have been the Lactidorum of
Antoninus; but Camden objects to this, on the ground that the town is
not situated on any Roman road, neither have any Roman coins been found
there. Its situation is upon the Ouse, by which it is divided into two
parts, in the direction of east and west. This circumstance enables it
to carry on a considerable trade with Lynn. In the Saxons' time, Bedford
was a place of considerable consequence: as appears from its having been
chosen by Offa, the powerful King of the Mercians, for his burial place.
His bones were interred in a small chapel, which being situated on the
brink of the river Ouse, was afterwards undermined and swept away by the
floods, during an inundation. Bedford, as has been already stated, was
also famous for a victory gained in the year 572, by Cuthwlf, the Saxon
king, over the Britons. The Danes once destroyed this town; but Edward
the Elder repaired it, and united the town on the south side of the
river, called Mikesgate, to Bedford, on the north side of it; since
which they have both gone by this name. After the conquest, Pain de
Beauchamp, the third Baron of Bedford, built a castle here, encompassed
with a mighty rampart of earth, and a high wall, the whole so strong
that King Stephen, who besieged and took it in his war with the Empress
Maud, was glad to grant the garrison honourable terms. In the barons'
wars it was again besieged, and for want of relief, taken by King John's
forces under Fulco de Brent, to whom the King gave it for a reward; but
for his subsequent behaviour he took it from him, and caused it to be
demolished, though it was not quite level till the reign of Henry III.
The celebrated John Bunyan, whom we shall notice hereafter, was ordained
co-pastor of the congregation of St. Peter's, in 1671, and continued in
that situation until he died in 1688. The chair in which he used to sit
is still preserved as a relic in the vestry of the chapel. As early as
the year 1745, the Moravians, or society of Unitas Fratrum, had an
establishment at Bedford, where they built a neat chapel in 1750. Of
late years, however, the number of these recluse and inoffensive
sectaries has considerably declined; and the house adjoining to the
chapel, which was formerly appropriated to the brethren and the sisters
of the society, has been converted into a school. In the year 1556, Sir
William Harper founded a free school in Bedford, for the instruction of
children of the town in grammar and good manners. The school-house was
rebuilt in 1767, when a statue of the founder was placed in the front,
with a latin inscription beneath, to the following effect:--

   "Behold, Traveller, the Bodily Resemblance
         Of Sir William Harper, Knight;
                Of this School,
           Thus spacious and Adorned,
            The Munificent Founder,
            The Picture of His Mind,
   Is Dedicated in the Table of Benefactions."

The warden and fellows of New College, Oxford, are visitors of this
school, and have the appointment of the masters and ushers. The master's
salary is £260. with coals and candles; that of the second master is
£160., with the same allowance of fire and candle. The writing-master
has a salary of £80. per annum. Sir William Harper, for the support of
this excellent institution, conveyed to the corporation thirteen acres
and one rood of land, lying in the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, which
he had purchased for the sum of £180.; he also conveyed his late
dwelling-house, &c., at Bedford. The revenues of these estates were also
to be applied towards apportioning maidens of the town on their entrance
into the marriage estate. In the year 1660, the corporation leased the
whole of the lands in the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, for the term of
41 years, at the yearly rent of £99. In the year 1684, a reversionary
lease was granted for the further term of 51 years, at the improved rent
of £150. In consequence of granting these leases, a great number of
houses were built, and the following streets covered the above-mentioned
thirteen acres of meadow land:--Bedford-street, Bedford-row,
Bedford-court, Princes-street, Theobald's-road, North-street,
East-street, Lamb's Conduit-street, Queen-street, Eagle-street,
Boswell-court, Queen-street, Harper-street, Richbell-court, Hand-court,
Gray's Inn-passage, Three Cup-yard, &c. The annual rent of these
buildings is now considerably increased, and it is expected that in a
few years it will amount to upwards of £30,000. This extraordinary
increase of revenue occasioned the trustees to apply to parliament for
two several acts to regulate its disposal, and to extend the objects of
the charity. By the priorism contained in these acts of parliament, the
maintenance of the master and usher of the grammar-school, and the
maintenance of a master, and two ushers to the English school, is
provided. Three exhibitions of £40. per annum, are given to scholars
from the free school, either at Oxford or Cambridge, during the space of
six years. The sum of £800. per annum is appropriated for marriage
portions, to be given by lot in sums of £20. each, to forty poor maidens
of Bedford, of good fame and reputation, not under sixteen years of age,
and not exceeding fifty. They are not to marry within two months after
receiving the marriage portion, otherwise to forfeit it. The men to whom
they are to be married must not be vagrants or persons of bad fame or
reputation. A yearly sum of £3,000. per annum is also appropriated by
the last act, for the maintenance of twenty-six boys in an hospital or
school of industry, and £700. to be laid out in apprentice fees for
fifteen poor boys and five girls, to be chosen by lot. The trustees have
likewise been enabled to build alms-houses for a number of poor men and
women. The weekly allowance to each is 3s., and 40s. annually for
clothing. If a poor man and his wife live together, they are allowed to
the amount of 5s. per week. One hundred pounds per annum is appropriated
to be given in sums of £5. each, to twenty poor girls upon their going
out to service. The residue of the income is to be laid out in
buildings, and in endowing more alms-houses, or building cottages to be
let at a low rent to the poor. Here are also a house of industry, and an
infirmary, which are well supported. Lace-making employs a great number
of the lower classes, both in the town and county of Bedford. The lace
is chiefly made by women; and children at the early age of four years
are set down to it. On certain days, the persons appointed by the
dealers collect the lace of the different villages, and convey it to the
London market. A strong stone bridge connects the northern and southern
parts of the town. "This bridge," says Grose, "is one hundred and
sixteen yards in length, four and a half broad, and has a parapet three
feet and a half high; this, it is said, was erected in the reign of
Queen Mary, out of the ruins of St. Dunstan's church, which stood on the
south side of the bridge. It has seven arches, and near the centre were
two gate-houses; that on the north, being used for a prison, and that on
the south served as a store-house for the arms and ammunition of the
troops quartered here. These gate-houses were taken down in the year
1765, and six lamps set up on posts at proper distances." The town-hall,
or sessions-house, in which the assizes for the county are holden, is
situated in an area before St. Paul's church. It was erected in the year
1753, and is a capacious and handsome structure.

   _Markets_, Tuesday and Saturday.--_Fairs_, First Tuesday in Lent,
   April 21, July 5, Aug. 21, Oct. 11, and Dec. 19, for all kinds of
   cattle.--_Mail_ arrives 1.14 morning; departs 2.54
   afternoon.--_Banker_, Thomas Barnard, draws on Kay and Co.--_Inns_,
   George, and Swan.

[Sidenote: Very ancient corporation.]

[Sidenote: Origin of the Bedford family.]

[Sidenote: Bedford Level.]

[Sidenote: First charter granted by Henry II.]

[Sidenote: King Offa buried here.]

[Sidenote: John Bunyan.]

[Sidenote: Noble charity, founded by Sir William Harper.]

[Sidenote: Its revenues.]

[Sidenote: Alms-houses.]

[Sidenote: Lace-making, the chief trade.]

   Map|Names of Places. | County.|  Number of Miles From      |
   +--+-----------------+--------+---------------+------------+
    29|Bedlington[A]  pa|Durham  |Morpeth       4|Blyth     14|
    21|Bedmanton     ham|Kent    |Sittingbourne 5|Lenham     3|
    34|Bedminster     pa|Somerset|Bristol       1|Dundry     3|
    35|Bednall        to|Stafford|Penkridge     3|Rugeley    7|
    33|Bedston        pa|Salop   |Knighton      4|Ludlow    11|
    26|Bedwas         pa|Monmouth|Newport      10|Cardiff    9|
     3|Bedwall Green ham|Bedford |Dunstable     2|Toddington 3|
    26|Bedwelty       pa|Monmouth|Newport      16|Pontypool 10|
   +--+-----------------+--------+---------------+------------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places. | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+------------------------+------------+
    29|Bedlington[A]  pa|Newcastle             12|  286|  2120|
    21|Bedmanton     ham|Maidstone              8|   42|      |
    34|Bedminster     pa|Weston                19|  119| 13130|
    35|Bednall        to|Stafford               4|  134|      |
    33|Bedston        pa|Bishops' Cas.         10|  153|   159|
    26|Bedwas         pa|Pontypool             10|  158|   756|
     3|Bedwall Green ham|Hockliffe              5|   36|      |
    26|Bedwelty       pa|Abergavenn.           14|  159| 10637|
   +--+-----------------+------------------------+-----+------+


[A] BEDLINGTON, though within the county of Northumberland, belongs to
Chester ward, in the county of Durham. It lies between the rivers
Wansbeck and Blythe. The monks of Durham, in their flight to
Lindisfarne, before the arms of the Conqueror, with the incorruptible
body of St. Cuthbert, rested all night here. The Rev. Francis Woodmas,
the expositor of St. Chrysostom, was vicar here from 1696 to 1710. The
Bedlington blast furnace, for smelting iron, was some years since taken
down. At the Bebside and Bedlington Mills, about fifty men are employed.
An unsuccessful attempt was a few years ago made to establish a
manufactory of printed cottons at Stannington bridge, in this
neighbourhood.

[Sidenote: Blast furnaces.]

   Map| Names of Places.  | County. |  Number of Miles From       |
   +--+-------------------+---------+-------------+---------------+
    41|Bedwin, Great[A] pa|Wilts    |Marlborough 7|Ramsbary      5|
    41|Bedwin, Little   pa|Wilts    | ...        8|  ...         4|
    39|Bedworth         pa|Warwick  |Nuneaton    4|Longford      2|
    23|Beeby            pa|Leicester|Leicester   6|Houghton      3|
    35|Beech            to|Warwick  |Stafford    7|Eccleshall    6|
     4|Beech Hill       ti|Berks    |Reading     7|Aldermaston   5|
    41|Beechingstoke    pa|Wilts    |Devizes     5|Pewsey        5|
    38|Beeding, Upper   pa|Sussex   |Steyning    1|Shoreham      5|
    38|Beeding, Lower   ti|Sussex   |  ...       2| ...          5|
     4|Beedon           pa|Berks    |E. Ilsley   3|Newbury       7|
    43|Beeford     pa & to|E.R. York|Driffield   7|Bridlington  10|
    10|Beeley         chap|Derby    |Bakewell    3|Chesterfield 10|
    21|Beelsby          pa|Lincoln  |Caistor     5|Grimsby       7|
     4|Beenham          pa|Berks    |Reading     8|Newbury       9|
    11|Beer           chap|Devon    |Colyton     3|Honiton      10|
    34|Beer               |Somerset |Bridgewater 4|Stowey        5|
    11|Beerhall           |Devon    |Bridport    8|Honiton      10|
    11|Beeralston[B]    to|Devon    |Tavistock   6|Plymouth      7|
   +--+-------------------+---------+-------------+---------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------+-----------------------+-----+---------+
    41|Bedwin, Great[A] pa|Hungerford            6|   71|     2191|
    41|Bedwin, Little   pa|  ...                 5|   70|      587|
    39|Bedworth         pa|Coventry              5|   96|     3980|
    23|Beeby            pa|Melton                9|  104|      120|
    35|Beech            to|Newcastle             8|  141|         |
     4|Beech Hill       ti|Kingsclere            7|   46|      249|
    41|Beechingstoke    pa|Lavington             6|   86|      187|
    38|Beeding, Upper   pa|Brighton             10|   51|      589|
    38|Beeding, Lower   ti| ...                 10|   51|      533|
     4|Beedon           pa|Hungerford           12|   57|      306|
    43|Beeford     pa & to|Beverley             13|  196|      894|
    10|Beeley         chap|Matlock               6|  150|      441|
    21|Beelsby          pa|Louth                18|  164|      158|
     4|Beenham          pa|Pangbourn             6|   47|      360|
    11|Beer           chap|Sidmouth              7|  153|         |
    34|Beer               |Watchet              14|  143|         |
    11|Beerhall           |Crewkerne            14|  147|         |
    11|Beeralston[B]    to|Saltash               4|  213|         |
   +--+-------------------+-----------------------+-----+---------+


[A] BEDWIN was a market-town, and supposed by Stukeley to have been the
Leucomagus of the Romans; it certainly was a chief city of the Saxons,
who built a castle there. It was a borough by prescription, sending two
members to parliament, and is governed by a portreeve, and exercises
many of its original rights, although considerably reduced in
population. The church, a cruciform building of flints, with a central
tower, is ancient and curious in itself, and for the monuments which it
contains. The obtusely pointed arches of the nave, ornamented with
zig-zag and billetted mouldings, rest on capitals, richly adorned with
flowers, grotesque heads, and other figures. In the south transept are
two tombs, which commemorate Adam and Roger de Stocre, Lords, according
to Leland, of "Stoke Haulle thereby." The chancel contains the noble
altar monument of Sir John Seymour, of Wolphall, father of the
Protector, Somerset, and other distinguished persons. Near this tomb are
two brass plates, on one of which is the figure of a lady, with her
hands folded, and the inscription--"Julia Seymour;" the other
commemorates a son of Sir John Seymour. The manor of Bedwin, which once
belonged to Gilbert, Earl of Clare, husband of Anna d'Acres, was
purchased by the late Earl of Aylesbury. This place gave birth, in 1621,
to Dr. Thomas Willis, a learned physician, who wrote several works on
his art, was appointed physician in ordinary to Charles II., and died of
pleurisy in 1675. On Castle-hill is an entrenchment, in area two acres,
with some foundations, supposed to be those of a castle, founded by the
Saxons. Chisbury Castle is an entrenchment more than fifteen acres in
extent, supposed to have been begun by the Britons, and sometime
occupied by the Romans. The neighbouring village of Little Bedwin has a
church built of flints, in the Anglo-Norman style of architecture, with
a nave, aisles, chancel, and tower.

   _Market_, formerly Tuesday (disused).--_Fairs_, April 23, and July
   26, for horses, cows, and sheep.

[Sidenote: Monument of Julia Seymour, sister to Lady Jane Grey.]


[B] BEERALSTON. This place once had the privilege of sending two members
to parliament. It is chiefly inhabited by labourers employed in
agriculture and mining. The borough was under the influence of the Earl
of Beverley. The right of election was vested in those who had land in
the borough, and paid three-pence acknowledgment to the Lord of the
Manor, who varied the number of electors at his pleasure, by granting
burgage-tenures, which were generally resigned when the election was
concluded, to as many of his partisans as were requisite. The portreeve,
chosen annually in the Lord's court, was the returning-officer. The
first members were returned in the twenty-seventh of Elizabeth. Risdon
mentions that Beare was bestowed by William the Conqueror on a family
descended from the house of Alencon in France, and that it still
continues its name under the corruption of Bere-Alson. In the reign of
Henry II., Henry Ferrers had a castle here, which came to the possession
of his descendant Martin Ferrers, the last of the house, in the time of
Edward III. The manor then came to the Champernounes, and passed
respectively through the families of Willoughby, Mountjoy, Maynard, and
Stamford, to the present possessor, the Duke of Northumberland. In this
place are several lead-mines, now of inconsiderable value, though
sometimes impregnated with silver; but in the reign of Edward I., it is
said, that in the space of three years 1,600 pounds weight of silver was
obtained. Since that time no considerable quantity has ever been
procured.

[Sidenote: Electioneering abuses.]

   Map|  Names of Places.     |County.   | Number of Miles from  |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+
    34|Berecrocombe         pa|Somerset  |Ilminster 5|Taunton   7|
    11|Bere Ferris[A]       pa|Devon     |Saltash   3|Plymouth  6|
    12|Bere Hacket          pa|Devon     |Sherborne 4|Yeovil    4|
    12|Bere Regis[B] m.t. & pa|Dorset    |Wareham   7|Blandford 9|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.       |Number of Miles from  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+----------------------+-----+------+
    34|Berecrocombe         pa|Somerton            12|  135|   182|
    11|Bere Ferris[A]       pa|Tavistock            8|  215|  1876|
    12|Bere Hacket          pa|Beaminster          12|  121|   110|
    12|Bere Regis[B] m.t. & pa|Dorchester          12|  113|  1170|
   +--+-----------------------+----------------------+-----+------+


[A] BERE FERRIS. This parish is situated south by west from Tavistock.
Here, observes Risdon, "lieth Ley, the ancient possession of a family so
called, whence the name tooke that honor; for from hence Sir James Ley,
Knt., Lord Chief Justice of England, and High Treasurer, created
afterwards Earle of Marlborough, descended; a lawgiver in the chief
place of justice, and a preserver of venerable antiquity, whose noble
thoughts were so fixed on virtue, and his discourses embellished with
wisdome, and his heart with integrity, that his words did never bite,
nor his actions wrong any man, to give him just cause of complaynt."
Amongst several ancient monuments in Bere-Ferris Church, is one under an
arched recess, of a cross-legged knight half inclined on his right side,
with his right hand on his sword; and another of a knight and his lady,
under a richly ornamented arch in the chancel. Among the figures painted
on the east window is that of William Ferrers, who was probably the
builder of this fabric, as he is represented kneeling, and holding the
model of a church in his hand.

[Sidenote: A honest lawyer.]


[B] BERE REGIS is situated in the Blandford division of the county. Drs.
Stukeley and Coker conjecture that this place was the site of a Roman
station; an opinion which is confirmed by a large entrenchment upon
Woodbury Hill, about half a mile north-east of the parish. The area of
this place, which contains about ten acres, is surrounded by triple
ramparts, that in some places are high and deep. On the summit, which
commands a very extensive prospect, a fair is annually holden. This fair
begins on the Nativity of the Virgin, and continues through the five
following days: though of late years it has much decreased; it was once
the most considerable in the west of England. Queen Elfrida, to whom the
manor belonged, is said to have retired to her seat in this place, after
the murder of her son-in-law, Edward the Martyr. King John also appears
to have made it his residence. In the reign of Henry III. the manor was
bestowed on Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester; but, as a consequence
attending his rebellion, it was taken from him, and granted to the
King's brother, Edmund. Edmund gave a moiety of it to the Abbess of
Tarent, who, in the reign of Edward I. claimed for her manor of Bere a
fair, a market, a free-warren, and the whole forest of Bere. Her moiety
of these was granted her. At the dissolution, Henry VIII., for the sum
of £680. 16s. 8d. granted the manor to Robert Turberville, to whose
ancestors the other moiety had belonged for ages. The mansion of the
Turbervilles still remains: it is an ancient irregular structure, built
with stone, and its windows contain various quarterings of the
Turberville family and its alliances. Bere Regis, though it does not
appear ever to have been represented in parliament, was incorporated in
the time of Edward I. Its market is ancient, as appears from King John's
having confirmed it to the inhabitants. The church is a large and
handsome structure, and contains numerous monuments of the Turberville
and other families. The town of Bere Regis has suffered twice by fire:
once in 1634, and again in 1788. After the latter fire the inhabitants
found shelter in the booths erected for the fair. The most distinguished
natives of the place have been James Turberville, Bishop of Exeter, and
John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury.

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fair_, September 18.

[Sidenote: The residence of Queen Elfrida.]

   Map|Names of Places.       |County.   |Number of Miles from      |
   +--+-----------------------+----------+-------------+-------------
     9|Bees, St.[A]    to & pa|Cumberland|Egremont    3|Whitehaven 4|
    24|Beesby               pa|Lincoln   |Louth       9|Grimsby    9|
    24|Beesby in the Marsh, pa|Lincoln   |Alford      3|Saltfleet 10|
     3|Beeston              to|Bedford   |Biggleswade 3|Tempsford  3|
   +--+-----------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                       |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.       |Number of Miles from    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+------------------------+-----+-----+
     9|Bees, St.[A]    to & pa|Buttermere            13|  296|  517|
    24|Beesby               pa|M. Raisin             12|  158|   99|
    24|Beesby in the Marsh, pa|Louth                  9|  144|  132|
     3|Beeston              to|Bedford                8|   48|  258|
   +--+-----------------------+------------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BEES, (ST.) This ancient village is situated in the Ward of
Allerdale, west by north from Egremont. It is understood to have derived
its name and origin from a religious house, which was founded here about
the year 650, by St. Bega, an Irish nun of great sanctity. On the death
of Bega, a church was erected in honour of her virtues; but both these
establishments having been destroyed by the Danes, William, son of
Ranulph de Meschines, replaced them by a new foundation of Benedictine
monks, and made it a cell to the Abbey of St. Mary at York: in the time
of Henry I. The manor was granted after the dissolution to Sir Thomas
Chaloner, by Edward VI. in the last year of his reign. It next became
the property of a family named Wyberg, from whom, under a fore-closed
mortgage, it passed to an ancestor of the Earl of Lonsdale, about the
year 1663. St. Bees church, which was erected about the time of Henry
I., had the form of a cross, and great part of it is yet standing. The
east-end is unroofed, and in ruins: the nave, however, is fitted up as
the parish church, and the cross aisle is used as a place of sepulchre.
The ancient chancel has narrow lancet windows, ornamented with double
mouldings, and pilasters, with rich capitals. At the east end are
niches, of a singular form, with pointed arches, supported on well
proportioned pillars, having capitals adorned with rich engravings. The
whole edifice is of red free-stone. A free grammar school was founded in
the village of St. Bees by Archbishop Girandal, under a charter from
Queen Elizabeth, towards the close of the sixteenth century. This
prelate was born in the neighbouring village of Helsingham, in the year
1519. He was educated at Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship at
Pembroke Hall. Being attached to the principles of the Reformation,
Bishop Ridley made him his chaplain, and precentor of St. Pauls. He was
also appointed chaplain to the King, and prebendary of Westminster; but
on the accession of Mary he retired to Germany, and settled at
Strasburgh. When Elizabeth ascended the throne he returned home, and was
employed in revising the Litany. In 1559 he was chosen master of
Pembroke Hall, and the same year preferred to the see of London, from
whence, in 1570 he was translated to York, and in 1575 to Canterbury.
Two years afterwards he was suspended from his archiepiscopal functions,
for refusing to obey the Queen's order to suppress prophecyings, or the
associations of the clergy to expound the Scriptures. His sequestration
was taken off, though he never completely recovered the royal favour. He
died at Croydon, 1583. He contributed to Fox's acts and monuments. James
I. afterwards increased the endowments, which have been since augmented
by divers benefactors. Several scholars of great eminence have received
the rudiments of education in this seminary. It is remarkable, however,
that, till a few years ago, the school had not undergone any material
change since its foundation. Occasional repairs were indeed found
absolutely necessary for the support of the buildings, but no
improvement seems ever to have been attempted. Through the munificence
of the Earl of Lonsdale this long respected seminary has been put into
complete order, and made more suitable to the purpose intended by the
pious founder than it had been at any time since its erection. Exclusive
of what has been done at the spacious school-room, the library is
rendered more commodious. The master's house, which adjoins the school,
has been enlarged, some parts of it rebuilt, a good garden well walled
round, and the whole made a very comfortable and eligible residence.

[Sidenote: Early history.]

[Sidenote: Archbishop Girandal.]

   Map|Names of Places.      |County.   |Number of Miles from
   +--+----------------------+----------+-------------+-------------
     7|Beeston[A]          to|Chester   |Nantwich    7|Tarporley  2|
    27|Beeston             pa|Norfolk   |Swaffham    7|E. Dereham 6|
    30|Beeston             pa|Nottingham|Nottingham  4|Chilwell   1|
    45|Beeston           chap|W.R. York |Leeds       2|Birstall   5|
    27|Beeston, St. Andrew  p|Norfolk   |Norwich     4|Worstead   9|
    27|Beeston, St. Lawren. p|Norfolk   |Coltishall  4| ...       3|
    27|Beeston Regis       pa|Norfolk   |Cromer      4|Holt       7|
    40|Beethom[B]     pa & to|Westmorlnd|Burton      4|Millthorpe 1|
    27|Beetley             pa|Norfolk   |E. Dereham  4|Foulsham   6|
    31|Begbrook            pa|Oxford    |Woodstock   3|Oxford     6|
    34|Beggerielge        ham|Somerset  |Bath        4|Frome      9|
   +--+----------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
      |                                               |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.      |Number of Miles from    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
     7|Beeston[A]          to|Whitchurch            14|  171|    434|
    27|Beeston             pa|Castle Acre            5|  100|    702|
    30|Beeston             pa|Ashby                 16|  124|   2530|
    45|Beeston           chap|Huddersfield           9|  190|   2128|
    27|Beeston, St. Andrew  p|Acle                   9|  113|     49|
    27|Beeston, St. Lawren. p|Norwich               11|  120|     52|
    27|Beeston Regis       pa|Cley                   8|  126|    246|
    40|Beethom[B]     pa & to|Kendal                10|  252|   1639|
    27|Beetley             pa|Fakenham               9|  104|    381|
    31|Begbrook            pa|Islip                  5|   60|    102|
    34|Beggerielge        ham|Beckington             6|  110|    ...|
   +--+---------------------+-------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BEESTON. Near this village are the remains of a castle, once deemed
impregnable; it is situated on a sandstone rock, 366 feet in
perpendicular height. So strong was this fortress considered, that it
became a proverb in the neighbourhood to say, "It is as strong as
Beeston Castle." The area contains five acres, and was rendered
unapproachable by means of a very wide ditch. In the reign of Charles I.
it underwent a lengthened siege, or rather blockade, for all
communications were cut off with the neighbourhood for a long term; at
last it was compelled to surrender, and the parliament ordered it to be
dismantled. During the period of the threatened invasion of the French,
in 1803, this castle was fixed upon by the lieutenancy of the county, as
the site for a signal station and beacon. The ancient and craggy walls
are beautifully mantled over with a luxuriant covering of ivy, and the
base of the hill abounds with several varieties of rare plants. The well
of the castle is nearly 300 feet deep, and the peasantry firmly believe
that it contains a vast store of riches, which have been thrown into it
during the civil wars. A mineral spring was discovered here a few years
ago. The inhabitants of Chester consider it a favourite holiday
indulgence to visit this castle in a pleasure excursion; and by
application to an old woman in the village, who may be considered the
female warden of the place, travellers can be conducted to the summit of
the building. The views from the ramparts are beautiful, extending over
the whole Vale Royal of Cheshire, to the estuaries of the rivers Mersey
and Dee: that side of the hill which forms a precipice rises
perpendicularly 160 feet from the base of the elevation, and upon
looking down from the high pinnacle of the castle wall, it is sufficient
to call to remembrance the sublime poetic effusion of our immortal
bard:--

       "How fearful
   And dizzy 'tis, to cast ones eyes so low,
   The crows and choughs, that wing the mid-way air,
   Shew scarce as gross as beetles.

       I'll look no more,
   Lest my brain turn, and the deficient sight,
   Topple down headlong."

[Sidenote: Castle on a rock.]

[Sidenote: A favourite place of resort.]


[B] BEETHOM. This mountainous and highly interesting parish is situated
in the Kendal Ward, at the south-western extremity of the county of
Westmoreland, on both sides of estuaries of the river Kent, which is
navigable for small craft as far as the hamlet of Storch, and comprises
the chapelries of Witherslack, and the townships of Beetham, Farleton,
Haverbrack, and Methop, with Ulpha. The parish church is dedicated to
St. Michael, the patron saint of mountainous and hilly parishes: it is a
neat building, situated in a fine vale, or holm ground, commanding the
richest variety of wood, water, and rocky scenery. Here are two fine old
monuments to the memory of Thomas de Beetham and his lady, who lived in
the reign of Richard III. Here was anciently a chapel, dedicated to St.
John, and near it, in a garden, a considerable number of human bones
were dug up; it was situated about forty yards from the present
school-house. Some few years since a mole cast up an amber bead, and
with it an oval piece of silver, about the size of a shilling; it was
perforated through the middle, and on one side was an impression of the
crucifixion, with the letters J.N.R.J.; on the right of which was a
crescent, and on the left a rising sun; at the bottom, the Virgin Mary,
in a weeping attitude: on the reverse, a lamb, with a standard, and St.
Andrews' cross. The parsonage, or rectory-house, which stood on the
north-east corner of the churchyard, was formerly called the college of
St. Mary's. The Hilton family had also a handsome house near this spot,
which was enlarged and improved by George Hilton, an eccentric squire,
and well known character in this neighbourhood about the commencement of
the last century. This George Hilton was a Roman Catholic, and joined
the Scotch rebels in 1715, upon whose defeat he made his escape, but was
pardoned by the act of grace the year following, and afterwards retired
to a house which he built at the south end of Beethom Park. Mr. Hutton,
the historian of this place, says, "that he discovered a diary, in an
old chest, which was kept by this gentleman, taken by himself every
night, but which was afterwards lost. 'On Sunday, (says he in one
place,) I vowed to abstain from three things during the ensuing week
(Lent), viz. women, eating of flesh, and drinking of wine; but, alas!
the frailty of good resolutions. I broke them all! Conversed with a
woman--was tempted to eat the wing of a fowl--and got drunk at
Milnthorp.'" Of this parish the Rev. William Hutton was vicar, who wrote
a folio book of collections for its history, which he deposited in the
vestry for the information of posterity, with blank pages to be filled
up as materials should occur. He was an amiable man, and an
indefatigable antiquarian. The old manor house, called the Hall of
Beethom, was a fine old castellated mansion, but now unfortunately in
ruins. One large apartment in this castle is still called the hall, and
according to the laudable practice of ancient hospitality, was devoted
to the purpose of entertaining the friends and dependants of the family:
and hence came the proverb--

   "'Tis merry in the hall When beards wag all."

The remains of a room, formerly used as a chapel, still exist; and the
ruins of this fine mansion are of considerable extent. The ruins of
another hall in this parish are also to be seen in Cappleside Demesne,
consisting of a front and two wings, comprising an extent of 117 feet of
frontage. Also an ancient tower, now in ruins, called Helslack Tower:
and another tower, called Arnside Tower; equally neglected. These towers
seem to have been intended to guard the Bay of Morecambe, as similar
buildings are erected on the opposite side of the river. A grammar
school was founded here in 1663, and rebuilt in 1827. It has an
endowment of about £40. a year, arising out of lands bequeathed for the
instruction of fifty poor boys.

[Sidenote: George Hilton, an eccentric character.]

[Sidenote: The Hall.]

   Map|Names of Places.| County.  |  Number of Miles From       |
   +--+----------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
    57|Begelley      pa|Pembroke  |Narbeth       4|Tenby       4|
    58|Beggars' Bush   |Radnor    |Knighton      8|Presteign   2|
    31|Beggars' Bush   |Oxford    |Nettlebed     4|Benson      2|
    58|Beguildy      pa|Radnor    |Knighton      6|New Radnor 12|
    21|Beigham         |Kent p    |Lamberhurst   3|Tunb. Wells 3|
    10|Beighton      pa|Derby     |Chesterfield 10|Sheffield   7|
    27|Beighton      pa|Norfolk   |Acle          2|Loddon      6|
    36|Beighton      pa|Suffolk   |Bury          6|Woolpit     2|
    46|Beilby to & chap|E.R. York |Pocklington   4|M. Weighton 6|
    27|Belaugh       pa|Norfolk   |Norwich       8|Worstead    5|
     9|Belbank       to|Cumberland|Brampton     10|Carlisle   15|
   +--+----------------+----------+---------------+-------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.| Number of Miles From     |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+
    57|Begelley      pa|Pembroke                14|  257|    996|
    58|Beggars' Bush   |New Radnor               6|  153|       |
    31|Beggars' Bush   |Wallingford              3|   44|       |
    58|Beguildy      pa|Bettws                   4|  171|   1043|
    21|Beigham         |Brenchley                5|   38|       |
    10|Beighton      pa|Eckington                2|  155|    980|
    27|Beighton      pa|Norwich                  9|  118|    262|
    36|Beighton      pa|Stow Market              8|   71|    238|
    46|Beilby to & chap|York                    13|  192|    239|
    27|Belaugh       pa|Coltishall               2|  116|    151|
     9|Belbank       to|Longtown                13|  321|    485|
   +--+----------------+--------------------------+-----+-------+

   Map|  Names of Places.    | County.  | Number of Miles From     |
   +--+----------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
     9|Belbank             to|Cumberland|Brampton   7|Carlisle   12|
    42|Belbroughton        pa|Worcester |Bromsgrove 5|Stourbridge 5|
    46|Belby               to|E.R. York |Howden     1|South Cave 11|
    12|Belchalwell         pa|Dorset    |Blandford  7|Sturminster 3|
    14|Belchamp Oten       pa|Essex     |Headingham 5|Sudbury     5|
    14|Belchamp, St. Pauls  p|Essex     |...        6|...         6|
    14|Belchamp Wallers[A] pa|Essex     |...        6|...         3|
    24|Belchford           pa|Lincoln   |Horncastle 5|Louth       8|
    29|Belford[B]   m.t. & pa|Northumb. |Newcastle 49|Alnwick     5|
    30|Belgh              ham|Nottingham|Worksop    5|Ollerton    6|
    23|Belgrave            pa|Leicester |Leicester  2|Loughboro'  9|
    29|Bellasis            to|Northumb. |Morpeth    5|Newcastle  10|
    46|Bellasize           to|E.R. York |Howden     5|South Cave  7|
    18|Bell Bar              |Herts     |Barnet     6|Hatfield    3|
    24|Belleau[C]          pa|Lincoln   |Alford     3|Louth       8|
   +--+----------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.    |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+----------+------------+-----+-------+
     9|Belbank             to|Longtown              9|  318|    127|
    42|Belbroughton        pa|Kidderminst           7|  121|   1489|
    46|Belby               to|Hull                 23|  181|     44|
    12|Belchalwell         pa|Shaftesbury          10|  110|    205|
    14|Belchamp Oten       pa|Clare                 4|   53|    397|
    14|Belchamp, St. Pauls  p| ...                  3|   54|    808|
    14|Belchamp Wallers[A] pa| ...                  5|   53|    670|
    24|Belchford           pa|Spilsby              10|  141|    490|
    29|Belford[B]   m.t. & pa|Berwich              15|  322|   2030|
    30|Belgh              ham|Mansfield             7|  143|       |
    23|Belgrave            pa|Derby                26|  100|   2329|
    29|Bellasis            to|Blyth                 8|  284|       |
    46|Bellasize           to|Blacktoft             3|  185|    189|
    18|Bell Bar              |Hertford              8|   17|       |
    24|Belleau[C]          pa|Saltfleet            12|  144|    107|
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BELCHAMP, or Belchamp Wallers, in the hundred of Hinckford, lies
north-east by north from Castle Headingham. The church, dedicated to the
Virgin Mary, is lofty and neat, and contains an orchestra, with a fine
toned organ. Here is a capacious vault which belongs to the Raymond
family; and an elegant marble monument dedicated to them in the chancel.
Mrs. Raymond has established in this village a Sunday school for fifty
children belonging to the poor. Belchamp Hall, in this parish, is the
residence of the Raymond's, one of whose ancestors came into England
with the Conqueror, and whose family have resided in this neighbourhood
upwards of two centuries. The house is a substantial and commodious
building, whose principal or south-eastern front is for the most part
composed of foreign bricks. It is situated on a pleasant lawn, sloping
gradually to a small river, within 200 yards of the front. A spacious
and extensive terrace, skirted with lofty trees, at the end of which is
an ancient building, ornamented with painted glass, lies to the south.
At the other end is a lofty mount, with another ornamental building on
its summit. This mansion contains an interesting collection of pictures
by some of the most esteemed masters; among them are the following:--The
Wise Men's Offering, an altar-piece; Albert Durer. This picture, with a
large gun, some pistols, and powder flasks, inlaid with gold and ivory,
were presented to the Raymonds, by Sir William Harris, a sea-officer,
who took them, with other property, on the defeat of the Spanish Armada,
in 1588. A three-quarter portrait of Sir Hugh Middleton, Bart., in whose
public spirit the New river originated, and another of his wife, are
both by Cornelius Jansen. Goldingham Hall, in the parish of Bulmer,
adjoining Belchamp, was the residence of Sir Hugh.

[Sidenote: Belchamp Hall.]


[B] BELFORD is a little market town pleasantly situated on the side of a
hill about two miles from the river Lear, and being a post-town, and on
the great north road, has several good inns. The buildings in general
are neat, and the church is a handsome structure, erected in 1700. Near
this place on a rising ground, are the ruins of an ancient chapel,
surrounded by several tall oaks; and at a little distance, are the
remains of a Danish camp, apparently of great strength, surrounded by a
deep ditch. The annual races formerly run at Beadnall, now take place at
this town.

   _Market_, Tuesday--_Fairs_, Tuesday before Whit-Sunday, and August
   23, for black cattle, sheep, and horses. The Edinburgh Mail arrives
   7.49 morning; departs 3.36 afternoon.--_Inn_, Blue Bell.


[C] BELLEAU. At this place, which takes it name from the excellent
springs that issue from the chalk hills in the neighbourhood, are the
ruins of what is called the Abbey. These consist of part of a turret,
and two gateways, which convey an idea of its being a place of
considerable importance. The walls are covered with ivy, and overhung
with lofty ash trees. After the civil war, this place was granted to the
eccentric Sir Harry Vane, who used to amuse himself on Sundays in
assembling here his country neighbours, to whom he addressed his pious
discourses. The church of Belleau is said, by Gough, to have been
attached to the neighbouring monastery of Ailby; but neither Tanner nor
the Monasticon mention such a religious house.

[Sidenote: Abbey Ruins.]

   Map|  Names of Places.     | County. |  Number of Miles From      |
   +--+-----------------------+---------+-------------+--------------+
    44|Bellerby           chap|N.R. York|Leyburn     1|Richmond     7|
    29|Bellingham[A] m.t. & pa|Northumb |Hexham     16|Haltwhistle 17|
    29|Bellister            to|Northumb | ...       16|Aldstone M. 12|
     7|Bell-on-the-Hill       |Chesire  |Chester    17|Whitchurch   3|
    32|Belmsthorpe         ham|Rutland  |Stamford    3|Ryhall       1|
    10|Belper[B]           ham|Derby    |Derby       8|Wirksworth   7|
    29|Belsey               to|Northumb |Newcastle  15|Morpeth     10|
    18|Belswains           ham|Herts    |H. Hempsted 2|Watford      7|
    36|Belstead             pa|Suffolk  |Ipswich     3|Hadleigh     8|
    11|Belstone             pa|Devon    |Oakhampton  2|Exeter      21|
    24|Beltoft             ham|Lincoln  |Gainsboro'  13|Burton     10|
    23|Belton               pa|Leicester|Asbhy       6|Kegworth     5|
   +--+-----------------------+---------+-------------+--------------+
                                                      |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.     |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+
    44|Bellerby           chap|Middleham             4|  236|     417|
    29|Bellingham[A] m.t. & pa|Wark                  4|  294|    1460|
    29|Bellister            to|Haltwhistle           2|  281|     120|
     7|Bell-on-the-Hill       |Malpas                3|  166|        |
    32|Belmsthorpe         ham|Essendine             2|   92|        |
    10|Belper[B]           ham|Ashbourn             12|  134|    7890|
    29|Belsey               to|Corbridge            11|  289|     334|
    18|Belswains           ham|Ivinghoe             12|   22|        |
    36|Belstead             pa|Stratford             7|   66|     248|
    11|Belstone             pa|Bow                  10|  194|     206|
    24|Beltoft             ham|Crowle                5|  162|        |
    23|Belton               pa|Loughboro             7|  116|     735|
   +--+-----------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BELLINGHAM, lies N. N W. from Hexham. It gave name to an ancient
family, who were seated here in 1378. Some ruins of their castle still
remain. The chapel, dedicated to St. Cuthbert, is roofed with stone
arches in rib-work: there are many gravestones in its floor, sculptured
with swords, and other warlike emblems. Nearly opposite, on the south
side of the North Tyne, is Heslieside, the seat of the Charlton family,
since the time of Edward the Sixth. The old mansion-house, built after
the manner of Lowther Hall, in Westmoreland, was burnt down about eighty
years ago, and then rebuilt. The present edifice stands on a gentle
eminence: the grounds are well wooded, and diversified with fine
sheep-walks; and the gardens and fruit walls are very productive. Five
miles above this place is Falstone chapel; and about seven miles further
up is Keelder Castle, formerly the residence of a famous border
chieftain, but at present a shooting-box of the Duke of Northumberland.
The moors here are scattered over with cairns, tumuli, and Druidical
monuments. Of Tarset Hall, about two miles above Heslieside, only some
slight remains are visible. Of Chipchase Castle, the old tower still
remains. Its roof is built on corbels, and it has openings through which
to throw down stones or scalding water upon an enemy. The tattered
fragments of Gothic painting on the walls, are exceedingly curious. Soon
after it came to the family, (its present owners,) the mansion was
thoroughly repaired, and much improved; the chapel on the lawn was
rebuilt, the gardens made, and the grounds covered with extensive
plantations. This delightful residence is surrounded with scenery of the
richest and most enchanting kind. The rooms in it are fitted up in a
splendid style, and ornamented with several excellent paintings. A
bridge was erected over the Burn at the east end of the town in 1826.

   _Market_, Tuesday.--_Fair_, Saturday after September 15, for cattle,
   sheep, linen and woollen cloth.

[Sidenote: Chipchase Castle.]


[B] BELPER, or Belpar, anciently Beaupoire, is situated on the banks of
the Derwent, in the hundred of Appletree. It is a chapelry of Duffield;
and, though formerly an inconsiderable village, its population now
exceeds, with the exception of Derby, every other town in the county.
The great increase of population began from three large cotton mills of
Messrs. Strutts, the first of which was erected in 1776. Two of them yet
remain; but the third was destroyed by fire early in the year 1803. The
largest of these mills is 200 feet long, 300 feet wide, and six stories
high: it is considered fire proof, as the floor is built on brick
arches, and paved with brick. The two water-wheels, which are employed
in the machinery in this building, are remarkable for magnitude and
singularity of construction; one of them being 40 feet long, and 18 in
diameter; and the other 48 feet long, and 12 feet in diameter. As timber
could not be procured large enough to form the axles of these wheels in
the common manner, they are constructed circularly and hollow, of a
number of pieces, and hooped in the manner of a cask. One of the shafts
is six feet in diameter, and the other nine. The shuttles are
constructed in one piece, so as to support the lateral pressure of the
water, although it is ten feet deep, by resting one upon another. This
is different from the usual mode of construction, in which they are
supported by large perpendicular beams at every six or seven feet, in
order to sustain this lateral pressure. About twelve or thirteen hundred
people are employed at these mills; and the proprietors have built many
houses, and a chapel, for their accommodation. Near the mills a stone
bridge of three arches has been erected across the Derwent, at the
expence of the county, the former one having been washed down by a
dreadful flood, in 1795. At a short distance, lower down the river, is a
bleaching mill, belonging to the same proprietors; an iron forge, and
two cotton mills; one of them constructed like that before described. A
stone bridge was also erected here by these gentlemen in 1792. These
mills afford regular employment to about 600 persons. A Sunday school
has been established here, and another at Belper, for the instruction of
the children employed at the cotton works.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Mail_ arrives 1.30 afternoon; departs 8.45
   morning.

[Sidenote: Manufactories.]

[Sidenote: Cotton Mills.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  | County. | Number of Miles From       |
   +--+--------------------+---------+-------------+--------------+
    24|Belton[A]         pa|Lincoln  |Grantham    3|Leadenham    8|
    24|Belton            pa|Lincoln  |Gainsboro'  13|Epworth     2|
    32|Belton            pa|Rutland  |Uppingham   4|Oakham       7|
    36|Belton            pa|Suffolk  |Yarmouth    4|Lowestoft    8|
    24|Belvoir[B]ex pa. lib|Leicester|Grantham    7|Newark      16|
    43|Bempton           pa|E.R. York|Bridlington 3|Flamborough  3|
   +--+--------------------+---------+-------------+--------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+
    24|Belton[A]         pa|Lincoln              20|  113|     160|
    24|Belton            pa|Crowle                5|  162|    1597|
    32|Belton            pa|Rockingham            9|   92|     400|
    36|Belton            pa|Beccles               9|  121|     124|
    24|Belvoir[B]ex pa. lib|Colterswrth          10|  112|     105|
    43|Bempton           pa|Hunmanby              7|  210|     287|
   +--+--------------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BELTON. The church is a small ancient structure. The tower appears
to have been rebuilt in the year 1637, and at a subsequent period, the
chancel has been renewed. The church is extremely neat, and has in the
south window six pieces of stained glass, illustrative of scriptural
subjects. Within the nave are several splendid monuments. Belton House,
near Grantham, the residence of Earl Brownlow, is situated on a
beautiful lawn, in a wooded valley, through which the river Witham winds
its course. The mansion was built in the year 1689, from designs by Sir
Christopher Wren. The form of the building is that of the letter H, a
stile of architecture peculiar to that period. It is of stone, and
presents four uniform elevations. The apartments are lofty, and well
proportioned. Several of the rooms are highly ornamented with carving by
Gibbons. The late Lord Brownlow made considerable improvements in the
mansion. He took down the cupola and balustrade from the roof. The
drawing room was considerably enlarged, and a new entrance at the south
front made. Here are many pictures by celebrated masters of the Flemish
and Italian schools, with numerous family portraits by Lely, Reynolds,
Kneller, Romney and others. Among the latter we may remark a portrait of
Sir John Cust, Bart., Speaker of the House of Commons, in his robes, by
Sir Joshua Reynolds. William III. in his progress through the northern
counties, honoured Belton House with his presence. The park comprises an
area of five miles in circumference, inclosed by a wall; numerous
plantations of fine trees are highly ornamental to the place. Sir John
Brownlow, K.B. afterwards Viscount Tyrconnel, enriched the library with
a valuable collection of books; he also formed some extensive gardens,
which have since been more adapted to the modern taste in gardening.

[Sidenote: Belton House.]


[B] BELVOIR. The Castle is one of the most magnificent structures in the
kingdom. It is placed on an abrupt elevation of a kind of natural cliff,
forming the termination of a peninsular hill. It has been the seat of
Manners, Dukes of Rutland, for several generations, and claims the
priority of every other building in the county in which it is situated.
Belvoir has been the site of a Castle ever since the Norman conquest;
and its possessors have been chiefly persons of eminence who have
figured in the pages of history. The view from the terraces and towers
comprehends the whole vale of Belvoir and the adjoining country as far
as Lincoln, including twenty-two of the Duke of Rutland's manors. On the
southern slope of the hill are enclosed-terraces, on which there are
several flower-gardens, surrounded by shrubberies. The park is of great
extent, containing fine forest trees, which form a woodland beneath the
hill so extensive as to afford shelter for innumerable rooks. Its
interior and furniture is of the most superb and costly description; it
also contains one of the most valuable collections of paintings in this
country, whether considered for the variety of the schools, or the works
of each master. A conflagration took place in the year 1816, which
consumed a great portion of the ancient part of the castle, and several
of the pictures. A curious anecdote is related, illustrative of the
folly and superstition of ancient times, which may not be uninteresting
to add. Joan Flower and her two; daughters who were servants at Belvoir
Castle, having been dismissed the family, in revenge made use of all the
enchantments, spells, and charms that were at that time supposed to
answer their malicious purposes. Henry the eldest son died soon after
their dismissal, but no suspicion of witchcraft arose till five years
after, when the three women who are said to have entered into a formal
contract with the devil, were accused of "murdering Lord Henry Ross by
witchcraft and torturing the Lord Francis his brother and Lady Catherine
his sister." After various examinations they were committed to Lincoln
gaol. The mother died at Ancaster, on her way thither, having wished the
bread and butter she ate might choak her if she was guilty. The
daughters were tried before Sir Henry Hobbert, Chief Justice of the
Common Pleas, and Sir Edward Bromley, one of the Barons of the
Exchequer; they confessed their guilt and were executed at Lincoln,
March 11, 1618.

[Sidenote: The Castle.]

[Sidenote: Charge of witchcraft.]

   Map| Names of Places. | County.  | Number of Miles From   |
   +--+------------------+----------+-----------+------------+
    41|Bemerton[A]     pa|Wilts     |Salisbury 2|Wilton     2|
    36|Benacre         pa|Suffolk   |Yarmouth 17|Lowestoft  7|
    29|Benridge       ham|Northumb  |Morpeth   3|Ruthbury  13|
    28|Benefield[B]    pa|Northamton|Oundle    3|Weldon     6|
   +--+------------------+----------+-----------+------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places. | Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+------+
    41|Bemerton[A]     pa|Amesbury             9|   83|      |
    36|Benacre         pa|Blythburg            8|  108|      |
    29|Benridge       ham|Blyth               14|  291|    57|
    28|Benefield[B]    pa|Corby                8|   85|   519|
   +--+------------------+----------------------+-----+------+


[A] BEMERTON, a parish in the hundred of Branch and Dole. The rectory of
this place is interesting, as having been the residence of no less than
four celebrated characters, viz. Dr. Walter Curie, Bishop of Bath and
Wells, and afterwards of Winchester, who died in 1647; George Herbert,
called the divine, who died in 1635; John Norris, a metaphysical writer,
who died in 1711; and, lastly, Mr. Archdeacon Coxe, the traveller and
historian, who died in 1828: all of them gentlemen highly distinguished
in the annals of literature.

[Sidenote: Celebrated men.]


[B] BENEFIELD. In this parish are some remarkable cavities, called
Swallows, which have opened a wide field of speculation among
philosophers, who have grounded, upon the singular phenomena they
exhibit, some new systems with regard to the theory of the earth. These
swallows are situated about a furlong west of the village, and are nine
in number. Through these cavities, the land-flood waters constantly pass
and disappear. They are of a circular form, and of various diameters;
some having an oblique, and others a perpendicular descent, opening
beneath the apertures into large spaces, which exhibit several smaller
conduits, through which the waters pass, to join perhaps, some
subterranean river, or mingle with the grand abyss of waters, which some
philosophers have placed in the centre of the earth.

[Sidenote: Geological curiosities.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  |  County. |Number of Miles From        |
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
     5|Bengers           ham|Bucks     |Colnbrook   3|Uxbridge    3|
    21|Beneden[A]         pa|Kent      |Cranbrook   3|Tenterden   5|
    13|Benfield-Side     ham|Durham    |Durham     12|Newcastle  13|
    14|Benfleet, North    pa|Essex     |Rayleigh    4|Billericay  6|
    14|Benfleet, South[B] pa|Essex     | ...        4| ...        9|
    18|Bengeo             pa|Hertford  |Hertford    1|Ware        2|
    15|Bengrove          ham|Gloucester|Tewkesbury  6|Evesbam     7|
    42|Bengworth          pa|Worcester |Worchester 16|Pershore    7|
    36|Benhall            pa|Suffolk   |Saxmundham  2|Frainlingh  5|
     4|Benham             to|Berks     |Newbury     3|Hungerford  6|
     4|Benham-Hoe        ham|Berks     | ...        4|  ...       6|
    44|Benningborough     to|N.R. York |York        7|Boro'bridge 8|
    46|Benningholme       to|E.R. York |Beverly     7|Hornsea     7|
    18|Bennington         pa|Hertford  |Stevenage   5|Buntingford 6|
    24|Bennington         pa|Lincoln   |Boston      5|Wainfleet  12|
    24|Bennington-Long[C] pa|Lincoln   |Grantham    7|Newark      7|
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+-------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+------------------------+-----+-------+
     5|Bengers           ham|Slough                 4|   18|       |
    21|Beneden[A]         pa|Rolvenden              3|   51|   1663|
    13|Benfield-Side     ham|Wolsingham            12|  270|    543|
    14|Benfleet, North    pa|Southend               6|   29|    300|
    14|Benfleet, South[B] pa| ...                   6|   32|    533|
    18|Bengeo             pa|Watton                 5|   22|    855|
    15|Bengrove          ham|Pershore               7|  101|       |
    42|Bengworth          pa|Broadway               5|  100|    850|
    36|Benhall            pa|Woodbridge             3|   89|    668|
     4|Benham             to|Kinbury                3|   59|       |
     4|Benham-Hoe        ham| ...                   4|   60|       |
    44|Benningborough     to|Wetherby              10|  204|     93|
    46|Benningholme       to|Hull                   8|  182|    103|
    18|Bennington         pa|Watton                 3|   29|    631|
    24|Bennington         pa|Burgh                 16|  121|    500|
    24|Bennington-Long[C] pa|Leadenham              8|  116|    982|
   +--+---------------------+----------+------------+------+-------+


[A] BENENDEN, or Biddenden, three miles south east from Cranbrook, is at
present populous, though the clothing manufacture, which first
occasioned the increase of the population of this part of the county, in
the reign of Edward the Third, has for many years failed here. Several
good houses still remaining, discover the prosperity of the former
inhabitants. The church is a handsome regular building, and its tower a
structure of considerable height and strength. By the old part now
remaining, it appears to have been originally but small. The interior
contains several ancient brasses, and among them, one for the Goldwells
of Great Chart; with the dates 1452, and 1499, in Arabic numerals: the
rebus of this name, a golden fountain, or well, is also in one of the
windows. A free grammar school, now degenerated into a complete
sinecure, was founded here in the year 1522. There is a tradition in
this parish, that a bequest for the use of the poor, of 20 acres of
land, now called the Bread and Cheese land, lying in five pieces, was
given by two maiden sisters, commonly called the "Biddenden Maids," of
the name of Chulkhurst, "who were born joined together by the hips and
shoulders, in the year 1100;" and having lived in that state thirty-four
years, died within about six hours of each other. This tale is affected
to be established by the correspondent figures of two females impressed
on cakes, which after Divine service, in the afternoon, on every Easter
Sunday, are distributed to all comers, and not unfrequently to the
number from 800 to 1000. At the same time, about 270 loaves, weighing
three pounds and a half each, and cheese in proportion, are given to the
poor parishioners; the whole expence being defrayed from the rental of
the bequeathed lands. The marvellous part of the story however, was
wholly discredited by the well informed, until the visit of the Siamese
twins to this country revived it with some appearance of truth.

[Sidenote: The Biddenden maids.]


[B] BENFLEET lies south-west by south from Rayleigh. Here was a castle,
built by Hastings, the celebrated Danish pirate, and which building
Matthew of Westminster described, as having deep and wide ditches. This
fortress Alfred the Great took and destroyed in the year 890; Hasting's
wife and two sons taken therein, were sent to London. The creeks
entering the Thames round Benfleet are celebrated for their oysters.

[Sidenote: A pirate's castle.]


[C] BENNINGTON, called Belintone in the Domesday Book, was a seat of the
Mercian kings; and here a great council of nobility and prelates was
assembled about the year 850, under King Bertulph, who on the complaint
of Askill, a monk of Croyland, of the great devastations committed on
the property of that monastery by the Danes, granted the monks a new
charter of divers "splendid liberties," and several extensive manors. In
the 33d of Edward I. a charter of a weekly market, and a fair annually,
was granted for this manor; but the former has long fallen into disuse!
The manor was long in possession of the Bourchiers, Earls of Essex.
Robert, the third Earl, after his divorce from the infamous Lady Francis
Howard, his first wife, in 1613, sold it to Sir Julius Cæsar, Knt., from
whom it descended to his son and heir, Sir Charles Cæsar. This gentleman
was appointed Master of the Rolls in 1638; and, after being twice
married, and having fifteen children by both wives, died of the
small-pox, at Bennington, in 1643: this disease proved fatal also to
several of his issue, and among them, to Julius, his eldest surviving
son, who dying within a few days, was buried in the same grave with his
father. Henry, his next son, and heir, represented this county in the
two first parliaments held in the reign of Charles II.; and he was
knighted by that sovereign in 1660: he also died of the small-pox, in
January 1667. This manor was sold to the trustees under the will of Sir
John Cheshire, Knt. His great nephew, John Cheshire, Esq., resided in a
small mansion near the ancient castle at Bennington, which stood
westward from the church, and most probably occupied the spot whereon
stood the palace of the Saxon Kings. The artificial mount of the keep,
with the surrounding ditch, are still to be seen. The old manor-house
that had been inhabited by the Cæsars, stood in the park, at a small
distance from the village, but was burnt down about fifty years ago. A
small edifice, since erected on the site, was for some years occupied by
Mr. Bullock. Bennington church is a small fabric, consisting of a nave
and a chancel, with a tower at the west end, and a chapel or
burial-place connected with the chancel on the north. Here are two
ancient monuments, under arches, which form part of them, each
exhibiting recumbent figures of a knight and a lady. Many of the Cæsars
lie buried here. The Benstede family, sometime lords of the manor, are
supposed to have built this church, as their arms are displayed both
upon the roof and on the tower. In a niche over the south porch, St.
Michael and the dragon are sculptured.

[Sidenote: Ancient charters.]

[Sidenote: The small-pox fatal to Cheshires.]

[Sidenote: Their monuments.]

   Map| Names of Places.    |  County. |Number of Miles From        |
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+--------------+
    24|Benningworth       pa|Lincoln   |Wragby      6|Horncastle   9|
    29|Bewridge           to|Northumb  |Morpeth     2|Rothbury    12|
    31|Bensinton[A]       pa|Oxford    |Wallingford 2|Nettlebed    6|
    14|Bentfield         ham|Essex     |Stanstead   2|B. Stortford 4|
    33|Benthall           pa|Salop     |Wenlock     3|Madeley      6|
    15|Bentham           ham|Gloucester|Gloucester  5|Cheltenham   5|
    44|Bentham       pa & to|W.R. York |Settle     12|Ingleton     5|
    16|Bentley            pa|Hants     |Farnham     4|Alton        6|
    35|Bentley      to & lib|Stafford  |Walsall     2|S. Coldfield 7|
    36|Bentley            pa|Suffolk   |Ipswich     6|Manningtree 12|
    39|Bentley           ham|Warwick   |Atherstone  3|Coleshill    7|
    46|Bentley            to|W.R. York |Doncaster   2|Arksey       1|
    10|Bentley, Fenny     pa|Derby     |Ashborne    3|Wirksworth   8|
    14|Bentley, Great     pa|Essex     |Colchester  9|Manningtree  9|
    10|Bentley, Hungry    to|Derby     |Ashborne    6|Derby       10|
    14|Bentley, Little    pa|Essex     |Manningtree 5|Colchester   9|
    42|Bentley, Up. & L. ham|Worcester |Bromsgrove  3|Redditch     3|
    29|Benton, Little     to|Northumb  |Newcastle   4|N. Shields   6|
    29|Benton, Long[B]    pa|Northumb  | ...        4| ...         6|
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+--------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.    | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+
    24|Benningworth       pa|Louth                  9|  145|     373|
    29|Bewridge           to|Blyth                 11|  290|      53|
    31|Bensinton[A]       pa|Dorchester             3|   46|    1266|
    14|Bentfield         ham|Saff. Walden           9|   34|     505|
    33|Benthall           pa|Wellington             7|  150|     525|
    15|Bentham           ham|Painswick              7|  104|        |
    44|Bentham       pa & to|Lancaster             13|  247|    3957|
    16|Bentley            pa|Odiham                 6|   42|     728|
    35|Bentley      to & lib|Lichfield              8|  120|      99|
    36|Bentley            pa|Harwich               18|   69|     363|
    39|Bentley           ham|Birmingham            16|  106|     270|
    46|Bentley            to|Thorne                10|  164|    1144|
    10|Bentley, Fenny     pa|Derby                 16|  142|     308|
    14|Bentley, Great     pa|Harwich               13|   60|     978|
    10|Bentley, Hungry    to|Uttoxeter              9|  136|      92|
    14|Bentley, Little    pa|Harwich               10|   60|     438|
    42|Bentley, Up. & L. ham|Birmingham            14|  113|        |
    29|Benton, Little     to|Blyth                  9|  278|        |
    29|Benton, Long[B]    pa| ...                   9|  278|    5547|
   +--+---------------------+------------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BENSINGTON was an ancient British town, taken from the original
inhabitants by Ceaulin, in the year 572. The west Saxons held the place
for two centuries, and appear to have constructed a castle for its
defence; but it was reduced by Offa, king of the Mercians, who defeated
his rival in a sanguinary contest. To the west of the church are a
quadrangular bank and trench. Three sides of the embankment are much
defaced. Plot mentions an "angle of King Offa's palace near the church;"
by which he probably alludes to the same spot. In this village are
several modern buildings. The church, which is gothic, has been built at
different times. In the brick flooring of the nave are some ancient
stones, with mutilated brasses. Here is a Sunday-school supported by
subscription; and a meeting-house for methodists.

[Sidenote: A Mercian King.]


[B] LONG BENTON. A dreadful calamity occurred at Heaton Colliery, in
this neighbourhood, on the morning of May 3, 1815, when, by the sudden
influx of water from an old mine, Mr. Miller, (the under-viewer, who
left a wife and eight children), 22 workmen, 42 boys, and 37 horses,
perished; and 25 widows, with about 80 children, were left to bemoan the
sudden death of their husbands and fathers. Steam-engines were
immediately employed, and every exertion was made for the recovery of
the bodies; notwithstanding which, it was not till the 6th of January,
in the following year, that the first body was found. It was that of an
old man employed on the waggon-way: and a fact worthy of notice is, that
the waste-water in which he had been immersed had destroyed the woollen
clothes, and corroded the iron parts of a knife the deceased had in his
pocket, yet his linen and the bone-haft of his knife remained entire.
Shortly after, Mr. Miller, and a few others, were discovered: they had
met a similar fate, having been overtaken by the water about a hundred
yards from the shaft to which they had been hastening to save
themselves. But the lot of these eight persons may be considered
fortunate, when compared with the unhappy beings left at work towards
the rise of the mine, and as yet unconscious of their dreadful
situation. About the 16th of February, the higher parts of the workings
were explored; and now a scene truly horrible was presented to view: for
here lay the corpses of 56 human beings, whom the water had never
reached, being situated 35 fathoms above its level. They had collected
together near the crane, and were found within a space of 30 yards of
each other; their positions and attitudes were various; several appeared
to have fallen forwards from off an inequality, or rather step, in the
coal on which they had been sitting; others, from their hands being
clasped together, seemed to have expired while addressing themselves to
the protection of the Deity; two, who were recognized as brothers, had
died in the act of taking a last farewell by grasping each other's hand:
and one poor boy reposed in his father's arms. Two slight cabins had
been hastily constructed by nailing up deal boards, and in one of these
melancholy habitations three of the stoutest miners had breathed their
last. A large lump of horse flesh, wrapped up in a jacket, nearly two
pounds of candles, and three others, which had died out when
half-burned, were found in this apartment, if it can be so called. One
man, well known to have possessed a remarkably pacific disposition, had
retired to a distance to end his days alone, and in quiet. Another had
been placed to watch the rise or fall of the water; to ascertain which,
sticks had been placed, and was found dead at his post. There were two
horses in the part of the mine to which the people had retired; one had
been slaughtered, its entrails taken out, and hind quarters cut up for
use; the other was fastened to a stake, which it had almost gnawed to
pieces, as well as a corfe or coal basket that had been left within its
reach. That these ill-fated people perished for want of respirable air,
and not from hunger and thirst, is certain; for most of the flesh cut
from the horse, with a considerable quantity of horse-beans, were
unconsumed, and a spring of good water issued into this part of the
colliery; besides, the unburned remains of candles afford evidence of a
still stronger nature; and by these data the coroner's jury was enabled
to pronounce a verdict accordingly. The overman had left the
chalk-board, in which it is usual to take down an account of the work
done, together with his pocket-book, in an empty corfe; on these some
memorandum might have been expected to be noted: but no writing
subsequent to the catastrophe appeared on either.--The bodies of those
men which had lain in wet places were much decayed; but where the floor
was dry, though their flesh had become much shrivelled, they were all
easily recognised by their features being entire.

[Sidenote: Dreadful accident.]

[Sidenote: Fifty-six lives lost in a mine.]

[Sidenote: Cause of their death.]

   Map|Names of Places. |  County. | Number of Miles From      |
   +--+-----------------+----------+------------+--------------+
    45|Bents-Green      |W.R. York |Sheffield  3|Bakewell    13|
    16|Bentworth      pa|Hants     |Alton      5|Alresford    8|
    12|Benville      ham|Dorset    |Beaminster 4|Crewkherne   6|
    23|Benwell        to|Northumb  |Newcastle  2|Corbridge   14|
     6|Benwick      chap|Cambridge |March      6|Chatteris    6|
    42|Beoley         pa|Worcester |Bromsgrove 8|Redditch     3|
    38|Bepton         pa|Sussex    |Midhurst   3|Petersield   9|
    14|Berdin         pa|Essex     |Stanstead  6|Saff. Walden 9|
    15|Berdwick      ham|Gloucester|Bristol    8|Marshfield   4|
    14|Bere-Church    pa|Essex     |Colchester 2|Coggeshall  10|
    12|Bere          ham|Dorset    |Blandford  7|Shaftesbury  8|
    16|Bere-Lay      ham|Hants     |Newport    7|Niton        2|
    36|Bergholt, East pa|Suffolk   |Hadleigh   6|Ipswich      8|
    14|Bergholt, West pa|Essex     |Colchester 4|Witham      13|
   +--+-----------------+----------+------------+--------------+
                                                |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places. | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+
    45|Bents-Green      |Castleton            12|  163|        |
    16|Bentworth      pa|Basingstoke           8|   52|     592|
    12|Benville      ham|Yeovil                8|  130|        |
    23|Benwell        to|Hexham               18|  276|    1278|
     6|Benwick      chap|Peterborough          6|   81|     526|
    42|Beoley         pa|Birmingham           11|  112|     673|
    38|Bepton         pa|Chichester           10|   53|     166|
    14|Berdin         pa|Bis. Stortford        6|   36|     342|
    15|Berdwick      ham|Sodbury               5|   97|        |
    14|Bere-Church    pa|Aberton               3|   52|     142|
    12|Bere          ham|Sturminster           5|  109|        |
    16|Bere-Lay      ham|Shanklin             10|   93|        |
    36|Bergholt, East pa|Manningtree           3|   63|    1360|
    14|Bergholt, West pa|Halstead             10|   10|     786|
   +--+-----------------+-----------------------+-----+--------+

   Map|  Names of Places.  |  County. |Number of Miles From  |
   +--+---------------------+----------+---------+-----------+
    15|Berkeley[A] m.t. & pa|Gloucester|Dursley 6|Chepstow 13|
    34|Berkeley           pa|Somerset  |Frome   3|Bath     12|
   +--+---------------------+----------+---------+-----------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  | Number of Miles From|Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+--------------------+-----+-----+
    15|Berkeley[A] m.t. & pa|Thornbury          7|  114| 3899|
    34|Berkeley           pa|Warminster         7|  103|  531|
   +--+---------------------+--------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BERKELEY. This ancient, but small town, is situated upon a pleasant
eminence in the beautiful vale of Berkeley, almost east from the Severn.
In the Domesday book, it is termed a royal domain and free borough. A
nunnery is said to have existed here in the reign of Edward the
Confessor; the frail sisters of which were dispossessed of their
estates, including the manor, by the craft of Earl Godwin, who found
means to introduce into the community a profligate young man, by whom
the nuns were seduced. This conduct being reported to the King, the
nunnery was dissolved, and its possessions granted to the Earl. The
Conqueror afterwards bestowed the manor on Roger, surnamed De Berkeley,
a chieftain who had accompanied him to England. Roger, his grandson,
taking part with Stephen, against Henry II., was deprived of his lands;
and Berkeley was given by that monarch to Robert Fitzharding, Governor
of Bristol, in reward for his eminent services. This nobleman was
descended from the Kings of Denmark, and in his posterity the extensive
manor of Berkeley, one of the largest in England, is still vested.
Berkeley church appears to be of the age of Henry II., though it has
undergone various alterations. Near the pulpit is a curious tomb, in
memory of Thomas, second Lord Berkeley, and Margaret, his first wife.
Here also are various other monuments of this family. The tower, which
stands at some distance from the church, was constructed about seventy
years ago. In the churchyard is the well known ludicrous epitaph,
written by Dean Swift, in memory of "Dickey Pearce, the Earl of
Suffolk's fool." Berkeley Castle appears to have been founded by Roger
de Berkeley, soon after the Conquest; but various important additions
were made to it during the reigns of Henry II., Edward II., and Edward
III. The form of the castle approaches nearest to that of a circle; and
the buildings are included by an irregular court, with a moat. The keep
is flanked by three semi-circular towers, and a square one of subsequent
construction: its walls are high and massive: the entrance into it is
under an arched doorway, with ornamental sculpture in the Norman style,
similar to one at Arundel Castle. This fortress has been the scene of
various memorable transactions; the most remarkable, perhaps, was that
of the murder of Edward II., in September, 1327, thus noticed by Gray:--

   "Mark the year, and mark the night,
   When Severn shall re-echo with affright,
   The shrieks of death through Berkeley's roofs that ring;
   Shrieks of an agonising King!"

Tradition states, that when the murder of King Edward had been
determined on, Adam, Bishop of Hereford, at the instigation of the
Queen, wrote to the keeper the following words; which, not possessing
the distinctness imported by punctuation, were capable of a double
construction:

   "Edwardum occidere nolite timere bonum est."
   Edward the King kill not to fear is good.

The keeper, easily divining the wicked wishes of his employer, put his
royal master to death. According to another account, when the death of
this unfortunate, but weak sovereign, had been resolved on by the Queen
and Mortimer, her infamous paramour, he was removed from Kenelworth to
Berkeley Castle, by Sir John Maltravers and Sir Thomas Gourney, to whose
keeping he had been previously committed. Thomas, second Lord Berkeley,
then owner of the castle, treated him with civility and kindness, but
was, in a short time, obliged to relinquish his fortress to the
government of Maltravers and Gourney, by whom the King was soon
afterwards murdered, in the most brutal and savage manner. "His crie,"
says Holinshed, "did move many within the castell and town of Birckelei
to compassion, plainly hearing him utter a waileful noyse, as the
tormentors were about to murder him; so that dyvers being awakened
thereby, (as they themselves confessed,) prayed heartilie to God to
receyve his soule, when they understode by his crie what the matter
ment." A small apartment, called the dungeon room, over the flight of
steps leading into the keep, is shewn as the place where the cruel deed
was committed: at that time, all the light it received was from arrow
slits; the windows have been since introduced. A plaister cast kept
here, and said to have been moulded from the King's face after death,
is, in reality, a cast from his effigies on the tomb at Gloucester.
Berkeley Castle, during the civil wars, was held for the King; and
frequent skirmishes took place in the town and neighbourhood. In 1645 it
was besieged, and surrendered to the parliament, after a defence of nine
days. In the apartments, which are mostly low, dark, and void of
proportion, are preserved a numerous assemblage of portraits, chiefly of
the Stratton branch, the bequest of the last heir of that family.
Besides these portraits, here are several miniatures of the Berkeleys,
of considerable antiquity, and so far curious. A few landscapes, by
Wouvermans, Claude, Salvator Rosa, &c. complete the Berkeley collection.
Edward Jenner, an English physician, celebrated for having introduced
the practice of vaccination, as a preventive of the small-pox, was the
youngest son of a clergyman, who held the rectory of Rochampton, and the
vicarage of this place, and the son was born here, May 17, 1749. Being
destined for the medical profession, he was, after a common school
education, placed as an apprentice with a very respectable surgeon, at
Sodbury, in his native country. He visited London, to finish his
studies, by attending the lectures of the celebrated anatomist John
Hunter. Returning to the country, he settled here, as a practitioner of
the various branches of his profession. A situation like this afforded
but little leisure or opportunity for acquiring distinction, and an
occasion presented itself for obtaining a larger field for observation,
improvement, and emolument: this, however, he was induced to decline.
The circumstances of the transaction are thus related by Dr. Lettsom, in
his address to the London Medical Society:--"Dr. Jenner happened to dine
with a large party at Bath, when something was introduced at the table
which required to be warmed by the application of the candle, and doubts
were expressed by several persons present, whether the most speedy way
would be to keep the flame at a little distance under, or to immerse the
substance into it. Jenner desired that the candle might be placed near
him, and immediately putting his finger into the flame, suffered it to
remain some time; next he put his finger above it, but he was obliged to
snatch it away immediately. 'This, gentlemen,' said he, 'is a sufficient
test.' The next day he received a note from General Smith, who had been
of the party the preceding day, and who was before that time an utter
stranger, offering him an appointment in India, which would insure him,
in the course of two or three years, an annual income £3,000. The offer
was referred to his brother, and Jenner, from his attachment to him,
declined it." He had already obtained the reputation of a man of talent
and science, when he made known to the world the very important
discovery which has raised him to an enviable situation among the
benefactors of the human race. His investigations concerning the cow-pox
were commenced about the year 1776, when his attention was excited by
the circumstance of finding that some individuals, to whom he attempted
to communicate the small-pox by inoculation, were insusceptible of the
disease; and on inquiry he found that all such patients, though they had
never had the small-pox, had undergone the casual cow-pox, a disease
common among the farmers and dairy-servants in Gloucestershire, who were
not quite unacquainted with its preventive effect. Other medical men
were aware of the prevalence of this opinion; but they treated it as a
popular prejudice, and Jenner seems to have been the first who
ascertained its correctness, and endeavoured to derive from it some
practical advantage. He discovered that the variolæ vaccinæ, as the
complaint has been since termed, having, in the first-instance, been
produced by accidental or designed innoculation of the matter afforded
by a peculiar disease affecting the udder of a cow, could be propagated
from one human subject to another by inoculation, to an indefinite
extent, rendering all who passed through it secure from the small-pox.
He made known his discovery to some medical friends, and in the month of
July, 1796, Mr. Cline, surgeon to St. Thomas's Hospital, introduced
vaccination into the metropolis. So singular and anomalous a fact as the
prevention of an infectious disease by means of another, in many
respects extremely differing from it, could not but be received with
hesitation; and a warm controversy took place on the subject among the
medical faculty. This ultimately proved advantageous both to the
discovery and the discoverer, as it terminated in establishing the truth
of the most important positions which he had advanced, and left him in
full possession of the merit due to him as a successful investigator of
the laws of nature. The practice of vaccine inoculation was adopted in
the army and navy, and honours and rewards were conferred on the author
of the discovery. The diploma constituting him doctor of medicine, was
presented to Jenner as a tribute to his talents, by the University of
Oxford; he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society, and of other
learned associations; and a parliamentary grant was made to him of the
sum of £20,000. The extension of the benefits of vaccination to foreign
countries spread the fame of the discoverer, who received several
congratulatory addresses from continental potentates. The emperor of
Russia, when in this country in 1814, sought an interview with Dr.
Jenner, treated him with great attention, and offered to bestow on him a
Russian order of nobility. He also visited the King of Prussia, Marshal
Blucher, and the Cossack General, Count Platoff, the latter of whom said
to him, "Sir, you have extinguished the most pestilential disorder that
ever appeared on the banks of the Don." On receiving his diploma, Dr.
Jenner practised as a physician at Cheltenham, during the season, and
that watering-place was his principal residence till he became a
widower, when he removed to Berkeley, to spend in retirement the evening
of his life. He died suddenly in consequence of apoplexy, January 26,
1823, and was interred in the parish church of this town.

   _Market_, Wednesday.--_Fair_, May 14, for cattle and pigs.

[Sidenote: The nunnery.]

[Sidenote: The castle.]

[Sidenote: Murder of Edward II.]

[Sidenote: Besieged by the Parliament.]

[Sidenote: Edward Jenner.]

[Sidenote: Anecdote.]

[Sidenote: Discovery of vaccination by the cow-pox.]

[Sidenote: Jenner's subsequent fame.]

   Map|  Names of Places.              |County.|Number of Miles From   |
   +--+--------------------------------+-------+-----------+-----------+
    18|Berkhampstead, Gr.[A]  m.t. & pa|Herts  |Watford  12|Tring     5|
    18|Berkhampstead, Little         pa|Herts  |Hertford  5|Hatfield  5|
    39| Berkeswell                   pa|Warwick|Coventry  7|Solihull  7|
   +--+--------------------------------+-------+-----------+-----------+

   Map|  Names of Places.              |Number of Miles    |Dist.|Popul
                                       |  From             |Lond.|-ation.
   +--+--------------------------------+-------------------+-----+-----+
    18|Berkhampstead, Gr.[A]  m.t. & pa|Dunstable        11|   26| 2369|
    18|Berkhampstead, Little         pa|Hoddesdon         6|   19|  450|
    39| Berkeswell                   pa|Meriden           2|   93| 1450|
   +--+--------------------------------+-------------------+-----+-----+


[A] BERKHAMPSTEAD. "The Saxons, in old time," observes Norden, "called
this town Berghamstedt, because it was seated among the hills; for Berg
signified a hill; ham, a town; and stedt, a seat; all of which was very
proper for the situation hereof." The buildings are chiefly of brick,
and irregular, but intersected with various handsome houses.
Berkhampstead consists of one principal street, about half a mile in
length, extending along the side of the high road; and another smaller
one branching out from the church towards the site of the castle. The
Grand Junction Canal runs the whole length of the town, and very close
to it, which makes it a place of considerable trade. Many respectable
and genteel families reside here, and hold their monthly balls at the
King's Arms Inn, during the winter. The King of Mercia had a palace or
castle here; and the town had attained sufficient importance at the time
of the Conquest, to be appointed as the place of meeting between the
Norman sovereign, and the chiefs of the confederacy formed against his
power, and headed by Abbot Fretheric, of St. Alban's. "In the brough,"
says the Domesday Book, "are two and fifty burgesses, who pay four
pounds a year for toll; and they have half a hide, and two shillings
rent, common of pasture for the cattle, wood to feed a thousand hogs,
and five shillings rent by the year. Its whole value is sixteen pounds.
The castle erected by the Saxons was enlarged, strengthened, and
fortified with additional outworks, by the Earl of Mortaigne; but in the
time of his son and successor, William, who had rebelled against Henry
I., it was seized, and ordered to be razed to the ground." It is
probable, however, that the demolition was only partial, as it was again
fitted up as a royal residence, either in the time of Stephen, or early
in the reign of Henry II. The castle and honour of Berkhampstead
continued in the possession of the crown till the seventh of King John,
who granted them to the Earl of Essex, for £100. per annum. In the year
1216 the castle, which had been reverted to the crown, was besieged by
Lewis, Dauphin of France, in conjunction with certain English barons.
The garrison, taking advantage of the negligence of the besiegers, made
two successful sallies on the same day, capturing divers chariots, arms,
and provisions; but, after a siege of some continuance, they
surrendered. Henry III. granted the Earldom of Cornwall, with the honour
and castle of Berkhampstead, to Richard, his brother, for his services
at the siege of the castle of Riole, in France; but, disagreeing with
him, he revoked the grant. The interposition of the Earls of Pembroke
and Chester occasioned its restoration to the Earl of Cornwall. In 1245,
the King granted him an annual fair, of eight days' continuance, for his
manor of Berkhampstead; and here, after a long illness, he died on the
4th of April, 1272. Edmund, his only surviving son, succeeded to his
estates and titles; and in his time there were twelve burgesses within
the borough, with fifty-two free tenants, and twenty-two tenants by
serjeancy. This Earl founded the college of Bon-Hommes, at Ashridge, in
Buckinghamshire. In the fourth of Edward III., John of Eltham, brother
to the King, had a grant of Berkhampstead, with other manors, to the
value of 2,000 marks per annum: but, dying without issue, in 1336, his
estates were granted by the King, to Edward the Black Prince, with the
Dukedom of Cornwall, to be held by him and his heirs, and the eldest
sons of the heirs of the King's of England. Richard II. occasionally
resided at Berkhampstead castle. Since that period, the castle and
honour of Berkhampstead have descended from the crown, to the successive
Princes of Wales, as heirs apparent to the throne, and possessors of the
Dukedom of Cornwall, under the grant of Edward III. The castle was
situated on the east side of the town; and, though the buildings are now
reduced to a few massive fragments of wall, the remains are still
sufficient to evince the ancient strength and importance of this
fortress. The ramparts are very bold, and the ditches still wide and
deep, particularly on the north and east sides, though partly filled up
by the lapse of centuries. The keep was a circular tower, occupying the
summit of a high and steep artificial mount, moated round. Large trees
are now growing on the sides of the mount, as well as on many parts of
the outward rampart, and declivities of the ditches: other parts are
covered with underwood, in many places so thick as to be impassable. The
inner court is now an orchard; the outer court is cultivated as a farm;
and a small cottage, with a few out-buildings, now occupies a portion of
the ground once occupied by Princes and Sovereigns. Near the rampart, on
the west side, flows the little river Bulbourne. The church, dedicated
to St. Peter, is built in the form of a cross, with a tower rising from
the intersection towards the west end, and having a projecting staircase
at the south-east angle, terminated by a turret at the summit. The tower
is supported on strong pointed arches, and was originally open, but is
now closed from the church by the belfry floor. On the outside of the
tower, next the street, is a sculpture of an angel supporting a shield,
impaled with the arms of England and France quarterly. The same arms are
painted on glass in the window of a small chapel within the church.
Various chapels and chantries were founded here in the Catholic times,
and are still partially divided from the body of the church. The
sepulchral memorials are numerous. Between two columns of the nave,
surrounded by pews, is an ancient tomb of rich workmanship, having on
the top, full-length effigies of a Knight and his Lady, both recumbent.
The Knight is represented in armour, with his hands raised in the
attitude of prayer across his breast: his head rests on a helmet, having
a human head, with a long beard, at the upper end; his feet are
supported on a lion: he has on a hood and gorget of mail; and, on the
sash, which crosses his body and shoulder, is a rose: opposite to this,
on his breast-plate, is a dove. The figure of the lady is greatly
mutilated; her hands and head are broken off; the latter rests on a
cushion, and is covered with net-work; she is arrayed in a close dress,
and has a rose on each shoulder. No inscription is remaining on this
tomb to designate the persons to whose memory it was erected. Torynton
is supposed to have been the founder of the church; a man in special
favour with Edmond Plantagenet, Duke of Cornwall. In Sayer's chancel is
an altar-tomb of alabaster and black marble, in the memory of John
Sayer, Esq., who was chief cook to Charles II. when in exile, and
founder of the alms-house for poor widows in this town. A large and
strong building of brick, erected as a free-school in the reign of Henry
VIII., and endowed with the lands of the guild or brotherhood of St.
John the Baptiste, (an ancient foundation in this town,) stands at the
bottom of the churchyard. In the next reign the school was made a royal
foundation, and incorporated. The master is appointed by the crown, and
has apartments at one end of the free school; the school-room occupies
the centre; and the other end is inhabited by the chaplain and usher.
Here is also a charity-school, supported by voluntary contributions, &c.
Numerous donations for charitable purposes have been made to this
parish, the principal of which was a bequest of £1,000., made by John
Sayer, Esq., in July, 1681, for the building and endowment of an alms
house: this was erected after his decease by his relict, who placed in
it six poor widows, and increased the original endowment by the gift of
£300. Each widow has a small allowance weekly, and a cloth gown worth
20s. once in two years. In the 14th of Edward III., two representatives
were sent from this borough; but this was the only return ever made,
except to the great council held at Westminster, in the 11th of the same
King. Berkhampstead had a charter of incorporation granted by James I.,
but it scarcely survived the reign of his son. An attempt was made to
revive the charter, a year or two after the restoration, but it did not
succeed. The honour of Berkhampstead formerly included upwards of
fifty-five lordships and manors, in the three counties of Herts,
Northampton, and Buckingham. Berkhampstead-place is situated on a
pleasant eminence adjoining the town. Great part of the structure was
erected by the Careys, having been burnt down in the time of the Lord
Treasurer Weston, who then resided in it: the remainder was afterwards
repaired, and with some additions, forms the present dwelling. King
James's children were mostly nursed in this house. The life of Cowper,
the poet, who was born here, will be given at Olney, on account of the
length of the present article.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, Shrove-Monday, Whit-Monday, for cattle;
   Aug. 5, cheese; September 29, Oct. 11, statute.--_Mail_ arrives 11.30
   night; departs 3.30 morning.--_Inn_, Kings Arms.

[Sidenote: Description.]

[Sidenote: Its ancient castle.]

[Sidenote: The seat of Kings and Nobles.]

[Sidenote: Now in ruins.]

[Sidenote: The church.]

[Sidenote: Free school.]

[Sidenote: Contained fifty-five lordships.]

   Map|Names of Places.|  County. | Number of Miles From    |
   +--+----------------+----------+------------+------------+
     4|Berkshire[A]  co|          |            |            |
    29|Berling       to|Northumb. |Alnwick    7|Felton     7|
    35|Bermersley    to|Stafford  |Newcastle  6|Leek       7|
   +--+----------------+----------+------------+------------+
                                               |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.|Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+------+
     4|Berkshire[A]  co|                       |     |145289|
    29|Berling       to|Widrington            7|  306|      |
    35|Bermersley    to|Cheadle              11|  156|   244|
   +--+----------------+-----------------------+-----+------+


[A] BERKSHIRE. This county was originally inhabited by three tribes or
nations, termed by the Romans Attrebates, Bibroces, and Segontiaci. The
first occupied part of the west, the south-west and north-west parts.
The second the south-east parts; and the third a portion of the north
parts. Under the Romans, this county formed part of the first division
called Britannia Prima. During the Heptarchy it belonged to the West
Saxons. It was once called Berrocshire, from the name of a hill covered
with box, which at one time occupied a large portion of it. It is an
inland county, bounded on the north by the Thames, which divides it from
Oxfordshire on the west, and Bucks on the east; and by part of Surrey;
on the north by Surrey and Hampshire; and on the west by Wilts and a
small part of Gloucestershire. It is so very irregular in its shape as
not to admit of any adequate description. Its greatest length is about
forty-eight miles, and its utmost breadth from north to south about
twenty-five. In one of the narrowest parts, by Reading, it is about six
or seven miles, and less still at the eastern extremity. It contains
about 464,500 acres, and is about 140 miles in circumference; it is in
the province of Canterbury, and the diocese of Salisbury; (the parish of
Chilton, which is in the diocese of Oxford, and Langford, which is in
that of Lincoln, excepted;) subject to an archdeacon, and is divided
into six deaneries. It is included in the Oxford circuit. There are 20
hundreds, 12 market towns, 148 parishes (of which 67 are vicarages,) and
671 villages. The natural divisions of the county are four, 1. The Vale,
beginning at Budcot, and ending at Streatley. 2. The Chalky Hills,
running nearly through the centre of the lower part of the county. 3.
The Vale of the Kennet, extending diagonally from Hungerford to near
Wargrave. 4. The Forest Division, commencing on the east to Loddon, and
occupying nearly the entire breadth of this part of the county to Old
Windsor, and from Sandhurst south to Maidenhead north. The air is deemed
peculiarly salubrious, particularly on the chalky and gravelly soils,
which are the most common throughout the county; but the uneven face of
the country causes some slight degree of variation in this particular,
though every part is considered healthful and good. The soil is as
various (though perhaps more mixed) as in the last described county. The
Vale of White Horse consists generally of a rich strong loam and gravel,
with some sand and stone brasp, producing corn, wheat, beans, &c. In the
Chalk Hill district, light black earth on chalk prevails, with flint,
chalk, gravel, and loam. Here numerous sheep are fed; it produces,
towards the south and east, turnips, barley; and, when properly manured,
Lammas wheat and artificial grasses. The Vale of Kennet, is generally
peat land, with gravel, loam and clay, though in the south east parts a
poor stony and heathy soil. The Forest District, gravel, clay, and loam,
except on the south, which is poor and heathy. The principal rivers and
streams are the Thames, the Kennet, the Loddon, the Lambourn, the Ock,
the Aubourn, the Emme, and the Broadwater. All these, with perhaps the
exception of the Aubourn, the Emme, and the Broadwater, abound with
almost every kind of fresh water fish. Besides these rivers and streams,
there are the Ginge Brook, the Moreton Brook, and other rivulets, &c.;
also some other natural and artificial lakes and ponds. Water, however,
is generally scarce on the Berkshire downs, and along the whole of the
chalky stratum. The navigable rivers are the Thames and the Kennet. The
navigable canals are the Kennet and Avon canal, which joins the river
Kennet a little above Newbury; the entire length from Newbury to Bath is
sixty miles--it has been navigable since the year 1798; and the Wilts
and Berks canal, opened on September 21, 1810, into the Thames at
Abingdon; from near Bath to Abingdon, about fifty-one and three-quarter
miles. Mineral waters are by no means common in this county. The natural
productions of this county, except those which may be considered partly
agricultural, are neither plentiful or important. There are no minerals
nor fossils of any great consequence. The strata of sand with
oyster-shells, and particularly a thick stratum of chalk, is found near
Reading. The surface of the soil, however, amply compensates for the
apparent barrenness of the internal parts; and the produce of fat
cattle, sheep, swine, and grain, is immense; as is also that of fine
timber, especially oak and beech. Abingdon gives the title of Earl to
the Bertie family--Coleshill, that of Baron to the Pleydell-Bouverie
family--Foxley, that of Baron to the Townshend family--Hungerford, that
of Baron to the Rawdon-Hastings family--Mortimer, the title of Earl to
the Harley family--Newbury, that of Baron to the Cholmondely
family--Uffingham, that of Viscount to the Craven family--and Windsor,
the title of Baron to the Windsor-Hickman family; and Earl, to the
Stuarts. It has been calculated, that, including houses, mills, and
other productive revenue arising from or attached to the soil, the
landed property cannot amount to less than £500,000 per annum, and that
the largest possessor may have about £8000. The largest possessor, being
a peer, is the Earl of Craven. The Craven, Englefield, Eyston, Read,
Southby, Seymour, and Clarke families are among the few ancient families
who still inherit the same estates, and occupy the same seats, or are
immediately connected with the county, as their ancestors. Among the
representatives of some very old families, or in the female line, may be
ranked the Berties, the Nevilles, the Pleydells, the Puseys, the
Throckmortons, the Lovedens, the Nelsons, and the Blagraves. The King is
purposely omitted in this brief list:--his possessions as a landed
proprietor being well known. Agriculture so much engrosses the attention
of the people of Berkshire, that very little trade, unconnected with
these pursuits is carried on. There are, however, some manufactories of
sail-cloth, kerseys, canvass, and malt; and there are also several
pretty large breweries in various parts of the county: the Windsor ale
having acquired considerable celebrity; and at the Temple mills, near
Bisham, there is a copper manufacture, and a manufacture of potash at
Milton.

[Sidenote: Its ancient division into three nations.]

[Sidenote: Air, soil, and rivers.]

[Sidenote: Natural productions.]

[Sidenote: Ancient and noble families.]

   Map|Names of Places.|  County. | Number of Miles From       |
   +--+----------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
     7|Bermondsey[A] pa|Surrey    |Bank of Eng. 1|Westm. Ab.  2|
     9|Berrier       to|Cumberland|Penrith      8|Keswick    10|
    36|Berriew         |Montgomery|Welch Pool   5|Newtown     9|
     5|Berrington   ham|Gloucester|Stow         7|Moreton     8|
    33|Berrington    pa|Salop     |Shrewsbury   5|Wellington 10|
    42|Berrington    to|Worcester |Tenbury      3|Leominster  8|
    34|Berrow        pa|Somerset  |Axbridge     9|Weston      8|
    42|Berrow        pa|Worcester |Upton        5|Malvern     6|
    ?1|Berry Narbor  pa|Devon     |Ilfracombe   3|Barnstaple  8|
   +--+----------------+----------+--------------+-------------+
                                                 |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.| Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------+-------------------------+-----+-------+
     7|Bermondsey[A] pa|Rotherhithe             1|    1|  29741|
     9|Berrier       to|Carlisle               20|  291|    113|
    36|Berriew         |Montgomery              4|  172|   2429|
     5|Berrington   ham|Evesham                 8|   94|    129|
    33|Berrington    pa|Act. Burnell           10|  152|    684|
    42|Berrington    to|Ludlow                  7|  133|    165|
    34|Berrow        pa|Bridgewater            12|  139|    496|
    42|Berrow        pa|Tewkesbury              7|  110|    507|
    ?1|Berry Narbor  pa|C. Martin               3|  201|    794|
   +--+----------------+-------------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BERMONDSEY stretches along the banks of the Thames, from Southwark
to Deptford, and Rotherhithe eastward, and is much inhabited by
woolstaplers, fellmongers, curriers, parchment-makers, and other
manufacturers, with such craftsmen as are connected with the
construction and management of shipping. A priory for monks was founded
here in 1082, by Aylwin Child, a citizen of London, and endowed by the
second William with his manor of Bermondsey. In 1399, it was made an
abbey, and at the dissolution, it was granted to Sir Thomas Pope, who
built on its site a large house, which afterwards became the property
and residence of the Earls of Sussex. Another part of the site is called
the Abbey House. Catherine, the Queen of Henry V., and Elizabeth, Queen
of Edward IV. retired to this place, where they died, the former in
1436; the latter soon after the forfeiture of her lands, by an order of
the Council, in 1486. The church was erected in 1680, of brick, with a
low square tower and turret, and consists of a chancel, nave, two
aisles, and a transept. A free school was founded here by Mr. Josiah
Bacon, and endowed with a revenue of £150. for the instruction of not
more than sixty, or fewer than forty boys. A charity-school was also
established, by contributions, in 1755, for the education of fifty boys
and thirty girls, and was afterwards endowed by Mr. Nathaniel Smith,
with a revenue of £40. per annum. The Bermondsey Spa was discovered in
1770, and, by means of the attractive entertainments contrived by the
proprietor, became a place of general resort; but soon after his death
the gardens were closed, and the area is now built upon. This suburban
parish long retained a very antique air from the age of several of its
streets and houses, many of which were built of wood. But the spirit of
improvement has gradually amended its appearance: an act of parliament
was passed in the year 1823, for watching, paving, cleansing, and
lighting the parish. A new church has been erected here for the
convenience of the parishioners, at a moderate distance from the mother
church; it is, however, subordinate to the original rectory.

[Sidenote: Royal residence.]

[Sidenote: Church and schools.]

   Map|  Names of Places.    | County.| Number of Miles From      |
   +--+----------------------+--------+-------------+-------------+
    52|Bersham Drelincourt to|Denbigh |Holt        6|Llangollen 12|
    38|Bersted, South      pa|Sussex  |Chichester  5|Arundel     9|
    38|Berwick             pa|Sussex  |Lewes       8|Seaford     4|
    33|Berwick,  Gt. & L. ham|Salop   |Shrewsbury  2|Wem        10|
    29|Berwick Hill        to|Northumb|Newcastle  10|Corbridge  13|
    41|Berwick, St. James  pa|Wilts   |Amesbury    6|Wilton      6|
    41|Berwick, St. John   pa|Wilts   |Shaftesbury 5|Hindon      7|
    41|Berwick, St. Leonard p|Wilts   |Hindon      1|Amesbury   16|
    31|Berwick-Prior      lib|Oxford  |Wallingford 5|Watlington  5|
    31|Berwick-Salome      pa|Oxford  | ...        4| ...        5|
   +--+----------------------+--------+------------+--------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.    |Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+---------------------+-----+--------+
    11|Berry Pomeroy[A]    pa|Brixham             7|  197|    1186|
    52|Bersham Drelincourt to|Mold               14|  179|    1240|
    38|Bersted, South      pa|Lt. Hampton         9|   67|    2190|
    38|Berwick             pa|Hailsham            6|   58|     203|
    33|Berwick,  Gt. & L. ham|Albrighton          3|  155|        |
    29|Berwick Hill        to|Morpeth            10|  284|     105|
    41|Berwick, St. James  pa|Salisbury           9|   83|     232|
    41|Berwick, St. John   pa|Wilton             12|   97|     425|
    41|Berwick, St. Leonard p|Warminster         10|   93|      51|
    31|Berwick-Prior      lib|Dorchester          4|   49|        |
    31|Berwick-Salome      pa| ...                4|   49|     134|
   +--+----------------------+---------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BERRY POMEROY. This place, situated in the hundred of Hayter,
derives its name from the Pomeroys, a very considerable family in these
parts. Ralph de Pomeroy, who came to England with William the Norman,
and for his services was rewarded with fifty-eight lordships in this
county, built a castle here, the magnificent ruins of which, seated on a
rocky eminence, rising over a pellucid brook, now form, in combination
with the other features of the scenery, one of the most delightful views
in Devonshire. The approach to the castle, observes Dr. Matton, in his
Observations on the Western Counties, "is through a thick wood,
extending along the slope of a range of hills that entirely intercept
any prospect to the south: on the opposite side is a steep rocky ridge,
covered with oak, so that the ruins are shut into a beautiful valley.
The great gate, with the walls of the south front, the north wing of the
court, or quadrangle, some apartments on the west side, and a turret or
two, are the principal remains of the building; and these are so finely
overhung with the branches of trees and shrubs which grow close to the
walls, so beautifully mantled with ivy, and so richly incrusted with
moss, that they constitute the most picturesque objects that can be
imagined; and when the surrounding scenery is taken into the account,
the noble mass of wood fronting the gate, the bold ridges rising in the
horizon, and the fertile valley opening to the east, the ruins of Berry
Pomeroy Castle must be considered as almost unparalleled in their
effect." The posterity of Ralph de Pomeroy resided here till the reign
of Edward VI., when Sir Thomas Pomeroy sold the manor to Edward Seymour,
Duke of Somerset, from whom it has descended to the present Duke of
Somerset. Berry Pomeroy Castle, whose venerable ruins we have just
mentioned, appears to have been originally quadrangular, and to have had
but one entrance, which was on the south side, between two hexagonal
towers, through a double gateway; the first of which was machiolated,
and strengthened by angular bastions, and having over it the Pomeroy
arms, still visible. A small room over the gateway was probably the
chapel: it is divided by a wall, supported by pillars and arches. From
the eastern tower is a fine view of the surrounding country. The ruins
in the interior part, or quadrangle, are considerably more modern than
the rest of the building. These appear to have belonged to a
"magnificent structure," commenced, says Prince, in his Worthies of
Devonshire, by the Seymours, at an expense of £20,000, but "never
brought to perfection: for the west side of the mansion was never begun:
what was finished may be thus described. Before the door of the Great
Hall was a noble walk whose length was the breadth of the court, arched
over with curiously carved free-stone, supported in the fore part by
several stately pillars of the same stone, of great dimensions, after
the Corinthian order, standing on pedestals, having cornices and freezes
finely wrought. The apartments within were very splendid, especially the
dining-room; and many other of the rooms were well adorned with
mouldings and fret-work; some of whose marble clavils were so delicately
fine, that they would reflect an object true and lively from a great
distance. Notwithstanding which it is now demolished, and all this glory
lyeth in the dust, buried in its own ruins; there being nothing standing
but a few broken walls, which seem to mourn their own approaching
funerals." The walls are formed of slate, and appear to be rapidly
decaying. The grounds round the castle consist of steep eminences,
covered with oak and other trees. Even in the court, and remains of the
fortress itself, trees of nearly a century's growth are flourishing in
luxuriance, and compose, with the shrubs thickly scattered within the
area, a scene highly beautiful. In the wars between Charles I. and the
Parliament this castle was dismantled. Berry Pomeroy Church, which was
built by one of the Pomeroy family, contains a splendid alabaster
monument to the memory of Lord Edward Seymour, Knt. son to the Duke of
Somerset; Edward Seymour, Bart. and his Lady, the daughter of Sir Arthur
Champernoune. The two first are represented in armour; the knight having
a truncheon in his hand, and lying cross-legged. The lady is in a black
dress, with the figure of a child, in a cradle, at her head, and at her
feet another in a chair: below are nine figures kneeling, with books
open before them. This monument was repaired by the late Duke of
Somerset, the eighth lineal descendant of the Duke of Somerset the
Protector.

[Sidenote: Castle in ruins.]

[Sidenote: Former state of the castle.]

   Map|  Names of Places.    | County.   |Number of Miles From  |
   +--+----------------------+---------+-------------+----------+
    29|Berwick-upon-T[A] m.t.|Northumb |Coldstream 13|Dunbar  30|
    33|Besford             to|Salop    |Shawbury    3|Weston   3|
    42|Besford             pa|Worcester|Pershore    3|Upton    5|
   +--+----------------------+---------+-------------+----------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.    |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+-----+----+
    29|Berwick-upon-T[A] m.t.|Edinburgh            58|  337|8920|
    33|Besford             to|Wem                   5|  158| 158|
    42|Besford             pa|Worcester            10|  109| 146|
   +--+----------------------+-----------------------+-----+----+


[A] BERWICK. The town is situated N. by W. from Newcastle. King Edgar
gave it, with Coldingham, to the church of Durham; but it was afterwards
forfeited by Bishop Flambard. It had a church in the reign of Alexander,
and, in David's time constituted one of the four boroughs where courts
of trade were wont to be held. In 1173, it was reduced to ashes; and in
the following year, Earl Duncan marched to the place, and butchered its
defenceless inhabitants. Henry II. having obtained the castle as a
pledge for King William, strengthened its fortifications. It was
restored, however, in the following reign. King John made dreadful
ravages in the town and neighbourhood. A convention was held here by
Edward I., in 1291, to arbitrate the claims to the crown of Scotland,
which were at length determined in favour of his creature, Baliol. This
prince having shortly afterwards thrown off his allegiance, Berwick
became exposed to the fury of Edward's resentment. In 1296, the English
king fortified it with a wall and a fosse, and in the same year received
the homage of the Scotch nobility here In 1297, the town was taken by
Sir William Wallace; but the castle held out, and after a long assault,
was relieved. Wallace about eight years after this was betrayed, and
half of his body exposed upon Berwick-bridge. The Countess of Buchan,
for crowning Robert Bruce, at Scone, was shut up here in a wooden cage,
six years, and then released. Edward II. and his queen wintered at
Berwick in 1310. He assembled his army here before the battle of
Bannockburn. Peter Spalding betrayed this place into the hands of Robert
Bruce in 1318: many attempts were made to recover it, which was not
effected till the day after the battle of Hallidon-hill, in 1333. Edward
III. was here in 1335, with a great army in 1340, and the year after, at
Easter, held a tournament; but during his absence in France, in November
1353, the Scots surprized and took the town. The castle, under the
renowned Sir John Copeland, held out till Edward, in February following,
arrived with a great army, and forced the Scotch to capitulate. Seven
Scotchmen, in 1377, surprised the castle, and held it eight days against
7,000 archers, and 3,000 cavalry. The deputy-governor, under the Earl of
Northumberland, betrayed it into the enemy's hands in 1384; but the earl
soon after recovered it. Through the solicitation of his uncle the Earl
of Worcester, engaging in the rebellion against Henry IV., in 1406, he
employed this fortress against the king; but a cannon-shot, the first
that was ever fired in England, so alarmed the garrison, that it,
immediately surrendered. According to Walsingham and Speed, this shot
was of a large size, and demolished great part of a tower. In 1811, a
ball of cast iron, weighing ninety-six pounds, answering to this
account, was found in a part of the ruins of the castle. It had
penetrated the wall about three yards, at a place where it was flanked
with a tower. An unsuccessful attempt was made to reduce it in 1422; but
after the battle of Towton, in 1461, it was again in the hands of the
Scots, who strengthened its walls, and held it till 1482, when it
finally came into possession of the English. "From that time," observes
Camden, "the kings of England have continually added works to it,
particularly Queen Elizabeth, who, lately to the terror of the enemy,
and security of the towns-people, contracted the circuit of the walls,
drawing within the old ones a very high wall, well built of strong
stone, surrounded by a deep ditch, a regular rampart, redoubt,
counterscarps, and covered ways, so that the form and strength of the
fortifications are sufficient to discourage all hopes of carrying it by
assault, not to mention the bravery of the garrison, and the stores in
the place, which exceed belief." Between the years 1761 and 1770 the
walls were almost entirely rebuilt in many parts, and finished in 1786.
The governor of Berwick has a salary of £586. 7s. 1d. The barracks
measure 217 by 121; and contain twenty-four rooms for officers, and
seventy-two rooms adapted to hold 567 privates. The church of Berwick, a
peculiar of the dean and chapter of Durham, stands on the north side of
the parade. It was rebuilt between 1642 and 1652, at the cost of £1400.
It has no steeple. It consists of three aisles, and several galleries,
all handsomely pewed. The Worshipful Mercers' Company, in London,
founded a lectureship here. David I., King of Scotland, founded here a
convent for Cistertian Nuns; and Robert III, granted its revenues to
Dryburgh Abbey. The convent of Carmelites originated with Sir John Grey,
in 1270. The Scotch King, in 1239, brought hither a convent of
Dominicans, which Edward III. removed. The Trinitarians had a house
here, as had the Franciscans; and between the sea and the town, in
Maudlin-field, stood the hospital and free chapel of St. Mary Magdalen,
which had an hospital or hermitage belonging to it at Segeden.--Queen
Elizabeth founded a free school here; and a charity-school was rebuilt
in 1725, in which twenty boys and six girls are clothed and educated.
Berwick bridge was swept away by a flood in 1199. It was rebuilt of
wood, of which it consisted, till the time of James I., who commenced
the present elegant structure of stone. It has fifteen arches; its
length being 1164 feet, and its breadth seventeen. It was twenty-four
years, four months, and four days in building, and cost government
£14,960 1s. 6d. The Town Hall was built in 1754. On its ground-floor, on
the east-side, is a piazza, called the Exchange; and opposite it are
cells for criminals, and shops. The second floor consists of two
spacious halls. The outer hall, for holding courts and guilds, measures,
sixty feet by thirty-one. The inner hall forty-seven feet long and
twenty-three feet broad, is occasionally occupied for public
entertainments. The upper story is the common gaol of the town. The
turret, 150 feet high, contains eight musical bells. The first charter
of the corporation was granted by Edward I. The corporation were first
summoned to send members to parliament in the latter end of the reign of
Edward IV. The last charter of this town was granted by James I. The
corporation now consists of a mayor, recorder, town clerk, four
bailiffs, a coroner, four serjeants at mace, and a water-bailiff. The
mayor is also escheator in the borough, clerk of the market, and a
justice of the peace; the other justices of the town being the recorder
and such resident burgesses as have sustained the office of mayor. They
are lords of the manor of Tweedmouth, where they hold a court-leet and
court-baron twice a year. Their annual revenues arising from duties
taken at the quay and gates, are estimated at £7000. Besides the trade
in salmon, great quantities of corn and eggs are exported here for
London. One morning in the month of October, 1814, there were upwards of
10,000 salmon, in Berwick market, caught in the Tweed, some of which
might have been bought at 2s. each. At the same time, the finest
herrings (of which an immense shoal was on the coast) were sold for 2s.
the hundred of six score. On the same day the best salmon was sold in
Newcastle market at 6d. per pound, and some of the inferior kind as low
as 4d. The port has about sixty or seventy vessels. The harbour abounds
with low dangerous rocks. At its mouth a noble pier has recently been
constructed on the site of an old one, built by Queen Elizabeth. Berwick
Castle, once a place of high importance, is now almost levelled with the
ground. About 400 yards north of it, is a pentagonal tower, called the
Bell Tower, having its name from containing a bell, which was rung on
any occasion of alarm.

   _Markets_, Wednesday and Saturday.--_Fairs_, Friday in Trinity Week,
   for black cattle, sheep, and horses.--_Mail_ arrives 9.49 morning;
   departs 2.1 afternoon.--_Bankers_, Commercial Banking Company; draw
   on Jones, Lloyd, and Co.; Batson and Co.: draw on Glynn and
   Co.--_Inns_, King's Arms, and Red Lion.

[Sidenote: The disputed town.]

[Sidenote: Countess of Buchan shut up in a cage six years.]

[Sidenote: The first cannon-ball used in England.]

[Sidenote: The church and convents.]

[Sidenote: The bridge 24 years in building.]

[Sidenote: Municipal officers.]

[Sidenote: Salmon and herring fisheries.]

   Map| Names of Places. |  County. |Number of Miles From         |
   +--+------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
     4|Besselsleigh[A] pa|Berks     |Abingdon     5|Oxford       6|
    43|Bessingby       pa|E.R. York |Bridlington  2|Carnaby      1|
    27|Bessingham      pa|Norfolk   |Cromer       6|Holt         6|
    27|Besthorpe       pa|Norfolk   |Attleborough 1|Buckenham    4|
    30|Besthorp        to|Nottingham|Newark       8|Tuxford      8|
    22|Beswick         to|Lancaster |Stockport    7|Bury         9|
    46|Beswick       chap|E.R. York |Beverly      7|Gt Driffield 7|
    37|Betchworth      pa|Surrey    |Reigate      3|Dorking      3|
    21|Bethersden      pa|Kent      |Ashford      6|Tenterden    7|
   +--+------------------+----------+--------------+--------------+
                                                   |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places. | Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+-------------------------+-----+--------+
     4|Besselsleigh[A] pa|Farringdon             14|   60|     124|
    43|Bessingby       pa|Hornsea                12|  238|      83|
    27|Bessingham      pa|Aylesham                8|  116|     137|
    27|Besthorpe       pa|Wymondham               6|   95|     542|
    30|Besthorp        to|Saxilby                 9|  132|     322|
    22|Beswick         to|Bolton                 12|  183|     248|
    46|Beswick       chap|Hornsea                13|  190|     205|
    37|Betchworth      pa|Leatherhead             7|   26|    1100|
    21|Bethersden      pa|Smarden                 4|   54|     973|
   +--+------------------+-------------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BESSELSLEIGH, is a small village, in the hundred of Hormer. The
manor formerly belonged to the family of Legh, from which it passed, by
a female heir, to that of Besils, or Blesells, which flourished there
for several centuries. "At this Legh," says Leland, "be very fayre
pastures and woodes. The Blesells hathe bene lords of it syns the tyme
of Edwarde the First, or afore, and ther they dyd enhabite. The place is
all of stone, and stondithe at the west end of the paroche churche. The
Blesells cam out of Provence in Fraunce, and were men of activitye in
feates of armes, as it appearith in monuments at Legh, how he faught in
Listes with a strange knighte that chalengyd hym, at the whiche deade
the Kynge and Quene at that tyme of England, were present. The Blesells
were countyd to have pocessyons of 400 marks by the yere." In the year
1516, the estates of the Blesells were carried, by the marriage of an
heiress, to the Fettiplaces, a respectable Berkshire family, one of whom
Besil Fettiplace, Esq., was High Sheriff in the 26th of Queen Elizabeth.
The manor of Besselsleigh was purchased of the Fettiplaces, by William
Lenthall, Esq., Speaker of the Long Parliament, whose descendants now
reside at Burford, in Oxfordshire.

[Sidenote: The Blessell's family.]

   Map|  Names of Places.   |  County. | Number of Miles From        |
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+---------------+
    25|Bethnal Green[A]   pa|Middlesex |Popular     2|Stratford     2|
    35|Betley             pa|Stafford  |Newcastle   7|Nantwich      8|
    12|Bettescombe        pa|Dorset    |Lyme Regis  6|Axminster     5|
    53|Bettesfield          |Flint     |Whitchurch  6|Ellesmere     6|
    21|Betteshanger       pa|Kent      |Sandwich    4|Deal          4|
    33|Betton            ham|Salop     |Drayton     2|Adderley      4|
    33|Betton            ham|Salop     |Shrewsbury  3|Ch. Stretton 11|
    33|Bettws             pa|Salop     |Knighton    7|Bis. Castle  11|
    49|Bettws             pa|Carmarthen|Llandillo   7|Camarthen    18|
    52|Bettws-Yn-Rhos[B]  pa|Denbigh   |Abergeley   4|Aberconway    9|
    54|Bettws             pa|Glamorgan |Bridgend    5|Pyle          5|
    55|Bettws             to|Merioneth |Bala        2|Corwen       11|
    26|Bettws             pa|Monmouth  |Newport     3|Careleon      4|
    26|Bettws            ham|Monmouth  |Abergavenny 5|Lanthony      7|
    56|Bettws             pa|Montgomery|Newtown     4|Montgomery    7|
    51|Bettws Bleddrws[C] pa|Cardigan  |Lampeter    2|Tregaron      9|
    58|Bettws Clyro       pa|Radnor    |Hay         4|Kington       8|
    58|Bettws Diserth     pa|Radnor    |New Radnor  8|Builth        6|
   +--+---------------------+----------+-------------+---------------+
                                                     |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.   | Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+------------------------+-----+---------+
    25|Bethnal Green[A]   pa|Clapton                3|    1|    62018|
    35|Betley             pa|Keel                   5|  157|      870|
    12|Bettescombe        pa|Charmouth              5|  146|       65|
    53|Bettesfield          |Oswestry              14|  173|      359|
    21|Betteshanger       pa|Wingham                5|   67|       20|
    33|Betton            ham|Woore                  6|  155|         |
    33|Betton            ham|Wenlock               11|  159|         |
    33|Bettws             pa|Ludlow                22|  164|      389|
    49|Bettws             pa|Neath                 13|  211|      830|
    52|Bettws-Yn-Rhos[B]  pa|Denbigh               11|  214|      912|
    54|Bettws             pa|Neath                 13|  186|      362|
    55|Bettws             to|Llandrillo             7|  195|         |
    26|Bettws             pa|Pontypool              7|  151|       95|
    26|Bettws            ham|Crickhowel             8|  151|         |
    56|Bettws             pa|Llanfair               7|  175|         |
    51|Bettws Bleddrws[C] pa|Llandovery            20|  211|      235|
    58|Bettws Clyro       pa|Glasbury               7|  160|         |
    58|Bettws Diserth     pa|Rhayader              15|  173|      141|
   +--+---------------------+------------------------+-----+---------+


[A] BETHNAL GREEN. There is a curious legend relating to this place, of
which Henry de Mountfort, son of the ambitious Earl of Liecester, who
was slain with his father at the memorable battle of Evesham, is the
hero. He is supposed to have been discovered among the bodies of the
dying and the dead (by a young lady) in an almost lifeless state, and
deprived of his sight by a wound which he had received during the
engagement. Under the fostering hand of this "faire damosel" he soon
recovered, and afterwards marrying her, she became the mother of the
celebrated "Besse," the heroine of the popular ballad of the beggar's
daughter of Bethnal-green, written in the reign of Elizabeth. Fearing
least his rank and title should be discovered by his enemies, he is said
to have disguised himself as a beggar, and taken up his residence at
Bethnal-green. The beauty of the daughter attracted many suitors, and
she was at length married to a noble knight, who, regardless of her
supposed meanness and poverty, had the courage to make her his wife: her
other lovers having deserted her on account of her low origin. At
Bethnal-green is an old mansion, which the inhabitants, with their usual
love of traditionary lore, assign as the palace of the blind beggar. The
tradition, though with very little grounds for its foundation, is still
preserved on the sign posts of several public houses in the
neighbourhood. On the 19th September, 1826, the parish officers of
Bethnal-green waited on the Secretary of State for the Home Department,
and stated that a lawless gang, of 500 or more, thieves infested that
neighbourhood and committed the most dreadful outrages nightly, upwards
of fifty persons having been robbed and beaten in the course of a week;
the secretary ordered forty men mounted, to patrole the parish, and aid
the local authorities in bringing the offenders to justice. The hospital
called the Trinity House, founded in the year 1695, for twenty-eight
ancient seamen, who have been masters of ships, and their widows, is in
this parish. The funds arising from the ballast-offices, lighthouses,
buoys, beacons, &c. are appropriated by parliament to this corporation.
Each of the inmates receives 16s. a month, 20s. a year for coals, and a
new gown every second year. Many of the streets of this parish are
almost wholly occupied by the operative silk-weavers.

[Sidenote: The blind beggar of Bethnal-green.]

[Sidenote: Gang of 500 thieves, in 1826.]


[B] BETTWS-YN-RHOS. _Fairs_, February 20, May 8, August 15, and November
20.


[C] BETTWS BLEDDRWS. In this neighbourhood there exists a curious custom
relating to marriage, called a bidding, which takes place about a week
previous to the day of ceremony. The banns are published as in England.
A bidder goes from house to house, with a long pole and ribbons flying
at the end of it, and standing in the middle floor in each house, he
repeats a long lesson, with great formality. He mentions the day of the
wedding, the place, the preparations made, &c. The following is a
specimen:--Speech of the Bidder in 1762. "The intention of the bidder is
this; with kindness and amity, with decency and liberality for Einion
Owain, and Llio Elys, he invites you to come with your good will on the
plate; bring current money; a shilling, or two, or three, or four, or
five; with cheese and butter we invite the husband and wife, and
children, and men-servants, from the greatest to the least. Come there
early, you shall have victuals freely, and drink cheap, stools to sit
on, and fish if we can catch them; but if not, hold us excuseable; and
they will attend on you when you call in upon them in return. They set
out from such a place to such a place." The gwahodder, or bidder, has
eight or ten shillings for his trouble. Saturday is always fixed on as
the day of marriage, and Friday is allotted to bring home the furniture
of the woman, consisting generally of an oak chest, a feather bed,
clothes, &c. The man provides a bedstead, a table, a dresser and chairs.
The evening is moreover employed in receiving presents of money, cheese,
and butter, at the man's house, from his friends, and at the woman's
house from her friends. This is called purse and girdle, it is an
ancient British custom. All these presents are set down minutely on
paper. If demanded, they are to be repaid. On Saturday, the friends of
the man come all on horseback, from the number of eighty to a hundred,
and have bread and cheese, and ale at his cost, making at the same time
their presents, or pay pwython, i.e. the presents that have been made at
their weddings. From ten to twenty of the best mounted go to the
intended bride's house to demand her. The woman with her friends are
expecting the summons, but she appears very uncomplying, and much Welsh
poetry is employed by way of argument; one party being within the house,
the other without, abusing each other much. Several persons then deliver
orations on horseback, with their hats off, demanding the daughter from
the father, who were answered by persons appointed for the business. At
length the father appears, admitting and welcoming his guests. They
alight, walk in, take some refreshments, and proceed to church. The girl
mounts behind her father, mother, or friend, upon the swiftest horse
that can be procured. Her friends then pretend to run away with her,
riding like mad folks, in any direction. During this time, the girl has
no pillion, sitting upon the crupper, and holding by the man's coat, at
last the horse is tired, or the bride growing impatient consents to go,
using only some feints to get out of the road, till they arrive at the
church. The ceremony being over, they return to the married couple's
house, eating at free cost, but finding their own liquor. Sunday being
come, the married pair stay at home receiving good will and pwython. On
Monday the drink is exhausted, and the cheese, &c. is sold, frequently
making, with the money presented, a sum of £50 to £60. On the following
Sunday, most of the company attend the young pair to church, and the
ceremony closes. Among the eminent natives of this neighbourhood, was
David ap Gwylim, of Bro Ginin, whose works appeared in a large volume,
in the year 1789. He nourished from about the year 1330 to 1370. In
early life he enjoyed the munificent patronage of Ivor the generous, an
ancestor of the Tredegar family. Under the influence of a passion for
the fair Morvudd he composed 147 poems. Their loves were mutual, but her
friends induced her to accept a wealthy connection, named Rhys Gwrgan,
an officer of the English army, who served at the battle of Cressy,
1346; Dab Gwilym persuaded Morvudd to escape with him, during the
absence of her husband in France; in consequent of which he was
imprisoned, but liberated through the influence of his friends. It is
from the poems of this author, that the modern literary dialect has
chiefly been formed.

   _Fairs_, August 17, and September 23 and 27.

[Sidenote: Curious marriage customs.]

[Sidenote: A Welsh poet.]

   Map|  Names of Places. |  County. |Number of Miles From      |
   +--+-------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
    50| Bettws Garmon  pa |Carnarvon|Carnarvon   5| Beddgelart 7|
   +--+-------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places. |Number of Miles From   |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    50| Bettws Garmon  pa |Llanberris            6|  230|    128|
   +--+-------------------+-----------------------+-------------+

   Map|  Names of Places.       |  County. |  Number of Miles From    |
   +--+-------------------------+----------+-----------+--------------+
    55|Bettws Gwerfyl Goch[A] pa|Merioneth |Corwen    5|Bala        11|
    51|Bettws Jevan           pa|Cardigan  |Newcastle 7|Cardigan    10|
    51|Bettws Lleuce          pa|Cardigan  |Lampeter  8|Tregaron     6|
    26|Bettws Newydd          pa|Monmouth  |Usk       4|Abergavenny  7|
    50|Bettws-Y-Coed[B]       pa|Caernarvon|Llanrwst  5|Bangor      20|
    30|Bevercoates            pa|Nottingham|Tuxford   3|Ollerton     5|
    42|Beverege              isl|Worcester |Worcester 2|Droitwich    5|
    46|Beverley[C]     m.t. & bo|E.R. York |Hull      9|Scarborough 35|
   +--+-------------------------+----------+-----------+--------------+
                                                       |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.       |Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------------------+----------------------+-----+--------+
    55|Bettws Gwerfyl Goch[A] pa|Ruthin              12|  199|     273|
    51|Bettws Jevan           pa|Llanarth             9|  236|     386|
    51|Bettws Lleuce          pa|Aberystwith         16|  217|     381|
    26|Bettws Newydd          pa|Monmouth            12|  142|     890|
    50|Bettws-Y-Coed[B]       pa|Corwen              23|  217|     348|
    30|Bevercoates            pa|E. Retford           7|  140|      51|
    42|Beverege              isl|Bewdley             12|  113|        |
    46|Beverley[C]     m.t. & bo|York                28|  183|    8302|
   +--+-------------------------+----------------------+-----+--------+


[A] BETTWS GWERFYL.--_Fairs_, March 16, June 22, August 12, September
16, and Dec. 12.


[B] BETTWS-Y-COED. At this village, which contains scarcely a hundred
houses, is the picturesque bridge of Pont-y-Pain, beneath which is a
famous salmon leap; and the road leads into the luxuriant vale of
Llanwrst, in the neighbourhood of which are many seats. The principal of
these is Gwydir House, an ancient mansion of the Wynnes; and now an
occasional residence of Lord Gwydir. Two miles northward is the village
of Trefrew, remarkable chiefly for a saline spring, and the site of a
royal palace, built by Llewelyn. Between two mountains, near this place
are some capital mines, the produce of which are lead, calamine, mixed
with iron, ochre, and pyrites. Bettws-y-Coed lies on the mail-coach road
to Holyhead. From Cernioge Mawr, through this place to Ogwen Lake, a
broad smooth, and well protected road has been made among the rocky
precipices with which the mountainous country abounds. The village
church contains an ancient but very perfect tomb of Gryffyd, grand
nephew of Llewellyn, the last prince of Wales. This interesting monument
is concealed rather awkwardly beneath one of the benches.

   _Fairs_, May 15, and December 3.--_Mail_ arrives 6.30 afternoon;
   departs 6.0 morning.

[Sidenote: Gwydir House.]


[C] BEVERLEY. This important market town lies at the foot of the wolds,
it was anciently called Dierwald: the wood of the Deiri; from its
extensive forest. Its present appellation may be a corruption of Beaver
ley; beavers having abounded in the neighbouring river, Hull. Its origin
and early history were totally unknown, till the beginning of the eighth
century, when St. John of Beverley founded a church and monastery, and
died there. This institution was several times destroyed by the Danes;
and there is a pause in its history, till Athelstan granted to it many
priviledges, and built a new college. Many archbishops of York were
benefactors to the monastery, and expended large sums in beautifying the
church. In the early part of the civil war, Charles I. had his quarters
here; and subsequently the town was taken by the parliamentarians. It
appears that Beverley derived its first and greatest importance from its
connexion with the saint. In its present state, the town is extensive
and pleasant. The entrance from Driffield, through an ancient gateway
into a spacious street of elegant houses, is particularly beautiful. Its
market-place also being large and commodious, is a principal ornament.
The church of St. John, which is in excellent preservation, is a superb
edifice, adorned at its west end with two lofty steeples. Within it is
rich in relics of antiquity. Gisbon, describing it, says "the minster
here is a very fair and neat structure: the roof is an arch of stone. In
it are several monuments of the Earls of Northumberland, who have added
a little chapel to the choir; in the windows whereof are the pictures of
several of that family, drawn in the glass. At the upper end of the
choir, on the right side of the altar place, stands the freedstool, made
of one entire stone, and said to have been removed from Scotland; with a
well of water behind it. At the upper end of the body of the church,
next the choir, hangs an ancient tablet, with the pictures of St. John
and king Athelstan, and this distich:

   'Als free make I thee,
   As heart can wish, or egh can see.'"

Hence, adds our author, the burgesses of Beverley pay no toll or custom
in any port or town of England. The choir is paved with marble of four
colours. Over the altar is a magnificent wooden arch supported by eight
fluted Corinthian pillars. The east window now contains all the painted
glass which could be collected from the others. The screen, between the
choir and the nave, is Gothic, and is justly esteemed a principal
ornament of the edifice. At the lower end of the body of the church
stands a large font of agate stone. In 1664, a vault was discovered of
free-stone, in which was a sheet of lead, containing the relics of St.
John, with an inscription, dated 1197, which imported that, the church
having been destroyed by fire, the ashes had been for some time lost,
but that at length they had been found and there deposited. They were
contained in a small leaden box, and consisted of a few bones, six
beads, some large nails, and three brass pins. The whole was piously
replaced, with an appropriate inscription; and, in 1726, the spot was
adorned with an arch of brick-work.--The church of St. Mary is also a
large and handsome structure; and like the minster, was destroyed in
1528, by the fall of its steeple. It contains some monuments and
inscriptions; but none of note.--Beverley is a corporate town, and is
governed by a mayor, twelve aldermen, and thirteen of the principal
burgesses. The whole number of these last is about 1200; and many
persons are induced to purchase their freedom, by the privileges and
immunities which it confers: among these are extensive rights of pasture
on four commons, near the town; and, as we have observed, liberation
from all tolls throughout the kingdom. Besides its churches, Beverley
has the following public edifices and charitable institutions: the
Hallgarth, a beautiful and spacious hall, in which are held the
sessions, and a register-office for deeds and wills; an elegant market
cross, supported by eight columns; each one entire piece of free-stone;
a common gaol, which was rebuilt thirty-five years since, with due
attention to the suitable accommodation of its inmates; seven
alms-houses with funds, for the erection of two more; a work-house,
which cost £700; and finally, an excellent free-school, to the scholars
of which are appropriated two fellowships at St. John's Cambridge, six
scholarships, and three exhibitions. The trade of Beverley arises
chiefly from the making of malt, oat-meal, and leather: formerly it was
somewhat celebrated for clothing. The vicinity of the town, particularly
towards the west, is rather pleasing; and commands several interesting
prospects. At the distance of three miles, is the moated site of
Lekingfield House, which was demolished, probably, about the end of the
sixteenth century. The barbarous custom of baiting a bull on the day of
the mayor being sworn into office, to the disgrace of the town, still
continues. In the Grammar school were educated Bishops Allcock, Fisher,
and Green; and here was painted as early as 1509, the figure of a man on
horseback, by 'Hugh Goes.' Beverley is remarkable as being the
birth-place of the following eminent persons, viz.: Aluridus, an ancient
historian, who died in 1129. Dr. John Allcock, the founder of Jesus
College, Oxford, who was the most celebrated divine, scholar, and
architect of his time. In 1470, he was made a privy counsellor and
embassador to the King of Castile. He was successively Bishop of
Rochester, Worcester, and Ely, Lord High Chancellor of England, and lord
President of Wales. In his capacity of an architect, few, if any, ever
excelled him, and his correct judgment in this science procured him the
appointment of Comptroller of the Royal Works. He founded the Grammar
School of Kingston upon Hull, and built a chapel, on the south side of
the church, where his parents were buried. The beautiful hall of the
episcopal palace of Ely was erected from his design and at his expense.
He very elegantly enlarged the parish church of Westbury, and built that
sumptuous and beautiful chapel in the Presbytery of Ely Cathedral, where
he was buried, and which remains at the present day, a monument of his
correct judgment; but all these fall into shadow, when compared with
that gorgeous and exquisite mass of enrichment, Henry the Seventh's
Chapel at Westminster; of which, if he was not the immediate designer,
he was at least the able manager and superintendant of its erection--a
monument of pious munificence that will be endeared to every lover of
art, when the living temple of its projector is forgotten. He died at
his castle of Wisbeach, October 1, 1500.--John Fisher, Bishop of
Rochester, was born here in 1459. His father was so eminent a scholar
and divine, that Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII.,
although unknown to him, sent for him, and appointed him her domestic
chaplain; and to his councils posterity are mainly indebted for those
magnificent foundations, St. John's and Christ's College at Cambridge.
This amiable bishop, with all his virtues, could not preserve himself
from the malignity of "the worst of England's monarchs"--Henry VIII.;
and under the pretence of being inimical to the marriage of the king
with Ann Bolyen, he was thrown into prison, and most barbarously
treated; here he continued for nearly a year, and might have been left
to die of ill treatment and old age, had it not been for the
unseasonable mark of respect paid him by Pope Paul III., who created
him, May 15, 1535, Cardinal Priest of St. Vitalis. Henry forbade the hat
to be brought into England, and sent Lord Cromwell to examine the Bishop
about the affair. "My Lord of Rochester," (says Cromwell) "what would
you say if the Pope should send you a Cardinal's hat," upon which the
Bishop replied, "Sir, I know myself to be so far unworthy of such
dignity that I think of nothing less; but if any thing should happen
assure yourself that I should improve that favour to the best advantage
that I could, by assisting the Holy Catholic Church of Christ, and in
that respect I would receive it upon my knees." When the answer was
brought, the king said in a great passion, "yea! is he yet so
lusty--well, let the Pope send him a hat when he will--mother of God! he
shall wear it on his shoulders then, for I will leave him never a head
to set it on." His ruin being now determined, but hardly daring to take
his life upon such trivial grounds, the king sent that most fawning and
contemptible creature, Sir Richard Rich, Solicitor-General, to draw from
him something that might convict him. This wiley wretch gradually drew
from him a private opinion concerning the king's supremacy, telling the
Bishop at the same time, that it was a scruple of the King's conscience
that made him ask for it. Thus entrapped he was not allowed to make a
defence, but was tried by a bill of attainder for high treason, and
executed on the 22d of the same month, and his head placed on London
bridge. Thus perished this good, but ill-fated prelate, in the 77th year
of his age, which dreadful tragedy, as Bishop Burnet observes, "Has left
one of the greatest blots upon this kingdom's proceedings."--The Rev.
John Green was also a native of this place, he was born in 1706,
educated at the Grammar School here, and finished his university
education at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he became master of
arts; he afterwards engaged himself as usher of a school at Litchfield,
where he became acquainted with Dr. Johnson, and Mr. Garrick. In 1730,
he was elected a fellow of St. John's College, and soon afterwards the
Bishop procured for him the vicarage of Hingeston. In 1744, Charles,
Duke of Somerset, and Chancellor of the University, made him his
domestic chaplain. In June 1750, he was elected master of Bennet
College, and in 1756, Dean of Lincoln, then Vice-chancellor of the
University of Cambridge; and at last, through the influence of his
patron, the Duke of Newcastle, preferred to the See of Lincoln. He was
the friend and colleague of Archbishop Secker, who had always a just
esteem for his virtues and abilities. After the death of Lord
Willoughby, of Parham, in 1765, the literary meetings of the Royal
Society used to be held in his lordship's house, as one of its most
accomplished members. In June 1761, he exerted his problematical talents
in two letters "On the Principles and Practice of the Methodists," which
he addressed to the Rev. Mr. Berridge and Mr. Whitfield; and to the
honour of this prelate be it spoken, that when the Bill for the Relief
of the Dissenters, was brought before the House of Lords, in May 1772,
and lost upon a division of 102 to 27, he was the only member of the
clerical brotherhood, who voted in its favour. He died suddenly at Bath,
April 25, 1779. This elegant scholar was one of the writers of the
celebrated "Athenian Letters," published by the Earl of Hardwick, in
1798, 2 vols. 4to. Beverley returns two Members to Parliament. The £10
householders are about 507. The returning officer is the Mayor.

   _Markets_, Wednesday and Saturday.--_Fairs_, Thursday before Old
   Valentine; Holy Thursday; July 5; November 5, for horses and sheep;
   and every alternate Wednesday for horned cattle.--_Bankers_, Machell
   and Co.; draw on Glyn and Co.; Bower and Co., draw on Curries and
   Co.--_Mail_ arrives 10.45 morning; departs 6.0 afternoon.--_Inn_,
   Tiger.

[Sidenote: Its origin and early history.]

[Sidenote: Ancient superstitions.]

[Sidenote: Public edifices.]

[Sidenote: Dr. John Allcock born here.]

[Sidenote: Bishop Fisher born here.]

[Sidenote: His head placed on London-bridge.]

   Map|  Names of Places. |  County. |Number of Miles From     |
   +--+------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
    46|Beverley Park   to|E.R. York |Beverley    2|Hull       7|
    15|Beverstone      pa|Gloucester|Tetbury     3|M. Hampton 5|
    39|Bevington      ham|Warwick   |Alcester    4|Bitford    4|
    39|Bevington Wood ham|Warwick   | ...        4| ...       5|
     9|Bewaldeth       to|Cumberland|Cockermouth 7|Keswick    9|
   +--+------------------+----------+-------------+------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places. | Number of Miles From  |Lond.|Population.
   +--+------------------+------------------------+-----+------+
    46|Beverley Park   to|Hornsea               12|  181|      |
    15|Beverstone      pa|Dursley                8|  102|   174|
    39|Bevington      ham|Stratford             12|  106|      |
    39|Bevington Wood ham| ...                  13|  107|      |
     9|Bewaldeth       to|Wighton               10|  299|   172|
   +--+------------------+------------------------+-----+------+

   Map| Names of Places.|  County. |  Number of Miles From |
   +--+-----------------+----------+-----------+-----------+
     9|Bewcastle[A]   pa|Cumberland|Brampton 10|Longtown 14|
   +--+-----------------+----------+-----------+-----------+
                                               |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.| Number of Miles From |Lond.|Population.
   +--+-----------------+----------------------+-----+-----+
     9|Bewcastle[A]   pa|Haltwhistle         15|  300| 1336|
   +--+-----------------+----------------------+-----------+


[A] BEWCASTLE is supposed to have been a Roman station, and garrisoned
by part of the Legio Secunda Augusta, as a security to the workmen who
were employed in erecting the famous wall, it is situated in the midst
of a wild and unfrequented district, in the Ward of Eskdale. Some
vestiges of ancient buildings still remain, and numerous Roman coins and
inscriptions have been discovered here. The present name of the village
is reported to have been derived from Bueth, who was Lord of the Manor
at the time of the Conquest, and is said to have repaired a Roman castle
here, and called it after his own name. The castle was of a square form,
each front about twenty-nine yards in length: it is now in ruins: the
south side, of which there are most remains, is nearly fourteen yards
high. This structure was destroyed by the parliamentary forces in the
year 1641. It seems to have been a dark gloomy fortress. Gils Bueth, the
son of Bueth, mentioned above, was treacherously killed by Robert De
Vallibus, at a meeting which had been held for friendly purposes. His
possessions then fell to the crown, and were bestowed by Henry II. on
the last Hubert de Vallibus, whose daughter conveyed them to the family
of the Multons by marriage. The estates afterwards passed through
several hands. Bewcastle in the fifth of Charles I. was granted to Sir
Robert Graham, in whose family it remains. Upon one occasion the captain
of Bewcastle is said to have made an incursion into Scotland, in which
he was defeated and forced to fly. Watt Tinlinn, a celebrated retainer
of the Buccleuch family, who held for his border service a small tower
on the frontiers of Liddisdale, pursued him. Watt Tinlinn was, by
profession, a cobbler, but by inclination and practice an archer, and
warrior. He closely followed the fugitive through a dangerous morass:
the captain, however, gained the firm ground; and seeing Tinlinn
dismounted, and floundering in the bog, used these words of insult:
"Sutor Watt, ye cannot sew your boots: the heels _risp_, and the seams
_rive_." "If I cannot sew," retorted Tinlinn, discharging a shaft, which
nailed the captain's thigh to his saddle. "If I cannot sew, I can yerk."
Bewcastle Church is a small edifice, standing on a rising ground near
the castle, a fosse surrounding them both. In the churchyard is a
celebrated obelisk, which has for many years attracted the attention of
the curious. Its height is fourteen feet, two inches: its breadth, on
the bottom of the broadest side, is one foot ten: on the top was
originally a cross, which is supposed to have been abolished in some
ebullition of popular enthusiasm. Various sculptured ornaments appear on
its different sides, executed with much fancy, together with an
illegible Roman inscription, and some human figures. On the wastes of
Bewcastle parish, several thousands of sheep and black cattle are
annually fed. The inhabitants of the parish live chiefly in single and
scattered houses; their religious opinions are mostly conformable to the
doctrines of the church of England; but about thirty years ago a meeting
house was built for a small congregation of Presbyterians. In this
parish, a fine is paid of four years, ancient rent, on change of the
Lord of the Manor by death: or of the tenants either by death or
alienation: besides various customary works and carriages; and for a
heriot, the best beast of which the tenant may die possessed, except the
riding-horse kept for the lord's service. Bewcastle parish has two
schools supported by subscription, the masters of which have a salary of
about ten pounds a year, and the privilege of a whittle-gate. The custom
of whittle-gate was formerly much observed in this and the neighbouring
counties: it consists in the master going to all the abodes of his
scholars in rotation, and being supplied with victuals by the parents or
friends.

[Sidenote: Anecdote of Watt Tinlinn.]

[Sidenote: Ancient fine]

   Map| Names of Places.|  County. |  Number of Miles From      |
   +--+---------------------+---------+-----------+-------------+
    42|Bewdley[A] bo. & m.t.|Worcester|Ludlow   21|Kiddermin   3|
    44|Bewerley           to|W.R. York|Ripley    8|Boro'bridge 8|
    29|Bewick, New        to|Northumb.|Wooler    8|Belford    10|
    29|Bewick, Old        to|Northumb | ...      8| ...        9|
    46|Bewholm            to|E.R. York|Beverley 12|Hornsea     5|
    38|Bexhill            pa|Sussex   |Hastings  6|Battle      6|
    12|Bexington, West      |Dorset   |Bridport  7|Abbotsbury  4|
   +--+---------------------+---------+-----------+-------------+
                                                  |Dist.|
   Map| Names of Places.| Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+---------------------+-----+-------+
    42|Bewdley[A] bo. & m.t.|Worcester          15|  129|   3908|
    44|Bewerley           to|Tanfield            6|  212|   1310|
    29|Bewick, New        to|Alnwick            12|  312|    106|
    29|Bewick, Old        to| ...               12|  313|    227|
    46|Bewholm            to|Bridlington        13|  195|       |
    38|Bexhill            pa|Pevensey            7|   63|   1931|
    12|Bexington, West      |Dorchester         11|  131|       |
   +--+---------------------+---------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BEWDLEY is seated on the Severn, in the centre of a populous
manufacturing district; it was, in the reign of Edward I., a manor of
the Beauchamps, and received from Edward IV. its charter of
incorporation. Leland's description of the town, and his opinion of its
origin, possess some beauties, and great exactness.--"The towne selfe of
Beaudley is sett on the syde of a hill; soe comely a man cannot wish to
see a towne better. It riseth from Severne banke by east, upon the hill,
by west; soe that a man standing on the hill _trans pontem_ by east, may
discerne almost every house in the towne, and at the risinge of the
sunne from the east, the whole towne glittereth (being all of a new
building), as it were of gould. By the distance of the parish church (at
Ribbesford), I gather that Beaudley is a very new towne, and that of
ould time there was but some poore hamlett, and that upon the building
of a bridge there upon Severne, and resort of people unto it, and
commodity of the pleasant site, men began to inhabit there; and because
the plott of it seemed fayre to the lookers, it hath a French name,
Beaudley." The figure of the town is that of the letter Y: the foot
extending to the river; one of the horns, towards Ribbesford, the other
into the forest. The bridge, viewed from the loaded wharfs, appears a
handsome modern structure, possessing a lightness of feature, superior
even to that of the bridge at Worcester. The church, situated at the
junction of the three principal streets, is accounted a chapel of ease
to the mother church of Ribbesford; and was rebuilt in its present neat,
yet embellished style, about 1748. Here are also appropriate places of
public worship for the numerous dissenters; several institutions for
carrying on the useful work of education, mostly supported by voluntary
contributions, and a number of alms-houses for the poor and aged. The
town-hall is a handsome modern building of stone, with three arches in
front, six square pilasters, and a pediment, surmounted by the Littelton
arms, and a double row of arcades. The trade of Bewdley is considerable,
and the inhabitants boast, with reason, that their trows and their crews
are the best on the river. Among the sources of this profitable
commerce, are numerous tan-yards; manufactures of a kind of cap, much
worn before the introduction of felt hats, comb-making, and other works
in horn, and a manufacture of flannel; while the town is a sort of mart
for the wholesale grocery trade. The charter of incorporation of Bewdley
has been subject to some extraordinary changes: the original deed,
renewed by James I. was surrendered to Charles II., and replaced by
another from his successor, which last, on the accession of Anne, was
declared illegal, and became the cause of a contention, which produced a
long and expensive law-suit, ended by the confirmation of the original
charter. By virtue of this, the corporation of Bewdley consists of a
bailiff, a recorder, a high steward, and twelve capital burgesses, who
depute one member to parliament, the bailiff being the returning
officer. The borough comprises the parish of Ribbesford and the hamlets
of Ribbenhall, Hoarstone, Blackstone, Netherton, Lower Milton, and
Lickhill; the number of burgesses are 42, and £10. householders about
484. Lord Lyttelton is lord of the manor, high steward, and recorder. A
few years since, Dr. James Johnstone, of Worcester, made an important
discovery in this neighbourhood, of a mineral spring, whose qualities,
after an attentive analysis, he declared to resemble those of the
Harrowgate and Moffat waters. The most celebrated natives of this place
were John Tombes, born in 1612, a subtle disputant, and a learned man,
but a changeling sectary; and Richard Willis, who was the son of a
capper, and became remarkable for his extemporaneous preaching; the
latter was made chaplain to King William, and promoted to the see of
Winchester, in 1714. Near a pleasant hamlet on the side of the river
opposite to Bewdley, is Spring Grove, a large white building surrounded
by a park, late the seat of S. Skey, Esq. to whom the country is
indebted for the introduction of a breed of mules, both handsome and
useful. On a hill, half a mile from Bewdley, and on the eastern bank of
the Severn, is the elegant villa called Winterdyne. This agreeable
retreat, plain in its appearance, yet commodious, is seated on a high
and romantic cliff, embowdered in deep tufted slides, and surrounded by
ornamented walks, which are diversified with Gothic turrets, seats, and
hermitages. Advancing on the river, Blackstone rocks meet the eye; a
bold range of dusky cliffs feathered to the top, and made romantic by
the formation of a cell or hermitage, heretofore the abode of some holy
man, but now a repository for the potatoes, cheese, and farming
implements of a neighbouring agriculturist.

   _Market_, Saturday.--_Fairs_, April 23, July 26, and December 11, for
   cattle, horses, cheese, and linen and woollen cloth.--_Bankers_,
   Skey, Son, and Co.; draw on Lubbock and Co.; and Pardoe and Co.; draw
   on Hoare and Co.--_Mail_ arrives 12.27 afternoon; departs 1.30
   afternoon.

[Sidenote: Leland's description of the town.]

[Sidenote: The charter disputed.]

[Sidenote: Spring Grove.]

   Map| Names of Places.|County.|Number of Miles From|
   +--+-----------------+-------+-----------+------------+
    21|Bexley[A]      pa|Kent   |Dartford  4|Bromley    8|
     7|Bexton         to|Chester|Knutsford 1|Northwich  9|
    27|Bexwell        pa|Norfolk|Downham   1|Lynn      12|
    21|Bibrook          |Kent   |Ashford   1|Kennington 1|
   +--+----------------+--------+-----------+------------+
                                            |Dist.|
   Map|Names of Places.|Number of Miles From|Lond.|Population.
   +--+-------------+-----------------------+-----+------+
    21|Bexley[A]  pa|Eltham                6|   14|  3206|
     7|Bexton     to|Congleton            13|  176|    76|
    27|Bexwell    pa|Stoke Ferry           6|   85|    53|
    21|Bibrook      |Canterbury           14|   54|      |
   +--+-------------+-----------------------+-----+------+


[A] BEXLEY was given by King Cenulph to the see of Canterbury. Edward
II. granted a weekly market to be held here, but this has long been
disused. Archbishop Cranmer alienated Bexley to Henry VIII. James I.
granted it to Sir John Spilman, who afterwards sold it to the celebrated
Camden, who made over his right to the University of Oxford, for the
purpose of founding an historical professorship; but covenanted that all
the revenues of the manor should be enjoyed for 99 years from his own
death, by Mr. William Heather, his heirs and successors, subject to the
payment of £140. annually. The University have since granted leases from
time to time, for 21 years, to the Leighs, of Hawley. The church, a
peculiar of the Archbishops of Canterbury, has a shingled tower and
small octangular spire. On the south side of the chancel is an ancient
confessional, consisting of three divisions of pointed arches, and a
recess for holy water; on the north side are seven ancient stalls of oak
with carved heads, and other figures. Here are several curious old
monuments High-street House, which adjoins the churchyard, was rebuilt
in 1701 by the late learned antiquary, John Thorpe, Esq., F.S.A., author
of the "Customale Roffense," who purchased this estate of the Austens,
of Hall Place, in 1750. On his death, his possessions devolved to his
two daughters, by Catharine, daughter of Dr. Lawrence Holker, of
Gravesend: High-street House, was allotted to the youngest, married to
Cuthbert Potts, Esq. This gentleman became owner also, in right of his
wife, of a contiguous villa, called Bourne Place, which was built about
fifty years ago, by Lawrence Holker, Esq. son of Dr. Holker. Hall Place,
formerly the seat of a family surnamed At-Hall, is an ancient and
spacious edifice, now occupied as a boarding-school. On August 12, 1822,
Robert, Marquis of Londonderry, sinking under the weight of a very heavy
session of Parliament, died by his own hand. Symptoms of mental
aberration had been observed in his Lordship by the Duke of Wellington,
who had required Dr. Blankhead to visit him; his Lordship severed the
carotid artery with a knife, and died almost instantly. He was an able
diplomatic character, and an acute and efficient Parliamentary
leader--he was, in the 53d year of his age: on the 20th of the same
month his remains were deposited in Westminster Abbey. The Right
Honourable Nicholas Vansittart was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of
Lancaster, and raised to the Peerage by the title of Baron Bexley, of
Bexley, in Kent, on the 31st January, 1833.

[Sidenote: One of Camden's manors.]

[Sidenote: Death of Lord Londonderry.]

   Map|  Names of Places.  |  County. |Number of Miles From       |
   +--+---------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
    15|Bibury[A]          pa|Gloucester|Fairford   5|Cirencester 7|
    31|Bicester[B]   m.t.&pa|Oxford    |Aylesbury 16|Oxford     13|
    34|Bickenhall         pa|Somerset  |Taunton    6|Ilminster   7|
    39|Bickenhill, Church pa|Warwick   |Coleshill  5|Birmingham 10|
    39|Bickenhill, Hill  ham|Warwick   |           4|Solihull    4|
   +--+---------------------+----------+------------+-------------+
                                                    |Dist.|
   Map|  Names of Places.  |Number of Miles From    |Lond.|Population.
   +--+---------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+
    15|Bibury[A]          pa|Barford              10|   82|    950|
    31|Bicester[B]   m.t.&pa|Buckingham           11|   55|   2868|
    34|Bickenhall         pa|Langford             11|  140|    270|
    39|Bickenhill, Church pa|Solihull              4|  101|    725|
    39|Bickenhill, Hill  ham|Meriden               3|  100|       |
   +--+---------------------+-----------------------+-----+-------+


[A] BIBURY. In the eighth century this little village belonged to the
See of Worcester: in the twelfth century it was given, with certain
restrictions, to the Abbey of Oseney, in Oxfordshire; and, in 1547, it
was finally alienated from the See of Worcester, to the Earl of Warwick,
from whom the manor has passed through various families to Estcourt
Cresswell, Esq. Bibury is a peculiar, possessing jurisdiction over
Aldsworth, Barnsley, and Winson; the Lord of the Manor, however, claims
a prescriptive right of appointing his own official and chancellor, who
hath the recording of wills, and the granting of licenses within the
peculiar: nor doth the Lord of the Manor allow to the Bishop the right
of visitation. The Church is supposed to have been rebuilt by the monks
of Oseney. The architecture of the north and south doors is in the early
Norman style. On the north wall was a colossal painting, in fresco, of
St. Christopher, the sight of whose image, according to the monkish
legends, had sufficient efficacy to preserve the spectator from sudden
or violent death: the painting is now obliterated. Several monuments and
inscriptions to the memory of the Coxwalls, and other families, are in
the edifice. The mansion was built in the reign of James II., by Sir
Thomas Sackville, of the family of the Earls of Dorset. From its
situation on an easy eminence, it commands a fine view of the river
Colne, backed by an amphitheatre of low wood, of the most variegated
foliage, clothing the acclivities of the hills, and rendered more
beautiful from the contrast afforded by the barren downs which appear in
the distance.

[Sidenote: Monkish legends.]


[B] BICESTER lies in a flat situation near the eastern border of the
county. The parish is divided into two districts, termed King's End and
Market End. The church is a large and respectable edifice. There is no
peculiar manufacture: but the town derives great benefit from its market
and cattle fairs.





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