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Title: Surnames as a Science
Author: Ferguson, Robert, 1817-1898
Language: English
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F.S.A., F.S.A. (SCOT.);





That portion of our surnames which dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, and
so forms a part of the general system by which Teutonic names are
governed, is distinctly a branch of a science, and as such has been
treated by the Germans, upon whose lines I have generally endeavoured to

It has been a part of my object to show that this portion of our
surnames is a very much larger one than has been generally supposed, and
that it includes a very great number of names which have hitherto been
otherwise accounted for, as well as of course a great number for which
no explanation has been forthcoming.

Nevertheless, while claiming for my subject the dignity of a science, I
am very well aware that the question as to how far I have myself
succeeded in treating it scientifically is an entirely different one,
and one upon which it will be for others than myself to pronounce an

This work is of the nature of a supplement to one which I published some
time ago under the title of _The Teutonic Name-system applied to the
Family-names of France, England, and Germany_ (Williams and Norgate),
though I have been obliged, in order to render my system intelligible,
to a certain extent to go over the same ground again.

I will only say, in conclusion, that in dealing with this subject--one
in which all persons may be taken to be more or less interested--I have
endeavoured as much as possible to avoid technicalities and to write so
as to be intelligible to the ordinary reader.




    CHAPTER I.                                                         PAGE





    NAMES REPRESENTING ANCIENT COMPOUNDS                                 36


    THE MEN WHO CAME IN WITH THE SAXONS                                  69


    MEN'S NAMES IN PLACE-NAMES                                           92


    CORRUPTIONS AND CONTRACTIONS                                        113


    THE OLD FRANKS AND THE PRESENT FRENCH                               123




    VARIOUS UNENUMERATED STEMS                                          154


    NAMES WHICH ARE NOT WHAT THEY SEEM                                  171


    CHRISTIAN NAMES OF WOMEN                                            197

    LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED                               213

    ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS                                           215

    INDEX OF NAMES                                                      217


    A.S.    Anglo-Saxon.
    O.N.    Old Northern.
    O.G.    Old German.
    O.H.G.  Old High German.




As some things that seem common, and even ignoble, to the naked eye,
lose their meanness under the revelations of the microscope, so, many of
our surnames that seem common and even vulgar at first sight, will be
found, when their origin is adequately investigated, to be of high
antiquity, and of unsuspected dignity. _Clodd_, for instance, might seem
to be of boorish origin, and _Clout_ to have been a dealer in old rags.
But I claim for them that they are twin brothers, and etymologically the
descendants of a Frankish king. _Napp_ is not a name of distinguished
sound, yet it is one that can take us back to that far-off time ere yet
the history of England had begun, when, among the little kinglets on the
old Saxon shore, "Hnaf ruled the Hôcings."[1] _Moll_, _Betty_, _Nanny_,
and _Pegg_ sound rather ignoble as the names of men, yet there is
nothing of womanliness in their warlike origin. _Bill_ seems an honest
though hardly a distinguished name, unless he can claim kinship with
Billing, the "noble progenitor of the royal house of Saxony." Now
Billing, thus described by Kemble, is a patronymic, "son of Bill or
Billa," and I claim for our Bill (as a surname) the right, as elsewhere
stated, to be considered as the progenitor. Among the very shortest
names in all the directory are _Ewe_, _Yea_, and _Yeo_, yet theirs also
is a pedigree that can take us back beyond Anglo-Saxon times. Names of a
most disreputable appearance are _Swearing_ and _Gambling_, yet both,
when properly inquired into, turn out to be the very synonyms of
respectability. _Winfarthing_ again would seem to be derived from the
most petty gambling, unless he can be rehabilitated as an Anglo-Saxon
Winfrithing (patronymic of Winfrith.) A more unpleasant name than
_Gumboil_ (_Lower_) it would not be easy to find, and yet it represents,
debased though be its form, a name borne by many a Frankish warrior, and
by a Burgundian king fourteen centuries ago. Its proper form would be
Gumbald (Frankish for Gundbald), and it signifies "bold in war." Another
name which wofully belies its origin is _Tremble_, for, of the two words
of which it is composed, one signifies steadfast or firm, and the other
signifies valiant or bold. Its proper form is Trumbald, and the first
step of its descent is _Trumbull_. A name which excites anything but
agreeable associations is _Earwig_. Yet it is at any rate a name that
goes back to Anglo-Saxon times, there being an Earwig, no doubt a man
of some consideration, a witness to a charter (_Thorpe_, p. 333). And
the animal which it represents is not the insect of insidious repute,
but the sturdy boar so much honoured by our Teuton forefathers, _ear_
being, as elsewhere noted, a contraction of _evor_, boar, so that Earwig
is the "boar of battle." Of more humiliating seeming than even Earwig is
_Flea_ (vouched for by Lower as an English surname). And yet it is at
all events a name of old descent, for Flea--I do not intend it in any
equivocal sense, for the stem is found in Kemble's list of early
settlers--came in with the Saxons. And though it has nothing to do with
English "flea," yet it is no doubt from the same root, and expresses the
same characteristic of agility so marvellously developed in the insect.

Even _Bugg_, if he had seen his name under this metaphorical microscope,
might have felt himself absolved from changing it into Howard, for Bugg
is at least as ancient, and etymologically quite as respectable. It is a
name of which great and honourable men of old were not ashamed; there
was, for instance, a Buga, minister to Edward of Wessex, who signs his
name to many a charter. And there was also an Anglo-Saxon queen,
Hrothwaru, who was also called Bucge, which I have elsewhere given
reasons for supposing to have been her original name. There are moreover
to be found, deduced from place-names, two Anglo-Saxons named
respectively Buga and Bugga, owners of land, and therefore respectable.
In Germany we find Bugo, Bugga, and Bucge, as ancient names of men and
women in the _Altdeutsches Namenbuch_. And Bugge is at present a name
both among the Germans and the Scandinavians, being, among others, that
of a distinguished professor at Christiania. As to its origin, all that
we can predicate with anything like confidence is that it is derived
from a word signifying to bend, and of the various senses thus derived,
that of ring or bracelet (O.N. _baugr_) seems to me the most
appropriate. The bracelet was of old an honourable distinction, and the
prince, as the fountain of honour, was the "bracelet-giver."[2]

My object then at present is to show that many of our short and
unpretending names are among the most ancient that we have, being such
as our Saxon forefathers brought with them when they first set foot upon
our shores, and such as we find whenever history gives us a yet earlier
glimpse of the Teuton in his home. _Bass_, for instance, whose red
pyramid to-day stamps authenticity on many a bottle, was in ancient
times a well-known potter's name on the beautiful red Samian ware of the
Romans. The seat of this manufacture was on the banks of the Rhine, and
in the long list of potters' names, mostly of course Roman, there are
not a few that are those of Germans or of Gauls. And there is one
interesting case, that of a lamp found along the line of the Roman wall,
in which the German potter, one Fus, has asserted his own nationality by
stamping his ware with the print of a naked human foot, within which is
inscribed his name, thus proving, by the play upon his name, that _fus_
meant "foot" in the language which he spoke. Little perhaps the old
potter thought, as he chuckled over his conceit, that when fifteen
centuries had passed away, his trade-mark would remain to attest his

But to return to Bass, let us see what can be done to bridge the gulf
between the princely brewers of to-day and the old potter on the banks
of the Rhine. And first, as to Anglo-Saxon England, we find Bass as a
mass-priest, and Bassus as a valiant soldier of King Edwin in the
Anglo-Saxon _Chronicle_, as also a Bassa in the genealogy of the Mercian
kings. Basing, the Anglo-Saxon patronymic, "son of Bass," occurs about
the twelfth century, in the _Liber Vitæ_. And Kemble, in his list of
Anglo-Saxon "marks," or communities of the early settlers, finds
Bassingas, _i.e._ descendants or followers of Bass, in Cambridgeshire
and in Notts, while Mr. Taylor finds offshoots of the same family on the
opposite coast in Artois. In Germany we find many instances of Bass, and
its High German form Pass, from the seventh century downwards. And in
the neighbourhood of the Wurm-See, in Bavaria, we find, corresponding
with our Bassings, a community of Pasings, _i.e._ descendants or
followers of Pass. We may take it then that our name _Pass_ is only
another form of _Bass_, both names being also found at present in
Germany. As to the origin of the name, for which no sufficient
explanation is to be found in the Old German dialects, Foerstemann has
to turn to the kindred dialect of the Old Northern, where he finds it in
_basa_, anniti, to strive contend.

Thus far we have had to do with Bass as a name of Teutonic origin. But
it appears to have been a Celtic name as well, for Bassa, a name
presumably Welsh, occurs in the pathetic lament of Llywarch, written in
the sixth century, the name being, on the authority of the late Dr.
Guest, still retained in Baschurch near Shrewsbury. The name Bass, then,
or Pass, on Roman pottery might be either that of a German or of a Gaul,
but more probably the former, especially as we find also Bassico, a form
more particularly German, and some other forms more probably Teutonic.

Before parting with Bass, I may refer to one in particular of his
progeny, the name _Basin_, formed from it by the ending _en_ or _in_,
referred to in a subsequent chapter. The original of our Basin has been
supposed to have been a barber, the mediæval leech, but I claim for him
a different origin, and connect his name, which is found as Basin in
Domesday, with the name Basin of a Thuringian king of the fifth century.

Let us take another of our common surnames, _Scott_. This has been
generally assumed to have been an original surname derived from
nationality, and we need not doubt that it has been so in many, perhaps
in most, cases. But Scott, as a man's name, is, not to say older than
the introduction of surnames, but as old probably as the name of the
nation itself. To begin with England, it occurs in the thirteenth
century, in the _Liber Vitæ_, where it is the reverse of a surname,
Scott Agumdessune (no doubt for Agemundessune). I do not think,
however, that Agumdessune is here a surname, but only an individual
description, an earnest of surnames that were to be. For there is
another Scott who signs about the same time, and it might be necessary
to distinguish between these two men. There is in the same record yet
another Scott, described as "Alstani filius," who, in the time of
William the Conqueror, "for the redemption of his soul, and with the
consent of his sons and of all his friends," makes a gift of valuable
lands to the Church. Scott again occurs in an Anglo-Saxon charter of
boundaries quoted by Kemble, "Scottes heal," _i.e._ "Scot's hall." And
Scotta occurs in another in "Scottan byrgels," _i.e._ "Scotta's burial
mound." In Germany Scot occurs in the ninth century in the Book of the
Brotherhood of St. Peter at Salzburg, where it is classed by Foerstemann
as a German name, which seems justified by the fact that Scotardus, a
German compound (_hard_, fortis), occurs as an Old Frankish name in the
time of Charlemagne. In Italy, where, as I shall show in a subsequent
chapter, the Germans have left many Teutonic names behind them, we find
a Scotti, duke of Milan, in the middle ages, whose name is probably due
to that cause. Scotto is a surname at present among the Frisians, while
among the Germans generally it is most commonly softened into Schott.

Scot however, as a man's name, seems to have been at least as common
among the Celts as among the Teutons; Gluck cites four instances of it
from ancient, chiefly Latin, authors, in only one of which, however,
that of a Gaul, is the particular nationality distinguished. As to the
origin of the name, all that can be said is that it is most probably
from the same origin, whatever that may be, as the name of the nation;
just as another Celtic man's name, Caled, signifying hard, durus, is
probably from the same origin as that of Caledonia, "stern and wild."

Lastly, among the names on Roman pottery, we have Scottus, Scoto, and
Scotni, the last being a genitive, "Scotni manû." Of these three names
the first is the Latinisation of Scott; the second has the ending in _o_
most common for men's names among the old Franks, but also found among
the Celts; the third, as a genitive, presumably represents the form
Scotten, the ending in _en_, hereafter referred to, running through the
whole range of Teutonic names, but being also found in Celtic. Upon the
whole, then, there does not seem anything sufficiently distinctive to
stamp these names as either Teutonic or Celtic. I may observe that all
these three forms, _Scott_, _Scotto_, and _Scotten_, are found in our
surnames, as well as _Scotting_, the Anglo-Saxon patronymic, which
assists to mark the name as in Anglo-Saxon use. We have also _Scotland_,
which has been supposed to have been an original surname derived from
nationality, and so I dare say it may be in some cases. But Scotland
appears as a man's name in the _Liber Vitæ_ about the twelfth or
thirteenth century, and before surnames begin to make their appearance.
Scotland again occurs as the name of a Norman in the _Acta Sanctorum_,
where it seems more probably of Frankish origin, and cannot at any rate
be from nationality. The fact seems to be that _land_, terra, was formed
into compounds, like _bald_, and _fred_, and _hard_, without reference
perhaps to any particular meaning. Similarly we find Old German,
apparently Frankish, names, Ingaland and Airland (more properly
Heriland), which might account in a similar way for our surnames
_England_ and _Ireland_.

Let us take yet one more name, _Gay_, a little more complicated in its
connections than the others, and endeavour to trace it up to its origin.
"Nay! but what better origin can we have," I can fancy the reader saying
at starting, "than our own word 'gay', French _gai_?" I would not
undertake to say that our name is not in any instance from this origin,
but what I say is that a proved Anglo-Saxon _name_ is better than any
assumed _word_, however suitable its meaning may seem to be. Moreover,
the same Anglo-Saxon word will account, not only for Gay, but for a
whole group of names, _Gay_, _Gye_, _Gedge_, _Gage_, _Kay_, _Key_,
_Kegg_, _Kedge_, _Cage_,--all variations, according to my view, of one
original name. It must inevitably be the case that a name dating back to
a remote antiquity, and in use over a wide area, must be subject to many
phonetic variations. And it matters nothing to etymology, so long as her
own strict rules are complied with, if some of these names have not a
single letter in common. Given, then, an Anglo-Saxon name Gagg, Gegg,
with its alternative form Cagg, Keg, and we get from it all the forms
that are required. For the English ear is averse, as a matter of
euphony, to a final _g_, and while it most commonly changes it into _y_
(which is in effect dropping it), as in A.S. _dag_, Eng. _day_, A.S.
_cæg_, Eng. _key_, it also not unfrequently changes it into _dg_, as in
A.S. _bricg_, Eng. _bridge_, &c. To come, then, to the Anglo-Saxon
names concerned, Kemble, in his list of original settlers, has both
Gagingas, _i.e._ descendants or followers of Gag, and Cægingas, _i.e._
descendants or followers of Cæg. And the Anglo-Saxon names cited below,
one of them the exact counterpart of Gay, are deduced from place-names
of a later period. The Old German names do not, in this case, throw any
light upon the subject, as, on account of the stem not being so
distinctly developed as it is in Anglo-Saxon, they have been placed by
Foerstemann to, as I consider, a wrong stem, viz. _gaw_, patria.

    _Anglo-Saxon names._--Gæcg, Geagga, Geah, Cæg, Ceagga, Ceahha
    (Gæging, Gaing, _patronymics_).

    _Old German names._--Gaio, Geio, Kegio, Keyo, Keio.

    _Present German._--Gey, Geu.

    _Present Friesic._--Kay, Key.

    _English surnames._--Gay, Gye, Gedge, Gage, Kay, Key, Kegg, Kedge,

As to the origin and meaning of the word, I can offer nothing more than
a somewhat speculative conjecture. There is a stem _gagen_, _cagen_, in
Teutonic names, and which seems to be derived most probably from O.N.
_gagn_, gain, victory. We find it in Anglo-Saxon in Gegnesburh, now
Gainsborough, and in Geynesthorn, another place-name, and we have it in
our names _Gain_, _Cain_, _Cane_. It is very possible, and in accordance
with the Teutonic system, that _gag_ may represent the older and simpler
form, standing to _gagen_ in the same relation as English _ward_ does
to _warden_, and A.S. _geard_ (inclosure), to _garden_.

As in the two previous cases, so also in this case, there is an ancient
Celtic name, Geio, to take into account, and to this may be placed the
names _Keogh_ and _Keho_, if these names be, as I suppose, Irish and not
English. Also the Kay and the Kie in _McKay_ and _McKie_. Lastly, in
this, as in the other two cases, there is also a name on Roman pottery,
Gio, which might, as it seems, be either German or Celtic. Can there be
any connection, I venture to inquire, between these ancient names,
Celtic or Teutonic, and the Roman Gaius and Caius? Several well-known
Roman names are, as elsewhere noted, referred by German writers to a
Celtic origin.

It will be seen then that, in the case of all the three names of which I
have been treating, there is an ancient Celtic name in a corresponding
form which might in some cases intermix. And there are many more cases
of the same kind among our surnames. _Wake_, for instance, may represent
an ancient name, either German or Celtic; for the German a sufficient
etymon may be found in _wak_, watchful, while for the Celtic there is
nothing, observes Gluck, in the range of extant dialects to which we can
reasonably refer it. So _Moore_ represents an ancient stem for names
common to the Celts, the Germans, and the Romans, though at least as
regards the Germans, the origin seems obscure.[3]

Now it is quite possible, particularly in the case of such monosyllabic
words as these, that there might be an accidental coincidence between a
Celtic and a Teutonic name, without their having anything in common in
their root. It is possible, again, that the one nation may have borrowed
a name from the other, as the Northmen, for instance, sometimes did from
the Irish or the Gael, one of their most common names, Niel(sen), being
thus derived; while, on the other hand, both the Irish and the Gael
received, as Mr. Worsaae has shown, many names from the Northmen. So
also the Romans seem to have borrowed names from the Celts, several
well-known names, as Plinius, Livius, Virgilius,[4] Catullus, and
Drusus, being, in the opinion of German scholars, thus derived.

But though no doubt both these principles apply to the present case, yet
there is also, as it seems to me, something in the relationship between
Celtic and Teutonic names which can hardly be accounted for on either of
the above principles. And I venture to throw out the suggestion that
when ancient Celtic names shall have been as thoroughly collected and
examined as, by the industry of the Germans, have been the Teutonic,
comparative philology may--perhaps within certain lines--find something
of the same kinship between them that it has already established in the
case of the respective languages. Meanwhile, I venture to put forward,
derived from such limited observations as I have been able to make,
certain points of coincidence which I think go some way to justify the
opinion expressed above. In so doing I am not so much putting forward
etymological views of my own, as collecting together, so as to shape
them into a comparison, the conclusions which have, in various
individual cases, been arrived at by scholars such as Zeuss. There are,
then, four very common endings in Teutonic names,--_ward_, as in Edward,
_ric_, as in Frederic, _mar_, as in Aylmar, and _wald_, as in Reginald
(=Reginwald). The same four words, in their corresponding forms, are
also common as the endings of Celtic names, _ward_ taking the form of
_guared_ or _guaret_, the German _ric_ taking generally the form of
_rix_ (which appears also to have been the older form in the German, all
names of the first century being so given by Latin authors), _wald_
taking the form of _gualed_ or _gualet_, and _mar_ being pretty much the
same in both. Of these four cases of coincidence, there is only one
(_wald = gualet_) which I have not derived from German authority. And
with respect to this one, I have assumed the Welsh _gualed_, order,
arrangement, whence _gualedyr_, a ruler, to be the same word as German
_wald_, Gothic _valdan_, to rule. But we can carry this comparison still
further, and show all these four endings in combination with one and the
same prefix common to both tongues. This prefix is the Old German _had_,
_hat_, _hath_, signifying war, the corresponding word to which is in
Celtic _cad_ or _cat_. (Note that in the earliest German names on
record, as the Catumer and the Catualda of Tacitus, the German form is
_cat_, same as the Celtic. This seems to indicate that at that early
period the Germans so strongly aspirated the _h_ in _hat_, that the word
sounded to Roman ears like _cat_, and it assists perhaps to give us an
idea of the way in which such variations of tongues arise.)

I subjoin then the following names which, _mutatis mutandis_, are the
same in both tongues, and which, judging them by the same rules which
philology has applied to the respective languages, might be taken to be
from some earlier source common to both races:--

  _Ancient German Names._            _Ancient Celtic Names._

  Hadaward.                          Catguaret (_Book of Llandaff_).
  Haduric.                           Caturix (_Orelli_).
  Hadamar (Catumer, _Tacitus_).      Catmôr (_Book of Llandaff_).
  Hadold (=Hadwald).                 Catgualet (_British king of Gwynedd_,
                                       A.D. 664).
  Catualda (_Tacitus_).              Cadwalladyr (_British king_)
                                       (Catgualatyr, _Book of Llandaff_)

In comparing Catualda with the British Cadwalladyr I am noting an
additional point of coincidence. Catualda is not, like other Old German
names, from _wald_, rule, but from _walda_, ruler. There is only one
other Old German name in the same form, Cariovalda,[5] also a very
ancient name, being of the first century. This then may represent the
older form, though this is not what I wish at present to note, but that
Catualda is the counterpart of the British Cadwalladyr, which also is
not from _gualed_, rule, but from _gualedyr_, ruler.

In suggesting that this coincidence may be confined within certain lines
I mean to guard against the assumption that it would, as in the case of
the language, be found to pervade the whole system, many of the
formations of which may be of a more recent time. There are some other
stems, considered by the Germans to be in coincidence, to only one of
which I will refer at present, the Old Celtic _tout_, Welsh _tûd_ = the
Gothic _thiuda_. Hence the name Tudric, of a British king of Glamorgan,
would be the counterpart of that of the Gothic king Theuderic, or
Theoderic. I will take one more instance of a name presumed to be common
to the Germans and to the Celts as an illustration of the manner in
which--men's names being handed down from generation to generation
without, even in ancient times, any thought of their meaning--a name may
survive, while the word from which it was originally derived has
perished out of the language, or is retained in a sense so changed as
hardly to be recognised. The German name in question is that of Sigimar,
the brother of Arminius, dating from the first century of our era, a
name which we still have as _Seymore_, and in its High German form
Sicumar we have as _Sycamore_, intermediate Anglo-Saxon names being
found for both. The prefix _sig_ is taken, with as much certainty as
there can be in anything of the kind, to be from _sig_, victory; the
ending _mar_, signifying famous, is a word to which I have already
referred as common both to the Germans and to the Celts. Segimar was
also an ancient Celtic name, but while the ending _mar_ has a meaning
to-day in Celtic speech, the prefix _seg_ is a word of which they are
hardly able to render any account. Only in the Old Irish (which seems to
contain some of the most ancient elements) Gluck, finding a word _seg_
with the meaning of the wild ox, _urus_, deduces from it the ancient
meaning of strength (Sansc. _sahas_, vis, robor), and infers an original
meaning akin to the German.

It happens, perhaps yet more frequently, that a German name, which
cannot be explained by anything within the range of Teutonic dialects,
may find a sufficient etymon from the Celtic. That is to suppose that a
word originally common to the Teutonic and the Celtic, has dropped out
of the former, and been retained only in the latter. Thus there is a
word _arg_, _arch_, found in many Teutonic names, and from which we have
several names, as _Archbold_, _Archbutt_, _Archard_, _Argent_,
_Argument_, for which the meaning that can be derived from the German
seems very inadequate, but for which the Irish _arg_, hero or champion,
seems to offer as good a meaning as could be desired. So also _all_,
from which, as elsewhere shown, there are a number of names, in its
Teutonic sense of _omnis_, does not seem to give by any means so
satisfactory a result as in its Celtic sense of "great" or,
"illustrious." Many other instances might be adduced on both sides to
show the way in which a word has dropped out of the one language and
been retained in the other.

Before passing from this part of the subject, I may be allowed to adduce
an illustration--a striking one I think, albeit that the name in this
case is not that of a man but of a dog--of the way in which a name may
be retained in familiar use, though the word from which it is derived
has perished out of the language, though the language itself has passed
out of use among us for more than a thousand years, and though the word
itself is only used in a sort of poetical or sentimental sense. Who has
not heard, in verse or in prose, of the "poor dog _Tray_"? And yet who
ever heard, excepting in books, of a dog being called Tray, a word which
conveys no meaning whatever to an English ear? What then is the origin,
and what is the meaning, of the name? It is, I venture to think, the
ancient British name for a dog, which is not to be found in any living
dialect of the Celtic, and which is only revealed to us in a casual line
of a Roman poet:--

    Non sibi, sed domino, venatur _vertragus_ acer,
      Illæsum leporem qui tibi dente feret.


The British _vertrag_ must have been something of the nature of a
greyhound, though, from the description of his bringing back the game
unmangled to his master, perhaps capable of a higher training than the
greyhound generally attains to. Now the _ver_ in _vertrag_ is in the
Celtic tongues an intensitive, and as prefixed to a word, gives the
sense of preeminence. The ancient British word for a dog in general must
have been _trag_, a word of which we find a trace in the Irish _traig_,
foot, allied, no doubt, to Gothic _thragjan_, Greek [Greek: trechein],
Sanscrit _trag_, to run. The ancient British name then for a dog, _trag_
signified the "runner," and with the intensitive prefix _ver_, as in
_vertrag_, the "swift runner."[6] And _trag_ is, I take it, the word
from which, _g_ as usual in English becoming _y_, is formed our word

It may be of interest, in connection with the antiquity of our names, to
take a few of the oldest Teutonic names of which history gives us a
record, and endeavour to show the relationship which they bear to our
existing surnames. It will be seen that not only have we the
representatives of these ancient names, but also in certain cases names
which represent a still more ancient form of the word.

And first let us take the name, dating back to the first century of our
era, of the old German hero Arminius, brought before us with such
magnanimous fairness by Tacitus. The old idea, let me observe, that
Armin is properly _herman_, leader or warrior, has long been given up by
the Germans. The name, of which the most correct form is considered to
be Irmin, is formed from one single word of which the root is _irm_, and
the meaning of which is, as Grimm observes, entirely obscure. We have
then as English surnames _Armine_, _Ermine_, and _Harmony_, the last,
no doubt, a slight corruption, though, as far as the prefix of _h_ is
concerned, it is as old as Anglo-Saxon times, for we find "Harmines
den," Harmine's valley, in a charter quoted by Kemble. Then we have
compounded with _gar_, spear, and corresponding with an O.G.
Irminger--_Arminger_, _Irminger_,[7] and again as a corruption,
_Iremonger_. And, compounded with _hari_, warrior, and corresponding
with an O.G. Irminhar, we have _Arminer_. And, as a Christian name of
women, one at least of our old families still retains the ancient name
_Ermentrude_, the ending _trude_, as found also in _Gertrude_, being
perhaps from the name Thrud, of one of the _Valkyrjur_, or
battle-maidens of Odin. The French also, among the many names derived
from their Frankish ancestors, have _Armingaud_, _Armandet_, and
_Ermingcard_, corresponding with the ancient names Irmingaud, Irmindeot,
and Irmingard. And _Irminger_, as I write, comes before me in the daily
papers as the name of a Danish admiral. But Irmin is not the oldest form
of the name,--"the older and the simple form," observes Foerstemann,
"runs in the form Irm or Irim," and with this also we can claim
connection in our family names. For we have the simple form as _Arms_
and _Harme_; and as compounds we have _Armiger_, corresponding with an
O.G. Ermgar; _Armour_, with an O.G. Ermhar; and _Armgold_, with an O.G.
Ermegild. Lastly, I may observe that both Irm and Irmin are found also
by Stark as ancient Celtic names. And certainly there is no stem more
likely than this, of the origin of which all trace is lost in the
darkness of the past, to be one that is older than the Arian separation.

The name Sigimar, of the brother of Arminius, I have already shown that
we have, not only in its own form as _Seymore_, but also in its High
German form as _Sycamore_, the Anglo-Saxon names from which they may be
taken to be more immediately derived being also found in the chapter on
place-names. And I have also shown that we have the name Cariovalda (or
Harwald) of a prince of the Batavi, of the first century, in our

There was another old hero of the German race, not so fortunate as
Arminius in finding an historian in a generous foe, whose name only
comes before us in a line of Horace:--

    Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen.

Cotiso must have been a leader of some High German tribe, perhaps
somewhere on the Upper Danube, and he must have made a gallant stand
against the Roman arms, inasmuch as his final overthrow is deemed by the
Roman poet a worthy subject on which to congratulate his imperial
patron. Cotiso is a High German form of another name, Godiso or Godizo,
elsewhere referred to, and hence may be represented, I venture to think,
in our names _Godsoe_ and _Goddiss_, while Cotiso itself may be
represented in our _Cottiss_, the ancient vowel-ending being in our
names, as I shall show in the next chapter, sometimes dropped and
sometimes retained.

Another name which goes back to the first century of our era is Arpus,
that of a prince of the Catti in Tacitus. The Eorpingas, descendants or
followers of Eorpa, were among the original settlers, and seem to have
confined themselves to Norfolk, where alone we have any traces of them.
The name may perhaps be referred to Anglo-Saxon _eorp_, wolf, though
other derivations have also been proposed. We have the name at present
as _Earp_ (the name of a member of the House of Commons), and also as
_Harp_. Upon this stem is formed the name Arbogastes (_gast_, guest) of
a Frankish general under the Emperor Gratian in the fourth century; and
_Arbogast_ is still a family name among the French.

Lastly, let us take the name of the German king, Ariovistus, brought
before us by Cæsar. The proper form of this name, there seems little
doubt, is Arefastus, as found in some other O.G. names. There was also
an Arfast, bishop of East Anglia, in the time of William the Conqueror.
And Arfast is a present name among the Frisians, according to Outzen,
who compares it--rightly, as it seems to me--with the old name
Ariovistus. The corresponding name Arinfast (_aro_, _arin_, eagle) was
also in ancient use among the Danes. It seems to me that our name
_Harvest_ may easily be a corruption of Arfast; it has generally no
doubt been derived from a man's having been born at such a season, but I
distrust, as a general rule, as elsewhere stated, derivations of this

In connection with the subject of the antiquity of Teutonic names
generally, and of English names as derived from them, I shall have, in a
subsequent chapter, to refer to the names of original settlers in
England as deduced by Kemble from ancient charters, and compare them
with names of a similar kind found in Germany. The coincidence that will
be found in these names at that early period, from England and Friesland
in the north to Bavaria in the south, will, I think, be a very strong
argument to show that these names could not have originated within the
Teutonic area itself, and so dispersed themselves over it in its length
and breadth, but that they must have been brought with them by the
Teutonic invaders from their earlier homes.


[1] From the old Saxon fragment called the "Traveller's Song." Hnaf is
no doubt from the Ang.-Sax. _cnafa_, _cnapa_, son, boy, the Anglo-Saxons
often representing _c_ by a (no doubt aspirated) _h_.

[2] Stark also adduces an instance in the eleventh century of Buggo as a
contraction of Burchard.

[3] So at least Foerstemann seems to think, observing that we can
scarcely derive it from Maur, Æthiops, English "Moor." Nevertheless,
seeing the long struggle between the Teutons and the Moors in Spain, it
seems to me that such a derivation would be quite in accordance with
Teutonic practice. See some remarks on the general subject at the end of
Chapter IV.

[4] So that we may take it that Virgilius, as the name of a Scot who
became bishop of Salzburg in the time of Boniface, was his own genuine
Celtic name, and not derived from that of the Roman poet.

[5] This name, that of a prince of the Batavi, is considered by the
Germans to be properly Hariovalda, from _har_, army, and hence is
another instance of an initial _h_ being represented among the Romans by
a _c_. The name is the same as the Anglo-Saxon Harald, and as our
present name _Harold_.

[6] For this explanation of _vertragus_ I am indebted to Gluck.

[7] There was an English admiral of this name, though I do not know of
it at present.



So long as our surnames are treated as if each name were something
standing apart by itself, very little progress can be made in their
elucidation; it is by collation and comparison that, in this as in any
other science, definite results are to be obtained. And a moderate
amount of attention to the forms in which these names appear, and to the
various endings prevalent among them, will enable many names, otherwise
unrecognisable, to be brought within the pale of classification and of
possible explanation. I am of course referring to that portion of our
surnames--a much larger one according to my judgment than is generally
acknowledged--which dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, and so forms a part
of the general system by which Teutonic names are governed.

I shall have, in the course of this work, frequently to refer to the
Teutonic system, and to names which do, or do not, according to my
judgment, enter into it. And I will therefore, before going further,
endeavour to explain what I mean by the Teutonic system. There is, then,
a class of words which, at a time of remote antiquity, have been adopted
as stems upon which, in some cases by a sort of phonetic accretion, in
some cases by the addition of a diminutive ending, in some cases by
forming a patronymic, in some cases by taking in another word as a
compound, a number of other names have been formed. Thus, when we find
such a group of names as _Dill_, _Dilly_, _Dillow_, _Dillen_, _Dilling_,
_Dilke_, _Dilwyn_, or as _Budd_, _Budden_, _Buddle_, _Budding_,
_Buddrich_, _Budmore_, we may take it that these are all ancient names,
of which _Dill_ and _Budd_ are respectively the stems. And whenever we
find a group of names with endings such as it is my object in the
present chapter to explain, and in compounds such as will be dealt with
in a succeeding chapter, we shall be warranted in assuming the antiquity
of the group.

The endings in _a_, _ay_, _ah_, _ey_, _ie_, _o_, _oe_, _ow_.

And in the first place, let us take the endings in _a_, _i_, and _o_, of
which the above are nothing more than arbitrary variations of spelling.
Now ancient Teutonic names formed of one single word had commonly,
though not invariably (and the same thing applies also to ancient Celtic
names), a vowel-ending in _a_, _i_, or _o_; this ending is in our names
sometimes dropped and at other times retained. (It is to be observed,
however, that even in Anglo-Saxon times it is not an unfrequent thing to
find the same name variously with and without a vowel-ending, of which
some instances may be noted in Chapter V.) Thus we have _Abbe_, _Abba_,
and _Abbey_, we have _Bell_, _Belly_, and _Bellow_, we have _Earl_ and
_Early_, we have _Dand_, _Dandy_, and _Dando_, we have _Brand_ and
_Brandy_, we have _Todd_ and _Toddy_, we have _Dane_ and _Dana_, we have
_Marr_, _Marry_, and _Marrow_. These are all ancient names, variously
with and without the vowel-ending, and it will be readily seen how apt
the addition is to disguise the name, and to give it the appearance of
something else.

The question now to consider is--What is the value and meaning of this
vowel-ending, which was only given to simple names and never to
compounds? It might be, in some cases, used simply as a sort of euphonic
rounding-off of a name which might seem meagre and insignificant without
something of the sort. We ourselves appear to use _s_ in the same manner
in the case of some very short names, such as Wills and Epps, in which
the final _s_ may perform the same service that was rendered by the
vowel-ending. But there is also another principle which I think obtains,
and which, indeed, may be the guiding principle in such cases. In
Anglo-Saxon (and the same principle applied to other Teutonic dialects),
the addition of _a_ to a word implied connection with it. Thus, from
_scip_, a ship, is formed _scipa_, one connected with a ship, a sailor.
Now, going back to the remote origin of names, there were many cases in
which a man took a name from an abstraction, such as war, peace, glory,
victory, or from a weapon, as the sword or the spear, and it is obvious
that in such cases he required something to connect his name with it,
and this is, as it seems to me, what was effected by the ending in
question. And the principle is still a living one among us, and we form
names daily in accordance with it, though we no longer use the ending in
_a_, which has been superseded by that in _i_.[8] A connection with
anything whatever is expressed by this ending, as when a stupid person
is called "Duncey," one with a remarkable nose "Nosey," or one with a
halting gait "Stumpy." The French seem to have retained their old
ending, and, when they form names of this sort, to do it with the ending
in _o_ (_eau_) which appears to be in accordance with the genius of
their language, as that in _i_ (_ey_) is with that of ours.

Of these three endings, that in _a_ is the one which was in use among
the Goths, in such names as Cniva, Totila, Ulfila. And the same was also
the case among the Saxons, a branch of the same Low German stock, in
such names as Anna, Ella, Penda, Dodda. The ending in _i_ was also
common among the Old Saxons, and, if we may judge by the _Liber Vitæ_ of
Durham (which might naturally be supposed to contain a large proportion
of Northern names), was also prevalent in the ancient Northumbria. We
have in that record the names Alli, Arni, Bynni, Betti, Cyni, Diori,
Elsi, Paelli, Tidi, Tilli, Terri, all of which are found in our present
names _Alley_, _Arney_, _Binney_, _Betty_, _Kinney_, _Deary_, _Elsey_,
_Paley_, _Tidy_, _Tilley_, _Terry_. The ending in _o_ was that which
was in favour among the Franks and the High Germans generally, the
oldest instance on record being probably that of Cotiso, p. 20. This is
the usual ending in French names (so far as they are of Old Frankish
origin, and come under this head), the form being generally _eau_, as in
_Baudeau_, _Godeau_, _Fredeau_, representing the ancient names Baldo,
Godo, Fredo. Hence our names ending in _o_ may be taken to be, to some
extent, names of Old Frankish origin come to us through the Normans. But
the number of such names is larger than could reasonably be accounted
for in such a way, and in point of fact, we meet occasionally with such
names at a much earlier period. The Frisians certainly seem to have had
names in this form, and it is a question whether such names may not be
partly due to them. It must be observed, then, that names with these
three various endings represent the stem just the same as those that are
without it.

The ending in _an_, _en_, _in_, or _on_.

This ending runs through the whole range of Teutonic names, and is
common in English surnames. Hence we have _Doran_, _Lingen_, _Bolden_,
_Hannen_, _Farren_, the names on which they are formed being represented
in _Dore_, _Ling_, _Bold_, _Hann_, _Farre_. As to the value and meaning
of this ending, we have nothing more to guide us than its parallel use
in the languages most nearly concerned, where it is what may be called
formative. That is to say, it is a form of speech which is used to form
the endings of words, not adding anything to the meaning, but forming a
kind of euphonic rounding-off of the word. Thus from A.S. _wearda_ is
formed _warden_, from _geard_ (inclosure) is formed _garden_, from
_Brytta_ is formed Briton, from _mægd_, maid, is formed _maiden_. Cf.
also the old word _ratten_ for _rat_, still used in provincial speech.
In many cases in Teutonic names we have words thus formed, and also the
simpler forms on which they have been founded, _e.g._ we have _bero_,
bear, and also _berin_, we have _aro_, eagle, and also _arin_ (=A.S.
_earn_), both forming the stems on which a number of other names have
been built. I take the ending in _en_, then, to be most probably a kind
of phonetic accretion, adding nothing to the sense, but sometimes
representing a secondary word, and starting a stem on its own account.

The ending in _ing_.

This is the Anglo-Saxon and ancient German patronymic, as in _Browning_,
"son of Brown," _Dunning_, "son of Dunn," _Winning_, "son of Winn." It
must have been superseded during, or very soon after, Anglo-Saxon times,
by the patronymic in _son_, inasmuch as no names of Scriptural origin
appear to be formed with it. Hence we have such names as _Bulling_,
_Burning_, _Canning_, _Gambling_, _Halling_, _Harding_, _Hopping_,
_Loving_, _Manning_, _Swearing_, _Telling_, _Walking_, _Willing_, some
of which have been popularly supposed to be from the present participle.
All of the above except two, _Swearing_ and _Gambling_, are found in the
list of early Saxon settlers, and of these two (which are found in after
Anglo-Saxon times) _Swearing_, which corresponds with an Old German
Suaring, finds its stem in an Anglo-Saxon name Sweor, signifying
important, honourable; and _Gambling_ (properly Gamling) is the
patronymic of an A.S. and O.N. name, Gamol, signifying "old," probably
in the honorific sense of old descent. From this origin, I take it, are
also our names _Farthing_ and _Shilling_, the former from the stem
_fard_, or _farth_, signifying "travel," found in several ancient names,
and which I rather take to be the same as _ford_, found in the Fordingas
among the early settlers. And _Shilling_, which corresponds with a
present German _Schilling_, is probably the same as the Scilling in the
"Traveller's Song," a supposed contraction of Scilding, from A.S.
_scyld_, shield, in which case our name _Shield_ would be the parent of
_Shilling_. I have referred at the beginning of this book to the
curious-looking name _Winfarthing_ (quoted from Lower) as perhaps a
corruption of an A.S. Winfrithing, though it is a case in which I do not
feel much certainty, finding one or two other such names as _Turnpenny_,
which may have been sobriquets.

The ending in _el_ or _il_.

This ending in Teutonic names may be taken, as a general rule, to be a
diminutive, though in a few cases it may be more probably, like that in
_en_, formative. Thus in the list of early A.S. settlers we have
Bryd(ingas) and we have Brydl(ingas), representing the words _bride_ and
_bridle_. Now, as German writers have taken the word _brid_ in ancient
names to mean "bridle," comparing it with French _bride_, it would seem
probable that, in the above A.S. name, Brydl is not a diminutive, but
the extended word "bridle." However, as a general rule, it may be
presumed to be a diminutive, and in such sense I take the following,
premising that this, as well as all other diminutives, except _kin_,
_lin_, and _et_, is subject to a vowel-ending just the same as simple
forms. We have _Bable_, corresponding with an A.S. Babel, and an O.G.
Babilo; _Ansell_ and _Anslow_ (Ansilo), corresponding with an O.G.
Ansila; _Mundell_ and _Mundella_, with a Gothic Mundila;[9] _Costall_,
_Costello_, and _Costly_, with an O.G. Costila. _Costly_ is properly
Costili, with the ending in _i_, as also _Brightly_ is Brightili, and
some other names with an adverbial look may be similarly explained.

The ending in _ec_ or _ic_.

This ending, with rare exceptions, may also be taken to be a diminutive.
The oldest instance on record is stated by Stark as that of the Vandal
general Stilicho in the fourth century, though, as found on Roman
pottery (in the names Bassico and Bennicus), it may be still older. It
seems rather singular that, though, according to Grimm, this ending was
more particularly in favour among the Saxons, not a single instance of
it occurs among the names of our early settlers, nor indeed any other
form of diminutive except that in _el_, though the form in question is
not uncommon in after Anglo-Saxon times. This diminutive is still in
living use among us, at least in Scotland, where a "mile and a bittock"
(little bit) has proved a snare to many a tourist. We have _Willock_,
_Wilkie_, and _Wilke_, corresponding with an O.G. Willico, and an A.S.
Uillech; _Lovick_ and _Lubbock_, corresponding with O.G. Liuvicho;
_Jellicoe_, corresponding with O.G. Geliko, Jeliko, and an A.S. Geleca,
some of these examples being with, and some without, the vowel-ending.

The ending in _lin_.

This ending, which is also a diminutive, is probably formed from that in
_el_, by the addition of _en_. It is found in Foerstemann's list as
early as the fifth century, but, as found on Roman pottery, must
probably be still older. We have _Bucklin_, corresponding with a
Buccellin, general of the Alemanni in the sixth century, and with a
Buccellan on Roman pottery. Also _Tomlin_, corresponding with an O.G.
Domlin; _Applin_, with an O.G. Abbilin; _Franklin_, with an O.G.
Francolin; _Papillon_, with an O.G. Babolen, &c. This form of diminutive
never takes a vowel-ending.

The ending in _kin_.

This diminutive ending is formed from that in _ec_ by the addition of
_en_. It is the youngest-born of all, not being found, unless in rare
cases, before the tenth century. And it is one that is still in living
use both in England and in Germany, in the latter country more
especially. We have _Wilkin_, corresponding with an O.G. Williken, and
an O.N. Vilkinr; _Godkin_, with an O.G. Gotichin; _Hipkin_, with an O.G.
Ibikin or Ipcin; and _Hodgkin_, with an A.S. Hogcin.

The ending in _et_.

There is an ending in _d_ or _t_ in O.G. names, which may be taken,
though perhaps not with anything like certainty, to have the force of a
diminutive. Hence might be such a name as _Ibbett_, corresponding with
O.G. names Ibed and Ibet, from an unexplained stem _ib_; also our names
_Huggett_, _Howitt_, and _Hewitt_, corresponding with an Anglo-Saxon
Hocget, and an O.G. Huetus, from the stem _hog_, _hug_, signifying study
or thought. But some other endings are so liable to intermix, and
particularly the common one _had_, war, that there is very seldom
anything like certainty.

The ending in _es_ or _is_.

I take this ending also to be diminutive, and to be possibly akin to our
_ish_, as in blue-_ish_, which, as signifying a "little blue," seems to
have the force of a diminutive. Hence we have _Riches_, corresponding
with an O.G. Richizo, and a present French _Richez_; and _Willis_,
corresponding with an O.G. Willizo. Then we have _Godsoe_, corresponding
with an O.G. Godizo, of which Cotiso, mentioned in Horace (p. 20), is a
High German form; and _Abbiss_, corresponding with the name, Abissa, of
the son of Hengest, from, as supposed, Gothic _aba_, man. And we have
_Prentiss_, corresponding with an A.S. Prentsa (=Prentisa), respecting
which I have elsewhere suggested that the name should be properly
Pentsa. Another name which I take to be from this ending is _Daisy_.
There is an A.S. Dægsa, which as Dagsi, with the alternative ending in
_i_, would give us _Daisy_. We have another name, _Gipsy_, which I take
to be from Gibb or Gipp (A.S. _geban_, to give) with this ending. This
ending in _is_ is naturally very apt to be corrupted into _ish_, and it
is from this source, I take it, that we have such names as _Radish_,
_Reddish_, _Varnish_, _Burnish_, and _Parish_, the two last of which we
have also in their proper form as _Burness_, and _Parez_ or _Paris_.

The ending in _cock_.

This ending is not one that enters into the Teutonic system, unless so
far as it may turn out to be a corruption of something else. I have not
met with it earlier than A.D. 1400, nor do I know of anything to make me
think that it is much older. There has been at different times a good
deal of discussion as to its origin in _Notes and Queries_ and
elsewhere. Mr. Lower has supposed it to be a diminutive, for which I do
not think that any etymological sanction can be found, unless indeed we
can suppose it to be a corruption of the diminutive _eck_ or _ock_
before referred to, which seems not impossible. But on the whole I am
disposed to agree with the suggestion of a writer in _Notes and Queries_
that _cock_ is a corruption of _cot_,--not, however, in the sense which
I suppose him to entertain, of _cot_ as a local word, but of _cot_ as an
ancient ending, the High German form of _gaud_ or _got_, signifying, as
supposed, "Goth." So far as the phonetic relationship between the two
words _cock_ and _cot_ is concerned, we have an instance, among others,
in our word _apricot_, which was originally _apricock_.

I am influenced very much in coming to the above conclusion by finding
_coq_ as a not unfrequent ending in French names, as in _Balcoq_ and
_Billecoq_, also in _Aucoq_, _Lecoq_, _Videcocq_, _Vilcocq_, which
latter seem to be names corresponding with our _Alcock_, _Laycock_,
_Woodcock_, and _Willcock_. They might all be formed on Teutonic stems,
if we suppose _Lecoq_ and _Laycock_ to have lost a _d_, like _Lewis_ and
_Lucas_, from _leod_, people. Now, that the ending _gaud_, with its
alternative forms _got_, _caud_, _cot_, is present in French names as
well as in English will be clearly seen from the following. From the Old
German Faregaud we have _Faragut_, and the French have _Farcot_; from
the O.G. Benigaud they have _Penicaud_, and we have _Pennycad_; from the
O.G. Ermingaud they have _Armingaud_, and from Megingaud they have
_Maingot_; from the O.G. Aringaud we have _Heringaud_, from Wulfegaud we
have _Woolcot_, from Adogoto we have _Addicott_, and from Madalgaud we
have _Medlicott_. I am also disposed on the same principle to take
_Northcott_, notwithstanding its local appearance, to represent the O.G.
name Nordgaud, and in this case we have also the name _Norcock_ to

Presuming the above derivation to be the correct one, the question then
arises,--Has this ending come to us through the French, or has the
corruption proceeded simultaneously in both countries? That the latter
has been the case, the French _Videcocq_, as compared with our
_Woodcock_, goes some way to show, the one having the High German form
_vid_ or _wid_, and the other the Saxon form _wud_. I may also mention,
as being, so far as it goes, in accordance with the above theory, that
we have a number of names both in the form of _cot_ and _cock_, as
_Adcock_ and _Addicott_, _Alcock_ and _Alcott_, _Norcott_ and _Norcock_,
_Jeffcock_ and _Jeffcott_. I do not, however, desire to come to a
definite conclusion, though, as far as I am able to carry it, the
inquiry seems in favour of the view which I have advocated. But the
whole subject will bear some further elucidation.


[8] How or when this change took place is a question that awaits
solving, but I observe that, in 1265, the Countess of Montford, giving
names (or sobriquets) to her servants, calls one of her messengers
Treubodi (trusty messenger), and not Treuboda, as the Anglo-Saxon form
would have been.

[9] This name appears as [Greek: Moundilas] in Procopius, but, judging
by the present pronunciation of Greek, it would sound as Mundila.



The subject of the relative antiquity of simple names (_i.e._ those
formed from one single word) and of compound names is one which has
occupied a good deal of the attention of the Germans. And the conclusion
at which some of them at least seem to have arrived, and which perhaps
has been stated the most distinctly by Stark, is that the compound names
are the older of the two. And the principal ground upon which this
conclusion is based seems to be this, that in a very great number of
cases we find that a simple name was used as a contraction of a compound
name, just as we use Will for William, and Ben for Benjamin. Stark, in
particular, has gone into the subject with German thoroughness, and
produced a most complete list of instances of such contractions, such as
Freddo for Fredibert, Wulf for Wulfric, Benno for Bernhard; and among
the Anglo-Saxons, Eada for Edwine, and Siga for Siwerd, &c., from which
he seems to arrive at the general conclusion that simple names are in
all cases contractions of compound names.

Nevertheless, I must say that it seems to me that to assume the compound
to be older than the simple looks very much like something that is
contrary to first principles, and indeed the very fact that simple names
are so often used in place of compounds appears to me to show that they
are more natural to men, and that men would generally adopt them if they
could. I cannot but think then, going back to the far remote origin of
Teutonic names, that the vocabulary of single words must have been
exhausted before men began to take to the use of compounds. When this
period arrived, and when the confusion arising from so many men being
called by the same name could no longer be endured, some other course
required to be adopted. And the course that was adopted was--I put this
forward only as a theory--when the range of single names was exhausted,
to _put two names together_. The number of changes that could be thus
introduced was sufficient for all purposes, and there is, as I believe,
no established case of a Teutonic name being formed of more than two
words. From this point of view Teutonic names would not be translatable,
or formed with any view to a meaning, and this is, as it seems to me,
what was in fact the case, as a general rule, though I should be very
far from laying it down as a universal principle. If names were formed
with a view to a meaning, it does not seem very probable that we should
have a name compounded with two words, both of which signify war; still
less with two words, one of which signifies peace and the other war.
"Bold in war" might have a meaning, but "bold in peace," if it means
anything, seems satirical. In point of fact, there was a certain set of
words on which the changes were rung in forming names without any
apparent reference either to meaning or congruity. Thus we find that the
early Frankish converts in the time of Charlemagne, the staple of whose
names was German derived from their heathen ancestors, adopted not a few
words of Christian import from the Latin or the Hebrew, and mixed them
up with the old words to which they had been accustomed in their names.
Thus a woman called Electa, no doubt meaning "elect," calls her son
Electardus (_hard_, fortis); thus from _pasc_ (passover) is formed
Pascoin (_wine_, friend); from the name of Christ himself is formed
Cristengaudus (_gaud_, Goth.) Now these are three of the common endings
of German names, but no one can suppose that any sense was intended to
be made out of them here, or that they were given for any other reason
than that they were the sort of words out of which men had been
accustomed to form their names. Indeed, the idea present to the minds of
the parents seems to have been in many cases to connect the names of
their children with their own, rather than anything else, by retaining
the first word of the compound and varying the second. Thus a man called
Girveus and his wife Ermengildis give their children the names of
Giroardus, Girfridis, Gertrudis, Ermena, and Ermengardis, three of the
names connecting with that of the father, and two with that of the
mother. In the case of a man called Ratgaudus and his wife Deodata, the
names of four of the children are Ratharius, Ratgarius, Ratrudis, and
Deodatus, the names of two other children being different. Many other
instances might be given of this sort of yearning for some kind of a
connecting-link in the names of a family. Now the people by whom these
names were given were common peasants and serfs, so that the case was
not one like that of the Anglo-Saxon kings of Northumbria, among whose
names the prefix _os_, signifying "semi-deus," and expressive of a claim
to a divine lineage, was of such frequent recurrence. It may be a
question then whether, while the former word of the compound connected
with the father or the mother, the latter part did not sometimes connect
with some other relative whose name it was desired to commemorate,
giving the effect that is now frequently expressed by a Christian name
and a surname. Again, when we look at the remote origin of these names,
when we find in the opening century of our era, and who can tell for how
many centuries before, precisely the same names that have been current
in all these centuries since, we can hardly doubt that some of these
names, derived from words that had long died out from the language, must
have been used even in ancient times without any more thought of their
meaning than parents have now when they call a child Henry or John. I
desire, however, to put forward the above theory as to the origin of
compound names rather with a view of raising the question than of
expressing a definite conclusion.

The vowel ending in _a_, _i_, or _o_, to which I have referred as in
general use in the case of simple names was not used in the case of
compounds, unless indeed it happened to be an original part of the
second word as in Frithubodo, from _bodo_, messenger. Only in the case
of women, to mark the sex, the ending in _a_ was given. And in the case
of some names, such as _Gertrud_, in which the second part is a word
that could only be given to a woman, as no vowel-ending was required, so
none was given.

I now proceed to give a list of the principal compounds occurring in
English names, with the ancient forms corresponding. I have been
obliged, as a matter of necessity, to compare our names more frequently
with Old German than with Anglo-Saxon equivalents, on account of the
former having been collected and collated--a work which it remains for
some one of our well qualified Anglo-Saxon scholars to do with regard to
the latter.

The meanings which I have assigned for these names are such as have been
most generally adopted by the German writers who have made a special
study of the subject. But it must be borne in mind that this study is
one in which there is no context by which conclusions can be verified,
and that in the vast majority of cases we have nothing more to go upon
than a reasonable presumption.

_Adal_, _athel_, _ethel_, "noble."

(_Hard_, fortis), Old Germ. Adalhard--Ang.-Sax. Ethelhard--Eng.
_Adlard_. (_Helm_), O.G. Adalhelm--Eng. _Adlam_. (_Hari_, warrior), A.S.
Ethilheri--Eng. _Edlery_. (_Stan_, stone), A.S. Æthelstan--Eng.

_Ag_, _ac_, _ec_, "point, edge."

(_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Agihard--Eng. _Haggard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Agiher, Egiher--Eng. _Agar_, _Eager_. (_Leof_ dear), O.N. Eylifr--Eng.
_Ayliffe_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Egiman--A.S. Æcemann--Eng. _Hayman_,
_Aikman_. (_Mund_, protection), A.S. Agemund--Eng. _Hammond_. (_Ward_),
O.G. Eguard--A.S. Hayward--Eng. _Hayward_.

_Agil_, _Ail_, of uncertain meaning, but perhaps formed on the previous
stem _Ag_.

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Egilger, Ailger--Eng. _Ailger_. (_Hard_, fortis),
O.G. Agilard, Ailard--Eng. _Aylard_. (_Man_), O.G. Aigliman--Eng.
_Ailman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Agilmar, Ailemar--Eng. _Aylmer_.
(_Ward_, guardian), O.G. Agilward, Ailward--Eng. _Aylward_. (_Wine_,
friend), A.S. Aegelwine--Eng. _Aylwin_.

_Alb_, _Alf_, signifying "elf."

(_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Alfhard--Eng. _Alvert_. (_Hari_, warrior), A.S.
Ælfhere--O.G. Alfheri, Albheri--Eng. _Alvary_, _Albery_, _Aubrey_.
(_Rad_, _red_, counsel), O.G. Alberat--A.S. Alfred--Eng. _Alfred_.
(_Run_, mystery), O.G. Albrun[10]--Eng. _Auberon_.

_Ald_, signifying "old."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Aldebert--Eng. _Aldebert_. (_Hari_, warrior),
A.S. Aldheri--Eng. _Alder_, _Audrey_. (_Gar_, spear), A.S. Eldecar
(Moneyer of Edmund)--Eng. _Oldacre_ (?). (_Rad_, _red_, counsel), O.G.
Aldrad--Eng. _Aldred_, _Eldred_. (_Rit_, ride), O.G. Aldarit--Eng.
_Aldritt_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G. Alderich, Olderich, Altrih--Eng.
_Aldrich_, _Oldridge_, _Altree_. (_Man_, vir), A.S. Ealdmann--Eng.

_Amal_, of uncertain meaning.

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Amalgar--Eng. _Almiger_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Amalhari, Amalher--Eng. _Ambler_, _Emeler_.

_Angel_, signifying "hook, barb"(?).

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Engilbert--Eng. _Engleburt_. (_Hard_, fortis),
O.G. Englehart--Eng. _Engleheart_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Angelher--Eng. _Angler_. (_Man_), O.G. Angilman--Eng. _Angleman_.
(_Dio_, servant), O.G. Engildeo--A.S. Angeltheow--Eng. _Ingledew_.
(_Sind_, companion), O.G. Ingilsind--Eng. _Inglesent_.

_Ans_, High Germ, form of A.S. _os_, "semi-deus."

(_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Ansard--Eng. _Hansard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Ansher--Eng. _Anser_. (_Helm_), O.G. Anshelm--Eng. _Anselme_, _Hansom_.

_Ark_, _Arch_ (see page 16).

(_Bald_, bold), Eng. _Archbold_. (_Bud_, envoy), O.G. Argebud--Eng.
_Archbutt_. (_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Archard--Eng. _Archard_. (_Hari_,
warrior), O.G. Erchear--Archere, _Roll of Battle Abbey_--Eng. _Archer_.
(_Rat_, counsel), O.G. Archarat--Eng. _Arkwright_(?). (_Mund_,
protection), O.G. Argemund--Eng. _Argument_.

_Aud_, _Aut_, High Germ. form of A.S. _ead_, "prosperity."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Authar--Eng. _Auther_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G.
Audricus--Eng. _Auterac_. (_Ram_, raven), O.G. Audram--Eng. _Autram_,

_All_ (see page 16).

(_Frid_, peace), O.G. Alufrid--Eng. _Allfrey_. (_Gar_, spear), A.S.
Algar--Eng. _Alger_. (_Hard_, fortis), A.S. Ealhard--Eng. _Allard_.
(_Mar_, famous), O.G. Alamar--Eng. _Almar_. (_Mund_, protection), A.S.
Ealmund--O.G. Alamunt--Eng. _Almond_, _Alment_. (_Noth_, bold), A.S.
Ælnoth--Eng. _Allnut_. (_Ward_), O.G. Aloard--A.S. Alwerd--Eng.
_Allward_. (_Wid_, wood), O.G. Aluid--Eng. _Allwood_. (_Wig_, _wi_,
war), A.S. Alewih--Eng. _Allaway_.[11] (_Wine_, friend), O.G.
Allowin--Eng. _Alwin_.

_Al_, _el_, probably "foreigner."

(_Bod_, envoy), O.G. Ellebod--Eng. _Albutt_. (_Gaud_, Goth), O.G.
Eligaud--Eng. _Allgood_, _Elgood_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G. Elger--Eng.
_Elgar_. (_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Eleard--Eng. _Ellard_. (_Hari_,
warrior), O.G. Elier--Eng. _Ellery_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Alimer--Eng.
_Elmore_. (_Mund_, protection), Elmund, _Domesday_--Eng. _Element_.
(_Wine_, friend), Elwin, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Elwin_. (_Wood_), Elwod,
_Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Elwood_. (_Gern_, eager), O.G. Aligern--Eng.

_Ad_, _at_ (Gothic, _atta_), "father."

(_Gis_, hostage), O.G. Atgis--Eng. _Atkiss_. (_Gaud_, Goth), O.G.
Adogoto--Eng. _Addicott_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Adohar--Eng. _Adier_.
(_Mar_, famous), O.G. Adamar--Eng. _Atmore_. (_Ric_, rule), A.S.
Ætheric--Eng. _Attridge_. (_Rid_, ride), O.G. Atharid--Eng. _Attride_.
(_Wulf_), A.S. Athulf--Eng. _Adolph_.

_An_, _han_ (O.H.G. _ano_), "ancestor."

(_Fred_, peace), O.G. Enfrid--Eng. _Henfrey_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G.
Anager, Eneger--Eng. _Hanger_, _Henniker_. (_Man_, vir), O.G.
Enman--Eng. _Hanman_, _Henman_. (_Rad_, counsel), O.G. Henred--Eng.
_Hanrot_. (_Wald_, rule), O.G. Anawalt--Eng. _Anhault_.

_Arm_, of uncertain meaning.

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Ermgar--Eng. _Armiger_. (_Gild_, value?) O.G.
Ermegild--Eng. _Armgold_. (_Had_, war), O.G. Ermhad--Eng. _Armat_.
(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Ermhar--Eng. _Armour_, _Armory_. (_Rad_,
counsel), O.G. Ermerad--Eng. _Ormerod_.

_Armin_, of uncertain meaning

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Irminger--Eng. _Irminger_, _Arminger_ (_Hari_,
warrior), O.G. Irminhar--Eng. _Arminer_.

_Arn_, _ern_ (A.S. _earn_), "eagle."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Arnheri--Eng. _Harnor_. (_Helm_), O.G.
Arnhalm--Eng. _Arnum_. (_Wald_, rule), O.G. Arnoald--Eng. _Arnold_.
(_Wulf_), O.G. Arnulf--Eng. _Arnulfe_.

_Ask_, _ash_, perhaps in the sense of "spear."

(_Bert_, famous), A.S. _Æscbyrht_--Eng. _Ashpart_. (_Hari_, warrior),
A.S. Æschere--Eng. _Asher_. (_Bald_, fortis), Eng. _Ashbold_. (_Man_,
vir), A.S. Æscmann--Aschmann, _Hund_. _Rolls_--Eng. _Ashman_. (_Mar_,
famous), A.S. Æscmer--Eng. _Ashmore_. (_Wid_, wood), O.G.
Asquid--Ascuit, _Domesday_--Eng. _Asquith_, _Ashwith_. (_Wine_, friend),
A.S. Æscwine--Eng. _Ashwin_. (_Wulf_), O.G. Ascolf--Eng. _Ascough_.

A.S. _beado_, "war."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Bathari--Eng. _Badder_, _Bather_. (_Hard_,
fortis), A.S. Badherd--Beadheard, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Beddard_. (_Man_,
vir), Badumon, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Badman_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G.
Betterich--A.S. Bædric--Eng. _Betteridge_. (_Ulf_, wolf), O.G.
Badulf--Eng. _Biddulph_.

_Bald_, "fortis."

(_Hari_, warrior), A.S. Baldhere--Eng. _Balder_, _Boldery_. (_Ric_,
rule), O.G. Baldric, Baldrih--Eng. _Baldridge_, _Baldry_. (_Wine_,
friend), A.S. Baldwine--Eng. _Baldwin_.

A.S. _band_, _bend_, "crown, chaplet."

(_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Pantard--Eng. _Pindard_. (_Hari_, warrior), A.S.
Pender--Eng. _Pender_. (_Rad_, counsel), O.G. Bandrad--Eng. _Banderet_,

A.S. _ben_, "wound."

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Benegar--Eng. _Benger_. (_Gaud_, Goth), O.G.
Benegaud--Eng. _Pennycad_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Beniher--Eng.
_Benner_. (_Man_, vir), Eng. _Beneman_, A.D. 1535, _Penman_. (_Nid_,
strife), O.G. Bennid--Eng. _Bennet_.

A.S. _bera_, "bear."

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Bereger[12]--Eng. _Berger_. (_Grim_, fierce), O.G.
Peragrim--Eng. _Paragreen_. (_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Berhard--Eng.
_Barehard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Beriher--Eng. _Berrier_. (_Helm_),
O.G. Perrhelm--Eng. _Perriam_. (_Land_, terra), O.G. Perelant--Eng.
_Purland_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Berman--Eng. _Burman_, _Perman_. (_Mar_,
famous), O.G. Bermar--Eng. _Barmore_, _Paramore_. (_Rat_, counsel), O.G.
Perratt--Eng. _Perrott_. (_Dio_, servant), O.G. Peradeo--Eng. _Purdue_.
(_Ward_), O.G. Beroward--Eng. _Berward_. (_Wise_, sapiens), O.G. Berois
(=Berwis)--Eng. _Barwise_.

_Berin_, _bern_, "bear."

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Beringar--Eng. _Berringer_. (_Hard_, fortis), O.G.
Berinhard--Eng. _Bernard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Bernher,
Pernher--Eng. _Berner_, _Pirner_. (_Wald_, rule), O.G. Berneold--Eng.
_Bernold_. (_Kel_, for _Ketil_), O.N. Biornkel--Eng. _Barnacle_.

_Bil_, supposed to mean "mildness, gentleness."

(_Frid_, peace), O.G. Bilfrid--Eng. _Belfry_. (_Grim_, fierce), O.G.
Biligrim, Pilgrim--Eng. _Pilgrim_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Belemar--Eng.
_Billamore_, _Belmore_. (_Gard_, protection), O.G. Biligard--Eng.
_Billiard_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Pilimunt--Eng. _Belment_.
(_Wald_, rule), Biliald, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Billyald_.

_Bert_, "bright, illustrious."

(_Ram_, raven), O.G. Bertram--Eng. _Bertram_. (_Land_, terra), O.G.
Bertland--Eng. _Brightland_. (_Mar_, famous), A.S. Brihtmar--Eng.
Brightmore. (_Rand_, shield), O.G. Bertrand--Eng. _Bertrand_. (_Ric_,
rule), O.G. Perhtric--A.S. Brihtric--Partriche, _Hund. Rolls_--Eng.
_Partrick_, _Partridge_. (_Wine_, friend), A.S. Brihtwine--Eng.

_Black_, _blake_, signifying "brightness."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Blicher--Eng. _Blacker_, _Blaker_. (_Man_), A.S.
Blæcman (genealogy of the kings of Northumbria), Blacman (Moneyer at
Norwich)--Blaecmon, _Lib. Vit._--Blacheman, _Domesday_--Eng. _Blackman_,
_Blakeman_. (_Wine_, friend), Eng. _Blackwin_.

_Bod_, _bud_, "envoy."

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Baudochar--Eng. _Bodicker_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Botthar--Boterus, _Domesday_--Eng. _Butter_, _Buttery_. (_Gis_,
hostage), O.G. Boutgis, Boggis--Eng. _Boggis_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G.
Baudomir--Eng. _Bodmer_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G. Buttericus, Bauderich--Eng.
_Butterick_, _Buddrich_. (_Rid_, rit, "ride"), O.G. Bodirid,
Buotrit--Eng. _Botright_.

_Boll_, _bull_ (prob. M.H.G. _buole_), "friend."

(_Gar_, spear), O.G. Pulgar--Eng. _Bulger_. (_Hard_), Pollardus,
Domesday--Eng. _Bullard_, _Pollard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Bolheri--Eng. _Buller_. (_Mar_, famous), A.S. Bulemær--Eng. _Bulmer_.

_Burg_, signifying "protection."

(_Hard_), A.S. Burghard--Eng. _Burchard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Burghar--Eng. _Burger_. (_Wald_, rule), O.G. Burgoald--Eng. _Purgold_.
(_Wine_, friend), Eng. _Burgwin_.

_Ball_, _bale_, signifying "bale, woe."

(_Frid_, peace), O.G. Palfrid--Eng. _Palfrey_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G.
Ballomar, Belimar--Eng. _Balmer_, _Bellmore_.

_Coll_, signifying "helmet."

(_Brand_, sword), A.S. Colbrand--Eng. _Colbran_. (_Biorn_, bear), O.N.
Kolbiorn--Eng. _Colburn_. (_Man_, vir), A.S. Colman--Eng. _Colman_.
(_Mar_, famous), A.S. Colomôr--Eng. _Collamore_. (_Hard_), A.S.
Ceolheard--Eng. _Collard_.

_Cost_, _cust_, "skill, science" (Germ, _kunst_).

(_Hard_), O.G. Custard--Eng. _Custard_.

_Dag_, "day," in the sense of brightness, glory.[13]

(_Bald_, bold), O.G. Tagapald--Daegbald, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Daybell_.
(_Bern_, bear), O.G. Tagapern--Eng. _Tayburn_. (_Burg_, protection),
O.G. Tagabirg--Eng. _Tackabarry_. (_Gisil_, hostage), O.G.
Daigisil--Eng. _Daggesell_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Daiher--Dacher,
_Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Dagger_, _Dacker_, _Dayer_. (_Helm_), O.G.
Dachelm--Eng. _Dacombe_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Dagamund--A.S.
Daiemond--Eng. _Daymont_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Dagemar--Dagemar on
Roman pottery--Eng. _Damer_.

_Dall_, _dell_, as supposed, "illustrious."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Dalbert--Talbercht, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Talbert_.
(_Fare_, travel), O.G. Dalferi--Eng. _Telfer_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Dealher--Eng. _Deller_. (_Man_), O.G. Dalman--Eng. _Dalman_, _Tallman_.
(_Wig_, _wi_, war), Daliwey, _Hund. Rolls_--Eng. _Dalloway_.

_Dan_, _den_, of uncertain meaning, perhaps, "Dane."

(_Hard_), A.S. Dæneheard--Eng. _Denhard_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G.
Thangar--Eng. _Danger_. (_Wulf_), A.S. Denewulf--Eng. _Denolf_.

_Dar_, signifying "spear."

(_Nagel_, nail), A.S. Dearnagel--Eng. _Darnell_. (_Gund_, war), O.G.
Taragun--Eng. _Darrigon_. (_Wine_, friend), O.G. Daroin--- Eng.

_Dear_, "carus."

(_Leof_, dear), A.S. Deorlaf--Eng. _Dearlove_. (_Man_, vir), Dereman,
_Domesday_--Eng. _Dearman_. (_Môd_, courage), A.S. Deormod--Eng.
_Dermott_. (_Wine_, friend), A.S. Deorwyn--Eng. _Derwin_.

Gothic, _thius_ (O.H.G. _dio_), "servant."

(_Log_, _loh_, clean?), O.G. Thioloh--Eng. _Dialogue_. (_Mad_,
reverence), O.G. Deomad--Eng. _Demaid_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Dioman--Eng.
_Demon_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Thiomunt--Eng. _Diamond_.

Old North. _dolgr_, "foe."

(_Fin_, people's name), O.N. Dolgfinnr--Eng. _Dolphin_. (_Man_, vir),
A.S. Dolemann--Eng. _Dolman_.

A.S. _dôm_ (O.H.G. _tuom_), "judgment."

(_Gis_, hostage), O.G. Domigis, Tomichis--Eng. _Tomkies_. (_Hard_,
fortis), O.G. Domard--Eng. _Dummert_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Domarius--Domheri, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Dummer_.

A.S. _dugan_, to be "doughty."

(_Man_, vir), O.G. Dugiman, Tugeman--A.S. Ducemann--Eng. _Tugman_,
_Duckman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Daumerus--Eng. _Dugmore_. Probably from
the noun, _duguth_, virtue, A.S. Dogod--Eng. _Doggett_, _Dugood_.

_Erl_, supposed same as "earl."

(_Bad_, war), O.G. Erlebad--Eng. _Hurlbat_ (_Bert_, famous), O.G.
Erlebert--Eng. _Hurlburt_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Erleher--Eng.
_Hurler_. (_Wine_, friend), O.G. Erliwin, A.S. Herlawine--Eng. _Urlwin_.

_Evor_, "boar."

(_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Everhard--Eng. _Everard_, _Earheart_. (_Rad_,
counsel), O.G. Eburrad--Eng. _Evered_, _Everett_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G.
Eburicus--Eng. _Every_. (_Wacar_, watchful), O.G. Eburacar--Eureuuacre,
_Domesday_--Eng. _Earwaker_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Eberwic--A.S.
Earwig--Eng. _Earwig_.

Anglo-Saxon _eâd_, "prosperity."

(_Burg_, protection), A.S. Eadburh--Eng. _Edbrook_. (_Gar_, spear), A.S.
Eadgar--Eng. _Edgar_. (_Mund_, protection), A.S. Eadmund--Eng. _Edmond_.
(_Ric_, rule), A.S. Eadric--Eng. _Edridge_. (_Ward_), A.S.
Eadweard--Eng. _Edward_. (_Wig_, war), A.S. Eadwig--Eng. _Edwick_.
(_Wulf_), A.S. Eadwulf--Eng. _Edolph_. (_Wacar_, watchful), O.G.
Odoacer--A.S. Edwaker--Eng. _Eddiker_?

_Far_, _fare_, signifying "travel."

(_And_, life, spirit), O.G. Ferrand, Eng. _Ferrand_. (_Gaud_, Goth),
O.G. Faregaud--Eng. _Farragut_, _Forget_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Feriher--Eng. _Ferrier_. (_Man_), O.G. Faraman--Fareman, _Hund.
Rolls_--Eng. _Fairman_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Faramund--Eng.
_Farrimond_. (_Ward_), O.G. Faroard--Eng. _Forward_.

_Fard_, also signifying "travel."

(_Hari_, warrior), A.S. Forthere--Eng. _Forder_. (_Man_), O.G.
Fartman--Eng. _Fortyman_. (_Nand_, daring), O.G. Ferdinand--Eng.
_Ferdinand_. (_Rad_, counsel), Forthred, _Lib. Vit._,--Eng. _Fordred_.

_Fil_, _ful_, signifying "great."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Filibert--Eng. _Filbert_. (_Gar_, spear),--Eng.
_Fullagar_. (_Leof_, dear), O.G. Filuliub--Eng. _Fullalove_. (_Man_),
O.G. Filiman--Eng. _Fileman_. (_Mar_, famous), A.S. Fealamar, O.G.
Filomor--Eng. _Fillmer_, _Phillimore_. (_Dio_, _thius_, servant), O.G.
Filethius--Eng. _Filldew_.

_Frid_, _free_,[14] signifying "peace."

(_Bad_, war), O.G. Fridibad--Eng. _Freebout_. (_Bern_, bear), O.G.
Fridubern--Friebern _Domesday_--Eng. _Freeborn_. (_Bod_. envoy), O.G.
Frithubodo--Eng. _Freebody_. (_Lind_, gentle), O.G. Fridulind--Frelond
_Hund_. _Rolls_--Eng. _Freeland_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G. Frithuric--Eng.
_Frederick_. (_Stan_, stone), A.S. Frithestan--Eng. _Freestone_.

_Fin_, supposed from "the nation."

(_Bog_, bow), Old Norse, Finbogi--Eng. _Finbow_. (_Gar_, spear), Old
Norse, Finngeir--Eng. _Finger_.

_Gad_, of uncertain meaning, perhaps "friend."

(_Man_, vir), A.S. Cædmon--Eng. _Cadman_. (_Leof_, dear),--Eng.

_Gal_, signifying "spirit, cheerfulness."

(_And_, life, spirit), Galaunt, _Hund. Rolls_--Eng. _Galland_,
_Gallant_. (_Frid_, peace), A.S. Galfrid, Gaufrid--Eng. _Geoffry_.
(_Hard_), Gallard _Hund. Rolls_--Eng. _Gallard_. (_Wig_, war), O.G.
Geilwih--Galaway, _Hund. Rolls_--Eng. _Galloway_.

_Gand_, signifying "wolf."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Ganthar--A.S. Gandar--Eng. _Gander_, _Ganter_.
(_Ric_, rule), O.G. Gendirih, Cantrih--Eng. _Gentery_, _Gentry_,

_Gar_, signifying "spear."

(_Bad_, war), O.G. Kerpat--Eng. _Garbett_. (_Bald_), O.G. Garibald,
Kerbald--Eng. _Gorbold_, _Corbould_. (_Brand_, sword), O.G.
Gerbrand--Eng. _Garbrand_. (_Brun_, bright), O.G. Gerbrun--Eng.
_Gorebrown_. (_Bod_, envoy), O.G. Gaerbod--Gerbode _Lib. Vit._--Eng.
_Garbutt_. (_Hard_), O.G. Garehard--Eng. Garrard. (Hari, warrior), O.G.
Garoheri, Caroheri--Eng. _Carary_, _Carrier_. (_Lac_, play), O.G.
Gerlac--Eng. _Garlick_. (_Man_), O.G. Garaman--A.S. Jaruman--Eng.
_Garman_, _Jarman_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Garimund--Eng. _Garment_.
(_Noth_, bold), O.G. Garnot--Eng. _Garnett_. (_Rod_, red), O.G.
Kaerrod--Old Norse, Geirraudr Eng. _Garrod_. (_Laif_, relic), O.G.
Gerlef--Eng. _Gerloff_. (_Ferhth_, life, spirit), Gerferth, _Lib.
Vit._--Eng. _Garforth_. (_Stan_, stone), O.G. Kerstin--Eng. _Garstin_.
(_Wald_, power), O.G. Garold--Eng. _Garrold_. (_Was_, keen), O.G.
Gervas--Eng. _Jervis_. (_Wid_, wood), O.G. Gervid--Eng. _Garwood_.
(_Wig_, war), O.G. Garavig, Gerwi--Eng. _Garroway_, _Garvey_. (_Wine_,
friend), O.G. Gerwin, Caroin--Eng. _Curwen_?[15] (_Van_, beauty), O.G.
Geravan--Eng. _Caravan_.

_Gan_, _gen_, supposed to mean "magic, sorcery."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Gimbert--Eng. _Gimbert_. (_Had_, war), O.G.
Genad--Eng. _Gennett_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Genear, Ginheri--Eng.
_Genner_, _Jennery_. (_Rid_, ride), O.G. Generid--Eng. _Jeannerett_.

_Gab_, _Geb_, Eng. "give."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Gibert--Eng. _Gippert_. (_Hard_), O.G. Gebahard,
Givard--Eng. _Giffard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Gebaheri--Eng.

_Gart_, _cart_, signifying "protection."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Gardar, Karthar--Eng. _Garter_, _Carder_.
(_Dio_, servant), O.G. Cartdiuha--Eng. _Carthew_. (_Ric_, rule), A.S.
Gyrdhricg--Eng. _Cartridge_.

_Gald_, _gold_, "reddere, valere."

(_Birin_, bear), O.G. Goldpirin--Eng. _Goldbourne_. (_Red_, counsel),
O.G. Goltered--Eng. _Coulthred_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G. Goldericus--Eng.
_Goldrick_. (_Run_, mystery), O.G. Goldrun, Coldrun--Coldrun _Lib.
Vit._--Eng _Calderon_. (_Wine_, friend), O.G. Gildewin--Eng. _Goldwin_.

_Geld_, _gild_, probably same as above.

(_Hard_), O.G. Gildard--Eng. _Gildert_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Gelther--Eng. _Gilder_. (_Wig_, _wi_, war), O.G. Geltwi--Eng.

_Gisal_, _gil_, "hostage."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Gisalbert, Gilbert--Eng. _Gilbert_. (_Brand_,
sword), O.G. Gislebrand--Eng. _Gillibrand_. (_Frid_, peace), O.G.
Gisalfred--Eng. _Gillford_. (_Hard_), O.G. Giselhard--Eng. _Gillard_.
(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Gisalhar--- A.S. Gislher--Eng. _Giller_,
_Killer_. (_Had_, war), O.G. Gislehad--Eng. _Gillett_. (_Helm_), O.G.
Gisalhelm--Eng. _Gilliam_. (_Man_), O.G. Gisleman--Eng. _Gillman_,
_Killman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Gisalmer--Eng. _Gilmore_.

_God_, supposed to mean "Deus."[16]

(_Bald_), O.G. Godebald--Godebaldus, _Domesday_--Eng. _Godbold_,
_Godbolt_, _Cobbold_. (_Frid_, peace), O.G. Godafrid--Eng. _Godfrey_.
(_Gisil_, hostage), O.G. Godigisil--Eng. Godsell. (Heid, state, "hood"),
O.G. Gotaheid--Eng. _Godhead_. (_Hard_), O.G. Godehard--Eng. _Goddard_,
_Goodheart_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Godehar--Eng. _Goddier_,
_Goodyear_. (_Laif_, relic), O.G. Godolef--Eng. _Goodliffe_. (_Lac_,
play), O.G. Godolec--Eng. _Goodlake_. (_Land_), O.G. Godoland--Godland
_Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Goodland_. (_Man_), O.G. Godeman--Godeman _Lib.
Vit._--Eng. _Godman_. (_Mund_, protection), A.S. Godemund--Eng.
_Godmund_. (_Niu_, young), O.G. Godeniu--Eng. _Goodnow_. (_Ram_, raven),
O.G. Godramnus--Eng. _Goodram_. (_Rad_, counsel), O.G. Gotrat--Eng.
_Goodred_. (_Rit_, ride), O.G. Guderit--Godritius _Domesday_--Eng.
_Goodwright_. (_Ric_, rule), Godricus _Domesday_--Eng. _Godrick_.
(_Scalc_, servant), O.G. Godscalc--Eng. _Godskall_. (_Ward_), O.G.
Godeward--Eng. _Godward_. (_Wine_, friend), A.S. Godwine--Eng. _Godwin_.

_Goz_, _Gos_, supposed High Germ. form of _gaud_=Goth.

(_Bald_), O.G. Gauzebald--Eng. _Gosbell_. (_Hard_), O.G. Gozhart,
Cozhart--Eng. _Gozzard_, _Cossart_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Gauzer,
Cozhere--Eng. _Gozar_, _Cosier_. (_Lind_, gentle), O.G. Gauzlind--Eng.
_Gosland_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Gozmar--Eng. _Gosmer_. (_Wald_, power),
O.G. Gausoald--Eng. _Goswold_.

_Grim_, "fierce, terrible."

(_Bald_), O.G. Grimbald--Eng. _Grimbald_, _Grimble_. (_Hari_, warrior),
O.G. Grimhar--Eng. _Grimmer_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Grimund--Eng.
_Grimmond_. (_Hard_), O.G. Grimhard--Eng. _Grimerd_.

_Gund_, _gun_, signifying "war."

(_Bald_), O.G. Gundobald, Gumbald--Eng. _Gumboil_. (_Hari_, warrior),
O.G. Gunther, Cundher--Eng. _Gunter_, _Conder_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G.
Gunderih--Eng. _Gundry_. (_Stan_, stone), Old Norse, Gunstein--Eng.

_Hun_, probably from "the people."

(_Bald_), O.G. Hunibald--Eng. _Hunibal_. (_Frid_, peace), O.G. Hunfrid,
Humfrid--Eng. _Humphrey_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G. Hunger--Eng. _Hunger_.
(_Hard_), O.G. Hunard--Eng. _Hunnard_. (_Man_), Huniman _Hund.
Rolls_--Eng. _Honeyman_. (_Wald_, power), O.G. Hunewald--Hunewald, _Lib.
Vit._--Eng. _Hunhold_.

_Had_, _hath_, signifying "war."

(_Gis_, hostage), O.G. Hadegis--Eng. _Hadkiss_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G.
Hadamar--Eng. _Hattemore_. (_Rat_, counsel), O.G. Hadarat--Eng.
_Hadrott_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G. Hadaricus--Eng. _Hattrick_. (_Wig_, war),
O.G. Hathuwi--Eng. _Hathaway_. (_Wine_, friend), O.G. Hadawin--Eng.

_Hard_, _hart_, "strong, hardy."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Hardier--Eng. _Harder_. (_Land_, terra), O.G.
Artaland--Eng. _Hardland_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Hartman--Eng. _Hardman_.
(_Mund_, protection), O.G. Hartomund--Eng. _Hardiment_. (_Nagel_, nail),
O.G. Hartnagel--Eng. _Hartnoll_. (_Nid_, strife), O.G. Hartnit--Eng.
_Hartnott_. (_Rat_, counsel), O.G. Hartrat--Eng. _Hartwright_. (_Ric_,
rule), O.G. Harderich, Hertrih--Eng. _Hartridge_, _Hartry_. (_Wulf_),
O.G. Hardulf--Eng. _Hardoff_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Hardwic--Eng.
_Hardwick_. (_Wine_, friend), O.G. Hardwin--Eng. _Ardouin_.

_Har_, _her_, "army" or "soldier."[17]

(_Bad_, war), O.G. Heripato--Eng. _Herepath_. (_Bert_, famous), O.G.
Hariberaht--A.S. Herebritt--Eng. _Harbert_, _Herbert_. (_Bord_, shield),
O.G. Heribord--Eng. _Harboard_. (_Bod_, envoy), O.G. Heribod--Eng.
_Harbud_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G. Hariker--A.S. Hereger--Eng. _Harker_.
(_Gaud_, Goth), O.G. Haregaud--Eng. _Hargood_. (_Land_, terra), O.G.
Hariland--Eng. _Harland_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Hariman--Eng. _Harryman_,
_Harman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Harmar--Eng. _Harmer_. (_Mund_,
protection), O.G. Herimund--Eng. _Harmond_. (_Sand_, envoy), O.G.
Hersand--Eng. _Hersant_. (_Wald_, rule), A.S. Harald--Eng. _Harold_.
(_Ward_), A.S. Hereward--Eng. _Harward_. (_Wid_, wood), O.G. Erwid--Eng.
_Harwood_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Herewig, Hairiveo--Eng. _Harvey_. (_Wine_,
friend), O.G. Harwin--A.S. Herewine--Eng. _Harwin_.

_Hild_, _hil_, "war."

(_Brand_, sword), O.G. Hildebrand--Eng. _Hildebrand_. (_Gard_,
protection), O.G. Hildegard--Eng. _Hildyard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Hildier--Eng. _Hilder_, _Hillyer_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Hildeman--Eng.
_Hillman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Hildemar--Eng. _Hilmer_. (_Rad_,
counsel), O.G. Hildirad--Eng. _Hildreth_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G.
Hilderic--Eng. _Hilridge_.

_Ing_, _ink_, "son, descendant."

(_Bald_), O.G. Ingobald, Incbald--Eng. _Inchbald_. (_Bert_, famous),
O.G. Ingobert--Eng. _Inchboard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Inguheri--Eng.
_Ingrey_. (_Ram_, raven), O.G. Ingram--Eng. _Ingram_. (_Wald_, power),
O.G. Ingold--Eng. _Ingold_.

_Ise_, signifying "iron."

(_Burg_, protection), O.G. Hisburg--Eng. _Isburg_. (_Man_), O.G.
Isman--A.S. Hysemann--Eng. _Heasman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Ismar--Eng.
_Ismer_. (_Odd_, dart), Old Norse, Isodd--Eng. _Izod_.

_Isen_, signifying "iron."

(_Hard_), O.G. Isanhard--Eng. _Isnard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Isanhar--Eng. _Isner_.

_Ken_, _kin_, "nobility."

(_Hard_), A.S. Cyneheard--Eng. _Kennard_, _Kinnaird_. (_Laf_, relic),
A.S. Cynlaf--Eng. _Cunliffe_. (_Mund_, protection), A.S. Cynemund--Eng.
_Kinmonth_. (_Ric_, rule), A.S. Cynric--Eng. _Kenrick_. (_Ward_), A.S.
Cyneweard--Eng. _Kenward_. (_Wig_, war), Kenewi, _Hund. Rolls_--Eng.

_Land_, "terra."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Landbert, Lambert--Eng. _Lambert_. (_Burg_,
protection), O.G. Landburg--Eng. _Lambrook_. (_Frid_, peace), O.G.
Landfrid--Lanfrei _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Landfear_, _Lanfear_, _Lamprey_.
(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Landar--Eng. _Lander_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G.
Landerich--Landric _Domesday_--Eng. _Landridge_, _Laundry_. (_Wig_,
war), O.G. Lantwih--Eng. _Lanaway_. (_War_, defence), O.G. Landoar--Eng.
_Lanwer_. (_Ward_), O.G. _Landward_--Eng. _Landlord?_

_Laith_, _let_, "terrible."

(_Hara_), O.G. Lethard--Eng. _Leathart_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Lethar--Eng. _Leather_. (_Ward_), O.G. Lethward--Eng. _Lateward_.

_Led_, _lud_, "people."

(_Burg_, protection), O.G. Luitburc--Eng. _Ludbrook_. (_Gar_, spear),
O.G. Leodegar--Eng. _Ledger_. (_Gard_), O.G. Liudgard--A.S.
Lidgeard--Eng. _Ledgard_. (_Goz_. Goth), O.G. Luitgoz, Luikoz--Lucas
_Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Lucas_. (_Hard_), O.G. Luidhard--Eng. _Liddard_.
(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Liuthari--A.S. Luder--Eng. _Luther_. (_Man_),
O.G. Liudman--A.S. Ludmann--Eng. _Lutman_. (_Ward_), O.G. Liudward--Eng.
_Ledward_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Liudwig--Eng. _Lutwidge_.

Anglo-Saxon _leof_, "dear."

(_Dag_, day), O.G. Leopdag--Luiedai, _Domesday_--Eng. _Loveday_.
(_Hard_), O.G. Luibhard, Leopard--A.S. Lipperd--Eng. _Leopard_. (_Hari_,
warrior), O.G. Liubheri, Libher--A.S. Leofer--Eng. _Lover_. (_Lind_,
gentle), O.G. Liublind--Eng. _Loveland_. (_Man_), O.G. Liubman--A.S.
Leofmann--Eng. _Loveman_.[18] (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Liubmar--Eng.
_Livemore_. (_Ric_, rule), A.S. Leofric--Eng. _Loveridge_. (_Drud_,
friend), O.G. Lipdrud--Eng. _Liptrot_.[19] (_Gaud_, _goz_, Goth), O.G.
Liobgoz--Eng. _Lovegod_, _Lovegood_.

_Mal_, signifying to "maul."

(_Hard_), O.G. Mallard--Maularde, _Roll. Batt. Abb._--Eng. _Mallard_.
(_Ric_, rule), O.G. Malarich--Eng. _Mallory_. (_Thius_, servant), O.G.
Malutheus--Eng. _Malthus_. (_Wulf_), O.G. Malulf--Eng. _Maliff_.

_Man_, as the type of "manliness."

(_Frid_, peace), O.G. Manfrit--Eng. _Manfred_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G.
Mangar--Eng. _Manger_. (_Leof_, dear), A.S. Manlef--Eng. _Manlove_.
(_Gald_, value), O.G. Managold--Eng. _Manigault_.

_Mar_, signifying "famous."

(_Gaud_, Goth), Merigeat _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Margot_. (_Gild_, value),
O.G. Margildus--Eng. _Marigold_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Merovecus,
Maroveus--Eng. _Marwick_, _Marvey_. (_Wine_, friend), O.G.
Maruin--Mervinus _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Marvin_.

_Mag_, _may_, Goth. _magan_, "valere."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Magher--Eng. _Mager_, _Mayer_. (_Had_, war),
O.G. Magodius--Magot _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Maggot_. (_Ron_, raven), O.G.
Megiran--Eng. _Megrin_.

_Main_, also signifying "strength, vigour."

(_Hard_), O.G. Mainard--Eng. _Maynard_.

_Mad_, _med_, Anglo-Saxon _math_, "reverence."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Mather--Eng. _Mather_. (_Helm_), O.G.
Madelm--Eng. _Madam_. (_Lac_, play), O.G. Mathlec--Eng. _Medlock_.
(_Land_), O.G. Madoland--Eng. _Medland_. (_Man_), O.G. Medeman--Eng.
_Maidman_, _Meddiman_. (_Wald_, power), O.G. Meduald--Eng. _Methold_.
(_Wine_, friend), Eng. _Medwin_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Medoveus--Eng.

_Madel_, _medal_, "discourse, eloquence."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Madalhar--Eng. _Medlar_. (_Gaud_, Goth), O.G.
Madalgaud--Eng. _Medlicott_.

_Mil_, _mel_, of uncertain meaning.

(_Dio_, servant), O.G. Mildeo--Eng. _Mellodew_, _Melody_, _Melloday_.
(_Hard_), O.G. Milehard--Eng. _Millard_.

_Mald_, Anglo-Saxon _meald_, "strife, friction."

(_Wid_, wood), O.G. Maldvit--Maldwith, _Domesday_--Eng. _Maltwood_.

Ang.-Sax. _môd_. O.H.G. _môt_, "courage."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Muatheri, Modar--Eng. _Mutrie_, _Moder_. (_Ram_,
_ran_, raven), O.G. Moderannus--Eng. _Mottram_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G.
Moderich--Eng. _Mudridge_.

_Mark_, of uncertain meaning.

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Marcher--A.S. Marker--Eng. _Marcher_, _Marker_.
(_Leif_, relic), O.G. Marcleif--Eng. _Marklove_. (_Wig_, war), O.G.
Marcovicus--Eng. _Markwick_.

Old North. _âs_, Ang.-Sax. _ôs_, "semi-deus."

(_Beorn_, bear), A.S. Osbeorn--Eng. _Osborn_. (_Got_, goth), A.S.
Osgot--Eng. _Osgood_. (_Lac_, play), A.S. Oslac--O.N. Asleikr--Eng.
_Aslock_, _Hasluck_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Asman, Osman--Asseman _Hund.
Rolls_--Eng. _Asman_, _Osman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Osmer--Osmer,
_Domesday_--Eng. _Osmer_. (_Ketil_), O.N. Asketil--Eng. _Ashkettle_.
(_Mund_, protection), A.S. Osmond--Eng. _Osmond_. (_Wald_, rule), A.S.
Oswald--Eng. _Oswald_. (_Wine_, friend), A.S. Oswin--Eng. _Oswin_.

_Rad_, _red_, signifying "counsel."

(_Brand_, sword), O.G. Redbrand--Eng. _Redband_. (_Geil_, elatus), O.G.
Ratgeil--Eng. _Redgill_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Rathere, Rateri--Eng.
_Rather_, _Rattray_. (_Helm_), O.G. Rathelm--Eng. _Rattham_. (_Leif_,
relic), O.G. Ratleib--Eng. _Ratliffe_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Redman--Eng.
_Redman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Radmar, Redmer--Eng. _Radmore_,
_Redmore_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Redemund--Eng. _Redmond_. (_War_,
defence), O.G. Ratwar--Eng. _Redwar_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Redwi--Eng.
_Reddaway_. (_Wine_, friend), A.S. Redwin--Eng. _Readwin_. (_Bald_,
fortis), O.G. Ratbold--Eng. _Rathbold_. (_Bern_, bear), O.G. Ratborn,
Ratbon--Eng. _Rathbone_.

_Rag_, _ray_, signifying "counsel."

(_Bald_, fortis), O.G. Ragibald--Eng. _Raybauld_, _Raybolt_. (_Hari_,
warrior), O.G. Racheri--Eng. _Rarey_ (=Ragheri). (_Helm_), O.G.
Rachelm--Eng. _Rackham_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Raimond--Eng.
_Raymond_, _Rayment_. (_Ulf_, wolf), A.S. Rahulf--Raaulf, _Lib.
Vit._--Eng. _Ralph_.

_Ragin_, _rain_, same as above.

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Raginbert, Reinbert--Eng. _Rainbird_. (_Bald_,
fortis), O.G. Raginbald--Eng. _Raynbold_. (_Frid_, peace), O.G.
Rainfred--Eng. _Rainford_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G. Raingar, Reginker--Eng.
_Ranger_, _Ranacre_. (_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Regnard, Rainhard--Eng.
_Regnard_, _Reynard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Reginhar--A.S.
Reiner--Eng. _Reyner_. (_Helm_), O.G. Rainelm--Eng. _Raynham_, (_Wald_,
rule), O.G. Reginold--A.S. Reinald--Eng. _Reynolds_.

_Ric_, _rich_, signifying "rule."

(_Bald_, fortis), O.G. Richbold--Eng. _Richbell_. (_Gard_, protection),
O.G. Richgard--Eng. _Ridgyard_. (_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Ricohard--Eng.
_Riccard_, _Richard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Richer--Richerus,
_Domesday_--Eng. _Richer_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Ricman--Eng. _Rickman_,
_Richman_. (_Mund_, protection), O.G. Richmund--Eng. _Richmond_.
(_Wald_, rule), O.G. Ricoald--Eng. _Richold_. (_Wig_, war), O.G.
Ricwi--Eng. _Ridgway_.

_Ring_, perhaps signifying "armour."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Rincar--Eng. _Ringer_. (_Wald_, rule), A.S.
Hringwold--Eng. _Ringold_.

_Rod_, signifying "glory."

(_Bero_, bear), O.G. Hruadbero--Eng. _Rodber_. (_Bern_, bear), O.G.
Roudbirn--Eng. _Rodbourn_. (_Bert_, famous), O.G. Hrodebert--Eng.
_Robert_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G. Hrodgar--Eng. _Rodger_. (_Gard_,
protection), O.G. Hrodgard--Eng. _Rodgard_, _Rodyard_. (_Hari_,
warrior), O.G. Hrodhari, Rotheri, Rudher--Eng. _Rothery_, _Rudder_.
(_Land_), O.G. Rodland--Eng. _Rolland_. (_Leik_, play), O.G.
Rutleich--Eng. _Rutledge_. (_Ram_, raven), O.G. Rothram--Eng.
_Rotheram_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Hrodman--Eng. _Rodman_, _Roman_. (_Niw_,
young), O.G. Hrodni--Eng. _Rodney_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G. Hrodric--Eng.
_Rodrick_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Hrodwig--Eng. _Rudwick_. (_Ulf_, wolf),
O.G. Hrodulf--Roolf, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Rolfe_.

_Ros_, perhaps signifying "horse."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Rospert--Eng. _Rosbert_. (_Kel_, contraction of
Ketel),[20] Old Norse Hroskel--Eng. _Roskell_.

_Rum_, O.H.G. hruam, "glory."

(_Bald_, bold), A.S. Rumbold--Eng. _Rumbold_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Rumhar--Eng. _Rummer_.

_Sal_, perhaps meaning "dark."[21]

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Salaher--Eng. _Sellar_. (_Man_, vir), O.G.
Salaman--Eng. _Salmon_. (_Wig_, war), O.G. Selwich--Eng. _Salloway_.

_Sar_, signifying "armour" or anything used for defence.

(_Bod_, envoy), O.G. Sarabot--Eng. _Serbutt_. (_Gaud_, Goth), O.G.
Saregaud--Eng. _Sargood_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Saraman--Eng. _Sermon_.
(_Had_, war), O.G. Sarratt--Eng. _Sarratt_.

_Sig_, signifying "victory."

(_Bald_, bold), A.S. Sigebald--Eng. _Sibbald_. (_Bert_, famous), A.S.
Sigiberht, Sibriht--Eng. _Sibert_. (_Fred_, peace), A.S. Sigefred--Eng.
_Seyfried_. (_Gar_, spear), A.S. Siggær--Eng. _Segar_. (_Man_), O.G.
Sigeman--Eng. _Sickman_. (_Suff._, _Surn._). (_Mar_, famous), O.G.
Sigimar, Sicumar--A.S. Simær, Secmær--Eng. _Seymore_, _Sycamore_.
(_Mund_, protection), O.G. Sigimund--Eng. _Simmond_. (_Wig_, war), O.G.
Sigiwic--Eng. _Sedgewick_. (_Wine_, friend), O.G. Sigiwin--Seguin, _Roll
Batt. Abb._--Eng. _Seguin_.

_Sea_, "mare."

(_Bera_, bear), Sebar, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Seaber_. (_Bern_, bear), Old
Norse Sæbiorn--Sberne, _Domesday_--Eng. _Seaborn_. (_Bert_, famous),
A.S. Sæberht--Eng. _Seabright_. (_Burg_, protection), O.G. Seburg,
Seopurc--Seaburch _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Seabrook_, _Seabury_. (_Rit_,
ride), O.G. Seuerit--Eng. _Searight_, _Sievewright_. (_Wald_, rule),
O.G. Sewald--Eng. _Seawall_. (_Ward_), O.G. Sæward--Eng. _Seaward_,
_Seward_. (_Fugel_, fowl), A.S. Sæfugl--Eng. _Sefowl_.

_Stain_, "stone," in the sense of firmness or hardness.

(_Biorn_, bear), O.N. Steinbiörn--Eng. _Stainburn_. (_Burg_,
protection), O.G. Stemburg--Eng. _Steamburg_. (_Hard_), O.G.
Stainhard--Stannard _Domesday_--Eng. _Stonard_, _Stoneheart_. (_Hari_,
warrior), O.N. Steinhar--Eng. _Stainer_, _Stoner_. (_Wald_, rule), O.G.
Stainold--Eng. _Stonhold_, and perhaps _Sternhold_ as a corruption.

_Tank_, perhaps "thought."

(_Hard_), O.G. Tanchard--Eng. _Tankard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Thancheri--Eng. _Tankeray_, _Thackeray_ (Scandinavian form). (_Rad_,
counsel), O.G. Tancrad--Eng. _Tancred_.

_Tad_, supposed "father."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Tether--Eng. _Tedder_, _Teather_. (_Man_, vir),
A.S. Tatmonn--Eng. _Tadman_.[22] (_Wine_, friend), O.G. Daduin--Eng.

_Thor_, supposed from the name of the god, a stem specially Danish.

(_Biorn_, bear), O.N. Thorbiorn--Thurbern _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Thorburn_.
(_Gaut_, Goth), O.N. Thorgautr--Turgod _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Thurgood_,
_Thoroughgood_. (_Geir_, spear), O.N. Thorgeir--Eng. _Thorgur_. (_Fin_,
nation), O.N. Thorfinnr--Thurfin _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Turpin_. (_Môd_,
courage), O.N. Thormodr--Eng. _Thurmot_. (_Stein_, stone), O.N.
Thorsteinn--Turstin _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Thurstan_. (_Wald_, rule), O.N.
Thorvaldr--Eng. _Thorold_. (_Vid_, wood), O.N. Thorvidr--Eng.
_Thorowood_. (_Ketil_[23]) O.N. Thorketil--Eng. _Thirkettle_. (_Kel_,
contraction of _ketel_), O.N. Thorkel--Turkillus _Lib. Vit._--Eng.
_Thurkle_. (Hence is borrowed as supposed the Gaelic Torquil.)

Ang.-Sax. _theod_, "people."

(_Bald_, fortis), A.S. Theodbald--Tidbald _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Theobald_,
_Tidball_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Theodahar, Tudhari--A.S.
Theodhere--Eng. _Theodore_, _Tudor_. (_Ran_, raven), O.G. Teutran--Eng.
_Teuthorn_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Tiadman--Eng. _Tidman_. (_Mar_, famous),
O.G. Thiudemer--A.S. Dydemer--Eng. _Tidemore_. (_Ric_, rule), A.S.
Theodric--Eng. _Todrig_, _Doddridge_.

_Wad_, _Wat_, "to go," in the sense of activity?

(_Gis_, hostage), O.G. Watgis--Eng. _Watkiss_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G.
Waddegar--Eng. _Waddicar_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Vadomar--Eng.
_Wadmore_. (_New_, young), O.G. Wattnj--Eng. _Watney_.

_Wald_, signifying "power" or "rule."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Waldhar--A.S. Wealdhere--Eng. _Walter_. (_Man_)
O.G. Waldman--Eng. _Waldman_. (_Ran_, raven), O.G.
Walderannus--Walteranus _Domesday_--Eng. _Waldron_.

_Wal_, "stranger" or "foreigner."

(_And_, life, spirit), O.G. Waland--Eng. _Waland_. (_Frid_, peace), O.G.
Walahfrid--Eng. _Wallfree_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Walaheri,
Walher--Eng. _Wallower_, _Waller_. (_Had_, war), O.G. Wallod--Eng.
_Wallet_. (_Raven_), Gothic Valerauan--Walrafan _Lib. Vit._--Eng.
_Wallraven_ (_Suffolk Surnames_). (_Rand_, shield), O.G.
Walerand--Walerandus _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Walrond_.

_War_, perhaps signifying "defence."[24]

(_Bald_, bold), O.G. Warbalt--Eng. _Warbolt_. (_Burg_, protection), O.G.
Warburg--Eng. _Warbrick_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G. Weriger--Eng. _Warraker_.
(_Goz_, Goth), O.G. Werigoz--Eng. _Vergoose_ (_Suffolk Surnames_).
(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Warher--Eng. _Warrior_. (_Laik_, play), O.G.
Warlaicus--Warloc _Hund. Rolls_--Eng. _Warlock_. (_Man_), O.G.
Warman--A.S. Wearman--Eng. _Warman_. (_Mar_, famous). O.G. Werimar--Eng.
_Warmer_. (_Lind_, gentle), O.G. Waralind--Eng. _Warland_.

_Wern_, in the sense of "nationality."

(_Burg_, protection), O.G. Warinburg--Eng. _Warrenbury_. (_Frid_,
peace), O.G. Warnefrid--Eng. _Warneford_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Warenher, Warner--Eng. _Warrener_, _Warner_. (_Had_, war), O.G.
Warnad--Eng. _Warnett_.

_Wag_, _way_, to "wave, brandish."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Wagher--Eng. _Wager_. (_Bert_, famous), O.G.
Wagpraht--Eng. _Weybret_.

_Wid_, _wit_, of uncertain meaning.[25]

(_Brord_, sword), A.S. Wihtbrord, Wihtbrod--Witbred _Hund. Rolls_--Eng.
_Whitbread_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G. Witker--A.S. Wihtgar--Eng.
_Whittaker_, _Whitecar_. (_Hard_), O.G. Witart--Eng. _Whitehart_.
(_Ron_, raven), O.G. Widrannus--Eng. _Witheron_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G.
Withar, Wither _Domesday_--Eng. _Wither_, _Whiter_. (_Ring_, armour),
O.G. Witering--Eng. _Wittering_. (_Lag_, law), A.S. Wihtlæg,--Eng.
_Whitelegg_, _Whitlaw_. (_Laic_, play), O.G. Widolaic,--A.S.
Wihtlac--Eng. _Wedlake_, _Wedlock_. (_Man_, vir), O.G. Wideman,
Witman--Eng. _Wideman_, _Whiteman_. (_Mar_, famous), Goth.
Widiomar--Uitmer _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Whitmore_. (_Rad_, counsel), O.G.
Widerad, Witerat--A.S. Wihtræd--Eng. _Withered_, _Whitethread_,
_Whiterod_. (_Ric_, rule), Goth. Witirich--A.S. Wihtric--Eng.
_Witherick_, _Whitridge_.

_Will_, in the sense of "resolution"?

(_Bern_, bear), O.G. Wilbernus--Eng. _Wilbourn_. (_Gom_, man), O.G.
Willicomo--Uilcomæ _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Wilcomb_, _Welcome_. (_Frid_,
peace), A.S. Wilfrid--Eng. _Wilford_. (_Gis_, hostage), A.S.
Wilgis--Eng. _Willgoss_. (_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Willard--A.S.
Willeard--Eng. _Willard_. (_Heit_, state, "hood") O.G. Williheit--Eng.
_Willett_. (_Helm_), A.S. Wilhelm--Eng. _Williams_. (_Mar_, famous),
O.G. Willemar--Eng. _Willmore_. (_Mot_, courage), O.G. Willimot--Eng.
_Willmot_. (_Mund_, protection), A.S. Wilmund--Uilmund, _Lib.
Vit._--Eng. _Willament_.

_Wind_, _Wend_, supposed "from the people."

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Winidhar--Eng. _Winder_. (_Ram_, raven), O.G.
Winidram--Eng. _Windram_. (_Rad_, counsel)--Eng. _Windred_.

_Wine_, "friend."

(_Bald_, fortis), O.G. Winebald--Eng. _Winbolt_. (_Cof_, strenuous),
A.S. Wincuf--Eng. _Wincup_. (_Gaud_, Goth), O.G. Winegaud--Eng.
_Wingood_. (_Gar_, spear), O.G. Wineger, Vinegar--A.S. Winagar--Eng.
_Winegar_, _Vinegar_. (_Hari_, warrior), A.S. Wyner--Eng. _Winer_.
(_Laic_, play), O.G. Winleich--Uinlac _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Winlock_.
(_Man_, vir), O.G. Winiman--A.S. Winemen--Eng. _Wineman_, _Winmen_.
(_Stan_, stone), A.S. Wynstan--Eng. _Winston_.

_Wig_, _Wick_, "war."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Wigbert, Wibert--Eng. _Vibert_. (_Burg_,
protection), O.G. Wigburg--Wiburch _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Wyberg_, _Wybrow_.
(_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Wighard, Wiart--A.S. Wigheard--Uigheard _Lib.
Vit._--Eng. _Wyard_. (_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Wigheri, Wiccar,
Wiher--Uigheri _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Wicker_, _Vicary_, _Wire_. (_Helm_),
A.S. Wighelm--Uighelm _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Whigam_. (_Ram_, raven), O.G.
Wigram--Eng. _Wigram_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G. Wigmar, Wimar--Wimar _Lib.
Vit._--Eng. _Wymer_.[26] (_Gern_, eager), O.G. Wicchern--A.S.
Weogern--Eng. _Waghorn_. (_Had_, war), O.G. Wicod, Wihad--A.S.
Wigod--Eng. _Wiggett_, _Wichett_, _Wyatt_. (_Man_, vir), O.G.
Wigman--Eng. _Wigman_, _Wyman_. (_Ric_, rule), O.G. Wigirich--Eng.

Ang.-Sax. _wulf_, "wolf."

(_Bert_, famous), O.G. Wolfbert--Eng. _Woolbert_. (_Gar_, spear), A.S.
Wulfgar--Eng. _Woolgar_. (_Gaud_, Goth), O.G. Wulfegaud--A.S.
Wulfgeat--Eng. _Woolcot_. (_Hard_, fortis), A.S. Wulfheard--Eng.
_Woollard_. (_Had_, war), O.G. Wolfhad--Eng. _Woollat_. (_Helm_), A.S.
Wulfhelm--Eng. _Woollams_. (_Heh_, high), A.S. Wulfheh--Eng. _Woolley_.
(_Mar_, famous), A.S. Wulfmer--Eng. _Woolmer_. (_Noth_, bold), A.S.
Wulfnoth--Eng. _Woolnoth_. (_Ric_, rule), A.S. Wulfric--Eng. _Woolrych_.
(_Sig_, victory), A.S. Wulfsig--Eng. _Wolsey_. (_Stan_, stone), A.S.
Wulfstan--Eng. _Woolston_.

Ang.-Sax. _jû_, O.H.G. _êwa_ "law."[27]

(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Euhar--Eng. _Ewer_. (_Man_, vir), O.G.
Eoman--perhaps Iman and Iiman on Roman pottery--Eng. _Yeoman_, _Yeaman_.
(_Ric_, rule), O.G. Eoricus--Eng. _Yorick_. (_Wald_, rule), O.G.
Ewald--Eng. _Ewald_. (_Ward_, guardian), O.G. Euvart--Eng. _Ewart_,
_Yeoward_. (_Wolf_), O.G. Eolf--Eng. _Yealfe_.

The foregoing is not put forward as by any means an exhaustive list of
the ancient compounds represented in our names, but only of the more
common and more important. And there are some ancient stems well
represented in other forms, such as those referred to in Chapter II.,
from which I have not been able to trace any compounds. It will be
observed that I have in two or three instances assigned a place to an
English name, without finding an ancient form to correspond. This indeed
I might have done to a greater extent than I have done, for when we have
such a well-defined system, with the same forms of compounds regularly
recurring, we may in many cases assign a place to a name even though the
ancient equivalent may not yet have come to light.


[10] Hence I take to be the name of the fairy king Oberon. Albruna was
also the name of a "wise woman" among the ancient Germans referred to by

[11] Probably also A.S. Haluiu--Eng. _Halloway_.

[12] Here probably the name Biracrus, on Roman pottery, corresponding
with an O.G. form, Berecar.

[13] Or perhaps of beauty, like a Celtic stem _tac_, found in names of
men, and perhaps a corresponding word.

[14] As an ending also _frid_ commonly becomes _free_, as in Humphrey
from Humfrid, Godfrey from Godfred, Geoffry from Galfrid.

[15] This name might perhaps be from the Irish Cwaran, whence probably
the present _Curran_. This name appears also to have been sometimes
borrowed by the Northmen, as in the case of Olaf Cwaran.

[16] But not in a Christian sense, the stem being much older than
Christian times. There is another stem _gaud_, supposed to mean Goth,
very liable to intermix.

[17] As a prefix this may mean "army," but as an ending, where it is
often _hari_ or _heri_ (and perhaps was originally always so), it may be
taken, as suggested by Grimm, to mean warrior.

[18] Also as a contracted form, Ang.-Sax. Leommann (=Leofmann, Eng.

[19] This seems to be a name of an exceptional kind, the ending _drud_
being a female one. That our name Liptrot (which I take from Lower), is
really from the above origin is rendered the more probable by the
corresponding name Liebetrut as a present German name, similarly derived
by Foerstemann. But it may well be that the ending in this case is from
a different word to that which, see p. 19, forms the endings of women's
names, viz. O.H.G. _trut_, amicus, which, as a prefix, enters into
several men's names.

[20] From the mythological kettle of the gods, which enters into many
Old Norse men's names.

[21] "The Anglo-Saxons seem to have used sallow in the sense of dark.
The raven is called sallow both by Cædmon and the author of Judith,"
_Skeat_. It seems to me, however, a question whether, seeing how
frequently the names of nationalities enter into Teutonic men's names,
the word contained in the above stem may not be "Salian." This, however,
still leaves open the question as to what is the origin of Salian.

[22] A corresponding name may be the Dutch Tadema, if _ma_, as is
supposed, stands for _man_.

[23] Probably from the mythological kettle of the Æsir.

[24] So many different words might be suggested in this case that the
meaning must be left uncertain. It is most probable that there may be an

[25] Three different words found in ancient names intermix so as to be
hardly separable, viz., Anglo-Saxon _wiht_, strength or courage; _wid_,
wood; and _wit_, wisdom.

[26] The name of Wigmore Street seems to imply a man's name _Wigmore_,
but I do not know of it at present.

[27] Hence probably the name of the Eows, a tribe or family mentioned in
the "Traveller's Song." Also probably the name Eawa, in the genealogy of
the Mercian kings. The stem is represented in our names by _Ewe_, _Yeo_,
and _Yea_, and we have also the patronymic _Ewing_ (Euing in



The researches of Mr. Kemble, supplemented by those of Mr. Taylor, in
connection with the early Saxon settlements in England, have an
important bearing upon the subject of our existing surnames. Mr. Kemble
was the first to call attention to the fact that very many of the names
of places in England, as disclosed by the forms in which these names
appear in ancient charters, consist of a personal name in a patronymic
form. Some of these names consist simply of a nominative plural in
_ingas_, as Æscingas, the sons or descendants of Æsc, others of a
genitive plural in _inga_, with _ton_, _ham_, &c., appended, as in
Billingatun, the town of the Billings, _i.e._ sons or descendants of
Billa. These he takes to denote tribal or family settlements, forming
the Anglo-Saxon "mark," consisting of a certain area of cultivated land,
surrounded by a belt of pasture land enjoyed by all the settlers in
common, the whole inclosed by the forest.

Of these names he has made two lists, the one derived from the names
found in ancient charters, and so perfectly trustworthy, the other
inferred from existing names of places which appear to be in the same
form. The latter list is of course subject to considerable correction
and deduction, inasmuch as it depends entirely upon the ancient forms in
which these names would appear whether they would come under this
category or not. Thus, if a name were anciently Billing_a_ham, it would
be "the home of the Billings," while if it were Billingham, it would
simply be the home of an individual man called Billing. And in looking
through this list, a few names will be found, which a comparison with
his own index of place-names shows to be incorrectly assigned. Thus he
infers Impingas from Impington in Cambridgeshire, and Tidmingas from
Tidmington in Worcester, whereas it appears from his index that the
ancient name of the one was Impintun, and of the other Tidelminctun,
both being thus from the name of an individual and not of a tribe or
family. Sempringham again in Lincolnshire, whence he derives Sempringas,
I find to have been Sempingaham, and so used already for Sempingas. I
also feel very great doubt about names taken from places ending in _by_,
_thorp_, and _toft_, in Lincolnshire and the ancient Denelaga, as being
Scandinavian, and given at a distinctly later period. Indeed I have a
certain amount of distrust of all names taken from the North of England,
in the absence, as far as I know, of any distinct proof in any one case.
Northumberland would perhaps be the county to which, as containing the
greatest number of such forms, any such doubt would the least strongly
apply. Moreover, I do not feel at all sure that _ing_ is not in some
cases simply a form of the possessive, and that Dunningland, for
instance, is not simply Dunn's land. This doubt is considerably
strengthened when the name is that of a woman, as in Cyneburginctun (now
Kemerton in Glouc). Cyneburg is certainly a woman's name, and as such
could not, I should suppose--though the question is one for more
experienced Anglo-Saxon scholars--form a patronymic, in which case
Cyneburginctun can only be "Cyneburg's tun." And if it be so in one
case, it may of course be so in others. Mr. Kemble's second list, then,
requires to be used with a certain amount of caution, though in the main
his deductions may be taken as trustworthy.

The corresponding forms in Germany have since been collected by
Professor Foerstemann from ancient charters up to the eleventh century,
and must all be considered therefore as trustworthy. His list contains
upwards of a thousand different names, but inasmuch as many of these
names are found in different parts of Germany, the total number of such
names must amount to many thousands. These consist sometimes of a form
in _ingas_, same as in England, and this obtains more particularly in
Bavaria, sometimes of a form in _inga_, which he takes to be also a
nominative plural, but most commonly of a dative plural, in _ingen_, as
in Herlingen, "to the Harlings." This dative plural explains the origin
of many existing names of places in Germany, as Göttingen, Dettingen,
Tübingen, &c. A dative plural also occurs occasionally in England in the
corresponding Anglo-Saxon form _ingum_, as in Godelmingum, now
Godalming, Angemeringum, now Angmering, &c.

Meanwhile Mr. Taylor has instituted a detailed and very important
comparison between the names contained in Mr. Kemble's two lists, and
those of a corresponding kind in Germany, not indeed from ancient
records, but from existing place-names. And he has further supplemented
this by a list of similar forms disclosed by his own very interesting
discovery of a Saxon area in France opposite to the shore of England,
and which we can hardly doubt to be, as he considers it to be, the
result of a Saxon emigration from England. He has, moreover, given some
similar instances of German occupation in the north of Italy, and it can
hardly be doubted that a more detailed examination would add to their

The question now to be considered is--what is the value of these various
forms in _ingas_, _inga_, and _ingen_, in England and in Germany? In
Anglo-Saxon and other Teutonic dialects _ing_ is a patronymic, as in
Bruning, son of Brûn. But it has also a wider sense implying any
connection with a person or thing, and in certain of the names under
consideration both in England and in Germany, it seems very clear that
it is used simply in a geographical sense. Thus we cannot doubt that
Madelungen and Lauringen, in Germany, signify, as Foerstemann suggests,
the people of the Madel and of the Lauer, on which two rivers the places
in question are respectively situated. Also that Salzungen signifies the
people of the salt springs, in the neighbourhood of which the name is
found.[28] So in England it seems clear that the Leamingas found in
Leamington signifies the people of the Leam, on which river the place is
situated. So also the Heretuningas, the Hohtuningas, and the
Suthtuningas, must mean simply the people respectively of Heretun, of
Hohtun, and of Suthtun, the Beorganstedingas the people of Beorgansted,
the Eoforduningas the people of Eofordun, and the Teofuntingas, the
people dwelling by the two fountains. But with these and perhaps one or
two other exceptions, the word contained is simply a personal name, and
the question is--in what connection is it used? Does Billingas mean the
descendants of the man Bill or Billa, under whose leadership the
settlement was made, or does it, as Mr. Kemble seems to think, refer to
some older, perhaps mythical ancestor from whom the Billings claimed a
traditional descent? Now, considering the great number of these names,
amounting to more than a thousand in England alone, seeing the manner in
which they are dispersed, not only over different counties of England,
but as the annexed table will show, over the length and breadth of
Germany, it seems to me utterly impossible to consider them as anything
else than the every-day names of men common to the great German family.
I am quite in accord then with the view taken by Sir J. Picton
(Ethnology of Wiltshire).[29] "When the Saxons first invaded England,
they came in tribes and families headed by their patriarchal leaders.
Each tribe was called by its leader's name, with the termination _ing_,
signifying family, and where they settled they gave their patriarchal
name to the _mark_ or central point round which they clustered." This
is also the view taken by Foerstemann with regard to the German names,
and I cannot doubt that Mr. Kemble, if he had had the opportunity of
extending his survey over this wider area, would have come to the same
conclusion. I take it then that the name contained in these forms is
simply that of the leader under whose guidance these little settlements
were made, and that, inasmuch as members of the same family would
generally keep together, it is in most cases that of the patriarch or
head of the family. Each man would no doubt have his own individual
name, but as a community exercising certain rights in common, from which
outsiders were excluded, they would require some distinctive
appellation, and what so natural as that of their leader.

I now come to consider some points of difference between the Anglo-Saxon
settlements and the German. While all the settlements in England must be
taken to have been made by a Low German race, a large proportion of
those in Germany must be taken to have been made by a High German
people. Thus when we find Bæbingas in England represented by Papinga in
Austria, Bassingas by Pasingas, and Bædingas by Patinga in Bavaria, we
have the distinction between High and Low German, which might naturally
be expected. So when we find Eastringas represented by Austringa in
Baden, we have again a High German form to compare with a Low German.
But this distinction is by no means consistently maintained throughout,
and we seem to have a considerable mixture of High and Low German forms.
Thus we have both Bæcgingas and Pæccingas, Dissingas and Tissingas,
Gâringas and Coringas, Edingas and Odingas (representing as it seems the
Anglo-Saxon _ead_ or _ed_, and the High German _aud_ or _od_). And even
in some cases the rule seems to be reversed, and we have the High German
in England, as in Eclingas against Egilinga in Bavaria, Hoppingas
against Hobinga in Alsace, Ticcingas against Dichingen, &c. It would
seem as if our settlements were made, at least in part, by a people who
if not High German, had at any rate considerable High German affinities.
To what extent the speech of the Angles which I suppose to have been the
main element in the Northumbrian dialect, would answer these conditions,
I would rather leave to our higher Anglo-Saxon scholars to decide. But
it seems to me, so far as I may venture to give an opinion, that
Lappenberg's theory, that the Saxons were accompanied by Franks,
Frisians, and Lombards, would perhaps better than any other meet all the
requirements of the case. Whence for instance could come such a form as
Cwichelm for Wighelm, apparently a rather strongly marked Frankish form?
Or Cissa (Chissa) for, as I suppose, Gisa, which would be apparently in
conformity with a Frisian form? I have endeavoured to go into this
subject more fully in a subsequent chapter, more particularly with
regard to the Franks, and to show that there are a number of names in
Anglo-Saxon times which might be of Frankish origin, and which perhaps
it would be difficult to account for on any other theory. And it must be
borne in mind that the earlier date now generally assigned for the first
Teutonic settlements, naturally tends to give greater latitude to the
inquiry as to the races by whom those settlements were made.

Another difference to be noted is that whereas all our settlements seem
to have been made in heathen times, those of Germany extend into
Christian times, as shown by such names as Johanningen, Jagobingen, and
Steveningen, containing the scriptural names John, Jacob and Stephen.
There is another and a curious name, Satanasinga, which, the place to
which it is applied being a waste, seems to describe the people who
lived in it, or around it, perhaps in reference to their forlorn
condition, as "the children of Satan." The adoption of scriptural names
seems to have taken place at a later period in England than either in
Germany or in France. And we have not, as I believe, a single instance
in our surnames of a scriptural name in an Anglo-Saxon patronymic form,
as the Germans, judging from the above, might--possibly may--have.

Another point of difference between the Anglo-Saxon and the German
settlements would seem to be this, that while the German list contains a
considerable proportion of compound names, such as Willimundingas and
Managoldingas, the Anglo-Saxon list consists almost exclusively of names
formed of a single word, and the exceptions may almost be counted upon
the fingers. With this I was at first considerably puzzled, but on
looking more carefully into the lists, it seemed to me apparent that
many of the names assumed by Mr. Kemble from names of places were in
reality compound names in a disguised and contracted form. And as
Tidmington, whence he derives Tidmingas, was properly Tidhelmingtun, so
I conceive that Osmingas derived from Osmington, ought properly to be
Oshelmingas, and Wylmingas, found in Wilmington, to be Wilhelmingas. So
also I take it that Wearblingas, found in Warblington, ought to be
Warboldingas, that Weomeringas, deduced from Wymering, ought to be
Wigmeringas, and that Horblingas, found in Horbling, ought to be
Horbaldingas. There are several other names, such as Scymplingas,
Wramplingas, Wearmingas, Galmingas, &c., that seem as they stand, to be
scarcely possible for names of men, and which may also contain compounds
in a corrupted or contracted form. In addition to this, I note the
following, found in ancient charters, which Mr. Kemble seems to have
overlooked, Ægelbyrhtingas, found in Ægelbyrtingahyrst, No. 1041,
Ceolredingas, found in Colredinga gemerc, 1149, and Godhelmingas found
in Godelmingum, 314. If all these were taken into account, the
difference, though it would still exist, might not be so great as to be
unaccountable, considering that our settlements were made to a
considerable extent at an earlier date, and by tribes more or less
differing from those of Germany. It raises, moreover the question, dealt
with in a very thorough manner by Stark, as to the extent to which these
short and simple names may be contractions of compound names. I have
referred to the subject in another place, and I will only observe at
present that from the instances he cites the practice seems to have been
rather specially common among the Frisians. Now it will be found on
comparing the names of our ancient settlers with the Frisian names past
and present cited by Outzen and Wassenberg, that there is a very strong
family likeness between them, though we need not take it to amount to
more than this, that the Frisian names may be taken as a type of the
kind of names prevalent among the other neighbouring Low German tribes,
until it can be more distinctly shown that there were settlements made
by the Frisians themselves. And I have brought these names into the
comparison simply as being the nearest representatives that I can find.

Notwithstanding the complete and valuable tables drawn up by Mr. Taylor
for the purpose of comparing the Anglo-Saxon settlements with those of
Germany, I have thought it useful to supplement them by another confined
exclusively to the names drawn from ancient German records, and
therefore, so far as they go, entirely trustworthy. And I take the
opportunity to compare our existing surnames with these ancient names
thus shown to be common to the great Teutonic family.

In the following table I have given then, first the Anglo-Saxon names
from Kemble's lists, then the corresponding Old German from that of
Foerstemann, with the district in which it is found, and, wherever
identified, the existing name of the place, then names corresponding
from the _Liber Vitæ_ or elsewhere to show continued Anglo-Saxon use,
with also Frisian names as already mentioned, and finally, the existing
English surnames with which I compare them. It will be seen that these
surnames in not a few cases retain an ancient vowel-ending in _a_, _i_,
or _o_, as explained in a preceding chapter.


  Anglo-Saxon.  German.   Locality         (L.V.), Liber Vitæ.  English
                          in Germany.      (F.), Frisian.       Surnames.

  Aldingas}     Aldinge   {Now Aldingen,}  {Alda (L.V.),} {_Allday_, _Allt_,
  Oldingas}               {in Würtemburg}  {  Alte (F.) } {  _Old_, _Olding_.

  Æceringas[30] Aguringas {Now Egringen}    Aker (L.V.)    _Ager_, _Acres_.
                          {  in Bavaria}

  Ælingas       Allingen   Bavaria         {Alli (L.V.),}  _Alley_, _Allo_.
                                           {  Alle (F.) }

  Ælfingas}     Albungen   Hesse Cassell    Alef (F.)     {_Aulph_, _Alpha_,
  Ælpingas}                                               {  _Elvy_.

  Æfeningas  {Heveningare  Appenzell        Afun (L.V.)    _Heaven? Evening_.
             { marca

  Antingas      Endinga   {Now Endingen,}   Anta (A.S.)   {_And_, _Andoe_,
                          {  in Baden   }                 {  _Hand_.

  Æscingas      Esginga     .....           Æsc (A.S.)     _Ask_, _Ashe_.

  Ætingas       Adinga     Pruss. Saxony   {Atta (A.S.),}  _Hatt_.
                                           {  Atte (F.) }

  Bæbingas      Papinga   {Now Pabing, }   {Babba (A.S.),} _Babb_.
                          {  in Austria}   {  Babe (F.)  }

  Baningas      Boninge     .....          {Beana (L.V.),}  {_Bann_,
                                           {  Banne (F.) }  {  _Banning_.

  Bædingas }            {Now Beddingen,  } {Bada,         } {_Batt_, _Batty_,
           }    Patinga {  in Brunswick; } {  Betti (L.V.)} {  _Betty_,
  Beadingas}            {  also Baden,   }                  {  _Batting_.
                        {  Prussia, Austria}

  Bassingas     Pasingas   Bavaria          Bass (A.S.)    _Bass_, _Pass_.

  Bæcgingas}    Bachingen  Würtemburg     } {Baga,       } {_Bagge_, _Back_,
  Beccingas}    Beckinga   Rhenish Prussia} {Backa (L.V.)} {  _Beck_, _Peck_.

  Bensingas     Pinsinga   Bavaria          Benza (L.V.)   _Bence_.

  Bircingas     Biricchingen .....           .....         _Birch_.

  Bebingas      Bebingun   Bavaria, Würtg.  Bebba (A.S.)  {_Bibb_, _Bibby_,
                                                          {  _Beeby_.

  Billingas     Bilinga   {Hess., Würt.,}    .....        {_Bill_, _Billow_,
                          {  Friesland  }                 {  _Billing_.

  Binningas     Binnungen {Now Bingen,  }  {Bynni (L.V.),} {_Binney_,
                          {  on Rhine   }  {Binne (F.)   } {  _Binning_.

  Bydelingas    Budilingen {Luxembg.,}      Botel (F.)     _Biddle_.
                           {  Austria}

  Briningas      .....      .....           Bryni (L.V.)  {_Brine_,
                                                          {  _Brinney_.

  Beorningas    Pirninga   Würtemburg       Beorn (L.V.)  {_Burn_,
                                                          {  _Burning_.

  Bondingas      .....      .....           Bonde (L.V., F.) _Bond_.

  Beormingas    Bermingahem .....            .....         _Breem_.

  Brydingas     Breidinge {Hesse Cass., }    .....         _Bride_, _Bird_.
                          {  Pruss. Sax.}

  Bridlingas    Britlingi {Now Brütlingen,}  .....         _Bridle_.
                          {  in Hanr.     }

  Blæcingas      .....      .....           Blaca (L.V.)   _Black_.

  Bruningas     Brunninga  Austria         {Brôn (L.V.),} {_Brown_,
                                           {Bruyn (F.)  } {  _Browning_.

  Beorhtingas}  Perhtingen Bavaria         {Bercht (L.V.),} {_Burt_,
  Byrtingas  }                             {  Berti (F.)  } {  _Bright_,
                                                            {  _Brighty_,
                                                            {  _Brighting_.

  Brihtlingas   Bertelingas Rhen. Prussia    .....        {_Brightly_,
                                                          {  _Brittell_.

  Buccingas     Puchinga    .....           {Bocco,     }  _Buck_, _Puck_.
                                            {  Buco (F.)}
  Bullingas     Bollinga  {Bullingen, in }  Bolle (F.)    {_Bull_, _Bolley_,
                          {  Rh. Pruss. }                 {  _Bulling_.
                          {Also Tyrol and}
                          {  Westphal.   }

  Byttingas}    Buddinga  {Baden, Würt.,}   Bota (L.V.)   {_Budd_, _Butt_,
                          {  Friesland  }                 {  _Botting_.

  Potingas }    Potingin  {Baden, Aust.,}   Botte (F.)    {_Pott_, _Potto_.
                          {  Friesland  }

  Bobingas }    Bobinga   {Bobingen,}      {Bofa (L.V.),} {_Boby_, _Poppy_.
  Bofingas }              {  in Bav.}      {  Poppe (F.)}

  Bosingas      Bosinga    Austria, Würt.   Bosa (L.V.)   {_Boss_, _Bossey_.

  Buslingas     Buselingen {Büssling,        } .....       _Bussell_.
                           {  by Schaffhausen}

  Burringas     Buringen   Würtemburg.     {Burra (L.V.),} _Burr_.
                                           {  Bore (F.)  }

  Cægingas      Cachinga    .....           Kay, Key (F.) {_Kay_, _Key_
                                                          {  (see p. 10).

  Callingas     Callinge   Holland          Kalle (F.)     _Call_, _Callow_.

  Ceaningas     Conninge   Würtemburg      {Canio (L.V.),} {_Cann_,
                                           {  Keno (F.)  } {  _Canning_.

  Cearlingas    Chirlingen {Kierling,   }  {Karl (L.V.),} {_Charley_,
                           {  in Austria}  {  Carl (F.) } {  _Charles_.

  Cifíngas      Cheffingin Würtemburg       Ceefi (L.V.)  {_Chaff_,
                                                          {  _Chaffey_.

  Ceopingas     Chuppinga  Würtemburg        .....        {_Chope_, _Chubb_.

  Copingas      Cofunga    Hesse Cassel    {Cufa, Coifi  } {_Coffey_, _Cuff_,
                                           {  (Ang.-Sax.)} {  _Cuffey_.

  Codingas }    Cuttingas  Near Metz       {Goda, (L.V.) } {_Goad_, _Codd_,
  Cotingas }    Gotinga    Bavaria         {  Gode (F.)  } {  _Coate_,
                                                           {  _Godding_.

  Colingas      Cholinga   Ceolla (L.V.)     .....        {_Coll_, _Collie_,
                                                          {  _Colling_.

  Cocingas      Gukkingin {Gugging,    }     .....         _Cock_.
                          {  in Austria}

  Cressingas    Chresinga  Würtemberg        .....         _Cressy_.

  Cnottingas    Knutingen   .....           Cnut (L.V.)    _Knott_.

  Cnudlingas    Cnutlinga  Baden             .....         _Nuttall_.

  Cenesingas[31] {Kenzinga  Kenzingen,   }
                              in Baden   }   .....         _Chance?_
                 {Gensingen Gensungen,   }
                              Hess. Cass.}

  Centingas     Gandingen  Friesland        Kaenta (L.V.) {_Cant_, _Gant_,
                                                          {  _Gandy_.

  Culingas       .....      .....            .....        {_Cull_,
                                                          {  _Cooling_.

  Denningas     Daningen   Baden            Dene (L.V.)   {_Dane_, _Dana_,
                                                          {  _Denn_,
                                                          {  _Denning_.
  Dillingas     Dilinga   {Dillengen,}
                          {  in Bav. }     {Tilli (L.V.),} {_Dill_, _Till_,
                                           {  Tilo (F.)  } {  _Tilly_.

  Deorlingas}   Darlingin  Brunswick         .....        {_Darrell_,
  Teorlingas}                                             {  _Darling_.

  Dissingas}    Tisinga    Bavaria          Tisa, Disa (F.) {_Dyce_, _Dicey_,
  Tissingas}                                                {  _Tisoe_.

  Ticcangas     Dichingen  Friesland, Bav.  Tycca (A.S.)   _Dick_.

  Dyclingas     Tuchilingen Now Tuchling     .....        {_Dickle_,
                                                          {  _Tickle_.

  Doccingas     Dockinga   Friesland       {Tocki (L.V.),} {_Dock_,
                                           {  Tocke (F.) } {  _Tocque_,
                                                           {  _Docking_.

  Dodingas       .....       .....          Doda (F.)      _Dodd_, _Todd_.

  Dunningas     Tuningas     .....          Duna (L.V.)   {_Dunn_, _Dunning_.

  Eastringas    Austringa {Oestringen,}      .....         _Easter_.
                          {  in Baden }

  Edingas }     Edinga    {Holland,     }  {Ede (L.V.),}   _Eddy_.
                          {  Baden, Bav.}  {  Edde (F.)}
  Oddingas}     Odinga    {Westphal.,   }  {Oda (L.V.),}   _Oddy_.
                          {  Bav.       }     Odde (F.) }

  Elcingas      .....       .....            .....        {_Elk_, _Elcy_,
                                                          {  _Elgee_.

  Ecgingas      Eginga    {Schaffhausen,}  {Ecga (L.V.),}  _Egg_.
                          {  Bav.       }  {Egga (F.)   }

  Eclingas      Egilinga   Bavaria          Ecgel (A.S.)  {_Edgell_, _Egle_.

  Elsingas      Elisingun  Hesse           {Elsi (L.V.),} {_Else_, _Elsey_,
                                           {  Ealse (F.)} {  _Elliss_.

  Eppingas}     Ebinga     Baden, Austria   Ebbi (L.V.)   {_Epps_.
  Ippingas}     Ippinga   {Ippingen,  }     Eppe (F.)     {_Hipp_.
                          {  on Danube}

  Everingas }   Eburingen  Pruss. Silesia    .....        {_Ever_, _Every_,
  Eoforingas}                                             {  _Heber_.

  Eorpingas     Arpingi     .....          {Earbe (L.V.),} _Harp_, _Earp_.
                                           {  Arpe (F.)  }

  Fearingas     Faringa   {Upper Bav.        .....        {_Farre_,
                          {  & L. Constance               {  _Farrow_.

  Fearningas    .....       .....           Forne (L.V.)   _Fearn_.

  Finningas     Finninga    .....           Finn (A.S.)   {_Finn_, _Finney_.

  Fincingas     .....       .....          {Finc (A.S.),}  _Finch_.
                                           {  surname   }

  Folcingas     Fulchingen  .....           Folco (L.V.)   _Fulke_.

  Frodingas     .....       .....           Frode (L.V.)   _Froude_.

  Gâringas}     Geringen   Würtemberg        .....         _Gore_, _Cory_.

  Gestingas     .....       .....            .....        {_Guest_,
                                                          {  _Gasting_.

  Geofuningas   Gebeningen Austria                         _Giffen_.

  Gisilingas}   Gisilinga  Bavaria         {Gisle,        } _Gill_.
  Gillingas }                              {  Gille (L.V.)}

  Gealdingas}   Geltingen {Gelting, }      {Golde (A.S.),} {_Gold_, _Galt_,
  Goldingas }             {  in Bav.}      {  Giolt (F.) } {  _Golding_.

  Hallingas     Halinge    Bavaria          Halle (L.V.)  {_Hall_,
                                                          {  _Halling_.

  Hæglingas     Hegelinge  Bavaria          Hagel (A.S.)  {_Hail_,
                                                          {  _Hailing_.

  Hanesingas    Anzinga    Bavaria           .....         _Hance_.

  Heardingas}   Hardinghen  Pas de Calais   Hart (F.)     {_Hard_, _Hardy_.
  Heartingas}   Hertingen   Bavaria          .....        {_Hart_,
                                                          {  _Harding_.

  Hæslingas}    Hasalinge  Near Bremen     {Esel (L.V.), } _Hasell_.
  Æslingas }                               {  Hessel (F.)}

  Hanningas}    Heninge     .....          {Anna (L.V.),} {_Hann_, _Hanning_,
  Heningas }                               {  Hanne,    } {  _Henn_,
  Anningas }                               {  Enno (F.) } {  _Anning_,
                                                          {  _Anne_.

  Hillingas}    Illingun  {Illingen,       {Ylla (L.V.),}  _Hill_.
  Illingas }              {  in Baden      {  Hille (F.)}

  Honingas      Oningas   {Oeningen,  }    {Ona (L.V.),}   _Hone_.
                          {  on L.    }    {Onno (F.)  }
                          {  Constance}

  Horningas     .....       .....           Horn (A.S.)    _Horne, Horning_.

  Herelingas    Herlingun  Austria          Harrol (F.)   {_Harle_, _Harley_,
                                                          {  _Harling_.

  Hoppingas     Hobinga    Near Metz       {Obbe,       } {_Hopp_, _Hoby_,
                                           {  Hobbe (F.)} {  _Hopping_.

  Hæcingas      Hahhinga  {Haching,        {Hacci (L.V.),} {_Hack_,
                          {  near Munich   {  Acke (F.)  } {  _Hacking_.

  Hafocingas    Hauechingas  Rhen. Pruss.   Hauc (L.V.)    _Hawke_.

  Hocingas      Hohingun  {Near Cologne}    Hoco (F.)      _Hockey_.
                          {  and Zurich}

  Hucingas      Huchingen  Friesland         .....         _Hook_.

  Huningas      Huninga   {Hüningen,   }   {Una (L.V.), }  _Hunn_, _Honey_.
                          {  near Basle}   {  Hunne (F.)}

  Huntingas     Huntingun  Baden             .....         _Hunt, Hunting_.

  Ifingas       .....       .....           Ivo (L.V.)     _Ive, Ivy_.

  Immingas      Eminga    {Emmingen, }     {Imma (L.V.),} {_Eames_, _Yems_,
                          {  in Würt.}     {  Emo,      } {  _Hime_.
                                           {  Imme (F.) }

  Læferingas    Livaringa  Near Salzburg     .....         _Laver_.

  Lullingas     Lolinga   {Lullingen, in}   Lolle (F.)     _Lull_, _Lully_.
                          {  Rh. Pruss. }

  Luddingas     Liutingen  Baden           {Lioda (L.V.),} _Lyde_, _Lutto_.
                                           {  Ludde (F.) }

  Lofingas      Luppinge    .....          {Lufe (L.V.),} {_Love_,
                                           {  Lubbe (F.)} {  _Loving_.

  Lidelingas    Lutilinga  Würtemburg        .....         _Liddle_.

  Locingas       .....      .....           Locchi (L.V.) {_Lock_,
                                                          {  _Lockie_.

  Leasingas     Lasingi     .....           Leising (L.V.) _Lees_, _Lessy_.

  Manningas     Meningen    .....          {Man (L.V.), } {_Mann_, _Manning_.
                                           {  Manno (F.)}

  Massingas     Masingi     .....           Mæssa (A.S.)  {_Massey_,
                                                          {  _Messing_.

  Madingas      Madungen   Sax-Weimar        .....         _Maddey_.

  Mægdlingas[32] .....      .....           Mædle          _Madle_.

                          {Maching, in   }                {
                          {  Bavaria     }  Mecga (A.S.)  {_Maggy_, _May_.
  Mæccingas     Maginga   {Mechingen, by }                {
                          {  L. Constance}  Mekke (F.)    {

  Mycgingas      .....      .....            .....        {_Mico_, _Michie_.

  Merlingas     Marlingen  Bavaria           .....        {_Merrill_, _Marl_,
                                                          {  _Marling_.

  Mundlingas    Mundilinga Bavaria           .....        {_Mundell_.

  Marringas     Maringen   Baden, Würt.     Mar (A.S.)     _Marr_.

  Meringas      Meringa    Hanover           .....         _Merry_.

  Millingas     Milinga   {Bav., Rhen.}     Milo (L.V.)   {_Millie_, _Milo_,
                          {  Pruss.   }                   {  _Millinge_.

  Myrcingas[33] Mirchingen Lower Austria    Murk (F.)     {_Murch_,
                                                          {  _Murchie_.

  Nydingas }    Nidinga   {Neidingen, in}  {Nytta (L.V.),} _Need_, _Neate_.
  Neddingas}              {  Rh. Pruss. }  {  Nette (F.) }

  Nottingas     Notingen   Upper Bavaria    Noedt (F.)    {_Nott_,
                                                          {  _Nutting_.

  Ossingas      Ossingen   Rh. Bavaria      Hosa (L.V.)    _Hose_.

  Palingas      .....       .....           Paelli (L.V.) {_Palev_,
                                                          {  _Paling_.

  Pegingas      Biginga    Westphalia       Pega (L.V.)    _Pegg_, _Bigg_.

  Penningas     Penningin  North Germany    Benna (A.S.)   _Penn_, _Benn_.

  Puningas      Buninga     .....           Buna (A.S.)    _Bunn_.

  Pitingas      Pidingun   Austria           .....         _Pitt_.

  Poclingas     Puchilinga {Pückling,  }     .....        {_Puckle_,
                           {  on Danube}                  {  _Buckle_.

  Piperingas     .....      .....            .....         _Piper_.

  Readingas     Radinga   {Reding,          Reid (F.)      _Read_.
                          {  in Luxembg.
  Riccingas      .....      .....           Riki (F.)     {_Rich_, _Richey_.

  Ridingas      Ridingin  {Rieding,      }   .....        {_Riddy_, _Rita_,
                          {  in Upp. Bav.}                {  _Ridding_.

  Riclingas     Richilinga {Reichling,}     Rykle (F.)    {_Regal_,
                           {  on Rhine}                   {  _Wrigley_.

  Riplingas     Rupilinga  Upper Bavaria     .....         _Ripley_.

  Rollingas     Roldingen {Rolingen,    }   Rolle (F.)     _Rolle_.
                          {  in Luxembg.}

  Ræfningas     Ravininge  Bavaria          Reuen (L.V.)  _Raven_.

  Rodingas      Hrotthingun {Rh. Pruss.,}  {Rudda (L.V.),} {_Rodd_, _Rudd_,
                            {  Bav.     }  {  Rode (F.)  } {  _Rudding_.

  Rossingas     Rossunga    .....           Russe (F.)     _Ross_.

  Ruscingas      .....      .....           Rosce (L.V.)   _Rush_.

  Rocingas      Roggingun  Bavaria         {Rogge,       } _Rock_.
                                           {  Rocche (F.)}

  Rucingas       .....      .....           Rouke (F.)    {_Rugg_, _Ruck_.

  Sandringas    Sinderingum  Würtemburg     Sander (F.)    _Sander_.

  Swaningas     Swaningun {Schwanningen, }
                          {  near        }  Suan (L.V.)    _Swan_.
                          {  Schaffhausen}

  Syclingas     Sikilingin {Sittling,}       .....        {_Sickle_,
                           {  in Bav.}                    {  _Sickling_.

  Seaxlingas    Saxlinga    .....            .....         _Satchell?_

  Sceardingas   Scardinga  Bavaria           .....        {_Scard_, _Scarth_.

  Scytingas     Scithingi   .....           Scytta (A.S.) {_Skitt_, _Skeat_,
                                                          {  _Shute_.

  Surlingas      .....      .....           Serlo (L.V.)  {_Sarle_, _Searle_.

  Scyrlingas    Skirilinga  Schierling, in Bav.  .....     _Shirley_.

  Sælingas       .....      .....           Salla (L.V.)   _Sale_, _Sala_.

  Sceafingas    Sceuinge    .....            .....         _Sheaf_.

  Scealingas    Scelinga    .....           Sceal (L.V.)  {_Scally_,
                                                          {  _Scales_.

  Snoringas    {Snoringer} Rh. Bav.        Snearri (L.V.)  _Snare_.
               {  marca  }

  Snotingas     Snudinga    .....           Snod (A.S.)    _Snoad_.

  Sealfingas    Selvingen   .....            .....        {_Self_, _Selvey_.

  Stubingas     Staubingen {Staubing,   }   Stuf (A.S.)   {_Stubbs_,
                           {  in Bavaria}                 {  _Stubbing_.

  Secgingas     Siggingahem  Belgium        Sigga (L.V.)  {_Siggs_, _Sick_.

  Specingas     Speichingas {Spaichengen,   Spech (Domesday) _Speck_.
                            {  in Westph.

  Sceaflingas  Schuffelinga {Schiflingen, }  .....         _Shovel_.
                            {  in Luxembg.}

  Stæningas      .....      .....          {Stean (L.V.),} {_Stone_,
                                           {  Steen (F.) } {  _Stenning_.

  Sinningas     Siningas    .....           Sinne (F.)    {_Siney_, _Shinn_.

  Stellingas     .....      .....            .....         _Stell_.

  Tædingas      Tattingas  {Dettingen,}     Tade (F.)      {_Tadd_, _Taddy_.
                           {  in Bav. }
  Tælingas      Telingen   Bavaria         {Tella (L.V.),} {_Tall_,
                                           {  Tiele (F.) } {  _Telling_.

  Dorringas     Torringun {Törring,    }    Tori (L.V.)    _Torr_.
                          {  in Austria

  Tutlingas     Tutlingun  Dutling, in Bav.  .....         _Tuttle_.

  Trumpingas[34] .....      .....            .....        {_Trump_,
                                                          {  _Trumpy_.

  Thorningas    Thurninga {Dürningen, }      .....        {_Thorne_,
                          {  in Alsace}                   {  _Thorning_.

  Terringas      .....      .....           Terri (L.V.)   _Terry_.

  Tucingas      Tuginga   Switzerland      {Tuk (A.S.),  } _Tuck_, _Duck_.
                                           {  Duce (L.V.)}

  Duringas      Turinga   Würtemburg         .....        {_Turr_, _Durre_,
                                                          {  _Turing_.

  Uffingas      Uffingen  {Oeffingen,     } Offa (L.V.)   {_Ough_, _Hough_,
                          {  in Würtemburg}               {  _Huff_.

  Wearningas    Warningas  .....            Warin (L.V.)  {_Warren_, _Warne_.

  Waceringas    Wacheringa Friesland and Bav.  .....       _Waker_.

  Wealdringas   Waltringen .....            Wealdere (A.S.) {_Walder_,
                                                            {  _Walter_.

  Wasingas      Wasunga   {Würtg., Sax.}    Wasso (A.S.)   _Wass_.
                          {  Mein.     }

  Wippingas      .....      .....             .....        _Whipp_.

  Wittingas     Wittungen  Pruss. Sax.     {Uitta (L.V.),} _Whit_.
                                           {  Witte (F.) }

  Willingas     Willinga   Bavaria          Wille (F.)    {_Will_, _Willow_,
                                                          {  _Willing_.

  Winingas      Winninge  {Winningen,}     {Wynna,       } {_Wine_, _Winn_,
                          {  on Rhine}     {  Uini (L.V.)} {  _Winning_.

  Wealdingas    Waltingun  Austria         {Wald (A.S.),} {_Waldie_, _Waldo_.
                                           {  Walte (F.)}

  Wælsingas     Walasingas .....             .....         _Walsh_.

  Watingas      Waddinga  {Weddingen,     } {Uada (L.V.),} {_Watt_, _Waddy_.
                          {  in Rh. Pruss.} {  Uatto (F.)}

  Wellingas     Wellingen  Baden             .....         _Well_.

  Wigingas }    Wikinka    Bavaria         {Uicga (L.V.),} {_Wigg_,
  Wiccingas}                               {  Wigge,    } {  _Wicking_.
                                           {  Wicco (F.)}

  Wylfingas     Vulfinga   .....            Wulf (A.S.)    _Wolf_.

  Wrihtingas    Wirtingen  Austria           .....         _Wright_.

  Watringas     Wateringas  {Wettringen, }   .....         _Water_.
                            {  in Westph.}

  Wendlingas    Wenilinga  Near Strasburg    Windel (A.S.) {_Windle_,
                                                           {  _Wintle_.

  Wrihtlingas   Riutilinga {Reutlingen,      .....         _Riddle_.
                           {  in Würtg.

  Wealcingas     .....      .....          {Walch (L.V.),} {_Walk_, _Walkey_,
                                           {  Walke (F.) } {  _Walking_.

  Wealcringas    .....      .....           Wealcere (A.S.) _Walker_.

  Wealingas    {Walanger  } On the Lahn     Walls (F.)     _Wall_.
               {  marca   }

  Waplingas       Waplinga  .....            .....         _Waple_.

  Wræningas      .....      .....            .....        {_Wren_, _Rennie_.

  Wilrincgas    Williheringa {Willering,    Wyller (A.S.)  _Willer_.
                             {  on Danube

I may observe with regard to the Anglo-Saxon names in the above lists
that there is occasionally a little corruption in their forms. The
English trouble with the letter _h_ seems to have been present even at
this early day. We have Allingas and Hallingas, Anningas and Hanningas,
Eslingas and Haslingas, Illingas and Hillingas, in all of which cases
the analogy of Old German names would show the _h_ to be in all
probability an intruder. And the same applies to the Hanesingas, the
Honingas, and the Hoppingas. There is also an occasional intrusion of
_b_ or _p_, thus the Trumpingas, whence the name of Trumpington, should
be properly, I take it, Trumingas, A.S. _trum_, firm, strong. Stark
suggests a Celtic word, _drumb_, but the intrusion of _p_ is so easy
that I think any other explanation hardly necessary. The Sempingas,
found in Sempingaham, now Sempringham, should also, I take it, be
Semingas, which would be in accordance with Teutonic names, whereas
_semp_ is a scarcely possible form. Basingstoke, the original of which
was Embasingastoc, owes its name to a similar mistake. It would be
properly I think Emasingastoc, which would correspond with a Teutonic
name-stem. A similar intrusion of _t_ occurs in the case of
Glæstingabyrig (now Glastonbury), which should I think be
Glæssingabyrig; this again would correspond with an ancient name-stem,
which in its present form it does not. So also I take it that Distingas,
found in Distington in Cumberland, is only a phonetic corruption of
Dissingas, if indeed, (which I very strongly doubt) Distington is from a
tribe-name at all. Both of these intrusions are natural from a phonetic
point of view, tending as they do to give a little more backbone to a
word, and they frequently occur, as I shall have elsewhere occasion to
note, in the range of English names.

My object in the present chapter has been more especially to show the
intimate connection between our early Saxon names, and those of the
general Teutonic system. But now I come to a possible point of
difference. All the names of Germany would tend to come to England, but
if Anglo-Saxon England made any names on her own account, they would not
go back to Germany. For the tide of men flows ever west-ward, and there
was no return current in those days. Now there do seem to be certain
name-stems peculiar to Anglo-Saxon England, and one of these is _peht_
or _pect_, which may be taken to represent Pict. The Teutonic peoples
were in the habit of introducing into their nomenclature the names of
neighbouring nations even when aliens or enemies. Thus the Hun and the
Fin were so introduced, the latter more particularly by the
Scandinavians who were their nearest neighbours. There is a tendency
among men to invest an enemy upon their borders, of whom they may be in
constant dread, with unusual personal characteristics of ferocity or of
giant stature. Thus the word _Hun_, as Grimm observes, seems to have
become a synonym of giant, and Ohfrid, a metrical writer of the ninth
century, describes the giant Polyphemus as the "grosse hun." Something
similar I have noted (in a succeeding chapter on the names of women, _in
voce_ Emma) as possibly subsisting between the Saxons and their Celtic
neighbours. The Fins again, who as a peculiarly small people could not
possibly be magnified into giants, were invested with magical and
unearthly characteristics, and the word became almost, if not quite,
synonymous with magician. This then seems to represent something of the
general principle, upon which such names have found their way into the
Teutonic system of nomenclature.

While then England received all the names formed from peoples throughout
the Teutonic area, the Goth, the Vandal, the Bavarian, the Hun, and the
Fin, in the names of men, there was one such stem which she had and
which the rest of Germany had not, for she alone was neighbour to the
Pict. Perhaps I should qualify this statement so far as the Old Saxons
of the seaboard are concerned, for they were also neighbours, though as
far as we know, the Pict did not figure in their names of men. From the
stem _pect_ the Anglo-Saxons had a number of names, as Pecthun or
Pehtun, Pecthath, Pectgils, Pecthelm, Pectwald, Pectwulf, all formed in
accordance with the regular Teutonic system, but none of them found
elsewhere than in Anglo-Saxon England. Of these names we may have one,
Pecthun, in our surname _Picton_, perhaps also the other form Pehtun in
_Peyton_ or _Paton_. The Anglo-Saxons no doubt aspirated the _h_ in
Pehtun, but we seem in such cases either to drop it altogether, or else
to represent it by a hard _c_, according perhaps as it might have been
more or less strongly aspirated. Indeed the Anglo-Saxons themselves
would seem to have sometimes dropped it altogether, if the name Piott,
in a will of Archbishop Wulfred, A.D. 825, is the same word (which
another name Piahtred about the same period would rather seem to
indicate). And this suggests that our name _Peat_ may be one of its
present representatives. We have again a name _Picture_, which might
represent an Anglo-Saxon Pecther (_heri_, warrior) not yet turned up,
but a probable name, the compound being a very common one.

I do not think it necessary to go into the case of any other name-stem
which I do not find except among the Anglo-Saxons, inasmuch as, there
being in their case no such reason for the restriction as in that to
which I have been referring, it may only be that they have not as yet
been disinterred.


[28] From a similar origin is the name of the Scandinavian Vikings,
Vik-ing, from _vik_, a bay.

[29] _Archæological Journal._

[30] The reader must bear in mind that Ang.-Sax. _æ_ is pronounced as
_a_ in "ant."

[31] I take the word contained herein to be "ganz," an ancient stem in

[32] Properly, I think, "Mædlingas," as it has nothing to do with
Ang.-Sax. "mægd," _maid_.

[33] The same, I take it, as the "Myrgingas" in the _Traveller's Tale_.

[34] Properly, I take it, "Trumingas," Ang.-Sax. "_trum_" firm, strong.



We have seen in a preceding chapter that the earliest Saxon place-names
in England are derived from a personal name, and that the idea contained
is that of a modified form of common right. We shall find that a very
large proportion of the later Anglo-Saxon place-names are also derived
from the name of a man, but that the idea contained is now that of
individual ownership or occupation. The extent to which English
place-names are derived from ancient names of men is, in my judgment,
very much greater than is generally supposed. And indeed, when we come
to consider it, what can be so naturally associated with a _ham_ as the
name of the man who lived in that home, of a _weorth_ as that of the man
to whom that property belonged, of a Saxon _tun_ or a Danish _by_ or
_thorp_ as that of the man to whom the place owed its existence? If we
turn to Kemble's list of Anglo-Saxon names of places as derived from
ancient charters, in the days when the individual owner had succeeded to
the community, we cannot fail to remark to how large an extent this
obtains, and how many of these names are in the possessive case. Now,
it must be observed that there are in Anglo-Saxon two forms of the
possessive, and that when a man's name had the vowel ending in _a_, as
noted at p. 24, it formed its possessive in _an_, while otherwise it
formed its possessive in _es_. Thus we have Baddan byrig, "Badda's
borough," Bennan beorh, "Benna's barrow" or grave, and in the other form
we have Abbodes byrig, "Abbod's borough," Bluntes ham, "Blunt's home,"
and Sylces wyrth, "Silk's worth" or property. And as compound names did
not take a vowel ending, such names invariably form their possessive in
_es_, as in Haywardes ham, "Hayward's home," Cynewardes gemæro,
"Cyneward's boundary," &c. I am not at all sure that _ing_ also has not,
in certain cases, the force of a possessive, and that Ælfredincgtun, for
instance, may not mean simply "Alfred's town" and not Alfreding's town.
But I do not think that this is at any rate the general rule, and it
seems scarcely possible to draw the line. From the possessive in _an_ I
take to be most probably our present place-names Puttenham, Tottenham,
and Sydenham, (respecting the last of which there has been a good deal
of discussion of late in _Notes and Queries_), containing the
Anglo-Saxon names _Putta_, _Totta_, and _Sida_. With regard to the last
I have not fallen in with the name _Sida_ itself. But I deduce such a
name from Sydanham, C.D. 379, apparently a place in Wilts, also perhaps
from Sidebirig, now Sidbury, in Devon; and there is, moreover, a
corresponding O.G. _Sido_, the origin being probably A.S. _sidu_,
manners, morals. Further traces of such a stem are found in _Sidel_
deduced from Sidelesham, now Sidlesham, in Sussex, and also from the
name _Sydemann_ in a charter of Edgar, these names implying a
pre-existing stem _sid_ upon which they have been formed.

As well as with the _ham_ or the _byrig_ in which he resided, a man's
name is often found among the Anglo-Saxons, connected with the
boundary--whatever that might be--of his property, as in Abbudes mearc,
Abbud's mark or boundary, and Baldrices gemæro, Baldrick's boundary.
Sometimes that boundary might be a hedge, as in Leoferes haga and
Danehardes hegeræw, "Leofer's hedge," and "Danehard's hedge-row."
Sometimes it might be a stone, as in Sweordes stân, sometimes a ridge,
as in Eppan hrycg, "Eppa's ridge," sometimes a ditch or dyke, as in
Tilgares dic and Colomores sîc (North. Eng. syke, wet ditch). A tree was
naturally a common boundary mark, as in Potteles treôw, Alebeardes âc
(oak), Bulemæres thorn, Huttes æsc (ash), Tatmonnes apoldre
(apple-tree). Sometimes, again, a man's name is found associated with
the road or way that led to his abode, as in Wealdenes weg (way),
Sigbrihtes anstige (stig, a footpath), Dunnes stigele (stile). Another
word which seems to have something of the meaning of "stile" is _hlip_,
found in Freobearnes hlyp and in Herewines hlipgat. In Anglo-Saxon,
_hlypa_ signified a stirrup, and a "hlipgat" must, I imagine, have been
a gate furnished with some contrivance for mounting over it. Of a
similar nature might be Alcherdes ford, and Brochardes ford, and also
Geahes ofer, Byrhtes ora, and Æscmann's yre (_ofer_, contr. _ore_, shore
or landing-place). Something more of the rights of water may be
contained in Fealamares brôc (brook), Hykemeres strêm (stream), and
Brihtwoldes wêre (weir); the two latter probably referring to
water-power for a mill. The sense of property only seems to be that
which is found in Cybles weorthig, Æscmere's weorth (land or property),
Tilluces leah (lea), Rumboldes den (_dene_ or valley), Bogeles pearruc
(paddock), Ticnes feld (field). Also in Grottes grâf (grove), Sweors
holt (grove), Pippenes pen (pen or fold), Willeardes hyrst (grove),
Leofsiges geat (gate), Ealdermannes hæc (hatch), and Winagares stapol
(stall, market, perhaps a place for the sale or interchange of produce).
The site of a deserted dwelling served sometimes for a mark, as in
Sceolles eald cotan (Sceolles old cot), and Dearmodes ald tun
(Deormoda's old town, or inclosure, dwelling and appurtenances?).

But it is with a man's last resting-place that his name will be found in
Anglo-Saxon times to be most especially associated. The principal words
used to denote a grave are _beorh_ (barrow), _byrgels_, and _hloew_
(low), in all of which the idea seems to be that of a mound raised over
the spot. We have Weardes beorh, "Weard's barrow," also Lulles, Cartes,
Hornes, Lidgeardes, and many others. We have Scottan byrgels, "Scotta's
barrow," also Hôces, Wures, and Strenges. And we have Lortan hlæw,
"Lorta's low," also Ceorles, Wintres, Hwittuces, and others. There is
another word _hô_, which seems to be the same as the O.N. _haugr_,
North. Eng, _how_, a grave-mound. It is found in Healdenes hô, Piccedes
hô, Scotehô Tilmundes hô, Cægeshô, and Fingringahô. It would hardly
seem, from the location of four of them, Worcester, Essex, Beds, Sussex,
that they can be of Scandinavian origin. Can the two words, _haugr_ and
_hlau_ (_how_, and _hlow_), be from the same origin, the one assuming,
or the other dropping an _l_?

I take the names of persons thus to be deduced from Anglo-Saxon
place-names, and which are in general correspondence with the earlier
names in the preceding chapter, though containing some new forms and a
greater number of compound names, to give as faithful a representation
as we can have of the every-day names of Anglo-Saxons. And as I have
before compared the names of those primitive settlers with our existing
surnames, so now I propose to extend the comparison to the names of more
settled Anglo-Saxon times.

    Men's Names.        Place-Names.                 English Surnames.

    Abbod               Abbodesbyrig          } _Abbott_
    Abbud               Abbudesmearc          }
    Æcemann             Æcemannes ceaster       _Ackman, Aikman_
    Acen                Acenes feld             _Aikin_
    Ægelweard           Ægelweardes mearc       _Aylward_
    Alberht             Alcherdes ford          _Allcard_
    Alder               Aldrestub               _Alder_
    Ælfgar              Ælfgares gemæro         _Algar_
    Ælfred              Ælfredes beorh          _Alfred_, _Allfrey_
    Ælfher, or   }
    Ælfheri      }      Ælfheres stapol         _Alvary_
    Æscmer              Æscmeres weorth         _Ashmore_
    Æscmann             Æscmannes yre           _Ashman_
    Alebeard            Alebeardes âc           _Halbard_
    Amber               Ambresbyrig             _Amber_
    Æthelstan           Æthelstanes tûn         _Ethelston_

    Babel               Babeles beorh           _Bable_
    Badherd             Badherdes sled          _Beddard_
    Baldher             Baldheresberg           _Balder_
    Baldric             Baldrices gemæro        _Baldridge_
    Baldwin             Baldwines heath         _Baldwin_
    Beored, or Beoret   Beoredes treôw          _Berrette_
    Beornheard          Beornheardes lond       _Bernard_
    Beornwold           Beornwoldes sætan       _Bernold_
    Blunt               Bluntesham              _Blunt_
    Bogel               Bogeles pearruc         _Bogle_
    Bohmer              Bohmeres stigele        _Bowmer_
    Bregen              Bregnesford             _Brain_
    Brochard            Brochardes ford         _Brocard_
    Buga                Buganstôc             } _Bugg_
    Bugga               Bugganbrôc            }
    Bulemær             Bulemæres thorn         _Bulmer_
    Buntel              Bunteles pyt            _Bundle_
    Bunting             Buntingedîc             _Bunting_
    Burhgeard           Burhgeardeswerthig      _Burchard_

    Carda               Cardan hlæw             _Card_, _Cart_
    Ceapa               Ceapan hlæw             _Cheape_
    Ceawa               Ceawan hlæw             _Chew_
    Cerda               Cerdan hlæw             _Chard_
    Cissa               Cissan anstige          _Cheese_
    Chetol (Danish)     Chetoles beorh          _Kettle_
    Creoda              Creodan âc            } _Creed_
    Cridd               Criddes hô            }
    Cumen               Cumenes ora             _Cummin_
    Ceatewe             Ceatewesleah            _Chattoway_
    Ceada               Ceadanford              _Chad_
    Catt                Cattes stoke            _Cat_, _Catty_
    Cæstæl              Cæstælesham             _Castle_
    Cludd               Cludesleah              _Cloud_
    Coten               Cotenesfeld             _Cotton_
    Cruda               Crudan sceat            _Crowd_
    Colomor             Colomores sîc           _Colmer_
    Cydd                Cyddesige               _Kidd_
    Cyble               Cybles weorthig         _Keble_
    Celc                Celces ora              _Kelk_
    Cylman              Cylmanstun              _Killman_
    Cynlaf              Cynlafes stan           _Cunliffe_
    Cynric              Cynrices gemæro         _Kenrick_
    Cyneward            Cynewardes gemæro       _Kenward_
    Cyppa               Cyppanham               _Chipp_

    Dægel, or           Dæglesford            } _Dale_
    Deil                Deilsford             }
    Dearnagel           Dearnagles ford         _Darnell_
    Dæneheard           Dæneheardes hegerawe    _Denhard_
    Deorlaf             Deorlafestun            _Dearlove_
    Deormod[35]         Deormodes ald tun       _Dermott_
    Dodd                Doddesthorp           } _Dodd_
    Dodda               Doddan hlæw           }
    Dolemann            Dolemannes beorh        _Dollman_
    Duceman             Ducemannestun           _Duckman_
    Ducling             Duclingtun              _Duckling_
    Dunn                Dunnes stigele          _Dunn_
    Dogod               Dogodeswel              _Doggett_, _Dugood_
    Dydimer             Dydimertun              _Tidemore_

    Ealder              Ealderscumb             _Alder_
    Ealdmann            Ealdmannes wyrth        _Altman_
    Ealdermann[36]      Ealdermannes hæc        _Alderman_
    Ealmund             Ealmundes treow         _Almond_
    Eanulf              Eanulfestun             _Enough_
    Earn                Earnesbeorh             _Earney_

    Eastmond            Eastmondestun           _Esmond_
    Ecgell              Ecgeles stiel           _Edgell_, _Eagle_

    Fealamar            Fealamares brôc       { _Fillmore_
                                              { _Phillimore_
    Flegg               Flegges garan           _Flew_
    Focga               Focgancrundel           _Fogg_, _Foggo_
    Freobearn           Freobearnes hlyp        _Freeborn_
    Frigedæg            Frigedæges treôw        _Friday_
    Fuhgel              Fuhgeles beorh          _Fuggle_, _Fowl_

    Gandar              Gandrandun              _Gander_
    Gæcg                Gæcges stapol         { _Gay_
    Geah                Geahes ofer           {
    Gatehlinc           Gatehlinces heafod      _Gatling_
    Geleca              Gelecancamp             _Jellicoe_
    Geyn                Geynes thorn            _Gain_
    Giselher            Gislhereswurth          _Giller_
    Godincg             Godincges gemæro        _Godding_
    Godmund             Godmundesleah           _Godmund_
    Godwin              Godwines gemæro         _Godwin_
    Grobb               Grobbes den             _Grove_, _Grubb_
    Grott               Grottes grâf            _Grote_
    Gund                Gundestige              _Gunn_, _Gundey_

    Hærred              Hærredesleah            _Herod_
    Heafoc              Heafoceshamme           _Hawk_
    Hassuc              Hassuces môr            _Haskey_
    Hering              Heringesleah            _Herring_
    Hnibba              Hnibbanleah             _Knibb_, _Knipe_
    Hayward             Haywardes ham           _Hayward_
    Healda              Healdan grâf            _Hald_
    Healden             Healdenes hô            _Haldan_
    Helm                Helmes treow            _Helme_
    Helfær              Helfæres gemæro         _Helper_
    Help                Helpestonne             _Helps_
    Herebritt           Herebrittes comb        _Herbert_
    Herewin             Herewines hlipgat       _Irwine_
    Hiccemann           Hiccemannes stân        _Hickman_
    Humbald             Humbalding grâf         _Humble_
    Hycemer, or       }
    Higemar           } Hycemeres strêm         _Highmore_
    Hnæf                Hnæfes scylf            _Knapp_
    Hocg                Hocgestun               _Hogg_, _Hodge_
    Horn                Hornes beorh            _Horne_
    Hringwold           Hringwoldes beorh       _Ringold_
    Hwittuc             Hwittuces leah          _Whittock_
    Hutt                Huttes æsc              _Hutt_
    Hygelac[37]         Hygelaces git           _Hillock_

    Kyld                Kyldesby                _Kilt_

    Leofer              Leoferes haga           _Lover_
    Laferca             Lafercanbeorh           _Laverick_
    Leofmann            Leofmannes gemæro       _Loveman_
    Leommann            Leommannes grâf         _Lemon_
    Leofsig             Leofsiges geat          _Lovesy_
    Leofric             Leofrices gemæro        _Loveridge_
    Lidgeard            Lidgeardes beorh        _Ledgard_
    Lipperd             Lipperdes gemæro        _Leopard_
    Lower               Lowereslege             _Lower_
    Locer               Loceresweg              _Locker_
    Lorta               Lortanberwe             _Lord_
    Lorting             Lortinges bourne        _Lording_
    Luder               Luderston               _Luther_
    Ludmann             Ludmannes put           _Lutman_
    Lull                Lulles beorh            _Lull_, _Lully_

    Myceld              Myceldefer              _Muckelt_
    Mûl                 Muleshlæw               _Moule_

    Negle               Neglesleah              _Nagle_
    Næl                 Nælesbrôc               _Nail_
    Nybba               Nybban beorh            _Nibbs_

    Oslac               Oslaces lea             _Hasluck_
    Ogged               Oggedestun              _Hodgett_, _Howitt_
    Oswald              Oswaldes mere           _Oswald_
    Orlaf               Orlafestun              _Orlop_
    Owun                Owunes hild             _Owen_

    Pehtun              Pehtuns treow           _Peyton_
    Pender              Penderes clif           _Pender_
    Picced              Piccedes hô             _Pickett_
    Pinnel              Pinnelesfeld            _Pennell_
    Pippen              Pippenes fen            _Pippin_
    Pyttel              Pittelesford            _Piddel_
    Pitterich           Piterichesham           _Betteridge_
    Pottel              Potteles treow          _Pottle_
    Potten              Pottenestreow           _Potten_
    Punt                Puntes stân             _Punt_
    Puntel              Punteles treow          _Bundle_
    Prentsa             Prentsan hlaw           _Prentiss_

    Redwin              Redwines thorn          _Readwin_
    Rahulf              Rahulfes furlong        _Ralph_
    Rugebeorg           Rugebeorges gemæro      _Rubery_
    Rumbold             Rumboldes den           _Rumbold_

    Sceaft              Sceaftesbirig           _Shaft_, _Shafto_
    Sceoll              Sceolles ealdcotan      _Sholl_
    Scytta              Scyttandun              _Skeat_, _Shute_
    Scyter[38]          Scyteres flôd           _Shuter_
    Scealc              Scealces hom            _Shawkey_, _Chalk?_
    Scyld               Scyldes treow           _Shield_
    Simær               Simæres ford            _Seymour_
    Secmær              Secmæres ora            _Sycamore_
    Sigbriht            Sigbrihtes anstige      _Sibert_
    Sibriht             Sibrihtesweald          _Seabright_[39]
    Siger               Sigeres âc              _Segar_
    Snell               Snellesham              _Snell_
    Snod                Snodes hyl              _Snoad_
    Streng              Strenges hô             _Strong_
    Stut                Stutes hyl              _Stout_, _Stott_
    Stutard             Stutardes cumb          _Stothard_, _Studeard_
    Sucga               Sucgangrâf              _Sugg_
    Sumer               Sumeresham              _Summer_
    Sumerled (Danish)   Sumerledetun            _Sommerlat_
    Sunemann            Sunemannes wyrthig      _Sunman_
    Sweor               Sweores holt            _Swire_, _Swears_
    Sweord              Sweordes stân           _Sword_

    Tæcel               Tæcelesbrôc             _Tackle_
    Tatmonn             Tatmonnes apoldre       _Tadman_
    Tatel               Tatlestrop              _Tattle_
    Thuner              Thunresfeld             _Thunder_
    Thurgar (Danish)    Thurgartun              _Thurgur_
    Thrista             Thristan den            _Trist_
    Theodher            Theoderpoth             _Theodore_
    Thurold (Danish)    Thuroldes gemæro        _Thorold_
    Toma                Tomanworthig            _Tomey_
    Ticcen              Ticnesfeld              _Dickin_
    Tilgar              Tilgares dîc            _Dilger_
    Tilluc              Tilluces leah           _Tillick_, _Dilke_
    Tilmann             Tilmannes den           _Tilman_
    Titferth            Titferthes geat         _Titford_

    Upicen              Upicenes hlyw           _Hopkin_

    Wahgen              Wahgenes gemæro         _Wain_
    Wealden             Wealdenes weg           _Walden_

    Wealder             Wealderes weg           _Walter_
    Westan              Westanes treow          _Weston_
    Wigheard            Wigheardes stapol       _Wyard_
    Wighelm             Wighelmes land          _Whigam_
    Wihtlac             Wihtlaces ford          _Whitelock_
    Wihtric             Wihtricesham            _Whitridge_
    Wilmund             Wilmundes leah          _Williment_
    Willher             Willheres triow         _Willer_
    Wicg                Wicgestan               _Wigg_
    Uuigga              Wuiggangeat
    Winagar             Winagares stapul        _Winegar_
    Wileard             Wileardes hyrste        _Willard_
    Wistan for        } Wistanes gemæro         _Whiston_
    Wigstan?          }
    Wulfsig             Wulfsiges croft         _Wolsey_
    Wulfgar             Wulfgares gemæro        _Woolgar_
    Wulfmer             Wulfmeres myln          _Woolmer_
    Wulfric             Wulfrices gemæro        _Woolrych_
    Wyner               Wyneres stig            _Winer_
    Waring              Wæring wîc              _Waring_
    Wifel               Wifelesham              _Whipple_
    Woden[40]           Wodnesbeorg             _Woodin?_
    Wydda               Wyddanbeorh             _Widow_

The above names are deduced entirely from the names of places found by
Mr. Kemble in ancient charters. The list is not by any means an
exhaustive one, as I have not included a number of names taken into
account in Chap. IV., and as also the same personal name enters
frequently into several place-names. With very few exceptions these
names may be gathered to the roll of Teutonic name-stems,
notwithstanding a little disguise in some of their forms, and a great,
sometimes a rather confusing, diversity of spelling. I take names such
as the above to be the representatives of the every-day names of men in
Anglo-Saxon times, rather than the names which come before us in history
and in historical documents. For it seems to me that a kind of fashion
prevailed, and that while a set of names of a longer and more dignified
character were in favour among the great, the mass of the people still,
to a great extent, adhered to the shorter and more simple names which
their fathers had borne before them. Thus, when we find an Æthelwold who
was also called Mol, an Æthelmer who was also called Dodda, and a Queen
Hrothwaru who was also called Bucge, I am disposed to take the simple
names, which are such as the earlier settlers brought over with them, to
have been the original names, and superseded by names more in accordance
with the prevailing fashion. Valuable then as is the _Liber Vitæ_ of
Durham, as a continuous record of English names for many centuries, yet
I am inclined to think that inasmuch as that the persons who come before
us as benefactors to the shrine of St. Cuthbert may be taken to be as a
general rule of the upper ranks of life, they do not afford so faithful
a representation of the every-day names of Anglo-Saxons as do the little
freeholders who lived and died in their country homes. And, moreover,
these are, as it will be seen, more especially the kind of names which
have been handed down from Anglo-Saxon times to the present day.

In connection with this subject, it may be of interest to present a list
of existing names of places formed from an Anglo-Saxon personal name, as
derived from the same ancient charters dealt with in the previous list.
And in so doing I confine myself exclusively to the places of which the
present names have been positively identified by Mr. Kemble. And in the
first place I will take the place-names which consist simply of the name
of a tribe or family unqualified by any local term whatever.

    Name in
    Charters.                  Present Name.

    Æfeningas           Avening          Gloucestershire
    Angemeringum        Angmering        Sussex
    Ascengas            Eashing          Surrey
    Banesingas          Bensington       Oxfordshire
    Bærlingas           Barling          Kent
    Beadingum           Beden            Gloucestershire
    Berecingas          Barking          Essex
    Brahcingum          Braughin         Herts.
    Byrhtlingas         Brightling       Sussex
    Cerringes           Charing          Kent
    Ciwingum            Chewing          Herts.
    Culingas            Cooling          Kent
    Cytringas           Kettering        Northampton
    Diccelingas         Ditchling        Sussex
    Geddingas           Yeading          Middlesex
    Godelmingum         Godalming        Surrey
    Hallingas           Halling          Kent
    Herlinge            Harling          Norfolk
    Horningga           Horning          Norfolk
    Meallingas          Malling          Kent
    Pæccingas           Patching         Sussex
    Puningas            Poynings         Surrey
    Readingan           Reading          Berkshire
    Rodinges            Roothing         Essex
    Stæningas           Steyning         Sussex
    Swyrdhlincas      } Swarling         Kent
    (Swyrdlingas)     }
    Terringes           Tarring          Sussex
    Terlinges           Terling          Essex
    Totingas            Tooting          Surrey
    Wellingum           Wellwyn          Herts.
    Werhornas           Warehorne        Kent
    Wihttringas         Wittering        Surrey
    Uoccingas           Woking           Surrey
    Wyrtingas           Worting          Hants.

I will now take the places which in a later and more settled time have
been derived from the name of a single man, as representing his
dwelling, his domain, or in not a few cases his grave.

    Man's Name.       Place-Name.             Present Name.

    Abba              Abbandun             Abingdon          Berks.
                    { Ægelesbyrig          Aylesbury         Bucks.
    Ægel            { Æglesford            Aylesford         Kent
                    { Ægeleswurth          Aylesworth        Nthmptn.
    Agmod             Agmodesham           Agmondesham       Bucks.
    Æsc               Æscesbyrig           Ashbury           Berks.
    Æscmer            Æscmeres weorth      Ashmansworth      Hants.
    Amber           { Ambresbyrig          Amesbury          Wilts.
                    { Ambresleah           Ombersley         Worc.
    Ælfreding         Ælfredincgtun        Alfreton          Derby.

    Badda             Baddanby             Badby             Nthmptn.
    Badhelming        Badimyncgtun         Badminton         Glouc.
    Baldher           Baldheresberg        Baltonsborough    Somerset.
    Becca             Beccanleah           Beckley           Sussex.
    Beda              Bedanford            Bedford           Beds.
    Benna             Bennanham            Beenham           Berks.
    Benning           Benningwurth         Bengworth         Worc.
    Bledda            Bleddanhlæw          Bledlow           Bucks.
    Blunt             Bluntesham           Bluntisham        Hunts.
    Bodeca            Bodecanleah          Butleigh          Somerset.
    Bodek             Bodekesham           Bottisham         Camb.
    Bocga             Bocganora            Bognor            Sussex.
    Bordel            Bordelestun          Burleston         Dorset.
    Brand             Brandesburh          Bransbury         Hants.
    Bregen            Bregnesford          Bransford         Worc.

    Cada              Cadandun             Chadlington       Oxford.
    Cæg               Cægeshô              Keysoe            Beds.
    Calmund           Calmundes den        Calmsden          Glouc.
    Ceadela           Ceadelanwurth        Chaddleworth      Berks.
    Ceadel            Ceadeleshunt         Chadshunt         Warw.
    Ceader            Ceadresleah          Chaseley          Worc.
    Cendel            Cendeles funta       Chalfont          Bucks.
    Celta             Celtenhom            Cheltenham        Glouc.
    Ceol              Ceolesig             Cholsey           Berks.
    Cippa             Cippenham            Chippenham        Wilts.
    Ceolbalding       Ceolbaldinctun       Chilbolton        Hants.
    Ceort             Ceortesege           Chertsey          Surrey
    Cinhild (woman)   Cinildewyrth         Kenilworth        Warw.
    Cissa             Cissanceaster        Chichester        Sussex.
    Coda              Codanford            Codford           Wilts.
    Codda             Coddanhrycg          Cotheridge        Worc.
    Coling            Colingham            Collingham        Notts.
    Crym              Crymesham            Crimsham          Sussex.
    Croppa            Croppanthorn         Cropthorn         Worc.
    Cumen             Cumenora             Cumnor            Berks.
    Cungar            Cungaresbyrig        Congressbury      Somerset.
    Cwichelm          Cwichelmes hlæw      Cuckamslow hill   Berks.
    Cyneburging[41]    Cyneburgincton       Kemerton          Glouc.
    Cynlaf            Kynleveden           Kelvedon          Essex.
    Ketel (Danish)    Kitlebig             Kettleby          Linc.

    Dæcca, or       } Daccanhaam           Dagenham          Essex.
    Dægga           }
    Dægel             Dæglesford           Daylesford        Worc.
    Deôrlaf           Deorlafestun         Darlaston         Staffs.
    Dodda             Doddanford           Dodford           Nthmptn.
    Dodd              Doddesthorp          Dogsthorp         Nthmptn.
    Dogod             Dogodeswel           Dowdswell         Glouc.
    Domec             Domecesige           Dauntsey          Wilts.
    Duceling          Duceling dun         Ducklington       Oxford.
    Dunning           Dunnincland          Donyland          Essex.
    Dideling          Didelingtun          Didlington        Dorset.

    Eadric            Eadricestun          Edstone           Warw.
    Eccing            Eccingtun            Eckington         Worc.
    Eccle, or Egil    Eccleshale           Exhall            Warw.
    Effing            Effingeham           Effingham         Surrey.
    Erping            Erpingham            Erpingham         Norfolk.
    Eof, or Eofa      Eofesham             Evesham           Worc.

    Fecca             Feccanhom            Feckenham         Worc.
    Flæda             Flædanburg           Fladbury          Worc.
    Folc              Folcesstan           Folkstone         Kent.

    Gidding           Giddincford          Gidding           Suffolk.
    Gyseling          Gyselingham          Gislingham        Suffolk.
    Godmer            Godmeresham          Godmersham        Kent.
    Grim              Grimaston            Grimstone         Norfolk.
    Gun or Gund       Gunthorpe            Gunthorp          Nthmptn.
    Gyp               Gypeswich            Ipswich           Suffolk.

    Hauek             Hauekestun           Hauxton           Camb.
    Hæfar             Hæfaresham           Haversham         Bucks.
    Hamela            Hamelendûn           Hambledon         Hants.
    Hærigeard         Hærigeardesham       Harrietsham       Kent.
    Haling            Halington            Hallington        Linc.
    Hanekyn           Hanekynton           Hankerton         Wilts.
    Hanning           Hanningtun           Hannington        Hants.
    Hæda              Hædanham             Haddenham         Camb.
    Helming           Helmyngton           Hemington         Nthmptn.
    Help              Helpestonne          Helpstone         Nthmptn.
    Hemming           Hemmingford        { Hemingford      } Hunts.
                                         {   Abbots        }
    Hengest         { Hengesteshricg       Henstridge        Somerset.
                    { Hengestesige         Hinksey           Berks.
    Hild              Hildesdûn            Hillersdon        Bucks.
    Heorulf           Heorelfestun         Harleston         Staff.
    Heorting          Heortingtun          Hardington        Somerset.
    Honekyn           Honekynton           Hankerton         Wilts.
    Honing            Honingtun            Honington         Linc.
    Horning         { Horningeseie         Horningsea        Camb.
                    { Horningges hæth      Horningsheath     Suffolk
    Hôd               Hôdesâc              Hodsoak           Worc.
    Hunewald          Hunewaldesham        Windlesham        Surrey
    Hunta             Huntandun            Huntingdon        Hants.
    Hwiting           Hwitingtun           Whittington       Worc.

    Kyld              Kyldesby             Kilsby            Nthmptn.

    Laua              Lauanham             Lavenham          Suffolk
    Lauing            Lauingtun            Barlavington      Sussex
    Lamb (Danish?)    Lambehith            Lambeth
    Lott              Lottisham            Lottisham         Somerset.

    Mealdhelm         Mealdumesburg        Malmsbury         Wilts.
    Myceld            Myceldefer           Mitcheldover      Hants.
    Mûl             { Mûleseige            Moulsey           Surrey
                    { Mûlesham             Moulsham          Essex
    Munda             Mundanham            Mundham           Sussex

    Neteling          Netelingtun          Nettleton         Wilts.

    Offa              Offanleah            Offley            Herts.
    Orlaf             Orlafestun           Orleston          Derby.
    Orm (Danish)      Ormisby              Ormsby            Norfolk
    Osgot             Osgotbi              Osgodby           Linc.
    Oshelming         Osmingtun            Osmington         Dorset
    Oswald            Oswaldeshlaw         Oswaldslow        Worc.

    Pading            Padingtun            Paddington
    Parting           Partingtun           Patrington        Yorks.
    Peda              Pedanhrycg           Petridge          Surrey
    Peada             Peadanwurth          Padworth          Berks.
    Peatting          Peattingtun          Pattingham        Salop
    Pecga             Pecganham            Pagham            Sussex
    Peden             Pednesham            Pensham           Worc.
    Piterich          Piterichesham        Petersham         Worc.
    Port              Portesham            Portisham         Dorset.

    Raculf            Raculfcestre         Reculver          Kent
    Remn[42] for Raven Remnesdun           Ramsden           Sussex
    Rydemær, or     } Rydemæreleah         Redmarley         Worc.
    Redmer          }
    Riking            Rikinghal            Rickinghall       Suffolk
    Ring              Ringestede           Ringstead         Norfolk
    Rodda             Roddanbeorg          Rodborough        Glouc.
    Rolf, for         Rolfestun            Rolleston         Staffs.
    Rodulf            Rollesby             Rollesby          Norfolk

    Sidel             Sidelesham           Sidlesham         Sussex
    Sceaft            Sceaftesbirig        Shaftesbury       Dorset.
    Secg              Secgesbearue         Sedgeberrow       Worc.
    Snodd             Snoddesbyrig         Upton Snodsbury   Worc.
    Snoding           Snodingland          Snodland          Worc.
    Sumer             Sumeresham           Somersham         Hunts.
    Sumerled (Danish) Sumerledetun         Somerleyton       Suffolk
    Sunna             Sunnandun            Sundon            Beds.
    Swythbriht        Swythbrihtesweald    Sibbertswold      Kent
    Swithreding       Swithrædingden       Surrenden         Kent
    Sylc              Sylceswyrth          Silksworth        Durham

    Tadmær            Tadmærtun            Tadmarton         Oxford.

    Tæfing            Tæfingstoc           Tavistock         Devon.
    Teotting          Teottingtun          Teddington        Wor.
    Taling            Talingtun            Tallington        Linc.
    Toda              Todanhom             Toddenham         Glouc.
    Toma              Tomanworthig         Tamworth          Warw.
    Theogen           Theogendethorp       Theddlethorp      Linc.
    Thunar            Thunresfeld          Thundersfield     Surrey
    Ticen             Ticnesfeld           Tichfield         Hants.
    Tidhelming        Tidelminctun         Tidmington        Worc.
    Tilling           Tillingham           Tillingham        Essex
    Tocca             Toccanham            Tockenham         Wilts.
    Toting            Totingtun            Tottington        Norfolk
    Treding         { Tredingtun           Tredington        Glouc.
                    { Tredinctun           Tredington        Worc.
    Trosting          Trostingtun          Troston           Suffolk
    Tuding            Tudingtun            Teddington        Middlsx.
    Tunweald          Tunwealdes stân      Tunstone          Glouc.
    Turca             Turcanden            Turkdean          Glouc.
    Twica             Tuicanham            Twickenham        Middlsx.
    Thurgar (Danish)  Thurgartun           Thurgarton        Norfolk

    Ufing             Ufinctun             Ovington          Hants.

    Wacen             Uacenesfeld          Watchfield        Berks.
    Watling           Uætlinctun           Watlington        Oxford.
    Wassing           Wassingburg          Washingborough    Linc.
    Wald              Waldeswel            Woldswell         Glouc.
    Weard             Weardesbeorh         Warborough        Oxford.
    Wifel           { Wifeles cumb         Wiveliscomb       Somerset.
                    { Wifelesford          Wilsford          Wilts.
    Wilburg (Woman) { Wilburgeham          Wilbraham         Camb.
                    { Wilburhtun           Wilburton         Camb.
    Willer            Willerseia           Willersey         Glouc.
    Weogern           Weogernacester       Worcester         Worc.
    Wine            { Uines hlau           Winslow           Bucks.
                    { Wines hyl            Winshill          Derby.
    Wrening           Wreningham           Wreningham        Norfolk
    Werot             Uurotaham            Wrotham           Kent
    Wulfwarding       Wulfweardigleâ       Wolverley         Worc.
    Wendel, or        Wendlesora, or       Windsor           Berks.
    Windel            Windlesora

The last name, Windsor, is an amusing instance of the older attempts at
local etymology. First it was supposed, as being an exposed spot, to
have taken its name from the "wind is sore;" then it was presumed that
it must have been a ferry, and that the name arose from the constant cry
of "wind us o'er" from those waiting to be ferried across. It was a
great step in advance when the next etymologist referred to the ancient
name and found it to be Windelsora, from _ora_, shore, (a contraction of
_ofer?_) Still, the etymon he deduced therefrom of "winding shore" is
one that could not be adopted without doing great violence to the word;
whereas, without the change of a letter, we have Windels ore, "Windel's
shore," most probably in the sense of landing-place. The name Windel
forms several other place-names; it was common in ancient times, and it
has been taken to mean Vandal. I refer to this more especially to
illustrate the importance of taking men's names into account in
considering the origin of a place-name.

The above names are confined entirely, as I have before mentioned, to
the places that have been positively identified by Mr. Kemble. And as
these constitute but a small proportion of the whole number, the
comparison will serve to give an idea of the very great extent to which
place-names are formed from men's names.


[35] Cf. also Diormod, moneyer on Anglo-Saxon coins, minted at
Canterbury. There is, however, an Irish Diarmaid which might in certain
cases intermix, and whence we must take _McDermott_.

[36] I take Ealdermann to be, as elsewhere noted, a corruption of

[37] Mr. Kemble, in default of finding Hygelac as a man's name in
Anglo-Saxon times, has taken the above place-name to be from the
legendary hero of that name. The fact is, however, that Hygelac occurs
no fewer than four times as an early man's-name in the _Liber Vitæ_, so
that there does not seem to be any reason whatever for looking upon it
as anything else than the every-day name of an Anglo-Saxon.

[38] From a similar origin is probably Shooter's Hill, near London.

[39] There is also an A.S. Sæbriht, from _sæ_, sea, whence _Seabright_
might be derived.

[40] Upon the whole I am inclined to think that Woden is here an
Anglo-Saxon man's name, though the traces of it in such use are but
slight. There is a Richard Wodan in the _Lib. Vit._ about the 15th
century. And Wotan occurs once as a man's name in the _Altdeutsches

[41] Or Cyneburg; see p. 71.

[42] It seems clear from the names collated by German writers that
_ramn_, _remn_, and _ram_ in ancient names are contractions of raven.
Compare the names of the ports, Soderhamn, Nyhamn, and Sandhamn, for, no
doubt, Soderhaven, Nyhaven, and Sandhaven.



Corruptions may be divided broadly into two kinds, those which proceed
from a desire to improve the sound of a name, and those which proceed
from a desire to make some kind of sense out of it. The former, which we
may call phonetic, generally consists in the introduction of a letter,
either to give more of what we may call "backbone" to a word, or else to
make it run more smoothly. For the former purpose _b_ or _p_ is often
used--thus we have, even in Anglo-Saxon times, _trum_ made into _trump_,
_sem_ into _semp_, and _emas_ into _embas_. So among our names we have
_Dumplin_, no doubt for Dumlin (O.G. Domlin), _Gamble_ for Gamel, and
_Ambler_ for Ameler, though in these names something of both the two
principles may apply. In a similar manner we have _glas_ made into
_glast_ in Glæstingabyrig, now Glastonbury (p. 88). So _d_ seems
sometimes to be brought in to strengthen the end of a word, and this, it
appears to me, may be the origin of our names _Field_, _Fielding_,
_Fielder_. The forms seem to show an ancient stem, but as the word
stands, it is difficult to make anything out of it, whereas, as Fiell,
Fielling, &c., the names would fall in with a regular stem, as at p.
50. So also our name _Hind_ may perhaps be the same, assuming a final
_d_, as another name, _Hine_, which, presuming the _h_ not to be
organic, may be from the unexplained stem _in_ or _ine_, as in the name
of Ina, King of Wessex. In which case _Hyndman_ might be the same name
as _Inman_. Upon the same principle it may be that we have the name
_Nield_ formed upon the Celtic Niel. So also _f_ appears to be sometimes
changed for a similar purpose into _p_, as in _Asprey_ and _Lamprey_ for
Asfrid (or Osfrid) and Landfrid. The ending _frid_ commonly becomes
_frey_ (as in Godfrey, Humphrey, Geoffrey), and when we have got Asfrey
and Lanfrey (and we have Lanfrei in the _Liber Vitæ_), the rest is easy.

The most common phonetic intrusion is that of _r_, and one of the ways
in which it most frequently occurs is exhibited in the following group
of names: _Pendgast_, _Pendegast_, _Prendergast_, _Prendergrass_.
Pendgast is, I take it, an ancient compound, from the stem _bend_ (p.
44), with _gast_, hospes. It first takes a medial vowel between the two
words of the compound, and becomes Pend-e-gast. Then _e_ naturally
becomes _er_, passing the very slight barrier which English
pronunciation affords, and the name, having become Pendergast, finds the
need of a second _r_ to balance the first, and becomes Prendergast. In
the last name, Prendergrass, the other principle comes in, and a slight
effort is made to give a shade of meaning to the word.[43] One of the
features in men's names, it will be seen, is that as they have
(differently to what is the case with regard to the words of the
language) become crystallised in all stages, one is sometimes permitted
to see the various steps of a process.

Now it is in such a way as that described above that the Anglo-Saxon
name Ealdermann (whence our name _Alderman_) has, according to my
opinion, been formed. There is another Anglo-Saxon name, Ealdmann, an
ancient compound. Now if you, as in the previous case, introduce a
medial vowel, and make it Eald-e-mann, there is virtually nothing left
between that and Ealdermann. Such a name, as derived from the office,
would be impossible as a regular Anglo-Saxon name. The only other
alternative would be that he had been so called as a _sobriquet_ by his
office till it had superseded his regular name. And there does appear to
have been such a case, viz., that of a man called Preost who _was_ a
priest, but the way which I have suggested seems to me to account more
easily for the name. From a similar origin I take to be our name
_Ackerman_, and the present German _Ackermann_. There is an Anglo-Saxon
Æcemann (p. 96), from which, on the principle described above, they
might be derived. So also _Sigournay_ may be formed in a similar manner
from an old German name Siginiu (_niu_, "new," perhaps in the sense of
"young"), and _Alderdice_ from an old Frankish Aldadeus (_deus_,

I have taken Prendergast for Pendgast as an illustration of the
intrusion of _r_, and there is even in Anglo-Saxon times an example of
the very same word as so treated. This is the name Prentsa (p. 101),
(whence our _Prentiss_), and which I take to be properly Pentsa. This
would bring it in as a regular Anglo-Saxon stem (_Cf._ Penda, Pender,
Penduald, Pendwine), whereas otherwise it is difficult to know what to
make of it. Among English surnames thus treated we have _Bellringer_ for
Bellinger, _Sternhold_ for Stonhold (p. 63), _Proudfoot_ for _Puddefoot_
(_bud_, messenger), and possibly _Cardwell_ for the Anglo-Saxon
Cadweal.[44] On the same principle I think that _Wordsworth_, a name of
local origin, may be, with an intrusive _r_, the same as Wodsworth or
Wadsworth (Wad's property or estate). There is certainly a stem _wurd_
(supposed to mean fate, destiny), in ancient names, but it is of rare
occurrence, and I do not know of it in English names, though we have
_Orde_, which I take to be from the Scandinavian form of it. On the
other hand we have an instance in Anglo-Saxon times of the reverse
process, viz., the elision of _r_, in the case of Wihtbrord, Minister of
Edward the Elder, who, though he spells his names both ways, spells it
more frequently Wihtbrod, the other being no doubt etymologically the
correct form (_brord_, sword), though euphony is certainly promoted by
the elision. This may probably be the origin of our name _Whitbread_,
with the variation _Wheatbread_.

The intrusion of _d_ has had the effect of changing a man's name into a
woman's in two cases, _Mildred_ and _Kindred_. The former should be
properly Milred, answering to an Anglo-Saxon Milred, and the latter
should be Kenred, answering to the German Conrad; Mildryd and Cynedryd
were, and could only be, Anglo-Saxon women's names.

On the other hand, the loss of an _r_ has had such a disastrous effect
in the case of an American _Bedbug_ as to compel him to apply, like his
English namesake, for a change of name. For while, in America, all
insects of the beetle tribe are called by the name of "bug," the
"bedbug" is that particular insect which is a "terror by night," so that
the name was pointedly disagreeable. It ought properly to be, I doubt
not, Bedburg, a name of local origin, and the same as Bedborough.

Before going on to deal with the corruptions which originate in the
desire to make some kind of sense out of a name, I propose to refer
briefly to some of the changes and contractions which are more strictly
in accordance with regular phonetic principles. I have referred at p. 9
to a final _g_ as opposed to the English ear, and to two different ways
in which it is got rid of, viz., by changing it into _dg_, and by
dropping it altogether. There is yet a third way, that of changing it
into _f_, as in Anglo-Saxon _genug_, English _enough_. And we can show
examples of all these in the same name, from the ancient stem _wag_,
probably signifying to wave, brandish, as in the name Wagbrand
("wave-sword"), in the genealogy of the Northumbrian kings. For we have
the name in all four forms, _Wagg_, _Way_, _Wadge_, _Waugh_ (Waff). The
common ending in Teutonic names of _wig_, war, often, anciently even,
softened into _wi_, most commonly in such case becomes in our names
_way_. Thus we have _Alloway_ from an ancient Alewih, _Chattoway_ from
Ceatewe, _Dalloway_ from Daliweh, _Galloway_ from Geilwih, _Garroway_
from Gerwi, _Hathaway_ from Hathuwi, _Kennaway_ from Kenewi, _Lanoway_
from Lantwih, _Reddoway_ from Redwi, and _Ridgway_ from Ricwi. I cite
this as a case in which a number of coincidences prove a principle,
which the reader, if he confined his attention to one particular case,
might be disposed to question. We also generally drop the _g_ in the
middle of a word in such names as _Payne_, from A.S. Pagen,[45] _Wain_
from A.S. Wahgen, _Gain_ from A.S. Gagen, _Nail_ from A.S. Negle. So
also in _Sibbald_ for Sigebald, _Sibert_ for Sigebert, _Seymore_ for
Sigimar, _Wyatt_ for Wighad, &c. There is also a frequent dropping of
_d_, though I think that in this case the names have more frequently
come down to us from ancient times in such contracted form, the practice
being more specially common among the Franks, from whom I think that
most of the names in question have been derived. Thus we have _Cobbold_
for Codbald or Godbold, _Cobbett_ for Godbet or Codbet, _Lucas_ (Lucas,
_Lib. Vit._), from a Frankish Liucoz for Liudgoz, _Boggis_ from a Boggis
for Bodgis, _Lewis_ for Leodgis, _Rabbit_ for Radbod, _Chabot_ for
Chadbod. So also _Ralph_ and _Rolfe_ for Radulf and Hrodulf (though also
for Ragulf and Hrogulf), _Roland_ for Rodland, _Roman_ for Rodman, &c.
So _f_ is often dropped when it is followed by _m_ or _n_, as in A.S.
Leomman for Leofmann, whence our _Lemon_. It is probable that our
_Limmer_ is a similar contraction of A.S. Leofmer.

As a case of transposition I may note _Falstaff_ from, as supposed, the
O.G. name Fastulf. It may be a question whether this is not an Old
Frankish name come to us through the Normans, for at Gambetta's funeral
the French Bar was represented by M. _Falsteuf_.

I now come to corruptions which arise from the attempt to give to a name
something of an apparent meaning in English. Let me observe that, almost
as an invariable rule, corruptions are made towards a meaning and not
away from it; the ancient name Irminger might be corrupted into
Ironmonger, but Ironmonger could not be corrupted into Irminger. It is
natural to men to try to get some semblance of meaning out of a name,
and all the more that it approaches to something which has a familiar
sound to their ears. Thus H.M. ship, the _Bellerophon_, was called by
the sailors the "Billy Ruffian," and a vessel owned by a fore-elder of
mine, and which he christened the _Agomemnon_, invariably went among the
sailors by the name of the "Mahogany Tom." Thus the Anglo-Saxon Trumbald
has first become _Trumbull_ and then _Tremble_, and as suggested by Mr.
Charnock, _Turnbull_. So we have the Old Norse name Thorgautr (Turgot,
_Domesday_) variously made into _Target_ and into _Thoroughgood_.[46] In
some cases a very slight change suffices to give a new complexion to
the name, thus the Old Frankish Godenulf, (_ulf_, wolf), through a
Norman Godeneuf, is scarcely changed in our _Goodenough_. Similarly we
might have had Badenough (O.G. Badanulf), and Richenough (A.S. Ricnulf).
We have _Birchenough_ (reminding us of Dr. Busby) no doubt from a name
of similar formation not yet turned up. Then we have several names as
_Garment_, _Rayment_, _Argument_, _Element_, _Merriment_, _Monument_,
from ancient names ending in _mund_ or _munt_, supposed to mean
protection, with only the change of a letter. I have referred in an
earlier part of this chapter to the name Pendgast, and to the phonetic
corruptions to which it has been subjected. But it seems also to have
been subjected to a corruption of the other kind, for I take it that our
name _Pentecost_ is properly Pentecast, as another or High German form
of Pendegast. Another case of a corruption easily made is that of our
name _Whitethread_ which seems obviously the Anglo-Saxon name Wihtræd,
of which also we have another obvious corruption in _Whiterod_. So also
the Anglo-Saxon name Weogern, p. 111 (more properly Wiggern, _wig_, war,
and _gern_, eager), by an easy transition becomes _Waghorn_. And in this
way also the paradoxical-looking name _Fairfoul_, by a slight change of
spelling, may be explained as Farefowl, "wandering bird," as a name
probably given by the Saxon or Danish sea-rovers.

Let us take a name of a different kind, _Starbuck_, no doubt of local
origin, from the place called Starbeck in Yorkshire. Now beck is a
Northern word signifying brook; it is probably of Danish origin,
inasmuch as its use precisely corresponds with the limits of the Danish
occupation. So long then as Starbeck lived in the north among his own
people, to whom _beck_ is a familiar word, there would be no fear of his
name being corrupted. But when he migrated to a part of England where
_beck_ has no meaning, then by and by the natural craving for some kind
of a meaning would assert itself, and, as the best it could do, change
_beck_ into _buck_. But the name of the place itself affords an
illustration of the same principle. For _star_ is in all probability the
same word as _stour_, so common as a river-name (Arm. ster, water,
river), made into _star_ in the craving for some kind of a meaning.

Let us take another name with the same ending, _Clutterbuck_, also, I
doubt not, a name of local origin, though I am unable in this case to
identify the place. But _clutter_ seems evidently to be from the
Anglo-Saxon, _hluttor_, clear, pure, limpid, and the word must have been
_hluttorbeck_, "clear brook," so that this is another case of a similar
corruption. The Anglo-Saxons, no doubt, strongly aspirated the initial
_h_, so that the name has become Clutterbuck.

Another name which may be taken to be of the same kind is _Honeybun_, no
doubt a corruption of another name _Honeyburn_, from _burn_, a brook,
_honey_ being apparently used by the Anglo-Saxons as an epithet to
describe sweet waters. But to the modern ear Honey_bun_ is a much more
natural association than Honey_burn_, particularly since the Anglo-Saxon
_burn_ for _brook_ has passed out of use in England.

Among the Germans, corruptions towards a meaning are also common, as in
such names as _Guttwein_ for Godwine or Gotwine, _Warmbadt_ for
Warinbod, _Leutenant_ for Liutnand (_liud_, people, _nant_, daring).
There is a curious-looking and seemingly profane name _Heiliggheist_, as
if from the third person of the Trinity, which may, however, be a
corruption of an ancient name, perhaps of the name Haldegast.

The odd-looking names _Oyster_ and _Oysterman_ in _Suffolk Surnames_ are
probably the German names Oster and Ostermann (_oster_, orientalis) in
an anglicised form, the marvellous power of assimilation possessed by
the great Republic evincing itself, among other things, in the way in
which it anglicises foreign names. Thus the name _Crumpecker_, placed by
Bowditch among names from birds, is, we can hardly doubt, a corruption
of a German Krumbacher, _i.e._ "a native of Krumbach," of which name
there are several places in Germany. So also the ending _thaler_ in
German names, from _thal_, valley, is changed into "dollar" as its
supposed equivalent. Hence the Americans have _Milldolar, Barndollar_,
and _Cashdollar_, corruptions of some such German names as Mühlthaler,
Bernthaler, and Käsenthaler, signifying an inhabitant respectively of
Mühlthal, of Bernthal, and of Käsenthal. It would seem as if a man
coming to this new world, where everything around him is
changed--presumably for the better--accepts it as, among other things, a
part of the new dispensation, that whereas his name has hitherto been,
say Käsenthaler, he shall henceforth answer to the name--perhaps not an
inauspicious one--of Cashdollar.


[43] There is another name _Snodgrass_, which may be a similar
corruption of Snodgast, from the stem _snod_, A.S. _snot_, wise.

[44] This however is by no means certain, inasmuch as there is a stem
_card_ or _gard_ from which it might be formed, though the corresponding
ancient name has not turned up. On the other hand it is to be observed
that _wealh_ is not one of the more common endings.

[45] Pagan occurs as an A.S. name, (_Thorpe_, p. 648), and may probably be
referred to _bagan_, to contend. _Cf._ also Pagingas among the early

[46] According, no doubt, as the ancient name appeared as Thorgaut or



To any one who takes note of the large proportion of French Christian
names which are of German origin, the question, one would think, might
naturally suggest itself--If such be the case with Christian names, may
it not also be the case with regard to surnames? The Christian names
_Albert_, _Adolphe_, _Alfonse_, _Charles_, _Claude_, _Edouard_,
_Edmonde_, _Ferdinand_, _Gerard_, _Henri_, _Louis_, _Philibert_,
_Robert_, _Richarde_, _Rudolfe_, _Guillaume_, and the women's _Adèle_,
_Clotilde_, _Louise_, _Mathilde_, _Hélöise_, and many others, serve to
remind us that the French have come of the Franks. That the same holds
good also of French surnames I have in a previous work endeavoured to
prove in considerable detail, and I will not go over the ground again
further than at the end of this chapter to present as an illustration of
my views upon the subject one or two stems complete with their branches.

The Franks being a branch of a High German, and the Saxons of a Low
German stock, it follows that French names, as compared with English,
should, in names of Teutonic origin, exhibit High German forms in
comparison with our Low German. One of these differences is, for
instance, _au_ for _ea_, as in German auge, Anglo-Saxon, _eage_,
English, _eye_. Thus the Anglo-Saxon _ead_, happiness, prosperity, so
common in men's names, is in Frankish represented by _aud_, or
_od_--hence the name of the Norman bishop Odo is the counterpart of an
Anglo-Saxon Eada or Eda, and the name of the Lombard king Audoin
(Audwin), is the counterpart of the Anglo-Saxon Eadwin. It will be seen
then that the French Christian name _Edouard_ is not a true Frankish
form--the proper form is shown in two French surnames, _Audouard_ and
_Audevard_. I cannot account for the particular case of this Christian
name on any other ground than that simply of euphony. The corresponding
Italian Christian name, _Odoardo_, come to them through the Franks or
the Lombards, represents, it will be seen, the proper High German form.
The High German forms, then, that appear in English names may be taken
to a great extent to represent Old Frankish names that have come to us
through the Normans. But the number of such names appears to be greater
than could reasonably be thus accounted for, and moreover we seem, as I
have noted at p. 75, to have had such forms even in Anglo-Saxon times,
_e.g._ both the forms _ead_ or _ed_, and _aud_ or _od_, in the names of
our early settlers. And it appears to me therefore that Lappenberg's
theory that Franks, Lombards, and Frisians were among the early
settlers, is one that deserves most careful consideration. And I propose
at present to deal with the subject, so far as the Franks are concerned,
and to trace out to the best of my ability, the Frankish forms that seem
to present themselves in Anglo-Saxon times, and also in our existing
surnames. In so doing, I wish to disclaim any assumption of philological
knowledge such as might be implied by dealing with the niceties of
ancient dialects. All that I proceed upon is this--I find from German
writers that certain forms prevailed in Frankish names, and I compare
them with certain forms apparently of the same kind which I find in
Anglo-Saxon times.

Now the ancient Frankish speech, along with the ordinary characteristics
of a High German dialect, had some special peculiarities of its own, and
it is through these that we have the best chance of obtaining
satisfactory indications. Of these there are three forms in particular,
with each of which I propose to deal in turn, placing at the head the
group of surnames which I take to owe their origin to this source. And
as assisting to throw light upon the subject I have in some cases
introduced the present French names corresponding.


One of the peculiarities of the Frankish dialect especially during the
Merovingian period, was the prefix of _c_ before names beginning with
_h_, as in Childebert and Childeric for Hildebert and Hilderic. Of this
there seem to be considerable traces in Anglo-Saxon times, as will be
seen from the following:--

_Chad_ for _had_, war.

A.S. Chad, bishop of Lichfield--Ceada, found in Ceadanford--Cedda, found
in Ceddanleah--Frankish, Chaddo. Eng. Chad, Chatto.


Frnk. Chadichus. Eng. Chaddock.


Eng. Chatting.


(_Bad_, war), Frnk. Chadbedo, Chabedo--Eng. Chabot.[47] (_Wine_,
friend), Frnk. Chaduin--Eng. Chadwin, Chatwin. (_Wig_, war), A.S.
Chatewe (_wi_ for wig) found in Ceatewesleah--Eng. Chadwick, Chattoway.

(We have also the other form Hathaway, O.G. Hathuwi, to compare with

Then we have a stem _chard, chart_, which it seems to me may be a
similar Frankish form of _hard_ or _hart_, durus, fortis, a very common
stem for men's names.

_Chard_ for _hard_.

A.S. Cerda (Cherda) found in Cerdanhlæw. Ceorta, found in Ceortan
stapol. Ceort, found in Ceortesege, now Chertsey. Eng. Chard, Chart.


A.S. Cerdic, king of Wessex. Also Ceardic, found in Ceardices beorh.


(_Har_, warrior), Frnk. Charterius--Eng. Charter.

In the next group, _child_ for _hild_, war, the Anglo-Saxon names seem
rather uncertain, and though the Franks had many names from it, I only
find one to compare in that form.

_Child_ for _hild_, war.

A.S. Cild, found in Cildeswic--Cilta found in Ciltancumb, now Chilcomb
in Hants--Frnk. Childi, Cheldio, Chillo--Eng. Child, Chill.


(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Hilder--Eng. Childar. (_Man_, vir), O.G.
Hildman--Childman, _Hund_. _Rolls_--Eng. Chillman, French, Chilman.
(_Mod_, courage), O.G. Hildemod--Eng. Chillmaid. (_Ran_, raven), Frnk.
Childerannus--Eng. Children.

We have a number of other names beginning with _ch_, which might with
more or less certainty be brought in here, as Chaine comparing with an
A.S. Chen, found in Chenestun, and with a Frankish Chaino for Chagno
(Hagen-spinosus). Also Chubb and Choppin comparing with the Ceopingas
(Chopingas) in Kemble's list. He has also Hoppingas and Upingas,
different forms I take it, of the same name, and upon these might be
formed by the prefix in question, the form Ceopingas. Compare also the
present French names, Choupe, Chopin, Chopard.


Another peculiarity of the Frankish dialect was the change of _hl_ at
the beginning of a name into _cl_ or _chl_, and _hr_ into _cr_ or
_chr_. Hence the names of the Frankish kings Clothar, Chlodomir, and
Clodowich, for Hlothar, Hlodomir, and Hlodowich. Of this form there
appear to be considerable traces in Anglo-Saxon times; there are three
names in Kemble's list of early settlers which may find a place here,
the Crangas, the Cramlingas, and the Crucgingas. The name Crangas, as it
stands, is difficult to deal with, and I should suppose it to be
properly either Cringas or Craningas--in the former case from _hring_,
circle, perhaps in the sense of shield--in the latter from _chrann_, as
a Frankish form of _raban_ or raven, Cf. Chrannus in the genealogy of
the Merovingian kings. Cramlingas again compares with a Frankish name
Chramlin from the same stem, while Crucgingas seems to be a Frankish
form of Rucingas, also on Kemble's list.

The first group of names, Claude, Cloud, &c., are referred to O.H.G.
_laut_, loud, in the supposed sense of famous.

_Clod_ for _hlod_, fame.

A.S. Clodd (found in Cloddes heal), Clott (found in Clottismôr), Clud
(found in Cludesleah)[48]--Frnk. Chlodio, Cludio, 5th cent.--Eng.
Claude, Cloade, Clodd, Cloud, Clout.


(_Gis_ or _kis_, hostage), O.G. Hludokis--Eng. Clukas (for Cludkis?).
(_Hari_, warrior), Frnk. Clothar, Chluthar--Eng. Clothier, Clutter.
(_Man_, vir), Eng. Cloudman, Cloutman (for which no ancient equivalents
as yet turn up.)

The next group, Croad, Crowd, &c., may be referred to _hrod_, glory, the
stem from which are formed Robert, Roland, Roger, &c.

_Crod_ for _hrod_.

A.S. Cruda, found in Crudan sceat--Frnk. Chrodo, Crodio--Eng. Croad,
Crowd, Crowdy, Croot, Crout.

Ending in _en_, p. 27.

Frnk. Chrodin--Eng. Cruden.


(_Har_, warrior), Frnk. Chrodohar--Eng. Crowder. (_Gar_, spear), Frnk.
Crodeger--Eng. Croger (=Roger). (_Mar_, famous), A.S. Cruddemor, found
in Cruddemores lacu--Frnk. Chrodmar--Eng. Cromar.

The next group, Croke, Crock, &c., are from a stem _hroc_, the
root-meaning of which seems to be the same as Eng. _croak_, and the idea
of which, as in some other stems (see _im_ in voce Emma), may probably
be that of strength, fierceness, or huge stature, derived from a harsh
and gruff voice. Cf. O.N. _hrokr_, vir fortis et grandis.

_Crock_ for _hroc_.

A.S. Crucga, found in Crucgingas; Croch, found in Crochestun, now
Croxton in Norf.--Frnk. Crocus, Cruccus--Eng. Croke, Crock, Crooke,
Crotch, Crutch.


(_Her, heri_, warrior), O.G. Roacheri--Eng. Croker, Crocker. Eng.
Crockett might represent a Frankish Crochad or Crochat (_had_, war), not
turned up.

Perhaps from a similar origin may be the name of Crida or Creoda, king
of Mercia, as representing a stem, _hrad_, or _hred_ (O.H.G. _hradi_,
celer), whence probably the Hræda in the Traveller's Song. Kemble has
two tribe-names, Creotingas and Cridlingas (the latter, derived from a
place in Yorkshire, being perhaps doubtful so far as regards the tribe,
though a man's name all the same).

_Crad_ for _hrad_.

A.S. Creoda, found in Creodan âc, Creodan hyl, Creodan treow--Cridda,
found in Criddan wyl--Cridd, found in Criddes hô--Creota, found in
Creotingas--Cretta, _lib. vit._--Eng. Creed, Creedy.

Ending in _el_.

A.S. Cridel, found in Cridlingas--Eng. Criddle.

Perhaps the most characteristic peculiarity of the Frankish dialect is
the prefix of _g_, or its sharper form _c_, before names beginning with
_w_.[49] Hence it is that the French have such a word as guerre
(=gwerre) which is _g_ prefixed to a German _wer_ or _war_. And such
names as Guillaume, Gualtier, and Guiscard, which are from _g_ prefixed
to Wilhelm, Walter, and Wiscard (our Wishart). Hence, also, such a
place-name as Quilleboeuf in Normandy, being, with a _c_ prefixed, the
same, I take it, as an English Willaby (_boeuf_, as Mr. Taylor has
shown, representing the Danish _by_). I have referred, p. 75, to the
name Cwichelm for Wighelm or Wichelm as a strongly-marked Frankish form,
but I cannot say that I find such forms generally prevalent in
Anglo-Saxon times. Kemble has three tribe-names in this form,
Cwædringas, Cwæringas, and Queningas. The Cwædringas answer to the
Wætringas, and the Wedringas, both also on Kemble's list, and both, I
take it, different forms of the same name; the Cwæringas to the Wæringas
and the Werringas, also different forms of the same name; the Queningas
to the Weningas or the Winingas. One or two of our names beginning with
_gw_, as Gwilliams, Gwatkin, and perhaps Gwalter, are probably due to
the Welsh, of which this prefix is also a characteristic. As
representing the Frankish form, we have more names in the sharper form
cw, which is represented by _q_. Under the present head comes the name
of the highest lady in the land, _Guelph_ (further referred to in next
chapter), being a Frankish form of Welf (O.H.G. _hwelf_; Eng. _whelp_).
The names _Welp_, _Whelps_, and _Guelpa_, appear in _Suff. Surn._, but
whether English or not does not appear.


The meaning of the stem _war_ is very uncertain; Foerstemann proposes
five different words, without including O.H.G. _werra_, Eng. _war_, and
it seems very probable that there may be a mixture of different words.

_Gwar, cwar_, for war.

A.S. Cwara, found in Cwæringas--Frnk. Guario--Eng. Quare, Quary, Quarry,
Quear, Query--French Querrey.


(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Warher--Eng. Quarrier. (_Man_, vir), O.G.
Warman--Eng. Quarman--French Guermain.

The stem _wid_, on which is formed _guid_ and _cwid_, may perhaps be
referred to O.H.G. _wid_, wood, in the sense of weapon (see next chapter
_in voce_ Guido), though in this case also there may probably be a
mixture of words.

_Gwid, cwid_, for _wid_.

Frnk. Guid, Guido, Quido--Eng. Quiddy--French, Guidé.


(_Man_, vir), O.G. Witman--Eng. Quitman. (Gis, hostage), O.G.
Witichis--Eng. Quittacus (_Suff. Surn._).

The stem _wig_ or _wic_, on which are formed _gwig_ and _cwic_, may be
taken to be from _wig_, war.

_Gwig_, _cwic_, for _wig_, _wic_.

Frnk. Gwigo--Eng. Quig, Quick, Quy--Fr. Guiche, Quyo.

Ending in _el_.

O.G. Wigilo--Eng. Quiggle.


O.G. Wigger, Wiher--Eng. Gwyer, Quier, Quire.

The stem _will_, on which are formed _guill_ and _cwill_, may be
referred to Goth. _wilya_, will, perhaps, in the sense of resolution.

_Guil, cwil_, for _will_.

Frnk. Guila--Eng. Guille, Guily, Quill--Fr. Guille, Quille.


O.G. Willic--Eng. Quilke--Fr. Quillac.


(_Helm_, helmet), Frnk. Guilhelm--Eng. Gwillam--Fr. Guillaume. (_Man_,
vir), O.G. Wilman--Eng. Quillman--Fr. Guillemain. (_Nand_, daring), O.G.
Willinand--Eng. Quillinan.

I am inclined, from the way in which the names run into each other, to
take _cwen_ and _cwin_ to be one and the same stem, and to refer them to
A.S. _wine_, friend.

_Gwin, cwin, cwen_, for _win_.

A.S. Cwena, found in Cweningas; Quena, found in Quenanden--Frnk. Guuine,
Quino--Eng. Guiney, Quin, Queen, Queeney--Fr. Gueneau, Quenay, Quineau.

Ending in _en_, p. 27.

A.S. Cwenen, found in Cwenenabrôc--Eng. Guinan, Quinan, Queenan--Fr.


(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Winiheri--Eng. Quiner--Fr. Guinier, Guinery,
Quinier. (_Bert_, famous), Frnk. Quinabert--Eng. Guinibert.

From the Ang.-Sax. _wealh_, stranger, foreigner, may be the following

_Gual, cwal_, for _wal_.

Frnk. Gualo, Guala--Eng. Quail, Qualey--Fr. Guala.

Then there are some other stems not sufficiently represented to make it
worth while to put them into a tabular form, as Quint, a Frankish form
of Wind (the stem being supposed to mean Wend), with the present French,
Quinty. Also Quaint and Quantock, representing Old German names, Wando
and Wendico, the stem being perhaps as in the previous case. And Gwilt,
Quilt, Quilty, and Quilter, which seem to be formed similarly on Wild
(ferus) and Wilder. Also Quart for Ward or Wart, and perhaps Quaker for
Waker and Quash for Wass (as in Washington from Wassingation).

With regard to this last Frankish peculiarity, which I conceive not to
be of such ancient date as the preceding ones, I am inclined to suppose
that the greater part of the English names in which it appears have come
to us through the Normans. And with regard to the others I would venture
the general remark that inasmuch as the Anglo-Saxons in all probability
more or less aspirated an initial _h_, it would perhaps be going too far
to conclude that, in all cases where it has been hardened into a _c_,
Frankish influence is necessarily to be presumed. Still, I think that
the general result of the comparison which I have instituted, more
especially considering the comparatively limited area from which the
Anglo-Saxon examples have been drawn, is such as to give considerable
support to the theory that Franks were among the early settlers.

Besides the names of Old Frankish, _i.e._ German origin, which have come
to us through the Normans, we have also received from them some names,
mostly of a religious character, from the Latin, and from the Hebrew. I
have even ventured to suggest, in the next chapter, that it is to the
Franks that the Italians are indebted for the name of Dante (Durante)
from Lat. _durans_. More certainly it is from them that the
corresponding name _Durand_ has come to us. The early Frankish
Christians adopted several such names, some from the Latin, as
Stabilis, Clarus, Celsus, Electus (perhaps in some cases from the names
of Roman saints), some from the Hebrew, not only scriptural names of men
and women, but also such words as Pasc (passover), Seraphim, Osanna,
&c., and these they often mixed up with the Old German words to which
they had been accustomed, the names of the Apostles Peter and Paul being
so dealt with, and even the name of Christ himself. This probably arose
from the desire of parents to connect the names of their children with
their own, as seems clearly shown in the case of a woman called Electa,
who gives to her two children the same name with a German addition,
calling one Electard, and the other Electrudis. From one of these hybrid
Frankish names, Clarembald, come our _Claringbold_ and _Claringbull_ and
the French _Clérambault_. From the above word, _pasc_, we have _Pascoe_,
_Paske_, and _Pash_, and the French have _Pasquin_, corresponding with a
Frankish Pascoin (Pascwin). There is one Richard Osannas, a witness to
an acquittance in the later Anglo-Saxon times, the name being probably
from the Frankish Osanna, which seems, however, to have been originally
a woman's name. In the same charter occurs also Jordan, another of these
old Frankish names, taken presumably from the river--whence I take to be
our _Jordan_, and the French _Jordan_, _Jourdan_, and _Jourdain_,
probably also the name of the Dutch painter _Jordaens_. The name Crist,
which seems most probably from this origin (Cristeus in the _Pol. Irm._)
is not very uncommon in France; it occurs also in Germany, and though I
have not met with it in England, yet Bowditch gives it as the name of a
member of the New York legislature, where it may, however, possibly be
German. It is rather amusing to see how the learned Germans are
occasionally a little mystified by these Old Frankish Scriptural names.
Stark, for instance, sets down Elisaba (Elischeba, the Hebrew form, I
take it, of Elisabeth) as Celtic, and Foerstemann, excusably perhaps, is
posed with Erispa (Rispah, the daughter of Aiah?), though I think he
might have guessed Osanna.

Before concluding this chapter I may refer to the _Roll of Battle
Abbey_, containing the names of the principal Normans who came over with
the Conqueror. This has been severely impugned by some excellent
antiquaries on the ground that some of the names are, on the face of
them, regular English names, and such as could not reasonably be
supposed to have been borne by Normans. And hence it has been supposed
that interpolations must have been made to gratify the vanity of certain
families who wished their names to appear in the Roll. This in itself
does not seem an improbable suspicion, and I do not desire to go into
the question further than to express the opinion that so far as the
names themselves are concerned, there is not one that might not be a
genuine Norman name. Indeed, the undisguised English form of some of
them is to me rather a proof of the honesty of the scribe, for it would
have been so easy to have given them a thin Norman disguise. The
suspicious-seeming names are of two kinds, names which appear to be from
English place-names, as Argentoune, Chaworth, Newborough, Sanford,
Valingford, Harewell; and names which seem to be from English surnames
of occupation, or description, as Hayward, Archere, Loveday. The former
did present a genuine difficulty, and did justify suspicion till now
that Mr. Taylor's discovery of an area in the north of France full of
regular Anglo-Saxon place-names, and no doubt settled by Anglo-Saxons,
has disclosed the source from which they could be derived. I opine then
that the English scribe has done nothing more in the case of such names
than restore them to the original form from which they had been more or
less corrupted. Nor indeed has he done it to as great an extent as he
might have done, for I find several others which may be brought back to
an Anglo-Saxon form, and it may be of some little interest to take a few
of these Norman surnames derived from place-names of the kind discovered
by Mr. Taylor, and compare them with corresponding Anglo-Saxon
place-names in England. I will take the names ending in _uil_, "well,"
of which the scribe has Anglicised one (Harewell), and show how many
more there might have been. We have Bereneuile and Boranuile,
corresponding with A.S. Bernewell (now Barnwell, in Northamptonshire),
from A.S. _brune_, brook, of which the well might be the source. Then we
have Rinuuill, corresponding with an A.S. Runawel (now, Runwell in
Essex), _i.e._ a running or flowing well, Berteuilay corresponding with
A.S. Beorhtanwyl (now Brightwell, in Oxfordshire), and Vauuruile with an
A.S. Werewell (now Wherwell, in Hants), an inclosed well; from A.S.
_woer_, inclosure. Then we have Beteruile comparing with an A.S.
Buterwyel (Butterwell, butter and honey being used apparently to
describe sweet waters), Greneuile (Greenwell), and Glateuile, probably
from A.S. _glade_, brook, and so same as Bernewell.

With respect to the second class of suspected names, such as Hayward,
Archere, and Loveday, these are all Old Frankish names, and the
resemblance to anything English is only an accident. Hayward represents
an ancient Agward or Egward, and would be more properly Ayward, though
we find it as Hayward (see p. 99) even in Anglo-Saxon times. So also
Archere (see p. 42) and Loveday (p. 57) fall into their places as
ancient Frankish names. Such names again as Brown and Gray, though a
little Anglicised in spelling, are names common to the whole Teutonic
system, and, as far as we are concerned, both came in with the Saxons,
being found in Kemble's list of original settlers.

I do not think it necessary to go more at length into the ancient
Frankish names contained in that Roll, but before leaving the subject I
would call attention to some of the names derived from the Danish
place-names of Normandy. There are four names, Dabitott, Leuetot,
Lovetot, and Tibtote (our name _Tiptoft_), from the ending _tot_, which,
as Mr. Taylor has shown, represents the Scandinavian _toft_. And two
names, Duilby and Linnebey, representing the Danish _by_; house,
habitation, village, so common in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire; also two
more, Braibuf and Olibef, with the ending _buf_ or _boeuf_, which, as
Mr. Taylor has shown, also represents the Danish _by_, Olibef being,
perhaps, Olafby, from the Danish name Olaf. Seeing this to be the case,
I venture to hint a suspicion as to the redoubtable name Front-de-boeuf,
and to suggest that it may after all be properly nothing more than one
of these Norman place-names ending in _boeuf_. Such a name as, for
instance, Frodeboeuf, from a Danish man's name, Frodi, might give it. On
the other hand, the plebeian-looking name _Chasseboeuf_, which Volney is
said to have changed rather than have it supposed that any one of his
ancestors had been a cow-boy, is, I doubt not, from a similar origin.
Such a name as Shaftsby (from the Anglo-Saxon man's name Shaft) would,
when _by_ became corrupted into _boeuf_, naturally be made into
Chasseboeuf. I take, however, the name _Leboeuf_ to be from a different
origin, viz. from a Frankish Libolf or Liubolf. There is yet one more
name, Lascales (our _Lascelles_), which I think may be also from a
Danish place-name, the word _scale_ (O.N. _skali_, a wooden hut) being
common, particularly in the Lake District--in Cumberland and

I purpose to conclude this chapter with a few stems illustrative of the
common Teutonic element in French, English, and German names, including
such Italian names as I have been able to fall in with. The first stem,
from A.S. _til_, bonus, præstans, seems to have been more common among
the Saxons than among the Franks, and there are, consequently, more
names corresponding in English than in French.

_Dill, till, bonus._

A.S. Dilla, Tilla, in Dillingas and Tillingas--O.G. Dilli, Tilli, Thilo;
Tilli, _Lib. Vit._; Dill, Tilly, Tillé, _Hund. Rolls_--Eng. _Dill_,
_Dilley_, _Dillow_, _Till_, _Tilley_--Germ. _Dill_, _Till_, _Tilo_--Fr.
_Dilly_, _Dillé_, _Tilly_, _Tillé_--Ital. _Tilli_.

Ending in _ec_, probably diminutive.

A.S. Tilluc--Eng. _Dillick_, _Dilke_, _Tillick_, _Tilke_--Fr. _Dilhac_.


Eng. _Tilling_--Germ. _Dilling_.

Ending in _en_, p. 27.

Tilne, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Dillon_--Germ. _Dillen_--Fr. _Dillon_,


(_Fred_, peace), Tilfred, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Tilford_. (_Gar_, spear),
A.S. Tilgar--Dilker, _Hund. Rolls_--Eng. _Dilger_, _Dillicar_. (_Had_,
var), Tilhaed, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Tillott_--Fr. _Dillet_, _Tillot_.
(_Man_, vir), A.S. Tillman--Tilmon, _Lib. Vit._--Tileman, _Hund.
Rolls_--Eng. _Dillman_, _Tillman_, _Tileman_--Germ. _Dillemann_,
_Tilmann_--Dutch. _Tillemans_--Fr. _Tilman_. (_Mar_, famous), O.G.
Tilemir--Eng. _Dillimore_. (_Mund_, protection), A.S. Tilmund--Fr.
_Tilmant_. (_Wine_, friend), Tiluini, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Dillwyn_.
(_Her_, _heri_, warrior), A.S. Tilhere (Bishop of Worcester)--Eng.
_Diller_, _Tiller_, _Tillier_--Fr. _Dillery_, _Tillier_.

The following stem may be taken to be from A.S. _hyge_; O.H.G. _hugu_,
mind, thought; A.S. _hogian_, to study, meditate. The form _hig_, which
seems to be more particularly Saxon, intermixes considerably in the
English names.

Hig, hog, hug, _thought_, _study_.

A.S. Hig, Hicca, Hocg--O.G. Hugo, Hug, Huc, Hughi, Hogo--Eng. _Hugo_,
_Hug_, _Hugh_, _Huie_, _Huck_, _Hogg_, _Hodge_, _Hoe_, _Hick_,
_Hickie_--Germ. _Huge_, _Hugo_, _Hucke_, _Hoge_--Fr. _Hugo_, _Hugé_,
_Hug_, _Huc_, _Hue_, _Hua_--Ital. _Ugo_.

Ending in _el_, probably diminutive.

A.S. Hicel--O.G. Hugila, Huckili--Eng. _Hugall_, _Huckell_, _Whewell_,
_Hickley_--Germ. _Hügel_--Fr. _Hugla_, _Huel_--Ital. _Ughelli_.

Ending in _lin_, probably diminutive.

A.S. Hugelin (Chamberlain to Edward the Confessor)--Hugelinus,
_Domesday_--Hueline, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Huelin, Hicklin_--Fr. _Huguelin,
Higlin_--Ital. _Ugolino_.

Ending in _et_, probably diminutive.

A.S. Hocget--O.G. Huetus, thirteenth century--Hueta, _Domesday_--Eng.
_Huggett, Howitt, Hewitt_--Fr. _Hugot, Huet_--Ital. _Ughetti_.

Ending in _es_, probably diminutive.

O.G. Hugizo--Eng. _Hughes, Hewish, Hodges_--Fr. _Hugues_.

_Kin_, diminutive.

Hogcin, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Hodgkin_.

Ending in _en_, p. 27.

A.S. Hyeken--Hygine, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Hoggin, Hucken, Higgen_--Fr.
_Hugan, Hogan, Huan, Hoin, Hienne_.


(_Bald_, fortis), A.S. Higbald (Bishop of Lindisfarne), Hibald--O.G.
Hugibald, Hubald--Eng. _Hibble, Hubble_--Fr. _Hubault_--Ital. _Ubaldo_,
_Ubald_(_ini_). (_Bert_, famous), A.S. Higbert (Bishop of
Worcester)--O.G. Hugubert, Hubert--Eng. _Hibbert, Hubbard_--Germ.
_Hubert_--Fr. _Hubert_. (_Hard_, fortis), O.G. Hugihart, Hugard--Eng.
_Huggard, Heward_--Fr. _Hugard, Huard, Huart_. (_Laic_, play), A.S.
Hygelac--O.G. Hugilaih--O.N. Hugleikr--Eng. _Hillock, Hullock_--Fr.
_Hulek_. (_Lat_, terrible,?), Hugolot, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Hewlet,
Higlet_. (_Lind_, mild), O.G. Hugilind--Eng. _Hewland_. (_Man_, vir),
A.S. Hiccemann--Eng. _Hugman, Hughman, Human, Higman, Hickman_--Germ.
_Hieckmann_--Fr. _Humann_. (_Mot_, courage), O.G. Hugimot--Eng.
_Hickmot_. (_Mar_, famous), A.S. Hykemer--O.G. Hugimar--Eng. _Hogmire,
Homer, Highmore_. (_Wald_, power), O.G. Hugold--Fr. _Huault_. Perhaps
also, from _noth_, bold, though I do not find an ancient name to
correspond--Eng. _Hignett_, and Fr. _Hugnot, Hognet_.

I will take for the last example the stem _magin, main_; A.S. _mægin_,
strength, force; Eng. _main_, which is rather better represented in
French names than in English. There are names, Maianus and Meinus on
Roman pottery, which might, however, be either German or Celtic.

O.G. Magan, Main--Main, _Lib. Vit._--Eng. _Magnay, Mayne_--Germ.
_Mehne_--Fr. _Magné, Magney_--Ital. _Magini_.


(Bald, fortis), O.G. Meginbold--Fr. _Magnabal_. (_Burg_, protection),
O.G. Meginburg--Fr. _Mainbourg_. (_Frid_, peace), O.G. Maginfrid--Fr.
_Mainfroy_. (_Gald_, value), O.G. Megingald--Fr. _Maingault_. (_Ger_,
spear), O.G. Meginger--Eng. _Manger_. (_Gaud_, Goth), O.G. Megingaud Fr.
_Maingot_. (_Had_, war), O.G. Magenad--Fr. _Maginot_--(_Hard_, fortis),
O.G. Maginhard, Mainard--Eng. _Maynard_--Germ. _Meinert_--Fr. _Magnard,
Maynard_--Ital. _Mainardi_--(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Maganhar,
Mayner--Germ. _Meiner_--Fr. _Magnier, Maynier_--Ital. _Maineri_.

Perhaps also to this stem (with _nant_, daring) we may put Magnentius,
the name of a German who usurped the imperial purple and was slain A.D.
353, also the Fr. _Magnan_ and _Maignan_.

These three stems, in one of which the Anglo-Saxon predominates, and in
another the Frankish or High German, while in a third there are two
parallel forms, Anglo-Saxon and Frankish, running side by side, may be
taken as fairly representative of the system upon which Teutonic names
are formed.


[47] This name may be, not improbably, one of those that were brought
over after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

[48] We also find the other form, Hlud, in Hludes beorh, Hlud's barrow,
or grave.

[49] Some further remarks on this Frankish prefix will be found in the
succeeding chapter on Italian names.



The successive waves of German invasion that swept over Italy, leaving
their record in the name of one of its fairest provinces, while they
added a few German words to the language, left a much larger number of
German patronymics in the names of its families. The Christian names
borne by well-known Italians, such as _Alberto, Arnolfo, Bernardo,
Carlo, Enrico, Federigo_ (Frederic), _Francesco, Leonardo, Luigi,
Ludovico, Mainardo, Odoardo_ (Edward), _Ridolphi, Sinibaldo, Ugo_ (Hugo
or Hugh), _Onofrio_ (Humphrey), all of German origin, sufficiently
attest this to have been the case. And I think we shall be warranted in
assuming, as in the case of France, that if this be the case with
Christian names, it cannot be essentially different with regard to

But inasmuch as I have not had the same opportunity of collating and
examining the mass of Italian surnames that I have had in the case of
those of France, I propose to shape the comparison into a rather
different form, and, without departing from its etymological purpose,
to endeavour to give it something of an ethnical interest as well. This
admixture of German blood could not fail to have an influence--and, we
can hardly doubt, an invigorating influence--upon the character of the
softer and more receptive Italian race. It may not then be without
interest--though we need not attach more importance to the result than
it deserves--to endeavour to trace the result of that admixture in the
names of illustrious Italians. For it is somewhat remarkable how many of
the men most distinguished in the council and in the field, in science,
literature, and in art, bear names which testify to a German origin. And
we are even able, in certain cases, to indicate with a fair amount of
probability the particular race of Germans from whom these names may be
taken to be derived. The rule laid down by Max Müller (_Science of
Language_) that words in Italian beginning with _gua_, _gue_, _gui_, may
be taken to be pretty certainly of German origin, holds good also of
Italian names. Now this form of _gua_, _gue_, _gui_ represents the
prefix of _g_ before _w_, which was a special characteristic of the
Franks, as it is still of their descendants, the French, in such names
as Guillaume (=Gwillaume) for Wilhelm or William. In some cases, though
more rarely, this prefix of _g_, in accordance with a High German
tendency, becomes a hard _c_ and is represented by _q_, as in _Queringi_
and perhaps _Quirini_. Such names then as _Gualdo_, _Guardi_, _Guido_,
_Guicciardini_, _Guarnerius_, may be taken as certainly of German, and I
think, more especially of Frankish origin.

To begin with the names of warriors, the list may well be headed by that
of the old hero, _Garibaldi_. Garibald (_gar_, spear, and _bald_, bold)
was a well-known Old German name, being borne, among others, by a Duke
in Bavaria in the sixth century, by six bishops in the three centuries
following, and, what is more to the purpose, by two Lombard kings in
Italy. We ourselves have the name in its Saxon form (_gor_ for _gar_) as
_Gorbold_ and _Corbould_ (O.G. Kerbald), and the French have it as
_Gerbault_. "Blind old _Dandalo_" may also be claimed as German;
Dandalo, corresponding with an O.G. Dantulo, being formed as a
diminutive from the Old German name Dando. I have elsewhere made the
suggestion, which I venture here to reproduce, that _Bonaparte_ may also
be a name of German origin, slightly changed to give it a seeming
meaning in Italian. The case stands thus. Bonibert and Bonipert are
found as Old Frankish names, respectively of the seventh and the ninth
centuries. In that part of Italy which was overrun by the Franks, namely
at Turin, is to be found the present Italian name _Boniperti_, which we
can hardly doubt to be derived from the Old Frankish Bonipert. Now from
this part of Italy came originally also the Bonapartes, and the question
is simply this, May not the name _Bonaparte_ originate in an attempt to
give something of an Italian meaning to this other name _Boniperti_,
which would convey no sense to an Italian ear? The French still have the
Old Frankish name as _Bompart_ (changing _n_ before a labial into _m_,
as they do in Edimbourg for Edinburgh); there was a vice-admiral of
that name who proved his courage by engaging, though unsuccessfully, an
English frigate of superior force. And we--or at any rate the
Americans--have it in a Saxon form as _Bonbright_ (_Suffolk Surnames_).
And very appropriate, if we were to translate it, would be the
meaning--_bona_, a slayer, and _bert_ or _pert_, illustrious.

The two distinguished families of the _Adimari_ at Florence and of the
_Grimaldi_ at Genoa both give evidence of German descent in their names
(O.G. Adimar and Grimwald); as regards the latter indeed it is to be
traced historically, though the position of the present representative,
as ruler of the principality of Monaco and recipient of its doubtful
gains, is perhaps hardly in accordance with the higher traditions of his
family. The name, _Alphonso_, of a Duke of Ferrara in the middle ages,
was one given also by the Germans to a still more illustrious lineage in
Spain. Alphonso is a contraction of the O.G. Adalfuns (_adal_, noble,
_funs_, eager). The Saxon form of _funs_ being _fus_, it seems to me
that our name _Adolphus_ may be properly Adel-fus, and not a
latinization of Adolph. German also are the names of the two great rival
factions of the _Guelphs_ and the _Ghibellines_, Guelph being a Frankish
form of Welf or Welp, Eng. whelp, and the Ghibellines deriving from an
Old German name Gibilin, traced by Mone to a Burgundian origin. Thus the
Guelphs, given originally by Germany to Italy, were afterwards
transplanted again to Germany, and thence to England, to rule far above
all factions. And again, we find the Bonaparte, whose ancestor was
expelled from Italy as a Ghibelline, come forward to pursue on a
grander scale his hereditary feud with the Guelphs.

In the names of scholars and men of science the German element is very
strongly represented. We find _Accolti_ (O.G. Achiolt for Agiovald[50]),
_Alamanni_ (O.G. Alaman), _Algarotti_ (O.G. Algar for Adelgar),
_Ansaldi_ (O.G. Ansald for Ansovald), _Audifredi_ (O.G. Audifred),
_Bertrandi_ (O.G. Bertrand), _Gualdo_ (O.G. Waldo), _Giraldi_ (O.G.
Girald), _Gosselini_ (O.G. Gosselin), _Guicciardini_ (O.G. Wichard),
_Lanzi_ (O.G. Lanzi), _Lamberti_ (O.G. Lambert for Landbert), _Manfredi_
(O.G. Manfred), _Maraldi_ (O.G. Marald), _Odevico_ (O.G. Ottwic for
Audewic), _Orlandi_ (O.G. Arland for Hariland), _Raimondi_ (O.G.
Raimund), _Rolandini_ (O.G. Roland for Rodland), _Roberti_ (O.G. Robert
for Rodbert), _Sacchi_ (O.G. Sacco), _Quirini_ (O.G. Guerin, Werin). We
may add to the list the name of the historian _Sismondi_ (Sigismund),
who, though born at Geneva, must, I apprehend, have been of Italian
origin. The name in its uncontracted form, _Sigismondi_, is also found
in Italy.

Among the names of distinguished explorers and discoverers, we have
_Americus_ (O.G. Emrich), who gave his name to America, and _Belzoni_
(O.G. Belzo). German are also the names of the Pope _Aldobrandini_ (O.G.
Aldebrand), and of the philanthropist _Odeschalchi_ (O.G. Odalschalch),
whose name, if translated, would be the appropriate one of "Servant of
his country."

The painters are not quite so strongly represented as the men of letters
and science, the two principal names being those of _Lionardo_ (O.G.
Leonhard) and of _Guido_. Guido is one of the Frankish forms to which I
have before alluded, and is formed by the prefix of _g_ to the name Wido
or Wito,--it was not an uncommon name among the Old Franks, and is found
at present among the French as _Videau, Viteau_, and _Guidé_. The
ill-omened name of the assassin _Guiteau_ I take to be from the same
origin, and to be of French extraction. So also may be our own name
_Widow_, which corresponds with a Wido of about the twelfth or
thirteenth century in the _Liber Vitæ_. There is another Italian name,
_Guidubaldi_, that of a Duke of Urbino, in the middle ages, formed on
the same stem with the addition of _bald_, bold, and corresponding with
a Frankish Guidobald. The word concerned seems to be most probably Goth.
_vidus_, O.H.G. _witu_, wood, used in a poetical sense for weapon.[51]

Other names of painters are _Baldi_ (O.G. Baldo), _Baldovin_(_etti_)
(O.G. Baldwin), _Anselmi_ (O.G. Anshelm), _Ansuini_ (O.G. Answin),
_Aldighiero_ (O.G. Aldegar), _Algardi_ (O.G. Alagart), _Alberti_ (O.G.
Albert for Adalbert), _Alloisi_ (O.G. Alois = Alwis), _Ghiberti_ (O.G.
Gibert), _Gherardini_ (O.G. Gerard), _Gennari_ (O.G. Genear),
_Ghirlandaio_ (O.G. Gerland), _Tibaldi_ (O.G. Tiebald for Theudobald).
Also _Guardi_, another of the Frankish forms before referred to,
representing an O.G. Wardi, and the same name as Eng. _Ward_, for which
we find a corresponding A.S. Weard.

Of those eminent in the sister art of music, we have _Castoldi_ (O.G.
Castald for Castwald), and _Frescobaldi_. This last name does not figure
in Foerstemann's list, but we can hardly doubt its German origin, _bald_
being a typical German ending, while Fresc, as a Teutonic name, is found
in the Fresc(ingas), early Saxon settlers in England, another instance
of the common tie which binds all Teutonic names together. We may add to
the list, as the name of a living composer, _Guglielmo_ = Wilhelm or
William. Among those who were accessory to music as instrument-makers,
we have _Stradivarius_ and _Guarnerius_ (O.G. Guarner for Warinhar)
corresponding with our own names _Warriner_ and _Warner_, and present
French names _Ouarnier_ and _Guernier_. It will not be out of keeping
with what we should expect if we find the German element develop itself
in the conception rather than in the execution of music, and in the
combination of science and patience which led to the success of the old

But it is in the names of immortal singers that we find the German
element most conspicuously represented. Dante himself bears a name
which, though not in itself German, may yet have been given to Italy by
the Germans, while as to his second title, _Alighieri_, there seems
hardly any doubt of its German origin.[52] Dante is a contraction of
_Durante_, which seems to be derived most naturally from Latin
_durans_, and it might seem something of a paradox to suppose a Latin
race to be indebted to the Germans for a Latin name. And yet I think
that there are some grounds for supposing it to be a name adopted by the
early Frankish converts to Christianity, and by them transmitted to the
Italians. For we find Durant, Durand, and Durann as not uncommon German
names, apparently Frankish, in the eighth and the ninth centuries. And
we find the word moreover made up into a German compound as Durandomar
(_mar_, famous). The French have moreover at present, derived we may
presume from their Frankish ancestors, another name, _Durandard_,
similarly formed (_hard_, fortis). Now this is precisely the same
principle as that on which the early Frankish converts, as we find from
the _Pol. Irm._ and the _Pol. Rem._, used to form many of their names,
taking a word of Christian import from the Latin or otherwise, and
mixing it up with the Old German compounds to which they had been
accustomed. Thus, for an example, we find that a woman called Electa,
which we can hardly doubt means "elect," gives to her son the name of
Electard, a similar compound to Durandard. There seems then, on the
whole, a fair amount of probability for this suggestion, which would
moreover sufficiently account for the manner in which the name is common
to France, Italy, Germany, and England. The French have it as _Durand_,
_Durant_, and _Durandeau_ (besides _Durandard_ already noted); the
Italians as _Durante_, _Duranto_, and _Durandi_; the Germans as _Durand_
and _Dorand_; and we ourselves as _Durand_ and _Durant_. Our names came
to us no doubt through the Normans,--there is a Durand in the _Roll of
Battle Abbey_, and it is not till after this period that we find it as
an English name.

For the German origin of _Tasso_ a rather stronger case can be made out,
Tasso and Taso being found as ancient German names, and the latter in
particular being a Lombard leader in Italy. But there was another
Lombard called Taso, who, as a man of remarkable sanctity of life, and
as the founder of a monastery at Volterra, was eminently likely to leave
a name behind him in Italy. _Tasso_ is still a current name in that
country, and our surname _Tassie_, along with the French _Tassy_, may be
taken to be the same name. Both we and the French have also _Tassell_,
formed from it and corresponding with Tassilo, the name of a Bavarian
king of the sixth century. The meaning of the word has not been
satisfactorily explained, and this may be one of the cases in which the
original word has either greatly changed in meaning, or else has
perished out of the language.

Another name which we may take pretty certainly to be of German origin
is _Leopardi_, corresponding with the O.G. Leopard, for Liubhard
(_liub_, love, and _hard_, fortis). There was a Lombard named Leopard
who was abbot of Nonantola in Italy in the tenth century. Then we have
_Amalungi_, from the O.G. Amalung, fifth century, a patronymic form,
"son of Amal or Amala," the (perhaps mythical) forerunner of the Goths.
The French have the name, _Hamel_ and _Ameling_, and we have _Hammill_,
_Hamling_, and _Hambling_. This is another of the cases in which a name
has outlived its etymon; we know that _amal_ was a word of honourable
meaning, but as to its origin even the patient research of the Germans
has failed to find a clue. The name _Amalthius_ may also be taken as
certainly German, from _amal_ as above, and the common Old German ending
_thius_, _dio_, or _tio_, servant, though we do not find a name to
correspond in the _Altdeutsches Namenbuch_. There was also a painter
_Amalteo_, whose name is a variation of the same. Another name which I
take to be German, without finding the ancient name to correspond, is
_Boiardo_, _boi_ (supposed by the Germans to mean Bavarian) being a
common prefix in Old German names, and _hard_ one of the most common
endings. The French have, among other names derived from their Frankish
ancestors, the corresponding names _Boyard_ and _Poyard_, and we
ourselves have _Byard_, which I take to be from the same origin. Then we
have _Berni_ (O.G. Berno), _Bernini_ (O.G. Bernin), and _Beroaldus_
(O.G. Berowald).

There remain yet two distinguished names, _Alfieri_ and _Guarini_. The
former may be from the O.G. Alfheri, _alf_, elf, and _heri_, warrior,
the sense contained in the former word being perhaps that of occult
wisdom. Hence it would correspond with our surnames _Albery_ and
_Aubery_, Alfheri and Albheri being convertible Old German names.
_Guarini_ may, with somewhat more of certainty, be taken to be from the
Old Frankish name Guarin, formed on the principle already referred to on
other Old German names, Warin and Warno. Hence our names _Warren_ and
_Warne_, and the French _Guérin_. The Wearningas, "sons or descendants
of Wearn," are among the early Saxon settlers referred to in Chapter
IV., and Warin is found as an early name in the _Liber Vitæ_. There are
some other names which may very possibly be of German origin, but the
form of which is not sufficiently distinct to make the connection
generally intelligible.

I conclude this chapter with a suggestion as to the possibly German
origin of one who but of late occupied a considerable place in European
politics, viz. _Gambetta_. This name is of Italian origin, and I venture
to think may be one of those given to Italy by the Germans, and perhaps
most probably by the Lombards. There was a Gambad who ruled over Ticino
in the ancient duchy of Milan, and was subsequently driven out by
Pertharit, who thereupon became the ruler of the whole of Lombardy.
Gambad seems to be probably a Lombard form of Ganbad (_gan_, magic, or
fascination, and _bad_, war), or it might be of Gandbad (_gand_, wolf),
both ancient German stems. This name Gambad would in French take the
form of Gambette,[53] and in Italian of Gambetta. It would be curious if
this name were one left behind by the Lombards (or possibly even the
Franks) in their invasion of Italy, and restored to France to rouse her
to a gallant though unavailing attempt to stem the tide of another
German invasion. And very suitable too would be the name, in the sense
of magic or fascination, to one whose energy and eloquence acted as such
a potent spell to revive the drooping courage of his countrymen.


[50] When there are two Old German names, the former is that which is
found in a form most nearly corresponding with the Italian, the latter
is that which may be taken to be the most correct form.

[51] Names of a similar kind are the O.G. Gervid, our _Garwood_,
signifying "spear-wood." Also the O.G. Asquid, whence the Ascuit in
_Domesday_, and our present names _Asqwith_ and _Ashwith_, signifying
"ash-wood," of which spears used to be made.

[52] Diez takes it to be a contraction of Adalgar.

[53] As in the French names _Gerbet_ and _Herbette_, representing the
Old Frankish names Gerbad and Herbad.



In the present chapter I propose to include a few stems which were not
taken into account in my previous work, or respecting which I may have
something more to say.

I have referred, at page 75, to Lappenberg's theory, that Franks,
Lombards, and Frisians were associated with the Saxons in the early
invasions of England. His theory seems to be based only upon the general
relations which subsisted between these different tribes, and the
various other occasions on which they are found to have been acting in
concert. I have, in a previous chapter, referred to the subject so far
as the Franks are concerned, and endeavoured to show that there were in
Anglo-Saxon times, and that there are in our names at present, certain
peculiarities which are in accordance with Frankish forms, and so far
favour the theory that Franks were among the early settlers.

There is another peculiarity which seems to be found in some of the
names of Anglo-Saxon times, the form _ch_ for (as I suppose) _g_, as in
such a name as Cissa (Chissa) and Cippa (Chippa). Cissa I should
suppose to be the same name as Gisa, that of a bishop in the time of
Edward the Confessor, and Cippa the same as Gyp in Gypeswich. May not
this be a Frisian form? Chippo comes before us as a name apparently


If the above be correct, Chipp, corresponding with an Anglo-Saxon Cippa
found in Cippenham, a Ceapa found in Ceapan hlæw, and Cypa in Cypingas,
also with a Chippo probably Frisian, would be another form of Gibb or
Gipp, _geban_, to give. And Cheese, which appears as Chese in the
_Hundred Rolls_, may represent Cissa as another form of Gisa (_gis_,
hostage). There is a present Friesic name Tsjisse, which, though it
looks more like an attempt to represent a sneeze than anything else, I
take to have the sound of Chissa. Chesson may be taken to be from the
ending in _en_, p. 27, and Chesnut might be from the ending _noth_,
bold, frequent in Anglo-Saxon names. Churn and Chirney, corresponding
with an O.G. Chirno, and perhaps with the Cearningas among the early
settlers, might come in here as another form of _gern_, eager. And
Chitty, perhaps the same name as that found in the Cidingas, may
possibly be, on the same principle, another form of Giddy, Kiddy, or
Kitty (stem _gid_, hilaris).


There are a few Old German names, mostly of women, in Mam and Mum. And
there are also two Old Frankish women's names, Mamma and Momma
(apparently overlooked by Foerstemann), in the _Pol. Irm._ It seems
difficult to take these names as from anything else than the
widely-spread word signifying mother. In an age when names sat much more
lightly than they do now, one might fancy such a word superseding a
woman's original name. I can even conceive the possibility of such a
name, its origin having somewhat passed out of sight, being given in a
masculine form to a son. We have several instances in the _Pol. Irm._ of
such a custom; for instance, where, the mother being called Genesia, the
son is called Genesius, and the mother being called Deodata, the son is
called Deodatus. However, this cannot be taken for anything more than a
somewhat speculative suggestion. As in present use, the French name Mumm
is well known in connection with dry champagne; the Germans have Muhm,
and though I am not quite certain of Mumm as an English name, I think we
may count upon Mummy (ending in _i_, p. 24). Mummery might be a compound
(_hari_, warrior), but from the facility with which _n_ passes into _m_,
I should be more disposed to take it to be a corruption of Munnery,
corresponding with an O.G. Munihari, Goth. _munan_, to think.


_Body_ I take to be from O.N. _bodi_, envoy or messenger. It is found as
an ending in many ancient names, particularly among the Saxons. And in
our surnames it appears sometimes as representing ancient names, and
sometimes more probably as a sobriquet of a later period. In the
"Household Expences" of Eleanor, Countess of Montford, A.D. 1265, the
names of her three messengers are given as Treubodi, Gobithesty, and
Slingaway. These are all sobriquets,--Treubody is "trusty messenger,"
Gobithesty is from A.S. _sti_, a footpath, hence the name may be
equivalent to "short-cut," and the last explains itself. Our name
Handsomebody has clearly been a sobriquet of the same kind, and,
referring to the older sense of "handsome," means a handy or useful
messenger. Peabody, which I think may have been originally Pipbody, from
_pipr_, swift, active, may also have been a sobriquet. So may Goodbody
and Lightbody, but it is by no means certain. We might take our
Lightfoot to have been a sobriquet, but we find a corresponding name,
Lytafus (_fus_, foot) on Roman pottery. Freebody probably represents the
O.G. Frithubodo, compounded with _frith_, peace.


There are two different origins from which this stem might be derived,
A.S. _brego_, king, ruler, and A.S. _bracan_, to break, subdue, crush,
the former being perhaps preferable upon the whole. There are but very
few names in Old German, and Foerstemann does not make any suggestion as
to the origin.

A.S. Bræg (found in Brægeshale), Bracca (found in Braccanheal). O.G.
Brachio, Thuringian, sixth century. Eng. Bragg, Brackie, Bray, Pray.

Ending in _en_, p. 27.

A.S. Bregen (found in Bregnesford). Eng. Bragan, Bracken, Brain.

Ending in _el_, prob. diminutive.

A.S. Brakel (found in Brakelesham). Eng. Breakell.


Eng. Bracking.


(_Had_, war?), A.S. Breged (found in Bregedeswere)--Eng. Brackett.
(_Man_, vir), Eng. Brakeman, Brayman (Mod. G. Brackmann, French
Braquemin). (_Wine_, friend), A.S. Bregowin (Archbishop of
Canterbury)--Eng. Brewin.


We may take the above to be the same as an A.S. Lorta and Lorting, p.
100. And whatever may be the origin, it is certainly not A.S. _hlaford_,
Eng. "lord." There are two isolated names in the _Altdeutsches
Namenbuch_, Laurad and Lorad, both seventh century, of which the
Anglo-Saxon name seems not improbably to be a contraction. The word
concerned might be A.S. _lâr_, lore, learning, Old North. _lærdr_
(larad?), learned. Stark however seems to take Laurad and Lorad to be
Celtic. But in the genealogy of the sons of Woden in the _Edda_ of
Snorro occurs the name Loride, which, though Snorro's names are not
always trustworthy, seems to point to the existence of an ancient
Teutonic name corresponding with those in the _Altdeutsches Namenbuch_,
and so far to favour the derivation which I have suggested.


We find Anglo-Saxon names to account for all the names of the former of
these two groups, viz., Stut, Stuter (_her_, warrior), and Stutard
(_hard_, fortis). The word concerned does not seem to have anything to
do with Eng. "stout," which seems to have lost an _l_, and to have been
originally _stolt_. The group is no doubt parallel with the second
group, which is more distinctly represented in Old German names, and
which may be referred to O.N. _stedia_, firmare, _staddr_, constitutus,
A.S. _stide_, _stith_, firm, steadfast; our Stidolph corresponding with
an O.G. Stadolf, and a Stithuulf in the _Liber Vitæ_.


There are Old German names Focco and Fucco, for which Foerstemann
proposes O.N. _fok_, flight. And there is a Fuca, rather probably a
corresponding name, on Roman pottery. Among the Anglo-Saxons we have
Focingas, early settlers in Kent. Also Focga and Fucg, deduced from
place-names, p. 99. Foerstemann seems to take this as the stem on which
is formed _fugal_, fowl, bird.


The Fleccingas are among the early settlers inferred by Mr. Kemble. And
there are also Anglo-Saxon names Flegg, Flecg, and Flogg, deduced from
place-names, p. 99. The name Flôki, of a Northman in the _Landnamabôk_,
also comes in here. There is also another Northman called Flugu-Grimr,
"Fly or Flyer Grim," a kind of inverted surname. The origin may be taken
to be A.S. _fleogan_, O.N. _fliuga_, to fly. And this group may be taken
to be fundamentally parallel with the last.


There is a Clen in the genealogy of the Merovingian kings, and there is
perhaps an A.S. Clena to be deduced from the place-names Clenanford,
Clenancrundel, &c. It may probably be from A.S. _clêne_, clean, pure.
"The original sense seems to have been bright."--_Skeat_. This may
probably be the sense in names.


The stem _swar_, _swer_, in O.G. names, is referred by Foerstemann to
O.H.G. _suari_, weighty, important, Goth. _swers_, honourable. There is
an A.S. Sweor found in a place-name, p. 102, and there is an O.G.
Suaring corresponding with our Swearing. Also a Suara on Roman pottery,
which I take to be German, and to represent the stem of which Suaring is
a patronymic. I take Squire and Square to be phonetic corruptions of
Swire and Swear, and Squirrell to be properly Swirrell, a diminutive.


Lumbe is also a present German name, and seems to be the same as an O.G.
Lumpe, which Stark takes to be a contraction of some compound name,
perhaps Lundbert. Lump and the diminutive Lumpkin are from _Suffolk
Surnames_, and may be German and not English.


Of the Cnyllingas, settled in Northamptonshire, I find no further trace
in Anglo-Saxon times, nor anything to correspond in Old German names.
The name is also a very uncommon one at present, the above Knell, Nelly,
and Nill being all taken from _Suffolk Surnames_, though Knell at all
events was an English name. Kneller, as the name of the painter, is of
Dutch origin; it seems to be a compound from this stem (_hari_,
warrior). The origin may perhaps be found in O.N. _hnalla_, to beat.


One of the oldest Low German names on record is Hnaf, mentioned in the
"Traveller's Song," written, as supposed, about the fifth century. There
is a corresponding O.G. Hnabi, eighth century, the origin being, no
doubt, A.S. _cnapa_, _cnafa_, son, boy. To this may be placed our names
Knapp, Napp, and the patronymic Knapping. (The name Naf, in _Suffolk
Surnames_, may possibly not be English.) I also take the A.S. Cnebba[54]
to come in here, also Hnibba, found in Hnibbanleah (Hnibba's lea), and
Nybba, found in Nybbanbeorh (Nybba's barrow), and so connect also our
names Knibb, Knipe, and Knipping. Stark also brings in here the name
Cniva, of a Gothic king of the third century, and Cnivida, also the
name of a Goth, placed by Foerstemann to A.S. _cnif_, knife. If this be
correct, our name Knife might also come in here, parallel with Knipe,
and also Knyvet as probably a diminutive. Also Napkin, another
diminutive = Germ. _knabchen_.


The father of the Lombard king Rachis was called Pimo. There is also a
Pymma about the tenth century in the _Liber Vitæ_. As to the origin of
the name, I am unable to offer any suggestion. It may be, as Stark
opines, a contraction of some compound name.


Wamba was the name of a West-Gothic king in the seventh century, and
there was also a deacon of the same name a few years earlier. I do not
know of it as an Anglo-Saxon name, but I suppose Scott must have had
some authority for introducing it as the name of the jester in
_Ivanhoe_. The only derivation that can be suggested is from the Goth.
_wamba_, belly, giving it the meaning of "paunchey." But it was not a
nickname in the case of the Gothic king, for he bore it upon his coins,
and it is difficult, as Stark observes, to suppose such a name for a
king. Finding, however, on certain of his coins the variation Wanba,
Stark is inclined to think that it may be a contraction of some name
such as Wanbert. Was it by literary intuition that Scott pitched upon
such a name for the jester, or did he know of its supposed meaning of

The name may be represented in our Wambey, though it is perhaps quite
as likely to be from some Danish place-name in _by_, such as Wanby or
Wandby. Wampen, however, if there is such a stem, might be placed to it.


There are two A.S. forms, _strang_ and _streng_, represented in the
above. The only Anglo-Saxon names that I can find are a Stranglic dux in
a charter of Ina, and a Streng, found in Strengeshô, "Streng's
grave-mound." Stranglic is the A.S. _stranglic_, strong, and looks like
a sobriquet which had superseded his original name. Streng might be the
same as far as it is itself concerned, but there is an O.G. Strangulf
(_ulf_, wolf) which, along with our own names Strangward and Strangwick,
strongly suggests an ancient baptismal name, and a formation in
accordance with the Teutonic system. The last name, Stringfellow, must
have been a sobriquet,--it probably represents a mediæval Strengfelaw,
and has been rather curiously corrupted, owing to the meaning of
_streng_ not being recognised.


Closely allied to _strang_ and _streng_ are A.S. _strac_ and _strec_,
violent, powerful, brave, whence I take the above. The only ancient
names to correspond are an O.G. Strago, ninth century, and Strocgo,
eighth century. Strain and Straight represent respectively the forms
Stragin and Stragget, formed with the endings in _en_ and in _et_
referred to in Chapter II.


From the A.S. _stearc_, _sterc_, O.H.G. _starah_, _starh_, stiff,
strong, I take the above. This form _starc_ seems formed by metathesis
from the above _strac_,--indeed, all the three forms, _strang_,
_strack_, and _stark_, are etymologically very closely allied. This stem
enters distinctly into the Teutonic system, but besides the simple form
Stark, corresponding with O.G. Starco and Staracho, we have only
Stericker, corresponding with an O.G. Starcher (_her_, warrior).


These names ending in _staff_ might naturally be taken to have been
sobriquets, to be classed along with Shakespear, Breakspear, and other
names of the same kind. But as regards two of them at least, Hackstaff
and Shakestaff, there may be something more to be said. There is an
ending _staf_ in Teutonic names, for which Grimm, referring to Gustaf,
thinks of O.H.G. _stab_, A.S. _staf_, staff,--in the sense, as I should
suppose, of baton, or staff of office. There are only discovered as yet
two Old German names with this ending, Chustaff and Sigestab. The
former, which seems to be from _cunst_ or _cust_, science, learning, may
be the original of the Swedish Gustaf, and possibly of Costiff, one of
the curious names gathered by Mr. Lower. Corresponding with the O.G.
Sigestab, we find an A.S. Sigistef, a moneyer of Coenwulf. And there is
also a Hehstaf, witness to a charter (_Thorpe_, p. 69). Shakestaff,
then, might be a not very difficult corruption of Sigestef (which in
the form of Sicestaf would approach still nearer). And Hackstaff might
represent the A.S. Hehstaf, in which the second _h_ was no doubt
strongly aspirated, and might be more like a hard _c_. I, however, only
bring this forward as a possible explanation; there is quite as much to
be said for the other view, unless other ancient names turn up.


There is in my view no more curious or puzzling set of names than those
which, as above, are derived from _nagel_ or nail, clavis. It appears to
me, though the line is difficult to draw, that they may be divided into
two groups, one of which is the representative of ancient baptismal
names, and the other of surnames of a later, perhaps a mediæval, date.

Connected with the former we have Nagle and Nail, corresponding with an
O.G. Nagal, ninth century, and an A.S. Negle and Næle, found in
place-names, p. 101. Then there are two Old German compounds, Hartnagal
(hard nail) and Swarnagal (heavy nail), respectively of the eighth and
ninth centuries. The former of these two names we have as Hartnoll, and
the Germans have it as Härtnagel. Then I find two more examples among
the Anglo-Saxons, Spernægle in a charter of manumission at Exeter, and
Dearnagle in a place-name, p. 98. Spernægle is "spear-nail," and
Dearnagle is probably the same, from O.N. _dörr_, spear. The latter of
these two names we seem to have as Darnell, and the Germans as
Thürnagel. Then we have Tuffnell, which, as Mr. Lower mentions, was in
the seventeenth century spelt Tufnaile, and might be taken to mean
"tough-nail," but for this we find no corresponding ancient name. There
is a Celtic Dufnal, to which, as being a name adopted from them by the
Northmen, and so having an increased chance of being represented, it
might perhaps be placed. But if this be the case (which I rather doubt),
it would have nothing to do with the present group. The sense in these
ancient names may be taken to be a warlike one, as in the case of other
names having the meaning of point or edge, acies. We find Nægling as the
name given by an Anglo-Saxon to his sword, in accordance with the
ancient custom, prevalent both among the Celts and the Saxons, of giving
names to weapons, and this assists to point the meaning as that of edge,
acies. And it seems to me hardly necessary to assume, with Mone
(_Heldensage_), any connection with the mythological smith, Weland.

Then there is another set of names of which we have a considerable
number, and the Germans still more, which appear to have been given at a
later period, and to be perhaps, at least in some cases, derived from
trade. Such are Horsnail, and the corresponding German Rosnagel;
Hoofnail, and the German Hufnagel; while there are others, such as
Isnell (iron nail), Coppernoll (and Germ. Kupfernagel), about which I
hardly know what to think.


A very common stem in A.S. names is _ean_, the meaning of which remains
yet unexplained. We seem to have received it both in the Low German
form _ean_ and the High German form _aun_ or _on_. The Honingas
(Oningas) among the early settlers must, I think, be placed to it. It is
very apt to intermix with another stem _an_, to which I formerly placed
a few names which I think should come in here.

Stem _ean_, _en_, _aun_, _on_.

A.S. Eana, Enna (found in Ennanbeorh), Hean (found in Heanspôl, &c).
Also Onna (found in Onnandun). Hona, found in Honingas. Ona, _Lib. Vit._
O.G. Ono, Oni. Eng. Hean, Heaney, Hone. Fries. Onno.


A.S. Honekyn (found in Honekyntûn, now Hankerton). Eng. Onken.


(_Frid_, peace), A.S. Eanfrith--O.G. Aunefrit, Onfred--Eng. Henfrey.[55]
(_Hari_, warrior), O.G. Onheri--O.N. Onar--Eng. Honnor, Ennor. (_Rad_,
_Red_, counsel), A.S. Eanred--O.G. Onrada--Eng. Enright (=Enrat?).
(_Wine_, friend), A.S. Eanwini, Inwine (found in Inwines burg)--Eng.
Onwhyn. (_Wulf_, wolf), A.S. Eanulf--O.G. Aunulf brother of Odoaker,
fifth century--Eng. Enough. (_Ward_ guardian), Eng. Onword.


Mr. Kemble finds Impingas in Impington, in Cambridgeshire, though it
would seem incorrectly, as far as the tribe or family is concerned, the
name being only that of a man, Impin. The name Impa is found also in
Ympanleage, in Worcestershire. A sufficient meaning may perhaps be found
in A.S. _impan_, to plant, engraft. To this stem I place Impey, Hemp,
and probably Hamp, while Hamper and Hemper may be compounds (_hari_,
warrior). There is a stem _umb_ in Old German names, which may perhaps
claim relationship.


The Cenesingas, found by Kemble in Kensington, would, if the
Anglo-Saxons had possessed the requisite letters, have been better
represented by Kenzingas, being, as I take it, from a stem _ganz_,
_genz_, _kenz_, referred by Foerstemann to _ganz_, integer. I am
inclined to take our names Chance, Chancey, &c., to represent the form
_kanz_ in a softened form, come to us through the Normans. The forms of
the name in the _Roll of Battle Abbey_, Kancey, Cauncy, and Chauncy, and
the present French names, Cance, Chanceau, and Chanzy, seem to be in
conformity with this view. The French seem to have some other names from
the same stem, as Cançalon (O.G. Gansalin) and Gantzère (O.G. Gentsar).
The forms Cansick, Kensal (both diminutives, and the latter answering to
Chancel), and Kensett, may be taken to represent the native form of the
stem as found in Kenzingas.


Of the Snotingas, who gave the name to Snotingaham, now Nottingham, we
have not many traces, either in Anglo-Saxon times or at present. There
are three Anglo-Saxon names, Snode, Snodd, and Snoding, derived from
place-names, p. 102. In Old German names it only occurs as the ending of
two or three names of women. The meaning is to be found in A.S. _snot_,
prudent, sagacious. The name Snodgrass may be a compound from this stem
as a corruption of Snodgast, though no ancient correspondent has turned
up,--compare Prendergrass, p. 114.


This is a very uncommon name; I never knew of an instance other than
that of the brewer who is handed down to posterity as the friend of
Johnson. So also in ancient times there is only one name on record,
Thralo, for which Foerstemann proposes Old Friesic, _thrall_, swift,


The curious-looking name Earwaker is no doubt the same as an Eueruacer
(Everwacer), in _Domesday_, from _evor_, boar, and _wacar_, watchful,
and it is of interest as supplying a missing link in the study of Old
German names. For the Old German name corresponding to this appears as
Eburacer, and while some other German writers have taken the ending to
be _acer_ (Eng. _acre_), Foerstemann has, rightly as it is proved,
suggested that it is a contraction of _wacer_. Similarly the ancient
name Odoacer, of the king of the Heruli, is proved by corresponding
Anglo-Saxon names, Edwaker in a charter of manumission at Exeter, and
Edwacer on coins minted at Norwich (A.S. _ed_ = O.H.G. _od_), to be
properly Odwacer. From this A.S. Edwaker may be our name Eddiker; and
some others of our names, as _Goodacre_ and _Hardacre_, may represent
ancient names not yet turned up.[56] The second part of the compound,
_wacer_ (whence our _Waker_), is itself a very ancient stem, being found
on the one hand in the Wacer(ingas), among the early Saxon settlers, and
on the other in the name Vacir, probably Frankish, on Roman pottery.


We may take it that our name Shawkey (Shalkey) is the same as an A.S.
Scealc, p. 101, and as an O.G. Scalco, from _scalc_, servant. And the
question is, whether our names Caulk, Chalk, and Chalkey, corresponding
with an A.S. Cealca (found apparently in Cealcan gemero), and our name
Kelk, corresponding with an A.S. Celc, p. 98, may not be forms of the
same name without the initial _s_. Or whether they may be, as I before
suggested, from the tribe-name of the Chauci or Cauci, one of the
peoples included in the Frankish confederation. Of such a stem, however,
there is not any trace in the _Altdeutsches Namenbuch_, which one might
rather expect to be the case, seeing how fully Old Frankish names are
therein represented. However, I am not able to come to any definite
conclusion respecting this stem, which the forms above cited show to be
an ancient one. The French names Chaussy, Chaussée, Cauche, Cauchy, seem
to be in correspondence, as also Chaussier, comparing with Chaucer,
which, as a softened form, I think may have come through the Normans.


[54] Kemble explains Cnebba as "he that hath a beak," which would seem
to make it a sobriquet. But it certainly seems more reasonable to bring
it into an established stem.

[55] This name might also be deduced from another stem.

[56] Unless, as seems possible, Goodacre may represent the Old German
name Gundachar.



It follows inevitably that, among the multitude of names such as are
included within the scope of this work, there must be many which, though
being of ancient origin, accidentally coincide with other words of
modern meaning. And thus there are several which might be taken to be
from names of women, such as the following:--


These are all English surnames, and have sometimes been accounted for on
the supposition of illegitimacy. Now, I am very much inclined to doubt
the existence, at least in England, of any names derived from women,
inasmuch as in the whole range of our surnames I do not know of one that
is _unmistakably_ so derived. There is certainly a case, referred to at
p. 57, of a surname ending in _trud_, a specially female ending, but, as
I have there remarked, it does not necessarily follow that the word is
the same as that used in women's names. There is, moreover, another name
which a little puzzles me, _Goodeve_, which looks as if it were from
the A.S. Godgefa, later Godiva. This is from a special female ending,
and I know of no corresponding masculine. But this might be an
exceptional case, for I doubt not that many a child in England, and
possibly even boys, with an unwonted masculine ending, might be called
after the noble woman who freed her people from the tax--

    "And made herself an everlasting name."

However, whether this might be so or not, the case seems scarcely
sufficient of itself to establish the principle. And with regard to
names such as those of which I am now treating, the resemblance is only
apparent, and, as I shall proceed to show, these are all in reality
ancient names of men. Anna, for instance, was a king of the East Angles,
and Moll the name of a king of Northumbria. Anna, Betti, Salla, Moll,
Pega, are early men's names in the _Liber Vitæ_, and all of the above
are to be found in some kindred form in the _Altdeutsches Namenbuch_.
And some of these names still bear their ancient meaning on their front,
thus Pegg is the "pegger," and Moll (or Maule, the more proper form) is
the "mauler," the stem being referred to Goth. _mauljan_, to maul.

To take, then, these names in order, Anne, which corresponds with many
ancient names besides that of the king of the East Angles, among others
with that of an Anna, Archbishop of Cologne in the eleventh century, may
be referred to O.H.G. _ano_, ancestor. And Hannah (more properly Hanna)
is, with the ending in _a_, p. 24, the same as Hanney and Hann, probably
from the same stem, the _h_ being falsely assumed. Nanny corresponds
with an O.G. Nanno, referred to Goth. _nanthian_, audere. Betty, along
with which we must take Batty, is to be referred to A.S. _beado_, O.H.G.
_bado_, war, found in many ancient names. Sall, along with Sala, is from
a stem, p. 62, supposed by Foerstemann to mean dark. Kitty, along with
Kitt and Kitto, and also Kidd, corresponding with an A.S. Cydd, p. 98,
and a Cyda, in the _Liber Vitæ_, is from a stem _gid_, _kit_, referred
to A.S. _giddian_, to sing. Babb, corresponding with an A.S. Babba, the
name of a moneyer, and other ancient names, is from a stem which
Foerstemann thinks must have been originally derived from "children's
speech." Magg and Meggy, corresponding with an A.S. Mæg and Mecga, and
an O.G. Megi, are from a stem referred to Goth. _magan_, posse, valere;
and May, along with Mayo, corresponding with an O.G. Maio, and perhaps
with a Maio on Roman pottery, is a softened form of the same. Lucy
corresponds with an O.G. Liuzi, a High German form from _liud_, people,
and I think must have come to us through the Normans. Nelly, along with
Knell, is referred to at p. 161, as probably from O.N. _hnalla_, to
beat. Maude stands on a somewhat different footing from the rest, the
surname being really in this case from the same origin as the woman's
name. But the woman's name, as I shall endeavour to show in the next
chapter, owes its origin to an ancient mistake, and is properly a man's

_Names apparently from Animals._

Many of the names apparently from animals are also to be otherwise
explained. A few of the nobler animals, as the bear, the wolf, and the
boar, are to be found in the names of men throughout the Teutonic
system. The lion also and the horse occur, though by no means so
commonly. The _urus_, or wild ox, appears to have contributed a few
names, of which our _Ure_ may be one. I have met with the fox in one
single instance, that of a Northman, Füks, on a runic inscription quoted
by Stevens, though it is rather probable that Foxes beorh, "Fox's
barrow" (Kemble, _Cod. Dip._), may also be from the name of a man. Among
birds, the eagle, the raven, and the swan were common throughout the
Teutonic system, the last, among the Germans, more especially in the
names of women. To account for this, Weinhold observes that along with
the beauty of the swan was contained a warlike sense derived from the
swan plumage of the maids of Odin. But among the Danes and the Saxon
sea-rovers Swan seems to have been common as a man's name, and in this
case the idea was more probably that of the way in which the swan rides
the waters as the ideal of a rover's life. The eagle, the raven, the
swan, the hawk, and the finch seem to be found in the Earningas, the
Ræfningas, the Suaningas, the Haucingas, and the Fincingas, among our
early settlers, though the two last do not seem to occur in the Teutonic
system generally. I doubt all names that appear to be from fishes, and,
with one notable exception, all names that appear to be from reptiles or
insects. That exception is the snake, which was in special favour for
the names of men among the Danes and Northmen, there being no fewer than
twenty-four men called Ormr (worm or snake) in the _Landnamabôk_ of
Iceland. Hence the name _Orme_, rather common among us, and the Saxon
form _Worm_, not by any means common. Among the Germans the snake was,
according to Weinhold, who looks upon it as the type of fascination and
insinuation, in especial favour for the names of women. The two
principal words in use among them were _lind_ (O.H.G. _lint_, snake) and
_ling_ (O.N. _lingvi_, serpent). Hence may be our _Lind_ and _Lindo_,
corresponding with an O.G. Linto; and _Ling_ and _Lingo_, corresponding
with an O.G. Lingo, and an O.N. Lingi. But both of these derivations are
somewhat uncertain, and especially the former, for I venture to think
that _lind_, gentle, is at least as appropriate for women as _lind_,
snake. To come then to the names which I take to be otherwise explained.


Of the above, Camel is another form of Gamol, signifying old; there is a
Northman called Kamol in a runic inscription in Stevens. Leopard (see p.
151) is a corruption of Liubhard. Buck is found among the early Saxon
settlers, also as an O.G. Bucco, and a Buccus, rather probably German,
on Roman pottery, and may be taken to be another form of Bugg, p. 3.
Pigg, corresponding with an O.G. Pigo, must be referred to the same stem
as Pegg, viz. _bichen_, to slash. Rabbit is no doubt the same as a
Rabbod, a "Duke of the Frisians" mentioned by Roger of Wendover, a
contraction of Radbod, p. 119. Catt, along with Cattey, is another form
of Gatty, corresponding with an O.G. Gatto (_gatten_, to unite). Ratt,
corresponding with a French Ratte, may be referred to an O.G. Rato
(_rad_ or _rat_, counsel). Along with Mouse I take Moss, also a present
German Muss, and a French Mousse, all of which may be referred to an
O.G. Muoza, a High German form of _môd_, _môt_, courage; this name
having rather probably come to us through the Normans. Squirrell I have
referred to at p. 160. Goose and Gosling I also take to have probably
come to us through the Normans, as representing a High German form of
the stem _gaud_ (supposed to mean Goth). There are to compare French
names Gousse, Gosselin, Josselin, corresponding with Old German names
Gauso and Gauzelin, the latter a diminutive. Hence also, as a Christian
name, Jocelyn, of Old Frankish origin, come to us through the Normans.
Gander is from an A.S. Gandar, referred to in its place as a compound of
_gand_, probably signifying wolf. Duck, corresponding with a Duce (hard
_c_) in the _Liber Vitæ_, is another form of Tuck, as in the Tucingas,
early settlers in Kemble's list, from the stem _dug_, A.S. _dugan_, to
be "doughty." And Duckling, corresponding with an A.S. Duceling, p. 98,
and an O.G. Dugelin, is a diminutive (like Gosling) from the same stem.
Ostrich represents an O.G. Austoric, and an A.S. Estrich (_Auster_ or
_Easter_ orientalis). Wren, along with Rennie and Renno, is from a stem
referred to _ran_, rapine; though it may also be the same name as Rain,
from _ragin_, counsel. Lark and Laverock are perhaps a little uncertain;
we find Anglo-Saxon names Lauerc, Lauroca, and Laferca, which might be
from the A.S. _laferc_, O.E. _laverock_, lark. On the whole, however, I
am rather more disposed to take them to be from Lafer among the early
settlers (not I think a compound) with the diminutive ending _ec_, and
similarly I would take Leverett to be formed from the same word, _lafer_
or _lefer_, with the (perhaps also diminutive) ending _et_.

Coming to names apparently from fishes, I question very much whether
Fiske and Fish are from A.S. _fisc_, pisces, though Foerstemann, in
default of a better, gives that meaning in an ancient name, Fisculf. I
think it is one of the cases in which a meaning is to be got from the
Celtic, and take it that the Welsh _ffysg_, impetuous, supplies the
sense that is required, of which also some slight traces are to be found
in Teutonic dialects. Shark and Sharkey I take to be the same name as
Sere in the _Liber Vitæ_, from A.S. _serc_, Sco. "sark," shirt, in the
sense of a shirt of mail. It is formed, according to Diefenbach, upon a
stem _sar_ or _ser_, signifying armatura, p. 62; whence an O.G. Saracho,
corresponding with the above. The Sercings are a tribe or family
mentioned in the "Traveller's Song," and in connection with the Serings:

    "With the Sercings I was, and with the Serings."

The connection between the two, however, is here probably only for the
sake of the alliteration. Dolphin is the Danish name Dolgfinnr, p. 48.
There was a Dolfin, presumably of Scandinavian origin, governor of
Carlisle in the time of Rufus. Herring and Whiting are both from the
Anglo-Saxon patronymic, p. 28, and Haddock, with the M.G. Hädicke, is a
diminutive from the stem _had_, war, p. 54. Tunny, along with Tunn and
Tunno (Tunna, _Lib. Vit._), is another form of Dunn, a common
Anglo-Saxon name. Spratt I class along with Sprout and Sprott, comparing
them with an O.G. Sprutho, as from Goth, _sprauto_, nimble, active. And
Minnow, along with Minn and Minney, corresponding with an O.G. Minna,
may be taken to be from A.S. _myn_, love, affection. Salmon is the same
as an O.G. Salaman, from, as supposed, _salo_, dark; and Trout may be
the same as an O.G. Truto, probably signifying beloved. Smelt may be
taken to be from A.S. _smelt_, gentle; it occurs once as the name of an
Anglo-Saxon, but does not seem to be a word entering into the Teutonic
system, and may have been originally a sobriquet. Lamprey I have already
referred to, p. 115, as a probable corruption of Landfred.

Of names apparently from insects, Moth and Mote (Mote, _Hund. Rolls_)
are probably the same as an O.G. Moata, from _môd_, _môt_, courage,
German _muth_. Fly and Flea are included in a stem, p. 159; and Emmet
may be taken to be from A.S. _emita_, quies, found in several ancient
names. Earwig I have taken, p. 49, to be a contraction of Evorwig, as
Earheart of Everhard, and Earwaker of Evorwacer.[57] Many other names of
the same sort might be adduced, but those I have given will I think be
sufficient for the purpose.

_Names apparently from Office or Occupation_:


Lord, as noted at p. 158, can hardly be from A.S. _hlaford_, Eng. lord.
Earl, however, along with Early, seems to be the same word as Eng.
"earl," though as a name entering into the Teutonic system it is only a
word of general honorific meaning, and may not represent any man who
ever bore the title. Abbott I take to be the same as an A.S. Abbod, p.
96, the stem being, as supposed, from Goth. _aba_, man. Nunn, along with
Nunney and Noon, compares with Nun, the name of a kinsman of Ina, king
of Wessex, and with O.G. Nunno and Nunni, the meaning of which seems
somewhat obscure. Bishop, at least in its origin, can hardly have been
from the office, for there is a Biscop in the genealogy of the kings of
the Lindisfari, who must of course have been a heathen. The name in this
case may be a compound of _bis_ (closely allied to _bas_, p. 5) and A.S.
_côf_, strenuous, which we find as the ending of some other A.S. names.
But after the advent of Christianity, a man, though inheriting the old
name, would no doubt wear it with a difference. Priest must, I think, be
what it seems, there is a witness to a charter (_Thorpe_, p. 69) whose
name is Preost, and whose description is "presbyter"; his original name,
whatever it was, must have been so completely superseded by that of his
office that at last he accepted it himself, and signed accordingly.
Alderman I have taken, p. 116, to be, even in Anglo-Saxon times, a
corruption. Such a name, as derived from office, could hardly be borne
by an Anglo-Saxon, unless, indeed, as a sobriquet, superseding his
original name. So also Prentice, from an A.S. Prentsa, I take to be due
to a corruption in Anglo-Saxon times. I am not sure that Prince may not
be from the same name, Prentsa, dropping the vowel-ending and becoming
Prents. A name which has been mistakenly supposed to be from some
office of agricultural oversight is Hayward; it is however an ancient
name, more properly Agward or Egward. Howard, which has been sometimes
confounded with it, is an entirely different name, the O.N. Hâvardr
(_hâ_, high), introduced I think by the Danes or Northmen.

Some names formed with _wright_, as Arkwright, Hartwright, Sievewright,
and Goodwright, will be found in their places in Chapter III. as,
according to my view, ancient compounds. I might perhaps add Boatwright,
from an O.G. Buotrit, and also Cheesewright, for which we have the stem,
p. 155, though no ancient form to represent this particular compound.
The Wrihtingas, in Kemble's list of early settlers, I take to be
properly Ritingas, from a stem _rit_, supposed to be the same as Eng.
"ride," though perhaps in an older and more general sense of rapid
motion. Many names ending in _er_, as Ambler, Angler, Archer, Auther,
&c., are in reality from an ancient ending in _har_, signifying warrior.
Ambler represents an O.G. Amalher, p. 42, Angler an O.G. Angilher, p.
42, Archer an O.G. Erchear, p. 42, and Auther an O.G. Authar, p. 42.
Farrier, along with Ferrier, may represent an O.G. Feriher, p. 49, and
Hurler an O.G. Erlehar, from the stem _erl_ already referred to. Gambler
represents an O.G. Gamalher, and Player is the same as an A.S. Plegher,
from _pleg_, play, probably the play of battle. Then we have Mariner and
Marner, which, with French Marinier and Marnier, may be referred to an
O.G. Marnehar (_mar_, famous), and in a similar manner Warrener and
Warner may be taken to be from an O.G. Warnehar (Warin = Wern). Among
names of this class we may also include Walker, of which there is
abundant instance as an ancient name. Kemble has Wealceringas among the
early settlers, as well as also Wealcingas representing the stem on
which it is formed, probably A.S. _wealh_, stranger. There was in after
Anglo-Saxon times a Walchere, bishop of Lindisfarne, and Ualcar is found
in a runic inscription in Stevens; while, as O.G. names, we have
Walachar and Walchar, and as a present German name we have Walcher.
However, in view of the commonness of this name, it is perhaps only
reasonable to suppose an admixture from A.S. _wealcere_, a fuller.

I may here observe that this same ending, _har_, so common in ancient
names, give us many names which have the appearance of a comparative,
such as _Harder_, _Paler_, _Richer_, &c., and in its other form, _hari_,
many names such as _Armory_, _Buttery_, _Gunnery_, _Flattery_, which we
have also in the other form as _Armor_, _Butter_, _Gunner_, and
_Flatter_ (_flat_, formosus).

_Names apparently from Times and Seasons._

The names of this sort have generally been supposed to be derived from a
person having been born at some particular time. That there are names of
this sort, such as Christmas, Noel, and Midwinter, we cannot for a
moment doubt, but, judging by the early records of our names, they are
of very rare occurrence, and I conceive that in the majority of cases
names of such appearance are to be otherwise accounted for.


Sunday may be Sunda, comparing with an O.G. Sundo, and an A.S. Sunta,
perhaps from _sund_, sea. Similarly Munday may be Munda, to be referred,
along with Mundy, to _mund_, protection, and comparing with an O.G.
Mundo. The other four names ending in _day_ seem to represent ancient
compounds, and in what sense these were given it is difficult to say.
Friday corresponds with an O.G. Frittag and with an A.S. Frigedæg, p.
99, Holiday with an O.G. Halegdag, Loveday (Luiedai in Domesday) with an
O.G. Liopdag (_liub_, love), and Hockaday, with a present French Hocedé,
with an O.G. Hodag (_hoh_ or _hoch_, high). From the character of these
names, compounded with "high," "holy," "peace," and "love," they might
be supposed to have been given in a religious sense, and their date, the
ninth century, would be in conformity. The Anglo-Saxon name Frigedæg, it
will be observed, is from the same word as our "Friday," and not the
same as the Old German name, which is from _frid_, peace. But it seems
to me quite possible that the Anglo-Saxons, having received the name,
might mistake its meaning and spell it according to their own views.
This they seem to do in some other cases, as, for instance, the stem
_wit_, common to the Teutonic system, and rather probably from _wid_,
wood, they seem to take as from _wiht_, man, and spell it accordingly.
Summer and Winter are both ancient names; in the _Cod. Dip. Alamanniæ_
there are two brothers called respectively Sumar and Winter, A.D. 858.
Winter was also the name of one of the companions of Hereward the Saxon.
Pentecost I have elsewhere supposed, p. 120, to be a corruption of
Pentecast, as an ancient name. I rather doubt Lammas, which is found as
Lammasse in the _Hundred Rolls_, and which corresponds with a French
Lamas. Lamisso was the name of a Lombard king of the fifth century, and
was derived, according to an old chronicler, from _lama_, water, because
in his youth the king had been rescued from drowning--a derivation which
may perhaps be regarded with some suspicion. Taking Lammas then as the
representative of an ancient name, we might get from it our name
Lamaison (ending in _en_, p. 27), though if Lammas were from the
diminutive ending is, _es_, p. 32, it could not take a German _en_ in
addition; in this case the ending must be Romanic, which, from the
French form of the name, seems very possible. As to the name January, I
am inclined to look upon it as a corruption of another name, Jennery,
which, along with Jenner, I take to be the same as the Old German names
Genear and Ginheri, from, as supposed, _gan_, magic or fascination.

_Names apparently from Parts of the Body._


With the exception of Foote and Tongue, I do not think that any of the
above are what they seem. Head seems to be probably the same as A.S.
Hedda, which, like another name, Hada, seems to be from _had_, war.
Body is clearly from _bodi_, messenger, p. 157, and Arms is from an
ancient origin, p. 19. Legg I take to be the same as Law, A.S. _lag_,
found in several ancient names. Hence I take Legless to be the same as
Lawless, and both to mean "learned in the law," from an ancient ending
_leis_, explained by Foerstemann as "learned." This gives something like
a meaning to some other names, as Bookless; "book-learned"; Fairless,
"travel-learned"; perhaps Reckless (A.S. _reccan_, to reck, understand).
Finger is a Scandinavian name, p. 50, Heart is a false spelling of
_hart_, hard, and Earheart is Everard, p. 49. Side is from an A.S. Sida,
p. 93, and Back (Bacca and Bacga in the _Lib. Vit._) is another form of
Bagge, _bagan_, to contend. Elbow I take to be Elbo, from _alb_ or
_alf_, signifying "elf." Foote may be taken to be what it seems, though
I think that such a name must have had a vowel-ending, as its meaning
must be "footy," _i.e._ nimble, as "handy," from hand. Comparing with
our Foote there is a name Fus on Roman pottery, which, see p. 4, it is
clear from his little joke, that the owner took to be from _fus_, foot.
It does not follow, as a matter of course, that the old potter knew the
meaning of his own name; there is a word _funs_, sometimes _fus_,
occurring in O.G. names in the supposed meaning of eager; this word
would more appropriately be used without a vowel-ending than would
_fus_, foot. Foerstemann has a name, Fussio, which does not, however,
throw any light upon it. Another name, however, also found on Roman
pottery, Lytafus, corresponding with our Lightfoot, rather seems to
favour the meaning of _fus_, foot. Two other names of a similar kind to
Lightfoot are Fairfoot (properly Farefoot; _faran_, to go, travel), and
Truefitt (properly Truefoot) a name like Treubodi, p. 26. The last name,
Tongue, corresponds with an O.G. Tungo, which I take to be from _tung_,
lingua, probably in the sense of eloquence. We must presume the name not
to be High German.

_Names apparently from Trees._

Names from trees have been generally taken to be derived from a local
origin, as marking the site of a man's habitation. There are, however, a
number of names which I take in some, or in all cases, to be from a
different origin.


Aske or Ashe represents an ancient stem in Teutonic names, perhaps
derived from a mythological origin, man being feigned to have been
created out of an ash-tree, perhaps from being the wood out of which
spears were made (Cf. _Asquith_, p. 148). The Ascingas were among the
early settlers, and Æsc was the name of the son of Hengest. Hence I take
our names, Ash, Aske, and Askey, with several compounds. The Bircingas
were also among the early settlers; the stem seems to be _birg_,
supposed to mean protection, and entering into a number of names
throughout the Teutonic system. Alder, which corresponds with an A.S.
Aldher, and an O.G. Althar, is a compound of _ald_, old, and _hari_,
warrior. The oak, as the symbol of strength, would seem suitable for
men's names, but upon the whole it seems more probable that Oake and
Oakey, Aikin (A.S. Acen, p. 96) and Aikman (A.S. Æcemann, p. 96), are
from _ac_, _ec_, perhaps "edge," acies. Ivy is the same as Ive with a
vowel-ending, and compares with an O.G. Ivo, and an A.S. Iffa, perhaps
from O.N. _yfa_, to rage. Linden is from _lind_, p. 175, with the ending
in _en_, p. 27. Hasel and Thorn are both found in the list of early
settlers, the former I take to be properly Asel, corresponding with an
O.G. Asilo, from _as_ or _os_, semideus; the latter, which does not seem
to occur in the Teutonic system generally, I rather suppose to be a
contraction of O.N. _thoran_, boldness. Willow, along with Will and
Willey, is also found in the list of early settlers, and corresponds
with an O.G. Willo, perhaps from _will_ in the sense of resolution.
Sycamore is from an O.G. Sicumar, p. 162, and Chestnut is referred to at
p. 155. Rowantree is no doubt from the tree, and may perhaps have
reference to its supposed magical powers. Rointru is also a French name,
perhaps a relic of the many Scotchmen who have at different times taken
refuge in that country, though possibly of older origin.

There are a few other names which may be included here.


Stubbe might be taken to be of local origin, for nothing would be more
appropriate to mark a locality than a stub. But the patronymic Stubbing
points to an origin of a different kind, and moreover we find Stubingas
among the early settlers. And there was also a Stuf, nephew of Cerdic,
and a Northman called Stufr in the _Laxdæla-saga_. The origin is to be
found in O.N. _stufr_, _stubbr_, A.S. _styb_, branch, shoot, probably in
the honorific sense of race or lineage. I take Grove, along with which I
put Grubb, to be from Germ. _grob_, Dan. _grov_, coarse, clumsy; but no
doubt in an older sense more suitable for men's names, and probably
cognate with Eng. "gruff," the idea being that of great size and
strength. We find Grobb as an Anglo-Saxon name, p. 99, and Griubinc (son
of Griub) as an Old German name, of which, however, Foerstemann does not
offer any explanation. Grobe and Grove are present German names (the
latter Low German), and Grub and Grubi are found in France. Here also I
may take Twigg, corresponding with an A.S. Twicga, moneyer of St.
Edmund, also with a Tuica found in Tuicanham, now Twickenham. I take it
to be from the same root as "twig," viz. A.S. _tweg_, two, and to have
perhaps the meaning of "twin." (Names of a similar kind may be Twine,
with its patronymic Twining, and also Twiss, corresponding with an O.G.
Zuiso, A.S. _twis_, twin.) Sprigg I class along with Sprague, Sprack,
and Spark, corresponding with a Spraga in the _Lib. Vit._, as from O.N.
_sprackr_, Prov. Eng. _spragg_, _sprack_, smart, active. We have also,
as a diminutive, Spracklin, corresponding with a Spraclingus in the
_Lib. Vit._, and we have Spreckley, probably the same name as that of
Sprakaleg, brother of Sweyn, king of Denmark, from O.N. _spræklegr_,

_Names apparently from Complexion or Colour of Hair._

Such names as Black, White, Brown, have been no doubt in many, probably
in most cases, original surnames. Nevertheless they are also ancient
baptismal names, and it is not by any means certain that these are from
the same origin as the surnames.


The Blacingas were among the early settlers. Blecca was the name of a
governor of Lincoln, A.D. 627; Blaca is an early name in the _Liber
Vitæ_, and Blac is a name in _Domesday_. I am inclined to take Black,
along with Blake, to be (of course as an ancient name) the same word as
_blic_, found in some Old German names, and to find the sense concerned
in A.S. blican, to shine (which indeed is the root of _black_), hence to
give it, like Bright, the sense of "illustrious." Hence I take our
Blacker and the French Blacher to be the same as an O.G. Blicker
(_hari_, warrior)--the ancient family of Blacker, I believe, trace their
origin to Nancy. I further take Blank and Blanchard (_hard_, fortis) to
be a nasalised form of the above, and to have the same meaning. The stem
will be found in more detail p. 46.

I take White, so far as it may be of ancient origin, not to be from
colour; in some cases it may be from _wid_, wood, and perhaps in others
from _wit_, wisdom. In Anglo-Saxon names it is spelt _wiht_, as if from
_wiht_, man--Cf. O.G. Witgar, A.S. Wihtgar, O.G. Witleg, A.S. Wihtlæg,
O.G. Widrad, A.S. Wihtræd, though, as I take it, it is the same word
common to the Teutonic system.

The Brownings (Brûningas) were also among the early settlers, and Brûn
frequently occurs in after Anglo-Saxon times; among others there is a
Brûn bydel, "Brown the beadle," in a charter of manumission. Bruno also
occurs as an Old German name, and Brûni was not an uncommon name among
the Northmen. I am rather disposed to question the derivation from
brown, _fuscus_, and as in the case of Black, to take the sense
contained in the root, which seems to be that of burning or brightness.
One of the Northmen, called Brûni, was surnamed "the white," so that in
his case, at any rate, the name was not derived from complexion. Dunn is
another name that is found among the early settlers, and also in after
Anglo-Saxon times. It seems to me to be at least as probably from O.N.
_duna_, thunder, as from _dun_, fuscus.

The Grægingas (A.S. _græeg_, grey) are also found in the list of early
settlers, though the name does not seem to figure much in after
Anglo-Saxon times. There are Old German names Grao and Grawo, and
various compounds. The root-meaning seems to contain the sense of
"horror," which may be that which is present in names, the idea being of
course that of one who is a terror to others. As well as Gray, we have
Gregg, and perhaps as another form Craig,[58] and the Germans have Grau.
The Myrcingas among the early settlers may perhaps be represented in our
Murch and Murchie (whence Murchison), possibly also in S(mirke). Whether
the name is from A.S. _mirc_, dark, mirk, may be uncertain; Professor
Skeat thinks of _marc_, limes, for the Myrcingas, who are probably the
same as the Myrgingas of the "Traveller's Song."

_Names apparently from Scriptural Personages._

While names taken from the eminent characters of Scripture have, ever
since the advent of Christianity, been in favour for the names of men,
there are among our surnames some names which we must reasonably suppose
are to be otherwise explained.


Of the above, Pharaoh is only a misleading spelling of an O.G. name
Faro, perhaps come to us through the Normans. And Esau is a similar
perversion of another O.G. name Eso, probably from _as_ or _os_,
semi-deus. Cain is, along with Gain, from the name Gagin, Cagen, p. 10,
probably signifying victory. Herod is, no doubt, the same as an A.S.
Herrid in a charter of Wihtræd, from, as supposed, A.S. _herad_,
principatus, found also in some Old German names. Jael I take to be most
probably a softened form of Gale, from a stem referred to A.S. _galan_,
to sing. Potiphar, along with Puddifer, a French Potefer, and perhaps a
Low German Bötefur,[59] I take to represent an ancient name not turned
up, from _bod_, _bud_, or _pot_, envoy or messenger, and _faran_, to
travel, found as an ending in some Old German names. Abel is a name
which, as frequently used for a Christian name, might also be found in
surnames. But there is a Teutonic word _abal_, signifying strength,
which may be more probably that which is found in the French Abeillard,
with which we have a name Ablard to correspond.

_Names apparently Descriptive of Moral Characteristics._

There are a number of names which, if they had been found as Christian
names, might have been supposed to be of Puritan origin, but which as
surnames must be otherwise accounted for.


Of the above, Goodheart and Stoneheart are compounds of _hart_, hard,
pp. 53, 63. So also Godward Lovegod, Lovegood, Loveman, Manlove,
Goodliffe, and Fullalove will be found in their places as ancient
compounds in Chap. III. Godliman I take to be a corruption of an O.G.
Godalmand (the _l_ being introduced in accordance with a principle
referred to at p. 114) Goodenough is referred to at p. 119, and
Thoroughgood at p. 120. Humble I take to be the same name as the German
Humboldt, from an O.G. Hunbald, the ending _bald_ often in our names
becoming _ble_. Saint I take to be the same as Sant, _sand_ or _sant_,
verus, the stem on which is formed Sander in the list of early settlers.

Of the names apparently of an opposite character, Badman, corresponding
with a Badumon in the _Liber Vitæ_, is a compound of _bad_, war. Goddam
stands for Godhelm as William for Willihelm. Swears and Swearing are
explained, p. 160. Scamp corresponds with an O.G. Scemphio, derived by
Foerstemann from O.H.G. _scimph_, jocus. This may possibly be the older
sense of the word, and Scamp may have been nothing worse than a wag.
Pagan, with its contracted form Paine, I have referred to p. 118. Bigot,
along with Pigot, Pickett, and probably Beckett, and a Pigota and
Picotus in the _Liber Vitæ_, may be the same as an A.S. Picced, p. 101,
which I take to represent the form Pichad or Bighad, from the stem
_big_, with _had_, war. There is, however, another explanation suggested
by our name Bidgood. This name, for which the ancient equivalent has not
turned up, seems to be from _bad_, war, and might have been Bidgod (for
_god_ and _good_ constantly interchange), which would readily contract
into Bigod or Bigot.

_Names apparently from Nationalities._

While we have a number of names derived from nations or races in
accordance with the Teutonic system, there are some others which might
seem more obviously than most others to be from such an origin, and yet
which must I think be referred to some other source. Three of these,
England, Scotland, and Ireland, I have already referred to at p. 9.


English I take to be a phonetic corruption of Inglis, which seems to be
the same as an Ingliseus in the _Pol. Irm._, and which I rather suppose
to be a transposition of an Anglo-Saxon Ingils, for Ingisil, from the
stem _ing_, p. 56. Roman, I doubt not, is contracted from Rodman, p. 61,
as Robert is from Rodbert, and Roland from Rodland. I introduce Norman
here as not being, in my view, from "Norman" as we generally understand
the term, but as representing more probably the word in its original
sense of "Northman." Nordman was a Scandinavian name, and hence it is I
think that we have the name, which seems to occur more especially in
Scotland and the Danish districts of England. Genese I take to be most
probably from the old Frankish name Genesius, perhaps from a stem _gan_,
p. 52, with the ending in _es_, p. 33. Turk corresponds with an A.S.
Turca, p. 111, which again is probably the same as a Gothic Turicus of
the fifth century, a diminutive from the stem _dur_ or _tur_ found among
the early settlers, and of uncertain meaning. Spain I take to be from
the A.S. _spanan_, allicere, found in some ancient names, and from which
I take to be our name Spenlove, (_leof_, dear) with the corruption,
Spendlove. The name Spegen, corresponding with our Spain, occurs in the
_Liber Vitæ_ more than once--Is its aspirated form due to the
Northumbrian dialect?

Of the names which are truly derived from nationality I will here only
refer to one as an illustration of successive forms built one upon the
other in accordance with the principle referred to in treating of the
ending _en_, p. 27.


There are three forms, the first representing the form _boi_, as found
in the name of the Boii, who gave the name to Boioaria or Bavaria, the
second representing the extended form found in German _Baviar_, the
third the further extended form as found in _Bavarian_.


O.G. Boio, Beio, Peio, ninth century. A.S. Boia (in a charter of Cnut).
Eng. Boy, Bye, Pye. Germ. Boye French, Boy, Boye, Poy, Poyé.


(_Hard_, fortis), Eng. Byard--French Boyard, Poyart--Italian Boiardo.
(_Man_, vir), Eng. Boyman, Pyman.


O.G. Baior, Peior, ninth century. English, Boyer, Byer. French, Boyer,
Boyreau, Poyer.


(_Man_, vir), English Beyerman.


O.G. Beiarin, eighth century. English Byron. French Boiron, Boyron.

_Names apparently from abbreviated Christian names of men._

As I began this chapter with names apparently from women, such as Moll,
Betty, Pegge, so now I propose to conclude it with names of a similar
kind derived apparently from men.


No one would take our name Billing to be other than from the Anglo-Saxon
Billing, of which so many traces are to be found in English place
names. And no one, I venture to say, who looks into the subject, would
dispute the ancient compounds formed on the stem, p. 45. Why then should
any one doubt Bill himself, the father of them all, or Billy, ending in
_i_, p. 24, and Billow, ending in _o_ and corresponding with an O.G.
Bilo? Moreover the name is common to all the races who share with us in
a Teutonic ancestry; the Germans have Bille, the Danes have Bille, and
the French have Bille and Billey. The same remarks apply to Will,
Willey, and Willoe, with the diminutives Wilke, Wilkie, Wilkin, Willis,
patronymic Willing, and compounds, p. 66. Dick I take to be the same
word as found in Ticcingas, and suggest for it the meaning of power or
vigour which seems to lie at the root. Hence Dickle and Tickle are the
same as the Diccel found in Diccelingas, and Dicken is the same as an
A.S. Ticcen, p. 102, while Dixie (Dicksie) may be from the ending in
_es_, p. 33. Benn and Benny represent the stem on which are formed the
compounds, p. 45. We have also as diminutives Bennoch, corresponding
with an O.G. Bennico, an A.S. Benoc (in the genealogy of Ida, king of
Bernicia), and a name Bennic (Bennici manû), on Roman pottery; and
Bennell, corresponding with a Gothic [Greek: Benilos], in Procopius,
besides other names in correspondence with ancient forms. Tom has its
vowel shortened, but I take it to be the same as Tomb, Toomey, Tomey,
and Dume, probably from A.S. _dôm_, O.H.G. _tuom_, judgment, "doom,"
ancient names in correspondence being Toma, p. 111, Tumma _Lib. Vit._,
and Tomy _Roll. Batt. Abb._ With regard to the last, I may observe that
the French still have corresponding names, as Thomé, Tombe, Thom, Dome,
&c. Then, as diminutives, we have Dummelow, Dumbell, and Tommell,
corresponding with O.G. Duomelo, Tomila, Tumila; and we have Tomlin,
Dumlin (whence Dumplin), corresponding with O.G. Domlin, names in
accordance with both of the above being also found in Germany and
France. Harry, along with Harrow, and Harre, I take to represent the
stem from which we have so many compounds, p. 55. Jack, along with Jago,
and corresponding with an O.G. Jacco, I take to be from O.H.G. _jagon_,
to hunt. Hence as a diminutive, we have Jacklin, corresponding with
Jagelinus and Jachelinus (_Domesday_), and with present German Jacklin,
and French Jacquelin. The stem seems to be somewhat better represented
in French names than in English; among others they have Jacquard
(_ward_, guardian), who gave his name to the Jacquard loom. Boby,
Boffey, and Bubb I take to be the same as Boba, in a charter of Egbert,
and Bofa, dux, in a charter of Ceolwulf of Mercia, also as Old German
names, Bobo, Bovo, Boffo, and Bubo, the word concerned being probably to
be found in German _bube_, Dutch _boef_, boy. Kemble has both Bobbingas
and Bovingas, different forms, I take it, of the same name, in his list
of early settlers. Our name Bobbin, which corresponds with an O.G.
Bobin, may be taken as an example of the ending in _en_, p. 27.

I trust that I have succeeded in making it clear, from the definite
place which the foregoing are shown to occupy in the Teutonic system,
that they are not, as they have been generally supposed to be, familiar
contractions of Christian names.


[57] Cf. also Eng. "e'er" for "ever."

[58] There seems probably an Anglo-Saxon name Crecga in Crecganford, now

[59] Nomen honestissimæ familiæ Hamburgensis (_Richey_). He evidently
takes it as a sobriquet "beet (_i.e._ make up) the fire."



The names of women, so far as they are of German origin, enter into the
Teutonic system precisely as do the names of men, and there is, as far
as I know, no instance of a stem used exclusively for the names of
women. But in regard to the second part of the compound, which is that
which governs the name, there are certain words which are only used for
women. Some of these are such as from their meaning would not be
suitable for anything else, such as _trud_, from which we have
_Gertrude_ and _Ermentrude_, both of which seem to be of Frankish
origin, and to have come to us through the Normans. The Anglo-Saxon form
appears to be _dryth_ or _thryth_, as in Mildthryth, from which comes
our _Mildred_, the only name, as far as I know, in that form. Another
feminine ending among the Anglo-Saxons was _gith_, which, as elsewhere
noted, I have supposed to mean woman or goddess. The only name we have
with this ending is _Edith_, unless, as seems not impossible, an
Anglo-Saxon _Godgith_ (Godith, _Lib. Vit._) has got mixed up with
_Judith_. Another specially female ending was _fled_, in H.G. _flat_,
the meaning of which seems to be beauty. As a prefix this word enters
into the names of men, and we may have some names from it, as _Flatt_,
_Flattery_, _Flatman_, &c. As an ending there may have been some word
corresponding with O.N. _fliôd_, a beautiful woman, which has caused its
special application. Then there are certain words, such as _hild_, war,
and _burg_, in which the meaning (condere, servare) may perhaps imply in
such case modesty or chastity; which, as endings, are used almost
exclusively for names of women. But as a general rule the same range of
words forms indifferently names of men and women, the latter being
distinguished only by having the ending in _a_.

My object in this chapter is only to deal with a few names, in regard to
which I desire to correct some wrong impressions, or to throw some new
light upon the subject. And in the first place I have to refer to the
connection between Isabel and Elizabeth, and to the manner in which I
suppose the former name to have originated.

ISABEL _another form of_ ELIZABETH, _and how it came to be so_.

Miss Yonge in her _History of Christian Names_, is no doubt right in
taking Isabel to be another form of Elizabeth, with which it is
historically shown to have interchanged. But the etymological process by
which this has been brought about has been always somewhat of a puzzle,
and it is upon this point that I have to suggest an explanation. Now the
key to the puzzle is this: that the early Frankish converts in the time
of Charlemagne, introduced the name, not only in its Latin form of
Elizabeth, but also, and indeed more frequently, in its Hebrew form of
Elischeba--it was Elischeba that was made into Isabel and not Elizabeth.
Protected by its strong ending, Elizabeth has retained its form
unchanged. Elischeba has been entirely lost to sight under a cloud of
transformations. Slightly modified to suit Frankish pronunciation, it
was introduced in the first instance as Elisaba, Elisabia, Alisabia, and
Elisavia, all names of women in the _Polyptique de l'Abbé Irminon_ and
the _Polyptique de Saint Remi de Reims_. In the fourteenth century (if,
indeed, it did not take place earlier) we find this old Frankish form
El(isaba) abbreviated into Isabeau, its ending being made to conform to
French ideas of spelling. Isabeau was the name of the wife of Charles
VI. of France, and the name was still recognised as being the same as
Elizabeth. We have got to forge the connecting link between Isabeau and
Isabel, but the process is not a violent one. It would not be difficult
to suppose that the French idea of the fitness of things in the case of
a woman's name would lead them to change this masculine-seeming ending,
_beau_, into what they would conceive to be its appropriate feminine,
and so make Isabeau into Isabelle. We need not suppose that this took
place all at once, or that because one man changed Isabeau into Isabel,
everybody else forthwith proceeded to follow his example. It is more
probable that the two names existed side-by-side, together, for some
time before the struggle for existence terminated in the survival of
(what seemed) the fitter. Throughout all these changes the identity of
the name with Elizabeth had always been recognised; but when Isabel had
finally succeeded in establishing its claim as the representative, the
deposed Isabeau, its origin having been forgotten, might have become a
man's name, and so capable of transmitting surnames, which would account
for Isabeau as a family name in France at the present day.

But these are not the only changes which have come over this unfortunate
name, for we find Elisavia, another of the old Frankish forms before
noted, forthwith abbreviated into Lisvia, and further corrupted into
Lisavir and Lisabir, all names of women in the two old Frankish
chronicles before referred to. And if we can again suppose the name
Lisavir (or rather Elisavir), its origin having been forgotten, to have
become a man's name (towards which its masculine-looking ending, _vir_,
might have assisted) it might well give the origin of the name Elzevir,
of the famous printers at Amsterdam. Not that the name would necessarily
be of Frankish origin, for the Hebrew form seems also to have been
introduced into Germany, where we find the woman's name, Elisba, in the
ninth century; and, it might be also into Holland, while the phonetic
principles which regulate such changes are more or less of general
application. Again, it seems not improbable that the Spanish woman's
name, Elvira, for which no derivation at all satisfactory has been
suggested, might be properly Elzvira, and so again another form derived
from Elischeba. The question might naturally be asked how it is, seeing
the various contractions which Elischeba has undergone, that Elizabeth
has not been treated in the same way. In point of fact it seems probable
that it has, for we find a solitary name Isabeth in the _Liber Vitæ_
about the thirteenth century. This was before Elizabeth had come into
use in England, and the name might probably be an importation. But
abbreviate Elizabeth as you will you cannot disguise it, and this is
what I meant in referring to it as "protected by its strong ending." And
now, having dealt with the diversified forms that have grown up around
Elisabeth, I shall have, in a succeeding note, to endeavour to show that
Eliza, which might more certainly than any other form be supposed to be
derived from it, is, in fact, of entirely different origin, and a name
that was in use long before Elizabeth was introduced; though at the same
time we cannot doubt that as soon as ever that potent name came in,
Eliza would be at once appropriated by it.


But in the meantime I may refer to some other names which seem cast in
the same form as Isabel; as for instance, Annabella, Arabella, Claribel,
Christabel, and Rosabel. With regard to these names, I am disposed to
come to the conclusion, that though moulded into the same shape, they
are not by any means all of a similar origin. Annabella would be a very
natural corruption of Amabilla, a name in the _Liber Vitæ_ of Durham.
The same record contains, as names of women, Amabilis, Amabel, and
Mabilla, of course from Latin _amabilis_--whence our Mabel, on this
theory the same name as Annabella. Arabella, again, might be a
corruption of the old Frankish Heribolda--_bold_, as an ending often
changing into _bel_, as in our surnames Grimble and Wimble, from
Grimbald and Winibald, and Tremble (most infelicitously), from Trumbald
(A.S. _trum_, firm, strong). So, also, Claribel might be from an old
Frankish Clarebalda, of which, however, we have only on record the
masculine form, Clarebald. This appears to be from Latin _clarus_,
illustrious, and is not the only case in which the old Franks at that
period mixed up Latin and German in the same name. It is possible that
Christabel might be from a similar origin; for the early Frankish
converts at that period freely adopted the name of Christ, and mixed it
up with German compounds, such as Cristhildis, a woman's name, from
_hild_, war. But on the whole I am rather disposed to suggest a
different origin for Christabel. Finding among the Franks at that period
such names as Firmatus, Stabilis, Constabulis,[61] and the woman's name,
Constabilla, in the sense, no doubt, of "established in the faith," it
might not be unreasonable to suggest such a compound as Christabila,
"established in Christ," as the origin of Christabel.[62] As to the last
named, Rosabel, the ordinarily-received expression of "fair rose" would
be a natural and graceful name for women if the French had to form names
at a later period. But there is a woman's name, Rosibia, in the _Pol.
Irminon_, which suggests a possible process like that in the case of
Isabel--viz., a corruption into Rosibeau, and then a change into
Rosibel. However, as in this case the connecting links are wanting, I
can only put this forward as a conjecture.

MAUD _properly a man's name. Its interchange with_ MATILDA _an ancient

As Isabel interchanged in former times with Elizabeth, so did Maud with
Matilda, among other instances being that of the daughter of Henry I.,
who was called by both names. Yet, etymologically, Maud can no more be
derived from Matilda than can Giles from Ægidius, by which it used
formerly to be always Latinized. And the interchange is rendered all the
more curious by the fact that Maud, when traced up to its origin, seems
to be properly a man's name. There has evidently been some ancient
mistake or misappropriation, the origin of which I hope to be able to
account for. The names Mald, Maald, Mauld (all names of women), found in
the _Liber Vitæ_ before the introduction of surnames, and the Christian
name Maulde, found in the fifteenth century, show the form from which
our Maud is immediately derived. Then we have the older forms, Mahald,
Mahalt, and Maholt, all also apparently names of women. And in one case,
about the twelfth or thirteenth century, the name stands as "Mahald vel
Matilda." Now no one who has given attention to the subject can doubt
that Mahald, Mahalt, and the French form, Mahault, are the same as an
Old Frankish Magoald, eighth century, from Gothic _magan_, posse,
valere, and _wald_ power. This is distinctly a man's name; indeed,
_wald_, as an ending, is almost exclusively confined to men's names, as
the ending _hild_, as in Matilda, is to those of women. There is but one
way that I can see out of the difficulty, and it is this. There is in
the _Liber Vitæ_ another name, Mahild, which is no doubt the same as an
Old Frankish Mahilda, which Foerstemann (_Altdeutsches Namenbuch_) takes
to be a contraction of Matilda. It would seem, then, that some mistake
or confusion has in old times arisen between these two names, and that
Mahild, which really represents Matilda, has been set aside in favour of
Mahald, an entirely different name. The fact, however, of our having
Maude as a surname would rather seem to show that this misappropriation
was not universal, for surnames are not--unless it be in some very
exceptional cases--taken from the names of women.


ALICE _properly a man's name, and_ ELIZA _its proper Feminine_.

I have seen it stated, though I cannot at present recall the authority,
that in one of our ancient families Alice is a name given to the sons
and not to the daughters. This would at any rate be etymologically
correct, for Alice is properly a man's name, and not a woman's. It is,
there seems little doubt, derived from the Anglo-Saxon Adelgis, of which
the female form was Adelgisa. It is clear that Alice (Aliss) represents
Adelgis, and not Adelgisa, and that the proper female form would be
Alisa, or, for euphony, Aliza. I venture to suggest that our Eliza,
generally and very naturally assumed to be an abbreviation of Elizabeth,
is in fact this missing name. Now, for the proofs of Aliza as the
representative of Adelgisa, we must refer to the _Liber Vitæ_ of Durham,
in which we can trace the changes that have taken place in Adelgisa
since the first noble lady of that name laid her gift upon the altar.
First we find it contracted into Adeliza, and then, from about the
twelfth century into Aaliza and Aliza, the latter name being
henceforward rather a common one. The former of these two contracted
forms, Adeliza, though not a name in common use, is one still given to
the daughters of certain of our noble families; the latter form, Aliza,
I take to be the origin of our Eliza. (The initial vowel is of no
account, the ancient name beginning indifferently with _a_ or _e_, and
Alice in some families appearing as Ellice). But concurrently with the
above forms in the _Liber Vitæ_, we have also Adaliz, Adliz, and Alis,
at an early date, some of them at least being certainly names of women,
so that the misappropriation is at any rate an ancient one.

Towards the close of the record, and about the end of the fourteenth
century, another form, Alicia, begins to make its appearance in the
_Liber Vitæ_, and appears to have become at once a very favourite name.
Then, as now, fashion seems to have ruled, and when a new name came in,
there seems to have been a run upon it. But by this time Elizabeth had
come into use, and as soon as ever that took place, the two names, Eliza
and Elizabeth, would begin to get mixed up together as they are now, so
that a new female form would, so to speak, be required for Alice.
Alicia (or more properly Alisia), is an attempt to supply the euphony
which is lacking in Alisa, by supplementing it with a vowel, just as,
for the same reason, Amala has been made into Amelia.

About the beginning of the fifteenth century another Christian name for
women, Alison, begins to make its appearance in the _Liber Vitæ_. This
name, however, I take to be from an entirely different origin. There is
an old Frankish woman's name, Alesinda, Elesind, Alesint, of the eighth
century, from which, dropping the final _d_, it would naturally come,
and which is derived by Grimm from Gothic _alja_, alius (in the probable
sense of stranger or foreigner), and _sind_ in the sense of companion or

JANET: _Not from_ JANE _or any female form of_ JOHN.

It may seem rather a paradox to suggest that Janet has nothing to do
with Jane, and yet I think that a pretty good case can be made out. We
find Geneta as a woman's name in the _Liber Vitæ_ in the thirteenth
century, before Jane or Joan or Johanna were in use. And in the two
following centuries we have Gennet, Janeta, Janette, and Janet, of
common occurrence as Christian names. (One of these cases is a very
curious one. It is that of one Willelmus Richerdson and his wife
Christina, who having a family of eighteen children, seem to have been
so completely at their wits' end for names to give them, that two of the
sons are called Johannes, two Willelmus, after their father, two of the
daughters Christine, after their mother, and no fewer than three called
Janet. Such reduplication of Christian names does not, however, seem to
have been unusual at that time.) Now it seems clear that the above name,
Geneta, is the same as our Janet, and equally clear that it is not
derived from any female form of John. Foerstemann (_Altdeutsches
Namenbuch_) has an old Frankish woman's name, Genida, tenth century,
from a Codex of Lorraine. And I find also the woman's name, Genitia, in
the _Pol. Rem._, one of the old Frankish chronicles before referred to.
These old Frankish names might well leave a woman's name behind in
France, which in after times might get mixed up with Jean, and from
which our name may also have been derived. I may observe that we have
also Gennet and Jennett as surnames, and the Germans have also Genett.
But these, though from the same stem, must be taken to be from another
form of it--viz., from Genad, eighth century, a man's name. From the
same stem Foerstemann derives the woman's name, Genoveva, sixth century;
whence, through the French, our Genevieve. As to the etymology of _gen_,
the Germans are not agreed, Leo suggesting a borrowed Celtic word, with
the meaning of love or affection, while Foerstemann seems to prefer Old
High German _gan_, magic or fascination.

EMMA: _Its Place in the Teutonic System_.

The ordinary derivation of Emma from a Teutonic word signifying
grandmother, or nurse, becomes impossible in face of the fact that among
the Old Franks, from whom, through the Normans, we received it, the
man's name Emmo was quite as common as the woman's, Emma. But in point
of fact the stem, of which the older form seems to have been _im_, was
one common to the whole Teutonic system, including the Low Germans
settled in England. And the Immingas, descendants or followers of Imma,
are ranged by Kemble among the early settlers. But among the
Anglo-Saxons, with whom the ending of men's names (other than compounds)
was generally in _a_, Imma would obviously not be suitable for names of
women; and in point of fact it always appears in England, at that time,
as a man's name. And probably, for this reason, the Frankish princess
Emma, on becoming the wife of Cnut of England, considered it necessary
to assume a Saxon name in addition to her own, and so become known as
Ælfgifu Imma. But a few centuries later, when the simple old Saxon names
in _a_ had very much died out, Emma coming in as something quite new,
and with the stamp of Norman prestige, became at once, as appears from
the _Liber Vitæ_, a name in favour. As to the etymology, which is
considered by the Germans to be obscure, I have elsewhere ventured to
suggest Old Northern _ymia_, stridere; whence the name of the giant
Ymir, in Northern mythology. The sense is that of a harsh and loud
voice, which suggests huge stature. So, from Gaelic _fuaim_, noise,
strepitus, comes _fuaimhair_, a giant, of which we may possibly have a
lingering tradition in the nursery--"Fee, Fa, _Fum_" representing the
giant's dreaded war-cry. And from what follows, "I smell the blood of an
_Englishman_," one might almost think of the nurse as a Saxon, and the
ogre as one of the earlier Celtic race, who might in those days be
dangerous neighbours.

I give below the stem, with its branches, so far as it forms names of
women. It also enters into some compounds, one of which, Americo,
bequeathed by the Franks or Lombards to Italy, has the honour of giving
the name to America.

Stem _im_ or _em_.

_Names of men._--O.G. Immo, Himmo, Emmo (among others, three bishops in
the seventh and ninth centuries). A.S. Imma, found in Imman beorh,
"Imma's barrow, or grave." Imma, Hemma, Hemmi, about the tenth century
in the _Liber Vitæ_. Eama, Anglo-Saxon moneyer.

_Names of women._--O.G. Imma, Emma (among others Emma, daughter of

_Present surnames._--Eng. Him (?), Yem (?). Germ. Imm, Ihm. French, Eme,

With the ending in _en_, p. 27.

_Names of men._--O.G. Imino, Emino, eighth century. A.S. Immine, a
Mercian general, seventh century. Emino, _Liber Vitæ_.

_Names of women._--O.G. Immina, Emmina, eighth century. Early Eng.
Ymana, Ymaine, _Liber Vitæ_.

_Present surnames._--Eng. Emeney. Fr. Emmon.

Ending in _lin_, p. 31.

_Names of women._--O.G. Emelina, eleventh century. Emalina, twelfth
century, _Liber Vitæ_.

_Present Christian name._--Eng. Emmeline.


Ethel and Adela are different forms of the same word, _adal_, _athal_,
_ethel_, signifying noble. But while Adela is a correctly formed
feminine, Ethel can hardly be said to be so. Both as a man's name and as
a woman's it had usually a vowel-ending, and though this was not
invariably the case, yet a name appearing without it would be rather
assumed to be a man's name. Adeline is a diminutive like Eveline and
Caroline; it represents the old name Adalina, eighth century, and
Adalina, about the twelfth century, in the _Liber Vitæ_, and comes
probably through the French, the ending in _e_ preserving the feminine
by lengthening the syllable. Adelaide is from _adal_, as above, and H.G.
_haid_, corresponding with Saxon _hood_, as in manhood. Hence the name
seems to contain the abstract sense of nobility. The name must have come
to us through the Normans; indeed, a woman's name could hardly be so
formed among the Anglo-Saxons, for, curiously enough, this ending was a
feminine one among the High Germans, and a masculine one among the
Saxons. Hence perhaps it is that we have as surnames such names as
_Manhood_ and _Mahood_, the latter perhaps signifying boyhood, A.S.
_mæg_, boy.


Edith is the only representative in women's names of A.S. _ead_,
happiness, prosperity, from which we have so many men's names, as
Edward, Edwin, Edmund, Edgar. It represents an A.S. Editha, a
contraction of Eadgitha, and the question, which is not without a little
difficulty, is, What is the origin of _githa_? Is it a phonetic
variation of _gifa_ (A.S. _gifu_, gift), so common in Anglo-Saxon names
of women, as in God-gifa (Godiva), Sungefa (Suneva), &c., or is it a
separate word? I am disposed to come to the conclusion, upon the whole,
that it is a separate word, and though the traces of it as such are not
strong, yet there are some traces. There is a woman's name Githa in the
_Liber Vitæ_, and this seems to be the same as an Old Norse woman's name
Gyda in the _Landnamabôk_. There was also a Gytha, daughter of Swend,
king of Denmark. Then there are two Old German names of women with the
endings respectively _gid_ and (H.G.) _kid_. And the origin of all I
should take to be found in O.N. _gydia_, goddess, the exalted conception
of womanhood.


There does not seem to be sufficient ground for Miss Yonge's suggestion
that Eveline, a name which we have from the Normans, was borrowed by
them from the Celts. On the contrary, they seem to have derived it from
their Frankish ancestors, among whom we find it in the eleventh century
in the form Avelina. This appears to be the original form, for we find
it as Avelina in the _Liber Vitæ_ about the twelfth century. And again
in the thirteenth century we find that one of the Earls of Albemarle
married a lady named Aveline. It is probably a diminutive from the stem
_av_, which Foerstemann refers to Goth. _avo_, in the probable sense of
ancestor. The names Evelyn and Eveline should be kept sharply distinct,
the former being a man's name, and the latter a woman's, being the
French form of Evelina, as is Louise of Louisa.

From the same stem, _av_, is formed also the female name Avice, now
become very rare. It appears as Auiza and Avicia in the _Liber Vitæ_,
and its original form I take to be found in Avagisa, eighth century, in
the _Altdeutsches Namenbuch_, from _gis_, hostage. From a similar
origin, but from the masculine form Avagis, may probably be _Avis_,
included by Mr. Lower among Latinized surnames.

Another name from the same stem which seems to have been formerly rather
common, but which now seems quite obsolete, is Avina.


This is another woman's name which has become almost extinct, and,
seeing how uncomfortable a name it is to pronounce, I do not wonder that
it should be so. It appears in the _Liber Vitæ_ as Hawysa, and in the
_Pol. Irminon_ as Hauis, but its proper form is to be traced up to the
older name Hathewiza in the _Liber Vitæ_, from _hath_, war, and _wisa_,
leader. A surname corresponding, though of course from the masculine
form of the name, may probably be the well-known one of _Haweis_.

_Some other Obsolete or Obsolescent Names._

The name Helwis occurs in the _Liber Vitæ_ about the thirteenth century,
and a more perfect form, Helewiza, about two centuries earlier. It seems
rather probable, however, that its proper form would be Hildwisa, from
_hild_, war, and _wisa_, leader. It occurs as Helois in the _Pol. Irm._,
and is the same as the French Heloise (=Helwise). This name I take to be
quite obsolete with us.

A name given by Miss Yonge as still in use is Amice or Amicia. It may
probably be the same as the woman's name Amisa, Ameza, or Emeza of the
eighth century in the _Altd. Nam._, which Foerstemann takes to be from
A.S. _emeta_, quies. In that case it would probably be the same name in
another form as Emmota, formerly not uncommon as a woman's name.

Another name which I rather suppose to be obsolete is Agace, Agaze, or
Igusa, found in the _Liber Vitæ_ up to the fourteenth century, and
probably the same as an O.G. Eggiza, eleventh century, from a stem _ag_,
supposed to mean point or edge.


[60] The principal part of this chapter appeared in the _Antiquary_ for
March, 1882.

[61] Possibly, at least in some cases, the origin of the surname

[62] The earliest mention of this name that I have seen, occurs A.D.
1431, in the _Liber Vitæ_, when one John Duckett, having died at the
remarkable age of 127, his children, one of whom was called Cristabel,
presented offerings at the shrine of St. Cuthbert. These would seem to
be of the nature of propitiatory offerings on behalf of the dead, of
which there are various instances recorded. One of these is that of one
Maria del Hay, who in a large-hearted spirit, seems to have included in
her offering, not only all who had gone before, but all who were to come
after her. The entry is, "Maria del Hay, cum omnibus suis progenitoribus
et successoribus."


    FOERSTEMANN.--Altdeutsches Namenbuch.--Vol. I. Personennamen.--Vol.
    II. Ortsnamen. London, Williams Norgate.

    POTT.--Personennamen. Leipzig, 1853.

    STARK.--Beitrage zur kunde Germanischer Personennamen. Vienna,
    1857.--Die Kosenamen der Germanen. Vienna, 1868.

    WEINHOLD.--Die Deutschen Frauen in dem Mittelalter. Vienna, 1851.

    GLUCK.--Die bei C. Julius Cæsar vorkommenden Keltischen Namen.
    Vienna, 1857.

    WASSENBERG.--Verhandeling over de Eigennaamen der Friesen. Franeker,

    Islands Landnamabôk. Copenhagen.

    Scriptores Rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum, Sæc. 6-9. Hanover,

    Polyptique de l'Abbé Irminon, ou denombrement des manses, des serfs,
    et des revenus de l'Abbaye de Saint Germain-des-Prés sous le regne
    de Charlemagne. Paris, 1844.

    Polyptique de l'Abbaye de Saint Remi de Reims, ou denombrement des
    manses, des serfs, et des revenus de cette abbaye vers le milieu du
    neuvième siècle. Paris, 1853.

    [asterism] The above two Old Frankish records contain a list of the
    names of all the serfs and dependants of the respective abbeys, with
    the names also of their wives and children.

    KEMBLE.--Codex diplomaticus Ævi Saxonici. London, 1845-48.

    THORPE.--Diplomatorium Anglicum Ævi Saxonici. London, 1865.

    TAYLOR.--Names and Places. London, 1864.

    STEPHENS.--The Old Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England.

    MISS YONGE.--History of Christian Names. London, 1863.

    LOWER.--Patronymica Britannica. London, 1860.

    BOWDITCH.--Suffolk Surnames. Boston, U.S.A.

    Liber Vitæ Ecclesiæ Dunelmensis. Published by the Surtees Society,
    London, 1841.


Page 17.

We have also _Tray_ as a man's name, and from the same origin as that
which I have supposed for the dog's name, though the one is from the
German and the other from the Celtic. The stem in men's names is
referred to Goth, _tragjan_, to run, and may probably include also
_Trail_ (=Tragel) and _Train_ (=Tragen), with the respective endings in
_el_ and _en_. Also, from the interchange of _d_ and _t_, we may include
_Dray_ and _Drain_.

Page 20.

Among names of the first century is that of Ingomar, uncle of Arminius,
which is represented in America by the dreadful name _Inkhammer_, though
whether of English or of German origin seems uncertain.

Page 29.

From _Shilling_, as a man's name, is derived _Shillingsworth_, as a name
of local origin (A.S. _weorth_, property), a name like Wordsworth,
Dodsworth, &c.

Page 120.

Some doubt may be thrown upon the derivation I have suggested for
_Pentecost_ by the name Osbern Pentecost, which comes before us in
Anglo-Saxon times. The name seems here to be a surname, and if so would
be derived most naturally from the festival.

Page 159.

From this stem, as found in an A.S. Flogg, may be formed the Anglo-Saxon
name Flohere (_Thorpe_, p. 636), from _hari_, warrior, whence may be our
surnames _Floyer_, _Flower_, and _Flowry_.

Page 171.

Among other names apparently from women are _Ella_, _Eva_, and _Louisa_,
in _Suffolk Surnames_. Of these, the first is a regular Saxon man's
name, and the second is, I doubt not, the same, corresponding with Eafa
found in Eafingas, and with Eafha, the name of a Mercian alderman.
Louisa I should suppose to be the name Louis with a Romanic, perhaps
Spanish, but not female, ending.


[asterism] _All foreign names are printed in italic type, with the
letters distinguishing their nationality within parentheses after them,
thus--(D.) Dutch; (Dan.) Danish; (F.) French; (G.) German; (I.) Italian;
(S.) Spanish_.


    Abba, 25

    Abbe, 25

    Abbey, 25

    Abbiss, 32

    Abbott, 96, 178, 179

    Abingdon, 106

    Ablard, 190

    _Accolti_ (I.), 147

    Ackerman, 115

    _Ackermann_ (G.), 115

    Ackman, 96

    Acres, 79

    Adcock, 35

    Addicott, 34, 35, 43

    Adela, 209

    Adelaide, 209, 210

    _Adèle_ (F.), 123

    Adeline, 209

    Adeliza, 204, 206

    Adier, 43

    _Adimari_ (I.), 146

    Adlam, 40

    Adlard, 40

    Adolph, 43

    _Adolphe_ (F.), 123

    Adolphus, 146

    Agar, 40

    Ager, 79

    Agmondesham, 106

    Aikin, 96, 185

    Aikman, 40, 96, 185

    Ailger, 41

    Ailman, 41

    _Alamanni_ (I.), 147

    Albert, 96

    _Albert_ (F.), 123

    _Alberti_ (I.), 148

    _Alberto_ (I.), 143

    Albery, 41, 152

    Albutt, 43

    Alcock, 34, 35

    Alcott, 35

    Aldebert, 41

    Alder, 41, 96, 98, 185

    Alderdice, 115

    Alderman, 98, 115, 178, 180

    _Aldighiero_ (I.), 148

    _Aldobrandini_ (I.), 147

    Aldred, 41

    Aldrich, 41

    Aldritt, 41

    _Alfieri_ (I.), 152

    _Alfonse_ (F.), 123

    Alfred, 41, 96

    Alfreton, 106

    Algar, 96

    _Algardi_ (I.), 148

    _Algarotti_ (I.), 147

    Alger, 42

    Alice, 204-206

    Alicia, 204-206

    _Alighieri_ (I.), 149

    Alison, 204-206

    Allard, 42

    Allaway, 43

    Allcard, 96

    Allday, 79

    Alley, 26, 79

    Allfrey, 42, 96

    Allgood, 43

    Allnut, 42

    Allo, 79

    _Alloisi_ (I.), 148

    Alloway, 118

    Allt, 79

    Allward, 42

    Allwin, 43

    Allwood, 42

    Almar, 42

    Alment, 42

    Almiger, 41

    Almond, 42, 98

    Alpha, 79

    _Alphonso_ (I.), 146

    Altman, 41, 98

    Altree, 41

    Alvary, 41, 96

    Alvert, 41

    Amabel, 201

    _Amalteo_ (I.), 152

    _Amalthius_ (I.), 152

    _Amalungi_ (I.), 151

    Ambler, 41, 180

    _Ameling_ (F.), 151

    _Americus_ (I.), 147, 208, 209

    Amesbury, 106

    Amice, 212

    Amicia, 212

    And, 79

    Andoe, 79

    Angleman, 42

    Angler, 42, 178, 180

    Angmering, 71, 105

    Anhault, 43

    Annabella, 201

    Anne, 83, 171

    Anning, 83

    _Ansaldi_ (I.), 147

    Ansell, 30

    Anselme, 42

    _Anselmi_ (I.), 148

    Anser, 42

    Anslow, 30

    _Ansuini_ (I.), 148

    Applin, 30

    Arabella, 201

    _Arbogast_ (F.), 21

    Archard, 16, 42

    Archbold, 16, 42

    Archbutt, 16, 42

    Archer, 42, 137, 138, 178, 180

    Ardouin, 55

    Argent, 16

    Argument, 16, 42, 120

    Arkwright, 42, 178, 180

    _Armandet_ (F.), 19

    Armat, 43

    Armgold, 19, 43

    Armiger, 19, 43

    Armine, 18

    Arminer, 19, 44

    _Armingaud_ (F.), 19, 34

    Arminger, 19, 44

    Armor, 181

    Armory, 43, 181

    Armour, 19, 43

    Arms, 19, 183, 184

    Arney, 26

    Arnold, 44

    _Arnolfo_ (I.), 143

    Arnulfe, 44

    Arnum, 44

    Ascough, 44

    Ash, 185

    Ashbold, 44

    Ashbury, 106

    Ashe, 79

    Asher, 44

    Ashkettle, 59

    Ashman, 44, 96

    Ashmansworth, 106

    Ashmore, 44, 96

    Ashpart, 44

    Ashwin, 44

    Ashwith, 44, 148_n_

    Ask, 79

    Aske, 185

    Askey, 185

    Aslock, 59

    Asman, 59

    Asprey, 114

    Asquith, 44, 148_n_, 185

    Atkiss, 43

    Atmore, 43

    Attride, 43

    Attridge, 43

    Auberon, 41

    Aubery, 152

    Aubrey, 41

    _Aucoq_ (F.), 34

    _Audevard_ (F.), 124

    _Audifredi_ (I.), 147

    _Audouard_ (F.), 124

    Audrey, 41

    Aulph, 79

    Auterac, 42

    Auther, 42, 178, 180

    Autram, 42

    Avening, 105

    Avina, 211

    Avis, 211

    Aylard, 41

    Aylesbury, 106

    Aylesford, 106

    Aylesworth, 106

    Ayliffe, 41

    Aylmar, 13

    Aylmer, 41

    Aylward, 41, 96

    Aylwin, 41


    Babb, 79, 171

    Bable, 30, 97

    Back, 79, 183, 184

    Badby, 106

    Badder, 44

    Badman, 44, 191

    Badminton, 106

    Bagge, 79

    _Balcoq_ (F.), 34

    Balder, 44, 97

    _Baldi_ (I.), 148

    _Baldovinetti_ (I.), 148

    Baldridge, 44, 97

    Baldry, 44

    Baldwin, 44, 97

    Balmer, 47

    Balton's borough, 106

    Banderet, 44

    Bann, 79

    Banning, 79

    Barehard, 45

    Barking, 105

    Barlavington, 109

    Barling, 105

    Barmore, 45

    Barnacle, 45

    Barndollar, 122

    Barnwell, 137

    Barwise, 45

    Baschurch, 6

    Basin, 6

    Basingstoke, 88

    Bass, 4, 79

    Bather, 44

    Batt, 79

    Batting, 79

    Batty, 79, 173

    _Baudeau_ (F.), 27

    Beck, 79

    Beckett, 192

    Beckley, 106

    Bedbug, 114

    Beddard, 44, 97

    Beden, 105

    Bedford, 106

    Beeby, 79

    Beech, 185

    Beenham, 106

    Belfry, 45

    Bell, 25

    Bellmore, 47

    Bellow, 25

    Bellringer, 116

    Belly, 25

    Belment, 45

    Belmore, 45

    _Belzoni_ (I.), 147

    Bence, 79

    Beneman, 45

    Benger, 45

    Bengworth, 106

    Benn, 85, 194, 195

    Bennell, 194, 195

    Benner, 45

    Bennet, 45

    Benney, 194, 195

    Bennoch, 194, 195

    Bensington, 105

    Berger, 45

    Bernard, 45, 97

    _Bernardo_ (I.), 143

    Berner, 45

    _Berni_ (I.), 152

    _Bernini_ (I.), 152

    Bernold, 45, 97

    _Beroaldus_ (I.), 152

    Berrette, 97

    Berrier, 45

    Berringer, 45

    Bertram, 46

    Bertrand, 46

    _Bertrandi_ (I.), 147

    Berward, 45

    Betteridge, 44, 101

    Betty, 1, 26, 79, 171

    Beyerman, 193, 194

    Bibb, 79

    Bibby, 79

    Biddle, 80

    Biddulph, 44

    Bigg, 85

    Bigot, 191, 192

    Bill, 1, 79, 194, 195

    Billamore, 45

    _Bille_ (F.), 195

    _Bille_ (G.), 195

    _Bille_ (Dan.), 195

    _Billecoq_ (F.), 34

    _Billey_ (F.), 195

    Billiard, 45

    Billing, 79, 194

    Billow, 74, 194, 195

    Billy, 1, 194, 195

    Billyald, 45

    Binney, 26, 179

    Binning, 79

    Birch, 79, 185

    Birchenough, 120

    Bird, 80

    Bishop, 178, 179

    _Blacker_ (F.), 188

    Black, 80, 188

    Blacker, 46, 188

    Blackman, 46

    Blackwin, 46

    Blake, 188

    Blakeman, 46

    Blaker, 46

    Blanchard, 188

    Blank, 188

    Bledlow, 107

    Blunt, 97

    Bluntisham, 107

    Bobbin, 194, 196

    Bobby, 194, 196

    Boby, 80

    Bodicker, 46

    Bodmer, 46

    Body, 156, 183, 184

    Boffey, 194, 196

    Boggis, 46, 118

    Bogle, 97

    Bognor, 107

    _Boiardo_ (I.), 152, 194

    _Boiron_ (F.), 194

    Bold, 27

    Bolden, 27

    Boldery, 44

    Bolley, 80

    _Bompart_ (F.), 145

    _Bonaparte_ (F.), 145, 146

    Bonbright, 146

    Bond, 80

    _Boniperti_ (I.), 145

    Bookless, 183, 184

    Boss, 80

    Bossey, 80

    _Bötefur_ (L.G.), 190

    Botright, 46

    Botting, 80

    Bottisham, 107

    Bowmer, 97

    Boy, 193, 194

    _Boy_ (F.), 194

    _Boyard_ (F.), 152, 194

    _Boye_ (F.), 194

    _Boye_ (G.), 194

    Boyer, 193, 194

    _Boyer_ (F.), 194

    Boyman, 193, 194

    _Boyreau_ (F.), 194

    _Boyron_ (F.), 194

    Bracken, 157

    Brackett, 157

    Brackie, 157

    Bracking, 157

    _Brackmann_ (G.), 158

    Bragan, 157

    Bragg, 157

    Brain, 97, 157

    Brakeman, 157

    Brand, 25

    Brandy, 25

    Bransbury, 107

    Bransford, 107

    _Braquemin_ (F.), 158

    Braughin, 105

    Bray, 157

    Brayman, 157

    Braznell, 165

    Breakell, 158

    Breem, 80

    Brewin, 157

    Bride, 80

    Bridle, 80

    Bright, 80

    Brighting, 80

    Brightland, 46

    Brightling, 105

    Brightly, 30, 80

    Brightmore, 46

    Brightwell, 137

    Brightwine, 46

    Brighty, 80

    Brine, 80

    Brinney, 80

    Brittell, 80

    Brocard, 97

    Brown, 80, 138, 188, 189

    Browning, 28, 80

    Bubb, 194, 196

    Buck, 80, 175

    Buckle, 85

    Bucklin, 31

    Budd, 24, 80

    Budden, 24

    Budding, 24

    Buddle, 24

    Buddrich, 24, 46

    Budmore, 24

    Bugg, 3, 97

    Bulger, 46

    Bull, 80

    Bullard, 46

    Buller, 46

    Bulling, 28, 80

    Bulmer, 46, 97

    Bundle, 97, 101

    Bunn, 85

    Bunting, 97

    Burchard, 46, 97

    Burger, 46

    Burgwin, 46

    Burleston, 107

    Burman, 45

    Burn, 80

    Burness, 33

    Burning, 28, 80

    Burnish, 33

    Burr, 80

    Burt, 80

    Bussell, 80

    Butleigh, 107

    Butt, 80

    Butter, 46, 181

    Butterick, 46

    Butterwell, 138

    Buttery, 46, 181

    Byard, 152

    Bye, 193, 194

    Byron, 193, 194


    Cadman, 50

    Cage, 9

    Cain, 10, 190

    Calderon, 52

    Caledonia, 8

    Calking, 170

    Call, 80

    Callow, 80

    Calmsden, 107

    Camel, 175

    Cane, 10

    Cann, 80

    Canning, 28, 80

    Cansick, 168

    Cant, 81

    Carary, 51

    Caravan, 51

    Card, 97

    Carder, 52

    Cardwell, 116

    _Carlo_ (I.), 143

    Carrier, 51

    Cart, 97

    Carthen, 52

    Cartridge, 52

    Cashdollar, 122

    Castle, 97

    _Castoldi_ (I.), 149

    Cat, 97, 175

    Cattey, 175

    Catty, 97

    _Cauche_ (F.), 170

    _Cauchy_ (F.), 170

    Caulk, 170

    Caunce, 168

    Chabot, 118, 125, 126

    Chad, 97, 125, 126

    Chadborn, 125

    Chaddleworth, 107

    Chaddock, 125, 126

    Chadlington, 107

    Chadman, 125

    Chadshunt, 107

    Chadwick, 125, 126

    Chadwin, 126

    Chaff, 81

    Chaffey, 81

    Chain, 125

    Chalfont, 107

    Chalk, 101, 170

    Chalkey, 170

    Chalklen, 170

    Chance, 81, 168

    Chancell, 168

    Chancey, 168

    Chaney, 125

    Chantrey, 51

    Chard, 97, 125, 126

    Charing, 105

    Charles, 80

    _Charles_ (F.), 123

    Charley, 80

    Chart, 125, 126

    Charter, 125, 126

    Chaseley, 107

    _Chasseboeuf_ (F.), 139

    Chattaway, 126

    Chatting, 125, 126

    Chatto, 125, 126

    Chattoway, 97, 118, 125, 126

    Chatwin, 125, 126

    Chatwood, 125

    Chaucer, 170

    _Chaussée_ (F.), 170

    _Chaussy_ (F.), 170

    Cheape, 97

    Cheese, 97, 155

    Cheltenham, 107

    Chertsey, 107, 126

    Chesnut, 155, 185

    Chesman, 155

    Chesson, 155

    Chew, 97

    Chewing, 105

    Chichester, 107

    Chilbolton, 107

    Chilcomb, 127

    Child, 127

    Childar, 125, 126

    Children, 125, 126

    Chill, 125, 126

    Chillmaid, 125, 126

    Chillman, 125, 126

    Chipman, 155

    Chipp, 98, 155

    Chippenham, 107

    Chipping, 155

    Chirnie, 155

    Chitty, 155

    Cholsey, 107

    _Chopard_ (F.), 127

    Chope, 81

    Choppin, 125, 127

    _Choupe_ (F.), 127

    Christabel, 201, 202 and _n_

    Chubb, 81, 125

    Chubback, 125

    Churn, 155

    Claribel, 201

    Claringbold, 135

    Claringbull, 135

    Claude, 127

    _Claude_ (F.), 123

    Clean, 160

    _Clérambault_ (F.), 135

    Cline, 160

    Cloade, 127

    Clodd, 1, 127

    Clothier, 127

    _Clotilde_ (F.), 123

    Cloud, 97, 127

    Cloudman, 127

    Clout, 1, 127

    Cloutman, 127

    Clucas, 127

    Clutterbuck, 121

    Coate, 81

    Cobbett, 118

    Cobbold, 53, 118

    Cock, 81

    Codd, 81

    Codford, 107

    Coffey, 81

    Colbran, 47

    Colburn, 47

    Coll, 81

    Collamore, 47

    Collard, 47

    Collie, 81

    Colling, 81

    Collingham, 107

    Colman, 47

    Colmer, 97

    Conder, 54

    Congressbury, 107

    Cooling, 81, 105

    Coppernoll, 165

    Corbould, 51

    Cory, 82

    Cosier, 54

    Cossart, 53

    Costall, 30

    Costello, 30

    Costiff, 164

    Costly, 30

    Cotheridge, 107

    Cottiss, 20

    Cotton, 97

    Coulthred, 52

    Craig, 188, 189

    Creed, 97, 127

    Creedy, 127

    Cressy, 81

    Criddle, 127

    Crimsham, 107

    _Crist_ (I. and G.), 135

    Croad, 127

    Crock, 127

    Croger, 127

    Croke, 127

    Croker, 127

    Crooke, 127

    Cropthorn, 107

    Crotch, 127

    Crotty, 127

    Crowd, 97, 127

    Crowder, 127

    Crowdy, 127

    Cruden, 127

    Crumpecker, 122

    Crutch, 127

    Crute, 127

    Cuckhamstow hill, 107

    Cuff, 81

    Cuffey, 81

    Cull, 81

    Cummin, 97

    Cumnor, 107

    Cunliffe, 56, 98

    Curran, 51_n_

    Curwen, 51

    Custard, 47


    Dacker, 47

    Dacombe, 47

    Dagenham, 108

    Dagger, 47

    Daggesell, 47

    Daisy, 32

    Dale, 98

    Dalloway, 47, 118

    Dalman, 47

    Damer, 47

    Dana, 25, 81

    Dand, 25

    _Dandalo_ (I.), 145

    Dando, 25

    Dandy, 25

    Dane, 25, 81

    Danger, 48

    _Dante_ (I.), 134

    Darlaston, 108

    Darling, 81

    Darnell, 48, 98, 165

    Darrell, 81

    Darrigon, 48

    Darwin, 48

    Daunsey, 108

    Daybell, 47

    Dayer, 47

    Daylesford, 108

    Daymont, 47

    Dearlove, 48, 98

    Dearman, 48

    Deary, 26

    Deller, 47

    Demaid, 48

    Demon, 48

    Denhard, 48, 98

    Denolf, 48

    Denn, 81

    Denning, 81

    Dermott, 48, 98

    Derwin, 48

    _Dettingen_ (G.), 71

    Dialogue, 48

    Diamond, 48

    Dick, 81, 194, 195

    Dicken, 194, 195

    Dickin, 102

    Dickle, 81, 194, 195

    Dicksie, 195

    Didlington, 108

    Dilger, 102, 140

    _Dilhac_ (F.), 140

    Dilke, 24, 102, 140

    Dill, 24, 81, 139

    _Dill_ (G.), 139

    _Dillé_ (F.), 139

    _Dillemann_ (G.), 140

    Dillen, 24

    _Dillen_ (G.), 140

    Diller, 140

    _Dillery_ (F.), 140

    _Dillet_ (F.), 140

    Dilley, 139

    Dillicar, 140

    Dillick, 140

    Dillimore, 140

    Dilling, 24

    _Dilling_ (G.), 140

    Dillman, 140

    Dillon, 140

    _Dillon_ (F.), 140

    Dillow, 24, 139

    Dillwyn, 24, 140

    Dilly, 24

    _Dilly_ (F.), 139

    Distington, 88

    Ditchling, 105

    Dixie, 195

    Dock, 81

    Docking, 81

    Dodd, 81, 98

    Doddridge, 64

    Dodford, 108

    Doggett, 49, 98

    Dogthorpe, 108

    Dollman, 98

    Dolman, 48

    Dolphin, 48, 175, 176

    _Dome_ (F.), 196

    Doniland, 108

    Doran, 27

    _Dorand_ (G.), 150

    Dore, 27

    Dowdeswell, 108

    Drain, 215

    Dray, 215

    Duck, 86, 175, 176

    Duckling, 98, 175, 176

    Ducklington, 108

    Duckman, 48, 98

    Dugmore, 49

    Dugood, 49, 98

    Dumbell, 194, 196

    Dume, 194, 195

    Dumlin, 194, 196

    Dummelow, 194, 196

    Dummer, 48

    Dummert, 48

    Dumplin, 113, 194, 196

    Dunn, 82, 98, 188, 189

    Dunning, 82

    Durand, 134, 150

    _Durand_ (G.), 150

    _Durand_ (F.), 150

    _Durandard_ (F.), 150

    _Durandeau_ (F.), 150

    _Durandi_ (I.), 150

    Durant, 151

    _Durant_ (F.), 150

    _Durante_ (I.), 134, 149, 150

    _Duranto_ (I.), 150

    Durre, 86

    Dyce, 81

    Dycey, 81


    Eager, 40

    Eagle, 99

    Eames, 83

    Earheart, 49, 178, 183, 184

    Earl, 25, 178

    Early, 25

    Earney, 98

    Earp, 21, 82

    Earwaker, 49, 169, 178

    Earwig, 2, 49, 175, 178

    Eashing, 105

    Easter, 82

    Eavestaff, 164

    Eckington, 108

    Edbrook, 49

    Eddiker, 49, 169

    Eddy, 82

    Edgar, 49, 210

    Edgell, 82, 99

    Edith, 197, 210

    Edlery, 40

    Edmond, 49, 210

    _Edmond_ (F.), 123

    Edmund, 210

    Edolph, 49

    _Edouard_ (F.), 123, 124

    Edridge, 49

    Edstone, 108

    Edward, 13, 49, 210

    Edwick, 49

    Effingham, 108

    Egg, 82

    Egle, 82

    Elbow, 183, 184

    Elcy, 82

    Eldred, 41

    Element, 43, 120

    Elgar, 43

    Elgee, 82

    Elgood, 43

    Eliza, 204-206

    Elk, 82

    Ella, 216

    Ellard, 43

    Ellery, 43

    Elliss, 82

    Elmore, 43

    Else, 82

    Elsey, 26, 82

    _Elvira_ (S.), 200

    Elvy, 79

    Elwin, 43

    Elwood, 43

    _Elzevir_ (D.), 200

    _Eme_ (F.), 209

    Emeler, 41

    Emeney, 209

    Emma, 89, 207-209

    Emmeline, 209

    Emmett, 175, 178

    _Emmon_ (F.), 209

    Empey, 167

    _Emy_ (F.), 209

    England, 9

    Engleburt, 42

    Engleheart, 42

    English, 192

    Ennor, 166

    Enough, 98, 117, 166

    _Enrico_ (I.), 143

    Enright, 166

    Epps, 82

    Ermentrude, 19, 197

    Ermine, 18

    _Ermingcard_ (F.), 19

    Erpingham, 108

    Esau, 190

    Esmond, 99

    Ethel, 209

    Ethelston, 40, 96

    Eva, 216

    Evelina, 211

    Eveline, 211

    Evelyn, 211

    Evening, 79

    Ever, 82

    Everard, 49

    Evered, 49

    Everett, 49

    Every, 49, 82

    Evesham, 108

    Ewald, 68

    Ewart, 68

    Ewe, 2, 68_n_

    Ewer, 68

    Ewing, 68_n_

    Exhall, 108


    Fairfoot, 183, 185

    Fairfoul, 120

    Fairless, 183

    Fairman, 49

    Falstaff, 119

    _Falsteuf_ (F.), 119

    Faragut, 34

    _Farcot_ (F.), 34

    Farragut, 49

    Farre, 27, 82

    Farren, 27

    Farrier, 178, 180

    Farrimond, 49

    Farrow, 82

    Farthing, 28

    Fearn, 82

    Feckenham, 108

    _Federigo_ (I.), 143

    Ferdinand, 50

    _Ferdinand_ (F.), 123

    Ferrand, 49

    Ferrier, 49, 180

    Few, 159

    Field, 113

    Fielder, 113

    Fielding, 113

    Filbert, 50

    Fileman, 50

    Filldew, 50

    Fillmer, 50

    Fillmore, 99

    Fin, 89

    Finbow, 50

    Finch, 82

    Finger, 50, 183

    Finn, 82

    Finney, 82

    Fish, 175, 177

    Fiske, 177

    Flack, 159

    Fladbury, 108

    Flagg, 159

    Flatt, 198

    Flatter, 181

    Flattery, 181, 198

    Flattman, 198

    Flea, 3, 159, 175, 178

    Fleck, 159

    Flew, 99, 159

    Flower, 216

    Flowry, 216

    Floyer, 216

    Fluck, 159

    Fly, 159, 175, 178

    Fogg, 99, 159

    Foggo, 99, 159

    Folkstone, 108

    Foote, 183, 184

    Forder, 50

    Fordred, 50

    Forget, 49

    Fortyman, 50

    Forward, 49

    Fowl, 99

    _Francesco_ (I.), 143

    Franklin, 31

    _Fredeau_ (F.), 27

    Frederic, 13

    Frederick, 50

    Freebody, 50, 156

    Freeborn, 50, 99

    Freebout, 50

    Freeland, 50

    Freestone, 50

    _Frescobaldi_ (I.), 149

    Friday, 99, 182

    Froude, 82

    Fudge, 159

    Fuggle, 99

    Fulke, 82

    Fullagar, 50

    Fullalove, 50, 191


    Gaffery, 52

    Gage, 9, 10

    Gain, 10, 99, 118, 190

    Galland, 51

    Gallant, 51

    Gallard, 51

    Galloway, 51, 118

    Galt, 82

    _Gambetta_ (F.), 153

    Gamble, 113

    Gambler, 180

    Gambling, 2, 28

    Gander, 51, 99, 175

    Gandy, 81

    Gant, 81

    Ganter, 51

    Garbett, 51

    Garbrand, 51

    Garbutt, 51

    Garden, 28

    Garforth, 51

    _Garibaldi_ (I.), 145

    Garlick, 51

    Garman, 51

    Garment, 51, 120

    Garnett, 51

    Garrard, 51

    Garrod, 51

    Garrold, 51

    Garroway, 51, 118

    Garstin, 51

    Garter, 52

    Garvey, 51

    Garwood, 51, 148_n_

    Gasting, 82

    Gatliffe, 50

    Gatling, 99

    Gatty, 175

    Gay, 9, 10, 99

    Gedge, 9, 10

    Genese, 192, 193

    _Genett_ (G.), 207

    Genevieve, 207

    _Gennari_ (I.), 148

    Genner, 52

    Gennett, 52, 207

    Gentery, 51

    Gentry, 51

    Geoffry, 50_n_, 51

    _Gerard_ (F.), 23

    _Gerbault_ (F.), 145

    _Gerbet_ (F.), 153

    Gerloff, 51

    Gertrude, 19, 197

    _Geu_ (G.), 10

    _Gey_ (G.), 10

    _Gherardini_ (I.), 148

    _Ghibellines_ (I.), 146

    _Ghiberti_ (I.), 148

    _Ghirlandaio_ (I.), 148

    Gidding, 108

    Giddy, 155

    Giffard, 52

    Giffen, 82

    Gilbert, 52

    Gildawie, 52

    Gilder, 52

    Gildert, 52

    Gill, 82

    Gillard, 53

    Giller, 53, 99

    Gillett, 53

    Gillford, 53

    Gilliam, 53

    Gillibrand, 52

    Gillman, 53

    Gilmore, 53

    Gimbert, 52

    Gippert, 52

    Gipsy, 33

    Gislingham, 108

    Goad, 81

    Godalming, 71, 105

    Godbold, 53

    Godbolt, 53

    Goddam, 191

    Goddard, 53

    Goddier, 53

    Godding, 81, 99

    Goddiss, 20

    _Godeau_ (F.), 27

    Godfrey, 50_n_, 53

    Godhead, 53

    Godiso, 20

    Godiva, 172

    Godizo, 20

    Godkin, 31

    Godliman, 191

    Godman, 53

    Godmersham, 108

    Godmund, 53, 99

    Godrick, 53

    Godsell, 53

    Godskall, 53

    Godsoe, 20, 32

    Godward, 191

    Godwin, 53, 99

    Gold, 82

    Goldbourne, 52

    Golding, 82

    Goldrick, 52

    Goldwin, 52

    Goodacre, 170

    Goodbody, 156

    Goodenough, 120, 191

    Goodeve, 171

    Goodheart, 53, 191

    Goodlake, 53

    Goodland, 53

    Goodliffe, 53, 191

    Goodnow, 53

    Goodram, 53

    Goodred, 53

    Goodwright, 53, 178, 180

    Goodyear, 53

    Goose, 175

    Gorbold, 51

    Gore, 82

    Gorebrown, 51

    Gosbell, 53

    Gosland, 54

    Gosling, 175

    Gosmer, 54

    _Gosselin_ (F.), 175, 176

    _Gosselini_ (I.), 147

    Goswold, 54

    _Göttingen_ (G.), 71

    _Gousse_ (F.), 175, 176

    Gozar, 54

    Gozzard, 53

    _Grau_ (G.), 189

    Gray, 138, 188, 189

    Greenwell, 138

    Gregg, 188, 189

    Grimbald, 54

    Grimble, 54, 202

    Grimerd, 54

    Grimmer, 54

    Grimmond, 54

    Grimstone, 108

    _Grobe_ (G.), 187

    Grote, 99

    Grove, 99, 186, 187

    _Grove_ (G.), 187

    _Grub_ (F.), 187

    Grubb, 99, 186, 187

    _Grubi_ (F.), 187

    _Guala_ (F.), 133

    _Gualdo_ (I.), 144, 147

    _Gualtier_ (F.), 130

    _Guardi_ (I.), 144, 148

    _Guarini_ (I.), 152

    _Guarnerius_ (I.), 144, 149

    Guelpa, 131

    _Guelph_ (I.), 131, 146

    _Gueneau_ (F.), 133

    _Guenin_ (F.), 133

    _Guérin_ (F.), 152

    _Guermain_ (F.), 132

    _Guernier_ (F.), 149

    Guest, 82

    _Guglielmo_ (I.), 149

    _Guicciardini_ (I.), 144, 147

    _Guiche_ (F.), 132

    _Guidé_ (F.), 132, 148

    _Guido_ (I.), 144, 148

    _Guidubaldi_ (I.), 148

    _Guillaume_ (F.), 123, 130, 133

    Guille, 131, 132

    _Guille_ (F.), 132

    _Guillemain_ (F.), 133

    Guily, 131, 132

    Guinan, 131

    _Guinery_ (F.), 133

    Guiney, 131, 133

    _Guinier_ (F.), 133

    _Guiscard_ (F.), 130

    _Guiteau_ (F.), 148

    Gumboil, 2, 54

    Gundey, 99

    Gundry, 54

    Gunn, 99

    Gunner, 181

    Gunnery, 181

    Gunston, 54

    Gunter, 54

    Gunthorp, 108

    Guttwein, 122

    Gwillam, 131, 133

    Gwilt, 131

    Gwyer, 131, 132

    Gye, 9, 10


    Hack, 83

    Hacking, 83

    Hackstaff, 164

    Haddenham, 108

    Haddock, 175

    Hadkiss, 54

    Hadrott, 54

    Hadwen, 54

    Haggard, 40

    Hail, 83

    Hailing, 83

    Halbard, 96

    Hald, 99

    Haldan, 99

    Hall, 83

    Hallgreen, 33

    Halling, 28, 83, 105

    Hallington, 108

    Halloway, 43

    Hambledon, 108

    Hambling, 150

    _Hamel_ (F.), 150

    Hamling, 150

    Hammill, 150

    Hammond, 41

    Hamp, 166

    Hamper, 166

    Hance, 83

    Hand, 79

    Handsomebody, 156

    Hanger, 42

    Hankerton, 108, 109

    Hanman, 43

    Hann, 27, 83, 172

    Hannah, 171

    Hannen, 27

    Hanney, 172

    Hanning, 83

    Hannington, 108

    Hanrot, 43

    Hansard, 43

    Hansom, 43

    Harbert, 55

    Harboard, 55

    Harbud, 55

    Hard, 83

    Hardacre, 170

    Harder, 54, 181

    Harding, 28, 83

    Hardington, 109

    Hardland, 54

    Hardman, 55

    Hardoff, 55

    Hardwick, 55

    Hardy, 83

    Hargood, 55

    Harker, 55

    Harland, 55

    Harle, 83

    Harleston, 109

    Harley, 83

    Harling, 83, 105

    Harman, 55

    Harme, 19

    Harmer, 55

    Harmond, 55

    Harmony, 18

    Harnor, 44

    Harnott, 55

    Harold, 15_n_, 20, 55

    Harp, 21

    Harre, 196

    Harrietsham, 108

    Harrow, 196

    Harry, 194, 196

    Harryman, 55

    Hart, 83

    Hartnoll, 55, 165

    Hartridge, 55

    Hartry, 55

    Hartwright, 55, 178, 180

    Harvest, 21

    Harvey, 55

    Harward, 55

    Harwin, 55

    Harwood, 55

    Hasell, 83, 185, 186

    Haskey, 99

    Hasluck, 59, 101

    Hathaway, 54, 118, 126

    Hatt, 79

    Hattemore, 54

    Hattrick, 54

    Hauxton, 108

    Haversham, 108

    Haveys, 212

    Haweis, 212

    Hawk, 99

    Hawke, 83

    Hawoise, 212

    Hayman, 41

    Hayward, 41, 99, 137, 138, 178, 180

    Head, 183

    Hean, 166

    Heaney, 166

    Heart, 183, 184

    Heasman, 56

    Heaven, 79

    Helme, 99

    _Héloïse_ (F.), 123, 212

    Helper, 99

    Helps, 99

    Helpstone, 109

    Hemingford Abbots, 109

    Hemington, 109

    Hemp, 166

    Hemper, 166

    Henfrey, 43, 166

    Henman, 43

    Henn, 83

    Henniker, 43

    _Henri_ (F.), 123

    Henstridge, 109

    Herbert, 55, 99

    _Herbette_ (F.), 153

    Herepath, 55

    Heringaud, 34

    Herod, 99, 190

    Herring, 99, 175

    Hersant, 55

    Heward, 141

    Hewish, 141

    Hewitt, 32, 141

    Hewland, 141

    Hewlet, 141

    Hibbert, 141

    Hibble, 141

    Hick, 140

    Hickie, 140

    Hickley, 140

    Hicklin, 141

    Hickman, 100, 141

    Hickmot, 141

    _Hieckmann_ (G.), 141

    _Hienne_ (F.), 141

    Higgen, 141

    Highmore, 100, 141

    Higlet, 141

    _Higlin_ (F.), 141

    Higman, 141

    Hignett, 142

    Hildebrand, 55

    Hilder, 55

    Hildreth, 56

    Hildyard, 55

    Hill, 83

    Hillersdon, 109

    Hillman, 56

    Hillock, 100, 141

    Hillyer, 55

    Hilmer, 56

    Hilridge, 56

    Him, 209

    Hime, 83

    Hind, 114

    Hine, 114

    Hinksey, 109

    Hipkin, 31

    Hoby, 83

    _Hocedé_ (F.), 182

    Hockaday, 182

    Hockey, 83

    Hodge, 100, 140

    Hodges, 141

    Hodgett, 101

    Hodgkin, 31, 141

    Hodsoak, 109

    Hoe, 140

    _Hogan_ (F.), 141

    _Hoge_ (G.), 140

    Hogg, 100, 140

    Hoggin, 141

    Hogmire, 141

    _Hognet_ (F.), 142

    _Hoin_ (F.), 141

    Holiday, 182

    Homer, 141

    Hone, 83, 166

    Honey, 83

    Honeybun, 120

    Honeyburn, 120

    Honeyman, 54

    Honner, 166

    Honnington, 109

    Hoofnail, 165

    Hook, 83

    Hopkin, 102

    Hopp, 83

    Hopping, 28, 83

    Horne, 83, 100

    Horning, 83, 105

    Horningsea, 109

    Horningsheath, 109

    Horsenail, 165

    Hose, 84

    Hough, 89

    Howard, 178, 180

    Howitt, 32, 101, 141

    _Hua_ (F.), 140

    _Huan_ (F), 141

    _Huard_ (F.), 141

    _Huart_ (F.), 141

    _Huault_ (F.), 142

    _Hubault_ (F.), 141

    Hubbard, 141

    _Hubbert_ (G.), 141

    Hubble, 141

    _Hubert_ (F.), 141

    _Huc_ (F.), 140

    Huck, 140

    _Hucke_ (G.), 140

    Huckell, 140

    Hucken, 141

    _Hue_ (F.), 140

    _Huel_ (F.), 140

    Huelin, 141

    _Huet_ (F.), 141

    Huff, 86

    _Hufnagel_ (G.), 166

    Hug, 140

    _Hug_ (F.), 140

    Hugall, 140

    _Hugan_ (F.), 141

    _Hugard_ (F.), 141

    _Hugé_ (F.), 140

    _Huge_ (G.), 140

    _Hügel_(G.), 140

    Huggard, 141

    Huggett, 32, 141

    Hugh, 140

    Hughes, 141

    Hughman, 141

    _Hugla_ (F.), 140

    Hugman, 141

    _Hugnot_ (F.), 142

    Hugo, 140

    _Hugo_ (F.), 140

    _Hugo_ (G.), 140

    _Hugot_ (F.), 141

    _Huguelin_ (F.), 141

    _Hugues_ (F.), 141

    Huie, 140

    _Hulek_ (F.), 141

    Hullock, 141

    Human, 141

    _Humann_ (F.), 141

    Humble, 100, 191

    _Humboldt_ (G.), 191

    Humphrey, 50_n_, 54

    Hun, 89

    Hunger, 54

    Hunhold, 54

    Hunibal, 54

    Hunn, 83

    Hunnard, 54

    Hunt, 83

    Hunting, 83

    Huntingdon, 109

    Hurlbat, 49

    Hurlburt, 49

    Hurler, 49, 178, 180

    Hutt, 100

    Hyndman, 114


    Ibbett, 32

    _Ihm_ (G.), 209

    _Imm_ (G.), 209

    Impey, 167

    Inchbald, 56

    Inchboard, 56

    Ingledew, 42

    Inglesent, 42

    Inglis, 192

    Ingold, 56

    Ingram, 56

    Ingrey, 56

    Inkhammer, 215

    Ipswich, 108

    Ireland, 9

    Iremonger, 19

    Irminger, 19, 44

    Irwine, 99

    Isabel, 198

    _Isabelle_ (F.), 199

    Isburg, 56

    Ismer, 56

    Isnard, 56

    Isnell, 165

    Isner, 56

    Ive, 83

    Ivy, 83, 185, 186

    Izod, 56


    Jack, 194, 196

    Jacklin, 194, 196

    _Jacklin_ (G.), 196

    _Jacquard_ (F.), 196

    _Jacquelin_ (F.), 196

    Jael, 190

    Jago, 194, 196

    Jane, 206, 207

    Janet, 206, 207

    January, 182, 183

    Jarman, 51

    Jeannerett, 52

    Jeffcock, 35

    Jeffcott, 35

    Jellicoe, 31

    Jenner, 183

    Jennery, 52, 183

    Jennett, 207

    Jervis, 51

    Jocelyn, 176

    _Jordaens_ (D.), 135

    Jordan, 135

    _Jordan_ (F.), 135

    _Josselin_ (F.), 176

    _Jourdain_ (F.), 135

    _Jourdan_ (F.), 135

    Judith, 196


    Kay, 9, 10, 80

    Keble, 98

    Kedge, 9, 10

    Kegg, 9, 10

    Keho, 11

    Kelk, 98, 170

    Kelvedon, 107

    Kemerton, 71, 107

    Kenilworth, 107

    Kennard, 56

    Kennaway, 56, 118

    Kenrick, 56, 98

    Kensal, 168

    Kensett, 168

    Kenward, 56, 98

    Keogh, 11

    Kettering, 105

    Kettle, 97

    Kettleby, 107

    Key, 9, 10, 80

    Keysoe, 107

    Kidd, 98, 173

    Kiddy, 155

    Killer, 53

    Killman, 53, 98

    Kilsby, 109

    Kindred, 117

    Kinmonth, 56

    Kinnaird, 56

    Kinney, 26

    Kitt, 100, 173

    Kitto, 173

    Kitty, 155, 170

    Klyne, 160

    Knapp, 100, 161

    Knapping, 161

    Knall, 161, 173

    Kneller, 161

    Knibb, 99, 161

    Knife, 161

    Knipe, 99, 161

    Knipping, 161

    Knott, 81

    Knyvett, 161

    _Kupfernagel_ (G.), 166


    Lamaison, 182

    _Lamas_ (F.), 183

    Lambert, 56

    _Lamberti_ (I.), 147

    Lambeth, 109

    Lambrook, 56

    Lammas, 182, 183

    Lamprey, 56, 115, 175, 178

    Lanaway, 57

    Lander, 56

    Landfear, 56

    Landlord, 57

    Landridge, 57

    Landward, 57

    Lanfear, 56

    Langstaff, 164

    Lanoway, 118

    Lanwer, 57

    _Lanzi_ (I.), 147

    Lark, 175, 176

    Lascelles, 139

    Lateward, 57

    Laundry, 57

    _Lauringen_ (G.), 72

    Lavenham, 109

    Laver, 83

    Laverick, 100

    Laverock, 176

    Lawless, 183, 184

    Laycock, 34

    Leamington, 73

    Leathart, 57

    Leather, 57

    _Leboeuf_ (F.), 139

    _Lecoq_ (F.), 34

    Ledgard, 57, 100

    Ledger, 57

    Ledward, 57

    Lees, 84

    Legg, 183, 184

    Leggy, 183

    Legless, 183, 184

    Lemon, 57_n_, 100, 119

    _Leonardo_ (I.), 142

    Leopard, 57, 100, 173

    _Leopardi_ (I.), 151

    Lessy, 84

    Leverett, 177

    Lewis, 34, 118

    Liddard, 57

    Liddle, 84

    Lightfoot, 184

    Limmer, 119

    Lind, 175

    Linden, 185, 186

    Lindo, 175

    Ling, 27, 175

    Lingen, 27

    Lingo, 175

    _Lionardo_ (I.), 148

    Liptrot, 57

    Lock, 84

    Locker, 100

    Lockie, 84

    Lord, 100, 158, 178

    Lording, 100, 158

    Lottisham, 109

    _Louis_ (F.), 123

    Louisa, 216

    _Louise_ (F.), 123, 211

    Love, 84

    Loveday, 57, 137, 138, 182

    Lovegod, 57

    Lovegood, 57, 191

    Loveland, 57

    Loveman, 57, 100, 191

    Lover, 57, 100

    Loveridge, 57, 100

    Lovesy, 100

    Lovick, 31

    Loving, 28, 84

    Lower, 100

    Lubbock, 31

    Lucas, 34, 57, 118

    Lucy, 171

    Ludbrook, 57

    _Ludovico_ (I.), 143

    _Luigi_ (I.), 142

    Lull, 84, 100

    Lully, 84, 100

    Lumb, 160

    Lump, 160

    Lumpkin, 160

    Luther, 57, 100

    Lutman, 57, 100

    Lutto, 84

    Lutwidge, 57

    Lyde, 84


    Mabel, 201

    McDermott, 98_n_

    McKay, 11

    McKie, 11

    Madam, 58

    Maddey, 84

    _Madelungen_ (G.), 72

    Madle, 84

    Mager, 58

    Magg, 171

    Maggot, 58

    Maggy, 84

    _Magini_ (I.), 142

    _Maginot_ (F.), 142

    _Magnabal_ (F.), 142

    _Magnan_ (F.), 142

    _Magnard_ (F.), 142

    Magnay, 142

    _Magné_ (F.), 142

    _Magney_ (F.), 142

    _Magnier_ (F.), 142

    _Mahault_ (F.), 204

    Mahood, 210

    Maiden, 28

    Maidman, 59

    _Maignan_ (F.), 142

    _Mainardi_ (I.), 142

    _Mainardo_ (I.), 142

    _Mainbourg_ (F.), 142

    _Maineri_ (I.), 142

    _Mainfroy_ (F.), 142

    _Maingault_ (F.), 142

    _Maingot_ (F.), 34, 142

    Maliff, 58

    Mallard, 58

    Malling, 105

    Mallory, 58

    Malmsbury, 109

    Malthus, 58

    Maltwood, 59

    Manfred, 58

    _Manfredi_ (I.), 147

    Manger, 58, 142

    Manhood, 210

    Manigault, 58

    Manlove, 58, 191

    Mann, 84

    Manning, 28, 84

    _Maraldi_ (I.), 147

    Marcher, 59

    Margot, 58

    Marigold, 58

    Mariner, 178, 180

    _Marinier_ (F.), 181

    Marker, 59

    Marklove, 59

    Markwick, 59

    Marl, 84

    Marling, 84

    _Marnier_ (F.), 181

    Marr, 25, 84

    Marrow, 25

    Marry, 25

    Marvey, 58

    Marvin, 58

    Marwick, 58

    Massey, 84

    Mather, 58

    _Mathilde_ (F.), 123

    Matilda, 203, 204

    Maud, 203, 204

    Maude, 171

    May, 84, 171

    Mayer, 58

    Maynard, 58, 142

    _Maynard_ (F.), 142

    Mayne, 142

    _Maynier_ (F.), 142

    Mayo, 171, 173

    Meadway, 59

    Meddiman, 59

    Medland, 59

    Medlar, 59

    Medlicott, 34, 59

    Medlock, 59

    Medwin, 59

    Meggy, 171

    Megrin, 58

    _Mehne_ (G.), 142

    _Meiner_ (G.), 142

    _Meinert_ (G.), 142

    Melloday, 59

    Mellowdew, 59

    Melody, 59

    Merrill, 84

    Merriment, 120

    Merry, 85

    Messing, 84

    Methold, 59

    Michie, 84

    Mico, 84

    Mildred, 116, 197

    Millard, 59

    Milldolar, 122

    Millie, 84

    Millinge, 84

    Milo, 84

    Minn, 178

    Minney, 178

    Minnow, 175, 178

    Mitcheldover, 109

    Moder, 59

    Moll, 1, 171

    Monday, 182

    Monument, 120

    Moore, 11

    Mote, 175, 178

    Moth, 175, 178

    Mottram, 59

    Moule, 100

    Moulsey, 109

    Moulsham, 109

    Mouse, 175

    _Mousse_ (F.), 176

    Muckett, 100

    Mudridge, 59

    Mumm, 155

    Mummery, 155

    Mummy, 155

    Munday, 182

    Mundell, 30, 84

    Mundella, 30

    Mundham, 109

    Mundy, 182

    Murch, 84, 188, 189

    Murchie, 84, 188, 189

    Murchison, 189

    Mutrie, 59


    Naf, 161

    Nagle, 101, 165

    Nail, 101, 165

    Nanny, 2, 171

    Napkin, 161

    Napp, 1, 161

    Neate, 84

    Need, 84

    Nelly, 161, 171

    Nettleton, 109

    Nibbs, 101

    Nield, 114

    Nielson, 12

    Nill, 161

    Noon, 179

    Norcock, 34, 35

    Norcott, 35

    Norman, 192, 193

    Northcott, 34

    Nott, 84

    Nunn, 178, 179

    Nunney, 179

    Nuttall, 81

    Nutting, 84


    Oake, 185, 186

    Oakey, 185, 186

    _Odeschalchi_ (I.), 147

    _Odevico_ (I.), 147

    _Odoardo_ (I.), 124, 143

    Offley, 109

    Old, 79

    Oldacre, 41

    Olding, 79

    Oldridge, 41

    Ombersley, 106

    Onken, 166

    _Onofrio_ (I.), 142

    Onwhyn, 166

    _Orlandi_ (I.), 147

    Orleston, 109

    Orlop, 101

    Orme, 174

    Ormerod, 43

    Ormsby, 109

    Osborn, 59

    Osgodby, 109

    Osgood, 59

    Osman, 59

    Osmer, 59

    Osmington, 109

    Osmond, 60

    Ostrich, 175

    Oswald, 60, 101

    Oswaldslow, 109

    Oswin, 60

    _Ouarnier_ (F.), 149

    Ough, 86

    Outram, 42

    Ovington, 111

    Owen, 101

    Oyster, 122

    Oysterman, 122


    Paddington, 110

    Padworth, 110

    Pagan, 191, 192

    Pagham, 110

    Paine, 118, 192

    Paler, 181

    Paley, 26, 84

    Palfrey, 47

    Paling, 84

    Papillon, 31

    Paragreen, 45

    Paramore, 45

    Parez, 33

    Paris, 33

    Partrick, 46

    Partridge, 46

    Pascoe, 135

    Pash, 135

    Paske, 135

    _Pasquin_ (F.), 135

    Pass, 79

    Patching, 105

    Paton, 90

    Patrington, 110

    Pattingham, 110

    Payne, 118

    Peabody, 156

    Peat, 91

    Peck, 79

    Pegg, 2, 85, 171

    Pendegast, 114

    Pender, 44, 101

    Pendered, 44

    Pendgast, 114, 115

    _Penicaud_ (F.), 34

    Penman, 45

    Penn, 85

    Pennell, 101

    Pennycad, 34, 45

    Pensham, 110

    Pentecast, 120, 183

    Pentecost, 120, 182, 183, 215

    Perman, 45

    Perriam, 45

    Perrott, 45

    Petersham, 110

    Petridge, 110

    Peyton, 90, 101

    Pharoah, 190

    _Philibert_ (F.), 123

    Phillimore, 50, 99

    Pickett, 101, 192

    Picton, 90

    Picture, 91

    Piddel, 101

    Pigot, 192

    Pilgrim, 45

    Pim, 162

    Pindard, 44

    Piper, 85

    Pippin, 101

    Pirner, 45

    Pitt, 83

    Player, 178, 180

    Plowman, 178, 180

    Pollard, 46

    Poppy, 80

    Portisham, 110

    _Potefer_ (F.), 190

    Potiphar, 190

    Pott, 80

    Potten, 101

    Pottle, 101

    Potto, 80

    _Poy_ (F.), 194

    _Poyard_ (F.), 152

    _Poyart_ (F.), 194

    _Poyé_ (F.), 194

    _Poyer_ (F.), 194

    Poynings, 105

    Pray, 157

    Prendergast, 114, 115

    Prendergrass, 114

    Prentice, 178, 179

    Prentiss, 32, 101, 116

    Priest, 178, 179

    Prince, 178, 179

    Proudfoot, 116

    Puck, 80

    Puckle, 85

    Puddifer, 190

    Punt, 101

    Purdue, 45

    Purgold, 46

    Purland, 45

    Pye, 193, 194

    Pym, 162

    Pyman, 193, 194


    Quail, 131, 133

    Quaint, 131, 133

    Quaker, 131

    Qualey, 131, 133

    Quantock, 131, 133

    Quare, 131

    Quarman, 131, 132

    Quarrier, 131, 132

    Quarry, 131

    Quart, 134

    Quary, 131

    Quash, 131

    Quear, 131

    Queen, 131, 133

    Queenan, 131, 133

    Queeney, 131, 133

    _Quenay_ (F.), 133

    _Querrey_ (F.), 131

    Query, 131

    Quick, 131, 132

    Quiddy, 131, 132

    Quier, 131, 132

    Quig, 131, 132

    Quiggle, 131, 132

    Quil, 131, 132

    Quilke, 131, 133

    _Quillac_ (F.), 133

    _Quillé_ (F.), 132

    Quillinan, 131, 133

    Quillman, 131, 133

    Quilt, 131, 134

    Quilter, 131, 134

    Quilty, 131, 134

    Quin, 131, 133

    Quinan, 131, 133

    _Quineau_ (F.), 133

    Quiner, 131, 133

    _Quinier_ (F.), 133

    Quint, 131, 133

    _Quinty_ (F.), 133

    Quire, 131, 132

    _Quirini_ (I.), 147

    Quitman, 131, 132

    Quittacus, 131, 132

    Quy, 131, 132

    _Quyo_ (F.), 132


    Rabbit, 118

    Raddish, 33

    Rackham, 60

    Radmore, 60

    _Raimondi_ (I.), 147

    Rain, 176

    Rainbird, 60

    Rainford, 60

    Ralph, 60, 101, 118

    Ramsden, 110

    Ranacre, 60

    Ranger, 60

    Rarey, 60

    Rathbold, 60

    Rathbone, 60

    Rather, 60

    Ratliffe, 60

    Rattham, 60

    Rattray, 60

    Raven, 85

    Raybauld, 60

    Raybolt, 60

    Rayment, 60, 120

    Raymond, 60

    Raynbold, 60

    Raynham, 60

    Read, 83

    Reading, 105

    Readwin, 60, 101

    Reckless, 183

    Redband, 60

    Reddaway, 60

    Reddish, 33

    Redgill, 60

    Redman, 60, 61

    Redmarley, 110

    Redmond, 60

    Redmore, 60

    Redwar, 60

    Regal, 85

    Reginald, 13

    Regnard, 60

    Rennie, 86, 176

    Renno, 176

    Reulver, 110

    Reynard, 60

    Reyner, 60

    Reynolds, 60

    Riccard, 61

    Rich, 85

    Richard, 61

    _Richarde_ (F.), 123

    Richbell, 61

    Richer, 61, 181

    Riches, 32

    Richey, 85

    _Richez_ (F.), 32

    Richman, 61

    Richmond, 61

    Richold, 61

    Rickinghall, 110

    Rickman, 61

    Ridding, 85

    Riddle, 86

    Riddy, 85

    Ridgway, 61

    Ridgyard, 61

    _Ridolphi_ (I.), 143

    Ringer, 61

    Ringold, 61, 100

    Ringstead, 110

    Ripley, 83

    Ritta, 85

    Robert, 61

    _Robert_ (F.), 123

    _Roberti_ (I.), 147

    Rock, 85

    Rodber, 61

    Rodbourn, 61

    Rodborough, 110

    Rodd, 85

    Rodgard, 61

    Rodger, 61

    Rodman, 61, 192

    Rodney, 61

    Rodrick, 61

    Rodyard, 61

    _Rointru_ (F.), 186

    Roland, 118

    _Rolandini_ (I.), 147

    Rolfe, 61, 118

    Rolland, 61

    Rolle, 85

    Rollesby, 110

    Rolleston, 110

    Roman, 61, 118, 192

    Roothing, 105

    Rosbert, 61

    Roskell, 61

    _Rosnagel_ (G.), 166

    Ross, 85

    Rotherham, 61

    Rothery, 61

    Rowantree, 185, 186

    Rubery, 101

    Ruck, 85

    Rudd, 85

    Rudder, 61

    Rudding, 85

    _Rudolfe_ (F.), 123

    Rudwick, 61

    Rugg, 85

    Rumbold, 62, 101

    Rummer, 62

    Runwell, 137

    Rush, 85

    Rutledge, 61


    _Sacchi_ (I.), 147

    Saint, 191

    Sala, 86

    Salaman, 178

    Sale, 86

    Salloway, 62

    Salmon, 62, 175, 178

    Sander, 85

    Sargood, 66

    Sarle, 85

    Sarratt, 62

    Satchell, 83

    Scales, 86

    Scally, 86

    Scamp, 191

    Scard, 83

    Scarth, 85

    _Schilling_ (G.), 29

    Scotland, 8

    Scott, 6

    Scotten, 8

    Scotting, 8

    Scotto, 8

    Seaber, 63

    Seaborn, 63

    Seabright, 63, 102_n_

    Seabrook, 63

    Seabury, 63

    Searight, 63

    Searle, 85

    Seawall, 63

    Seaward, 63

    Sedgeberrow, 110

    Sedgewick, 62

    Sefowl, 63

    Segar, 62, 102

    Seguin, 62

    Self, 85

    Sellar, 62

    Selvey, 86

    Sempringham, 88

    Serbutt, 62

    Sermon, 62

    Seward, 63

    Seyfried, 62

    Seymore, 15, 20, 62, 118

    Seymour, 102

    Shaft, 101

    Shaftesbury, 110

    Shafto, 101

    Shakestaff, 164

    Shark, 175, 177

    Sharkey, 175

    Shawkey, 101, 170

    Sheaf, 86

    Shield, 29, 101

    Shilling, 29, 215

    Shillingsworth, 215

    Shinn, 86

    Shirley, 86

    Sholl, 101

    Shovel, 86

    Shute, 85, 101

    Shuter, 101

    Sibbald, 62, 118

    Sibbertswold, 110

    Sibert, 62, 102, 118

    Sick, 86

    Sickle, 83

    Sickling, 85

    Sickman, 62

    Side, 183

    Sidlesham, 110

    Sievewright, 63, 178, 180

    Siggs, 86

    Sigournay, 115

    Siksworth, 110

    Simmond, 62

    Siney, 86

    _Sinibaldo_ (I.), 143

    _Sismondi_ (I.), 147

    Skeat, 85, 101

    Skitt, 85

    Smelt, 175, 178

    Smirke, 188, 189

    Snare, 86

    Snell, 102

    Snoad, 86, 168

    Snodd, 102

    Snodgast, 169

    Snodgrass, 114_n_, 168

    Snodin, 168

    Snodland, 110

    Snowden, 168

    Somerleyton, 110

    Somersham, 110

    Sommerlat, 102

    Spain, 192, 193

    Spark, 186, 187

    Speck, 86

    Spendlove, 193

    Spenlove, 193

    Sprack, 186, 187

    Spracklin, 186, 187

    Sprague, 186, 187

    Spratt, 175, 177

    Spreckly, 186, 187

    Sprigg, 186, 187

    Sprott, 177

    Sprout, 177

    Square, 160

    Squarey, 160

    Squire, 160

    Squirrell, 160, 175

    Stadd, 159

    Stainburn, 63

    Stainer, 63

    Starbuck, 120

    Starch, 164

    Stark, 164

    Starkie, 164

    Starr, 164

    Steamburg, 63

    Steed, 159

    Stell, 86

    Stenning, 86

    Stericker, 164

    Sternhold, 63, 116

    Steyning, 106

    Stidolph, 159

    Stitt, 159

    Stoddart, 159

    Stonard, 63

    Stone, 86

    Stoneheart, 63, 191

    Stoner, 63

    Stonhold, 63

    Stothard, 102

    Stott, 102, 159

    Stout, 102, 159

    _Stradivarius_ (I.), 149

    Straight, 163

    Strain, 163

    Strang, 163

    Strangward, 163

    Strangwick, 163

    Strank, 163

    Straw, 163

    Stray, 163

    Streek, 163

    Stretch, 163

    Strickett, 163

    Stringfellow, 163

    Stringle, 163

    Strong, 102, 163

    Stubbe, 186

    Stubbing, 86, 186

    Stubbs, 86

    Studd, 159

    Studeard, 102, 159

    Sturge, 164

    Sturgeon, 164

    Sturgin, 164

    Stutter, 159

    Sugg, 102

    Summer, 102, 182

    Sunday, 182

    Sundon, 110

    Sunman, 102

    Surrenden, 110

    Swan, 83, 174

    Swarling, 106

    Swearing, 2, 28, 160, 191

    Swears, 102, 160, 191

    Swire, 102, 160

    Sword, 102

    Sycamore, 62, 102, 185, 186

    _Sycamore_ (G.), 20


    Tackabarry, 47

    Tackle, 102

    Tadd, 86

    Taddy, 86

    Tadman, 63, 102

    Tadmarton, 110

    Talbert, 47

    Tall, 86

    Tallington, 111

    Tallman, 47

    Tamworth, 111

    Tancred, 63

    Tankard, 63

    Tankeray, 63

    Target, 119

    Tarring, 106

    Tassell, 151

    _Tassell_ (F.), 151

    Tassie, 151

    _Tasso_ (I.), 151

    _Tassy_ (F.), 151

    Tattle, 102

    Tatwin, 63

    Tavistock, 111

    Tayburn, 47

    Teather, 63

    Tedder, 63

    Teddington, 111

    Telfer, 47

    Telling, 28, 86

    Terling, 106

    Terry, 26, 86

    Teuthorn, 64

    Thackeray, 63

    Theddlethorpe, 111

    Theobald, 64

    Theodore, 64, 102

    Thirkettle, 64

    _Thom_ (F.), 196

    _Thomé_ (F.), 196

    Thorburn, 63

    Thorgur, 64

    Thorne, 86, 185, 186

    Thorning, 86

    Thorold, 64, 102

    Thoroughgood, 64, 110, 191

    Thorowood, 64

    Thrale, 169

    Thunder, 102

    Thundersfield, 111

    Thurgar, 102

    Thurgarton, 111

    Thurgood, 64

    Thurkle, 64

    Thurmot, 64

    Thurstan, 64

    _Tibaldi_ (F.), 148

    Tichfield, 111

    Tickle, 81

    Tidball, 64

    Tidemore, 64, 98

    Tidman, 64

    Tidmington, 111

    Tidy, 26

    Tileman, 140

    Tilford, 140

    Tilke, 140

    Till, 81, 139

    _Till_ (G.), 139

    _Tillé_ (F.), 139

    _Tillemans_ (D.), 140

    Tiller, 140

    Tilley, 26, 139

    _Tilli_ (I.), 139

    Tillick, 102, 140

    Tillier, 140

    _Tillier_ (F.), 140

    Tilling, 140

    Tillingham, 111

    Tillman, 140

    _Tillon_ (F.), 140

    _Tillot_ (F.), 140

    Tillott, 140

    Tilly, 81

    _Tilly_ (F.), 139

    Tilman, 102

    _Tilman_ (F.), 140

    _Tilmann_ (G.), 140

    _Tilmant_ (F.), 140

    _Tilo_ (G.), 139

    Tiptoft, 138

    Tisoe, 81

    Titford, 102

    Tockenham, 111

    Tocque, 81

    Todd, 25, 81

    Toddenham, 111

    Toddy, 25

    Todrig, 64

    Tom, 194, 196

    Tomb, 194, 196

    _Tombe_ (F.), 196

    Tomey, 102, 194, 196

    Tomkies, 48

    Tomlin, 31, 194, 196

    Tommell, 194, 196

    Toomey, 194, 196

    Tooting, 106

    Torr, 86

    Tottington, 111

    Trail, 215

    Train, 215

    Tray, 17, 215

    Tredington, 111

    Tremble, 2, 119, 202

    Trist, 102

    Troston, 111

    Trout, 175, 177, 178

    Truefitt, 183, 185

    Trumbull, 2, 119

    Trumby, 86

    Trump, 86

    Trumpington, 88

    _Tübingen_ (G.), 71

    Tuck, 86

    Tudor, 64

    Tuffnell, 165

    Tugman, 48

    Tunn, 177

    Tunno, 177

    Tunny, 175, 177

    Tunstone, 111

    Turing, 86

    Turk, 192, 193

    Turkdean, 111

    Turpin, 64

    Turr, 86

    Tuttle, 86

    Twickenham, 111, 187

    Twigg, 186, 187

    Twine, 186, 187

    Twining, 186, 187

    Twiss, 186, 187


    _Ubaldo_ (I.), 141

    _Ubaldini_ (I.), 141

    _Ughelli_ (I.), 140

    _Ughetti_ (I.), 141

    _Ugo_ (I.), 140, 143

    _Ugolino_ (I.), 141

    Upton Snodsbury, 110

    Ure, 174

    Urlwin, 49


    Varnish, 33

    Vergoose, 65

    Vibert, 67

    Vicary, 67

    Vickridge, 67

    _Videau_ (F.), 148

    _Videcocq_ (F.), 34

    Viking, 72

    _Vilcocq_ (F.), 34

    Vinegar, 67

    _Viteau_ (F.), 148


    Waddicar, 64

    Waddy, 87

    Wadge, 117

    Wadmore, 64

    Wager, 65

    Wagg, 117

    Waghorn, 67, 120

    Wagstaff, 164

    Wain, 102

    Wake, 11

    Waker, 87

    Waland, 65

    _Walcher_ (G.), 181

    Walden, 102

    Walder, 87

    Waldie, 87

    Waldman, 64

    Waldo, 87

    Waldron, 64, 65

    Walk, 87

    Walker, 87, 178, 181

    Walkey, 87

    Walking, 28, 87

    Wall, 87

    Waller, 65

    Wallet, 65

    Wallfree, 65

    Wallower, 65

    Wallraven, 65

    Walsh, 87

    Walter, 64, 87, 103

    Wambey, 162

    Wampen, 162

    Waple, 87

    Warbolt, 65

    Warborough, 111

    Warbrick, 65

    Ward, 149

    Warden, 28

    Warehorne, 106

    Waring, 103

    Warland, 65

    Warlock, 65

    Warman, 65

    Warmbadt, 122

    Warmer, 65

    Warne, 87, 152, 181

    Warneford, 65

    Warner, 65, 149, 178, 180

    Warnett, 65

    Warraker, 65

    Warren, 87, 152, 181

    Warrenbury, 65

    Warrener, 65, 181

    Warringer, 149

    Warrior, 65

    Washingborough, 111

    Washington, 134

    Wass, 87

    Watchfield, 111

    Water, 87

    Watkiss, 64

    Watlington, 111

    Watney, 64

    Watt, 87

    Waugh, 117

    Way, 117

    Wedlake, 66

    Wedlock, 66

    Welcome, 66

    Well, 87

    Wellwyn, 106

    Welp, 131

    Weston, 103

    Weybret, 65

    Wheatbread, 116

    Whelp, 131

    Wherwell, 137, 140

    Whigam, 67, 103

    Whipp, 87

    Whipple, 103

    Whiston, 103

    Whit, 87

    Whitbread, 66, 116

    Whitecar, 66

    Whiteheart, 66

    Whitelaw, 66

    Whitelegg, 66

    Whitelock, 103

    Whiteman, 66

    Whitemore, 66

    Whiter, 66

    Whiteridge, 66

    Whiterod, 66, 120

    Whitethread, 66, 100

    Whiting, 175, 177

    Whitridge, 103

    Whittaker, 66

    Whittington, 109

    Whittock, 100

    Wichett, 67

    Wicker, 67

    Wicking, 87

    Wideman, 66

    Widow, 103, 148

    Wigg, 87, 103

    Wigget, 67

    Wigman, 67

    Wigmore, 67_n_

    Wigram, 67

    Wilbourn, 66

    Wilbraham, 111

    Wilburton, 111

    Wilcomb, 66

    Wilford, 66

    Wilkie, 31, 194, 195

    Wilkin, 31, 194, 195

    Will, 87, 194, 195

    Willament, 66

    Willard, 66, 103

    Willer, 87, 103

    Willeroey, 111

    Willett, 66

    Willgoss, 66

    Williams, 66

    Williment, 103

    Willing, 28, 87, 194, 195

    Willis, 32, 194, 195

    Willmore, 66

    Willmot, 66

    Willock, 31, 34

    Willoe, 195

    Willof, 194, 195

    Willow, 87, 185, 186

    Willy, 194, 195

    Wilsford, 111

    Wimble, 202

    Wimbolt, 67

    Wincup, 67

    Winder, 66

    Windle, 87

    Windlesham, 109

    Windram, 66

    Windred, 66

    Windsor, 112

    Wine, 87

    Winegar, 67, 103

    Wineman, 67

    Winer, 67, 103

    Winfarthing, 2, 29

    Wingood, 67

    Winlock, 67

    Winmen, 67

    Winn, 87

    Winning, 87

    Winshill, 111

    Winslow, 111

    Winston, 67

    Winter, 182, 183

    Wintle, 87

    Wire, 67

    Wither, 66

    Withered, 66

    Witherick, 66

    Witheron, 66

    Wittering, 66, 106

    Wiveliscomb, 111

    Woking, 106

    Woldswell, 111

    Wolf, 87

    Wolsey, 68, 103

    Wolverley, 112

    Woodcock, 34

    Woodin (?), 103

    Woolbert, 67

    Woolcot, 34, 67

    Wooley, 67

    Woolgar, 67, 103

    Woollams, 67

    Woollard, 67

    Woollat, 67

    Woolmer, 68, 103

    Woolnoth, 68

    Woolrych, 68, 103

    Woolston, 68

    Worcester, 111

    Wordsworth, 116

    Worm, 175

    Worting, 106

    Wren, 87, 175, 176

    Wreningham, 111

    Wright, 87

    Wrigley, 85

    Wrotham, 112

    Wyard, 67, 103

    Wyatt, 67

    Wyberg, 67

    Wybrow, 67

    Wyman, 67

    Wymer, 67


    Yea, 2, 68_n_

    Yeading, 105

    Yealfe, 68

    Yeaman, 68

    Yems, 83

    Yeo, 2, 68_n_

    Yeoman, 68

    Yeoward, 68

    Yorick, 68





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